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Sample records for surety bond guarantee

  1. 78 FR 46528 - Surety Bond Guarantee Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... 2013, Public Law 112-239, 126 Stat. 1632: (1) Increasing the contract amount for which SBA is... remedies under contract law, the Act, and the regulations in this part, SBA is relieved of liability in...), including the provisions that increase the contract amounts for which SBA is authorized to guarantee bonds...

  2. 75 FR 63419 - Surety Bond Guarantee Program; Timber Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... with the contract terms. 36 CFR 223.35. Generally, the Performance Bond, as defined in 13 CFR 115.10, ensures that the Principal, as defined in 13 CFR 115.10, complies with all contract terms and conditions... timber sale contracts awarded by the Federal Government or other public or private landowners. DATES...

  3. 27 CFR 72.24 - Corporate surety bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corporate surety bonds. 72... Seizures and Forfeitures § 72.24 Corporate surety bonds. (a) Corporate surety bonds may be given only with... obtained from the Audit Staff, Bureau of Government Financial Operations, Department of the Treasury...

  4. 46 CFR 540.6 - Surety bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation. The requirements of Form FMC-132A, however, may be amended by the Commission in a particular case for good cause. (b) In the case of a surety bond which is to cover all passenger operations of the... shall be issued by a bonding company authorized to do business in the United States and acceptable to...

  5. 19 CFR 141.41 - Surety on Customs bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surety on Customs bonds. 141.41 Section 141.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Powers of Attorney § 141.41 Surety on Customs bonds. Powers of...

  6. 27 CFR 17.103 - Bonds obtained from surety companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... its liability, in terms upon the face of the bond, to a definite, specified amount. This amount shall... obtained from: Surety Bond Branch, Financial Management Service, Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC...

  7. 27 CFR 19.251 - Relief of surety from bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... deposits wholly subsequent to the effective date of the new or superseding bond. Notwithstanding such relief, the surety shall remain liable for the tax on all distilled spirits or wines produced, or for... bond for all spirits or wines on hand or in transit to the bonded premises or bonded wine cellar, as...

  8. 76 FR 14746 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds Change in State of Incorporation; Western Bonding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds Change in State of Incorporation; Western Bonding Company; Western Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service... Bonding Company (NAIC 13191) and Western Insurance Company (NAIC 10008) have redomesticated from the state...

  9. 77 FR 75263 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; ULLICO Casualty Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; ULLICO Casualty Company AGENCY... Company (NAIC 37893) under 31 U.S.C. 9305 to qualify as an acceptable surety on Federal bonds is... bonds, including continuous bonds, currently in force with above listed Company, bond-approving officers...

  10. 77 FR 553 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; Western Bonding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    .... Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Surety..., 2011. Laura Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Financial Management Service...: Termination; Western Bonding Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the...

  11. 14 CFR 372.24 - Surety bond, depository agreement, escrow agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surety bond, depository agreement, escrow... § 372.24 Surety bond, depository agreement, escrow agreement. (a) Before selling or offering to sell...)(2)(i) of this section; an escrow with the designated bank of Federal, State, or municipal bonds or...

  12. 77 FR 29472 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Termination: Atlantic Bonding Company, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... be accepted from this company, and bonds that are continuous in nature should not be renewed. The... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds--Termination: Atlantic Bonding Company, Inc. AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department...

  13. 40 CFR 280.98 - Surety bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Performance Bond Date bond executed: Period of coverage: Principal: [legal name and business address of owner...) shall not be discharged by any payment or succession of payments hereunder, unless and until such...

  14. 42 CFR 489.66 - Additional requirements of the surety bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... bankruptcy; or (iv) Fail to pay the Surety. (6) Any fraud, misrepresentation, or negligence by the HHA in..., except that any fraud, misrepresentation, or negligence by the HHA in identifying to the Surety (or to... bond must provide that actions under the bond may be brought by CMS or by CMS's fiscal intermediaries...

  15. 77 FR 8956 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Grange Mutual Casualty Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Management Service, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Surety Bond Branch, 3700 East-West Highway... Mutual Casualty Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the Treasury..., published July 1, 2011, at 76 FR 38892. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Surety Bond Branch at (202) 874...

  16. 46 CFR 308.529 - Surety Bond B, Form MA-309.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.529 Surety Bond B, Form MA-309. An Assured who elects to substitute a surety bond for a collateral deposit fund shall submit Form MA-309...

  17. 30 CFR 285.533 - How does my surety obtain cancellation of my bond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does my surety obtain cancellation of my bond? 285.533 Section 285.533 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Financial Assurance Requirements Changes in Financial Assurance § 285.533 How does my surety obtain...

  18. 78 FR 35359 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Amendment-Liberty Mutual Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    .... Department of the Treasury, Bureau of the Fiscal Service, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Surety... McIntyre, Acting Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division. [FR Doc. 2013-13921 Filed 6-11-13; 8... Revision, published July 2, 2012, at 77 FR 39322. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Surety Bond Branch at...

  19. 77 FR 10806 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; First Sealord Surety, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... 20782. Dated: February 10, 2012. Laura Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division...: Termination; First Sealord Surety, Inc. AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of... 570; 2011 Revision, published July 1, 2011, at 76 FR 38892. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Surety...

  20. 27 CFR 24.157 - Application by surety for relief from bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... officer in the case of a tax deferral bond, and not less than 90 days after the date the notice is received in the case of a bonded wine premises bond or wine vinegar plant bond. The surety will also file... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Bonds and...

  1. 77 FR 11195 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Name Change and Change in State of Incorporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ..., Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Surety Bond Branch, 3700 East-West... Change and Change in State of Incorporation: Nations Bonding Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service... INFORMATION CONTACT: Surety Bond Branch at (202) 874-6850. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Nations Bonding Company...

  2. 7 CFR 1720.14 - Nature of guarantee; acceleration of guaranteed bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nature of guarantee; acceleration of guaranteed bonds. 1720.14 Section 1720.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL... TELEPHONE PURPOSES § 1720.14 Nature of guarantee; acceleration of guaranteed bonds. (a) Any guarantee...

  3. 75 FR 6791 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Termination: Trinity Universal Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    .... However, no new bonds should be accepted from this company, and bonds that are continuous in nature should... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds--Termination: Trinity Universal Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service...

  4. 76 FR 60603 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; Minnesota Surety and Trust Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... 20782. Dated: September 15, 2011. Laura Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division...: Termination; Minnesota Surety and Trust Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service... Circular 570; 2011 Revision, published July 1, 2011, at 76 FR 38892. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  5. 77 FR 27790 - Mortgagee's Certificate of Fees and Escrow and Surety Bond Against Defects Due to Defective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Fees and Escrow and Surety Bond Against Defects Due to Defective Material and/or Faulty Workmanship... information: Title of Proposal: Mortgagee's Certificate of Fees and Escrow and Surety Bond Against Defects Due... to ensure that fees are within acceptable limits and the required escrows will be collected. HUD...

  6. 75 FR 38188 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Termination: Stonebridge Casualty Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... should be accepted from this company, and bonds that are continuous in nature should not be renewed. The... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service [NAIC 10952] Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds--Termination: Stonebridge Casualty Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal...

  7. 75 FR 81331 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination-Penn Millers Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... should be accepted from this company, and bonds that are continuous in nature should not be renewed. The... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination--Penn Millers Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department...

  8. 75 FR 33897 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Terminations: Commercial Alliance Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... be accepted from this company, and bonds that are continuous in nature should not be renewed. The... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds--Terminations: Commercial Alliance Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service...

  9. 77 FR 42554 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Termination: Peerless Insurance Company (NAIC #24198)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... should be accepted from this company, and bonds that are continuous in nature should not be renewed. The... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds--Termination: Peerless Insurance Company (NAIC 24198) AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service...

  10. 75 FR 36153 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Terminations: Victore Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... from this company, and bonds that are continuous in nature should not be renewed. The Circular may be... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds--Terminations: Victore Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the...

  11. 13 CFR 115.20 - Insolvency of Surety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insolvency of Surety. 115.20 Section 115.20 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SURETY BOND GUARANTEE... requirement. The trustee or receiver must submit to SBA quarterly status reports accounting for all funds...

  12. 13 CFR 115.34 - Minimization of Surety's Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimization of Surety's Loss. 115.34 Section 115.34 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SURETY BOND GUARANTEE... strategy in maximizing recovery. See also § 115.17(b). ...

  13. 78 FR 8220 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Change In Business Address and Redomestication...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Business Address and Redomestication: American Fire and Casualty Company (NAIC 24066) and The Ohio Casualty... companies formally changed their ``BUSINESS ADDRESS'' to ``62 Maple Avenue, Keene, NH 03431'' effective..., Financial Accounting and Services Division, Surety Bond Branch, 3700 East-West Highway, Room 6F01...

  14. 75 FR 61246 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Darwin National Assurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Darwin National Assurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Darwin National Assurance Company (NAIC 16624). Business Address: 9 Farm... subsequent annual renewal as long as the companies remain qualified ] (see 31 CFR part 223). A list of...

  15. 77 FR 25535 - Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Pacific Employers Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Pacific Employers Insurance Company AGENCY....C. 9305 to the following company: Pacific Employers Insurance Company (NAIC 22748). Business Address... prior to that date. The Certificates are subject to subsequent annual renewal as long as the companies...

  16. 75 FR 22689 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Regent Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Regent Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial... following company: Regent Insurance Company (NAIC 24449) Business Address: One General Drive, Sun Prairie... renewal as long as the companies remain qualified (see 31 CFR part 223). A list of qualified companies is...

  17. 78 FR 15123 - Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Atlantic Specialty Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Atlantic Specialty Insurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Atlantic Specialty Insurance Company (NAIC 27154). BUSINESS ADDRESS: 150... Certificates are subject to subsequent annual renewal as long as the companies remain qualified (see 31 CFR...

  18. 75 FR 60865 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Allied World Reinsurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Allied World Reinsurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Allied World Reinsurance Company (NAIC 22730). Business Address: 199... subsequent annual renewal as long as the companies remain qualified (see 31 CFR part 223). A list of...

  19. 77 FR 25536 - Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Endurance American Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Endurance American Insurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Endurance American Insurance Company (NAIC 10641). Business Address: 333... subsequent annual renewal as long as the companies remain qualified (see 31 CFR part 223). A list of...

  20. 75 FR 11228 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Pennsylvania Manufacturers Indemnity Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Pennsylvania Manufacturers Indemnity Company....C. 9305 to the following company: Pennsylvania Manufacturers Indemnity Company (NAIC 41424... renewal as long as the companies remain qualified (see 31 CFR part 223). A list of qualified companies is...

  1. 77 FR 8956 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Integrity Mutual Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Integrity Mutual Insurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Integrity Mutual Insurance Company (NAIC 14303). Business Address: P.O... Certificates are subject to subsequent annual renewal as long as the companies remain qualified (see 31 CFR...

  2. 76 FR 77591 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Aspen American Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Aspen American Insurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Aspen American Insurance Company (NAIC 43460). Business Address: 175... subject to subsequent annual renewal as long as the companies remain qualified (see 31 CFR part 223). A...

  3. 78 FR 19366 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Ohio Security Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Ohio Security Insurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Ohio Security Insurance Company (NAIC 24082). BUSINESS ADDRESS: 62 Maple... subject to subsequent annual renewal as long as the companies remain qualified (see 31 CFR part 223). A...

  4. 75 FR 11228 - Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Manufacturers Alliance Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Manufacturers Alliance Insurance Company....C. 9305 to the following company: Manufacturers Alliance Insurance Company (NAIC 36897). Business... tong as the companies remain qualified ] (see 31 CFR part 223). A list of qualified companies is...

  5. 49 CFR 387.407 - Surety bonds and certificates of insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS MINIMUM LEVELS OF FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR MOTOR CARRIERS Surety Bonds and Policies of... liability under § 387.405 may be provided by aggregation under the procedures at 49 CFR part 387, subpart C...

  6. 30 CFR 253.31 - How can I use a surety bond as OSFR evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How can I use a surety bond as OSFR evidence? 253.31 Section 253.31 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Methods for Demonstrating OSFR § 253.31...

  7. 76 FR 37194 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds; Change in State of Incorportation, Business Address...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    .... Dated: June 16, 2011. Laura Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division. [FR Doc. 2011.... Paul Guardian Insurance Company; St. Paul Mercury Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management... INFORMATION CONTACT: Surety Bond Branch at (202) 874-6850. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is hereby given...

  8. 75 FR 36153 - Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds-Change in Business Address and Redomestication...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... 20782. Dated: June 10, 2010. William J. Erie, Acting Director, Financial Accounting and Services...; LM Insurance Corporation AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the... Revision, published July 1, 2009, at 74 FR 31536. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Surety Bond Branch at...

  9. 78 FR 35359 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Amendment-Safeco Insurance Company of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... 20782. Dated: June 3, 2013. Kevin McIntyre, Acting Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division... 570, 2012 Revision, published July 2, 2012, at 77 FR 39322. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Surety Bond Branch at (202) 874-6850. [[Page 35360

  10. 75 FR 60865 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Amendment-Allegheny Casualty Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 20782. Dated: September 24, 2010. Laura Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division...-- Allegheny Casualty Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the Treasury..., published July 1, 2010, at 75 FR 38192. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Surety Bond Branch at (202) 874...

  11. 7 CFR 1980.488 - Guaranteed industrial development bond issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Guaranteed industrial development bond issues. 1980... Program § 1980.488 Guaranteed industrial development bond issues. (a) Loans to public bodies will be... its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 of the taxability of the proposed bond issue. ...

  12. 33 CFR 135.211 - Surety bond as evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND... filed with the Fund Administrator as evidence of financial responsibility shall be issued by a bonding..., to the Fund Administrator, and the person bonded, notification of intent to cancel; or (2) Other...

  13. 78 FR 36029 - CDFI Bond Guarantee Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... the extent a Secondary Loan is financed on a corporate finance basis (i.e., through a Credit... Issue. Bonds will be used to finance Bond Loans to Eligible CDFIs for Eligible Purposes for a period not... financial strength, stability, durability and liquidity as reflected in its corporate credit ratings and...

  14. 30 CFR 285.532 - What happens if my surety wants to terminate the period of liability of my bond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if my surety wants to terminate the period of liability of my bond? 285.532 Section 285.532 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Payments and Financial Assurance Requirements Changes in Financial Assurance...

  15. 77 FR 12910 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Name Change: White Mountains Reinsurance Company of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Management Service, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Surety Bond Branch, 3700 East-West Highway... Change: White Mountains Reinsurance Company of America AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal... Department Circular 570, 2011 Revision, published July 1, 2011, at 76 FR 38892. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  16. 78 FR 35360 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Name Change-Allied World Reinsurance Company (NAIC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ..., Financial Accounting and Services Division, Surety Bond Branch, 3700 East-West Highway, Room 6F01, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Dated: June 1, 2013. Kevin McIntyre, Acting Director, Financial Accounting and Services... Department Circular 570, 2012 Revision, published July 2, 2012, at 77 FR 39322. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  17. 10 CFR 140.21 - Licensee guarantees of payment of deferred premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agencies and Nonprofit Educational Institutions § 140.21 Licensee guarantees of payment of deferred... million for each reactor he is licensed to operate: (a) Surety bond, (b) Letter of credit, (c) Revolving...

  18. 27 CFR 24.149 - Corporate surety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corporate surety. 24.149... Corporate surety. (a) Surety bonds required by this part may be obtained only from corporate sureties which.... Copies may be obtained from the Audit Staff, Financial Management Service, Department of the Treasury...

  19. 13 CFR 115.18 - Refusal to issue further guarantees; suspension and termination of PSB status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... guarantee practices—(1) Imprudent practices. SBA may refuse to issue further guarantees to a Prior Approval... determination that the Surety (in its underwriting, its efforts to minimize Loss, its claims or recovery practices, or its documentation related to SBA guaranteed bonds) has failed to adhere to prudent standards...

  20. 77 FR 18883 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Termination and Merger; Pioneer General Insurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    .... Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Surety... Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Financial Management Service. [FR Doc. 2012...--Termination and Merger; Pioneer General Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service...

  1. 76 FR 38459 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds; Termination American Reliable Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Surety... Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Financial Management Service. BILLING CODE... Company AGENCY: Fiscal Service, Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service. ACTION: Notice...

  2. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 212 - Certificated or Foreign Air Carrier's Surety Bond Under Part 212 of the Regulations of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... will guarantee to the United States Government the performance of all charter trips (other than cargo... effect for the performance of charter trips (other than cargo charter trips) originating in the United... succession of payments hereunder in any specified amount. The surety agrees to furnish written notice to the...

  3. 77 FR 39322 - Companies Holding Certificates of Authority as Acceptable Sureties on Federal Bonds and as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... INSURANCE COMPANY, INC. (NAIC 42897) BUSINESS ADDRESS: 150 Northwest Point Blvd., Suite 300, Elk Grove..., Rocky Hill, CT 06067. PHONE: (860) 258-3500. UNDERWRITING LIMITATION b/: $10,301,000. SURETY LICENSES c... (NAIC 10499) 3 CHUBB INDEMNITY INSURANCE COMPANY (NAIC 12777) BUSINESS ADDRESS: 15 Mountain View Road...

  4. 77 FR 75263 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; Universal Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... 20782. Dated: December 11, 2012. Kevin McIntyre, Acting Director, Financial Accounting and Services...: Termination; Universal Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of... 570; 2012 Revision, published July 2, 2012, at 77 FR 39322. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Surety...

  5. 77 FR 14059 - Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Name, Address and Phone Number Change: Van Tol...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    .... Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Surety... Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Financial Management Service. [FR Doc. 2012..., Address and Phone Number Change: Van Tol Surety Company, Incorporated (NAIC 30279) AGENCY: Financial...

  6. 30 CFR 243.5 - May another person post a bond or other surety instrument or demonstrate financial solvency on my...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May another person post a bond or other surety instrument or demonstrate financial solvency on my behalf? 243.5 Section 243.5 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT SUSPENSIONS PENDING APPEAL AND...

  7. 30 CFR 243.11 - May I appeal the MMS bond-approving officer's determination of my surety amount or financial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I appeal the MMS bond-approving officer's determination of my surety amount or financial solvency? 243.11 Section 243.11 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT SUSPENSIONS PENDING APPEAL AND...

  8. 31 CFR 380.4 - What collateral may I pledge instead of a surety bond under 31 CFR part 225, and what value will...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What collateral may I pledge instead..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT COLLATERAL ACCEPTABILITY AND VALUATION Acceptable Collateral and Its Valuation § 380.4 What collateral may I pledge instead of a surety bond under 31 CFR part...

  9. 49 CFR 387.409 - Insurance and surety companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance and surety companies. 387.409 Section... Forwarders § 387.409 Insurance and surety companies. A certificate of insurance or surety bond will not be accepted by the FMCSA unless issued by an insurance or surety company that is authorized (licensed or...

  10. 49 CFR 387.315 - Insurance and surety companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance and surety companies. 387.315 Section... Carriers and Property Brokers § 387.315 Insurance and surety companies. A certificate of insurance or surety bond will not be accepted by the FMCSA unless issued by an insurance or surety company that is...

  11. 78 FR 8295 - Guarantees for Bonds Issued for Community or Economic Development Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... a population poverty rate of at least 20 percent; (2) has an unemployment rate 1.5 times the... Guarantee Program, as well as interest rates, terms and conditions for Bonds, Bond Issues, the Risk-Share... and transferable to capital markets on terms and conditions that are consistent with comparable...

  12. IMPROVING THE PROVISION OF STATE GUARANTEES UNDER CREDITS OR BONDED LOANS RAISED FOR INVESTMENT PROJECTS IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola D. Sanginova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance: Under current conditions, the Russian economy needs investment resources to ensure sustainable social and economic development. One of instruments of state-financing backing that can be used to support capital intensive, economically viable, financially and socially efficient investment projects that create "growing points" are state guarantees of theRussian Federation.Objective: The objective of this study is to identify possible ways to improve the requirements and procedures of providing state guarantees of theRussian Federationwhich contribute to the increase in the quantity and quality of investment projects of high social importance. Methods: Through the use of general scientific methods, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction the possibility of creating a more attractive environment for principals is analyzed, measures to reduce the risk for public legal entities in providing state guarantees of theRussian Federationunder credits or bonded loans raised for investment projects implementation.Results: Principles of state guarantee support that ensure the interests of both the principals and the guarantor are defined. The basic directions for improving the mechanism how state guarantees of theRussian Federationsupport investment projects are justified. These directions include increasing availability of obtaining state guarantee support by lowering the cost of investment projects for which the state guarantees may be provided; reducing time of decision making on granting a state guarantee; increasing the creditors’ responsibility for a qualitative assessment of the creditworthiness of principals and investment projects; changing the methodology for assessing the social efficiency of investment projects; increasing the information transparency of provided state guarantees of the Russian Federation.Conclusions: The main result of this study is that under current conditions of economic turbulence state guarantees of the

  13. 13 CFR 115.16 - Determination of Surety's Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of Surety's Loss. 115.16 Section 115.16 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SURETY BOND... generally accepted accounting principles; and (2) Amounts actually paid by the Surety for court costs and...

  14. 45 CFR 303.104 - Procedures for posting security, bond or guarantee to secure payment of overdue support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STANDARDS FOR PROGRAM OPERATIONS... requirement of posting security, bond or guarantee, and inform the noncustodial parent of his or her rights...

  15. 75 FR 42571 - Guarantees for Bonds and Notes Issued for Electrification or Telephone Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... existing guaranteed lender, RUS believes that it is still prudent risk management to consider the amount of... program for cooperative and other not-for-profit lenders that make loans for eligible electric and... has determined that this rule relating to loan guarantees for non-profit lenders does not pre-empt...

  16. 30 CFR 256.57 - Using a third-party guarantee instead of a bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and your guarantor's other guarantees; and (iv) Your guarantor's unencumbered fixed assets in the... guarantor's ratio of current assets to current liabilities, taking into account liabilities under its... generally accepted accounting principles and contain no adverse opinion. (ii) Financial statements for...

  17. SP-100 surety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    This report describes surety evaluations conducted during GFY 1985 in support of the General Electric design for a Space Nuclear Power System - SP-100. Those surety evaluations address both safety and safeguards requirements, which are derived from OSNP-1 and supporting documents. The report includes results of neutronics (criticality) calculations performed by Los Alamos. The results have been benchmarked against independent calculations performed by General Electric with different codes. These comparisons show close agreement, and are summarized. Los Alamos has also provided specifications of explosion and fire environments, which have been used in evaluation of the GE SP-100 concept. Following the summary of key results, surety requirements are given and recommendations toward specification of requirements for later SP-100 project phases are presented. A conceptual design summary is presented. To establish a comprehensive background for surety evaluations, a reference mission profile and potential accidents for each phase of the mission are identified. The main body of the report addresses surety of the General Electric Thermoelectric Conversion design. GE has also developed a Stirling Engine concept, and performed comprehensive surety evaluations for it. These evaluations are reported

  18. Surety applications in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matalucci, R.V.; Miyoshi, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    Infrastructure surety can make a valuable contribution to the transportation engineering industry. The lessons learned at Sandia National Laboratories in developing surety principles and technologies for the nuclear weapons complex and the nuclear power industry hold direct applications to the safety, security, and reliability of the critical infrastructure. This presentation introduces the concepts of infrastructure surety, including identification of the normal, abnormal, and malevolent threats to the transportation infrastructure. National problems are identified and examples of failures and successes in response to environmental loads and other structural and systemic vulnerabilities are presented. The infrastructure surety principles developed at Sandia National Laboratories are described. Currently available technologies including (a) three-dimensional computer-assisted drawing packages interactively combined with virtual reality systems, (b) the complex calculational and computational modeling and code-coupling capabilities associated with the new generation of supercomputers, and (c) risk-management methodologies with application to solving the national problems associated with threats to the critical transportation infrastructure are discussed.

  19. Analysis of potential self-guarantee tests for demonstrating financial assurance by non-profit colleges, universities, and hospitals and by business firms that do not issue bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, P.; Dean, C.; Collier, J.; Dasappa, V.; Goldberg, W.

    1997-06-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on December 29, 1993, promulgated self-guarantee requirements that materials licensees may use to demonstrate financial assurance for decommissioning costs. However, nonprofit colleges and universities, nonprofit hospitals, and for-profit firms that do not issue bonds are currently precluded, by their unique accounting and financial reporting systems, or by other features of their business practices, from using the financial tests for self-guarantors adopted by the NRC. This Report evaluates several alternative financial tests that might serve as the basis for self-guarantee by these three categories of licensees

  20. Analysis of potential self-guarantee tests for demonstrating financial assurance by non-profit colleges, universities, and hospitals and by business firms that do not issue bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, P.; Dean, C.; Collier, J.; Dasappa, V.; Goldberg, W. [ICF, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on December 29, 1993, promulgated self-guarantee requirements that materials licensees may use to demonstrate financial assurance for decommissioning costs. However, nonprofit colleges and universities, nonprofit hospitals, and for-profit firms that do not issue bonds are currently precluded, by their unique accounting and financial reporting systems, or by other features of their business practices, from using the financial tests for self-guarantors adopted by the NRC. This Report evaluates several alternative financial tests that might serve as the basis for self-guarantee by these three categories of licensees.

  1. 30 CFR 243.7 - What must a person do when posting a bond or other surety instrument or demonstrating financial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....7 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT SUSPENSIONS PENDING APPEAL AND BONDING-MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT General Provisions § 243.7 What...(a), or any other theory, as a defense if MMS calls your bond or requires you to pay based on your...

  2. Toward an energy surety future.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatro, Marjorie L.; Jones, Scott A.; Covan, John Morgan; Kuswa, Glenn W.; Menicucci, David F.; Robinett, Rush D. III (.; )

    2005-10-01

    Because of the inevitable depletion of fossil fuels and the corresponding release of carbon to the environment, the global energy future is complex. Some of the consequences may be politically and economically disruptive, and expensive to remedy. For the next several centuries, fuel requirements will increase with population, land use, and ecosystem degradation. Current or projected levels of aggregated energy resource use will not sustain civilization as we know it beyond a few more generations. At the same time, issues of energy security, reliability, sustainability, recoverability, and safety need attention. We supply a top-down, qualitative model--the surety model--to balance expenditures of limited resources to assure success while at the same time avoiding catastrophic failure. Looking at U.S. energy challenges from a surety perspective offers new insights on possible strategies for developing solutions to challenges. The energy surety model with its focus on the attributes of security and sustainability could be extrapolated into a global energy system using a more comprehensive energy surety model than that used here. In fact, the success of the energy surety strategy ultimately requires a more global perspective. We use a 200 year time frame for sustainability because extending farther into the future would almost certainly miss the advent and perfection of new technologies or changing needs of society.

  3. Avoiding surety contracts in bankruptcy procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiber Dragor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbia's courts jurisprudence has divergent attitudes with respect to the dilemma whether a surety contract represents a contract without consideration, which may be avoided once the guarantor is subject to bankruptcy procedure without any additional conditions, or an onerous contract. Whether a surety contract is an onerous one has anyhow been disputed in the legal theory. One school of thought considers this contract as non-onerous one, since vis-a-vis guarantor's obligation no benefit to be expected from the other contractual party (i. e. creditor exists. The other school of thought understands surety (almost always as an onerous contract bearing in mind that the guarantor who enters into this contract does not have intentio liberalis. There are numerous and nuanced views based on analyses of the relation between a guarantor and a debtor focused on the argument that surety is a contract without consideration if intentio liberalis existed vis-a-vis main debtor rather than vis-a-vis creditor. Our legal literature did not pay much attention to that issue until recently. In a rare text dedicated to it the author's basic standpoint is that surety represents a contract without consideration. An exception, depending on the circumstances of the case, could be surety given by a parent company for the obligation of a subsidiary, provided the former reasonably expected a benefit in terms of an increase in the value of shares. Commercial courts followed such reasoning. In this article an opposite stance has been argued. Namely, the onerousness of surety must be assessed based on the relation between the guarantor and the main debtor rather than between the guarantor and the creditor. As a rule, surety is an onerous contract because the guarantor expects to collect from the debtor through subrogation the amount he paid to the creditor; exceptionally, surety may be a non-onerous contract if intentio liberalis existed vis-a-vis main debtor. However, this

  4. BANK GUARANTEES

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile NEME

    2012-01-01

    The present study propose the analyse of the irrevocable commitment of a bank entity towards a determined person, through which guarantees a certain legal conduct of its client, and, in case of breach, assumes the payment obligation of a determined amount of money. This kind of legal technique it is called bank guarantee and in the usual business language it is called “Letter of Bank Guarantee”. The determined reason to choose this scientific initiative it is the frequency of this kind of fin...

  5. 13 CFR 115.17 - Minimization of Surety's Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and collateral—(1) Requirements. The Surety must take all reasonable action to minimize risk of Loss... indemnity agreement must be secured by such collateral as the Surety or SBA finds appropriate. Indemnity...

  6. 7 CFR 1720.8 - Issuance of the guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., redemption features, pledged security, additional borrowing terms including an explicit agreement to make... legally authorized to issue the guaranteed bonds and enter into the bond documents; (6) No material... guaranteed bond without regard to the guarantee; (8) The applicant shall provide evidence of a credit rating...

  7. Information surety for today and tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, S.K.

    1993-07-01

    Information Surety is the enhancement of the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information and software systems. It is attained through sequential steps: identification of software reliability requirements and information protection needs, designing for a balanced level of risk throughout the system, and application of appropriate software and hardware technologies and procedures. The ability to apply these steps when developing systems is impaired by a general lack of understanding of surety issues by system developers, and by the fact that there are many separate areas of knowledge involved that are not currently integrated into a disciplined approach (e.g., risk assessment, information access control in computers and networks, secure messaging, trusted software development). Our best systems today are achieved by clever designers who use ad-hoc methods. In the absence of good development tools, technologies may be applied haphazardly and/or retrofitted, without yielding balanced protection. This paper will take the audience through an exploration of the elements of information surety, some common misconceptions about information surety today, and the even greater challenges on the horizon. It will end with some suggestions for research areas which will help evolve the discipline of information surety.

  8. 36 CFR 9.13 - Performance bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance bond. 9.13... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.13 Performance bond. (a) Upon approval of a plan of operations the operator shall be required to file a suitable performance bond with satisfactory surety...

  9. 43 CFR 23.9 - Performance bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance bond. 23.9 Section 23.9 Public... LANDS § 23.9 Performance bond. (a)(1) Upon approval of an exploration plan or mining plan, the operator shall be required to file a suitable performance bond of not less than $2,000 with satisfactory surety...

  10. Achieving strategic surety for high consequence software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    A strategic surety roadmap for high consequence software systems under the High Integrity Software (HIS) Program at Sandia National Laboratories guides research in identifying methodologies to improve software surety. Selected research tracks within this roadmap are identified and described detailing current technology and outlining advancements to be pursued over the coming decade to reach HIS goals. The tracks discussed herein focus on Correctness by Design, and System Immunology{trademark}. Specific projects are discussed with greater detail given on projects involving Correct Specification via Visualization, Synthesis, & Analysis; Visualization of Abstract Objects; and Correct Implementation of Components.

  11. Quality guaranteed theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ui Cheol

    1988-08-01

    This book tells of introduction of quality guaranteed theory like definition of quality and quality management, quality guaranteed, requirement of quality guaranteed, contrast of QA and QC, quality of guaranteed object, activity of quality guaranteed, set-up of quality that is naturally supposed such as quality guaranteed in plan and design, check of quality guaranteed, order of claim processing and cases of claim management.

  12. An introduction to the architectural surety program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matalucci, R.V.; Miyoshi, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Security Systems and Technology Center

    1997-08-01

    This paper provides a summary introduction to the nationally emerging area of Architectural and Infrastructure Surety that is under development at Sandia National Laboratories. This program area, addressing technology requirements at the national level, includes four major elements: education, research, development, and application. It involves a risk management approach to solving problems of the as-built environment through the application of security, safety, and reliability principles developed in the nuclear weapons programs of the Department of Energy. The changing responsibilities of engineering design professionals is addressed in light of the increased public awareness of structural and facility systems vulnerabilities to malevolent, normal, and abnormal environment threats. A brief discussion is presented of the education and technology outreach programs initiated through an infrastructure surety graduate Civil Engineering Department course taught at the University of New Mexico and through the architectural surety workshops and conferences already held and planned for the future. A summary description is also presented of selected technologies with strong potential for application to specific national architectural and infrastructure surety concerns. These technologies include super-computational modeling and structural simulations, window glass fragmentation modeling, risk management procedures, instrumentation and health monitoring systems, and three-dimensional CAD virtual reality visualization techniques.

  13. 19 CFR 113.35 - Individual sureties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual sureties. 113.35 Section 113.35 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... description and the location of one or more pieces of real estate owned within the limits of the port and the...

  14. Investigating surety methodologies for cognitive systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Peercy, David Eugene; Mills, Kristy (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Caldera, Eva (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-11-01

    Advances in cognitive science provide a foundation for new tools that promise to advance human capabilities with significant positive impacts. As with any new technology breakthrough, associated technical and non-technical risks are involved. Sandia has mitigated both technical and non-technical risks by applying advanced surety methodologies in such areas as nuclear weapons, nuclear reactor safety, nuclear materials transport, and energy systems. In order to apply surety to the development of cognitive systems, we must understand the concepts and principles that characterize the certainty of a system's operation as well as the risk areas of cognitive sciences. This SAND report documents a preliminary spectrum of risks involved with cognitive sciences, and identifies some surety methodologies that can be applied to potentially mitigate such risks. Some potential areas for further study are recommended. In particular, a recommendation is made to develop a cognitive systems epistemology framework for more detailed study of these risk areas and applications of surety methods and techniques.

  15. Bank guarantee in Serbian and European legal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses a bank guarantee as an institute derived from a surety contract. By issuing a bank guarantee the bank commits to the creditor that it will fulfill valid and due liabilities of a debtor, in the event of default by the debtor. This collateral demonstrates significant advantages as compared to other personal assets, particularly with regards to a higher level of protection to creditors in contractual relations. Due to the aforementioned benefit the institute has been increasingly applied in legal dealings, both in our and other legal systems. In the paper, I will point out normative solutions in terms of regulation of a bank guarantee as a specific legal activity in which there is no accessoriness, which is not the case with security. This research particularly focuses on the comparative legal analysis of this collateral.

  16. Progress on resolution of major surety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, C.R.; Boudreau, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the major surety issues (safety, environmental protection, sageguards, reliability, quality assurance) that have been identified during Phase I of the SP-100 Program and the progress that has been made in analyzing the most important of these issues in the context of the conceptual design effort. These issues have been identified as inadvertent criticality, toxic material release and dispersion, radiation exposure following end-of-life reentry, potential diversion of special nuclear material, failure to achieve end-of-life neutronic shutdown, and structural predictability for end-of-life re-entry or boost. Because of the complexity of these issues, a simplified conservative approach was taken during Phase I. Progress on these issues has been mainly in the area of increased understanding of the issues, identification of design features to resolve the issues, and quantitative evaluations of the surety characteristics of the various design concepts

  17. 31 CFR 223.6 - Requirements applicable to surety companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements applicable to surety companies. 223.6 Section 223.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... BUSINESS WITH THE UNITED STATES § 223.6 Requirements applicable to surety companies. Every company now or...

  18. 27 CFR 24.156 - Termination of bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... notification from the principal that the business has been discontinued and all wine and spirits have been removed from the bonded wine premises as provided in § 24.140(b); or in the case of a tax deferral bond..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Bonds and Consents of Surety § 24.156...

  19. 13 CFR 115.12 - General program policies and provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Description of Surety Bond Guarantee Programs. SBA guarantees Sureties participating in the Surety Bond... NAICS codes: (i) 713210—“Casinos (Except Casino Hotels)”; (ii) 721120—“Casino Hotels”; (iii) 713290... the small business; (ii) Offer or Contract number and brief description of the contract; and (iii...

  20. 13 CFR 115.33 - Surety bonding line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... approval. If that form is already on file with SBA and no new financial statements are required or have... already on file with SBA and no new financial statements are required or have been received from the... a specified small business strictly within pre-approved terms, conditions and limitations. In...

  1. 76 FR 38577 - Bond Guarantee Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... allow a CDFI or its designated Qualified Issuer to only invest inside the CDFI Fund Target Market that... a particular definition would enable the program to target businesses and residents in rural areas...

  2. 27 CFR 72.23 - Type and conditions of cost bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures § 72.23 Type and conditions of cost bond. The cost bond delivered by a claimant to effect removal of the forfeiture status of the property or carrier claimed to the jurisdiction... individual sureties the claimant may deposit collateral as provided in § 72.25. The cost bond shall be...

  3. An Introduction to Architectural Surety(SM) Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matalucci, R.V.; Miyoshi, D.S.

    1998-09-01

    This report describes the Sandia activities in the developing field management approach to enhancing National Laboratories (Sandia) educational outreach of architectural and infrastructure surety, a risk the safety, security, and reliability of facilities, systems, and structures. It begins with a description of the field of architectural and infrastmcture surety, including Sandia's historical expertise and experience in nuclear weapons surety. An overview of the 1996 Sandia Workshop on Architectural SuretysM is then provided to reference the initiation of the various activities. This workshop established the need for a surety education program at the University level and recommended that Sandia develop the course material as soon as possible. Technical material was assembled and the course was offered at the University of New Mexico (UNM) during the 1997 spring semester. The bulk of this report accordingly summarizes the lecture material presented in this pioneering graduate-level course on Infrastructure Surety in the Civil Engineering Department at UNM. This groundbreaking class presented subject matter developed by experts from Sandia, and included additional information from guest lecturers from academia, government, and industry. Also included in this report are summaries of the term projects developed by the graduate students, an overview of the 1997 International Conference on Architectural Suretp: Assuring the Performance of Buildings and Injiastruchwes (co-sponsored by Sandia, the American Institute of Architects, and the American Society of Civil Engineers), and recommendations for further course work development. The U.S. Department of Energy provides support to this emerging field of architectural and infrastructure surety and recognizes its broad application to developing government, industry, and professional standards in the national interest.

  4. A surety engineering framework to reduce cognitive systems risks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Peercy, David Eugene; Caldera, Eva O. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Shaneyfelt, Wendy L.

    2008-12-01

    Cognitive science research investigates the advancement of human cognition and neuroscience capabilities. Addressing risks associated with these advancements can counter potential program failures, legal and ethical issues, constraints to scientific research, and product vulnerabilities. Survey results, focus group discussions, cognitive science experts, and surety researchers concur technical risks exist that could impact cognitive science research in areas such as medicine, privacy, human enhancement, law and policy, military applications, and national security (SAND2006-6895). This SAND report documents a surety engineering framework and a process for identifying cognitive system technical, ethical, legal and societal risks and applying appropriate surety methods to reduce such risks. The framework consists of several models: Specification, Design, Evaluation, Risk, and Maturity. Two detailed case studies are included to illustrate the use of the process and framework. Several Appendices provide detailed information on existing cognitive system architectures; ethical, legal, and societal risk research; surety methods and technologies; and educing information research with a case study vignette. The process and framework provide a model for how cognitive systems research and full-scale product development can apply surety engineering to reduce perceived and actual risks.

  5. NCA & Credit Guarantees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stooppn

    Credit Act? 2.1 What is a credit guarantee? The National Credit Act provides, subject to certain exemptions, that the Act generally applies to every credit agreement (eg, money-lending transactions irrespective of .... Lubbe 1984 THRHR 383; De Wet and Van Wyk Kontraktereg 391; Pretorius 2001 SA Merc LJ. 95; Sonnekus ...

  6. A strategic surety roadmap for high consequence software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, G.M.; Dalton, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    A strategic surety roadmap for high consequence software systems developed under the High Integrity Software (HIS) Program at Sandia National Laboratories is presented. Selected research tracks are identified and described detailing current technology and outlining advancements to be pursued over the coming decade to reach HIS goals.

  7. Computer surety: computer system inspection guidance. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    This document discusses computer surety in NRC-licensed nuclear facilities from the perspective of physical protection inspectors. It gives background information and a glossary of computer terms, along with threats and computer vulnerabilities, methods used to harden computer elements, and computer audit controls.

  8. 19 CFR 210.69 - Approval of complainant's temporary relief bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of complainant's temporary relief bond. 210.69 Section 210.69 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF... worth, real estate and other property of which the initial surety is the sole owner, other bonds on...

  9. 30 CFR 285.534 - When may MMS cancel my bond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may MMS cancel my bond? 285.534 Section... Assurance Requirements Changes in Financial Assurance § 285.534 When may MMS cancel my bond? When your lease or grant ends, your surety(ies) remain(s) responsible, and MMS will retain any pledged security as...

  10. 48 CFR 52.228-1 - Bid Guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... as accepted. (c) The amount of the bid guarantee shall be ____ percent of the bid price or $____, whichever is less. (d) If the successful bidder, upon acceptance of its bid by the Government within the period specified for acceptance, fails to execute all contractual documents or furnish executed bond(s...

  11. 19 CFR 113.39 - Procedure to remove a surety from Treasury Department Circular 570.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and Forfeitures Officer is unsatisfied with a surety company because the company has neglected or... port director or Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer showing the unsatisfactory performance by...

  12. 42 CFR 489.71 - Surety's standing to appeal Medicare determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION PROVIDER AGREEMENTS AND SUPPLIER APPROVAL Surety..., itself, actively pursuing its appeal rights under this chapter, and provided further that, with respect...

  13. Do Job Security Guarantees Work?

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Bryson; Lorenzo Cappellari; Claudio Lucifora

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the effect of employer job security guarantees on employee perceptions of job security. Using linked employer-employee data from the 1998 British Workplace Employee Relations Survey, we find job security guarantees reduce employee perceptions of job insecurity. This finding is robust to endogenous selection of job security guarantees by employers engaging in organisational change and workforce reductions. Furthermore, there is no evidence that increased job security through job...

  14. Pricing unit-linked insurance with guaranteed benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M.; Novkaniza, F.; Novita, M.

    2017-07-01

    Unit-linked insurance is an investment-linked insurance, that is, the given benefit is the premium investment out-come. Recently, the most widely marketed insurance in the industry is unit-linked insurance with guaranteed benefit. With guaranteed benefit applied, the insurance benefits form is similar to the payoff form of European call option. Thereby, pricing European call option is involved in pricing unit-linked insurance with guaranteed benefit. The dynamics of investment outcome is assumed to follow stochastic interest rate. Hence, change of measure methods is used in pricing unit-linked insurance. The discount factor with stochastic interest rate needs to be modified as well to be zero coupon bond price. Eventually, the insurance premium is calculated by equivalence principle with guaranteed benefit and insurance period explicitly given.

  15. Sandia-Power Surety Task Force Hawaii foam analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntyre, Annie

    2010-11-01

    The Office of Secretary of Defense (OSD) Power Surety Task Force was officially created in early 2008, after nearly two years of work in demand reduction and renewable energy technologies to support the Warfighter in Theater. The OSD Power Surety Task Force is tasked with identifying efficient energy solutions that support mission requirements. Spray foam insulation demonstrations were recently expanded beyond field structures to include military housing at Ft. Belvoir. Initial results to using the foam in both applications are favorable. This project will address the remaining key questions: (1) Can this technology help to reduce utility costs for the Installation Commander? (2) Is the foam cost effective? (3) What application differences in housing affect those key metrics? The critical need for energy solutions in Hawaii and the existing relationships among Sandia, the Department of Defense (DOD), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Forest City, make this location a logical choice for a foam demonstration. This project includes application and analysis of foam to a residential duplex at the Waikulu military community on Oahu, Hawaii, as well as reference to spray foam applied to a PACOM facility and additional foamed units on Maui, conducted during this project phase. This report concludes the analysis and describes the utilization of foam insulation at military housing in Hawaii and the subsequent data gathering and analysis.

  16. Surety of the nation`s critical infrastructures: The challenge restructuring poses to the telecommunications sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, R.; Drennen, T.E.; Gilliom, L.; Harris, D.L.; Kunsman, D.M.; Skroch, M.J.

    1998-04-01

    The telecommunications sector plays a pivotal role in the system of increasingly connected and interdependent networks that make up national infrastructure. An assessment of the probable structure and function of the bit-moving industry in the twenty-first century must include issues associated with the surety of telecommunications. The term surety, as used here, means confidence in the acceptable behavior of a system in both intended and unintended circumstances. This paper outlines various engineering approaches to surety in systems, generally, and in the telecommunications infrastructure, specifically. It uses the experience and expectations of the telecommunications system of the US as an example of the global challenges. The paper examines the principal factors underlying the change to more distributed systems in this sector, assesses surety issues associated with these changes, and suggests several possible strategies for mitigation. It also studies the ramifications of what could happen if this sector became a target for those seeking to compromise a nation`s security and economic well being. Experts in this area generally agree that the U. S. telecommunications sector will eventually respond in a way that meets market demands for surety. Questions remain open, however, about confidence in the telecommunications sector and the nation`s infrastructure during unintended circumstances--such as those posed by information warfare or by cascading software failures. Resolution of these questions is complicated by the lack of clear accountability of the private and the public sectors for the surety of telecommunications.

  17. From SOLER to SURETY for effective non-verbal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Theodore

    2011-11-01

    This paper critiques the model for non-verbal communication referred to as SOLER (which stands for: "Sit squarely"; "Open posture"; "Lean towards the other"; "Eye contact; "Relax"). It has been approximately thirty years since Egan (1975) introduced his acronym SOLER as an aid for teaching and learning about non-verbal communication. There is evidence that the SOLER framework has been widely used in nurse education with little published critical appraisal. A new acronym that might be appropriate for non-verbal communication skills training and education is proposed and this is SURETY (which stands for "Sit at an angle"; "Uncross legs and arms"; "Relax"; "Eye contact"; "Touch"; "Your intuition"). The proposed model advances the SOLER model by including the use of touch and the importance of individual intuition is emphasised. The model encourages student nurse educators to also think about therapeutic space when they teach skills of non-verbal communication. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 78 FR 36018 - Bond Guarantee Program; Notice of Guarantee Availability (NOGA) Inviting Qualified Issuer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... Prior Award Performance In the case of a Qualified Issuer, a proposed Program Administrator, a proposed..., but are not limited to: (i) A sound track record of delivering on past performance; (ii) a documented succession plan; (iii) organizational stability including staff retention; and (iv) a clearly articulated...

  19. 7 CFR 1720.9 - Guarantee Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to absorb losses relative to risk in the guaranteed lender's portfolio and requirements on the guaranteed lender to hold additional capital against the risk of default; (16) Payment by RUS; (17) RUS... Agreement. (a) The guaranteed lender will be required to sign a guarantee agreement with the Secretary...

  20. Financial Crises and Deposit Guarantee

    OpenAIRE

    Catalin Dan; Vasile Bleotu; Nicoleta Moise

    2011-01-01

    Bankruptcies of major credit institutions in the UK and the U.S., since late 2007, have generated a large-scale financial crisis that affected most countries of the world economy significantly. To limit the effects of the crisis and restore confidence in the banking system, states have taken various measures, including providing substantial loans to banks in liquidity crisis, nationalization, as well as measures to increase the effectiveness of deposit guarantee schemes in the banking system....

  1. Creation of security engineering programs by the Southwest Surety Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Van D.; Rogers, Bradley; Winfree, Tim; Walsh, Dan; Garcia, Mary Lynn

    1998-12-01

    The Southwest Surety Institute includes Arizona State University (ASU), Louisiana State University (LSU), New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NM Tech), New Mexico State University (NMSU), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The universities currently offer a full spectrum of post-secondary programs in security system design and evaluation, including an undergraduate minor, a graduate program, and continuing education programs. The programs are based on the methodology developed at Sandia National Laboratories over the past 25 years to protect critical nuclear assets. The programs combine basic concepts and principles from business, criminal justice, and technology to create an integrated performance-based approach to security system design and analysis. Existing university capabilities in criminal justice (NMSU), explosives testing and technology (NM Tech and LSU), and engineering technology (ASU) are leveraged to provide unique science-based programs that will emphasize the use of performance measures and computer analysis tools to prove the effectiveness of proposed systems in the design phase. Facility managers may then balance increased protection against the cost of implementation and risk mitigation, thereby enabling effective business decisions. Applications expected to benefit from these programs include corrections, law enforcement, counter-terrorism, critical infrastructure protection, financial and medical care fraud, industrial security, and border security.

  2. 42 CFR 422.390 - Guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... statements must include the guarantor's balance sheets, profit and loss statements, and cash flow statements... including other guarantees, intangibles and restricted reserves) equal to three times the amount of the PSO... guarantees and all investments in and loans to organizations covered by guarantees excluded from its assets...

  3. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 380 - Public Charter Surety Trust Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public Charter Surety Trust Agreement B Appendix B to Part 380 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS PUBLIC CHARTERS Pt. 380, App. B Appendix B to Part 380—Public...

  4. The Use of Object-Oriented Analysis Methods in Surety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craft, Richard L.; Funkhouser, Donald R.; Wyss, Gregory D.

    1999-05-01

    Object-oriented analysis methods have been used in the computer science arena for a number of years to model the behavior of computer-based systems. This report documents how such methods can be applied to surety analysis. By embodying the causality and behavior of a system in a common object-oriented analysis model, surety analysts can make the assumptions that underlie their models explicit and thus better communicate with system designers. Furthermore, given minor extensions to traditional object-oriented analysis methods, it is possible to automatically derive a wide variety of traditional risk and reliability analysis methods from a single common object model. Automatic model extraction helps ensure consistency among analyses and enables the surety analyst to examine a system from a wider variety of viewpoints in a shorter period of time. Thus it provides a deeper understanding of a system's behaviors and surety requirements. This report documents the underlying philosophy behind the common object model representation, the methods by which such common object models can be constructed, and the rules required to interrogate the common object model for derivation of traditional risk and reliability analysis models. The methodology is demonstrated in an extensive example problem.

  5. 76 FR 14592 - Surety Companies Doing Business With the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... issue a certificate if Treasury decides the surety's articles of incorporation authorize it to engage in... department, court, judge, officer, board, or body executive, legislative, or judicial required to approve or... of the Treasury Reviewing Official and the Treasury Deciding Official in the adjudicative process...

  6. 75 FR 37881 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Change in Business Address and Redomestication...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Business Address and Redomestication; Safeco National Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management... Treasury that Safeco National Insurance Company (NAIC 24759) formally changed its ``Business Address'' to... directed to the U.S. Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and...

  7. 49 CFR 387.301 - Surety bond, certificate of insurance, or other securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., when transported in dump trucks and unloaded at destination by dumping. Ice. Iron ore. Lime and... commercial fertilizer. Pumice stone, in bulk in dump vehicles. Salt, in bulk or in bags. Sand, other than...

  8. 78 FR 35360 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Terminations-American Economy Insurance Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ...: Terminations-- American Economy Insurance Company (NAIC 19690); American States Insurance Company (NAIC 19704... Circular 570, 2012 Revision, published July 2, 2012, at 77 FR 39322. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... officials should annotate their reference copies of the Treasury Department Circular 570 (Circular), 2012...

  9. 76 FR 22451 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Change in Business Address; American Economy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... Business Address; American Economy Insurance Company, American States Insurance Company, SAFECO Insurance.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is Supplement No. 8 to the Treasury Department Circular 570, 2010 Revision... formally changed their ``Business Address'' as follows: American Economy Insurance Company (NAIC 19690...

  10. 75 FR 36153 - Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds-Change In Business Address: American Economy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Business Address: American Economy Insurance Company; American Fire and Casualty Company; American States... No. 15 to the Treasury Department Circular 570, 2009 Revision, published July 1, 2009, at 74 FR 31536... ADDRESS'' as follows: American Economy Insurance Company (NAIC 19690). BUSINESS ADDRESS: 500 North...

  11. 77 FR 18883 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds; Change in Business Address and Redomestication...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... directed to the U.S. Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and...: March 18, 2012. Laura Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Financial...: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is...

  12. 76 FR 37194 - Surety Companies Acceptable In Federal Bonds; Termination; Clearwater Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... to the U.S. Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and...: June 16, 2011. Laura Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Financial...; Termination; Clearwater Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of...

  13. 76 FR 37891 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds; Termination; Western Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... the U.S. Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and Services.... Laura Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Financial Management Service. [FR...; Termination; Western Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the...

  14. 76 FR 38459 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Redomestication and Change in Business Address...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... directed to the U.S. Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and...: June 22, 2011. Laura Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Financial...: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is...

  15. 46 CFR 540.24 - Insurance, surety bonds, self-insurance, guaranties, and escrow accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... escrow accounts. 540.24 Section 540.24 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... escrow accounts. Evidence of adequate financial responsibility for the purposes of this subpart may be... for good cause. (e) Filing with the Commission evidence of an escrow account, acceptable to the...

  16. 78 FR 39439 - Companies Holding Certificates of Authority as Acceptable Sureties on Federal Bonds and as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... SERVICE INSURANCE COMPANY, INC. (NAIC 42897) BUSINESS ADDRESS: 150 Northwest Point Blvd., Suite 300, Elk... Boulevard, Suite300, Rocky Hill, CT 06067. PHONE: (860) 258-3500. UNDERWRITING LIMITATION b/: $17,204,000... COMPANY (NAIC 12777) BUSINESS ADDRESS: 15 Mountain View Road, Warren, NJ 07059. PHONE: (212) 612-4000...

  17. 77 FR 61828 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds; Change in Business Address: Hudson Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... 20782. Dated: September 27, 2012. Laura Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division... Business Address: Hudson Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department... Circular 570, 2012 Revision, published July 2, 2012, at 77 FR 39322. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  18. 77 FR 8956 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Grange Insurance Company of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... directed to the U.S. Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and...: January 31, 2012. Laura Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Financial...: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is...

  19. Guarantee-bond: main concepts and overview of its application within the bidding process involving inactive areas with marginal accumulations of petroleum and natural gas; Seguro-garantia: conceituacao e panorama de sua aplicacao no processo licitatorio envolvendo areas inativas com acumulacoes marginais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eduardo, Antonio Sergio; Herrmann, Hildebrando [Universidade ERstadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Doneivan Fernandes [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian Petroleum Agency has been working on the adoption of an efficient financial guarantee system in order to ensure the fulfillment of contractual obligations in upstream-related activities. This process is aimed at: creating incentives for responsible behavior in the industry; attending current demands from society for efficiency and transparency; attending to industries demands for the maintenance of investment flows within the sector; safeguarding the government against financial liabilities caused by irresponsible or insolvent concessionaires; and keeping the sector attractive and competitive for small and medium companies. Within the bidding process for the concession of inactive areas with marginal accumulations, ANP requires two kinds of guarantees: a bidding guarantee, and a PTI guarantee (for obligations under the Initial Work Program-PTI). In both cases, the ANP allows two kinds of financial instruments: 'Seguros-Garantia' and 'Letters of Credit'. According to bidding rules, guarantees must be presented before the bidding process. This instrument ensures that the winner will sign the concession contract. The PTI guarantee ensures performance in a timely fashion. This paper describes and analyzes the instrument 'Seguro-Garantia', its evolution, existing categories, and applicability. (author)

  20. Government guarantees and public debt in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Bajo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Government fi nancial and performance guarantees have been issued in Croatia since 1996, to support funding and ensure favourable borrowing conditions in the fi nancial market for companies in majority state ownership. However, government guarantees have rarely been part of defi ned strategies and goals of public debt and risk management. Despite their steady growth, the structure of active guarantees and their infl uence on Croatian public debt are still unknown. This paper analyses the amount and structure of state guarantees, their maturities and the authority and accountability for their management, and it compares the structure of guarantees in terms of economic sectors. The main objective of the paper is to determine the infl uence of government guarantees on the public debt growth.

  1. 78 FR 691 - Guarantee Fee Rates for Guaranteed Loans for Fiscal Year 2013; Maximum Portion of Guarantee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service Guarantee Fee Rates for Guaranteed...; Annual Renewal Fee for Fiscal Year 2013 AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... persistently poor, are experiencing trauma as a result of natural disaster, or are experiencing fundamental...

  2. 77 FR 5759 - Guarantee Fee Rates for Guaranteed Loans for Fiscal Year 2012; Maximum Portion of Guarantee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service Guarantee Fee Rates for Guaranteed...; Annual Renewal Fee for Fiscal Year 2012 AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... remain persistently poor, that experience long-term population decline and job deterioration, that are...

  3. The pricing of bank debt guarantees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arping, S.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the optimal pricing of government-sponsored bank debt guarantees within the context of an asset substitution framework. We show that the desirability of fair pricing of guarantees depends on the degree of transparency of the banking sector: in relatively opaque banking systems, fair

  4. 22 CFR 231.03 - The Guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Guarantee. 231.03 Section 231.03 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS...

  5. 22 CFR 231.04 - Guarantee eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guarantee eligibility. 231.04 Section 231.04 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND...

  6. What Guarantees Should Society Offer Its Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Criticising the concept of a "youth guarantee" as it was understood by the OECD in the 1990s and recently again by the European Community, the author argues that just more schooling and training will not help, let alone guarantee a future for disadvantaged, unemployed young people. Rather any policy that wants to help youth to become…

  7. 22 CFR 230.04 - Guarantee eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Financial Officer, Assistant Administrator and Deputy, Bureau for Economic Growth, Agriculture and Trade... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guarantee eligibility. 230.04 Section 230.04 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY...

  8. 12 CFR 614.4800 - Guarantees and contracts of suretyship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....4800 Section 614.4800 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Banks for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4800... policy approved by the bank's board of directors, may lend its credit, be itself a surety to indemnify...

  9. 10 CFR 609.10 - Loan Guarantee Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reasonably proportionate share of the default risk, in light of— (A) DOE's share of the total project financing, (B) Risk allocation among the credit providers, and (C) Internal and external credit enhancements... Borrower has pledged project assets and other collateral or surety, including non project-related assets...

  10. 78 FR 76593 - Guarantee Fee Rates for Guaranteed Loans for Fiscal Year 2014; Maximum Portion of Guarantee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... agriculture and result in farmers benefiting financially or must be a high impact business investment as... disaster, or are experiencing fundamental structural changes in its economic base. For guaranteed loans...

  11. Chemical surety material decontamination and decommissioning of Los Alamos National Laboratory Chemical Surety Material Laboratory area TA-3, building SM-29, room 4009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.E.; Smith, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    From 1982 through 1987, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) performed surety laboratory operations for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (MRDC). Room 4009 in building SM-29, TA-3, was used as the laboratory for work with the following chemical surety material (CSM) agents: sarin (GB), soman (GD), lewisite (L), and distilled mustard (HD) radio-labelled with H 3 or C 14 . The work was confined to three CSM-certified fume hoods, located in room 4009 (see diagram in Appendix C). The laboratory ceased all active operations during the late 1986 and early 1987 period. From 1987 until 1993 the laboratory was secured and the ventilation system continued to operate. During late 1992, the decision was made to utilize this laboratory space for other operations, thus a decision was made to dismantle and reconfigure this room. LANL sub-contracted Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI) to draw upon the CSM experience of the technical staff from the Hazardous Materials Research Facility (HMRF) to assist in developing a decontamination and decommissioning plan. BMI was subcontracted to devise a CSM safety training course, and a sampling and air monitoring plan for CSM material to ensure personnel safety during all disassembly operations. LANL subcontracted Johnson Controls personnel to perform all disassembly operations. Beginning in early 1993 BMI personnel from the HMRF visited the laboratory to develop both the safety plan and the sample and air monitoring plan. Execution of that plan began in September 1993 and was completed in January 1994

  12. Understanding consumer response to service guarantees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, E.L.; Cole, J.M.

    1999-10-01

    Whether the goal is customer loyalty to a competitive energy service provider or customer satisfaction with monopoly distribution services, service guarantees must be seen as one way a company can communicate with its customers about the relationship it has (or wants) with them. In short, service guarantees must be evaluated as part of a company's overall brand management strategy. To do this, a conceptual framework within which to develop and link models of service delivery and brand management is needed. This means seeing both as examples of inference management. In this article the authors first interpret findings from their research on utility service guarantees in light of the model of service delivery proposed by Smith, Bolton, and Wagner. The authors then situate this model within their own model of utility brand management. The resulting approach can be used by a utility to evaluate whether and how to adopt service guarantees as part of its overall branding strategy.

  13. Understanding consumer response to service guarantees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, E.L.; Cole, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Whether the goal is customer loyalty to a competitive energy service provider or customer satisfaction with monopoly distribution services, service guarantees must be seen as one way a company can communicate with its customers about the relationship it has (or wants) with them. In short, service guarantees must be evaluated as part of a company's overall brand management strategy. To do this, a conceptual framework within which to develop and link models of service delivery and brand management is needed. This means seeing both as examples of inference management. In this article the authors first interpret findings from their research on utility service guarantees in light of the model of service delivery proposed by Smith, Bolton, and Wagner. The authors then situate this model within their own model of utility brand management. The resulting approach can be used by a utility to evaluate whether and how to adopt service guarantees as part of its overall branding strategy

  14. Security Guarantees and Nuclear Non-Proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno Tertrais

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the value of 'security guarantees', that is, positive security assurances that include a formal or informal defense commitment, in preventing nuclear proliferation. It demonstrates that such guarantees have proven to be a very effective instrument in preventing States from going nuclear. It would thus seem logical to reinforce or extend them. However, this path is fraught with obstacles and dilemmas

  15. CREDIT SYSTEM AND CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Turgay GECER

    2012-01-01

    Credit system is an integrated architecture consisted of financial information, credit rating, credit risk management, receivables and credit insurance systems, credit derivative markets and credit guarantee programs. The main purpose of the credit system is to provide the functioning of all credit channels and to make it easy to access of credit sources demanded by all of real and legal persons in any economic system. Credit guarantee program, the one of prominent elements of the credit syst...

  16. Chemical surety material decontamination and decommissioning of Los Alamos National Laboratory Chemical Surety Material Laboratory area TA-3, building SM-29, room 4009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, T.E.; Smith, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    From 1982 through 1987, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) performed surety laboratory operations for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (MRDC). Room 4009 in building SM-29, TA-3, was used as the laboratory for work with the following chemical surety material (CSM) agents: sarin (GB), soman (GD), lewisite (L), and distilled mustard (HD) radio-labelled with H{sup 3} or C{sup 14}. The work was confined to three CSM-certified fume hoods, located in room 4009 (see diagram in Appendix C). The laboratory ceased all active operations during the late 1986 and early 1987 period. From 1987 until 1993 the laboratory was secured and the ventilation system continued to operate. During late 1992, the decision was made to utilize this laboratory space for other operations, thus a decision was made to dismantle and reconfigure this room. LANL sub-contracted Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI) to draw upon the CSM experience of the technical staff from the Hazardous Materials Research Facility (HMRF) to assist in developing a decontamination and decommissioning plan. BMI was subcontracted to devise a CSM safety training course, and a sampling and air monitoring plan for CSM material to ensure personnel safety during all disassembly operations. LANL subcontracted Johnson Controls personnel to perform all disassembly operations. Beginning in early 1993 BMI personnel from the HMRF visited the laboratory to develop both the safety plan and the sample and air monitoring plan. Execution of that plan began in September 1993 and was completed in January 1994.

  17. 7 CFR 1779.64 - Issuance of Lender's Agreement, Loan Note Guarantee, and Assignment Guarantee Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance of Lender's Agreement, Loan Note Guarantee, and Assignment Guarantee Agreement. 1779.64 Section 1779.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND...

  18. Probabilistic double guarantee kidnapping detection in SLAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yang; Ma, Shugen

    2016-01-01

    For determining whether kidnapping has happened and which type of kidnapping it is while a robot performs autonomous tasks in an unknown environment, a double guarantee kidnapping detection (DGKD) method has been proposed. The good performance of DGKD in a relative small environment is shown. However, a limitation of DGKD is found in a large-scale environment by our recent work. In order to increase the adaptability of DGKD in a large-scale environment, an improved method called probabilistic double guarantee kidnapping detection is proposed in this paper to combine probability of features' positions and the robot's posture. Simulation results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  19. Large-Scale Similarity Joins With Guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The ability to handle noisy or imprecise data is becoming increasingly important in computing. In the database community the notion of similarity join has been studied extensively, yet existing solutions have offered weak performance guarantees. Either they are based on deterministic filtering...... techniques that often, but not always, succeed in reducing computational costs, or they are based on randomized techniques that have improved guarantees on computational cost but come with a probability of not returning the correct result. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of randomized techniques...

  20. 25 CFR 276.4 - Bondings and insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... guarantee from each bidder equivalent to five percent of the bid price. The bid guarantee shall consist of a... as assurance that the bidder will, upon acceptance of his bid, execute such contractual documents as... 100 percent of the contract price. A performance bond is one executed in connection with a contract to...

  1. 13 CFR 115.31 - Guarantee percentage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... business owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals, on behalf of a... Contracts in excess of $100,000 which are executed on behalf of non-disadvantaged concerns. (c) Contract... Applicable Statutory Limit represents multiplied by the guarantee percentage approved by SBA. For example if...

  2. 40 CFR 280.96 - Guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alternative coverage as specified in § 280.110(c). (c) The guarantee must be worded as follows, except that... any and all third parties that: In the event that fails to provide alternative coverage within 60 days...) Property damage to any property owned, rented, loaded to, in the care, custody, or control of, or occupied...

  3. 76 FR 58089 - Guaranteed Loan Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... tribal governments or the private sector. Agencies generally must prepare a written statement, including... borrower from meeting their financial obligations. FSA is dedicated to providing guaranteed credit to as... funding, which has had budget cuts over the years. Response: FSA is limited by budgetary constraints and...

  4. 76 FR 8403 - Biorefinery Assistance Guaranteed Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... Agency will evaluate the lender's eligibility on a case- by-case basis given the risk of loss posed by... program requirements are not conducive to lenders, particularly in light of the inherent risks associated... identified potential benefits and costs of the Biorefinery Assistance Guaranteed Loan Program to lenders...

  5. Overview of the joint US/Russia surety program in the Sandia National Laboratories Cooperative Measures Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vorontsova, O.S. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation); Blinov, I.M. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center Inst. of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation)

    1998-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has initiated many joint research and development projects with the two premier Russian nuclear laboratories, VNIIEF and VNIITF, (historically known as Arzamas-16 and Chelyabinsk-70) in a wide spectrum of areas. One of the areas in which critical dialogue and technical exchange is continuing to take place is in the realm of system surety. Activities primarily include either safety or security methodology development, processes, accident environment analyses and testing, accident data-bases, assessments, and product design. Furthermore, a continuing dialog has been established between the organizations with regard to developing a better understanding of how risk is perceived and analyzed in Russia versus that in the US. The result of such efforts could reduce the risk of systems to incur accidents or incidents resulting in high consequences to the public. The purpose of this paper is to provide a current overview of the Sandia surety program and its various initiatives with the Russian institutes, with an emphasis on the program scope and rationale. The historical scope of projects will be indicated. A few specific projects will be discussed, along with results to date. The extension of the joint surety initiatives to other government and industry organizations will be described. This will include the current status of a joint Sandia/VNIIEF initiative to establish an International Surety Center for Energy Intensive and High Consequence Systems and Infrastructures.

  6. Overview of the joint US/Russia surety program in the Sandia National Laboratories Cooperative Measures Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.E.; Vorontsova, O.S.; Blinov, I.M.

    1998-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has initiated many joint research and development projects with the two premier Russian nuclear laboratories, VNIIEF and VNIITF, (historically known as Arzamas-16 and Chelyabinsk-70) in a wide spectrum of areas. One of the areas in which critical dialogue and technical exchange is continuing to take place is in the realm of system surety. Activities primarily include either safety or security methodology development, processes, accident environment analyses and testing, accident data-bases, assessments, and product design. Furthermore, a continuing dialog has been established between the organizations with regard to developing a better understanding of how risk is perceived and analyzed in Russia versus that in the US. The result of such efforts could reduce the risk of systems to incur accidents or incidents resulting in high consequences to the public. The purpose of this paper is to provide a current overview of the Sandia surety program and its various initiatives with the Russian institutes, with an emphasis on the program scope and rationale. The historical scope of projects will be indicated. A few specific projects will be discussed, along with results to date. The extension of the joint surety initiatives to other government and industry organizations will be described. This will include the current status of a joint Sandia/VNIIEF initiative to establish an International Surety Center for Energy Intensive and High Consequence Systems and Infrastructures

  7. Parental Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paul de Cock

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the early parent–child bonding relationship can be valuable in research and practice. Retrospective dimensional measures of parental bonding provide a means for assessing the experience of the early parent–child relationship. However, combinations of dimensional scores may provide information that is not readily captured with a dimensional approach. This study was designed to assess the presence of homogeneous groups in the population with similar profiles on parental bonding dimensions. Using a short version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, three parental bonding dimensions (care, authoritarianism, and overprotection were used to assess the presence of unobserved groups in the population using latent profile analysis. The class solutions were regressed on 23 covariates (demographics, parental psychopathology, loss events, and childhood contextual factors to assess the validity of the class solution. The results indicated four distinct profiles of parental bonding for fathers as well as mothers. Parental bonding profiles were significantly associated with a broad range of covariates. This person-centered approach to parental bonding has broad utility in future research which takes into account the effect of parent–child bonding, especially with regard to “affectionless control” style parenting.

  8. Legal Status of Credit Bank Guarantee in Indonesia’s Legal Guarantee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Defiana Putriyanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze  about the legal status of the letter hiring as collateral for bank loans in the Indonesian security law. The method of this research is a normative juridical. The results of this research indicate that the decree hiring is not included in the objects that can be bound by pledge, fiduciary, and mortgage then hiring decree hiring is not included in the personal guarantee and corporate guarantee. Although the hiring decree is issued by a legitimate institution, the institution is not bound by an agreement between the debtor debts with the bank but when the decree was used as security for the bank. Hiring letter is not also included in the general collateral. Decree hiring is not an object and does not qualify as material that can be used as general collateral. The conclusion of this research is that the position of the decree hiring as collateral for bank loans is a new form of guarantee which is not included in the general guarantees and the specific ones. This shows that the system of legal guarantees in Indonesia is not pure anymore embrace a closed system, but has started shifting into an open system.

  9. 13 CFR 120.348 - Amount of guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of guarantee. 120.348 Section 120.348 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans International Trade Loans § 120.348 Amount of guarantee. SBA can guarantee up to $1,250,000...

  10. 13 CFR 107.1720 - Characteristics of SBA's guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Characteristics of SBA's guarantee. 107.1720 Section 107.1720 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS... Characteristics of SBA's guarantee. If SBA agrees to guarantee a Licensee's Debentures or Participating Securities...

  11. 7 CFR 1779.30 - Loan guarantee limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan guarantee limitations. 1779.30 Section 1779.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.30 Loan guarantee...

  12. 7 CFR 1779.4 - Conditions of guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions of guarantee. 1779.4 Section 1779.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.4 Conditions of guarantee. A...

  13. 12 CFR 370.12 - Payment on the guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... claimant's ownership of the FDIC-guaranteed debt obligation. The demand also must be accompanied by an... Guaranteed Debt of participating entities in default. —(1) In general. The FDIC's obligation to pay holders of FDIC-guaranteed debt issued by a participating entity shall arise upon the uncured failure of such...

  14. 77 FR 5089 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Name Change: American Hardware Mutual Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... directed to the U.S. Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and...: January 17, 2012. Laura Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Financial... Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the Treasury. ACTION...

  15. Guaranteeing CERN’s excellence: consolidate experience

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    For its missions CERN requires staff with solid experience in all its domains of activity The Organization has several missions: fundamental research, technical developments and innovation, training the several hundreds of associates, fellows and students, while at the same time taking care of more than 10000 users. In order to guarantee excellence in all of these areas, CERN has to put in place an efficient personnel policy. Such a policy must allow the Organization to recruit collaborators with the highest competence from all Member States, and to keep and motivate them during their entire professional career. But, more importantly, the Organization has to be able to count on a stable workforce. It needs staff with experience gained over a long period in the fields of accelerators, detectors, and operating procedures, if it is to fulfil successfully its important mission of training and knowledge transfer, which is very much appreciated by our Member states, since it highlights a visible return on invest...

  16. Framework for analysis of guaranteed QOS systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Shailender; Choudhary, Alok

    1997-01-01

    Multimedia data is isochronous in nature and entails managing and delivering high volumes of data. Multiprocessors with their large processing power, vast memory, and fast interconnects, are an ideal candidate for the implementation of multimedia applications. Initially, multiprocessors were designed to execute scientific programs and thus their architecture was optimized to provide low message latency and efficiently support regular communication patterns. Hence, they have a regular network topology and most use wormhole routing. The design offers the benefits of a simple router, small buffer size, and network latency that is almost independent of path length. Among the various multimedia applications, video on demand (VOD) server is well-suited for implementation using parallel multiprocessors. Logical models for VOD servers are presently mapped onto multiprocessors. Our paper provides a framework for calculating bounds on utilization of system resources with which QoS parameters for each isochronous stream can be guaranteed. Effects of the architecture of multiprocessors, and efficiency of various local models and mapping on particular architectures can be investigated within our framework. Our framework is based on rigorous proofs and provides tight bounds. The results obtained may be used as the basis for admission control tests. To illustrate the versatility of our framework, we provide bounds on utilization for various logical models applied to mesh connected architectures for a video on demand server. Our results show that worm hole routing can lead to packets waiting for transmission of other packets that apparently share no common resources. This situation is analogous to head-of-the-line blocking. We find that the provision of multiple VCs per link and multiple flit buffers improves utilization (even under guaranteed QoS parameters). This analogous to parallel iterative matching.

  17. Essence and classification of legal guarantees of creditors’ rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra M. Sil’chenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to conduct a comprehensive study of the concept of legal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rights and to identify some features of guarantees on the basis of the presented classification. Methods general scientific deduction comparative and system analysis formal logical method and special comparative legal and structuralfunctional methods. Results basing on the evaluation of different scientistsrsquo opinions the definition of the notion laquolegal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rightsraquo is given. Four classifications of legal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rights are proposed. Scientific novelty author39s definition of the notion laquolegal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rightsraquo is given. The essence of legal guarantees in general and legal rights of creditors in particular is defined. Classifications of legal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rights are given by the content and methods of implementation of creditorsrsquo rights guarantees by forms of providing guarantees to creditors general and special guarantees by the form of termination of legal personrsquos activity. The classifications are described in detail through examples. Practical value the results of this research can be used in scientificresearch activity. Theoretical conclusions formulated in the work can be used in the process of improving of the existing legislation and practice of its application.

  18. Financial Innovation and Risk Management: The Cross-Guarantee Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Bert Ely

    1998-01-01

    The cross-guarantee concept, which is summarized below, will eliminate the regulatory moral hazard that electronic technology has greatly exacerbated in recent years. The paper concludes by outlining the many benefits cross-guarantees will bring to the financial system as well as the structural and international implications of using cross-guarantees to bring market-driven regulation to the financial services sector of the American economy.

  19. 42 CFR 57.1507 - Limitations applicable to loan guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession...

  20. High-Surety Telemedicine in a Distributed, 'Plug-andPlan' Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craft, Richard L.; Funkhouser, Donald R.; Gallagher, Linda K.; Garcia, Rudy J.; Parks, Raymond C.; Warren, Steve

    1999-05-17

    Commercial telemedicine systems are increasingly functional, incorporating video-conferencing capabilities, diagnostic peripherals, medication reminders, and patient education services. However, these systems (1) rarely utilize information architectures which allow them to be easily integrated with existing health information networks and (2) do not always protect patient confidentiality with adequate security mechanisms. Using object-oriented methods and software wrappers, we illustrate the transformation of an existing stand-alone telemedicine system into `plug-and-play' components that function in a distributed medical information environment. We show, through the use of open standards and published component interfaces, that commercial telemedicine offerings which were once incompatible with electronic patient record systems can now share relevant data with clinical information repositories while at the same time hiding the proprietary implementations of the respective systems. Additionally, we illustrate how leading-edge technology can secure this distributed telemedicine environment, maintaining patient confidentiality and the integrity of the associated electronic medical data. Information surety technology also encourages the development of telemedicine systems that have both read and write access to electronic medical records containing patient-identifiable information. The win-win approach to telemedicine information system development preserves investments in legacy software and hardware while promoting security and interoperability in a distributed environment.

  1. High-Surety Telemedicine in a Distributed, 'Plug-and-Play' Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craft, Richard L.; Funkhouser, Donald R.; Gallagher, Linda K.; Garcia, Rudy J.; Parks, Raymond C.; Warren, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Commercial telemedicine systems are increasingly functional, incorporating video-conferencing capabilities, diagnostic peripherals, medication reminders, and patient education services. However, these systems (1) rarely utilize information architectures which allow them to be easily integrated with existing health information networks and (2) do not always protect patient confidentiality with adequate security mechanisms. Using object-oriented methods and software wrappers, we illustrate the transformation of an existing stand-alone telemedicine system into 'plug-and-play' components that function in a distributed medical information environment. We show, through the use of open standards and published component interfaces, that commercial telemedicine offerings which were once incompatible with electronic patient record systems can now share relevant data with clinical information repositories while at the same time hiding the proprietary implementations of the respective systems. Additionally, we illustrate how leading-edge technology can secure this distributed telemedicine environment, maintaining patient confidentiality and the integrity of the associated electronic medical data. Information surety technology also encourages the development of telemedicine systems that have both read and write access to electronic medical records containing patient-identifiable information. The win-win approach to telemedicine information system development preserves investments in legacy software and hardware while promoting security and interoperability in a distributed environment

  2. Diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding. At least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces is coated with nickel. A coated surface portion is positioned in a contiguous relationship with another surface portion and subjected to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure. A force is applied on the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other. The contiguous surface portions are heated to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, and the applied force is decreased while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature. A portion of the applied force is maintained at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions

  3. Doubts raised on the validity of construction and payment guarantees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Joint Building Contracts Committee (JBCC) 1991 suite of contracts was the first in South Africa to introduce the concept of construction and payment guarantees that provided the requisite cover available on call from approved financial institutions. In the process the construction guarantee replaced the performance ...

  4. 48 CFR 52.247-60 - Guaranteed Shipping Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Characteristics. 52.247-60 Section 52.247-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....247-60 Guaranteed Shipping Characteristics. As prescribed in 47.305-16(b)(1), insert the following clause: Guaranteed Shipping Characteristics (DEC 1989) (a) The offeror is requested to complete...

  5. 7 CFR 1493.260 - Facility payment guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; or, in the absence of specific information regarding declared customs value, the fair market...; or in the absence of an arms-length transaction, the fair market value of the services at the time... amend the facility payment guarantee so as to change the guaranteed value must have the concurrence of...

  6. 77 FR 40785 - Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... Farm Service Agency 7 CFR Part 1980 RIN 0575-AC90 Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program... Housing Guaranteed Loan Program (SFHGLP) (also referred to as ``Agency'') by requiring an annual fee for... to exceed 0.5 percent of the outstanding principal balance of the loan for the life of the loan. The...

  7. 7 CFR 4279.186 - Issuance of the guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans... following documents, as appropriate, will be issued: (1) Assignment Guarantee Agreement. In the event the..., “Certificate of Incumbency and Signature (Business and Industry),” of the signature and title of the Agency...

  8. 7 CFR 4280.123 - Guaranteed loan funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.123 Guaranteed loan funding. (a) The... the renewable energy system or energy efficiency improvement. (1) Post-application purchase and...

  9. 7 CFR 4280.152 - Servicing guaranteed loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.152 Servicing guaranteed loans. The lender... the business, along with such other documentation as the Agency may request to determine eligibility...

  10. Investment Guarantees in the South African Life Insurance Industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the risks faced by South African life insurance companies arising from the provision of investment guarantees in products sold. The current thinking and practice of the larger South African life insurance companies regarding investment guarantees is set out following their responses to a survey.

  11. 7 CFR 1779.96 - Termination of Loan Note Guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of Loan Note Guarantee. 1779.96 Section 1779.96 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.96...

  12. 7 CFR 4279.149 - Personal and corporate guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... guarantees are part of the collateral for the loan, but are not considered in determining whether a loan is... documents to the Agency's satisfaction that collateral, equity, cashflow, and profitability indicate an... guarantee form. When warranted by an Agency assessment of potential financial risk, Agency approved...

  13. 7 CFR 2201.28 - Participation in guaranteed Loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Participation in guaranteed Loans. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b), (c) and (d) of this section, a Lender may distribute the risk of a portion of a Loan guaranteed under the Program by sale of participations therein if... in part as a result of the sale of such participations; (2) The Lender remains solely responsible for...

  14. 14 CFR 1300.23 - Participation in guaranteed loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... lender may distribute the risk of a portion of a loan guaranteed under the program by sale of... transferred in whole or in part; (2) The lender remains solely responsible for the administration of the loan... loans guaranteed under the program: (1) Eligible lenders; (2) Private investment funds and insurance...

  15. 49 CFR 260.51 - Conditions of guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Loan Guarantees-Lenders § 260.51 Conditions of guarantee. (a... between the Lender and the Applicant, subject to the Administrator's approval. The maximum percentage of... allowed will depend on the total credit quality of the transaction and the level of risk believed to be...

  16. Implementation of process surety improvements at the ICPP through the Process Monitoring Computer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Process Monitoring Computer System (PMCS) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is a system of data acquisition devices which acquire and transmit process data to a computer system for processing and storage. These signals are in the form of analog (continuous) and digital (discrete) data from the existing process instrumentation and specialty sensors installed on the plant equipment. This system, initially an experiment in the remote Safeguards analysis of an operating facility, was a retrofit installation to the plant which was constructed in the 1950's. The PMCS monitors the ICPP Fuel Process Operations which consist of various headend dissolutions, three solvent extraction cycles, and a fluidized bed denitration process. While the interactive analysis of the process data is an important and demonstrably useful feature of the system, several important operating concerns are addressed through the use of advisory programs which act on the process data to provide information to the process operators. These programs have all been designed to increase the operational surety of the ICPP and to take full advantage of the power of a modern digital computer system for the placement of maximum process information in the hands of the process operator. The use of process computer technology at the ICPP has shown that when such information becomes routinely available, it is possible to construct meaningful, useful systems on the computers to alleviate operating concerns such as inadvertent transfers, offer valid process operating advice, and aid in attempts to eliminate unneeded process shutdowns due to lack of feedstocks and misinterpretation of the process data

  17. Cost-effective instrumentation and control upgrades for commercial nuclear power plants surety principles developed at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, G.E.; Dalton, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    Many nuclear power plants use instrument and control systems based on analog electronics. The state of the art in process control and instrumentation has advanced to use digital electronics and incorporate advanced technology. This technology includes: distributed microprocessors, fiber optics, intelligent systems (neutral networks), and advanced displays. The technology is used to optimize processes and enhance the man-machine interface while maintaining control and safety of the processes. Nuclear power plant operators have been hesitant to install this technology because of the cost and uncertainty in the regulatory process. This technology can be directly applied in an operating nuclear power plant provided a surety principle-based 'administrator' hardware system is included in parallel with the upgrade. Sandia National Laboratories has developed a rigorous approach to High Consequence System Surety (HCSS). This approach addresses the key issues of safety, security, and control while satisfying requirements for reliability and quality. We believe that HCSS principles can be applied to nuclear power plants in a manner that allows the off-the-shelf use of process control instrumentation while maintaining a high level of safety and enhancing the plant performance. We propose that an HCSS Administrator be constructed as a standardized approach to address regulatory issues. Such an administrator would allow a plant control system to be constructed with commercially available, state-to-the-art equipment and be customized to the needs of the individual plant operator. (author)

  18. Cost-effective instrumentation and control upgrades for commercial nuclear power plants using surety principles developed at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, G.E.; Dalton, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    Many nuclear power plants use instrument and control systems based on analog electronics. The state of the art in process control and instrumentation has advanced to use digital electronics and incorporate advanced technology. This technology includes distributed microprocessors, fiber optics, intelligent systems (neural networks), and advanced displays. The technology is used to optimize processes and enhance the man-machine interface while maintaining control and safety of the processes. Nuclear power plant operators have been hesitant to install this technology because of the cost and uncertainty in the regulatory process. This technology can be directly applied in an operating nuclear power plant provided a surety principle-based open-quotes administratorclose quotes hardware system is included in parallel with the upgrade Sandia National Laboratories has developed a rigorous approach to High Consequence System Surety (HCSS). This approach addresses the key issues of safety, security, and control while satisfying requirements for reliability and quality. HCSS principles can be applied to nuclear power plants in a manner that allows the off-the-shelf use of process control instrumentation while maintaining a high level of safety and enhancing the plant performance. We propose that an HCSS administrator be constructed as a standardized approach to address regulatory issues. Such an administrator would allow a plant control system to be constructed with commercially available, state-of-the-art equipment and be customized to the needs of the individual plant operator

  19. EXTERNAL EVALUATION OF LEARNING AS A GUARANTEE OF QUALITY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Arribas Estebaranz

    2014-12-01

    Almost all countries and all reports use contemplated, in varying degrees, the always-complementary external evaluation by the teachers-as an essential guarantee of educational quality at different levels of detail curriculum evaluation.

  20. Financial guarantees and public debt in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogutu Miruka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A few years since the worst of the Euro sovereign debt crisis, many nations, from Cyprus to Ireland, including South Africa are re-visiting their public debt management to avert or lessen the impact of similar such happenings in the future. There are a number of studies on risk assessments of fiscal sustainability; however, few focus on contingent liabilities and even fewer on financial guarantees. In South Africa, financial guarantees have consistently comprised just above or below 50% of all contingent liabilities since the early days of majoritarian rule. In lieu of this, the paper analyses the risks posed by financial guarantees to fiscal sustainability in South Africa. We estimate the effect of financial guarantees on public debt in South Africa via the Engle Granger and causality model with quarterly time series data obtained from the South African Reserve Bank (SARB as well as the National Treasury. The data covers the April 1997 to December 2011 period. All econometric methods were executed using the statistical software package E-Views 7. We found that no long run relationship exists between national net loan debt and financial guarantees in South Africa. The pass rate of financial guarantees significantly affects its present value. The pass rate of financial guarantees has a predicting ability in determining the present value of national net loan debt. These findings may be contrary to what would be expected in the case of South Africa considering that the country is managing the issuance of financial guarantees prudently and that at present levels, there is no need for a radical policy shift. The study therefore offers a lesson to similar merging economies on the good governance of contingent liabilities.

  1. Implementation of a financial guarantee policy at the CNSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) was established in 2000 under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) to replace the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). Prior to the coming in force of the NSCA, financial guarantees associated with licensed activities were not prescribed in the Atomic Energy Control Act or its regulations. Under the NSCA, the Commission Tribunal 'the Commission' was given authority to impose conditions in licences requiring financial guarantees from licensees. Other provisions of the NSCA provided information on the application of financial guarantees and for refunds when decommissioning obligations had been met. Since 2000, the application of financial guarantees has been primarily focussed on licences issued pursuant to the Class I Nuclear Facilities Regulations and the Uranium Mines and Mills Regulations. This was to assure that the requirements for financial guarantees were initially directed at the high risk, complex facilities licensed by the CNSC. However, all licensees have not yet been required to provide a financial guarantee for all licensed facilities, activities or licence types. Additionally, CNSC expectations in relation to when financial guarantees, associated decommissioning plans and cost estimates need to be reviewed, updated and submitted, and what they should entail have been evolving, indicating a need for a clear CNSC policy on the subject. Consequently, the CNSC is proceeding with the development of a financial guarantee policy and implementation plan to assure that generators of nuclear waste will have the financial resources available to decommission nuclear facilities, operations and devices and that this activity will not fall to government as a future liability. This program will require approval by the Commission, planned for 2012. This paper will further describe this policy and its possible outcomes. (author)

  2. 7 CFR 1779.37 - Insurance and fidelity bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance and fidelity bonds. 1779.37 Section 1779.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.37 Insurance and fidelity...

  3. Customer intentions to invoke service guarantees: Do excellence in service recovery, type of guarantee, and cultural orientation matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Van Vaerenbergh, Yves; De Keyser, Arne; Larivière, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Many service providers feel confident about their service quality and thus offer service guarantees to their customers. Yet service failures are inevitable. As guarantees can only be invoked when customers report service failures, firms are given the opportunity to redress the original failure potentially influencing customer outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to provide the first empirical investigation of whether excellence in service recovery affects customers’ intentions to ...

  4. Understanding Bonds - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimmer, Nina Røhr

    2016-01-01

    a specified rate of interest during the life of the bond and to repay the face value of the bond (the principal) when it “matures,” or comes due. Among the types of bonds you can choose from are: Government securities, municipal bonds, corporate bonds, mortgage and asset-backed securities, federal agency...

  5. Dilemmas in zirconia bonding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Đuričić Kosovka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a literature review on the resin bond to zirconia ceramic. Modern esthetic dentistry has highly recognized zirconia, among other ceramic materials. Biocompatibility of zirconia, chemical and dimensional stability, excellent mechanical properties, all together could guarantee optimal therapeutical results in complex prosthodontic reconstruction. On the other hand, low thermal degradation, aging of zirconia as well as problematic bonding of zirconia framework to dental luting cements and tooth structures, opened the room for discussion concerning their clinical durability. The well known methods of mechanical and chemical bonding used on glass-ceramics are not applicable for use with zirconia. Therefore, under critical clinical situations, selection of the bonding mechanism should be focused on two important points: high initial bond strength value and long term bond strength between zirconia-resin interface. Also, this paper emphases the use of phosphate monomer luting cements on freshly air-abraded zirconia as the simplest and most effective way for zirconia cementation procedure today.

  6. Robust guaranteed cost tracking control of quadrotor UAV with uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Nian, Xiaohong; Wang, Haibo; Chen, Yinsheng

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a robust guaranteed cost controller (RGCC) is proposed for quadrotor UAV system with uncertainties to address set-point tracking problem. A sufficient condition of the existence for RGCC is derived by Lyapunov stability theorem. The designed RGCC not only guarantees the whole closed-loop system asymptotically stable but also makes the quadratic performance level built for the closed-loop system have an upper bound irrespective to all admissible parameter uncertainties. Then, an optimal robust guaranteed cost controller is developed to minimize the upper bound of performance level. Simulation results verify the presented control algorithms possess small overshoot and short setting time, with which the quadrotor has ability to perform set-point tracking task well. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Coverage and Rate of Downlink Sequence Transmissions with Reliability Guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Jihong; Popovski, Petar

    2017-01-01

    Real-time distributed control is a promising application of 5G in which communication links should satisfy certain reliability guarantees. In this letter, we derive closed-form maximum average rate when a device (e.g. industrial machine) downloads a sequence of n operational commands through...... cellular connection, while guaranteeing a certain coverage for all n messages. The result is based on novel closed-form n- successive coverage bounds. The proposed lower bound provides a simple approximation that is increasingly accurate in the high reliability region. For moderate coverage, a linear...

  8. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  9. 40 CFR 280.200 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... leasebacks, conditional sales, installment sales, trust receipt transactions, certain assignments, factoring..., deeds of trust, liens, surety bonds and guarantees of obligations, title held pursuant to a lease.... Security interests include but are not limited to mortgages, deeds of trusts, liens, and title pursuant to...

  10. Doubts raised on the validity of construction and payment guarantees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Doubts raised on the validity of construction and payment guarantees. Peer reviewed. Abstract. It has become common practice in the building industry for ... Faculty of Engineering, Built Environment and Information Technology, University of Pretoria, .... Hotels (Pty) Ltd and Others 2001, Judge Van Reenen stripped the.

  11. The National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme in Birbhum

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Subhasish; Bedi, Arjun Singh

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis study of the functioning of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme between February 2006 and July 2009 in Birbhum district, West Bengal reveals that in order to serve as an effective “employer of last resort”, the programme should provide proportionately more job-days during the agricultural lean season and wages should be paid in a timely manner.

  12. The National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme in Birbhum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dey (Subhasish); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis study of the functioning of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme between February 2006 and July 2009 in Birbhum district, West Bengal reveals that in order to serve as an effective “employer of last resort”, the programme should provide proportionately

  13. Toward Improvement of Credit Policies on Guaranteed Student Loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Robert P.

    Four aspects of the Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) Program are compared with credit policies on other loans made by consumer installment lenders. The four aspects are: (1) the planning, screening, monitoring, collecting, and write-off policies on GSLs versus uninsured loans; (2) the importance of the Student Loan Marketing Association in providing…

  14. 32 CFR 151.7 - Fair trial guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MILITARY JUSTICE STATUS OF FORCES POLICIES AND INFORMATION § 151.7 Fair trial guarantees. The following is... competent interpreter when the accused does not understand the language in which the trial is conducted and does not have counsel proficient in the language both of the court and of the accused. (p) Accused is...

  15. Pricing variable annuity guarantees in South Africa under a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pricing variable annuity guarantees in South Africa under a Variance-Gamma model. AM Ngugi, Eben Maré, R Kufakunesu. Abstract. The purpose of this study is to investigate the pricing of variable annuity embedded derivatives using a suitably refined model for the underlying assets, in this case the Johannesburg ...

  16. 7 CFR 4279.72 - Conditions of guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4287 of this chapter will apply to all outstanding guarantees. In the event of a conflict between the... misrepresentation of which a lender or holder has actual knowledge at the time it becomes such lender or holder or... knowledge thereof. Any losses occasioned will be unenforceable to the extent that loan funds are used for...

  17. Do Lower Lender Subsidies Reduce Guaranteed Student Loan Supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, D. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The article analyzes effects of borrower interest rates and student lender subsidies on federally guaranteed student loan volumes from 1988 to 1994 and from 1996 to 2006. Some have argued that lender subsidy cuts would reduce loan supply or cause lenders to exit the student loan market. If lenders get economic rents due to overly generous…

  18. 75 FR 27949 - Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... efficiency in managing the SFHGLP. The proposed changes are in accordance with the recommendations of the... Housing Service proposes two changes to its Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program (SFHGLP...-quarter of 1 percent. The first proposed rule change would eliminate the lender's published VA rate for...

  19. Improvements Needed in Administration of the Guaranteed Student Loan Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report identifies improvements needed in administration of the guaranteed student loan program. Improvements needed are based on the fact that that lenders are not informed when student borrowers drop out of school. Alternatives for providing lenders with timely information on enrollment terminations are indicated. Additional administrative…

  20. H2 guaranteed cost control of discrete linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Colmenares

    2000-01-01

    guaranteed cost performance on a discrete linear uncertain system where the uncertainty is of the norm bounded type. The conditions are presented as a collection of linear matrix inequalities.The solution, however requires a search over a scalar parameter space.

  1. 13 CFR 400.214 - Participations in guaranteed loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Subject to paragraphs (b), (c) and (d) of this section, a Lender may distribute the risk of a portion of a... the Guarantee is assigned, conveyed, sold, or transferred in whole or in part; (2) The Lender remains... Lenders; (2) Private investment funds and insurance companies that do not usually invest in commercial...

  2. X hydrogen bonds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sigma electrons, can be hydrogen bond acceptors.11–14. The recent IUPAC report and recommendation on hydro gen bond have recognised the diverse nature of hydro- gen bond donors and acceptors.13,14. Unlike methane, hydrogen bonding by higher alkanes has not received much attention. One of the earlier works.

  3. Adhesive wafer bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklaus, F.; Stemme, G.; Lu, J.-Q.; Gutmann, R. J.

    2006-02-01

    Wafer bonding with intermediate polymer adhesives is an important fabrication technique for advanced microelectronic and microelectromechanical systems, such as three-dimensional integrated circuits, advanced packaging, and microfluidics. In adhesive wafer bonding, the polymer adhesive bears the forces involved to hold the surfaces together. The main advantages of adhesive wafer bonding include the insensitivity to surface topography, the low bonding temperatures, the compatibility with standard integrated circuit wafer processing, and the ability to join different types of wafers. Compared to alternative wafer bonding techniques, adhesive wafer bonding is simple, robust, and low cost. This article reviews the state-of-the-art polymer adhesive wafer bonding technologies, materials, and applications.

  4. The fiduciary guarantee in the Romanian and European legal context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Lefter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the fiduciary guarantee has not reached its full potential in the Romanian market, nor in the European area. The ongoing “dispute” between the fiduciary operations (familiar to the continental law and the trust (with its common -law heritage seems to be won by the latter. However, considering the express provisions on the fiduciary operations in the Romanian Civil Code entered into force in 2011, similar to the introduction of the same legal instrument in the French Civil Code in 2007, could give a boost to this ancient tool, present from the Roman era. Even if the European legal framework do not provide many rules on this institution, however, the Financial Collateral Directive raised many questions on how the fiduciary guarantees can be used in practice, and contributed to the change that followed in this area.

  5. H 2 guaranteed cost control of discrete linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colmenares W.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a quadratically stabilizing output feedback controller which also assures H 2 guaranteed cost performance on a discrete linear uncertain system where the uncertainty is of the norm bounded type. The conditions are presented as a collection of linear matrix inequalities.The solution, however requires a search over a scalar parameter space.

  6. Unions, Within-Workplace Job Cuts and Job Security Guarantees

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Bryson; Michael White

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the Workplace Employment Relations Survey 1998, this paper shows that unionisation increased the probability of within-workplace job cuts and the incidence of job security guarantees. As theory predicts, both are more prevalent among market-sector workplaces with higher union density and multi-unionism. Expectations that these effects would be more muted in the public sector were also confirmed.

  7. Do Lower Lender Subsidies Reduce Guaranteed Student Loan Supply?

    OpenAIRE

    D. Andrew Austin

    2010-01-01

    The article analyzes effects of borrower interest rates and student lender subsidies on federally guaranteed student loan volumes from 1988 to 1994 and from 1996 to 2006. Some have argued that lender subsidy cuts would reduce loan supply or cause lenders to exit the student loan market. If lenders get economic rents due to overly generous subsidies, a simple model of the student loan market suggests that small changes in subsidy levels should not affect loan supply. Empirical results based on...

  8. Guaranteeing Spoof-Resilient Multi-Robot Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    Trappe, W.: Channel-based detection of sybil attacks in wireless networks . Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on 4(3), 492–503 (2009...Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Guaranteeing Spoof-Resilient Multi-Robot Networks Stephanie Gil †1 · Swarun Kumar †2 · Mark...Mazumder 3 · Dina Katabi 1 · Daniela Rus 1 December 14, 2015 Abstract Multi-robot networks use wireless communica- tion to provide wide-ranging services

  9. Secure Approximation Guarantee for Cryptographically Private Empirical Risk Minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-22

    follows. We used Paillier cryptosystem with N = 1024-bit public key and comparison protocol (Damgard et al., 2008) for 60 bits of integers . The program is...SECURE APPROXIMATION GUARANTEE Hospital (knows clinical information) Genome testing institute (knows genomic information) Model for disease risks...were collected in a research institute, while clinical information were collected in a hospital , and both institutes do not want to share their data

  10. GUARANTEES OF THE RIGHT TO A FAIR CIVIL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Loredana Jalbă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure the effective protection of human rights and provide for more than theoretical and illusory substantive rights, the need to define the right to a fair trial is emerging, along with the necessity that litigants become aware of the guarantees established by article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Thus, the article aims to approach the ample issue regarding the litigants’ right to a fair civil trial in light of current legal regulations, and in particular, in light of the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. Given the fact that the right to a fair civil trial involves establishing, throughout the trial, a set of rules of procedure aimed at creating a balance between the parties in the process - the so-called guarantees of a fair trial - in her scientific pursuits, the author analyzes both explicit and implicit guarantees of fair trial, highlighting relevant European standards as well as their degree of implementation in the national (procedural law.

  11. Australia's Bond Home Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Anil V. Mishra; Umaru B. Conteh

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs the float adjusted measure of home bias and explores the determinants of bond home bias by employing the International Monetary Fund's high quality dataset (2001 to 2009) on cross-border bond investment. The paper finds that Australian investors' prefer investing in countries with higher economic development and more developed bond markets. Exchange rate volatility appears to be an impediment for cross-border bond investment. Investors prefer investing in countries with ...

  12. Chemical bond fundamental aspects of chemical bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Frenking, Gernot

    2014-01-01

    This is the perfect complement to ""Chemical Bonding - Across the Periodic Table"" by the same editors, who are two of the top scientists working on this topic, each with extensive experience and important connections within the community. The resulting book is a unique overview of the different approaches used for describing a chemical bond, including molecular-orbital based, valence-bond based, ELF, AIM and density-functional based methods. It takes into account the many developments that have taken place in the field over the past few decades due to the rapid advances in quantum chemica

  13. Guaranteeing global synchronization in networks with stochastic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinglmayr, Johannes; Kirst, Christoph; Bettstetter, Christian; Timme, Marc

    2012-07-01

    We design the interactions between oscillators communicating via variably delayed pulse coupling to guarantee their synchronization on arbitrary network topologies. We identify a class of response functions and prove convergence to network-wide synchrony from arbitrary initial conditions. Synchrony is achieved if the pulse emission is unreliable or intentionally probabilistic. These results support the design of scalable, reliable and energy-efficient communication protocols for fully distributed synchronization as needed, e.g., in mobile phone networks, embedded systems, sensor networks and autonomously interacting swarm robots.

  14. Guarantee of Criminal Policy as Limited to Criminal Decisionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Bonilla Albán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay explains how the inclusion of the security of public policy in the 2008 Constitution of Ecuador as part of the constitutional state of law and justice or “guarantor state” can become a substantial limit for criminal decisionism, which is usually behind the penal policy in Latin America. Thus, the function of this collateral is to eliminate the huge space of discretion in the management of the most sensitive policy of modern state penal policy. However, the guarantee of public policy is not clear in determining the limits of punitive power; therefore, this paper seeks to explore some of the international human rights.

  15. Guarantee of Criminal Policy as Limited to Criminal Decisionism

    OpenAIRE

    María Belén Bonilla Albán

    2016-01-01

    The essay explains how the inclusion of the security of public policy in the 2008 Constitution of Ecuador as part of the constitutional state of law and justice or “guarantor state” can become a substantial limit for criminal decisionism, which is usually behind the penal policy in Latin America. Thus, the function of this collateral is to eliminate the huge space of discretion in the management of the most sensitive policy of modern state penal policy. However, the guarantee of public policy...

  16. [Living wills in a nursing home, guaranteeing freedom of expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigard Guyader, Céline; Richard, Christian

    The drawing up of a living will in a nursing home for elderly people is a complex process. Not only must the resident think about the end of life, which is not easy, but the institution must be fully aware of the law. Guaranteeing the resident's expression is essential. A study enabled this subject to be reviewed in a nursing home where different players are present around the resident. It enabled professionals to reflect on their practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Adaptation of failure scenario based resilience schemes toward availability guarantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Matthias

    2006-07-01

    Various resilience schemes have been proposed to allow for fault-tolerant transport networks. Their common aim is to survive certain failure patterns such as node or span failures by providing alternative transmission paths. However, network operators guarantee the resulting network reliability in terms of service availability to their business customers. A maximum duration of service disruption per year must not be exceeded. We investigate an optimal design of resilient network configurations that adapts to end-to-end availability requirements. We formulate an integer linear program that minimizes the resource utilization and investigate a case study.

  18. The Financial Cost of Export Credit Guarantee Programs,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    resembles a Ponzi scheme . To accurately assess the performance of an insurance program, losses must be matched with the premiums paid to 16 Table 8 LOSSES...4413296 THE FtINANCIAL : )T )F EXPwORT "REDIT UARANTEE PPCGRAMSU) ?AND :,. P :ANTA MOMIC-A -^ D P HiNRY JUN 91 RAND -2491-U:DP MDA993-85-r-9930 IFF...5/3 ML RE90WUTION TEST O4H1 ’Lr-.7-7 DTIC ELETE AUG 19 The Financial Cost of Export Credit Guarantee Programs AD-A 183 296 Donald Putnam Henry 67 8

  19. The Minimum Price Guarantee Policy before and after Real Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackelline Favro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the performance of the Minimum Price Guarantee Policy - MPGPin Brazil for the main agricultural products, during the 1980s and 1990s, and especially the post-Real Plan period. The research has a bibliographic and descriptive nature. The main results showed that the MPGP remains an important tool for ensuring income to farmers and the supply of selected crops in the analyzed period, but there was a reduction of public action for the new MPGP and new private instruments has revealed efficiency

  20. An Optimal Turkish Private Pension Plan with a Guarantee Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül İşcanog̃lu-Çekiç

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish Private Pension System is an investment system which aims to generate income for future consumption. This is a volunteer system, and the contributions are held in individual portfolios. Therefore, management of the funds is an important issue for both the participants and the insurance company. In this study, we propose an optimal private pension plan with a guarantee feature that is based on Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (CPPI. We derive a closed form formula for the optimal strategy with the help of dynamic programming. Moreover, our model is evaluated with numerical examples, and we compare its performance by implementing a sensitivity analysis.

  1. Entrepreurship and Credit Constraints - Evidence from a French Loan Guarantee Program

    OpenAIRE

    C. LELARGE; D. SRAER; D. THESMAR

    2008-01-01

    We use information on a French loan guarantee program in order to assess the consequences of credit constraints for new ventures. Loan Guarantee Programs, as implemented in France, are an effective instrument to help young firms grow faster, both in terms of employment and capital. These effects are quite persistent, since they are still significant four years after obtaining the guarantee. Loan guarantees also allow firms to pay cheaper interest rate, but a potential drawback of this policy ...

  2. A fast fault protection based on direction of bus-side capacitor discharge current for a high-surety power supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Haijin; Chen, Min; Yang, Boping

    2017-01-01

    A short-circuit fault protection strategy based on the direction of bus-side capacitor discharge current for a high-surety power supply, known as Super Uninterruptable Power Supply (Super UPS), is studied in this paper. It consists of multiple energy sources and storage components. All energy...... strategy is necessary to keep the uninterruptable power for the critical load. In this paper, the characteristics of the short-circuit fault are analyzed first. Then, a fast short-circuit fault locating and isolating strategy based on the direction of the discharge current of the busside capacitors...

  3. 13 CFR 120.521 - What interest rate applies after SBA purchases its guaranteed portion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What interest rate applies after... 504 Loans Sba's Purchase of A Guaranteed Portion § 120.521 What interest rate applies after SBA purchases its guaranteed portion? When SBA purchases the guaranteed portion of a fixed interest rate loan...

  4. 7 CFR 760.634 - SURE guarantee for value loss crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SURE guarantee for value loss crops. 760.634 Section... Payments Program § 760.634 SURE guarantee for value loss crops. (a) The SURE guarantee for value loss crops... otherwise specified. (1) For each insurable crop on the farm, 115 percent of the product obtained by...

  5. Asymptotic Tracking Controller Design for Nonlinear Systems With Guaranteed Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bo; Yang, Qinmin; Jagannathan, Sarangapani; Sun, Youxian

    2017-07-21

    In this paper, a novel adaptive control strategy is presented for the tracking control of a class of multi-input-multioutput uncertain nonlinear systems with external disturbances to place user-defined time-varying constraints on the system state. Our contribution includes a step forward beyond the usual stabilization result to show that the states of the plant converge asymptotically, as well as remain within user-defined time-varying bounds. To achieve the new results, an error transformation technique is first established to generate an equivalent nonlinear system from the original one, whose asymptotic stability guarantees both the satisfaction of the time-varying restrictions and the asymptotic tracking performance of the original system. The uncertainties of the transformed system are overcome by an online neural network (NN) approximator, while the external disturbances and NN reconstruction error are compensated by the robust integral of the sign of the error signal. Via standard Lyapunov method, asymptotic tracking performance is theoretically guaranteed, and all the closed-loop signals are bounded. The requirement for a prior knowledge of bounds of uncertain terms is relaxed. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the merits of the proposed controller.

  6. GMG: A Guaranteed, Efficient Global Optimization Algorithm for Remote Sensing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Helon, CD

    2004-08-18

    The monocular passive ranging (MPR) problem in remote sensing consists of identifying the precise range of an airborne target (missile, plane, etc.) from its observed radiance. This inverse problem may be set as a global optimization problem (GOP) whereby the difference between the observed and model predicted radiances is minimized over the possible ranges and atmospheric conditions. Using additional information about the error function between the predicted and observed radiances of the target, we developed GMG, a new algorithm to find the Global Minimum with a Guarantee. The new algorithm transforms the original continuous GOP into a discrete search problem, thereby guaranteeing to find the position of the global minimum in a reasonably short time. The algorithm is first applied to the golf course problem, which serves as a litmus test for its performance in the presence of both complete and degraded additional information. GMG is further assessed on a set of standard benchmark functions and then applied to various realizations of the MPR problem.

  7. Resilient guaranteed cost control of a power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Hisham M.; Soliman, Mostafa H.; Hassan, Mohammad. F.

    2013-01-01

    With the development of power system interconnection, the low-frequency oscillation is becoming more and more prominent which may cause system separation and loss of energy to consumers. This paper presents an innovative robust control for power systems in which the operating conditions are changing continuously due to load changes. However, practical implementation of robust control can be fragile due to controller inaccuracies (tolerance of resistors used with operational amplifiers). A new design of resilient (non-fragile) robust control is given that takes into consideration both model and controller uncertainties by an iterative solution of a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMI). Both uncertainties are cast into a norm-bounded structure. A sufficient condition is derived to achieve the desired settling time for damping power system oscillations in face of plant and controller uncertainties. Furthermore, an improved controller design, resilient guaranteed cost controller, is derived to achieve oscillations damping in a guaranteed cost manner. The effectiveness of the algorithm is shown for a single machine infinite bus system, and then, it is extended to multi-area power system. PMID:25685505

  8. DEPOSIT GUARANTEE SCHEMES JOIN FINANCIAL SAFETY-NET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Dijmarescu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Deposit Guarantee Schemes (DGS become more visible under the current conditions of the world financial markets. If those have played in the past a rather discreet role for social stability through the function of pay box following a bank failure, the recent crisis put them in a new light, once the guarantee ceiling for eligible deposits grew in order to make for the accumulation of wealth worldwide and the increased risk incurred by the leverage of banking operations. Consequently, the resources accumulated by the DGS from the member banks and their proper management make possible their involvement in pre-emptive actions aimed to avoid bankruptcies via special administration and purchase of assets and assumption of liabilities. These new attributes give DGS a role in the mechanism of financial safety-net, along the supervisors of the market. Hence, an increased preoccupation for applied corporate governance has developed and Core Principles for Effective Deposit Insurance Systems have been adopted by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision together with International Association of Deposit Insurers. Concurrently, the EU Commission has put forward a process for reviewing the Directives 94/39 and 09/14 EC, in order to make the European DGS more prepared to deal with above mentioned issues and bestow increased confidence upon depositors.

  9. The impact of health-care service guarantees on consumer decision-making: an experimental investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett-Hensel, Pamela A; Min, Kyeong Sam; Totten, Jeff W

    2012-01-01

    While examples of the successful use of service guarantees in health-care do exist, to-date, researchers have yet to examine this industry-specific application beyond a case study perspective. The results of this experiment begin to shed light on whether or not guarantees should be used, and if so, under what conditions are they appropriate. Respondents indicate that the thoughtful use of service guarantees can positively impact their perceptions of the health-care provider's reputation and, ultimately, their behavioral intentions towards the same provider. However, consideration must be given to the type of guarantee being offered and to whom the guarantee is targeted.

  10. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  11. Computational methods for predicting the response of critical as-built infrastructure to dynamic loads (architectural surety)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preece, D.S.; Weatherby, J.R.; Attaway, S.W.; Swegle, J.W.; Matalucci, R.V.

    1998-06-01

    Coupled blast-structural computational simulations using supercomputer capabilities will significantly advance the understanding of how complex structures respond under dynamic loads caused by explosives and earthquakes, an understanding with application to the surety of both federal and nonfederal buildings. Simulation of the effects of explosives on structures is a challenge because the explosive response can best be simulated using Eulerian computational techniques and structural behavior is best modeled using Lagrangian methods. Due to the different methodologies of the two computational techniques and code architecture requirements, they are usually implemented in different computer programs. Explosive and structure modeling in two different codes make it difficult or next to impossible to do coupled explosive/structure interaction simulations. Sandia National Laboratories has developed two techniques for solving this problem. The first is called Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), a relatively new gridless method comparable to Eulerian, that is especially suited for treating liquids and gases such as those produced by an explosive. The SPH capability has been fully implemented into the transient dynamics finite element (Lagrangian) codes PRONTO-2D and -3D. A PRONTO-3D/SPH simulation of the effect of a blast on a protective-wall barrier is presented in this paper. The second technique employed at Sandia National Laboratories uses a relatively new code called ALEGRA which is an ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) wave code with specific emphasis on large deformation and shock propagation. ALEGRA is capable of solving many shock-wave physics problems but it is especially suited for modeling problems involving the interaction of decoupled explosives with structures.

  12. Efficient Vessel Tracking  with Accuracy Guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redoutey, Martin; Scotti, Eric; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    Safety and security are top concerns in maritime navigation, particularly as maritime traffic continues to grow and as crew sizes are reduced. The Automatic Identification System (AIS) plays a key role in regard to these concerns. This system, whose objective is in part to identify and locate...... vessels, transmits location-related information from vessels to ground stations that are part of a so-called Vessel Traffic Service (VTS), thus enabling these to track the movements of the vessels. This paper presents techniques that improve the existing AIS by offering better and guaranteed tracking...... accuracies at lower communication costs. The techniques employ movement predictions that are shared between vessels and the VTS. Empirical studies with a prototype implementation and real vessel data demonstrate that the techniques are capable of significantly improving the AIS....

  13. Honeywell starts energy-management service: savings guaranteed; BOSS replaced

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, R.

    1983-01-24

    Honeywell Inc. guarantees that its new Honeywell Service Link Operation (HSLO), a time-sharing service, will produce greater energy savings than its monthly fees. There are no front-end costs because the central computer is located at the supplier's Atlanta site, making energy management cost-affordable for facilities as small as 25,000 square feet. HSLO replaces Honeywell's Building Operations Service System (BOSS) that has a minimum-size requirement of 100,000 square feet. BOSS customers will be automatically changed to HSLO at no charge. All 21 regional computer centers will be available to users. Johnson Controls, Inc. also operates a time-sharing operation called Total Automated Building Services (TABS). (DCK)

  14. Constitutional judges (guarantee of the Constitution and responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ansuátegui Roig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available My aim in this paper is to propose a reflection on the position and the importance that the constitutional judge has in the legal systems of contemporary constitutionalism. The figure of the judge responsible of protecting the Constitution is a key institution, without which we cannot understand the laws of constitutional democracies, their current lines of development, and the guarantee of rights and freedoms that constitute the normative core of these systems. Moreover, the reflection on the exercise of the powers of the judge, its scope and its justification is an important part of contemporary legal discussion, still relevant, albeit not exclusively - in the field of legal philosophy. The object of attention of my reflection is the judge who has the power of judicial review, in a scheme of defense of the Constitution, regardless the specific ways of this defense.

  15. Basic income guarantee: a review of implications for oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-An; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2018-12-01

    To: a) Familiarize readers with the concept of a basic income guarantee (BIG) and its different forms; b) Consider how BIG could improve oral health and decrease oral health disparities; c) Motivate readers to advocate for the evaluation of oral health outcomes in BIG experiments. Published articles and book chapters that have analyzed and reviewed data from past BIG pilot projects were examined for their findings on health and socioeconomic outcomes. Our findings suggest various areas and mechanisms whereby BIG can influence oral health-related outcomes, whether through impacts on work, illness and injury, education, a social multiplier effect, expenditure behavior, and/or mental illness and other health outcomes. Our findings illustrate the importance of assessing oral health-related outcomes in future BIG pilot projects. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  16. Feature Selection for Ridge Regression with Provable Guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Saurabh; Drineas, Petros

    2016-04-01

    We introduce single-set spectral sparsification as a deterministic sampling-based feature selection technique for regularized least-squares classification, which is the classification analog to ridge regression. The method is unsupervised and gives worst-case guarantees of the generalization power of the classification function after feature selection with respect to the classification function obtained using all features. We also introduce leverage-score sampling as an unsupervised randomized feature selection method for ridge regression. We provide risk bounds for both single-set spectral sparsification and leverage-score sampling on ridge regression in the fixed design setting and show that the risk in the sampled space is comparable to the risk in the full-feature space. We perform experiments on synthetic and real-world data sets; a subset of TechTC-300 data sets, to support our theory. Experimental results indicate that the proposed methods perform better than the existing feature selection methods.

  17. AUTOMATION OF PLC PROGRAMMING WHEN IMPLEMENTING ALGORITHMS OF GUARANTEEING CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Levinskyi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During developing programs for programmable logic controllers (PLCs the concept of model-oriented design is increasingly used. In particular, usage of Simulink PLC Coder is giving the opportunity to get SCL program codefrom Simulink model which contains certain dynamic elements. Then, for example, this SCL code can be transformed to functional blocks of the Simatic S7-300 (VIPA 300 PLC. This significantly reduces the timerequired to develop code in the language of SCL and reduces requirements for specialists’ qualification when developing control systems. In this article we provide an example of PLC programming automation whenimplementing algorithms of guaranteeing control (AGC. For certain types of technological processes it is typical to contain monotonically increasing function of the effectiveness with fixed one-way restriction in regulations. Forexample, in the grinders, presses, extruders the load current of the drive is stabilized using the change of feed. Energy efficiency of these plants will increase with increasing of the set point (SP to the controller of the drive loadcurrent stabilization loop. However, an increase in SP increases the probability of triggering appropriate protection, for example, as a result of random changes in the properties of raw materials. Therefore, to avoid this accident, thepower of driving motors is often unreasonably overrated. And in this case they are used with currents equal to the half of rated.Systems of guaranteeing control (SGC are used to solve the contradiction between the need to improvethe efficiency and increasing probability of an accident.

  18. Shape Bonding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontius, James T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of bonding at least two surfaces together. The methods step of the present invention include applying a strip of adhesive to a first surface along a predefined outer boundary of a bond area and thereby defining a remaining open area there within. A second surface, or gusset plate, is affixed onto the adhesive before the adhesive cures. The strip of adhesive is allowed to cure and then a second amount of adhesive is applied to cover the remaining open area and substantially fill a void between said first and second surfaces about said bond area. A stencil may be used to precisely apply the strip of adhesive. When the strip cures, it acts as a dam to prevent overflow of the subsequent application of adhesive to undesired areas. The method results in a precise bond area free of undesired shapes and of a preferred profile which eliminate the drawbacks of the prior art bonds.

  19. Corporate Bonds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Corporate financing is the choice between capital generated by the corporation and capital from external investors. However, since the financial crisis shook the markets in 2007–2008, financing opportunities through the classical means of financing have decreased. As a result, corporations have...... to think in alternative ways such as issuing corporate bonds. A market for corporate bonds exists in countries such as Norway, Germany, France, the United Kingdom and the United States, while Denmark is still behind in this trend. Some large Danish corporations have instead used foreign corporate bonds...... markets. However, NASDAQ OMX has introduced the First North Bond Market in December 2012 and new regulatory framework came into place in 2014, which may contribute to a Danish based corporate bond market. The purpose of this article is to present the regulatory changes in Denmark in relation to corporate...

  20. Corporate Bonds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Corporate financing is the choice between capital generated by the corporation and capital from external investors. However, since the financial crisis shook the markets in 2007–2008, financing opportunities through the classical means of financing have decreased. As a result, corporations have...... markets. However, NASDAQ OMX has introduced the First North Bond Market in December 2012 and new regulatory framework came into place in 2014, which may contribute to a Danish based corporate bond market. The purpose of this article is to present the regulatory changes in Denmark in relation to corporate...... bonds. The purpose is further to analyse the tax consequences of issuing bonds in both a direct issue of bonds and through securitization....

  1. Guaranteeing the implementation of guarantees of origin: Creating a fair mechanism for renewable electricity generation and trade in europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houwing; Michiel; Vries, Laurens J. de

    2005-01-01

    With the Renewables Directive (2001/77/EC) the EU has obliged its Member States to implement the Guarantees of Origin (GO) policy instrument into their national renewable electricity support schemes. Compared to formerly existing policy instruments as tradable green certificates, GOs can in a Union broad quota obligation scheme, for example, prove to be of major value in arriving at a more transparent and efficient way of trading renewable electricity. This paper gives an overview of the most important hurdles still to be addressed, mainly being double counting issues and policy interactions. When more clarity is given from the Commission in the future and when more EU Member States implement GOs beyond the minimum requirements, international trading of renewable electricity can become truly feasible. (Author)

  2. Transversely Compressed Bonded Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The load capacity of bonded joints can be increased if transverse pressure is applied at the interface. The transverse pressure is assumed to introduce a Coulomb-friction contribution to the cohesive law for the interface. Response and load capacity for a bonded single-lap joint was derived using...... non-linear fracture mechanics. The results indicated a good correlation between theory and tests. Furthermore, the model is suggested as theoretical base for determining load capacity of bonded anchorages with transverse pressure, in externally reinforced concrete structures....

  3. Financial guarantee for decommissioning and nuclear waste management activities at OPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Hengel, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on the establishment and maintenance of a financial guarantee for decommissioning and nuclear waste management activities at Ontario Power Generation (OPG) in accordance with CNSC requirements. The process and timelines are documented leading to the establishment of the guarantee effective July 31, 2003. Reference plans, cost estimates, funding mechanisms and reporting mechanisms are summarized. The renewal process projected at the end of the 5-year initial financial guarantee period is also included. (author)

  4. Safety-Guaranteed Trajectory Tracking Control for the Underactuated Hovercraft with State and Input Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Mingyu; Gao, Shuang; Wang, Chenglong

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a safety-guaranteed trajectory tracking controller for hovercraft by using a safety-guaranteed auxiliary dynamic system, an integral sliding mode control, and an adaptive neural network method. The safety-guaranteed auxiliary dynamic system is designed to implement system state and input constraints. By considering the relationship of velocity and resistance hump, the velocity of hovercraft is constrained to eliminate the effect of resistance hump and obtain better stabili...

  5. ACCESS TO FINANCE FOR SMEs BY CREDIT GUARANTEE SCHEMES IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Sarigul, Hasmet

    2013-01-01

    Credit guarantee schemes assist banks in lending to SMEs by overcoming collateral problems. The guarantees are used to share the risk between the bank and the guarantee institution in an agreed ratio. Thus, the bank’s risk and operation costs are lowered and its returns increased. This encourages banks to lend to SMEs who are unable to provide adequate collateral. In our study, we investigate the relationship between SMEs, banks and CGSs. We also aimed to explain the functioning of CGSs...

  6. Guaranteed energy-efficient bit reset in finite time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Cormac; Garner, Andrew J P; Dahlsten, Oscar C O; Vedral, Vlatko

    2014-09-05

    Landauer's principle states that it costs at least kBTln2 of work to reset one bit in the presence of a heat bath at temperature T. The bound of kBTln2 is achieved in the unphysical infinite-time limit. Here we ask what is possible if one is restricted to finite-time protocols. We prove analytically that it is possible to reset a bit with a work cost close to kBTln2 in a finite time. We construct an explicit protocol that achieves this, which involves thermalizing and changing the system's Hamiltonian so as to avoid quantum coherences. Using concepts and techniques pertaining to single-shot statistical mechanics, we furthermore prove that the heat dissipated is exponentially close to the minimal amount possible not just on average, but guaranteed with high confidence in every run. Moreover, we exploit the protocol to design a quantum heat engine that works near the Carnot efficiency in finite time.

  7. On routing algorithms with end-to-end delay guarantees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, N.S.V.; Batsell, S.G.

    1998-11-01

    The authors consider the transmission of a message of size r from a source to a destination with guarantees on the end-to-end delay over a computer network with n nodes and m links. There are three sources of delays: (a) propagation delays along the links, (b) delays due to bandwidth availability on the links, and (c) queuing delays at the intermediate nodes. First, the authors consider that delays on various links and nodes are given as functions of the message size. If the delay in (b) is a non-increasing function of the bandwidth, they propose O(m{sup 2} + mn log n) time algorithm to compute a path with the minimum end-to-end delay for any given message size r. They then consider that the queuing delay in (c) is a random variable correlated with the message size according to an unknown distribution. At each node, the measurements of queuing delays and message sizes are available. They propose two algorithms to compute paths whose delays are close to optimal delays with a high probability, irrespective of the distribution of the delays, and based entirely on the measurements of sufficient size.

  8. Chemisorption bonding and catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danese, J.B.; Schrieffer, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    The general features of the LCAO--MO, Green's function, and multiple-scattering chi α methods and their applications to surfaces and surface-related problems are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the localization of bonding in surface complexes

  9. Tile-bonding tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, C. C.; Holt, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Device applies uniform, constant, precise pressure to hold tiles in place during bonding. Tool consists of pressure bladders supported by adjustable pole. Pole can accomodate single or multiple bladders. Tiles can be flat or contoured.

  10. Bond markets in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin Mu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available African bond markets have been steadily growing in recent years, but nonetheless remain undeveloped. African countries would benefit from greater access to financing and deeper financial markets. This paper compiles a unique set of data on government securities and corporate bond markets in Africa. It then applies an econometric model to analyze the key determinants of African government securities market and corporate bond market capitalization. Government securities market capitalization is directly related to better institutions and interest rate volatility, and inversely related to smaller fiscal deficits, higher interest rate spreads, exchange rate volatility, and current and capital account openness. Corporate bond market capitalization is directly linked to economic size, the level of development of the economy and financial markets, better institutions, and interest rate volatility, and inversely related to higher interest rate spreads and current account openness. Policy implications follow.

  11. COCOA PRODUCTION - AGRICULTURAL CREDIT GUARANTEE SCHEME FUND NEXUS IN NIGERIA: A COINTEGRATION APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Oyakhilomen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine the relationship between cocoa production in Nigeria and agricultural credit guarantee scheme fund using time series data on cocoa production in Nigeria, value of loans guaranteed and number of loans guaranteed spanning over the period of 1981 to 2011. The Johansen cointegration test was employed in this study and the result indicated that there was no cointegrating relationship between cocoa production in Nigeria and Agricultural credit guarantee scheme fund over the period under study. This could be attributed to the guaranteeing of few number as well as limited value of credit to the farmers by agricultural credit guarantee scheme fund and the high incidence of loan diversion by the cocoa farmers who had access to the loans guaranteed by agricultural credit guarantee scheme fund. It is recommended that the number as well as the value of credit guaranteed to cocoa farmers should be significantly increased so as to enable the farmers expand their production and thereby, reposition the cocoa to assume a critical role as a major non-oil foreign exchange earner in the Agricultural transformation plan of Nigeria.

  12. Guaranteed Cost Finite-Time Control of Discrete-Time Positive Impulsive Switched Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leipo Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the guaranteed cost finite-time boundedness of discrete-time positive impulsive switched systems. Firstly, the definition of guaranteed cost finite-time boundedness is introduced. By using the multiple linear copositive Lyapunov function (MLCLF and average dwell time (ADT approach, a state feedback controller is designed and sufficient conditions are obtained to guarantee that the corresponding closed-loop system is guaranteed cost finite-time boundedness (GCFTB. Such conditions can be solved by linear programming. Finally, a numerical example is provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. A Scheduling Discipline for Latency and Bandwidth Guarantees in Asynchronous Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Sparsø, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Guaranteed services (GS) are important in that they provide predictability in the complex dynamics of shared communication structures. This paper discusses the implementation of GS in asynchronous Network-on-Chip. We present a novel scheduling discipline called Asynchronous Latency Guarantee (ALG......) scheduling, which provides latency and bandwidth guarantees in accessing a shared media, e.g. a physical link shared between a number of virtual channels. ALG overcomes the drawbacks of existing scheduling disciplines, in particular the coupling between latency and bandwidth guarantees. A 0.12 &956;m CMOS...

  14. Handbook of wafer bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Ramm, Peter; Taklo, Maaike M V

    2011-01-01

    Written by an author and editor team from microsystems companies and industry-near research organizations, this handbook and reference presents dependable, first-hand information on bonding technologies.In the first part, researchers from companies and institutions around the world discuss the most reliable and reproducible technologies for the production of bonded wafers. The second part is devoted to current and emerging applications, including microresonators, biosensors and precise measuring devices.

  15. Diffusion bonding techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    The applications of diffusion bonding at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department are briefly discussed, with particular emphasis on the gold/gold or gold/indium joints made between metallized alumina ceramic parts in the vacuum switch tube and the crystal resonator programs. Fixtures which use the differential expansion of dissimilar metals are described and compared to one that uses hydraulic pressure to apply the necessary bonding force

  16. Realization of Human Rights Guarantees in Civil Proceedings in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badma V. Sangadzhiev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Civil legal proceedings are conducted according to the federal laws existing during consideration and permission of a civil case (making of separate legal proceedings or execution of court decrees. In case of lack of the regulation of a procedural law governing the relations which arose during civil legal proceedings, federal courts of the general jurisdiction and magistrate's courts apply the regulation governing the similar relations (analogy of the law. In the absence of such regulation of the judge work proceeding from the general principles of implementation of justice in the Russian Federation (analogy is right. Dispositions of general constitutional guarantees (which don't belong directly to judicial system, however their sense can quite be applied to judicial process of consideration of civil cases contain in the following articles of the Constitution of Russia: 17, 19, 29 and 45. Judicial activities are characterized by the major indicators: quality and efficiency (observance of procedural terms. According to the conventional principles and rules of international law to be an offender without unjustifiable delay constitutes one of the fundamental human rights inseparably linked with the right to fair legal proceeding. In a sense of the constitutional regulation, first, everyone has the right, but isn't obliged to protect the rights, secondly, to protect by all methods which aren't forbidden by the law. It is thought, the last purchases the force and the importance not as ascertaining (or transfer these methods in the law and as availability of real mechanisms of their use by the individual and availability of use.

  17. Fundamentals of fiber bonding in thermally point-bonded nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Aparna

    Thermal point bonding (TPB) uses heat and pressure to bond a web of fibers at discrete points imparting strength to the manufactured fabric. This process significantly reduces the strength and elongation of the bridging fibers between bond points while strengthening the web. Single fiber experiments were performed with four structurally different polypropylene fibers to analyze the inter-relationships between fiber structure, fiber properties and bonding process. Two fiber types had a low birefringence sheath or surface layer while the remaining had uniform birefringence profiles through their thickness. Bonds were formed between isolated pairs of fibers by subjecting the fibers to a calendering process and simulating TPB process conditions. The dependence of bond strength on bonding temperature and on the type of fiber used was evaluated. Fiber strengths before and after bonding were measured and compared to understand the effect of bonding on fiber strength. Additionally, bonded fiber strength was compared to the strength of single fibers which had experienced the same process conditions as the bonded pairs. This comparison estimated the effect of mechanical damage from pressing fibers together with steel rolls while creating bonds in TPB. Interfiber bond strength increased with bonding temperature for all fiber types. Fiber strength decreased with increasing bonding temperature for all fiber types except for one type of low birefringent sheath fibers. Fiber strength degradation was unavoidable at temperatures required for successful bonding. Mechanical damage from compression of fibers between rolls was an insignificant factor in this strength loss. Thermal damage during bonding was the sole significant contributor to fiber strength degradation. Fibers with low birefringence skins formed strong bonds with minimal fiber strength loss and were superior to fibers without such surface layers in TPB performance. A simple model to predict the behavior of a two-bond

  18. 46 CFR Sec. 10 - Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... open penalty type. (e) No repair voucher (progress or final) where bond coverage is required shall be... awarded work and the furnishing of the performance and payment bonds required by Article 14 of the NSA...) shall be used. (b) In compliance with the perform- ance bond and payment bond requirements of Article 14...

  19. The Impact of Public Guarantees on Bank Risk Taking : Evidence from a Natural Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gropp, R.; Grundl, C.; Guttler, A.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, government guarantees for savings banks in Germany were removed following a law suit. We use this natural experiment to examine the effect of government guarantees on bank risk taking, using a large data set of matched bank/borrower information. The results suggest that banks whose

  20. Evaluating India's national rural employment guarantee scheme : The case of Birbhum districts, West Bengal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dey (Subhasish)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe world's biggest Employment Guarantee Programme, India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) has been in operation in rural India since February 2006. In principle, the scheme is a self-targeted programme designed to provide 100 days of employment to rural households

  1. Linking Financial Service Providers to Commercial Capital : How Do Guarantees Add Value?

    OpenAIRE

    Alexia Latortue; Jasmina Glisovic-Mezieres

    2008-01-01

    In microfinance, experimentation with loan guarantees began largely as an attempt to demonstrate to local banks that Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) are creditworthy. Though loan guarantees are far less common than other funding instruments, such as debt, equity, and grants, they are beginning to be used more often. This brief is based on a joint Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest (...

  2. 22 CFR 231.05 - Non-impairment of the Guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-impairment of the Guarantee. 231.05 Section 231.05 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD...

  3. Do not pay for a Danish interest guarantee. The law of the triple blow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillén, Montserrat; Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina; Perch Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the performance of pension schemes of with-profit policies containing a guaranteed minimum rate of return and we have found that the price of the guarantee measured in terms of lost returns is enormous. We use simple simulations rather than complex pricing methods to illustra...

  4. 7 CFR 1940.563 - Section 502 non-subsidized guaranteed Rural Housing (RH) loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (RH) loans. 1940.563 Section 1940.563 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... guaranteed Rural Housing (RH) loans. (a) Amount available for allocations. See § 1940.552(a) of this subpart... percentage range used for Section 502 guaranteed RH loans is plus or minus 15. (e) Base allocation. See...

  5. 7 CFR 1980.443 - Collateral, personal and corporate guarantees and other requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Collateral, personal and corporate guarantees and... Industrial Loan Program § 1980.443 Collateral, personal and corporate guarantees and other requirements. (a) Collateral. (1) The lender is responsible for seeing that proper and adequate collateral is obtained and...

  6. 26 CFR 1.817A-1 - Certain modified guaranteed contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the tax reserves for an MGC under sections 807(c)(3) or (d)(2). During a non-equity-indexed MGC's... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous Provisions § 1.817A-1 Certain modified guaranteed contracts... by a formula set forth under the terms of the MGC. (3) Equity-indexed modified guaranteed contract...

  7. 42 CFR 57.1514 - Loan guarantee and interest subsidy agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession Personnel § 57.1514 Loan guarantee and interest subsidy agreements. For each application for a...

  8. Safety-Guaranteed Trajectory Tracking Control for the Underactuated Hovercraft with State and Input Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyu Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a safety-guaranteed trajectory tracking controller for hovercraft by using a safety-guaranteed auxiliary dynamic system, an integral sliding mode control, and an adaptive neural network method. The safety-guaranteed auxiliary dynamic system is designed to implement system state and input constraints. By considering the relationship of velocity and resistance hump, the velocity of hovercraft is constrained to eliminate the effect of resistance hump and obtain better stability. And the safety limit of drift angle is well performed to guarantee the light safe maneuvers of hovercraft tracking with high velocities. In view of the natural capabilities of actuators, the control input is constrained. High nonlinearity and model uncertainties of hovercraft are approximated by employing adaptive radical basis function neural networks. The proposed controller guarantees the boundedness of all the closed-loop signals. Specifically, the tracking errors are uniformly ultimately bounded. Numerical simulations are implemented to demonstrate the efficacy of the designed controller.

  9. Japanese SMEs and the credit guarantee system after the global financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyoshi Yamori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief explanation of the Japanese public credit guarantee system and analyzes what role it played during the global financial crisis. The author conducted a questionnaire survey of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in Aichi Prefecture, the prefecture most seriously hit by the crisis, in collaboration with the Aichi-ken Credit Guarantee Corporation. Using the survey, which provides valuable information about the usage of the credit guarantee program, this paper finds that the credit guarantee system was effective in protecting the economy from collapsing. The system was so generous that now almost all SMEs want it to remain unchanged. However, as the generous system brings heavy financial burdens on the Japanese government and, more seriously, discourages firms and banks from improving their efficiencies, the author insists that reforms, such as limiting the target and the guarantee coverage, are inevitable.

  10. Certain aspects of the accounting of the bank guarantee at the principal and the beneficiary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Zimakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For any kind of business such category as risks is peculiar. The research of this category was conducted by scientists from the different sides, certain approaches of protection against risks were developed and instruments of decrease in financial risks are offered. The bank guarantee is one of the most demanded instruments of additional financial protection today. Its active using of the commercial organizations courses questions of the organization of the detailed accounting of guarantees at the principal and the beneficiary. A little concerning the historical aspect of the bank guarantee, authors provided the overview of the determinations of "bank guarantee" characterizing it as the banking service providing distribution of responsibility between the guarantor and the principal under certain conditions. Having considered the essence of the legal nature and features of the bank guarantee recommendations about the organization of the disaggregated financial accounting on off-balance accounts were developed. In particular, need of allocation of a currency type as the directions of conducting the analytics providing correctness of reflection of cost criterion is proved. For the purpose of control of timeliness of carrying out calculations it is recommended to allocate guarantees: coincident and in coincident with primary obligation; short-term and long-term. From the point of view of nature of guarantees payment guarantees and guarantees of obligation fulfilment were allocated. These recommendations concern the beneficiary, and lack of accounting entries at a principal generates need of creation of additional registers and analytical reports which forms were offered by authors. The provided recommendations will allow obtaining transparent information on bank guarantees for the purpose of its full disclosure in the financial reporting.

  11. Hydrogen bonded supramolecular materials

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date text covering topics in utilizing hydrogen bonding for constructing functional architectures and supramolecular materials. The first chapter addresses the control of photo-induced electron and energy transfer. The second chapter summarizes the formation of nano-porous materials. The following two chapters introduce self-assembled gels, many of which exhibit unique functions. Other chapters cover the advances in supramolecular liquid crystals and the versatility of hydrogen bonding in tuning/improving the properties and performance of materials. This book is designed

  12. Cytotoxicity of dentin bonding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal, Ebru; Guneri, Pelin; Atay, Ayse; Cetintas, Vildan Bozok

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the cytotoxicity of 5 dentin bonding agents (Admira Bond, Adper Single Bond Plus, Clearfil SE Bond, Clearfil S3 Bond, and Heliobond) by XTT assay using human gingival fibroblast cells. Samples of dentin bonding agents were prepared on a black 96-well microplate, and the cytotoxicity of each bonding material was measured every 24 hours for 7 days, then on Days 14, 21, and 28. One-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests were used for statistical analyses. All 5 materials were evaluated as severely cytotoxic (P agents showed severe cytotoxicity with viability results exception of Adper Single Bond Plus, toxicity continued to Day 28 for all compounds. The utmost care must be considered during the clinical utilization of dentin bonding agents to keep them within the area of restoration and prevent their contact with adjacent tissues.

  13. Photochemical tissue bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Robert W [Brookline, MA; Kochevar, Irene E [Charlestown, MA

    2012-01-10

    Photochemical tissue bonding methods include the application of a photosensitizer to a tissue and/or tissue graft, followed by irradiation with electromagnetic energy to produce a tissue seal. The methods are useful for tissue adhesion, such as in wound closure, tissue grafting, skin grafting, musculoskeletal tissue repair, ligament or tendon repair and corneal repair.

  14. Guaranteed Cost Finite-Time Control of Fractional-Order Positive Switched Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leipo Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of guaranteed cost finite-time control of fractional-order positive switched systems (FOPSS is considered in this paper. Firstly, a new cost function is defined. Then, by constructing linear copositive Lyapunov functions and using the average dwell time (ADT approach, a state feedback controller and a static output feedback controller are constructed, respectively, and sufficient conditions are derived to guarantee that the corresponding closed-loop systems are guaranteed cost finite-time stable (GCFTS. Such conditions can be easily solved by linear programming. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. The impact of SMEs’ lending and credit guarantee on bank efficiency in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien-Wen Liang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how small and medium-size enterprises’ (SMEs’ lending and credit guarantee affect Korean banks’ efficiency, by employing the stochastic frontier approach on 14 banks over the period 2001–2010. When lending increases to SMEs, the findings indicate that banks’ cost efficiency decreases due to information asymmetry. However, the increased proportion of credit guarantee can improve their cost efficiency. This proves that South Korea’s credit guarantee system can indeed share SMEs’ credit risk of lending in order to help raise bank efficiency.

  16. An Electronic Commerce Strategy for MTMC’s Guaranteed Traffic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    AD-A264 299 SELECTE October 1992 S MAY1 4 1993U C An Electronic Commerce Strategy for MTMC’s Guaranteed Traffic Program MT901R I N1. Augustine...NUMBERS An Electronic Commerce Strategy for MTMC’s Guaranteed Traffic Program C MDA903-85-C -0139 M DA903-90-C-0006 PE 0902198D 6. AUTHOR(S) M...239-1L 299-01 LMI Executive Summary AN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE STRATEGY FOR MTMC’S GUARANTEED TRAFFIC PROGRAM In 1979, the Military Traffic Management

  17. Comparison of shear bond strength of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ravadgar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthodontic treatment, it is essential to establish a satisfactory bond between enamel and bracket. After the self-etch primers (SEPs were introduced for the facilitation of bracket bonding in comparison to the conventional etch-and-bond system, multiple studies have been carried out on their shear bond strengths which have yielded different results. This study was aimed at comparing shear bond strengths of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems. Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 60 extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were randomly divided into three equal groups: in the first group, Transbond XT (TBXT light cured composite was bonded with Transbond plus self-etching primer (TPSEP; in the second group, TBXT composite was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching; and in the third group, the self cured composite Unite TM bonding adhesive was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching. In all the groups, Standard edgewise-022 metallic brackets (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA were used. Twenty-four hours after the completion of thermocycling, shear bond strength of brackets was measured by Universal Testing Machine (Zwick. In order to compare the shear bond strengths of the groups, the variance analysis test (ANOVA was adopted and p≤0.05 was considered as a significant level. Results: Based on megapascal, the average shear bond strength for the first, second, and third groups was 8.27±1.9, 9.78±2, and 8.92±2.5, respectively. There was no significant difference in the shear bond strength of the groups. Conclusions: Since TPSEP shear bond strength is approximately at the level of the conventional method of acid etching and within the desirable range for orthodontic brackets shear bond strength, applying TPSEP can serve as a substitute for the conventional method of etch and bond, particularly in orthodontic operations.

  18. Is biomass always a renewable fuel as guaranteed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veski, Rein

    1999-01-01

    alternative electric energy must be energy which is not produced from oil shale. TheLong-Term Development Plan for the Estonian Fuel and Energy Sector includes such misleading terms as peat, wood and renewable energy resources, biofuels and peat. However, there are also quite correct phrases such as peat, wood and other renewable natural resources, as wood and other biofuels are renewable natural resources. As a rule, wood and wood waste, energy cultures, agricultural, woodpulp and paper industry waste, as well as solid animal breeding and household waste, and also peat are classified as biomass in many countries. Biomass seems to be a more convenient term instead of renewable biofuel. In most statements it is with no doubt classified as renewable resource, while biofuels are not because fossil fuels are also biofuels (or fuels of biological origin) and they are renewable only to a very limited extent. Fossil fuels originated in sapropel and peat, oil and natural gas from dispersed organic matter, too. So, their recovery depends on the speed of accumulation of organic carbon in recent sediments. The recovery should not be a question of what somebody believes in or not. It must not be a 'religious' question but a purely scientific and methodological issue. There is only one condition when a fuel (or biomass as one type of biofuel) is renewable: biomass or biofuel may be considered renewable if they are replenished at a rate which is comparable to the rate at which they are consumed in a country or part of it (on an island, for example). The overused amount is a non-renewable biomass or biofuel. So, the replenishment of biomass or biofuel is not guaranteed. Biomass and other biofuels, including fossil ones, are products of the activity of the sun. There are also other, non-fuel types of energy such as water and wind energy, as well as solar and geothermal energy. They are also considered renewable energy resources as is biomass. All these types of energy (except, may be, the

  19. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  20. 22 CFR 230.05 - Non-impairment of the Guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agreement or other document executed by a Noteholder, USAID, the Fiscal Agent or the Borrower in connection... guarantee provision shall not, however, be operative with respect to any loss arising out of fraud or...

  1. 7 CFR 1940.564 - Section 502 subsidized guaranteed Rural Housing loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... representing each criterion is multiplied by the weight factor and summed to arrive at a basic State factor (SF... 502 guaranteed RH loans is plus or minus 15. (e) Base allocation. See § 1940.552(e) of this subpart...

  2. Supply guarantee initiatives for nuclear fuel materials and services and their compatibility with the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Koji

    2009-01-01

    This paper first discusses where and why those ideas for nuclear fuel supply assurance and guarantee mechanisms came out, and attempts to draw a comparison among the proposed schemes and thereby examine possible steps forward. (author)

  3. A Best Practice for Developing Availability Guarantee Language in Photovoltaic (PV) O&M Agreements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Balfour, John [High Performance PV, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This document outlines the foundation for developing language that can be utilized in an Equipment Availability Guarantee, typically included in an O&M services agreement between a PV system or plant owner and an O&M services provider, or operator. Many of the current PV O&M service agreement Availability Guarantees are based on contracts used for traditional power generation, which create challenges for owners and operators due to the variable nature of grid-tied photovoltaic generating technologies. This report documents language used in early PV availability guarantees and presents best practices and equations that can be used to more openly communicate how the reliability of the PV system and plant equipment can be expressed in an availability guarantee. This work will improve the bankability of PV systems by providing greater transparency into the equipment reliability state to all parties involved in an O&M services contract.

  4. Bond quality control of aluminium stabilised superconductors with ultrasonic phased-array technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuenschwander, J.; Luethi, T.; Horvath, I.L.

    2001-01-01

    Novel aluminium stabilised superconductors are currently being produced for the Large Hadron Collider detectors ATLAS and CMS. For a satisfying service of the conductor an intact bonding between the different constituents must be guaranteed. We have shown previously that ultrasonics is a powerful tool for checking the bond quality. However, up to now the full width of the bond could be inspected only on short samples with a mechanical scanner. The essence of this presentation is the introduction of the phased-array technique which allows a continuous analysis of the complete bond over km-long conductor units during their manufacture. For now, more than 50 km of conductor have been tested during co-extrusion. Disbondings are detected as regions with enhanced echo-amplitudes. We are about to set-up a second system for the control of an electron beam welding process which is used for the reinforcement of the CMS conductor. (orig.)

  5. Safe and Liquid Mortgage Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Lund, Jesper

    eliminates credit risk from the investor's perspective. Similar to other safe bonds, funding liquidity becomes the main driver of mortgage bond liquidity and this creates commonality in liquidity across markets and countries. These findings have implications for how to design a robust mortgage bond system...

  6. Exploring the Impacts of Service Guarantee Strategy in the Casual Restaurant Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyuho

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impacts of service guarantees in terms of consumers' perceived risks, loyalty, and word-of-mouth intent in the casual dining restaurant segment. In addition, the study investigated what type of service guarantee consumers preferred. A total of seven research hypotheses were developed on the basis of relevant literature review. In an effort to test the research hypotheses, a scenario method was developed. A total of seven research scenarios were created based on the Vir...

  7. An Active Queue Management for QoS Guarantee of the High Priority Service Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jong; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Hwa-Suk; Cho, Kee Seong; Choi, Seong Gon

    In this paper, we propose the active queue management mechanism (Active-WRED) for guaranteeing the quality of the high priority service class (VoIP or IPTV) in the multi-class traffic service environment. In the congestion situation, this mechanism increases the drop probability of the low priority traffic and reduces the drop probability of the high priority traffic; therefore it can guarantee the quality of the high priority service class from the poor quality by the packet loss.

  8. The chemical bond in inorganic chemistry the bond valence model

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, I David

    2016-01-01

    The bond valence model is a version of the ionic model in which the chemical constraints are expressed in terms of localized chemical bonds formed by the valence charge of the atoms. Theorems derived from the properties of the electrostatic flux predict the rules obeyed by both ionic and covalent bonds. They make quantitative predictions of coordination number, crystal structure, bond lengths and bond angles. Bond stability depends on the matching of the bonding strengths of the atoms, while the conflicting requirements of chemistry and space lead to the structural instabilities responsible for the unusual physical properties displayed by some materials. The model has applications in many fields ranging from mineralogy to molecular biology.

  9. Economic Valuation of Sufficient and Guaranteed Irrigation Water Supply for Paddy Farms of Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kavoosi Kalashami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of the strategic crop of rice highly depends to the existence of sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water, and water shortage stresses have irreparable effects on yield and quality of productions. Decrease of the Sefidrud river inflow in Guilan province which is the main source of supplying irrigation water for 171 thousand hectares under rice cropping area of this province, has been challenged sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply in many regions of mentioned province. Hence, in present study estimating the value that paddy farmers place on sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply has been considered. Economic valuation of sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply improves water resource management policies in demand side. Requested data set were obtained on the base of a survey and are collected from 224 paddy farms in rural regions that faced with irrigation water shortages. Then, using open-ended valuation approach and estimation of Tobit model via ML and two stages Heckman approach, eliciting paddy farmers' willingness to pay for sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply has been accomplished. Results revealed that farmers in investigated regions willing to pay 26.49 percent more than present costs of providing irrigation water in order to have sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water.

  10. An assessment of bonding characteristics of a newly introduced bonding agent: "beauty ortho bond"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmashree Veeramachineni

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: Although Transbond XT had higher bond strength, the BOB and FOLC showed clinically acceptable bond strengths. However, clean-up after debonding would be easier with the two latter materials.

  11. Optimal Investment in Structured Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    The paper examines the role of structured bonds in the optimal portfolio of a small retail investor. We consider the typical structured bond essentially repacking an exotic option and a zero coupon bond, i.e. an investment with portfolio insurance. The optimal portfolio is found when the investment...... opportunities consist of a risky reference fund, a risk-free asset and a structured bond. Key model elements are the trading strategy and utility function of the investor. Our numerical results indicate structured bonds do have basis for consideration in the optimal portfolio. The product holdings...

  12. Additional disulfide bonds in insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N; Pettersson, Ingrid; Huus, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    The structure of insulin, a glucose homeostasis-controlling hormone, is highly conserved in all vertebrates and stabilized by three disulfide bonds. Recently, we designed a novel insulin analogue containing a fourth disulfide bond located between positions A10-B4. The N-terminus of insulin's B......-chain is flexible and can adapt multiple conformations. We examined how well disulfide bond predictions algorithms could identify disulfide bonds in this region of insulin. In order to identify stable insulin analogues with additional disulfide bonds, which could be expressed, the Cβ cut-off distance had...... in comparison to analogues with additional disulfide bonds that were more difficult to predict. In contrast, addition of the fourth disulfide bond rendered all analogues resistant to fibrillation under stress conditions and all stable analogues bound to the insulin receptor with picomolar affinities. Thus...

  13. PRICING AND ASSESSING UNIT-LINKED INSURANCE CONTRACTS WITH INVESTMENT GUARANTEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciumas Cristina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting life insurance products to have emerged in recent years in the Romanian insurance market has been the unit-linked contract. Unit-linked insurance products are life insurance policies with investment component. A unit-linked life insurance has two important components: protection and investment. The protection component refers to the insured sum in case of the occurrence of insured risks and the investment component refers to the policyholders’ account that represents the present value of the units from the chosen investment funds. Due to the financial instability caused by the Global Crisis and the amplification of market competitiveness, insurers from international markets have started to incorporate guarantees in unit-linked products. So a unit- linked life insurance policy with an asset value guarantee is an insurance policy whose benefit payable on death or at maturity consists of the greater of some guaranteed amount and the value of the units from the investment funds. One of the most challenging issues concerns the pricing of minimum death benefit and maturity benefit guarantees and the establishing of proper reserves for these guarantees. Insurers granting guarantees of this type must estimate the cost and include the cost in the premium. An important component of the activity carried out by the insurance companies is the investment of the premiums paid by policyholders in various types of assets, in order to obtain higher yields than those guaranteed by the insurance contracts, while providing the necessary liquidity for the payment of insurance claims in case of occurrence of the assumed risks. So the guaranteed benefits can be broadly matched or immunized with various types of financial assets, especially with fixed-interest instruments. According to Romanian legislation which regulates the unit-linked life insurance market, unit-linked life insurance contracts pass most of the investment risk to the

  14. 26 CFR 1.144-1 - Qualified small issue bonds, qualified student loan bonds, and qualified redevelopment bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... student loan bonds, and qualified redevelopment bonds. (a) Overview. Interest on a private activity bond... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified small issue bonds, qualified student loan bonds, and qualified redevelopment bonds. 1.144-1 Section 1.144-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...

  15. Solder extrusion pressure bonding process and bonded products produced thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavis, Leonard C.; Karnowsky, Maurice M.; Yost, Frederick G.

    1992-01-01

    Production of soldered joints which are highly reliable and capable of surviving 10,000 thermal cycles between about -40.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. Process involves interposing a thin layer of a metal solder composition between the metal surfaces of members to be bonded and applying heat and up to about 1000 psi compression pressure to the superposed members, in the presence of a reducing atmosphere, to extrude the major amount of the solder composition, contaminants including fluxing gases and air, from between the members being bonded, to form a very thin, strong intermetallic bonding layer having a thermal expansion tolerant with that of the bonded members.

  16. Community oral health literacy: improving use of oral-health care guarantee in children aged 6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cornejo-Ovalle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of comprehensive oral health care for children aged 6 (GES-6years showed low utilization of this guarantee, with lower use for children from municipal public schools. The empowerment and health literacy of parents improve their role as oral-health promoters for their children. Objective: To implement and to assess a strategy of empowerment and health literacy of the community about their guaranteed health rights to increase the use of GES-6years. Methods: A mixed design. Using qualitative methodology we will design a communication tool, culturally and socially appropriate to be sent to the beneficiary community of this guarantee. Using a nonrandomized community trial, this instrument designed to empower and improve oral health literacy on GES-6 guarantee, will be sent as personalized letter (intervention signed by the mayor of the municipality with a message aimed to children beneficiaries for GES -6years and another addressed to their parents/guardians. Schools would be selected from clusters (communes of the two regions selected for convenience. Communes will be randomly selected amog those whose authorities agree to participate, and will be selected as for intervention or control. Data analysis will assess the differences in the prevalence of use of this guarantee among children from municipal schools belonging to the intervention or control arm.

  17. On QoS guarantee in MPLS network with software deadline awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Jin, Yaohui; Cheng, Hong; Yu, Yingdi; Sun, Weiqiang; Guo, Wei; Hu, Weisheng

    2007-11-01

    With the increasing number of internet users, more and more real-time services are added into the network, such as IPTV, online-video, Voice over IP, etc. As we know, throughput is a highly important performance criterion for scheduling algorithms of networks. Besides throughput, these growing real-time services are very sensitive to delay variance termed as jitter. Therefore, high performance scheduling algorithm should achieve good performance in terms of throughput, delay, jitter and fairness together. Scheduling algorithm with deadline-awareness employed in packet switching plays a key role in QoS guarantees. Although traditional hard-deadline can provide guarantee on in-node delay-deadline criteria, the end-to-end delay-deadline criteria cannot be guaranteed due to the characteristic of hard-deadline, while the delay-deadline guaranteed throughput is low. Thus, soft-deadline scheduling algorithm has been proposed. In this paper, we investigate and compare the classical hard-deadline and soft-deadline switching algorithm. A new scheme "Bonus System" is proposed in order to realize the idea of soft-deadline switching algorithm. Bonus System based on soft-deadline is compared with classical Early-Deadline First scheme based on hard-deadline, which shows that Bonus System has better performance in End-to-End deadline guarantee.

  18. Modelling the guaranteed QoS for wireless sensor networks: a network calculus approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wireless sensor networks (WSNs became one of the high technology domains during the last 10 years. Real-time applications for them make it necessary to provide the guaranteed quality of service (QoS. The main contributions of this article are a system skeleton and a guaranteed QoS model that are suitable for the WSNs. To do it, we develop a sensor node model based on virtual buffer sharing and present a two-layer scheduling model using the network calculus. With the system skeleton, we develop a guaranteed QoS model, such as the upper bounds on buffer queue length/delay/effective bandwidth, and single-hop/multi-hops delay/jitter/effective bandwidth. Numerical results show the system skeleton and the guaranteed QoS model are scalable for different types of flows, including the self-similar traffic flows, and the parameters of flow regulators and service curves of sensor nodes affect them. Our proposal leads to buffer dimensioning, guaranteed QoS support and control in the WSNs.

  19. Execution of Fiduciary Guarantee Under Law No. 42 of 1999 on Fiduciary Guarantee (A Socio-Juridical Analysis to Anticipate Its Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Sukanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiduciary Guarantee (Fiduciary Law which approved by the House of Representatives of the Republic of Indonesia (DPR RI on September 9, 1999 has accommodate the public needs to help business activities and to provide legal certainty to the interested parties. With the increase in the development activities and the needs for funding, a majority of funds are needed to meet the lending and borrowing activities that require protection for the lender and the borrower through a guarantee institution that can provide legal certainty and protection to the lender or the borrower. Viewed from the current lending practices, there is a difficulty on the part of the Fiduciary Guarantee to conduct the fiduciary execution if the Fiduciary Grantor defaults since in fact the goods being a fiduciary object are still in the possession of the Fiduciary Grantor or Debtor, then in line with the provisions of article 1977 of the Indonesian Civil Code, known as the principle of bezit geldt als volkomen titel.

  20. Better Bonded Ethernet Load Balancing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabler, Jason

    2006-09-29

    When a High Performance Storage System's mover shuttles large amounts of data to storage over a single Ethernet device that single channel can rapidly become saturated. Using Linux Ethernet channel bonding to address this and similar situations was not, until now, a viable solution. The various modes in which channel bonding could be configured always offered some benefit but only under strict conditions or at a system resource cost that was greater than the benefit gained by using channel bonding. Newer bonding modes designed by various networking hardware companies, helpful in such networking scenarios, were already present in their own switches. However, Linux-based systems were unable to take advantage of those new modes as they had not yet been implemented in the Linux kernel bonding driver. So, except for basic fault tolerance, Linux channel bonding could not positively combine separate Ethernet devices to provide the necessary bandwidth.

  1. What is a hydrogen bond?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is a hydrogen bond? Precise definition of a hydrogen bond is still elusive!1. Several criteria are listed usually for X-H•••Y, X and Y initially thought to be F, O and N only1. Structural: The X-Y bond length is less than the sum of their van der Waals radii. X-H•••Y is ...

  2. Composite interlayer for diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A ductile interlayer is described, which is useful for transient liquid phase diffusion bonding of metallic articles; the interlayer consisting of a melting point depressant and a plurality of ductile lamellae which are free from carbides, aluminides and borides. The composition and fabrication of the lamellae, and the process for bonding the metallic articles, depend on the composition of the metals to be bonded, and are exemplified in the specification. (U.K.)

  3. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  4. Wafer bonding applications and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Gösele, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade direct wafer bonding has developed into a mature materials integration technology. This book presents state-of-the-art reviews of the most important applications of wafer bonding written by experts from industry and academia. The topics include bonding-based fabrication methods of silicon-on-insulator, photonic crystals, VCSELs, SiGe-based FETs, MEMS together with hybrid integration and laser lift-off. The non-specialist will learn about the basics of wafer bonding and its various application areas, while the researcher in the field will find up-to-date information about this fast-moving area, including relevant patent information.

  5. The structure and economic significance of government guarantees in Croatia and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Primorac

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the financial crisis, when countries are facing difficulties in raising the amounts of revenue needed to cover the expenditure side of the budget, fiscal risks can pose a significant threat to the sustainability of public finance. This became particularly evident in the case of public enterprises and their liabilities, which often increased public debt because of difficulties in meeting their financial obligations. The aim of this paper is to evaluate fiscal risks from government guarantees in Croatia and the European Union in general. Moreover, the paper aims to analyse the dynamics of the value and structure of government guarantees in Croatia in the period from 2009 to first half of 2015. Particular emphasis is placed on the impact of government guarantees on direct public debt in the context of methodological changes in the registration of public debt.

  6. Cooperative Cloud Service Aware Mobile Internet Coverage Connectivity Guarantee Protocol Based on Sensor Opportunistic Coverage Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the Internet coverage ratio and provide connectivity guarantee, based on sensor opportunistic coverage mechanism and cooperative cloud service, we proposed the coverage connectivity guarantee protocol for mobile Internet. In this scheme, based on the opportunistic covering rules, the network coverage algorithm of high reliability and real-time security was achieved by using the opportunity of sensor nodes and the Internet mobile node. Then, the cloud service business support platform is created based on the Internet application service management capabilities and wireless sensor network communication service capabilities, which is the architecture of the cloud support layer. The cooperative cloud service aware model was proposed. Finally, we proposed the mobile Internet coverage connectivity guarantee protocol. The results of experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance, in terms of the security of the Internet and the stability, as well as coverage connectivity ability.

  7. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Wezemael, Lyn; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2010-01-01

    Consumer demand in relation to food is increasingly shifting towards products that are safe, nutritious, and of good eating quality. Beef consumers are demanding for experience quality that matches their quality expectations formed prior to consumption, particularly with respect to beef tenderness....... The development of a beef quality grading and guarantee system, backed up by objective knowledge that is obtained through muscle profiling research, can allow the beef industry to meet these consumer demands. A qualitative consumer study has been carried out with beef consumers in France, Spain, United Kingdom...... and Germany to assess their opinions about beef muscle profiling and their interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee. Findings indicate that both concepts are well accepted by European beef consumers, although not unconditional. Besides acknowledging the opportunity to purchase beef with guaranteed...

  8. Asset securitization and rate of return: A study on letters of guarantee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binghui

    2018-01-01

    Using the theory of asset securitization, we analyze the feasibility of the securitization of letters of guarantee in theory. In the process of constructing the model of rate of return of securities backed by letters of guarantee, we propose two indices: the risk probability of asset-backed securities and the loss rate of asset-backed securities to analyze the cash flow of securities. On the basis of no arbitrage principle, the expression of rate of return of securities backed by letters of guarantee is put forward. In order to study the relationship between the rate of return of securities and other influential factor in the model, a simulation experiment is designed. The experiment results show that (i) an increasing risk probability of cash flow or a short maturity date also make the return rate of securities increase and (ii) the return rate of securities is higher in economic boom than that in economic recession when other parameters remain unchanged.

  9. Human Bond Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    Modern dexterous communication technology is progressively enabling humans to communicate their information through them with speech (aural) and media (optical) as underpinning essence. Humans realize this kind of aural and optical information by their optical and auditory senses. However, due...... to certain constraints, the ability to incorporate the other three sensory features namely, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile are still far from reality. Human bond communication is a novel concept that incorporates olfactory, gustatory, and tactile that will allow more expressive and holistic sensory...... information exchange through communication techniques for more human sentiment centric communication. This concept endorses the need of inclusion of other three senses and proposes an innovative approach of holistic communication for future communication network....

  10. Comparison of the guaranteed analysis with the measured nutrient composition of commercial pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Richard C; Choate, Christina J; Scott, Karen C; Molenberghs, Geert

    2009-02-01

    To compare guaranteed and measured concentrations of nutrients in commercial pet foods. Cross-sectional study. Annual inspection reports of pet food analyses from 5 states. Guaranteed and measured concentrations of crude protein (CP), crude fat (CF), crude fiber (CFb), moisture, and ash in pet foods were compared. The concentration difference for each nutrient was compared among types of food, target species, target life stages, manufacturers, and laboratories. The guaranteed and measured concentrations of nutrients were significantly different. For all foods, mean concentration differences were as follows: CP, 1.5%; CF, 1.0%; CFb, -0.7%; moisture, -4.0%; and ash, -0.5%. Crude protein difference for treats was significantly larger than differences for dry and canned foods. Crude fat difference for dry foods was significantly less than differences for canned foods and treats. Crude fiber and moisture differences for canned foods were significantly less than the corresponding differences for dry foods and treats. Only CFb differences differed among target species, life stages, manufacturers, or laboratories. Addition of 1.5% and 1% to the guaranteed minimums for CP and CF, respectively; subtraction of 0.7%, 4%, and 0.5% from the guaranteed maximums for CFb, moisture, and ash, respectively; and addition of 0.23 kcal/g to the as-fed metabolizable energy value calculated by use of modified Atwater factors from guaranteed analyses provides a more accurate estimate of the nutrient and metabolizable energy content of commercial pet foods. Nevertheless, the actual composition of a food should be determined whenever possible.

  11. 30 CFR 281.33 - Bonds and bonding requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bonds and bonding requirements. 281.33 Section 281.33 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Financial Considerations § 281.33...

  12. Is 'green finance' actually green? 'Make The Planet Great Again' or 'Green-washing', we must choose. Report on green bonds and climate bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes, Maxime; Plihon, Dominique; Zippert, Jean-Sebastien; Chaussalet, Alexis; Planche, Jeanne; Poulain, Melanie

    2017-12-01

    As Paris dreams of becoming the capital of green finance, the author proposes a discussion of the emerging market of green bonds, and formulates a set of recommendations for this new financial instrument not to be polluted by green-washing operations. He first describes what a green bond is, and then comments what the green bond market represents, discusses development perspectives for this market, comments the Paris dream of becoming the world capital of a green and sustainable finance. He explains why this green bond market appears to be so interesting, and what guarantees that a green bond will finance green projects. He discusses the role of rating agencies, whether the emitter of a green bond must be green, and the impact of green bonds on climate, on the environment and on populations. He discusses the possible evolution towards a constraining regulation, and examines whether this system can be an operational financing source for energy transition. Recommendations concern the market regulation by public authorities, the creation of a new rating agency for green finance, how to make the world bond market climate-compatible, and the creation of other financing channels for actors who have no access to the bond market

  13. Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 4) - Guarantees for representatives of the personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Department Head Office - HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 4) entitled "Guarantees for representatives of the personnel", approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 22 March 2016, will be available on 1st September 2016 via the following link: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2208527.   This revised circular cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 3) also entitled "Guarantees for representatives of the personnel" of January 2014. This document contains a single change to reflect the terminology under the new career structure: the term "career path" is replaced by "grade". This circular will enter into force on 1st September 2016.

  14. Breaking Rules – Making Bonds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    RESONANCE | January 2016. GENERAL | ARTICLE. Breaking Rules – Making Bonds. A G Samuelson. Boron-containing molecules discovered recently have new types of dative bonds between carbenes and borylenes. At the same time, they show that traditional thumb rules regarding acids and bases are no longer valid.

  15. Why are Hydrogen Bonds Directional?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore,. Karnataka 560 012, India e-mail: ... Lewis succeeded in explaining the 'chemical bonds' that held the neutral molecules together. The covalent bonding has dominated chemistry so much over the last century and most chemists appear ...

  16. O hydrogen bonds in alkaloids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An overview of general classification scheme, medicinal importance and crystal structure analysis with emphasis on the role of hydrogen bonding in some alkaloids is presented in this paper. The article is based on a general kind of survey while crystallographic analysis and role of hydrogen bonding are limited to only ...

  17. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond. In a D-H ...A contact, the D...A distance must be less than the sum of van der Waals Radii of the D and A atoms, for it to be a hydrogen bond.

  18. Why are Hydrogen Bonds Directional?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for an interaction to be characterized as a hydro- gen bond but does not provide any rationale for the same. This article reports a rationale for limiting the angle, based on the electron density topology using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules. Electron density topol- ogy for common hydrogen bond donors HF, HCl, ...

  19. Effect of hardening methods of moulding sands with water glass on structure of bonding bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stachowicz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on influence of hardening methods on structure of bonding bridges in moulding sands with sodium water glass is presented.Moulding sands with addition of 2.5 % of binder with molar module 2.0 were hardened with CO2 and dried in traditional way or hardenedwith microwaves. It was proved that the hardening method affects structure of bonding bridges, correlating with properties of the hardened moulding sands. It was found that strength of the moulding sands hardened with microwaves for 4 min is very close to that measured after traditional drying at 110 °C for 120 min. So, application of microwave hardening ensures significant shortening of the process time to the value comparable with CO2 hardening but guaranteeing over 10-fold increase of mechanical properties. Analysis of SEM images of hardened moulding sands permitted explaining differences in quality parameters of moulding sands by connecting them with structure of the created bonding bridges.

  20. SOCIAL BONDING: REGULATION BY NEUROPEPTIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eLieberwirth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Affiliative social relationships (e.g., among spouses, family members, and friends play an essential role in human society. These relationships affect psychological, physiological, and behavioral functions. As positive and enduring bonds are critical for the overall well-being of humans, it is not surprising that considerable effort has been made to study the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie social bonding behaviors. The present review details the involvement of the nonapeptides, oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP, in the regulation of social bonding in mammals including humans. In particular, we will discuss the role of OT and AVP in the formation of social bonds between partners of a mating pair as well as between parents and their offspring. Furthermore, the role of OT and AVP in the formation of interpersonal bonding involving trust is also discussed.

  1. Study on Risk Analysis and the Way of Framing the Activity of Credit Guarantee for SMEs in Prudential Requirements/ Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Nancu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with risk analysis and with the way of framing the activity of credit guaranteefor SMEs in terms of prudential requirements/ indicators. Il also tackles the ways of framing theactivity of guaranteeing, financing and treasury, under prudential requirements/ indicators, withinthe limits laid down for Non-Banking Financial Institutions, for Guaranteeing the Credits grantedto SMEs, by the National Credit Guarantee Fund for SMEs, under the Risk Policy and internalregulations (rules, procedures, operation instructions.

  2. Guaranteed capacity of hydro power plants in Germany and Austria; Gesicherte Leistung der Wasserkraft in Deutschland und Oesterreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, Markus [VERBUND Hydro Power GmbH, Wien (Austria); Ernst, Hans-Peter; Engels, Klaus [E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH, Sparte Wasserkraft, Landshut (Germany); Metzka, Rudolf [Technische Hochschule Deggendorf (Germany)

    2015-11-01

    Balancing fluctuations caused by renewable energy play an important role in the current transition of energy supply systems. Hydro power plants provide both: guaranteed capacity as well as renewability. In Germany and Austria definitions of how to quantify the guaranteed capacity of hydro power plants are well established to calculate the guaranteed capacity for an individual power plant. The definitions are challenged against real examples.

  3. Economic valuation of a toll road concession with traffic guarantees and the abandonment option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Fischberg Blank

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Governments worldwide have been encouraging private participation in transportation infrastructure. To increase the feasibility of a project, public-private partnership (PPP may include guarantees or other support to reduce the risks for private investors. It is necessary to value these opportunities under a real options framework and thereby analyze the project's economic feasibility and risk allocation. However, within this structure, sponsors have an implicit option to abandon the project that should be simultaneously valued. Thus, this article proposes a hypothetical toll road concession in Brazil with a minimum traffic guarantee, a maximum traffic ceiling, and an implicit abandonment option. Different combinations of the minimum and maximum levels are presented, resulting in very high or even negative value added to the net present value (NPV. The abandonment option impacts the level of guarantee to be given. Governments should calibrate an optimal level of guarantees to avoid unnecessarily high costs, protect the returns of the sponsor, and lower the probability of abandonment.

  4. PESTEL Model Analysis and Legal Guarantee of Tourism Environmental Protection in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong, Xian

    2017-08-01

    On the basis of summarizing the general situation of tourism environmental protection in China, this paper analyses the macro factors of tourism environmental protection by using PESTEL model. On this basis, this paper explores the improvement paths of tourism environmental protection based on PESTEL model. Finally, it puts forward the legal guarantee suggestion of tourism environment protection.

  5. 34 CFR 682.713 - Disqualification review of limitation, suspension, and termination actions taken by guarantee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... school's response. (3) The transcript of the agency's hearing. (4) The decision of the agency's hearing... termination actions taken by guarantee agencies against a school. 682.713 Section 682.713 Education... of Lender or Third-party Servicer Eligibility and Disqualification of Lenders and Schools § 682.713...

  6. 13 CFR 120.210 - What percentage of a loan may SBA guarantee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What percentage of a loan may SBA guarantee? 120.210 Section 120.210 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS... percent, except as otherwise authorized by law. [61 FR 3235, Jan. 31, 1996, as amended at 68 FR 51680, Aug...

  7. Infrastructure Development and the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme: Evidence from Bankura, West Bengal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Roy (Jitendra); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction. The immediate goal of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) is to ensure a social safety net for vulnerable groups by providing a fall-back source of employment when other alternatives are scarce. However, its long-term goals are to create durable rural

  8. 10 CFR 205.287 - Escrow accounts, segregated funds and other guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Escrow accounts, segregated funds and other guarantees... Special Procedures for Distribution of Refunds § 205.287 Escrow accounts, segregated funds and other... the funds in an appropriate interest-bearing escrow account, retention of the funds by the firm in a...

  9. Pricing Rate of Return Guarantees in Regular Premium Unit Linked Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrager, D.F.; Pelsser, A.

    2004-01-01

    We derive general pricing formulas for Rate of Return Guarantees in Regular Premium Unit Linked Insurance under stochastic interest rates. Our main contribution focusses on the effect of stochastic interest rates. First, we show the effect of stochastic interest rates can be interpreted as, what is

  10. Enabling customer satisfaction and stock reduction through service differentiation with response time guarantees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Gabor (Adriana); L.A. van Vianen (Lars); G. Yang (Guangyuan); S. Axsäter (Sven)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn response to customer specific service time guarantee requirements, service providers can offer differentiated services. However, conventional customer differentiation models based on fill rate constraints do not take full advantage of the stock reduction that can be achieved by

  11. Deterministic Price Setting Rules to Guarantee Profitability of Unbundling in the Airline Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Diepen, G.; Curran, R.

    2011-01-01

    Unbundling the traditional airfare is one of the airline industry’s practices to generate ancillary revenue in its struggle for profitability. However, unbundling might just as well negatively affect profit. In this paper deterministic price setting rules are established to guarantee profitability

  12. 22 CFR 213.3 - Loans, guarantees, sovereign and interagency claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loans, guarantees, sovereign and interagency claims. 213.3 Section 213.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION... thereof, or any public international organization; (d) Claims where the CFO determines that the...

  13. Balancing Tuition Predictability and Affordability: The Pitfalls of Guaranteed Tuition Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jennifer A.; Kearney, Tyler D.; Hemenway, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    As tuition levels rise, predictability is an increasingly important consideration of college financing. In this article, the authors explore contemporary policy tools intended to enhance tuition predictability. They specifically consider guaranteed tuition plans. The authors begin their discussion by considering the prevalence of guaranteed…

  14. A Unified Pricing of Variable Annuity Guarantees under the Optimal Stochastic Control Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel V. Shevchenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review pricing of the variable annuity living and death guarantees offered to retail investors in many countries. Investors purchase these products to take advantage of market growth and protect savings. We present pricing of these products via an optimal stochastic control framework and review the existing numerical methods. We also discuss pricing under the complete/incomplete financial market models, stochastic mortality and optimal/sub-optimal policyholder behavior, and in the presence of taxes. For numerical valuation of these contracts in the case of simple risky asset process, we develop a direct integration method based on the Gauss-Hermite quadratures with a one-dimensional cubic spline for calculation of the expected contract value, and a bi-cubic spline interpolation for applying the jump conditions across the contract cashflow event times. This method is easier to implement and faster when compared to the partial differential equation methods if the transition density (or its moments of the risky asset underlying the contract is known in closed form between the event times. We present accurate numerical results for pricing of a Guaranteed Minimum Accumulation Benefit (GMAB guarantee available on the market that can serve as a numerical benchmark for practitioners and researchers developing pricing of variable annuity guarantees to assess the accuracy of their numerical implementation.

  15. Massive M2M Access with Reliability Guarantees in LTE Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2015-01-01

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications are one of the major drivers of the cellular network evolution towards 5G systems. One of the key challenges is on how to provide reliability guarantees to each accessing device in a situation in which there is a massive number of almost-simultaneous arriva...

  16. Fair Valuation of Guaranteed Contracts : The Interaction Between Assets and Liabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, E.; Kleynen, R.H.M.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study the investment behavior of an insurance company consisting of policy and equity holders and issuing fair valued guaranteed contracts.Building up on the work of Briys and De Varenne (1997) and De Munnik and Schotman (1994) an intertemporal stochastic asset model and an interest

  17. 77 FR 21793 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Loan Guarantee for Indian Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Number: 2577-0200. Description of the need for the information and proposed use: The information is... service areas. Mortgage lenders approved by HUD provide borrower and lender information to HUD for... Information Collection for Public Comment; Loan Guarantee for Indian Housing AGENCY: Office of the Assistant...

  18. 7 CFR 1779.63 - Conditions precedent to issuance of the Loan Note Guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions precedent to issuance of the Loan Note Guarantee. 1779.63 Section 1779.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS...

  19. 7 CFR 1779.65 - Lender's sale or assignment of the guaranteed portion of loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lender's sale or assignment of the guaranteed portion of loan. 1779.65 Section 1779.65 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS...

  20. Guarantee of supply in the Spanish electricity industry has improved substantially

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayo, I. F.

    2009-01-01

    The president of the National Energy Commission talks about the Spanish electricity and gas management system, its weaknesses and the need to progress towards a European single energy market model allowing supplies to be guaranteed in all the countries of the European Union. (Author)

  1. 78 FR 22043 - Rural Energy for America Program-Grants and Guaranteed Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... Bill expands the program to include two new renewable energy technologies: hydroelectric and ocean...'' and by removing ``high pressure steam for'' because it is not needed. Hydroelectric energy. The term... Service Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 4280 Rural Energy for America Program--Grants and Guaranteed...

  2. 24 CFR 573.5 - Underwriting standards and availability of loan guarantee assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acceptable financial risk under HUD's generally applicable loan underwriting standards based on the following: (1) The Borrower's ability to pay debt service; and (2) The value of the collateral assigned or... insufficient to make the guarantee an acceptable financial risk, or if the proposed interest rates or fees are...

  3. Preferential Resource Spending under an Employment Guarantee : The Political Economy of MGNREGS in Andhra Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sheahan, Megan; Liu, Yanyan; Barrett, Christopher B.; Narayanan, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Are ostensibly demand-driven public works programs with high levels of safeguards nonetheless susceptible to political influence? This conjecture is investigated using expenditure data at the local level from India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. Focusing on one state where accountability and transparency mechanisms have been employed and implementation efforts have been wide...

  4. The Model of Distributor Chain Financing Based on Buy Back Guarantee Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-xin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the strategy employed by a buy back guarantee contract with a capital-constrained distributor and a core enterprise. The distributor faces a nonnegative random demand, and the core enterprise applies buy back guarantee contract in order to interact with the capital-constrained distributor. Mathematical model is built to get the optimal ordering quantity of the distributor and the optimal wholesale price of the core enterprise. Then sensitivity analysis of optimal ordering quantity is obtained about the wholesale price, the initial funds, and the salvage of the product. On that basis, the comparison is made between two financing modes—trade credit contract and buy back guarantee contract. In the end, a numerical analysis is illustrated. The results show that the different financing modes bring the different expected profits to supply chain system with the different initial funds, finding that the financing modes, buy back guarantee contract discussed in the paper, can create more value for supply chain system than trade credit contract.

  5. Valuation of guaranteed annuity options using a stochastic volatility model for equity prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haastrecht, A.; Plat, R.; Pelsser, A.

    2009-01-01

    Guaranteed Annuity Options are options providing the right to convert a policyholder’s accumulated funds to a life annuity at a fixed rate when the policy matures. These options were a common feature in UK retirement savings contracts issued in the 1970’s and 1980’s when interest rates were high,

  6. 20 CFR 404.232 - Computing your average monthly wage under the guaranteed alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage under the... OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984 § 404.232 Computing your average monthly...

  7. 7 CFR 762.129 - Percent of guarantee and maximum loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... loss. (a) General. The percent of guarantee will not exceed 90 percent based on the credit risk to the lender and the Agency both before and after the transaction. The Agency will determine the percentage of... PLP lenders will not be less than 80 percent. (d) Maximum loss. The maximum amount the Agency will pay...

  8. Dentin-bonding agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available New dental restorative materials have been developed to meet not only the functional demands, but esthetics as well, and in the last few years an enormous range of new materials has appeared for use in dentistry. Among them, several adhesive systems, and different operative techniques for each group materials. Therefore, is indispensable for the professional to know about the properties, characteristics, and association of these materials with the dental structures, in order to select and use them correctly. Should conventional self-etching adhesive systems be used? This question encouraged this literature review to be conducted, with the aim of comparing the conventional adhesive systems with the self-etching systems and to look for scientific data that would help professionals to choose which adhesive system to use. When compared to conventional systems, it was noted that the self-etching systems show less sensitivity to technique, especially as regards errors the operator could commit. The self-etching systems, particularly the 2-step type, have shown equivalent values of bond strength, marginal microleakage and performance, therefore, will be an option for direct composite resin restorations in posterior teeth.

  9. Monitoring and Evaluation of Cultivated Land Irrigation Guarantee Capability with Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C., Sr.; Huang, J.; Li, L.; Wang, H.; Zhu, D.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Cultivated Land Quality Grade monitoring and evaluation is an important way to improve the land production capability and ensure the country food safety. Irrigation guarantee capability is one of important aspects in the cultivated land quality monitoring and evaluation. In the current cultivated land quality monitoring processing based on field survey, the irrigation rate need much human resources investment in long investigation process. This study choses Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei as study region, taking the 1 km × 1 km grid size of cultivated land unit with a winter wheat-summer maize double cropping system as study object. A new irrigation capacity evaluation index based on the ratio of the annual irrigation requirement retrieved from MODIS data and the actual quantity of irrigation was proposed. With the years of monitoring results the irrigation guarantee capability of study area was evaluated comprehensively. The change trend of the irrigation guarantee capability index (IGCI) with the agricultural drought disaster area in rural statistical yearbook of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area was generally consistent. The average of IGCI value, the probability of irrigation-guaranteed year and the weighted average which controlled by the irrigation demand index were used and compared in this paper. The experiment results indicate that the classification result from the present method was close to that from irrigation probability in the gradation on agriculture land quality in 2012, with overlap of 73% similar units. The method of monitoring and evaluation of cultivated land IGCI proposed in this paper has a potential in cultivated land quality level monitoring and evaluation in China. Key words: remote sensing, evapotranspiration, MODIS cultivated land quality, irrigation guarantee capability Authors: Chao Zhang, Jianxi Huang, Li Li, Hongshuo Wang, Dehai Zhu China Agricultural University zhangchaobj@gmail.com

  10. Parenting stress and parental bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Diendorfer-Radner, Gabriela; Willnauer, Ruth; Jörgl, Gudrun; Hager, Veronika

    2005-01-01

    Attachment experiences are thought to be important because of their implications for later development. The authors' aim with the questionnaire-based study was to investigate the differences between recalled parental bonding regarding 4 types of maternal and paternal bonding with respect to experienced parenting stress caused by child characteristics, parent attributes, and life events under the consideration of the child's gender and age. The authors gathered parental bonding behavior data with the German version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). The authors assessed parenting stress with their German version of the "Parenting Stress Index (PSI)." They found significant differences among 120 mothers grouped in the 4 maternal and the 4 paternal bonding types regarding parenting stress caused by child, maternal bonding: F(5, 113) = 4.13, p = .002, paternal bonding: F(5, 111) = 8.50, p mothers who themselves recalled the "optimal parental bonding type" with respect to the child and parental domain. The authors did not find any significant differences between the 4 maternal, F(5, 113) = 1.25, p = .29, and the 4 paternal, F(5, 111) = 1.87, p = .106, bonding types with respect to the life stress. According to the authors' findings, the representation of attachment relationships seems to have a special impact on the adult's capacity to cope with challenges and stress, either directly or indirectly as an internal working model of attachment. For the clinical practice, these findings seem to recommend the combination of both the PSI and PBI regarding the diagnostic of stressful mother-child system to plan an optimal intervention program.

  11. Some considerations about bond indices in non-orthogonal bases and the MO calculation of valence and oxidation number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giambiagi, M.S. de; Giambiagi, M.; Jorge, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    In order to guarantee the desired invariance properties of bond indices, the importance of expliciting the tensor character of the matrices concerned, so as to deal with a contraction in the tensor sense between a covariant index and a contravariant one is shown. An MO valence definition using Wiberg's indices is generalized to non-orthogonal bases and a straightforward definition of oxidation numbers is proposed. IEH calculations of their magnitudes for some appropriate examples are performed: they emphasize the role of 'secondary' bonds in N and C-containing compounds; the hydrogen behaviour in half-bonds and strong H-bonds is satisfactorily accounted for; valence and oxidation number values are assigned to Fe, Co and Ni in a few complexes. (Author) [pt

  12. Direct Bonded Pontic (Laporan Kasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhandi Sidjaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced science and technology in dentistry enable dental practitioners to modified she bonding techniques in tooth replacement. A pontic made of composite resin bonded to etched enamel of the adjacent teeth can be used in the replacement of one missing anterior tooth with a virgin or sowed adpicent tooth. The advantages of this technique include a one visit treatment, cow cost, good esthetics, less side effects and easy repair or rebounding. Clinical evaluation showed a high success rate therefore with a proper diagnosis and a perfect skill of the direct bonded technique this treatment can be used as an alternative restoration.

  13. The chemisorptive bond basic concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Alfred

    1974-01-01

    The Chemisorptive Bond: Basic Concepts describes the basic concepts of the chemisorptive bond on solid surfaces from the simple analogies with ordinary chemical bonds to the quantum-mechanical approaches.This book is composed of 10 chapters and begins with discussions of simple formulas for correlating measurable quantities in chemisorptions and catalysis. The succeeding chapters deal with theories based on quantum-mechanical principles that describe the mutual interactions of atoms of the solid and foreign atoms on the surface. The remaining chapters consider the possible arrangements

  14. Integration of European Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I investigate the time variation in the integration of EU government bond markets. The integration is measured by the explanatory power of European factor portfolios for the individual bond markets for each year. The integration of the government bond markets is stronger for EMU than non-EMU memb......-EMU members and stronger for old than new EU members. For EMU countries, the integration is weaker the lower the credit rating is. During the recent crisis periods, the integration is weaker, particularly for EMU countries....

  15. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jakob M.

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... of the cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  16. How a Guaranteed Annual Income Could Put Food Banks Out of Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Herbert Emery

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The federal Conservative government recently began phasing in a plan to raise the age of eligibility for Old Age Security from 65 to 67. But a more sensible move for improving the effectiveness of Canada’s social safety-net system may be to actually lower the age below 65 and rely strictly on an income test instead, regardless of age. The government could go a lot further toward the reduction of poverty in Canada by building on the success of its income supports for seniors, and making them available to poor Canadians of all ages. Canada can boast of having one of the lowest rates for poverty among seniors in the world, largely due to its guaranteed income programs for those 65 years and older. When low-income Canadians turn 65 years old and leave behind low-paying, often unstable jobs, their poverty levels drop substantially. What a guaranteed income provides, that their vulnerable job situation did not, is a form of protection against budget shocks — a sudden volatility in income or expenses without the access to savings or credit to smooth things out until stability returns. A guaranteed income provides a kind of “disaster insurance” that can protect someone in a crisis situation from going without necessities such as food or even shelter. Statistics show that the rate of Canadians experiencing “food insecurity” — that is, lack of access to food because of financial constraints — is half that among Canadians aged 65 to 69 years than it is among those aged 60 to 64. Self-reported rates of physical and mental health improve markedly as well after lowincome Canadians move from low-wage, insecure employment to a guaranteed income at the age of 65. That dramatic shift in physical and mental health indicates that expanding guaranteed income programs to younger Canadians is more than a simple cost calculation: there are potential savings to be found as poorer Canadians, given a guaranteed income, become healthier and therefore reduce

  17. Definition of a multicentral bond index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giambiagi, M.; Giambiagi, M.S. de; Mundim, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    The tensor character of the first-order density matrix leads to the definition of an MO multicentral bond index for closed-shell systems. It is here applied to three-center bonds. Satisfactory results are obtained for compounds involving 'secondary' bonds, strong and normal hydrogen bonds; the index for the peptide bond is found to be similar to that of strong hydrogen bonds. (author) [pt

  18. RAFT Polymerization of Styrene and Maleimide in the Presence of Fluoroalcohol: Hydrogen Bonding Effects with Classical Alternating Copolymerization as Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjun Yao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of hydrogen bonding on polymerization behavior has been of interest for a long time; however, universality and in-depth understanding are still lacking. For the first time, the effect of hydrogen bonding on the classical alternating-type copolymerization of styrene and maleimide was explored. N-phenylmaleimide (N-PMI/styrene was chosen as a model monomer pair in the presence of hydrogen bonding donor solvent 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP, which interacted with N-PMI via hydrogen bonding. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT technique was used to guarantee the “living” polymerization and thus the homogeneity of chain compositions. In comparison with the polymerization in nonhydrogen bonding donor solvent (toluene, the copolymerization in HFIP exhibited a high rate and a slight deviation from alternating copolymerization tendency. The reactivity ratios of N-PMI and St were revealed to be 0.078 and 0.068, respectively, while the reactivity ratios in toluene were 0.026 and 0.050. These interesting results were reasonably explained by using computer simulations, wherein the steric repulsion and electron induction by the hydrogen bonding between HFIP and NPMI were revealed. This work first elucidated the hydrogen bonding interaction in the classical alternating-type copolymerization, which will enrich the research on hydrogen bonding-induced polymerizations.

  19. Adhesives for orthodontic bracket bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah Daniella Diniz Fonseca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The advent of acid etching, introduced by Buonocore in 1955, brought the possibility of bonding between the bracket base and enamel, contributing to more esthetic and conservative orthodontics. This direct bracket bonding technique has brought benefits such as reduced cost and time in performing the treatment, as well as making it easier to perform oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of published studies on orthodontic bracket bonding to dental enamel. It was verified that resin composites and glass ionomer are the most studied and researched materials for this purpose. Resin-modified glass ionomer, with its biocompatibility, capacity of releasing fluoride and no need for acid etching on the tooth structure, has become increasingly popular among dentists. However, due to the esthetic and mechanical properties of light polymerizable resin composite, it continues to be one of the adhesives of choice in the bracket bonding technique and its use is widely disseminated.

  20. Hydrogen bonding in tight environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirrotta, Alessandro; Solomon, Gemma C.; Franco, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    The single-molecule force spectroscopy of a prototypical class of hydrogen-bonded complexes is computationally investigated. The complexes consist of derivatives of a barbituric acid and a Hamilton receptor that can form up to six simultaneous hydrogen bonds. The force-extension (F-L) isotherms...... of the host-guest complexes are simulated using classical molecular dynamics and the MM3 force field, for which a refined set of hydrogen bond parameters was developed from MP2 ab initio computations. The F-L curves exhibit peaks that signal conformational changes during elongation, the most prominent...... of which is in the 60-180 pN range and corresponds to the force required to break the hydrogen bonds. These peaks in the F-L curves are shown to be sensitive to relatively small changes in the chemical structure of the host molecule. Thermodynamic insights into the supramolecular assembly were obtained...

  1. Optimal Investment in Structured Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2012-01-01

    of the article is to provide possible explanations for the puzzle of why small retail investors hold structured bonds. The investment universe consists of a stock index, a risk-free bank account, and a structured bond containing an option written on another index. We apply expected utility maximization......Retail structured products regularly receive much criticism from financial experts but seem to remain popular with investors. This article considers a generic structured product: the principal-protected index-linked note (structured bond), which resembles a portfolio insurance contract. The purpose...... and consider different utility functions and trading strategies. Our results show that investors should include structured bonds in their optimal portfolio only if they cannot access the index underlying the option directly and only if the products then provide sufficient diversification to compensate...

  2. 78 FR 5439 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... jobs in the United States by supplying information that competitors could use to compete with companies... or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP087734XX AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United... received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100...

  3. 78 FR 8130 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... jeopardize jobs in the United States by supplying information that competitors could use to compete with... or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP087679XX AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United... received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100...

  4. 78 FR 38031 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... supplying information that competitors could use to compete with companies in the United States. DATES... Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP087913XX AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the... Bank has received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in...

  5. 77 FR 70161 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... jobs in the United States by supplying information that competitors could use to compete with companies... or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP087512XX AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United... received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100...

  6. 78 FR 16675 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... the purpose of the transaction: To support the export of General Electric turbines to the United Arab... Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP085996XX AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the... Bank has received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial guarantee in...

  7. LAMMPS Framework for Directional Dynamic Bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    and bond types. When breaking bonds, all angular and dihedral interactions involving broken bonds are removed. The framework allows chemical reactions to be modeled, and use it to simulate a simplistic, coarse-grained DNA model. The resulting DNA dynamics illustrates the power of the present framework.......We have extended the Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS) to support directional bonds and dynamic bonding. The framework supports stochastic formation of new bonds, breakage of existing bonds, and conversion between bond types. Bond formation can be controlled...... to limit the maximal functionality of a bead with respect to various bond types. Concomitant with the bond dynamics, angular and dihedral interactions are dynamically introduced between newly connected triplets and quartets of beads, where the interaction type is determined from the local pattern of bead...

  8. Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 3) - Guarantees for representatives of the personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 3) entitled “Guarantees for representatives of the personnel”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 5 December 2013 and entering into force on 1 January 2014, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department (see here).   This circular is applicable to all members of the personnel. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 2) entitled “Guarantees for members of the personnel holding representative office” of November 1992. The circular was revised in order to adapt the time given to the representatives of the personnel to perform their elective mandate and to ensure more transparency in their activities, by indicating, inter alia, the percentage of time worked in the framework of their mandate, as well as the training, activities and ensuing results. Department Head Office HR Department

  9. Cross-Layer Control with Worst Case Delay Guarantees in Multihop Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The delay guarantee is a challenge to meet different real-time requirements in applications of backpressure-based wireless multihop networks, and therefore, researchers are interested in the possibility of providing bounded end-to-end delay. In this paper, a new cross-layer control algorithm with worst case delay guarantees is proposed. The utility maximization algorithm is developed using a Lyapunov optimization framework. Virtual queues that ensure the worst case delay of nondropped packets are designed. It is proved through rigorous theoretical analyses and verified by simulations that the time average overall utility achieved by the new algorithm can be arbitrarily close to the optimal solution with finite queue backlogs. The simulation results evaluated with Matlab show that the proposed algorithm achieves higher throughput utility with fewer data dropped compared with the existing work.

  10. Performance Guaranteed Inertia Emulation forDiesel-Wind System Feed Microgrid via ModelReference Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin, Alexander M. [ORNL; Zhang, Yichen [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK), Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Djouadi, Seddik [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK), Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Olama, Mohammed M. [ORNL

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a model reference control based inertia emulation strategy is proposed. Desired inertia can be precisely emulated through this control strategy so that guaranteed performance is ensured. A typical frequency response model with parametrical inertia is set to be the reference model. A measurement at a specific location delivers the information of disturbance acting on the diesel-wind system to the referencemodel. The objective is for the speed of the diesel-wind system to track the reference model. Since active power variation is dominantly governed by mechanical dynamics and modes, only mechanical dynamics and states, i.e., a swing-engine-governor system plus a reduced-order wind turbine generator, are involved in the feedback control design. The controller is implemented in a three-phase diesel-wind system feed microgrid. The results show exact synthetic inertia is emulated, leading to guaranteed performance and safety bounds.

  11. Optimal Guaranteed Service Time and Service Level Decision with Time and Service Level Sensitive Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjun Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a two-stage supply chain with one supplier and one retailer. The retailer sells a product to customer and the supplier provides a product in a make-to-order mode. In this case, the supplier’s decisions on service time and service level and the retailer’s decision on retail price have effects on customer demand. We develop optimization models to determine the optimal retail price, the optimal guaranteed service time, the optimal service level, and the optimal capacity to maximize the expected profit of the whole supply chain. The results of numerical experiments show that it is more profitable to determine the optimal price, the optimal guaranteed service time, and the optimal service level simultaneously and the proposed model is more profitable in service level sensitive market.

  12. GRS - Guarantee of results for grid-connected solar photovoltaic systems; GRS - Garantierte Resultate von Solarstromanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Ch.; Frei, R.

    2001-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy describes the development of a performance guarantee for the power delivered by grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power plant. This is important for investors, who need to be able to calculate the price of the energy produced by the PV plant. The report examines the results of various case studies and experience gained with GRS contracts developed in different countries including Switzerland, the Netherlands, France and Germany. The problems encountered, which provided feedback for the further development of the contract presented in the report, are discussed. The model contract, which proposes a framework which provides many possible variations and adaptations, is presented in detail. Various problem areas such as guaranteed energy yield, meteorological references, correction methods, failure detection, dispute settlement and many other points are covered.

  13. Implementation of Guaranteed Services in the MANGO Clockless Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Sparsø, Jens

    2006-01-01

    (clockless implementation, standard socket access points, and guaranteed communication services) make MANGO suitable for a modular SoC design flow is explained. Among the advantages of using clockless circuit techniques are inherent global timing closure, low forward latency in pipelines, and zero dynamic......Shared, segmented, on-chip interconnection networks, known as networks-on-chip (NoC), may become the preferred way of interconnecting intellectual property (IP) cores in future giga-scale system-on-chip (SoC) designs. A NoC can provide the required communication bandwidth while accommodating...... the effects of scaling microchip technologies. Equally important, a NoC facilitates a truly modular and scalable design flow. The MANGO (message-passing asynchronous network-on-chip providing guaranteed services over open core protocol (OCP) interfaces) NoC is presented, and how its key characteristics...

  14. Development Concept of Guaranteed Verification Electric Power System Simulation Tools and Its Realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusev Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of existing problem reliability and verification of widespread electric power systems (EPS simulation tools is presented in this article. Everything simulation tools are based on the using of numerical methods for ordinary differential equations. Described the concept of guaranteed verification EPS simulation tools and the structure of its realization are based using the Simulator having properties of continuous , without decomposition three-phase EPS simulation in real time and on an unlimited range with guaranteed accuracy. The information from the Simulator can be verified by using data only quasi-steady-state regime received from the SCADA and such Simulator can be applied as the standard model for verification any EPS simulation tools.

  15. Immunohistochemical Labelling for Cyclo-oxygenase-2: Does the Positive Control Guarantee Standardized Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belluco, S; Carnier, P; Castagnaro, M; Chiers, K; Millanta, F; Peña, L; Pires, I; Queiroga, F; Riffard, S; Scase, T; Polton, G

    2016-01-01

    Since the identification of cyclo-oxygenase-2 as a potentially important therapeutic target in veterinary oncology, numerous studies on its expression have been conducted. Unfortunately, results have been heterogeneous and conclusions are difficult to draw. We tested the ability of a defined positive control to guarantee reproducibility of results among different laboratories. Valid positive controls were defined by positivity of the renal macula densa without background labelling. Fifteen colorectal tumours and 15 oral squamous cell carcinomas were labelled immunohistochemically by six European laboratories. Slides were evaluated in blinded fashion for percentage of positive cells and labelling intensity by three pathologists, and results were analyzed statistically for reproducibility and inter-reader variability. Macula densa positivity was an insufficiently sensitive control to guarantee reproducible results for percentage of positive cells and labelling intensity. Inter-reader variability was proven statistically, making the case for image analysis or other automated quantitative evaluation techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Guaranteed Cost Fault-Tolerant Control for Networked Control Systems with Sensor Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixin Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the large scale and complicated structure of networked control systems, time-varying sensor faults could inevitably occur when the system works in a poor environment. Guaranteed cost fault-tolerant controller for the new networked control systems with time-varying sensor faults is designed in this paper. Based on time delay of the network transmission environment, the networked control systems with sensor faults are modeled as a discrete-time system with uncertain parameters. And the model of networked control systems is related to the boundary values of the sensor faults. Moreover, using Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequalities (LMI approach, the guaranteed cost fault-tolerant controller is verified to render such networked control systems asymptotically stable. Finally, simulations are included to demonstrate the theoretical results.

  17. Exponential parameter and tracking error convergence guarantees for adaptive controllers without persistency of excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Girish; Mühlegg, Maximilian; Johnson, Eric

    2014-08-01

    In model reference adaptive control (MRAC) the modelling uncertainty is often assumed to be parameterised with time-invariant unknown ideal parameters. The convergence of parameters of the adaptive element to these ideal parameters is beneficial, as it guarantees exponential stability, and makes an online learned model of the system available. Most MRAC methods, however, require persistent excitation of the states to guarantee that the adaptive parameters converge to the ideal values. Enforcing PE may be resource intensive and often infeasible in practice. This paper presents theoretical analysis and illustrative examples of an adaptive control method that leverages the increasing ability to record and process data online by using specifically selected and online recorded data concurrently with instantaneous data for adaptation. It is shown that when the system uncertainty can be modelled as a combination of known nonlinear bases, simultaneous exponential tracking and parameter error convergence can be guaranteed if the system states are exciting over finite intervals such that rich data can be recorded online; PE is not required. Furthermore, the rate of convergence is directly proportional to the minimum singular value of the matrix containing online recorded data. Consequently, an online algorithm to record and forget data is presented and its effects on the resulting switched closed-loop dynamics are analysed. It is also shown that when radial basis function neural networks (NNs) are used as adaptive elements, the method guarantees exponential convergence of the NN parameters to a compact neighbourhood of their ideal values without requiring PE. Flight test results on a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  18. The Guarantee Contract as a Typical Warranty Business in Brazilian Civil Law

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Siebeneichler de Andrade

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the guarantee contract, which is one of the most important forms of legal assurance business. It is one of the most widely used businesses in Brazilian negotiating practice. In this sense, considering the fact that Brazilian Private Law has gone through a renovation, by virtue of legislation such as the Civil Code of 2002 and the Consumer Protection Code, which welcomed the principle of good faith and social function of the contract, it is necessary to examine this impor...

  19. The Removal of the Judge as a Guarantee of Fair Criminal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury V. Derishev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the institution of the removal of a judge in criminal trial proceedings, which is regarded as the most important guarantees of fair criminal justice. Based on the definition of the nature and content of the mechanism for the removal of a judge, the Authors offer an analysis of the problems of the application of law that accompany its implementation in modern criminal proceedings

  20. Learning from label proportions in brain-computer interfaces: Online unsupervised learning with guarantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Thibault; Schmid, Konstantin; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Tangermann, Michael; Kindermans, Pieter-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Objective Using traditional approaches, a brain-computer interface (BCI) requires the collection of calibration data for new subjects prior to online use. Calibration time can be reduced or eliminated e.g., by subject-to-subject transfer of a pre-trained classifier or unsupervised adaptive classification methods which learn from scratch and adapt over time. While such heuristics work well in practice, none of them can provide theoretical guarantees. Our objective is to modify an event-related potential (ERP) paradigm to work in unison with the machine learning decoder, and thus to achieve a reliable unsupervised calibrationless decoding with a guarantee to recover the true class means. Method We introduce learning from label proportions (LLP) to the BCI community as a new unsupervised, and easy-to-implement classification approach for ERP-based BCIs. The LLP estimates the mean target and non-target responses based on known proportions of these two classes in different groups of the data. We present a visual ERP speller to meet the requirements of LLP. For evaluation, we ran simulations on artificially created data sets and conducted an online BCI study with 13 subjects performing a copy-spelling task. Results Theoretical considerations show that LLP is guaranteed to minimize the loss function similar to a corresponding supervised classifier. LLP performed well in simulations and in the online application, where 84.5% of characters were spelled correctly on average without prior calibration. Significance The continuously adapting LLP classifier is the first unsupervised decoder for ERP BCIs guaranteed to find the optimal decoder. This makes it an ideal solution to avoid tedious calibration sessions. Additionally, LLP works on complementary principles compared to existing unsupervised methods, opening the door for their further enhancement when combined with LLP. PMID:28407016

  1. Comparative Analysis of Minimum Income Guaranteed Schemes within the Member States of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Maria Stănescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The commitment of the European Union (EU Member States towards accomplishing the commonly agreed goals (1997 European Employment Strategy, Lisbon 2000, and Europe 2020 is supported by a continuous assessment of domestic social policy tendencies. From this perspective, the main goal of the paper is to comparatively analyse the last safety net for the most vulnerable people. The screening of guaranteed minimum resources provides an overview of the applicable statutory basis, schemes in place, types of social benefits concerned, financing and organisation mechanisms, eligibility conditions, duration and time limits. As methodology, the article uses the MISSOC database, and due to the current lack of comparable information, recommendations for further harmonisation are included. 20 of the EU member states follow the minimum income guaranteed (MIG regulations adopted already during the pre-accession period and updated after the accession phase. Seven types of domestic regulations are in force, among which the most frequent ones are acts and laws (ten countries. Common concepts used are social, and assistance. Provided allowances are mainly focused on elderly people, unemployment benefits, pensions, allowances supporting various house related costs, and benefits for disabled people. In line with 2007, 2010, and 2014 data, the financing of guaranteed minimum resources continues to remain mainly central with a shift in 2014 towards mixed financing (both central and local. The management in 2014 continues to be mainly centrally organised but the local stakeholders are also empowered. The residency is the most frequent eligibility condition. No nationality is required in 24 EU member states, for all allowances (21 countries or for particular ones (three countries. 17 member states require no age conditions. Unlimited guaranteed minimum resources were provided in 2014 as long as the eligibility criteria were met in 23 EU member states.

  2. Learning from label proportions in brain-computer interfaces: Online unsupervised learning with guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, David; Verhoeven, Thibault; Schmid, Konstantin; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Tangermann, Michael; Kindermans, Pieter-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Using traditional approaches, a brain-computer interface (BCI) requires the collection of calibration data for new subjects prior to online use. Calibration time can be reduced or eliminated e.g., by subject-to-subject transfer of a pre-trained classifier or unsupervised adaptive classification methods which learn from scratch and adapt over time. While such heuristics work well in practice, none of them can provide theoretical guarantees. Our objective is to modify an event-related potential (ERP) paradigm to work in unison with the machine learning decoder, and thus to achieve a reliable unsupervised calibrationless decoding with a guarantee to recover the true class means. We introduce learning from label proportions (LLP) to the BCI community as a new unsupervised, and easy-to-implement classification approach for ERP-based BCIs. The LLP estimates the mean target and non-target responses based on known proportions of these two classes in different groups of the data. We present a visual ERP speller to meet the requirements of LLP. For evaluation, we ran simulations on artificially created data sets and conducted an online BCI study with 13 subjects performing a copy-spelling task. Theoretical considerations show that LLP is guaranteed to minimize the loss function similar to a corresponding supervised classifier. LLP performed well in simulations and in the online application, where 84.5% of characters were spelled correctly on average without prior calibration. The continuously adapting LLP classifier is the first unsupervised decoder for ERP BCIs guaranteed to find the optimal decoder. This makes it an ideal solution to avoid tedious calibration sessions. Additionally, LLP works on complementary principles compared to existing unsupervised methods, opening the door for their further enhancement when combined with LLP.

  3. Topology of electron charge density for chemical bonds from valence bond theory: a probe of bonding types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lixian; Ying, Fuming; Wu, Wei; Hiberty, Philippe C; Shaik, Sason

    2009-01-01

    To characterize the nature of bonding we derive the topological properties of the electron charge density of a variety of bonds based on ab initio valence bond methods. The electron density and its associated Laplacian are partitioned into covalent, ionic, and resonance components in the valence bond spirit. The analysis provides a density-based signature of bonding types and reveals, along with the classical covalent and ionic bonds, the existence of two-electron bonds in which most of the bonding arises from the covalent-ionic resonance energy, so-called charge-shift bonds. As expected, the covalent component of the Laplacian at the bond critical point is found to be largely negative for classical covalent bonds. In contrast, for charge-shift bonds, the covalent part of the Laplacian is small or positive, in agreement with the weakly attractive or repulsive character of the covalent interaction in these bonds. On the other hand, the resonance component of the Laplacian is always negative or nearly zero, and it increases in absolute value with the charge-shift character of the bond, in agreement with the decrease of kinetic energy associated with covalent-ionic mixing. A new interpretation of the topology of the total density at the bond critical point is proposed to characterize covalent, ionic, and charge-shift bonding from the density point of view.

  4. Analysis of Aluminum Resource Supply Structure and Guarantee Degree in China Based on Sustainable Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoli Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum is a strategic mineral resource, and China’s aluminum production and consumption is fairly large. However, its supply guarantee is uncertain because of a high dependency on external raw materials. This uncertainty may expand, so finding a way to reduce the uncertainty of aluminum resource supply is especially important. This paper applies the SFA method to analyze the aluminum flows in mainland China from 1996 to 2014, and establishes a supply structure model to measure its supply guarantee degree. The results claim that: (1 China’s aluminum production can satisfy demand and even create a surplus; (2 Domestic self-productive primary and secondary aluminum increased at an annual rate of 12% and 24%; (3 The proportion of self-productive secondary aluminum in the supply structure increased from 7.7% in 1996 to 12.8% in 2014, while that of primary aluminum decreased from 79.6% to 42.8%; (4 The total supply guarantee degree decreased from 87.3% to 55.6% in this period. These results provide a feasible way to solve this plight: the proportion of secondary aluminum in the supply structure should be enhanced, and an efficient aluminum resource recycling system needs to be established as soon as possible to ensure its sustainable supply.

  5. Guaranteeing Isochronous Control of Networked Motion Control Systems Using Phase Offset Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhwan Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Guaranteeing isochronous transfer of control commands is an essential function for networked motion control systems. The adoption of real-time Ethernet (RTE technologies may be profitable in guaranteeing deterministic transfer of control messages. However, unpredictable behavior of software in the motion controller often results in unexpectedly large deviation in control message transmission intervals, and thus leads to imprecise motion. This paper presents a simple and efficient heuristic to guarantee the end-to-end isochronous control with very small jitter. The key idea of our approach is to adjust the phase offset of control message transmission time in the motion controller by investigating the behavior of motion control task. In realizing the idea, we performed a pre-runtime analysis to determine a safe and reliable phase offset and applied the phase offset to the runtime code of motion controller by customizing an open-source based integrated development environment (IDE. We also constructed an EtherCAT-based motion control system testbed and performed extensive experiments on the testbed to verify the effectiveness of our approach. The experimental results show that our heuristic is highly effective even for low-end embedded controller implemented in open-source software components under various configurations of control period and the number of motor drives.

  6. Entanglement guarantees emergence of cooperation in quantum prisoner's dilemma games on networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angsheng; Yong, Xi

    2014-09-05

    It was known that cooperation of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games fails to emerge in homogenous networks such as random graphs. Here we proposed a quantum prisoner's dilemma game. The game consists of two players, in which each player has three choices of strategy: cooperator (C), defector (D) and super cooperator (denoted by Q). We found that quantum entanglement guarantees emergence of a new cooperation, the super cooperation of the quantum prisoner's dilemma games, and that entanglement is the mechanism of guaranteed emergence of cooperation of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games on networks. We showed that for a game with temptation b, there exists a threshold arccos √b/b for a measurement of entanglement, beyond which, (super) cooperation of evolutionary quantum prisoner's dilemma games is guaranteed to quickly emerge, giving rise to stochastic convergence of the cooperations, that if the entanglement degree γ is less than the threshold arccos √b/b, then the equilibrium frequency of cooperations of the games is positively correlated to the entanglement degree γ, and that if γ is less than arccos √b/b and b is beyond some boundary, then the equilibrium frequency of cooperations of the games on random graphs decreases as the average degree of the graphs increases.

  7. The Social and Consumer Standards and Guarantees in Ukraine: the Current Structural and Dynamic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesov Oleksandr S.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to generalize the theoretical approaches to the social guarantees and standards as economic categories. The classification of social guarantees is provided. The dynamic parameters for development of the social and consumer standards adopted in Ukraine were considered. An evaluation of the real poverty level under the system of criteria was carried out. The inconsistency of methods for the poverty evaluation adopted by the Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine and contradiction of its individual indicators has been indicated. The structural characteristics of the population’s income have been determined. The relevance of the existing social guarantees to their real value in today’s economic conditions have been analyzed. Tendencies of falling of the welfare level of population, resulting in a decline in the consumer demand and a narrowing of the domestic market for goods and services, have been identified. The need to take measures to stimulate small businesses, to overcome corruption, and to deregulate the economy has been indicated.

  8. Mahanaxar: quality of service guarantees in high-bandwidth, real-time streaming data storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bent, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Hsing-Bung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brandt, Scott [UCSC

    2010-04-05

    Large radio telescopes, cyber-security systems monitoring real-time network traffic, and others have specialized data storage needs: guaranteed capture of an ultra-high-bandwidth data stream, retention of the data long enough to determine what is 'interesting,' retention of interesting data indefinitely, and concurrent read/write access to determine what data is interesting, without interrupting the ongoing capture of incoming data. Mahanaxar addresses this problem. Mahanaxar guarantees streaming real-time data capture at (nearly) the full rate of the raw device, allows concurrent read and write access to the device on a best-effort basis without interrupting the data capture, and retains data as long as possible given the available storage. It has built in mechanisms for reliability and indexing, can scale to meet arbitrary bandwidth requirements, and handles both small and large data elements equally well. Results from our prototype implementation shows that Mahanaxar provides both better guarantees and better performance than traditional file systems.

  9. Fuzzy Logic-Based Guaranteed Lifetime Protocol for Real-Time Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Babar; Iqbal, Farkhund; Abbas, Ali; Kim, Ki-Il

    2015-08-18

    Few techniques for guaranteeing a network lifetime have been proposed despite its great impact on network management. Moreover, since the existing schemes are mostly dependent on the combination of disparate parameters, they do not provide additional services, such as real-time communications and balanced energy consumption among sensor nodes; thus, the adaptability problems remain unresolved among nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). To solve these problems, we propose a novel fuzzy logic model to provide real-time communication in a guaranteed WSN lifetime. The proposed fuzzy logic controller accepts the input descriptors energy, time and velocity to determine each node's role for the next duration and the next hop relay node for real-time packets. Through the simulation results, we verified that both the guaranteed network's lifetime and real-time delivery are efficiently ensured by the new fuzzy logic model. In more detail, the above-mentioned two performance metrics are improved up to 8%, as compared to our previous work, and 14% compared to existing schemes, respectively.

  10. Topological Properties of Chemical Bonds from Static and Dynamic Electron Densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannatha Prathapa, Siriyara; Held, Jeanette; van Smaalen, Sander

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic and static electron densities (EDs) based on the independent spherical atom model (IAM) and multipole (MP) models of crambin were successfully computed, holding no series-termination effects. The densities are compared to EDs of small biological molecules at diverse temperatures. It is outlined that proteins exhibit an intrinsic flexibility, present as frozen disorder at 100 K, in contrast to small molecules. The flexibility of the proteins is reflected by atomic displacement parameters (B-factors), which are considerably larger than for small molecules at 298 K. Thus, an optimal deconvolution of deformation density and thermal motion is not guaranteed, which prevents a free refinement of MP parameters but allows an application of transferable, fixed MP parameters. The analysis of the topological properties, such as the density at bond critical points (BCPs) and the Laplacian, reveals systematic differences between static and dynamic EDs. Zero-point-vibrations, yet present in dynamic EDs at low temperature, affect but marginally the EDs of small molecules. The zero-point-vibrations cause a smearing of the ED, which becomes more pronounced with increasing temperature. Topological properties, primarily the Laplacian, of covalent bonds appear to be more sensitive to effects by temperature and the polarity of the bonds. However, dynamic EDs at ca. 20 K based on MP models provide a good characterization of chemical bonding. Both the density at BCPs and the Laplacian of hydrogen bonds constitute similar values from static and dynamic EDs for all studied temperatures. Deformation densities demonstrate the necessity of the employment of MP parameters in order to comprise the nature of covalent bonds. The character of hydrogen bonds can be roughly pictured by IAM, whereas MP parameters are recommended for a classification of hydrogen bonds beyond a solely interpretation of topological properties. PMID:25995522

  11. "Vibrational bonding": a new type of chemical bond is discovered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J; Macrae, Roderick M

    2015-01-01

    A long-sought but elusive new type of chemical bond, occurring on a minimum-free, purely repulsive potential energy surface, has recently been convincingly shown to be possible on the basis of high-level quantum-chemical calculations. This type of bond, termed a vibrational bond, forms because the total energy, including the dynamical energy of the nuclei, is lower than the total energy of the dissociated products, including their vibrational zero-point energy. For this to be the case, the ZPE of the product molecule must be very high, which is ensured by replacing a conventional hydrogen atom with its light isotope muonium (Mu, mass = 1/9 u) in the system Br-H-Br, a natural transition state in the reaction between Br and HBr. A paramagnetic species observed in the reaction Mu +Br2 has been proposed as a first experimental sighting of this species, but definitive identification remains challenging.

  12. 27 CFR 19.516 - Bond account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond account. 19.516... Determination and Payment of Tax § 19.516 Bond account. Where the proprietor has furnished a withdrawal or unit... maximum penal sum, he shall maintain an account of his bond and he shall charge the bond with the amount...

  13. Common Factors in International Bond Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.J.A.G.; Melenberg, B.; Nijman, T.E.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we estimate and interpret the factors that jointly determine bond returns of different maturities in the US, Germany and Japan.We analyze both currency-hedged and unhedged bond returns.For currency-hedged bond returns, we find that five factors explain 96.5% of the variation of bond

  14. Three methods to measure RH bond energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ellison, G.B. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Gutman, D. [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-03-21

    In this paper the authors compare and contrast three powerful methods for experimentally measuring bond energies in polyatomic molecules. The methods are: radical kinetics; gas phase acidity cycles; and photoionization mass spectroscopy. The knowledge of the values of bond energies are a basic piece of information to a chemist. Chemical reactions involve the making and breaking of chemical bonds. It has been shown that comparable bonds in polyatomic molecules, compared to the same bonds in radicals, can be significantly different. These bond energies can be measured in terms of bond dissociation energies.

  15. Three methods to measure RH bond energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, J.; Ellison, G.B.; Gutman, D.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the authors compare and contrast three powerful methods for experimentally measuring bond energies in polyatomic molecules. The methods are: radical kinetics; gas phase acidity cycles; and photoionization mass spectroscopy. The knowledge of the values of bond energies are a basic piece of information to a chemist. Chemical reactions involve the making and breaking of chemical bonds. It has been shown that comparable bonds in polyatomic molecules, compared to the same bonds in radicals, can be significantly different. These bond energies can be measured in terms of bond dissociation energies

  16. Low temperature anodic bonding to silicon nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De; Bouaidat, Salim

    2000-01-01

    Low-temperature anodic bonding to stoichiometric silicon nitride surfaces has been performed in the temperature range from 3508C to 4008C. It is shown that the bonding is improved considerably if the nitride surfaces are either oxidized or exposed to an oxygen plasma prior to the bonding. Both bulk...... and thin-film glasses were used in the bonding experiments. Bond quality was evaluated using a tensile test on structured dies. The effect of oxygen-based pre-treatments of the nitride surface on the bond quality has been evaluated. Bond strengths up to 35 Nrmm2 and yields up to 100% were obtained....

  17. Deriving the bond pricing equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the recent focus on Eurozone debt crisis and the credit rating downgrade not only of US debt, but that of other countries and many UK major banking institutions, this paper aims to explain the concept of bond yield, its different measures and bond pricing equation. Yields on capital market instruments are rarely quoted on the same basis, which makes direct comparison between different as investment choices impossible. Some debt instruments are quoted on discount basis, whilst coupon-bearing ones accrue interest differently, offer different compounding opportunities, have different coupon payment frequencies, and manage non-business day maturity dates differently. Moreover, rules governing debt vary across countries, markets and currencies, making yield calculation and comparison a rather complex issue. Thus, some fundamental concepts applicable to debt instrument yield measurement, with focus on bond equation, are presented here. In addition, bond equation expressed in annuity form and used to apply Newton-Raphson algorithm to derive true bond yield is also shown.

  18. Diffusionless bonding of aluminum to Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.

    1965-04-01

    Aluminum can be bonded to zirconium without difficulty even when a thin layer of oxide is present on the surface of the zirconium . No detectable diffusion takes place during the bonding process. The bond layer can be stretched as much. as 8% without affecting the bond. The bond can be heated for 1000 hours at 260 o C (500 o F), and can be water quenched from 260 o C (500 o F) without any noticeable change in the bond strength. An extrusion technique has been devised for making transition sections of aluminum bonded to zirconium which can then be used to join these metals by conventional welding. Welding can be done close to the bond zone without seriously affecting the integrity of the bond. This method of bonding aluminum to Zircaloy-2 is covered by Canadian patent 702,438 January 26, 1965. (author)

  19. Graphite-to-metal bonding techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, L.O.; Mah, R.

    1977-11-01

    The results of various bonding methods to join graphite to different metals are reported. Graphite/metal bonds were tested for thermal flux limits and thermal flux cycling lifetimes. The most successful bond transferred a heat flux of 6.50 MW/m 2 in more than 500 thermal cycles. This bond was between pyrolytic graphite and copper with Ti-Cu-Sil as the bonding agent

  20. Bonded retainers--clinical reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segner, D; Heinrici, B

    2000-01-01

    Bonded retainers have become a very important retention appliance in orthodontic treatment. They are popular because they are considered reliable, independent of patient cooperation, highly efficient, easy to fabricate, and almost invisible. Of these traits, reliability is the subject of this clinical study. A total of 549 patients with retainers were analyzed with regard to wearing time, extension of the retainer, mean time between failures, operator, and age of patient. The average frequency of breakage or loss was 0.55 per retainer per year. This frequency was dependent primarily on the operator who bonded the retainer and on the extent of the retainer. If the upper canines were involved, reliability was lower. The majority of failures occurred during the first 3 to 6 months. The study showed that bonded retainers represent a highly efficient and reliable retention appliance suited to long-term use.

  1. EFFECTIVE CHEMICALLY BONDED BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергей Николаевич Золотухин

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Physical and physical-and-chemical preconditions for creation of the production technology of chemically bonded building materials and products based on phosphogypsum are presented. The methodology and production technology of chemically bonded lime-and-sandy phosphogypsum material (LSPM with the use of modern computerized differential scanning calorimetry are developed and offered. The structure of LSPM is examined. The conceptions of making building composites on the basis of dispersed materials are proved and updated. It was found out that at the definite thickness of water film on the surface of disperse materials, in the thermodynamically unstable state, in the presence of external fields, heightened temperatures and definite pH, cheap water-resistant chemically bonded building composites on the basis of dispersed materials can be made. The results of the LSPM studies showed that such material is effective for forming of low- and middle-quality wall small-piece blocks, partition slabs and bulkheads.

  2. Simultaneous bond degradation and bond formation during phenol-formaldehyde curing with wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Bonding of wood using phenol–formaldehyde adhesive develops highly durable bonds. Phenol– formaldehyde is believed to form primary bonds with wood cell wall polymers (e.g., lignin). However, it is unclear how this adhesive interacts and bonds to lignin. Through wood solubilisation methodologies, earlywood and latewood bonded assemblies were characterized using two-...

  3. Electron transfer in pnicogen bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Liangyu; Mo, Yirong

    2014-10-02

    As a new type of noncovalent interactions, pnicogen bond between a VA group element (N, P, and As) and an electron donor (Lewis base) has grabbed attention in recent several years. Here we employ the block-localized wave function (BLW) based energy decomposition scheme to probe the bonding nature in a series of substituted phosphines X(n)PH(3-n) complexed with ammonia. As the BLW method can derive the optimal monomer orbitals in a complex with the electron transfer among monomers quenched, we can effectively examine the HOMO-LUMO interaction in these pnicogen bonding systems. Among various energy components, electron transfer energy together with the polarization energy dominates the pnicogen bonding energy. Although usually it is assumed that the electron transfer from ammonia to substituted phosphines occurs in the form of n → σ*(XP) hyperconjugative interaction, we identify a kind of new pathway when X = NO2 and CN, i.e., n → dπ*, which results from the interaction between the π orbital of cyano or nitro substituent and d orbitals on P. But still this picture of electron transfer using a single pair of orbitals is greatly simplified, as the electron density difference (EDD) maps corresponding to the overall electron transfer processes show the accumulation of electron density on the P side opposite to the X-P bond, with insignificant or even negligible gain of electron density on the substituent group side. Thus, the EDD maps tend to support the concept of σ-hole in pnicogen bonds.

  4. Why Bond Critical Points Are Not "Bond" Critical Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazian, Shant

    2017-12-28

    Equating (3,-1) critical points (CPs), derived from the topological analysis of the electron densities, to chemical bonds has triggered a lot of confusion in recent years. Part of this confusion stems from calling these CPs "bond" CPs (BCPs). While the origin of this terminology is traceable to the late seventies and beginning of eighties, when it sounded reasonable, new computational studies conducted on molecular electron densities cast serious doubt on the supposed universal equivalence between the chemical bonds and (3,-1) CPs. Herein, recent computational studies are briefly reviewed to demonstrate why (3,-1) CPs are not indicators of chemical bonds. It is discussed why this confusing terminology needs to be changed and reemphasized that (3,-1) CPs should be called "line" critical points (LCPs). The proposed terminology detaches the topological properties of molecular electron densities from any a priori chemical interpretation. Such detachment, if adopted by other authors, will hopefully prevent further misinterpretation of the data emerging from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Analysis Of Chemical Bonding Using Ab Initio Valence Bond Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelberts, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, theoretical chemical research is presented in which the Valence Bond (VB) Theory plays a central role. For the last three chapters, the VB method is used, in combination with Magnetically Induced Ring Currents, to analyze the aromaticity of several conjugated molecules. The

  6. Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded with Resin-modified Glass-ionomer Cement to Bleached Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Khosravanifard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Bleaching can considerably reduce shear bond strength (SBS of orthodontic brackets bonded with composite adhesives. Application of antioxidants is a method to reverse the negative effect of bleaching on compositeto-enamel bond. However, the efficacy of antioxidants in increasing the SBS of brackets bonded using resin-modified glassionomer cement (RMGIC has not been studied, which was the aim of this study. Materials and methods. Fifty freshly extracted human maxillary first premolars were bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Pola Office Bleaching, SDI. Sodium ascorbate 10% was applied to the experimental specimens (n=25. All the specimens were etched with 37% phosphoric acid (Ivoclar/Vivadent and bonded using RMGIC (Fuji Ortho LC, GC. The specimens were subjected to incubation (37°C, 24h and thermocycling (1000 cycles, 5-55°C, dwell time = 1 min. The SBS was measured at 0.5 mm/min debonding crosshead speed. The adhesive remnant index (ARI was scored under ×10 magnification. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test, one- and independent-samples t-test, and Fisher’s exact test (α=0.05. Results. The mean SBS of experimental and control groups were 11.97 ± 4.49 and 7.7 ± 3.19 MPa, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.000 by t-test. SBS of both control (P=0.014 and experimental (P=0.000 groups were significantly higher than the minimum acceptable SBS of 6 MPa, according to one-sample t-test. Conclusion. Application of ascorbic acid can guarantee a strong bond when RMGIC is to be used. However, RMGIC might tolerate the negative effect of bleaching with minimum SA treatments (or perhaps without treatments, which deserves further studies.

  7. Statistical methods for elimination of guarantee-time bias in cohort studies: a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Sung Cho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspirin has been considered to be beneficial in preventing cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Several pharmaco-epidemiology cohort studies have shown protective effects of aspirin on diseases using various statistical methods, with the Cox regression model being the most commonly used approach. However, there are some inherent limitations to the conventional Cox regression approach such as guarantee-time bias, resulting in an overestimation of the drug effect. To overcome such limitations, alternative approaches, such as the time-dependent Cox model and landmark methods have been proposed. This study aimed to compare the performance of three methods: Cox regression, time-dependent Cox model and landmark method with different landmark times in order to address the problem of guarantee-time bias. Methods Through statistical modeling and simulation studies, the performance of the above three methods were assessed in terms of type I error, bias, power, and mean squared error (MSE. In addition, the three statistical approaches were applied to a real data example from the Korean National Health Insurance Database. Effect of cumulative rosiglitazone dose on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma was used as an example for illustration. Results In the simulated data, time-dependent Cox regression outperformed the landmark method in terms of bias and mean squared error but the type I error rates were similar. The results from real-data example showed the same patterns as the simulation findings. Conclusions While both time-dependent Cox regression model and landmark analysis are useful in resolving the problem of guarantee-time bias, time-dependent Cox regression is the most appropriate method for analyzing cumulative dose effects in pharmaco-epidemiological studies.

  8. Global Environmental Governance as a Regulatory and Guarantee Criterion for Environmental Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Schmitt Siqueira Garcia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the theme of Global Environmental Governance to the achievement of Environmental Justice, presenting as general objective to analyze the importance of the first in its public, business and civil society spheres for the regulation and guarantee of the second. Noting up at the end that the Environmental Justice, as a common humanitarian problem, presents itself as the main objective of Global Environmental Governance. In the methodology was adopted the inductive method, having been applied the techniques of the referent, category, operational concepts, bibliographical research and file.

  9. National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, poverty and prices in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiha, Raghav; Kulkarni, Vani S; Pandey, Manoj K; Imai, Katsushi S

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is mainly to construct an intuitive measure of the performance of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) in India. The focus is on divergence between demand and supply at the district level. Some related issues addressed are: (i) whether the gap between demand and supply responds to poverty; and (ii) whether recent hikes in NREGS wages are inflationary. Our analysis confirms responsiveness of the positive gap between demand and supply to poverty. Also, apprehensions expressed about the inflationary potential of recent hikes in NREGS wages have been confirmed. More importantly, higher NREGS wages are likely to undermine self-selection of the poor in it.

  10. Waiver of the judgment’s guarantees through the abbreviated procedure in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Riego

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the defendant rights in the new Chilean Criminal Procedure Code of 2000. Also describes how the Code allowed in a very limited expression the possibility of the waiver of the judgment guarantees through the abbreviated procedure. Finally it describes a new law that expanded substantially the use and the incentives for negotiation just in property offences. This last development has divided the Chilean criminal procedure in two subsystems, one in which the oral trial is still the center of the procedure and another in which the trial will becomes exceptional.

  11. The Guarantee Contract as a Typical Warranty Business in Brazilian Civil Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Siebeneichler de Andrade

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the guarantee contract, which is one of the most important forms of legal assurance business. It is one of the most widely used businesses in Brazilian negotiating practice. In this sense, considering the fact that Brazilian Private Law has gone through a renovation, by virtue of legislation such as the Civil Code of 2002 and the Consumer Protection Code, which welcomed the principle of good faith and social function of the contract, it is necessary to examine this important contract and check if it’s discipline is appropriate to the new contractual principles.

  12. Resource Allocation of Security-Critical Tasks with Statistically Guaranteed Energy Constraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Wei; Jiang, Ke; Ma, Yue

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we are interested in resource allocation for energy constrained and security-critical embedded systems. Tasks in such systems need to be successfully executed under certain energy budget and be robust against serious security threatens. Different to former energy minimal scheduling...... problem, we introduce a new optimization problem for a set of tasks with energy constraint and multiple security choices. We present a dynamic programming based approximation algorithm to minimize the security risk of the system while statistically guaranteeing energy consumption constraints for given...

  13. Major risks and financial guarantees provided by the State in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brassard, Guy

    2012-01-01

    France's system for indemnifying damage from natural catastrophe is exemplary, whether for floods, storms, or subsidence. However, France is not equipped with the financial capacity to deal with the damage resulting from an exceptional disaster, such as an earthquake on the Mediterranean coast, or a nuclear meltdown. Major catastrophes could be a significant risk to the financial stability of the State today, because the State is in fact the ultimate insurer of its citizens and its institutions. It would be wise to built up reserves in order to enhance the financial resources of the State and to provide a uniform guarantee covering major risks, whatever the cause of the damage may be. (author)

  14. Guaranteed Cost H∞ Controller Synthesis for Switched Systems Defined on Semi-algebraic Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Mohamadreza; Mojallali, Hamed; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    A methodology to design guaranteed cost H∞ controllers for a class of switched systems with polynomial vector fields is proposed. To this end, we use sum of squares programming techniques. In addition, instead of the customary Carathéodory solutions, the analysis is performed in the framework...... of Filippov solutions which subsumes solutions with infinite switching in finite time and sliding modes. Firstly, conditions assuring asymptotic stability of Filippov solutions pertained to a switched system defined on semi-algebraic sets are formulated. Accordingly, we derive a set of sum of squares...

  15. Very rapid dissolution is not needed to guarantee bioequivalence for biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) I drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortejärvi, H; Shawahna, R; Koski, A; Malkki, J; Ojala, K; Yliperttula, M

    2010-02-01

    Currently, the EMEA, FDA, and WHO as regulatory authorities accept rapidly dissolving (>85% dissolved in 30 min) biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) I drug products for biowaiver candidates. In the draft EMEA guideline the requirement has been set tighter, that is, the drug product should be very rapidly dissolving (>85% dissolved in 15 min) to be eligible for a biowaiver. Pharmacokinetic modeling of 32 BCS I drugs was performed to demonstrate that very rapid dissolution is not necessary to guarantee bioequivalence for them. Rapid dissolution and similar dissolution profiles are sufficient criteria for all BCS I drugs. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. Quality Guarantee in the services that the LSCD of Guatemala lends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieguez Davila, L.

    1998-01-01

    It is of supreme importance that the instruments used in the radiological protection, as well as those used in clinical dosimetry, maintain trazability to primary patterns; this way it is guaranteed that the used magnitudes are reproducible in the secondary laboratories. This premise is important, however, it is indispensable that the laboratories can establish the necessary procedures in writing to make the mensurations that are involved in the calibrations and the other services characteristic of a secondary laboratory. The present work demonstrates as all the lent services in the secondary laboratory of dosimetric calibration of Guatemala are carried out by means of the procedures of quality demanded at international level

  17. Essays on European bond markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Y.C.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation focused on a number of issues that are of importance in the current European bond market. In the past years, the fiscal policy of the Eurozone members, advances in the technology of trading platforms and the introduction of a single currency have reshaped the fixed income markets

  18. Analysis of Disulfide Bond Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, Ineke; Lamriben, Lydia; van Zadelhoff, Guus; Hebert, Daniel N.

    2017-01-01

    In this unit, protocols are provided for detection of disulfide bond formation in cultures of intact cells and in an in vitro translation system containing isolated microsomes or semi-permeabilized cells. First, the newly synthesized protein of interest is biosynthetically labeled with radioactive

  19. Bonding in ZnSb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Lasse; Madsen, Georg K. H.; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    of the lowest conduction band have therefore been investigated. Electrons placed in the lowest conduction band are predicted to increase the bonding between second nearest neighbour atoms. This causes a lowering of the energy at special points in the first Brillouin zone. Thereby, the dispersion of the lowest...

  20. Adhesive bonding of wood materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Vick

    1999-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of wood components has played an essential role in the development and growth of the forest products industry and has been a key factor in the efficient utilization of our timber resource. The largest use of adhesives is in the construction industry. By far, the largest amounts of adhesives are used to manufacture building materials, such as plywood,...

  1. Weld bonding of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, I. O.; Zhang, Wenqi; Goncalves, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation of the weld bonding process with the purpose of evaluating its relative performance in case of joining stainless steel parts, against alternative solutions based on structural adhesives or conventional spot-welding. Th...

  2. Breaking Rules–Making Bonds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 1. Breaking Rules - Making Bonds. A G Samuelson. General Article Volume 21 Issue 1 January 2016 pp 43- ... Author Affiliations. A G Samuelson1. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560 012 ...

  3. dimensional architectures via hydrogen bonds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    However, the utilization of hydrogen bond supramolecular syn- thons in assembling metal–organic frameworks is relatively less explored area of research. The combi- nation of these two aspects is expected to result in more control over the network geometries and there- fore the properties. The aim of the present work is to.

  4. Strength of Bond Covenants and Bond Assessment Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Yahanpath

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine bond covenants of 29 New Zealand bond issues between 2001 and 2007.Results from the study indicate that protection provided for bondholders is weak and limited.On average, only 2-3 types of covenants are embedded with the issues and only 27% of thesecovenants provide full protection to the bondholders. However, bondholders are not compensated for taking the additional risk. We propose an alternative assessment framework that directly assesses the level of protection offered to bondholders. We calculate thecovenant quality score for the issues and classify them into four levels of protection: very high protection, moderate, low and very low. Recent legislative changes will go some way towards improving investor protection and confidence, but the effect is yet to be seen. This proposed scoring framework can be used by potential investors to complement the traditional credit ratings when making their investment decisions.

  5. Low-order tensor approximations for electronic wave functions: Hartree-Fock method with guaranteed precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Florian A; Valeev, Edward F

    2011-03-14

    Here we report a formulation of the Hartree-Fock method in an adaptive multiresolution basis set of spectral element type. A key feature of our approach is the use of low-order tensor approximations for operators and wave functions to reduce the steep rise of storage and computational costs with the number of degrees of freedom that plague finite element computations. As a proof of principle we implemented Hartree-Fock method without explicit storage of the full-dimensional wave function and with guaranteed precision (microhartree precision for up to 14 electron systems is demonstrated). Even for the one-electron method the use of low-order tensor approximation reduces storage relative to the full representation, albeit with modest increase in cost. Preliminary tests for explicitly-correlated two-electron (six-dimensional) wave function suggest a factor of 50 savings in storage. At least correlated two-electron methods should be feasible with our approach on modern workstations with guaranteed precision.

  6. Remote monitoring cost minimization for an unreliable sensor network with guaranteed network throughput

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a link-unreliable remote monitoring scenario where the monitoring center is geographically located far away from the region of the deployed sensor network, and sensing data by the sensors in the network will be transferred to the remote monitoring center through a third party telecommunication service. A cost associated with this service will be incurred, which will be determined by the number of gateways employed and the cumulative volume of data successfully received within a specified monitoring period. For this scenario, we first formulate a novel constrained optimization problem with an objective to minimize the service cost while a pre-defined network throughput is guaranteed. We refer to this problem as the throughput guaranteed service cost minimization problem and prove that it is NP-complete. We then propose a heuristic for it. The key ingredients of the heuristic include identifying gateways and finding an energy-efficient forest of routing trees rooted at the gateways. We also perform theoretical analysis on the solution obtained. Finally, we conduct experiments by simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed algorithm outperforms other algorithms in terms of both the service cost and the network lifetime.

  7. ROMANIAN DEPOSIT GUARANTEE SCHEME AND THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE ACQUIS COMMUNAUTAIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Bichi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the Romanian and EU deposit insurance legislation in order to identify the changes, which are needed in order to obtain a full compatibility of the national regulations in the field of deposit protection with the corresponding European rules. The first part outlines the main features of the EU Directive 94/19/EEC on deposit guarantee schemes in order to find out to what extent Romania is bound to incorporate the relevant acquis communautaire into its national legislation. It results that the directive contains explicit harmonization provisions as regards the minimum level of protection (EUR 20,000, depositor co-insurance, types of depositors, instruments and currencies to be covered, nature of coverage, status of branches from EU and non-EU countries, the compensation period and information to depositors. The directive does not provide for the harmonization of the financial and administrative structure of the deposit guarantee schemes, Romania being free to choose from a wider range of options. The second part examines the legal environment of deposit protection in Romania. The third part identifies the measures to be taken by the Romanian authorities in order to fill in the remaining regulatory gaps in the area of deposit insurance. Finally, the fourth part contains the conclusions.

  8. Adaptive Sensing with Reliable Guarantee under White Gaussian Noise Channels of Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Long

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of sensing is a fundamental research topic in sensor networks. In this paper, we propose an adaptive sensing technique to guarantee the end-to-end reliability while maximizing the lifetime of sensor networks under additive white Gaussian noise channels. First, we conduct theoretical analysis to obtain optimal node number N∗, node placement d∗, and node transmission structure P∗ under minimum total energy consumption and minimum unit data transmission energy consumption. Then, because sensor nodes closer to the sink consume more energy, nodes far from the sink have more residual energy. Based on this observation, we propose an adaptive sensing technique to achieve balanced network energy consumption. It adopts lower reliability requirement and shorter transmission distance for nodes near the sink and adopts higher reliability requirement and farther transmission distance for nodes far from the sink. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that our design can improve the network lifetime by several times (1–5 times and network utility by 20% and the desired reliability level is also guaranteed.

  9. Oral and public confrontation as guarantee of a democratic constitutional criminal procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Miranda Minagé

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the criminal process under the aegis of a Democratic State of Law requires, in addition to a critical re-reading of institutes already consolidated in a specific system model, it is still necessary to abandon them when they have legitimacy. It should be understood that the role to be played by the parties through the contradictory is fundamental and will never be possible without the support of orality and publicity of the acts. In order to control the observance of procedural safeguards, it is necessary to establish the contradictory as true guarantor of procedural guarantees. In order to do so, only the respective guarantees will be effective, when, all and any probative production is developed publicly and orally, through a procedural rite previously established in the law. To this end, the present work begins with an analysis of the inquisitive system and its permanent interference in our current criminal process, proposing an overcoming of the current system, which is the accusatory, in view of its inability to contain inquisitive interference, proposing a new Vision of system as a way of perfecting what was then valid, based on the premise of a change of the unifying principle in order to enhance the oral and publicity of the acts.

  10. Anatomy of Bond Formation. Bond Length Dependence of the Extent of Electron Sharing in Chemical Bonds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ponec, Robert; Cooper, D.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 727, 1-3 (2005), s. 133-138 ISSN 0166-1280 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : electron sharing * chemical bonds Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.045, year: 2005

  11. Cooperativity in Surface Bonding and Hydrogen Bonding of Water and Hydroxyl at Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiros, T.; Ogasawara, H.; Naslund, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    of the mixed phase at metal surfaces. The surface bonding can be considered to be similar to accepting a hydrogen bond, and we can thereby apply general cooperativity rules developed for hydrogen-bonded systems. This provides a simple understanding of why water molecules become more strongly bonded...... to the surface upon hydrogen bonding to OH and why the OH surface bonding is instead weakened through hydrogen bonding to water. We extend the application of this simple model to other observed cooperativity effects for pure water adsorption systems and H3O+ on metal surfaces.......We examine the balance of surface bonding and hydrogen bonding in the mixed OH + H2O overlayer on Pt(111), Cu(111), and Cu(110) via density functional theory calculations. We find that there is a cooperativity effect between surface bonding and hydrogen bonding that underlies the stability...

  12. One hundred years of Lewis Chemical Bond!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-20

    , it did not take long for chemists to realize that noble gases can form bonds with other elements, under appropriate conditions. Hydrogen bonding is discussed in articles by Banerjee, Bhattacharya and Chakraborty; Karir, ...

  13. Manufacturing study of beryllium bonded structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Hirai, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Oda, Y.; Shimizu, K.

    2004-01-01

    Manufacturing study has been conducted on Be-bonded structures employed in the first-wall panel of the blanket system for the ITER. For Be tiles bonded to the Cu-Cr-Zr alloy heat sink with stainless-steel cooling pipes, a one-axis hot press with two heating process has been used to bond the three materials. First, Cu-alloy and SS materials are bonded diffusively. Then, Be tiles are bonded to the pre-bonded structure under 20 MPa and at 560 degree C. An Al-Si base interlayer has been used to bond Be to the Cu-Alloy. Because of the limited heat processes using a conventional hot press, the manufacturing cost can be minimized. Using the above bonding techniques, a partial mockup of a blanket first-wall panel with 16 Be tiles (with 50 mm in size) has been successfully manufactured. (author)

  14. 7 CFR 1530.107 - Bond or letter of credit requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... export of sugar in sugar containing products, or the production of certain polyhydric alcohols, if the... covering such sugar to be re-exported or used in the production of certain polyhydric alcohols. The surety... between the Number 11 contract price and the Number 14 contract price (New York Coffee, Sugar and Cocoa...

  15. Bond graph modeling of centrifugal compression systems

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Nur; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach to model unsteady fluid dynamics in a compressor network by using a bond graph is presented. The model is intended in particular for compressor control system development. First, we develop a bond graph model of a single compression system. Bond graph modeling offers a different perspective to previous work by modeling the compression system based on energy flow instead of fluid dynamics. Analyzing the bond graph model explains the energy flow during compressor surge. Two pri...

  16. Tetraalkylammonium Salts as Hydrogen-Bonding Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Shirakawa, Seiji; Liu, Shiyao; Kaneko, Shiho; Kumatabara, Yusuke; Fukuda, Airi; Omagari, Yumi; Maruoka, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    Although the hydrogen-bonding ability of the α hydrogen atoms on tetraalkylammonium salts is often discussed with respect to phase-transfer catalysts, catalysis that utilizes the hydrogen-bond-donor properties of tetraalkylammonium salts remains unknown. Herein, we demonstrate hydrogen-bonding catalysis with newly designed tetraalkylammonium salt catalysts in Mannich-type reactions. The structure and the hydrogen-bonding ability of the new ammonium salts were investigated by X-ray diffraction...

  17. Intercalation chemistry and chemical bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenmuller, Paul

    In contrast to amphoteric graphite, the layer-type oxides or chalcogenides generally play the role of acceptors in chemical or electrochemical intercalation reactions. Due to the more ionic character of the MO bonds, the structural evolution of the oxides may usually be explained on hand of electrostatic considerations, or in terms of cation oxido-reduction. For the more covalent chalcogenides, the occupancy of higher energy levels in the band structure by the transferred electrons constitute mostly a prevailing factor, giving rise to structural changes but also to modifications of the physical properties. The ionic character of the MO bonds accounts for the strong tendency of the oxides to undergo 2D→3D transformations as a result of intercalation processes. Such features are determining for the choice of the electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries as far as users require high electrode capacity, stability, and cyclability.

  18. Structure and bonding in clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.

    1991-10-01

    We review here the recent progress made in the understanding of the electronic and atomic structure of small clusters of s-p bonded materials using the density functional molecular dynamics technique within the local density approximation. Starting with a brief description of the method, results are presented for alkali metal clusters, clusters of divalent metals such as Mg and Be which show a transition from van der Waals or weak chemical bonding to metallic behaviour as the cluster size grows and clusters of Al, Sn and Sb. In the case of semiconductors, we discuss results for Si, Ge and GaAs clusters. Clusters of other materials such as P, C, S, and Se are also briefly discussed. From these and other available results we suggest the possibility of unique structures for the magic clusters. (author). 69 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  19. Are Stock and Corporate Bond Markets Integrated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zundert, J.; Driessen, Joost

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the cross-sectional integration of stock and corporate bond markets by comparing a firm’s expected stock return, as implied by corporate bond spreads, to its realized stock return. We compute expected corporate bond returns by correcting credit spreads for expected losses due to

  20. 7 CFR 356.5 - Bonded release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bonded release. 356.5 Section 356.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FORFEITURE PROCEDURES § 356.5 Bonded release. (a) The Deputy Administrator may accept a bond or other security, in the amount of...

  1. Environmentally dependent bond-order potentials: New ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Environmentally dependent bond-order potentials: New developments and applications ... for modelling amorphous structure we found that the and bond integrals are not only transferable between graphite and diamond structures but they are also strongly anisotropic due to inter-plan bonding between graphite sheets.

  2. Theoretical exploration of pnicogen bond noncovalent interactions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 10. Theoretical ... Keywords. Noncovalent interaction; pnicogen bond; natural bond orbital theory; natural resonance theory; electron density topological property. ... The natural bond orbital interactions in the ZBs are mainly LP1,2 (O) → * (P-X). The P-X ...

  3. 36 CFR 223.35 - Performance bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance bond. 223.35 Section 223.35 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND... Performance bond. Timber sale contracts may require the purchaser to furnish a performance bond for...

  4. 25 CFR 216.8 - Performance bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Performance bond. 216.8 Section 216.8 Indians BUREAU OF... RECLAMATION OF LANDS General Provisions § 216.8 Performance bond. (a) Upon approval of an exploration plan or mining plan, the operator shall be required to file a suitable performance bond of not less than $2,000...

  5. 36 CFR 9.48 - Performance bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance bond. 9.48... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.48 Performance bond. (a) Prior to approval of a plan of operations, the operator shall be required to file a suitable performance bond with satisfactory...

  6. 27 CFR 19.955 - Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonds. 19.955 Section 19.955 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Bonds § 19.955 Bonds. An...

  7. 30 CFR 800.21 - Collateral bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collateral bonds. 800.21 Section 800.21 Mineral... FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.21 Collateral bonds. (a) Collateral bonds, except for letters of credit, cash accounts, and real property, shall be...

  8. Simple inorganic complexes but intricate hydrogen bonding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    We are interested in obtaining single crystals of metal-opda complexes because their crystal structures would show complex hydrogen bonding network due to the presence of. –NH2 groups in the opda ligand (hydrogen bonding donor sites) and inorganic anions having mostly oxo groups (hydrogen bonding acceptor sites) ...

  9. Rebond strength of bonded lingual wire retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Westing, K.; Algera, T.J.; Kleverlaan, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    There is no consensus in the literature concerning the rebonding procedure for orthodontic retainers. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond and rebond strength of retainers bonded to enamel surfaces with and without composite remnants. The retainers were bonded with Excite and

  10. Liquidity risk premia in corporate bond markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.J.A.G.; de Jong, F.C.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the role of liquidity risk in the pricing of corporate bonds. We show that corporate bond returns have significant exposures to fluctuations in treasury bond liquidity and equity market liquidity. Further, this liquidity risk is a priced factor for the expected returns on

  11. Bond Percolation on Multiplex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, A.; Cellai, D.; Gómez, S.; Arenas, A.; Gleeson, J. P.

    2016-04-01

    We present an analytical approach for bond percolation on multiplex networks and use it to determine the expected size of the giant connected component and the value of the critical bond occupation probability in these networks. We advocate the relevance of these tools to the modeling of multilayer robustness and contribute to the debate on whether any benefit is to be yielded from studying a full multiplex structure as opposed to its monoplex projection, especially in the seemingly irrelevant case of a bond occupation probability that does not depend on the layer. Although we find that in many cases the predictions of our theory for multiplex networks coincide with previously derived results for monoplex networks, we also uncover the remarkable result that for a certain class of multiplex networks, well described by our theory, new critical phenomena occur as multiple percolation phase transitions are present. We provide an instance of this phenomenon in a multiplex network constructed from London rail and European air transportation data sets.

  12. Facilitating working mothers' ability to breastfeed: global trends in guaranteeing breastfeeding breaks at work, 1995-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabay, Efe; Moreno, Gonzalo; Nandi, Arijit; Kranz, Gabriella; Vincent, Ilona; Assi, Tina-Marie; Winfrey, Elise Marie Vaughan; Earle, Alison; Raub, Amy; Heymann, S Jody

    2015-02-01

    Mothers who work away from home tend to stop breastfeeding earlier than their nonworking counterparts due to workplace barriers. Barriers to breastfeeding discriminate against women and may lead to inequities in children's health outcomes. Guaranteeing paid breastfeeding breaks at work is 1 mechanism that can improve mothers' opportunity to breastfeed in the workplace. This study aimed to assess the trends in the share of countries guaranteeing breastfeeding breaks in the workplace and paid maternal leave that lasts until the infant is 6 months old (the World Health Organization recommended duration for exclusive breastfeeding), between 1995 and 2014. Legislation and secondary source data were collected and reviewed for 193 United Nations member states. Legislation was analyzed for content on breastfeeding breaks and maternal leave guarantees. Fifty-one countries (26.7%) in 2014 did not guarantee breastfeeding breaks in any form and 4 countries provided only unpaid breaks or breaks that did not cover the first 6 months of life; since 1995, around 15 countries (10.2%) legislated for such a policy. In 2014, out of 55 countries that did not guarantee paid breastfeeding breaks for the first 6 months after birth, 7 countries guaranteed paid maternal leave for the same duration; 48 countries (25.1%) provided neither paid maternal leave nor paid breastfeeding breaks. Progress in the number of countries guaranteeing breastfeeding breaks at work is modest. Adopting measures to facilitate breastfeeding at work can be a critical opportunity for countries to increase breastfeeding rates among the growing number of women in the labor force. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Recent Advances in Adhesive Bonding - The Role of Biomolecules, Nanocompounds, and Bonding Strategies in Enhancing Resin Bonding to Dental Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münchow, Eliseu A; Bottino, Marco C

    2017-09-01

    To present an overview on the main agents (i.e., biomolecules and nanocompounds) and/or strategies currently available to amplify or stabilize resin-dentin bonding. According to studies retrieved for full text reading (2014-2017), there are currently six major strategies available to overcome resin-dentin bond degradation: (i) use of collagen crosslinking agents, which may form stable covalent bonds with collagen fibrils, thus strengthening the hybrid layer; (ii) use of antioxidants, which may allow further polymerization reactions over time; (iii) use of protease inhibitors, which may inhibit or inactivate metalloproteinases; (iv) modification of the bonding procedure, which may be performed by using the ethanol wet-bonding technique or by applying an additional adhesive (hydrophobic) coating, thereby strengthening the hybrid layer; (v) laser treatment of the substrate prior to bonding, which may cause specific topographic changes in the surface of dental substrates, increasing bonding efficacy; and (vi) reinforcement of the resin matrix with inorganic fillers and/or remineralizing agents, which may positively enhance physico-mechanical properties of the hybrid layer. With the present review, we contributed to the better understanding of adhesion concepts and mechanisms of resin-dentin bond degradation, showing the current prospects available to solve that problematic. Also, adhesively-bonded restorations may be benefited by the use of some biomolecules, nanocompounds or alternative bonding strategies in order to minimize bond strength degradation.

  14. The neurobiology of pair bond formation, bond disruption, and social buffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Wang, Zuoxin

    2016-10-01

    Enduring social bonds play an essential role in human society. These bonds positively affect psychological, physiological, and behavioral functions. Here, we review the recent literature on the neurobiology, particularly the role of oxytocin and dopamine, of pair bond formation, bond disruption, and social buffering effects on stress responses, from studies utilizing the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. 19 CFR 125.32 - Merchandise delivered to a bonded store or bonded warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... warehouse. 125.32 Section 125.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Merchandise delivered to a bonded store or bonded warehouse. When merchandise is carried, carted or lightered to and received in a bonded store or bonded warehouse, the proprietor or his representative shall...

  16. Tracking performance and global stability guaranteed neural control of uncertain hypersonic flight vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Teng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a global adaptive neural dynamic surface control with predefined tracking performance is developed for a class of hypersonic flight vehicles, whose accurate dynamics is hard to obtain. The control scheme developed in this paper overcomes the limitations of neural approximation region by employing a switching mechanism which incorporates an additional robust controller outside the neural approximation region to pull the transient state variables back when they overstep the neural approximation region, such that globally uniformly ultimately bounded stability can be guaranteed. Especially, the developed global adaptive neural control also improves the tracking performance by introducing an error transformation mechanism, such that both transient and steady-state performance can be shaped according to the predefined bounds. Simulation studies on the hypersonic flight vehicle validate that the designed controller has good velocity modulation and velocity stability performance.

  17. Differentiated protection services with failure probability guarantee for workflow-based applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yaoquan; Guo, Wei; Jin, Yaohui; Sun, Weiqiang; Hu, Weisheng

    2010-12-01

    A cost-effective and service-differentiated provisioning strategy is very desirable to service providers so that they can offer users satisfactory services, while optimizing network resource allocation. Providing differentiated protection services to connections for surviving link failure has been extensively studied in recent years. However, the differentiated protection services for workflow-based applications, which consist of many interdependent tasks, have scarcely been studied. This paper investigates the problem of providing differentiated services for workflow-based applications in optical grid. In this paper, we develop three differentiated protection services provisioning strategies which can provide security level guarantee and network-resource optimization for workflow-based applications. The simulation demonstrates that these heuristic algorithms provide protection cost-effectively while satisfying the applications' failure probability requirements.

  18. Investigations on the critical feed rate guaranteeing the effectiveness of rotary ultrasonic machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjian; Feng, Pingfa; Zhang, Jianfu; Cai, Wanchong; Shen, Hao

    2017-02-01

    Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) is a well-known and efficient method for manufacturing holes in brittle materials. RUM is characterized by improved material removal rates, reduced cutting forces and reduced edge chipping sizes at the hole exit. The aim of this study is to investigate the critical feed rate to guarantee the effectiveness of RUM. Experimental results on quartz glass and sapphire specimens show that when the feed rate exceeds a critical value, the cutting force increases abruptly, accompanied by a significant decrease of ultrasonic amplitude. An analytical model for the prediction of critical feed rates is presented, based on indentation fracture mechanic and the theory of impact of vibrating systems. This model establishes the theoretical relationships between the critical feed rate, idling resonant ultrasonic amplitude and spindle speed. The results predicted by the analytical model were in good agreement with the experimental results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Thermolabile drugs: pharmacist intervention as a guarantee of cold chain maintenance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricote-Lobera, I; Santos-Mena, B; Fraile-Gil, S; Ortiz-Martín, B; Hidalgo-Correas, F J; García-Díaz, B

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether pharmacist is able to guarantee cold chain maintenance of thermolabile drugs during transport using the available information in the reception process and to compare these results with those obtained in a subsequent intervention phase, in which the manufacturing laboratories were contacted. Intervention study, prospective and comparative"before-after". It was analyzed the storage conditions during transport of all thermolabile drugs received in a 400-bed hospital for 3 months, excluding those from clinical trials. The intervention allowed to ensure cold chain maintenance in 76,5% (n = 488) of received drugs, representing an increase of 41,8% (IC 95% 36,7-46,6%; p cold chain maintenance of received thermolabile drugs without temperature monitoring device (64,6%). Reports requested from laboratories allowed to increase significantly that percentage. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Status of assessment tools on the performance guarantee contents of backfill, bulkhead, tunnel and pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Susumu; Fujita, Tomoo; Yui, Mikazu

    2006-03-01

    In order to contribute to the safety standards and guidelines which a regulator will decide, a state-of-the-art assessment method is investigated and summarized in tables about performance guarantee contents of backfill, bulkhead, tunnel (access, main, connecting, disposal) and disposal pit. In addition, examples of assessment tools are described. In this report, summary of (1) basic properties of bentonite, including swelling, mechanical and hydraulic properties, (2) long-term behavior of bentonite, including extrusion/erosion into host rock, and alteration, (3) effect of high pH plume from cementitious material and (4) mechanical stability of the near-field is described. Check points, assessment methods for (based on the data obtained from the experimental results, the estimation value obtained from empirical equations and database, and the modeling calculations) and latest results of these R and D programs were also summarized. (author)

  1. Advertising Via Mobile Terminals - Delivering Context Sensitive and Personalized Advertising While Guaranteeing Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulander, Rebecca; Decker, Michael; Schiefer, Gunther; Kölmel, Bernhard

    Mobile terminals like cellular phones and PDAs are a promising target platform for mobile advertising: The devices are widely spread, are able to present interactive multimedia content and offer as almost permanently carried along personal communication devices a high degree of reachability. But particular because of the latter feature it is important to pay great attention to privacy aspects and avoidance of spam-messages when designing an application for mobile advertising. Furthermore the limited user interface of mobile devices is a special challenge. The following article describes the solution approach for mobile advertising developed within the project MoMa, which was funded by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour of Germany (BMWA). MoMa enables highly personalized and context sensitive mobile advertising while guaranteeing data protection. To achieve this we have to distinguish public and private context information.

  2. Guaranteed Unresolved Point Source Emission and the Gamma-ray Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlidou, Vasiliki; Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.; Brown, Carolyn; Fields, Brian D.; Olinto, Angela V.

    2007-01-01

    The large majority of EGRET point sources remain without an identified low-energy counterpart, and a large fraction of these sources are most likely extragalactic. Whatever the nature of the extragalactic EGRET unidentified sources, faint unresolved objects of the same class must have a contribution to the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGRB). Understanding this component of the EGRB, along with other guaranteed contributions from known sources (blazars and normal galaxies), is essential if we are to use this emission to constrain exotic high-energy physics. Here, we follow an empirical approach to estimate whether the contribution of unresolved unidentified sources to the EGRB is likely to be important. Additionally, we discuss how upcoming GLAST observations of EGRET unidentified sources, their fainter counterparts, and the Galactic and extragalactic diffuse backgrounds, will shed light on the nature of the EGRET unidentified sources even without any positional association of such sources with low-energy counterparts

  3. A Distributed Architecture for Sharing Ecological Data Sets with Access and Usage Control Guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Gonzalez, Javier; Granados, Joel Andres

    2014-01-01

    new insights, there are signicant barriers to the realization of this vision. One of the key challenge is to allow scientists to share their data widely while retaining some form of control over who accesses this data (access control) and more importantly how it is used (usage control). Access...... and usage control is necessary to enforce existing open data policies. We have proposed the vision of trusted cells: A decentralized infrastructure, based on secure hardware running on devices equipped with trusted execution environments at the edges of the Internet. We originally described the utilization...... data sets with access and usage control guarantees. We rely on examples from terrestrial research and monitoring in the arctic in the context of the INTERACT project....

  4. A robust model predictive control algorithm for uncertain nonlinear systems that guarantees resolvability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Carson, John M., III

    2006-01-01

    A robustly stabilizing MPC (model predictive control) algorithm for uncertain nonlinear systems is developed that guarantees resolvability. With resolvability, initial feasibility of the finite-horizon optimal control problem implies future feasibility in a receding-horizon framework. The control consists of two components; (i) feed-forward, and (ii) feedback part. Feed-forward control is obtained by online solution of a finite-horizon optimal control problem for the nominal system dynamics. The feedback control policy is designed off-line based on a bound on the uncertainty in the system model. The entire controller is shown to be robustly stabilizing with a region of attraction composed of initial states for which the finite-horizon optimal control problem is feasible. The controller design for this algorithm is demonstrated on a class of systems with uncertain nonlinear terms that have norm-bounded derivatives and derivatives in polytopes. An illustrative numerical example is also provided.

  5. Small Body GN&C Research Report: A Robust Model Predictive Control Algorithm with Guaranteed Resolvability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikmese, Behcet A.; Carson, John M., III

    2005-01-01

    A robustly stabilizing MPC (model predictive control) algorithm for uncertain nonlinear systems is developed that guarantees the resolvability of the associated finite-horizon optimal control problem in a receding-horizon implementation. The control consists of two components; (i) feedforward, and (ii) feedback part. Feed-forward control is obtained by online solution of a finite-horizon optimal control problem for the nominal system dynamics. The feedback control policy is designed off-line based on a bound on the uncertainty in the system model. The entire controller is shown to be robustly stabilizing with a region of attraction composed of initial states for which the finite-horizon optimal control problem is feasible. The controller design for this algorithm is demonstrated on a class of systems with uncertain nonlinear terms that have norm-bounded derivatives, and derivatives in polytopes. An illustrative numerical example is also provided.

  6. Compositional Synthesis of Controllers from Scenario-Based Assume-Guarantee Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenyer, Joel; Kindler, Ekkart

    2013-01-01

    to avoid flaws in the product or costly iterations during its development. We propose to use Modal Sequence Diagrams (MSDs), a formal, yet intuitive formalism for specifying the interaction of a system with its environment, and developed a formal synthesis approach that allows us to detect inconsistencies...... and even to automatically synthesize controllers from MSD specifications. The technique is suited for specifications of technical systems with real-time constraints and environment assumptions. However, synthesis is computationally expensive. In order to employ synthesis also for larger specifications, we...... present, in this paper, a novel assume-guarantee-style compositional synthesis technique for MSD specifications. We provide evaluation results underlining the benefit of our approach and formally justify its correctness....

  7. Communication Framework for Tele-rehabilitation Systems with QoS Guarantee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandanov Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is great interest in developing telemedicine technologies. These technologies will provide health care from distance swiftly and lightly, as well as reduce the expenses for activities, such as rehabilitation. Telemedicine applications are possible due to the advances in information technologies and the ever-expanding communication network infrastructure. The network characteristics bandwidth, packet loss, latency, jitter and policies are crucial for the performance of tele-rehabilitation systems. Because in tele-rehabilitation human lives are at stake, guaranteeing the Quality of Service (QoS is important. In this paper, an approach for assuring the QoS for information transmission in tele-rehabilitation systems is proposed.

  8. QoS-Guaranteed Admission Control for OFDMA-based Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramkumar, Venkata; Anggorojati, Bayu; Lucian, Stefan P. Andrei

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel admission control (AC) algorithm for guaranteed quality of service (QoS) to all users. The proposed solution provides better utilization of system capacity using adaptive modulation (AM). A scheduler based on a per user priority function is also given in this paper....... The AC is given by allocating the exact number of slots for each user that will meet its QoS. For every new user the number of slots required to meet its service requirements is estimated based on its channel quality information (CQI), packet arrival rate and buffer length. Using the average QoS achieved......, the satisfaction index (SI) and priority is calculated for every user, which is used as key input for the scheduler. Further, the resource allocation in time and frequency for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDMA) systems is also discussed based on user satisfaction and number of slots required...

  9. Optimal Consumption and Investment with Labor Income and European/American Capital Guarantee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Tolver Kronborg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the optimal consumption and investment strategy for an investor, endowed with labor income, searching to maximize utility from consumption and terminal wealth when facing a binding capital constraint of a European (constraint on terminal wealth or an American (constraint on the wealth process type. In both cases, the optimal strategy is proven to be of the option-based portfolio insurance type. The optimal strategy combines a long position in the optimal unrestricted allocation with a put option. In the American case, where the investor is restricted to fulfill a capital guarantee at every intermediate time point over the interval of optimization, we prove that the investor optimally changes his budget constraint for the unrestricted allocation whenever the constraint is active. The strategy is explained in a step-by-step manner, and numerical illustrations are presented in order to support intuition and to compare the restricted optimal strategy with the unrestricted optimal counterpart.

  10. Sufficient criterion for guaranteeing that a two-qubit state is unsteerable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Joseph; Hirsch, Flavien; Quintino, Marco Túlio; Brunner, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    Quantum steering can be detected via the violation of steering inequalities, which provide sufficient conditions for the steerability of quantum states. Here we discuss the converse problem, namely, ensuring that an entangled state is unsteerable and hence Bell local. We present a simple criterion, applicable to any two-qubit state, that guarantees that the state admits a local hidden state model for arbitrary projective measurements. Specifically, we construct local hidden state models for a large class of entangled states, which thus cannot violate any steering or Bell inequality. In turn, this leads to sufficient conditions for a state to be only one-way steerable and provides the simplest possible example of one-way steering. Finally, by exploiting the connection between steering and measurement incompatibility, we give a sufficient criterion for a continuous set of qubit measurements to be jointly measurable.

  11. Effect of ethanol-wet-bonding technique on resin–enamel bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Kerim Ayar

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The ethanol-wet-bonding technique may increase the bond strength of commercial adhesives to enamel. The chemical composition of the adhesives can affect the bond strength of adhesives when bonding to acid-etched enamel, using the ethanol-wet-bonding technique. Some adhesive systems used in the present study may simultaneously be applied to enamel and dentin using ethanol-wet-bonding. Furthermore, deploying ethanol-wet-bonding for the tested commercial adhesives to enamel can increase the adhesion abilities of these adhesives to enamel.

  12. Final disposal of radioactive wastes in Switzerland: concept and overview of Project Guarantee 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The validity of the operational licences of the existing Swiss nuclear power plants (NPP) Beznau I and II, Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt after 31st. December 1985 is, because of official requirements, dependent on the demonstration of permanent, safe management and final disposal of radioactive waste. For this purpose, the NPP companies have to prepare a so-called guarantee project and present this to the Bundesrat for review. The appropriate investigations and research have been carried out by Nagra (National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste). The 1985 Project Gewaehr (Guarantee) is described in an eight volume report NGB 85-01 to 85-08 and individual research projects are reported on in separate NTB-series reference reports. The present volume NGB 85-01 takes the form of a self-contained project overview in which the concepts for nuclear waste management are described, the contents of the remaining volumes NGB 85-02 to 85-08 are summarized and Project conclusions are drawn from Project Gewaehr 1985. Project Gewaehr 1985 covers two repository types: Type C repository for high-level and certain alpha-containing intermediate-level waste, and Type B repository for all remaining intermediate- and low-level waste. The Project shows in detail that technical feasibility of final disposal can be assumed given presently available methods, that the technical safety barriers show a high level of efficiency and that suitable geological options are available to ensure long-term safety in Switzerland as the concept is defined by official requirements. The Project safety analyses show that the chosen disposal concepts assure the protection of mankind and the environment under all realistically anticipated conditions

  13. Hexacoordinate bonding and aromaticity in silicon phthalocyanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang

    2010-12-23

    Si-E bondings in hexacoordinate silicon phthalocyanine were analyzed using bond order (BO), energy partition, atoms in molecules (AIM), electron localization function (ELF), and localized orbital locator (LOL). Bond models were proposed to explain differences between hexacoordinate and tetracoordinate Si-E bondings. Aromaticity of silicon phthalocyanine was investigated using nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS), harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity (HOMA), conceptual density functional theory (DFT), ring critical point (RCP) descriptors, and delocalization index (DI). Structure, energy, bonding, and aromaticity of tetracoordinate silicon phthalocyanine were studied and compared with hexacoordinate one.

  14. Reinforcing thermoplastics with hydrogen bonding bridged inorganics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Mingliang, E-mail: du@zstu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Guo Baochun, E-mail: psbcguo@scut.edu.c [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Liu Mingxian; Cai Xiaojia; Jia Demin [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-01-15

    A new reinforcing strategy for thermoplastics via hydrogen bonding bridged inorganics in the matrix was proposed. The hydrogen bonds could be formed in thermoplastics matrices with the incorporation of a little organics containing hydrogen bonding functionalities. Isotactic polypropylene (PP), polyamide 6 (PA 6), and high density polyethylene (HDPE), together with specific inorganics and organics were utilized to verify the effectiveness of the strategy. The investigations suggest that the hydrogen bonding bridged inorganics led to substantially increased flexural properties. The results of attenuated total refraction Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) indicate the formation of hydrogen bonding among the inorganics and organics in the composites.

  15. On The Nature of the Halogen Bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changwei; Danovich, David; Mo, Yirong; Shaik, Sason

    2014-09-09

    The wide-ranging applications of the halogen bond (X-bond), notably in self-assembling materials and medicinal chemistry, have placed this weak intermolecular interaction in a center of great deal of attention. There is a need to elucidate the physical nature of the halogen bond for better understanding of its similarity and differences vis-à-vis other weak intermolecular interactions, for example, hydrogen bond, as well as for developing improved force-fields to simulate nano- and biomaterials involving X-bonds. This understanding is the focus of the present study that combines the insights of a bottom-up approach based on ab initio valence bond (VB) theory and the block-localized wave function (BLW) theory that uses monomers to reconstruct the wave function of a complex. To this end and with an aim of unification, we studied the nature of X-bonds in 55 complexes using the combination of VB and BLW theories. Our conclusion is clear-cut; most of the X-bonds are held by charge transfer interactions (i.e., intermolecular hyperconjugation) as envisioned more than 60 years ago by Mulliken. This is consistent with the experimental and computational findings that X-bonds are more directional than H-bonds. Furthermore, the good linear correlation between charge transfer energies and total interaction energies partially accounts for the success of simple force fields in the simulation of large systems involving X-bonds.

  16. Liquidity in Government versus Covered Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Sangill, Thomas

    We present findings on the secondary market liquidity of government and covered bonds in Denmark before, during and after the 2008 financial crisis. The analysis focuses on wholesale trading in the two markets and is based on a complete transaction level dataset covering November 2007 until end...... 2011. Overall, our findings suggest that Danish benchmark covered bonds by and large are as liquid as Danish government bonds - including in periods of market stress. Before the financial crisis of 2008, government bonds were slightly more liquid than covered bonds. During the crisis, trading continued...... in both markets but the government bond market experienced a brief but pronounced decline in market liquidity while liquidity in the covered bond market was more robust - partly reflective of a number of events as well as policy measures introduced in the autumn of 2008. After the crisis, liquidity...

  17. "Subnational Borrowing in Japan : from 'Implicit Guarantee' to Market Discipline and Fiscal Rule"

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuki Mochida

    2008-01-01

    In many countries, local borrowing is an important source for long-term development projects such as roads, bridges, and waterworks. Local borrowing for such projects is justified on the ground that benefit of these projects often last decades and the cost of these projects should be borne by future tax payers. However, there are serious concerns with issuance of local bonds by decentralized local governments. Local governments in Japan would not default on their borrowing because of such "im...

  18. Robust Guaranteed Cost Observer Design for Singular Markovian Jump Time-Delay Systems with Generally Incomplete Transition Probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the investigation of the design of robust guaranteed cost observer for a class of linear singular Markovian jump time-delay systems with generally incomplete transition probability. In this singular model, each transition rate can be completely unknown or only its estimate value is known. Based on stability theory of stochastic differential equations and linear matrix inequality (LMI technique, we design an observer to ensure that, for all uncertainties, the resulting augmented system is regular, impulse free, and robust stochastically stable with the proposed guaranteed cost performance. Finally, a convex optimization problem with LMI constraints is formulated to design the suboptimal guaranteed cost filters for linear singular Markovian jump time-delay systems with generally incomplete transition probability.

  19. Actor bonds after relationship dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    Most of the presented papers at the 1st NoRD Workshop can be classified as belonging to the business marketing approach to relationship dissolution. Two papers were conceptual, and the remaining six were empirical studies. The first conceptual study by Skaates (2000) focuses on the nature...... of the actor bonds that remain after a business relationship has ended. The study suggests that an interdisciplinary approach would provide a richer understanding of the phenomenon; this could be achieved by using e.g. Bourdieu's sociological concepts in dissolution research....

  20. Bonded and Stitched Composite Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Bart F. (Inventor); Dial, William B. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of forming a composite structure can include providing a plurality of composite panels of material, each composite panel having a plurality of holes extending through the panel. An adhesive layer is applied to each composite panel and a adjoining layer is applied over the adhesive layer. The method also includes stitching the composite panels, adhesive layer, and adjoining layer together by passing a length of a flexible connecting element into the plurality of holes in the composite panels of material. At least the adhesive layer is cured to bond the composite panels together and thereby form the composite structure.