WorldWideScience

Sample records for supreme court roe

  1. Supreme Court Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    "Chief Justice Flubs Oath." "Justice Ginsburg Has Cancer Surgery." At the start of this year, those were the news headlines about the U.S. Supreme Court. But January 2009 also brought news about key education cases--one resolved and two others on the docket--of which school administrators should take particular note. The Supreme Court updates on…

  2. At the Supreme Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles F.

    2000-01-01

    States that in the past juvenile courts afforded children with fewer rights than criminal courts accorded to adults accused of the same crimes. Reviews three U.S. Supreme Court cases that affirmed the constitutional rights of juvenile offenders and changed juvenile court proceedings. Discusses whether the juvenile death penalty violates…

  3. Supreme Court's New Term. Supreme Court Roundup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles F.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the issues addressed in the 2002 U.S. Supreme Court term, such as the First, Fourth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments, cruel and unusual punishment, sex offender registries, fair housing, cross burning, jury selection, affirmative action, abortion protests, and copyrights and the public domain. (CMK)

  4. Supreme Court Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles F.

    2009-01-01

    By the end of the 2008-2009 term, Justice David Souter's decision to return to New Hampshire and President Obama's nomination of Sonia Sotomayor to replace him on the bench had taken over the Supreme Court news cycle. In the end, the consensus has been that, with the possible exception of criminal justice issues, swapping out Souter for Sotomayor…

  5. Supreme Court Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles F.; Hawke, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Of the three branches of government, the Supreme Court usually receives the least national attention. Not so this year. In addition to another changing of the guard with the retirement of Justice Stevens and the nomination of Elena Kagan, the 2009-2010 term generated a great deal of controversy. And in a number of instances, the public's keen…

  6. Editorial Coverage of Reagan Supreme Court Nominees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, F. Dennis

    To measure the editorial advocacy of influential newspapers concerning the membership of the Supreme Court, a study analyzed editorials from such newspapers concerning the last five Supreme Court nominees of President Ronald Reagan (William Rehnquist, Antonin Scalia, Robert Bork, Douglas Ginsburg, and Anthony Kennedy). A telephone survey of 100…

  7. The Supreme Court in the Culture Wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabkin, Jeremy

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the U.S. Supreme Court has been an active and liberally biased participant in the U.S. culture war. Historical evidence is presented, including areas of tuition tax credit and segregated private schools, abortion and the Right-to-Life movement, and prayer in public schools. The author discusses how the Supreme Court has strengthened…

  8. Minnesota in the Supreme Court. Lessons on Supreme Court Cases Involving Minnesotans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Jennifer

    This document focuses on cases brought by Minnesotans to the U.S. Supreme Court. The five lessons featured are designed to provide secondary classroom teachers with material needed to teach each unit. Lessons cover Supreme Court proceedings, free press issues, freedom of religion, abortion rights, and privilege against self-incrimination.…

  9. U.S. Supreme Court Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles F.; Leiterman, Hannah

    1999-01-01

    Provides summaries of U.S. Supreme Court case decisions during its 1998-99 term on the following issues: (1) sexual harassment; (2) street gangs; (3) search and seizure; (4) welfare; (5) immigration; and (6) census. Previews the 1999-2000 term. Includes the article "Teaching Activities and Discussion Questions" by Hannah Leiterman. (CMK)

  10. Development of the Law by Supreme Courts in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Feteris

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is generally recognised in many countries that law-making is not exclusively a task for the legislator, but also for the courts, especially supreme courts. In fact, in many European countries, a tendency seems to be emerging towards an even greater focus on the law-making task of the supreme courts. The author of this paper, the President of the Supreme Court of the Netherlands, addresses various topics regarding this law-making task of European supreme courts, such as the question to what extent (supreme courts make and develop law, whether there is a statutory basis for this activity and what kind of techniques these courts can use. The author also addresses the limits to the power of the supreme courts to develop new rules (especially in relation to the legislator and what is to be expected in the near future regarding law-making by supreme courts. The article is partly inspired by the answers to a questionnaire on this subject, which was sent to the Network of the Presidents of the Supreme Judicial Courts of the European Union.

  11. Indian Supreme Court demands cleaner blood supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S

    1996-01-13

    The government of India recently admitted in parliament that 25% of the country's blood banks remain unlicensed. The Supreme Court has directed the government to establish a National Council for Blood Transfusion in an attempt to curb malpractice, malfunctioning, and corruption in the national blood banking system, and to ensure a safe blood supply. Furthermore, the Court advised the government to enact separate legislation for regulating the collection, processing, storage, distribution, and transportation of blood and the operation of blood banks. Legal action will be taken if any blood banks remain ill equipped or unlicensed after the period of one year. Agencies have been directed to take steps to eliminate professional blood selling within two years. They have also been asked to ensure that there are trained drug inspectors to check upon the banks. To boost funding for the councils, the government has been advised to allow 100% exemption upon income tax to those who donate money to the organizations. The Director General of Health Services has been asked to submit a report on action taken by July 16, 1996, to ensure compliance.

  12. The New 2001-2002 Term. Supreme Court Roundup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles F.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the issues addressed during the 2001-2002 term of the U.S. Supreme Court, which convened on October 1, 2001: (1) school vouchers; (2) affirmative action; (3) online pornography; and (4) the death penalty. (CMK)

  13. USA SUPREME COURT OF JUSTICE AND EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE (COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu-Horia Maican

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The US Supreme Court and the European Court of Justice are coordinating constitutional review. Although the European Union does not have a constitution, the European Court often engages in what functionally amounts to constitutional review, particularly in relation to the quasi-federal structure of the EU. Both courts have engaged in the constitutionalization of politics and seem in risk of politicizing the constitution. The threats to their respective powers and legitimacy are different. The US Supreme Court is vulnerable to internal forces (the President, Congress, national public opinion whereas the European Court is vulnerable to external forces (the member states and, in particular, theirs constitutional courts.

  14. Finding Vredo: the Dutch Supreme Court decision on escitalopram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsoutsanis, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the pharma patent litigation sparked by Lundbeck's blockbuster drug for escitalopram. The article focuses on the trials and tribulations before the Dutch Patent Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court, while also briefly contrasting and comparing this with the decisions in

  15. Legal hermeneutics of the supreme court decision in Akintokun v ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Court, presumably, in order to defend its latter position went against all known positive and sociological approach in the exercise of judicial powers. The judgment in Akintokun's case is capable of ... as it is not 21st century oriented. Keywords: Legal Practitioner, Discipline, Appeals, Supreme Court and Amendment ...

  16. The US Supreme Court, its, formation and first key decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Červinková, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    The US Supreme Court, its formation and first key decisions The thesis offers an insight of an era in which the Supreme Court of United States was founded and established itself as one of the major government institutions as well as a strong powerhouse of American politics. Essential for understanding of the future importance and role of the Court is to perceive not only its own early history but also an understanding of broader context concerning a development of the early American society a...

  17. Perceived Masculinity Predicts U.S. Supreme Court Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daniel; Halberstam, Yosh; Yu, Alan C L

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest a significant role of language in the court room, yet none has identified a definitive correlation between vocal characteristics and court outcomes. This paper demonstrates that voice-based snap judgments based solely on the introductory sentence of lawyers arguing in front of the Supreme Court of the United States predict outcomes in the Court. In this study, participants rated the opening statement of male advocates arguing before the Supreme Court between 1998 and 2012 in terms of masculinity, attractiveness, confidence, intelligence, trustworthiness, and aggressiveness. We found significant correlation between vocal characteristics and court outcomes and the correlation is specific to perceived masculinity even when judgment of masculinity is based only on less than three seconds of exposure to a lawyer's speech sample. Specifically, male advocates are more likely to win when they are perceived as less masculine. No other personality dimension predicts court outcomes. While this study does not aim to establish any causal connections, our findings suggest that vocal characteristics may be relevant in even as solemn a setting as the Supreme Court of the United States.

  18. Will the UK Supreme Court allow assisted dying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard

    MPs overwhelmingly voted against passing the Assisted Dying Bill into law in September 2015. The Bill was defeated by a majority of 212, despite the heartfelt pleas of many MPs to pass it into law. The size of the defeat means that it is unlikely that Parliament will consider a similar law for many years. Yet many considered the Bill their last opportunity to make assisted dying lawful. There is, however, one further possible way assisted dying could become lawful in the UK--and that would be where the Supreme Court allowed it. In this article, the author reviews the Supreme Court's decision in R (on the application of Nicklinson v Ministry of Justice [2014] and considers how likely it is that the Supreme Court will now sanction assisted dying following Parliament's refusal to enact an assisted dying law.

  19. Canada's Supreme Court abolishes 'promise of the patent'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, John; Gloor, Alex

    2018-01-01

    The Supreme Court of Canada has done away with the 'promise of the patent' doctrine. This doctrine invalidated patents to numerous otherwise useful inventions from 2005 to 2016. The Supreme Court of Canada has clarified that the statutory utility requirement requires only a scintilla of utility related to the subject matter of the invention. This utility must have been demonstrated or soundly predicted as of the Canadian filing date. The decision brings increased certainty to Canada's patent system and more closely aligns it with international norms.

  20. How to Read a U.S. Supreme Court Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    Reading U.S. Supreme Court opinions can be intimidating. Yet, in the digital age, it has never been easier to access them. The average opinion is about 4,750 words, and is one of approximately 75 issued by the Court each year. It might be reassuring to know that opinions contain similar parts and tend to follow a similar format. There are also…

  1. Unanimous Supreme Court finds for actions by whistleblowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This article reports on a case before the United States Supreme Court where they have unanimously ruled that the Energy Reorganization Act of 1976 did not preclude a state law claim by an nuclear industry employee for intentional infliction of emotional distress. In addition the court held that federal law did not reflect a congressional desire to preclude all relief to a whistleblower who deliberately committed a safety violation

  2. A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Supreme Court's "Forest Grove" Decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2013-01-01

    The article by Dixon, Eusebio, Turton, Wright, and Hale is entitled "Forest Grove School District v. T.A. Supreme Court Case: Implications for School Psychology Practice." Its implications are that a "comprehensive evaluation" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires assessment of the child's…

  3. Supreme Court Strikes Down NCAA Control of Football on Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Charles S.

    1984-01-01

    The Supreme Court ruling that the National Collegiate Athletic Association's control of televised intercollegiate football violated antitrust law is discussed. At the heart of the restraint of trade are the limitations placed on the money an institution can receive, the times a team can appear, and the number of games telecast. (MLW)

  4. Double Exposure: The Supreme Court and Sex Discrimination Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Charles J.; Thro, William E.

    2009-01-01

    The Supreme Court's recent decision in "Fitzgerald v. Barnstable School Committee" (2009) expands the opportunities for students and their parents to sue school boards for alleged sex discrimination. Even so, as discussed here, "Fitzgerald" should have little effect on the day-to-day operations of school systems. This column…

  5. Legalization in the Academy: Higher Education and the Supreme Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivas, Michael A.; Denison, Kathleen McCartan

    1984-01-01

    Six of the 22 Supreme Court decisions in the 1981-82 term concerning or affecting higher education are discussed. The cases concerned sex discrimination, tuition-free public schooling for undocumented children, residency status, dormitory drug search, student religious groups using school facilities, and the scope of Title IX. (MSE)

  6. Japan’s Supreme Court Discourse and Lifetime Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles T.; Sato, Toyoko

    Our study explores cultural cognition in comparative U.S. – Japan employment relations through interdisciplinary analysis of Japanese Supreme Court regulation of the post-World War II lifetime employment system and the latest data available on Japan's collective bargaining-based approach...... to employee participation in managerial prerogative. The comparative social policy aim is to examine and account for observed employment relations variance in the U.S. and Japan, given their similar labor legislation. Japan’s Supreme Court recognizes lifetime employment as an institutionalized practice and we...... on the Court's discourse. Causally related to this recognition, management councils (a form of employee participation in managerial prerogative) are also a defining feature of Japanese employment relations at the enterprise level. Despite unionization rate declines in both nations, the persistence of Japan...

  7. Irish Supreme Court finds abortion information law constitutional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-02

    On May 12, 1995, the Irish Supreme Court upheld constitutional legislation governing the provision of information regarding legal abortion services abroad. The measure, which was adopted, 85-67, on March 8 by the lower House (Dail) and approved on March 14 by the Senate (Seanad), permits Irish family planning groups, physicians, health advisory services, and counseling centers to continue informing women about abortion within the context of a comprehensive discussion of pregnancy options. Making direct referrals or appointments for abortion services, writing letters of introduction for patients or clients, and advocating or promoting the procedure are prohibited. Medical records may be forwarded once a woman has made her own appointment. The law bans dissemination of the information to the general public and any financial connection between the groups providing counseling and those performing abortions. Irish President Mary Robinson sent the measure to the Supreme Court for review, rather than signing it. The measure was initially intended to implement one portion of a three-part 1992 constitutional referendum on abortion, which occurred in the wake of a case of a pregnant 14-year-old rape survivor who sought to travel to England for an abortion. A lower court decision which had prevented the woman from leaving the country was overturned by the Irish Supreme Court, based on her suicidal state. That year, nearly 60% of the electorate supported a measure making information about abortion in other countries available to Irish women. 65% rejected a proposal limiting abortion to cases where the mother's life, not health, was in danger. The rejected proposal would not have allowed abortions in cases where self-destruction was an issue. 62% approved an amendment guaranteeing an unambiguous constitutional right to travel, including for abortion services. More than 4000 women travel to England for abortions annually. After the Supreme Court ruling, the measure was signed

  8. Prometheus: the Supreme Court redefines the patentability of diagnostic inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Andrew; Schmid, Cora L

    2012-12-01

    The United States Supreme Court recently issued an opinion regarding the patentability of claims directed to diagnostic methods in Mayo Collab. Service v. Prometheus Lab., Inc. In this opinion, the Supreme Court held that correlations between metabolite levels in the human body and either therapeutic efficacy or adverse effects are unpatentable laws of nature. It further found that a patent claim to a method including such a correlation is unpatentable if the remainder of the claim contains only conventional and well-known steps. The Prometheus decision creates uncertainty regarding the scope of patentable subject matter, particularly in the fields of diagnostic and personalized medicine, that will remain until future cases apply this new doctrine.

  9. The Problem of Emergency in the American Supreme Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartz, Emily; ugilt, rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Sixty years before Carl Schmitt wrote his Political Theology, and more than a 100 years before President Bush announced a ‘war on terrorism’ the American Supreme Court grappled with the difficult issue of emergency powers in connection with issues arising out of the American Civil War (1861......–1865). The question confronting the Court in a set of cases named the Prize Cases was whether President Lincoln’s decision to respond to acts of aggression by the secessionist Southern states with measures of war was lawful. The legal problem was that Lincoln had made this decision unilaterally although the American...

  10. Abortion foes get turn to ask Supreme Court for constitutional protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denniston, L

    1994-04-28

    The US Supreme Court began hearing arguments on the constitutionality of a Florida judge's order which placed limits on anti-abortion protesting. This case will be the last abortion--related decision for Justice Harry A. Blackmun, who was the author of the original decision granting the right to abortion in Roe vs. Wade, before retiring from the Court in September 1994. Anti-abortion activists claim 1st Amendment protection, much the same as Dr. Martin Luther King's marches in advancing Blacks' civil rights. The case involved a Melbourne abortion clinic. The murder of Dr. Gunn outside an abortion clinic in Pensacola, Florida, will be used to support the need for protection from extremist violence. The conflict appears to be over the right to save women's right to abortion and over simple, peaceful protests and prayers against abortion. One anti-abortion foe, affiliated with Operational Rescue and initiating the appeal to the Supreme Court, is scheduled to testify before the Court: Judy Madsen, a protester who has counseled outside clinics. Ms. Madsen says she is exercising her freedom to protect human life. Other testimony will come from Reverend Ed Martin of Ocala, Rescue America's founder, and Shirley Hobbs, a homemaker from Orlando. Representation will be made by lawyer Matthew Staver, who will argue that the ruling was directed to a political position. Other support will come from religious and anti-abortion groups and the AFL-CIO. Testifying for the clinic, the Aware Women's Center for Choice, will be the owner and operator Patricia Baird Windle. Over the past 5 years, the Melbourne Clinic had been a target for the nationwide anti-abortion campaign by Operation Rescue. Because of the conflicting rulings between the Florida Supreme Court, which ruled to keep protesters away from clinic grounds and staff homes, and 11th US Circuit Court of Appeals ruling of unconstitutionality, no protection is afforded the clinic. Previous protection had occurred due to a 1992

  11. Japan’s Supreme Court Discourse and Lifetime Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles T.; Sato, Toyoko

    Our study explores cultural cognition in comparative U.S. – Japan employment relations through interdisciplinary analysis of Japanese Supreme Court regulation of the post-World War II lifetime employment system and the latest data available on Japan's collective bargaining-based approach to emplo......Our study explores cultural cognition in comparative U.S. – Japan employment relations through interdisciplinary analysis of Japanese Supreme Court regulation of the post-World War II lifetime employment system and the latest data available on Japan's collective bargaining-based approach...... on the Court's discourse. Causally related to this recognition, management councils (a form of employee participation in managerial prerogative) are also a defining feature of Japanese employment relations at the enterprise level. Despite unionization rate declines in both nations, the persistence of Japan......'s participatory employee relations system contrasts sharply with recent U.S. state-based legislative assaults on long-standing collective bargaining, particularly for public sector unions. The concept of cultural cognition, recently deployed in legal studies to account for domestic U.S. risk, public policy...

  12. Utilities, marketers identify with tax issures in Supreme Court case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warkentin, D. [ed.

    1997-04-01

    A recent US Supreme Court decision effectively highlights the continuing disparity that exists in the taxation of regulated vs. nonregulated energy companies that engage in similar activities. While the federal case (General Motors Corp., vs. Tracy) and its decision involved natural gas utilities and natural gas marketers and how they are taxed locally, some noted electric utility industry professionals said the ruling has the potential of impacting the electric utility industry as it deregulates and works through the tax inequities that exist between it and independent unregulated power marketers. According to the Washington, DC-based law firm Chadbourne & Park LLP, under the Supreme Court ruling, which was handed down in late February and favored gas utilities, {open_quotes}a state can discriminate in favor of regulated utilities by exempting natural gas purchased from local distribution companies from sales taxes while collecting taxes on so-called selfhelp gas bought from gas producers at the wellhead or from independent marketers.{close_quotes} The US Supreme Court ruling appears to be important for the electric utility industry and independent power marketers in that there currently exists similar disparities with respect to taxation. The case involved Ohio and a tax it levies on natural gas. Ohio collects a 5 percent sales or use tax on gas purchased for consumption. According to Chadbourne & Park, in Ohio this tax can be as much as 7 percent when local taxes are tacked on to the state`s 5 percent tax. However, local distribution companies (LDC) are exempt from this tax. LDCs are essentially the local natural gas company or companies that many states, such as Ohio, have. In Ohio, these natural gas companies, which have generally been interpreted as those companies that produce, transport and deliver natural gas to Ohio consumers, are fully exempt from sales and use taxes.

  13. Jurisdiction of courts with a focus on the Special Chamber of the Supreme Court of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Sabri Halili

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal solution offered by the Law establishing the Special Chamber of the Supreme Court of Kosovo is rather challenging for practical implementation. Due to this fact, the decisions of the Special Chamber contain various dilemmas of judges on the jurisdiction of the Chamber on the matters related to natural persons sued by the PAK, which are related to various liabilities of these persons to socially-owned enterprises, namely to the PAK. Since the PAK administers and represents socially owned property in general, it is naturally bound to seek for legal resolutions for all legal contests before a competent court. Naturally, the PAK would seek for such a solution before the Special Chamber of the Supreme Court of Kosovo on PAK-related matters, which is already bound by the title itself, “on PAK-related matters”. Comparisons of remedies by various laws related to subject competence are based on legal literature used in higher education in Kosovo. Analysis of subject competences of regular and special courts is two-fold: the Commercial Court and the Military Court, while the competence of the Special Chamber is only analysed in relation with the Law on Courts, and the Law on the Special Chamber of the Supreme Court, comparing it with the Law on Contested Procedure and the Law on the PAK. The Special Chamber has before and still continues to avoid jurisdiction of this Court, which is sanctioned by Articles 4 and 5 of the Law on the Special Chamber, due to the fact that in cases in which the PAK has sued a natural or legal person, due to debts, occupation of socially owned property, or any other disputed matter, which is directly related to socially owned properties, the Special Chamber proclaims itself incompetent, and transfers the case to regular courts, although the Special Chamber adjudicates “on PAK-related matters”, but in this case only when the PAK is respondent, not when it is claimant.

  14. Text of Supreme Court's Majority Opinion Striking Down NCAA's Control of College Football Telecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, John Paul; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The text of the Supreme Court's decision in National Collegiate Athletic Association v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma, in which the Court struck down the NCAA's control of televised college football, is provided. (Author/MLW)

  15. Supreme Court Appointment Process: Roles of the President, Judiciary Committee, and Senate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rutkus, Denis S

    2007-01-01

    .... Under the Constitution, Justices on the Supreme Court receive lifetime appointments. Such job security in the government has been conferred solely on judges and, by constitutional design, helps insure the Court's independence from the President...

  16. Speaking American: Comparing Supreme Court and Hollywood Racial Interpretation in the Early Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Paul Henry

    2010-01-01

    Apprehending that race is social, not biological, this study examines U.S. racial formation in the early twenty-first century. In particular, Hollywood and Supreme Court texts are analyzed as media for gathering, shaping and transmitting racial ideas. Representing Hollywood, the 2004 film "Crash" is analyzed. Representing the Supreme Court, the…

  17. "Woman's Place" in the Constitution: The Supreme Court and Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Betsy

    1975-01-01

    Article discussed the Supreme Court's response to constitutional attacks from state and federal laws on women's rights, the judicial treatment of racially-based discrimination versus that of gender-based discrimination, and the most recent Supreme Court decisions on gender-based discrimination. (Author/RK)

  18. Courtside: The Supreme Court's View of Drug Testing High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Linda J.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court recently heard a case about mandatory drug tests for student athletes. This article discusses the case, in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of the school district's right to conduct drug tests, noting its relevance to the 4th, 5th, and 14th Amendments. (SM)

  19. Mum's the word: the Supreme Court and family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariner, W K

    1992-01-01

    On May 23, 1991, the US Supreme Court upheld federal regulations that prohibit federally funded family planning programs from counseling about or referring for abortion. As a result, government benefits may now entail substantial costs. The regulations changed the nature of government-assisted family planning from comprehensive care and counseling to limited services and government-prescribed information. The reasoning in Rust v Sullivan allows government to limit freedom of speech in federally funded programs. The decision may have been influenced by antiabortion sentiment, but it does not affect the legality of abortion. Instead, it sets a precedent for government control of whether and how health care can be discussed wherever government pays some of the bills. PMID:1739169

  20. Sustainability for Governance, Brazilian Supreme Court and Conflict of Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno Federici Gomes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2016v37n73p165 This paper intends to approach the theme involving the formation of the Brazilian Supreme Court (STF and the conflict of interest. The method used for accomplishment this work was the theoretician-documentary. In that context the currently constitutional rules to form the STF, having as parameter the rules involving the good governance practices, seems not to comply to the principals of Corporate Governance. The creation of public alliances between the applicants to the Justice position with the Executive and Legislative branches implies in a relation known as conflict of interest, causing prejudices to the independence of judicial decisions and to the sustainable.

  1. Forecasting the Senate vote on the Supreme Court vacancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. Basinger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper forecasts current senators’ votes on Merrick Garland’s nomination to the U.S. Supreme Court, in the unlikely case that a vote actually takes place. The forecasts are necessarily conditional, awaiting measurement of the nominee’s characteristics. Nonetheless, a model that combines parameters estimated from existing data with values of some measurable characteristics of senators—particularly their party affiliations, party loyalty levels, and ideological positions—is sufficient to identify potential swing voters in the Senate. By accounting for a more nuanced and refined understanding of the confirmation process, our model reveals that if President Obama were to nominate almost any nominee (conservative or liberal today, that nominee would be rejected if a vote was allowed to take place. So why nominate anyone at all? Obama’s hope for a successful confirmation must come from the stochastic component, that is, from outside the traditional decision-making calculus.

  2. Implications of the Supreme Court's ACA Medicaid decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jane

    2013-03-01

    In the typical case, states are expected to act like independent sovereigns and reject federal funding conditions they do not like. In National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius (NFIB), however, the Supreme Court found that Congress unduly coerced states when it enacted the Affordable Care Act's Medicaid expansion provision. This article provides an overview to NFIB and discusses its implications. Focusing on Chief Justice Roberts' plurality opinion, the article explains that undue coercion may occur when the following four elements come together: (1) Congress enacts a new spending program; (2) Congress seeks to induce state participation in the new program by threatening to terminate all federal funding to an existing program; (3) the federal funding to the existing program is significant; and (4) the requirements of the new program are not related to the old program and, thus, could not have been anticipated by the state. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  3. In the public interest: intellectual disability, the Supreme Court, and the death penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, Norman

    2010-11-01

    This article deals with a case that recently came before the U.S. Supreme Court. The issues involved whether attorneys provided effective assistance to a person convicted of murder when no mitigating evidence was presented (either strategically or by neglect) to the jury concerning the intellectual disabilities of their client during the death penalty phase of the trial. The Supreme Court had previously ruled that the death penalty for intellectually disabled individuals (mentally retarded) constituted cruel and unusual punishment. In this case the attorneys made a strategic decision not to present possibly mitigating evidence for the death penalty phase. The Supreme Court considered whether the appeals court abdicated its judicial review responsibilities. The results of psychological evaluations are presented, and the decisions of the Supreme Court are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Media Politicization of the United States Supreme Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RonNell Andersen Jones

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Both media scholars and Justices of the United States Supreme Court have suggested that press coverage of the Court increasingly politicizes the Court as an institution, by characterizing the Court’s Justices as ideological actors and by depicting the outputs of the Court as political decisions driven by personal preference rather than apolitical outcomes driven by constitutional doctrine and legal precedent. This study builds upon earlier efforts to investigate the veracity of this assumption, using a corpus linguistics methodology to track the use of several linguistic signals that are widely regarded as politicizing. A case study investigation of the full corpus of New York Times articles from the 1950s through the 2000s suggests an increase in the use of explicitly ideological descriptors of the Justices; an increase in references to the appointing presidents of the Justices; and an increase in the disparity of coverage of 5-4 decisions and unanimous decisions. Tanto los académicos dedicados a la comunicación como los magistrados de la Corte Suprema de los Estados Unidos han sugerido que la cobertura de la prensa de la Corte politiza cada vez más la Corte como institución, ya que representa a los magistrados como actores ideológicos, y presenta las decisiones del tribunal como decisiones políticas tomadas por preferencias personales en lugar de resultados apolíticos fruto de una doctrina constitucional y un precedente legal. Este estudio se basa en intentos anteriores de investigar la veracidad de esta hipótesis, utilizando una metodología de corpus lingüístico, para rastrear el uso de diversos signos lingüísticos comúnmente considerados politizadores. Una investigación de casos prácticos del corpus completo de los artículos del New York Times desde la década de 1950 hasta la década de 2000 sugiere un aumento en el uso de descriptores de los jueces explícitamente ideológicos; un aumento en las referencias a los

  5. Using Conceptual Tensions and Supreme Court Cases to Increase Critical Thinking in Government and Civics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwood, Ayo; Ferraro, Krista Fantin

    2013-01-01

    Each week, U.S. government classes at the authors' school eagerly organize and participate in moot courts. When they began a search for a Supreme Court case study on substantive due process, they found that the only appropriate brief on the StreetLaw website--a treasure trove of student-accessible court case summaries--"Lawrence v.…

  6. How did the Supreme Court ruling on DOMA affect astronomers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Jane R.; The AAS Working Group on LGBTIQ Equality

    2014-01-01

    In June 2013, the United States Supreme Court ruled that Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) was unconstitutional. Section 3 had barred the federal government from recognizing same-sex marriages. The decision in United States v. Windsor, made headlines around the world, and particularly affected astronomers, since astronomers in the US are more likely than the general population to be foreign nationals, to have a foreign-born spouse, or to work for the federal government. In this poster, we highlight some of the real-world ways that the Windsor case has affected US astronomers and our profession. Bi-national couples can now apply for green cards granting permanent residency. Scientists who work for the federal government, including NASA and the NSF, can now obtain health insurance for a same-sex spouse. From taxes to death benefits, health insurance to daycare, immigration to ethics laws, the end of S3 of DOMA has had profoundly improved the lives of US scientists who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT). Here we, highlight several real-world examples of how DOMA's demise has improved the lives and careers of US astronomer.

  7. Implications and reflections on the 2010 Supreme Court ruling on Canada's AHR Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonandan, Raywat; Rahman, Tarun

    2011-01-01

    In December, 2010, Canada's 6 year old Assisted Human Reproduction Act was successfully challenged in the Supreme Court of Canada. There may be important implications for public health and the evolution of reproductive technologies in this country.

  8. The Supreme Court Upholds Drug Testing of Student Participants in Extracurricular Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Russo, Charles J.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of 2001 United States Supreme Court decision in "Earls v. Board of Education of Tecumseh Public Schools," upholding random drug testing for students participating in extracurricular activities. Discusses implications for school policy and practice. (Contains 15 references.) (PKP)

  9. Labor and the Supreme Court: Significant Issues of 1991-92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukill, Craig

    1992-01-01

    Labor-related issues to be considered by the Supreme Court include veterans' rights to reemployment, union organizing practices, pension entitlements, and the taxability of back pay recovered in damage suits. (JOW)

  10. The Supreme Court of Mauritius and the Objectives of Punishment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Supreme Court of Mauritius and the Objectives of Punishment in Sentencing Offenders to Penal Servitude for Life and to Other Lengthy Prisons Terms in Drugs- Related Cases: A Look at Recent Case Law.

  11. Dutch Supreme Court 2012: Virtual Theft Ruling a One-Off or First in a Series?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    In January 2012 the Dutch Supreme Court decided that virtual objects and pre-paid accounts can be stolen. This paper examines the Supreme Court’s Runescape decision and discusses virtual theft. Virtual theft is legally interesting from various perspectives. First, the rules of Runescape do not allow

  12. Neutrality, Proselytism and Religious Minorities at the European Court of Human Rights and the US Supreme Court

    OpenAIRE

    Hatzis, N.

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the way the US Supreme Court and the European Court of Human Rights have dealt with the discriminatory treatment of religious minorities in relation to proselytism, and the role played by the principle of neutrality in arguments supporting the invalidation of statutes which restrict religious canvassing.

  13. "Forest Grove School District v. T.A.": The Supreme Court and Unilateral Private Placements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yell, Mitchell L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Collins, Terri S.

    2010-01-01

    On June 22, 2009, the U.S. Supreme Court issued its decision in the case "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." (hereafter "Forest Grove"). In "Forest Grove," the High Court answered the question of whether the parents of students with disabilities are entitled to reimbursement for the costs associated with placing…

  14. "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." Supreme Court Case: Implications for School Psychology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Shauna G.; Eusebio, Eleazar C.; Turton, William J.; Wright, Peter W. D.; Hale, James B.

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." United States Supreme Court case could have significant implications for school psychology practice. The Court ruled that the parents of a student with a disability were entitled to private school tuition reimbursement even though T.A. had not been identified with a disability or previously…

  15. Two Important Supreme Court Decisions Extending Gay Rights and Their Significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The US Supreme Court has often and rightly been described as the most powerful court in the world. This is because its rulings have such breadth that they can reshape US society and politics. The cout's June 2013 rulings provided further reminders of this. Two related rulings extended gay rights....

  16. Medication Abortion Through Telemedicine: Implications of a Ruling by the Iowa Supreme Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y Tony; Kozhimannil, Katy B

    2016-02-01

    In summer 2015, the Iowa Supreme Court unanimously struck down a restriction that would have prevented physicians from administering a medication abortion remotely through video teleconferencing. In its ruling, the Iowa Supreme Court stated that the restriction would have placed an undue burden on a woman's right to access abortion services. It is crucially important for clinicians--especially primary care clinicians, obstetrician-gynecologists (ob-gyns), and all health care providers of telemedicine services--to understand the implications of this recent ruling, especially in rural settings. The Court's decision has potential ramifications across the country, for both women's access to abortion and the field of telemedicine. Today telemedicine abortion is available only in Iowa and Minnesota; 18 states have adopted bans on it. If telemedicine abortions are indeed being unconstitutionally restricted as the Iowa Supreme Court determined, court decisions reversing these bans could improve access to abortion services for the 21 million reproductive-age women living in these 18 states, which have a limited supply of ob-gyns, mostly concentrated in urban, metropolitan areas. Beyond the potential effects on abortion access, we argue that the Court's decision also has broader implications for telemedicine, by limiting the role of state boards of medicine regarding the restriction of politically controversial medical services when provided through telemedicine. The interplay between telemedicine policy, abortion politics, and the science of medicine is at the heart of the Court's decision and has meaning beyond Iowa's borders for reproductive-age women across the United States.

  17. Amicus Curiae Brief for the United States Supreme Court on Mental Health Issues Associated with "Physician-Assisted Suicide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, James L., Jr.; Gordon, Judith R.

    2002-01-01

    After providing background material related to the Supreme Court cases on "physician-assisted suicide" (Washington v. Glucksberg, 1997, and Vacco v. Quill, 1997), this article presents the amicus curiae brief that was submitted to the United States Supreme Court by 2 national mental health organizations, a state psychological association, and an…

  18. How judges think in the Brazilian Supreme Court: Estimating ideal points and identifying dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando Almeida Nery Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We use NOMINATE (Nominal Three Step Estimation (Poole and Rosenthal, 1983, 1997 to estimate ideal points for all Supreme Court Justices in Brazil from 2002 to 2012. Based on these estimated preferences we identify the nature of the two main dimensions along which disagreements tend to occur in this Court. These estimates correctly predict over 95% of the votes on constitutional review cases in each of the compositions of the Court which we analyze. The main contribution of the paper is to identify that the main dimension along which preferences align in the Brazilian Supreme Court is for and against the economic interest of the Executive. This is significantly different than the conservative-liberal polarization of the US Supreme Court. Our estimates show that along this dimension the composition of the Court has been clearly favorable to the Executive's economic interests, providing the setting in which the dramatic transformation in institutions and policies that the country has undergone in last two decades could take place.

  19. The Many Faces of Compliance: The Supreme Court's Decision in "Horne v. Flores"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thro, William E.

    2009-01-01

    At first blush, the Supreme Court's recent decision in "Horne v. Flores" (2009) appears to be about the proper standard for determining when to modify a previous judgment, a topic that would interest only civil procedure geeks. Yet, on closer examination, "Horne" is about giving local and state officials discretion to solve education problems and,…

  20. The Supreme Court of Mauritius and the Objectives of Punishment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    reformed enough to be released (von Hirsch and Ashworth, 1998;. Terblanche, 2007; and Schabas 2006). It is worth noting that research has shown that there is no or limited evidence to suggest that deterrent sentences are effective in reducing serious or organised crime (Tonry, 2008). 3. The Supreme Court and objectives ...

  1. Forum: Reconsidering the Supreme Court's "Rodriguez" Decision--Is There a Federal Constitutional Right to Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Charles J., Jr.; Robinson, Kimberly Jenkins; Lindseth, Alfred A.; Testani, Rocco E.; Peifer, Lee A.

    2017-01-01

    Does the U.S. Constitution guarantee a right to education? The Supreme Court declared that it does not in "San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez," a 1973 case alleging that disparities in spending levels among Texas school districts violated students' constitutional rights. This issue's forum contains two essays. The first…

  2. The Supreme Court, "Endrew", and the Appropriate Education of Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, H. Rutherford; Turnbull, Ann P.; Cooper, David H.

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the Supreme Court's decision in "Endrew F. v. Douglas County School District RE-1" (2017), interpreting the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and its provisions creating a right of every student with a disability to have an appropriate education. We compare the "Endrew" decision with…

  3. Media Agendas and Human Rights: The Supreme Court Decision on Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, John Crothers; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examines coverage of the abortion issue prior to, during, and after the 1973 Supreme Court decision legalizing elective abortion in daily newspapers in Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, and Washington, D.C. Considers the effect on news coverage of local religious composition, income levels, race, and abortion rate. (GW)

  4. No one 'owns' the genome: The United States Supreme Court rules ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a decision that looks set to shape the future, the United States Supreme Court recently ruled that isolated human DNA cannot be patented. It is argued that this decision will have a potentially serious negative impact on future biotechnological innovation and discovery, and that the more expansive European approach to ...

  5. The Problem of Emergency in the American Supreme Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartz, Emily; ugilt, rasmus

    2011-01-01

    –1865). The question confronting the Court in a set of cases named the Prize Cases was whether President Lincoln’s decision to respond to acts of aggression by the secessionist Southern states with measures of war was lawful. The legal problem was that Lincoln had made this decision unilaterally although the American...... be governed by the decisions and acts of the political department of the Government to which this power was entrusted’ (Prize, p. 669). The precedent, which the Court thereby laid down, has since played out as an important leverage for the Bush government’s legal arguments in connection with the war...... on terrorism. This article engages the theoretical framework of Locke, Schmitt and Agamben in order to come to a better understanding of this important set of cases....

  6. Health: Policy or Law? A Population-Based Analysis of the Supreme Court's ACA Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmet, Wendy E

    2016-12-01

    This essay argues that it matters for the fate of health policies challenged in court whether courts consider health merely as a policy goal that must be subordinate to law, or as a legal norm warranting legal weight and consideration. Applying population-based legal analysis, this article demonstrates that courts have traditionally treated health as a legal norm. However, this norm appears to have weakened in recent years, a trend evident in the Supreme Court's first two decisions concerning the Affordable Care Act, NFIB v. Sebelius and Burwell v. Hobby Lobby However, in its more recent Affordable Care Act decision, King v. Burwell , the health legal norm is once again evident. Whether the Court will continue to treat health as a legal norm will prove critical to the deference and weight it grants health policies in the future. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  7. Changing the constitutional landscape for firearms: the US Supreme Court's recent Second Amendment decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, Jon S; Rutkow, Lainie; Webster, Daniel W; Teret, Stephen P

    2011-11-01

    In 2 recent cases-with important implications for public health practitioners, courts, and researchers-the US Supreme Court changed the landscape for judging the constitutionality of firearm laws under the Constitution's Second Amendment. In District of Columbia v Heller (2008), the court determined for the first time that the Second Amendment grants individuals a personal right to possess handguns in their home. In McDonald v City of Chicago (2010), the court concluded that this right affects the powers of state and local governments. The court identified broad categories of gun laws-other than handgun bans-that remain presumptively valid but did not provide a standard to judge their constitutionality. We discuss ways that researchers can assist decision makers.

  8. Innovation, informed consent, health research and the Supreme Court: Montgomery v Lanarkshire - a brave new world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchale, Jean V

    2017-10-01

    The Supreme Court decision in Montgomery v Lanarkshire ([2015] UKSC11) has been hailed as a landmark not least because the Court enshrines the doctrine of informed consent formally into English law for the first time in relation to medical treatment. This paper explores the decision in Montgomery. It examines what its implications may be in the future for the consent process in relation to health research and innovative treatment and whether it may prove a watershed moment leading to changing dialogues and expectations in relation to consent. First, the paper explores the concept of 'informed consent' in clinical research as seen through international, Council of Europe and EU instruments. Second, it considers how English law currently governs the provision of information to research participants in the context of clinical research. It questions whether such an approach will be sustainable in the future. Third, it discusses the decision of the UK Supreme Court in Montgomery v Lanarkshire and asks what might be the impact of this Supreme Court decision in the health research context. It asks whether Montgomery may result in new approaches to consent in health research and innovative treatment.

  9. Medicine, eugenics, and the Supreme Court: from coercive sterilization to reproductive freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, P A

    1996-01-01

    This article shows how the current language of reproductive rights, including the determination of US constitutional protections, can be traced to three cases heard by the US Supreme Court that challenged eugenic state legislation written between 1924 and 1935. The introduction defines "eugenics" as the notion that the human race can be improved and social ills gradually eliminated by selective procreation and notes that eugenicists were extremely effective in using the law as their ally and effected the adoption of nearly 100 eugenic statutes by the states between 1900 and 1970. Part 2 examines the classification of social deviance as a social ill that could be overcome by the application of eugenic principles bolstered by scientific explanations about defective "germ-plasm." The third part of the article illustrates the legal impact of US eugenicists in 1924 when the Federal Immigration Restriction Act was adopted with national origin quotas that remained in place until 1965. This year also saw adoption of two eugenic laws enacted in Virginia that would be later challenged in the Supreme Court. Part 4 details one of these cases, Buck vs. Bell, that challenged Virginia's Eugenical Sterilization Act. In upholding the Virginia statute, the Supreme Court allowed the forced sterilization of a young woman in the first and only instance in which the Court allowed a physician to act as an agent of state government in the performance of an undesired and unnecessary operation. Part 5 describes how the Supreme Court overturned Oklahoma's law mandating the sterilization of "hereditary criminals" in Skinner vs. Oklahoma. The 1967 ruling in Loving vs. Virginia overturning Virginia's Racial Integrity Act preventing interracial marriage is presented in part 6. The article ends by tracing the impact of these cases on the constitutionalization of reproductive rights in the US.

  10. Violence against women and the U.S. Supreme Court: recent challenges and opportunities for advocates and practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Vernick, Jon S; Webster, Daniel W; Lennig, Dorothy J

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court has frequently grappled with violence against women, with three major cases decided since 2000. Although the law can be a powerful tool to minimize the risk of violence against women, it can also be an obstacle to interventions. As legislators, prosecutors, and advocates implement legal interventions to respond to violence against women, the Supreme Court has increasingly been called on to interpret these laws and assess their constitutionality. This legal note examines recent Supreme Court jurisprudence that addresses interventions to prevent violence against women and explain how practitioners can tailor interventions to respond to these decisions.

  11. The influence of neuroscience on US Supreme Court decisions about adolescents' criminal culpability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-07-01

    In the past 8 years, the US Supreme Court has issued landmark opinions in three cases that involved the criminal culpability of juveniles. In the most recent case, in 2012, a ruling prohibited states from mandating life without parole for crimes committed by minors. In these cases, the Court drew on scientific studies of the adolescent brain in concluding that adolescents, by virtue of their inherent psychological and neurobiological immaturity, are not as responsible for their behaviour as adults. This article discusses the Court's rationale in these cases and the role of scientific evidence about adolescent brain development in its decisions. I conclude that the neuroscientific evidence was probably persuasive to the Court not because it revealed something new about the nature of adolescence but precisely because it aligned with common sense and behavioural science.

  12. The Swiss Federal Supreme Court: A Constitutional Assessment of Control and Management Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lienhard

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Even the highest courts are under pressure to perform effectively and efficiently. In some instances, the pressure comes from supervisory and elected authorities, such as parliaments, which demand information regarding judicial output. In Switzerland a decision has been made by the Parliament to apply “steering instruments”, which were introduced as part of general administrative reforms. These procedures also include mechanisms for “controlling” 2 judicial activity. In this article, we examine reforms relating to the Swiss Federal Supreme Court , and the compatibility of those reforms with separation of powers principles.

  13. Runtuhnya Institusi Mahkamah Agung (The Indonesian Supreme Court: A Study of Institutional Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anugerah Rizki Akbari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the fall of Indonesian president Soeharto, a major focus of the reformers has been the corrupt and inefficient judicial system. Within the context of a history of the Supreme Court in post-independence Indonesia, Sebastiaan Pompe analyzes the cause of the judiciary’s failure over the past decades. This book provides an essential background for those seeking to understand why legal reform has been so slow and frustrating in the post-1998 period.

  14. [Chakrabarty today: 30 years after the United States Supreme Court Resolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergel, Salvador Darío

    2010-01-01

    The decision of the United States Supreme Court in the Chakrabarty case marked the beginning of a far reaching process, the development of which considerably extended the field of patentabiltiy of humans, their body parts and genetic information. The author believes that a period of three decades is sufficient to draw conclusions. A critical point has been reached from a debatable decision, which had more economic support than legal, which requires serious recapitulation of the scope and the purpose of industrial property rights.

  15. Citizens United, public health, and democracy: the Supreme Court ruling, its implications, and proposed action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiist, William H

    2011-07-01

    The 2010 US Supreme Court Citizens United v Federal Election Commission 130 US 876 (2010) case concerned the plans of a nonprofit organization to distribute a film about presidential candidate Hillary Clinton. The Court ruled that prohibiting corporate independent expenditures for advocacy advertising during election campaigns unconstitutionally inhibits free speech. Corporations can now make unlimited contributions to election advocacy advertising directly from the corporate treasury. Candidates who favor public health positions may be subjected to corporate opposition advertising. Citizen groups and legislators have proposed remedies to ameliorate the effects of the Court's ruling. The public health field needs to apply its expertise, in collaboration with others, to work to reduce the disproportionate influence of corporate political speech on health policy and democracy.

  16. The judgment on the phosphoethanolamine case and the jurisprudence of the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebulum J. C.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Widespread use of the synthetic substance phosphoethanolamine, known as the cancer pill, was recently reported among patients with malignant neoplasm. However, the substance was not registered in the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency and the clinical studies necessary to guarantee its effectiveness and safety had not even been completed. Neverthe-less, the federal government enacted Law number 13.269/2016, authorizing provision by the Brazilian National Public Health System under certain conditions, and various injunctions were granted that forced the state to provide it. The question was considered by the Supreme Court in two important judgments in which the Court suspended all injunctions granted and suspended the effectiveness of the law based on evidence of unconstitutionality. In this article, we analyze the legal grounds of the decisions in the context of previous positions of the Court and the guidelines established in judgment of STA 175-AgR/CE.

  17. 15 years of constitutional review in the Supreme Court of Estonia : systematized extracts of constitutional review judgments and rulings of the Supreme Court en banc and the Constitutional Review Chamber in 1993-2008 / Riigikohus ; toim. ja eess.: Ge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Sisaldab ka: The outset of judicial constitutional review / Rait Maruste. Judicial constitutional review at the turn of the century / Uno Lõhmus. Judicial constitutional review through the eyes of Chancellor of Justice / Eerik-Juhan Truuväli. The courts and the Supreme Court in concrete norm control / Madis Ernits

  18. Is the United States Supreme Court an Undemocratic Institution? An Outsider’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Machaj

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The United States Supreme Court has often been accused of engaging in judicial activism, of subverting legislatures’ will and of undermining the basic principles of the democratic system. This article maintains that such charges are generally unfounded. The author claims that the Supreme Court’s detractors ignore five fundamental issues. First, they misunderstand the very nature and basic rules of a constitutional democracy. Second, they tend to ignore the role played by constitutions in general and the American Constitution in particular in social reality, effectively forgetting the reasons for the latter’s hallowed place in the United States national psyche. Third, they ignore the presence of political factors (and even partisan calculations in the process of appointments to the U.S. Supreme Court. Fourth, they misconceive the realities of the process of legal reasoning and of constitutional interpretation. Fifth, they underestimate or even fail to recognize the influence of public opinion on the basic trends of judicial decision-making.

  19. Accommodation and Adjudication in Student-Administration Conflicts: The Difficult Legacy of the U.S. Supreme Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Heinz-Dieter; Bratge, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we consider a series of U.S. Supreme Court rulings that place public school students under an expansive shield of constitutional rights while often hampering the ability of administrators to engage in flexible and creative conflict resolution in the context of the school's mission. The court's readiness to adjudicate a large range…

  20. Survey article: the legitimacy of Supreme Courts in the context of globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney W. Richards

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present an overview of the state of the art concerning the legitimacy of Supreme Courts in the context of globalisation. In recent years, there has been much discussion about the observed increase in both the references to foreign decisions in matters of domestic adjudication, as well as the alleged and precipitate rise of ‘transjudicial dialogue’, or formal and informal communication between the domestic courts of various national jurisdictions. A central concern is whether Supreme Courts possess the necessary authority, and thus the legitimacy, to adopt a more ‘internationalist’ disposition. This article will demonstrate how there are various coexisting discourses of legitimacy, each with their own particular features. These various discourses are not always compatible or easily commensurable. It will argue, moreover, that the basic dilemma regarding judicial legitimacy in a globalised world is a species of a more general problem of globalisation studies, namely how to reconcile a conceptual vernacular which is permeated by domestic, state-centric notions with a political reality which is increasingly non-national in its outlook.

  1. A Plea for Caution: Violent Video Games, the Supreme Court, and the Role of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ryan C. W.; Day, Terri; Hall, Richard C. W.

    2011-01-01

    On November 2, 2010, the US Supreme Court heard arguments in the case of Schwarzenegger v Entertainment Merchants Association, with a ruling expected in 2011. This case addressed whether states have the right to restrict freedom of speech by limiting the sale of violent video games to minors. To date, 8 states have tried to pass legislation to this effect, with all attempts being found unconstitutional by lower courts. In large part, the Supreme Court's decision will be determined by its review and interpretation of the medical and social science literature addressing the effects of violent video games on children. Those on both sides of the violent video game debate claim that the scientific literature supports their opinions. Some involved in the debate have proclaimed that the debate is scientifically settled and that only people holding personal interests and biases oppose these “established truths.” We review the historical similarities found in the 1950s comic book debate and studies identified from a PubMed search of the term violent video games showing both the harmful and beneficial effects of these video games. We define factors that physicians need to consider when reading and stating opinions about this literature. Opinions from past court rulings are discussed to provide insight into how judges may approach the application of these social science studies to the current legal issue. Although on the surface the case of Schwarzenegger v Entertainment Merchants Association pertains only to the restriction of violent video games, it may establish principles about how medical and public health testimony can affect fundamental constitutional rights and how much and on what basis the courts will defer to legislators' reliance on unsettled science. PMID:21454733

  2. A plea for caution: violent video games, the Supreme Court, and the role of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ryan C W; Day, Terri; Hall, Richard C W

    2011-04-01

    On November 2, 2010, the US Supreme Court heard arguments in the case of Schwarzenegger v Entertainment Merchants Association, with a ruling expected in 2011. This case addressed whether states have the right to restrict freedom of speech by limiting the sale of violent video games to minors. To date, 8 states have tried to pass legislation to this effect, with all attempts being found unconstitutional by lower courts. In large part, the Supreme Court's decision will be determined by its review and interpretation of the medical and social science literature addressing the effects of violent video games on children. Those on both sides of the violent video game debate claim that the scientific literature supports their opinions. Some involved in the debate have proclaimed that the debate is scientifically settled and that only people holding personal interests and biases oppose these "established truths." We review the historical similarities found in the 1950s comic book debate and studies identified from a PubMed search of the term violent video games showing both the harmful and beneficial effects of these video games. We define factors that physicians need to consider when reading and stating opinions about this literature. Opinions from past court rulings are discussed to provide insight into how judges may approach the application of these social science studies to the current legal issue. Although on the surface the case of Schwarzenegger v Entertainment Merchants Association pertains only to the restriction of violent video games, it may establish principles about how medical and public health testimony can affect fundamental constitutional rights and how much and on what basis the courts will defer to legislators' reliance on unsettled science.

  3. Taxing the Establishment Clause: —Revolutionary Decision of the Arizona Supreme Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G. Welner

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the nature and implications of a 1999 decision of the Arizona Supreme Court, upholding the constitutionality of a state tax credit statute. The statute offers a $500 tax credit to taxpayers who donate money to non-profit organizations which, in turn, donate the money in grants to students in order to help defray the costs of attending private and parochial schools. The author concludes that the Arizona decision elevates cleverness in devising a statutory scheme above the substance of long-established constitutional doctrine.

  4. Supreme Court of India approves government commitments on health care for people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symington, Alison

    2008-12-01

    In August 2008, the Government of India issued a list of directives with respect to its national response to HIV/AIDS. A panel of the Supreme Court approved the directives on 1 October 2008 and directed that all state governments comply with them. The panel's order also directed that the National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) submit a progress report on compliance within four months. As a result, a legally binding framework for healthcare and treatment of people living with HIV now exists for all of India.

  5. Understanding the failure of health-care exceptionalism in the Supreme Court's Obamacare decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieff, Abigail R

    2012-09-01

    On June 28, 2012, a mere century after the first presidential proposal for national health insurance, the Supreme Court issued a resounding victory for President Obama and for health-care reform generally, upholding the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act against a serious constitutional challenge. Nevertheless, the Court also struck a potential blow to future health-care reform efforts in refusing to accept the solicitor general's argument that health care is a unique market with unique regulatory needs that justify special constitutional treatment. The failure of health-care exceptionalism in the Court's opinion might render future reform efforts more difficult than they would have been if the solicitor general's argument had carried the day. This commentary seeks to shed light on the Court's hesitation to recognize the uniqueness of health insurance and health care, noting that market-based exceptionalism in constitutional law has a long, dark history that the Court was understandably loath to repeat. Although the result of Chief Justice John Roberts' one-size-fits-all approach to constitutional analysis in this case is an odd holding that elides some genuine uniqueness of American health care, the alternative of health-care exceptionalism might have been much worse for our overall constitutional system.

  6. Justice blocks and predictability of U.S. Supreme Court votes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Guimerà

    Full Text Available Successful attempts to predict judges' votes shed light into how legal decisions are made and, ultimately, into the behavior and evolution of the judiciary. Here, we investigate to what extent it is possible to make predictions of a justice's vote based on the other justices' votes in the same case. For our predictions, we use models and methods that have been developed to uncover hidden associations between actors in complex social networks. We show that these methods are more accurate at predicting justice's votes than forecasts made by legal experts and by algorithms that take into consideration the content of the cases. We argue that, within our framework, high predictability is a quantitative proxy for stable justice (and case blocks, which probably reflect stable a priori attitudes toward the law. We find that U.S. Supreme Court justice votes are more predictable than one would expect from an ideal court composed of perfectly independent justices. Deviations from ideal behavior are most apparent in divided 5-4 decisions, where justice blocks seem to be most stable. Moreover, we find evidence that justice predictability decreased during the 50-year period spanning from the Warren Court to the Rehnquist Court, and that aggregate court predictability has been significantly lower during Democratic presidencies. More broadly, our results show that it is possible to use methods developed for the analysis of complex social networks to quantitatively investigate historical questions related to political decision-making.

  7. Supreme Court Coverage in Canada: A Case Study of Media Coverage of the Whatcott Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Anita Miljan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Do Canadian media outlets report Supreme Court decisions in a legal or political frame? Starting with a review of how the media amplify court decisions, the study focuses on a case study regarding a freedom of speech decision of the Court. This study finds that although the media critically evaluated the freedom of speech case of William Whatcott, it did so from a legal frame. Unlike American research that shows the media increasingly interprets Supreme Court decisions from a political frame, this study on Whatcott finds that the media focused on the legal arguments of the case. ¿Los medios de comunicación canadienses informan sobre las decisiones de la Corte Suprema en un marco legal o político? A partir de una revisión de cómo los medios de comunicación amplifican las decisiones judiciales, el estudio se centra en un caso práctico sobre la libertad de expresión de las decisiones del tribunal. Este estudio revela que aunque los medios evaluaron críticamente la libertad de expresión en el caso de William Whatcott, se hizo en un marco legal. A diferencia de investigaciones estadounidenses que prueban que los medios de comunicación interpretan cada vez con mayor frecuencia las decisiones de la Corte desde un marco político, este estudio sobre Whatcott demuestra que los medios de comunicación se centraron en los argumentos legales del caso. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2500102

  8. Rethinking Roe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, G R

    1993-01-01

    This article maintains that when the US Supreme Court chose to decide Roe vs. Wade based on the concepts of privacy and personhood, it made a mistake that has crippled the approach to the problems raised by abortion. The Court opened itself to immediate challenge by ruling that a fetus is not a person and that a woman's right to abortion is tied to fetal viability. This approach has been further compromised by advances in medical technology which have substantially increased fetal viability. While one problem with insisting upon the right to privacy is that the Constitution fails to mention the concept, the real question about privacy concerns the nature of the relationship which should exist between the individual and the state. When pro-life forces voice an intention to eradicate privacy, they (perhaps unwittingly) play into the hands of those who view privacy as an impediment to the government's ability to assert itself in individual lives. The use of this concept to justify abortion leaves people wondering why privacy rather than life has anything to do with abortion. Just because the Roe decision is flawed, however, does not imply that it must or should be overturned. Roe was not wrongly decided, it was simply poorly decided, and both Roe and its opponents attempt to deny that the Court faced a tragic choice that implicates essential values which can not be decided in absolute terms. In order to reach a solution that demonstrates a respect for life and liberty, we must look beyond these concepts to that of equity. When considering rape, incest, and even contraception and the pursuit of motherhood, it is easy to see that we are a long way from equalizing sexual relations between men and women. The equity approach opens a much broader view of what abortion is really about, which is the status and role of women in society. While Roe has polarized women, centering the debate on a belief in equity may have generated solidarity and consensus around that principle

  9. The impact of the Supreme Court judgment in Cheshire West v P on the human rights of vulnerable patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard

    2014-12-01

    The UK Supreme Court's judgment in Cheshire West and Chester Council v P [2014] has had a huge impact on the promotion of human rights of vulnerable patients. The ruling emphasises the positive duty on the state and its organisations, such as the NHS, to have in place procedures that independently confirm that the human rights of those vulnerable patients are being applied in the same way as any other human being. This article discusses the background and basis for the Supreme Court's decision in Cheshire West and its impact on vulnerable patients.

  10. Child health in the workplace: the Supreme Court in Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, L R; Johansson, S R

    1980-01-01

    Exploitation of children in the labor force at the beginning of this century gave rise to a national campaign leading to congressional passage of the Keating-Owen Act in 1916. The act prohibited from interstate commerce goods produced in factories or mines that employed children who either were under fourteen years of age or who were under sixteen years of age and worked more than eight hours a day. Despite its popular support, the Act was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918). The Court's decision involved several major issues: interpretation of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution, freedom of contract, police power of the states, and the interstate commerce clause. Review of previous Court decisions suggests that the justices were on less than solid legal ground in reaching their decision. Examination of the historical context of the decision, however, suggests other factors that may have played a more important role than judicial precedents. The debate prompted by Hammer v. Dagenhart has much relevance to such current issues as young agricultural workers, sex discrimination in industry, and the powers of the federal government vis-a-vis states and individual citizens.

  11. Violent Video Games and the Supreme Court: Lessons for the Scientific Community in the Wake of Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    In June 2011 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that video games enjoy full free speech protections and that the regulation of violent game sales to minors is unconstitutional. The Supreme Court also referred to psychological research on violent video games as "unpersuasive" and noted that such research contains many methodological flaws.…

  12. Retirement and death in office of U.S. Supreme Court justices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Ross M; Lindgren, James

    2010-05-01

    We construct demographic models of retirement and death in office of U.S. Supreme Court justices, a group that has gained demographic notice, evaded demographic analysis, and is said to diverge from expected retirement patterns. Models build on prior multistate labor force status studies, and data permit an unusually clear distinction between voluntary and "induced" retirement. Using data on every justice from 1789 through 2006, with robust, cluster-corrected, discrete-time, censored, event-history methods, we (1) estimate retirement effects of pension eligibility, age, health, and tenure on the timing of justices' retirements and deaths in office, (2) resolve decades of debate over the politicized departure hypothesis that justices tend to alter the timing of their retirements for the political benefit or detriment of the incumbent president, (3) reconsider the nature of rationality in retirement decisions, and (4) consider the relevance of organizational conditions as well as personal circumstances to retirement decisions. Methodological issues are addressed.

  13. Modernizing "San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez": How Evolving Supreme Court Jurisprudence Changes the Face of Education Finance Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to "modernize" the current legal debate over inequitable public school funding at the state and local level. The 1973 Supreme Court case of "San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez" established precedent, allowing for property-tax based education funding programs at the state-level--a major source…

  14. The Three Faces of Power: The U.S. Supreme Court's Legitimization of School Authority's Parental, Police, and Pedagogic Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrensal, Patricia A.

    2003-01-01

    Examines legal and ethical ramifications of three roles of school authorities (agents-of-state, custodial, tutelary) legitimated in two Supreme Court decisions: "New Jersey v. T.L.0." (search and seizure) and "Vernonia v. Action" (drug use testing). (Contains 34 references.)(PKP)

  15. The Roles of the Supreme Court of the Republic Indonesia in Enforcement of International Arbitral Awards in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiara Hikmah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has been being a member of the 1958 New York Convention since 1981, namely upon issuance of the Presidential Decree No. 34 of 1981. Prior to taking into force of the Regulation of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Indonesia No. 1 of 1990 on Procedures for Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral awards, there were still constraints for the foreign business players in term of enforcement of arbitral awards in Indonesia. The Supreme Court as the highest judicial institution in Indonesia holds that international arbitral awards can not be enforced in Indonesia. After the Indonesian Supreme Court has issued such a regulation, enforcement of international arbitral awards in Indonesia began to be enforceable, because the procedural law that governs the procedures for execution of arbitral awards has been clear. In order to regulate better the international arbitral award problems in the hierarchy of legislation, on October 12, 1999, the Law on Arbitration and Alternative Dispute Resolution was promulgated. In that Law, there is a special part discussing the International Arbitration. This study examines the development of international arbitral award enforcement in Indonesia before Indonesia becoming member of the 1958 New York Convention, until nowadays, by analyzing the international arbitral awards that were decided by the Supreme Court of the Republic of Indonesia after the coming into effect of the Arbitration Law.

  16. The physician expert witness and the U.S. Supreme court--an epidemiologic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Martin L

    2002-01-01

    It is a fact of life that the physician is occasionally called upon to provide Expert Witness evidence. This is clearly distinct from evidence of a participatory nature where the physician is a party to the act by virtue of the doctor-patient relationship. The purpose of this presentation is to alert the physician to new criteria, imposed by the court, for acceptance of Expert Testimony. Prior to March 23, 1999, expert witness testimony fell into three categories, Scientific, technical, and other specialized knowledge. Scientific knowledge included the conclusions that could be subjected to analysis of a statistical nature, or could be validated by methodology such as epidemiologic criteria. Technical knowledge was based on factors such as mechanical or stress analysis utilized in engineering. Other "specialized knowledge" could be based on experiential data and information not necessarily subject to epidemiologic or other scientific analysis. Therefore, the physician presented his reasoning often based on years of professional practice and publication in journals of clinical practice. On March 23rd 1999, the Supreme Court of the United States changed the criteria for all categories stating that there is "no relevant distinction between 'scientific' knowledge' and 'technical' or 'other specialized knowledge' in Federal Rule of Evidence 702. This momentous decision [Kumho Tire Co. v. Carmichael, (97-1709), 131 F.3d 1433) reversed.] referred back to a previous case [Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc., 509 US. 579,589], which established four criteria based on methods of analysis for t he courts, and was now extended for all expert evidence. Thus the area of expert witness evidence was changed by this momentous act placing the judge as arbiter of all expert evidence, including that of the physician. This paper will offer a brief review and an analysis of the significance of this for the professional involved in the legal system as an expert witness.

  17. A (FORENSIC STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF ADVERBIALS OF ATTITUDE AND EMPHASIS IN SUPREME COURT DECISIONS IN PHILIPPINE ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjalmar Punla Hernandez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporarily, stylistics today has developed into its multiplicity – one of which is forensic stylistics. Being a powerfully legal written discourse, Supreme Court decisions are a rich corpus in which linguistic vis-a-vis stylistic choices of Court justices could be examined. This study is a humble attempt at stylistically analyzing Supreme Court decisions in Philippine English (PhE drafted by two Filipino justices. Specifically, it sought to investigate on the classes, placements, and environments of adverbials of attitude and emphasis employed by the two justices, and drew their implications to teaching and learning English for Legal Purposes (ELP. Using McMenamin (2012, Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik (1985, and Dita’s (2011 frameworks, 54 randomly selected Supreme Court decisions as primary sources of legal language were analyzed. Results are the following. Firstly, the classes of adverbials of attitude in Supreme Court decisions in PhE used by the two judges were the evaluation to the subject of the clause, judgment to the whole clause, and evaluation to an action performed by the subject of the clause, while those adverbials of emphasis were adverbials of conviction and doubt. Secondly, both adverbials they used have placements that were frequently medial and less initial in sentences where they belonged. Thirdly, the two justices put their adverbials within two principal environments, i.e. within functor, and before/after the verb among others. In these regards, legal and stylistic explanations with respect to these recurrent linguistic features in the two justices’ Court decisions were revealed. Implications of the study to ELP are explained. Lastly, trajectories for future (forensic stylistic analyses have been recommended.

  18. LOSING BATTLES AND WINNING WARS: FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT AND THE FIGHT TO TRANSFORM THE SUPREME COURT, 1937 - 1941

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey G. Hudspeth

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the dramatic rise of the Roosevelt Court between the years 1937 and 1941. Having gone through his first term of office without a single Supreme Court appointment, Franklin Roosevelt was to be given the opportunity during his second term to make no less than five nominations with an additional four coming in his third term. Initially, however, he was to face great controversy; first with his notorious “Court Packing” scheme of 1937, followed quickly by revelations that his first Court appointee, Hugo Black, had once been affiliated with the Ku Klux Klan. Weathering these early defeats, however, Franklin Roosevelt ultimately won his war against the “Nine Old Men” to turn the Court towards economic liberalism. This paper traces the course of Roosevelt’s struggle, his early losses, and his ultimate victory.

  19. Connecting Climate Science to Policy: from Global Food Production to the US Supreme Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    There are myriad ways climate science has been used to inform on global food security, and to affect law and policy. In this talk, I will summarize examples that include the application of the El Nino - Southern Oscillation science to improve food security in Indonesia and provide water forecasts for agriculture in northwest Mexico, as well as the application of climate change science to project changes in global grain production. In the latter case, reliable information on the impact of increasing greenhouse gases on growing season temperature is applied to assess the impact of climate change on average crop yields, on the volatility in crop yields, and on the loss of yield due to increasing pest pressure - all of which have acute implications for agricultural policy. In the US, climate change science was of paramount importance for the Supreme Court decision in the case "Massachusetts vs. EPA," which to this day greatly shapes US policy related to climate change - most notably in setting emission standards for vehicles. My colleagues and I have learned several lessons from our experiences in these applications of climate science that I will share, including some thoughts on the nature of interdisciplinary teams for producing reliable and effective products, and the on the professional pros and cons of pursuing applied work.

  20. The embryo research debate in Brazil: from the National Congress to the Federal Supreme Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarino, Letícia; Luna, Naara

    2011-04-01

    New forms of life produced by biomedical research, such as human embryonic stem cells (hESC), have been the object of public debate beyond the scientific fields involved. This article brings to light the case of Brazil, where recently passed federal legislation has authorized research with in vitro human embryos. It focuses on the legislative debate in the Brazilian National Congress between 2003 and 2005 on the Biosafety Bill of Law, which cleared for hESC research a certain share of supernumerary and unviable human embryos frozen in the country's assisted reproduction clinics. The passing of this Bill triggered other public reactions, chiefly a Direct Action of Unconstitutionality in Brazil's Federal Supreme Court. This study adopts an anthropological perspective for describing and analyzing the chief arguments in both debates, in terms of how the notion of 'life' was deployed and negotiated by contending parties. If, on the one hand, the definition of life appeared firmly attached to a conception of both the in vitro embryo and the fetus as a human person, on the other a movement towards breaking down life along utilitarian lines was found when the potential beneficiaries of stem cell therapy came into the equation. In all cases, however, notions of life were negotiated from a hybrid continuum of (biological) facts and (religious, moral and juridical) values, and resonated in different ways with the idea of the individual as privileged mode of constructing personhood in the context of modern nation states.

  1. [Critical Study of the last jurisprudence of the Supreme Court on requirements and guarantees regarding DNA sampling from suspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoyos Sancho, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    A critical study will be made of recent jurisprudence of Spanish Supreme Court in relation to the principal requirements that current legislation establishes for so-called "DNA testing", specially in connection with the rules on lawful evidence. In particular, the various hypotheses and circumstances that might concur in the collection of tissue samples from the suspect will be analyzed, as well as questions relating to the need, or otherwise, of legal assistance during such an act.

  2. Reference to Foreign Law in the Supreme Courts of Britain and the Netherlands: Explaining the Development of Judicial Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Mak

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available How do judges decide cases in a globalised legal context, characterised by the increased interconnections between legal systems and between actors in these legal systems? In this article, firstly, four types of variables (constitutional, institutional, organisational, and personal which influence judicial practices are described, and it is shown how these variables shape the judicial decision-making of the highest courts in liberal-democratic legal systems. Secondly, the specific development of the use of foreign law in the Supreme Courts of the UK and the Netherlands is analysed in light of the identified variables. In this way, some general insights are provided into the development of judicial decision-making under the effects of globalisation, and it is made clear what the national highest courts can and may do in the specific context in which they are functioning.

  3. Suggestive eyewitness identification procedures and the Supreme Court's reliability test in light of eyewitness science: 30 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gary L; Quinlivan, Deah S

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court's ruling concerning suggestive eyewitness identification procedures (Manson v. Braithwaite, 1977, 432 U.S. 98) has not been revisited by the Court in the intervening 30+ years. Meanwhile, scientific studies of eyewitnesses have progressed and DNA exonerations show that mistaken identification is the primary cause of convictions of the innocent. We analyzed the two-inquiry logic in Manson in light of eyewitness science. Several problems are discussed. Ironically, we note that suggestive identification procedures (determined in the first inquiry) boost the eyewitnesses' standing on three of the five criteria (used in the second inquiry) that are used to decide whether the suggestive procedures were a problem. The net effect undermines safeguards intended by the Court and destroys incentives to avoid suggestive procedures.

  4. Using science to influence the Supreme Court on the right to refuse treatment: amicus curiae briefs in Washington v. Harper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H I; Boland, R

    1995-01-01

    The Supreme Court's use of empirical behavioral science data has grown dramatically in the 40 years since Brown v. Board of Education. Most of these data are submitted in amicus curiae (friend of the court) briefs submitted by parties with an interest in the outcome of the significant mental health law cases coming before the court. The increasing use of such briefs raises important questions. Is there evidence that the court is actually influenced by such briefs? Can scientific/professional organizations present scientific data objectively in a clearly adversarial document? A review of the nine amicus briefs filed in Washington v. Harper, a right to refuse treatment case, and a comparison of the Court's opinion with that of the dissent demonstrate that both the majority and the dissent refer to arguments contained in the briefs, incorporate elements of these arguments, and occasionally paraphrase references cited in the briefs. It remains unclear whether the Court uses such arguments to formulate opinions or to justify them. A comparison of the briefs presented by the American Psychological Association and the American Psychiatric Association highlights the challenge to scientific objectivity inherent in participation in the amicus process.

  5. Tempos de espera no Supremo Tribunal Federal Waiting times in the Brazilian Supreme Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Weber Abramo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Expõe-se um método de medir o desempenho de magistrados na decisão de processos judiciais. A estratégia é usada para construir uma ferramenta de monitoramento voltada para o Supremo Tribunal Federal brasileiro. A medida de tempos médios de espera na decisão de causas que tramitam na Corte pode ajudar na formulação de intervenções administrativas destinadas a reduzi-los. A comparação entre as médias observadas em diferentes classes processuais e ramos do Direito pode ajudar a compreender melhor os fatores subjetivos em jogo nas decisões judiciais. A comparação dos desempenhos de magistrados individuais ajuda a melhorar o sistema pelo uso de penalidades reputacionais. A partir do método constata-se que juízes reagem a processos judiciais da mesma forma que sistemas biológicos, mecânicos e eletrônicos reagem a estímulos. A forma assumida pelas distribuições de tempo de decisão medidas ajuda a explicar o pessimismo das percepções populares a respeito da celeridade do judiciário.A method for measuring and monitoring the numerical performance of judges in deciding cases is presented. The strategy has been used to build an internet monitoring tool aimed at the members of the Brazilian Supreme Court. Measuring the expectations for judicial cases to be decided permits drafting administrative interventions aimed at reducing waiting times. Comparing expectations according to types of cases may help to better understand the subjective factors that are in play in judicial decisions. Comparing individual magistrates' performances helps to improve the system by using reputational penalties. It is found that judges react to cases in the same general manner as biological, electronic and mechanical systems react to stimuli. The form of the time distributions measured helps to explain popular perceptions (pessimistic, in the case of Brazil about the judiciary's efficiency.

  6. The Civil Registry of Children Born of Surrogacy Pregnancy: An Investigation Based on Recent Spain Supreme Court Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cristina de Carvalho Rettore

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In foreign law, there has been intense debates concerning civil registry of children born of surrogacy pregnancy, when such birth disrespects the country’s norms. Thus, based on the analysis of recent Spain Supreme Court judgments – that is, through a juridical-comparative investigation, using primary and secondary sources –, and considering that although Brazil lacks an express federal law about the issue, a Resolution of the Federal Counsel of Medicine establishing parameters is being generally applied, the paper aims to answer whether or not Brazilian registry should be facilitated for births (demonstrated as not uncommon that disregard such parameters.

  7. The Supreme Federal Court of Brazil and the law of oil; O Supremo Tribunal Federal e a Lei do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Marcio Monteiro

    2008-07-01

    The following paper aims to analyze the local oil legal framework and the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ('STF') footprint pursuant Constitutional Amendment n. 5. Such Amendment allowed local and international companies to act in the Brazilian oil market. This paper also analyses Law 9.478, which created the National Oil Agency ('ANP') with great innovations to the market. Therefore, a historic timeline comparing the enactment of such rules 'vis-a-vis' certain issues raised before STF through Direct Actions of Unconstitutionality will be presented (author)

  8. A Study of Job Satisfaction - Comparison between the Auditors of Supreme Audit Court and CPAs. An Iranian evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Salehi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the job satisfaction of the auditors from the supreme audit court and from CPAs in Iran has been compared in terms of welfare factors, development and promotion opportunities, innovation and creativity possibility, manager and colleague behaviour, job security and passing services. Research findings show that job satisfaction of CPAs depends on the promotion and development opportunities, passing services, on the job training and its quality, on the creativity and innovation possibilities and on job diversity. The results illustrates that there is no meaningful differences in terms of welfare factors, manager and colleague behaviour, job security and social position.

  9. The Issue Animal in the Perspective of the Federal Supreme Court and the "Regulatory Aspects Of Legal Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mery Chalfun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to analyze the legal nature of nonhuman animals in the doctrine of Animal Law, legal order and position of the Federal Supreme Court based on judgments that deal with conflict between cultural manifestation and cruelty to animals. Brazilian legislation calls for a multiplicity of positions on the legal nature of animals, which may influence positively or negatively the treatment accorded to them. It can be seen that in the STF the predominance of two understandings: anthropocentric, equivalent to good, while of another biocentric, moral consideration as to the animals and possibility of change of the legal nature.

  10. A Private Issue Becomes a Public Issue: A Rhetorical Analysis of "Roe v Wade."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Martha

    Supreme Court decisions tend to take the form of either (1) an act of justification or argumentation that defends the verdict of the communicator, or (2) a construction of a new symbolic reality that influences the world view of its audience. The "Roe vs. Wade" decision is an example of the merger of these two rhetorical functions. The…

  11. Roe v. Wade: its impact upon the author and his family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmun, S

    1998-01-01

    This article, written by the daughter of US Supreme Court Justice Harry Blackmun, describes the impact of the Roe vs. Wade decision on Blackmun's life. Blackmun wrote the majority opinion in the court decision and, as a result, has personally borne the brunt of anti-abortion reaction, including hate mail, demonstrations, and death threats. The Roe decision generated the most mail ever sent to the court about a specific case. Blackmun's share alone was over 50,000 letters, and he read every one. A large portion were negative, but others, including some from Roman Catholic nursing nuns, were supportive of the court's decision. The notoriety that arose after the decision caused Blackmun and his family to lose much of their privacy, as Blackmun had to be constantly protected by Federal Marshalls. Blackmun continues to support the conclusions reached by the court in the Roe decision and to consider the ruling a watermark on the road toward the emancipation of women.

  12. Prescription data mining, medical privacy and the First Amendment: the U.S. Supreme Court in Sorrell v. IMS health Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumil, Marcia M; Dunn, Kaitlyn; Ryan, Nancy; Clearwater, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the United States Supreme Court in Sorrell v. IMS Health Inc. struck down a Vermont law that would restrict the ability of pharmaceutical companies to purchase certain physician-identifiable prescription data without the consent of the prescriber. The law's stated purpose was threefold: to protect the privacy of medical information, to protect the public health and to contain healthcare costs by promoting Vermont's preference in having physicians prescribe more generic drugs. The issue before the Supreme Court was whether the Vermont law represented a legitimate, common sense regulatory program or a bold attempt to suppress commercial speech when the "message" is disfavored by the state. Striking down the law, the Supreme Court applied a heightened level of First Amendment scrutiny to this commercial transaction and held that the Vermont law was not narrowly tailored to protect legitimate privacy interests.

  13. Social Work and the Supreme Court: A Clash of Values, A Time for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Vicki

    2004-01-01

    Today's opinion is the product of a Court, which is the product of a law-profession culture, that has largely signed on to the so-called homosexual agenda, by which I mean the agenda promoted by some homosexual activists directed at eliminating the moral opprobrium that has traditionally attached to homosexual conduct.... the Court has taken sides…

  14. Issues of Exercising the Right to Defence amid the Explanations of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation

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    Oksana A. Voltornist

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the explanations of the Plenum of the Supreme Court No. 29 dated June 30, 2015 “On application of laws by the courts ensuring the right to defense in criminal proceedings”. The author details the applied aspects of certain provisions of the aforementioned document within the criminal procedure legislation and estimates their significance for the judicial and investigative practice

  15. Activist Infighting among Courts and Breakdown of Mutual Trust? The Danish Supreme Court, the CJEU, and the Ajos Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2017-01-01

    showed that it too had an activist streak. Thus, both Courts were quite imaginative in trying to mould the central issues as falling within their exclusive jurisdiction. As a consequence of the judgments, parts of EU law are not, it appears, fully part of Danish law, but unfortunately the full...... implications and therefore the remedy are far from certain. While both judgments appear to reflect a lack of mutual trust between the two courts, they also expose a range of highly significant issues of wide importance. To understand both what went wrong in the judicial dialogue and the wider issues at stake...... comity in accordance with the hierarchy of norms established by virtue of EU law....

  16. Comparative Supreme Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditlev Tamm

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the great variety of Supreme Courts in the world today and presents some selected courts. Supreme Courts are found in most countries both as only apex courts or in a courts’ system where also supreme administrative courts or constitutional courts are found. The starting point is the variation of supreme justice in the Nordic countries where one apex court is the system of Denmark and Norway whereas administrative courts are found in Sweden and Finland. Constitutional courts stem from the European tradition and are most abundant in Europe and in countries with a civil law system but especially in Africa they are also found in common law countries. Mexico is mentioned as a specific example of a Supreme Court that has taken upon itself to be a main player in the endeavour to communicate the law to a general audience. The article is a presentation with samples of what is going to be a project on comparative supreme justice in which the position of supreme courts in the various states, the recruitment scheme and competence of the courts and other such factors will be analyzed on a global basis.

  17. Aborto na Suprema Corte: o caso da anencefalia no Brasil Abortion at the Supreme Court: the anencephaly case in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Diniz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o desafio jurídico e ético imposto pela anencefalia ao debate sobre direitos reprodutivos no Brasil. O fio condutor da análise é a ação de anencefalia apresentada ao Supremo Tribunal Federal em 2004. O artigo demonstra como o debate sobre o aborto provoca os fundamentos constitucionais da laicidade do Estado brasileiro e expõe a fragilidade da razão pública em temas de direitos reprodutivos, em especial sobre o aborto.This paper analyses the ethical and legal challenges of the anencephaly case in Brazil. The case study is the Supreme Court case on anencephaly proposed in 2004. This paper shows how the abortion debate forces the fundamentals of the Brazilian secular state and demonstrates the weakness of the public reason to mediate reproductive rights, mainly abortion, in Brazil.

  18. Roe v. Wade and the history of abortion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, P B

    1989-01-01

    In "Roe," the Supreme Court found that the privacy right in the 14th amendment's view of "personal liberty" encompasses a woman's right to choose an abortion. The Court found that "abortion is a fundamental right." These conclusions are mistaken. The Court's analysis of "the history of abortion regulation" had a lot of errors and did not consider the state of technology in which abortion evolved. Sir Edward Coke, a 16th and 17th century jurist, said that abortion was a "great misprison." Quickening, the point at which a woman feels life, was used to determine fetal viability. State courts, therefore, viewed "abortion after quickening as common law crime." By the end of 1868, 30 to the then 37 states had passed laws restricting abortion. The Supreme Court said that the 19th century laws were passed to guard the mother's health "against the dangers of unsafe operation." In the 15 months before "Roe," 5 state courts said that their abortion laws were constitutional. They said that this was "intended to protect the lives of unborn children." Therefore, the Court's belief that "the state courts focused on the State's interest in protecting "the health of the mother" was unexplainable. The Court said that in many states the woman couldn't "be prosecuted for self-abortion." 17 states did "incriminate the woman's participation in her own abortion," but the Court did not note this. The Court's premise about the greater hazards of late abortions is mistaken. The states were concerned, in the late 19th century, about whether the attempted abortion caused the death of a child. The "right to an abortion" can only be seen as "fundamental" if it is "implicit" in the "ordered liberty" concept or "deeply rooted" in US tradition and history. "Roe" struck down the abortion laws of all 50 states and should be overturned.

  19. The US Supreme Court in Mayo v. Prometheus - Taking the fire from or to biotechnology and personalized medicine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Nilsson, David

    2012-01-01

    On 20 March 2012, the US Supreme Court handed down its much awaited patent eligibility- ruling in the dispute between Prometheus Laboratories Inc (“Prometheus”), acting as plaintiffs, and Mayo Medical Laboratories (“Mayo”), as alleged infringers of Prometheus’ licensed patents. This case review w...

  20. Does the U.S. Supreme Court's Recent Activism in Reviewing Educational Disputes Make the Attempt To Implement a Code of Professional Ethics for Educators a Vain Effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronicolos, Loucas

    This paper explores whether or not the recent increase of interest by the U.S. Supreme Court in educational disputes results in a gradual reduction in the role that professional ethics plays in educators' everyday decisions. It is argued that there are links between an educator's professional ethics and constitutional justice. The increase in…

  1. Courting the Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Mary Neil

    1989-01-01

    Considers the impact of strong public opinion on the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in "Webster v. Reproductive Health Services." Points out three uses of public opinion in Supreme Court decisions and remarks on the Court's insulation from the public. Concludes that amicus curiae briefs are the one persuasive tool for influencing the…

  2. Danish Supreme Court Infringes the EU Treaties by its Ruling in the Ajos Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth; Tvarnø, Christina D.

    2017-01-01

    is as follows: in section 2, we give a short description of the relevant facts and law in the Ajos-case. In section 3, we analyse the roles of the CJEU and the national courts in light of the theories of monism and dualism. Section 4 deals with interpretation. Section 5 looks into supremacy and direct...

  3. El justice Oliver Wendell Holmes : «The great dissenter» de la supreme court

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Segado, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    La dissenting opinion es una institución que ha sido a lo largo de dos siglos el sello del Poder Judicial en Norteamérica. El nombramiento de John Marshall como Presidente del Tribunal Supremo supuso el abandono de las seriatim opinions, una herencia inglesa, y su sustitución por las opinions of the Court. Del mismo modo, las dissenting opinions iban a aparecer bajo la Corte presidida por Marshall. El Juez Oliver Wendell Holmes es considerado como el «gran disidente» del Tribun...

  4. CONVERTING THE 'RIGHT TO LIFE' TO THE 'RIGHT TO PHYSICIAN-ASSISTED SUICIDE AND EUTHANASIA': AN ANALYSIS OF CARTER V CANADA (ATTORNEY GENERAL), SUPREME COURT OF CANADA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Benny; Somerville, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    In its landmark decision Carter v Canada (Attorney General), the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the criminal prohibition on physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia for certain persons in certain circumstances violated their rights to life, liberty, and security of the person in sec. 7 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and thus was unconstitutional. The Supreme Court in effect overruled its earlier decision, Rodriguez v British Columbia (Attorney General), which upheld the prohibition as constitutionally valid, on the basis of changes in Charter jurisprudence and in the social facts since Rodriguez was decided. We argue that the Supreme Court's Carter decision shows conceptual disagreements with its Rodriguez decision concerning the nature and scope of the sec. 7-protected interests and the accompanying principles of fundamental justice. Not only do these conceptual differences have little to do with the changes that the Court in Carter invoked for 'revisiting' Rodriguez, the Court's articulation of the sec. 7 interests, particularly the right to life, and the principles of fundamental justice, especially the principle of over breadth, are problematic on their own terms. Furthermore, the way in which the Court dealt with evidence regarding abuses in permissive jurisdictions is also subject to criticism. We recommend that if, as now seems inevitable, legislation is introduced, it should mandate that assisted suicide and euthanasia be performed by specially licensed non-medical personnel and only on the authorization of a Superior Court judge. We also reject the key recommendations recently issued by the Provincial-Territorial Expert Advisory Group on Physician-Assisted Dying. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Political and Media Factors in the Evolution of the Media’s Role in U.S. Supreme Court Nominations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Davis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The selection of U.S. Supreme Court justices has become a highly media-oriented process both in the presidential selection and Senate confirmation stages. In the former stage, the White House uses the media to signal consideration of certain nominees, while interest groups publicly pressure the president to appoint favoured candidates or threaten confirmation fights over unacceptable candidates. In the confirmation stage, the White House, and nominee supporters, battle nominee opponents through image-making strategies intended to shape media coverage of the nominee. This paper will describe and explain the role of the media in the current nomination process, briefly assess why the media’s role has evolved in the past half century, and also predict how those roles would be changed under differing reform scenarios for Supreme Court nominations. La selección de los magistrados de la Corte Suprema de Estados Unidos se ha convertido en un proceso muy influenciado por los medios de comunicación, tanto en la elección presidencial como en las etapas de confirmación del Senado. En la primera etapa, la Casa Blanca utiliza los medios de comunicación para señalar los candidatos que se están considerando, mientras que los grupos de interés presionan públicamente al presidente para que designe a sus candidatos de su preferencia, o amenaza con luchas ante la confirmación de candidatos no afines. En la fase de confirmación, la Casa Blanca y los partidarios del magistrado seleccionados se enfrentan a sus oponentes a través de una estrategia de creación de imagen, para determinar la cobertura mediática del candidato. Este artículo describe y explica el papel de los medios de comunicación en el proceso actual de nombramiento, evalúa brevemente por qué el papel de los medios de comunicación ha evolucionado en el último medio siglo, y también predice cómo cambiaría este papel ante diferentes escenarios de reforma del proceso de nombramiento

  6. Amicus brief in Ariosa v. Sequenom: Why the U.S. Supreme Court should grant the petition for a writ of certiorari

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    as amici curiae, adds a European perspective to the many amicus briefs that have been submitted in support of Sequenom’s petition for certiorari to the United States Supreme Court. Sequenom’s petition in Case No. 15-1182 was filed on March 21, 2016 and seeks review of the Federal Circuit’s controversial...... the mitigating effects of other patentability requirements, we fear that the Federal Circuit’s overly rigid approach to claims eligibility decision might jeopardize the development of new therapies in an increasingly important area of modern medicine. As most Bill of Health readers know, the US Supreme Court has......, but these are addressed at different levels. In contrast to Europe, the CAFC has interpreted the uncodified exception as part of a “threshold test” for patent-eligibility applied before other patentability requirements can be assessed. A strict and coherent application of these requirements, however, would invalidate...

  7. Advance Health Care Directives and “Public Guardian”: The Italian Supreme Court Requests the Status of Current and Not Future Inability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paolo Busardò

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advance health care decisions animate an intense debate in several European countries, which started more than 20 years ago in the USA and led to the adoption of different rules, based on the diverse legal, sociocultural and philosophical traditions of each society. In Italy, the controversial issue of advance directives and end of life’s rights, in the absence of a clear and comprehensive legislation, has been over time a subject of interest of the Supreme Court. Since 2004 a law introduced the “Public Guardian,” aiming to provide an instrument of assistance to the person lacking in autonomy because of an illness or incapacity. Recently, this critical issue has once again been brought to the interest of the Supreme Court, which passed a judgment trying to clarify the legislative application of the appointment of the Guardian in the field of advance directives.

  8. A blow to gender equality. Supreme Court judgement on Manushi's case on women's land rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, V

    1999-01-01

    Many scholars take the view that personal laws of various communities are not subject to the constitution. Thus, the constitutional mandate of gender equality, which is to be found in articles 14 and 15 of the constitution, need not be taken into account by community-determined personal laws. The effect of such reasoning is that personal laws are given a free hand to discriminate against women. In the case of Madhu Kishwar against State of Bihar, the Apex Court decision caused a good deal of confusion on this aspect. A three-judge bench considered sections 7 and 8 of the Chotanagpur Tenancy Act, which is applicable to the Scheduled Tribes in Bihar and denies the right of succession to females in favor of males, as constitutional. This decision implies that general principles of equality as laid down in other succession laws cannot be applied to the laws of tribals. In addition, it reflects the general reluctance to let women be economically independent. However, it is proved that the decision is not in accordance with the constitution, making it clear that tribal women are entitled to equal succession rights, as are all women in India.

  9. Judicialization of Health in Pernambuco After Public Hearing No. 4 the Federal Supreme Court: An Analysis of Quantitative Judiciary of Acting in Law Warranty Social Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Dias Barros

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the importance of the judiciary as a tool to the effectiveness of social rights, including human rights, especially the right to health, this study aimed to present a study of the health legalization process in the state of Pernambuco relating to the direct effects and indirect Public Hearing paragraph 4 of the Supreme Court, between the years 2009-2014, using the measurement from the likelihood the analysis of judgments, obtaining approximate results and not an absolute truth, allowing you to see a trend about supply of medicine through the courts.

  10. Application of principles of European law in the Supreme Court of Estonia : [doktoritöö] / Carri Ginter ; juhendaja: Raul Narits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ginter, Carri, 1978-

    2008-01-01

    Kaitses Tartus 01. 07. 2008. a.. - Koosneb artiklitest: Access to courts for branches - some thoughts under Estonian and EC law // European competition law review : ECLR (2004) nr. 11, lk. 708-715 ; Constitutional review and EC law in Estonia // European Law Review (2006) nr. 6, lk. 912-923 ; Effective implementation of the Trade Mark Directive in Estonia // European competition law review : ECLR (2007) nr. 6, lk. 337-345 ; Procedural issues relating to EU law in the Estonian Supreme Court // Juridica International. XII. Tartu, 2007, lk. 67-79

  11. Judicial Competence, Processual Abundance and Selective Judgement: An Analysis of the Construction of Judicial Role of the Supreme Court in the Brazilian’s 1998 Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barile da Silveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is: a understand how was the distribution of constitutional powers of the Supreme Court in the light of legacy brought by the 88’s Constitution; ii identify how is the use of these skills in order to indicate predominance, successes and difficulties of your procedural management. From the theoretical understanding of its constitutional powers, contrasted in the face of extracted usual judicial practice of quantitative studies on its procedural flow, we seek to understand what were the paths that constructed the Court's competence profile in the first quarter century (1988- 2012.

  12. Violent video games and the Supreme Court: lessons for the scientific community in the wake of Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    In June 2011 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that video games enjoy full free speech protections and that the regulation of violent game sales to minors is unconstitutional. The Supreme Court also referred to psychological research on violent video games as "unpersuasive" and noted that such research contains many methodological flaws. Recent reviews in many scholarly journals have come to similar conclusions, although much debate continues. Given past statements by the American Psychological Association linking video game and media violence with aggression, the Supreme Court ruling, particularly its critique of the science, is likely to be shocking and disappointing to some psychologists. One possible outcome is that the psychological community may increase the conclusiveness of their statements linking violent games to harm as a form of defensive reaction. However, in this article the author argues that the psychological community would be better served by reflecting on this research and considering whether the scientific process failed by permitting and even encouraging statements about video game violence that exceeded the data or ignored conflicting data. Although it is likely that debates on this issue will continue, a move toward caution and conservatism as well as increased dialogue between scholars on opposing sides of this debate will be necessary to restore scientific credibility. The current article reviews the involvement of the psychological science community in the Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association case and suggests that it might learn from some of the errors in this case for the future. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Fighting addiction's death row: British Columbia Supreme Court Justice Ian Pitfield shows a measure of legal courage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small Dan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The art in law, like medicine, is in its humanity. Nowhere is the humanity in law more poignant than in BC Supreme Court Justice Ian Pitfield's recent judgment in the legal case aimed at protecting North America's only supervised injection facility (SIF as a healthcare program: PHS Community Services Society versus the Attorney General of Canada. In order to protect the SIF from politicization, the PHS Community Services Society, the community organization that established and operates the program, along with two people living with addiction and three lawyers working for free, pro bono publico, took the federal government of Canada to court. The courtroom struggle that ensued was akin to a battle between David and Goliath. The judge in the case, Justice Pitfield, ruled in favour of the PHS and gave the Government of Canada one year to bring the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA into compliance with the country's Charter of Rights and Freedoms. If parliament fails to do so, then the CDSA will evaporate from enforceability and law in June of 2009. Despite the fact that there are roughly twelve million intravenous drug addiction users in the world today, politics andprejudice oards harm reduction are still a barrier to the widespread application of the "best medicine" available for serious addicts. Nowhere is this clearer than in the opposition by conservative Prime Minister Stephen Harper and his faithful servant, federal health minister Tony Clement, towards Vancouver's SIF ("Insite". The continued angry politicization of addiction will only lead to the tragic loss of life, as addicts are condemned to death from infectious diseases (HIV & hepatitis and preventable overdoses. In light of the established facts in science, medicine and now law, political opposition to life-saving population health programs (including SIFs to address the effects of addiction is a kind of implicit capital punishment for the addicted. This commentary

  14. An analysis of causative factors in closed criminal medical malpractice cases of the Taiwan Supreme Court: 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kuan-Han; Cheng, Shih-Yu; Yen, Yung-Lin; Wu, Chien-Hung; Tsai, Ming-Ta; Cheng, Fu-Jen

    2016-11-01

    Most medical malpractice in Taiwan leads to criminal prosecution. This study examined the epidemiologic factors and clinical errors that led to medical malpractice convictions in Taiwanese criminal prosecutions. A retrospective, 15-year population-based review of criminal Supreme Court judgments pertaining to medical malpractice against physicians and nurses was conducted. Eighty-four cases were reviewed, yielding data that included the number and specialty involved, accused hospitals, the diagnosis, the time interval between incidents to closure, result of adjudication, the origin of cases (private vs. public prosecution), the result of medical appraisal, and the primary error. Overall, the cases averaged 7.6years to achieve final adjudication. Seventy-five percent were settled in favor of the clinician; twenty-three physicians and three nurses were found guilty, but all of these avoided imprisonment via probation or replacement with forfeit. The single most risky specialty was emergency medicine (22.6% of the cases), with 36.8% of those resulting in guilty verdicts. The most common diagnosis groups were infectious diseases (23.8%), intracranial hemorrhages (10.7%), and acute coronary syndrome (9.5%). Public prosecutions had a 41.2% conviction rate; no guilty verdicts resulted from private prosecution. Nineteen (22.6%) cases were commuted, and 73.7% of those had a controversial appraisal result. The characteristics of criminal malpractice prosecution in Taiwan that could be improved to relieve the stress of frivolous lawsuits on the judicial process include lengthy jurisdiction process; low public-prosecution conviction rate; frequent commuted jurisdiction related to a controversial appraisal; and zero imprisonment rate for clinicians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Do recent US Supreme Court rulings on patenting of genes and genetic diagnostics affect the practice of genetic screening and diagnosis in prenatal and reproductive care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; McGuire, Amy L.; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B.

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of patents have been awarded that claim human gene sequences and their uses, and some have been challenged in court. In a recent high-profile case, Association for Molecular Pathology, et al. vs. Myriad Genetics, Inc., et al., the United States Supreme Court ruled that genes are natural occurring substances and therefore not patentable through “composition of matter” claims. The consequences of this ruling will extend well beyond ending Myriad's monopoly over BRCA testing, and may affect similar monopolies of other commercial laboratories for tests involving other genes. It could also simplify intellectual property issues surrounding genome-wide clinical sequencing, which can generate results for genes covered by intellectual property. Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for common aneuploidies using cell-free fetal (cff) DNA in maternal blood is currently offered through commercial laboratories and is also the subject of ongoing patent litigation. The recent Supreme Court decision in the Myriad case has already been invoked by a lower district court in NIPT litigation and resulted in invalidation of primary claims in a patent on currently marketed cffDNA-based testing for chromosomal aneuploidies. PMID:24989832

  16. Do recent US Supreme Court rulings on patenting of genes and genetic diagnostics affect the practice of genetic screening and diagnosis in prenatal and reproductive care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; McGuire, Amy L; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B

    2014-10-01

    Thousands of patents have been awarded that claim human gene sequences and their uses, and some have been challenged in court. In a recent high-profile case, Association for Molecular Pathology, et al. v. Myriad Genetics, Inc., et al., the US Supreme Court ruled that genes are natural occurring substances and therefore not patentable through 'composition of matter' claims. The consequences of this ruling will extend well beyond ending Myriad's monopoly over BRCA testing and may affect similar monopolies of other commercial laboratories for tests involving other genes. It could also simplify intellectual property issues surrounding genome-wide clinical sequencing, which can generate results for genes covered by intellectual property. Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for common aneuploidies using cell-free fetal (cff) DNA in maternal blood is currently offered through commercial laboratories and is also the subject of ongoing patent litigation. The recent Supreme Court decision in the Myriad case has already been invoked by a lower district court in NIPT litigation and resulted in invalidation of primary claims in a patent on currently marketed cffDNA-based testing for chromosomal aneuploidies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Roe v. Wade. Matters sexual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickner, B

    1998-01-01

    When the US Supreme Court handed down its decision in Roe vs. Wade, the author of this commentary, a rabbi who had been working for years to legalize abortion, believed that the decision had decidedly legitimated a women's right to choose abortion. He was shocked by the fundamentalist fury that grew in the wake of the decision and by the ability of ultra-conservative forces to intimidate legislators. The schizophrenic attitude toward sex exhibited by Americans has them obsessed with sex and blatantly entertained by it while treating it with a secret prudishness and repressing or denying its importance. Thus, magazines are blatant sources of sexual advice, but sex education is limited in public schools. The "fundamental right" is fundamentally wrong in its attitude about women's reproductive rights, and a deadly serious struggle remains to ensure that women have choice and privacy in reproductive matters. The struggle for reproductive freedom is a struggle for freedom itself and for First Amendment rights.

  18. From the American Civil War to the War on Terror: Three Models of Emergency Law in the United States Supreme Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartz, Emily

    the Supreme Court justices have to grapple in these cases are therefore as philosophical as they are legal. In this book the Court's arguments are systematized according to categories informed by constitutional law as well as classic philosophical discussions of the problem of emergency. On this basis......This book offers a systematic and comprehensive account of the key cases that have come to shape the jurisprudence on emergency law in the United States from the Civil War to the War on Terror. The legal questions raised in these cases concern fundamental constitutional issues such as the status...... of fundamental rights, the role of the court in times of war, and the question of how to interpret constitutional limitations to executive power. At stake in these difficult legal questions is the issue of how to conceive of the very status of law in liberal democratic states. The questions with which...

  19. Case Law: - Canada: Criminal Court decision respecting attempted export of nuclear-related dual use items to Iran: Her Majesty the Queen vs Yadegari (2010); - Czech Republic: Supreme Administrative Court on the legal status of CEZ (2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Case law 1: Canada - Criminal Court decision respecting attempted export of nuclear-related dual use items to Iran: Her Majesty the Queen vs Yadegari (2010). This case concerns a recent, successful prosecution that was undertaken before the Ontario Court of Justice relating to violations of export control legislation in Canada, nuclear regulatory legislation, customs law, criminal law, as well as Canadian law implementing UN Security Council resolutions concerning Iran. The convictions that have been registered in this case, notwithstanding the fact that the decision is currently under appeal,2 demonstrate the importance of a functioning export control regime and effective counter-proliferation strategy. The case represents the first conviction for a regulatory offense under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act,3 in force since 2000, and Mr. Yadegari is the first Canadian to be convicted under the United Nations Act, Canada's legislation by which it implements UN resolutions. Case law 2: Czech Republic - Supreme Administrative Court on the legal status of CEZ (2010). The Supreme Administrative Court in its decision of 6 October 20098 ruled on whether CEZ, a.s., which is the operator of nuclear installations at the Temelin and Dukovany sites in the Czech Republic, is governed by the Act on Free Access to Information. The court stated that the rules laid down in the Act on Free Access to Information, also apply to CEZ which is considered as a 'public institution'. The following reasons led the court to this interpretation: first, CEZ was established by decision of the state in the course of the privatisation process. Secondly, the company is effectively controlled by the state, which is still its majority owner and the profits of the company also compose a portion of state budget revenues. Finally, there is a public interest served in the function of the company

  20. Climate Change Hysteria and the Supreme Court: The Economic Impact of Global Warming on the U.S. and the Misguided Regulation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions under the Clean Air Act

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Jason Scott

    2008-01-01

    In the spring of 2007, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Massachusetts v. EPA that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must promulgate automobile tailpipe C02 emission standards under Section 202 of the Clean Air Act (CAA). American environmentalists hailed the Supreme Court's decision as an important victory in the battle to curb global warming. This article argues to the contrary that: 1) a large body of economic work demonstrates that the likely pattern of costs and benefits from ...

  1. O Supremo Individual: mecanismos de atuação direta dos Ministros sobre o processo político / The Supreme Individuals: how Brazilian Supreme Court Justices can directly influence the political process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Werneck Arguelhes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Estudos e críticas à participação do Supremo Tribunal Federal na vida política nacional costumam assumir, ainda que implicitamente, que a decisão do tribunal a ser analisada ou criticada é obtida após um processo decisório interno colegiado. Mesmo que esse processo seja imperfeito, ele é visto como condição necessária para que os inputs individuais dos Ministros possam produzir efeitos relevantes sobre o mundo fora do tribunal. Neste trabalho, mostramos que os Ministros do STF podem agir individualmente, sem passar pelo colegiado, de modo a produzir efeitos sobre o comportamento de atores externos ao tribunal. Mapeamos conceitualmente esse tipo de poder individual, a partir de um marco teórico da análise institucional, para então identificar alguns exemplos na prática decisória do tribunal: a antecipação de posições na imprensa, o uso de pedidos de vista de longa duração e o uso de decisões monocráticas para avançar posições jurisprudenciais. Com base nesses três exemplos, apontamos e discutimos algumas implicações da existência desses poderes individuais para estudos sobre judicialização da política e comportamento judicial. Em especial, destacamos os problemas normativos que surgem quando se reconhece a possibilidade de que uma ação judicial internamente minoritária (isto é, uma ação que não expressa a preferência da maioria dos Ministros produza resultados externamente contramajoritários. Palavras-chave: Supremo Tribunal Federal; Poderes Individuais; Comportamento Judicial; Processo Decisório; Análise Institucional.                                                 Abstract: Existing studies on the Brazilian Supreme Federal Court tend to assume, even if implicitly, that decisions they analyze are the outcome of an internal, collective decision-making process. Even when this process is criticized as problematic in itself, it is seen as a necessary condition for the

  2. AXIOLOGY ARBITRATION VALUE RULING IN THE CASE SETTLEMENT TRADE (Case Study Decision Of Supreme Court Number : 199 K / Pdt.Sus / 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safrin Salam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of the Indonesian National Arbitration Board (BANI in Indonesia that still exist to this day is one manifestation of diakomodasinya patterns of dispute resolution outside the court. Legal Considerations Application Reasons Cancellation Arbitral Article 70 of Law No. 30 of 1999 on Arbitration and Alternative Dispute Resolution in Supreme Court Decision No. 199 K / Pdt.Sus / 2012 Relation Ensure Legal Certainty In the disputing parties are legal considerations of the cancellation decision was not all acceptance or rejection of the cancellation request arbitration decision based on legal grounds contained in Article 70 of Law No. 30 of 1999. Act No. 30 of 1999 on the ADR needs to be improved, especially the explanation of article 60 and article 70 which could lead to legal uncertainty for justice seekers among businesses in the dispute and the opportunity loss of trust businesses to resolve the dispute out of court through arbitration institution (the Arbitration Tribunal Ad-Hoc, BANI, etc.

  3. Rooster fighting, animal rights and the environment for the brazilian federal supreme court – a review of the adi 1856/rj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Carneiro Lima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper realized an analysis of the articulated issues and the decision rendered by the Supreme Court in ADI 1856/RJ that discusses the legal validity of the Law enacted by the state of Rio de Janeiro that regulates the practice of the rooster fighting. The standard was declared unconstitutional by the reason of the cruelty, which is subjected the combatant race birds. The decision had as a parameter the principle of human dignity and the constitutional determination that the environment must be protected by the government and by the community. The study is realized under the anthropocentric conception. The goal is to analyze the issue of cruelty against the animals and the protection of the man against the loss of their own dignity with violent actions. For the study, the deductive method was used, by the means bibliographic search to answer the problem that has its heart in reason to protect animals from cruel acts.

  4. O supremo tribunal federal e a cidadania à luz da influência comunitarista The federal supreme court and the citizenship in the light of the communitarism influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Maurmann Ximenes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A constituição de 1988 atribuiu ao supremo um desenho institucional que reflete uma valorização do texto constitucional e uma tentativa de aproximação do exercício da cidadania na linha de uma democracia participativa, à luz da teoria filosófica-política do comunitarismo. Contudo, é possível perceber elementos que acarretaram uma crise de identidade no exercício das atividades do supremo. Essa crise de identidade se intensifica com o instituto do amicus curiae questionando o papel como tribunal constitucional propriamente dito.The 1988 constitution conferred to the supreme court an institutional design that reflects a valorization of the constitutional text and an effort to bring it near to a citizenship practice due to a participative democracy movement, in the light of the of the communitarian philosophical-political theory. However, it is possible to see elements that unloose an identity crisis on the activities done by the supreme. This identity crisis is sharpened by the institute of the amicus curiae, questioning the role as a constitutional tribunal itself.

  5. Women’s rights and minorities’ rights in Canada. The challenges of intersectionality in Supreme Court jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scotti Valentina Rita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available After a discussion of the impact of the principle of equality, entrenched in the Charters approved in Canada since the 1867 British North American Act, this essay then focuses on the related Supreme Court’s adjudications. A brief analysis of the case-law concerning gender equality is followed by the discussion of cases of Aboriginal and Muslim women with the aim of assessing whether intersectionality represents for these groups of women a source of double discrimination. Brief concluding remarks discuss the challenges deriving from the different options for accommodating the principle of equality with cultural rights.

  6. 'War of Courts' as a clash of legal cultures: rethinking the conflict between the Polish Constitutional and Supreme Court over 'interpretive judgements'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.; Geisler, A.; Hein, M.; Hummel, S.

    2014-01-01

    Since 1986, Poland has had its Constitutional Court (TK), placed outside the structure of ordinary judiciary. Since 1993, the TK has been issuing ‘interpretive judgments’ in which it decides that a certain statutory rule is constitutional only under a certain interpretation. On numerous occasions

  7. Ohio Supreme Court Review: Tanner v. Loyal Order of Moose: Unincorporated Associations Are Liable for Injuries to Their Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappers, Alan M.

    1976-01-01

    Ohio's fraternal organizations have been protected by the common law rule that a member of such an unincorporated association cannot maintain an action against the association for personal injuries resulting from the negligent acts of its agents. In this case the court ruled that the common law ought not apply. (LBH)

  8. "Medical Marijuana" and the End of the "Federalist Revolution": An Analysis of Heresthetic Maneuvers at the U.S. Supreme Court in the OCBC and Raich Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Radenović

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last fi fteen years a “federalist revolution“ has been carried out at the U.S. Supreme Court, led by the then court president William H. Rehnquist. Although it has involved a variety of rulings in diff erent areas, the ones connected with the limitation of regulatory powers of Congress on the basis of the Commerce Clause (the Lopez and Morrison cases were of the greatest symbolic importance. The liberal antifederalist minority has put up resistance against such changes, until divisions in the conservative federalist majority were brought about over the Gonzales v. Raich case (2005. On the basis of the decision in the Raich case, the liberals largely managed to abolish the eff ects of Lopez and Morrison. Starting from Riker’s concept of heresthetic maneuvers, this paper puts forward the hypothesis that the success of the liberal minority is a result of proactive heresthetic eff orts towards overthrowing the “federalist revolution“. It also points to the importance of a relatively neglected case, United States v. Oakland Cannabis Buyers’ Cooperative (2001, as one of the corner-stones of the antifederalist campaign. The moves of the liberals in the OCBC and Raich cases are analysed in accordance with Riker’s categorisation. The hypothesis is demonstrated through an analysis of material comprising rulings, opinions, minutes of verbal discussions and statements given by participants in the legal proceedings.

  9. CONVERTING THE ‘RIGHT TO LIFE’ TO THE ‘RIGHT TO PHYSICIAN-ASSISTED SUICIDE AND EUTHANASIA’: AN ANALYSIS OF CARTER V CANADA (ATTORNEY GENERAL), SUPREME COURT OF CANADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Benny; Somerville, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    In its landmark decision Carter v Canada (Attorney General), the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the criminal prohibition on physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia for certain persons in certain circumstances violated their rights to life, liberty, and security of the person in sec. 7 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and thus was unconstitutional. The Supreme Court in effect overruled its earlier decision, Rodriguez v British Columbia (Attorney General), which upheld the prohibition as constitutionally valid, on the basis of changes in Charter jurisprudence and in the social facts since Rodriguez was decided. We argue that the Supreme Court's Carter decision shows conceptual disagreements with its Rodriguez decision concerning the nature and scope of the sec. 7-protected interests and the accompanying principles of fundamental justice. Not only do these conceptual differences have little to do with the changes that the Court in Carter invoked for ‘revisiting’ Rodriguez, the Court's articulation of the sec. 7 interests, particularly the right to life, and the principles of fundamental justice, especially the principle of over breadth, are problematic on their own terms. Furthermore, the way in which the Court dealt with evidence regarding abuses in permissive jurisdictions is also subject to criticism. We recommend that if, as now seems inevitable, legislation is introduced, it should mandate that assisted suicide and euthanasia be performed by specially licensed non-medical personnel and only on the authorization of a Superior Court judge. We also reject the key recommendations recently issued by the Provincial-Territorial Expert Advisory Group on Physician-Assisted Dying. PMID:27099364

  10. Supreme Court of the United States Syllabus: Runyon et ux., dba Bobbe's School v. McCrary et al. Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. No. 75-62. Argued April 26, 1976--Decided June 25, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supreme Court of the U. S., Washington, DC.

    This publication presents the full text of the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Runyon et ux., dba Bobbe's School v. McCrary et al., as written by Justice Stewart. Also included are separate concurring opinions written by Justice Powell and Justice Stevens and a dissenting opinion written by Justice White, as well as a syllabus that summarizes the…

  11. Supreme Court Position Regarding the Implementation of International Law Crimes of the Past in Spain: a Legal Analysis after Reports of the un Working Group on Enforced Disappearance, the Committee on Enforced Disappearances and the un Special Rapporteur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Chinchón Álvarez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Along with the undeniable importance of the case, the judgment of the Spanish Supreme Court in the trial against Judge Baltasar Garzón accused of prevarication, having declared itself competent to investigate complaints for crimes committed during the Civil War and the Franco’s regime, it has had a determining significance: from then to now, the doctrine of the High Court has been almost literally followed by the remaining Spanish courts against any complaint concerning to crimes com- mitted before the last transition to democracy in Spain. This state of affairs has been repeatedly criticized by various bodies of the United Nations, expressly by the three that have visited Spain more recently: The UN Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, the Committee on Enforced Disappearances and the UN Special Rapporteur on the Promotion of Truth, Justice, Reparation and Guarantees of Non-Repetition. In this contribution will be presented and analysed transcendent positions defended by the Supreme Court regarding the application of international law to the past crimes in Spain and especially its configuration as crimes against humanity, the legal assessment about the enforced disappearance, and the validity and application of the 1977 Amnesty Law.

  12. Beyond Roe, after Casey: the present and future of a "fundamental" right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benshoof, J

    1993-01-01

    Although the US Supreme Court recently reaffirmed a woman's right to end a pregnancy before viability, many women remain unable to exercise that right because their access to abortion is limited. 83% of the counties in the nation have no abortion providers, and many women must travel hundreds of miles to obtain an abortion. In its Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania vs. Casey decision, the Supreme Court upheld what it felt were the central tenets of Roe vs. Wade but appointed an "undue burden" standard instead of a "strict scrutiny" standard for the courts to use when determining whether or not a state restriction is to be allowed. This means that women must prove "undue" harm from a restriction. 2 other new concepts contained in Casey are that the state has an interest in fetal life throughout a pregnancy and that the government does not have to remain neutral in an abortion case even if it did not involve the issue of funding. This means that states can try to discourage a woman's choice to have an abortion. Since Casey, the Supreme Court has refused to review several abortion cases and federal courts have taken action allowing abortion restrictions to go into effect in Pennsylvania, Utah, South Dakota, North Dakota, and Mississippi. State courts in Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Alaska, New York, and West Virginia have also heard abortion restriction cases in the past year. These restrictions involved a waiting period, criminalization, a residency requirement, a community hospital's ban on abortions, and state funding for abortion. Following the Casey decision, efforts were made to codify Roe by reintroducing the Freedom of Choice Act in Congress. During the committee process, however, the bill was amended in such a way as to make pro-choice advocates doubt that the amended version will be able to accomplish the aims of the original Act. Because the High Court ruled in Bray vs. Alexandria Women's Health Clinic that the ability of abortion clinics to

  13. PROTESTOS DO SUPREMO TRIBUNAL FEDERAL NA PRIMEIRA REPÚBLICA – O JULGAMENTO DO HABEAS CORPUS 8800 E O CONFLITO ENTRE OS PODERES JUDICIÁRIO E EXECUTIVO / PROTESTS BY THE SUPREME COURT DURING THE FIRST REPUBLIC – THE TRIAL OF HABEAS CORPUS 8800 AND THE CONFLICT BETWEEN EXECUTIVE AND JUDICIARY POWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Maia Galvão

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the role of the Brazilian Supreme Federal Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal – STF during the First Republic (1889-1930 from an institutional perspective, focusing especially on the conflictual relationship between the executive power and the judiciary one. It describes some episodes involving the so-called issue of protests in which that Court expressed its resentment through a public statement against the actions of the executive branch. From the detailed analysis of one of these episodes, occurred in 1923, it will be possible to demonstrate the competition for power between the Supreme Court and the Presidency.

  14. High radiofrequency radiation at Stockholm Old Town: An exposimeter study including the Royal Castle, Supreme Court, three major squares and the Swedish Parliament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Koppel, Tarmo; Hedendahl, Lena

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation was classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO in 2011. The exposure pattern is changing due to the rapid development of technology. Outdoor RF radiation level was measured during five tours in Stockholm Old Town in April, 2016 using the EME Spy 200 exposimeter with 20 predefined frequencies. The results were based on 10,437 samples in total. The mean level of the total RF radiation was 4,293 µW/m 2 (0.4293 µW/cm 2 ). The highest mean levels were obtained for global system for mobile communications (GSM) + universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) 900 downlink and long-term evolution (LTE) 2600 downlink (1,558 and 1,265 µW/m 2 , respectively). The town squares displayed highest total mean levels, with the example of Järntorget square with 24,277 µW/m 2 (min 257, max 173,302 µW/m 2 ). These results were in large contrast to areas with lowest total exposure, such as the Supreme Court, with a mean level of 404 µW/m 2 (min 20.4, max 4,088 µW/m 2 ). In addition, measurements in the streets surrounding the Royal Castle were lower than the total for the Old Town, with a mean of 756 µW/m 2 (min 0.3, max 50,967 µW/m 2 ). The BioInitiative 2012 Report defined the scientific benchmark for possible health risks as 30-60 µW/m 2 . Our results of outdoor RF radiation exposure at Stockholm Old Town are significantly above that level. The mean exposure level at Järntorget square was 405-fold higher than 60 µW/m 2 . Our results were below the reference level on 10,000,000 µW/m 2 established by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), which, however, are less credible, as they do not take non-thermal effects into consideration and are not based on sound scientific evaluation. Our highest measured mean level at Järntorget was 0.24% of the ICNIRP level. A number of studies have found adverse, non-thermal (no measurable

  15. O poder dos juízes: Supremo Tribunal Federal e o desenho institucional do Conselho Nacional de Justiça The power of judges: the Supreme Court and the institutional design of the National Council of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo desenvolve o argumento de que o Conselho Nacional de Justiça (CNJ, criado no Brasil em 2004, foi fruto de um arranjo político com base na concretização da Reforma do Poder Judiciário. Neste arranjo os interesses do Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF prevaleceram sobre os demais e, por consequência, o resultado da emenda constitucional de número 45 foi um CNJ dirigido por integrantes da Corte maior brasileira. Para sua consecução utilizamos uma revisão da literatura especializada e análise de dados. O argumento é desenvolvido a partir da lógica de que aprovar um desenho institucional do CNJ atrelado aos interesses do STF é a melhor estratégia a ser desenvolvida pelos membros da Corte. Isto pode ser justificado por: 1 Os juízes do STF são importantes atores políticos; 2 A existência de uma independência judicial garantida por prerrogativas institucionais reforça ainda mais sua importância política; 3 Sistemas políticos com alto grau de fragmentação aumentam a probabilidade dos juízes (do STF emplacarem seus interesses; 4 A existência do mecanismo de revisão judicial amplia o grau de influência das Supremas Cortes e 5 Por fim, a existência de mecanismos informais de persuasão facilitam o êxito dos juízes do STF. A partir do caso estudado podemos constatar que: o desenho institucional brasileiro, que potencializa a possibilidade de intervenção judicial no processo decisório, e o sistema político altamente fragmentado geraram, em grande medida, uma Suprema Corte (STF poderosa e centralizadora do policy-making Judiciário, se tornando, neste aspecto, uma terceira câmara do processo decisório.This article argues that the National Council of Justice (CNJ, created in Brazil in 2004, was the result of a political arrangement based on the achievement of the Reform of the Judiciary. In this arrangement the interests of the Federal Supreme Court (STF prevailed over the others and therefore the result of a

  16. Case note: Supreme Court (Netherlands) [HR] (Spaans v Iran-United States Claims Tribunal, Final appeal judgment, Case No 12627: Decision No LJN: AC9158)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brölmann, C.

    2012-01-01

    Subject(s): Privileges — Immunity from jurisdiction, international organizations — International courts and tribunals, admissibility — Compensation — International courts and tribunals, admissibility of claims. Core Issue(s): Whether under customary international law an international organization

  17. The international impact of Roe v. Wade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggemann, I

    1998-01-01

    While a "decision" is defined as "a final choice," the Roe vs. Wade decision of the US Supreme Court has not ended the abortion debate in the US. Each year the US Congress reopens debate about whether or not to fund family planning (FP) programs overseas that both deliver services to reduce the number of abortions and advocate for abortion laws that mirror those in force in the US. Even with a pro-choice administration in the White House, the International Planned Parenthood Federation has been forced to operate with only a third of its 1984 allocation. FP program managers depending on US funds are even fearful of incorporating postabortal care into their programs for fear of losing funding. It is the height of hypocrisy for opponents of abortion to also oppose the FP programs that provide the means to prevent abortions. It is time for US legislators to heed the moral imperative to find the necessary areas of agreement so that we can work together to end the abortion-related deaths that occur because women are denied access to safe abortion and to contraception and quality reproductive health services.

  18. Errors by the American Psychiatric Association, the American Psychological Association, and the National Educational, Association in representing homosexuality in amicus briefs about Amendment 2 to the U.S. Supreme Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, P; Cameron, K; Landess, T

    1996-10-01

    In October 1995, consortiums of psychiatric and educational profes sional organizations, including the American Psychological Association and the American Psychiatric Association and the National Educational Association, submitted amicus briefs to the U.S. Supreme Court asserting that the scientific literature unequivocally supports the following propositions (a) that homosexuals, including homosexual teachers, do not disproportionately molest children, (b) that children of homosexual patients are not more likely to become homosexuals, (c) that professionals agree that homosexuality is not a pathology, and (d) that homosexual attractions are biologically or genetically predetermined and are therefore beyond the control of the individual. The first two contentions are inconsistent with the scientific literature, and the second two grossly oversimplify a contentious and uncertain literature.

  19. A constituição de 1988, vinte anos depois: suprema corte e ativismo judicial "à brasileira" The Brazilian 1988 constitution twenty years on: supreme court and activism in a "Brazilian mode"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Verissimo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina as transformações por que vem passando o Supremo Tribunal Federal nos últimos anos, relacionando-as à sua reconfiguração institucional ocorrida por ocasião da Constituição de 1988. essas transformações são apresentadas como respostas a um duplo fenômeno (impulsionado por essa mesma reconfiguração institucional de incremento do papel político do tribunal, por um lado, e de sobrecarga extraordinária de seu volume de trabalho, por outro. Essa tensão reflete no modelo misto de controle de constitucionalidade no Brasil e parece apontar para mudanças iminentes nesse mesmo modelo, algumas das quais já vêm sendo concebidas pelo próprio tribunal.The Brazilian Supreme Court is currently changing. This process of change seems to aim at solving a important contradiction caused by the institutional redesign of the court in the 1988 Constitution that, on the one hand, has transformed it into one of the country's major political actors, but, on the other hand, has also caused its dockets to get incredibly overloaded, forcing the court to deal with more then 100,000 cases a year. The solution for such paradox will probably lead to changes in the Brazilian mixed model of judicial review, and some of these changes are already been conceived by the jurisprudence of the court itself.

  20. KSR v. Teleflex. Part 1: Impact of U.S Supreme Court Patent Law on Canadian intellectual property and regulatory rights landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Ron A

    2007-01-01

    In KSR, SCOTUS retooled the standard for obviousness to bring it back in line with the court's previous decisions in Hotchkiss and Graham. A comparative review of the law of obviousness in the United States and Canada, and its relation to innovation and competition, was undertaken in Sections II and III. The focal point of observed differences is the inherent creativity and inventiveness of the PHOSITA, which in turn informs several binary and highly rigid aspects of Canadian patent law relevant to a statutory determination of obviousness. While American and English skilled technicians are viewed by courts in their parent jurisdictions as inherently creative and thus able to construe the prior art both implicitly and explicitly, the Canadian PHOSITA possesses not even a "mere scintilla" of inventiveness. As such, the reference point for the obviousness analysis in Canada, but not in the U.S. or U.K., is a PHOSITA who has much less than the average level of normative creativity, who is indeed no PHOSITA at all due to a de minimus level of creativity. The result in either case is removal of the PHOSITA from the obviousness determination, contrary to the provisions of Canadian patent legislation. As such, the current test for obviousness in Canada parallels in many important aspects the Federal Circuit's much maligned pre-KSR "teaching, suggestion, motivation" test that was explicitly overturned in KSR. For reasons discussed in Section III, jurisdictional differences of this nature not only have the potential to harm Canadian inventors and firms seeking to market innovative products globally, but may also, paradoxically, inhibit strong innovation by granting weak patents in the context of permissive legislation and regulations governing the approval and marketing of medical products.

  1. Constitutionalizing secularism, alternative secularisms or liberal-democratic constitutionalism?
    A critical reading of some Turkish, ECtHR and Indian Supreme Court cases on ‘secularism’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veit Bader

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent debates on the constitutional status of 'secularism' we can discern three positions. The first tries to overcome the absence of 'secularism' in most liberal-democratic constitutions by developing a more robust theory of constitutional secularism. The second develops theories of 'alternative secularisms'. The third, defended in this article, argues that we should drop secularism as a 'cacophonous' concept from our constitutional and legal language and replace it by liberal-democratic constitutionalism. I develop an analytical taxonomy of twelve different meanings of 'secularism' based on a comparative study of Turkish and Indian Supreme Court cases on secularism, and demonstrate that they are incompatible with each other and with the hard core of liberal-democratic constitutions. Next, I criticize the respective rulings in the Turkish and Indian context. Particularly in 'militant democracies', the appeal to a principle of 'secularism' turns out to be inimical to the liberal and to the democratic 'constitutional essentials'. I end with some normative recommendations on the role of constitutional review and judicial activism.

  2. Midwifery on Trial: Balancing Privacy Rights and Health Concerns after "Roe v. Wade"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Mary M.

    2003-01-01

    Because "Roe v. Wade" left ill-defined or derivative just who could be a medical caregiver for pregnant women, courts struggled in the post-Roe medico-legal environment to decide just who could be a medical advisor in this newly recognized zone of privacy. The courts also were challenged to balance individual privacy rights, state…

  3. Page | 59 NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL COURT: COURT WITH A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Supreme Court to determine whether trade dispute suits fall within the exclusive jurisdiction of the. National .... of the President of the National Industrial Court and such numbers of judges as may be prescribed by ... concept of jurisdiction has been defined as a court's power to decide a case or issue a decree.33 It is the.

  4. Roe v. Wade. One step in the right direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veazey, C W

    1998-01-01

    In this commentary, the Executive Director of the Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice, who is also a Baptist minister, notes that he has long been involved in supporting women as they made reproductive health decisions, including abortion, but only officially joined the pro-choice movement on becoming Director of the Coalition. Like many Black ministers, he became a social activist during the Civil Rights movement and has seen his life affected by many Supreme Court decisions. While his attitude towards abortion has remained the same since the Roe decision, he is increasingly committed to opening a dialogue in the religious community about all issues of sexuality and reproductive health. He is concerned that young adults may not be cognizant of the sacrifices made by previous generations to ensure protection of gains made in civil rights, reproductive rights, and women's rights. The pro-choice movement is beginning to be relevant to larger numbers of people through its education and legislative efforts, and such education is essential to avoid a repeat of the tragedies of the past.

  5. "Obamacare" vor dem Supreme Court / Guy Beaucamp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Beaucamp, Guy

    2016-01-01

    USA tervishoiureformi ajaloost, 2010. a. ravikindlustusreformist ja USA ülemkohtu otsusest jätta jõusse oluline osa president Barack Obama tervishoiureformist (PPACA), hinnang kohtuotsusele ja võrdlused Saksamaaga

  6. The Supreme Court Faces the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Homer H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Aspects of family law changed by the impact of constitutional doctrines are reviewed; included is discussion of marriage, divorce, child custody, parent/child relationships, and abortion and contraception. (MP)

  7. Recent Supreme Court decisions and licensing power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano-Coltart, Jennifer; Calkins, Charles W

    2008-02-01

    The recently decided eBay and MedImmune cases interject both reassurance and uncertainty into the present patent licensing landscape, affecting the strategic decisions to be considered during negotiations.

  8. O Supremo Tribunal e a compensação SNUC: A ADI 3.378-DF The Brazilian Supreme Court and the compensation National System of Units of Natural Environment Conservation (SNUC: the ADIN 3.378-DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Domingues

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este texto examina e critica recente julgamento do STF, ainda não definitivo, que julga legítima a chamada compensação financeira Sistema Nacional de Unidades de Conservação da Natureza (SNUC, embora dando parcial procedência à ação direta ajuizada pela Confederação Nacional da Indústria, para " declarar a inconstitucionalidade das expressões indicadas no voto reajustado do Relator" . A ilegitimidade da previsão legal estaria no fato de que o valor da compensação em questão " é de ser fixado proporcionalmente ao impacto ambiental, após estudo em que se assegurem o contraditório e a ampla defesa" , sendo prescindível a " fixação de percentual sobre os custos do empreendimento" . A Lei nº 9.985, de 18 de julho de 2000, criou o Sistema Nacional de Unidades de Conservação, no bojo do qual se inserem as unidades do " Grupo de Proteção Integral" (art. 8º; em apoio às mesmas, a lei determina o pagamento de uma compensação, a cuja implantação e manutenção estará afetada a receita respectiva (art. 36, caput. O texto discute as possibilidades de interpretação das cláusulas gerais relativas ao caso, abordando os limites da atuação do poder jurisdicional e sugerindo o que julga ser a melhor solução para o caso concreto.This text examines and criticizes recent Brazilian Supreme Court verdict, not in definite yet, which judges legitimate the financial compensation National System of Units of Natural Environment Conservation (SNUC although giving partial origin to the direct action brought by the National Industry Confederation in order to " declare the unconstitutionality of expressions indicated in the relater's readjusted vote" . The illegitimacy of legal prevision would be in the fact that the refereed compensation value " should be fixed proportionally to the environmental impact, after study in which adversary and legal defense are asseverated, prescinded the " percentage fixation on the costs of enterprise

  9. Court of Public Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2011-01-01

    It was late on Election Day 2010 and Vander Plaats, a Sioux City, Iowa, businessman and leader of a campaign to oust three Iowa Supreme Court justices, had just gotten word that he and his team had pulled it off. The voters had rejected the three justices up for a retention vote: David Baker, Michael Streit, and Chief Justice Marsha Ternus.…

  10. Covering the Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Renee

    1989-01-01

    Assesses the media coverage of U.S. Supreme Court decisions by focusing on "Webster v. Reproductive Health Services." Expresses concern that deadline pressures force the media to respond to decisions too quickly, thus misrepresenting the legal impact of these decisions to the public. Considers ways of improving media coverage of the…

  11. 6 February 2012 - Supreme Audit Institutions from Norway, Poland, Spain and Switzerland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5, CMS underground experimental area, CERN Control Centre and LHC superconducting magnet test hall. Delegations are throughout accompanied by Swiss P. Jenni, Polish T. Kurtyka, Spanish J. Salicio, Norwegian S. Stapnes and International Relations Adviser R. Voss. (Riksrevisjonen, Oslo; Tribunal de Cuentas , Madrid; the Court of Audit of Switzerland and Najwyzsza Izba Kontroli, Varsaw)

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    6 February 2012 - Supreme Audit Institutions from Norway, Poland, Spain and Switzerland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5, CMS underground experimental area, CERN Control Centre and LHC superconducting magnet test hall. Delegations are throughout accompanied by Swiss P. Jenni, Polish T. Kurtyka, Spanish J. Salicio, Norwegian S. Stapnes and International Relations Adviser R. Voss. (Riksrevisjonen, Oslo; Tribunal de Cuentas , Madrid; the Court of Audit of Switzerland and Najwyzsza Izba Kontroli, Varsaw)

  12. [In the absence of a bioethics debate. Comments on the Decision of the Constitutional Division of the Supreme Court of Justice of Costa Rica on the prohibition against in vitro fertilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, C

    2001-01-01

    The ruling by Costa Rica's Constitutional Court on the prohibition of in vitro fertilisation is a consequence of the negligible development of Bioethics, the lack of public debate on the issue and the absence of adequate regulation. Prohibition of such a vital medical technique represents an abuse of power by the courts, and thus curtails other fundamental rights, research, progress and bioethics' debate.

  13. Roe v. Wade, the next twenty-five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    1998-01-01

    There is little left to be said about abortion in the US; most Americans are either bored with the issue or the issue has simply lost its immediacy. The world today is certainly different from the 1970s, when the US Supreme Court issued its Roe vs. Wade decision. That era was marked by societal and economic generosity manifest by greater acceptance of civil rights, liberal sexual mores, acceptance of divorce, ignorance of infertility, and a focus on alleviating the readily apparent suffering of women made desperate by an unwanted pregnancy. In the 25 intervening years, abortion has remained legal even as the US has become more conservative. It may be, therefore, that pro-choices forces are safe enough to attempt to regain the moral edge and lead the way out of the abortion wars. In order to do this, the values that informed early commitment to women's right to make the abortion decision must finally be clearly expressed, explained, and advocated. Also, pro-choice groups must initiate a more meaningful public dialogue about the morality of abortion and offer answers to the hard questions such as whether it is not better to encourage teenagers to talk to their parents about an unwanted pregnancy, what is the moral significance of developing life, is viability a significant threshold, are there better and worse reasons for abortion, and are some pro-abortion arguments morally dubious. While some may consider this course of action threatening, the visionary leadership that is desperately needed involves addressing both the underlying values and hard questions.

  14. Escassez de recursos, custos dos direitos e reserva do possível na jurisprudência do STF Resource limitation, cost of rights and the 'under reserve of the possibilities' clause in the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court case-law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wei Liang Wang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa os temas da escassez de recursos, custos dos direitos e cláusula de reserva do possível na jurisprudência do Supremo Tribunal Federal brasileiro. Por meio do estudo dessas decisões, procuro, primeiramente, descobrir em que tipo de matéria esses temas são comumente debatidos nos julgamentos do Supremo Tribunal Federal. Em um segundo momento, procuro entender a forma como o tribunal trata esses temas em sua jurisprudência e os critérios utilizados em suas análises. Por fim, busco examinar se a análise jurídica dos ministros leva em consideração preocupações relativas às conseqüências econômicas e distributivas das decisões. A pesquisa de acórdãos foi feita com base nestes três temas: direito à saúde, direito à educação e intervenção federal por não pagamento de precatórios. Em uma primeira fase, analiso o tratamento dado aos custos dos direitos, à reserva do possível e à escassez de recursos dentro de cada um desses temas. E, em um segundo momento, cruzo os resultados obtidos em cada tema para mostrar as diferenças de tratamento.This article presents an analysis the concepts of costs of rights, resource limitation and the "under reserve of the possibilities" clause are featured in the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court case-law. By analyzing Brazilian Supreme Court's decisions, my aim is to verify, firstly, in which subjects these themes appear more frequently. Secondly, I intend to assess how this court deals with the referred themes in its case law and what are the criteria applied. finally, I attempt to examine if the judges decision making process takes into consideration economic and distributive consequences. The survey on court decisions was based on three categories of legal discussions: right to health, right to education, and federal intervention for the non-payment of judicial debts. Initially, I examine the treatment received by the concepts of costs of rights, resource limitation

  15. Klansman on the Court: Justice Hugo Black's 1937 Radio Address to the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcasson, Martin; Aune, James Arnt

    2003-01-01

    Supreme Court Justice Hugo L. Black, known for being a liberal First Amendment absolutist and a courageous defender of individual freedom, is considered one of the best justices ever to serve on the nation's high court. This essay examines the events surrounding Justice Black's controversial nomination to the Supreme Court, focusing on his…

  16. Supreme matters: tea parties and the activism of restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurzbauer, H.

    2010-01-01

    An essay on the impact of Tea Parties on the appointment of Supreme Court Justices. According to recently released statistics, one-fifth of all US citizens are Tea Party Supporters: predominately white conservatives convinced of the 'evils' of the Obama administration. Taking their cue from the

  17. GREAT BRITAIN AND GERMANY SUPREME AUDIT INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobre Cornelia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Overall progress recorded in contemporary society, has increased at the same time the aspirations and expectations of the population, marked by phenomena which are based on the financial policy of the Executive. Of course, for the legislature to know the financial activity carried out by the Executive Board, in each State was established a Supreme Audit Institution (SAI, whose independence is guaranteed by the Constitution, as it is in Germany, or by law, as is the case of the United Kingdom. The variety of powers of supreme audit, is the result of various economic areas, each demonstrations through specific activities and suitable approaches to organizational cultures, which gives them their distinct identities. The work is conducted under the public responsibility with an emphasis on developing and improving continuously audit methodologies to present best practices. The two supreme institutions operate according to an annual plan of action which includes financial audit or regularity and performance auditing actions, and additional Federal Court of Audit of Germany practice preventive control institutions contained in its area of activity. By tradition, the role of supreme consists of the evaluation as regards the legality and regularity of financial management and accounting, but since the 80's but it was noticeable trend internationally to audit performance or "value for money" (United Kingdom, since the latter refers to the essence of the problem and is the final attainment of the envisaged at the time of allocation of resources. The topic researched is distinguished by originality, marked being the fact that a area so important as that of external public audit is least known works, and I wish to point out the vacuum bibliographic Supreme Audit Institutions experience in the international arena and beyond. Research methodology consists in the evaluation of resources in the area, using foreign literature. For the study of the subject of

  18. The Camera Comes to Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floren, Leola

    After the Lindbergh kidnapping trial in 1935, the American Bar Association sought to eliminate electronic equipment from courtroom proceedings. Eventually, all but two states adopted regulations applying that ban to some extent, and a 1965 Supreme Court decision encouraged the banning of television cameras at trials as well. Currently, some states…

  19. Court Records Management and Efficient Administration of Justice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the records management practices in Nigerian courts as they affect the administration of justice in Nigeria. Focusing particularly on the Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court of Nigeria, the population of the study comprised 634 records personnel out of which 160 were purposively sampled.

  20. The Challenges of Supreme Command

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    a model highlighting three central presidential roles together constituting supreme command: the supreme political leader, the supreme leader of the military, and the supreme grand strategist. In short, central is the president’s ability to act in all three roles to provide the right balance of strategic...... advisers to assist him as required. The model’s centerpiece – the unequal dialogue – is a close, continuous dialogue between the president and his civilian and military advisers, characterized by mutual respect and trust and with the president encouraging and the advisers offering candid advice, but always...

  1. O STF e a construção institucional das autoridades reguladoras do financeiro: um estudo de caso das ADIns The Brazilian Supreme Court and the institutional design of the public authorities of the National Financial System: an ADIns' empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Duran-Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende avaliar a atuação da corte constitucional brasileira, o Supremo Tribunal Federal, como verdadeiro ator no desenho institucional das autoridades reguladoras do sistema financeiro nacional, o Conselho Monetário Nacional (CMN e o Banco Central do Brasil (BCB. Sua interação com os poderes políticos, por meio do julgamento de Ações Diretas de Inconstitucionalidade (ADIns, ao longo dos últimos 20 anos, forneceu balizas jurídicas para a construção dessas autoridades. Esta pesquisa, que parte de uma análise qualitativa das decisões do Tribunal como estudo de caso, mapeou os temas e atores interessados na regulação do sistema financeiro e na estrutura dessas entidades, assim como procurou demonstrar como a atuação da corte reforçou a competência normativa desses órgãos. Ao final, este artigo delineia parâmetros para eventual edição de futura legislação, que vise regular o sistema financeiro, revogando a Lei 4594 de 1964, e conceder eventual autonomia ao Banco Central do Brasil.The purpose of this study is to analyse the manner the Brazilian Supreme Court's (Supremo Tribunal Federal - STF decisions have influenced the institutional design of the national monetary council and the Brazilian Central Bank. During the last 20 years, STF provided limits to the power of these public authorities, by judging Direct Actions of Unconstitutionality (ADIns. This research is based on empirical study that intends to identify the actors and the issues submitted to the court and how its decision enforced their power of regulating the financial system. As a result, it is possible to perceive directions to enact the law that intends to regulate the financial system and eventually to attribute the independence to the Brazilian Central Bank.

  2. Os quilombos perante o STF: a emergência de uma jurisprudência dos direitos étnicos (ADIN 3.239-9 The quilombos before Supreme Court: the emergence of an ethnic rights jurisprudency (ADIN 3.239-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Bemerguy Camerini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O STF apreciará este ano a ADIN nº 3.239-9, na qual se discute a interpretação do direito das comunidades remanescentes de quilombos à titulação de suas terras (art. 68 do ADCT. Para além de prenunciar impactos sociais sobremodo relevantes, notadamente no mercado de terras, essa ação recoloca a Corte Suprema brasileira face aos dilemas da jurisdição constitucional, tais como a sua legitimidade democrática, o seu compromisso com a concretização dos direitos fundamentais, além da necessidade de forçá-la a perscrutar as consequências materiais de suas decisões. A partir da demonstração da tese da fundamentabilidade do direito às terras quilombolas e da crítica às teorias liberal-positivistas da jurisdição e da interpretação, este artigo visa demarcar as questões principais desse processo judicial, cujo enfrentamento se impõe, segundo métodos hermenêuticos adequados, se o tribunal quiser chegar a um provimento final efetivo, isto é, ser capaz de promover a pacificação social e promover a eficácia dos direitos fundamentais, que consubstanciam a razão última da função jurisdicional no contexto do Estado Constitucional.This year, the Brazilian Supreme Court will judge the Direct Action of Unconstitutionality 3239-9, which discusses the correct interpretation of the right of quilombo communities to their territories (article 68 of the Transitory Constitutional Provisions ACT. The decision of this process will bring social impacts, especially in the land market, and will compel the Court to face the dilemmas of constitutional jurisdiction, such as its democratic legitimacy, its commitment to the realization of fundamental rights and the problem of material consequences of hard cases decisions. Based on the thesis that the quilombo territories are fundamental rights, this text seeks to demarcate the key issues of this lawsuit, whose analysis is imposed, according to appropriate hermeneutical methods, if the Court

  3. The Drone Court And Due Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    OSC Operational Security Court POA policy options analysis POW prisoner of war TSP Terrorist Surveillance Program xii THIS PAGE...beyond a reasonable doubt before they are subjected to punishment . In drone cases, however, no review is conducted in court before it is determined... prisoners are enemies who fall squarely within the terms of the President’s proclamation.49 The Supreme Court’s decision points out that military

  4. Beyond Judicial Intervention: Student Discipline and the Courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, J. Patrick

    1979-01-01

    Although the United States Supreme Court has extended certain constitutional rights to students, the Court has nevertheless held that school administrators may adopt and enforce reasonable rules and regulations to ensure the maintenance of a disruptive-free learning environment. (PKP)

  5. The Rhetoric of Right to Life: Beyond the Court's Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Martha

    The Supreme Court's 1973 decision striking down restrictive abortion laws in Texas and Georgia has significantly shaped the rhetoric of the Right to Life movement in both tone and substance. This paper explores how the Court's decision has influenced the movement's definition and development of issues. In addition, it examines the verbal and…

  6. 78 FR 51821 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... inserting ``However, the Supreme Court has held that the ex post facto clause applies to sentencing.... Ct. 2072, 2078 (2013) (holding that 'there is an ex post facto violation when a defendant is... ex post facto clause, in which case the court shall apply the Guidelines Manual in effect on the date...

  7. 'owns' the genome: The United States Supreme Court rules that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-01

    Nov 1, 2013 ... Jolie had undergone an elective double mastectomy, in the hope of reducing her genetically high risk of ... occurring genetic information – that is, the processes and products created in laboratories through .... also have substantial negative ramifications for past and future human genetic discovery and ...

  8. Union organizing drives dealt a blow by Supreme Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, D J

    1992-04-01

    The Lechmere case is important because it reaffirms that employers' property rights take precedence over the rights of nonemployees to engage in union organizing on employers' property. This is particularly important for hospitals and health care institutions because of their heightened exposure to union organizing activity after American Hospital Association v. National Labor Relations Board, discussed above. Providers should, however, remember two points. First, the principal focus of Lechmere was on union organizing by nonemployees; nothing in Lechmere limited the basic right of employees to form and join labor unions as guaranteed by Section 7 of the NLRA. Additionally, Lechmere notwithstanding, providers must be careful not to discriminate in their approach to union organizing activities--even by nonemployees. Thus, if a provider allows nonemployee groups other than unions to enter upon its property for purposes of soliciting employees and/or distributing literature, any attempt to bar nonemployee union organizers from the property would probably be deemed discriminatory and could indeed be an unfair labor practice. (In Lechmere, the employer consistently enforced a ban against all such nonemployee groups.)

  9. The High Court Goes to School and Finds Itself Immersed in Gay Rights, Student Searches and Renewed Controversy over Religion in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Robert; Kassouf, George

    1985-01-01

    The Supreme Court ruling that public school officials can search a student is examined. Two upcoming Supreme Court cases regarding whether a school board can refuse to hire a homosexual teacher and the constitutionality of an Alabama law that allows for a minute of silence for voluntary prayer or meditation are also discussed. (RM)

  10. Court overturns ruling on housing of homeless with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-06

    The New York Court of Appeals struck down a lower court finding that New York City's shelter program for the homeless with HIV failed to promise minimum protection against tuberculosis (TB). A class action led by [name removed] claimed that people who do not fit the Federal definition of AIDS are placed in a segregated, dormitory-like area of city shelters. They share common eating and bathroom facilities. The Supreme Court's Appellate Division concluded that this arrangement was improper because it failed to protect people with HIV against the danger of contracting TB. The Court of Appeals unanimously reversed the decision.

  11. Justice White's Dissent from Court's Ruling on NCAA Control of Football Telecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Byron R.

    1984-01-01

    The text of Justice Byron R. White's dissent from the Supreme Court's decision striking down the National Collegiate Athletic Association's control of televised college football is presented. It is suggested that the Court errs in treating intercollegiate athletics under the NCAA's control as a purely commercial venture. (Author/MLW)

  12. Review of decisions of State Courts over state matters by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A decision of any court in Ethiopia today can be reviewed by the Cassation Division of the Federal Supreme Court (hereinafter the Cassation Division) if it manifests a prima facie case for basic error of law and if it is a final decision and is filed within the time limit1. This article examines the scope of the Cassation Division's ...

  13. Student Speech and the First Amendment: The Courts Operationalize the Notion of Assaultive Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, Richard S.; Hudgins, H. C., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes the historical background of First Amendment law from "Tinker v. Des Moines" (1969) to "Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier" (1988). Examines the Supreme Court's most recent decisions on related matters as well as lower court decisions involving bias-motivated speech on campus. Offers specific suggestions for public school…

  14. Definition of Intellectual Disability in Criminal Court Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olley, J. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Definitions and associated descriptions of the condition now commonly known as "intellectual disability" serve many functions. The "Atkins v. Virginia" U.S. Supreme Court decision (2002) has called attention to the importance of clear, objective, and measureable wording of the definition. This article discusses the potential for misunderstanding…

  15. Civil Courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaneman, Paulette S.; And Others

    These materials are part of the Project Benchmark series designed to teach secondary students about our legal concepts and systems. This unit focuses on the structure and procedures of the civil court systems. The materials outline common law heritage, kinds of cases, jurisdiction, civil pretrial procedure, trial procedure, and a sample automobile…

  16. Ending to What End? The Impact of the Termination of Court-Desegregation Orders on Residential Segregation and School Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebowitz, David D.

    2018-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the Supreme Court established standards to facilitate the release of school districts from racial desegregation orders. Over the next two decades, federal courts declared almost half of all districts under court order in 1991 to be "unitary"--that is, to have met their obligations to eliminate dual systems of…

  17. Radiocesium contamination of roe-deers kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulchre-De Bie, C.; Collin, B.; Ronneau, C.; Cara, J.

    1988-01-01

    Radiocesium ( 137 Cs and 134 Cs) have been measured in kidneys of 48 roe-deers shot in November 1986 on several Belgian game reserves. A large variability of the contamination levels was observed from one site to another due to significant differences in radioactive deposits after the Chernobyl accident. As direct deposit measurements are lacking, the radioactivity accumulated in bramble leaves could be a good indicator of internal roe-deer contamination. (Author)

  18. Radiocesium transfer to roe deer and moose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, R. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1999-11-01

    The present study is part of an on-going research project which focuses on the transfer of {sup 137}Cs to roe deer and moose living in contaminated forests. The specific aim was to describe and explain the seasonal, yearly and long- term variations of radiocaesium levels in roe deer and moose. A particularity of the study was that field observations were combined with the development of mathematical models.

  19. Radiocesium transfer to roe deer and moose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, R.

    1999-01-01

    The present study is part of an on-going research project which focuses on the transfer of 137 Cs to roe deer and moose living in contaminated forests. The specific aim was to describe and explain the seasonal, yearly and long- term variations of radiocaesium levels in roe deer and moose. A particularity of the study was that field observations were combined with the development of mathematical models

  20. Court rejects claim of mental illness from needlestick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-29

    The Montana Supreme Court rejected the bid of a medical technician to remain on workers' compensation, based on his claims that he suffered from psychosis, depression, and hallucinations after pricking himself with a needle used on an HIV-positive patient. [Name removed], a respiratory therapist at Community Medical Center in Missoula, tested negative for HIV, but claimed that the psychological trauma from the needlestick injury caused him to become disabled. Based on expert testimony, the Workers' Compensation Court determined that [name removed] was faking his symptoms to collect benefits from his employer's insurer, EBI/Orion Group. [Name removed] appealed, and the Supreme Court remanded the case, stating that psychologists are not included among the medical professionals able to conduct medical reviews. The Workers' Compensation Court again found that [name removed] was faking his symptoms, and [name removed] unsuccessfully appealed. The compensation panel cited conflicting evidence from psychological tests, [name removed]'s friends' testimonies, and [name removed]'s personal diary. The Supreme Court upheld the verdict.

  1. Court-authorised deprivation of liberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The United Kingdom Supreme Court judgment in Cheshire West and Chester Council v P in 2014 introduced a more inclusive 'acid test' for determining the objective element of a deprivation of liberty in cases concerning people who lack decision-making capacity. The case made clear that adults and young people who lack capacity could be deprived of their liberty in care settings other than hospitals and care homes, including the person's own home. A deprivation of liberty that occurs in a setting other than a hospital or care home must be authorised by a Court. This article explains the revised process for applying for Court authorisation of a deprivation of liberty where it occurs in supported living, Shared Lives placements or the incapable person's own home.

  2. COURT INTERPRETING AT DENPASAR COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Made Puspani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a research on interpreting (oral translation on a criminal case ofdrug user in the court proceedings at Denpasar Court. The study of theinterpreting is concerned with two-ways rendition from Indonesian into Englishand vice-versa. The study is related to: (1 the description of modes of interpretingapplied by the interpreter, (2 the application of translation strategies: shift,addition and deletion of information, (3 factors that underlie the application ofthe strategies, and (4 the impact of the application of those strategies towards thequality of the interpreting.The methodology applied in this study is qualitative based on eclectictheories (translation, syntax, semantics and pragmatics. The utilization of thetheories is in accordance with the type of the data analyzed in regard to thetranslation phenomena as an applied study and its complexity.The interpreting at court applied the consecutive and simultaneous modes.The strategy of shift was applied when there were differences in structure betweenthe source and the target languages. Addition of information was used when theinterpreter emphasized the message of the source language in the target language.The deletion of information applied if the context in the target language has beencovered, and it was not necessary for the interpreter to interpret the same thingbecause the message of the source language was pragmatically implied in thetarget language.The factors which underlie the application of the interpreting strategies incourt interpreting were communication factor and the differences in the languagesystems between the source and the target languages. The impact of the use of thestrategies towards the quality of the interpreting happened when the interpretationof the source language message into the message of the target language and themessage in the source language was not completely render into the targetlanguage.The novelties of the research are: (1 relevance theory and its

  3. The Strategic Options of Supreme Audit Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Carrington, Thomas; Catasús, Bino

    2017-01-01

    Based on the theory of professional competition, this paper identifies and investigates four strategic options of supreme audit institutions (SAIs) through a case study of four Nordic national audit offices: a performance auditing strategy; a financial auditing strategy; a portfolio strategy...... options for public sector auditing....

  4. Features and Functions of Supreme Audit Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Rick Stapenhurst; Jack Titsworth

    2001-01-01

    Supreme audit institutions are national agencies responsible for auditing government revenue and spending. Their legal mandates, reporting relationships, and effectiveness vary, reflecting different governance systems and government policies. But their primary purpose is to oversee the management of public funds and the quality and credibility of governments' reported financial data. In th...

  5. The Road to a Court of Appeal—Part I: History and Constitutional Amendment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2015-01-01

    the Supreme Court. Twelve months later, in October 2014, the new Court of Appeal was formally established in a move that was largely unnoticed by the public at large but, for legal practitioners and eager followers of Irish constitutional law, it was an important change that would have long-lasting effects...... on the judicial system of the State. The creation of a new court requires a considerable effort from a number of branches of the State in formulating the correct path for its establishment to proceed. In this article, the history of a Court of Appeal is set out, before discussing the referendum to amend...

  6. 思想與表達之區別,合併及電腦程式侵權判斷之步驟 ― 最高法院94年度台上字第1530號刑事判決評析 The Distinction and Merger Between Expression and Idea and the Steps to Decide the Infringement of Computer Program - An Analysis of the Supreme Court Criminal Judgment No. 94-Tai-Shang-Tze-1530, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    羅明通 Ming-Tung Lo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available 思想與表達之區別及合併攸關電腦程式侵權之判斷,惟表達是否包含非文字之結構?電腦程式之非文字成分是否屬於表達?思想與表達之區別原則適用於著作之非文字成分之結構時,判斷之基準為何?電腦程式之結構在何種情況因思想與表達之合併而不受著作權法保護?電腦程式之著作權侵權判之步驟為何?我國司法實務見解不一。本文即以最高法院94年度台上字第1530號刑事判決為基礎,分析美國著作權法對非文字成分之思想與表達區別之基準,再解析美國著作權法權威案例Altai案三步驟測試法之精義,並闡釋思想與表達區分及合併在兩個案例中運用之精微。結論則比較研析我國司法實務爭點之所在,釐清相關疑義,期使讀者對此問題之觀察臻於全面。 The dichotomy and merger between idea and expression is highly related to the judgment of the infringement of computer program. Shall the expression be limited to literal element of work? Can the non-literal element of computer program possibly be categorized as expression? If it is possible, then what is the criterion for drawing such a distinction? Under what kind of circumstances, can the expression be regarded s having been merged with idea? And what is the process to make such a judgment of infringement? In this regard Taiwan judicial decisions have submitted different opinions. Based upon Supreme Court Criminal Judgment No. 94-Tai-Shang-Tze-1530, 2005, this article analyze the criterion for the distinction between idea and expression, and then analyze the contents of the three-step procedure by which judges in Altai applied the principle of the dichotomy and merger between idea and expression to decide the infringement. Finally, in conclusion, this article makes some comments on relevant mentioned above cases, serving as a reference for readers to have a panoramic observation.

  7. Immunohistochemical study on roe deer haemal nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaydın Bozkurt, Yeşim; Karadağ Sarı, Ebru; Kabak, Murat

    2017-11-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical characteristics of the haemal nodes located in the abdominal and the thoracal cavity in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). In this study, two adult male and two adult female roe deers in addition to two roe deer foetuses at the late fetal stages were used. The avidin-biotin-peroxidase technique was applied to anti-CD3, anti-CD79αcy, anti-macrophage, anti-S100 primary antibodies. Positive results were gained for all the antibodies used. Many CD3 positive T lymphocytes were seen in the lymphoid tissue areas of the fetal haemal nodes, in the germinal center of the lymph follicles of the adult haemal nodes and in their lymphatic cords. CD79αcy positive cells were less in number while S-100 protein was positive in both lymph follicles and in sinuses of the adult haemal nodes. In fetal haemal nodes, positive reacting cells for S-100 protein were more in number in the sinuses. For the MAC387 primary antibody, there were positive macrophages seen in the capsule and trabecules of the haemal nodes, located denser in males. Macrophage cells in the lymphoid structures and granulocytes in the sinuses of the haemal nodes of both adults and fetuses reacted positive for MAC387. This study is the first one to define the detailed structural features immunohistochemically in the haemal nodes of the roe deer. Even it's concluded that the results were similar with the other ruminants, it's also pointed out that there are certain differences among the fetal, adult male and female haemal nodes of the roe deer.

  8. Expert scientific evidence in the Israeli court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahar, A

    2007-06-01

    Most judges, by the very nature of their educational background, are less than sufficiently prepared for the task to fully comprehend the problems in disputes concerning scientific subjects. Judicial cognizance in such matters gives no support. The judge has no recourse but to rely on Expert Evidence. However, such evidence, especially in the adversarial system, requires the ability to evaluate it. Back to square one? Almost. The Israeli court borrowed, and followed for many years, the American solution - the Frye Principle (Frye v. United States, 54 App.D.C. at 47, 293 F. 1013 (1923) 1014) - "the thing from which the deduction is made must be sufficiently established to have gained general acceptance in the particular field in which it belongs " - meaning that an Expert's view is held as true if proven that it had been held by "the scientific community." This solution presented an almost insurmountable problem for novel scientific ideas. The were also exceptions - several Israeli Courts made the rather difficult task of examining the Experts' "working papers", i.e. the "crude" data on which he based his deductions. The model of such effort seems to be the English decision, by Stuart-Smith LJ in Loveday v Renton and Wellcome Foundation Ltd. ( (QBD) 1 Med Law Review, 1990:117). Seventy years after Frye the U.S. Supreme Court reviewed the subject of evaluation of scientific evidence. The new requirements were "... (1) ... whether the theory or technique can be and has been tested; (2) ... whether the theory or technique has been subjected to peer review ... (3) ... the known or potential rate of error of[the] technique; (4) [no requirement of] a particular degree of acceptance of the theory or technique within that [scientific] community, ... and (5) the inquiry is a flexible one, and the focus must be solely on principles and methodology, not on the conclusions that such principles and methodology generate ". Namely - the Judge, guided by intelligence and logic, is

  9. The Supreme Court of Estonia constitutional judgement 3-3-1-35-10: judgment of the Supreme Court en banc : date of decision 31 August 2011

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Kohtulahendi 3-3-1-35-10 (Riigiprokuratuuri ning Politsei- ja Piirivalveameti kassatsioonkaebused Tallinna Ringkonnakohtu 16. veebruari 2010. a otsuse peale haldusasjas nr 3-08-265 Ülar Kaasi (Kaas) kaebuses Eesti Vabariigi tekitatud 254 087 krooni suuruse kahju hüvitamise nõudes) tekst inglise keeles

  10. School Discipline in the Dark: Crippling Court Confusion Offers Mixed Messages for School Administrators Attempting to Discipline Students for Cyber Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the demarcation line of school authority between off campus conduct and on campus discipline involving student cyber speech. A lack of clear direction from the Supreme court has left school administrators wading through a quagmire of advice and disparate lower court rulings regarding their authority to punish students…

  11. The Relevance of Criminal Courts in the Global South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Leandro Ciocchini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The literature on comparative law has a long and robust tradition, but studies comparing courts and judicial systems are scarce. Comparative studies in the Global South, following Shapiro’s institutional approach, have aimed to measure the involvement of courts in politics by assessing the power of the judiciary in society, the level of judicial independence, and their role in the context of the judicialization of politics. The focus was on the high courts, including either Constitutional or Supreme Courts. Criminal courts have not received similar attention despite the influence of their everyday decisions on people’s lives and their perception of the judicial system. This article argues that developing a comparative approach for criminal courts in the Global South is needed to help understand the role they play in the development of the rule of law and democratic life. This comparative study helps understand the impact of judicial reform programmes in the Global South. These reforms, inspired by a neoliberal paradigm, have focused on improving the efficiency of the courts. The reforms have promoted managerial techniques detrimental to the standards of due process. Any assessment of the impact of the reforms on the courts in the Global South should start by recognising the widely differing settings under which they operate. This context is characterised by serious economic constraints, such as a lack of material and human resources, and a democratic deficit legacy from the past authoritarian regimes, including widespread police abuse and corruption. Given this context, the role of the courts in ensuring due process and the legality of police procedures is crucial. The impact of the judicial reforms promoting managerial rationality in recent decades must be analysed. To examine the role courts are playing in criminal matters, two cases were explored where courts have undergone extensive judicial reforms, Argentina and the Philippines.

  12. The Use of the Courts by Women's Groups to Obtain Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Karen

    This study examines how women's groups have made use of litigation strategy to gain favorable policy decisions from the U.S. Supreme Court. The litigation strategies associated with four groups are discussed in the major portion of the report. These groups are: (1) the National Women's Suffrage Association (NWSA), active from 1869 to 1875; (2) the…

  13. The Afro-American before the Burger Court, 1976-1978: Justice Granted or Justice Denied?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Robert Lewis

    1978-01-01

    Supreme Court rulings during 1976-78 on capital punishment; criminal justice and prisoner rights; busing and school desegregation; discrimination in housing and employment; rights of illegitimates and family relations; abortion, voting rights, tenant landlord relations; and "reverse discrimination" have had a significant impact on Black…

  14. The role of the courts in the justiciability of socio-economic rights in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While some countries like South Africa, Kenya and Zimbabwe have constitutionally guaranteed socio-economic rights, in some other jurisdictions like India and Nigeria, they are termed fundamental objectives and directive principles of state policy as opposed to justiciable rights. However, the Indian Supreme Court has ...

  15. Court to Kid: Sorry, Matt, You Can't Say That at a School Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendor, Benjamin

    1986-01-01

    Examines a United States Supreme Court decision upholding the Bethel, Washington, school district in disciplining a student for giving a sexually provocative speech. Refers to the 1969 decision in "Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District," in which students had been suspended for wearing symbols of opposition to the…

  16. High Court to Weigh Denials of Visas to College Guests, Union's Use of Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Cheryl M.

    1987-01-01

    Cases on the Supreme Court's agenda that involve higher education are discussed including: the delivery of labor-union material through a university's internal mail system, the denial of visas to foreigners invited to speak on campuses, the Veterans Administration's refusal to extend GI Bill education benefits of alcoholic veterans, etc. (MLW)

  17. The Calculation of ROE: Pedagogical Issues and Integrative Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinfeldt, Jeff; Rindler, Denise

    2010-01-01

    One of the most widely used measures of firm profitability and stockholder return is return-on-equity (ROE). However, depending upon an individual firm's financial decisions (for example, dividend policy) and an analyst's assumptions used for the ROE calculation, the results can vary significantly. This variation can create confusion for students…

  18. On the Invariant Uniform Roe Algebra as Crossed Product

    OpenAIRE

    Kankeyanathan Kannan

    2013-01-01

    The uniform Roe C*-algebra (also called uniform translation)C^*- algebra provides a link between coarse geometry and C^*- algebra theory. The uniform Roe algebra has a great importance in geometry, topology and analysis. We consider some of the elementary concepts associated with coarse spaces.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Roe Deer Picobirnavirus Strain PBV/roe_deer/SLO/D38-14/2014

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhar, Urska; Vengust, Gorazd; Jamnikar-Ciglenecki, Urska

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) have been detected in feces from various animal species and humans. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the PBV/roe_deer/SLO/D38-14/2014 strain, which is the first PBV detected in roe deer, providing additional knowledge about the high diversity and host range of PBVs.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Roe Deer Picobirnavirus Strain PBV/roe_deer/SLO/D38-14/2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, Urska; Vengust, Gorazd; Jamnikar-Ciglenecki, Urska

    2017-12-14

    Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) have been detected in feces from various animal species and humans. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the PBV/roe_deer/SLO/D38-14/2014 strain, which is the first PBV detected in roe deer, providing additional knowledge about the high diversity and host range of PBVs. Copyright © 2017 Kuhar et al.

  1. The Role of Courts in Shaping Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A

    2017-10-01

    United States' courts have played a limited, yet key, role in shaping health equity in three areas of law: racial discrimination, disability discrimination, and constitutional rights. Executive and administrative action has been much more instrumental than judicial decisions in advancing racial equality in health care. Courts have been reluctant to intervene on racial justice because overt discrimination has largely disappeared, and the Supreme Court has interpreted civil rights laws in a fashion that restricts judicial authority to address more subtle or diffused forms of disparate impact. In contrast, courts have been more active in limiting disability discrimination by expanding the conditions that are considered disabling and by articulating and applying the operative concepts "reasonable accommodation" and "other qualified" in the context of both treatment and insurance coverage decisions. Finally, regarding constitutional rights, courts have had limited opportunity to intervene because, outside of specially protected arenas such as reproduction, constitutional law gives government wide discretion to define health and safety goals and methods. Thus, courts have had only a limited role in shaping health equity in the United States. It remains to be seen whether this will change under the Affordable Care Act or whatever health reform measure might replace it. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  2. Attachment site selection of ticks on roe deer, Capreolus capreolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiffner, C; Lödige, C; Alings, M; Vor, T; Rühe, F

    2011-01-01

    The spatio-temporal attachment site patterns of ticks feeding on their hosts can be of significance if co-feeding transmission (i.e. from tick to tick without a systemic infection of the host) of pathogens affects the persistence of a given disease. Using tick infestation data on roe deer, we analysed preferred attachment sites and niche width of Ixodes ticks (larvae, nymphs, males, females) and investigated the degree of inter- and intrastadial aggregation. The different development stages showed rather consistent attachment site patterns and relative narrow feeding site niches. Larvae were mostly found on the head and on the front legs of roe deer, nymphs reached highest densities on the head and highest adult densities were found on the neck of roe deer. The tick stages feeding (larvae, nymphs, females) on roe deer showed high degrees of intrastadial spatial aggregation, whereas males did not. Male ticks showed large feeding site overlap with female ticks. Feeding site overlap between larval-female and larval-nymphal ticks did occur especially during the months May-August on the head and front legs of roe deer and might allow pathogen transmission via co-feeding. Tick density, niche width and niche overlap on roe deer are mainly affected by seasonality, reflecting seasonal activity and abundance patterns of ticks. Since different tick development stages occur spatially and temporally clustered on roe deer, transmission experiments of tick-borne pathogens are urgently needed.

  3. Extraction of unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe and production of defatted roe hydrolysates with functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Pourashouri, Parastoo

    2017-01-01

    Common carp roe is a rich protein and oil source, which is usually discarded with no specific use. The aims of this study were to extract oil from the discarded roe and examine functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of defatted roe hydrolysates (CDRHs) at various degrees...... antioxidant activity both in vitro and in 5% roe oil-in-water emulsions and inhibited the growth of certain bacterial strains. Common carp roe could be a promising source of unsaturated fatty acids and functional bioactive agents. Unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil extracted from common carp roe can be delivered...... into food systems by roe oil-in-water emulsions fortified by functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial hydrolysates from the defatted roe....

  4. 29 CFR 785.25 - Illustrative U.S. Supreme Court decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... part of the employees' jobs. In one, employees changed their clothes and took showers in a battery plant where the manufacturing process involved the extensive use of caustic and toxic materials...

  5. Supreme Court Update: Unions, Fair Share Agreements and the First Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Charles J.

    2007-01-01

    As the most unionized segment of the public sector workforce in the USA, teachers and their bargaining representatives wield significant power in the world of educational labour relations and beyond. Yet, just as the First Amendment's freedom of association clause affords unions the right to exist, its concomitant recognition that employees are…

  6. LONG-TERM CARE: Implications of Supreme Court's Olmstead Decision Are Still Unfolding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allen, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    ... to the setting in which a person with disabilities receives care. Long-term care includes many types of services that a person with a physical or mental disability may need, and encompasses a wide array of care settings...

  7. Financial protection against nuclear hazards: implications of the Supreme Court's decision in Silkwood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockett, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    The study evaluates the operation of the Price-Anderson Act in the light of 10 years of experience and the changes that have occurred during the period in the law and regulations and in the nuclear and insurance industries. It provides an independent analysis of various proposals to extend or amend the Act prior to its 1987 expiration. The five chapters deal with historical background and scope, financial protection under the Act, financial protection without the Act, legislative goals and issues, and alternative proposals. The report concludes that no scheme can fully satisfy all of the criteria, bu a careful balancing will depend upon congressional decision on the extent to which federal policy should encourage continued participation by private industry in the nuclear field. Selected footnotes follow each chapter

  8. An Analysis of First Amendment Jurisprudence on the Supreme Court Case of Locke v. Davey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Alexander John

    2010-01-01

    Scholarship programs authored by state legislatures may conflict with a state's constitution. In the case of "Locke v. Davey" 540 U.S. 807 (2003), Joshua Davey challenged the State of Washington's withdrawal of his Promise Scholarship claiming violation of his First Amendment rights under the United States Constitution. This…

  9. Will the Supreme Court Strike Down the Laws Banning Assisted Suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Assisted suicide is now legal in several jurisdictions outside Canada, including the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, Oregon, Washington State and Vermont. In Canada, public support for the decriminalization of assisted suicide is increasing, although assisted suicide remains prohibited under Canada's Criminal Code. That may soon change and, as patients'advocates, nurses need to khow and understand their roles and current laws relevant to treatment and end-of-life care.

  10. 160 | P a g e LEGAL HERMENEUTICS OF THE SUPREME COURT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    out in express terms what is expected of a legal practitioner and the attendant consequences for non-adherence. These consequences ranging from striking out the name of the legal practitioner from the Roll among others are no doubt punitive and disciplinary in nature. Thus, there is great need for a proper and definite ...

  11. B.C. court gives go-ahead to non-profit needle exchange and drop-in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betteridge, Glenn

    2006-12-01

    In a 15 February 2006 decision, the Supreme Court of British Columbia effectively ordered the City of surrey to licence the surrey HIV/AIDS Centre Society as a medical office. As a result, the Society did not have to submit to city council a community impact statement and study in order to obtain a new licence to operate.

  12. The birth control movement before Roe v. Wade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J W

    1995-01-01

    This essay synthesizes the history of the birth control movement in the US and describes changes in sexual behavior, social values, and public policy in order to provide a context for the changes in human reproductive public policy. After an introduction, the essay outlines the history of contraception from the early nineteenth to the early twentieth centuries. Part 3 covers the period of World War I to the Depression when civil libertarians and eugenicists began to question the suppression of contraception and Margaret Sanger organized her clinics. The fourth part of the essay carries the history forward to the end of World War II, a period in which Dr. Clarence J. Gamble began to expose the marketing of defective contraceptive methods and to illustrate the willingness of poor women to accept contraceptives. The social changes which began in the 1950s are the subject of the fifth section of the essay. During this period, Roman Catholic opposition to contraception lessened, and social scientists began to focus world attention on overpopulation. Frank Notestein was appointed the first head of the Office of Population Research at Princeton, and John D. Rockefeller III founded the Population Council which conducted research into the IUD and began to attempt to influence population growth in nonindustrialized countries. This period also saw the development of the oral contraceptive. The changes of this era were institutionalized in 1967 when the federal government took a positive stance towards family planning in its Social Security Amendments. The decade of the 1970s is the subject of the last part of this essay. This period saw the Supreme Court assign a constitutionally protected right to abortion and Congress pass the Helms Amendment which denied the use of foreign aid funds for abortions. Challenges to the right to individual birth control practice continued during this period, and debate centered around the specter of overpopulation, the threat of adolescent

  13. Capillary electrophoresis in court: the landmark decision of the People of Tennessee versus Ware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, E; Pasacreta, R J

    1997-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis is a versatile and emerging technique. In the fields of law and science, history has been made with the admissibility of CE as a method to evaluate evidence. The extremely low sample requirements, high separation efficiencies, and excellent resolution allow for quantitative techniques from extracted and amplified mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which was presented as evidence from hair shafts in the case of The People of Tennessee versus Paul Ware (Tennessee v. Ware). This paper discusses the history of the admissibility of scientific evidence. In 1993, the United States Supreme Court Justices rewrote the rules for admission of scientific evidence under the Federal Rules of Evidence (FRE) in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Daubert) (509 U.S. 597). After rejecting the longstanding requirements under Frye v. United States (Frye), 293 F.1013 (1923), which focused on the conclusions obtained rather than the methodologies employed, Daubert went further in establishing a liberal policy in the FRE favoring the District Court judges to act as gatekeepers, thus admitting well-grounded scientific evidence. Later this year, the Supreme Court will once again review the issue of how the decisions reached in trial courts should be treated by reviewing courts. CE has demonstrated its ability to meet the requisite scientific standards in the court system. The CE evidence presented in Ware led to a felony conviction.

  14. Caviar substitute produced from roes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Moron Machado

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The caviar substitute is obtained from processed fish roe, resulting in a product similar to the authentic caviar, prepared with sturgeon roe. The objective of this study was to develop a caviar substitute from roes of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Four treatments were tested and we followed the steps of saline wash, drain, immersion in saline solution containing lactic acid for pH adjustment (4.3 to 4.5, salt addition (1.5 or 3%, traditional pasteurization or fast heat treatment, cooling and storage (0 to 4°C. The products were subjected to the physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory analyses and showed stability and safety for consumption up to 180 days in storage under refrigeration (0 to 4°C. Consumers showed preference for product containing 1.5% NaCl and subjected to fast heat treatment. The results suggest that caviar substitute developed with rainbow trout roes presents potential to production.

  15. La casa del super-héroe

    OpenAIRE

    Prada Pérez de Azpeitia, Manuel de

    2014-01-01

    El culto a los héroes es universal y tiene gran importancia psicológica. Los super-héroes de las películas actuales continúan representando al ser humano completo, una coincidentia oppositorum. Tienen un lado luminoso y otro lado oscuro. Sus casas representan el primero. La cuevas o los sótanos bajo sus casas, el segundo.

  16. Serosurvey for selected pathogens in Iberian roe deer

    OpenAIRE

    Boadella, Mariana; Carta, Tania; Oleaga, ?lvaro; Pajares, Gerardo; Mu?oz, Marta; Gort?zar, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The roe deer is the most abundant and widespread wild Eurasian cervid. Its populations are expanding and increasingly in contact with livestock. This may affect the distribution of infectious diseases shared with other wild and domestic ungulates. Methods We investigated the antibody seroprevalence against Pestivirus, Herpesvirus, Bluetongue (BT) virus, M. avium paratuberculosis (MAP), and Brucella sp. in 519 roe deer from different regions in Spain, south-western Europe. ...

  17. Tick burden on European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

    OpenAIRE

    Vor, Torsten; Kiffner, Christian; Hagedorn, Peter; Niedrig, Matthias; R?he, Ferdinand

    2010-01-01

    In our study we assessed the tick burden on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in relation to age, physical condition, sex, deer density and season. The main objective was to find predictive parameters for tick burden. In September 2007, May, July, and September 2008, and in May and July 2009 we collected ticks on 142 culled roe deer from nine forest departments in Southern Hesse, Germany. To correlate tick burden and deer density we estimated deer density using line transect sampling that acc...

  18. EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS JUDGEMENT AS A BASIS FOR REVIEW OF THE NATIONAL COURTS' JUDGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Terekhova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.9The purpose of the article – a critical analysis of the position of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, the justification, through the analysis of the ECtHR practice and scientific work on execution of the ECtHR judgments, about the coordination of positions of national courts and the supranational body.The methodological basis for the study: general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, comparison; private and academic (interpretation, comparative legal, formal-legal.Problems and basic scientific results:The issue of implementation of the Human Rights Court decisions at the national level oc-curs when the compensation is not enough to eliminate the revealed violations. Russian legislator opted for the situation of Human Rights by the European Court finding a violation of the provisions of the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms in the consideration by the court of a particular case, in connection with the decision by which the applicant applied to the ECtHR mechanism for review of the decision on the new circumstances. Supreme Court puts forward three conditions for the implementation of the revi-sion of the judicial act on a national level, which should be available at the same time: 1 the continuous nature of the adverse effects; 2 the existence of violations of the Convention or gross procedural violations; 3 a causal link between the breach and the consequences.The author point out that the regulation of possible conflicts between the Convention and national legislation is based on cooperation (not confrontation States and the European Court of Human Rights. Such practice of cooperation based on the principles of subsidiarity (addition to national rights protection system; evolutionary interpretation of the Convention (which implies flexibility, and accounting for changes in public relations; Judges dialogue and to develop advisory opinions. Consequently, the task of the Constitutional Court

  19. The International Criminal Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity.......This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity....

  20. International Courts and Tribunals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaya Castro, J.M.; Cali, B.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter introduces a type of institution that is very important in the field of international law: international courts. The last few decades have seen an enormous rise in the number and importance of such courts, not just for states but for all (international) actors. Increasingly, what

  1. Genetics in the courts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, Heather; Drell, Dan

    2000-12-01

    Various: (1)TriState 2000 Genetics in the Courts (2) Growing impact of the new genetics on the courts (3)Human testing (4) Legal analysis - in re G.C. (5) Legal analysis - GM ''peanots'', and (6) Legal analysis for State vs Miller

  2. Tick burden on European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vor, Torsten; Kiffner, Christian; Hagedorn, Peter; Niedrig, Matthias; Rühe, Ferdinand

    2010-08-01

    In our study we assessed the tick burden on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in relation to age, physical condition, sex, deer density and season. The main objective was to find predictive parameters for tick burden. In September 2007, May, July, and September 2008, and in May and July 2009 we collected ticks on 142 culled roe deer from nine forest departments in Southern Hesse, Germany. To correlate tick burden and deer density we estimated deer density using line transect sampling that accounts for different detectability in March 2008 and 2009, respectively. We collected more than 8,600 ticks from roe deer heads and necks, 92.6% of which were Ixodes spp., 7.4% Dermacentor spp. Among Ixodes, 3.3% were larvae, 50.5% nymphs, 34.8% females and 11.4% males, with significant seasonal deviation. Total tick infestation was high, with considerable individual variation (from 0 to 270 ticks/deer). Adult tick burden was positively correlated with roe deer body indices (body mass, age, hind foot length). Significantly more nymphs were found on deer from forest departments with high roe deer density indices, indicating a positive correlation with deer abundance. Overall, tick burden was highly variable. Seasonality and large scale spatial characteristics appeared to be the most important factors affecting tick burden on roe deer.

  3. Extraction of unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe and production of defatted roe hydrolysates with functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Pourashouri, Parastoo; Hajfathalian, Mona; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2018-03-01

    Common carp roe is a rich protein and oil source, which is usually discarded with no specific use. The aims of this study were to extract oil from the discarded roe and examine functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of defatted roe hydrolysates (CDRHs) at various degrees of hydrolysis (DH). Gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters revealed that common carp roe oil contained high levels of unsaturated fatty acids. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted roe yielded higher content of essential amino acids. CDRHs displayed higher solubility than untreated defatted roe, which increased with DH. Better emulsifying and foaming properties were observed at lower DH and non-isoelectric points. Furthermore, water and oil binding capacity decreased with DH. CDRHs exhibited antioxidant activity both in vitro and in 5% roe oil-in-water emulsions and inhibited the growth of certain bacterial strains. Common carp roe could be a promising source of unsaturated fatty acids and functional bioactive agents. Unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil extracted from common carp roe can be delivered into food systems by roe oil-in-water emulsions fortified by functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial hydrolysates from the defatted roe. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The Impact of the Human Resources on the Romanian Court of Accounts' Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stegaroiu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the human resource management of the Supreme Audit Institution of Romania, the Romanian Court of Accounts. The paper mostly analyzes the status and the development of the specialized personnel of the institution, represented by the external public auditors in the period 2010-2015. It also addresses the link between the quality control system and the human resources existing in the institution.

  5. First occurrence of Paramphistomum microbothrium (Fischoeder 1901) in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, Ivan; Savić, Božidar; Ivanović, Snežana; Ćirović, Duško

    2012-04-01

    Paramphistomum parasites identified by histology as Paramphistomum microbothrium were found in 18 of 34 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) intestines from central Serbia, examined between 1998 and 2004. This represents the first record of P. microbothrium in roe deer in Serbia.

  6. Characterization of the microflora of lightly salted lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) roe stored at 5 C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basby, Merethe; Jeppesen, V.F.; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Numeric taxonomy analysis of 70 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 30 Enterobacteriaceae from lightly salted lumpfish roe, showed that Enterobacteriaceae formed three subgroups: Morganella morganii presumptive Serratia liquefaciens and Serratia plymuthica. LAB formed three subgroups of presumptive...... compounds in both pasteurized and fresh roe. One Serratia liquefaciens produced strong off-odors but no volatile sulfur compounds in fresh roe....

  7. Hypoderma actaeon: an emerging myiasis in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panadero, R; Varas, G; Pajares, G; Markina, F; López, C; Díaz, P; Pérez-Creo, A; Prieto, A; Díez-Baños, P; Morrondo, P

    2017-03-01

    Subcutaneous larvae of Hypoderma spp. (Diptera: Oestridae) were detected in the dorsal region in 10 roe deer, Capreolus capreolus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), hunted in central Spain between January and March 2016. All larvae were found in the inner side of the hide during the skinning of the animals. The study of the morphological features of eight larvae of different stages collected from two animals allowed the identification of Hypoderma actaeon Brauer. The small size (4-5 mm) of some of the first instars suggests that the internal lifecycle of H. actaeon may be exclusively subcutaneous. This is the first confirmation of H. actaeon in roe deer; however, further studies to assess the spread of the parasite and to follow the evolution of this myiasis in roe deer are needed. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  8. LIPOPTENA CERVI (DIPTERA: HIPPOBOSCIDAE IN ROE DEER (CAPREOLUS CAPREOLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Hodžić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest flies, also known as deer keds (Lipoptena cervi, are obligate blood-feeding ectoparasites that infest cervids (Cervidae in Europe, Siberia, China and North America. These flies are vectors of potential zoonotic bacterium Bartonella schoenbuchensis. The aim of this study was to determine the species of ectoparasites found on one male roe deer (Capreolus capreolus shot during hunting season 2011 in the area of Bihać municipality. Using the morphological keys, all adult keds were identified as Lipoptena cervi Linnaeus, 1761. Key words: Lipoptena cervi, roe deer, Bihać municipality

  9. THEORETICAL AND JURISPRUDENTIAL ASPECTS CONCERNING THE CONSTITUTIONALITY OF THE COURT APPEAL ON POINTS OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ANDREESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The institution of the appeal on points of law has the role to ensure a unitary law interpretation and enforcing by the law courts. The legal nature of this procedure is determined not only by the civil and criminal normative dispositions that regulate it. In this study we bring arguments according to which this institution is of a constitutional nature, because according to the Constitution, the High Court of Cassation and Justice has the attribution to ensure the unitary interpretation of the law by the law courts. Thus are analyzed the constitutional nature consequences of this institution, the limits of compulsoriness of law interpretations given by the Supreme Court through the decisions ruled on this procedure, and also the relationship between the decisions of the Constitutional Court, respectively the decisions of the High Court of Cassation and Justice given for resolving the appeals on points of law. The recent jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court reveals new aspects regarding the possibility to verify the constitutionality of the decisions given in this matter.

  10. Siim Nestor soovitab : Supreme 7aastane. White Stripes / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    Kolmik Supreme tähistab oma 7. tegutsemisaastat 24. juunil Von Krahlis, kus toimub ka Krecki debüütalbumi "If You Live" (väljaandjaks ettevõte Umblu) esitlus. Detroidi blues-rock duo White Stripes esitleb oma uut albumit "Get Behind Me Satan" 29. juunil Tallinnas klubis Hollywood

  11. Beyond the Traditional Courts Bill: Regulating customary courts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beyond the Traditional Courts Bill: Regulating customary courts in line with living customary law and the Constitution. ... Customary courts are not professional institutions but community-based discussion forums, thus participation in them is inclusive of the broad community membership, and their accountability is partly ...

  12. Roe deer sera used for TBE surveillance in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Wetscher, Monika; Baumgartner, Raphaela; Walder, Gernot

    2015-06-01

    A large majority of Austrian citizens are aware of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), consequently reflected by a high vaccination rate of 85%. In return, risk assessment and disease mapping on human cases might be hampered due to high and inhomogeneous vaccination rates and travel habitats of humans. The roe deer was used to obtain a starting point for the integral view on the actual risk of TBE in Austria. The roe deer exhibits several attributes which makes it suitable as an indicator species: the roe deer has a restricted home range and it is known to be a heavy tick carrier. Furthermore it sero-converts after infection with TBE, but no outbreak occurs. Sera from 945 roe deer were obtained from all over Austria and screened with IFAT for the antibodies against TBE. Twenty-two positive samples, 2.4%, and 17 samples at the borderline titre of 1:16 were identified. The majority of the positive samples, 70.6%, were located in known TBE areas based on human cases. Further research is needed to confirm or reject new endemic foci of TBE transmission. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  13. Microsatellite variation in Dutch roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, E.; Hooft, van W.F.; Wieren, van S.E.; Breukelen, van L.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we investigated microsatellite variation in Dutch roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) populations. We used 65 tissue samples from culled animals from three populations (Amsterdamse Waterleidingduinen, National Park Zuid-Kennemerland and Flevopolder). The first two are dune populations and

  14. La moral de los superhéroes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Rozo Mila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Los superhéroes, el deber moral y la obligación; El caso de Spider-Man y los X-Men. Laura Victoria Bolaño Pérez; Universidad del Rosario, colección Ópera Prima, Bogotá, 2012, 309 págs.

  15. Detection of atypical Chlamydiaceae in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaziz, Rachid; Vorimore, Fabien; Verheyden, Hélène; Picot, Denis; Bertin, Claire; Ruettger, Anke; Sachse, Konrad; Laroucau, Karine

    2015-12-31

    Investigations on fecal samples, vaginal swabs and sera from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in south-western France led to the detection of a non-classified Chlamydiaceae strain. A total of 85 vaginal swabs were sampled from roe deer that had been captured in 2012 (n=42) and 2013 (n=43). Using a Chlamydiaceae family-specific real-time PCR, only one vaginal swab out of the 42 samples done in 2012 tested positive and was subsequently identified as Chlamydia (C.) psittaci. In contrast, 6/43 vaginal swab samples were positive in 2013. Four of these positive samples came from a single group of roe deer, captured in the Fabas plain. Fecal samples from this group of 9 females were subsequently analyzed, with 6 of them testing positive with the Chlamydiaceae-specific PCR. All positive samples collected in 2013 were negative when re-tested with C. abortus-, C. pecorum- and C. suis-specific real-time PCR assays. Sera from this group of 9 females were analyzed with two immunoassays (recomLine and ELISA). Whereas intense positive reactions with C. pneumoniae antigens were observed for all sera when tested with the recomLine test, none was positive with the C. abortus specific ELISA test. Comparative sequence analysis of the 16S, 23S rRNA and ompA gene sequences from 3 animals, as well as the MLST analysis from 2 animals, showed that this roe deer group likely harbored the same bacterium related to members of the family Chlamydiaceae. Notably, the roe deer strain formed a separate entity different from the currently recognized chlamydial species, with C. trachomatis, C. suis and C. muridarum appearing as its closest relatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Problem of Acquaintance of the Defense with the Materials Submitted to the Court Pursuant to Art. 108 of the Criminal Procedure Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai V. Azarenok

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the existing order of submission of materials to the court by an investigator needed to decide on remand in respect of criminal prosecuted person, identify problems familiarize the defense with these documents at trial. The Author studies norms of the Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation, decisions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, as well as interviews with practitioners in this aspect. As a result, a conceptual approach to solving the identified problem is proposed

  17. Congress, courts, and commerce: upholding the individual mandate to protect the public's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, James G; Brown, Erin C Fuse; Orenstein, Daniel G; O'Keefe, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Among multiple legal challenges to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) is the premise that PPACA's "individual mandate" (requiring all individuals to obtain health insurance by 2014 or face civil penalties) is inviolate of Congress' interstate commerce powers because Congress lacks the power to regulate commercial "inactivity." Several courts initially considering this argument have rejected it, but federal district courts in Virginia and Florida have concurred, leading to numerous appeals and prospective review of the United States Supreme Court. Despite creative arguments, the dispositive constitutional question is not whether Congress' interstate commerce power extends to commercial inactivity. Rather, it is whether Congress may regulate individual decisions with significant economic ramifications in the interests of protecting and promoting the public's health. This article offers a counter-interpretation of the scope of Congress' interstate commerce power to regulate in furtherance of the public's health. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  18. Weak population structure in European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and evidence of introgressive hybridization with Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus) in northeastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olano-Marin, Juanita; Plis, Kamila; Sönnichsen, Leif; Borowik, Tomasz; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    We investigated contemporary and historical influences on the pattern of genetic diversity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). The study was conducted in northeastern Poland, a zone where vast areas of primeval forests are conserved and where the European roe deer was never driven to extinction. A total of 319 unique samples collected in three sampling areas were genotyped at 16 microsatellites and one fragment (610 bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. Genetic diversity was high, and a low degree of genetic differentiation among sampling areas was observed with both microsatellites and mtDNA. No evidence of genetic differentiation between roe deer inhabiting open fields and forested areas was found, indicating that the ability of the species to exploit these contrasting environments might be the result of its phenotypic plasticity. Half of the studied individuals carried an mtDNA haplotype that did not belong to C. capreolus, but to a related species that does not occur naturally in the area, the Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus). No differentiation between individuals with Siberian and European mtDNA haplotypes was detected at microsatellite loci. Introgression of mtDNA of Siberian roe deer into the genome of European roe deer has recently been detected in eastern Europe. Such introgression might be caused by human-mediated translocations of Siberian roe deer within the range of European roe deer or by natural hybridization between these species in the past.

  19. Weak population structure in European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and evidence of introgressive hybridization with Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus in northeastern Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Olano-Marin

    Full Text Available We investigated contemporary and historical influences on the pattern of genetic diversity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus. The study was conducted in northeastern Poland, a zone where vast areas of primeval forests are conserved and where the European roe deer was never driven to extinction. A total of 319 unique samples collected in three sampling areas were genotyped at 16 microsatellites and one fragment (610 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region. Genetic diversity was high, and a low degree of genetic differentiation among sampling areas was observed with both microsatellites and mtDNA. No evidence of genetic differentiation between roe deer inhabiting open fields and forested areas was found, indicating that the ability of the species to exploit these contrasting environments might be the result of its phenotypic plasticity. Half of the studied individuals carried an mtDNA haplotype that did not belong to C. capreolus, but to a related species that does not occur naturally in the area, the Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus. No differentiation between individuals with Siberian and European mtDNA haplotypes was detected at microsatellite loci. Introgression of mtDNA of Siberian roe deer into the genome of European roe deer has recently been detected in eastern Europe. Such introgression might be caused by human-mediated translocations of Siberian roe deer within the range of European roe deer or by natural hybridization between these species in the past.

  20. Woodland features determining home range size of roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovari, Sandro; Serrao, Giulia; Mori, Emiliano

    2017-07-01

    Use of ecotones by ungulates may be mediated by their movements between main feeding areas and woodland, where they locate their shelter. The roe deer Capreolus capreolus has been termed as a woodland species, although we suggest that it did not evolve as a forest ungulate, but depending on forest glades. Roe deer feed on a wide range of vegetal species, although their diet is mainly dominated by woody plants. Our study was carried out in a fragmented area covered with small forest patches of Mediterranean "macchia" scrubwood, interspersed in an agricultural matrix. Aim of our study has been to test how ranging movements of roe deer are influenced by landscape heterogeneity and to evaluate which features of woodland affect home range size. Radio-locations of 22 female and 12 male adult roe deer, monitored for three years, were used to assess home range size. A linear mixed model was fitted to investigate variation in home range size according to eleven spatial parameters estimated to describe home range size and composition. Throughout the year, no significant difference was found between home range sizes of males (median: 16.70ha, Q 1 -Q 3 : 13.20-31.60ha) and females (median: 23.52ha, Q 1 -Q 3 : 13.30-44.00ha: lme: F=0.9; P=0.35). Habitat density, edge density, percentage of woodland within home range and woodland structure determined home range size. Home ranges with few habitat types and a small amount of wood were large, while roe deer occupied small home ranges when habitat density was high and when a high proportion of wood was concentrated in a single large patch. Woodland covered a mean±SE of 36.2±17.9% in each home range. In conclusion, roe deer seem to be particularly well adapted to live in human transformed, peripheral habitats, e.g. farmlands, as long as a minimum quantity of woodland is included within their HR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), in questing ticks (Ixodes ricinus), and in ticks infesting roe deer in southern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overzier, Evelyn; Pfister, Kurt; Herb, Ingrid; Mahling, Monia; Böck, Georg; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2013-06-01

    The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is the most common tick in Central Europe and plays an important role as a vector of several pathogens. In the complex life cycles of these pathogens, the role of wild animals as natural reservoirs has been discussed. The aims of this study were to investigate the role of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) as a potential reservoir host for Babesia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp. Therefore, we explored the differences in the infection rates of roe deer and engorged and questing ticks with these pathogens from a single forest site with special attention to coinfection. Blood, spleen, and skin samples of a total of 95 roe deer individuals were screened by molecular methods for these pathogens from September 2010 to January 2012 in the 'Angelberger Forst' (Bavaria, Germany). Moreover, 331 engorged ticks from 44 roe deer individuals and 199 host-seeking ticks from the same area were screened. Altogether, the following prevalence rates and a high diversity of species were detected for the respective pathogens in individual animals and ticks: (i) Babesia spp.: roe deer, 89.5%; engorged ticks, 7.3%; questing ticks: adults, 2.5%, nymphs, 3.3%. Sequencing revealed B. venatorum, B. capreoli, and B. microti. (ii) A. phagocytophilum: roe deer 98.9%; engorged ticks, 86.1%; questing ticks: adults, 8.9%, nymphs, 0.8%. (iii) Rickettsia spp.: roe deer, 0%; engorged ticks, 16.6%; questing ticks: adults, 13.9%, nymphs, 17.5%. Sequencing revealed R. helvetica. Furthermore, several coinfections were detected in both roe deer and ticks. The high prevalence rates of B. capreoli and A. phagocytophilum in roe deer support their role as reservoir hosts for these pathogens, but no evidence for a role of roe deer in the life cycle of R. helvetica could be provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. URGENSI DAN PENGATURAN UU TENTANG CONTEMPT OF COURT UNTUK MENJAMIN HARKAT, MARTABAT DAN WIBAWA PERADILAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Wisnu Mulyadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of the Contempt of Court is an event that is rife in Indonesia lately. It is considered to reduce the dignity, majesty and authority of the judiciary and its apparatus. Particularly the dignity and authority of the judge. Attitudes and actions displayed by the search for justice, legal practitioners, the press, political and social organizations, NGOs, academics, judicial commission, as well as various other parties in such a way can be categorized injure the dignity, majesty and authority of the judiciary, good attitude and actions directed against the judicial process, judicial officials, as well as court decisions. Lack of strict legal instruments and adequate to serve as guidelines and benchmarks to judge such a phenomenon is made Contempt of Court always the case. View of the judge is an arm of God would have been contrary to Contempt of Court. The judge in charge of prosecuting and providing justice for justice seekers should not accept the bad treatments. This study is based on normative research method using statutory approach and conceptual approaches. Legislation that used is Law No. 4 of 1985 on the Supreme Court, Code of criminal law, the law book of the law of criminal procedure, the draft book of the Criminal Justice Act 2012 and draft the Code of Criminal Procedure 2012. This research is expected to contribute significantly for the creation benchmarks and appropriate guidelines in terms of the establishment of regulations and legislation on Contempt of Court Act

  3. COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION - INTERNATIONAL COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nely Militaru

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU performs according to its competence, the position of International Justice in solving disputes between two or more subjects of international law. International jurisdiction of the Court of Justice of the EU is - mandatory that each Member State has the opportunity to seize this court if it considers that another state violated an obligation incumbent upon it under Union Treaties; - optional in disputes between Member States in connection with the subject Union Treaties.

  4. Courting Reform: Indonesia's Islamic Courts and Justice for the Poor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cate Sumner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents a judicial reform case study in the world’s most populous Islamic country that has involved increasing access to the courts for disadvantaged groups. The process began with an Access and Equity Study in the area of family law conducted by the Religious Courts of Indonesia in partnership with the Family Court of Australia as well as Indonesian research institutes and an NGO for female heads of household. The key findings of that study showed that the 50% of Indonesia’s citizens living below $2 a day would face challenges in bringing their family law cases to the Religious Courts, something that is mandatory under Indonesian law. The paper documents the steps taken by the Religious Courts over the last five years to increase access to the courts for disadvantaged groups, principally women, the poor and those living in remote areas. It is estimated that 30-40,000 Indonesian citizens facing financial and other forms of disadvantage will access the Religious Courts for their family law cases during 2011as a result of court fees being waived or a circuit court visiting their locality. The paper also highlights why legalising marriage and divorce and the provision of birth certificates (requiring a legal marriage certificate are important for female heads of household and the families they support in terms of accessing broader public services, such as education and health.

  5. Food allergy to Paracentrotus lividus (sea urchin roe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Virginia; Bartolomé, Borja; Armisén, Margarita; Vidal, Carmen

    2007-04-01

    Sea urchins are increasingly used as culinary products in Japanese and Korean cuisine throughout the world. To investigate a possible IgE-mediated allergy in a patient who experienced an anaphylactic reaction after eating sea urchin roe and mussels. A 40-year-old man experienced generalized pruritus and urticaria, shortness of breath, and wheezing 10 minutes after eating steamed mussels and boiled sea urchin roe. Investigations included skin prick tests, serum specific IgE determinations, oral challenge tests, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and immunoblotting. Results of skin prick tests with common aeroallergens were negative. Positive prick test responses were obtained with boiled and raw sea urchin extracts, boiled and raw sea urchins themselves, and boiled sea urchin water. Results of an oral challenge test with steamed mussels were negative. Five minutes after the oral mucosa contacted the boiled sea urchin extract, lip pruritus was present. Specific IgE concentrations to boiled sea urchin water and boiled and raw sea urchins surpassed the criterion for a positive result (1.1, 0.6, and 0.4 kU/L, respectively). In boiled sea urchin extract, a 118-kDa band appeared as the unique relevant IgE-binding antigen. In this patient with IgE-mediated food allergy to sea urchin roe, a 118-kDa protein seemed to be the antigen responsible for the reaction.

  6. Serosurvey for selected pathogens in Iberian roe deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleaga Álvaro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The roe deer is the most abundant and widespread wild Eurasian cervid. Its populations are expanding and increasingly in contact with livestock. This may affect the distribution of infectious diseases shared with other wild and domestic ungulates. Methods We investigated the antibody seroprevalence against Pestivirus, Herpesvirus, Bluetongue (BT virus, M. avium paratuberculosis (MAP, and Brucella sp. in 519 roe deer from different regions in Spain, south-western Europe. Results No antibodies were detected against BT and Brucella sp. However, antibodies were detected against Pestivirus (1.5%, Herpesvirus (0.2% and MAP (9.2%. MAP antibodies were detected in seven of the eight populations (range 5-16.4%. Conclusions The detection of MAP antibodies in samples from most roe deer populations suggests that contact with MAP is widespread in this wildlife species. The highest prevalence was detected in sites with abundant dairy cattle and frequent use of liquid manure on pastures. Considering the results obtained regarding exposure to different pathogens, we suggest that antibody prevalences in this non-gregarious browser are largely determined by environmental factors, potentially modulating vector populations or pathogen survival in the environment.

  7. Studies on the biological half-life of caesium in roe deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molzahn, D.; Aarle, J. van; Merklin, A.; Jäckel, B.; Westmeier, W.; Patzelt, P.

    1987-01-01

    Using over 100 samples of roe deer venison taken largely from the Rural District of Marburg-Biedenkopf and adjoining areas, a biological half-life of 21.9±2.2 days was established for caesium in roe deer. Since the radioactive contamination of the environment after Chernobyl and, therefore, the intake of radioactivity by the animals lasted for only a very short period of time, no significant contamination levels are expected through the consumption of newly killed roe deer. After 120 days, the radioactivity of caesium in a live roe deer has subsided again to less than 1/40 of its initial value [de

  8. Chinese court case fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2011-01-01

    breathed the breath of life into it? The usual answer is that crime fiction, in fact, was invented by Poe, but another counter-view is that China – at that point – had had a long narrative tradition for stories about crime and detection. The socalled gongan genre – court case fiction – was probably...... established as early as the 6th Century AD, whereas the first substantial evidence of the tradition is from 13th Century and the first Chinese crime fiction novels were written during the 17th Century. This article is, then, a corrective for the international history of crime fiction based on numerous...

  9. Intercultural pragmatics and court interpreting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2008-01-01

    . The court interpreters are all state-authorized court interpreters and thus fully competent professionals.   The centrality of pragmatics in triadic speech events has been demonstrated by a number of studies (e.g. Berk-Seligson 2002, Hale 2004, Jacobsen 2002). Thus, conversational implicatures, which....../Philadelphia: John Benjamins.   Jacobsen, B. (2002). Pragmatic meaning in court interpreting: An empirical study of additions in consecutively-interpreted question-answer dialogues. PhD thesis, The Aarhus School of Business....

  10. An Ever More Powerful Court?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    Scholars generally agree that courts are powerful authorities in settling disputes between parties, but the broader political impact of such resolution is disputed. Are courts powerful generators of political change? This book examines the ability of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU......) to foster political change for a European Union (EU) social policy, including healthcare. The conventional assumption is that a strong causal link exists between legal and political integration in the EU, in which Court rulings progress and shape European integration. The book challenges this view...

  11. Irving Independent School District, Petitioner v. Henri Tatro, et Ux., Individually and as Next Friend of Amber Tatro, a Minor. On Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circiut. No. 83-558.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supreme Court of the U. S., Washington, DC.

    A Supreme Court ruling is presented regarding the provision of clean intermittent catheterization as part of related services mandated under P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. The case argued focused on the needs of a young girl with spina bifida for intermittent catheterization to remove urine from her bladder. The court…

  12. Relationship between diet and liver carcinomas in roe deer in Kielder Forest and Galloway Forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de C.B.; Wieren, van S.E.; Gill, R.M.A.; Munro, R.

    2004-01-01

    The winter diets of roe deer culled from Kielder Forest, in north-east England, where the incidence of liver carcinomas in roe deer is high, and Galloway Forest, in south-west Scotland, where the incidence of liver carcinomas is low, were compared by microhistological analysis of faeces. Both areas

  13. "Boarding" Psychiatric Patients in Emergency Rooms: One Court Says "No More".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2015-07-01

    "Boarding" involuntary psychiatric patients in medical emergency rooms is common in many parts of the United States. The practice, driven by a shortage of alternative resources, including limited inpatient capacity, can result in patients' being held for days without treatment or a hospital room, often in busy corridors or treatment rooms. A recent challenge to this practice led the Washington Supreme Court to declare it illegal and resulted in the appropriation of substantial funding to create new psychiatric beds. Centralized psychiatric crisis services, with appropriate payment models, may offer another approach to reducing the need for holding patients awaiting inpatient admission.

  14. Intervention of the Courts in School Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Walter G.

    1978-01-01

    The rhythm and intensity of judicial activity, questions and issues adjudicated by the courts, judicial approaches and strategies, and the roles played by the courts are discussed with regard to court intervention in state school finance systems. (DS)

  15. A Rapid Colorimetric Method Reveals Fraudulent Substitutions in Sea Urchin Roe Marketed in Sardinia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Domenico; Spina, Antonio; Satta, Gianluca; Chessa, Vittorio

    2016-06-25

    In recent years, besides the consumption of fresh sea urchin specimens, the demand of minimally-processed roe has grown considerably. This product has made frequent consumption in restaurants possible and frauds are becoming widespread with the partial replacement of sea urchin roe with surrogates that are similar in colour. One of the main factors that determines the quality of the roe is its colour and small differences in colour scale cannot be easily discerned by the consumers. In this study we have applied a rapid colorimetric method for reveal the fraudulent partial substitution of semi-solid sea urchin roe with liquid egg yolk. Objective assessment of whiteness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), hue (h*), and chroma (C*) was carried out with a digital spectrophotometer using the CIE L*a*b* colour measurement system. The colorimetric method highlighted statistically significant differences among sea urchin roe and liquid egg yolk that could be easily discerned quantitatively.

  16. Trends of fresh green food for lactating roe deer females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Annette; Stahl, Benjamin; Laube, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Increasing temperatures, changed precipitation patterns as well as more intense and frequent extreme events will alter the phenology of both flora and fauna and shift species distributions. Moreover, farmers respond to climate change by adapting land use and management, and thus the cultural landscape is changing. Therefore, the health and fitness of wild animals will be largely affected by factors directly and indirectly linked to climate change. Familiar examples of mismatch due to loss of temporal synchrony in food webs are known from birds (timing of migration or egg laying in relation to food resources) and insect pollination (timing of first flights in relation to plant flowering). However, also large herbivory mammals may suffer from climate change induced phenological mismatch if they are not able to "surf on the green wave" any more. Taking roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) as key example, we studied changes in the spring phenology of potential food plants during the last four decades in southern Germany. Our analysis is based on the phenological observations of the German Meteorological Service as well as on the comprehensive multi-species dataset of a dedicated citizen scientist. Roe deer is sensitive to slight phenological changes of food plants, since only the first fresh green contains maximal protein contents which are needed by the females to suckle their fawns born mid of May till mid of June. We find indications for an increasing number of food plant species available in the lactation period, however probably with a decreasing food quality over the decades. Since females have delayed implantation it may be difficult to well synchronise the postnatal period to the vegetation development. A unique dataset of marked fawns suggests that also the timing of birth has slightly advanced in recent decades. We discuss these changes in the match-mismatch of lactation period of roe deer and spring leaf phenology and their driving factors in detail.

  17. Systemic Besnoitiosis in a Juvenile Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, M C; Gutiérrez-Expósito, D; Martínez-Durán, D; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Revilla, M; Fernández de Luco, D; Jiménez-Meléndez, A; Ortega-Mora, L M; Álvarez-García, G

    2017-10-01

    Herein, we report the first incidence of systemic besnoitiosis in a male juvenile roe deer Capreolus capreolus. The animal was found dead in an area where bovine besnoitiosis is endemic and showed cachexia and multiple skin erosions in the metacarpal and metatarsal areas. Moreover, round and elevated white structures suggestive of Besnoitia spp. tissue cysts were also present. Twenty-eight tissue samples from different anatomical locations were collected for microscopic lesion and parasite detection through histopathology and PCR. Immunohistochemistry was performed to confirm Besnoitia-positive reaction in the tissue cysts. In addition, the identity of Besnoitia spp. in PCR-positive tissue samples was also investigated using microsatellite (MS) markers, and the comparison of protein disulphide isomerase gene sequences (BbPDI) of B. besnoiti and B. tarandi isolated from cattle and reindeer, respectively. Besnoitia cysts were detected in the skin (several parts), respiratory and upper digestive tracts, eyes, kidney, liver, testicle, cardiac muscle and lymphoid tissue. Remarkably, the presence of tissue cysts in the brain confirmed the capacity of Besnoitia spp. to form tissue cysts in the central nervous system (CNS). Finally, the Besnoitia species detected showed the same MS genotype as B. besnoiti, and BbPDI sequences from roe deer and two B. besnoiti isolates were genetically identical throughout multiple sequence alignment. Thus, for the first time, there is evidence that roe deer might act as an intermediate host of B. besnoiti. Further molecular analyses and parasite isolations are needed to corroborate these findings. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Cryopreservation of captive roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Pablos, M T; Sánchez-Calabuig, M J; Hildebrandt, T B; Göritz, F; Ortmann, S; Eder, S; Santiago-Moreno, J; Hermes, R; Saragusty, J

    2016-08-01

    To address the need to preserve current genetic diversity before it is lost forever; further studies to adapt assisted reproductive technologies to various endangered species are needed, among other things. Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), an over abundant wild deer, can serve as model species to develop or improve sperm cryopreservation of threatened or endangered deer species. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of three diluents (Berliner Cryomedium [BC]; Tris, citric acid, glucose [TCG]; TES, Tris, glucose) to support chilling, cryopreservation (with 5% glycerol; G) and postthaw incubation (at 22 °C and 37 °C) of roe deer spermatozoa collected by electroejaculation. Berliner Cryomedium was the diluent that better preserved roe deer spermatozoa during refrigeration, able to maintain motility for at least 14 days, longer than the other extenders. BC + G was the extender of choice for cryopreservation, showing higher viability compared with TCG + G (66.7 ± 3.4 vs. 54.5 ± 6.5; P < 0.05) and higher level of acrosome integrity compared with TES, Tris, glucose + G (79.4 ± 3.4 vs. 67.9 ± 5.0; P < 0.05). Maintaining the samples at 22 °C after thawing presented higher values in various parameters compared with 37 °C. The knowledge gained through this study can potentially act as a preliminary step toward development of new protocols to help increase the reproductive success of biologically similar, yet endangered, wild species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Generalized Roe's numerical scheme for a two-fluid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toumi, I.; Raymond, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a mathematical and numerical study of a six equation two-fluid model. We will prove that the model is strictly hyperbolic due to the inclusion of the virtual mass force term in the phasic momentum equations. The two-fluid model is naturally written under a nonconservative form. To solve the nonlinear Riemann problem for this nonconservative hyperbolic system, a generalized Roe's approximate Riemann solver, is used, based on a linearization of the nonconservative terms. A Godunov type numerical scheme is built, using this approximate Riemann solver. 10 refs., 5 figs,

  20. Superhéroes y la web 2.0

    OpenAIRE

    Quintanal Pérez, Felipe

    2010-01-01

    Se puede conseguir incentivar el proceso de aprendizaje en Bachillerato de una asignatura, Física y Química, considerada tradicionalmente como “dura”, empleando estrategias metodológicas y herramientas tecnológicas adecuadas, como las que proporciona la Web 2.0. Si, además, unimos dichas aplicaciones, como por ejemplo, SlideShare, Scribd y YouTube, con una temática interesante y cotidiana, los superhéroes del mundo del cómic, por ejemplo, de Marvel, la respuesta de los estudiantes puede ser b...

  1. Radiocesium transfer to roe deer and moose. Modelling and experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila Moreno, R.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis summarises and discusses results of modelling and experimental studies of radiocesium transfer to roe deer and moose. Experimental studies were conducted in two forested areas highly contaminated by the Chernobyl deposition. One area is 40 km north west of Uppsala, in central Sweden and the other is in the Bryansk region of Russia. Experimental studies in Sweden are based on measurements of radiocesium levels in roe deer and moose carried out during 1988-1997. Issues addressed were: reasons for seasonal variations of radiocesium levels in roe deer, between years variations and long-term dynamics, correlation between radiocesium levels in roe deer and moose and role of fungi for radiocesium transfer to roe deer and moose. Experimental studies in Bryansk focused on calibration and validation of models developed during the study. Radiocaesium levels in roe deer increase in up to 5 times in summer and autumn due to mushrooms ingestion and remain almost constant the rest of the year. Mushrooms ingestion explained quantitatively between years variations in radiocesium levels in roe deer and 70 % of the variations in moose. The 137 Cs levels of in roe deer and moose will decrease at a rate close to 137 Cs physical half-life. The radiocesium levels were 2-2.5 times higher in roe deer than in moose. A conceptual model of radiocesium migration and transfer in a forest ecosystem is presented as an interaction matrix. This matrix can be used to study migration pathways and cause-effect relationships and to present status of knowledge. A model of radiocesium transfer in forest ecosystems was developed, which simulates well seasonal and long-term dynamics of radiocesium levels in roe deer and moose. A process level model of radiocesium transfer from soil to understorey plants is used to derive equations relating soil-to-plant concentration ratios with soil characteristics

  2. Supreme Court of the United States. Syllabus. Wheeler et al. v. Barrera et al. Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supreme Court of the U. S., Washington, DC.

    Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (the Act) provides for federal funding of special programs for educationally deprived children in both public and private schools. Respondents, parents of children attending nonpublic schools in Kansas City, Mo., brought this class action, alleging that petitioner state school officials…

  3. Supreme Court Update: The Free Speech Rights of Students in the United States Post "Morse v. Frederick"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Charles J.

    2007-01-01

    Enshrined in the First Amendment as part of the Bill of Rights that was added to the then 4 year old US Constitution in 1791, it should be no surprise that freedom of speech may be perhaps the most cherished right of Americans. If anything, freedom of speech, which is properly treated as a fundamental human right for children, certainly stands out…

  4. Experience counts: The chief justice, management tenure, and strategic behavior on the U.S. Supreme Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Daniel Ura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We develop and test a theoretical account of the effect of management tenure on the strategic behavior of the chief justice of the United States. Substantial evidence from literatures on learning models and public management indicate that tenure (length of service is positively related to management performance in public organizations. This suggests that the chief justice’s tenure in office should be positively related to efficiency in the use of the chief justice’s formal powers. We assess this hypothesis by replicating and extending Johnson et al.’s study of chief justice Burger’s conference voting behavior. The data support our management tenure hypothesis, showing that Burger used greater discretion in reserving his conference vote over time as he became more adept at discriminating between circumstances when the tactic was strategically valuable and when it was not.

  5. COLONIAL LEGACIES AND COMPETING MASCULINITIES: THE SUPREME COURT OF CANADA’S RETURN TO REASON IN R. V. KAPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Hodes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a series of unarticulated gender dynamics that shaped some of the recent changes to the legal test for discrimination under s. 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Despite the volume of literature that references R. v. Kapp, none of it has specifically addressed how race is gendered through the claims of the accused, the witnesses who testified on their behalf or the decisions of the judges who interpreted their testimony. Revisiting the legal strategies used in this case reveals ongoing challenges to accessing justice for marginalized groups and impediments to reconciliation.   Dans cet article, l’auteure s’attarde à une série d’indicateurs sexospécifiques non articulés qui ont façonné quelques-uns des changements récemment apportés au critère juridique à appliquer à l’égard de la discrimination au titre de l’article 15 de la Charte canadienne des droits et libertés. L’arrêt R. c. Kapp est abondamment cité dans la littérature. Néanmoins, aucun renvoi n’a porté explicitement sur l’interaction entre la race et le genre qui découle des allégations de l’accusé, de la version donnée par les personnes qui ont témoigné pour son compte ou des décisions des juges qui ont interprété ces témoignages. L’analyse des stratégies juridiques utilisées dans cette affaire révèle des problèmes continus liés à l’accès à la justice dans le cas des groupes marginalisés, ainsi que des obstacles à la réconciliation.

  6. The UK Supreme Court - A Fine New Vintage, or Just a Smart New Label on a Dusty Old Bottle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Drewry

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The machinery of UK governance, including many aspects of the legal system, has undergone a lot of important changes in the last decade or so. Some of these changes have been driven by ‘New Public Management’ ideas about the need to increase ‘efficiency, effectiveness and economy’, to sharpen public accountability and to improve the quality of customer service in the administration of justice - as has been happening with other parts of the public service sector. Some important reforms (notably devolution of functions to elected administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland and the passing of the Human Rights Act 1998 have been parts of a wider political agenda of modernising Britain’s antiquated ‘unwritten’ constitution. Some of the most senior judges themselves, a category of office holder once regarded as doctrinally opposed to any kind of radical change, have become articulate champions of reform and have carved out new, high profile managerial roles for themselves, as well as becoming markedly more ‘activist’ in the public law and human rights arena when sitting on the Bench.

  7. THE GUARDIAN OF THE CONSTITUTION IN BRAZIL: THE BASIS AND THE MEANING OF SUPREME FEDERAL COURT POWER

    OpenAIRE

    PAULO LOUREIRO PHILBOIS

    2012-01-01

    O presente estudo tem por objeto analisar o guardião da Constituição no Brasil, partindo da análise das bases teóricas, da história do controle de constitucionalidade brasileiro e mesmo das críticas ao modelo consagrado na Constituição de 1988. Desse modo, o trabalho pretende investigar como o Supremo Tribunal Federal tornou-se o guardião da Constituição brasileira, bem como, através de análise jurisprudencial, o que a referida Corte extrai de tão relevante competência. T...

  8. Court Remands as a Percentage of New Court Cases Filed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Longitudinal report detailing the numbers and percentages of court remand actions received during each Fiscal Year 2010 - onward as compared to the total number of...

  9. Realisation of power systems and European nature conservation. The actual jurisdiction of the Federal Administrative Court; Realisierung von Energieanlagen und europaeischer Naturschutz. Die aktuelle Rechtsprechung des Bundesverwaltungsgerichts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anger, Christoph [avocado rechtsanwaelte, Koeln (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    For a long time, the right of nature conservation and landscape conservation showed a shadowy existence in the approval of projects. Some actual decisions of the Supreme Court show that in the last years the nature conservation law developed to a central area of conflict in the licensing procedure. The contribution under consideration reports on the legal material using three selected problem areas from the law on the protection of area and law on the protection of species. On the one hand, the Federal Administrative Court (Leipzig, Federal Republic of Germany) always upgrades the requirements. However, on the other hand the Federal Administrative Court attaches great importance to practicability. The Federal Administrative Court often points to a way, how projects can be realized with a careful nature conservation related attendance also at difficult environmental conditions.

  10. Quality indicators of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L. venison from two different Czech regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on differences in the monitored quality indicators of roe deer venison depending on the region of the Czech Republic where roe deer are hunted. Quality of roe deer venison was evaluated based on pH values, colour (CIEL*a*b* system and chemical composition (content of haem pigments, dry matter, pure protein, collagen and fat. Samples of muscle from the leg (m. gluteus medius were taken from 22 female roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L. from two hunting regions (Liberec and South Moravia in the Czech Republic. In roe deer from Liberec, higher pH value (5.65, P P P -1 were found. Muscles from roe deer from South Moravia contained higher amounts of dry matter (29.52%, P P < 0.001 and total collagen (0.86%, and lower amounts of intramuscular fat (0.48%. These results may provide an important source of information for consumers of roe deer meat because several differences in the quality (chemical composition of muscles from South Moravian region and Liberec region were found. Presumably, the differences between muscles from animals living in two different Czech regions were due to the diet, form of land use (more agricultural land in Southern Moravia, and forests and mountains in Liberec and climatic conditions (Liberec lies in the northern part of the Czech Republic. It is the first study of this topic in the Czech Republic.

  11. Runyon et ux., DBA Bobbe's School v. McCrary et al. Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit: Syllabus. Slip Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supreme Court of the U. S., Washington, DC.

    This document reports the U.S. Supreme Court Opinion on a class action seeking to reverse the exclusion of Negro children from private schools. Title 42, U.S.C. Section 1981, provides in part that "all persons within the jurisdiction of the U.S. shall have the same right in every state...to make and enforce contracts...as is enjoyed by white…

  12. Court interpreting and pragmatic meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction.......In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction....

  13. The Nevada mental health courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, George B

    2010-01-01

    The deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill which started in the 1960s greatly contributed to the overcrowding of judicial systems throughout the world. In the ensuing years, the actors involved in the adversarial system present in United States courts, a system that is primarily interested in assessing the culpability of the offender, have come to realize that the system is lacking therapeutic and reintegrative approaches to offenders, especially those who are mentally ill. Therapeutic jurisprudence, an interdisciplinary science, addresses this problematic situation of the mentally ill. It offers a fresh insight into the potentially beneficial and detrimental effects of legal decisions and views one of the roles of law as that of a healing agent. At present, many states have instituted mental health courts based on these concepts, incorporating previous drug court experiences. Their goal is to avoid the criminalization of the mentally ill and their recidivism through the creation of special programs. This article describes the mental health court programs of Washoe County and Clark County, Nevada, their organization, their therapeutic goals, and their success in keeping mentally ill offenders out of the correctional system, while improving their mental condition. In so doing, the program has lightened the load of the overburdened courts and has greatly diminished the financial burden incurred for court trials and jail and prison stays. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Three Years of Teen Court Offender Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgays, Deborah Kirby

    2008-01-01

    Since 1983, Teen Courts have offered a judicial alternative for many adolescent offenders. In the first year of the Whatcom County Teen Court Program, a small sample of Teen Court offenders had more favorable outcomes than did Court Diversion offenders. In the current study, the results are based on a three-year sample of 84 Whatcom County…

  15. Using litigation to defend women prosecuted for abortion in Mexico: challenging state laws and the implications of recent court judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Jennifer; Noriega, Regina Tamés; Puga, Alma Luz Beltrán Y

    2014-11-01

    While women in Mexico City can access free, safe and legal abortion during the first trimester, women in other Mexican states face many barriers. To complicate matters, between 2008 and 2009, 16 state constitutions were amended to protect life from conception. While these reforms do not annul existing legal abortion indications, they have created additional obstacles for women. Health providers increasingly report women who seek life-saving care for complications such as haemorrhage to the police, and some cases eventually end up in court. The Grupo de Información en Reproducción Elegida (GIRE) has successfully litigated such cases in state courts, with positive outcomes. However, state courts have mainly focused on procedural issues. The Mexican Supreme Court ruling supporting Mexico City's law has had a positive effect, but a stronger stance is needed. This paper discusses the constitutional framework and jurisprudence regarding abortion in Mexico, and the recent Costa Rica decision of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. We assert that Mexican states must guarantee women's access to abortion on the legal grounds established in law. We continue to support litigation at the state level to oblige courts to exonerate women prosecuted for illegal abortion. Advocacy should, of course, also address the legislative and executive branches, while working simultaneously to set legal precedents on abortion. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Defending the Absurd: The Iconoclast's Guide to Section 47(1 of the Superior Courts Act 10 of 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haneen McCreath

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution was intended as a defence of section 25(1 of the Supreme Court Act 59 of 1959. However, the Supreme Court Act was repealed in August 2013 and replaced by the Superior Courts Act 10 of 2013, and in the process section 25(1 of the former gave way to section 47(1 of the latter. Both sections concern the doctrine of leave to sue judges in South Africa. Both prescribe that any civil litigation against a judge requires the consent of the court out of which such litigation is to be launched. Both apply to civil suits against judges for damage caused by either their judicial or their non-judicial conduct. Although section 25(1 had been one of the more inconspicuous sections of the Supreme Court Act, it was contested on occasion. Both curial and extra-curial challenges to section 25(1 assailed its constitutionality, alleging essentially that its provisions violated the right of access to courts enshrined in section 34 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 and that such violation did not meet the limitation criteria contained in section 36. It may be anticipated with considerable confidence, given its legal continuity with section 25(1, that any serious assault upon section 47(1 of the Superior Courts Act also will focus upon its relationship to section 34 of the Constitution. This contribution is a pre-emptive defence of section 47(1 of the Superior Courts Act and, by extrapolation, a belated justification of section 25(1 of the Supreme Court Act. An attempt will be made to demonstrate, contrary to conventional wisdom, that section 47(1 does not limit section 34 and passes constitutional muster at the first level of enquiry, thereby obviating the need for advancing to the second level of enquiry contained in section 36 of the Constitution. The jurisprudential crux of section 47(1 of the Superior Courts Act is embedded in the nature of the judicial office and its core value of judicial impartiality. The procedural

  17. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of the Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) populations from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Sun; Markov, Nickolay; Voloshina, Inna; Argunov, Alexander; Bayarlkhagva, Damdingiin; Oh, Jang Geun; Park, Yong-Su; Min, Mi-Sook; Lee, Hang; Kim, Kyung Seok

    2015-08-18

    The roe deer, Capreolus sp., is one of the most widespread meso-mammals of Palearctic distribution, and includes two species, the European roe deer, C. capreolus inhabiting mainly Europe, and the Siberian roe deer, C. pygargus, distributed throughout continental Asia. Although there are a number of genetic studies concerning European roe deer, the Siberian roe deer has been studied less, and none of these studies use microsatellite markers. Natural processes have led to genetic structuring in wild populations. To understand how these factors have affected genetic structure and connectivity of Siberian roe deer, we investigated variability at 12 microsatellite loci for Siberian roe deer from ten localities in Asia. Moderate levels of genetic diversity (H(E) = 0.522 to 0.628) were found in all populations except in Jeju Island, South Korea, where the diversity was lowest (H(E) = 0.386). Western populations showed relatively low genetic diversity and higher degrees of genetic differentiation compared with eastern populations (mean Ar = 3.54 (east), 2.81 (west), mean F(ST) = 0.122). Bayesian-based clustering analysis revealed the existence of three genetically distinct groups (clusters) for Siberian roe deer, which comprise of the Southeastern group (Mainland Korea, Russian Far East, Trans-Baikal region and Northern part of Mongolia), Northwestern group (Western Siberia and Ural in Russia) and Jeju Island population. Genetic analyses including AMOVA (F(RT) = 0.200), Barrier and PCA also supported genetic differentiation among regions separated primarily by major mountain ridges, suggesting that mountains played a role in the genetic differentiation of Siberian roe deer. On the other hand, genetic evidence also suggests an ongoing migration that may facilitate genetic admixture at the border areas between two groups. Our results reveal an apparent pattern of genetic differentiation among populations inhabiting Asia, showing moderate levels of genetic diversity with an

  18. SPECIALIZED COURTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nely Militaru

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Treaty of Lisbon entered into force on 1 December 2009, improved functioning judicial system European Union ( EU. Court of Justice of the EU has been reformed, said Treaty changing the EU courts so very name : Court of Justice of the EU, the Court referred to above, the Court of First Instance, and specialized courts, known previously, judicial panels. The paper shows the first part of his creation, composition and competence of the specialized courts, and as a manifestation of them in the second part examines the Civil Service Tribunal, the same point of view. EU specialized courts may be set up in specific areas, specializing in some technical disputes. These specialized courts have jurisdiction to hear and decide the cases in the first instance with the possibility that their decision subject to appeal to the General Court . In this context, to resolve disputes between the Union and its officials was established Tribunal.

  19. Handwriting Evidence in Federal Courts - From Frye to Kumho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnick, J; Lin, J R

    2001-07-01

    In federal courts, the admissibility of scientific expert testimony in the last century has been governed by three major standards. The first of these standards, the "general acceptance" test, arose from the 1923 Frye v. United States (Frye) and required that any technique or method introduced in court be generally accepted by the relevant community of scientists. The more liberal "relevancy" standard of the Federal Rules of Evidence was enacted in 1975, and required the expert witness to be qualified by knowledge, skill, experience, training, or education. Finally, the "reliability" standard stated in the Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Daubert) opinion was handed down by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1993, supplanting the Frye general acceptance test as the sole determining factor in considering the admissibility of scientific expert testimony, and suggesting falsifiability, peer review and publication, and error rate as additional factors useful in evaluating a scientific technique. Changing views on expert testimony have also resulted in published criticisms of several forensic fields, especially those with subjective components. The first such field to be questioned, which also has been the subject of great debate, is expert handwriting identification. Challenges leveled against handwriting identification began with a law review article published in 1989 (and two subsequent articles); other challenges have been based on the requirements outlined in the Federal Rules of Evidence and Daubert. These challenges resulted in several court opinions with disparate views of handwriting identification, though testimony by an expert in the field was not rejected. In U.S. v. Starzecpyzel, handwriting evidence was admitted as nonscientific expert testimony under the Federal Rules of Evidence after failing a review under the factors outlined in Daubert. In U.S. v. Velasquez (Velasquez), the testimony of a document examiner was accepted, while the testimony of an

  20. Admissibility and per se exclusion of hypnotically elicited recall in American courts of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C

    1997-07-01

    State v. Mack (1980) ruled that hypnotically elicited testimony is per se excluded from Minnesota law courts; this court also ruled that police could employ hypnosis in an attempt to construct an independently corroborated case. In recent years, there have been moves to rescind this exclusion; this raises a question of the probative value of such additional information when it is uncorroborated. This situation is compared with that of the polygraph as an index of deception: Like hypnosis, it is excluded per se in most American jurisdictions. Some legal decisions in Wisconsin are used to illustrate one alternative to the per se exclusion approach. Admissibility of scientific evidence in American courts of law has been based on a criterion of "general acceptability within the relevant scientific community," as first elucidated in Frye v. United States (1923). Recently, the U.S. Supreme Court overturned the Frye decision in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (1993), by making general acceptability but one of several admissibility criteria. Three Daubert-based decisions, one involving hypnosis and all concerned with "recovered repressed memories," indicate some problems in law posed by Daubert.

  1. A UAV-BASED ROE DEER FAWN DETECTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Israel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a UAV based remote sensing system for the detection of fawns in the meadows. There is a high demand because during pasture mowing many wild animals, especially roe deer fawns are killed by mowing machines. The system was tested in several real situations especially with differing weather and iluminating conditions. Its primary sensor is a lightweight thermal infrared camera. The images are captured onboard of the flight system and also transmitted as analog video stream to the ground station, where the user can follow the camera live stream on a monitor for manual animal detection. Beside a high detection rate a fast workflow is another very important objective for this application. Therefore a waypoint planning software was developed that accelerates the workflow. At adequate illuminating and weather conditions the presented UAV-based fawn detection via thermal imaging is a comfortable, fast and reliable method.

  2. a Uav-Based ROE Deer Fawn Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a UAV based remote sensing system for the detection of fawns in the meadows. There is a high demand because during pasture mowing many wild animals, especially roe deer fawns are killed by mowing machines. The system was tested in several real situations especially with differing weather and iluminating conditions. Its primary sensor is a lightweight thermal infrared camera. The images are captured onboard of the flight system and also transmitted as analog video stream to the ground station, where the user can follow the camera live stream on a monitor for manual animal detection. Beside a high detection rate a fast workflow is another very important objective for this application. Therefore a waypoint planning software was developed that accelerates the workflow. At adequate illuminating and weather conditions the presented UAV-based fawn detection via thermal imaging is a comfortable, fast and reliable method.

  3. Delayed acute capture myopathy in three roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montané, J; Marco, I; Manteca, X; López, J; Lavín, S

    2002-03-01

    Delayed acute capture myopathy is the term used to describe the clinical syndrome observed in three roe deer captured by drive-nets and transported to an enclosure for scientific purposes. The animals died 48 h, 60 h and 8 days after being captured. The simultaneous deaths coincided with a previous episode of deliberate human disturbance. The histopathological findings were indicative of acute myopathy and myoglobinaemic nephrosis. These could be related to an ataxic myoglobinuric syndrome brought on by capture and transport operations. The lack of clinical signs and negative prognosis indicators in the period between capture and just before death. the absence of gross muscular lesions in the animal that died after 8 days post-capture, the simultaneous deaths of animals captured at different times and the evidence of deliberate human disturbance in the enclosure are suggestive of death triggered by a second stress episode.

  4. Cutaneous fibroma in the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kureljušić Branislav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromas present very frequent skin neoplasms in different species of wild game of the family Cervidae. Viral etiology of skin neoplasms was proven in certain species of wild game from this family, with the most frequent diagnoses being: fibromas, ossifying fibromas, fibrosarcomas, multiple neurofibromatosis, fibropapillomas, and papillomas. The diagnozed tumor in the roe deer had the histological characteristics of a polimorphous fibroblast, which is not the case with domestic animals. This finding can be considered as a characteristic of fibromas in animals of the family Cervidae. Solitary fibroma or multiple fibroma (fibromatosis does not present a significant cause of deer deaths, but they cause concern among hunters who are in direct contact with them. Although fibromas do not lead to spoilage of game meat, they are esthetically repellent and people are reluctant to consume meat of such game.

  5. A clinical trial evaluating the laryngeal mask airway-Supreme in obese children during general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yue; Wu, Xiu-Ying; Li, Lu; Ma, Ling; Li, Yun-Feng

    2017-02-01

    The laryngeal mask airway (LMA)-Supreme is a disposable double-lumen laryngeal mask airway that is widely used in clinical practice. However, its use in obese children has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine whether the LMA-Supreme could perform equally as well as endotracheal intubation in obese children having a minor surgical procedure. After ethical board approval, 100 obese male children receiving non-emergent appendectomy for chronic appendicitis or surgery to correct concealed penis were randomly divided into an endotracheal intubation group and an LMA-Supreme group. Endotracheal intubation was performed under direct vision laryngoscopy. In the LMA group, a size-3 LMA-Supreme was placed and a stomach tube inserted via the drainage tube of the mask. Cardiovascular and respiratory parameters, time taken for placement, placement attempts, time to removal of the endotracheal tube/LMA, length of stay in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU), and complications were recorded. Insertion time was significantly longer ( p airway pressure was significantly higher, and pulmonary compliance and PACU stay time lower in the LMA-Supreme group. No significant differences between endotracheal intubation and the LMA-Supreme were seen in other parameters, except for a higher incidence of coughing in the endotracheal intubation group. The LMA-Supreme can be easily inserted and effectively used for airway management in obese children undergoing minor surgery.

  6. Identification of a novel Mannheimia granulomatis lineage from pathological lesions in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders M.; Larsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2007-01-01

    Eight atypical Mannheimia isolates were isolated from lesions in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Traditional classification based on morphologic and physiologic traits showed that they belong to a distinct biogroup (taxon) within genus Mannheimia. Extensive phenotypic characterization suggested...... that the isolates should be classified as M. granulomatis, although the presence of distinct traits justified their classification into a separate biogroup within this species. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA sequences from two roe deer isolates and 41 other Mannheimia strains supported that the roe deer...... isolates form a monophyletic group within M. granulomatis. The lktA genotype was present in all roe deer isolates based on Southern blot analysis, whereas the corresponding beta-hemolytic phenotype was absent in one of these isolates....

  7. Seasonality of 137Cs in roe deer from Austria and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielitz, U.; Klemt, E.; Strebl, F.; Tataruch, F.; Zibold, G.

    2009-01-01

    Empirical data on the 137 Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) roaming in 3 spruce forest areas and one peat bog area are presented and compared. They cover time series of nearly 20 years after a spike contamination in 1986 originating from Chernobyl. A model is presented which considers three soil compartments to describe the change of the availability of 137 Cs with time. The time-dependency of the 137 Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer is a combination of two components: (1) an exponential decay and (2) a peak in the second half of each year during the mushroom season. The exponential decay over the years can be described by a sum of two exponential functions. The additional transfer of 137 Cs into roe deer during the mushroom season depends on precipitation. On the peat bog the 137 Cs activity concentration in roe deer is higher and more persistent than in spruce forest

  8. Living on the edge: roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) density in the margins of its geographical range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Ana M; Fonseca, Carlos; Marques, Tiago A; Santos, João P; Rodrigues, Rogério; Torres, Rita Tinoco

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) populations have increased in number and distribution throughout Europe. Such increases have profound impacts on ecosystems, both positive and negative. Therefore monitoring roe deer populations is essential for the appropriate management of this species, in order to achieve a balance between conservation and mitigation of the negative impacts. Despite being required for an effective management plan, the study of roe deer ecology in Portugal is at an early stage, and hence there is still a complete lack of knowledge of roe deer density within its known range. Distance sampling of pellet groups coupled with production and decay rates for pellet groups provided density estimates for roe deer in northeastern Portugal (Lombada National Hunting Area--LNHA, Serra de Montesinho--SM and Serra da Nogueira--SN; LNHA and SM located in Montesinho Natural Park). The estimated roe deer density using a stratified detection function was 1.23/100 ha for LNHA, 4.87/100 ha for SM and 4.25/100 ha in SN, with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 0.68 to 2.21, 3.08 to 7.71 and 2.25 to 8.03, respectively. For the entire area, the estimated density was about 3.51/100 ha (95% CI - 2.26-5.45). This method can provide estimates of roe deer density, which will ultimately support management decisions. However, effective monitoring should be based on long-term studies that are able to detect population fluctuations. This study represents the initial phase of roe deer monitoring at the edge of its European range and intends to fill the gap in this species ecology, as the gathering of similar data over a number of years will provide the basis for stronger inferences. Monitoring should be continued, although the study area should be increased to evaluate the accuracy of estimates and assess the impact of management actions.

  9. Living on the edge: roe deer (Capreolus capreolus density in the margins of its geographical range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Valente

    Full Text Available Over the last decades roe deer (Capreolus capreolus populations have increased in number and distribution throughout Europe. Such increases have profound impacts on ecosystems, both positive and negative. Therefore monitoring roe deer populations is essential for the appropriate management of this species, in order to achieve a balance between conservation and mitigation of the negative impacts. Despite being required for an effective management plan, the study of roe deer ecology in Portugal is at an early stage, and hence there is still a complete lack of knowledge of roe deer density within its known range. Distance sampling of pellet groups coupled with production and decay rates for pellet groups provided density estimates for roe deer in northeastern Portugal (Lombada National Hunting Area--LNHA, Serra de Montesinho--SM and Serra da Nogueira--SN; LNHA and SM located in Montesinho Natural Park. The estimated roe deer density using a stratified detection function was 1.23/100 ha for LNHA, 4.87/100 ha for SM and 4.25/100 ha in SN, with 95% confidence intervals (CI of 0.68 to 2.21, 3.08 to 7.71 and 2.25 to 8.03, respectively. For the entire area, the estimated density was about 3.51/100 ha (95% CI - 2.26-5.45. This method can provide estimates of roe deer density, which will ultimately support management decisions. However, effective monitoring should be based on long-term studies that are able to detect population fluctuations. This study represents the initial phase of roe deer monitoring at the edge of its European range and intends to fill the gap in this species ecology, as the gathering of similar data over a number of years will provide the basis for stronger inferences. Monitoring should be continued, although the study area should be increased to evaluate the accuracy of estimates and assess the impact of management actions.

  10. Living on the Edge: Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) Density in the Margins of Its Geographical Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Ana M.; Fonseca, Carlos; Marques, Tiago A.; Santos, João P.; Rodrigues, Rogério; Torres, Rita Tinoco

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) populations have increased in number and distribution throughout Europe. Such increases have profound impacts on ecosystems, both positive and negative. Therefore monitoring roe deer populations is essential for the appropriate management of this species, in order to achieve a balance between conservation and mitigation of the negative impacts. Despite being required for an effective management plan, the study of roe deer ecology in Portugal is at an early stage, and hence there is still a complete lack of knowledge of roe deer density within its known range. Distance sampling of pellet groups coupled with production and decay rates for pellet groups provided density estimates for roe deer in northeastern Portugal (Lombada National Hunting Area - LNHA, Serra de Montesinho – SM and Serra da Nogueira – SN; LNHA and SM located in Montesinho Natural Park). The estimated roe deer density using a stratified detection function was 1.23/100 ha for LNHA, 4.87/100 ha for SM and 4.25/100 ha in SN, with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 0.68 to 2.21, 3.08 to 7.71 and 2.25 to 8.03, respectively. For the entire area, the estimated density was about 3.51/100 ha (95% CI - 2.26–5.45). This method can provide estimates of roe deer density, which will ultimately support management decisions. However, effective monitoring should be based on long-term studies that are able to detect population fluctuations. This study represents the initial phase of roe deer monitoring at the edge of its European range and intends to fill the gap in this species ecology, as the gathering of similar data over a number of years will provide the basis for stronger inferences. Monitoring should be continued, although the study area should be increased to evaluate the accuracy of estimates and assess the impact of management actions. PMID:24533091

  11. Teen Courts and Law-Related Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, Paula A.

    Teen courts have gained in popularity in the 1990s. These courts include youth courts, peer juries, peer courts, student courts, and other courts using juveniles to determine the sentences of juvenile offenders. The courts issue sentences that are carried out in a school or community setting and generally involve community service, jury duty,…

  12. Teen Court: A National Movement. Technical Assistance Bulletin No. 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, Paula A.

    Teen courts have gained in popularity in the 1990s. These courts include youth courts, peer juries, peer courts, student courts, and other courts using juveniles to determine the sentences of juvenile offenders. The courts issue sentences that are carried out in a school or community setting and generally involve community service, jury duty,…

  13. National Courts and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    rights in the area of freedom, security and justice. The analysis of each is enriched through diverse research methods such as case-law analysis, citation network analysis, interviews, surveys and statistics. With its new legal and empirical assessment covering the newest member states of the EU......This insightful and discerning book offers a fresh discourse on the functioning of national courts as decentralised EU courts and a new thematic for revising some older understandings of how national judges apply EU law. Organised into three key sections, the interdisciplinary chapters combine...... approaches and theories originating from law, political science, sociology and economics. The first section addresses issues relating to judicial dialogue and EU legal mandates, the second looks at the topic of EU law in national courts and the third considers national courts’ roles in protecting fundamental...

  14. Unexpected population genetic structure of European roe deer in Poland: an invasion of the mtDNA genome from Siberian roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosiuk, Maciej; Borkowska, Anetta; Świsłocka, Magdalena; Mirski, Paweł; Borowski, Zbigniew; Krysiuk, Kamil; Danilkin, Aleksey A; Zvychaynaya, Elena Y; Saveljev, Alexander P; Ratkiewicz, Mirosław

    2014-05-01

    Introgressive hybridization is a widespread evolutionary phenomenon which may lead to increased allelic variation at selective neutral loci and to transfer of fitness-related traits to introgressed lineages. We inferred the population genetic structure of the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Poland from mitochondrial (CR and cyt b) and sex-linked markers (ZFX, SRY, DBY4 and DBY8). Analyses of CR mtDNA sequences from 452 individuals indicated widespread introgression of Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus) mtDNA in the European roe deer genome, 2000 km from the current distribution range of C. pygargus. Introgressed individuals constituted 16.6% of the deer studied. Nearly 75% of them possessed haplotypes belonging to the group which arose 23 kyr ago and have not been detected within the natural range of Siberian roe deer, indicating that majority of present introgression has ancient origin. Unlike the mtDNA results, sex-specific markers did not show signs of introgression. Species distribution modelling analyses suggested that C. pygargus could have extended its range as far west as Central Europe after last glacial maximum. The main hybridization event was probably associated with range expansion of the most abundant European roe deer lineage from western refugia and took place in Central Europe after the Younger Dryas (10.8-10.0 ka BP). Initially, introgressed mtDNA variants could have spread out on the wave of expansion through the mechanism of gene surfing, reaching high frequencies in European roe deer populations and leading to observed asymmetrical gene flow. Human-mediated introductions of C. pygargus had minimal effect on the extent of mtDNA introgression. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from northwestern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pato, Francisco J; Panadero, Rosario; Vázquez, Luis; López, Ceferino M; Díaz, Pablo; Vázquez, Esther; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio; Fernández, Gonzalo

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, the seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in roe deer in relation to different parameters in northwestern Spain was investigated. A total of 154 roe deer hunted between April 2007 and October 2008 from different localities of Galicia (northwest Spain) were examined. From each animal, a blood sample and all attached ticks found were collected. All the specimens for tick stages (larva, nymph, and adult) were speciated based on reference keys. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi were detected by indirect immunofluorescence (titer > or = 1:64). The percentage of roe deer seropositive for B. burgdorferi was 68.8% (106/ 154), of which 88.7% (94/106) were parasitized by ticks. Ixodes ricinus was the only species identified and was detected in 83.1% of roe deer with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) intensity of 46 +/- 47 ticks. Individual host characteristics such as age or sex did not have any effect on the prevalence of B. burgdorferi, but significant seasonal variation was observed, with higher prevalences in April-July than in August-October. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi were related to the presence of ticks. When analyzing all the factors together, the total number of ticks parasitizing roe deer was found as the most influential factor on B. burgdorferi prevalence. The results of this study have shown that roe deer in the northwest of Spain are highly exposed to B. burgdorferi and that exposure is related to the presence of I. ricinus.

  16. Determinants of tick-borne encephalitis virus antibody presence in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiffner, C; Vor, T; Hagedorn, P; Niedrig, M; Rühe, F

    2012-03-01

    In order to identify variables associated with the presence of the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus, we conducted a serological survey of roe deer [Capreolus capreolus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae, Linnaeus 1758)] in three forest districts of southern Hesse, Germany. Overall, 24 out of 105 (22.9%) of the sera were positive (≥1 : 10 plaque reduction neutralization test). Using a logistic regression approach, we found that unexplained spatial variation, indexed roe deer density (positive correlation), hind foot length of the tested roe deer (positive correlation) and infestation with female Ixodes spp. ticks (negative correlation) predicted the probability of TBE virus antibody presence in individual roe deer sera. Spring temperature increase and host sex were rejected as explanatory variables. We found considerable differences in TBE virus antibody seroprevalence (50.0% vs. 17.6%) between two forest districts located in the same county; this finding questions the current county-resolution of public health recordings. Given the high seroprevalence of roe deer and the considerable explanatory power of our model, our approach appears suitable to delineate science-based risk maps at a smaller spatial scale and to abandon the current human incidence per county criterion. Importantly, using roe deer as sentinels would eliminate the inherent bias of risk maps based on human incidence (varying levels of immunization and exposure of humans). © 2011 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

  17. Recovery of serine protease inhibitor from fish roes by polyethylene glycol precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ji Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The fractionation of serine protease inhibitor (SPI from fish roe extracts was carried out using polyethylene glycol-4000 (PEG4000 precipitation. The protease inhibitory activity of extracts and PEG fractions from Alaska pollock (AP, bastard halibut (BH, skipjack tuna (ST, and yellowfin tuna (YT roes were determined against target proteases. All of the roe extracts showed inhibitory activity toward bromelain (BR, chymotrypsin (CH, trypsin (TR, papain-EDTA (PED, and alcalase (AL as target proteases. PEG fractions, which have positive inhibitory activity and high recovery (%, were the PEG1 fraction (0–5 %, w/v against cysteine proteases (BR and PA and the PEG4 fraction (20–40 %, w/v against serine proteases (CH and TR. The strongest specific inhibitory activity toward CH and TR of PEG4 fractions was AP (9278 and 1170 U/mg followed by ST (6687 and 2064 U/mg, YT (3951 and 1536 U/mg, and BH (538 and 98 U/mg. The inhibitory activity of serine protease in extracts and PEG fractions from fish roe was stronger than that of cysteine protease toward common casein substrate. Therefore, SPI is mainly distributed in fish roe and PEG fractionation effectively isolated the SPI from fish roes.

  18. Connectivity , Corridors and S tepping S tones: Conservation Implications of Roe Deer Distribution on the Eastern S teppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Olson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Information was collected on roe deer ( Capreolus pygargus distribution on the Eastern S teppe of Mongolia from 2000 to 2003. During this period, 65 roe deer were observed. Roe Deer were distributed throughout the Eastern S teppe region, but all sightings occurred in or adjacent to small woodland patches or riparian woodland. These woodland patches and riparian woodlands are likely to be critical roe deer habitat on the otherwise open grasslands of eastern Mongolia. From a management perspective, roe deer can function as an ecological focal species for preservation of these habitats, and conservation of roe deer and their woodlands can conserve a suite of other species also dependent upon this habitat and thus help conserve the biodiversity of Mongolia’ s Eastern S teppe.

  19. Hydrology and Ecology Go to Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, W. R.; Crisman, T. L.

    2009-04-01

    The authors were involved in a high profile case in the United States District Court involving Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades Agricultural Area in the State of Florida. One of the central issues of the case rested on a theory that all navigable waters of the United States comprised one "unitary" water body, and as such, transfer of water from one navigable water to another did not require any permitting action. Should this theory have prevailed, great precedent would be set regarding inter-basin transfer of volumes of water capable of significantly impact to the ecologic structure and function of all involved basins. Furthermore, the impact would certainly have had demographic implications of great significance. We were asked to serve as an expert witnesses in the case charged with developing a strategy to demonstrate that three large irrigation canals were "meaningfully hydrologically distinct" (language from the U.S. Supreme Court opinion on a related case) from Lake Okeechobee, the second largest freshwater lake wholly in the continental U.S. Although a totally hydrologic approach could have been taken easily, it was thought better for the legal team to include an aquatic ecologic perspective, a true example of the linkage of the two disciplines into ecohydrology. Together, an argument was crafted to explain to the judge how, in fact, the waters could in no way be "unitary" in character and that they were "meaningfully hydrologically distinct." The fundamentals of the arguments rested on well known and established principles of physics, chemistry, and biology. It was incumbent upon the authors to educate the judge on how to think about hydrologic and ecologic principles. Issues of interest to the judge included a forensic assessment of the hydrologic and ecologic regime of the lake and the original Everglades system when the State of Florida first joined the U.S. While there are anecdotal archives that describe some elements of the system, there are few

  20. Proceedings of the 39. Science week of the Supreme Council of Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These publications include the papers presented at the 39th science week of the Supreme Council of Sciences, held in Damascus (Syria) from 7-11 November 1999. This proceeding is published in five books covering basic and applied sciences

  1. Large impact of Eurasian lynx predation on roe deer population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén, Henrik; Liberg, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear) and Type II (non-linear) functional responses) and of season (winter, summer) on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was λ = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E.), while after lynx re-colonization it was λ = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.). Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by Δλ = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E.) after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E.), suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system.

  2. Large impact of Eurasian lynx predation on roe deer population dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Andrén

    Full Text Available The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear and Type II (non-linear functional responses and of season (winter, summer on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was λ = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E., while after lynx re-colonization it was λ = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.. Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by Δλ = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E. after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E., suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system.

  3. Freer markets, more court rulings?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrand, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The governance of economic sectors in Europe has over the past decades been characterized by several important shifts. Two of the most notable shifts are those from state to market governance and from state to court governance. The first shift is the result of a coherent set of policies that have

  4. Juvenile Courts. Creation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat GONZÁLEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the creation of Juvenile or Children's Courts in Spain, analysing their reasons and aims, as well as the ethical and political connotations present on their way of acting. Their history and the one of the institutions that complement them is built from the legislation, writings and ideas of their promoters.

  5. Pragmatics in Court Interpreting: Additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    Danish court interpreters are expected to follow ethical guidelines, which instruct them to deliver exact verbatim versions of source texts. However, this requirement often clashes with the reality of the interpreting situation in the courtroom. This paper presents and discusses the findings...

  6. A randomized equivalence trial comparing the i-gel and laryngeal mask airway Supreme in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Narasimhan; Sommers, Katherine; Sohn, Lisa E; Sawardekar, Amod; Shah, Ravi D; Mukherji, Isabella I; Miller, Steven; Voronov, Polina; Seraphin, Sally

    2013-02-01

    The laryngeal mask airway Supreme (Supreme) is a new single-use supraglottic device with gastric access capability now available in all sizes for children. To compare the i-gel with the Supreme in children for routine airway maintenance. One hundred and seventy children, aged 3 months to 11 years, 5-50 kg in weight, were randomly assigned to receive either the i-gel or the Supreme. The primary outcome measured was airway leak pressure. Secondary outcomes included the following: ease and time for insertion, insertion success rate, fiberoptic grade of view, ease of gastric tube placement, number of airway manipulations, quality of airway during anesthetic maintenance, and complications. A total of 168 patients were assessed for the outcomes. The median (IQR [range]) airway leak pressure for the i-gel was higher than with the Supreme, 20 (18-25 [9-40]) cm H(2)O vs 17 (14-22 [10-40]) cm H(2)O, respectively (P = 0.001). There were no differences in the time for device insertion, fiberoptic grade of view, quality of airway, and complications. Median (IQR[range]) time of successful insertion of a gastric tube was faster with the Supreme, 12 (9.2-14.3 [5.2-44.2]) s than with the i-gel, 14 (11.9-19 [6.9-75]) s; P = 0.01. The number of airway manipulations during placement was higher with the i-gel than with the laryngeal mask airway Supreme (12 vs 13 patients), P = 0.02. In infants and children, when a single-use supraglottic device with gastric access capabilities is required, the i-gel demonstrated higher airway leak pressures and can be a useful alternative to the Supreme. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Court decisions on medical malpractice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaak, Jan-Paul; Parzeller, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies on court cases dealing with medical malpractice are few and far between. This retrospective study, therefore, undertakes an analysis of medical malpractice lawsuits brought before regional courts in two judicial districts of the federal state of Hesse. Over a 5-year period (2006-2010), 232 court decisions on medical malpractice taken by the regional courts (Landgericht) of Kassel and Marburg were evaluated according to medical discipline, diagnosis, therapy, relevant level of care, charge of neglect of duty by the claimant party, outcome of the lawsuit, and further criteria. With certain overlaps, the disciplines most frequently confronted with claims of medical malpractice were accident surgery and orthopedics (30.2%; n = 70), dentistry (16.4%; n = 38), surgery (12.1%; n = 28), and gynecology and obstetrics (7.8%; n = 18), followed by the remaining medical disciplines (38.8%; n = 90). Malpractice allegations were brought against the practice-based sector in 35.8 % (n = 83) of cases, the hospital-based sector in 63.3% (n = 147) of cases, and other sectors in 0.9% (n = 2) of cases. The allegation grounds included false administration of treatment (67.2%; n = 156), false indication of treatment (37.1%; n = 86), false diagnosis (31.5%; n = 73), and/or organizational negligence (13.8%; n = 32). A breach of duty to inform was given as grounds for the claim in 38.8% (n = 90) of cases. A significant majority of 65.6% (n = 152) of cases ended in a court settlement. Of the cases, 18.9% (n = 44) were concluded by claim withdrawal, 11.2% (n = 26) by claim dismissal and 2.6% (n = 6) by criminal sentence. Of the cases, 1.7% (n = 4) were for purposes of securing evidence. Although there was no conclusive evidence of malpractice, two thirds of the cases ended in a court settlement. On the one hand, this outcome reduces the burden on the courts, but on the other, it can in the long term give

  8. Opteren voor de Netherlands Commercial Court

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeben, J.; Keirse, A.L.M.; Reijneveld, M.D.

    Internationale contracten leiden tot internationale handelsgeschillen. Deze kunnen onder meer worden beslecht bij een commercial court. In Nederland wordt momenteel een Netherlands Commercial Court (NCC) opgericht. Dit introduceert een keuze voor (contracts)partijen voor een nieuw forum voor

  9. Co-infection and genetic diversity of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Werszko, Joanna; Cydzik, Krystian; Bajer, Anna; Michalik, Jerzy; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2013-05-01

    Wild species are essential hosts for maintaining Ixodes ticks and the tick-borne diseases. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence, the rate of co-infection with Babesia, Bartonella, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and the molecular diversity of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer in Poland. Almost half of the tested samples provided evidence of infection with at least 1 species. A. phagocytophilum (37.3%) was the most common and Bartonella (13.4%) the rarest infection. A total of 18.3% of all positive samples from roe deer were infected with at least 2 pathogens, and one-third of those were co-infected with A. phagocytophilum, Bartonella, and Babesia species. On the basis of multilocus molecular studies we conclude that: (1) Two different genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum, zoonotic and nonzoonotic, are widely distributed in Polish roe deer population; (2) the roe deer is the host for zoonotic Babesia (Bab. venatorum, Bab. divergens), closely related or identical with strains/species found in humans; (3) our Bab. capreoli and Bab. divergens isolates differed from reported genotypes at 2 conserved base positions, i.e., positions 631 and 663; and (4) this is the first description of Bart. schoenbuchensis infections in roe deer in Poland. We present 1 of the first complex epidemiological studies on the prevalence of Babesia, Bartonella, and A. phagocytophilum in naturally infected populations of roe deer. These game animals clearly have an important role as reservoir hosts of tick-borne pathogens, but the pathogenicity and zoonotic potential of the parasite genotypes hosted by roe deer requires further detailed investigation.

  10. The Courts and the News Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickerell, Albert G.; Lipman, Michel

    This book is intended to provide reporters who cover court proceedings with a basic knowledge of the organization of California's courts and of the procedures they follow. It contains: material about court organization and jurisdiction, pretrial civil procedure, pretrial criminal procedure, and civil and criminal trial procedure; a legal…

  11. The Court in the Homeric Epos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginov, Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    The research investigates the court system in Homeric Greece. This period was characterized by a declining culture and scarce works that described those times. Hence, the court procedures of those times remains understudied; therefore, the purpose of this research is to reconstruct theoretically the court procedure in Homeric Greece. Homer's and…

  12. Roe v. Abortion Abolition Society, 9 March 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The plaintiffs, two patients, two physicians, a clinic providing abortion services, members of its staff, and an escort service, sought to bring a class action against an anti-abortion society and its members under the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871, which prohibits private conspiracies to deprive persons or classes of persons of the equal protection of the laws or of equal privileges and immunities under the laws. They claimed that the defendants had harassed, intimidated, and assaulted them. The Court held that the plaintiffs did not constitute a class for purposes of the statute because holding similar religious views on abortion was not sufficient to meet the common characteristics requirement of a class. The Court, however, allowed class action suits based on different statutory provisions to continue against several municipalities for failure to protect the plaintiffs' rights against the society and its members. full text

  13. Right-to-die debate continues in legislatures and courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Although right-to-die initiatives have failed in Washington and California in recent years, the issue will resurface in Ohio and New Hampshire later this year. In a Gannett News Service article published in the April 12 Chicago Sun-Times, Ross Goldstein, a San Francisco psychologist and "trend tracker," states that physician-assisted suicide will soon become accepted. He predicts a new form of doctor/manager will surface to help families decide whether to take this step and how to do so. "Baby boomers don't turn over authority to their doctors," he says. "When they reach the end state, they will expect to be part of the decision-making team." For now, the debate centers around individual cases and two different approaches, as exemplified by two different proponents. On the one hand is Jack Kevorkian, who envisions a network of death doctors or "obitiatrists" practicing "medicine." On the other is Timothy Quill, who calls for more humane care for the dying and the legalization of physician-assisted suicide, but with strict guidelines and in the confines of a long-term doctor-patient relationship. The following articles look at reactions in Michigan toward Kevorkian and at a case in British Columbia that may reach the Supreme Court of Canada.

  14. GHL Comfort Hotel Los Héroes. Historia Empresarial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Álvarez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available En un contexto administrativo, la historia empresarial marca la presencia de un lenguaje en donde se procede a describir, explicar y evaluar la toma de decisiones en el ambiente empresarial. Esta toma de decisiones se convierte entonces en una política, que tomará como base el entorno en el cual se desenvuelve. Es así que resulta imprescindible el comportamiento a nivel interno y externo de la organización, de esta manera se evalúa qué papel juega el control administrativo en la producción, el bienestar y desarrollo no sólo de la empresa, sino además de su personal. En este artículo estableceremos la importancia del análisis y descripción de los procesos claves de éxito que se realizan puntualmente en GHL comfort hotel los héroes, organización que se ha mantenido en el mercado y en su corta vida ha logrando no sólo un posicionamiento, sino además ser una empresa estable e innovadora.

  15. The Special Court for Sierra Leone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this article is the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the extent to which it can be said that the Special Court has already challenged, or will, in the future, challenge the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. In this regard, an analysis is undertaken of the Special Court......'s Statute, Rules of Procedure and Evidence and practice to date, in order to determine its treatment of gender-based crimes and whether it can be said that the Special Court for Sierra Leone challenges the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. Udgivelsesdato: december 2004...

  16. Cures for the shock instability: Development of a shock-stable Roe scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, S S; Rho, O H; Kyu-Hong, S

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of an improved Roe scheme that is free from the shock instability and still preserves the accuracy and efficiency of the original Roe's Flux Difference Splitting (FDS). Roe's FDS is known to possess good accuracy but to suffer from the shock instability, such as the carbuncle phenomenon. As the first step towards a shock-stable scheme, Roe's FDS is compared with the HLLE scheme to identify the source of the shock instability. Through a linear perturbation analysis on the odd-even decoupling problem, damping characteristic is examined and Mach number-based functions f and g are introduced to balance damping and feeding rates, which leads to a shock-stable Roe scheme. In order to satisfy the conservation of total enthalpy, which is crucial in predicting surface heat transfer rate in high-speed steady flows, an analysis of dissipation mechanism in the energy equation is carried out to find out the error source and to make the proposed scheme preserve total enthalpy. By modif...

  17. Cephenemyiosis, an emergent myiasis in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from northwestern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol, Arias María; Gerardo, Pajares; Natividad, Díez-Baños; Ana, Pérez-Creo; Alberto, Prieto; Pablo, Díez-Baños; Patrocinio, Morrondo

    2016-12-01

    Cephenemyia stimulator larvae cause a specific myiasis in roe deer, which is widely distributed in Europe. In Spain, this parasite was detected by the first time in 2005, coinciding with a high mortality of this ruminant especially in northwest of the country. The aim of this study was to analyse the results obtained by necropsy and ELISA to elucidate when the first infestation by C. stimulator in roe deer from northwestern Spain occurred, as well as to determine the influence of some intrinsic factors on the prevalence and intensity of infestation. During 1994-2000, none seropositive roe deer was observed by ELISA. However, from 2007 to 2014, 38 % of animals were seropositive. The results of the necropsy pointed that prevalence and intensity of infestation had increased over the years. There was a positive and significant correlation between the number of animals harbouring C. stimulator larvae and seroprevalence values. This significant correlation was also observed between the seroprevalence and mean intensity of infestation. Adult roe deer showed higher prevalence and intensity of infestation than younger reaching statistical significance. It is also detected that the prevalence of infestation was significantly higher in males than in females although the mean number of larvae found in females were higher than in males. The combined use of direct and indirect techniques demonstrated a high prevalence of C. stimulator infestation in roe deer in the northwest of Spain, which certainly highlights the importance of this myiasis during the last years.

  18. Molecular detection of Babesia capreoli and Babesia venatorum in wild Swedish roe deer, Capreolus capreolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin O; Bergvall, Ulrika A; Chirico, Jan; Christensson, Madeleine; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Nordström, Jonas; Kjellander, Petter

    2016-04-19

    The epidemiology of the zoonotic tick-transmitted parasite Babesia spp. and its occurrence in wild reservoir hosts in Sweden is unclear. In European deer, several parasite species, including Babesia capreoli and the zoonotic B. venatorum and B. divergens has been reported previously. The European roe deer, Capreolus capreolus, is an important and common part of the indigenous fauna in Europe, as well as an important host for Ixodes ricinus ticks, the vector of several Babesia spp. in Europe. Here, we aimed to investigate the occurrence of Babesia spp. in roe deer in Sweden. Roe deer (n = 77) were caught and sampled for blood. Babesia spp. was detected with a PCR assay targeting the 18S rRNA gene. The prevalence of Babesia spp. was 52%, and two species were detected; B. capreoli and B. venatorum in 44 and 7.8% of the individuals, respectively. Infection occurred both in summer and winter. We showed that roe deer in Sweden, close to the edge of their northern inland distributional range, are infected with Babesia spp. The occurrence of B. venatorum in roe deer imply that it is established in Sweden and the zoonotic implication of this finding should be regarded to a greater extent in future.

  19. Allergen analysis of sea urchin roe using sera from five patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Kondo, Yasuto; Inuo, Chisato; Nakajima, Yoichi; Tsuge, Ikuya; Doi, Satoru; Yanagihara, Shigeto; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Urisu, Atsuo

    2014-01-01

    Sea urchin roe can cause anaphylactic reactions the first time they are consumed; therefore, careful clinical attention should be paid to their effects. However, no previous study has examined the allergens in sea urchin roe using sera from more than one patient. We attempted to identify sea urchin allergens using sera from 5 patients with sea urchin allergies. We enrolled 5 patients with relevant medical histories, positive results on a skin prick test and/or a food challenge test, and high levels of sea urchin-specific IgE in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We performed SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting, immunoblot inhibition, and N-terminal amino acid sequence detection. Ten protein bands ranging from 18 to 170 kDa were detected in more than 2 patients' sera. In immunoblotting, the protein band for the 170-kDa major yolk protein was recognized by 4 of the 5 sera. Furthermore, the reaction between IgE and the protein band for egg cortical vesicle protein (18 kDa) was inhibited by the addition of salmon roe extract. Major yolk protein was confirmed to be one of the main allergens in sea urchin roe. In addition, egg cortical vesicle protein (18 kDa) was demonstrated to be an important protein for cross-reactivity with salmon roe. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. When courts intervene: public health, legal and ethical issues surrounding HIV, pregnant women, and newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessmer-Tuck, Jennifer A; Poku, Joseph K; Burkle, Christopher M

    2014-11-01

    Ninety-three percent of pediatric AIDS cases are the result of perinatal HIV transmission, a disease that is almost entirely preventable with early intervention, which reduces the risk of perinatal HIV infection from 25% to treatment, public health, legal, and ethical dilemmas can result. Federal courts consistently uphold a woman's right to refuse medical testing and treatment, even though it may benefit her fetus/newborn infant. Federal courts also reliably respect the rights of parents to make health care decisions for their newborn infants, which may include declining medical testing and treatment. Confusing the issue of HIV testing and treatment, however, is the fact that there is no definitive United States Supreme Court ruling on the issue. State laws and standards vary widely and serve as guiding principles for practicing clinicians, who must be vigilant of ongoing legal challenges and changes in the states in which they practice. We present a case of an HIV-positive pregnant woman who declined treatment and then testing or treatment of her newborn infant. Ultimately, the legal system intervened. Given the rarity of such cases, we use this as a primer for the practicing clinician to highlight the public health, legal, and ethical issues surrounding prenatal and newborn infant HIV testing and treatment in the United States, including summarizing key state-to-state regulatory differences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear fuel tax in court

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leidinger, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Besides the 'Nuclear Energy Moratorium' (temporary shutdown of eight nuclear power plants after the Fukushima incident) and the legally decreed 'Nuclear Energy Phase-Out' (by the 13th AtG-amendment), also the legality of the nuclear fuel tax is being challenged in court. After receiving urgent legal proposals from 5 nuclear power plant operators, the Hamburg fiscal court (4V 154/13) temporarily obliged on 14 April 2014 respective main customs offices through 27 decisions to reimburse 2.2 b. Euro nuclear fuel tax to the operating companies. In all respects a remarkable process. It is not in favour of cleverness to impose a political target even accepting immense constitutional and union law risks. Taxation 'at any price' is neither a statement of state sovereignty nor one for a sound fiscal policy. Early and serious warnings of constitutional experts and specialists in the field of tax law with regard to the nuclear fuel tax were not lacking. (orig.)

  2. Abortion and Social Change in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Robert; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Recently collected data from a survey of the attitudes of 1,843 elite members of both traditional and new institutions towards abortion indicate that, barring a major religious revival, a relatively permissive abortion policy will probably continue whether or not the Supreme Court curtails or overturns Roe vs. Wade. (FMW)

  3. Monitoring volatile and nonvolatile amines in dried and salted roes of tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.) during manufacture and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periago, M J; Rodrigo, J; Ros, G; Rodríguez-Jérez, J J; Hernández-Herrero, M

    2003-02-01

    Dried and salted roe, obtained from the reproductive organs of female tuna (Thunnus tynnus L.), is a typical fish-based food in the Mediterranean area of Spain. In the present study, we monitored the formation of volatile amines (trimethyamine nitrogen [TMA-N] and total basic volatile nitrogen [TBVN]) and nonvolatile amines (biogenic amines) in dried and salted tuna roe after processing and storage for 8 weeks at 4, 20, and 30 degrees C. The salting and drying process significantly increased the TBVN, cadaverine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, and tryptamine contents, and bacteria with histamine decarboxylase activity were detected both in raw and in dried and salted tuna roes. During storage of tuna roe, TMA-N and TBVN levels increased significantly after the fourth week of storage at 30 degrees C, whereas biogenic amine contents remained more or less constant. However, samples stored at 30 degrees C showed histamine formation after the first week of storage, with a concentration of < 50 ppm. The volatile and nonvolatile amine concentrations in tuna roe were below the consumer safety limit, with the exception of the total biogenic amine level in roe stored at 30 degrees C, which exceeded the European Community's recommended limit (300 ppm). These results indicate that in properly stored tuna roe, histamine formation will not represent a serious health risk to consumers unless the tuna roe has previously been mishandled.

  4. Seasonal variation of activity patterns in roe deer in a temperate forested area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagon, Nives; Grignolio, Stefano; Pipia, Anna; Bongi, Paolo; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Apollonio, Marco

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the activity patterns of a European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) population living in a forested Apennine area in central Italy, in order to shed light on the environmental and biological factors that were expected to account for the observed activity patterns on daily and yearly bases. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of 31 radio-collared roe deer were assessed through sessions of radio tracking for a total period of 18 consecutive months. Roe deer showed bimodal activity patterns throughout the year, with the two highest peaks of activity recorded at dawn and dusk. Activity patterns of males and females differed during the territorial period (from early spring to late summer), whereas they did not during the nonterritorial period. Most likely, behavioral thermoregulation can be held responsible for variation of daily activity patterns in different seasons. In winter, for instance, activity during the dawn period was significantly higher than in other seasons and daylight activity was significantly higher than at night. Nocturnal activity was highest in summer and lowest in winter. During the hunting season, moreover, roe deer showed lower activity levels than during the rest of the year. The prediction that roe deer would show lower activity levels during full moon nights, when the predation risk was assumed to be higher, was not confirmed by our data. Activity rhythms in roe deer were thus subjected to both endogenous and environmental factors, the latter working as exogenous synchronization cues. Accordingly, in changing environmental and ecological conditions, a circadian cycle of activity could be seen as the result of complex interactions among daily behavioral rhythm, digestive physiology, and external modifying factors.

  5. The Court of Justice as an inter-state court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2017-01-01

    law obligations, whereas Article 273 TFEU concerns asking the Court to be an adjudicator for inter-state disputes stemming from a bilateral or multilateral arrangement that relates to the subject matters of the treaties. Use of both instruments for inter-state litigation has historically been limited......, demonstrating the strong self-contained regime of law that the Union has built and developed. This article delves into the two inter-state dispute resolution instruments that are within the primary law framework of the European Union, and analyses to what extent inter-state disputes between EU Member States can...

  6. Phospholipids composition and molecular species of large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea ) roe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Peng; Li, Ruifen; Sun, He

    2018-01-01

    to analyze and identify the PLs fatty acids compositions and classes in the P. crocea roe, respectively. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) account for 35.0% and 6.9% of the PLs. Phosphatidylcholines (PC), lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE......-Q-TOF-MS). A total of 92 PLs molecular species was identified, including 49 PCs, 13 PEs, 10 phosphatidic acids (PAs), 13 phosphatidylserines (PSs), 3 phosphatidylglycerols (PGs), 2 sphingomyelins (SMs), and 2 PIs of the P. crocea roe....

  7. Radiocaesium levels in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tataruch, F.; Klansek, E.; Schoenhofer, F.

    1996-01-01

    A report is given on the course of radiocaesium contamination in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria. In autumn 1987 and winter 1987/88 radiocaesium levels rose to values higher than those recorded in 1986 in these regions. The reason for this increase was the very specific feeding selection of roe deer in these forest areas resulting in the ingestion of an unusual high amount of blueberries, ferns and mushrooms. An explanation for the changes of wild boar's contamination has not been found yet, but possible reasons are discussed. (author)

  8. Is there adaptation of the exocrine pancreas in wild animal? The case of the Roe Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilloteau Paul

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiology of the exocrine pancreas has been well studied in domestic and in laboratory animals as well as in humans. However, it remains quite unknown in wildlife mammals. Roe deer and cattle (including calf belong to different families but have a common ancestor. This work aimed to evaluate in the Roe deer, the adaptation to diet of the exocrine pancreatic functions and regulations related to animal evolution and domestication. Results Forty bovine were distributed into 2 groups of animals either fed exclusively with a milk formula (monogastric or fed a dry feed which allowed for rumen function to develop, they were slaughtered at 150 days of age. The 35 Roe deer were wild animals living in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, shot during the hunting season and classified in two groups adult and young. Immediately after death, the pancreas was removed for tissue sample collection and then analyzed. When expressed in relation to body weight, pancreas, pancreatic protein weights and enzyme activities measured were higher in Roe deer than in calf. The 1st original feature is that in Roe deer, the very high content in pancreatic enzymes seems to be related to specific digestive products observed (proline-rich proteins largely secreted in saliva which bind tannins, reducing their deleterious effects on protein digestion. The high chymotrypsin and elastase II quantities could allow recycling of proline-rich proteins. In contrast, domestication and rearing cattle resulted in simplified diet with well digestible components. The 2nd feature is that in wild animal, both receptor subtypes of the CCK/gastrin family peptides were present in the pancreas as in calf, although CCK-2 receptor subtype was previously identified in higher mammals. Conclusions Bovine species could have lost some digestive capabilities (no ingestion of great amounts of tannin-rich plants, capabilities to secrete high amounts of proline-rich proteins

  9. Food safety aspects of primary environmental contaminants in the edible tissues of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehel, József; Zwillinger, Dóra; Bartha, András; Lányi, Katalin; Laczay, Péter

    2017-11-01

    The muscle, liver, kidney and fat samples of 20 roe deer of both sexes originating from a hunting area in central Hungary were investigated for the presence of heavy metals such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb, and their contents were evaluated for possible health risk to consumers. Both As and Hg were found at a level below the limit of detection (roe deer could be objectionable from food-toxicological point of view and may pose risk to the high consumers of wild game due to their cadmium and lead contents.

  10. Is there adaptation of the exocrine pancreas in wild animal? The case of the Roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilloteau, Paul; Vitari, Francesca; Metzinger-Le Meuth, Valérie; Le Normand, Laurence; Romé, Véronique; Savary, Gérard; Delaby, Luc; Domeneghini, Cinzia; Morisset, Jean

    2012-05-28

    Physiology of the exocrine pancreas has been well studied in domestic and in laboratory animals as well as in humans. However, it remains quite unknown in wildlife mammals. Roe deer and cattle (including calf) belong to different families but have a common ancestor. This work aimed to evaluate in the Roe deer, the adaptation to diet of the exocrine pancreatic functions and regulations related to animal evolution and domestication. Forty bovine were distributed into 2 groups of animals either fed exclusively with a milk formula (monogastric) or fed a dry feed which allowed for rumen function to develop, they were slaughtered at 150 days of age. The 35 Roe deer were wild animals living in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, shot during the hunting season and classified in two groups adult and young. Immediately after death, the pancreas was removed for tissue sample collection and then analyzed. When expressed in relation to body weight, pancreas, pancreatic protein weights and enzyme activities measured were higher in Roe deer than in calf. The 1st original feature is that in Roe deer, the very high content in pancreatic enzymes seems to be related to specific digestive products observed (proline-rich proteins largely secreted in saliva) which bind tannins, reducing their deleterious effects on protein digestion. The high chymotrypsin and elastase II quantities could allow recycling of proline-rich proteins. In contrast, domestication and rearing cattle resulted in simplified diet with well digestible components. The 2nd feature is that in wild animal, both receptor subtypes of the CCK/gastrin family peptides were present in the pancreas as in calf, although CCK-2 receptor subtype was previously identified in higher mammals. Bovine species could have lost some digestive capabilities (no ingestion of great amounts of tannin-rich plants, capabilities to secrete high amounts of proline-rich proteins) compared with Roe deer species. CCK and gastrin could play

  11. Mushroom spores and 137Cs in faeces of the roe deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, M.; Knudsen, H.

    1994-01-01

    Levels of 137 Cs in meat, faeces and feed of Danish roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) were studied. Faecal samples were studied in the microscope for the occurrence of fungal spores. The 137 Cs levels in collections of meat and faeces indicated that the food selection of the roe deer changes in the autumn towards a more caesium rich menu. The 137 Cs levels in some of the faecal samples were so high that they could only be explained by the ingestion of a very caesium rich feed, like mushrooms. (Author)

  12. International organizations before national courts

    CERN Document Server

    Reinisch, August

    2000-01-01

    This book presents a radical, empirical investigation of how national courts "react" to disputes involving international organizations, analyzing in particular whether such organizations should be immune to national jurisdictions. Under the headings "domestic legal personality" and "immunity" of international organizations, some of the issues covered have already been treated in international legal scholarship, mostly in the form of short articles or case notes. This study, however, provides a thorough comparative analysis and the largest compilation of relevant decisions on the subject, making it indispensable for practitioners as well as academics in the field.

  13. International Justice through Domestic Courts:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi Shin

    2015-01-01

    of Human Rights immediately followed with an opposing view in the Araguaia case, declaring that the amnesty law lacks effect under the American Convention on Human Rights. Brazilian society now faces an unprecedented challenge: can it expect its domestic courts to implement such international obligations......? Drawing upon the prospects that a renewed STF may revisit the case in response to the mounting pressures of Araguaia, this article examines the complex legal issues that remain around the enforceability of international justice under Brazil’s constitutional framework. The analysis suggests that different...

  14. National Sovereignty and the International Criminal Court

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boland, Donald

    1999-01-01

    ...: genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. However, as written, the statute creating the court reduces the sovereignty of nations in its pursuit of protecting international human rights...

  15. Unwrapping Court-Connected Mediation Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Lin; Mykland, Solfrid

    2018-01-01

    Court-connected mediated agreements seem to both fulfil and fail the ideal of self-determination in mediation theory. In a study of 134 agreements from court-connected mediation, we found that the majority of agreements contain creative elements and display great variation in the provisions...... and understand them. The judicial language is well known for the drafters of the agreement but not the parties. Thus, court-connected mediation seems to fail aspects of self-determination when it comes to drafting agreements. We draw on new-institutional theory when we explore and explain this apparent...... contradiction within the court-connected mediation practice....

  16. The Special Court for Sierra Leone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    2004-01-01

    's Statute, Rules of Procedure and Evidence and practice to date, in order to determine its treatment of gender-based crimes and whether it can be said that the Special Court for Sierra Leone challenges the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. Udgivelsesdato: december 2004......The focus of this article is the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the extent to which it can be said that the Special Court has already challenged, or will, in the future, challenge the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. In this regard, an analysis is undertaken of the Special Court...

  17. Importance of court practice review in Russian arbitration (commercial) court proceedings

    OpenAIRE

    Solovyev, A.

    2013-01-01

    The article concerns the matters of court practice review in terms of participation in arbitration (commercial) court proceedings. The author gives general description of the system of the arbitration courts administering business and economic justice in the Russian Federation, covered the key areas and worked out the practical recommendations concerning the focal points of arranging the appropriate work in respect of review of law enforcement practice of such courts.

  18. [Science and law in courts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallacchini, Mariachiara

    2014-01-01

    Science and law can be seen as the main creators of orders and rules in knowledge-based societies. These relations are particularly delicate in domains where scientific uncertainty and probabilistic causality are more frequently involved, such as environment and health. The decision of the Court of Florence (Tuscany Region, Northern Italy) (Second Criminal Division, 3217/2010, 17th May 2010) - here analysed - deals with the uncertain correlations between PM10 and health. The criminal law case involved some public officers in Tuscany, indicted for having failed to adopt the adequate measures to keep PM10 levels within the limits set by European Directive 2008/50/EC on air quality. In arguing that accusations were ill-founded, the Court, while invoking the validity of science, deliberately chose the scientific evidence relevant to drawing specific legal consequences. Meteorological phenomena are considered as the single determinant of high levels of PM10; their uncertainty is framed as absolute unpredictability and ungovernability, and from these flaws non-responsibility. The concept of coproduction is applied as a useful critical tool to open up the complex relationships between science and law by showing how scientific and legal concepts generate and influence each other even when legal regulations claims to be neutrally and objectively science-based.

  19. Victimological aspects of court judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bačanović Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the review of the results of the research: „Analysis of judgments form the victimological aspect“ of the Basic court Skopje I in Skopje. It is the first research of it’s kind in the Republic of Macedonia, conducted by the project team of the Faculty of Security in Skopje in the period from January to April 2011. By using the content analysis (for this purpose a special instrument was developed 172 irrevocable court judgment brought in the period 2005-2010 were analyzed, for the following criminal offences: murder, crimes against sexual freedom and sexual morality (sexual assault, severe bodily injuries and insult. The aim of the research was to highlight the victimological dimensions of mentioned criminal offences, while special attention was paid to the role of a victim in a crime, victim‘ s interaction with the perpetrator, individual characteristics of the victim, as well as the characteristics of the time when and the space where the crime occurred.

  20. Reconstruction of the putative cervidae ancestral karyotype by chromosome painting of Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) with dromedary probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dementyeva, P V; Trifonov, V A; Kulemzina, A I; Graphodatsky, A S

    2010-06-01

    The Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) is one of a few deer species presumably preserving the ancestral cervid karyotype. The comparative genomic data of the Siberian roe deer are critical for our understanding of the karyotypic relationships within artiodactyls. We have established chromosomal homologies between the Siberian roe deer and the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) by cross-species chromosome painting with dromedary chromosome-specific painting probes. Dromedary chromosome paints detected 53 autosomal homologies in the genome of the Siberian roe deer. The identification of chromosomal homologies between the Siberian roe deer and cattle resulted from previously detected cattle-dromedary homologies. We have found 8 chromosomal rearrangements (6 fissions in the Siberian roe deer, 1 fission in the cattle and 1 inversion on the CPY11) that have separated the karyotypes of the cattle and the Siberian roe deer. The inversion on CPY11 might be an apomorphic trait of cervids, since we detected its presence in the gray brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira). Thus our data further prove the scenario of chromosomal rearrangements that was previously proposed and add some new data. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. An Exploration of Treatment and Supervision Intensity among Drug Court and Non-Drug Court Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Christine H.; Krebs, Christopher P.; Warner, Tara D.; Lattimore, Pamela K.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that drug court programs appear effective in reducing the substance use and recidivism of drug-involved offenders. As there is no single drug court model, programs vary from site to site and the extent to which individual programs are fully implemented is not well documented. The extent to which drug court programs deliver…

  2. Radiocaesium transfer to man from moose and roe deer in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, Karl J.; Bergstroem, R.

    1994-01-01

    Studies of radiocaesium in the forest ecosystems in Sweden resulted in aggregated transfer factors quantified for the transfer of 137 Cs from soil to moose and roe deer. These aggregated transfer factors were 0.02 m 2 kg -1 for moose and 0.05 m 2 kg -1 for roe deer. There seems to be no decrease in the 137 Cs activity concentrations in moose harvested in our research area and therefore we suggest the use of the physical half-life of 137 Cs (30 years) as the effective ecological half-life. The time-integrated transfer of 137 Cs from the Chernobyl fall-out to man by moose in Sweden was calculated and found to be 115 GBq, corresponding to 1500 man Sv for moose. The time-integrated transfer by roe deer to man was estimated to be between 25-48 GBq, corresponding to 327-620 man Sv for roe deer. The annual transfer of 137 Cs to man by moose has varied between 2.0-2.7 GBq, corresponding to 27-34 man Sv. Depending on the group studied, the mean annual transfer of 137 Cs can be calculated to be from about 250 to 43'000 Bq. For example, the mean annual transfer of 137 Cs by moose to hunters and their families in Gaevle commune, the most affected commune in Sweden, was estimated to be about 26'000 Bq, corresponding to 0.34 mSv

  3. Existing theories do not explain sex ratio variation at birth in monomorphic roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, S.J.; Breukelen, van L.; Wieren, van S.E.

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of skewed sex ratios at birth has been reported in many ungulate species. So far, no consistent trend has emerged for roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), because male-biased, female-biased and equal sex ratios at birth have all been found. Nevertheless, both the Trivers-Willard hypothesis

  4. Selection of bed-sites by roe deer Capreolus capreolus fawns in a boreal landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnell, J.D.C.; Nijhuis, P.G.T.; Teurlings, I.J.M.; Andersen, R.

    1999-01-01

    Bed-site selection by 19 radio-collared roe deer Capreolus capreolus fawns from seven family groups was studied during June-July 1998 in southeastern Norway. The habitat consisted of small agricultural fields surrounded by industrially exploited boreal forest. Within the forest, fawns selected

  5. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus in Ticks and Roe Deer, the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahfari, Setareh; de Vries, Ankje; Rijks, Jolianne M; Van Gucht, Steven; Vennema, Harry; Sprong, Hein; Rockx, Barry

    2017-06-01

    We report the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in the Netherlands. Serologic screening of roe deer found TBEV-neutralizing antibodies with a seroprevalence of 2%, and TBEV RNA was detected in 2 ticks from the same location. Enhanced surveillance and awareness among medical professionals has led to the identification of autochthonous cases.

  6. Bacteria and methanogens differ along the gastrointestinal tract of Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Zhang, Zhigang; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Jingbo; Liu, Hanlu; Fan, Zhongyuan; Yang, Fuhe; Wright, André-Denis G; Li, Guangyu

    2014-01-01

    The current study provides the insight into the bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and methanogens presented in the rumen and cecum of the Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus). The ruminal, ileal, cecal, and colonic contents, as well as feces, were obtained from each of the three, free-range, roe deer ingesting natural pasture after euthanasia. For the bacterial community, a total of 697,031 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were generated using high-throughput sequencing, and assigned to 2,223 core operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (12 bacterial phyla and 87 genera). The phyla Firmicutes (51.2%) and Bacteroidetes (39.4%) were the dominant bacteria in the GIT of roe deer. However, the bacterial community in the rumen was significantly (Proe deer, respectively. However, the abundance of Methanobrevibacter smithii was higher in the rumen than in the cecum (P = 0.004). These results revealed that there was intra variation in the bacterial community composition across the GIT of roe deer, and also showed that the methanogen community in the rumen differed from that in the cecum.

  7. POPULATION AND REPRODUCTIVE GROWTH OF ROE DEER, Capreolus capreolus Linnaeus, 1758. IN THE HUNTING GROUND "CREPOLJSKO"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enad Korjenić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Field research of population and reproductive growth of roe deer, Capreolus capreolus Linnaeus, 1758. in the hunting ground "Crepoljsko" lasted from January to December 2009. In the studied hunting ground two habitats (sites of roe deer Nahorevo and Bukovik have been registered with the estimated area of 1900 ha. Nahorevo covers, approximately 800 ha, and Bukovik 1100 ha. The total number of roe deer individuals in the "Crepoljsko" estimated to 103 individuals. In hunting ground Nahorevo 42 individual of roe deer of various age structure have been documented. Absolute reproductive growth of deer in this study area was six individuals or 45% of the expected (theoretical reproductive growth (60%. In hunting ground Bukovik 61 individuals have been found. Absolute reproductive growth was 9 individuals which makes 49% of theoretical reproductive growth. On the basis these results it could be concluded that the investigated habitats (sites have suitable conditions for this attractive hunting deer, as wall as for the development of hunting tourism and education. Key words: deer, population, reproduction, habitat

  8. Time-dependence of the radiocaesium contamination of roe deer: measurement and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zibold, G. E-mail: zibold@fbp.fh-weingarten.de; Drissner, J.; Kaminski, S.; Klemt, E.; Miller, R

    2001-07-01

    In spruce forest and peat bog, the migration of {sup 137}Cs from soil to plants, fungi, roe deer and consumers has been surveyed. In spruce forest the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in roe deer decreases slowly with time and has superimposed periodic maxima in autumn which are correlated with the mushroom season. The decrease with time can be described by an effective half-life of 3.5 yr caused by a fraction of the {sup 137}Cs in the soil becoming unavailable for green grazing plants with time. The additional transfer of {sup 137}Cs into roe deer meat during the mushroom season depends on precipitation in July, August and September which also determines the yield of fungi in autumn. Our model confirms the assumption that fungi also have access to a fraction of the {sup 137}Cs in the soil which is unavailable for green plants. On peat bog the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in roe deer is higher than in spruce forest and its effective half-life is about 17 yr, due to reversible binding of {sup 137}Cs to organic matter in the peat bog.

  9. Polysialylation of NCAM correlates with onset and termination of seasonal spermatogenesis in roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsch, Manka; Simon, Peter; Schön, Jennifer; Kaese, Miriam; Braun, Beate C; Jewgenow, Katarina; Göritz, Franz; Küpper, Julia; Ahmadvand, Negah; Geyer, Rudolf; Middendorff, Ralf; Müller, Karin; Galuska, Sebastian P

    2014-06-01

    Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) are seasonal breeders and cyclic structural changes of roe bucks' testis come along with a totally arrested (winter) and a highly activated spermatogenesis (summer). For this reason, roe buck represents an interesting model to study general mechanisms of initiation and termination of spermatogenesis. We investigated if polysialic acid (polySia)-a linear homopolymer of α2,8-linked sialic acids, which could act as a negative regulator of cell-cell adhesion-might be involved in the activation and/or inactivation of spermatogenesis. To address this point, testis samples of adult male roe deer were collected at different time point of the year. Intriguingly, we observed that polySia attached to the neural cell adhesion molecule was enhanced during the onset of spermatogenesis in April. In addition, polySia was highly expressed in December. Predominantly, polySia was detectable between Sertoli cells and spermatogonia in the basal regions of testicular tubules and in the adluminal part of Sertoli cells. Interestingly, similar polySia distributions were observed during early testis development of other mammalians when gonocytes (pre-spermatogonia) and Sertoli cells represent the only cell populations in tubuli seminiferi. Thus, polySia is expressed during key steps of the "on/off mechanisms" of spermatogenesis and might represent one mediator of the interaction and communication between Sertoli cells and germ cell precursors.

  10. Cercopithifilaria rugosicauda (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) in a roe deer and ticks from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Giannelli, Alessio; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mallia, Egidio; Passantino, Giuseppe; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-12-01

    Cercopithifilaria rugosicauda (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) is a subcutaneous filarial nematode of the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) transmitted by Ixodes ricinus (Acari, Ixodidae). At the necropsy of a roe deer from the Parco Regionale di Gallipoli Cognato (Basilicata region, southern Italy), two female nematodes of C. rugosicauda were found. Following the necropsy, seven skin snips were sampled from different body regions and 96 I. ricinus ticks were collected. In addition, 240 ticks were collected by dragging in the enclosure where the roe deer lived. Samples were examined for the presence of C. rugosicauda larvae and assayed by PCR targeting cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1, ∼300 bp) and 12S rDNA (∼330 bp) gene fragments. Female nematodes, microfilariae from skin samples and eight third stage larvae (L3) from ticks were morphologically and molecularly identified as C. rugosicauda. Phylogenetic analyses clustered this species with other sequences of Cercopithifilaria spp. This study represents the first report of C. rugosicauda in a roe deer and ticks from Italy and provides new morphological and molecular data on this little known nematode.

  11. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus in Ticks and Roe Deer, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahfari, Setareh; de Vries, Ankje; Rijks, Jolianne M; Van Gucht, Steven; Vennema, Harry; Sprong, Hein; Rockx, Barry

    We report the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in the Netherlands. Serologic screening of roe deer found TBEV-neutralizing antibodies with a seroprevalence of 2%, and TBEV RNA was detected in 2 ticks from the same location. Enhanced surveillance and awareness among medical

  12. Time-dependence of the radiocaesium contamination of roe deer: measurement and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zibold, G.; Drissner, J.; Kaminski, S.; Klemt, E.; Miller, R.

    2001-01-01

    In spruce forest and peat bog, the migration of 137 Cs from soil to plants, fungi, roe deer and consumers has been surveyed. In spruce forest the 137 Cs activity concentration in roe deer decreases slowly with time and has superimposed periodic maxima in autumn which are correlated with the mushroom season. The decrease with time can be described by an effective half-life of 3.5 yr caused by a fraction of the 137 Cs in the soil becoming unavailable for green grazing plants with time. The additional transfer of 137 Cs into roe deer meat during the mushroom season depends on precipitation in July, August and September which also determines the yield of fungi in autumn. Our model confirms the assumption that fungi also have access to a fraction of the 137 Cs in the soil which is unavailable for green plants. On peat bog the 137 Cs activity concentration in roe deer is higher than in spruce forest and its effective half-life is about 17 yr, due to reversible binding of 137 Cs to organic matter in the peat bog

  13. Seasonality of {sup 137}Cs in roe deer from Austria and Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielitz, U. [Environmental Studies, Thomasberg 33, D-37115 Duderstadt (Germany)], E-mail: mail@environmental-studies.de; Klemt, E. [Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, University of Applied Sciences, Doggenried Str., D-88250 Weingarten (Germany)], E-mail: klemt@hs-weingarten.de; Strebl, F. [Div. Radiation Safety and Applications, Austrian Research Centers GmbH - ARC, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: friederike.strebl@arcs.ac.at; Tataruch, F. [Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Savoyenstr. 1, A-1160 Wien (Austria)], E-mail: frieda.tataruch@vu-wien.ac.at; Zibold, G. [Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, University of Applied Sciences, Doggenried Str., D-88250 Weingarten (Germany)], E-mail: zibold@hs-weingarten.de

    2009-03-15

    Empirical data on the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) roaming in 3 spruce forest areas and one peat bog area are presented and compared. They cover time series of nearly 20 years after a spike contamination in 1986 originating from Chernobyl. A model is presented which considers three soil compartments to describe the change of the availability of {sup 137}Cs with time. The time-dependency of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer is a combination of two components: (1) an exponential decay and (2) a peak in the second half of each year during the mushroom season. The exponential decay over the years can be described by a sum of two exponential functions. The additional transfer of {sup 137}Cs into roe deer during the mushroom season depends on precipitation. On the peat bog the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in roe deer is higher and more persistent than in spruce forest.

  14. Mismatch between birth date and vegetation phenology slows the demography of roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Coulson, Tim; Hewison, A J Mark; Delorme, Daniel; Warnant, Claude; Bonenfant, Christophe

    2014-04-01

    Marked impacts of climate change on biodiversity have frequently been demonstrated, including temperature-related shifts in phenology and life-history traits. One potential major impact of climate change is the modification of synchronization between the phenology of different trophic levels. High phenotypic plasticity in laying date has allowed many bird species to track the increasingly early springs resulting from recent environmental change, but although changes in the timing of reproduction have been well studied in birds, these questions have only recently been addressed in mammals. To track peak resource availability, large herbivores like roe deer, with a widespread distribution across Europe, should also modify their life-history schedule in response to changes in vegetation phenology over time. In this study, we analysed the influence of climate change on the timing of roe deer births and the consequences for population demography and individual fitness. Our study provides a rare quantification of the demographic costs associated with the failure of a species to modify its phenology in response to a changing world. Given these fitness costs, the lack of response of roe deer birth dates to match the increasingly earlier onset of spring is in stark contrast with the marked phenotypic responses to climate change reported in many other mammals. We suggest that the lack of phenotypic plasticity in birth timing in roe deer is linked to its inability to track environmental cues of variation in resource availability for the timing of parturition.

  15. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus in Ticks and Roe Deer, the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahfari, Setareh; de Vries, Ankje; Rijks, Jolianne M; Van Gucht, Steven; Vennema, Harry; Sprong, Hein; Rockx, Barry

    We report the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in the Netherlands. Serologic screening of roe deer found TBEV-neutralizing antibodies with a seroprevalence of 2%, and TBEV RNA was detected in 2 ticks from the same location. Enhanced surveillance and awareness among medical

  16. Effects of acepromazine on capture stress in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montané, J; Marco, I; López-Olvera, J; Perpiñán, D; Manteca, X; Lavín, S

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of a short-acting neuroleptic (acepromazine) on capture stress response in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Sixteen roe deer were captured by drive-nets in the winters of 1998, 1999, and 2001. Roe deer were divided into two groups: animals in the treatment group received an intramuscular injection of acepromazine (0.093 mg/kg +/- 0.003 SEM; n = 8) while animals in the control group (n = 8) did not receive tranquilizer. Heart rate and body temperature, as well as hematologic and biochemical indicators of stress, were used to evaluate effect of the neuroleptic over 3 hr. Heart rate decreased over time after capture in both groups (P deer (75 min after capture) than in the controls (105 min after capture). Body temperature decreased over 45 min and then stabilized in both groups (P stress response and prevent its adverse effects in roe deer. The beneficial effect was not only due to the sedative effect of acepromazine, but also to peripheral vasodilatation.

  17. Mismatch Between Birth Date and Vegetation Phenology Slows the Demography of Roe Deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Coulson, Tim; Hewison, A. J. Mark; Delorme, Daniel; Warnant, Claude; Bonenfant, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Marked impacts of climate change on biodiversity have frequently been demonstrated, including temperature-related shifts in phenology and life-history traits. One potential major impact of climate change is the modification of synchronization between the phenology of different trophic levels. High phenotypic plasticity in laying date has allowed many bird species to track the increasingly early springs resulting from recent environmental change, but although changes in the timing of reproduction have been well studied in birds, these questions have only recently been addressed in mammals. To track peak resource availability, large herbivores like roe deer, with a widespread distribution across Europe, should also modify their life-history schedule in response to changes in vegetation phenology over time. In this study, we analysed the influence of climate change on the timing of roe deer births and the consequences for population demography and individual fitness. Our study provides a rare quantification of the demographic costs associated with the failure of a species to modify its phenology in response to a changing world. Given these fitness costs, the lack of response of roe deer birth dates to match the increasingly earlier onset of spring is in stark contrast with the marked phenotypic responses to climate change reported in many other mammals. We suggest that the lack of phenotypic plasticity in birth timing in roe deer is linked to its inability to track environmental cues of variation in resource availability for the timing of parturition. PMID:24690936

  18. Effect of Inclusion of Salmon Roe on Characteristics of Salmon Baby Food Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby food was formulated from sockeye salmon (puree alone, puree +chunks, puree +pink row, puree +pink row +chunks, puree +red row, puree +red roe +chunks). In the 1st study, physical (pH, instrumental color, water activity) and descriptive sensory (odor, flavor, texture, visual color) characteristi...

  19. A stochastic Galerkin method for the Euler equations with Roe variable transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Pettersson, Per

    2014-01-01

    The Euler equations subject to uncertainty in the initial and boundary conditions are investigated via the stochastic Galerkin approach. We present a new fully intrusive method based on a variable transformation of the continuous equations. Roe variables are employed to get quadratic dependence in the flux function and a well-defined Roe average matrix that can be determined without matrix inversion.In previous formulations based on generalized polynomial chaos expansion of the physical variables, the need to introduce stochastic expansions of inverse quantities, or square roots of stochastic quantities of interest, adds to the number of possible different ways to approximate the original stochastic problem. We present a method where the square roots occur in the choice of variables, resulting in an unambiguous problem formulation.The Roe formulation saves computational cost compared to the formulation based on expansion of conservative variables. Moreover, the Roe formulation is more robust and can handle cases of supersonic flow, for which the conservative variable formulation fails to produce a bounded solution. For certain stochastic basis functions, the proposed method can be made more effective and well-conditioned. This leads to increased robustness for both choices of variables. We use a multi-wavelet basis that can be chosen to include a large number of resolution levels to handle more extreme cases (e.g. strong discontinuities) in a robust way. For smooth cases, the order of the polynomial representation can be increased for increased accuracy. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  20. Mismatch between birth date and vegetation phenology slows the demography of roe deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriane Plard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Marked impacts of climate change on biodiversity have frequently been demonstrated, including temperature-related shifts in phenology and life-history traits. One potential major impact of climate change is the modification of synchronization between the phenology of different trophic levels. High phenotypic plasticity in laying date has allowed many bird species to track the increasingly early springs resulting from recent environmental change, but although changes in the timing of reproduction have been well studied in birds, these questions have only recently been addressed in mammals. To track peak resource availability, large herbivores like roe deer, with a widespread distribution across Europe, should also modify their life-history schedule in response to changes in vegetation phenology over time. In this study, we analysed the influence of climate change on the timing of roe deer births and the consequences for population demography and individual fitness. Our study provides a rare quantification of the demographic costs associated with the failure of a species to modify its phenology in response to a changing world. Given these fitness costs, the lack of response of roe deer birth dates to match the increasingly earlier onset of spring is in stark contrast with the marked phenotypic responses to climate change reported in many other mammals. We suggest that the lack of phenotypic plasticity in birth timing in roe deer is linked to its inability to track environmental cues of variation in resource availability for the timing of parturition.

  1. Babesia sp. EU1 from Roe Deer and Transmission within Ixodes ricinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouglin, Maggy; L’Hostis, Monique; Chauvin, Alain

    2007-01-01

    We report in vitro culture of zoonotic Babesia sp. EU1 from blood samples of roe deer in France. This study provides evidence of transovarial and transstadial transmission of the parasite within Ixodes ricinus, which suggests that this tick could be a vector and reservoir of EU1. PMID:17953093

  2. The Impact of Teen Court on Young Offenders. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Jeffrey A.; Buck, Janeen; Coggeshall, Mark B.

    This paper reports findings from the Evaluation of Teen Courts Project, which studied teen courts in Alaska, Arizona, Maryland, and Missouri. Researchers measured pre-court attitudes and post-court (6-month) recidivism among more than 500 juveniles referred to teen court for nonviolent offenses. The study compared recidivism outcomes for teen…

  3. 25 CFR 11.912 - Contempt of court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contempt of court. 11.912 Section 11.912 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.912 Contempt of court. Any willful disobedience or interference with any order of the children's court constitutes contempt of court which may be punished in accordance...

  4. Papillomavirus infection of roe deer in the Czech Republic and fibropapilloma-associated levels of metallothionein, zinc, and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Král

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at the aetiological diagnosis of skin tumours of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in the Czech Republic. A total of 33 roe deer specimens showing skin masses were sampled for histopathology, virus detection and identification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and deoxyribonucleic acid sequence (DNA analysis, and to investigate fibropapilloma-associated levels of metallothionein, zinc and oxidative stress in 2012 and 2013. Ticks (Ixodes ricinus and deer keds (Lipoptena cervi were also collected and pooled from sampled game specimens. Ticks found on dogs in hunting grounds under study were pooled into another sample. Skin tumours, ranging from 2 to 10 per inspected specimen and 2 to 5 cm in size, were classified as fibropapillomas by histopathology. All 33 viral-infection-suspected skin samples from roe deer in South Moravia and South Bohemia were PCR positive. The nucleotide sequences of PCR products were 100% homologous to the Western roe deer papillomavirus 1 isolate CcPV-1. Ticks and deer keds from positive roe deer and ticks from dogs were PCR and DNA sequence positive for the roe deer papillomavirus. Viral DNA was also demonstrated in one blood sample from a roe deer female. Differences in metallothionein, zinc, taurine and electrochemical index among samples from lesions and normal skin of affected roe deer and negative controls from papillomavirus-non-infected animals were non-significant. While we have demonstrated circulation of specific roe deer papillomavirus in the Czech Republic that results in multiple fibropapillomatous skin tumours, many ecological and epidemiological issues of this wildlife disease still remain unanswered.

  5. Status of Court Management in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lienhard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At an international level, and in particular in the Anglo-American region, there is a long tradition of scientific study of court management. Thus in Australia there has for quite some time been the Australasian Institution of Judicial Administration (AIJA, which concerns itself with every aspect of court administration. In the USA too, research and education in the field of court management has been institutionalized for a long time, in particular by the National Center for State Courts (NCSC and the related Institute for Court Management (ICM. In Europe, a working group known as the European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ deals with issues of court management as part of the activities of the Council of Europe. The fact that court management is also increasingly becoming an important topic in the European area was demonstrated by the establishment, in 2008, of a new professional journal that focuses on court management, the International Journal for Court Administration (IJCA. In Switzerland, the issue of court management was discussed for the first time in the course of the New Public Management (NPM projects in the cantons, but was often limited to the question of whether to include the courts in the relevant cantonal NPM model. Generally speaking, court management was a matter that was only sporadically raised, such as at a symposium of the Swiss Society of Administrative Sciences (SSAS in 2003 or more recently in an article in which theses on good court management are formulated. In Switzerland even today there is a general dearth of empirical and other theoretical findings on the mode of operation of the justice system and its interaction with society, or with specific social target groups. For example, it was only in 2009 that the first indications were obtained of how cases in various categories were handled by the highest administrative and social insurance courts in Switzerland. In the fields of criminal and civil

  6. The Right of Access to Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokol Mëngjesi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Every person has the right to address the court in order to protect his legal rights, freedom and interests. Access to justice is an important aspect of due process, the absence of which makes inexistent the discussion for respecting the principle of due legal process. Access to the court is a right guaranteed by the Constitution, international acts and is specifically interpreted by the European Court of Human Rights.The right to address the court is not an absolute right. This right can be restricted in cases when there is a due legal aim and the restriction is proportional between the used tools and the aim required to be achieved. Unlike other rights, the right to justice has a particular nature, requiring the relevant rules (deadlines, different procedures, court fees, etc., which are set by the state. However in any case these rules shouldn’t affect the essence of the law itself. In practice there have often been problems, likewise the set of high court fees, the existence of immunity for some functionaries, several criteria (likewise age, ability to act, which have violated the right to address the court. It is not enough that the right to address the court recognized, but it needs to be also effective. In this paper will analyze the right to address the court, as part of due process, cases when this right can be restricted, which is the practice followed by the domestic courts intertwining with the attitude that keeps the European Court of Human Rights.

  7. Bajo la piel del superhéroe: fusión entre su identidad y su imagen

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Calero, Jose Maria; Cano-García, Josefa

    2011-01-01

    Cuando hablamos de la estética debemos ver la dos épocas donde analizar la estética de los superhéroes, desde una clara de inclusión/exclusión donde los colores las personalidades y están bien definidas el bien es el bien frente al mal, bien diferenciados donde la definición de un superhéroes esta en lo superficial, en lo que reviste al personaje, toda la parafernalia que se va construyendo a su alrededor, para asentar la imagen de su personalidad. Tres son los facetas de un superhéroe: su...

  8. Immunogenetic heterogeneity in a widespread ungulate: the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéméré, Erwan; Galan, Maxime; Cosson, Jean-François; Klein, François; Aulagnier, Stéphane; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Merlet, Joël; Bonhomme, Maxime; Hewison, A J Mark; Charbonnel, Nathalie

    2015-08-01

    Understanding how immune genetic variation is shaped by selective and neutral processes in wild populations is of prime importance in both evolutionary biology and epidemiology. The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) has considerably expanded its distribution range these last decades, notably by colonizing agricultural landscapes. This range shift is likely to have led to bottlenecks and increased roe deer exposure to a new range of pathogens that until recently predominantly infected humans and domestic fauna. We therefore investigated the historical and contemporary forces that have shaped variability in a panel of genes involved in innate and acquired immunity in roe deer, including Mhc-Drb and genes encoding cytokines or toll-like receptors (TLRs). Together, our results suggest that genetic drift is the main contemporary evolutionary force shaping immunogenetic variation within populations. However, in contrast to the classical view, we found that some innate immune genes involved in micropathogen recognition (e.g. Tlrs) continue to evolve dynamically in roe deer in response to pathogen-mediated positive selection. Most studied Tlrs (Tlr2, Tlr4 and Tlr5) had similarly high levels of amino acid diversity in the three studied populations including one recently established in southwestern France that showed a clear signature of genetic bottleneck. Tlr2 implicated in the recognition of Gram-positive bacteria in domestic ungulates, showed strong evidence of balancing selection. The high immunogenetic variation revealed here implies that roe deer are able to cope with a wide spectrum of pathogens and to respond rapidly to emerging infectious diseases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Kentucky's Unified Court of Justice. Teachers' Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Div. of Program Development.

    Resource materials and learning activities to help secondary students in Kentucky learn about their state's court system are provided. The guide begins by providing a history of the Kentucky Court of Justice. Discussed are the qualification of judges, the Retirement and Removal Commission, the Judicial Nominating Commission, and juries. Background…

  10. Court Reaffirms TIAA Must Pay Equal Pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Cheryl M.

    1984-01-01

    A second court decision supporting the payment of equal retirement pensions to men and women through the Teachers Insurance Annuities Association and College Retirement Equities Fund for retirees, effective after May 1, 1980, is discussed. This federal appeals court decision allows limited retroactivity. (MSE)

  11. 28 JURISDICTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    a result of hard negotiations, it was agreed that the Rome Statute prohibits the criminal responsibility of persons for ... a given court has the power to determine a jurisdictional question is itself a jurisdictional question. ... Legally defined, jurisdiction is the power of a court to adjudicate cases and issue orders. Traditionally, an ...

  12. Buyer's Guide for Tennis Court Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Tennis Court & Track Builders Association.

    This booklet examines seven planning and decision-making tips for investing in and building tennis courts that can prolong court life and get the most from the investment. It examines defining needs, developing a budget, considering the use of a consultant, choosing a site, choosing a surface and developing working specifications, making specific…

  13. Pursuing transparency through science courts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, Thomas G. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Many, disappointed with traditional ways to assess and manage health, safety and environmental risks, have sought alternatives that might better serve democratic values and truth. Arthur Kantrowitz proposed one in 1967. Named the 'Science Court' by the media, it sought to air opposing viewpoints publicly before an independent, neutral and technically competent panel of scientists. The idea has received considerable attention over the years, but some see it as too opaque and elitist. Ironically, others may view it as too transparent. Beyond that, as proposed it might have been too time-consuming and expensive, and few scientists would have welcomed a suggestion for cross-examination. Yet, its key features still offer promise for resolving difficult policy disputes and might be usefully integrated with notions since leading to the creation and endorsement of advisory science boards

  14. Pursuing transparency through science courts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Thomas G. Jr. [Franklin Pierce Law Center, Concord, NH (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Many, disappointed with traditional ways to assess and manage health, safety and environmental risks, have sought alternatives that might better serve democratic values and truth. Arthur Kantrowitz proposed one in 1967. Named the 'Science Court' by the media, it sought to air opposing viewpoints publicly before an independent, neutral and technically competent panel of scientists. The idea has received considerable attention over the years, but some see it as too opaque and elitist. Ironically, others may view it as too transparent. Beyond that, as proposed it might have been too time-consuming and expensive, and few scientists would have welcomed a suggestion for cross-examination. Yet, its key features still offer promise for resolving difficult policy disputes and might be usefully integrated with notions since leading to the creation and endorsement of advisory science boards.

  15. Courting the expert: a clash of culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, P

    2005-06-01

    This article reviews the utility of expert opinion in legal proceedings and the deployment of expert witnesses in adversarial litigation. The use of expert witnesses to assist courts in making just and fair conclusions may be contrasted with the partisan interests of those who call them. An adversarial system is a bad method of scientific enquiry and undermines the court's capacity to reach the 'right' answer. As a consequence, courts may reach the wrong conclusion based on bad science. The role of the expert as a witness places strain on an expert to provide certainty, where in fact there may be none. Recent reforms in the civil courts have changed little and the problem is even more acute in criminal trials. The expert can rely solely on the integrity of his or her own opinion, tempered with a little humility. However, when filtered through the rhetoric and advocacy of a court arena, even this may be compromised.

  16. Increased ratio of pollock roe-specific IgE to salmon roe-specific IgE levels is associated with a positive reaction to cooked pollock roe oral food challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Eishi; Yanagida, Noriyuki; Sato, Sakura; Asaumi, Tomoyuki; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2017-12-11

    Anaphylaxis and immediate-type fish roe allergies have been reported worldwide, and, in Japan, fish roe is the sixth most common food allergen. No oral food challenges (OFCs) have used pollock roe (PR), which is reported to have high cross-reactivity with salmon roe (SR). Therefore, we administered an OFC using cooked PR to evaluate PR- and SR-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and allergic reactions in patients with PR sensitivity. This retrospective study evaluating patient characteristics and responses to OFCs was conducted with 10-20 g of cooked PR, between April 2006 and November 2016. We assessed 51 patients (median age: 6.8 years). All had PR sensitization, 6 (12%) with a history of immediate reactions to PR, and 18 (35%) of immediate reactions to SR. Median PR-specific and SR-specific IgE values were 3.4 kUA/L and 9.9 kUA/L, respectively. Seven patients (14%) had a positive OFC. There was no anaphylaxis. Induced symptoms were mild and included localized urticaria, throat pruritus, intermittent cough, and mild abdominal pain. We treated one patient with mild abdominal pain with oral antihistamines. There were no significant differences in history of immediate reaction to PR and PR-specific IgE titers between OFC-positive and OFC-negative patients, although significant differences were found for PR-specific IgE titers adjusted for SR-specific IgE (p = 0.025) and PR-specific IgE/SR-specific IgE ratio (p = 0.009). Increased PR-specific IgE/SR-specific IgE ratio or PR-specific IgE levels adjusted for SR-specific IgE levels were risk factors for OFC positivity. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 48 CFR 6302.38 - Remand from court (Rule 38).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT APPEALS RULES OF PROCEDURE 6302.38 Remand from court (Rule 38). Whenever any court remands a case... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remand from court (Rule 38... rules. ...

  18. Should the District Courts Have Jurisdiction Over Pre-Award Contract Claims? A Claim for the Claims Court

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Short, John J

    1987-01-01

    This thesis briefly examines the jurisdiction of the federal district courts and the United States Court of Claims over pre-award contract claims before the Federal Courts Improvement Act of October 1...

  19. Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in moose (Alces alces) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmsten, Jonas; Jakubek, Eva-Britt; Björkman, Camilla

    2011-05-11

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are two coccidian parasites with a worldwide distribution. T. gondii is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses in the world and in young children and immunocompromised persons, infection can lead to severe disease and death. N. caninum is an important cause of abortions in cattle. Wildlife have been identified as reservoirs and transmitters for both parasites. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalences of T. gondii, and N. caninum in moose (Alces alces), and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Sweden. Blood samples were collected from 417 moose during 2000-2005 and from 199 roe deer during 1990-2007. The samples were investigated for presence of antibodies by a T. gondii direct agglutination test and a N. caninum iscom ELISA. Because the iscom ELISA has not been validated for moose or roe deer, sera that gave a positive result were further investigated by immunoblot analysis to verify presence of antibodies. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 85 (20%) and 68 (34%) moose and roe deer sera, respectively. In moose the seroprevalence was higher in south and central Sweden than in the north, whereas there was no difference between the regions for roe deer. Adult moose and roe deer had higher odds of being seropositive than young animals but there were no difference in seroprevalence between males and females. One roe deer was positive by immunoblotting and was regarded as N. caninum positive, whereas all moose sera were negative. The results show that T. gondii infection is widely spread in the Swedish moose and roe deer populations. Precautions should therefore be taken when handling internal organs and carcasses of harvested cervids. Proper handling and cooking of game meat also is important to prevent toxoplasmosis in humans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary preferences and ruminal protozoal populations in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, fallow deer (Dama dama and mouflon (Ovis musimon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Olivieri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, fallow deer (Dama dama and mouflon (Ovis musimon are among the most common wild ungulates in Italy and frequently their home ranges overlap. Despite the fact that roe deer is classified as concentrate selector (Hofmann, 1989 and fallow deer and mouflons as intermediate and grass eater, respectively, the composition of the diet can be affected by other factors such as geographical area and plant communities distribution and availability

  1. Papillomavirus infection of roe deer in the Czech Republic and fibropapilloma-associated levels of metallothionein, zinc, and oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Král, Jiří; Banďouchová, Hana; Brichta, Jiří; Kovacova, Veronika; Ondráček, Karel; Osičková, Jitka; Hrubá, Hana; Hutařová, Zdeňka; Komínková, Markéta; Cernei, Natalia Vladimirovna; Konečná, Marie; Tmejová, Kateřina; Zítka, Ondřej; Adam, Vojtěch; Kízek, René

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at the aetiological diagnosis of skin tumours of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in the Czech Republic. A total of 33 roe deer specimens showing skin masses were sampled for histopathology, virus detection and identification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and deoxyribonucleic acid sequence (DNA) analysis, and to investigate fibropapilloma-associated levels of metallothionein, zinc and oxidative stress in 2012 and 2013. Ticks (Ixodes ricinus) and deer keds (Lipopt...

  2. Pengukuran Tingkat Efisiensi Bank Syariah dan Bank Konvensional di Indonesia dengan Formula David Cole’s Roe For Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachruddin Bachruddin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to analyze the difference in the rate of efficiency between the group of Syariah Bank with the group of conventional Banks in Indonesia during 2003 and 2004. To analyze the rate of efficiency indicated by the Rate of Return (ROE, the research uses three factors namely Profit Margin (PM, Asset Utilization (AU and Equity Multiplier (EM. The research was based on secondary data consisted of finan¬cial reports collected from the said two group of banks, comprising 4 Syariah Bank and 4 Conventional Banks, for the period of 2003 and 2004.The tools of analysis used in the research consisted of two methods. The first was variance test analy¬sis for the average of ROE between the two groups of banks. The second was regression analysis applied for each group of banks. In this model, the factors i.e. PM, AU and EM were estimated to influence the ROE.The result of the research showed that the ROE of Syariah Bank was significantly difference with the ROE of Conventional Banks. In this result the standard deviation of ROE of Syariah Banks was smaller than con¬ventional banks. Further, the result indicated that PM, AU and EM of Syariah Bank were significantly influenced to ROE. Meanwhile, the three factors were not significantly influenced to ROE of Conventional Banks.In order to get the better result in the next research of this topic, the number of samples should be greater and it is suggested to apply the other method of analysis like discriminate analysis. Further, the period of empirical study should be longer at least five years.Keywords: rate of efficiency, profit margin, asset utilization, equity multiplier, bank syariah

  3. Abundance estimation of Ixodes ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiffner, Christian; Lödige, Christina; Alings, Matthias; Vor, Torsten; Rühe, Ferdinand

    2010-09-01

    Despite the importance of roe deer as a host for Ixodes ticks in central Europe, estimates of total tick burden on roe deer are not available to date. We aimed at providing (1) estimates of life stage and sex specific (larvae, nymphs, males and females, hereafter referred to as tick life stages) total Ixodes burden and (2) equations which can be used to predict the total life stage burden by counting the life stage on a selected body area. Within a period of 1(1/2) years, we conducted whole body counts of ticks from 80 hunter-killed roe deer originating from a beech dominated forest area in central Germany. Averaged over the entire study period (winter 2007-summer 2009), the mean tick burden per roe deer was 64.5 (SE +/- 10.6). Nymphs were the most numerous tick life stage per roe deer (23.9 +/- 3.2), followed by females (21.4 +/- 3.5), larvae (10.8 +/- 4.2) and males (8.4 +/- 1.5). The individual tick burden was highly aggregated (k = 0.46); levels of aggregation were highest in larvae (k = 0.08), followed by males (k = 0.40), females (k = 0.49) and nymphs (k = 0.71). To predict total life stage specific burdens based on counts on selected body parts, we provide linear equations. For estimating larvae abundance on the entire roe deer, counts can be restricted to the front legs. Tick counts restricted to the head are sufficient to estimate total nymph burden and counts on the neck are appropriate for estimating adult ticks (females and males). In order to estimate the combined tick burden, tick counts on the head can be used for extrapolation. The presented linear models are highly significant and explain 84.1, 77.3, 90.5, 91.3, and 65.3% (adjusted R (2)) of the observed variance, respectively. Thus, these models offer a robust basis for rapid tick abundance assessment. This can be useful for studies aiming at estimating effects of abiotic and biotic factors on tick abundance, modelling tick population dynamics, modelling tick-borne pathogen transmission dynamics

  4. The Supreme Court of the Estonia : 3-4-1-7-2001 decision of the Supreme Court en banc of 11 October 2001 : review of the petition of Tallinn Administrative Court to declare clause 28 (1) 6) of the Weapons Act invalid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Riigikohtu lahendi 3-4-1-7-01 (Tallinna Halduskohtu taotlus kontrollida Relvaseaduse § 28 lg 1 p 6 vastavust Põhiseaduse §-le 11) tekst inglise keeles. - Lisatud: Dissenting opinion by Lea Kivi, Lea Laarmaa, pp. 163-165

  5. Federal Administrative Court denies the International Union for the Protection of Life the right to file suit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    In its decision of July 16, 1980, the Federal Administrative Court dismissed the appeal lodged by the International Union for the Protection of Life against the dismissal by the Supreme Administrative Court concerning the action to set aside the preliminary decision on the Kruemmel reactor. The Court denied its right to file suit. The amount in ligitation was fixed at 20000 DM. The appelant cannot assert that his rights are being violated. The appelent's commitment to protect life is not hindered in an administrative way by the preliminary decision. Only members of the association could put forward that the basic rights of the individual protected in Art. 2, Sect. 2 of the Basic Law are being endangered. Section 7 (2) of the Atomic Energy Law does not serve to protect the freedom of association, it gives third party protection for associations only in case of property damage. Neither can the right to file suit be derived for the addressee of a decision from Section 4 (2) of the Ordinance concerning the procedure for licensing nuclear installations. (HSCH) [de

  6. The Relationship between Judicial Staff and Court Performance: Evidence from Brazilian State Courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalmir Oliveira Gomes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To handle increasing caseloads, the judicial systems of several countries have adopted three main strategies: developing new standards and judicial procedures; investing in information and communication technologies; and hiring additional judicial staff. This paper investigates the impact of this third strategy on the performance of Brazilian courts. We use multiple regression analysis to test an array of related hypotheses about the complex interactions between the number of judicial staff and court productivity. The empirical research uses ten-year (2003-2012 data from 27 Brazilian courts. The main findings indicate that the number of judicial assistants has a positive influence on court productivity, and the number of assistants mitigates the positive relationship between court caseload and court productivity. The results are discussed and further studies are suggested.

  7. Spoilage of lightly salted lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) roe at 5°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basby, Merethe; Jeppesen, V.F.; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Lightly salted lumpfish roe (3.5–4.8% fw/w] salt in the water-phase, pH 5.4, vacuum-packed) was stored at 5°C. After 2 1/2 or 3 months of storage, different degrees of spoilage, caused by bacterial activity, occurred in eleven roe batches. Off-odors ranged from no or very weak odors to strong...... sulphury, sour odors. The microflora consisted of lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrio spp. Concentration of lactic acid, acetic acid, trimethylamine and total volatile bases were unrelated to spoilage odors. Volatile sulfur compounds (H2S, probably CS2, CH3SH and CH3CH2SH or CH3SCH3......), produced during storage, appeared to be contributors to spoilage odors....

  8. SALMON SOFT ROE DNA ON BLOOD CELLS SECRETION OF CYTOKINES IN HEALTHY DONORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Fedjanina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Salmon soft roe DNA influence on healthy donors blood cells secretion of early hemopoietic factors (IL-3, GM-CSF, TNFα as well as biologically active substance influence on cytokine balance of Тh1 and Тh2 responses (IFNγ, IL-10 in vitro was studied. It is established, that DNA has modulatory effect on secretion of all investigated cytokines - IL-3, GM-CSF, TNFα, INFγ and IL-10 by blood cells of healthy donors, increases their initially low concentration, reduces initially high and does not have essential influence at an average level of their secretion. Under action of DNA IFNγ level (stimulation index=3,3 increases more significantly than IL-10 level (stimulation index =1,9. Thus, salmon soft roe DNA possesses immunomodulatory properties.

  9. Genotype-4 hepatitis E in a human after ingesting roe deer meat in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ja Yoon; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Jo, Yun Won; Min, Hyun Ju; Kim, Hyun Jin; Jung, Woon Tae; Lee, Ok Jae; Yun, Haesun; Yoon, Yeong-Sil

    2013-09-01

    The recent increase in the number of cases of indigenous hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection highlights the importance of identifying the transmission routes for the prevention of such infections. Presented herein is the first case of acute HEV infection after ingesting wild roe deer meat in South Korea. A 43-year-old male presented with abdominal discomfort and jaundice. He had not recently traveled abroad, but had eaten raw roe-deer meat 6-8 weeks before the presentation. On the 7th day of hospitalization the patient was diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis E. Phylogenetic analysis of his serum revealed genotype-4 HEV. This case supports the possibility of zoonotic transmission of HEV because the patient appears to have been infected with genotype-4 HEV after ingesting raw deer meat.

  10. High spread of Schmallenberg virus among roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, José M; Prieto, Alberto; López, Ceferino; Díaz, Pablo; Pérez, Ana; Panadero, Rosario; Pajares, Gerardo; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio; Fernández, Gonzalo

    2015-10-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emergent virus in northwestern Europe since 2011. We conducted this study to evaluate the spread of this virus in a wild ruminant community. During 2013 and 2014, 75 serum samples of roe deer were collected from different locations of the Spanish geography and analysed for the presence of antibodies. The results revealed a widespread exposure to SBV, as well as a high seroprevalence (53.3%, CI95% 42.16–64.18). These findings demand more research with regard to the impact of SBV on roe deer health and the interactions with livestock. Results also show this species as potentially suitable for monitoring the spread of the virus through sylvatic areas.

  11. Branching patterns of the aortic arch in the Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus Pallas, 1771).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangyun; Sim, Jeong-Ha; Kim, Jong-Teak; Oh, Hong-Shik; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Park, Byung-Yong; Kim, In-Shik; Ahn, Dongchoon

    2018-02-02

    This study examined the branching pattern of the aortic arch (AA) and its major branches in the Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus Pallas, 1771) from South Korea. A total of eight of the nine expected types, based on the branching site and bilateral levels of the costocervical trunk (CCT) and subclavian artery (SB), were observed in the arterial silicone casts of 35 deer (16 males, 19 females). This deer has no typical type. The three most common types were present in 28.6, 25.7 and 20.0% of cases and resulted from different branching patterns of the left CCT and left SB. These results suggest that the Siberian roe deer in the Korean peninsula has various AA branching patterns, which differs from other ruminants.

  12. A First Attempt at Modelling Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus Distributions Over Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil S Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of roe deer can be an important component within ecological and epidemiological systems contributing to the risk and spread of a range of vector-borne diseases. Deer are important hosts for many vectors, and may therefore serve as a focal point or attractant for vectors or may themselves act as a reservoir for vector-borne disease. Three spatial modelling techniques were used to generate an ensemble model describing the proportion of suitable roe deer habitat within recorded distributions for Europe as identified from diverse sources. The resulting model is therefore an index of presence, which may be useful in supporting the modelling of vector-borne disease across Europe.

  13. Electric power industry restructuring and ROE: The case of Korea Electric Power Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Gu-Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Korea's electric power industry was previously run by Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) in a natural monopoly-type structure. As economy of scale was waning in influence and management effectiveness began to increase in importance, KEPCO was divided into six subsidiaries and faced competition beginning in April 2001. This study evaluates the restructuring process for Korea's power industry and analyzes the financial outcomes based on return on equity (ROE). The results show that the ROE ratio increased. In the analysis period (1993-2004), the financial ratio showed a better performance than that before restructuring. However, productivity ratios such as productivity of capital (or gross value added to total assets) and gross value added to property, plant, and equipment decreased compared to the situation before restructuring. It is believed that the results were due to the increased financial leverage of KEPCO. For this reason, KEPCO should make further efforts to manage its debt in a systematic way

  14. [Rhinoorbitocerebral zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus microsporus in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Martin; Eikelberg, Deborah; Jongmans, Vincent; Pranada, Arthur Boniface; Wohlsein, Peter

    2014-01-01

    An one-year-old male roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) with abnormal behaviour was shot in order to exclude rabies virus infection. The 12.8 kg weighing animal was emaciated and revealed an asymmetric head with protruding left eye and expositional keratitis. There was a grey whitish soft mass within the caudal nasal cavity, which had infiltrated the frontal cerebrum through the cribriform plate and the retrobulbar tissue through the orbita. Histologically, the mass consisted of a chronic granulomatous inflammation with plentiful fungal hyphae. Fungal culture revealed mold fungi of the zygomycotic genus Rhizomucor, which were differentiated as Rhizopus microsporus by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and DNA-sequencing. Rhinoorbitocerebral zygomycosis has to be considered as a differential diagnosis for nasal and orbital tumour-like lesions and as a cause of abnormal behaviour of roe deer.

  15. Feeding of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    Seasonal feed choice of a roe deer for a 3-year period has been investigated on the basis of the rumen content analysis. Results of the investigation are given. A list of 125 species of forage plants is presented. Seasonal intensity of their consumption is characterized. Significance of main plant assemblages of the evacuated zone of Chernobyl in the diet of the animal population is elucidated. Special attention is paid to the role of the above-ground parts of Oenotera biennis that comprise 34% of the average annual forage of roe deer and are consumed by the animal during 9-10 months. Recent state of the forage base of the population is estimated. An attempt to predict its dynamics for the nearest 10-15 years is made

  16. El viaje del héroe en la narrativa de videojuegos

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco Vilches, Luis Felipe

    2017-01-01

    En 1949, el antropólogo Joseph Campbell publicó El héroe de las mil caras, un ensayo donde analizando las narraciones de los mitos encontraba una serie de patrones que sintetizó en “el viaje del héroe”. Años más tarde, en 1992, el guionista Cristopher Vogler se basó en el trabajo de Campbell para escribir El viaje del escritor, una suerte de manual en el que propone un método para utilizar el viaje del héroe en la escritura de narraciones contemporáneas, sobre todo cinematográficas, campo don...

  17. Court Governance in Context: Beyond Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Bunjevac

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing trend in some of the world’s most advanced western democracies of entrusting certain “framework” aspects of court administration to independent judicial agencies. This trend was highlighted in my recent study of the models of court administration, in which I examined court governance systems in seven Australian and international jurisdictions.This article will focus on the reasons behind the establishment of such agencies and the need for judges and policy makers to clearly identify the problems, aims and drivers for reform before embarking on a mission to adopt a particular “model.” At first, this may seem like an obvious proposition; however, recent experience in overseas jurisdictions demonstrates that it is not easy to reach a consensus on even the most basic issues affecting the administration of justice in courts.

  18. What Defines an International Criminal Court?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard-Pedersen, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Since the post-World War II tribunals, only few scholars have attempted to draw a definitional distinction between international and national criminal courts. Remarkable exceptions include Robert Woetzel, who in 1962 categorized criminal courts according to ‘the involvement of the international...... community’, and Sarah Williams, who 50 years later relied on the same factor in her definitions of ‘hybrid’ and ‘internationalized’ criminal tribunals. Through examples of rulings by the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, this article will demonstrate...... that only criminal tribunals deriving their authority from international law should be labelled ‘international’, while the term ‘national criminal court’ should apply to tribunals set up under national law. This terminology would underline that issues concerning jurisdiction and applicable law must...

  19. Congressional Authority Over the Federal Courts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bazan, Elizabeth B; Killian, John; Thomas, Kenneth R

    2005-01-01

    .... While Congress has broad power to regulate the structure, administration and jurisdiction of the courts, its powers are limited by precepts of due process, equal protection and separation of powers...

  20. Explaining African Participation in International Courts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo; Brett, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Africa has more international courts than any other continent, yet International Relations scholarship has failed to explain this move to law on the African continent. This article provides such an explanation using Jean-François Bayart’s concept of extraversion. It shows how the creation...... of international courts in the 1990s and early 2000s was the result of extraverted strategies for attracting international resources and pre-empting donor pressures for political and legal reforms. By adopting these strategies, African states failed to behave in the ‘strategic’ manner anticipated by both...... Tribunal and International Criminal Court. Using the case studies of Zimbabwe and Kenya, it shows how global scripts were repeated by even those states which have, in recent years, most vocally asserted their national interests against these courts....

  1. The gloss to the Court of Justice of the European Union judgment dated 16th of November 2017 in case Kozuba Premium Selection Sp. z o.o. (limited liability company versus Director of Tax Chamber in Warsaw (Poland, C-308/16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Koziollek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The voting judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union concerns the interpretation of the concept of first settlement in the European Union tax law as well as the possibility of introducing limitations of this concept in national laws. The subject of the CJEU judgment issued in connection with the question asked by the Polish Supreme Administrative Court, bearing in mind the specificity of preliminary rulings, is not the interpretation of factual issues that were raised before the national court or even more the settlement of possible differences resulting from the understanding of internal laws of the member states. The answer given by the CJEU, as well as the argumentation adopted by this Court, allows to make important findings regarding the proper implementation of the provisions of Directive 112 into the Polish legal system, and consequently to clarify existing doubts regarding the concept of first settlement.

  2. Avoidance of fallow deer by roe deer may not be habitat-dependent

    OpenAIRE

    Ferretti, Francesco; Sforzi, Andrea; Lovari, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Information is scarce on behavioural interference between wild ungulates. In particular, data are lacking on relationships between interference and habitat use. We analysed habitat correlates of behavioural interactions between fallow deer Dama dama and roe deer Capreolus capreolus at feeding, in a Mediterranean area. Previous research has shown that behavioural interference between these deer, with the former dominant over the latter, occurred also through direct aggression. Here we show tha...

  3. Histological and lectin histochemical studies on the olfactory mucosae of the Korean roe deer, Capreolus pygargus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changnam; Ahn, Meejung; Kim, Jeongtae; Kim, Seungjoon; Moon, Changjong; Shin, Taekyun

    2015-04-01

    The morphological features of the olfactory mucosae of Korean roe deer, Capreolus pygargus, were histologically studied using the ethmoid turbinates containing the olfactory mucosae from six roe deer (male, 2-3 years old). The ethmoid turbinates were embedded in paraffin, and histochemically evaluated in terms of the mucosal characteristics. Lectin histochemistry was performed to investigate the carbohydrate-binding specificity on the olfactory mucosa. Lectins, including Triticum vulgaris wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), and soybean agglutinin (SBA) were used for the N-acetylglucosamine, fucose and N-acetylgalactosamine carbohydrate groups, respectively. Histologically, the olfactory mucosa, positioned mainly in the caudal roof of the nasal cavity, consisted of the olfactory epithelium and the lamina propria. The olfactory epithelium consisted of protein gene product (PGP) 9.5-positive olfactory receptor cells, galectin-3-positive supporting cells and basal cells. Bowman's glands in the lamina propria were stained by both the periodic acid Schiff reagent and alcian blue (pH 2.5). Two types of lectin, WGA and SBA, were labeled in free border, receptor cells, supporting cells and Bowman's glands, with the exception of basal cells, while UEA-I was labeled in free border, supporting cells and Bowman's glands, but not in receptor cells and basal cells, suggesting that carbohydrate terminals on the olfactory mucosae of roe deer vary depending on cell type. This is the first morphological study of the olfactory mucosa of the Korean roe deer to evaluate carbohydrate terminals in the olfactory mucosae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence and identity of Sarcocystis spp. in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Spain: a morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Creo, A; Panadero, R; López, C; Díaz, P; Vázquez, L; Díez-Baños, P; Morrondo, P

    2013-12-01

    Muscular samples from the oesophagus, diaphragm and heart of 101 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) hunted in Galicia (Northwestern Spain) were examined, by the compression method, for the presence of Sarcocystis spp. infection. The structure of the cyst wall was examined by light (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The overall prevalence of infection was very high (99%), with a density of 404 cysts/sample (SD 812). The prevalence was very similar in the different examined muscle types (99% heart and diaphragm, and 98.9% oesophagus). A significantly higher intensity of infection was found in the heart (831; SD 1281), followed by the diaphragm (197; SD 190) and the oesophagus (180; SD 205). Macrocysts (>1500 μm long) were only detected in the oesophagus of 48.5% of the examined roe deer; their mean size was 2055.4 μm (SD 632.46). Cysts localised in the myocardium were significantly shorter (371.5 μm; SD 160.47) than those found in the diaphragm (678.2; SD 546) and the oesophagus (973.4 μm; SD 667.87). By LM, most of the cysts (98.8%) displayed a thin wall, which was consistent with those of Sarcocystis sp., S. gracilis and S. capreolicanis; only 1.2% of the cysts had a thick striated wall, consistent with Sarcocystis silva. Three morphological distinct sarcocysts were observed by TEM: the unnamed species Sarcocystis sp., S. capreolicanis and S. gracilis. The wall ultrastructure of the examined macrocysts was consistent with S. gracilis. This study has revealed that Spanish roe deer harbours 4 morphologically distinct types of sarcocysts; being the first record of S. gracilis in roe deer from Spain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sustainable monitoring of roe deer in public hunting areas in the Spanish Pyrenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, J.; Torres, R. T.; Prada, C.; Garcia-Serrano, A.; Gimenez-Anaya, A.; Fernandez, O.

    2013-07-01

    Aim of study: Monitoring trends in animal populations is essential for the development of appropriate wildlife management strategies. Area of study: The area is situated in the southern Pyrenees (Aragon), Spain. Material and methods: To measure the abundance, population trends, sex ratio, and mortality of roe deer populations, we analyzed data from i) driven hunts for wild boar (hunting seasons 1995/96-2009/10, n = 1,417, ii) itineraries, which were used to calculate the KAI and density using DS (2003-2010, n = 310 itineraries), iii) roe deer carcass recoveries (2006-2010, n = 100), and iv) data from the deer hunting quota fulfillment (2006-2010, n = 325 hunted animals. Main results: Based on DS, in 2010, the average density of roe deer populations was 2.3 km–2 (CV 17%). Based on the KAI and the battues, the estimated average annual rate of increase was 5.8% and 4.3%, respectively. Based on the KAI and the carcass recoveries, the estimates of the population sex ratio were 0.75 (n = 641) and 0.9 (n = 100) males per female, respectively. Carcass recoveries indicated that mortality was highest in late winter and early spring. The average body masses and sizes of males and females were within the ranges reported for other Iberian and European populations. Research highlights: Monitoring should be continued in the Aragon population of roe deer, although larger sample sizes are required to increase the accuracy of estimates and assessments of the impact of management actions. (Author)

  6. Description of post-implantation embryonic stages in European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) after embryonic diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyes, M; Nause, N; Bleyer, M; Kaup, F-J; Neumann, S

    2017-12-01

    The embryonic stage of development is defined as the period between fertilization and the establishment of most of the organ systems by the end of this period. Development in this stage is rapid. In many mammalian species, particularly in humans, the interval between fertilization and implantation is exactly determined and continuous without intermission. However, European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) embryos undergo a reversible retardation of development. This interesting reproduction strategy is called embryonic diapause (delayed implantation). After this period of embryonic arrest, development continues without further interruption. The aim of this study was to investigate embryonic development after diapause in European roe deer. Because of the embryonic diapause and the unknown date of fertilization, it was impossible to assign the embryos to a certain gestational age (days). This study describes normal stages of embryonic development mainly based on the external morphological traits of 56 well-preserved post-implantation roe deer embryos and attempts to assign the embryos to certain development stages. Carnegie stages of human embryos were used as an orientation for staging roe deer embryos. We observed a considerable range of variation of embryonic stages investigated until the end of January. We found post-implantation stages of embryonic development already at the end of December and foetuses at the end of January. Moreover, assigning the embryos to a particular stage of development allows the comparison between pairs of twins and triplets. We showed that twins and triplets were always at the same development level, despite the discrepancy in inter-twin and inter-triplet size. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Toxic heavy metals in the muscle of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)--food toxicological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehel, József; Laczay, Péter; Gyurcsó, Adrienn; Jánoska, Ferenc; Majoros, Szilvia; Lányi, Katalin; Marosán, Miklós

    2016-03-01

    The study was performed on 20 (10 males, 10 females) roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) to investigate the concentration of cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic in the muscle tissue. They reside in forest and meadow, about 50 km distance from industrial activities and traffic. Samples were taken from the musculus biceps femoris of each deer without external contamination after shooting during the regular hunting season on a hunting area close to Eger in Hungary. The determination of heavy metal contents was carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The statistical analysis was performed by statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 11.0. The measured residue concentration of cadmium was below the limit of detection in the roe deer meat indicating no health risk for the consumers. The average lead concentration (0.48 ± 0.21 mg/kg wet weight) exceeded the regulated maximum limit, but its calculated weekly intake was below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). The residue level of mercury is not regulated and the average mercury content of roe deer meat (0.87 ± 0.40 mg/kg wet weight) was about half of PTWI, but the consumption of meat with the highest detected concentrations results in higher PTWI than recommended. The measured concentration of arsenic (0.27 ± 0.20 mg/kg wet weight) in the roe deer meat may not pose any health risk for the human consumers according to the PTWI set by the World Health Organization.

  8. Evolutionary neutrality of mtDNA introgression: evidence from complete mitogenome analysis in roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosiuk, M; Sheremetyeva, I N; Sheremetyev, I S; Saveljev, A P; Borkowska, A

    2014-11-01

    Introgressive hybridization offers a unique platform for studying the molecular basis of natural selection acting on mitogenomes. Most of the mtDNA protein-coding genes are extremely conserved; however, some of the observed variations have potentially adaptive significance. Here, we evaluated whether the evolution of mtDNA in closely related roe deer species affected by widespread mtDNA introgression is neutral or adaptive. We characterized and compared 16 complete mitogenomes of European (Capreolus capreolus) and Siberian (C. pygargus) roe deer, including four of Siberian origin introgressed into European species. The average sequence divergence of species-specific lineages was estimated at 2.8% and varied across gene classes. Only 21 of 315 fixed differences identified in protein-coding genes represented nonsynonymous changes. Only three of them were determined to have arisen in the C. pygargus lineage since the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of both Capreolus species, reflecting a decelerated evolutionary ratio. The almost four-fold higher dN /dS ratio described for the European roe deer lineage is constrained by overall purifying selection, especially pronounced in the ND4 and ND5 genes. We suggest that the highly divergent C. capreolus lineage could have maintained a capability for genomic incorporation of the well-preserved and almost ancestral type of mtDNA present in C. pygargus. Our analyses did not indicate any signs of positive selection for Siberian roe deer mtDNA, suggesting that the present widespread introgression is evolutionarily neutral. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. An implicit turbulence model for low-Mach Roe scheme using truncated Navier-Stokes equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Gang; Tsubokura, Makoto

    2017-09-01

    The original Roe scheme is well-known to be unsuitable in simulations of turbulence because the dissipation that develops is unsatisfactory. Simulations of turbulent channel flow for Reτ = 180 show that, with the 'low-Mach-fix for Roe' (LMRoe) proposed by Rieper [J. Comput. Phys. 230 (2011) 5263-5287], the Roe dissipation term potentially equates the simulation to an implicit large eddy simulation (ILES) at low Mach number. Thus inspired, a new implicit turbulence model for low Mach numbers is proposed that controls the Roe dissipation term appropriately. Referred to as the automatic dissipation adjustment (ADA) model, the method of solution follows procedures developed previously for the truncated Navier-Stokes (TNS) equations and, without tuning of parameters, uses the energy ratio as a criterion to automatically adjust the upwind dissipation. Turbulent channel flow at two different Reynold numbers and the Taylor-Green vortex were performed to validate the ADA model. In simulations of turbulent channel flow for Reτ = 180 at Mach number of 0.05 using the ADA model, the mean velocity and turbulence intensities are in excellent agreement with DNS results. With Reτ = 950 at Mach number of 0.1, the result is also consistent with DNS results, indicating that the ADA model is also reliable at higher Reynolds numbers. In simulations of the Taylor-Green vortex at Re = 3000, the kinetic energy is consistent with the power law of decaying turbulence with -1.2 exponents for both LMRoe with and without the ADA model. However, with the ADA model, the dissipation rate can be significantly improved near the dissipation peak region and the peak duration can be also more accurately captured. With a firm basis in TNS theory, applicability at higher Reynolds number, and ease in implementation as no extra terms are needed, the ADA model offers to become a promising tool for turbulence modeling.

  10. The Ancillary Harvest of Atlantic Menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, Roe on the North Carolina Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Joseph W.; Ahrenholz, Dean W.

    2000-01-01

    Gravid Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, are available along the central coast of North Carolina during the fall and are harvested by the purse-seine fleet from the port of Beaufort. Virtually all of the catch, sexually immature fish included, is reduces to fish meal, fish oil, and fish solubles; however, minor quantities of roe from ripening female menhaden are extracted for local consupmtion. Routine and selective port sampling information was used to characterize the seasonal and bio...

  11. Opteren voor de Netherlands Commercial Court

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeben, J.; Keirse, A.L.M.; Reijneveld, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    Internationale contracten leiden tot internationale handelsgeschillen. Deze kunnen onder meer worden beslecht bij een commercial court. In Nederland wordt momenteel een Netherlands Commercial Court (NCC) opgericht. Dit introduceert een keuze voor (contracts)partijen voor een nieuw forum voor beslechting van internationale handelsgeschillen in de Engelse taal, waarbij de belangen van snelheid, efficiëntie en goede financierbaarheid centraal staan. Dit artikel verkent de positieve aspecten van ...

  12. Public mood in day of the first elections in the Supreme Soviet of RSFSR

    OpenAIRE

    Salogubov, Dmitriy Yurevich

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of archival materials of Department of popularization and propaganda of Tambov region committee of The All-Union communist party (Bolsheviks) the public mood in the election day in the Supreme Soviet of RSFSR of the first convocation (June, 26th, 1937) is investigated in the article. The public mood is considered as the indicator of the relation of the population to the power: the concrete facts of positive and negative attitude of different levels of popul...

  13. Applicability of SEI's Capability Maturity Model in Joint Information Technology, Supreme Command Headquarters

    OpenAIRE

    Thongmuang, Jitti.

    1995-01-01

    The Software Engineering Institute's (SEI) Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is analyzed to identify its technological and economic applicability for the Joint Information Technology (JIT), Supreme Command Headquarters, Royal Thai Ministry of Defense. Kurt Lewin's force field theory was used to analyze different dimensions of CMM's applicability for JIT's organizational environment (defined by the stakeholder concept). It suggests that introducing CMM technology into JIT is unwarranted at this ...

  14. Means of determining the condition of insanity in administrative proceedings based on the court practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Mikhailovna Sekretareva

    2015-06-01

    the Supreme Court Plenum which subsequently will ensure the unity and consistency of enforcement actions against persons with mental disorders in the Russian Federation. nbsp

  15. Federal Constitutional Court - report on Court decisions 1984 no. 40-56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkemann, J.

    1985-01-01

    The decision deals with the question to which extent administrative courts have to examine the case in summary proceedings against licences pursuant to Atomic Energy Law. The Federal Constitutional Court examines the question if the administrative court has, in checking the chances, misjudged the importance of the appellant's fundamental rights and thus infringed his constitutionally protected position. In this case, the Court comes to the result that after having adjusted the determined interests, the confirmation of immediate execution did not infringe the fundamental rights of the appellant. (HP) [de

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Lucjan; Czopowicz, Michał; Nagy, Dan Alexandru; Potarniche, Adrian Valentin; Aoanei, Monica Adriana; Imomov, Nuriddin; Mickiewicz, Marcin; Welz, Mirosław; Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Kaba, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa) and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France). Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%), 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7%) and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%). To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans. © L. Witkowski et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowski Lucjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus, 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%, 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7% and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans.

  18. Influence of Holocene environmental change and anthropogenic impact on the diversity and distribution of roe deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K H; Hoelzel, A R

    2014-01-01

    Extant patterns of population structure and levels of diversity are a consequence of factors that vary in both space and time. Our objective in this study is to investigate a species that has responded to both natural and anthropogenic changes in ways that have shaped modern populations and provide insight into the key processes. The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is one of the two species of deer native to Britain. During the last glacial maximum (LGM), the British habitat was largely under ice and there was a land bridge to mainland Europe. As the Earth warmed during the early Holocene, the land bridge was lost. Subsequent hunting on the British mainland left the southern region extirpated of roe deer, whereas a refugial population remained in the north. Later reintroductions from Europe led to population expansion, especially in southern United Kingdom. Here, we combine data from ancient and modern DNA to track population dynamics and patterns of connectivity, and test hypotheses about the influence of natural and anthropogenic environmental change. We find that past expansion and divergence events coincided with a warming environment and the subsequent closure of the land bridge between Europe and the United Kingdom. We also find turnover in British roe deer haplotypes between the late-Holocene and modern day that have likely resulted from recent human disturbance activities such as habitat perturbation, overhunting and restocking. PMID:24448563

  19. Population density and sex do not influence fine-scale natal dispersal in roe deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, J.-M; Hewison, A.J.M; Kjellander, P; Pettorelli, N; Bonenfant, C; Van Moorter, B; Liberg, O; Andren, H; Van Laere, G; Klein, F; Angibault, J.-M; Coulon, A; Vanpé, C

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that the propensity to disperse and the dispersal distance of mammals should increase with increasing density and be greater among males than among females. However, most empirical evidence, especially on large mammals, has focused on highly polygynous and dimorphic species displaying female-defence mating tactics. We tested these predictions on roe deer, a weakly polygynous species of large herbivore exhibiting a resource-defence mating tactic at a fine spatial scale. Using three long-term studies of populations that were subject to the experimental manipulation of size, we did not find any support for either prediction, whether in terms of dispersal probability or dispersal distance. Our findings of similar dispersal patterns in both sexes of roe deer suggest that the underlying cause of natal dispersal is not related to inbreeding avoidance in this species. The absence of positive density dependence in fine-scale dispersal behaviour suggests that roe deer natal dispersal is a pre-saturation process that is shaped by heterogeneities in habitat quality rather than by density per se. PMID:18505718

  20. Reduction in the number of patients with neuroborreliosis, following a significant reduction in roe deer abundance on the island of Funen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nanna Skaarup; Moestrup Jensen, Per; Skarphédinson, Sigurdur

    in the annual hunting bag, mirroring the existing abundance of roe deer. It is well established that the abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus, - the vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sl in Europe,- is correlated with the abundance of roe deer. Since tick abundance correlates with human cases of neuroborreliosis......, it can be expected that changes in roe deer densities lead to changes in human neuroborreliosis cases in the region. Due to sizable reduction in roe deer abundance on the island of Funen, it was hypothesized that the number of I. ricinus must have declined and thereby the number of patients...

  1. Past and Future for Management of Courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Maan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is written from the perspective of a court president in The Netherlands, a so called civil law country. In theory, in a civil law country, judges and lawyers in civil and commercial cases base their actions on the application of the law and its interpretation. Moreover, in criminal matters, the courts use inquisitorial procedures which differ from the adversarial procedures used in common law countries. The field of court management is not highly developed because of the tension between the need for judicial independence and judicial organization. There are many examples of this tension, including the fact that courts may be subject to budgetary limits which themselves may intrude upon judicial independence. For instance, suppose that a judge believes it necessary to appoint an expert to answer a certain scientific question, but the expert is expensive and budgetary considerations preclude the appointment. When I was involved in the process of the budgets of prosecutors’ offices and courts, this question frequently arose. In an effort to deal with this problem, part of the courts’ budgets were treated as open-ended even though courts rarely spent these open-ended budgets lavishly.

  2. Criminal adjudication by state courts under the FDRE constitution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the one hand, the dualism of the court structure presupposes that the federal courts adjudicate federal criminal matters, where as state courts adjudicate state criminal matters. This principle is accompanied by an exception that the state courts adjudicate federal criminal matters by delegation power. On the other hand, ...

  3. The Admissibility of Subregional Courts' Decisions before the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, it is not clear whether the cases decided by subregional courts are admissible before the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights or the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights. Focusing on the Economic Community of West African States Court of Justice, the East African Court of Justice, and the ...

  4. the admissibility of subregional courts' decisions before the african

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AbdiJA

    subregional courts are admissible before the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights or the African ... subregional courts. Key words. Admissibility, African Commission, African Court, subregional courts, res ...... 189 Communication 233/99, Interights (on behalf of Pan African Movement and. Citizens for Peace in ...

  5. The Development and Role of the Court Administrator in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Ryder-Lahey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available By the turn of the millennium most courts in Canada had court administrators managing their operations and their staff. As a rule, the court administrators worked in a partnership with the chairmen of their courts, who typically delegated some of their official responsibilities. But the mere presence of court administrators, not to speak of their broad range of functions, was still relatively new. Only in the 1970s did most courts acquire administrators, and it took at least another decade before they were fully accepted by judges and entered into a position of equality with some, if not many, chairs of courts.

  6. Bacteria and methanogens differ along the gastrointestinal tract of Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Li

    Full Text Available The current study provides the insight into the bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT and methanogens presented in the rumen and cecum of the Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus. The ruminal, ileal, cecal, and colonic contents, as well as feces, were obtained from each of the three, free-range, roe deer ingesting natural pasture after euthanasia. For the bacterial community, a total of 697,031 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were generated using high-throughput sequencing, and assigned to 2,223 core operational taxonomic units (OTUs (12 bacterial phyla and 87 genera. The phyla Firmicutes (51.2% and Bacteroidetes (39.4% were the dominant bacteria in the GIT of roe deer. However, the bacterial community in the rumen was significantly (P<0.01 different from the other sampled regions along the GIT. Secondly, Prevotella spp., Anaerovibrio spp., and unidentified bacteria within the families Veillonellaceae and Paraprevotellaceae were more abundant in the rumen than in the other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Enterobacteriaceae, Succinivibrio spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. were more predominant in the colon than in other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Ruminococcaceae, and Bacteroides spp. were more prevalent in the ileum, cecum and fecal pellets. For methanogens in the rumen and cecum, a total of 375,647 high quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained and assigned to 113 core OTUs. Methanobrevibacter millerae was the dominant species accounting for 77.3±7.4 (S.E % and 68.9±4.4 (S.E % of total sequences in the rumen and cecum of roe deer, respectively. However, the abundance of Methanobrevibacter smithii was higher in the rumen than in the cecum (P = 0.004. These results revealed that there was intra variation in the bacterial community composition across the GIT of roe deer, and also showed that the methanogen community in the rumen differed from that in the cecum.

  7. PROCEDURAL NORMS AND SUBSTANTIVE NORMS: THE PRIMACY OF JUS COGENS NORMS AND UNDERSTANDING OF THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Resende Bueno Da Fonseca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between the procedural rule of State immunity and substantive rule of jus cogens prohibiting torture and slave labor in the case Germany v. Italy judged by the International Court of Justice in 2012. Notwithstanding the recognized superiority of peremptory norms, in the case, its analysis was impeded by application of the procedural rule of immunity. The suppression of the rule that expresses the higher values of the international community resulted in manifest injustice and impunity. Through detailed analysis of the characteristics and effects substantive rules of jus cogens, as well as its distinction of rules of procedural character, and considering the theoretical framework humanization of international law, this work states that the contemporary international law does not allow a procedural rule prevents the application of a substantive rule of jus cogens, exactly by the supreme value this last protects: the human being.

  8. Public support for pro-choice abortion policies in the nation and states: changes and stability after the Roe and Doe decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslaner, E M; Weber, R E

    1979-08-01

    In 1973 the United States Supreme Court ruled that abortion could be had practically on request during the first 3 months of pregnancy. This article discusses whether the decision led to more public support for that position, and where in the U.S. the increase in support has been most drastic. The most recent public opinion polls indicate about 60% public support legalized abortion, while it was only 45% before 1973. Support has also increased even if pregnancy is not judged to be detrimental to the mother's health, or if it is not the result of rape and/or incest, but even if it is simply requested for economic or purely personal reasons. People under 30, with college education, men and Protestants, seem to be the staunchest supporters of abortion on demand. There has also been an increase in the number of Catholics supporting abortion. Support for abortion increased in most states between 1969-1973, particularly in the West and in the Northwest. The fight to deny federal funds for abortion is still raging in Congress; some studies indicate that the religion of the legislators is the most powerful predictor of voting on abortion, and that the decision is a very personal one, and not easily altered by the lobbying of groups on either side.

  9. Reviem Of Legal Relevance Program School No Political Party Based On The Proportionality And Evidence And Justifiability Controls Applied By The Brazilian Supreme Court

    OpenAIRE

    Baggenstoss, Grazielly Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the legal context of bringing the School No Political Party Program, which aims to include legal provisions in the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education. Therefore, the problem of research is if the mentioned project has legal relevance to the Brazilian legal system , as well as the current pedagogical context. Thus, with deductive method, the question is examined from the proportionality test of Robert Alexy and Evidence and Justifiability Controls, applied...

  10. Judgment of the Constitutional Review Chamber of the Supreme Court en banc : no. of the case 3-4-1-5-02 : date of desicion 28 October 2002

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Riigikohtu lahendi 3-4-1-5-02 (Tallinna Halduskohtu taotlus ORAS §7 lg 3 põhiseadusele vastavuse selgitamiseks) tekst inglise keeles. - Lisatud: Dissenting opinion by Jüri Ilvest, Henn Jõks, Lea Kivi, Villu Kõve, pp. 214-215

  11. The Effects of Segregation and the Consequences of Desegregation A (September 1952) Social Science Statement in the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Supreme Court Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kenneth B.; Chein, Isidor; Cook, Stuart W.

    2004-01-01

    This statement was an appendix to the appellants' briefs in the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, Briggs v. Elliott, and Davis v. Prince Edward County, Virginia, cases. The statement offers definitions of segregation and discusses the implications and potential effects of segregation on children both in minority and majority groups.

  12. Constitutionalizing secularism, alternative secularisms or liberal-democratic constitutionalism? A critical reading of some Turkish, ECtHR and Indian Supreme Court cases on ‘secularism’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, V.

    2010-01-01

    In recent debates on the constitutional status of 'secularism' we can discern three positions. The first tries to overcome the absence of 'secularism' in most liberal-democratic constitutions by developing a more robust theory of constitutional secularism. The second develops theories of

  13. The Danish Supreme Court rules on State action defense and refusal to supply under Danish competition law (Copenhagen Airport Terminal A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergqvist, Christian; Christensen, Laurits Peder Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    for the purpose of building a new terminal A. Terminal A would compete with the airport in the supply of services to airlines. Copenhagen airport rejected the request which in turn lead the group of investors to complain to the Danish Competition and Consumer Authority ("DCCA"). In its draft decision the DCCA...

  14. PCR Detection and Serological Evidence of Granulocytic Ehrlichial Infection in Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) and Chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liz, Jorge S.; Sumner, John W.; Pfister, Kurt; Brossard, Michel

    2002-01-01

    The role of wild mammals, such as roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), in the epidemiology of granulocytic ehrlichiae in Switzerland was investigated. We tested blood samples for Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup 16S rRNA gene sequences by PCR and for immunoglobulin G antibodies against granulocytic ehrlichiae by indirect fluorescent-antibody assay (IFA). Overall means of 60.9% of 133 roe deer serum samples and 28.2% of 39 chamois serum samples were seroreactive by IFA. PCR results were positive for 18.4% of 103 roe deer serum samples as well. None of the 24 chamois blood samples tested were positive by PCR. Partial 16S rRNA gene and groESL heat shock operon sequences of three roe deer samples tested showed strong degrees of homology (≥99.7 and ≥98.6%, respectively) with the sequences of granulocytic ehrlichiae isolated from humans. These results confirm that chamois, and particularly roe deer, are commonly infected with granulocytic ehrlichiae and provide evidence that these wild mammals are potential reservoirs for granulocytic ehrlichiae in Switzerland. PMID:11880411

  15. Time trends (1986-2003) of radiocesium transfer to roe deer and wild boar in two Austrian forest regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strebl, F. [Austrian Research Centers GmbH - ARC, Radiation Safety and Applications, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: friederike.strebl@arcs.ac.at; Tataruch, F. [Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Savoyenstr.1, A 1160 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-11-15

    Starting shortly after the Chernobyl accident, samples of roe deer and wild boar from two comparatively highly contaminated Austrian forest stands have been regularly analysed for {sup 137}Cs. Until 1995 average {sup 137}Cs concentrations exceeded 1000 Bq kg{sup -1} in both roe deer and wild boar. Long-term and seasonal trends are similar in both investigation sites. While {sup 137}Cs aggregated transfer factor (T{sub ag}) values show a significant decreasing trend in roe deer (ecological half-time 8.6 and 7.2 years, respectively), T{sub ag}-values in wild boar are highly variable, but rather increasing values are observed over the last years. T{sub ag}-values for roe deer are between 0.04 and 0.008 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} fresh weight (1987-2003); values for wild boar are between 0.008 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} (1988) and 0.046 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} (1996) fresh weight. Seasonal trends for both species are in good agreement with observations from German forests: increased mushroom ingestion leads to higher {sup 137}Cs T{sub ag}-values for roe deer in the second half of the year (August-December) compared to the first half (January-July). T{sub ag}-values for wild boar are highest in the first half of the year.

  16. Age-Related Patterns in Trace Element Content Vary Between Bone and Teeth of the European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demesko, Jan; Markowski, Janusz; Słaba, Mirosława; Hejduk, Janusz; Minias, Piotr

    2018-02-01

    Game animals, such as the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), have long been used as bioindicators of environmental contamination. Most ecotoxicological research on ungulates has focused on trace element content in soft tissues and antlers. Also, only fragmentary information exists about whether and how trace element concentrations vary with the age of wild-living animals and whether these age-related patterns are similar for different types of tissues. The purpose of this study was to measure concentrations of seven trace metals (barium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, strontium, zinc) and fluoride in bone and teeth of roe deer and to determine whether significant variation is evident with individual age. For this purpose, we collected permanent molars and fragments of mandible bone from more than 130 female roe deer in Central Poland. We found that concentrations of four trace elements (barium, manganese, zinc, and fluoride) in teeth of deer showed positive linear relationships with individual age. No such trends were recorded for trace element content in bone. We suggest that these striking differences in age-related patterns of trace element bioaccumulation between bone and permanent teeth of roe deer might be explained by higher turnover rate and constant remodelling of bone tissue. The results suggest that analysis of permanent teeth may be useful for assessing throughout-life intoxication by environmental pollution in the roe deer and possibly in other mammal species. Our study reinforces the need to carefully account for age-related variation in ecotoxicological research on wild-living animals.

  17. First report of Setaria tundra in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from the Iberian Peninsula inferred from molecular data: epidemiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone-Alasaad, Samer; Jowers, Michael J; Panadero, Rosario; Pérez-Creo, Ana; Pajares, Gerardo; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Soriguer, Ramón C; Morrondo, Patrocinio

    2016-09-29

    Filarioid nematode parasites are major health hazards with important medical, veterinary and economic implications. Recently, they have been considered as indicators of climate change. In this paper, we report the first record of Setaria tundra in roe deer from the Iberian Peninsula. Adult S. tundra were collected from the peritoneal cavity during the post-mortem examination of a 2 year-old male roe deer, which belonged to a private fenced estate in La Alcarria (Guadalajara, Spain). Since 2012, the area has suffered a high roe deer decline rate (75 %), for unknown reasons. Aiming to support the morphological identification and to determine the phylogenetic position of S. tundra recovered from the roe deer, a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene from the two morphologically identified parasites was amplified, sequenced and compared with corresponding sequences of other filarioid nematode species. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the isolate of S. tundra recovered was basal to all other formely reported Setaria tundra sequences. The presence of all other haplotypes in Northern Europe may be indicative of a South to North outbreak in Europe. This is the first report of S. tundra in roe deer from the Iberian Peninsula, with interesting phylogenetic results, which may have further implications in the epidemiological and genetic studies of these filarioid parasites. More studies are needed to explore the reasons and dynamics behind the rapid host/geographic expansion of the filarioid parasites in Europe.

  18. Regulatory behaviour under threat of court reversal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderberg, Magnus; Menezes, Flavio; Santolino, Miguel

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates howregulators influence outcomes in regulated marketswhen their decisions are subject to the threat of court review.We develop a theoretical model that provides a number of behavioural implications when (i) all regulators' dislike having their decisions overturned by courts......, (ii) inexperienced regulators care more about not having their decisions overturned than experienced regulators, and (iii) experienced regulators also care about consumer surplus. The theoretical implications are tested using a database of Swedish regulatory decisions from the electricity distribution...... experience, complexity and regulatory outcomes are both statistically and economically significant. Simulations show that if those decisions that were not appealed had been appealed, then the court would have lowered the prices by 10% on average....

  19. Employers liability to the international criminal court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenifer Yiseth Suárez Díaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The constant changes in the social dynamics due to economic and technological development has brought along the need to dispose of a High Court, with competence over International Crimes. The above was the reason to establish the International Criminal Court, destined to prosecute and punish the maximum responsible for crimes of its jurisdiction. Nonetheless, despite the existence of individual criminal responsibility as an accomplice in the case of entrepreneurs who contribute to the crime, there is not an actual investigation or conviction as such in the Court fase for those individuals. Through a criminological study, the actions in the frame of the criminal policy in international law, in order to hold individual criminal responsibility towards entrepreneurs for international crimes, will be evaluated, from the dogmatic categories established in the international guidelines as well as from international doctrine.

  20. Liquidation of Limited Companies Dissolved by Courts

    OpenAIRE

    Dvorníková, Jiřina

    2012-01-01

    As a topic of my dissertation I have chosen a " Liquidation of capital commercial companies cancelled by a court." The reason to choose this topic was the fact, that it is a process not discussed by the professional public as much, including the "forced company liquidation", which is executed on the base of court decision. The reason was the situation, when there is a constant growth of dysfunctional companies, that are unable of further business activity and the bodies of such companies do n...

  1. Exploring the Effects of Court Dispositions on Future Domestic Violence Offending: An Analysis of Two Specialized Domestic Violence Courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchevsky, Gillian M

    2015-05-27

    This study seeks to explore the relationship between court dispositions and reoffending within and across two specialized domestic violence (DV) courts located in the United States. The samples for this study are comprised of defendants whose cases were disposed of within the two courts between 2004 and 2006. This study assessed the effects of prosecution, conviction, and sentencing decisions on the prevalence, incidence, and time-to-rearrest for a new DV offense in the 3 years post-disposition both within and across courts. Findings indicate a limited crime-control effect of court dispositions on future offending. Furthermore, despite differences in the community context, policies, and court dispositions across the two courts, the magnitude of the disposition-recidivism relationship is similar across courts. It is important to understand the findings within the context of the specific courts; a discussion of the results is provided. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Modelling of radiocaesium-transfer (soil-plant-roe-deer) in forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebl, F.

    1995-05-01

    In 1993 an extended sampling program was performed in Weinsberger Wald (spruce forest, 48 o 23' N, 15 o 03' E). For the investigation of 137 Cs migration behaviour in soil layers and the transfer to vegetation and herbivore animals (roe-deer, Capreolus capreolus) about 400 samples were taken within an area of about 200 ha, covering different sea levels between 850 and 1000 m. In thinlayer-sampled soil cores vertical distribution was determined for both 137 Cs from Chernobyl and global (nuclear weapon tests) fallout. Caesium from both sources showed an exponential decrease within the profiles. The total soil inventory was determined analyzing pooled samples from the whole investiation area. Cumulative fallout from weapon tests amounted to 5.8 kBq/m 2 (corrected for decay to 1.5.1986), Chernobyl depositions to a depth of 20 cm of mineral soil were determined to be 61.9 kBq/m 2 . 45 % (Chernobyl) and 40 % (global fallout) were still to be found in the litter layer, 92 % and 84 % of contamination were retained in the upper 10 cm of soil, only 3 % of Chernobyl fallout and less than 10 % of global fallout have reached horizons deeper than 20 cm of mineral soil. A correlation analysis of physico-chemical soil parameters with 137 Cs concentration in soil showed a close relation of 137 Cs values with organic matter as well as exchangeable bound cations. The dynamic behaviour of 137 Cs vertical migration in soil was evaluated by application of a compartment model. Residence half-times were calculated separately for each soil layer. Gammaspectrometric data from previous studies were used to validate model predictions of depth distribution. They are in good agreement with the calculated figures (+ 20 %). 137 Cs concentrations in roe-deer forage plants were determined as (Bq/kg dry matter): young spruce twigs: 2579; young bilberry twigs: 2467; grasses: 1110; herbs: 386; mosses: 4043; fern leaves: 7149; mushrooms (median of different species): 10070; Xerocomus badius: 35520. Age

  3. Social Media and the Courts: Innovative Tools or Dangerous Fad? A Practical Guide for Court Administrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Meyer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a comprehensive overview of what social media are, why social media are important in society and the courts, how social media can be used effectively, what social media platforms are well-suited to the courts, what problems can arise, and how to proactively deal with such problems. In the early years of social media use in the courts there was a lot of skepticism. As we have gained experience most problems have been shown to be less severe or have been solved. Meanwhile, many usage advantages have become apparent. Research in the United States has shown that judges are increasingly supporting social media use by themselves and their courts, and are less concerned about problems and compromising ethics.The courts hold a special place in government as impartial arbiters of legal disputes. We, as court leaders, must fulfill the public’s trust in us to achieve the highest level of service while upholding the rule of law. As we have seen, social media are excellent tools to make this a reality—the challenge is to securely and effectively leverage these tools in the court setting.

  4. ANALYSIS OF MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF THE ROE DEER MANDIBLE (Capreolus capreolus AND MANDIBLE OF THE SHEEP (Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizah Avdić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Morphology and morphometry of the bones are the methods often used for identification of species, estimation of animals' age, and genetic and forensic investigation. The mandible as the largest bone of the head is perhaps the most representative sample for this research. The aim of this study was to determine the basic morphometric parameters of the mandible of roe deer and sheep in order to identify the species. All samples were described by linear measure morphometric analysis of 12 specific anatomical points on the mandibles of roe deer and sheep. The results obtained are presented in the Table as mean and standard deviation.Key words: morphology, morphometry, mandible, roe deer, shee

  5. Cephenemyia stimulator (Diptera) infection in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from Kraków area, southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornaś, Sławomir; Kowal, Jerzy; Wajdzik, Marek; Nosal, Paweł; Wojtaszek, Magdalena; Basiaga, Marta

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of botfly (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae infection in roe deer populations (Capreolus capreolus) in the Kraków area on the basis of necropsy and questionnaire surveys. Hunters were surveyed about the age and sex of hunted animals, and the origin of their habitat. All parasite specimens were identified to species in the laboratory. The parasites were found in the nasal cavities, esophagus, and larynx of male roe deer aged 3-8 years, living in forest habitats. The level of infection was relatively low (13%), with the intensity ranging from 1 to 10 larvae per host. Although no fly larvae were found during the dissection of roe deer carcasses, the parasites received from the hunters were identified as Cephenemyia stimulator botflies. These findings are supported by the evidence drawn from the questionnaires completed by the hunters. parasites, Cephenemyia stimulator, Capreolus capreolus, necropsy, questionnaire study, Poland.

  6. The Indultados of Tescua: Criminal Rebellion and Judicial Reckoning during the War of the Supremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Rosenthal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1841 the public of Bogota followed the trial of 22 prisoners charged with the crime of rebellion during the War of the Supremes. Captured while serving as officers at the battle of Tescua, the accused claimed they had been forced to serve in the rebel army. This excuse was ignored and 21 of the defendants were sentenced to death, only to be spared by decrees of indulto in the following months. This article examines the logic behind such judicial reckoning, the narrative strategies employed by the accused in their defense, and the meaning of clemency in the early republic.

  7. Non-invasive genetic approaches for estimation of ungulate population size: a study on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus based on faeces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimating population size is particularly difficult for animal species living in concealing habitats with dense vegetation. This is the case for roe deer as for many other ungulates. Our objective was to develop a non–invasive genetic capture–mark–recapture approach based on roe deer faeces collected along transects. In a pilot study, we collected 1,790 roe deer faeces during five sampling days in a forested study area in south western Germany. We extracted DNA from 410 of these samples and carried out microsatellite analysis using seven dinucleotide markers. The analyses resulted in 328 useable consensus genotypes which were assigned to 174 individuals. The population size estimated using a Bayesian approach was 94 (82–111 male and 136 (121–156 female roe deer. Our study shows that non–invasive genetic methods are a valuable management tool for roe deer.

  8. Serologic screening for 13 infectious agents in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Flanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernier, Paul; Sys, Stanislas U; De Clercq, Kris; De Leeuw, Ilse; Caij, Anne Brigitte; De Baere, Miet; De Regge, Nick; Fretin, David; Roupie, Virginie; Govaerts, Marc; Heyman, Paul; Vanrompay, Daisy; Yin, Lizi; Kalmar, Isabelle; Suin, Vanessa; Brochier, Bernard; Dobly, Alexandre; De Craeye, Stéphane; Roelandt, Sophie; Goossens, Els; Roels, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of roe deer in the maintenance and transmission of infectious animal and human diseases in Flanders, we conducted a serologic screening in 12 hunting areas. Roe deer sera collected between 2008 and 2013 (n=190) were examined for antibodies against 13 infectious agents, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, virus neutralisation, immunofluorescence, or microagglutination test, depending on the agent. High numbers of seropositives were found for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (45.8%), Toxoplasma gondii (43.2%) and Schmallenberg virus (27.9%), the latter with a distinct temporal distribution pattern following the outbreak in domestic ruminants. Lower antibody prevalence was found for Chlamydia abortus (6.7%), tick-borne encephalitis virus (5.1%), Neospora caninum (4.8%), and Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (4.1%). The lowest prevalences were found for Leptospira (1.7%), bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (1.3%), and Coxiella burnetii (1.2%). No antibodies were found against Brucella sp., bovine herpesvirus 1, and bluetongue virus. A significant difference in seroprevalence between ages (higher in adults >1 year) was found for N. caninum. Four doubtful reacting sera accounted for a significant difference in seroprevalence between sexes for C. abortus (higher in females). Despite the more intensive landscape use in Flanders, the results are consistent with other European studies. Apart from maintaining C. abortus and MAP, roe deer do not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of the examined zoonotic and domestic animal pathogens. Nevertheless, their meaning as sentinels should not be neglected in the absence of other wild cervid species.

  9. European roe deer antlers as an environmental archive for fallout 236U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, M.B.; Steier, P.; Wallner, G.; Fifield, L.K.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic 236 U and 239 Pu were measured in European roe deer antlers hunted between 1955 and 1977 which covers and extends beyond the period of intensive nuclear weapons testing (1954–1962). The antlers were hunting trophies, and hence the hunting area, the year of shooting and the approximate age of each animal is given. Uranium and plutonium are known to deposit in skeletal tissue. Since antler histology is similar to bone, both elements were expected in antlers. Furthermore, roe deer shed their antlers annually, and hence antlers may provide a time-resolved environmental archive for fallout radionuclides. The radiochemical procedure is based on a Pu separation step by anion exchange (Dowex 1 × 8) and a subsequent U purification by extraction chromatography using UTEVA ® . The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the VERA facility (University of Vienna). In addition to the 236 U and 239 Pu concentrations, the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotopic ratios were determined with a mean value of 0.172 ± 0.023 which is in agreement with the ratio of global fallout (∼0.18). Rather high 236 U/ 238 U ratios of the order of 10 −6 were observed. These measured ratios, where the 236 U arises only from global fallout, have implications for the use of the 236 U/ 238 U ratio as a fingerprint for nuclear accidents or releases from nuclear facilities. Our investigations have shown the potential to use antlers as a temporally resolved archive for the uptake of actinides from the environment. - Highlights: • Roe deer antlers were studied as an environmental archive for the retrospective study of fallout isotopes 236 U and 239 Pu. • The rather high 236 U/ 238 U ratios of about 10 −6 suggest 236 U as a fingerprint tool for nuclear material releases. • The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio underpins global fallout as the main anthropogenic contributor in antlers.

  10. Genetic diversity and phylogeography of Siberian roe deer, Caproulus pygargus, in central and peripheral populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Sun; Markov, Nickolay; Argunov, Alexander; Voloshina, Inna; Bayarlkhagva, Damdingiin; Kim, Baek-Jun; Min, Mi-Sook; Lee, Hang; Kim, Kyung Seok

    2016-10-01

    Current understanding of phylogeographical structure and genetic diversity of Siberian roe deer remains limited mainly due to small sample size and/or low geographical coverage in previous studies. Published data suggest at least two phylogroups: western (Ural Mountains and Western Siberia) and eastern (east from lake Baikal, including the Korean peninsula), but their phylogenetic relationship remains unclear. Combined sequences of cytochrome b (1140 bp) and the mtDNA control region (963 bp) were analyzed from 219 Siberian roe deer from 12 locations in Russia, Mongolia, and South Korea, which cover a large part of its range, to assess genetic diversity and phylogeographical status. Special emphasis was placed on the demographic history and genetic features of central, peripheral, and isolated populations. Results of median-joining network and phylogenetic tree analyses indicate that Siberian roe deer from the Urals to the Pacific Ocean are genetically diverse and that geographical distribution and composition of haplogroups coincide with previously described ranges of the subspecies Capreolus pygargus pygargus and Capreolus pygargus tianschanicus . We found that peripheral populations in the northwestern parts of the species range (Urals), as well as the isolated population from Jeju Island, are genetically distinct from those in the core part of the range, both in terms of genetic diversity and quantitative composition of haplogroups. We also found that northwestern (Urals) and northern (Yakutia) peripheral populations share the same haplogroup and fall into the same phylogenetic clade with the isolated population from Jeju Island. This finding sheds light on the taxonomic status of the Jeju Island population and leads to hypotheses about the discordance of morphological and genetic evolution in isolated populations and specific genetic features of peripheral populations.

  11. West Nile virus serosurveillance in pigs, wild boars, and roe deer in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Romero, Estela; Lupulović, Diana; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Lazić, Gospava; Lazić, Sava; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Petrović, Tamaš

    2015-04-17

    West Nile virus (WNV) is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between birds and mosquitoes, but it also infects many other vertebrates, including humans and horses, in which it can induce severe neurological diseases; however, data about virus circulation in other mammals is scarce. WNV has a history of recent outbreaks in Europe, including Serbia, where it was identified for the first time in 2010 in mosquitoes and in 2012 in birds and humans, being responsible for over 300 confirmed human cases and 35 deaths there along 2013. To assess WNV circulation among mammals in the country, 688 samples obtained from 279 farm pigs, 318 wild boars, and 91 roe deer were investigated for the presence of antibodies to WNV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and viral neutralization test (VNT), and the specificity of their reactivity was assayed against Usutu virus (USUV). ELISA-reactive sera were identified in 43 (15.4%) pigs, 56 (17.6%) wild boars, and 17 (18.7%) roe deer. Of these, 6 (14%), 33 (59%), and 4 (23.5%) respectively, neutralized WNV. One out of the 45 ELISA negative sera tested, from a roe deer, neutralized WNV. Cross-reactivity neutralization test indicated that all deer and pigs neutralizing sera were WNV specific, while in 5 (15.2%) of the wild boar samples the specificity could not be established. Four wild boar sera showed USUV specificity. All these data confirm the circulation of both flaviviruses in Serbia, and highlight the need for the implementation of global coordinated surveillance programs in the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Between-population differences in the genetic and maternal components of body mass in roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéméré, E; Gaillard, J M; Galan, M; Vanpé, C; David, I; Pellerin, M; Kjellander, P; Hewison, A J M; Pemberton, J M

    2018-03-28

    Understanding the genetic and environmental mechanisms governing variation in morphology or phenology in wild populations is currently an important challenge. While there is a general consensus that selection is stronger under stressful conditions, it remains unclear whether the evolutionary potential of traits should increase or decrease with increasingly stressful conditions. Here, we investigate how contrasting environmental conditions during growth may affect the maternal and genetic components of body mass in roe deer, the most abundant and widespread wild ungulate in Western Europe. Body mass is a key life history trait that strongly influences both survival and reproductive performance in large herbivores. We used pedigrees and animal models to determine the variance components of juvenile and adult winter body mass in two populations experiencing contrasting early-life conditions. Our analyses showed that roe deer at Chizé, where habitat was poor and unpredictable, exhibited very low genetic variance in juvenile body mass. Instead, variance in mass was mainly driven by among-cohort differences in early-life conditions and maternal environment. In contrast, roe deer at Bogesund, where resource availability during the critical period of fawn rearing was higher, displayed a substantial level of genetic variance in body mass. We discuss the potential role of past demography and viability selection on fawn body mass on the erosion of genetic variance in the poor habitat. Our study highlights the importance of accounting for both spatial (i.e. between-population variation) and temporal (i.e. cohort variation) heterogeneity in environmental conditions, especially in early life, to understand the potential for adaptive responses of wild populations to selection.

  13. Noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical activity in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) by measurement of fecal cortisol metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnhard, M; Clauss, M; Lechner-Doll, M; Meyer, H H; Palme, R

    2001-07-01

    A method for measuring glucocorticoids noninvasively in feces of roe deer was established and validated. The enzyme immunoassay (EIA) measures 11,17-dioxoandrostanes (11,17-DOA), a group of cortisol metabolites. Such measurement avoids blood sampling and reflects a dampened pattern of diurnal glucocorticoid secretion, providing an integrated measure of adrenocortical activity. After high-performance liquid chromatography, the presence of at least three different immunoreactive 11,17-DOA in the feces of roe deer was demonstrated. The physiological relevance of these fecal cortisol metabolites to adrenocortical activity was evaluated with an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge test: cortisol metabolite concentrations exceeded pretreatment levels (31-78 ng/g) up to 13-fold (183-944 ng/g) within 8-23 h. Starting from basal levels between 13 and 71 ng/g, a suppression of adrenocortical activity after dexamethasone administration, indicated by metabolite levels close to the detection limit, was obtained 36-81 h after treatment, whereas unmetabolized dexamethasone was detectable in feces 12 h after its injection. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite assessment via EIA is therefore of use in the monitoring of adrenocortical activity in roe deer. In a second experiment, capture, veterinary treatment, and transportation of animals were used as experimental stresses. This resulted in a 7.5-fold increase of fecal metabolites (1200 +/- 880 ng/g, mean +/- SD) compared to baseline concentrations. The administration of a long-acting tranquilizer (LAT), designed to minimize the physiological stress response, 2 days prior to a similar stress event led to a reduced stress response, resulting in only a 4-fold increase of fecal metabolites (650 +/- 280 ng/g; mean +/- SD). Therefore, LATs should be further investigated for their effectiveness in reducing stress responses in zoo and wild animals, e.g., when translocations are necessary.

  14. Serologic screening for 13 infectious agents in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in Flanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Tavernier

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to investigate the role of roe deer in the maintenance and transmission of infectious animal and human diseases in Flanders, we conducted a serologic screening in 12 hunting areas. Materials and methods: Roe deer sera collected between 2008 and 2013 (n=190 were examined for antibodies against 13 infectious agents, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, virus neutralisation, immunofluorescence, or microagglutination test, depending on the agent. Results and discussion: High numbers of seropositives were found for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (45.8%, Toxoplasma gondii (43.2% and Schmallenberg virus (27.9%, the latter with a distinct temporal distribution pattern following the outbreak in domestic ruminants. Lower antibody prevalence was found for Chlamydia abortus (6.7%, tick-borne encephalitis virus (5.1%, Neospora caninum (4.8%, and Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (4.1%. The lowest prevalences were found for Leptospira (1.7%, bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (1.3%, and Coxiella burnetii (1.2%. No antibodies were found against Brucella sp., bovine herpesvirus 1, and bluetongue virus. A significant difference in seroprevalence between ages (higher in adults >1 year was found for N. caninum. Four doubtful reacting sera accounted for a significant difference in seroprevalence between sexes for C. abortus (higher in females. Conclusions: Despite the more intensive landscape use in Flanders, the results are consistent with other European studies. Apart from maintaining C. abortus and MAP, roe deer do not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of the examined zoonotic and domestic animal pathogens. Nevertheless, their meaning as sentinels should not be neglected in the absence of other wild cervid species.

  15. Seasonal variation in the activity concentration of 137Cs in Swedish roe-deer and in their daily intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlen, G.; Johanson, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    The seasonal variation of 137 Cs intake in roe-deer (Capreolus capreolus) from plant species in the central part of Sweden was studied during 1986-88. The ground deposition in the Gavle area was 30 000 -120 000 Bq m -2 , and in the Harbo area 35000 - 45 000 Bq m -2 . The calculated daily intake intake of 137 Cs was based on knowledge of the feed composition taking into account the seasonal shift in diet for roe-deer and the activity concentrations of 137 Cs in the most important feed plants. Radiocesium in the plants which typically constitute roe-deer diet has been regularly measured in the Harbo region since the Chernobyl accident. In these plants, there was only a minor variation of 137 Cs content during these years and a mean 137 Cs activity concentration was therefore used in subsequent calculations. An increase in the activity concentration of 137 Cs in roe-deer was observed in August and September of 1986, 1987 and 1988. For example, the activity concentration of 137 Cs seemed to have increased in Gavle in 1988 from levels of 100-3000 Bq kg -1 during January-July to 11 800 Bq kg -1 in August. The seasonal variation of the activity concentration of 137 Cs in roe-deer observed in Harbo in 1988 was similar to that seen in Gavle in 1988, with pronounced maximum values in August and September. The calculated daily intake of 137 Cs corresponds well to the activity concentrations of 137 Cs in roe-deer, except in April. (Author)

  16. Habitat selection and risk of predation: re-colonization by lynx had limited impact on habitat selection by roe deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Samelius

    Full Text Available Risk of predation is an evolutionary force that affects behaviors of virtually all animals. In this study, we examined how habitat selection by roe deer was affected by risk of predation by Eurasian lynx - the main predator of roe deer in Scandinavia. Specifically, we compared how habitat selection by roe deer varied (1 before and after lynx re-established in the study area and (2 in relation to habitat-specific risk of predation by lynx. All analyses were conducted at the spatial and temporal scales of home ranges and seasons. We did not find any evidence that roe deer avoided habitats in which the risk of predation by lynx was greatest and information-theoretic model selection showed that re-colonization by lynx had limited impact on habitat selection by roe deer despite lynx predation causing 65% of known mortalities after lynx re-colonized the area. Instead we found that habitat selection decreased when habitat availability increased for 2 of 5 habitat types (a pattern referred to as functional response in habitat selection. Limited impact of re-colonization by lynx on habitat selection by roe deer in this study differs from elk in North America altering both daily and seasonal patterns in habitat selection at the spatial scales of habitat patches and home ranges when wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park. Our study thus provides further evidence of the complexity by which animals respond to risk of predation and suggest that it may vary between ecosystems and predator-prey constellations.

  17. Country, cover or protection: what shapes the distribution of red deer and roe deer in the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heurich, Marco; Brand, Tom T G; Kaandorp, Manon Y; Šustr, Pavel; Müller, Jörg; Reineking, Björn

    2015-01-01

    The Bohemian Forest Ecosystem encompasses various wildlife management systems. Two large, contiguous national parks (one in Germany and one in the Czech Republic) form the centre of the area, are surrounded by private hunting grounds, and hunting regulations in each country differ. Here we aimed at unravelling the influence of management-related and environmental factors on the distribution of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in this ecosystem. We used the standing crop method based on counts of pellet groups, with point counts every 100 m along 218 randomly distributed transects. Our analysis, which accounted for overdispersion as well as zero inflation and spatial autocorrelation, corroborated the view that both human management and the physical and biological environment drive ungulate distribution in mountainous areas in Central Europe. In contrast to our expectations, protection by national parks was the least important variable for red deer and the third important out of four variables for roe deer; protection negatively influenced roe deer distribution in both parks and positively influenced red deer distribution in Germany. Country was the most influential variable for both red and roe deer, with higher counts of pellet groups in the Czech Republic than in Germany. Elevation, which indicates increasing environmental harshness, was the second most important variable for both species. Forest cover was the least important variable for roe deer and the third important variable for red deer; the relationship for roe deer was positive and linear, and optimal forest cover for red deer was about 70% within a 500 m radius. Our results have direct implications for the future conservation management of deer in protected areas in Central Europe and show in particular that large non-intervention zones may not cause agglomerations of deer that could lead to conflicts along the border of protected, mountainous areas.

  18. Country, cover or protection: what shapes the distribution of red deer and roe deer in the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Heurich

    Full Text Available The Bohemian Forest Ecosystem encompasses various wildlife management systems. Two large, contiguous national parks (one in Germany and one in the Czech Republic form the centre of the area, are surrounded by private hunting grounds, and hunting regulations in each country differ. Here we aimed at unravelling the influence of management-related and environmental factors on the distribution of red deer (Cervus elaphus and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in this ecosystem. We used the standing crop method based on counts of pellet groups, with point counts every 100 m along 218 randomly distributed transects. Our analysis, which accounted for overdispersion as well as zero inflation and spatial autocorrelation, corroborated the view that both human management and the physical and biological environment drive ungulate distribution in mountainous areas in Central Europe. In contrast to our expectations, protection by national parks was the least important variable for red deer and the third important out of four variables for roe deer; protection negatively influenced roe deer distribution in both parks and positively influenced red deer distribution in Germany. Country was the most influential variable for both red and roe deer, with higher counts of pellet groups in the Czech Republic than in Germany. Elevation, which indicates increasing environmental harshness, was the second most important variable for both species. Forest cover was the least important variable for roe deer and the third important variable for red deer; the relationship for roe deer was positive and linear, and optimal forest cover for red deer was about 70% within a 500 m radius. Our results have direct implications for the future conservation management of deer in protected areas in Central Europe and show in particular that large non-intervention zones may not cause agglomerations of deer that could lead to conflicts along the border of protected, mountainous areas.

  19. Tick infestation (Acari: Ixodidae) in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from northwestern Spain: population dynamics and risk stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Luís; Panadero, Rosario; Dacal, Vicente; Pato, Francisco Javier; López, Ceferino; Díaz, Pablo; Arias, María Sol; Fernández, Gonzalo; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio

    2011-04-01

    During the 2007 and 2008 hunting seasons (April-October) the skin of 367 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.), hunted in different preserves from Galicia (Northwestern Spain), were examined for ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). The overall prevalence of infestation by ticks was 83.1%. The predominant species was Ixodes ricinus (83.1%), whereas a single Dermacentor marginatus specimen appeared in one roe deer. All developmental stages of I. ricinus were found parasitizing roe deer, the adults being the most frequent (82.2%), followed by nymphs (45.6%) and larvae (27.2%). The mean intensity of infestation by I. ricinus was 43.2 ± 49.85; most of them were adults (30.7 ± 31.64) and in a lesser extend nymphs (16.9 ± 24.74) and larvae (10.7 ± 29.90). Ixodes ricinus was present all over the study with percentages that oscillated between 100% in spring and 57.4% in autumn. CHAID algorithm showed the sex of roe deer as the most influential factor in tick prevalence, followed by the climatic area. The different developmental stages of I. ricinus were more frequent in males than in females, and the prevalence of adults and larvae were higher in roe deer from coastal areas than in those from mountainous and central areas, whereas nymphs were more frequent in mountainous areas. Host age and density were not determinants for tick infestation. Our results confirm that roe deer are important hosts for I. ricinus in northwestern Spain, serving as a vehicle for the geographic distribution of these ticks.

  20. Habitat selection and risk of predation: re-colonization by lynx had limited impact on habitat selection by roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelius, Gustaf; Andrén, Henrik; Kjellander, Petter; Liberg, Olof

    2013-01-01

    Risk of predation is an evolutionary force that affects behaviors of virtually all animals. In this study, we examined how habitat selection by roe deer was affected by risk of predation by Eurasian lynx - the main predator of roe deer in Scandinavia. Specifically, we compared how habitat selection by roe deer varied (1) before and after lynx re-established in the study area and (2) in relation to habitat-specific risk of predation by lynx. All analyses were conducted at the spatial and temporal scales of home ranges and seasons. We did not find any evidence that roe deer avoided habitats in which the risk of predation by lynx was greatest and information-theoretic model selection showed that re-colonization by lynx had limited impact on habitat selection by roe deer despite lynx predation causing 65% of known mortalities after lynx re-colonized the area. Instead we found that habitat selection decreased when habitat availability increased for 2 of 5 habitat types (a pattern referred to as functional response in habitat selection). Limited impact of re-colonization by lynx on habitat selection by roe deer in this study differs from elk in North America altering both daily and seasonal patterns in habitat selection at the spatial scales of habitat patches and home ranges when wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park. Our study thus provides further evidence of the complexity by which animals respond to risk of predation and suggest that it may vary between ecosystems and predator-prey constellations.

  1. A comparative study of hepatic trace element levels in wild moose, roe deer, and reindeer from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikoren, Turid; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Lierhagen, Syverin; Handeland, Kjell

    2011-07-01

    Liver samples from 422 wild moose (Alces alces), 280 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and 73 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) collected by hunters in various localities in Norway, 2002-2003, were analyzed for the essential trace elements cobalt, copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), molybdenum, selenium (Se), and zinc. Significant differences in hepatic concentrations among species were found for all elements except for Mn, and considerable individual and geographic variations were seen. Roe deer had statistically significant lower Se levels (median: 0.51 μg Se/g dry weight) than did moose (0.77 μg Se/g) and reindeer (0.85 μg Se/g). Moose from two coastal municipalities with high precipitation had considerably higher Se concentrations than those from the other localities studied. Seventy-nine roe deer (28%) and 36 moose (9%) had Se concentrations below that regarded as deficient in domestic ruminants. The Se status in roe deer was lower than previously reported in Europe. Moose had a significantly higher Cu (222 μg Cu/g dw) than did roe deer (112 μg Cu/g) and reindeer (105 μg Cu/g). The Cu status of moose and roe deer in Norway are among the highest reported in Europe. However, a suboptimal Se and Cu status was found in moose from Tvedestrand, a population which has suffered from a reduced condition and productivity. The variability in trace element status among hunted cervids, with no apparent signs of deficiency or toxicity, probably reflects adaptations in these wild ruminant species to cope with this. However, subtle clinical signs and lesions are difficult to detect and further research is needed.

  2. Clerics and courtly love in Andreas Capellanus' The Art of Courtly Love and Chaucer's Canterbury Tales

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    In both The Canterbury Tales and The Art of Courtly Love Geoffrey Chaucer and Andreas Capellanus deal with various aspects of courtly love. In particular, both of them focus to some degree on the question of clerical celibacy. The use of tale telling and imaginary dialogues result in a contemporary overview of the role of the cleric in courtly love, the church rules on the subject, and the opinions of the people on a subject that is ripe for exploration. My aim is to point out some of the ...

  3. El héroe de la ficción postclásica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pablo Cano-Gómez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia al héroe en la ficción postclásica. Mediante un corpus de características representativas de estos personajes a partir de las teorías de distintos autores (Carl Gustav Jung, Joseph Campbell, Jesús González Requena, entre otros se realiza el análisis fílmico de la serie de ficción norteamericana Hijos de la anarquía.

  4. Modeling reproductive trajectories of roe deer females: fixed or dynamic heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plard, F; Bonenfant, C; Delormeb, D; Gaillard, J M

    2012-12-01

    The relative role of dynamic and fixed heterogeneity in shaping the individual heterogeneity observed in most life-history traits remains difficult to quantify. In a recent work, Tuljapurkar et al. (2009) suggested modeling individual heterogeneity in lifetime reproductive success by a null model building reproductive trajectories from a first-order Markov chain. According to this model, among-individual differences in reproductive trajectories would be generated by the stochastic transitions among reproductive states (such as breeder and non-breeder) due to dynamic heterogeneity. In this work, we analyze the individual variation in three reproductive metrics (reproductive status, fecundity, and reproductive success) in two populations of roe deer intensively monitored using Tuljapurkar et al. (2009)’s dynamic model. Moreover, we challenge the Tuljapurkar model previously used as a biological null model to test whether the observed distribution of reproductive success over the lifetime was generated by a stochastic process by modifying two steps of the previous model to build a full stochastic model. We show that a distribution generated by the full dynamic model proposed by Tuljapurkar et al. (2009) can be consistently interpreted as only generated from a stochastic biological process provided that the probabilities of transition among reproductive states used are independent of the current reproductive state and that the positive covariation that usually occurs between survival and reproduction among individuals is removed. Only the reproductive status of roe deer females could be restricted to a stochastic process described by the full stochastic model, probably because most females (>90%) were breeders in a given year. The fecundity of roe deer females could not be adequately described by the full dynamic and full stochastic model, and the observed distribution of female reproductive success differed from the one generated by a full dynamic model in which

  5. Sarcocystis entzerothi n. sp. from the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakas, Petras; Rudaitytė, Eglė; Butkauskas, Dalius; Kutkienė, Liuda

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we describe Sarcocystis entzerothi n. sp. from the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) based on the microscopical and DNA analysis. By light microscopy (LM), cysts of S. entzerothi were spindle-shaped with pointed tips, 950-1900 × 70-150 μm in size and had 5-6 μm long finger-like cyst wall protrusions. Cyst wall of S. entzerothi by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was type 10a-like; villar protrusions were up to 1.2 μm wide, densely packed, lying about 0.1 μm between each other, had profuse microgranules and microfilaments, parasitophorous vacuolar membrane had many minute invaginations, and the ground substance layer measured up to 0.4 μm. This species is morphologically similar to Sarcocystis silva, previously found in the roe deer and the moose (Alces alces). By LM, cysts of S. silva were cigar-shaped with blunted tips, measured 1000-1500 × 130-184 μm, and had 7-8 μm long finger-like cyst wall protrusions. Under TEM, S. silva had no clear differences from S. entzerothi in their cyst wall ultrastructure. Having examined six roe deer hunted in Lithuania, cysts of S. entzerothi and S. silva were identified in four and two animals, respectively. These two Sarcocystis species could be morphologically differentiated according to the shape of the cysts and the length of protrusions. The species examined showed 95.6-96.1 % and 85.6-86.9 % sequence identity within 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and cox1, respectively, and therefore they could be clearly distinguished by means of molecular methods. It should be noted that in the 18S rDNA phylogenetic tree, S. entzerothi from the roe deer was placed together with one sequence of Sarcocystis sp. from the Lithuanian red deer (Cervus elaphus) demonstrating the same species. Based on 18S rDNA and cox1 sequences, S. entzerothi was more closely related to Sarcocystis species transmitted via felids than canids.

  6. Radiocesium in roe deer and wild boars and their forage in the Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, O.; Jungskaer, W.; Gaichenko, V.; Panov, G.; Goshchak, S.; Jones, B.; Petrov, M.; Davydchuk, V.; Shcherbatchenko, A.

    1996-01-01

    Tissue samples from 67 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 73 wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) were obtained from the evacuated zone around the damaged nuclear reactor in Chernobyl, Ukraine. The samplings were performed from June 1992 to February 1995 regularly during each typical season (spring in mid-May, summer in mid-August, autumn in mid-October and winter in late February). By using botanical analysis of rumen/stomach contents, dominant forage plants were identified and collected in the area where the animals had been foraging. The results show that there is a considerable individual variation in diet selection within each season for both these animal species and also a seasonal variation in the radiocesium contamination of muscular tissue. The seasonal variation is most pronounced in the wild boar. Minimum levels of 137Cs were seen during summer and autumn (mean 6kBq/kg w.w. and 2 kBq/kg w.w., resp.) and maximum levels in winter (mean 113 kBq/kg w.w.). In the roe deer, the minimum levels were seen in winter (mean 6kBq/kg w.w.) and maximum levels in autumn (mean 58 kBq/kg w.w.). These variations are caused by differences in pasture selection during different seasons of the year. One very important forage plant eaten both by roe deer and by wild boars during all seasons was evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.). Also the underground parts of this plant are consumed by the wild boar. Also the role of soil as an intake source of radioactive contaminants has been estimated by determination of inorganic residues after ashing of rumen/stomach samples. In the winter, wild boars show the highest ash content with 32% (mean of dry matter) and the lowest in summer with 6%. In roe deer, the differences between seasons are smaller, with an average of 9% in the spring and 15% in winter. The level of 137Cs contamination in muscular tissue of these two species has not decreased noticeably in the studied area during the study period from summer 1992 to winter 1995

  7. First Record of Setaria Tundra in Danish Roe Deer (Capreolus Capreolus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Harslund, Jakob le Fèvre; Oksanen, A.

    2011-01-01

    , and may be connected to the spreading of this parasite. In reindeer heavy worm burdens of S. tundra have been found to cause severe peritonitis and negatively affect body condition score. Thus in the light of the possible climatic changes which could result in warmer, more humid weather in Scandinavia...... described by Rejewsky (1929) and Nikander et al. (2007). Sequences of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and cox1 genes, 454 and 595 base pairs respectively, were 99.5-99.7% identical to previously published S. tundra isolates from France and Italy. Roe deer are thought to be asymptomatic carriers of S. tundra...

  8. Comparative characteristics of shoulder blade (Scapula and shoulder bone (Humerus of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and sheep (Ovis aries in order to determine the animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In illegal hunting it is often possible only on the basis of morphological characteristics to determine the animal species. By the method of comparison there was performed the forensic analysis of roe deer and sheep osteological features. For the purpose of investigating the shoulder blade (Scapula and shoulder bone (Humerus comparative characteristics, there were used 6 shoulder blades and 6 shoulder bones of roe deer and 8 shoulder blades and 8 shoulder bones of sheep. After the skin, muscles, arterial, venous and lymphatic vessels as well as nerves were removed from the bones, they were thermally treated in an autoclave. Subsequently, the bones were placed in 3% solutioin of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 for bleaching and degreasing. Then they were air dried and then photographed. Shoulder blade (Scapula is a bone plate (Ossa plana roughly triangular in shape. Scapular spine (Spina scapulae is much more prominent in roe deer with acromion blade in the form of spike, while in sheep it is shorter and ends with acrimion at a right angle. Shoulder blade cup (Cavitas glenoidalis in roe deer is round in shape, and in sheep it is oval. Tuberculum supraglenoidale and Processus coracoideus in sheep are more and in roe deer less developed. Shoulder bone (Humerus in roe deer is relatively long, slender bone with proximal convexity turned cranially in regard to the same bone in sheep, which is stronger and heavier. Tuberculum majus in roe deer is less developed, and in sheep it is in a form of solid bone protuberance. Tuberculum minus and Tuberositas deltoidea in sheep are more developed than in roe deer. At medial condyle (Condylus medialis in sheep there is shallow and wide groove, while in roe deer it is deeper and narrower. On the basis of morphological differences of roe deer and sheep bones, it can be determined with certainty which animal spesies they belong to.

  9. Higher Education Discrimination and the Courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWaerdt, Lois

    1981-01-01

    In past cases involving sex or racial discrimination in faculty employment, the courts have imposed less stringent standards on institutions of higher education than on employers in industry or the professions. Recent decisions indicate that stricter judicial requirements are now being extended to colleges and universities. (Author/RW)

  10. Analysis of a Juvenile Court Diversion Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Steven R.

    1997-01-01

    Addresses a gap in knowledge about the characteristics of adolescents served by court diversion programs by examining randomly selected cases. Presents a characterization of adolescents, their families of origin, employment, offenses, and processing in the diversion system. Findings center on the impact of alcohol, unemployment, and the…

  11. Swan Song for the Burger Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Robert L., Jr.; Ramarui, Cornelis O.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews a collection of decisions rendered by the Burger Court during its waning months. The decisions involve (1) criminal procedures, (2) racial bias in jury selection, (3) search and seizure, and (4) the exclusion of jurors who have reservations about the death penalty. (JDH)

  12. Nuclear weapons and the World Court ruling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.

    1998-01-01

    based on the initiatives by non-governmental organizations, the World Health Organisation (WHO) Assembly asked the International Court of Justice for an advisory opinion in 1993 whether, considering the environmental and health consequences, the use of nuclear weapons by a state in war or other armed conflict would be a breach of its obligations under international law. The World Court decided that it was not able to give an advisory opinion as requested, because of the fact that questions of use of force and such like were beyond the scope of specialized agencies like the WHO. The Court has ruled that the international community, especially the five nuclear weapon states have not only an obligation to negotiate a treaty for total nuclear disarmament, but also have an obligation to conclude such treaty. We may expect that the nuclear weapon states will cynically disregard the ruling of the World Court as they have been doing to the basic obligation itself in pursuit of nuclear hegemony. But the remaining 150 countries or so also bear a responsibility to keep nudging the recalcitrant states into implementing their commitments to disarm

  13. War Crimes Tribunals: A Permanent Criminal Court?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, James E.; Rudelius-Palmer, Kristi

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the establishment and jurisdiction of war crimes tribunals in recent years. The tribunals, established and supported by the United Nations, investigate atrocities and other crimes committed during wartime. Discusses the tribunals in Rwanda and Yugoslavia, and the political opposition to the establishment of a permanent court. (MJP)

  14. Courts, Scheduled Damages, and Medical Malpractice Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the impact of the introduction of schedules of non-economic damages (i.e. tiered caps systems) on the behavior of insurers operating in the medical liability market for hospitals while controlling the performance of the judicial system, measured as court backlog. Using a difference...

  15. The Unified Patent Court (UPC) in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The new common judiciary for European patents (UPC) will play a crucial role in the future European patent system. The UPC will be a very specialised court that i.a. recruits judges from specialists’ circles and has as part of its mission to develop a coherent and autonomous body of case law...

  16. The Negative Theology of Wallace Stevens’s “Notes Toward a Supreme Fiction”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Franke

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The supreme fiction is the one that cannot be said or represented at all. Like a negative theologian; Stevens starts from a position of critical reflection that can no longer naively believe in the myths of the gods. They have become fiction rather than revelation. And yet this supreme fiction; now become nameless; nevertheless animates all his desire: “For what; except for you; do I feel love?” These myths or fictions bring him peace of mind in vivid transparence; even though he can assign them no definite reference in reality. What becomes transparent in this late age of critical reflection is that the world we see and talk about is an “invented world,” the product of our own imagination and language. This destroys our naive belief in the myths projected by our language. Our gods die. Yet precisely this realization can open us to that “heaven/That has expelled us and our images,” the heaven that we do not perceive and cannot conceive—since it is beyond the reach of language.

  17. Unilateral Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy after Use of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Takahoko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Hypoglossal nerve palsy after use of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA is an exceptionally rare complication. We present the first case of unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy after use of the LMA Supreme. Clinical Features. A healthy 67-year-old female was scheduled for a hallux valgus correction under general anesthesia combined with femoral and sciatic nerve blocks. A size 4 LMA Supreme was inserted successfully at the first attempt and the cuff was inflated with air at an intracuff pressure of 60 cmH2O using cuff pressure gauge. Anesthesia was maintained with oxygen, nitrous oxide (67%, and sevoflurane under spontaneous breathing. The surgery was uneventful and the duration of anesthesia was two hours. The LMA was removed as the patient woke and there were no immediate postoperative complications. The next morning, the patient complained of dysarthria and dysphasia. These symptoms were considered to be caused by the LMA compressing the nerve against the hyoid bone. Conservative treatment was chosen and the paralysis recovered completely after 5 months. Conclusion. Hypoglossal nerve injury may occur despite correct positioning of the LMA under the appropriate intracuff pressure. A follow-up period of at least 6 months should be taken into account for the recovery.

  18. [Cochlear implants in the social courts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottner, A; Iro, H; Schützenberger, A; Hoppe, U

    2018-02-01

    Since the indication for receiving a cochlear implant (CI) has widened (single-sided deafness [SSD], electric acoustic stimulation [EAS], bilateral CI, CI for long-term deafness), more and more patients come into consideration for such a treatment. Hence, disputes increasingly arise between patients and their insurance companies concerning the question of whether surgery and follow-up treatment have to be paid for by statutory health insurance. This work provides an overview of judgments rendered by the German social courts. We investigated whether and in which cases it is advisable for a patient to go to court, and how long the proceedings may take. We looked for judgments in the two biggest commercial legal databases and in the database of the German social courts, using combinations of the search parameters "Cochlear," "Cochlea," "Implant," and "Implantat." Three verdicts were attained by directly contacting the court; another one was mentioned in an article. The reviewed judgements were issued between 2003 and 2017. A total of 12 judgments were found. The patients won in all but one of the main proceedings. The case that was lost concerned exceptional circumstances. One patient didn't get the desired interim measure, but won in the main proceedings. The proceedings took between 1 year and 8 months, and 9 years and 5 months. Despite the amount of time the patient has to invest, taking legal action is worthwhile. The proceedings at the social courts are generally exempt from charges. In most cases, the statutory health insurance is ordered to pay for a CI.

  19. The International Criminal Court at the crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelwahab Biad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the adoption of the Statute of Rome in July 1998, the ICC has been confronted by a number of problems. One such problem is the disagreement which persists among the members of the Assembly of Member States as to whether the crime of Aggression is one over which the Court has competence pursuant to Article 5 of the Statute. Another diffi culty is the opposition of the United States of America which, since the Bush Administration, has deployed a juridical arsenal with the aim of impeding any type of collaboration with the ICC; the tools in the arsenal include the American Service Members’ Protection Act and bilateral immunity agreements which prevent the transfer of American citizens to the Court by State members of the Rome Statute. The entry into force of the of the Statute on 1 July 2002 allowed the Court Prosecutor to initiate the fi rst investigations and processes for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in the confl icts which have devastated certain African States (D.R.C., The Central African Republic and Uganda. The arrest warrant against the Sudanese President Omar Al Bashir for atrocities committed in Darfur demonstrates the limitations of action on the Court which cannot carry out its mandate without the cooperation of the States. Above all, the Court must confront the criticism of “double standards” and that it is an instrument of “justice for the poor”, while the “powerful” escape. The answers to these problems can be contributed to, in part, through the revision process foreseen by the Statute nine years after its entry into force.

  20. The Supreme Court Decision in "NCAA v. University of Oklahoma." Hearing before the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, Court's Decision in "NCAA v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma" (Cedar Falls, Iowa, November 19, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    In 1951, recognizing that television telecasts may decrease attendance at games, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) devised a plan which gave it exclusive control over the broadcasting of college football games. The contracts negotiated by the NCAA with ABC and CBS contained a number of restrictions designed to give as much…