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Sample records for supratentorial region histologically

  1. Regional cerebral blood flow and CSF pressures during Cushing response induced by a supratentorial expanding mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrader, H.; Zwetnow, N.N.; Moerkrid, L.

    1985-01-01

    In order to delineate the critical blood flow pattern during the Cushing response in intracranial hypertension, regional cerebral blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres in 12 anesthetized dogs at respiratory arrest caused either by expansion of an epidural supratentorial balloon or by cisternal infusion. Regional cerebrospinal fluid pressures were recorded and the local cerebral perfusion pressure calculated in various cerebrospinal compartments. In the 8 dogs of the balloon expansion group, the systemic arterial pressure was unmanipulated in 4, while it was kept at a constant low level (48 and 70 mm Hg) in 2 dogs and, in another 2 dogs, at a constant high level (150 and 160 mm Hg) induced by infusion of Aramine. At respiratory arrest, regional cerebral blood flow had a stereotyped pattern and was largely independent of the blood pressure level. In contrast, concomitant pressure gradients between the various cerebrospinal compartments varied markedly in the 3 animal groups increasing with higher arterial pressure. Flow decreased by 85-100% supratentorially and by 70-100% in the upper brain stem down to the level of the upper pons, while changes in the lower brain stem were minor, on the average 25%. When intracranial pressure was raised by cisternal infusion in 4 dogs, the supratentorial blood flow pattern at respiratory arrest was appriximately similar to the flow pattern in the balloon inflation group. However, blood flow decreased markedly (74-85%) also in the lower brain stem. The results constitute another argument in favour of the Cushing response in supratentorial expansion being caused by ischemia in the brain stem. The critical ischemic region seems to be located rostrally to the oblongate medulla, probably in the pons. (author)

  2. Influence of the depth of sedation on regional cerebral oxygen saturation monitoring in neurosurgery of supratentorial gliomas

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    ZHANG Kai⁃ying

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the influence on regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2 of sedation depth during anesthesia induction and maintenance in supratentorial glioma resections. Methods Thirty patients with Ⅰ - Ⅱ supratentorial glioma (graded by American Society of Anesthesiologists underwent elective supratentorial glioma resection were included in this study. Rocuronium, sufentanil and propofol were used for anesthesia induction. After trachea cannula, total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA was maintained with plasma concentration of propofol 2.80-3.20 μg/ml and remifentanil 0.10-0.20 μg/(kg·min. Thirty groups of rScO2, bispectral index (BIS, mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR were recorded continuously till the incision. Results During anesthesia induction, BIS decreased along with the infusion of anesthetics, and there was significant negative correlation between BIS and rScO2 (r = ⁃0.803, P = 0.001. During anesthesia maintenance, rScO2 and BIS were not significantly related (r = 0.147, P = 0.396. Conclusion The rScO2 monitoring can reflect the influence of sedation depth on cerebral oxygen delivery and consumption balance during supratentorial glioma resection under TIVA.

  3. Hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy involving deep supratentorial regions: does only blood pressure matter?

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    Jong-Ho Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 42-year-old female patient who presented with high arterial blood pressure of 245/150 mmHg and hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy that involved the brainstem and extensive supratentorial deep gray and white matter. The lesions were nearly completely resolved several days after stabilization of the arterial blood pressure. Normal diffusion-weighted imaging findings and high apparent diffusion coefficient values suggested that the main pathomechanism was vasogenic edema owing to severe hypertension. On the basis of a literature review, the absolute value of blood pressure or whether the patient can control his/her blood pressure seems not to be associated with the degree of the lesions evident on magnetic resonance imaging. It remains to be determined if the acceleration rate and the duration of elevated arterial blood pressure might play a key role in the development of the hypertensive encephalopathy pattern.

  4. Supratentorial ependymoma in child: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa Anna, Tatiana Kelly Brasileiro de; Zuppani, Aguinaldo Cunha

    2008-01-01

    Ependymoma is a neuro epithelial tumor of the glioneural group which originates in the ependyma, with slow growth and infratentorial location in 2/3 of the cases. The infratentorials are more common in children and the supratentorials in adults. This report describes a case in childhood, supratentorial, in close contact with the lateral ventricle, predominantly cystic, with solid areas, little regional expansive effect and evidenced by the pathology as an infrequent subtype in this age group, the subependymoma. (author)

  5. Computed tomography of benign supratentorial astrocytomas of infancy and childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, H.; Gjerris, F.; Klinken, L.

    1981-01-01

    The CT findings of 15 benign supratentorial astrocytomas in children less than 15 years of age are compared with the CT findings of 19 supratentorial tumors of other histological types in the same age group. Astrocytomas were more often hypodense, lacked calcification and showed greater contrast enhancement than other tumors. Seven of the 15 astrocytomas were hypodense, without calcification and showed contrast enhancement of more than 10 Hounsfield units, whereas this coexistence was not present in any of the 19 tumors of the other histological types. (orig.)

  6. Dysphagia Post Subcortical and Supratentorial Stroke.

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    Wan, Ping; Chen, Xuhui; Zhu, Lequn; Xu, Shuangjin; Huang, Li; Li, Xiangcui; Ye, Qing; Ding, Ruiying

    2016-01-01

    Studies have recognized that the damage in the subcortical and supratentorial regions may affect voluntary and involuntary aspects of the swallowing function. The current study attempted to explore the dysphagia characteristics in patients with subcortical and supratentorial stroke. Twelve post first or second subcortical and supratentorial stroke patients were included in the study. The location of the stroke was ascertained by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The characteristics of swallowing disorder were assessed by video fluoroscopic swallowing assessment/fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. The following main parameters were analyzed: oral transit time, pharyngeal delay time, presence of cricopharyngeal muscle achalasia (CMA), distance of laryngeal elevation, the amounts of vallecular residue and pyriform sinus residue (PSR), and the extent of pharyngeal contraction. Eighty-three percent of the 12 patients were found suffering from pharyngeal dysphagia, with 50% having 50%-100% PSRs, 50% having pharyngeal delay, and 41.6% cases demonstrating CMA. Simple regression analysis showed PSRs were most strongly associated with CMA. Pharyngeal delay in the study can be caused by infarcts of basal ganglia/thalamus, infarcts of sensory tract, infarcts of swallowing motor pathways in the centrum semiovale, or a combination of the three. Subcortical and supratentorial stroke may result in pharyngeal dysphagia such as PSR and pharyngeal delay. PSR was mainly caused by CMA. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Supratentorial CNS malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatareva, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Clinical suspicion of a developmental anomaly of the central nervous system (CNS) is a frequent indication for performing and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination of the brain. Classification systems for malformation of the CNS are constantly revised according to newer scientific research. Developmental abnormalities can be classified in two main types. The first category consists of disorders of organogenesis in which genetic defects or any ischemic, metabolic, toxic or infectious insult to the developing brain can cause malformation. These malformations result from abnormal neuronal and glial proliferation and from anomalies of neuronal migration and or cortical organization. They are divided into supra- and infratentorial and may involve grey or white matter or both. The second category of congenital brain abnormalities is disorders of histogenesis which result from abnormal cell differentiation with a relatively normal brain appearance. Supratentorial CNS malformations could be divided into anomalies in telencephalic commissure, holoprosencephalies and malformations in cortical development. There are three main telencephalic commissures: the anterior commissure, the hippocampal commissure and the corpus callosum. Their morphology (hypoplasia, hyperplasia, agenesis, dysgenesis, even atrophy) reflects the development of the brain. Their agenesis, complete or partial, is one of the most commonly observed features in the malformations of the brain and is a part of many syndromes. Malformations of cortical development (MCD) are heterogeneous group of disease which result from disruption of 3 main stages of cortical development. The common clinical presentation is refractory epilepsy and or developmental delay. The most common MCD are heterotopias, focal cortical dysplasia, polymicrogyria, schizencephaly, pachygyria and lizencephaly. The exact knowledge of the brain anatomy and embryology is mandatory to provide a better apprehension of the

  8. Clinical and MRI features of supratentorial gliomas with adult-onset epilepsy

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    Hashimoto, Takahiro; Yamaura, Akira (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Watanabe, Osamu

    1992-02-01

    Although some patients with supratentorial gliomas develop epilepsy in their clinical course, the details of adult-onset epilepsy with gliomas have not been fully evaluated. This paper reports on 15 cases of supratentorial glioma with the sole symptom of adult-onset epilepsy and characterizes their clinical and MRI features. The patients, 5 males and 10 females, developed the first epilepsy at the mean age of 37 years. Generalized seizure was encountered in all cases and focal seizure alone was never seen. Seizure was satisfactorily controlled with anticonvulsants in all except 2 cases. The tumor was located in the frontal lobe (9 cases) or temporal lobe (6 cases). Histologically, there were 12 astrocytomas, 2 glioblastomas, and 1 oligoastrocytoma. Of these, 12 were benign gliomas. Surprisingly, CT scan and MRI revealed tumors larger than predicted. The abnormal intensity region was delineated most prominently on T[sub 2]-weighted SE image and was broader on T[sub 2]-weighted spin echo image than on T[sub 1]-weighted spin echo and inversion recovery image. The authors conclude that gliomas presenting with epilepsy tend to be histologically benign, are predominantly seen in middle-aged women, and are located in the frontal and temporal lobes. Although a tumor may be large enough to be detected on CT scan or MRI, as in the present study, histological examination is needed to establish the diagnosis. Additionally, gliomas with equivocal abnormalities on CT and MRI do evolve despite further neurological deficits, so meticulous evaluation including stereotactic biopsy is the method of choice. Finally, T[sub 2]-weighted SE image in the coronal plane is advocated for patients with adult-onset epilepsy to achieve accurate diagnosis and to initiate early treatment. (author).

  9. Clinical and MRI features of supratentorial gliomas with adult-onset epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takahiro; Yamaura, Akira; Watanabe, Osamu.

    1992-01-01

    Although some patients with supratentorial gliomas develop epilepsy in their clinical course, the details of adult-onset epilepsy with gliomas have not been fully evaluated. This paper reports on 15 cases of supratentorial glioma with the sole symptom of adult-onset epilepsy and characterizes their clinical and MRI features. The patients, 5 males and 10 females, developed the first epilepsy at the mean age of 37 years. Generalized seizure was encountered in all cases and focal seizure alone was never seen. Seizure was satisfactorily controlled with anticonvulsants in all except 2 cases. The tumor was located in the frontal lobe (9 cases) or temporal lobe (6 cases). Histologically, there were 12 astrocytomas, 2 glioblastomas, and 1 oligoastrocytoma. Of these, 12 were benign gliomas. Surprisingly, CT scan and MRI revealed tumors larger than predicted. The abnormal intensity region was delineated most prominently on T 2 -weighted SE image and was broader on T 2 -weighted spin echo image than on T 1 -weighted spin echo and inversion recovery image. The authors conclude that gliomas presenting with epilepsy tend to be histologically benign, are predominantly seen in middle-aged women, and are located in the frontal and temporal lobes. Although a tumor may be large enough to be detected on CT scan or MRI, as in the present study, histological examination is needed to establish the diagnosis. Additionally, gliomas with equivocal abnormalities on CT and MRI do evolve despite further neurological deficits, so meticulous evaluation including stereotactic biopsy is the method of choice. Finally, T 2 -weighted SE image in the coronal plane is advocated for patients with adult-onset epilepsy to achieve accurate diagnosis and to initiate early treatment. (author)

  10. How specific is the MRI appearance of supratentorial atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors?

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    Au Yong, Kong Jung; Jaremko, Jacob L.; Bhargava, Ravi [University of Alberta Hospital, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Edmonton (Canada); Jans, Lennart [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Gent (Belgium); Coleman, Lee T. [University of Melbourne and Murdoch Children' s Research Institute, Department of Radiology and Pediatrics, Melbourne (Australia); Medical Imaging, Royal Children' s Hospital, Parkville (Australia); Mehta, Vivek [University of Alberta Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Edmonton (Canada); Ditchfield, Michael R. [Monash Children' s and Monash University, Monash Medical Centre, Diagnostic Imaging, Clayton (Australia)

    2013-03-15

    Supratentorial atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) in many cases has a distinctive appearance on post-gadolinium MRI. We sought to determine whether this is a unique appearance allowing ATRT to be distinguished accurately from other types of pediatric supratentorial tumors. Retrospective review of all available preoperative MRI of pediatric supratentorial tumors at two tertiary children's hospitals, and systematic literature review of case series and reports describing the MRI imaging appearances of supratentorial ATRT. We had 61 supratentorial tumors, including 32 gliomas, 6 ATRT, 8 ependymomas, 6 gangliogliomas, 2 pilomyxoid astrocytomas, 3 primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors, 2 choroid plexus papillomas, and 2 meningiomas. ATRT presented in significantly younger patients than astrocytomas (mean age 2.6 years vs. 9.9 years, P < 0.05). The visual pattern of a thick, wavy (irregular) heterogeneously enhancing wall around a cystic center was seen in 5/6 (83%) ATRTs and only 3/55 (5.4%) other tumors (P < 0.0001), for specificity of 95%, sensitivity of 83%, positive predictive value of 63% and a negative predictive value of 95%. A supratentorial tumor with a thick, wavy (irregular) heterogeneously enhancing wall surrounding a central cystic region is suggestive of ATRT in the appropriate clinical setting, especially in a child of preschool age. (orig.)

  11. How specific is the MRI appearance of supratentorial atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au Yong, Kong Jung; Jaremko, Jacob L.; Bhargava, Ravi; Jans, Lennart; Coleman, Lee T.; Mehta, Vivek; Ditchfield, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Supratentorial atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) in many cases has a distinctive appearance on post-gadolinium MRI. We sought to determine whether this is a unique appearance allowing ATRT to be distinguished accurately from other types of pediatric supratentorial tumors. Retrospective review of all available preoperative MRI of pediatric supratentorial tumors at two tertiary children's hospitals, and systematic literature review of case series and reports describing the MRI imaging appearances of supratentorial ATRT. We had 61 supratentorial tumors, including 32 gliomas, 6 ATRT, 8 ependymomas, 6 gangliogliomas, 2 pilomyxoid astrocytomas, 3 primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors, 2 choroid plexus papillomas, and 2 meningiomas. ATRT presented in significantly younger patients than astrocytomas (mean age 2.6 years vs. 9.9 years, P < 0.05). The visual pattern of a thick, wavy (irregular) heterogeneously enhancing wall around a cystic center was seen in 5/6 (83%) ATRTs and only 3/55 (5.4%) other tumors (P < 0.0001), for specificity of 95%, sensitivity of 83%, positive predictive value of 63% and a negative predictive value of 95%. A supratentorial tumor with a thick, wavy (irregular) heterogeneously enhancing wall surrounding a central cystic region is suggestive of ATRT in the appropriate clinical setting, especially in a child of preschool age. (orig.)

  12. Phase I/II Trial of Hyperfractionated Concomitant Boost Proton Radiotherapy for Supratentorial Glioblastoma Multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Masashi; Tsuboi, Koji; Igaki, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Takano, Shingo; Oshiro, Yoshiko; Hayashi, Yasutaka; Hashii, Haruko; Kanemoto, Ayae; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Sugahara, Shinji; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Matsumura, Akira; Tokuuye, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of postoperative hyperfractionated concomitant boost proton radiotherapy with nimustine hydrochloride for supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients with histologically confirmed supratentorial GBM met the following criteria: (1) a Karnofsky performance status of ≥60; (2) the diameter of the enhanced area before radiotherapy was ≤40 cm; and (3) the enhanced area did not extend to the brain stem, hypothalamus, or thalamus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T 2 -weighted high area (clinical tumor volume 3 [CTV3]) was treated by x-ray radiotherapy in the morning (50.4 Gy in 28 fractions). More than 6 hours later, 250 MeV proton beams were delivered to the enhanced area plus a 10-mm margin (CTV2) in the first half of the protocol (23.1 GyE in 14 fractions) and to the enhanced volume (CTV1) in the latter half (23.1 GyE in 14 fraction). The total dose to the CTV1 was 96.6 GyE. Nimustine hydrochloride (80 mg/m2) was administered during the first and fourth weeks. Results: Acute toxicity was mainly hematologic and was controllable. Late radiation necrosis and leukoencephalopathy were each seen in one patient. The overall survival rates after 1 and 2 years were 71.1% and 45.3%, respectively. The median survival period was 21.6 months. The 1- and 2-year progression-free survival rates were 45.0% and 15.5%, respectively. The median MRI change-free survival was 11.2 months. Conclusions: Hyperfractionated concomitant boost proton radiotherapy (96.6 GyE in 56 fractions) for GBM was tolerable and beneficial if the target size was well considered. Further studies are warranted to pursue the possibility of controlling border region recurrences.

  13. Rare Infratentorial and Supratentorial Localization of Juvenile Angiofibroma: A Case Report.

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    Pašalić, Ivan; Trninić, Ines; Nemir, Jakob; Jednačak, Hrvoje; Žarković, Kamelija; Mrak, Goran

    2016-01-01

    Angiofibromas are rare tumors of the head and neck that mostly occur in the sphenopalatine region. We present a case of angiofibroma in a young male patient with an unusual and extremely rare localization, which to our knowledge has not been described before. It was situated in the tentorium and spread to the supratentorial and infratentorial regions. The patient initially presented with symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. After a diagnostic evaluation was done, the whole tumor was successfully removed using the supratentorial and infratentorial approach and the microsurgical technique. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Extensive Supratentorial Hemorrhages Following Posterior Fossa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remote supratentorial hematoma soon after posterior fossa surgery for the removal of a space-occupying lesion is a rare but dramatic and dreaded complication, carrying significant morbidity and mortality. A 47-year-old woman presented with headache of 1-year duration that worsened over last 2 months, progressive ...

  15. Regional fibrocartilage variations in human anterior cruciate ligament tibial insertion: a histological three-dimensional reconstruction.

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    Dai, Can; Guo, Lin; Yang, Liu; Wu, Yi; Gou, Jingyue; Li, Bangchun

    2015-02-01

    We studied anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tibial insertion architecture in humans and investigated regional differences that could suggest unequal force transmission from ligament to bone. ACL tibial insertions were processed histologically. With Photoshop software, digital images taken from the histological slides were collaged, contour lines were drawn, and different gray values were filled based on the structure. The data were exported to Amira software for three-dimensional reconstruction. The uncalcified fibrocartilage (UF) layer was divided into three regions: lateral, medial and posterior according to the architecture. The UF zone was significantly thicker laterally than medially or posteriorly (p fibrocartilage (CF) thickness was significantly greater in the lateral part of the enthesis compared to the medial and posterior parts (p < 0.05). The UF quantity (more UF laterally) corresponding to the CF quantity (more CF laterally) at the ACL tibial insertion provides further evidence suggesting that the load transferred from the ACL to the tibia was greater laterally than medially and posteriorly.

  16. Retrospective study of histological types of esophageal cancer prevalent in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile

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    Andrés Torrealba Bustos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to determine the statistical relation between the most frequent histological types of oesophageal carcinoma in the Metropolitan region of Santiago, Chile. For it there were obtained clinical samples of different laboratories of Pathological Anatomy of the Metropolitan region corresponding to the south and east sector of Santiago, gathering a total of 348 cases, which were diagnosed by means of endoscopic biopsy, using as parameters the morphologic characteristics of neoplastic tissue evaluated by light microscopy with hematoxylin-eosin dye. The obtained information was submitted to a model of logistic multiple regression, in order to determine the associations between the most frequent histological types of oesophageal cancer (adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma, topographic location compromised to the moment of the diagnosis, age and sex of the patients in study. The proportion between the histological types of cancer of esophagus did not present significant differences, which contrasts with the results of international publications. The analyses demonstrated that the low third is the only parameter that is subject to variation, which relates to the metaplasia of Barrett and the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

  17. Prospective study of awake craniotomy used routinely and nonselectively for supratentorial tumors.

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    Serletis, Demitre; Bernstein, Mark

    2007-07-01

    The authors prospectively assessed the value of awake craniotomy used nonselectively in patients undergoing resection of supratentorial tumors. The demographic features, presenting symptoms, tumor location, histological diagnosis, outcomes, and complications were documented for 610 patients who underwent awake craniotomy for supratentorial tumor resection. Intraoperative brain mapping was used in 511 cases (83.8%). Mapping identified eloquent cortex in 115 patients (22.5%) and no eloquent cortex in 396 patients (77.5%). Neurological deficits occurred in 89 patients (14.6%). In the subset of 511 patients in whom brain mapping was performed, 78 (15.3%) experienced postoperative neurological worsening. This phenomenon was more common in patients with preoperative neurological deficits or in those individuals in whom mapping successfully identified eloquent tissue. Twenty-five (4.9%) of the 511 patients suffered intraoperative seizures, and two of these individuals required intubation and induction of general anesthesia after generalized seizures occurred. Four (0.7%) of the 610 patients developed wound complications. Postoperative hematomas developed in seven patients (1.1%), four of whom urgently required a repeated craniotomy to allow evacuation of the clot. Two patients (0.3%) required readmission to the hospital soon after being discharged. There were three deaths (0.5%). Awake craniotomy is safe, practical, and effective during resection of supratentorial lesions of diverse pathological range and location. It allows for intraoperative brain mapping that helps identify and protect functional cortex. It also avoids the complications inherent in the induction of general anesthesia. Awake craniotomy provides an excellent alternative to surgery of supratentorial brain lesions in patients in whom general anesthesia has been induced.

  18. Supratentorial endodermal cysts: review of literature and case report.

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    Caruso, Riccardo; Artico, Marco; Colonnese, Claudio; Marrocco, Luigi; Wierzbicki, Venceslao

    2013-11-01

    Supratentorial endodermal cysts are very rare pathological entities. Their pathoembryology is largely unknown and they can represent a diagnostic challenge. A research performed on the PubMed database in December 2010, to screen for supratentorial endodermal cyst studies, demonstrated that since 1960 only 31 supratentorial endodermal cysts have been described in the literature, including our case: a 42-year-old woman with a parasellar endodermal cyst. These lesions are usually benign. As with other types of brain cysts, the signs and symptoms caused by supratentorial endodermal cysts are mainly linked to the compression or irritation of surrounding neural structures. Upon neuroimaging examination, they typically appear as a round or lobulated mass. The signal intensity may vary depending on the protein content of the cyst. The majority of reported supratentorial endodermal cysts were completely excised with good or excellent results. Incomplete excision can result in an increased risk of recurrence, infection, and dissemination. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Radiotherapy in supratentorial gliomas. A study of 821 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heesters, M.; Molenaar, W.; Go, G.K.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Analysis of the results of radiotherapy in a large group of cerebral gliomas with identification of prognostic factors and the outcome with respect to different decades of treatment. Patients and Methods: Two decades (1979-1999) of radiotherapy in supratentorial astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors (n = 821) at the University Hospital Groningen were retrospectively evaluated. Prognostic factors for survival were analyzed. Two decades of radiotherapy treatment were compared with respect to radiotherapy dose and treatment-field design. Results: Glioblastoma multiforme, including gliosarcoma, was the most frequent supratentorial glioma (n = 442) with a poor survival, i.e., median survival time (MST) 7 months, especially in patients > 50 years of age and with poor performance. Patients with good performance were selected for radiotherapy with an optimum dose of 60 Gy local-field irradiation. However, in patients with poor prognosis, no radiotherapy was applied or a shorter treatment scheme was given. Anaplastic astrocytomas (n = 131) were treated in the same way as glioblastoma multiforme. Over time, a decrease in radiation dose (from 60 to 45 Gy) and from whole brain irradiation to local-field treatment was observed, following the literature. In low-grade gliomas, prognostic factors for survival were age, performance, and extent of resection. Gemistocytic astrocytoma (n = 15) had an inferior survival compared to astrocytoma (MST 46 vs. 54 months), but a superior survival compared to anaplastic astrocytoma (MST 10 months). The presence of an oligodendroglial component in a glioma implied a superior survival compared to the astrocytic gliomas. The inherent biology of the glioma is reflected by the study of recurrent tumors with progression to higher grades of malignancy in 32-40% and by the histology of recurrent oligodendroglial tumors. In comparing two decades of radiotherapy in gliomas, no differences in survival were observed despite the technological

  20. Radiotherapy in supratentorial gliomas. A study of 821 cases

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    Heesters, M. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Groningen Univ. Hospital (Netherlands); Molenaar, W. [Dept. of Pathology, Groningen Univ. Hospital (Netherlands); Go, G.K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Groningen Univ. Hospital (Netherlands)

    2003-09-01

    Purpose: Analysis of the results of radiotherapy in a large group of cerebral gliomas with identification of prognostic factors and the outcome with respect to different decades of treatment. Patients and Methods: Two decades (1979-1999) of radiotherapy in supratentorial astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors (n = 821) at the University Hospital Groningen were retrospectively evaluated. Prognostic factors for survival were analyzed. Two decades of radiotherapy treatment were compared with respect to radiotherapy dose and treatment-field design. Results: Glioblastoma multiforme, including gliosarcoma, was the most frequent supratentorial glioma (n = 442) with a poor survival, i.e., median survival time (MST) 7 months, especially in patients > 50 years of age and with poor performance. Patients with good performance were selected for radiotherapy with an optimum dose of 60 Gy local-field irradiation. However, in patients with poor prognosis, no radiotherapy was applied or a shorter treatment scheme was given. Anaplastic astrocytomas (n = 131) were treated in the same way as glioblastoma multiforme. Over time, a decrease in radiation dose (from 60 to 45 Gy) and from whole brain irradiation to local-field treatment was observed, following the literature. In low-grade gliomas, prognostic factors for survival were age, performance, and extent of resection. Gemistocytic astrocytoma (n = 15) had an inferior survival compared to astrocytoma (MST 46 vs. 54 months), but a superior survival compared to anaplastic astrocytoma (MST 10 months). The presence of an oligodendroglial component in a glioma implied a superior survival compared to the astrocytic gliomas. The inherent biology of the glioma is reflected by the study of recurrent tumors with progression to higher grades of malignancy in 32-40% and by the histology of recurrent oligodendroglial tumors. In comparing two decades of radiotherapy in gliomas, no differences in survival were observed despite the technological

  1. The value of CT-scanning in supratentorial haemangioblastomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, J.A.; Pereira, J.R.; Guimaraes, A.; Veiga-Pires, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe a case of supratentorial haemangioblastoma, presenting with epileptic fits, without association with polyoythemia, or Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, which, if present, would have given a clinical clue as to the nature of the lesion. (orig.)

  2. High resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridisation of medulloblastomas and supra-tentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours

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    McCabe, Martin Gerard; Ichimura, Koichi; Liu, Lu; Plant, Karen; Bäcklund, L Magnus; Pearson, Danita M; Collins, Vincent Peter

    2010-01-01

    Medulloblastomas and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours are aggressive childhood tumours. We report our findings using array comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) on a whole-genome BAC/PAC/cosmid array with a median clone separation of 0.97Mb to study 34 medulloblastomas and 7 supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours. Array CGH allowed identification and mapping of numerous novel small regions of copy number change to genomic sequence, in addition to the large regions already known from previous studies. Novel amplifications were identified, some encompassing oncogenes, MYCL1, PDGFRA, KIT and MYB, not previously reported to show amplification in these tumours. In addition, one supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumour had lost both copies of the tumour suppressor genes CDKN2A & CDKN2B. Ten medulloblastomas had findings suggestive of isochromosome 17q. In contrast to previous reports using conventional CGH, array CGH identified three distinct breakpoints in these cases: Ch 17: 17940393-19251679 (17p11.2, n=6), Ch 17: 20111990-23308272 (17p11.2-17q11.2, n=4) and Ch 17: 38425359-39091575 (17q21.31, n=1). Significant differences were found in the patterns of copy number change between medulloblastomas and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours, providing further evidence that these tumours are genetically distinct despite their morphological and behavioural similarities. PMID:16783165

  3. [Supratentorial ectopic ependymoma: a case report].

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    Saito, T; Oki, S; Mikami, T; Kawamoto, Y; Yamaguchi, S; Kuwamoto, K; Hayashi, Y

    1999-12-01

    Ependymomas usually arise from the ventricular surface and approximately two-thirds of them are infratentorial. We present an unusual case of supratentorial ependymoma located in the parietal parenchyma and exhibiting no continuity with the ventricular system. On March 30, 1998, a 63-year-old woman was admitted to our neurosurgical service because of a sudden consciousness loss attack two weeks before. On admission, neurological examination revealed no abnormal findings. Computerized tomography (CT) revealed a mass lesion of the parietal lobe which was enhanced homogeneously. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also showed the mass of the parietal lobe which was iso-intense on T1-weighted images, iso and high intense on T2-weighted images and homogeneously enhanced by administration of Gd-DTPA. In the angiography, left carotid angiograms showed a tumor stain. On February 26, 1998, total removal of the tumor was performed using stereotactic craniotomy with neuronavigator and intraoperative echography. After surgery, focal radiation therapy (56Gy) was carried out. The pathological diagnosis was cellular ependymoma with partial clear cell components. Several kinds of tumor may occur in the cerebral parenchyma. We conclude, however, that ependymoma has to be included in the differential diagnosis when the tumor location is distant from the ventricles.

  4. Postoperative radiotherapy of supratentorial anaplastic gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendt, T.G.; Bacherler, B.; Baumer, K.; Rohloff, R.; Willich, N.

    1986-01-01

    Between 1970 and 1983, 149 patients with high grade anaplastic supratentorial gliomas received a postoperative irradiation during primary treatment. 118 out of these patients had an anaplastic astrocytoma, 18 an anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and 13 an anaplastic ependymoma. Most of these patients were treated by irradiation of a great volume with 50 Gy within five weeks, the others by irradiation of the total brain with 50 Gy within five weeks and saturation with 10 Gy within one week. The one-year survival of the total group was 35.5% and the two-year survival 10.6%. Patients at an age of less than 40 years show a significantly longer survival than older patients (one-year survival rates 40% and 30.7%, respectively). Patients suffering from anaplastic tumors with astrocytic and oligodendrocytic differentiation have a comparable prognosis. Patients suffering from anaplastic tumors with ependymal differentiation, however, have prolonged survival times. The therapy results of different treatment methods are discussed using the communications of literature. (orig.) [de

  5. Differential diagnosis of the epileptogenic supratentorial brain tumors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Khalilov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-six out of 79 pediatric patients with supratentorial brain tumors were noted to have symptomatic epilepsy. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET, diffuse astrocytomas (DA, and gangliogliomas (GG were the most epileptogenic tumors. Seizures were new-onset in all our noted cases of DNET and in 4 patients with GG and the only clinical tumor sign in 6 of 8 cases of DNET. The neuroimaging features of the MRI pattern of DNET, DA, and GG were an iso/hypointense signal on Tl-weighted magnetic resonance images and a signal, the intensity of which varied from heterogeneous to cerebrospinal fluid, on T2-weighted FLAIR images. Cases of DNET and GG displayed no mass effect or perifocal edema, a trend towards location in the temporoinsular regions, and a frequent concurrence with local gray-white matter differentiation disorders and atrophy. The FLAIR images clearly showed the so-called foam-like (multicystic structure with pericystic changes. No significant change in the dimensions of the identified DNET and GG was observed during the follow up period. In low-grade DA, tumor growth was reduced and it is difficult to differentiate minimal perifocal edema from tumor-like tissue. The sensitivity of these tumors to contrast enhancement is ambiguous. Along with DNET (that was epileptogenic in 100% of cases, DA (91,7% and GG (80% were the most common epileptogenic brain tumors.

  6. Genetic heterogeneity in supratentorial and infratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, M M; Perot, C; Guillaud-Bataille, M; Danglot, G; Rey, J A; Bello, M J; Fan, X; Eberhart, C; Zazpe, I; Portillo, E; Tuñón, T; Martínez-Peñuela, J M; Bernheim, A; Castresana, J S

    2005-12-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB), a kind of infratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET), is the most frequent malignant brain tumour in childhood. In contrast, supratentorial PNET (sPNET) are very infrequent tumours, but they are histologically similar to MB, although they present a worse clinical outcome. We investigated the differences in genetic abnormalities between sPNET and MB. We analysed 20 central PNET (14 MB and six sPNET) by conventional comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in order to determine whether a different genetic profile for each tumour exists. Isochromosome 17q was detected in four of the 14 MB cases, but not in any sPNET. Gains at 17q and 7 happened more frequently in MB, and those at 1q in sPNET. Losses at chromosome 10 were detected only in MB, while losses at 16p and 19p happened more frequently in sPNET. A new amplification site, on 4q12, was detected in two MB. Central PNET are a heterogeneous group of tumours from the genetic point of view. The present and previous data, together with further results from larger series, might contribute to the establishment of specific treatments for supratentorial and infratentorial PNET.

  7. Parasitic load and histological aspects in different regions of the spleen of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagues, Naiara Carvalho Teixeira; Pinheiro, Cristiane Garboggini Melo de; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain Carlos; Dos-Santos, Washington L C; Oliveira, Geraldo Gileno de Sá

    2018-02-01

    Leishmania infantum causes from subclinical infection to severe disease in humans and dogs. The spleen is one of the organs most affected by the infection. Although evidence exists that the parasitic load distribution and histological alterations may not be homogeneous in the affected organs of naturally infected individuals, it has not been formally demonstrated using the current techniques used for studying the disease. In six dogs naturally infected with Leishmania, parasitic load and histological changes were compared in samples collected from the lower, middle and upper third of the spleen. Parasitic load in the spleen of the group of dogs was variable, revealing a difference of 61 times between animals with the lowest and the highest parasitism. The set of parasitic load values of each dog showed a cluster trend, when compared to the other animals. Nevertheless, the parasitic load values of each dog showed a variation ranging from 3.2 to 34.7 times between lowest and highest value. Histological changes showed recognizable variation in frequency (granulomas) or intensity (perisplenitis) in the spleen of 2 out of the 6 dogs. The agreement of histological findings between samples collected from the different thirds of the spleen was good (kappa coeficient, 0.61-0.80) very good (0.81-0.99) or perfect (1.00), for most of the parameters analyzed. Variability of parasitic load and, to a lesser extent, histological changes in spleen of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis is observed. Such variability may be taken in account in the design of studies on pathogenesis, vaccine and therapeutic drug development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prognostic value of molecular and imaging biomarkers in patients with supratentorial glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Humanitas Cancer Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Riva, Marco; Raneri, Fabio; Pessina, Federico [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Neurosurgery, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Olivari, Laura; Rossi, Marco; Alfieri, Tommaso [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy); Soffietti, Riccardo; Ruda, Roberta [University and City of Health and Science Hospital, Neuro-Oncology, Turin (Italy); Piccardo, Arnoldo [Galliera Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Genova (Italy); Bizzi, Alberto [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); Navarria, Pierina; Ascolese, Anna Maria [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Fernandes, Bethania [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Pathology, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Grimaldi, Marco [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Medical Oncology, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Simonelli, Matteo; Zucali, Paolo Andrea [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Radiology Department, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Scorsetti, Marta [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Pathology, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Humanitas University, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Bello, Lorenzo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Neurosurgery, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy); Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Humanitas Cancer Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Humanitas University, Rozzano, Milan (Italy)

    2017-07-15

    We evaluated the relationship between {sup 11}C-methionine PET ({sup 11}C-METH PET) findings and molecular biomarkers in patients with supratentorial glioma who underwent surgery. A consecutive series of 109 patients with pathologically proven glioma (64 men, 45 women; median age 43 years) referred to our Institution from March 2012 to January 2015 for tumour resection and who underwent preoperative {sup 11}C-METH PET were analysed. Semiquantitative evaluation of the {sup 11}C-METH PET images included SUVmax, region of interest-to-normal brain SUV ratio (SUVratio) and metabolic tumour volume (MTV). Imaging findings were correlated with disease outcome in terms of progression-free survival (PFS), and compared with other clinical biological data, including IDH1 mutation status, 1p/19q codeletion and MGMT promoter methylation. The patients were monitored for a mean period of 16.7 months (median 13 months). In all patients, the tumour was identified on {sup 11}C-METH PET. Significant differences in SUVmax, SUVratio and MTV were observed in relation to tumour grade (p < 0.001). IDH1 mutation was found in 49 patients, 1p/19q codeletion in 58 patients and MGMT promoter methylation in 74 patients. SUVmax and SUVratio were significantly inversely correlated with the presence of IDH1 mutation (p < 0.001). Using the 2016 WHO classification, SUVmax and SUVratio were significantly higher in patients with primary glioblastoma (IDH1-negative) than in those with other diffuse gliomas (p < 0.001). Relapse or progression was documented in 48 patients (median PFS 8.7 months). Cox regression analysis showed that SUVmax and SUVratio, tumour grade, tumour type on 2016 WHO classification, IDH1 mutation status, 1p/19q codeletion and MGMT promoter methylation were significantly associated with PFS. None of these factors was found to be an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis. {sup 11}C-METH PET parameters are significantly correlated with histological grade and IDH1

  9. Clinical Course and Outcomes of Small Supratentorial Intracerebral Hematomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrouz, R.; Misra, V.; Godoy, D.A.; Topel, C.H.; Masotti, L.; Klijn, C.J.M.; Smith, C.J.; Parry-Jones, A.R.; Slevin, M.A.; Silver, B.; Willey, J.Z.; Vallejo, J. Masjuan; Nzwalo, H.; Popa-Wagner, A.; Malek, A.R.; Hafeez, S.; Napoli, M. Di

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume, particularly if >/=30 mL, is a major determinant of poor outcome. We used a multinational ICH data registry to study the characteristics, course, and outcomes of supratentorial hematomas with volumes <30 mL. METHODS: Basic

  10. Supratentorial Ependymoma: Disease Control, Complications, and Functional Outcomes After Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landau, Efrat [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Boop, Frederick A. [Department of Neurosurgery, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Ependymoma is less commonly found in the supratentorial brain and has known clinical and molecular features that are unique. Our single-institution series provides valuable information about disease control for supratentorial ependymoma and the complications of supratentorial irradiation in children. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 children with newly diagnosed supratentorial ependymoma were treated with adjuvant radiation therapy (RT); conformal methods were used in 36 after 1996. The median age at RT was 6.5 years (range, 1-18.9 years). The entire group was characterized according to sex (girls 27), race (white 43), extent of resection (gross-total 46), and tumor grade (anaplastic 28). The conformal RT group was prospectively evaluated for neurologic, endocrine, and cognitive effects. Results: With a median follow-up time of 9.1 years from the start of RT for survivors (range, 0.2-23.2 years), the 10-year progression-free and overall survival were 73% + 7% and 76% + 6%, respectively. None of the evaluated factors was prognostic for disease control. Local and distant failures were evenly divided among the 16 patients who experienced progression. Eleven patients died of disease, and 1 of central nervous system necrosis. Seizure disorders were present in 17 patients, and 4 were considered to be clinically disabled. Clinically significant cognitive effects were limited to children with difficult-to-control seizures. The average values for intelligence quotient and academic achievement (reading, spelling, and math) were within the range of normal through 10 years of follow-up. Central hypothyroidism was the most commonly treated endocrinopathy. Conclusion: RT may be administered with acceptable risks for complications in children with supratentorial ependymoma. These results suggest that outcomes for these children are improving and that complications may be limited by use of focal irradiation methods.

  11. Supratentorial Ependymoma: Disease Control, Complications, and Functional Outcomes After Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, Efrat; Boop, Frederick A.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Ependymoma is less commonly found in the supratentorial brain and has known clinical and molecular features that are unique. Our single-institution series provides valuable information about disease control for supratentorial ependymoma and the complications of supratentorial irradiation in children. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 children with newly diagnosed supratentorial ependymoma were treated with adjuvant radiation therapy (RT); conformal methods were used in 36 after 1996. The median age at RT was 6.5 years (range, 1-18.9 years). The entire group was characterized according to sex (girls 27), race (white 43), extent of resection (gross-total 46), and tumor grade (anaplastic 28). The conformal RT group was prospectively evaluated for neurologic, endocrine, and cognitive effects. Results: With a median follow-up time of 9.1 years from the start of RT for survivors (range, 0.2-23.2 years), the 10-year progression-free and overall survival were 73% + 7% and 76% + 6%, respectively. None of the evaluated factors was prognostic for disease control. Local and distant failures were evenly divided among the 16 patients who experienced progression. Eleven patients died of disease, and 1 of central nervous system necrosis. Seizure disorders were present in 17 patients, and 4 were considered to be clinically disabled. Clinically significant cognitive effects were limited to children with difficult-to-control seizures. The average values for intelligence quotient and academic achievement (reading, spelling, and math) were within the range of normal through 10 years of follow-up. Central hypothyroidism was the most commonly treated endocrinopathy. Conclusion: RT may be administered with acceptable risks for complications in children with supratentorial ependymoma. These results suggest that outcomes for these children are improving and that complications may be limited by use of focal irradiation methods

  12. The role of radiotherapy in the management of supratentorial low grade astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M. H.; Chang, H. S.; Lee, K. J.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the role of radiotherapy in the management of incompletely resected supratentorial low grade astrocytoma with the analysis of the survival, the pattern of failure, and the prognostic variables affecting survival. Between January 1990 and December 1995, fifty-one patients with supratentorial low grade astrocytoma received radiotherapy after subtotal resection (16 patients) or stereotactic biopsy(35 patients)at Asan Medical Center. External radiotherapy was done by conventional fractionation with the total dose of 4820cGy to 6000cGy(median 5580cGy) and partial brain volume. The follow-up was done from 6 to 79 months(median 48 months). Overall actuarial survival rate at 2 and 5 years were 83.4% and 54.8T, respectively. Progression free survival at 2 and 5 years were 67.4% and 48.7%, respectively. The significant prognostic factors affecting overall survival rate were the performance status, T stage, histologic subtype, radiation field and radiation response. The major pattern of failure was local failure, such as progressive disease and primary site recurrence in 23 patients (45.1%). Progression free survivors excluding 2 patients were physically and intellectually intact without major neurologic deficit. Although the follow-up period of this study was relatively short, overall actuarial and progression free survival rate were encouraging. Patients with good performance status, lower T stage, pilocytic subtype, patients treated with small radiation field and radiation responder showed better survival. As the local failure was the major pattern of failure, the various efforts to decrease the local failure is necessary. (author)

  13. Supratentorial arachnoid cyst and associated subdural hematoma: neuroradiologic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochi, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine, (Japan); Morikawa, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine, (Japan)]|[Dept. of Radiology, National Nagasaki Chuo Hospital, Ohmura (Japan); Ogino, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine, (Japan); Nagaoki, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine, (Japan)]|[Dept. of Radiology, Isahaya General Hospital (Japan); Hayashi, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine, (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    CT and MR images of 8 patients with supratentorial arachnoid cyst complicated by subdural hematoma were studied and compared with those of 8 patients who developed nontraumatic subdural hematoma without arachnoid cyst. Ot the 8 patients with supratentorial arachnoid cyst, CT and MR disclosed temporal bulging and/or thinning of the temporal squama in all 6 patients with middle fossa arachnoid cysts, and the thinning of the calvaria was evident in another patient with a convexity cyst. Calvarial thinning at the site corresponding to interhemispheric arachnoid cyst was clearly depicted on coronal MR images. In contrast, none of the 8 young patients with nontraumatic subdural hematoma without arachnoid cyst had abnormal calvaria. Temporal bulging and thinning of the overlying calvaria were identified as diagnostic CT and MR features of arachnoid cyst with complicating intracystic and subdural hermorrhage. Radiologists should be aware of this association and should evaluate the bony structure carefully. (orig.)

  14. Clinical Course and Outcomes of Small Supratentorial Intracerebral Hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrouz, Réza; Misra, Vivek; Godoy, Daniel A; Topel, Christopher H; Masotti, Luca; Klijn, Catharina J M; Smith, Craig J; Parry-Jones, Adrian R; Slevin, Mark A; Silver, Brian; Willey, Joshua Z; Masjuán Vallejo, Jaime; Nzwalo, Hipólito; Popa-Wagner, Aurel; Malek, Ali R; Hafeez, Shaheryar; Di Napoli, Mario

    2017-06-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume, particularly if ≥30 mL, is a major determinant of poor outcome. We used a multinational ICH data registry to study the characteristics, course, and outcomes of supratentorial hematomas with volumes hematoma expansion, Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), and in-hospital death. Poor outcome was defined as composite of in-hospital death and severe disability (GOS ≤ 3). Comparison was conducted based on hemorrhage location. Logistic regression using dichotomized outcome scales was applied to determine predictors of poor outcome. Among 375 cases of supratentorial ICH with volumes hematomas <30 mL expands, leading to END or death. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Region-specific maturation of cerebral cortex in human fetal brain: diffusion tensor imaging and histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, Richa; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Saksena, Sona; Husain, Nuzhat; Srivastava, Savita; Rathore, Ram K.S.; Sarma, Manoj K.; Malik, Gyanendra K.; Das, Vinita; Pradhan, Mandakini; Pandey, Chandra M.; Narayana, Ponnada A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical analysis in different cortical regions in fetal brains at different gestational age (GA) were performed. DTI was performed on 50 freshly aborted fetal brains with GA ranging from 12 to 42 weeks to compare age-related fractional anisotropy (FA) changes in different cerebral cortical regions that include frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes at the level of thalami. GFAP immunostaining was performed and the percentage of GFAP-positive areas was quantified. The cortical FA values in the frontal lobe peaked at around 26 weeks of GA, occipital and temporal lobes at around 20 weeks, and parietal lobe at around 23 weeks. A significant, but modest, positive correlation (r=0.31, p=0.02) was observed between cortical FA values and percentage area of GFAP expression in cortical region around the time period during which the migrational events are at its peak, i.e., GA ≤ 28 weeks for frontal cortical region and GA≤22 weeks for rest of the lobes. The DTI-derived FA quantification with its GFAP immunohistologic correlation in cortical regions of the various lobes of the cerebral hemispheres supports region-specific migrational and maturational events in human fetal brain. (orig.)

  16. Region-specific maturation of cerebral cortex in human fetal brain: diffusion tensor imaging and histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, Richa; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Saksena, Sona [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lucknow, UP (India); Husain, Nuzhat; Srivastava, Savita [CSM Medical University, Department of Pathology, Lucknow (India); Rathore, Ram K.S.; Sarma, Manoj K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Kanpur (India); Malik, Gyanendra K. [CSM Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Lucknow (India); Das, Vinita [CSM Medical University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lucknow (India); Pradhan, Mandakini [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Genetics, Lucknow (India); Pandey, Chandra M. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Biostatistics, Lucknow (India); Narayana, Ponnada A. [University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-09-15

    In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical analysis in different cortical regions in fetal brains at different gestational age (GA) were performed. DTI was performed on 50 freshly aborted fetal brains with GA ranging from 12 to 42 weeks to compare age-related fractional anisotropy (FA) changes in different cerebral cortical regions that include frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes at the level of thalami. GFAP immunostaining was performed and the percentage of GFAP-positive areas was quantified. The cortical FA values in the frontal lobe peaked at around 26 weeks of GA, occipital and temporal lobes at around 20 weeks, and parietal lobe at around 23 weeks. A significant, but modest, positive correlation (r=0.31, p=0.02) was observed between cortical FA values and percentage area of GFAP expression in cortical region around the time period during which the migrational events are at its peak, i.e., GA {<=} 28 weeks for frontal cortical region and GA{<=}22 weeks for rest of the lobes. The DTI-derived FA quantification with its GFAP immunohistologic correlation in cortical regions of the various lobes of the cerebral hemispheres supports region-specific migrational and maturational events in human fetal brain. (orig.)

  17. HISTOLOGICAL STUDY OF HUMAN MAMMARY GLAND IN WOMEN OF NORTH EASTERN REGION OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santona

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The “mamma” or “breast” is a modified, ectodermal, glandular structure located in the superficial fascia of the anterior chest wall. In female they are evolved to secrete milk for the nourishment of their offspring. They are also present in a rudimentary form in males. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After obtaining institutional ethical clearance t he specimens of human mammary gland were divided into two groups i.e. reproductive (14 to 49 and post - menopausal (50 and above age. The specimens of both the age group were collected from fresh unembalmed human cadaver. The slides were prepared using the standard laboratory procedure. Stained slides were studied for different structures of the mammary gland such as the glandular structures, ducts and myoepithelial cells. Diameters of the ducts were measured in both age groups. The data were analyzed to ca lculate the mean and ‘t’ test was applied to find out the significant difference between mean values. RESULTS: The average diameter of the lactiferous duct as measured by micrometer scale was 2.0 mm and 0.83 mm in reproductive and post - menopausal age group respectively. Calculated value of t’= 4.68. d. f. (degree of freedom =18, P <0.01. Therefore the diameter of lactiferous duct between reproductive and postmenopausal age group differs significantly. DISCUSSION: The results obtained in this study are comp ared with the available established findings of other workers to draw a definite conclusion in the histomorphological aspect of reproductive and postmenopausal age group. CONCLUSION: Though different generations of sophisticated investigations such as mole cular level studies have evolved for the early detection of breast carcinoma, the knowledge of the normal developmental histological changes is most important which will help to detect early abnormal changes of the breast if any

  18. Identification of histological patterns in clinically affected and unaffected palm regions in dupuytren's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo-Andrés Alfonso-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Dupuytren's disease is a fibro-proliferative disease characterized by a disorder of the extracellular matrix (ECM and high myofibroblast proliferation. However, studies failed to determine if the whole palm fascia is affected by the disease. The objective of this study was to analyze several components of the extracellular matrix of three types of tissues-Dupuytren's diseased contracture cords (DDC, palmar fascia clinically unaffected by Dupuytren's disease contracture (NPF, and normal forehand fascia (NFF. Histological analysis, quantification of cells recultured from each type of tissue, mRNA microarrays and immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle actin (SMA, fibrillar ECM components and non-fibrillar ECM components were carried out. The results showed that DDC samples had abundant fibrosis with reticular fibers and few elastic fibers, high cell proliferation and myofibroblasts, laminin and glycoproteins, whereas NFF did not show any of these findings. Interestingly, NPF tissues had more cells showing myofibroblasts differentiation and more collagen and reticular fibers, laminin and glycoproteins than NFF, although at lower level than DDC, with similar elastic fibers than DDC. Immunohistochemical expression of decorin was high in DDC, whereas versican was highly expressed NFF, with no differences for aggrecan. Cluster analysis revealed that the global expression profile of NPF was very similar to DDC, and reculturing methods showed that cells corresponding to DDC tissues proliferated more actively than NPF, and NPF more actively than NFF. All these results suggest that NPF tissues may be affected, and that a modification of the therapeutic approach used for the treatment of Dupuytren's disease should be considered.

  19. Management of supratentorial cavernous malformations: craniotomy versus gammaknife radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yang-Hsin; Pan, David Hung-Chi

    2005-02-01

    Although craniotomy is the preferred treatment for symptomatic solitary supratentorial cavernous malformation (CM), radiosurgery is also an option. Our aim was to see which of these strategies was the most effective and under what circumstances. Of the 46 patients with solitary supratentorial CM that we retrospectively studied, 24 presented with seizures, 16 with focal neurological deficits due to intracerebral hemorrhage, and 6 with both seizures and bleeding. Sixteen were treated with craniotomy and 30 with gammaknife radiosurgery (GKRS). The main outcome measures for comparing craniotomy with GKRS were the proportion of postoperative seizure-free patients and the proportion of patients in whom no rebleeding occurred. Of patients presenting with seizures with/without bleeding, a significantly higher proportion of the craniotomy group than the GKRS group became and remained seizure-free (11/14 [79%] versus 4/16 [25%]; P < 0.002), and of those presenting with bleeding with/without seizures, a somewhat (though nonsignificantly) higher proportion did not rebleed (4/4 [100%] versus 12/18 [67%]) after surgery. The remaining 2 of the 16 craniotomy patients did not rebleed and had no residual tumor at follow up. Twelve of the 30 GKRS patients had evidence of tumor regression at follow up. In the clinical management of solitary supratentorial CM, craniotomy for lesionectomy resulted in better seizure control and rebleeding avoidance than GKRS.

  20. Determination of Botanical Origin of Propolis from Monte Region of Argentina by Histological and Chemical Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salasa, Ana; Mercadoc, María I; Zampini, Iris C; Ponessa, Graciela I; Isla, María I

    2016-05-01

    Propolis production by honey bees is the result of a selective harvest of exudates from plants in the neighborhood of the hive. This product is used in Argentina as a food supplement and alternative medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the botanical origin of propolis from the arid regions of Monte of Argentina using rapid histochemical techniques and by comparison of TLC and HPLC-DAD chromatographic profiles with extract profiles obtained from Zuccagnia punctata, Larrea divaricata and Larrea cuneifolia, plant species that grow in the study area as a natural community named "jarillal". Microscopical analysis revealed the presence of several Z. punctata structures, such as multicellular trichomes, leaflets, stems and young leaves. Remarkable was the richness of the propolis in two bioactive chalcones, also present in Z. punctata resin; these compounds can be regarded as possible markers for propolis identification and justify its use as a dietary supplement, functional food and medicinal product. This study indicates that the source of resin used by honey bees to produce propolis in the Monte region of Argentina is only Z. punctata, a native shrub widespread in this phytogeographical region, while other more abundant species (L. divaricata and L. cuneifolia) in the region were not found, indicating that this propolis could be defined as a mono-resin, type-Zuccagnia.

  1. In the assessment of supratentorial glioma grade: The combined role of multivoxel proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Q.-G.; Xu, H.-B.; Liu, F.; Guo, W.; Kong, X.-C.; Wu, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To detect a difference in the parameters derived from proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) between low-grade and high-grade gliomas, and to evaluate whether the combination of these two techniques can improve the diagnostic accuracy of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in supratentorial glioma grading. Materials and methods: Thirty patients with histologically proved supratentorial brain gliomas (12 low grade, 18 high grade) were prospectively evaluated with contrast material-enhanced MRI, DTI, and multivoxel 1 H-MRS (135 ms echo time). The tumour grades determined using the three methods were then compared with those obtained at histopathology. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to determine the optimum thresholds for glioma grading. Independent sample t-test, Spearman's rank correlation, and the Fisher's exact test were also carried out for statistical analysis. p -6 mm 2 /s for the calculated ADC value, corresponding to the maximum Youden index from the ROC curve of the above-selected parameters, the resultant sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs), and Kappa values were all higher and the fraction of misclassified tumour was lower when compared with conventional MRI. However, only NAA/Cho and ADC calculation contributed to the significant difference (p < 0.01) in the assessment of glioma grade compared to conventional MRI alone, and the grading results of statistical tests comparing those two parameters were highly consistent (kappa value = 0.798). Conclusion: Thresholds for NAA/Cho and calculated ADC values, corresponding to maximum Youden index from ROC curve analyses, helped to improve the accuracy of supratentorial glioma grading when compared with conventional MRI alone. In addition, a combination of NAA/Cho and ADC calculation were more useful together than each alone in a clinical setting to evaluate

  2. Supratentorial primary intra-axial tumors in children. MR and CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higano, S.; Takahashi, S.; Kurihara, N.; Singh, L.N.; Yamada, S.; Ishii, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Shirane, R.; Katakura, R.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the MR and CT features of pediatric supratentorial intra-axial tumors with respect to different diagnosis and the role of each investigation modality. Material and Methods: MR and CT findings in 40 children with 12 types of pathologically proven histological tumors were reviewed. Results: The location of tumors might be one clue to differential diagnosis. In our material, cysts (60%), calcifications (45%), and intratumoral hemorrhages (27%) were found in the tumors. Characteristic features noted in some lesions included: peritumoral hemosiderin deposition in cavernous angiomas; intratumoral flow void in a choroid plexus carcinoma and in glioblastomas; and hemicerebral atrophy in germinomas. A comparison between malignant and benign tumors showed perifocal edema and a mass effect to be signifcantly more common in malignant lesions. Homogeneous enhancement suggested a benign tumor and an inhomogeneous pattern represented malignancy, while the lack of obvious enhancement did not always suggest benignity. Intratumoral calcium deposition was a not uncommon finding in malignant tumors. Conclusion: In most cases, the exact diagnosis should be made hy histological examination but it is important for treatment planning that the appropriate depiction of tumor extension and tissue characterization be made by MR and CT. (orig.)

  3. A quantitative magnetic resonance histology atlas of postnatal rat brain development with regional estimates of growth and variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Evan; Badea, Alexandra; Watson, Charles; Johnson, G Allan

    2013-05-01

    There has been growing interest in the role of postnatal brain development in the etiology of several neurologic diseases. The rat has long been recognized as a powerful model system for studying neuropathology and the safety of pharmacologic treatments. However, the complex spatiotemporal changes that occur during rat neurodevelopment remain to be elucidated. This work establishes the first magnetic resonance histology (MRH) atlas of the developing rat brain, with an emphasis on quantitation. The atlas comprises five specimens at each of nine time points, imaged with eight distinct MR contrasts and segmented into 26 developmentally defined brain regions. The atlas was used to establish a timeline of morphometric changes and variability throughout neurodevelopment and represents a quantitative database of rat neurodevelopment for characterizing rat models of human neurologic disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. MRI diagnosis of supratentorial and intraspinal primitive neuroectodermal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Meili; Cui Shimin; Han Tong; Li Tao; Liu Li; Lei Jing; Qing Jingxi; Yan Xiaoling; Kong Fanming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the MRI features of supratentorial and intraspinal primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) and improve the diagnostic accuracy. Methods: MRI manifestations of 9 PNET diagnosed via operation and pathological examination were analyzed. There were 6 men and 3 women, and the mean age was 32.6 years. In all 9 cases, conventional plain MR scans were performed, including spin echo (SE), fast spin echo (FSE), and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences. Diffusion weighted images (DWIs) and postcontrast MR images were obtained in 2 and 4 cases, respectively. Results: The 8 cases with supratentorial lesions included fronto-temporal lesion in 2 cases, occipital lesion in 2 cases, fronto-parietal lobe, parietal lobe, frontal lobe lesion in each 1 case, and posterior part of third ventricle in 1 case, and the lesion located in the thoracic spinal canal in 1 case. All the lesions were quite large in volume, and the largest one was 6.0 cm x 6.9 cm x 4.9 cm. Except for the round-like lesion in the posterior part of third ventricle, the other 7 supratentorial lesions were irregular in shape, well demarked, and often with solid consistency and slight peritumoral edema. The lesions demonstrated long T 1 and long or slightly long T 2 signal intensity in 4 cases, mixed signal intensity on T 1 WI, T 2 WI, and FLAIR images in 4 cases. Small cystic degeneration could be seen in 2 cases, hemorrhage in 4 cases, and flow void vessels in 3 cases. 3 cases demonstrated irregular ring-like enhancement and ependymal dissemination. The lesion in the thoracic canal demonstrated as a slightly enhanced soft tissue mass with adjacent bony destruction and muscle infiltration. Conclusion: MR findings of PNET are rather characteristic, but the final diagnosis relies on pathology

  5. Endoscopic hematoma evacuation in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage

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    Wei-Hsin Wang

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: With the introduction of the minimally invasive techniques and the evolution of the neuroendoscope and hemostatic agents, the median operative time and blood loss have been significantly decreased. Although the hematoma evacuation rates were similar between the endoscope (90% and craniotomy (85% groups, the median intensive care unit stay was decreased from 11 days to 6 days due to reduced surgical invasiveness. This represents an important advancement in treating spontaneous supratentorial ICH, and provides a measured preview of the promising results that can be expected in the future.

  6. Surgical Outcome in Patients with Spontaneous Supratentorial Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendevski Vladimir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to evaluate the surgical outcome in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH after surgical intervention, in respect to the initial clinical conditions, age, sex, hemispheric side and anatomic localization of ICH. Thirty-eight surgically treated patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage were included in the study. The surgical outcome was evaluated three months after the initial admission, according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS. The surgical treatment was successful in 14 patients (37%, whereas it was unsuccessful in 24 patients (63%. We have detected a significant negative correlation between the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS scores on admission and the GOS scores after three months, suggesting worse neurological outcome in patients with initially lower GCS scores. The surgical outcome in patients with ICH was not affected by the sex, the hemispheric side and the anatomic localization of ICH, but the age of the patients was estimated as a significant factor for their functional outcome, with younger patients being more likely to be treated successfully. The surgical outcome is affected from the initial clinical state of the patients and their age. The treatment of ICH is still an unsolved clinical problem and the development of new surgical techniques with larger efficiency in the evacuation of the hematoma is necessary, thus making a minimal damage to the normal brain tissue, as well as decreasing the possibility of postoperative bleeding.

  7. In the assessment of supratentorial glioma grade: The combined role of multivoxel proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Q.-G. [Department of Neuroradiology, Union hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Xu, H.-B., E-mail: xuhaibo1120@hotmail.com [Department of Neuroradiology, Union hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Liu, F.; Guo, W. [Department of Neuroradiology, Union hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Kong, X.-C. [Department of Imaging technology, Union hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Wu, Y. [Department of Maternal and Child Health Care, Public Health School, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2011-10-15

    Aim: To detect a difference in the parameters derived from proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) between low-grade and high-grade gliomas, and to evaluate whether the combination of these two techniques can improve the diagnostic accuracy of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in supratentorial glioma grading. Materials and methods: Thirty patients with histologically proved supratentorial brain gliomas (12 low grade, 18 high grade) were prospectively evaluated with contrast material-enhanced MRI, DTI, and multivoxel {sup 1}H-MRS (135 ms echo time). The tumour grades determined using the three methods were then compared with those obtained at histopathology. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to determine the optimum thresholds for glioma grading. Independent sample t-test, Spearman's rank correlation, and the Fisher's exact test were also carried out for statistical analysis. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Statistically significant differences were found between the low-grade and high-grade gliomas for the choline (Cho)/creatine (Cr), N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/Cr, NAA/Cho ratio in the tumours (p < 0.01), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value (p < 0.01), and fractional anisotropy (FA) value (p < 0.05) in the tumours. The NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho ratios and the calculated ADC value significantly correlated with the histological grading of the gliomas (p < 0.01). Using a threshold value of 0.66 for tumour NAA/Cr, 0.265 for NAA/Cho, 1118.1 x 10{sup -6} mm{sup 2}/s for the calculated ADC value, corresponding to the maximum Youden index from the ROC curve of the above-selected parameters, the resultant sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs), and Kappa values were all higher and the fraction of misclassified tumour was lower when compared with conventional MRI. However, only NAA/Cho and

  8. Awake craniotomy for supratentorial gliomas: why, when and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, George M; Bernstein, Mark

    2012-09-01

    Awake craniotomy has become an increasingly utilized procedure in the treatment of supratentorial intra-axial tumors. The popularity of this procedure is partially attributable to improvements in intraoperative technology and anesthetic techniques. The application of awake craniotomy to the field of neuro-oncology has decreased iatrogenic postoperative neurological deficits, allowed for safe maximal tumor resection and improved healthcare resource stewardship by permitting early patient discharge. In this article, we review recent evidence for the utility of awake craniotomy in the resection of gliomas and describe the senior author's experience in performing this procedure. Furthermore, we explore innovative applications of awake craniotomy to outpatient tumor resections and the conduct of neurosurgery in resource-poor settings. We conclude that awake craniotomy is an effective and versatile neurosurgical procedure with expanding applications in neuro-oncology.

  9. Establishing a model of supratentorial hemorrhage in the piglet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yuanhong; Li Zaiwang; Zhang Suming; Xie Minjie; Meng Xiangwu; Xu Jinzhi; Liu Na; Tang Zhouping

    2010-01-01

    The most common site of hemorrhage is the basal ganglia, which exhibits the obvious neurological deficits. In the present study, we aimed to develop a model of supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) with neurological deficits in piglets (6.0 to 8.8 kg). A pediatric urinary catheter with two passages and one balloon was introduced through a burr hole into the right striatum. All the animals received balloon inflation, which was performed by injecting 2.5 ml saline into the balloon through one passage. Then each piglet in experimental group (n=18) received an injection of 1.0-ml autologous arterial blood through the other passage over 2 min and maintained for 5 min. Then, additional 1.5-ml blood was injected over 15 min. Piglets in control group (n=6) received only balloon inflation without blood injection. CT scanning was performed immediately after surgery. A deep hematoma was successfully induced in 16 out of 18 piglets and the hematoma volume was 1.74±0.22 ml (n=5) at 24 hours after surgery. All the piglets with hematoma had behavioral deficits (lame or could not walk) at 24 hours. Tissue damages, such as cell swelling, necrosis and demyelination, appeared at 24 hours in the brain tissues, adjacent to the hematoma, and was aggravated at 48 hours and ameliorated at 7 days after hematoma induction. In conclusion, we have established a simple model of supratentorial ICH in piglets with marked neurological deficits, which is suitable for study of the pathophysiology and treatment of ICH. (author)

  10. Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement imaging of glioblastoma at 7 Tesla: region specific correlation with apparent diffusion coefficient and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paech, Daniel; Burth, Sina; Windschuh, Johannes; Meissner, Jan-Eric; Zaiss, Moritz; Eidel, Oliver; Kickingereder, Philipp; Nowosielski, Martha; Wiestler, Benedikt; Sahm, Felix; Floca, Ralf Omar; Neumann, Jan-Oliver; Wick, Wolfgang; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Ladd, Mark Edward; Bachert, Peter; Radbruch, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    To explore the correlation between Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement (NOE)-mediated signals and tumor cellularity in glioblastoma utilizing the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and cell density from histologic specimens. NOE is one type of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) that originates from mobile macromolecules such as proteins and might be associated with tumor cellularity via altered protein synthesis in proliferating cells. For 15 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, NOE-mediated CEST-contrast was acquired at 7 Tesla (asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio (MTRasym) at 3.3ppm, B1 = 0.7 μT). Contrast enhanced T1 (CE-T1), T2 and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) were acquired at 3 Tesla and coregistered. The T2 edema and the CE-T1 tumor were segmented. ADC and MTRasym values within both regions of interest were correlated voxelwise yielding the correlation coefficient rSpearman (rSp). In three patients who underwent stereotactic biopsy, cell density of 12 specimens per patient was correlated with corresponding MTRasym and ADC values of the biopsy site. Eight of 15 patients showed a weak or moderate positive correlation of MTRasym and ADC within the T2 edema (0.16≤rSp≤0.53, pcorrelations were statistically insignificant (p>0.05, n = 4) or yielded rSp≈0 (pcorrelation between MTRasym and ADC was found in CE-T1 tumor (-0.310.05, n = 6). The biopsy-analysis within CE-T1 tumor revealed a strong positive correlation between tumor cellularity and MTRasym values in two of the three patients (rSppatient3 = 0.69 and rSppatient15 = 0.87, pcorrelation of ADC and cellularity was heterogeneous (rSppatient3 = 0.545 (p = 0.067), rSppatient4 = -0.021 (p = 0.948), rSppatient15 = -0.755 (p = 0.005)). NOE-imaging is a new contrast promising insight into pathophysiologic processes in glioblastoma regarding cell density and protein content, setting itself apart from DWI. Future studies might be based on the assumption that NOE-mediated CEST visualizes

  11. High promoter hypermethylation frequency of p14/ARF in supratentorial PNET but not in medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, M M; Muñoz, J; Coullin, P; Fauvet, D; Danglot, G; Tuñón, T; Bernheim, A; Castresana, J S

    2006-04-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) of the central nervous system. Although supratentorial PNET (sPNET) and MB are histologically similar, their clinical behaviour differs, sPNET being more aggressive than MB. The aim of this study was to determine whether sPNET and MB are genetically different entities. We investigated 32 PNET primary tumour samples (23 MB and nine sPNET) and four PNET cell lines, for the presence of CDKN2A homozygous deletions at exon 1-alpha of p16/INK4 and exon 1-beta of p14/ARF, and promoter hypermethylation of both genes. No homozygous deletion of either p16/INK4 or p14/ARF was demonstrated in any of the PNET primary tumour samples. Methylation of p16/INK4 was found in one of six sPNET and in one of 23 MB, while p14/ARF methylation was observed in three of six sPNET and in three of 21 MB. No methylation of p16/INK4 or p14/ARF was found in any of the PNET cell lines analysed. The three MB cell lines did not show p16/INK4 expression, and only the MB Daoy cell line (homozygously deleted at CDKN2A) presented loss of p14/ARF expression. Our results in this limited series of central PNET show that p14/ARF is frequently involved in PNET carcinogenesis, with a higher frequency, but not statistically significant, for sPNET than for MB.

  12. Hyperfractionated radiation therapy for incompletely resected supratentorial low-grade glioma. A phase II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeremic, B.; Milicic, B.; Stojanovic, M.; Nikolic, N.; Dagovic, A.; Shibamoto, Y.; Grujicic, D.

    1998-01-01

    Background and purpose: In order to investigate the feasibility, toxicity and antitumor efficacy of hyperfractionated radiation therapy, 37 adult patients with incompletely resected supratentorial low-grade glioma were entered into a phase II study. Materials and methods: The radiation therapy dose was 55 Gy in 50 fractions in 25 treatment days over 5 weeks to the tumor plus a 2-cm margin, with an additional 17.6 Gy given in 16 fractions in 8 treatment days over 1.5 weeks to the tumor plus a 1-cm margin, using 1.1 Gy b.i.d. fractionation with a 6 h interfraction interval. The total tumor dose was 72.6 Gy in 66 fractions in 33 treatment days over 6.5 weeks. Results: The median survival time (MST) for all 37 patients has not yet been attained, while 5- and 7-year survival rates were 75% and 69%, respectively. The median time to tumor progression (MTP) has also not yet been attained, while 5- and 7-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were both 70%. There was no difference in survival or PFS regarding histology, although patients with oligodendroglioma and mixed glioma had similar survival, both being higher than that of ordinary astrocytoma. On univariate analysis of potential prognostic factors, age, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), neurologic status and extent of surgery were found to influence survival. The toxicity of HFX RT was generally assessed as mild to moderate. Conclusion: HFX RT is feasible with mild to moderate toxicity. Further studies are warranted with more patients and longer follow-up before testing it against standard fractionation RT in this patient population. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. EEG controls for detecting the recurrence of supratentorial gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblhuber, F.; Olschowski, A.; Deisenhammer, E.; Hammer, B.; Knauer, W.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the value of postoperative EEG controls in the early detection of recurrence of supratentorial gliomas (the majority being astrocytomas, stage II to IV). 29 cases with verified tumour recurrence were examined and in all but one the EEG showed a reactivation of the focus in accordance with the development of the glioma. At least one of the following parameters had to be established: 1. a further spreading of the focal changes, 2. a reduction in frequency, 3. an increase in amplitudes and 4. focal depression and amplitudes. At least 3 postoperative EEG controls were made in each case. The duration of tumour treatment was 3 to 59 months. In 3 cases temporary focus activation was found without evidence of tumour recurrence; in one of these cases the activation was preceded by an epileptic seizure. Epileptic seizures, thus, seem to have a focus activating effect. Focus activation as a result of radiotherapy or cytostatic treatment was not observed. On the basis of our findings it appears that regularly conducted postoperative EEG controls seem to be highly suited as a non-invasive and economical method for the early detection of recurrence of this type of tumour. In the case of malignant types of gliomas involving rapid growth EEG controls should be made monthly. (Author)

  14. PTEN and DMBT1 homozygous deletion and expression in medulloblastomas and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, María Mar; Mercapide, Javier; Muñoz, Jorge; Coullin, Philippe; Danglot, Giséle; Tuñon, Teresa; Martínez-Peñuela, José María; Rivera, José María; Burgos, Juan J; Bernheim, Alain; Castresana, Javier S

    2004-12-01

    Medulloblastoma, which accounts for 20-25% of all childhood brain tumors, is defined as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) located in the cerebellum. Supratentorial PNET are less frequent than medulloblastoma. But their clinical outcome is worse than in medulloblastomas. Chromosome 10q contains at least 2 tumor suppressor genes that might play a role in brain tumor development: PTEN and DMBT1. The aim of this study was to compare the status of homozygous deletion and expression of PTEN and DMBT1 genes in PNET primary tumor samples and cell lines. Homozygous deletions of PTEN and DMBT1 were studied in 32 paraffin-embedded PNET samples (23 medulloblastomas and 9 supratentorial PNET) and in 7 PNET cell lines, by differential PCR and by FISH. PTEN homozygous losses were demonstrated in 7 medulloblastomas (32%) and in no supratentorial PNET, while homozygous deletions of DMBT1 appeared in 1 supratentorial PNET (20%) and in 7 medulloblastomas (33%). No homozygous deletion of PTEN or DMBT1 was detected in any of the PNET cell lines either by differential PCR or by FISH. Expression study of the 2 genes was performed in the 7 PNET cell lines by RT-PCR. One PNET cell line lacked PTEN and DMBT1 expression, while 2 medulloblastoma cell lines did not express DMBT1. Our results add some positive data to the hypothesis that supratentorial PNETs and medulloblastomas might be genetically different.

  15. Regrowth patterns of supratentorial gliomas: estimation from computed tomographic scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuboi, K.; Yoshii, Y.; Nakagawa, K.; Maki, Y.

    1986-12-01

    To clarify the regrowth patterns of benign and malignant gliomas, we chose 27 intervals (between two operations or between an operation and autopsy) from 21 patients with pathologically verified recurrent supratentorial gliomas. Serial computed tomographic (CT) scans of these cases were analyzed to determine the doubling time (Td) calculated from the change in volume of enhanced and low density areas, the enhancement effect graded from 0 to 4 according to the Hounsfield number, and the presence of dissemination and contralateral extension. We studied 5 benign gliomas (including 1 case of radiation necrosis), 8 malignant astrocytomas, and 8 glioblastomas. The Td's of enhanced areas on CT scans of benign gliomas, malignant astrocytomas, and glioblastomas were 937 +/- 66.5 days, 65.1 +/- 29.4 days, and 48.1 +/- 20.9 days, respectively. The Td's of low density areas were 895 +/- 130.6 days, 70.8 +/- 22.2 days, and 50.5 +/- 14.7 days. There was a significant correlation between the Td's of the enhanced and low density areas (0.97). The enhancement effect increased at recurrence in 55% of the cases, with an average increase of 1.1 grades. The increase in enhancement effect at recurrence showed a tendency to become smaller as the tumor's degree of anaplasia increased. Radiotherapy was effective in significantly retarding the growth rate of malignant gliomas, whose Td's were doubled. Although the Td's of both enhanced and low density areas of benign gliomas were significantly longer than those of malignant gliomas, there was no significant difference in the Td's of enhanced areas between malignant astrocytomas and glioblastomas.

  16. Regrowth patterns of supratentorial gliomas: estimation from computed tomographic scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, K.; Yoshii, Y.; Nakagawa, K.; Maki, Y.

    1986-01-01

    To clarify the regrowth patterns of benign and malignant gliomas, we chose 27 intervals (between two operations or between an operation and autopsy) from 21 patients with pathologically verified recurrent supratentorial gliomas. Serial computed tomographic (CT) scans of these cases were analyzed to determine the doubling time (Td) calculated from the change in volume of enhanced and low density areas, the enhancement effect graded from 0 to 4 according to the Hounsfield number, and the presence of dissemination and contralateral extension. We studied 5 benign gliomas (including 1 case of radiation necrosis), 8 malignant astrocytomas, and 8 glioblastomas. The Td's of enhanced areas on CT scans of benign gliomas, malignant astrocytomas, and glioblastomas were 937 +/- 66.5 days, 65.1 +/- 29.4 days, and 48.1 +/- 20.9 days, respectively. The Td's of low density areas were 895 +/- 130.6 days, 70.8 +/- 22.2 days, and 50.5 +/- 14.7 days. There was a significant correlation between the Td's of the enhanced and low density areas (0.97). The enhancement effect increased at recurrence in 55% of the cases, with an average increase of 1.1 grades. The increase in enhancement effect at recurrence showed a tendency to become smaller as the tumor's degree of anaplasia increased. Radiotherapy was effective in significantly retarding the growth rate of malignant gliomas, whose Td's were doubled. Although the Td's of both enhanced and low density areas of benign gliomas were significantly longer than those of malignant gliomas, there was no significant difference in the Td's of enhanced areas between malignant astrocytomas and glioblastomas

  17. Histological Observation of Regions around Bone Tunnels after Compression of the Bone Tunnel Wall in Ligament Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Shintaro; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Tanigawa, Naoaki; Miyazaki, Kyosuke; Shioda, Seiji

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the time-course of influence of compression of bone tunnel wall in ligament reconstruction on tissue around the bone tunnel and to histologically examine the mechanism of preventing the complication of bone tunnel dilation, using rabbit tibia. A model in which the femoral origin of the extensor digitorum longus tendon was cut and inserted into a bone tunnel made proximal to the tibia was prepared in the bilateral hind legs of 20 Japanese white rabbits. In each animal, a tunnel was made using a drill only in the right leg, while an undersized bone tunnel was made by drilling and then dilated by compression using a dilator to the same tunnel size as that in the right leg. Animals were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery (4 animals at each time point). Observation of bone tunnels by X-ray radiography showed osteosclerosis in the 2- and 4-week dilation groups. Osteosclerosis appeared as white lines around the bone tunnel on X-ray radiography. This suggests that dilation promotes callus formation in the bone tunnel wall and prevents the complication of bone tunnel enlargement after ligament reconstruction

  18. Wallerian degeneration of the corticodescending tract in the cerebral peduncle following a supratentorial cerebrovascular lesion detected by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waragai, Masaaki; Iwabuchi, Sadamu

    1993-01-01

    We studied Wallerian degeneration of the corticodescending tract in the cerebral peduncle following a supratentorial cerebrovascular lesion by MRI. A total of 57 patients with palsy following a supratenotorial cerebrovascular lesion were prospectively studied. Wallerian degeneration was detected as a high signal intensity (HSI) in 37 patients between 70 days and 100 days after the onset, but not detected in the remaining 27 patients. Patient with as HSI in all areas of the cerebral peduncle had a large lesion involving the hemisphere. Patient with an HSI at the center of the cerebral peduncle had a lesion confined to the paracentral gyrus, precentral gyrus, corona radiata or posterior limb of the internal capsule. Patient with an HSI at the lateral side of the cerebral peduncle had a lesion of parietal lobe or temporal lobe which spares the corticospinal tract originating from the paracentral gyrus, precentral gyrus, corona radiata or posterior limb of the internal capsule. These findings suggest that as HSI at the center of the cerebral peduncle may reveal Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tract, and an HSI at the lateral side of the cerebral peduncle may show Wallerian degeneration of the corticopontine tract. The functional recovery of paresis was poor in all patients with an HSI at the center of the cerebral peduncle, while it was good in all patients without an HSI in that region. Our data suggested that somatotopical localization of the corticodescending tract in the cerebral peduncle may be identified by detecting Wallerian degeneration following a supratentorial lesion, and the functional recovery of patients with paresis could be predicted according to presence or absence of Wallerian degeneration at the center of the cerebral peduncle. (author)

  19. A new psammosteid (Agnatha, Heterostraci from the Amata Regional Stage of the Main Devonian Field and morpho-histological types of discrete micromeric elements in the family Psammosteidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim N. Glinskiy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In memory of an outstanding palaeoichthyologist Elga Mark-Kurik The range of diversity of psammosteids from the family Psammosteidae is still poorly known. Here a new species, Psammosteus ramosus sp. nov. Glinskiy, from the Amata Regional Stage of the Main Devonian Field is described. Its morphology, ornamentation, histology of exoskeletal plates, and micromeric elements are compared with those of other representatives of the family Psammosteidae. The comparison shows a close relationship of the new species with Psammosteus falcatus Obruchev, P. kiaeri Halstead Tarlo and P. pectinatus Obruchev, a group of species that is significantly different from other representatives of the genus Psammosteus and constitutes a separate evolutionary lineage. On the basis of morphological and histological features we here differentiate in the fields of tesserae of Psammosteidae the discrete micromeric elements of the ‘basic type’, known in Psammosteus bergi (Obruchev, P. levis Obruchev, P. livonicus Obruchev, P. maeandrinus Agassiz, P. megalopteryx (Trautschold, P. praecursor Obruchev and Karelosteus weberi Obruchev, and micromeric elements of the ‘progressive type’, known in Psammosteus falcatus, P. cf. kiaeri and P. ramosus sp. nov. Glinskiy.

  20. Optimal 3-D conformal treatment planning of posterior lateral supratentorial tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gius, David; Klein, Eric; Oehmke, Fred

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The ability to treat the brain to greater doses is limited by normal brain tissue tolerance. With the use of 3-dimensional treatment planning dose escalation will result in increased target dose while sparing normal tissue. Treatment of the supratentorial region of the brain presents several unique difficulties due to the changing contour of the calvarium, which are especially noticeable with treatment to the posterior lateral quadrant. The use of a single wedge beam is sub-optimal and a more appropriate solution would employ a two tier wedge arrangement to better conform the isodoses around the target volume. In the past it has only been possible to use a single wedge during treatment with a single port, however, the dynamic wedge presents the opportunity to employ a two tier wedge system by simultaneously using conventional and dynamic wedging. Methods and Materials: An anthropomorphic phantom with a lesion located in the posterior lateral aspect of the brain where the external surface slopes at a maximum was configured. CT generated contours outlined the external surface, normal anatomy, gross tumor, and target volumes. We used the beam's-eye-view projection from the 3D planning system to derive the conformal beams. A standard opposed lateral and posterior oblique wedge pair beam arrangements, were compared to a three field technique (PA, lateral, and vertex) which used both a single wedge arrangement and a two-tier wedge plan. Treatment plans were evaluated by calculating isodose distribution, DVH, TCP, and NTCP. Each beam arrangement was used to treat our phantom with film placed in between the phantom layers at the tumor levels to confirm the accuracy of the 3-D system calculations. Results: The three field, two-tier wedge technique isodose distribution was significantly superior when compared to the standard 2-D plans, and a moderate improvement over the three field, single wedge technique in terms of conforming dose to the tumor and

  1. The mRNA expression and histological integrity in rat forebrain motor and sensory regions are minimally affected by acrylamide exposure through drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, John F.; Latendresse, John R.; Delongchamp, Robert R.; Warbritton, Alan R.; Thomas, Monzy; Divine, Becky; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether alterations in the gene expression or overt histological signs of neurotoxicity in selected regions of the forebrain might occur from acrylamide exposure via drinking water. Gene expression at the mRNA level was evaluated by cDNA array and/or RT-PCR analysis in the striatum, substantia nigra and parietal cortex of rat after a 2-week acrylamide exposure. The highest dose tested (maximally tolerated) of approximately 44 mg/kg/day resulted in a significant decreased body weight, sluggishness, and locomotor activity reduction. These physiological effects were not accompanied by prominent changes in gene expression in the forebrain. All the expression changes seen in the 1200 genes that were evaluated in the three brain regions were ≤ 1.5-fold, and most not significant. Very few, if any, statistically significant changes were seen in mRNA levels of the more than 50 genes directly related to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, GABAergic or glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems in the striatum, substantia nigra or parietal cortex. All the expression changes observed in genes related to dopaminergic function were less than 1.5-fold and not statistically significant and the 5HT1b receptor was the only serotonin-related gene affected. Therefore, gene expression changes were few and modest in basal ganglia and sensory cortex at a time when the behavioral manifestations of acrylamide toxicity had become prominent. No histological evidence of axonal, dendritic or neuronal cell body damage was found in the forebrain due to the acrylamide exposure. As well, microglial activation was not present. These findings are consistent with the absence of expression changes in genes related to changes in neuroinflammation or neurotoxicity. Over all, these data suggest that oral ingestion of acrylamide in drinking water or food, even at maximally tolerable levels, induced neither marked changes in gene expression nor neurotoxicity in the motor and

  2. Can diffusion tensor imaging predict the functional outcome of supra-tentorial stroke?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Takahiro; Ishizaki, Ken-ichi; Yura, Shigeki

    2005-01-01

    We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess wallerian degeneration of the pyramidal tract after the onset of supra-tentorial stroke, and correlation of the extent of Wallerian degeneration with the motor function at 3 months after stroke. Twenty eight patients with supra-tentorial acute stroke were examined, two weeks and one month after stroke by DTI. We measured fractional anisotropy (FA) of affected side/unaffected side (FA ratio) in the cerebral peduncle. We used modified Rankin Scale (mRS) for assessment of motor function at 3 months after stroke. FA ratio was significantly reduced at 2 weeks after stroke (0.833±0.146) compared to on admission (0.979±0.0797). But no significant change of FA ratio was seen between two weeks and one month after stroke in 7 cases examined (0.758±0.183 vs. 0.754±0.183). In all patients in whom the FA ratio was under 0.8 at 2 weeks after stroke, motor function showed poor recovery (mRS 4 and 5) at 3 months after stroke. When FA ratio was over 0.8 at 2 weeks after stroke, motor function at 3 months after stroke showed good recovery (mRS 0 to 3) expect for three elderly patients. With the use of DTI, Wallerian degeneration could be detected in the corticospinal tracts at midbrain level during the early phase of supra-tentorial stroke. We conclude that DTI may be useful for early prediction of motor function prognosis in patients with supra-tentorial acute stroke. (author)

  3. Prodominant hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy with supratentorial involvement: Case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hee; Park, Sung Tae; Lim, Hyun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Soonchunhyang University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Tae; Cha, Ji Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Hypertensive encephalopathy typically presents with bilateral parietooccipital vasogenic edema. Brainstem and cerebellar edema are uncommon in association with typical supratentorial changes. We experienced three cases of atypical hypertensive encephalopathy involving brainstem and cerebellum as well as cerebral white matter, which showed characteristic alternating linear bright and low signals in the pons, the so-called 'stripe sign'. We report these cases here with a brief literature review.

  4. Supratentorial juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma in a young adult with Silver-Russell syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fenton, E

    2008-12-01

    Silver-Russell syndrome is a rare genetically heterogeneous disorder in which patients demonstrate intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, triangular facies, excessive sweating during early childhood, late closure of the anterior fontanelle and skeletal asymmetry. An association with malignancy exists and only one previous intracranial tumour has been reported, a craniopharyngioma. We report the first case of Silver-Russell syndrome associated with a supratentorial juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma.

  5. Presurgical Planning for Supratentorial Lesions with Free Slicer Software and Sina App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Gang; Han, Kai-Wei; Zhang, Dan-Feng; Li, Zhen-Xing; Li, Yi-Ming; Hou, Li-Jun

    2017-10-01

    Neuronavigation systems are used widely in the localization of intracranial lesions with satisfactory accuracy. However, they are expensive and difficult to learn. Therefore, a simple and practical augmented reality (AR) system using mobile devices might be an alternative technique. We introduce a mobile AR system for the localization of supratentorial lesions. Its practicability and accuracy were examined by clinical application in patients and comparison with a standard neuronavigation system. A 3-dimensional (3D) model including lesions was created with 3D Slicer. A 2-dimensional image of this 3D model was obtained and overlapped on the patient's head with the Sina app. Registration was conducted with the assistance of anatomical landmarks and fiducial markers. The center of lesion projected on scalp was identified with our mobile AR system and standard neuronavigation system, respectively. The difference in distance between the centers identified by these 2 systems was measured. Our mobile AR system was simple and accurate in the localization of supratentorial lesions with a mean distance difference of 4.4 ± 1.1 mm. Registration added on an average of 141.7 ± 39 seconds to operation time. There was no statistically significant difference for the required time among 3 registrations (P = 0.646). The mobile AR system presents an alternative technology for image-guided neurosurgery and proves to be practical and reliable. The technique contributes to optimal presurgical planning for supratentorial lesions, especially in the absence of a neuronavigation system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intraoperative MRI to guide the resection of primary supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme - a quantitative radiological analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Jens P.; Rubach, Matthias; Schulz, Thomas; Dietrich, Juergen; Zimmer, Claus; Kahn, Thomas [University of Leipzig, Diagnostic Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Trantakis, Christos; Winkler, Dirk; Renner, Christof [University of Leipzig, Department of Neurosurgery, Leipzig (Germany); Schober, Ralf; Geiger, Kathrin [University of Leipzig, Department of Neuropathology, Leipzig (Germany); Brosteanu, Oana [Coordination Centre for Clinical Trials, Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Patients with supratentorial high-grade glioma underwent surgery within a vertically open 0.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) system to evaluate the efficacy of intraoperative MR guidance in achieving gross-total resection. For 31 patients, preoperative clinical data and MR findings were consistent with the putative diagnosis of a high-grade glioma, in 23 cases in eloquent regions. Tumor resections were carried out within a 0.5-T MR SIGNA SP/i (GE Medical Systems, USA). The resection of the lesion was carried out using fully MR compatible neurosurgical equipment and was stopped at the point when the operation was considered complete by the surgeon viewing the operation field with the microscope. We repeated imaging to determine the residual tumor volume only visible with MRI. Areas of tissue that were abnormal on these images were localized in the bed of resection by using interactive MR guidance. The procedure of resection, imaging control and interactive image guidance was repeated where necessary. Almost all tissue with abnormal characteristics was resected, with the exception of tissue localized in eloquent brain areas. The diagnosis of glioblastoma was confirmed in all 31 cases. When comparing the tumor volume before resection and at the point where the neurosurgeon would otherwise have terminated surgery (''first control''), residual tumor tissue was detectable in 29/31 patients; the mean residual tumor volume was 30.7{+-}24%. After repeated resections under interactive image guidance the mean residual tumor volume was 15.1%. At this step we found tumor remnants only in 20/31 patients. The perioperative morbidity (12.9%) was low. Twenty-seven patients underwent sufficient postoperative radiotherapy. We found a significant difference (log{sub rank}p=0.0037) in the mean survival times of the two groups with complete resection (n=10, median survival time 537 days) and incomplete resection (n=17, median survival time 237 days). The resection of

  7. Angioarchitectural characteristics associated with initial hemorrhagic presentation in supratentorial brain arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Jianwei, E-mail: swordman_pan@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Feng, Lei, E-mail: lei_feng66@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Vinuela, Fernando, E-mail: fvinuela@mednet.ucla.edu [Interventional Neuroradiology Division, Department of Radiological Sciences, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); He, Hongwei, E-mail: ttyyhhw@126.com [Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing, Capital Medical University, 6 Tiantan Xili, Beijing 100050 (China); Wu, Zhongxue, E-mail: 252694812@qq.com [Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing, Capital Medical University, 6 Tiantan Xili, Beijing 100050 (China); Zhan, Renya, E-mail: neurovasword@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou 310006 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Objective: The difference in arterial supply, venous drainage, functional localization in supratentorial and infratentorial compartments may contribute to the conflicting results about risk factors for hemorrhage in published case series of brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM). Further investigation focused on an individual brain compartment is thus necessary. This retrospective study aims to identify angioarchitectural characteristics associated with the initial hemorrhagic event of supratentorial bAVMs. Materials and methods: The clinical and angiographic features of 152 consecutive patients with supratentorial bAVMs who presented to our hospital from 2005 to 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. All these patients had new diagnosis of bAVM. Univariate (χ{sup 2} test) and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the angiographic features in patients with and without initial hemorrhagic presentations. A probability value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant in each analysis. Results: In 152 patients with supratentorial AVMs, 70.6% of deep and 52.5% of superficial sbAVMs presented with hemorrhage. The deep location was correlated with initial hemorrhagic presentation in univariate analysis (χ{sup 2} = 3.499, p = 0.046) but not in the multivariate model (p = 0.144). There were 44 sbAVMs with perforating feeders, 39 (88.6%) of which bled at a significantly higher rate than those with terminal feeders (χ{sup 2} = 25.904, p = 0.000). 87.5% (21/24) of exclusive deep venous drainage presented with hemorrhage, a significantly higher rate than those of the other type of venous drainage (χ{sup 2} = 11.099, p = 0.004). All 10 patients with both perforating feeders and exclusive deep draining vein presented with initial hemorrhage. Hemorrhagic presentation was correlated with perforating feeders (p = 0.000) and exclusive deep draining vein (p = 0.007) in multivariate analysis as well. Conclusions: Supratentorial bAVMs with perforating feeders

  8. Angioarchitectural characteristics associated with initial hemorrhagic presentation in supratentorial brain arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Jianwei; Feng, Lei; Vinuela, Fernando; He, Hongwei; Wu, Zhongxue; Zhan, Renya

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The difference in arterial supply, venous drainage, functional localization in supratentorial and infratentorial compartments may contribute to the conflicting results about risk factors for hemorrhage in published case series of brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM). Further investigation focused on an individual brain compartment is thus necessary. This retrospective study aims to identify angioarchitectural characteristics associated with the initial hemorrhagic event of supratentorial bAVMs. Materials and methods: The clinical and angiographic features of 152 consecutive patients with supratentorial bAVMs who presented to our hospital from 2005 to 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. All these patients had new diagnosis of bAVM. Univariate (χ 2 test) and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the angiographic features in patients with and without initial hemorrhagic presentations. A probability value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant in each analysis. Results: In 152 patients with supratentorial AVMs, 70.6% of deep and 52.5% of superficial sbAVMs presented with hemorrhage. The deep location was correlated with initial hemorrhagic presentation in univariate analysis (χ 2 = 3.499, p = 0.046) but not in the multivariate model (p = 0.144). There were 44 sbAVMs with perforating feeders, 39 (88.6%) of which bled at a significantly higher rate than those with terminal feeders (χ 2 = 25.904, p = 0.000). 87.5% (21/24) of exclusive deep venous drainage presented with hemorrhage, a significantly higher rate than those of the other type of venous drainage (χ 2 = 11.099, p = 0.004). All 10 patients with both perforating feeders and exclusive deep draining vein presented with initial hemorrhage. Hemorrhagic presentation was correlated with perforating feeders (p = 0.000) and exclusive deep draining vein (p = 0.007) in multivariate analysis as well. Conclusions: Supratentorial bAVMs with perforating feeders and deep venous

  9. Local recurrence and distant metastasis of supratentorial primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor in an adult patient successfully treated with intensive induction chemotherapy and maintenance temozolomide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terheggen, F.; Troost, D.; Majoie, C. B.; Leenstra, S.; Richel, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    Supratentorial primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors (PNET) in adults are very rare. Extraneural metastasis are unusual and the optimal palliative chemotherapy regimen is not established. We present a 26-year-old patient with local recurrence and distant metastasis of supratentorial PNET successfully

  10. Demographics and Incidence of Histologically Confirmed Intracranial Tumors: A Five-year, Two-center Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhenkov, Deyan L; Kitanova, Martina; Ghenev, Peter; Tonchev, Anton B

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Intracranial tumors (ICTs) are a diverse group of malignancies that pose an immediate threat to patients' lives, no matter their local or metastatic origin, benign or malignant nature. These lesions have severe clinical courses and need to be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible, with pathological verification being the pivotal moment in the process of determining curative modalities. Aim The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of histologically confirmed ICTs in Eastern Bulgaria, based on their type (primary, metastatic, and non-volume occupying lesions (NVOL)), their respective subtypes, and incidence in a descriptive manner. Materials and Methods For a period of five full calendar years (January 1st, 2012 – December 31st, 2016), all histologically confirmed cases of intracranial tumors were prospectively collected from two individual tertiary healthcare institutions. The cases were then statistically analyzed in a descriptive manner, and incidences of primary, metastatic, and NVOL were compared with regards to their specific origins, types, and subtypes. Metastatic tumors were further segregated relative to their intracranial metastatic location. Results The total number of individual ICTs registered in the set timeframe was 822. Primary ICTs represented a total of 66.12% of the histologically confirmed cases, with the most common entries being tumors from a glial and meningeal origin, 30.90% were histologically confirmed as metastatic ICTs, from which the most common entries were of pulmonary origin, and the other 2.94% were NVOL. On behalf of their intracranial metastatic location, metastatic tumors were located predominantly in the supratentorial region, represented as a total of 87.80%, while the other 12.20% were located in the subtentorial region. Based on the descriptive analysis, the annual incidence per 100,000 capita of all ICTs is 9.12, comprised of 6.03 per 100,000 for primary ICTs, 2.82 per 100,000 for metastatic

  11. Alteration of long-distance functional connectivity and network topology in patients with supratentorial gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Eun; Kim, Ho Sung; Kim, Sang Joon; Shim, Woo Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Songpa-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Hoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The need for information regarding functional alterations in patients with brain gliomas is increasing, but little is known about the functional consequences of focal brain tumors throughout the entire brain. Using resting-state functional MR imaging (rs-fMRI), this study assessed functional connectivity in patients with supratentorial brain gliomas with possible alterations in long-distance connectivity and network topology. Data from 36 patients with supratentorial brain gliomas and 12 healthy subjects were acquired using rs-fMRI. The functional connectivity matrix (FCM) was created using 32 pairs of cortical seeds on Talairach coordinates in each individual subject. Local and distant connectivity were calculated using z-scores in the individual patient's FCM, and the averaged FCM of patients was compared with that of healthy subjects. Weighted network analysis was performed by calculating local efficiency, global efficiency, clustering coefficient, and small-world topology, and compared between patients and healthy controls. When comparing the averaged FCM of patients with that of healthy controls, the patients showed decreased long-distance, inter-hemispheric connectivity (0.32 ± 0.16 in patients vs. 0. 42 ± 0.15 in healthy controls, p = 0.04). In network analysis, patients showed increased local efficiency (p < 0.05), but global efficiency, clustering coefficient, and small-world topology were relatively preserved compared to healthy subjects. Patients with supratentorial brain gliomas showed decreased long-distance connectivity while increased local efficiency and preserved small-world topology. The results of this small case series may provide a better understanding of the alterations of functional connectivity in patients with brain gliomas across the whole brain scale. (orig.)

  12. Dural venous sinuses distortion and compression with supratentorial mass lesions: a mechanism for refractory intracranial hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Adnan I.; Qureshi, Mushtaq H.; Majidi, Shahram; Gilani, Waqas I.; Siddiq, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of supratentorial intraparenchymal mass lesions of various volumes on dural venous sinuses structure and transluminal pressures. Methods Three set of preparations were made using adult isolated head derived from fresh human cadaver. A supratentorial intraparenchymal balloon was introduced and inflated at various volumes and effect on dural venous sinuses was assessed by serial intravascular ultrasound, computed tomographic (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) venograms. Contrast was injected through a catheter placed in sigmoid sinus for both CT and MR venograms. Serial trasluminal pressures were measured from middle part of superior sagittal sinus in another set of experiments. Results At intraparenchymal balloon inflation of 90 cm3, there was attenuation of contrast enhancement of superior sagittal sinus with compression visualized in posterior part of the sinus without any evidence of compression in the remaining sinus. At intraparenchymal balloon inflation of 180 and 210 cm3, there was compression and obliteration of superior sagittal sinus throughout the length of the sinus. In the coronal sections, at intraparenchymal balloon inflations of 90 and 120 cm3, compression and obliteration of the posterior part of superior sagittal sinus were visualized. In the axial images, basal veins were not visualized with intraparenchymal balloon inflation of 90 cm3 or greater although straight sinus was visualized at all levels of inflation. Trasluminal pressure in the middle part of superior sagittal sinus demonstrated a mild increase from 0 cm H2O to 0.4 cm H2O and 0.5 cm H2O with inflation of balloon to volume of 150 and 180 cm3, respectively. There was a rapid increase in transluminal pressure from 6.8 cm H2O to 25.6 cm H2O as the supratentorial mass lesion increased from 180 to 200 cm3. Conclusions Our experiments identified distortion and segmental and global obliteration of dural venous sinuses secondary to supratentorial mass lesion and

  13. Remote Supratentorial Hemorrhage After Posterior Fossa Surgery: A Brief Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moscote-Salazar Luis Rafael

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The supratentorial hemorrhage after posterior fossa surgery is an unusual but delicate complication that carries high mortality and morbidity. A 50 year old woman presented vertigo 6 months of evolution, which worsened in the last 2 months accompanied by ataxia. She showed left cerebellar signs, had no focal motor or sensory deficits. A brain MRI identified cerebellopontine angle lesion with mass effect. The patient was treated on suboccipital craniectomy and resection of right posterior fossa tumor, the histopathological diagnosis was consistent with typical meningioma. (WHO Class I.

  14. Histochemical studies on genetical control of hormonal enzyme inducibility in the mouse. I. Non-specific esterase activity and regional histology of the epididymis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blecher, S R; Kirkeby, S

    1978-01-01

    As a base line for future cell genetical studies the authors record the distribution of non-specific esterase reaction in the various histologically distinguishable cell types of the mouse epididymis. The findings are correlated with previous descriptions of the lobar structure of the organ...

  15. Clinical features and CT scan findings of supratentorial ependymomas and ependymoblastomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanakita, Junya; Handa, Hajime

    1984-01-01

    The clinical courses and CT scan findings of 12 cases of supratentorial ependymoma and ependymoblastoma were reviewed. The age of the patient of ependymoma ranged from 3 years to 34 years, with an average age of 16 years. The follow-up time ranged from 2 months to 9 years and 10 months. All of the six patients are still alive. The age of the patients of ependymoblastoma ranged from 7 months to 34 years, with an average age of 17 years. During the follow-up period from 2 weeks to 6 years and 4 months, four patients died. Supratentorial ependymomas and ependymoblastomas show the following characteristic features of CT scans: 1. Calcification: The incidence of calcification was 50% in ependymoma-group, and 100% in ependymoblastoma-group. 2. Cyst formation, ring-enhancement: The cyst formation was noticed in both groups. In ependymoma-group a smooth ring-enhancement pattern and the strongly enhanced mural nodule-like contour were found, but in ependymoblastoma-group, the cyst wall was enhanced in irregular shape. 3. Perifocal edema and mass effect: Considerable mass effect was noticed in both groups. Perifocal edema was slight in many cases of ependymoma-group, but mostly prominent in ependymoblastoma-group. 4. CT scan findings of recurrent tumor: In ependymoma-group, recurrent tumor showed the same characteristics of CT scan as the initial ones. In ependymoblastoma-group, cystic portion decreased in size and irregular shaped solid portion increased in recurrence. (author)

  16. Value of 18F-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine PET/MR image fusion in pediatric supratentorial infiltrative astrocytomas: a prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morana, Giovanni; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Milanaccio, Claudia; Puntoni, Matteo; Nozza, Paolo; Cama, Armando; Zefiro, Daniele; Cabria, Massimo; Rossi, Andrea; Garrè, Maria Luisa

    2014-05-01

    Infiltrative astrocytomas (IAs) represent a group of astrocytic gliomas ranging from low-grade to highly malignant, characterized by diffuse invasion of the brain parenchyma. When compared with their adult counterpart, pediatric IAs may be considered biologically distinct entities; nevertheless, similarly to those in adults they represent a complex oncologic challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic role, clinical contribution, and prognostic value of fused (18)F-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine ((18)F-DOPA) PET/MR images in pediatric supratentorial IAs. Pediatric patients with supratentorial IAs involving at least 2 cerebral lobes, either newly diagnosed or with suspected disease progression, prospectively underwent (18)F-DOPA PET and conventional MR imaging, performed within 10 d of each other. (18)F-DOPA PET data were interpreted qualitatively and semiquantitatively, fusing images with MR images. PET scans were classified as positive if tumors identified on MR imaging exhibited tracer uptake above the level of the corresponding contralateral normal brain. Maximum standardized uptake values, tumor-to-normal contralateral tissue ratios, and tumor-to-normal striatum ratios were calculated for all tumors. Correlations between the degree and extent of (18)F-DOPA uptake, MR imaging tumor characteristics, and histologic results were investigated. The contribution of (18)F-DOPA PET/MR image fusion was considered relevant if it enabled one to select the most appropriate biopsy site, discriminate between disease progression and treatment-related changes, or influence treatment strategy. The patient's outcome was finally correlated with (18)F-DOPA uptake. Thirteen patients (8 boys and 5 girls) were included (5 diffuse astrocytomas, 2 anaplastic astrocytomas, 5 gliomatosis cerebri, and 1 glioblastoma multiforme). The (18)F-DOPA uptake pattern was heterogeneous in all positive scans (9/13), revealing metabolic heterogeneities within each tumor. Significant

  17. Technetium-99m HMPAO SPET in acute supratentorial ischaemic infraction, expressing deficits as millilitre of zero perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, R.A. [Univ. Hospital of Ghent (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy]|[Antwerp Univ. (Belgium). Lab. of Neurochemistry and Behavior, Born-Bunge Foundation UIA; Dobbeleir, A. [Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Pickut, B.A. [Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Neurology; Timmermans, L. [Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Neurology; Dierckx, I. [Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Vervaet, A. [Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Vandevivere, J. [Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Deberdt, W. [UCB Pharma NV (Belgium); Deyn, P.P. de [Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Neurology]|[Antwerp Univ. (Belgium). Lab. of Neurochemistry and Behavior, Born-Bunge Foundation UIA

    1995-05-01

    A comparative interim analysis was performed of clinical parameters, computed tomographic (CT) scan results and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO (SPET)-findings obtained within 12 h of acute supratentorial ischaemic infarction. First, the applicability for SPET semiquantification in this study of the ``method of Mountz``, simultaneously accounting for extent and degrees of hypoperfusion, was considered. Next, the relative contributions of perfusion SPET and CT scan in the acute stage of ischaemic infarction were compared in 27 patients (mean age 68.8 years). Finally, the correlation of SPET lesions with clinical parameters at onset was evaluated. The method of Mountz represents a workable, accurate virtual parameter, with the assumption that the contralateral brain region remains uninvolved. Because of inconstant distribution of activities in the brain, the method can only be applied slice by sclice and not on the total global volume. While the mean delay since the onset of symptomatology was approximately 7 h for both SPET and CT scan, SPET showed lesions concordant with the clinical neurological findings in 100% and CT scan in only 48%. One could hypothesize that SPET examinations performed later would show larger functional defects, because of the development of additional functional changes secondary to biochemical alterations. However, in this regard no statistically significant differences were found between two subproups, taking the median of delay before SPET examination as cut-off. Finally, when comparing the volumes of SPET lesions during the acute stage with clinical parameters, a statistically significant correlation (P<0.01) was found with the Orgogozo Scale scores describing the neurological deficit, but not with the Glasgow Coma Scale or Frenchay Aphasia Screening Test scores obtained on admittance. (orig./MG)

  18. Technetium-99m HMPAO SPET in acute supratentorial ischaemic infraction, expressing deficits as millilitre of zero perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, R.A.; Deyn, P.P. de; Antwerp Univ.

    1995-01-01

    A comparative interim analysis was performed of clinical parameters, computed tomographic (CT) scan results and 99m Tc-HMPAO (SPET)-findings obtained within 12 h of acute supratentorial ischaemic infarction. First, the applicability for SPET semiquantification in this study of the ''method of Mountz'', simultaneously accounting for extent and degrees of hypoperfusion, was considered. Next, the relative contributions of perfusion SPET and CT scan in the acute stage of ischaemic infarction were compared in 27 patients (mean age 68.8 years). Finally, the correlation of SPET lesions with clinical parameters at onset was evaluated. The method of Mountz represents a workable, accurate virtual parameter, with the assumption that the contralateral brain region remains uninvolved. Because of inconstant distribution of activities in the brain, the method can only be applied slice by sclice and not on the total global volume. While the mean delay since the onset of symptomatology was approximately 7 h for both SPET and CT scan, SPET showed lesions concordant with the clinical neurological findings in 100% and CT scan in only 48%. One could hypothesize that SPET examinations performed later would show larger functional defects, because of the development of additional functional changes secondary to biochemical alterations. However, in this regard no statistically significant differences were found between two subproups, taking the median of delay before SPET examination as cut-off. Finally, when comparing the volumes of SPET lesions during the acute stage with clinical parameters, a statistically significant correlation (P<0.01) was found with the Orgogozo Scale scores describing the neurological deficit, but not with the Glasgow Coma Scale or Frenchay Aphasia Screening Test scores obtained on admittance. (orig./MG)

  19. Clinicopathological characteristics of papillary tumor of the pineal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-yu JIANG

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR is a newly recognized distinct entity in the 2007 WHO nomenclature. This tumor is characterized by epithelial-appearing areas with papillary features and more densely cellular areas that often display ependymal-like differentiation, which is likely to originate from the specialized ependymocytes of subcommissural organ near the Sylvian cerebral aqueduct. Due to its rarity and non-specific appearance in radiological exanimation, it is a diagnostic challenge for radiologists and histopathologists to differentiate PTPR from other primary or metastatic lesions located in the pineal region because of their similarities in radiological and histological findings. The aim of this study is to summarize the clinicopathological features of PTPR and discuss the differential diagnosis of histologically similar papillary tumors in pineal region.  Methods The clinical manifestations of a patient with PTPR occurring in supratentorial pineal region were presented retrospectively. Resected mass was routinely paraffin-embedded and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Dako EnVision immunohistochemical staining system was used to detect the tumor antigen expressions, including vimentin (Vim, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, S-100 protein (S-100, pan cytokeratin (PCK, cytokeratin 7 (CK7, CK20, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN, synaptophysin (Syn, neuron-specific enolase (NSE, and Ki-67 labeling index (MIB-1.  Results A 57-year-old male patient presented with 6-month history of mild headache, and became severe in last one month. MRI revealed a solid well-circumscribed lesion in supratentorial midline near the pineal region and the posterior third ventricle with mild heterogeneous enhancement. Craniotomy was performed and the tumor was removed totally. Histological examination revealed that the lesion contained papillary areas lined by columnar epithelioid tumor cells with

  20. HistologiQuiz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brent, Mikkel Bo

    2015-01-01

    HistologiQuiz er en quiz-app udviklet til almen og speciel histologi. Den består af mere end 1400 spørgsmål og over 320 histologiske billeder. Alle spørgsmål tager udgangspunkt i lærebogen Genesers Histologi af Annemarie Brüel m.fl.......HistologiQuiz er en quiz-app udviklet til almen og speciel histologi. Den består af mere end 1400 spørgsmål og over 320 histologiske billeder. Alle spørgsmål tager udgangspunkt i lærebogen Genesers Histologi af Annemarie Brüel m.fl....

  1. Congenital malformations of the supratentorial brain. Pt. 1. Disorders of cortical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertl-Wagner, B.; Rummeny, C.; Reiser, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    Disorders of supratentorial cortical development are usually divided into disorders of neuronal proliferation, neuronal migration and cortical organization. Based upon molecular biologic discoveries, a modified classification has recently been proposed. The category of malformations of abnormal neuronal and glial proliferation and apoptosis now includes microlissencephalies, megalencephalies, hemimegalencephalies and cortical dysplasias with balloon cells. Malformations due to abnormal neuronal migration now subsume the lissencephaly spectrum including the subcortical band heterotopias, the cobblestone complex and the group of heterotopias. Malformations due to abnormal cortical organization include the spectrum of polymicrogyria and schizencephaly as well as cortical dysplasias without balloon cells. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has led to an increasing awareness of these malformations. This article aims to illustrate the classification, MRI presentation and relevant clinical features of the most commonly encountered disorders of cortical development. (orig.) [de

  2. A case of supratentorial intra-axial ependymoma showing exophytic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Eung Yeop [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-11-15

    A 17-year-old female had headache for several weeks and she developed an episode of seizure one day prior to admission. She underwent both CT and MRI, which both revealed a large tumor with cystic and solid portions at the right frontoparietal convexity. During operation, a well-defined tumor was found to have a stalk connecting the tumor itself with the brain parenchyma, proving that it was growing exophytically and expanding into the subarachnoid space. Histopathological examination revealed an anaplastic ependymoma with high cellularity. We report here on this case of an unusual supratentorial ependymoma with exophytic growth, and this can be mistaken as another exophytic growing intra-axial tumor or even as an extra-axial tumor.

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of guys Hospital stroke score (allen score) in acute supratentorial thrombotic/haemorrhagic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulfiqar, A.; Toori, K. U.; Khan, S. S.; Hamza, M. I. M.; Zaman, S. U.

    2006-01-01

    A consecutive series of 103 patients, 58% male with mean age of 62 year (range 40-75 years), admitted with supratentorial stroke in our teaching hospital were studied. All patients had Computer Tomography scan brain done after clinical evaluation and application of Allen stroke score. Computer Tomography Scan confirmed thrombotic stroke in 55 (53%) patients and haemorrhagic stroke in 48 (47%) patients. Out of the 55 patients with definitive thrombotic stroke on Computer Tomography Scan, Allen stroke score suggested infarction in 67%, haemorrhage in 6% and remained inconclusive in 27% of cases. In 48 patients with definitive haemorrhagic stroke on Computer Tomography Scan, Allen stroke score suggested haemorrhage in 60%, infarction in 11% and remained inconclusive in 29% of cases. The overall accuracy of Allen stroke score was 66%. (author)

  4. Clinico-Histologic Conferences: Histology and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Phyllis A.; Friedman, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    Providing a context for learning information and requiring learners to teach specific content has been demonstrated to enhance knowledge retention. To enhance students' appreciation of the role of science and specifically histology in clinical reasoning, disease diagnosis, and treatment, a new teaching format was created to provide clinical…

  5. Intraoperative high-field magnetic resonance imaging, multimodal neuronavigation, and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring-guided surgery for treating supratentorial cavernomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang-Ye; Chen, Xiao-Lei; Xu, Bai-Nan

    2016-09-01

    To determine the beneficial effects of intraoperative high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), multimodal neuronavigation, and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring-guided surgery for treating supratentorial cavernomas. Twelve patients with 13 supratentorial cavernomas were prospectively enrolled and operated while using a 1.5 T intraoperative MRI, multimodal neuronavigation, and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring. All cavernomas were deeply located in subcortical areas or involved critical areas. Intraoperative high-field MRIs were obtained for the intraoperative "visualization" of surrounding eloquent structures, "brain shift" corrections, and navigational plan updates. All cavernomas were successfully resected with guidance from intraoperative MRI, multimodal neuronavigation, and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring. In 5 cases with supratentorial cavernomas, intraoperative "brain shift" severely deterred locating of the lesions; however, intraoperative MRI facilitated precise locating of these lesions. During long-term (>3 months) follow-up, some or all presenting signs and symptoms improved or resolved in 4 cases, but were unchanged in 7 patients. Intraoperative high-field MRI, multimodal neuronavigation, and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring are helpful in surgeries for the treatment of small deeply seated subcortical cavernomas.

  6. Glioma supratentorial de baixo grau em adulto: experiência com 23 pacientes operados Supratentorial low grade tumors in adults: an experience with 23 surgical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Lynch

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Os astrocitomas e oligodendrogliomas supratentoriais dos adultos são tumores infrequentes. Analisamos retrospectivamente 23 pacientes com este tipo de neoplasia que foram operados entre 1986 e 2002. Não ocorreu nenhum óbito no pós-operatório. A sobrevida de 5 e 10 anos de todo o grupo foi 67 e 30% respectivamente, semelhante a outras experiências. Em 14 pacientes obtivemos a remoção completa da lesão (60,8% e em 9 (39,2% ocorreu remoção parcial do tumor. No subgrupo da ressecção total do tumor, 89% sobreviveram 5 anos e 45% alcançaram 10 anos de sobrevida, em contraste com o subgrupo da remoção parcial em que somente 35% alcançaram os 5 anos de sobrevida e nenhum, 10 anos. Devido aos efeitos deletérios da radioterapia, nós preferimos prescrevê-la apenas nos casos de recorrência tumoral.Low-grade supratentorial astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas in adults are uncommon tumors of the central nervous system. We analyzed retrospectively 23 patients with this type of neoplasia, who were operated on between 1986 and 2002. There were no post-operative deaths. The survival rate at 5 and 10 years post-surgery for the entire sample was 67 and 30% respectively, similar to other outcomes. With 14 patients we achieved a complete removal of the lesion (60.8% and with 9 (39.2% partial removal of the tumor. In the sub-group which underwent total resection of the tumor, 89% survived 5 years and 45% attained 10 years of survival, in contrast with the sub-group that underwent partial removal in which only 35% attained 5 years of survival and none 10 years. Due to the deleterious effects of radiation therapy, we preferred to prescribe it only in cases of tumor recurrence.

  7. Molecular fingerprinting reflects different histotypes and brain region in low grade gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascelli, Samantha; Fasulo, Daniel; Noy, Karin; Wittemberg, Gayle; Pignatelli, Sara; Piatelli, Gianluca; Cama, Armando; Garré, Maria Luisa; Capra, Valeria; Verri, Alessandro; Barla, Annalisa; Raso, Alessandro; Mosci, Sofia; Nozza, Paolo; Biassoni, Roberto; Morana, Giovanni; Huber, Martin; Mircean, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Paediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) encompass a heterogeneous set of tumours of different histologies, site of lesion, age and gender distribution, growth potential, morphological features, tendency to progression and clinical course. Among LGGs, Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are the most common central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children. They are typically well-circumscribed, classified as grade I by the World Health Organization (WHO), but recurrence or progressive disease occurs in about 10-20% of cases. Despite radiological and neuropathological features deemed as classic are acknowledged, PA may present a bewildering variety of microscopic features. Indeed, tumours containing both neoplastic ganglion and astrocytic cells occur at a lower frequency. Gene expression profiling on 40 primary LGGs including PAs and mixed glial-neuronal tumours comprising gangliogliomas (GG) and desmoplastic infantile gangliogliomas (DIG) using Affymetrix array platform was performed. A biologically validated machine learning workflow for the identification of microarray-based gene signatures was devised. The method is based on a sparsity inducing regularization algorithm l 1 l 2 that selects relevant variables and takes into account their correlation. The most significant genetic signatures emerging from gene-chip analysis were confirmed and validated by qPCR. We identified an expression signature composed by a biologically validated list of 15 genes, able to distinguish infratentorial from supratentorial LGGs. In addition, a specific molecular fingerprinting distinguishes the supratentorial PAs from those originating in the posterior fossa. Lastly, within supratentorial tumours, we also identified a gene expression pattern composed by neurogenesis, cell motility and cell growth genes which dichotomize mixed glial-neuronal tumours versus PAs. Our results reinforce previous observations about aberrant activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in LGGs

  8. Novel SACS mutations associated with intellectual disability, epilepsy and widespread supratentorial abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Zafar; Klar, Joakim; Jameel, Mohammad; Khan, Kamal; Fatima, Ambrin; Raininko, Raili; Baig, Shahid; Dahl, Niklas

    2016-12-15

    We describe eight subjects from two consanguineous families segregating with autosomal recessive childhood onset spastic ataxia, peripheral neuropathy and intellectual disability. The degree of intellectual disability varied from mild to severe and all four affected individuals in one family developed aggressive behavior and epilepsy. Using exome sequencing, we identified two novel truncating mutations (c.2656C>T (p.Gln886*)) and (c.4756_4760delAATCA (p.Asn1586Tyrfs*3)) in the SACS gene responsible for autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS). MRI revealed typical cerebellar and pontine changes associated with ARSACS as well as multiple supratentorial changes in both families as likely contributing factors to the cognitive symptoms. Intellectual disability and behavioral abnormalities have been reported in some cases of ARSACS but are not a part of the characteristic triad of symptoms that includes cerebellar ataxia, spasticity and peripheral neuropathy. Our combined findings bring further knowledge to the phenotypic spectrum, neurodegenerative changes and genetic variability associated with the SACS gene of clinical and diagnostic importance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Imaging characteristics of supratentorial ependymomas: Study on a large single institutional cohort with histopathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalore, Sandhya; Aryan, Saritha; Prasad, Chandrajit; Santosh, Vani

    2015-01-01

    Supratentorial ependymoma (STE) is a tumor whose unique clinical and imaging characteristics have not been studied. Histopathologically, they resemble ependymoma elsewhere. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings with clinicopathological correlation in a large number of patients with STE to identify these characteristics. Computed tomography (CT) magnetic resonance images (MRI), pathology reports, and clinical information from 41 patients with pathology-confirmed STE from a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. CT and MRI findings including location, size, signal intensity, hemorrhage, and enhancement pattern were tabulated and described separately in intraventricular and intraparenchymal forms. STE was more common in pediatric age group and intraparenchymal was more common than intraventricular form. The most common presentation was features of raised intracranial tension. There were equal numbers of Grade II and Grade III tumors. The imaging characteristics in adult and pediatric age group were similar. The tumor was large and had both solid and cystic components. Advanced imaging such as diffusion, perfusion, and spectroscopy were suggestive of high-grade tumor. Only differentiating factor between Grade II and Grade III was the presence of calcification. 1234 rule and periwinkle sign which we have described in this article may help characterize this tumor on imaging. This series expands the clinical and imaging spectrum of STE and identifies characteristics that should suggest consideration of this uncommon diagnosis.

  10. Treatment Outcome and Prognostic Molecular Markers of Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Hee Choi

    Full Text Available To identify prognostic factors and define the optimal management of patients with supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNETs, we investigated treatment outcomes and explored the prognostic value of specific molecular markers.A total of 47 consecutive patients with pathologically confirmed sPNETs between May 1985 and June 2012 were included. Immunohistochemical analysis of LIN28, OLIG2, and Rad51 expression was performed and correlated with clinical outcome.With a median follow-up of 70 months, 5-year overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS was 55.5% and 40%, respectively, for all patients. Age, surgical extent, and radiotherapy were significant prognostic factors for OS and PFS. Patients who received initially planned multimodal treatment without interruption (i.e., radiotherapy and surgery (≥subtotal resection, with or without chemotherapy showed significantly higher 5-year OS (71.2% and PFS (63.1%. In 29 patients with available tumor specimens, tumors with high expression of either LIN28 or OLIG2 or elevated level of Rad51 were significantly associated with poorer prognosis.We found that multimodal treatment improved outcomes for sPNET patients, especially when radiotherapy and ≥subtotal resection were part of the treatment regimen. Furthermore, we confirmed the prognostic significance of LIN28 and OLIG2 and revealed the potential role of Rad51 in sPNETs.

  11. Increased p53 immunopositivity in anaplastic medulloblastoma and supratentorial PNET is not caused by JC virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhart, Charles G; Chaudhry, Aneeka; Daniel, Richard W; Khaki, Leila; Shah, Keerti V; Gravitt, Patti E

    2005-01-01

    p53 mutations are relatively uncommon in medulloblastoma, but abnormalities in this cell cycle pathway have been associated with anaplasia and worse clinical outcomes. We correlated p53 protein expression with pathological subtype and clinical outcome in 75 embryonal brain tumors. The presence of JC virus, which results in p53 protein accumulation, was also examined. p53 protein levels were evaluated semi-quantitatively in 64 medulloblastomas, 3 atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT), and 8 supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET) using immunohistochemistry. JC viral sequences were analyzed in DNA extracted from 33 frozen medulloblastoma and PNET samples using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. p53 expression was detected in 18% of non-anaplastic medulloblastomas, 45% of anaplastic medulloblastomas, 67% of ATRT, and 88% of sPNET. The increased p53 immunoreactivity in anaplastic medulloblastoma, ATRT, and sPNET was statistically significant. Log rank analysis of clinical outcome revealed significantly shorter survival in patients with p53 immunopositive embryonal tumors. No JC virus was identified in the embryonal brain tumor samples, while an endogenous human retrovirus (ERV-3) was readily detected. Immunoreactivity for p53 protein is more common in anaplastic medulloblastomas, ATRT and sPNET than in non-anaplastic tumors, and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. However, JC virus infection is not responsible for increased levels of p53 protein

  12. Increased p53 immunopositivity in anaplastic medulloblastoma and supratentorial PNET is not caused by JC virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Keerti V

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background p53 mutations are relatively uncommon in medulloblastoma, but abnormalities in this cell cycle pathway have been associated with anaplasia and worse clinical outcomes. We correlated p53 protein expression with pathological subtype and clinical outcome in 75 embryonal brain tumors. The presence of JC virus, which results in p53 protein accumulation, was also examined. Methods p53 protein levels were evaluated semi-quantitatively in 64 medulloblastomas, 3 atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT, and 8 supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET using immunohistochemistry. JC viral sequences were analyzed in DNA extracted from 33 frozen medulloblastoma and PNET samples using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results p53 expression was detected in 18% of non-anaplastic medulloblastomas, 45% of anaplastic medulloblastomas, 67% of ATRT, and 88% of sPNET. The increased p53 immunoreactivity in anaplastic medulloblastoma, ATRT, and sPNET was statistically significant. Log rank analysis of clinical outcome revealed significantly shorter survival in patients with p53 immunopositive embryonal tumors. No JC virus was identified in the embryonal brain tumor samples, while an endogenous human retrovirus (ERV-3 was readily detected. Conclusion Immunoreactivity for p53 protein is more common in anaplastic medulloblastomas, ATRT and sPNET than in non-anaplastic tumors, and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. However, JC virus infection is not responsible for increased levels of p53 protein.

  13. Increased p53 immunopositivity in anaplastic medulloblastoma and supratentorial PNET is not caused by JC virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Charles G; Chaudhry, Aneeka; Daniel, Richard W; Khaki, Leila; Shah, Keerti V; Gravitt, Patti E

    2005-01-01

    Background p53 mutations are relatively uncommon in medulloblastoma, but abnormalities in this cell cycle pathway have been associated with anaplasia and worse clinical outcomes. We correlated p53 protein expression with pathological subtype and clinical outcome in 75 embryonal brain tumors. The presence of JC virus, which results in p53 protein accumulation, was also examined. Methods p53 protein levels were evaluated semi-quantitatively in 64 medulloblastomas, 3 atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT), and 8 supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET) using immunohistochemistry. JC viral sequences were analyzed in DNA extracted from 33 frozen medulloblastoma and PNET samples using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results p53 expression was detected in 18% of non-anaplastic medulloblastomas, 45% of anaplastic medulloblastomas, 67% of ATRT, and 88% of sPNET. The increased p53 immunoreactivity in anaplastic medulloblastoma, ATRT, and sPNET was statistically significant. Log rank analysis of clinical outcome revealed significantly shorter survival in patients with p53 immunopositive embryonal tumors. No JC virus was identified in the embryonal brain tumor samples, while an endogenous human retrovirus (ERV-3) was readily detected. Conclusion Immunoreactivity for p53 protein is more common in anaplastic medulloblastomas, ATRT and sPNET than in non-anaplastic tumors, and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. However, JC virus infection is not responsible for increased levels of p53 protein. PMID:15717928

  14. Supratentorial white matter blurring associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex limbic encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, H.; Mader, I. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Rauer, S.; Baumgartner, A. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neurology, Freiburg (Germany); Paus, S. [University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Bonn (Germany); Wagner, J. [University Medical Center, Department of Epileptology, Bonn (Germany); Malter, M.P. [University of Cologne, Department of Neurology, Cologne (Germany); Pruess, H. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Lewerenz, J.; Kassubek, J. [Ulm University, Department of Neurology, Ulm (Germany); Hegen, H.; Auer, M.; Deisenhammer, F. [University Innsbruck, Department of Neurology, Innsbruck (Austria); Ufer, F. [University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany); Bien, C.G. [Epilepsy Centre Bethel, Bielefeld-Bethel (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies (VGKC-LE) is frequently non-paraneoplastic and associated with marked improvement following corticosteroid therapy. Mesial temporal lobe abnormalities are present in around 80 % of patients. If associated or preceded by faciobrachial dystonic seizures, basal ganglia signal changes may occur. In some patients, blurring of the supratentorial white matter on T2-weighted images (SWMB) may be seen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of SWMB and whether it is specific for VGKC-LE. Two experienced neuroradiologists independently evaluated signal abnormalities on FLAIR MRI in 79 patients with LE while unaware on the antibody type. SWMB was independently assessed as present in 10 of 36 (28 %) compared to 2 (5 %) of 43 non-VGKC patients (p = 0.009). It was not related to the presence of LGI1 or CASPR2 proteins of VGKC antibodies. MRI showed increased temporomesial FLAIR signal in 22 (61 %) VGKC compared to 14 (33 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.013), and extratemporomesial structures were affected in one VGKC (3 %) compared to 11 (26 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.005). SWMB is a newly described MRI sign rather specific for VGKC-LE. (orig.)

  15. Supratentorial white matter blurring associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex limbic encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbach, H.; Mader, I.; Rauer, S.; Baumgartner, A.; Paus, S.; Wagner, J.; Malter, M.P.; Pruess, H.; Lewerenz, J.; Kassubek, J.; Hegen, H.; Auer, M.; Deisenhammer, F.; Ufer, F.; Bien, C.G.

    2015-01-01

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies (VGKC-LE) is frequently non-paraneoplastic and associated with marked improvement following corticosteroid therapy. Mesial temporal lobe abnormalities are present in around 80 % of patients. If associated or preceded by faciobrachial dystonic seizures, basal ganglia signal changes may occur. In some patients, blurring of the supratentorial white matter on T2-weighted images (SWMB) may be seen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of SWMB and whether it is specific for VGKC-LE. Two experienced neuroradiologists independently evaluated signal abnormalities on FLAIR MRI in 79 patients with LE while unaware on the antibody type. SWMB was independently assessed as present in 10 of 36 (28 %) compared to 2 (5 %) of 43 non-VGKC patients (p = 0.009). It was not related to the presence of LGI1 or CASPR2 proteins of VGKC antibodies. MRI showed increased temporomesial FLAIR signal in 22 (61 %) VGKC compared to 14 (33 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.013), and extratemporomesial structures were affected in one VGKC (3 %) compared to 11 (26 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.005). SWMB is a newly described MRI sign rather specific for VGKC-LE. (orig.)

  16. MR Spectroscopy to Distinguish between Supratentorial Intraventricular Subependymoma and Central Neurocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Fumiaki; Aburano, Hiroyuki; Ryu, Yasuji; Yoshie, Yuichi; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Hayashi, Yutaka; Matsui, Osamu; Gabata, Toshifumi

    2017-07-10

    The purpose of this study was to discriminate supratentorial intraventricular subependymoma (SIS) from central neurocytoma (CNC) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Single-voxel proton MRS using a 1.5T or 3T MR scanner from five SISs, five CNCs, and normal controls were evaluated. They were examined using a point-resolved spectroscopy. Automatically calculated ratios comparing choline (Cho), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), myoinositol (MI), and/or glycine (Gly) to creatine (Cr) were determined. Evaluation of Cr to unsuppressed water (USW) was also performed. Mann-Whitney U test was carried out to test the significance of differences in the metabolite ratios. Detectability of lactate (Lac) and alanine (Ala) was evaluated. Although a statistically significant difference (P CNC, no statistical difference was noted between SIS and control spectra (P = 0.11). Statistically significant differences were observed in NAA/Cr between SIS and CNC (P = 0.04) or control spectra (P CNC and control spectra (P CNC for MI and/or Gly to Cr (P = 0.32). Significant statistical differences were found between SIS and control spectra (P CNC (P CNC (P CNC. The present study showed that MRS can be useful in discriminating SIS from CNC.

  17. Is non-awake surgery for supratentorial adult low-grade glioma treatment still feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffau, Hugues

    2018-01-01

    In this short review, the author performs a database search, summarizes, and discusses studies that provide information on the need to perform awake surgery to preserve quality of life/return to work of adult patients who undergo resection for a supratentorial low-grade glioma (LGG). Based upon the currently available data, the author concludes that in LGG, patients with no or only mild deficits at diagnosis, non-awake surgery can no longer be achieved. Indeed, awake craniotomy with intrasurgical electrical mapping has resulted in an increase of the extent of resection and overall survival in LGG. Furthermore, in order to resume a normal familial, social, and professional life, LGG patients with a prolonged survival expectancy have to benefit not only from language mapping when the tumor involves the left "dominant" hemisphere, but also from intraoperative mapping of sensorimotor, visuospatial, higher cognitive, and emotional functions under local anesthesia, even for gliomas situated within presumed "non-language" areas such as the right "non-dominant" hemisphere. In other words, the ultimate goal is to map the functional connectome for each patient in order to perform the resection up to the eloquent networks and then to optimize the onco-functional balance of LGG surgery. To this end, an objective neuropsychological assessment has to be achieved in a more systematic manner before and after resection. Early postoperative cognitive rehabilitation is also recommended, whenever needed.

  18. Supratentorial white matter blurring associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, H; Rauer, S; Mader, I; Paus, S; Wagner, J; Malter, M P; Prüss, H; Lewerenz, J; Kassubek, J; Hegen, H; Auer, M; Deisenhammer, F; Ufer, F; Bien, C G; Baumgartner, A

    2015-12-01

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies (VGKC-LE) is frequently non-paraneoplastic and associated with marked improvement following corticosteroid therapy. Mesial temporal lobe abnormalities are present in around 80 % of patients. If associated or preceded by faciobrachial dystonic seizures, basal ganglia signal changes may occur. In some patients, blurring of the supratentorial white matter on T2-weighted images (SWMB) may be seen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of SWMB and whether it is specific for VGKC-LE. Two experienced neuroradiologists independently evaluated signal abnormalities on FLAIR MRI in 79 patients with LE while unaware on the antibody type. SWMB was independently assessed as present in 10 of 36 (28 %) compared to 2 (5 %) of 43 non-VGKC patients (p = 0.009). It was not related to the presence of LGI1 or CASPR2 proteins of VGKC antibodies. MRI showed increased temporomesial FLAIR signal in 22 (61 %) VGKC compared to 14 (33 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.013), and extratemporomesial structures were affected in one VGKC (3 %) compared to 11 (26 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.005). SWMB is a newly described MRI sign rather specific for VGKC-LE.

  19. Gastritis: the histology report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugge, Massimo; Pennelli, Gianmaria; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Fassan, Matteo; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Russo, Valentina M; Di Mario, Francesco

    2011-03-01

    Gastritis is defined as inflammation of the gastric mucosa. In histological terms, it is distinguishable into two main categories, i.e. non-atrophic and atrophic. In the gastric mucosa, atrophy is defined as the loss of appropriate glands. There are several etiological types of gastritis, their different etiology being related to different clinical manifestations and pathological features. Atrophic gastritis (resulting mainly from long-standing Helicobacter pylori infection) is a major risk factor for the onset of (intestinal type) gastric cancer. The extent and site of the atrophic changes correlate significantly with the cancer risk. The current format for histology reporting in cases of gastritis fails to establish an immediate link between gastritis phenotype and risk of malignancy. Building on current knowledge of the biology of gastritis, an international group of pathologists [Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment (OLGA)] has proposed a system for reporting gastritis in terms of its stage (the OLGA Staging System): this system places the histological phenotypes of gastritis on a scale of progressively increasing gastric cancer risk, from the lowest (Stage 0) to the highest (Stage IV). The aim of this tutorial is to provide unequivocal information on how to standardize histology reports on gastritis in diagnostic practice. Copyright © 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Feasibility of Protective Ventilation During Elective Supratentorial Neurosurgery: A Randomized, Crossover, Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Francesco; Beretta, Luigi; Corno, Laura; Testa, Valentina; Martino, Enrico A; Gemma, Marco

    2017-06-30

    Traditional ventilation approaches, providing high tidal volumes (Vt), produce excessive alveolar distention and lung injury. Protective ventilation, employing lower Vt and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), is an attractive alternative also for neuroanesthesia, when prolonged mechanical ventilation is needed. Nevertheless, protective ventilation during intracranial surgery may exert dangerous effects on intracranial pressure (ICP). We tested the feasibility of a protective ventilation strategy in neurosurgery. Our monocentric, double-blind, 1:1 randomized, 2×2 crossover study aimed at studying the effect size and variability of ICP in patients undergoing elective supratentorial brain tumor removal and alternatively ventilated with Vt 9 mL/kg-PEEP 0 mm Hg and Vt 7 mL/kg-PEEP 5 mm Hg. Respiratory rate was adjusted to maintain comparable end-tidal carbon dioxide between ventilation modes. ICP was measured through a subdural catheter inserted before dural opening. Forty patients were enrolled; 8 (15%) were excluded after enrollment. ICP did not differ between traditional and protective ventilation (11.28±5.37, 11 [7 to 14.5] vs. 11.90±5.86, 11 [8 to 15] mm Hg; P=0.541). End-tidal carbon dioxide (28.91±2.28, 29 [28 to 30] vs. 28.00±2.17, 28 [27 to 29] mm Hg; Pprotective ventilation. Blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature did not differ between ventilation modes. Dural tension was "acceptable for surgery" in all cases. ICP differences between ventilation modes were not affected by ICP values under traditional ventilation (coefficient=0.067; 95% confidence interval, -0.278 to 0.144; P=0.523). Protective ventilation is a feasible alternative to traditional ventilation during elective neurosurgery.

  1. Tigecycline reduced tumor necrosis factor alpha level and inhospital mortality in spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Saekhu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The outcome of patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (SSICH is unsatisfactory. Inflammatory response secondary to brain injury as well as those resulted from surgical procedure were considered responsible of this outcome. This study was intended to elucidate the anti-inflammatory activity of tigecycline by measuring TNF-α level and its neuroprotective effect as represented by inhospital mortality rate.Methods: Patients with SSICH who were prepared for hematoma evacuation were randomized to receive either tigecycline (n=35 or fosfomycine (n=37 as prophylactic antibiotic. TNF-α level was measured in all subjects before surgery and postoperatively on day-1 and day-7. A repeated brain CT Scan was performed on postoperative day-7. The Glasgow outcome scale (GOS and length of stay (LOS were recorded at the time of hospital discharge. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Chi square test. Relative clinical effectiveness was measured by calculating the number needed to treat (NNT.Results: There was a significant difference regarding the proportion of subject who had  reduced TNF-α level on postoperative day-7 between the groups receiving tigecycline and fosfomycine (62% vs 29%, p=0.022. Decrease brain edema on CT control (86% vs 80%, p=0.580. Tigecycline administration showed a tendency of better clinical effectiveness in lowering inhospital mortality (17% vs 35%; p=0.083; OR=0.49; NNT=5 and worse clinical outcome / GOS ≤ 2 (20% vs 38% ; p=0.096; OR=0.41; NNT=6. LOS ≥ 15 hari ( 40% vs 27%; p=0.243; OR=1.81; NNT=8.Conclusion: Tigecycline showed anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. These activities were associated with improved clinical outcome in patients with SSICH after hematoma evacuation.

  2. Cognitive function after radiotherapy for supratentorial low-grade glioma: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laack, Nadia N.; Brown, Paul D.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Furth, Alfred F. M.S.; Ballman, Karla V.; Hammack, Julie E.; Arusell, Robert M.; Shaw, Edward G.; Buckner, Jan C.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of cranial radiotherapy (RT) on cognitive function in patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Twenty adult patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma were treated with 50.4 Gy (10 patients) or 64.8 Gy (10 patients) localized RT. The patients then were evaluated with an extensive battery of psychometric tests at baseline (before RT) and at approximately 18-month intervals for as long as 5 years after completing RT. To allow patients to serve as their own controls, cognitive performance was evaluated as change in scores over time. All patients underwent at least two evaluations. Results: Baseline test scores were below average compared with age-specific norms. At the second evaluation, the groups' mean test scores were higher than their initial performances on all psychometric measures, although the improvement was not statistically significant. No changes in cognitive performance were seen during the evaluation period when test scores were analyzed by age, treatment, tumor location, tumor type, or extent of resection. Conclusions: Cognitive function was stable after RT in these patients evaluated prospectively during 3 years of follow-up. Slight improvements in some cognitive areas are consistent with practice effects attributable to increased familiarity with test procedures and content

  3. Early and late postoperative seizure outcome in 97 patients with supratentorial meningioma and preoperative seizures: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhe; Chen, Peng; Fu, Weiming; Zhu, Junming; Zhang, Hong; Shi, Jian; Zhang, Jianmin

    2013-08-01

    We identified factors associated with early and late postoperative seizure control in patients with supratentorial meningioma plus preoperative seizures. In this retrospective study, univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis compared 24 clinical variables according to the occurrence of early (≤1 week) or late (>1 week) postoperative seizures. Sixty-two of 97 patients (63.9 %) were seizure free for the entire postoperative follow-up period (29.5 ± 11.8 months), while 13 patients (13.4 %) still had frequent seizures at the end of follow-up. Fourteen of 97 patients (14.4 %) experienced early postoperative seizures, and emergence of new postoperative neurological deficits was the only significant risk factor (odds ratio = 7.377). Thirty-three patients (34.0 %) experienced late postoperative seizures at some time during follow-up, including 12 of 14 patients with early postoperative seizures. Associated risk factors for late postoperative seizures included tumor progression (odds ratio = 7.012) and new permanent postoperative neurological deficits (odds ratio = 4.327). Occurrence of postoperative seizures in patients with supratentorial meningioma and preoperative seizure was associated with new postoperative neurological deficits. Reduced cerebral or vascular injury during surgery may lead to fewer postoperative neurological deficits and better seizure outcome.

  4. Integrated bioinformatic analysis unveils significant genes and pathways in the pathogenesis of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang G

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Guang-Yu Wang,1,* Ling Li,2,* Bo Liu,1 Xiao Han,1 Chun-Hua Wang,1 Ji-Wen Wang3 1Department of Neurosurgery, 2Department of Pediatrics, Qilu Children’s Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 3Department of Neurology, Shanghai Children’s Medical Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Pudong New District, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: This study aimed to explore significant genes and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (sPNET. Materials and methods: Gene expression profile of GSE14295 was downloaded from publicly available Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs were screened out in primary sPNET samples compared with normal fetal and adult brain reference samples (sPNET vs fetal brain and sPNET vs adult brain. Pathway enrichment analysis of these DEGs was conducted, followed by protein–protein interaction (PPI network construction and significant module selection. Additionally, transcription factors (TFs regulating the common DEGs in the two comparison groups were identified, and the regulatory network was constructed. Results: In total, 526 DEGs (99 up- and 427 downregulated in sPNET vs fetal brain and 815 DEGs (200 up- and 615 downregulated in sPNET vs adult brain were identified. DEGs in sPNET vs fetal brain and sPNET vs adult brain were associated with calcium signaling pathway, cell cycle, and p53 signaling pathway. CDK1, CDC20, BUB1B, and BUB1 were hub nodes in the PPI networks of DEGs in sPNET vs fetal brain and sPNET vs adult brain. Significant modules were extracted from the PPI networks. In addition, 64 upregulated and 200 downregulated overlapping DEGs were identified in both sPNET vs fetal brain and sPNET vs adult brain. The genes involved in the regulatory network upon overlapping DEGs and the TFs were correlated with calcium signaling pathway

  5. Wallerian degeneration of the corticodescending tract in the cerebral peduncle following a supratentorial cerebrovascular lesion detected by MRI; The relationship between Wallerian degeneration at the center of the cerebral peduncle and functional recovery of paresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waragai, Masaaki; Iwabuchi, Sadamu (Nanasawa Rehabilitation Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1993-11-01

    We studied Wallerian degeneration of the corticodescending tract in the cerebral peduncle following a supratentorial cerebrovascular lesion by MRI. A total of 57 patients with palsy following a supratenotorial cerebrovascular lesion were prospectively studied. Wallerian degeneration was detected as a high signal intensity (HSI) in 37 patients between 70 days and 100 days after the onset, but not detected in the remaining 27 patients. Patient with as HSI in all areas of the cerebral peduncle had a large lesion involving the hemisphere. Patient with an HSI at the center of the cerebral peduncle had a lesion confined to the paracentral gyrus, precentral gyrus, corona radiata or posterior limb of the internal capsule. Patient with an HSI at the lateral side of the cerebral peduncle had a lesion of parietal lobe or temporal lobe which spares the corticospinal tract originating from the paracentral gyrus, precentral gyrus, corona radiata or posterior limb of the internal capsule. These findings suggest that as HSI at the center of the cerebral peduncle may reveal Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tract, and an HSI at the lateral side of the cerebral peduncle may show Wallerian degeneration of the corticopontine tract. The functional recovery of paresis was poor in all patients with an HSI at the center of the cerebral peduncle, while it was good in all patients without an HSI in that region. Our data suggested that somatotopical localization of the corticodescending tract in the cerebral peduncle may be identified by detecting Wallerian degeneration following a supratentorial lesion, and the functional recovery of patients with paresis could be predicted according to presence or absence of Wallerian degeneration at the center of the cerebral peduncle. (author).

  6. Multi-modal image registration: matching MRI with histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alic, Lejla; Haeck, Joost C.; Klein, Stefan; Bol, Karin; van Tiel, Sandra T.; Wielopolski, Piotr A.; Bijster, Magda; Niessen, Wiro J.; Bernsen, Monique; Veenland, Jifke F.; de Jong, Marion

    2010-03-01

    Spatial correspondence between histology and multi sequence MRI can provide information about the capabilities of non-invasive imaging to characterize cancerous tissue. However, shrinkage and deformation occurring during the excision of the tumor and the histological processing complicate the co registration of MR images with histological sections. This work proposes a methodology to establish a detailed 3D relation between histology sections and in vivo MRI tumor data. The key features of the methodology are a very dense histological sampling (up to 100 histology slices per tumor), mutual information based non-rigid B-spline registration, the utilization of the whole 3D data sets, and the exploitation of an intermediate ex vivo MRI. In this proof of concept paper, the methodology was applied to one tumor. We found that, after registration, the visual alignment of tumor borders and internal structures was fairly accurate. Utilizing the intermediate ex vivo MRI, it was possible to account for changes caused by the excision of the tumor: we observed a tumor expansion of 20%. Also the effects of fixation, dehydration and histological sectioning could be determined: 26% shrinkage of the tumor was found. The annotation of viable tissue, performed in histology and transformed to the in vivo MRI, matched clearly with high intensity regions in MRI. With this methodology, histological annotation can be directly related to the corresponding in vivo MRI. This is a vital step for the evaluation of the feasibility of multi-spectral MRI to depict histological groundtruth.

  7. Stereological estimates of nuclear volume and other quantitative variables in supratentorial brain tumors. Practical technique and use in prognostic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Braendgaard, H; Chistiansen, A O

    1991-01-01

    The use of morphometry and modern stereology in malignancy grading of brain tumors is only poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to present these quantitative methods. A retrospective feasibility study of 46 patients with supratentorial brain tumors was carried out to demonstrate...... the practical technique. The continuous variables were correlated with the subjective, qualitative WHO classification of brain tumors, and the prognostic value of the parameters was assessed. Well differentiated astrocytomas (n = 14) had smaller estimates of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume and mean...... nuclear profile area, than those of anaplastic astrocytomas (n = 13) (2p = 3.1.10(-3) and 2p = 4.8.10(-3), respectively). No differences were seen between the latter type of tumor and glioblastomas (n = 19). The nuclear index was of the same magnitude in all three tumor types, whereas the mitotic index...

  8. Flexible omnidirectional carbon dioxide laser as an effective tool for resection of brainstem, supratentorial, and intramedullary cavernous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhri, Omar; Karamchandani, Jason; Gooderham, Peter; Steinberg, Gary K

    2014-03-01

    Lasers have a long history in neurosurgery, yet bulky designs and difficult ergonomics limit their use. With its ease of manipulation and multiple applications, the OmniGuide CO2 laser has reintroduced laser technology to the microsurgical resection of brain and spine lesions. This laser, delivered through a hollow-core fiber lined with a unidirectional mirror, minimizes energy loss and allows precise targeting. To analyze resections performed by the senior author from April 2009 to March 2013 of 58 cavernous malformations (CMs) in the brain and spine with the use of the OmniGuide CO2 laser, to reflect on lessons learned from laser use in eloquent areas, and to share data on comparisons of laser power calibration and histopathology. Data were collected from electronic medical records, radiology reports, operative room records, OmniGuide CO2 laser case logs, and pathology records. Of 58 CMs, approximately 50% were in the brainstem (30) and the rest were in supratentorial (26) and intramedullary spinal locations (2). Fifty-seven, ranging from 5 to 45 mm, were resected, with a subtotal resection in 1. Laser power ranged from 2 to 10 W. Pathology specimens showed minimal thermal damage compared with traditionally resected specimens with bipolar coagulation. The OmniGuide CO2 laser is safe and has excellent precision for the resection of supratentorial, brainstem, and spinal intramedullary CMs. No laser-associated complications occurred, and very low energy was used to dissect malformations from their surrounding hemosiderin-stained parenchymas. The authors recommend its use for deep-seated and critically located CMs, along with traditional tools.

  9. Age and the risk of anaplasia in magnetic resonance-nonenhancing supratentorial cerebral tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, F G; Chang, S M; Huhn, S L; Davis, R L; Gutin, P H; McDermott, M W; Wilson, C B; Prados, M D

    1997-09-01

    It is often assumed that a cerebral lesion that is nonenhancing on a magnetic resonance imaging study with gadolinium contrast is a low grade tumor. Some physicians recommend observation rather than biopsy for such lesions. The authors prospectively evaluated the incidence of anaplastic tumor histology in a consecutive series of patients who presented to a neuro-oncology service with a nonenhancing mass of the cerebral hemisphere. During a 5-month period, the authors evaluated 31 patients who had a nonenhancing lesion in the cerebral hemisphere on initial magnetic resonance images. Thirty patients underwent stereotactic biopsy (27%) or open resection (73%). The median patient age was 36 years (range, 6-63 years). There was no mortality or permanent neurologic morbidity from surgery. Twenty-eight patients had pathologic confirmation of diagnosis while their lesions were still nonenhancing. Of these patients, 9 (32%) had Grade 3 lesions (anaplastic astrocytoma or oligoastrocytoma), 13 (43%) had Grade 2 lesions (astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, or oligoastrocytoma), and 2 (7%) had Grade 1 lesions (dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors). Two additional patients (ages 33 and 59 years) who developed enhancement within their lesions during preoperative periods of observation had glioblastomas at surgery. Logistic regression was used to relate patient age to the risk of anaplasia in a nonenhancing cerebral mass lesion. Older age predicted a significantly higher risk of anaplasia (P = 0.025). The model predicted that nonenhancing cerebral masses in patients older than 44 years were more likely to be anaplastic tumors than low grade tumors. There was no "safe" age below which low grade histology could be confidently assumed. Magnetic resonance-nonenhancing cerebral lesions may be histologically anaplastic, even in young patients. The risk of anaplasia in magnetic resonance-nonenhancing lesions increases significantly with patient age.

  10. Osteoarthritis - histology and pathogenetic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulzbacher, I.

    2000-01-01

    Osteoarthitis is the most common joint disease affecting over 60% of the elderly population. It is characterized by the progressive erosion of articular cartilage leading to incapacity of movement. In the great majority of instances, osteoarthritis appears insidiously, without apparent initiating cause. This primary form is usually oligoarticular involving hip, knee, cervical vertebrae, interphalangeal joints of the fingers or tarsometatarsal joints of the feet. In case of an underlying systemic diasease or local injury the cartilage destruction is considered as secondary osteoarthritis. The pathogenesis of primary osteoarthritis suggests an intrinsic disease of cartilage in which biochemical and metabolic alterations result in its breakdown. Within the last decades different models were stablished which also concentrated on other joint structures such as bone or ligaments. Changes of the subchondral bone were found to precide cartilage damage suggesting a primary alteration of the subchondral region. Other studies concentrated on the metabolic activity of chondrocytes in healthy cartilage of osteoarthritis patients. The precise event that leads to these changes is still not clear. This review concentrates on the histological features in the course of the disease and tries to provide a summary on different pathogenetic concepts. (orig.) [de

  11. Supratentorial gangliogliomas: histopathologic grading and tumor recurrence in 184 patients with a median follow-up of 8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyken, Cordelia; Blümcke, Ingmar; Fimmers, Rolf; Urbach, Horst; Wiestler, Otmar D; Schramm, Johannes

    2004-07-01

    Supratentorial gangliogliomas (GGs) are rare tumors of the central nervous system and are commonly associated with chronic seizures. To date, only case reports and small series of patients with short-term follow-up have been available for the assessment of the potential of GGs to recur and progress. Data from 184 patients who underwent resection of GGs between 1988 and 2001 were available from the University of Bonn Epilepsy Surgery Center (Bonn, Germany). Analysis of factors that influenced tumor recurrence and patient survival, such as preoperative history, age at operation, tumor location, histopathologic findings (including immunohistochemical findings), extent of tumor resection, and recurrence evaluated on postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), was performed. The median follow-up period was 8 years (range, 1-14 years). One hundred seventy-eight patients (97%) presented with long-term seizures (> or = 2 years). The median age at surgery was 26 years (range, 2-65 years). Tumor location was temporal in 79% of patients and frontal in 12% of patients. Eleven tumors (6%) were classified as World Health Organization (WHO) Grade 2 lesions, and 2 tumors were classified as anaplastic WHO Grade 3 lesions. For 38 patients (21%), postoperative MRIs revealed residual tumors. Two years after surgery, 5 patients (3%) experienced tumor recurrence, which resulted in malignant progression in 3 patients (2%) and death in 2 patients (1%). Eighty-four percent of patients with epilepsy had complete and sustained seizure relief. The calculated 7.5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 97%. Lower rates of recurrence were found in patients with tumors classified as WHO Grade 1 lesions (P < 0.0001), patients with temporal lesions (P < 0.0001), patients who underwent complete tumor resection (P = 0.0278), and patients with long-standing epilepsy (P < 0.0001). Supratentorial GGs are benign tumors, and the surgical goal for patients with GG should be complete resection. Residual

  12. Basic Principles of Creation of Topometrical Cards of Beam Therapy in the Cases of High-grade Malignant Supratentorial Gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liepa, Z.; Platkajis, A.; Apskalne, D.

    2007-01-01

    Background. High-grade malignant supratentorial gliomas: anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AO), anaplastic oligoatrocitomas (AOA), anaplastic ependimomas (AE), glioblastomas (GB) and other less occasional forms of gliomas are approximately 1,82% of all cases of malignant tumors. Life expectancy for such patients still is very low, for several forms of tumors -12-18 months. High-grade malignant gliomas need for combined approach, and one part of such approach is beam therapy. For reaching qualitative results of beam therapy, method of topometrical planning of beam therapy is crucial, because it allow planning therapy due to anatomic features of every patient. The aim of work was comparison of basic principles of creation of 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) topometrical cards of beam therapy. Material and methods. In the process of research, analyse of creation of 2D and 3D cards for patients in period 2000-2005 were made. For creation of 2D cards pelviometer, conturometer of head (Picture 1), pictures of tests of brains in the biggest cross - section of tumor (Picture 2) were used. For creation 3D cards computertomography LightSpeed Rt, which is suitable for topometry (Picture 3), planning system of 3D reconstruction ECLIPSE (Picture 4), 3D reconstruction by data from pre - surgery and/or after - surgery tests of brain (Picture 5), and matching in format of DICOM (Picture 6) were used. In this research 214 patients with supratentorial malign gliomas were covered (Table 1,2). Results. In 98 cases 2D topometrical cards were made, which allows creating only two contrary areas of entry of beams or two areas of entry under angle (Picture 7, 8). In 55 cases in 2D topographic cards two contrary areas of entry were made and in 43 cases plan of beam therapy with areas of entry under angle were made. 3D cards anatomic features of patient as well as location of critical organs were taken into account (picture 10). In case of 3D the number of

  13. Kynurenine aminotransferase in the supratentorial dura mater of the rat: effect of stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyihár-Csillik, Elizabeth; Chadaide, Zoltán; Okuno, Etsuo; Krisztin-Péva, Beata; Toldi, József; Varga, Csaba; Molnár, Andor; Csillik, Bert; Vécsei, László

    2004-04-01

    Electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion has been widely used as a model of nociception, characterizing migraine. This treatment is known to evoke release of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters from nerve fibers of the dura mater. On the basis of immunocytochemical investigations, we found that under normal conditions, surface membranes of Schwann cells surrounding nerve fibers in the supratentorial dura mater display kynurenine aminotransferase-immunoreaction (KAT-IR); also KAT-IR are the granules of mast cells and the cytoplasms of macrophages (histiocytes). In consequence of stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion, Schwann cells in the dura mater became conspicuously swollen while their KAT-IR decreased considerably; also KAT-IR of mast cells and macrophages decreased significantly. At the same time, nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-IR of nerve fibers in the dura mater increased, suggesting release of nitric oxide (NO), this is known to be involved in NMDA receptor activation leading to vasodilation followed by neurogenic inflammation. Because kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an antagonist of NMDA receptors, we hypothesize that KYNA and its synthesizing enzyme, KAT, may play a role in the prevention of migraine attacks.

  14. CBF and CMRo2 during craniotomy for small supratentorial cerebral tumours in enflurane anaesthesia. A dose-response study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, J.B.; Cold, G.E.; Eriksen, H.O.; Eskesen, V.; Blatt-Lyon, B.

    1986-01-01

    In 14 patients with supratentorial cerebral tumours with midline shift ≤ 10 mm, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRo 2 ) were measured twice on the contralateral side of the craniotomy, using a modification of the Kety and Schmidt method. For induction of anaesthesia, thiopental, fentanyl and pancuronium were used. The anaesthesia was maintained with enflurane 1% in nitrous oxide 67%. Moderate hypocapnia to a level averaging 4.3 kPa was achieved. The patients were divided into two groups. In group 1 (n=7), 1% enflurane was used throughout the anaesthesia, and CBF and CMRo 2 measured about 70 min after induction averaged 30.1 ml 100 g -1 min -1 and 1.98 ml O 2 100 g -1 min -1 , respectively. During the second CBF study 1 h later, CBF and CMRo 2 were unchanged (P>0.05). In group 2 (n=7), the inspiratory enflurane concentration was increased from 1 to 2% after the first CBF measurement. In this group a significant decrease in CMRo 2 was observed, while CBF was unchanged. In six patients EEG was recorded simultaneously with the CBF measurements. In patients subjected to increasing enflurane concentration (Group 2), a suppression in the EEG activity was observed without spike waves. It is concluded that enflurane induces a dose-related decrease in CMRo 2 and suppression in the EEG activity, whereas CBF was unchanged (author)

  15. Specificities of Awake Craniotomy and Brain Mapping in Children for Resection of Supratentorial Tumors in the Language Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delion, Matthieu; Terminassian, Aram; Lehousse, Thierry; Aubin, Ghislaine; Malka, Jean; N'Guyen, Sylvie; Mercier, Philippe; Menei, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    In the pediatric population, awake craniotomy began to be used for the resection of brain tumor located close to eloquent areas. Some specificities must be taken into account to adapt this method to children. The aim of this clinical study is to not only confirm the feasibility of awake craniotomy and language brain mapping in the pediatric population but also identify the specificities and necessary adaptations of the procedure. Six children aged 11 to 16 were operated on while awake under local anesthesia with language brain mapping for supratentorial brain lesions (tumor and cavernoma). The preoperative planning comprised functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychologic and psychologic assessment. The specific preoperative preparation is clearly explained including hypnosis conditioning and psychiatric evaluation. The success of the procedure was based on the ability to perform the language brain mapping and the tumor removal without putting the patient to sleep. We investigated the pediatric specificities, psychological experience, and neuropsychologic follow-up. The children experienced little anxiety, probably in large part due to the use of hypnosis. We succeeded in doing the cortical-subcortical mapping and removing the tumor without putting the patient to sleep in all cases. The psychological experience was good, and the neuropsychologic follow-up showed a favorable evolution. Preoperative preparation and hypnosis in children seemed important for performing awake craniotomy and contributing language brain mapping with the best possible psychological experience. The pediatrics specificities are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Variation in supratentorial cerebrospinal fluid production rate in one day. Measurement by nontriggered phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroto; Tanaka, Hisashi; Fujita, Norihiko; Murase, Kenya; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2011-01-01

    Measuring the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production rate is important for understanding the physiology related to normal conditions and neurological disorders. Triggered phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to measure CSF production rate, but the use of nontriggered phase-contrast MRI has not been reported. The purposes of this study were to assess the feasibility of using nontriggered phase-contrast MRI to measure CSF flow and to determine whether CSF production exhibits circadian rhythm. The feasibility of phase-contrast MRI was assessed with a phantom simulated human cerebral aqueduct. CSF flow through the cerebral aqueduct was measured with nontriggered phase-contrast MRI four times during 1 day in 10 normal volunteers. In the phantom study, linear regression analysis gave the following measured values (ml/h): 0.80 x (value of steady flow)-10.0 for triggered phase-contrast MRI and 1.27 x (value of steady flow)-12.2 for nontriggered phase-contrast MRI. One-factor analysis of variance showed no significant effect of the time of the measurements (P=0.47). The supratentorial CSF production rate was 510±549 ml/day (mean ± SD). Nontriggered phase-contrast MRI provided good estimates of the flow rate in the phantom study. We observed no circadian rhythm in CSF production. (author)

  17. A case report of rapid spontaneous redistribution of acute supratentorial subdural hematoma to the entire spinal subdural space presenting as a Pourfour du Petit syndrome and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balik, Vladimir; Kolembus, Petr; Svajdler, Marian; Sulla, Igor; Vaverka, Miroslav; Hrabalek, Lumir

    2013-07-01

    This report illustrates the rare rapid spontaneous redistribution of an acute intracranial supratentorial subdural hematoma (AISSDH) to the entire spinal subdural space (SSS). The study is also unique in that the spinal subdural hematoma (SSH) manifested by the extremely rare Pourfour du Petit Syndrome (PPS). A 66-year-old man sustained blunt head trauma. On admission to the regional hospital, he scored 6 on GCS and his pupils were of equal size reacting to light. Initial computed tomography (CT) scan showed a unilateral AISSDH. The patient was referred to our department and arrived 16 h following the accident, at which time a repeat CT scan revealed almost complete resolution of the AISSDH without clinical improvement. On the 9th postinjury day transient anisocoria and tachycardia without spinal symptomatology developed. Since neither neurological examination nor follow-up CT scans showed intracranial pathology explaining the anisocoria, the patient was treated further conservatively. During the next 3 days circulatory instability developed and the patient succumbed to primary traumatic injury. Autopsy revealed a SSH occupying the entire SSS. This case calls attention to the unique combination of the displacement of an AISSDH to the SSS and the presentation of this clinical entity by the PPS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Proton Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Medulloblastoma and Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors: Outcomes for Very Young Children Treated With Upfront Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Rachel B., E-mail: rbjimenez@partners.org [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sethi, Roshan [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Depauw, Nicolas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Pulsifer, Margaret B. [Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Adams, Judith [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); McBride, Sean M. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ebb, David [Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fullerton, Barbara C.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I.; MacDonald, Shannon M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To report the early outcomes for very young children with medulloblastoma or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (SPNET) treated with upfront chemotherapy followed by 3-dimensional proton radiation therapy (3D-CPT). Methods and Materials: All patients aged <60 months with medulloblastoma or SPNET treated with chemotherapy before 3D-CPT from 2002 to 2010 at our institution were included. All patients underwent maximal surgical resection, chemotherapy, and adjuvant 3D-CPT with either craniospinal irradiation followed by involved-field radiation therapy or involved-field radiation therapy alone. Results: Fifteen patients (median age at diagnosis, 35 months) were treated with high-dose chemotherapy and 3D-CPT. Twelve of 15 patients had medulloblastoma; 3 of 15 patients had SPNET. Median time from surgery to initiation of radiation was 219 days. Median craniospinal irradiation dose was 21.6 Gy (relative biologic effectiveness); median boost dose was 54.0 Gy (relative biologic effectiveness). At a median of 39 months from completion of radiation, 1 of 15 was deceased after a local failure, 1 of 15 had died from a non-disease-related cause, and the remaining 13 of 15 patients were alive without evidence of disease recurrence. Ototoxicity and endocrinopathies were the most common long-term toxicities, with 2 of 15 children requiring hearing aids and 3 of 15 requiring exogenous hormones. Conclusions: Proton radiation after chemotherapy resulted in good disease outcomes for a small cohort of very young patients with medulloblastoma and SPNET. Longer follow-up and larger numbers of patients are needed to assess long-term outcomes and late toxicity.

  19. Reordering Histology to Enhance Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerongen, Helen

    2011-01-01

    In redesigning the preclinical curriculum and shifting from a discipline-based approach to an organ system-based approach, faculty at the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson took the opportunity to restructure the sequence of introductory histology content to make it more engaging and relevant. In this article, the author describes…

  20. Smoking habit and gastritis histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiot, A; Kemona, A; Namiot, Z

    2007-01-01

    Long-term cigarette smoking may increase the risk of digestive tract pathologies, however, what is the influence smoking habit on gastric mucosa histology is still poorly elicited. The aim of the study was to compare histological evaluation of gastritis in smoker and non-smoker groups. A total of 236 patients of various H. pylori status (109 infected, 127 non-infected), clinical diagnosis (107 duodenal ulcer disease, 129 dyspepsia), and smoking habit (92 smokers, 144 non-smokers) were included. Subjects were classified as smokers if they smoked 5 or more cigarettes per day for at least 3 years. A histological examination of endoscopically obtained samples was performed by two experienced pathomorphologists blinded to the diagnoses and smoking habit. Microscopic slices of the gastric mucosa were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Giemsa. Apart from histological diagnosis, H. pylori status was additionally confirmed by an urease test (CLO-test) at least in one of two gastric locations (antrum or corpus). In the H. pylori infected population, H. pylori density, neutrophils, and mononuclear cells infiltration in the gastric corpus mucosa were lower in smokers than non-smokers, while in the antrum the differences were not significant. In the non-infected population, no significant differences in neutrophils and mononuclear cells infiltration between smokers and non-smokers were found. Since the significant differences in studied parameters of chronic gastritis between smokers and non-smokers were found in the corpus mucosa of H. pylori infected subjects, smoking should be taken into account when a histological evaluation of the gastric mucosa in the H. pylori infected population is performed.

  1. Adapting lean to histology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesa, René J

    2009-10-01

    Histology laboratories (histolabs) can increase productivity and reduce turnaround time and errors by using any one of several available management tools. After a few years of operation, all histolabs develop workflow problems. Histology laboratories handling more than 20,000 cases per year benefit the most from implementing management tools, as occurred in the 25 facilities summarized in this article. Discontinuous workflow, lack of "pulling" between steps, accepting unavoidable waiting times while working with small batches within work cells, and a workflow with an uneven rate of completion, are some of the adaptations required by the Lean system when it is used in histology because 70% of the tasks are manual and the flow has to be interrupted to add value to the pieces of tissue during tissue processing, no matter how short that step is. After all these adaptations are incorporated, the histolab becomes as "Lean" as it can be, and the qualifier is also a recognition of the effort and personnel involvement in the implementation. Given its service nature, productivity increments do not expand the histolab customer base and could lead to staffing reductions. This is one of the causes of reluctance by some employees for implementing these techniques which are mostly driven by cost reductions sought by insurance companies and administrators, and not necessarily because of a real medical need to reduce the turnaround time. Finally, any histolab wanting to improve its workflow can follow some easy steps presented here as a guide to accomplish that objective. These steps stress the need for the supervisors to insure that the personnel in the histology laboratory are being paid at a comparable rate as other histolabs in the area.

  2. A randomized, double-blinded comparison of ondansetron, granisetron, and placebo for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after supratentorial craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Virendra; Mitra, Jayanta K; Rath, Girija P; Prabhakar, Hemanshu; Bithal, Parmod K; Dash, Hari H

    2009-07-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are frequent and distressing complications after neurosurgical procedures. We evaluated the efficacy of ondansetron and granisetron to prevent PONV after supratentorial craniotomy. In a randomized double-blind, placebo controlled trial, 90 adult American Society of Anesthesiologists I, II patients were included in the study. A standard anesthesia technique was followed. Patients were divided into 3 groups to receive either placebo (saline), ondansetron 4 mg, or granisetron 1 mg intravenously at the time of dural closure. After extubation, episodes of nausea and vomiting were noted for 24 hours postoperatively. Statistical analysis was performed using chi2 test and 1-way analysis of variance. Demographic data, duration of surgery, intraoperative fluids and analgesic requirement, and postoperative pain (visual analog scale) scores were comparable in all 3 groups. It was observed that the incidence of vomiting in 24 hours, severe emetic episodes, and requirement of rescue antiemetics were less in ondansetron and granisetron groups as compared with placebo (Pgranisetron 1 mg are comparably effective at preventing emesis after supratentorial craniotomy. However, neither drugs prevented nausea effectively.

  3. Outcome in elderly patients undergoing definitive surgery and radiation therapy for supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme at a tertiary care institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Dasarahally S.; Suh, John H.; Phan, Jennifer L.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Cohen, Bruce H.; Barnett, Gene H.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of definitive surgery and radiation in patients aged 70 years and older with supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme. Methods and Materials: We selected elderly patients (≥ 70 years) who had primary treatment for glioblastoma multiforme at our tertiary care institution from 1977 through 1996. The study group (n = 102) included 58 patients treated with definitive radiation, 19 treated with palliative radiation, and 25 who received no radiation. To compare our results with published findings, we grouped our patients according to the applicable prognostic categories developed by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG): RTOG group IV (n = 6), V (n = 70), and VI (n = 26). Patients were retrospectively assigned to prognostic group IV, V, or VI based on age, performance status, extent of surgery, mental status, neurologic function, and radiation dose. Treatment included surgical resection and radiation (n 49), biopsy alone (n = 25), and biopsy followed by radiation (n = 28). Patients were also stratified according to whether they were optimally treated (gross total or subtotal resection with postoperative definitive radiation) or suboptimally treated (biopsy, biopsy + radiation, surgery alone, or surgery + palliative radiation). Patients were considered to have a favorable prognosis (n = 39) if they were optimally treated and had a Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score of at least 70. Results: The median survival for patients according to RTOG groups IV, V, and VI was 9.2, 6.6, and 3.1 months, respectively (log-rank, p < 0.0004). The median overall survival was 5.3 months. The definitive radiation group (n = 58) had a median survival of 7.3 months compared to 4.5 months in the palliative radiation group (n = 19) and 1.2 months in the biopsy-alone group (p < 0.0001). Optimally treated patients had a median survival of 7.4 months compared to 2.4 months in those suboptimally treated (p < 0.0001). The favorable prognosis group had an

  4. Differences in supratentorial white matter diffusion after radiotherapy - New biomarker of normal brain tissue damage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravn, Soeren; Jens Broendum Froekaer, Jens [Dept. of Radiology, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark)], e-mail: sorl@rn.dk; Holmberg, Mats [Dept. of Oncology, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark); Soerensen, Preben [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark); Carl, Jesper [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2013-10-15

    Introduction: Therapy-induced injury to normal brain tissue is a concern in the treatment of all types of brain tumours. The purpose of this study was to investigate if magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could serve as a potential biomarker for the assessment of radiation-induced long-term white matter injury. Material and methods: DTI- and T1-weighted images of the brain were obtained in 19 former radiotherapy patients [nine men and 10 women diagnosed with astrocytoma (4), pituitary adenoma (6), meningioma (8) and craniopharyngioma (1), average age 57.8 (range 35-71) years]. Average time from radiotherapy to DTI scan was 4.6 (range 2.0-7.1) years. NordicICE software (NIC) was used to calculate apparent diffusion coefficient maps (ADC-maps). The co-registration between T1 images and ADC-maps were done using the auto function in NIC. The co-registration between the T1 images and the patient dose plans were done using the auto function in the treatment planning system Eclipse from Varian. Regions of interest were drawn on the T1-weighted images in NIC based on iso curves from Eclipse. Data was analysed by t-test. Estimates are given with 95 % CI. Results: A mean ADC difference of 4.6(0.3;8.9) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.03 was found between paired white matter structures with a mean dose difference of 31.4 Gy. Comparing the ADC-values of the areas with highest dose from the paired data (dose > 33 Gy) with normal white matter (dose < 5 Gy) resulted in a mean dose difference of 44.1 Gy and a mean ADC difference of 7.87(3.15;12.60) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.003. Following results were obtained when looking at differences between white matter mean ADC in average dose levels from 5 to 55 Gy in steps of 10 Gy with normal white matter mean ADC: 5 Gy; 1.91(-1.76;5.58) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.29; 15 Gy; 5.81(1.53;10.11) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.01; 25 Gy; 5.80(2.43;9.18) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.002; 35 Gy; 5.93(2.89;8.97) X 10

  5. When machine vision meets histology: A comparative evaluation of model architecture for classification of histology sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Cheng; Han, Ju; Borowsky, Alexander; Parvin, Bahram; Wang, Yunfu; Chang, Hang

    2017-01-01

    Classification of histology sections in large cohorts, in terms of distinct regions of microanatomy (e.g., stromal) and histopathology (e.g., tumor, necrosis), enables the quantification of tumor composition, and the construction of predictive models of genomics and clinical outcome. To tackle the large technical variations and biological heterogeneities, which are intrinsic in large cohorts, emerging systems utilize either prior knowledge from pathologists or unsupervised feature learning for invariant representation of the underlying properties in the data. However, to a large degree, the architecture for tissue histology classification remains unexplored and requires urgent systematical investigation. This paper is the first attempt to provide insights into three fundamental questions in tissue histology classification: I. Is unsupervised feature learning preferable to human engineered features? II. Does cellular saliency help? III. Does the sparse feature encoder contribute to recognition? We show that (a) in I, both Cellular Morphometric Feature and features from unsupervised feature learning lead to superior performance when compared to SIFT and [Color, Texture]; (b) in II, cellular saliency incorporation impairs the performance for systems built upon pixel-/patch-level features; and (c) in III, the effect of the sparse feature encoder is correlated with the robustness of features, and the performance can be consistently improved by the multi-stage extension of systems built upon both Cellular Morphmetric Feature and features from unsupervised feature learning. These insights are validated with two cohorts of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) and Kidney Clear Cell Carcinoma (KIRC). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Histology of the first fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.P.; Sansom, I.J.; Repetski, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    THE first description of Anatolepis Bockelie & Fortey was from early Ordovician sediments of Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen1,2, but the genus is now known from many localities in North America and Greenland, ranging in age from the Late Cambrian period to the Early Ordovician3-6. Although initially interpreted as an agnathan fish2,3 that predated other representatives7, this has been widely disputed because the available histological data were unconvincing6,8-10 and the scales fell outside the known morphological range of other accepted early vertebrates9-11. Further doubt was cast upon the vertebrate affinity of Anatolepis when specimens from East Greenland were interpreted as the cuticular fragments of aglaspid arthropods6, although this interpretation has also been refuted12. Here we report on the morphology and histology of large collections of Anatolepis, and demonstrate the presence of dentine, a tissue unique to vertebrates, confirming that the taxon is both a vertebrate and the oldest known fish.

  7. Histologic correlation of MR signal intensity in parathyroid adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumancik, W.M.; Khan, A.; Mir, R.N.; Attie, J.N.; Davis, J.E.; Ashtari, M.; Herman, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    The classic MR signal intensity pattern of parathyroid adenoma (PTA) is bright enhancement on T2-weighted images. However, variations in SI pattern have been observed in clinical practice. The purpose of this report is to describe the histologic characteristics of surgically removed PTAs as correlated with their in vivo MR imaging appearance. From May 1987 to April 1988, 51 consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism were evaluated with MR imaging for preoperative localization of PTA. Surgical confirmation was obtained in all patients, with histologic evaluation available in 40. MR imaging was performed on 1.0-T system (Siemens, Magnetom) using a Helmhotz surface coil positioned at the neck. Spin-echo T1-weighted and T2-weighted multisection images were evaluated retrospectively. Signal intensities of PTA, adjacent thyroid, fat, and skeletal muscle were obtained (1) from direct region of interest determinations, and (2) visually as respective relationships of PTA to thyroid, fat, and muscle. Histologic classification was graded for (1) predominant cell type (i.e., chief or oxyphil cells), (2) acinar or solid growth pattern, (3) cystic change, (4) presence or absence of residual fat, (5) cell count per high power field, (6) heterogeneous histology, (7) gland weight, and (8) giant size (≥3 cm). The relationship of MR signal intensity to histology appears multifactorial

  8. Histologic effects of resurfacing lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Joshua R; Greene, Ryan M; Green, Jeremy B

    2014-02-01

    By utilizing resurfacing lasers, physicians can significantly improve the appearance of sun-damaged skin, scars, and more. The carbon dioxide and erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet lasers were the first ablative resurfacing lasers to offer impressive results although these earlier treatments were associated with significant downtime. Later, nonablative resurfacing lasers such as the neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser proved effective, after a series of treatments with less downtime, but with more modest results. The theory of fractional photothermolysis has revolutionized resurfacing laser technology by increasing the safety profile of the devices while delivering clinical efficacy. A review of the histologic and molecular consequences of the resurfacing laser-tissue interaction allows for a better understanding of the devices and their clinical effects. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Effects of an alveolar recruitment maneuver on subdural pressure, brain swelling, and mean arterial pressure in patients undergoing supratentorial tumour resection: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexman, Alana M; Gooderham, Peter A; Griesdale, Donald E; Argue, Ruth; Toyota, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Although recruitment maneuvers have been advocated as part of a lung protective ventilation strategy, their effects on cerebral physiology during elective neurosurgery are unknown. Our objectives were to determine the effects of an alveolar recruitment maneuver on subdural pressure (SDP), brain relaxation score (BRS), and cerebral perfusion pressure among patients undergoing supratentorial tumour resection. In this prospective crossover study, patients scheduled for resection of a supratentorial brain tumour were randomized to undergo either a recruitment maneuver (30 cm of water for 30 sec) or a "sham" maneuver (5 cm of water for 30 sec), followed by the alternative intervention after a 90-sec equilibration period. Subdural pressure was measured through a dural perforation following opening of the cranium. Subdural pressure and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded continuously. The blinded neurosurgeon provided a BRS at baseline and at the end of each intervention. During each treatment, the changes in SDP, BRS, and MAP were compared. Twenty-one patients underwent the study procedure. The increase in SDP was higher during the recruitment maneuver than during the sham maneuver (difference, 3.9 mmHg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2 to 5.6; P < 0.001). Mean arterial pressure decreased further in the recruitment maneuver than in the sham maneuver (difference, -9.0 mmHg; 95% CI, -12.5 to -5.6; P < 0.001). Cerebral perfusion pressure decreased 14 mmHg (95% CI, 4 to 24) during the recruitment maneuver. The BRS did not change with either maneuver. Our results suggest that recruitment maneuvers increase subdural pressure and reduce cerebral perfusion pressure, although the clinical importance of these findings is thus far unknown. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02093117.

  10. PIONEERING WORK IN COMPUTER VISION FOR HISTOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Daniel Timofte; Irina-Draga Căruntu

    2017-01-01

    The concept of computer-assisted training was firstly implemented in UMF Iasi in 1997, through the development of two pioneering digital instruments, namely the Histology Album and the Oral Histology Album. Both were built for learning purposes and became available, at that time, as Internet resources worldwide visible. The application of this particular e-learning method was dictated by the importance of well-defined visual images in acquiring basic histologic principles. Thus, t...

  11. [Prevalence of central nervous system tumours and histological identification in the operated patient: 20 years of experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Delgadillo, Gustavo; de Juambelz-Cisneros, Pedro Pablo; Fernández-Alvarado, Basilio; Pazos-Gómez, Fernando; Velasco-Torre, Andrea; Revuelta-Gutiérrez, Rogelio

    Central nervous system tumours comprise a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with great histological diversity. Despite the rising prevalence of these tumours in developing countries, some places like Mexico and Latin America have no representative studies that show the real impact of these tumours in our population. To describe the characteristics of the primary and secondary tumours of the central nervous system in the last 20 years in a Mexican institution. Patients with histopathological diagnosis from 1993 to 2013 in our institution, grouping them according to WHO classification 2007, characterising them by age group, gender, and anatomical location. There were a total of 511 tumours of the central nervous system. Of those, 292 were women and 219 men, with a ratio 1.3: 1, and a mean age of 49.3 years. Tumours with higher prevalence were: Meningeal tumours, 171 (33%), followed by neuroepithelial, 121 (24%). Astrocytoma had the highest prevalence in paediatric patients, whereas in those older than 20 years it was the meningioma. The supratentorial location was the most involved. This is the first study of a series of cases in Mexico that is performed by taking into account benign and malignant tumours of the central nervous system, with patients of all age groups with a range of 20 years. While this work only represents a retrospective analysis of an institution, it can be a strong indication of the epidemiology of these tumours in our environment. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A.

  12. Productivity standards for histology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesa, René J

    2010-04-01

    The information from 221 US histology laboratories (histolabs) and 104 from 24 other countries with workloads from 600 to 116 000 cases per year was used to calculate productivity standards for 23 technical and 27 nontechnical tasks and for 4 types of work flow indicators. The sample includes 254 human, 40 forensic, and 31 veterinary pathology services. Statistical analyses demonstrate that most productivity standards are not different between services or worldwide. The total workload for the US human pathology histolabs averaged 26 061 cases per year, with 54% between 10 000 and less than 30 000. The total workload for 70% of the histolabs from other countries was less than 20 000, with an average of 15 226 cases per year. The fundamental manual technical tasks in the histolab and their productivity standards are as follows: grossing (14 cases per hour), cassetting (54 cassettes per hour), embedding (50 blocks per hour), and cutting (24 blocks per hour). All the other tasks, each with their own productivity standards, can be completed by auxiliary staff or using automatic instruments. Depending on the level of automation of the histolab, all the tasks derived from a workload of 25 cases will require 15.8 to 17.7 hours of work completed by 2.4 to 2.7 employees with 18% of their working time not directly dedicated to the production of diagnostic slides. This article explains how to extrapolate this productivity calculation for any workload and different levels of automation. The overall performance standard for all the tasks, including 8 hours for automated tissue processing, is 3.2 to 3.5 blocks per hour; and its best indicator is the value of the gross work flow productivity that is essentially dependent on how the work is organized. This article also includes productivity standards for forensic and veterinary histolabs, but the staffing benchmarks for histolabs will be the subject of a separate article. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Histological characteristics of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuperus, JS; Westerveld, L Anneloes; Rutges, Joost A; Alblas, Jacqueline; van Rijen, Mattie H; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Oner, F Cumhur; Verlaan, JJ

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a predominantly radiographic diagnosis and histological knowledge of DISH is limited. The aim of this study was to describe the histological characteristics of DISH in the spinal column and to study the relation between DISH and intervertebral disc

  14. CT in neuromuscular disorders: A comparison of CT and histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, A.M. van der; Thijssen, H.O.M.; Merx, J.L.; Joosten, E.

    1988-01-01

    The value of CT-examination of the muscles compared to histology was studied in a retrospective analysis of 30 patients with clinical suspicion of neuromuscular disorder. In the evaluation of the CT-results descriptive criteria were used. The histologic diagnosis came from needle-biopsies taken from the quadriceps muscle. Considering the whole group of neuromuscular disorders, CT has an overall accuracy of 84.8%, a positive predictive value of 95.5% and a negative predictive value of 63.6%. This makes the use of CT as a diagnostic tool in neuromuscular disorders a reliable examination technique. In patients with a polymyositis there is even a 100% correlation between CT findings and biopsy results. Discrepancy between the biopsy results is remarkable of the quadriceps muscle and the CT findings: The number of abnormal histological findings is twice the number of abnormal CT findings. Using the more proximal gluteal region as a biopsy site would have decreased this discrepancy and would therefore have given a better correlation between CT and histology. The choice of protocol in determining the levels to be scanned is of great importance in achieving good reproducability in follow-up CT examinations. (orig.)

  15. Histologic characterization of canine dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidholm, A; Jönsson, L

    2005-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), characterized by chamber dilatation and myocardial systolic and diastolic dysfunction, is one of the most common heart diseases in dogs. The clinical diagnosis is based on findings on echocardiographic and Doppler examinations, with the active exclusion of other acquired or congenital heart diseases. However, the echocardiographic criteria for the diagnosis of DCM are not wholly specific for the disease, and histologic examination may be necessary for final diagnosis. Review of reports on histologic findings in dogs with clinically diagnosed DCM reveals two histologically distinct forms of DCM: 1) cardiomyopathy of Boxers and Doberman Pinschers, corresponding to the "fatty infiltration-degenerative" type and 2) the form seen in many giant, large-, and medium-sized breeds, including some Boxers and Doberman Pinschers, classified as the "attenuated wavy fiber" type of DCM. The histologic changes of the attenuated wavy fiber type of DCM may precede clinical and echocardiographic signs of heart disease, thus indicating an early stage of DCM.

  16. SE Marine Mammal Histology/Tissue data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples are collected from stranded marine mammals in the Southeastern United States. These tissue samples are examined histologically and evaluated to...

  17. Histologic progression in non-hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, S.M.; Chabner, B.A.; DeVita, V.T. Jr.; Simon, R.; Berard, C.W.; Jones, R.B.; Garvin, A.J.; Canellos, G.P.; Osborne, C.K.; Young, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical course and biopsy specimens from 515 consecutive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients was evaluated retrospectively in an attempt to determine the clinical importance of documented changes in histology over time. Two-hundred and five of these patients has an initial diagnosis of nodular lymphoma and were reviewed for this anaysis. Sixty-three underwent a repeat biopsy greater than 6 mo after initial diagnosis. In 23 patients, these repeat biopsies revealed a change in histology to a diffuse pattern and/or a change to a larger ''histiocytic'' cell type, while repeat biopsies for the other 40 (63%) disclosd persistence of a nodular pattern and no clear change in basic cell type. Progression from nodular lymphoma to diffuse histiocytic, mixed, or undifferentiated types of lymphomas of Rappaport was found in repeate biopsies obtained from 19 patients (30%). Prognosis for survival following a biopsy that demonstrated histologic change was related to the histology demonstrated at the most recent biopsy and to the response to subsequent drug treatment. Survival following repeat biopsy for these 19 patients was significantly shorter than for the 40 patients whose histology remained nodular (p < 0.001). However, attainment of a complete remission with intensive combination chemotherapy was associated with prolonged survival in eight patients and prolonged disease-free survival in one patient. Since prior treatment may compromise the ability to achieve a complete response to chemotherapy in patients with nodular lymphoma who develop an aggressive diffuse histology, the likelihood of histologic progression must be considered in the design of future clinical trials in nodular lymphoma. Histologic progression does not preclude attainment of a complete response to intensive chemotherapy

  18. A phase II study of concurrent temozolomide and cis-retinoic acid with radiation for adult patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butowski, Nicholas; Prados, Michael D.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Larson, David A.; Sneed, Patricia K.; Wara, William M.; Malec, Mary; Rabbitt, Jane; Page, Margaretta; Chang, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This Phase II study was designed to determine the median survival time of adults with supratentorial glioblastoma treated with a combination of temozolomide (TMZ) and 13-cis-retinoic acid (cRA) given daily with conventional radiation therapy (XRT). Methods and Materials: This was a single arm, open-labeled, Phase II study. Patients were treated with XRT in conjunction with cRA and TMZ. Both drugs were administered starting on Day 1 of XRT, and chemotherapy cycles continued after the completion of XRT to a maximum of 1 year. Results: Sixty-one patients were enrolled in the study. Time to progression was known for 55 patients and 6 were censored. The estimated 6-month progression-free survival was 38% and the estimated 1-year progression-free survival was 15%. Median time to progression was estimated as 21 weeks. The estimated 1-year survival was 57%. The median survival was 57 weeks. Conclusions: The combined therapy was relatively well tolerated, but there was no survival advantage compared with historical studies using XRT either with adjuvant nitrosourea chemotherapy, with TMZ alone, or with the combination of TMZ and thalidomide. Based on this study, cRA does not seem to add a significant synergistic effect to TMZ and XRT

  19. First-line nitrosourea-based chemotherapy in symptomatic non-resectable supratentorial pure low-grade astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenay, M P; Fontaine, D; Vandenbos, F; Lebrun, C

    2005-09-01

    At the present time, there are no proven beneficial effects of chemotherapy (CT) for the treatment of pure low-grade astrocytomas. Brain radiotherapy (RT) still remains the standard treatment in order to reduce or delay tumor progression or symptoms, despite possible long-term neurologic complications. We report 10 patients, with histologically proven pure low-grade fibrillary astrocytomas, to which we administered a first-line nitrosourea-based CT. All patients were symptomatic with pharmaco-resistant epilepsy or neurologic symptoms, and had been rejected for neurosurgical resection. All patients with epilepsy had a clinical improvement with reduction in seizure frequency and 60% became seizure-free. CT was well tolerated; all patients developed myelosuppression with 40% of grade III/IV hematotoxicity. Seven were alive at the time of writing with a mean follow-up of 6.5 years (3.5-12) from first recorded symptoms. The three deceased patients died 7.5, 7.5, and 8.5 years from first symptoms. These results demonstrate that some patients with symptomatic non-resectable fibrillary low-grade astrocytomas can be treated with up-front CT to improve their neurologic status. This report suggests that benefits of CT on symptoms, survival, and quality of life should be prospectively compared with RT.

  20. Histological description of Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla P. Rocha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The massive agricultural expansion converted the Cerdocyon thous, a South American native predator, in vulnerable specie. Basic data, such as histological description, are important to raise awareness on animal species, helping on preservation strategies. Considering the difficult in obtain samples, as the euthanasia of wild animals for this purpose is not allowed, data on histology are very scarce or inexistent. The objective of this paper was to provide a detailed histological description of the trachea and bronchial tree of the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766. The specimens (one adult male and one adult female used were provided by the Federal University of Pelotas (Pelotas, RS, Brazil Rehabilitation Center of Wild Fauna (NURFS. Tissue samples were fixed in 10% formalin and included in paraffin. After slicing, samples were stained with HE (hematoxylin and eosin, PAS (periodic acid-Schiff and resorcin fuchsin. Trachea had an average diameter of 7.87mm, and approximately 57% of the mucosa ciliated pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium was composed of goblet cells, mostly in the dorsal region. Bronchia and bronchioles had a mucosal fold with higher number of goblet cells. Using all these techniques there is no great remarkable differences from C. thous trachea and lung, when compared with the previous described structures for carnivores and most mammals, except for the goblet cells “regionalization”. Described results are important to understand the animal physiological and behavioral habits, allowing the development of preservation and protection strategies.

  1. Echocardiographic versus histologic findings in Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaoyan; He, Yihua; Li, Zhian; Han, Jiancheng; Chen, Jian; Nixon, J V Ian

    2015-02-01

    This retrospective study attempted to establish the prevalence of multiple-valve involvement in Marfan syndrome and to compare echocardiographic with histopathologic findings in Marfan patients undergoing valvular or aortic surgery. We reviewed echocardiograms of 73 Marfan patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery from January 2004 through October 2009. Tissue histology was available for comparison in 29 patients. Among the 73 patients, 66 underwent aortic valve replacement or the Bentall procedure. Histologic findings were available in 29 patients, all of whom had myxomatous degeneration. Of 63 patients with moderate or severe aortic regurgitation as determined by echocardiography, 4 had thickened aortic valves. The echocardiographic findings in 18 patients with mitral involvement included mitral prolapse in 15. Of 11 patients with moderate or severe mitral regurgitation as determined by echocardiography, 4 underwent mitral valve repair and 7 mitral valve replacement. Histologic findings among mitral valve replacement patients showed thickened valve tissue and myxomatous degeneration. Tricuspid involvement was seen echocardiographically in 8 patients, all of whom had tricuspid prolapse. Two patients had severe tricuspid regurgitation, and both underwent repair. Both mitral and tricuspid involvement were seen echocardiographically in 7 patients. Among the 73 patients undergoing cardiac surgery for Marfan syndrome, 66 had moderate or severe aortic regurgitation, although their valves manifested few histologic changes. Eighteen patients had mitral involvement (moderate or severe mitral regurgitation, prolapse, or both), and 8 had tricuspid involvement. Mitral valves were most frequently found to have histologic changes, but the tricuspid valve was invariably involved.

  2. Clinical and Histologic Mimickers of Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboj, Amrit K; Oxentenko, Amy S

    2017-08-17

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small bowel, classically associated with diarrhea, abdominal pain, and malabsorption. The diagnosis of celiac disease is made when there are compatible clinical features, supportive serologic markers, representative histology from the small bowel, and response to a gluten-free diet. Histologic findings associated with celiac disease include intraepithelial lymphocytosis, crypt hyperplasia, villous atrophy, and a chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate in the lamina propria. It is important to recognize and diagnose celiac disease, as strict adherence to a gluten-free diet can lead to resolution of clinical and histologic manifestations of the disease. However, many other entities can present with clinical and/or histologic features of celiac disease. In this review article, we highlight key clinical and histologic mimickers of celiac disease. The evaluation of a patient with serologically negative enteropathy necessitates a carefully elicited history and detailed review by a pathologist. Medications can mimic celiac disease and should be considered in all patients with a serologically negative enteropathy. Many mimickers of celiac disease have clues to the underlying diagnosis, and many have a targeted therapy. It is necessary to provide patients with a correct diagnosis rather than subject them to a lifetime of an unnecessary gluten-free diet.

  3. Phase II Radiation therapy oncology group trial of weekly paclitaxel and conventional external beam radiation therapy for supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, Corey J.; Ruffer, James; Rhodes, Harker; Paulus, Rebecca; Murray, Kevin; Movsas, Benjamin; Curran, Walter

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Fractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) ± carmustine (BCNU) is the standard of care for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), but survival results remain poor. Preclinical studies indicate synergy between RT and paclitaxel (TAX) in astrocytoma cell lines. Phase I studies in GBM have demonstrated a maximum tolerated dose for TAX of 225 mg/m 2 /3 h/week x 6, during EBRT, with no exacerbation of typical RT-induced toxicities. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) therefore mounted a Phase II study to determine the feasibility and efficacy of conventional EBRT and concurrent weekly TAX at its MTD. Patients and Methods: Sixty-two patients with histologic diagnosis of GBM were enrolled from 8/16/96 through 3/21/97 in a multi-institutional Phase II trial of EBRT and TAX 225 mg/m 2 /3 h (1-3 h before EBRT), administered the first treatment day of each RT week. Total EBRT dose was 60 Gy (200 cGy/fraction), 5 days per week. A smaller treatment field, to include gross disease plus a margin only, was used after 46 Gy. Results: Sixty-one patients (98%) were evaluable. Median age was 55 years (range, 28-78). Seventy-four percent were ≥50 years. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) Classes III, IV, V, VI included 10 (17%), 21 (34%), 25 (41%), and 5 (8%) patients, respectively. Gross total resection was performed in only 16%. There was no Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia or thrombocytopenia. Hypersensitivity reactions precluding further use of TAX occurred in 4 patients. There were 2 instances of late neurotoxicity (4% Grade 3 or 4). Ninety-one percent of patients received treatment per protocol. Seventy-seven percent completed prescribed treatment (6 weeks). Of 35 patients with measurable disease, CR/PR was observed in 23%, MR in 17%, and SD in 43%. Seventeen percent demonstrated progression at first follow-up. Median potential follow-up time is 20 months. Median survival is 9.7 months, with median survivals for RPA classes III, IV, V, and VI of 16.3, 10

  4. Radioresponse of thymomas verified with histologic reponse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohara, Kiyoshi; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Itai, Yuji [Dept. of Radiology, Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba City (Japan)]|[Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba City (Japan); Fuji, Hiroshi [Dept. of Radiology, Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba City (Japan); Sugahara, Shinji [Dept. of Radiology, Hitachi General Hospital, Hitachi City (Japan); Akaogi, Eiichi; Onizuka, Masataka; Ishikawa, Shigemi; Mitsui, Kiyofumi [Dept. of Surgery, Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba City (Japan)]|[Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba City (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Patterns of radiologic response of 10 thymomas treated by preoperative radiotherapy (RT) (18-20 Gy/2 weeks) were determined in conjunction with histologic response. Changes in tumor volume were evaluated with CT scans obtained 5 to 36 days before and 14 to 24 days after the initiation of RT and before surgery. The extent of tumor volume reduction (TR) varied widely (40-78%), while the mean daily volume decrement expressed as a percentage of the pre-RT tumor volume correlated significantly with the pre-RT tumor volume. Histologically, the tumors, all of which were resected 17 to 33 days after RT initiation, generally consisted of predominant fibrous tissues, rare necrotic foci, and few epithelial cells. The TR did not correlate with pre-RT tumor volume, observation period, histologic subtype, or quantity of remaining epithelial cells. The TR of thymomas does not predict RT impact on tumor cells but does reflect the quantity of inherent tumor stroma. (orig.)

  5. Radioresponse of thymomas verified with histologic reponse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Kiyoshi; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Itai, Yuji; Fuji, Hiroshi; Sugahara, Shinji; Akaogi, Eiichi; Onizuka, Masataka; Ishikawa, Shigemi; Mitsui, Kiyofumi

    1998-01-01

    Patterns of radiologic response of 10 thymomas treated by preoperative radiotherapy (RT) (18-20 Gy/2 weeks) were determined in conjunction with histologic response. Changes in tumor volume were evaluated with CT scans obtained 5 to 36 days before and 14 to 24 days after the initiation of RT and before surgery. The extent of tumor volume reduction (TR) varied widely (40-78%), while the mean daily volume decrement expressed as a percentage of the pre-RT tumor volume correlated significantly with the pre-RT tumor volume. Histologically, the tumors, all of which were resected 17 to 33 days after RT initiation, generally consisted of predominant fibrous tissues, rare necrotic foci, and few epithelial cells. The TR did not correlate with pre-RT tumor volume, observation period, histologic subtype, or quantity of remaining epithelial cells. The TR of thymomas does not predict RT impact on tumor cells but does reflect the quantity of inherent tumor stroma. (orig.)

  6. Histological and cytological studies on radiosensitivity of cervical carcinoma according to histological types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Wataru; Kudo, Ryuichi

    1983-01-01

    Morphological investigation were made on the radiosensitivity, according to the histological types; 1 keratinizing(K), 2 large cell nonkeratinizing(LNK), and 3 small cell nonkeratinizing(S) type. The result obtained are as follows. 1) Histological and cytological estimation of irradiated effects were examined at the 7th day after 10 Gray test-irradiation: (i) Histological studies were done with the biopsy specimens (76 cases): There were significance differences among 3 histological types (LNK>K>S, P S, K>S, P<0.05). (iii) There was a correlation between the histological and cytological irradiation effects. 2) DNA histogram patterns were also examined spectrophotometrically. It seemed that the patterns after test-irradiation were broad and these peaks were situated rather to high ploidy in histologically and cytologically highly effective cases. 3) Early ultrastructural findings after test-irradiation were as follows: (i) appearance of intra-nuclear ''pseudoinclusion'', (ii) swelling of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and so on. Although these characteristics presented the same sequence of events without regard to their histological types, they were not synchronized. It seemed that they appeared earlier after test-irradiation in histologically high-sensitivity cases than in low-sensitivity cases. (author)

  7. Non-pineal supratentorial primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors (sPNET) in teenagers and young adults: Time to reconsider cisplatin based chemotherapy after cranio-spinal irradiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swethajit; Burke, Amos; Cherian, Sheen; Williams, Denise; Nicholson, James; Horan, Gail; Jefferies, Sarah; Williams, Michael; Earl, Helena M; Burnet, Neil G; Hatcher, Helen

    2009-07-01

    Supratentorial PNET (sPNET) are rare CNS tumors of embryonal origin arising in children and adults. The treatment of sPNET for all age groups at our cancer center has been based on the management of medulloblastoma (MB), involving neurosurgical debulking followed by cranio-spinal irradiation (CSI) and systemic chemotherapy. Medical records were reviewed to gather demographic and clinical data about all embryonal CNS tumors in children and adults from 2001 to 2007. Tumor pathology, clinical management and survival data were also assessed, particularly as regards those patients who received the Packer chemotherapy regimen for either sPNET or MB. Eleven patients (five children and six adults) were identified with non-pineal sPNET, three children with pineal sPNET, and 19 patients (18 children and 1 adult) with MB. There was no difference in overall survival (OS) rates between pediatric and adult sPNET. When all sPNET were compared to all MB, 5-year OS was 14% versus 73%, respectively, but was only 9% for non-pineal sPNET. When only considering those patients treated with the Packer chemotherapy regimen, the 5-year OS was 12% for sPNET versus 79% for MB. This retrospective study demonstrates that non-pineal sPNET are clinically distinct from MB and are resistant to the Packer chemotherapy regimen. We suggest that it is time to reconsider the use of this regimen in teenage and young adult non-pineal sPNET and to investigate the utility of alternative approaches. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. CBF and CMRo/sub 2/ during craniotomy for small supratentorial cerebral tumours in enflurane anaesthesia. A dose-response study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, J.B.; Cold, G.E.; Eriksen, H.O.; Eskesen, V.; Blatt-Lyon, B.

    1986-01-01

    In 14 patients with supratentorial cerebral tumors with midline shift less than or equal to 10 mm, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRo/sub 2/) were measured twice on the contralateral side of the craniotomy, using a modification of the Kety and Schmidt method. For induction of anaesthesia, thiopental, fentanyl and pancuronium were used. The anaesthesia was maintained with enflurane 1% in nitrous oxide 67%. Moderate hypocapnia to a level averaging 4.3 kPa was achieved. The patients were divided into two groups. In group 1 (n=7), 1% enflurane was used throughout the anaesthesia, and CBF and CMRo/sub 2/ measured about 70 min after induction averaged 30.1 ml 100 g/sup -1/ min/sub -1/ and 1.98 ml O/sub 2/ 100 g/sup -1/ min/sup -1/, respectively. During the second CBF study 1 h later, CBF and CMRo/sub 2/ were unchanged (P>0.05). In group 2 (n=7), the inspiratory enflurane concentration was increased from 1 to 2% after the first CBF measurement. In this group a significant decrease in CMRo/sub 2/ was observed, while CBF was unchanged. In six patients EEG was recorded simultaneously with the CBF measurements. In patients subjected to increasing enflurane concentration (Group 2), a suppression in the EEG activity was observed without spike waves. It is concluded that enflurane induces a dose-related decrease in CMRo/sub 2/ and suppression in the EEG activity, whereas CBF was unchanged.

  9. Low Rate of Intraoperative Seizures During Awake Craniotomy in a Prospective Cohort with 374 Supratentorial Brain Lesions: Electrocorticography Is Not Mandatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boetto, Julien; Bertram, Luc; Moulinié, Gérard; Herbet, Guillaume; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Duffau, Hugues

    2015-12-01

    Awake craniotomy (AC) in brain lesions has allowed an improvement of both oncologic and functional results. However, intraoperative seizures (IOSs) were reported as a cause of failure of AC. Here, we analyze the incidence, risk factors, and consequences of IOSs in a prospective cohort of 374 ACs without electrocorticography (ECoG). We performed a prospective study including all patients who underwent AC for an intra-axial supratentorial cerebral lesion from 2009-2014 in our department. Occurrence of IOS was analyzed with respect to medical and epilepsy history, tumor characteristics, operative technique, and postoperative outcomes. The study comprised 374 patients with a major incidence of low-grade glioma (86%). Most of the patients (83%) had epilepsy history before surgery (20% had intractable seizures). Preoperative mean Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) score was 91. IOSs occurred in 13 patients (3.4%). All IOSs were partial seizures, which quickly resolved by irrigation with cold Ringer lactate. No procedure failed because of IOS, and the rate of aborted AC whatever the cause was nil. Mean stimulation current intensity for cortical and subcortical mapping was 2.25 ± 0.6 mA. Presurgical refractory epilepsy was not associated with a higher incidence of IOS. Three months after surgery, no patients had severe or disabling permanent worsening, even within the IOS group (mean KPS score of 93.7). AC for intra-axial brain lesion can be safely and reproducibly achieved without ECoG, with a low rate of IOS and excellent functional results, even in patients with preoperative intractable epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 3D prostate histology image reconstruction: Quantifying the impact of tissue deformation and histology section location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Gibson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Guidelines for localizing prostate cancer on imaging are ideally informed by registered post-prostatectomy histology. 3D histology reconstruction methods can support this by reintroducing 3D spatial information lost during histology processing. The need to register small, high-grade foci drives a need for high accuracy. Accurate 3D reconstruction method design is impacted by the answers to the following central questions of this work. (1 How does prostate tissue deform during histology processing? (2 What spatial misalignment of the tissue sections is induced by microtome cutting? (3 How does the choice of reconstruction model affect histology reconstruction accuracy? Materials and Methods: Histology, paraffin block face and magnetic resonance images were acquired for 18 whole mid-gland tissue slices from six prostates. 7-15 homologous landmarks were identified on each image. Tissue deformation due to histology processing was characterized using the target registration error (TRE after landmark-based registration under four deformation models (rigid, similarity, affine and thin-plate-spline [TPS]. The misalignment of histology sections from the front faces of tissue slices was quantified using manually identified landmarks. The impact of reconstruction models on the TRE after landmark-based reconstruction was measured under eight reconstruction models comprising one of four deformation models with and without constraining histology images to the tissue slice front faces. Results: Isotropic scaling improved the mean TRE by 0.8-1.0 mm (all results reported as 95% confidence intervals, while skew or TPS deformation improved the mean TRE by <0.1 mm. The mean misalignment was 1.1-1.9΀ (angle and 0.9-1.3 mm (depth. Using isotropic scaling, the front face constraint raised the mean TRE by 0.6-0.8 mm. Conclusions: For sub-millimeter accuracy, 3D reconstruction models should not constrain histology images to the tissue slice front faces and

  11. [Breast cancer: histological prognosis from biopsy material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veith, F; Picco, C

    1977-01-01

    Two histological factors to be taken into consideration for prognosis in pretreatment schedules of breast cancer have been studied on a group of 352 cases treated by non-mutilating therapeutics at the Fondation Curie between 1960 and 1970. The tumour material the slides of which we have reexamined "blindly", i.e. ignoring the evolution of the case had been obtained mostly by drill-biopsy. Histological groups and types have been determined following an analytical classification for computer purpose. The degree of malignancy was calculated with the method of Scarff-Bloom-Richardson. The analyzed data have been memorized on computer and then confronted with the elements of the T.N.M. classification and the survival of the patients involved. It appeared that if drill-biopsie have been performed correctly the histological type may be defined in eighty percent of cases. And it is likewise possible to calculate the histological grade of malignancy for each mammary cancer. With such a material the value for prognosis by means of the Scarff-Bloom-Richardson method still remains if applied only to adenocarcinoma of the "common infiltrating type".

  12. Exogenous fibrolytic enzymes to unlock nutrients: Histological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a need for a better understanding of the mode-of-action of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) used as additives in ruminant feeds. Four forages, treated with EFE, were evaluated in vitro and histologically, in an attempt to determine the effect of EFE on tissue degradation. Weeping love grass, kikuyu leaf material, ...

  13. Histologic response after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Locally advanced rectal cancer can be down staged by neoadjuvant therapy and the resultant tumor response can be quantified histologically. This study aimed to assess pathological response of neoadjuvant chemoradiation in patients with locally advanced rectal cancers treated in Wad Medani Teaching ...

  14. vaginal histological changes of the baboon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-04-04

    Apr 4, 2009 ... be studied in humans for ethical reasons. Objective: To determine the histological changes in baboon vagina associated with cyclic variations during normal menstrual cycle. Setting: The experiments were carried out at Institute of Primate Research (IPR),. Karen, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Nine adult healthy ...

  15. Histology. Notes for Students of Animal Husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Charles J.; Reed, Josephine E.

    This document approaches the subject of Histology by way of simple independent unicellular organisms through the lower levels of cell organization and specialization to a detailed study of the highly complex tissues of vertebrate animals. Emphasis is placed on structure, but function is explained in some detail. The relationships between tissues…

  16. New Colors for Histology: Optimized Bivariate Color Maps Increase Perceptual Contrast in Histological Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Marx, Alexander; Schuster, Alexander K; Schad, Lothar R; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of immunostained histological images is required for reproducible research in many different areas and forms the basis of many clinical decisions. The quality and efficiency of histopathological evaluation is limited by the information content of a histological image, which is primarily encoded as perceivable contrast differences between objects in the image. However, the colors of chromogen and counterstain used for histological samples are not always optimally distinguishable, even under optimal conditions. In this study, we present a method to extract the bivariate color map inherent in a given histological image and to retrospectively optimize this color map. We use a novel, unsupervised approach based on color deconvolution and principal component analysis to show that the commonly used blue and brown color hues in Hematoxylin-3,3'-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) images are poorly suited for human observers. We then demonstrate that it is possible to construct improved color maps according to objective criteria and that these color maps can be used to digitally re-stain histological images. To validate whether this procedure improves distinguishability of objects and background in histological images, we re-stain phantom images and N = 596 large histological images of immunostained samples of human solid tumors. We show that perceptual contrast is improved by a factor of 2.56 in phantom images and up to a factor of 2.17 in sets of histological tumor images. Thus, we provide an objective and reliable approach to measure object distinguishability in a given histological image and to maximize visual information available to a human observer. This method could easily be incorporated in digital pathology image viewing systems to improve accuracy and efficiency in research and diagnostics.

  17. New Colors for Histology: Optimized Bivariate Color Maps Increase Perceptual Contrast in Histological Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Nikolas Kather

    Full Text Available Accurate evaluation of immunostained histological images is required for reproducible research in many different areas and forms the basis of many clinical decisions. The quality and efficiency of histopathological evaluation is limited by the information content of a histological image, which is primarily encoded as perceivable contrast differences between objects in the image. However, the colors of chromogen and counterstain used for histological samples are not always optimally distinguishable, even under optimal conditions.In this study, we present a method to extract the bivariate color map inherent in a given histological image and to retrospectively optimize this color map. We use a novel, unsupervised approach based on color deconvolution and principal component analysis to show that the commonly used blue and brown color hues in Hematoxylin-3,3'-Diaminobenzidine (DAB images are poorly suited for human observers. We then demonstrate that it is possible to construct improved color maps according to objective criteria and that these color maps can be used to digitally re-stain histological images.To validate whether this procedure improves distinguishability of objects and background in histological images, we re-stain phantom images and N = 596 large histological images of immunostained samples of human solid tumors. We show that perceptual contrast is improved by a factor of 2.56 in phantom images and up to a factor of 2.17 in sets of histological tumor images.Thus, we provide an objective and reliable approach to measure object distinguishability in a given histological image and to maximize visual information available to a human observer. This method could easily be incorporated in digital pathology image viewing systems to improve accuracy and efficiency in research and diagnostics.

  18. Facilitating tumor functional assessment by spatially relating 3D tumor histology and in vivo MRI: image registration approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Alic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, together with histology, is widely used to diagnose and to monitor treatment in oncology. Spatial correspondence between these modalities provides information about the ability of MRI to characterize cancerous tissue. However, registration is complicated by deformations during pathological processing, and differences in scale and information content. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study proposes a methodology for establishing an accurate 3D relation between histological sections and high resolution in vivo MRI tumor data. The key features of the methodology are: 1 standardized acquisition and processing, 2 use of an intermediate ex vivo MRI, 3 use of a reference cutting plane, 4 dense histological sampling, 5 elastic registration, and 6 use of complete 3D data sets. Five rat pancreatic tumors imaged by T2*-w MRI were used to evaluate the proposed methodology. The registration accuracy was assessed by root mean squared (RMS distances between manually annotated landmark points in both modalities. After elastic registration the average RMS distance decreased from 1.4 to 0.7 mm. The intermediate ex vivo MRI and the reference cutting plane shared by all three 3D images (in vivo MRI, ex vivo MRI, and 3D histology data were found to be crucial for the accurate co-registration between the 3D histological data set and in vivo MRI. The MR intensity in necrotic regions, as manually annotated in 3D histology, was significantly different from other histologically confirmed regions (i.e., viable and hemorrhagic. However, the viable and the hemorrhagic regions showed a large overlap in T2(*-w MRI signal intensity. CONCLUSIONS: The established 3D correspondence between tumor histology and in vivo MRI enables extraction of MRI characteristics for histologically confirmed regions. The proposed methodology allows the creation of a tumor database of spatially registered multi-spectral MR images and multi-stained 3D

  19. Histology, Histochemistry And Ultrastructure Of The Oviducts And Seminal Receptacle Of Tropidurus Itambere (rodrigues, 1987) (reptilia: Tropiduridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira A.; Dolder H.

    2007-01-01

    The present study found new information regarding the histology, histochemistry and ultrastructure of the oviduct of Tropidurus itambere, an inhabitant of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Three differentiated histological regions constitute the oviduct: the infundibulum, as its main characteristic, has many tubuloalveolar glands; the uterine region is remarkable for many mucous glands, just below the epithelium; the vagina, near to the cloacal opening, is characterized by an epithelium with inf...

  20. Histology and imaging of soft tissue sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Michèle; Stock, Nathalie; Coindre, Jean Michel

    2009-10-01

    Imaging and histology are two complementary morphological techniques which play a fundamental role in the diagnosis and management of soft tissue sarcomas. Imaging allows to identify some pseudosarcomatous benign lesions such as myositis ossificans, intramuscular hemangioma, angiomyolipoma, intramuscular lipoma, giant cell tumour of tendon sheath, desmoid tumour and elastofibroma. There is no formal criterion for diagnosing a sarcoma on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but malignancy is strongly suspected with the presence of necrosis and vascular, bone or joint invasion. Imaging may also suggest some histological types of sarcoma such as well-differentiated liposarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, synovial sarcoma or extraskeletal osteosarcoma. Imaging is also extremely helpful in determining the appropriate kind of sampling to carry out and in guiding the performance of a microbiopsy. The appearance observed on imaging should always be taken into consideration for the interpretation of the microbiopsy by the pathologist.

  1. Histology and imaging of soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kind, Michele; Stock, Nathalie; Coindre, Jean Michel

    2009-01-01

    Imaging and histology are two complementary morphological techniques which play a fundamental role in the diagnosis and management of soft tissue sarcomas. Imaging allows to identify some pseudosarcomatous benign lesions such as myositis ossificans, intramuscular hemangioma, angiomyolipoma, intramuscular lipoma, giant cell tumour of tendon sheath, desmoid tumour and elastofibroma. There is no formal criterion for diagnosing a sarcoma on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but malignancy is strongly suspected with the presence of necrosis and vascular, bone or joint invasion. Imaging may also suggest some histological types of sarcoma such as well-differentiated liposarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, synovial sarcoma or extraskeletal osteosarcoma. Imaging is also extremely helpful in determining the appropriate kind of sampling to carry out and in guiding the performance of a microbiopsy. The appearance observed on imaging should always be taken into consideration for the interpretation of the microbiopsy by the pathologist.

  2. Histology and imaging of soft tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kind, Michele [Departement d' Imagerie Medicale, Institut Bergonie, 229 cours de l' Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France)], E-mail: kind@bergonie.org; Stock, Nathalie; Coindre, Jean Michel [Departement de Pathologie, Institut Bergonie, 229 cours de l' Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France)

    2009-10-15

    Imaging and histology are two complementary morphological techniques which play a fundamental role in the diagnosis and management of soft tissue sarcomas. Imaging allows to identify some pseudosarcomatous benign lesions such as myositis ossificans, intramuscular hemangioma, angiomyolipoma, intramuscular lipoma, giant cell tumour of tendon sheath, desmoid tumour and elastofibroma. There is no formal criterion for diagnosing a sarcoma on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but malignancy is strongly suspected with the presence of necrosis and vascular, bone or joint invasion. Imaging may also suggest some histological types of sarcoma such as well-differentiated liposarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, synovial sarcoma or extraskeletal osteosarcoma. Imaging is also extremely helpful in determining the appropriate kind of sampling to carry out and in guiding the performance of a microbiopsy. The appearance observed on imaging should always be taken into consideration for the interpretation of the microbiopsy by the pathologist.

  3. Metanephric Adenoma: clinical, imaging, and histological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Marchini, Giovanni Scala, E-mail: fabio_torri@yahoo.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Urologica; Campos, Rodrigo Sousa Madeira [Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Urologia; Gil, Antonio Otero [Instituto Dante Pazanezzi, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Metanephric adenoma (MA), also designated nephrogenic nephroma or renal epithelial tumor resembling immature nephron, has just been recently recognized as a special type of benign renal epithelial tumor. Only few reports are found in the literature regarding this rare renal tumor. The purpose of this paper is to describe our clinical, imaging and histological / immunohistochemical observations of MA diagnosed in two patients and compare these data to previous information reported in medical databases (author)

  4. Histologic changes in previously irradiated thyroid glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdiserri, R.O.; Borochovitz, D.

    1980-03-01

    Thyroid tissue from 90 patients with a history of therapeutic irradiation to the head and neck in childhood and adolescence was examined microscopically. In addition to the well-known observation that these individuals have an increased incidence of primary thyroid carcinoma, it was also demonstrated that they have an increased incidence of benign histologic changes. These changes represent a spectrum from nonspecific hyperplastic lesions to benign neoplasis and thyroidltis.

  5. Clinical and Histological Characteristics of Nasopharyngeal Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    8(26.7%),cranial nerve involvement 7(23.3%) and visual impairment 6(20%). According to the UICC 1997 staging for nasopharyngeal carcinoma,23(76.7%) and 7(23.3%) were T3 and T4 or stages III and IV respectively.The histological diagnoses were squamous cell carcinoma 23(76.7%) cases, non-Hodgkins lymphoma ...

  6. Autoimmune gastritis: histology phenotype and OLGA staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugge, M; Fassan, M; Pizzi, M; Zorzetto, V; Maddalo, G; Realdon, S; De Bernard, M; Betterle, C; Cappellesso, R; Pennelli, G; de Boni, M; Farinati, F

    2012-06-01

    Among Western populations, the declining incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection coincides with a growing clinical impact of autoimmune gastritis. To describe the histological phenotype of autoimmune gastritis, also to test the prognostic impact of OLGA staging in the autoimmune setting. A single-institutional series (spanning the years 2003-2011) of 562 consecutive patients (M:F ratio: 1:3.7; mean age = 57.6 ± 14.4 years) with serologically confirmed autoimmune gastritis underwent histology review and OLGA staging. Helicobacter pylori infection was ascertained histologically in 44/562 cases (7.8%). Forty six biopsy sets (8.2%) featured OLGA stages III-IV; they included all four cases of incidental epithelial neoplasia (three intraepithelial and one invasive; three of these four cases had concomitant H. pylori infection). There were 230 (40.9%) and 139 (24.7%) cases, respectively, of linear and micro-nodular enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia; 19 (3.4%) type I carcinoids were detected. The series included 116 patients who underwent repeated endoscopy/biopsy sampling (mean time elapsing between the two procedures = 54 months; range 24-108). Paired histology showed a significant (P = 0.009) trend towards a stage progression [the stage increased in 25/116 cases (22%); it remained unchanged in 87/116 cases (75%)]. In autoimmune gastritis, the cancer risk is restricted to high-risk gastritis stages (III-IV), and is associated mainly with concomitant H. pylori infection. OLGA staging consistently depicts the time-dependent organic progression of the autoimmune disease and provides key information for secondary gastric cancer prevention strategies. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Histological study of white rhinoceros integument

    OpenAIRE

    Plochocki, Jeffrey H.; Ruiz, Saul; Rodriguez-Sosa, Jos? R.; Hall, Margaret I.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report findings from a microscopic analysis of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) integumentary ultrastructure. Skin samples from the cheek, shoulder, flank and rump were taken from a 46-year-old female southern white rhinoceros and examined using H&E and elastic histological stains. The epidermis was thickest in the flank (1.003 mm) followed by the rump, cheek and shoulder. The stratum corneum comprised more than half the epidermal thickness. Numerous melanin granul...

  8. Phase 1/2 Trials of Temozolomide, Motexafin Gadolinium, and 60-Gy Fractionated Radiation for Newly Diagnosed Supratentorial Glioblastoma Multiforme: Final Results of RTOG 0513

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachman, David G., E-mail: david.brachman@dignityhealth.org [Arizona Oncology Services Foundation, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph' s Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Pugh, Stephanie L. [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ashby, Lynn S. [Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph' s Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Thomas, Theresa A. [Arizona Oncology Services Foundation, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Dunbar, Erin M. [University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida (United States); Narayan, Samir [St. Joseph Mercy Hospital, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Robins, H. Ian [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bovi, Joseph A. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Rockhill, Jason K. [University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Won, Minhee [Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph' s Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Curran, Walter P. [Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of phase 1 was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of motexafin gadolinium (MGd) given concurrently with temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation therapy (RT) in patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Phase 2 determined whether this combination improved overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in GBM recursive partitioning analysis class III to V patients compared to therapies for recently published historical controls. Methods and Materials: Dose escalation in phase 1 progressed through 3 cohorts until 2 of 6 patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity or a dose of 5 mg/kg was reached. Once MTD was established, a 1-sided 1-sample log-rank test at significance level of .1 had 85% power to detect a median survival difference (13.69 vs 18.48 months) with 60 deaths over a 12-month accrual period and an additional 18 months of follow-up. OS and PFS were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: In phase 1, 24 patients were enrolled. The MTD established was 5 mg/kg, given intravenously 5 days a week for the first 10 RT fractions, then 3 times a week for the duration of RT. The 7 patients enrolled in the third dose level and the 94 enrolled in phase 2 received this dose. Of these 101 patients, 87 were eligible and evaluable. Median survival time was 15.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.9-17.6 months), not significantly different from that of the historical control (P=.36). Median PFS was 7.6 months (95% CI: 5.7-9.6 months). One patient (1%) experienced a grade 5 adverse event possibly related to therapy during the concurrent phase, and none experience toxicity during adjuvant TMZ therapy. Conclusions: Treatment was well tolerated, but median OS did not reach improvement specified by protocol compared to historical control, indicating that the combination of standard RT with TMZ and MGd did not achieve a significant survival advantage.

  9. FIRST 5-DAYS FOLLOW-UP AND CORRELATION STUDY BETWEEN URINARY CYSTEINYL LEUKO TRIENES AND EDEMA VALUES IN PRIMARY SPONTANEOUS SUPRATENTORIAL INTRACEREBRAL HEMO RRHAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolnenec-Baneva Natalia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: After intracerebral hemorrhage cysteinyl leukotrienes (C4, D4, E4 are synthetisized in the contact brain parenchyma-extravasated blood and participate in producing of edema formation. The study aim is a 5-days follow up (admittance/3thday/5thday of urinary cysteinyl leukotrienes, hematoma and edema volume in patients with primary spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage and to determine the relationship: edema/haematoma and edema/leuko trienes. Methods: An enzyme immunoassay for leukotrienes measuring in the urine samples from 62 patients with hemorrhage during the first 5 days ( admittance/3thday/5thday and 80 health controls is used. Hematoma and edema volume is visualised and measured by computed-tomography. Results: Admission values of leukotrienes were significantly higher in the hemorrhagic patients (min =268.61; max = 5787.36; mean = 1842.20 ± 1413.19 pg/ml/mg creatinine versus control subjects (min =297.8; max = 1684.2; mean = 918.6 ± 332 (p 0.05. The edema (mean: 12.86 ±13.52; 22.38 ± 21.10; 28.45 ± 29.41 cm3 showed very high significance (p 0.05 of moderate strength is found between edema and hematoma; and significant positive correlation (r = 0.6; p 0.05 at admittance, r = – 0.05 (p >0.05 on the 3th day (nonexistence of linear correlation, the sign minus presents their tendency for the opposite movement in their values and r = 0.2 (p > 0.05 on the 5thday are found (positive linear nonsignificant correlation of slight strength. Conclusion: Significant urinary leukotrienes excretion (a brain capacity for significant leukotrienes synthesis and significant edema progression versus constant haematoma are found. The edema size followed the hematoma size of moderate extent. The edema showed an inverse dependence of the leukotrienes (atendency for opposite movement of their values, the high leukotrienes values at admittance bring to greater edema volume on the third/the fifth day, respectively. Elevated cysteinyl

  10. Hidradenocarcinoma: a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Christine J; Cochran, Alistair J; Eng, William; Binder, Scott W

    2006-11-01

    The diagnosis of hidradenocarcinoma is difficult due to a combination of factors including inconsistent nomenclature/ classification, rarity of the neoplasm, and variable morphology of cells composing the neoplasm. Immunohistochemistry has not been previously performed on a series of hidradenocarcinomas. We evaluated six cases of hidradenocarcinoma histologically and immunohistochemically using antibodies to gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), S-100 protein, keratin AE1/3, cytokeratin 5/6, p53, bcl-1, bcl-2, and Ki67. Histology suggested concurrent eccrine and apocrine differentiation of the cases. Ki67 and p53 staining was strongly positive in five of six tumors. The neoplasms stained with antibodies to CEA, S-100 protein, GCDFP-15, EMA, bcl-1, and bcl-2 in no consistent pattern. All tumors studied stained positively for keratin AE1/3 and cytokeratin 5/6. In making the diagnosis of hidradenocarcinoma, it may be unnecessary to separate hidradenocarcinoma into eccrine and apocrine categories, and although Ki67 and p53 may be helpful, histological parameters remain paramount.

  11. Osteosarcoma: correlation of T1 map and histology map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Jin Suck; Yun, Mi Jin; Jeong, Eun Kee; Shin, Kyoo Ho; Yang, Woo Ick

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether T1 mapping shows regional differences between viable and necrotic regions of osteosarcomas after anticancer chemotherapy and to assess whether this mapping is able to express the characteristics of various intramural tissue components. Eleven of 20 osteosarcomas were included in this study, while the remaining nine were excluded because the tumor site was inappropriate for comparison of T1 map and tumor macrosection. All patients underwent MR imaging for the purpose of T1 mapping, followed by pre-operative chemotherapy and subsequent limb-salvage surgery. Spin echo pulse sequencing was used with varying TR (100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, and 2400 msec) and a constant TE of 20 msec. Using a C-language software program, T1 relaxation time was calculated on a pixel-by-pixel basis and then a T1 map was generated by using a post-processing program, NIH Image. We attempted correlation of the T1 map and histologic findings, particularly in regions of interest(ROI) if certain areas were different from other regions on either the T1 or histologic map. Value was expressed as an average of the ratio of T1 of ROI and T1 of fat tissue, and this was used as an internal reference for normalization of the measurement. Tumor necrosis was 100 %(Grade IV) in six specimens, and over 90 % (Grade III) in five. Viable tumor cells were found mostly in regions with chondroid matrix and seldom in regions with osteoid matrix. Regardless of cell viability, values ranged from 0.9 to 9.87(mean, 4.02) in tumor necrotic area with osteoid matrices, and from 3.04 to 3.9(mean, 3.55) in areas with chondroid matrices. Other regions with fibrous tissue proliferation, hemorrhage, and fatty necrosis showed values of 2.92-9.83(mean, 7.20), 2.65-5.96(mean,3.59), and 1.43-3.11(mean, 2.68) respectively. The values of various tissues overlapped. No statistically significant difference was found between regions in which tumors were viable and those with tumor necrosis. Although we hypothesized

  12. Histological evaluation of pulp tissue from second primary molars correlated with clinical and radiographic caries findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellore Kannan Gopinath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Managing dental caries in young children is demanding due to the elusions present on the right diagnostic criteria for treatment. The present study evaluated the histological status of pulp tissues extracted from primary second molar with caries involvement. Histological findings are correlated with clinical and radiographic assessment. Materials and Methods: Simple experimental study was conducted on upper or lower second primary molars with occlusal (22 teeth or proximal (22 teeth dental caries. Selected children were below 6 years of age. Percentage of caries involvement, residual dentin thickness (RDT, radiographic assessment of interradicular and periapical areas, clinical caries depth and signs and symptoms are the parameters considered for comparing with the histological findings. The specimens were grouped based on the nature of the inflammatory process as acute or chronic. The data were analyzed by Student t-test to compare histological types of inflammation with clinical parameters. P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Four cases revealed severe acute inflammation in coronal and relatively mild acute inflammation in radicular pulp. In the rest of the specimen coronal and radicular pulp had similar acute or chronic inflammatory changes. Histological evidence of pulpitis correlated with dental caries depth of ≥80%, RDT of ≤1 mm, radiographic rarefactions in the interradicular regions and symptoms of pain. Conclusion: Primary second molars with more than two-third caries involvement with symptoms of pain histologically showed inflammation of both coronal and radicular pulp tissues in all cases.

  13. Thermoacoustic imaging of prostate cancer: comparison to histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch, S. K.; Griep, S. K.; Jacobsohn, K.; See, W. A.; Hull, D.

    2014-03-01

    Ex vivo imaging of fresh prostate specimens was performed to test the hypothesis that the thermoacoustic (TA) contrast mechanism generated with very high frequency electromagnetic (EM) irradiation is sensitive to prostate cancer. Ex vivo imaging was performed immediately after radical prostatectomy, performed as part of normal care. Irradiation pulsewidth was 700 ns and duty cycle was extremely low. Typical specific absorption rate (SAR) throughout the prostate was 70-90 kW/kg during pulsing, but time-averaged SAR was below 2 W/kg. TA pressure pulses generated by rapid heating due to EM energy deposition were detected using single element transducers. 15g/L glycine powder mixed into DI water served as acoustic couplant, which was chilled to prevent autolysis. Spatial encoding was performed by scanning in tomographic "step-and-shoot" mode, with 3 mm translation between slices and 1.8-degree rotation between tomographic views. Histology slides for 3 cases scanned with 2.25 MHz transducers were marked for comparison to TA reconstructions. These three cases showed little, moderate, and severe involvement in the histology levels surrounding the verumontanum. TA signal strength decreased with percent cancerous involvement. When VHF is used for tissue heating, the TA contrast mechanism is driven by ionic content and we observed suppressed TA signal from diseased prostate tissue in the peripheral zone. For the 45 regions of interest analyzed, a reconstruction value of 0.4 mV provides 100% sensitivity but only 29% specificity.

  14. Histological evidence for a supraspinous ligament in sauropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Ignacio A; Casal, Gabriel A; Martinez, Rubén D; Ibiricu, Lucio M

    2015-10-01

    Supraspinous ossified rods have been reported in the sacra of some derived sauropod dinosaurs. Although different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origin of this structure, histological evidence has never been provided to support or reject any of them. In order to establish its origin, we analyse and characterize the microstructure of the supraspinous rod of two sauropod dinosaurs from the Upper Cretaceous of Argentina. The supraspinous ossified rod is almost entirely formed by dense Haversian bone. Remains of primary bone consist entirely of an avascular tissue composed of two types of fibre-like structures, which are coarse and longitudinally (parallel to the main axis of the element) oriented. These structures are differentiated on the basis of their optical properties under polarized light. Very thin fibrous strands are also observed in some regions. These small fibres are all oriented parallel to one another but perpendicular to the element main axis. Histological features of the primary bone tissue indicate that the sacral supraspinous rod corresponds to an ossified supraspinous ligament. The formation of this structure appears to have been a non-pathological metaplastic ossification, possibly induced by the continuous tensile forces applied to the element.

  15. Pneumatic distension of ventricular mural architecture validated histologically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burg, M.C.; Heindel, W. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Lunkenheimer, P. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Experimental Thoraco-vascular Surgery; Niederer, P. [ETH and University of Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. for Biomedical Engineering; Brune, C. [Twente Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Redmann, K. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Center for Reproductive Medicine and Andrology; Smerup, M. [Aarhus University Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery; Spiegel, U.; Becker, F. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. Surgical Research; Maintz, D. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Cologne Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Anderson, R.H. [Newcastle Univ., London (United Kingdom). Inst. of Genetic Medicine

    2016-11-15

    There are ongoing arguments as to how cardiomyocytes are aggregated together within the ventricular walls. We used pneumatic distension through the coronary arteries to exaggerate the gaps between the aggregated cardiomyocytes, analyzing the pattern revealed using computed tomography, and validating our findings by histology. We distended 10 porcine hearts, arresting 4 in diastole by infusion of cardioplegic solutions, and 4 in systole by injection of barium chloride. Mural architecture was revealed by computed tomography, measuring also the angulations of the long chains of cardiomyocytes. We prepared the remaining 2 hearts for histology by perfusion with formaldehyde. Increasing pressures of pneumatic distension elongated the ventricular walls, but produced insignificant changes in mural thickness. The distension exaggerated the spaces between the aggregated cardiomyocytes, compartmenting the walls into epicardial, central, and endocardial regions, with a feathered arrangement of transitions between them. Marked variation was noted in the thicknesses of the parts in the different ventricular segments, with no visible anatomical boundaries between them. Measurements of angulations revealed intruding and extruding populations of cardiomyocytes that deviated from a surface-parallel alignment. Scrolling through the stacks of tomographic images revealed marked spiraling of the aggregated cardiomyocytes when traced from base to apex. Our findings call into question the current assumption that cardiomyocytes are uniformly aggregated together in a tangential fashion. There is marked heterogeneity in the architecture of the different ventricular segments, with the aggregated units never extending in a fully transmural fashion.

  16. Pneumatic distension of ventricular mural architecture validated histologically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burg, M.C.; Heindel, W.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Niederer, P.; Brune, C.; Redmann, K.; Smerup, M.; Spiegel, U.; Becker, F.; Maintz, D.; Cologne Univ.; Anderson, R.H.

    2016-01-01

    There are ongoing arguments as to how cardiomyocytes are aggregated together within the ventricular walls. We used pneumatic distension through the coronary arteries to exaggerate the gaps between the aggregated cardiomyocytes, analyzing the pattern revealed using computed tomography, and validating our findings by histology. We distended 10 porcine hearts, arresting 4 in diastole by infusion of cardioplegic solutions, and 4 in systole by injection of barium chloride. Mural architecture was revealed by computed tomography, measuring also the angulations of the long chains of cardiomyocytes. We prepared the remaining 2 hearts for histology by perfusion with formaldehyde. Increasing pressures of pneumatic distension elongated the ventricular walls, but produced insignificant changes in mural thickness. The distension exaggerated the spaces between the aggregated cardiomyocytes, compartmenting the walls into epicardial, central, and endocardial regions, with a feathered arrangement of transitions between them. Marked variation was noted in the thicknesses of the parts in the different ventricular segments, with no visible anatomical boundaries between them. Measurements of angulations revealed intruding and extruding populations of cardiomyocytes that deviated from a surface-parallel alignment. Scrolling through the stacks of tomographic images revealed marked spiraling of the aggregated cardiomyocytes when traced from base to apex. Our findings call into question the current assumption that cardiomyocytes are uniformly aggregated together in a tangential fashion. There is marked heterogeneity in the architecture of the different ventricular segments, with the aggregated units never extending in a fully transmural fashion.

  17. Correlation between ICDAS and histology: Differences between stereomicroscopy and microradiography with contrast solution as histological techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara de Azevedo Gomes Campos

    Full Text Available Detection of occlusal caries with visual examination using ICDAS correlates strongly with histology under stereomicroscopy (SM, but dentin aspects under SM are ambiguous regarding mineral content. Thus, our aim was to test two null hypotheses: SM and microradiography result in similar correlations between ICDAS and histology; SM and microradiography result in similar positive (PPV and negative predictive values (NPV of ICDAS cut-off 1-2 (scores 0-2 as sound with histological threshold D3 (demineralization in the inner third of dentin. Occlusal surfaces of extracted permanent teeth (n = 115 were scored using ICDAS. Undemineralized ground sections were histologically scored using both SM without contrast solution and microradiography after immersion in Thoulet's solution 1.47 for 24 h (MRC. Correlation between ICDAS and histology differed from SM (0.782 to MRC (0.511 (p = 0.0002, with a large effect size "q" of 0.49 (95% CI: 0.638/0.338. For ICDAS cut-off 1-2 and D3, PPV from MRC (0.56 was higher than that from SM (0.28 (p< 0.00001; effect size h = 0.81, and NPV from MRC (0.72 was lower than that from SM (1,00 (p < 0.00001; effect size h = 1.58. In conclusion, SM overestimated the correlation between ICDAS and lesion depth, and underestimated the number of occlusal surfaces with ICDAS cut-off 1-2 and deep dentin demineralization.

  18. Aspects of the anatomy and histology of the alimentary canal of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspects of the anatomy and histology of the alimentary canal of Thryonomys swinderianus were studied to gain a better understanding of this animal's ability to digest large quantities of fibre. Morphometric measurements of the gut regions were taken with the aid of light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy.

  19. ANIMATED SERIAL SECTIONS, A TEACHING AID FOR ORAL HISTOLOGY AND EMBRYOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAYDEN, JESS; AND OTHERS

    THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF TWO TYPES OF VISUAL MEDIA FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A THREE-DIMENSIONAL CONCEPT OF A GIVEN ANATOMICAL REGION WAS INVESTIGATED. EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS WERE RANDOMLY SELECTED FROM 119 FIRST-YEAR MEDICAL AND DENTAL STUDENTS IN AN HISTOLOGY CLASS. BOTH GROUPS ATTENDED THE SAME ONE-HOUR LECTURE. FOLLOWING THE LECTURE…

  20. Anatomy and histology of the frontalis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Bryan R; Plesec, Thomas P; Sakolsatayadorn, Natta; Rubinstein, Tal J; McBride, Jennifer M; Perry, Julian D

    2015-01-01

    To determine the gross and histologic configurations of the medial and lateral frontalis muscle. After making a midcoronal incision and bluntly dissecting to the orbital rim, the frontalis muscle was marked and measured. A protractor was used to measure the frontalis-orbicularis angle (FOA) and, when present, the angle of central bifurcation (AOB). Three strips of full-thickness forehead soft tissue measuring 0.5 cm × 8 cm were excised 3, 4.5, and 6 cm above the supraorbital notch and analyzed histologically for the presence of skeletal muscle fibers. Data were analyzed using 2-sample t tests, paired t tests, Pearson correlations, and mixed effect models. A p value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Sixty-four hemifaces of 32 cadavers (16 males) were dissected. All specimens were Caucasian. The average age was 78.2 years (range, 56-102 years). The average FOA was 88.7° (13.0°), and the average AOB was 90.0° (26.4°). A visible midline bifurcation occurred in 28 of 32 subjects (88%) at an average height of 4.7 cm (range, 2.4-7.2 cm) superior to the supraorbital notch. Continuous skeletal muscle fibers were present within the midline bifurcation histologically in 89%, 75%, and 11% of specimens 3.5, 5.0, and 6.5 cm above the supraorbital notch, respectively. In 46% of individuals, skeletal muscle fibers were continuously present microscopically within the gross bifurcation. While a medial frontalis muscle bifurcation occurs grossly in most senescent Caucasians, muscle fibers exist microscopically within this zone in nearly half of individuals.

  1. Integration of Histology Lectures and Practical Teaching in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoye; Cheng, Xin; Li, Ke; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Human histology is a discipline concerning the study of microscopic structures of human tissues and organs--with the aid of light or electron microscopes. Traditional teaching of histology is composed of two separated components, theory and practice. The main disadvantage with traditional histology teaching is the detachment of theory…

  2. Oral fibrolipoma: A rare histological variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treville Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipomas are benign soft tissue mesenchymal neoplasms. Fibrolipoma is a histological variant of lipoma that mostly affects the buccal mucosa and causes functional and cosmetic disabilities. The diagnosis and differentiation of fibrolipoma with clinically similar lesions such as fibroma and pleomorphic adenoma is very essential for a correct treatment plan and complete follow-up. This article presents a case of a 35-year-old female with a fibrolipoma on the lingual marginal gingiva of the mandibular left third molar.

  3. Histologic differentiation of desmoplastic melanoma from cicatrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneishi, N K; Cockerell, C J

    1998-04-01

    Desmoplastic malignant melanoma (DMM) is a rare variant of melanoma that can be very difficult to diagnose correctly both clinically and histologically. The problem is compounded by the fact that many lesions persist at previous biopsy or excision sites so that scar tissue is often present admixed with or adjacent to the spindle cell neoplasm which may exhibit fibroblastic differentiation itself. In order to assess this problem, we compared and contrasted the histologic features of six DMM with 15 examples of cicatrices from various sources. Mature scars were readily differentiated from DMM by light microscopy. In contrast, immature scar and DMM had many features in common including hypercellularity, nodular lymphoid infiltrates, myxoid stroma, and atypical nuclei. The presence of a melanocytic proliferation within the epidermis above the dermal component, neurotropism, and S-100 and/or HMB-45 positivity of neoplastic cells were the only features that permitted reliable differentiation between the two. Clinical correlation and review of previous biopsy specimens are crucial in preventing a delayed diagnosis of DMM. Re-excision is advised in all questionable cases.

  4. Histological analysis of extracranial carotid artery aneurysms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna C Welleweerd

    Full Text Available Extracranial carotid artery aneurysms (ECAA are rare but may be accompanied with significant morbidity. Previous studies mostly focused on diagnostic imaging and treatment. In contrast, the pathophysiological mechanisms and natural course of ECAA are largely unknown. Understanding the pathophysiological background may add to prediction of risk for adverse outcome and need for surgical exclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological characteristics of ECAA in patients who underwent complete surgical ECAA resection.From March 2004 till June 2013, 13 patients were treated with open ECAA repair. During surgery the aneurysm sac was resected and processed for standardized histological analysis. Sections were stained with routine hematoxylin and eosin and special stains to detect elastin, collagen, different types of inflammatory cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells.Histopathological characterization revealed two distinct categories: dissection (abrupt interruption of the media; n = 3 and degeneration (general loss of elastin fibers in the media; n = 10. In the degenerative samples the elastin fibers in the media were fragmented and were partly absent. Inflammatory cells were observed in the vessel wall of the aneurysms.Histological analysis in this small sample size revealed dissection and degeneration as the two distinct underlying mechanisms in ECAA formation.

  5. Morphological Characters and Histology of Pheretima darnleiensis

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    ANDY DARMAWAN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pheretima darnleiensis is a native earthworm of Southeast Asia, India, and Japan. Although it is commonly found in Indonesia, the earthworm has never been studied well. This study was aimed to examine the morphological characters and structure of its several organs for an identification purpose, which is important for the earthworm culture. Earthworms were collected in a plot of 55-150 × 55-150 cm width and 20 cm depth at Bogor Agricultural University in Darmaga and Baranangsiang Campuses by hand sorting method. Examinations were carried out on its external as well as internal characters. The histology of the organs was studied using paraffin method. The observed characters on P. darnleiensis were the presence of prostate gland, one pair of male pores on segment XVIII, a cylindrical body with perichaetine setae, caeca on segment XXVII, copulatory pouches without diverticula and stalked glands, bithecal spermatheca with nephridia, and the first spermathecal pore on segment 4/5. In addition, other characters found on P. darnleiensis were the presence of an annular clitellum on segment XIV-XVI, an epilobus prostomium with open base, approximately 40 single pointed setae on segment XIII, one midventral female pore on segment XIV, one pair of lateroventral male pores on segment XVIII, four pairs of lateroventral spermathecal pores on segment 4/5, 5/6, 6/7, 7/8, and the first middorsal dorsal pore on segment 12/13. The histology of P. darnleiensis showed basic structure as found in other earthworms.

  6. Normal and pathological breast, the histological basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinebretiere, J.M. [Department of Pathology, Centre Rene-Huguenin, 35 rue Dailly, 92210 Saint Cloud (France)]. E-mail: jm.guinebretiere@stcloud-huguenin.org; Menet, E. [Department of Pathology, Centre Rene-Huguenin, 35 rue Dailly, 92210 Saint Cloud (France); Tardivon, A. [Department of Radiology, Institut Curie, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 5 (France); Cherel, P. [Department of Radiology, Centre Rene-Huguenin, 35 rue Dailly, 92210 Saint Cloud (France); Vanel, D. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France)

    2005-04-01

    Breast tissue is heterogeneous, associating connective and glandular structures, which grow and change cyclically under hormonal regulation. Hormones are also thought to be the main determinant of the major benign and malignant pathologies encountered in the breast. Benign lesions are more frequent and fibrocystic changes are by far the most common among them. They usually associate different entities (adenosis, fibrosis, cysts and hyperplasia) but vary in intensity and extension. Thus, their clinical and radiographic presentation is extremely different from one patient to another. Adenofibroma is the most frequent tumour. It also undergoes modifications according to hormonal conditions. About 90% of malignant tumours are primary carcinoma. The incidence of intra-ductal carcinoma has risen dramatically since the development of screening because of its ability to induce calcification. Two mechanisms could be involved in the formation of calcification: one active (tumour cell secretion of vesicles), the other passive (necrotic cell fragments are released). Invasive carcinoma comprises numerous histological types. Stromal reactions essentially determines their shape: a fibrous reaction commonly found in ductal carcinoma creates a stellate lesion while other stroma, inflammatory (medullary carcinoma), vascular (papillary carcinoma) or mucinous determine nodular lesions whose borders push the surrounding tissue. The histological features which give rise to the radiographic pattern will be emphasised.

  7. μCT of ex-vivo stained mouse hearts and embryos enables a precise match between 3D virtual histology, classical histology and immunochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Emanuel; Martin, Sabine; Lazzarini, Marcio; Tromba, Giuliana; Missbach-Guentner, Jeannine; Pinkert-Leetsch, Diana; Katschinski, Dörthe M.; Alves, Frauke

    2017-01-01

    The small size of the adult and developing mouse heart poses a great challenge for imaging in preclinical research. The aim of the study was to establish a phosphotungstic acid (PTA) ex-vivo staining approach that efficiently enhances the x-ray attenuation of soft-tissue to allow high resolution 3D visualization of mouse hearts by synchrotron radiation based μCT (SRμCT) and classical μCT. We demonstrate that SRμCT of PTA stained mouse hearts ex-vivo allows imaging of the cardiac atrium, ventricles, myocardium especially its fibre structure and vessel walls in great detail and furthermore enables the depiction of growth and anatomical changes during distinct developmental stages of hearts in mouse embryos. Our x-ray based virtual histology approach is not limited to SRμCT as it does not require monochromatic and/or coherent x-ray sources and even more importantly can be combined with conventional histological procedures. Furthermore, it permits volumetric measurements as we show for the assessment of the plaque volumes in the aortic valve region of mice from an ApoE-/- mouse model. Subsequent, Masson-Goldner trichrome staining of paraffin sections of PTA stained samples revealed intact collagen and muscle fibres and positive staining of CD31 on endothelial cells by immunohistochemistry illustrates that our approach does not prevent immunochemistry analysis. The feasibility to scan hearts already embedded in paraffin ensured a 100% correlation between virtual cut sections of the CT data sets and histological heart sections of the same sample and may allow in future guiding the cutting process to specific regions of interest. In summary, since our CT based virtual histology approach is a powerful tool for the 3D depiction of morphological alterations in hearts and embryos in high resolution and can be combined with classical histological analysis it may be used in preclinical research to unravel structural alterations of various heart diseases. PMID:28178293

  8. Incidence and predictors of 30-day readmission for patients discharged home after craniotomy for malignant supratentorial tumors in California (1995-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Logan P; McCutcheon, Brandon A; Noorbakhsh, Abraham; Parina, Ralitza P; Gonda, David D; Chen, Clark; Chang, David C; Carter, Bob S

    2014-05-01

    Hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge is a major contributor to the high cost of health care in the US and is also a major indicator of patient care quality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence, causes, and predictors of 30-day readmission following craniotomy for malignant supratentorial tumor resection. The longitudinal California Office of Statewide Health Planning & Development inpatient-discharge administrative database is a data set that consists of 100% of all inpatient hospitalizations within the state of California and allows each patient to be followed throughout multiple inpatient hospital stays, across multiple institutions, and over multiple years (from 1995 to 2010). This database was used to identify patients who underwent a craniotomy for resection of primary malignant brain tumors. Causes for unplanned 30-day readmission were identified by principle ICD-9 diagnosis code and multivariate analysis was used to determine the independent effect of various patient factors on 30-day readmissions. A total of 18,506 patients received a craniotomy for the treatment of primary malignant brain tumors within the state of California between 1995 and 2010. Four hundred ten patients (2.2%) died during the index surgical admission, 13,586 patients (73.4%) were discharged home, and 4510 patients (24.4%) were transferred to another facility. Among patients discharged home, 1790 patients (13.2%) were readmitted at least once within 30 days of discharge, with 27% of readmissions occurring at a different hospital than the initial surgical institution. The most common reasons for readmission were new onset seizure and convulsive disorder (20.9%), surgical infection of the CNS (14.5%), and new onset of a motor deficit (12.8%). Medi-Cal beneficiaries were at increased odds for readmission relative to privately insured patients (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.20-1.93). Patients with a history of prior myocardial infarction were at an increased risk of

  9. Are We Throwing Histology out with the Microscope? A Look at Histology from the Physician's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Rebecca L.

    2009-01-01

    A trend in medical schools across the United States is the refurbishing of histology laboratories with digital microscopy systems. Although such systems may reduce curricular time, they do not teach basic microscope skills, and students who learn solely with these systems may be less prepared for their practices or specialties, particularly in…

  10. Parapapillary atrophy: histological gamma zone and delta zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine histomorphometrically the parapapillary region in human eyes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The histomorphometric study included 65 human globes (axial length:21-37 mm. On anterior-posterior histological sections, we measured the distance Bruch's membrane end (BME-optic nerve margin ("Gamma zone", BME-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE ("Beta zone", BME-beginning of non-occluded choriocapillaris, and BME-beginning of photoreceptor layer. "Delta zone" was defined as part of gamma zone in which blood vessels of at least 50 µm diameter were not present over a length of >300 µm. Beta zone (mean length:0.35±0.52 mm was significantly (P = 0.01 larger in the glaucoma group than in the non-glaucomatous group. It was not significantly (P = 0.28 associated with axial length. Beta zone was significantly (P = 0.004 larger than the region with occluded choriocapillaris. Gamma zone (mean length:0.63±1.25 mm was associated with axial length (P50 µm diameter within gamma zone was present only in highly axially elongated globes and was not related with glaucoma. Beta zone (Bruch's membrane without RPE was correlated with glaucoma but not with globe elongation. Since the region with occluded choriocapillaris was smaller than beta zone, complete loss of RPE may have occurred before complete choriocapillaris closure.

  11. Histological evaluations and inflammatory responses of different dental implant abutment materials: A human histology pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampatanukul, Teeratida; Serichetaphongse, Pravej; Pimkhaokham, Atiphan

    2018-04-01

    Improvements of soft tissue to the abutment surface results in more stable peri-implant conditions, however, few human histological studies have compared soft tissue responses around different abutment materials. To describe the peri-implant tissue around 3 abutment materials; titanium, zirconia, and gold alloy, over an 8-week healing period. Fifteen edentulous sites were treated with implants. Eight weeks later, peri-implant tissue was harvested and processed using a nonseparation resin embedded technique. The tissue attachment characteristics were assessed at clinical stages using the gingival index (GI) score, surgical stage (surgical score), and histological stage (histological attachment percentage). Additionally, the inflammatory responses were evaluated using inflammatory extent and inflammatory cellularity grades. Nonparametrical statistics were used to describe the GI and surgical scores, and analytical statistics were used to analyze the histological attachment percentages as well as the inflammatory extent and cellularity grades amongst the 3 groups. There were no statistically significant differences among the groups for GI score (P = .071) and surgical score (P = .262). Titanium and zirconia exhibited nearly similar mean histological attachment percentages while gold alloy had a significantly lower percentage (P = .004). For the inflammatory extent and cellularity grades, the odds of being one grade higher for gold alloy abutment was 5.18 and 17.8 times that of titanium abutment, respectively. However, for the zirconia abutment, the odds were 0.87 and 7.5 times higher than the titanium group. The tissue around the gold alloy abutments resulted in worse attachment conditions compared with the titanium and zirconia abutments. Inflammation tended to be higher in the tissue around the gold alloy abutments than the titanium and zirconia abutments. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Histologic Mimics of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanoszek, Lauren M; Wang, Grace Y; Harms, Paul W

    2017-11-01

    - Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignant neoplasm and is a frequently encountered diagnosis in dermatopathology. Although BCC may be locally destructive, it rarely metastasizes. Many diagnostic entities display morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with BCC, including nonneoplastic processes, such as follicular induction over dermatofibroma; benign follicular tumors, such as trichoblastoma, trichoepithelioma, or basaloid follicular hamartoma; and malignant tumors, such as sebaceous carcinoma or Merkel cell carcinoma. Thus, misdiagnosis has significant potential to result in overtreatment or undertreatment. - To review key features distinguishing BCC from histologic mimics, including current evidence regarding immunohistochemical markers useful for that distinction. - Review of pertinent literature on BCC immunohistochemistry and differential diagnosis. - In most cases, BCC can be reliably diagnosed by histopathologic features. Immunohistochemistry may provide useful ancillary data in certain cases. Awareness of potential mimics is critical to avoid misdiagnosis and resulting inappropriate management.

  13. [Clinical and histological findings in Fabry nephropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieruzzi, Federico; Salerno, Fabio; Di Giacomo, Antonella; Torti, Giacomo; Ferrario, Franco; Pagni, Fabio; Stella, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Fabry disease is a complex pathology, requiring a multidisciplinar approach both in the diagnostic workout and in the management of therapy. Clinical criteria able to predict its morbidity have not yet been found. The wide variability of clinical signs and symptoms requires an individual approach based on the single patient, in order to achieve an optimal management. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been introduced in the clinical setting for over ten years, but its ability to change the course of the disease has not yet been clearly proved. Recently the hypothesis that ERT may be ineffective in patients with severe organ involvement has emerged. The clinical course of Fabry disease is usually slower in eterozygous women than emizygous men, but can be frequently associated to severe organ failure and premature death in both cases. In this review we discuss the histological aspects of Fabry nephropathy in relation to diagnosis, prognosis, therapy and its effectiveness.

  14. Management of Patients With Histologic Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Nishitha M

    2017-07-01

    The incidence of histological transformation is up to 30% over a period of 10 years. This risk persists even beyond the initial decade of diagnosis of an indent lymphoma. In this era of emerging novel therapies, one could hope for an improved survival. There are currently no randomized trials guiding therapy for transformed lymphoma. Treatment recommendations are based on observational studies or non-randomized single arm clinical trials. To that extent, although routinely recommended and performed at transplant centers, voluminous evidence to suggest the timing or type (autologous or allogeneic) of transplant is lacking. In this article, we discuss the clinical features, treatment approach and role of stem cell transplant in transformed lymphoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitative histological models suggest endothermy in plesiosaurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna V. Fleischle

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Plesiosaurs are marine reptiles that arose in the Late Triassic and survived to the Late Cretaceous. They have a unique and uniform bauplan and are known for their very long neck and hydrofoil-like flippers. Plesiosaurs are among the most successful vertebrate clades in Earth’s history. Based on bone mass decrease and cosmopolitan distribution, both of which affect lifestyle, indications of parental care, and oxygen isotope analyses, evidence for endothermy in plesiosaurs has accumulated. Recent bone histological investigations also provide evidence of fast growth and elevated metabolic rates. However, quantitative estimations of metabolic rates and bone growth rates in plesiosaurs have not been attempted before. Methods Phylogenetic eigenvector maps is a method for estimating trait values from a predictor variable while taking into account phylogenetic relationships. As predictor variable, this study employs vascular density, measured in bone histological sections of fossil eosauropterygians and extant comparative taxa. We quantified vascular density as primary osteon density, thus, the proportion of vascular area (including lamellar infillings of primary osteons to total bone area. Our response variables are bone growth rate (expressed as local bone apposition rate and resting metabolic rate (RMR. Results Our models reveal bone growth rates and RMRs for plesiosaurs that are in the range of birds, suggesting that plesiosaurs were endotherm. Even for basal eosauropterygians we estimate values in the range of mammals or higher. Discussion Our models are influenced by the availability of comparative data, which are lacking for large marine amniotes, potentially skewing our results. However, our statistically robust inference of fast growth and fast metabolism is in accordance with other evidence for plesiosaurian endothermy. Endothermy may explain the success of plesiosaurs consisting in their survival of the end-Triassic extinction

  16. HISTOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE QUILTY EFFECT

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    I. M. Iljinsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Identifi cation of possible histological differences of the Quilty effect in acute rejection and its absence as well as studying the proliferation of blood and lymph vessels in the area of Quilty damage.Materials and methods. 883 endomyocardial biopsy materials from 352 patients were studied. Histological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson method; the endothelium of lymphatic vessels was stained with immunoperoxidase method using a marker D2-40.Results. The Quilty effect was observed both in acute rejection and inits absence. In the majority of cases the Quilty effect was of type «A» and it was combined with acute rejection. The Quilty effect of type «B» has been mostly in the G2R. Acute rejection is characterized by diffuse form of endocardium lymphoid infi ltration. Follicular form resembles lymphoid organ tissue. Different types and forms of the Quilty effect may be combined in the same biopsy. Proliferation of blood vessels presents in the area of the Quilty effect. Lymphatic vessels are missing in endocardium and in the area of the Quilty effect. They could be found only in the myocardium of endomiocardial biopsy.Conclusion. Diffuse lymphoid infi ltration of the endocardium is a characteristic feature of acute rejection of the transplanted heart. Follicular form of the Quilty effect is similar to lymphoid tissue whose role requires further study using immunohistochemical methods.

  17. [Ovarian cancer. II. Procedures, histology, and complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpakowski, M; Nowak, M; Malinowski, A; Romanowicz, H; Wieczorek, A; Szpakowski, A; Raczkowska, Z; Władziński, J; Wilczyński, J R; Kamiński, T; Maciołek-Blewniewska, G

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to analyse the operative procedures and complications in patients operated for the first time for ovarian cancer. A retrospective review of patients' charts with ovarian cancer operated at the Department of Gynaecological Surgery of Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital-Research Institute in 1990-1999 was conducted. We analysed the data of women operated for the first time for this disease. In every case we tried to perform radical operation consisted of hysterectomy with bilateral adnexectomy, omentectomy, appendectomy (if needed), and additionally optimal debulking in advanced cancer. Between January 1990 and December 1999, 107 patients were operated for the first time for ovarian cancer. FIGO staging was as follows: I--13.1%, II--14.95%, III--59.8%, IV--12.15%. The most frequent findings on histology were serous (39.3%), endometrioid (26.2%), undifferentiated (11.2%) and clear cell cancers (10.7%). In 60.7% of cases we performed hysterectomy with bilateral adnexectomy, in 15.0% bilateral adnexectomy, in 4.7% of patients cytoreductive tumorectomy, and in 19.6% of cases only excisions for histology were taken. 69.0% of patients underwent also omentectomy and 42.6% appendectomy. In 58.9% of patients we performed radical operation; its incidence significantly decreased with the increase of FIGO staging: I--100%, II--87.5%, III--51.6%, IV--15.4% (p serous and endometrioid ovarian cancer. The great majority of patients was diagnosed to late and operated in III and IV stage of the disease, but in almost 60% of cases radical operation was performed.

  18. Histology of the distal dural ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffeo, Christopher S; Perry, Avital; Copeland, William R; Raghunathan, Aditya; Link, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    The distal dural ring (DDR) is a conserved intracranial anatomic structure marking the boundary point at which the internal carotid artery (ICA) exits the cavernous sinus (CS) and enters the subarachnoid space. Although the CS has been well described in a range of anatomic studies, to our knowledge no prior study has analyzed the histologic relationship between the ICA and DDR. Correspondingly, our objective was to assess the relationship of the DDR to the ICA and determine whether the DDR can be dissected from the ICA and thus divided, or can only be circumferentially trimmed around the artery. The authors examined ten fresh-frozen, adult cadaveric specimens. A standard frontotemporal craniotomy, orbito-optic osteotomy, and extradural anterior clinoidectomy was performed bilaterally. The cavernous ICA, DDR, and supraclinoid ICA were harvested as an en bloc specimen. Specimens formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded prior to routine histochemical staining with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson trichrome. In all specimens, marked microscopic investment of the DDR throughout the ICA adventitia was noted. Dural collagen fibers extensively permeated the arterial layers superficial to the muscularis propria, with no evidence of a clear separation between the DDR and arterial adventitia. Histologic analysis suggests that the ICA and DDR are highly interrelated, continuous structures, and therefore attempted intraoperative dissection between these structures may carry an elevated risk of injury to the ICA. We correspondingly recommend careful circumferential trimming of the DDR in lieu of direct dissection in cases requiring mobilization of the clinoidal ICA. Clin. Anat. 30:742-746, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Anatomy and Histology of the Knee Anterolateral Ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helito, Camilo Partezani; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Bonadio, Marcelo Batista; Tírico, Luis Eduardo Passarelli; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Pécora, José Ricardo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2013-12-01

    Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common procedures in orthopaedic surgery. However, even with advances in surgical techniques and implants, some patients still have residual anterolateral rotatory laxity after reconstruction. A thorough study of the anatomy of the anterolateral region of the knee is needed. To study the anterolateral region and determine the measurements and points of attachments of the anterolateral ligament (ALL). Descriptive laboratory study. Dissections of the anterolateral structures of the knee were performed in 20 human cadavers. After isolating the ALL, its length, thickness, width, and points of attachments were determined. The femoral attachment of the ALL was based on the anterior-posterior and proximal-distal distances from the attachment of the lateral collateral ligament (LCL). The tibial attachment point was based on the distance from the Gerdy tubercle to the fibular head and the distance from the lateral tibial plateau. The ligaments from the first 10 dissections were sent for histological analysis. The ALL was found in all 20 knees. The femoral attachment of the ALL at the lateral epicondyle averaged 3.5 mm distal and 2.2 mm anterior to the attachment of the LCL. Two distal attachments were observed: one inserts into the lateral meniscus, the other between the Gerdy tubercle and the fibular head, approximately 4.4 mm distal to the tibial articular cartilage. The mean measurements for the ligament were 37.3 mm (length), 7.4 mm (width), and 2.7 mm (thickness). The histological analysis of the ligaments revealed dense connective tissue. The ALL is consistently present in the anterolateral region of the knee. Its attachment to the femur is anterior and distal to the attachment of the LCL. Moving distally, it bifurcates at close to half of its length. The ALL features 2 distal attachments, one at the lateral meniscus and the other between the Gerdy tubercle and the fibular head. The ALL may be

  20. Histological spectrum of angiofibroma of soft tissue: histological and genetic analysis of 13 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Kohashi, Kenichi; Ishii, Takeaki; Iura, Kunio; Maekawa, Akira; Bekki, Hirofumi; Otsuka, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Kyoko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Hiraki, Tsubasa; Mukai, Munenori; Shirakawa, Atsuko; Shinnou, Yoko; Jinno, Mari; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Taguchi, Kenichi; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Oda, Yosinao

    2016-09-01

    Angiofibroma of soft tissue (AFST) is a rare soft tissue neoplasm characterized by a fibroblastic cytomorphology and a prominent vascular structure. AFSTs possess a novel fusion gene, i.e. NCOA2-AHRR/AHRR-NCOA2 or GTF2I-NCOA2, providing a useful approach to diagnosing AFST. Morphologically, AFSTs span a wide spectrum, making diagnosis a challenge. The aim of this study was to review AFST cases and to report previously unknown histological features, which we confirmed by genetic analysis. We reviewed 276 cases diagnosed as solitary fibrous tumours/haemangiopericytomas (232 cases), unclassified tumours of fibroblastic differentiation (36 cases), and recently diagnosed AFSTs (eight cases), and retrieved 13 cases compatible with AFST. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for these cases, all 13 of which were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in-situ hybridization. The histological findings were as follows: amianthoid fibres, extravasation of red blood cells, haemosiderin deposition, aggregates of foamy histiocytes, cystic change, necrosis, and haemorrhage. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells were positive for epithelial membrane antigen (four of 13 cases), desmin (six of 13 cases), CD163 (13 of 13 cases), CD68 (seven of 13 cases), oestrogen receptor (13 of 13 cases), progesterone receptor (three of 13 cases), and STAT6 (one of 13 cases, weak nuclear staining), but they were negative for CD34, α-smooth muscle actin, muscle-specific actin, S100, pan-cytokeratin, MDM2, and CDK4. The AHRR-NCOA2 fusion gene was detected in eight cases, and NCOA2 gene rearrangement in nine cases. We revealed the previously unreported histological variation and immunohistochemical findings of AFST, and confirmed them by using genetic methods. The results suggested that AFST should be considered in the diagnosis of fibrous or fibrohistiocytic tumours with the above histological features. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. HISTOLOGY ATLAS FOR STUDENTS MADE BY STUDENTS: OUR CHALLENGING EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Salagean; Andreas Zoric; Erik Jan Dijkstra

    2017-01-01

    Do you remember your first histology lesson? If so, what were your first thoughts and impressions? Exactly one year ago we were struggling with the exact same problematic. Looking through the objective lens of a microscope can be very challenging in the beginning. After putting enormous effort and time into understanding basic histology, the idea arose to create something that makes histology not necessarily easier itself, but easier to understand. Fortunately our idea...

  2. A study of gross morphological and histological syringeal features of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of gross morphological and histological syringeal features of true francolins (Galliformes: Francolinus, Scleroptila, Peliperdix and Dendroperdix spp.) and spurfowls ( Pternistis spp.) in a phylogenetic context.

  3. A histological ontology of the human cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazo, Claudia; Salazar, Liliana; Corcho, Oscar; Trujillo, Maria; Alegre, Enrique

    2017-10-02

    In this paper, we describe a histological ontology of the human cardiovascular system developed in collaboration among histology experts and computer scientists. The histological ontology is developed following an existing methodology using Conceptual Models (CMs) and validated using OOPS!, expert evaluation with CMs, and how accurately the ontology can answer the Competency Questions (CQ). It is publicly available at http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/HO and https://w3id.org/def/System . The histological ontology is developed to support complex tasks, such as supporting teaching activities, medical practices, and bio-medical research or having natural language interactions.

  4. In Vivo Mouse Intervertebral Disc Degeneration Model Based on a New Histological Classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ohnishi

    Full Text Available Although human intervertebral disc degeneration can lead to several spinal diseases, its pathogenesis remains unclear. This study aimed to create a new histological classification applicable to an in vivo mouse intervertebral disc degeneration model induced by needle puncture. One hundred six mice were operated and the L4/5 intervertebral disc was punctured with a 35- or 33-gauge needle. Micro-computed tomography scanning was performed, and the punctured region was confirmed. Evaluation was performed by using magnetic resonance imaging and histology by employing our classification scoring system. Our histological classification scores correlated well with the findings of magnetic resonance imaging and could detect degenerative progression, irrespective of the punctured region. However, the magnetic resonance imaging analysis revealed that there was no significant degenerative intervertebral disc change between the ventrally punctured and non-punctured control groups. To induce significant degeneration in the lumbar intervertebral discs, the central or dorsal region should be punctured instead of the ventral region.

  5. Immunohistochemical expression of p53 proteins in Wilms' tumour: a possible association with the histological prognostic parameter of anaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, P L; Looi, L M; Chan, L L

    1996-01-01

    Wilms' tumour (nephroblastoma) has been associated with chromosomal abnormalities at the 11p13, 11p15 and 16q regions. A study into the possibility of mutations occurring within p53, the ubiquitous adult tumour suppressor gene, in Wilms' tumour was carried out. Thirty-eight cases were studied. Of these 36 were categorised into the favourable histology group and two into the unfavourable histology group based on the National Wilms' Tumour Study criteria. Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from each case were stained with a polyclonal (AB565:Chemicon) and a monoclonal (DO7:Dako) antibody raised against p53 protein using a peroxidase-labelled streptavidin biotin kit (Dako). 'Cure' (disease-free survival of 60 months or longer) was documented in 39% of cases with favourable histology tumours. Eleven percent in this group succumbed to the disease. Both cases with unfavourable histology died. Four out of 36 (11%) tumours with favourable histology demonstrated weak to moderate staining with both AB565 and DO7 in more than 75% of tumour cells. In contrast, p53 protein expression in unfavourable histology tumours was significantly increased compared with the favourable histology group (P = 0.021) with both cases demonstrating immunopositivity in > 75% of tumour cells when stained with AB565 and DO7. The intensity of staining ranged from moderate to strong in both cases. It appears from this preliminary study that the immunohistochemical expression of p53 protein in Wilms' tumour, presumably a result of mutation in the p53 tumour suppressor gene, correlates with histological classification, histological categorisation being one of the useful features in the prognostic assessment of Wilms' tumours.

  6. Large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping registration of reconstructed 3D histological section images and in vivo MR images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Ceritoglu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of neuroanatomical abnormalities in neuropsychiatric diseases is based largely on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and post mortem histological analyses of the brain. Further advances in elucidating altered brain structure in these human conditions might emerge from combining MRI and histological methods. We propose a multistage method for registering 3D volumes reconstructed from histological sections to corresponding in vivo MRI volumes from the same subjects: (1 manual segmentation of white matter (WM, gray matter (GM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF compartments in histological sections, (2 alignment of consecutive histological sections using 2D rigid transformation to construct a 3D histological image volume from the aligned sections, (3 registration of reconstructed 3D histological volumes to the corresponding 3D MRI volumes using 3D affine transformation, (4 intensity normalization of images via histogram matching and (5 registration of the volumes via intensity based Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric (LDDMM image matching algorithm. Here we demonstrate the utility of our method in the transfer of cytoarchitectonic information from histological sections to identify regions of interest in MRI scans of nine adult macaque brains for morphometric analyses. LDDMM improved the accuracy of the registration via decreased distances between GM/CSF surfaces after LDDMM (0.39±0.13 mm compared to distances after affine registration (0.76±0.41 mm. Similarly, WM/GM distances decreased to 0.28±0.16 mm after LDDMM compared to 0.54±0.39 mm after affine registration. The multistage registration method may find broad application for mapping histologically based information, e.g., receptor distributions, gene expression, onto MRI volumes.

  7. Are Histologic Studies of Adenotonsillectomy Really Necessary?

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    Rebechi, Giseli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In most ear, nose, and throat services, it is routine to send the material extracted from tonsillectomy for histologic study to research malignancy, to analyze suspect material, or to provide medical-legal documentation. Recent studies have shown that this routine analysis is dispensable. Objective: To evaluate the actual need and perform a cost–benefit analysis of routine histopathologic examination in tonsillectomy with no signs or symptoms of malignancy. Methods: A retrospective observational study evaluated the charts of patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy, tonsillectomy, or adenoidectomy from January 2008 to September 2009 at the Institute of Otorhinolaryngology CEMA-SP. Costs of this test for the public health system were analyzed and the literature reviewed. Results: We studied 281 patients between 2 and 22 years of age; 142 (50.5% were male and 139 (49.5% were female. Of the surgeries, 201 were adenotonsillectomies (71.5%, 41 were tonsillectomies (14.5%, and 39 were adenoidectomies (14%. The most common indication for surgery was recurrent infection (63.3%. None of study patients had clinical suspicion of malignancy. The tests showed a cost of R$20.03 per tonsil analyzed. Conclusion: Routine histopathologic examination in patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy with no signs or symptoms of malignancy is dispensable and increases the cost of the surgeries.

  8. Scala tympani cochleostomy II: topography and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adunka, Oliver F; Radeloff, Andreas; Gstoettner, Wolfgang K; Pillsbury, Harold C; Buchman, Craig A

    2007-12-01

    To assess intracochlear trauma using two different round window-related cochleostomy techniques in human temporal bones. Twenty-eight human temporal bones were included in this study. In 21 specimens, cochleostomies were initiated inferior to the round window (RW) annulus. In seven bones, cochleostomies were drilled anterior-inferior to the RW annulus. Limited cochlear implant electrode insertions were performed in 19 bones. In each specimen, promontory anatomy and cochleostomy drilling were photographically documented. Basal cochlear damage was assessed histologically and electrode insertion properties were documented in implanted bones. All implanted specimens showed clear scala tympani electrode placements regardless of cochleostomy technique. All 21 inferior cochleostomies were atraumatic. Anterior-inferior cochleostomies resulted in various degrees of intracochlear trauma in all seven bones. For atraumatic opening of the scala tympani using a cochleostomy approach, initiation of drilling should proceed from inferior to the round window annulus, with gradual progression toward the undersurface of the lumen. While cochleostomies initiated anterior-inferior to the round window annulus resulted in scala tympani opening, many of these bones displayed varying degrees of intracochlear trauma that may result in hearing loss. When intracochlear drilling is avoided, the anterior bony margin of the cochleostomy remains a significant intracochlear impediment to in-line electrode insertion.

  9. Histological study of white rhinoceros integument.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey H Plochocki

    Full Text Available In this study, we report findings from a microscopic analysis of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum integumentary ultrastructure. Skin samples from the cheek, shoulder, flank and rump were taken from a 46-year-old female southern white rhinoceros and examined using H&E and elastic histological stains. The epidermis was thickest in the flank (1.003 mm followed by the rump, cheek and shoulder. The stratum corneum comprised more than half the epidermal thickness. Numerous melanin granules were found in the basal and spinosum layers. The epidermal-dermal junction was characterized by abundant papillary folds increasing surface contact between integument layers. Most of the dermal thickness consisted of organized collagen bundles with scattered elastic fibers. Collagen fiber bundles were thickest in the flank (210.9 μm followed by shoulder, rump and cheek. Simple coiled sweat glands were present in the dermis, but hair and sebaceous glands were absent. Together, these data suggest the white rhinoceros has a unique integumentary system among large terrestrial herbivores.

  10. Histological study of white rhinoceros integument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plochocki, Jeffrey H; Ruiz, Saul; Rodriguez-Sosa, José R; Hall, Margaret I

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report findings from a microscopic analysis of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) integumentary ultrastructure. Skin samples from the cheek, shoulder, flank and rump were taken from a 46-year-old female southern white rhinoceros and examined using H&E and elastic histological stains. The epidermis was thickest in the flank (1.003 mm) followed by the rump, cheek and shoulder. The stratum corneum comprised more than half the epidermal thickness. Numerous melanin granules were found in the basal and spinosum layers. The epidermal-dermal junction was characterized by abundant papillary folds increasing surface contact between integument layers. Most of the dermal thickness consisted of organized collagen bundles with scattered elastic fibers. Collagen fiber bundles were thickest in the flank (210.9 μm) followed by shoulder, rump and cheek. Simple coiled sweat glands were present in the dermis, but hair and sebaceous glands were absent. Together, these data suggest the white rhinoceros has a unique integumentary system among large terrestrial herbivores.

  11. Liposarcoma : MR findings in the histologic subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Hoon; Sohn, Jeong Eun; Chung, Soo Jeong; Kim, Kie Hwan; Chin, Soo Yil

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of liposarcomas of different histologic subtypes. We evaluated MR images of 21 patients (5 men and 16 women, mean age, 55 years) with liposarcoma and correlated the findings with the results of histopathology. In the study group seven liposarcomas were well-differentiated, seven were myxoid, three were mixed, two were pleomorphic, and one was round cell. On T1-and T2-weighted images, six of seven well-differentiated liposarcomas showed signal intensity equal to the fat and hypointense septa, while the other showed low signal intensity on a T1-weighted image, heterogeneous high signal intensity on a T2-weighted image, heterogeneous enhancement after the administration of contrast media and was dedifferentiate. Nine masses in seven patients with myxoid liposarcoma showed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, six of the nine showed lace-like foci of high signal intensity. On T2-weighted images, all masses showed homogeneous high signal intensity. After administration of contrast media, five of seven masses showed heterogeneous enhancement. Two of three mixed form were well-differentiated and myxoid types, and two subtypes were separable on MR. Pleomorphic, round cell, mixed type myxoid and pleomorphic and unclassified cases showed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, heterogeneous high signal intensity on T2-weighted and heterogeneous enhancement. Using MR imaging, well-differentiated and myxoid liposcarcomas may be differentiated from other types

  12. Anatomy and Histology of an Epicanthal Fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Woo; Hwang, Kun

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to elucidate the precise anatomical and histological detail of the epicanthal fold.Thirty-two hemifaces of 16 Korean adult cadavers were used in this study (30 hemifaces with an epicanthal fold, 2 without an epicanthal fold). In 2 patients who had an epicanthoplasty, the epicanthal folds were sampled.In a dissection, the periorbital skin and subcutaneous tissues were removed and the epicanthal fold was observed in relation to each part of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Specimens including the epicanthal fold were embeddedin in paraffin, sectioned at 10 um, and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin. The horizontal section in the level of the paplebral fissure was made and the prepared slides were observed under a light microscope.In the specimens without an epicanthal fold, no connection between the upper preseptal muscle and the lower preseptal muscle was found. In the specimens with an epicanthal fold, a connection of the upper preseptal muscle to the lower preseptal muscle was observed. It was present in all 15 hemifaces (100%). There was no connection between the pretarsal muscles. In a horizontal section, the epicanthal fold was composed of 3 compartments: an outer skin lining, a core structure, and an innerskin lining. The core structure was mainly composed of muscular fibers and fibrotic tissue and they were intermingled.Surgeons should be aware of the anatomical details of an epicanthal fold. In removing or reconstructing an epicanthal fold, the fibromuscular core band should also be removed or reconstructed.

  13. Morphometric and Histological Study of Osteophytes in Human Cadaveric Lumbar Vertebrae

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwini Aithal Padur; Naveen Kumar; Swamy Ravindra Shanthakumar; Arijit Bishnu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Osteophytes are bony outgrowth on the vertebral column. Its prevalence in the lumbar region and clinical importance mandates to conduct a detailed study of lumbar osteophytes in the cadaveric vertebral column. Aim: The present study was conducted to study the detailed features of lumbar osteophytes and document its prevalence, morphometric and histological structure. Materials and Methods: This was an observational study in which frequency of occurrence of lumbar osteophyt...

  14. Evaluation of histologically confirmed carcinoma of the cervix in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collected was analysed with SPSS version 20.0 software and presented in tables and charts. Results: Sixty two patients with histological confirmation of ... The commonest histological type of cervical cancer was squamous cell carcinoma accounting for 88.9%. Twenty (44.4%) patients were referred for radiotherapy and ...

  15. Evaluation and reliability of bone histological age estimation methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human age estimation at death plays a vital role in forensic anthropology and bioarchaeology. Researchers used morphological and histological methods to estimate human age from their skeletal remains. This paper discussed different histological methods that used human long bones and ribs to determine age ...

  16. Histological changes in the pancreas following administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment lasted for 28 days. The animals were anaesthetized using chloroform inhalation and the peritoneum stripped open and the pancreas removed and prepared for histological observation using haematoxylin and eosin staining technique. Histology showed regenerative changes of pancreatic islet cell at a dose ...

  17. Multi-modal image registration: matching MRI with histology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alić, L.; Haeck, J.C.; Klein, S.; Bol, K.; Tiel, S.T. van; Wielopolski, P.A.; Bijster, M.; Niessen, W.J.; Bernsen, M.; Veenland, J.F.; Jong, M. de

    2010-01-01

    Spatial correspondence between histology and multi sequence MRI can provide information about the capabilities of non-invasive imaging to characterize cancerous tissue. However, shrinkage and deformation occurring during the excision of the tumor and the histological processing complicate the co

  18. Early magnetic resonance imaging and histologic findings in a model of avascular necrosis of femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Takuya [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-12-01

    The present study was performed to examine early MR images and histologic findings using a canine model of avascular necrosis of femoral head (ANFH). The ANFH model was surgically induced. At three days, 1, 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, the proximal femurs were excised. MR images were obtained in 4 dogs at 3 days and 7 dogs at each of the other intervals. Histologic examinations were performed on 7 dogs at each interval. Three days after surgery, MR showed almost no abnormal findings. Histologic changes included edematous bone marrow and bleeding in the bone marrow in some regions. One week after surgery, empty lacunae in trabecular bones and immature fibrous tissues in the bone marrow were seen in some cases, but appositional bone was not yet apparent. In only one case, abnormal MR findings -a ringlike pattern- were seen. Two weeks after surgery, 4 cases showed appositional bones on histology and abnormalities on MR images. Four weeks after surgery, fibrous tissues had matured and appositional bones had increased. Therefore, all 7 cases showed MR imaging abnormalities. Abnormal MR images included a ringlike pattern, and homogeneous and inhomogeneous patterns. These results indicated that MR imaging shows abnormality 2 weeks after surgery at the latest. (author)

  19. Ameloblastomatous calcifying odontogenic cyst: A rare histologic variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj N Kallalli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastoma is a well-known odontogenic tumor that can be associated with calcifying odontogenic cysts (COCs, but only a few reports give its clinical and radiographic features. Calcifying odontogenic cyst was first categorized as a distinct entity by Gorlin et al., and has been named after him since then. Calcifying odontogenic cyst is an uncommon developmental odontogenic lesion that demonstrates histopathologic diversity. It is well known that this lesion can occur in association with odontogenic tumors such as complex odontoma and ameloblastoma. The term COC was not included by the World Health Organization (WHO in its report of 2005 and is called calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT. Histopathologic examination of ameloblastomatous CCOT reveals ameloblastic islands containing ghost cells. Although association of ameloblastoma with this lesion is important, only a few cases have been reported in literature. The present case report is of ameloblastomatous calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor, a rare histologic variant, in a 20-year-old male patient in the left mandibular posterior region.

  20. Experimental and histological studies on appearance mechanism of ring enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasugi, Shinsuke; Kageyama, Takefumi; Yamashita, Shigeru; Kusaka, Kazumasa; Ueda, Shin

    1980-01-01

    Intracerebral hematoma was experimentally induced in 26 adult dogs of mixed breed by injecting autologous venous blood into the internal capsule of dogs. CT images and histological findings of these dogs with intracerebral hematoma were compared with time, and causes of changes in contrast enhancement (CE) CT images and CE positive images were discussed pathologically. It was thought that CE-CT positive images of intracerebral hematoma did not show special phenomena which occurred variously according to causes of hematoma, but general phenomena observed in the process of recovery of general intracerebral hematoma. Ring enhancement appeared mostly about 9 days after hematoma formation. There was a close relationship between appearance of ring enhancement and new vascularization which appeared in the process of recovery of hematoma. It was also thought that blood-brain barrier (B.B.B.) such as normal cerebral capillary vessels did not exist because new vascularization had the fine structure similar to muscle type capillary vessels. Ring enhancement might be seen probably because of the accumulation of contrast medium in regions where new vascularization without B.B.B. appeared. (Tsunoda, M.)

  1. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  2. Smooth Muscle Hyperplasia/Hypertrophy is the Most Prominent Histological Change in Crohn's Fibrostenosing Bowel Strictures: A Semiquantitative Analysis by Using a Novel Histological Grading Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenqian; Lu, Cathy; Hirota, Christina; Iacucci, Marietta; Ghosh, Subrata; Gui, Xianyong

    2017-01-01

    The simplistically and ambiguously termed 'fibrostenosis' of bowel is a hallmark of severe Crohn's disease [CD] and a major contributor to medical treatment failure. Non-invasive imaging assessment and novel medical therapy targeting this condition are under investigation, which particularly requires a better understanding of the underlying histological basis. We analysed 48 patients with stricturing Crohn's ileitis or/and colitis that required surgical resection. The most representative sections of the fibrostenotic, non-stenotic and uninvolved regions were reviewed for histological analysis. For each layer of bowel wall (mucosa including muscularis mucosae [MU], submucosa [SM], muscularis propria [MP], subserosal adventitia [SS]), histological abnormalities were evaluated individually, including active and chronic inflammation, fibrosis, smooth muscle hyperplasia or hypertrophy, neuronal hypertrophy and adipocyte proliferation. A novel semiquantitative histological grading scheme was created. The most significant histopathological features characterizing the stricturing intestines were smooth muscle hyperplasia of SM, hypertrophy of MP and chronic inflammation. The muscular alteration was predominant in all layers. The overall muscular hyperplasia/hypertrophy was positively correlated with chronic inflammation and negatively correlated with fibrosis, whereas SM muscular hyperplasia was also associated with MU active inflammation. Similar changes, to a lesser extent, occurred in the adjacent non-stenotic inflamed bowel as well. In CD-associated 'fibrostenosis', it is the smooth muscle hyperplasia/hypertrophy that contributes most to the stricturing phenotype, whereas fibrosis is less significant. The 'inflammation-smooth muscle hyperplasia axis' may be the most important in the pathogenesis of Crohn's strictures. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please

  3. Predictive value of histologic tumor necrosis after radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Taghian, A G; Rosenberg, A E; O'Connell, J; Okunieff, P; Suit, H D

    2001-12-20

    Postsurgical evaluation of histologic changes of tumors after preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy has been a routine clinical practice of pathologists and oncologists. There appears to be secure evidence that the extent of tumor necrosis vs. viable tumor cells postchemotherapy is a clinically useful predictor of outcome. The significance of histologic tumor necrosis after radiotherapy, however, has not been clearly established and deserves further investigation. We investigated the correlation between histological extent of tumor necrosis, survival of tumor transplants, and radiation doses in an experimental model using three human tumor xenografts. Three human tumor cell lines were investigated: STS-26, SCC-21, and HGL-21. Tumors were grown subcutaneously in athymic nude mice and received external beam radiation of different doses. Tumors were excised 2 weeks postirradiation. One-half of the tumor was divided into 1-mm(3) fragments and transplanted to naive mice. The other half was examined for histologic tumor necrosis. Transplant survival was strongly correlated with radiation dose, TCD(p) (radiation dose that results in local tumor control in proportion, p, to irradiated tumors). In contrast, there was no clear association between transplant survival rate and the extent of tumor necrosis. The experimental model demonstrated a strong inverse correlation between radiation doses and tumor transplant survival. Histologic tumor necrosis did not correlate well with radiation doses or transplant survival rates. Despite common practices in histologic examination of tumors posttherapy, clinical interpretations and implications of histologic tumor necrosis after radiotherapy should be considered with caution. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Are preoperative histology and MRI useful for classification of endometrial cancer risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body, Noemie; Lavoué, Vincent; De Kerdaniel, Olivier; Foucher, Fabrice; Henno, Sébastien; Cauchois, Aurélie; Laviolle, Bruno; Leblanc, Marc; Levêque, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 guidelines of the French National Cancer Institute (INCa) classify patients with endometrial cancer into three risk groups for lymph node invasion and recurrence on the basis of MRI and histological analysis of an endometrial specimen obtained preoperatively. The classification guides therapeutic choices, which may include pelvic and/or para-aortic lymphadenectomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of preoperative assessment to help identify intermediate- or high-risk patients requiring lymphadenectomy. The study included all patients who underwent surgery for endometrial cancer between January 2010 and December 2013 at either Rennes University Hospital or Vannes Regional Hospital. The criteria for eligibility included a preoperative assessment with MRI and histological examination of an endometrial sample. A histological comparison was made between the preoperative and surgical specimens. Among the 91 patients who underwent a full preoperative assessment, the diagnosis of intermediate- or high-risk endometrial cancer was established by MRI and histology with a sensitivity of 70 %, specificity of 82 %, positive predictive value (PPV) of 87 %, negative predictive value (NPV) of 61 %, positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 3.8 and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) of 0.3. The risk group was underestimated in 32 % of patients and overestimated in 7 % of patients. MRI underestimated endometrial cancer stage in 20 % of cases, while endometrial sampling underestimated the histological type in 4 % of cases and the grade in 9 % of cases. The preoperative assessment overestimated or underestimated the risk of recurrence in nearly 40 % of cases, with errors in lesion type, grade or stage. Erroneous preoperative risk assessment leads to suboptimal initial surgical management of patients with endometrial cancer

  5. Integrating histology and MRI in the first digital brain of common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peizhen; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G.; Gao, Yurui; Janve, Vaibhav; Anderson, Adam; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    This effort is a continuation of development of a digital brain atlas of the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, a New World monkey with functional and microstructural organization of central nervous system similar to that of humans. Here, we present the integration of histology with multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brain of an adult female squirrel monkey. The central concept of this work is to use block face photography to establish an intermediate common space in coordinate system which preserves the high resolution in-plane resolution of histology while enabling 3-D correspondence with MRI. In vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging (300 μm isotropic) and low resolution diffusion tensor imaging (600 um isotropic). Ex vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and high resolution diffusion tensor imaging (both 300 μm isotropic). Cortical regions were manually annotated on the co-registered volumes based on published histological sections in-plane. We describe mapping of histology and MRI based data of the common squirrel monkey and construction of a viewing tool that enable online viewing of these datasets. The previously descried atlas MRI is used for its deformation to provide accurate conformation to the MRI, thus adding information at the histological level to the MRI volume. This paper presents the mapping of single 2D image slice in block face as a proof of concept and this can be extended to map the atlas space in 3D coordinate system as part of the future work and can be loaded to an XNAT system for further use.

  6. Anatomy and Histology of the Human and Murine Prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittmann, Michael

    2018-05-01

    The human and murine prostate glands have similar functional roles in the generation of seminal fluid to assist in reproduction. There are significant differences in the anatomy and histology of murine and human prostate and knowledge of the normal anatomy and histology of the murine prostate is essential to interpreting changes in genetically engineered mouse models. In this review, the normal anatomy and histology of both human and mouse prostate will be described. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  7. The somatotopic localisation of the descending cortical tract in the cerebral peduncle: a study using MRI of changes following Wallerian degeneration in the cerebral peduncle after a supratentorial vascular lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waragai, M.; Watanabe, H.; Iwabuchi, S.

    1994-01-01

    We studied the effects of Wallerian degeneration in the cerebral peduncle shown by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following a supratentorial vascular lesion, to identify the somatotopic localisation of the descending cortical tracts. Patients with a lesion involving a large area of a cerebral hemisphere has an area of abnormal signal intensity in the whole cerebral peduncle, suggesting Wallerian degeneration of all the whole descending cortical tracts. With a small lesion confined to the precentral gyrus, corona radiata, or posterior limb of the internal capsule there was an abnormal signal at the centre of the peduncle, suggesting degeneration of the precentrospinal tract. Those with a small lesion confined to the paracentral gyrus had an abnormal area slightly lateral to the centre of the peduncle, suggesting degeneration of the parietospinal tract. Patients with a lesion of the parietal or temporal lobes, not including the paracentral or precentral gyri, corona radiata, or the posterior limb of the internal capsule, had an abnormal area laterally in the peduncle, suggesting degeneration of the parietopontine or temporopontine tract. (orig.)

  8. Preliminary study of brain glucose metabolism changes in patients with lung cancer of different histological types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Ling; Fu, Chang; Xuan, Ang; Shi, Da-Peng; Gao, Yong-Ju; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Jun-Ling

    2015-02-05

    Cerebral glucose metabolism changes are always observed in patients suffering from malignant tumors. This preliminary study aimed to investigate the brain glucose metabolism changes in patients with lung cancer of different histological types. One hundred and twenty patients with primary untreated lung cancer, who visited People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University from February 2012 to July 2013, were divided into three groups based on histological types confirmed by biopsy or surgical pathology, which included adenocarcinoma (52 cases), squamous cell carcinoma (43 cases), and small-cell carcinoma (25 cases). The whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) of these cases was retrospectively studied. The brain PET data of three groups were analyzed individually using statistical parametric maps (SPM) software, with 50 age-matched and gender-matched healthy controls for comparison. The brain resting glucose metabolism in all three lung cancer groups showed regional cerebral metabolic reduction. The hypo-metabolic cerebral regions were mainly distributed at the left superior and middle frontal, bilateral superior and middle temporal and inferior and middle temporal gyrus. Besides, the hypo-metabolic regions were also found in the right inferior parietal lobule and hippocampus in the small-cell carcinoma group. The area of the total hypo-metabolic cerebral regions in the small-cell carcinoma group (total voxel value 3255) was larger than those in the adenocarcinoma group (total voxel value 1217) and squamous cell carcinoma group (total voxel value 1292). The brain resting glucose metabolism in patients with lung cancer shows regional cerebral metabolic reduction and the brain hypo-metabolic changes are related to the histological types of lung cancer.

  9. Preliminary Study of Brain Glucose Metabolism Changes in Patients with Lung Cancer of Different Histological Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ling Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral glucose metabolism changes are always observed in patients suffering from malignant tumors. This preliminary study aimed to investigate the brain glucose metabolism changes in patients with lung cancer of different histological types. Methods: One hundred and twenty patients with primary untreated lung cancer, who visited People′s Hospital of Zhengzhou University from February 2012 to July 2013, were divided into three groups based on histological types confirmed by biopsy or surgical pathology, which included adenocarcinoma (52 cases, squamous cell carcinoma (43 cases, and small-cell carcinoma (25 cases. The whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET/computed tomography (CT of these cases was retrospectively studied. The brain PET data of three groups were analyzed individually using statistical parametric maps (SPM software, with 50 age-matched and gender-matched healthy controls for comparison. Results: The brain resting glucose metabolism in all three lung cancer groups showed regional cerebral metabolic reduction. The hypo-metabolic cerebral regions were mainly distributed at the left superior and middle frontal, bilateral superior and middle temporal and inferior and middle temporal gyrus. Besides, the hypo-metabolic regions were also found in the right inferior parietal lobule and hippocampus in the small-cell carcinoma group. The area of the total hypo-metabolic cerebral regions in the small-cell carcinoma group (total voxel value 3255 was larger than those in the adenocarcinoma group (total voxel value 1217 and squamous cell carcinoma group (total voxel value 1292. Conclusions: The brain resting glucose metabolism in patients with lung cancer shows regional cerebral metabolic reduction and the brain hypo-metabolic changes are related to the histological types of lung cancer.

  10. Serial study of the concentration of misonidazole in human tumors correlated with histologic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, T.A.; Dische, S.; Saunders, M.I.; Stratford, M.R.L.; Minchinton, A.

    1981-01-01

    Multiple biopsies were obtained from eight patients with malignant tumors during a course of fractionated radiotherapy. An analysis of the total 2-nitroimidazole concentration and a histological examination of the biopsy sample was done on material which appeared macroscopically similar. The parts of the tumor biopsies showing necrosis were found to contain much lower concentrations of nitroimidazole when compared with those found in the samples with well-vascularized and apparently viable tumor. During the course of irradiation changes in misonidazole concentrations were not found when similar histological material was examined. The low values of misonidazole in necrotic regions in human tumors may partly account for the wide variation of misonidazole concentrations reported in the literature (percent tumor/plasma, mean 62.9 +- 34.4 STD). The clinical significance of the microscopic distribution of misonidazole in tumors in unknown but further work in this area may aid in predicting the usefulness of future radiosensitizers

  11. Hidradenocarcinoma presenting as soft tissue mass: Case report with cytomorphologic description, histologic correlation, and differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnah, Alexander H; Emory, Cynthia L; Mai, Nicholas H; Bergman, Simon; Salih, Ziyan T

    2016-05-01

    Hidradenocarcinoma (HAC) is a rare adenexal tumor with a propensity for the head and neck region and extremities. We report a case of hidradenocarcinnoma in a 56-year-old woman with a mass on her right palm sampled by fine-needle aspiration and later confirmed on histological examination. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed a dual population of cells including polyhedral eosinophilic cells and glycogen containing cells with pale/clear cytoplasm. The nuclei were pleomorphic with prominent nucleoli. Occassional papillary structures were identified on the cell block material. A series of immunohistochemical stains were performed and an adnexal neoplasm was suggested. The mass was resected. On histologic sections, infiltration into the adjacent soft tissue was identified. After an additional series of immunohistochemical stains, the diagnosis was confirmed as a HAC. Herein, we present our findings and discuss the differential diagnoses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Histological and electron microscopic study of the postulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    protective effect of green tea against DEHP Liver toxicity in the mice on histological and ultra structural level. Results ... toys, shower curtains, adhesives, coatings [1]. We .... graded series of cold ethanol and propylene oxide then embedded in ...

  13. Biological, histological and ultra-structural studies of female mullet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-29

    Jul 29, 2015 ... INTRODUCTION. Mugilids are widely distributed ... were fixed in 10% formal saline solution until used for histological studies. The gonadosomatic .... cephalus (October and November), in general all the ovaries of ripe marine ...

  14. Biochemical and Histological effects of Aqueous extract of Cyperus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Biochemical and Histological effects of Triton Wr-1339 and Aqueous extract. 674. INNIH, SO; UBHENIN, AE; ... fatty liver, chronic hepatitis, and cirrhosis is not giving much ..... Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Southern Iran: A Population Based ...

  15. Pattern of histological types of breast cancer among various age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , there is need to define the epidemiological pattern of breast cancer patients in the Niger delta; assessing their age distribution and histological types towards improved health care planning. OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of ...

  16. Histologic and Immunohistochemical classification of 41 bovine adrenal gland neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Anette Blak; Leifsson, Páll S.; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2013-01-01

    . An immunohistochemistry panel consisting of antibodies against melan A, synaptophysin, and CNPase was considered most useful to classify bovine adrenal tumors. However, the distinction between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors was based on histologic features as in human medicine....

  17. The Histological Appearances Of The Adult Kidney In Hiv Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SITWALA COMPUTERS

    Luchengam@gmail.com. ABSTRACT. Background: Kidney disease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is very common. The cause of the various histological appearances include HIV infection of the kidney, immunologic responses to the.

  18. Garlic Consumption Alters Testicular Histology and Anti-Oxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dependent fashion. These histological observations and the depletion in endogenous anti-oxidant status associated with the administration of garlic could result in significant affectation of male reproductive functions. Keywords: garlic, superoxide ...

  19. OOGENESIS AND OVARIAN HISTOLOGY OF THE AMERICAN ALLIGATOR ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although folliculogenesis and oogenesis have been observed in numerous reptiles, these phenomena have not been described in detail in a crocodilian. Oogenesis and histological features of the adult ovary of Alligator mississippiensis are described. Using a complex process, the ov...

  20. Subperiosteal preparation using a new piezoelectric device: a histological examination

    OpenAIRE

    Stoetzer, Marcus; Magel, Anja; Kampmann, Andreas; Lemound, Juliana; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; von See, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Subperiosteal preparation using a periosteal elevator leads to disturbances of local immunohistochemistry and periosteal histology due to a microtrauma. Usually soft-tissue damage can be considerably reduced by using piezoelectric technology. For this reason, the effects of a novel piezoelectric device on immunohistochemistry and periosteal histology were examined and compared to conventional preparation of the periosteum using a periosteal elevator.Material and methods: Lewis...

  1. Malignant pleural mesothelioma: Computed tomography and correlation with histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, Jean M. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa Hospital, 1053 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y 4E9 (Canada)], E-mail: jeseely@ottawahospital.on.ca; Nguyen, Elsie T., E-mail: nguyen_elsie@hotmail.com; Churg, Andrew M. [University of British Columbia, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1W5 (Canada)], E-mail: achurg@interchange.ubc.ca; Mueller, Nestor L. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre, 855 West 12th Avenue, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9 (Canada)], E-mail: nmuller@vanhosp.bc.ca

    2009-06-15

    Objective: To review the computed tomography (CT) imaging findings of pleural mesothelioma at presentation and to correlate the CT with the histological subtype. Materials and methods: Pathology reports from 1997 to 2006 were reviewed at two academic institutions to identify patients with proven pleural mesothelioma. Diagnosis was based on histologic findings in specimens obtained by transthoracic needle biopsy, surgical biopsy or resection. All histology slides were reviewed by a lung pathologist. CT scans, available in 92 patients, were reviewed blindly and in random order by two independent radiologists. Kappa analysis was completed to assess inter-observer agreement. Eighty patients in whom there was no significant delay between CT imaging and histological diagnosis were assessed by logistic regression analysis to correlate CT and histologic findings. Results: Seventy-two of the 92 mesotheliomas were epithelial, 15 sarcomatous, and 5 of mixed histology. All patients (77 male, 15 female, mean age 68 years) had pleural thickening on CT; the thickening was nodular in 79 patients (86%) and mediastinal in 87 (95%). Ipsilateral volume loss was seen in 42 patients (46%). Pleural effusions were present in 80 patients (87%), being large (>2/3 hemithorax) in 19 patients (21%). Atypical features at presentation included bilateral disease in three patients (3%), and spontaneous pneumothoraces in nine patients (10%). Internal mammary lymphadenopathy was observed in 48 patients (52%) and cardiophrenic lymphadenopathy in 42 (46%). Inter-observer agreement was excellent (average kappa = 0.89). Ipsilateral volume loss was associated with sarcomatous or mixed mesothelioma (p = 0.004). Using logistic regression analysis, other CT findings did not correlate with histological subtype. Conclusions: Ipsilateral volume loss is most frequently associated with sarcomatous or mixed mesothelioma. The remaining imaging findings are not helpful in predicting the histological subtype of

  2. Malignant pleural mesothelioma: Computed tomography and correlation with histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seely, Jean M.; Nguyen, Elsie T.; Churg, Andrew M.; Mueller, Nestor L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review the computed tomography (CT) imaging findings of pleural mesothelioma at presentation and to correlate the CT with the histological subtype. Materials and methods: Pathology reports from 1997 to 2006 were reviewed at two academic institutions to identify patients with proven pleural mesothelioma. Diagnosis was based on histologic findings in specimens obtained by transthoracic needle biopsy, surgical biopsy or resection. All histology slides were reviewed by a lung pathologist. CT scans, available in 92 patients, were reviewed blindly and in random order by two independent radiologists. Kappa analysis was completed to assess inter-observer agreement. Eighty patients in whom there was no significant delay between CT imaging and histological diagnosis were assessed by logistic regression analysis to correlate CT and histologic findings. Results: Seventy-two of the 92 mesotheliomas were epithelial, 15 sarcomatous, and 5 of mixed histology. All patients (77 male, 15 female, mean age 68 years) had pleural thickening on CT; the thickening was nodular in 79 patients (86%) and mediastinal in 87 (95%). Ipsilateral volume loss was seen in 42 patients (46%). Pleural effusions were present in 80 patients (87%), being large (>2/3 hemithorax) in 19 patients (21%). Atypical features at presentation included bilateral disease in three patients (3%), and spontaneous pneumothoraces in nine patients (10%). Internal mammary lymphadenopathy was observed in 48 patients (52%) and cardiophrenic lymphadenopathy in 42 (46%). Inter-observer agreement was excellent (average kappa = 0.89). Ipsilateral volume loss was associated with sarcomatous or mixed mesothelioma (p = 0.004). Using logistic regression analysis, other CT findings did not correlate with histological subtype. Conclusions: Ipsilateral volume loss is most frequently associated with sarcomatous or mixed mesothelioma. The remaining imaging findings are not helpful in predicting the histological subtype of

  3. Subperiosteal preparation using a new piezoelectric device: a histological examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoetzer, Marcus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subperiosteal preparation using a periosteal elevator leads to disturbances of local immunohistochemistry and periosteal histology due to a microtrauma. Usually soft-tissue damage can be considerably reduced by using piezoelectric technology. For this reason, the effects of a novel piezoelectric device on immunohistochemistry and periosteal histology were examined and compared to conventional preparation of the periosteum using a periosteal elevator.Material and methods: Lewis rats were randomly assigned to one of five groups (n=50. Subperiosteal preparation was performed using either a piezoelectric device or a periosteal elevator. Immunohistochemical and histological analyses were performed immediately after preparation as well as three and eight days postoperatively. A statistical analysis of the histological colouring was performed offline using analysis of variance (ANOVA on ranks (p<0.05. Results: At all times, immunohistochemical and histological analysis demonstrated a significantly more homogenous tissue structure in the group of rats that underwent piezosurgery than in the group of rats that underwent treatment with a periosteal elevator.Conclusion: The use of a piezoelectric device for subperiosteal preparation is associated with more harmonious immunohistochemical and histological results for the periosteum than the use of a conventional periosteal elevator. As a result, piezoelectric devices can be expected to have a positive effect primarily on soft tissue, in particular of the periosteal as well as on surrounding tissues.

  4. Racial difference in histologic subtype of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olshan, Andrew F; Kuo, Tzy-Mey; Meyer, Anne-Marie; Nielsen, Matthew E; Purdue, Mark P; Rathmell, W Kimryn

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has rapidly increased in incidence for over two decades. The most common histologic subtypes of RCC, clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe have distinct genetic and clinical characteristics; however, epidemiologic features of these subtypes have not been well characterized, particularly regarding any associations between race, disease subtypes, and recent incidence trends. Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, we examined differences in the age-adjusted incidence rates and trends of RCC subtypes, including analysis focusing on racial differences. Incidence rates increased over time (2001–2009) for all three subtypes. However, the proportion of white cases with clear cell histology was higher than among blacks (50% vs. 31%, respectively), whereas black cases were more likely than white cases to have papillary RCC (23% vs. 9%, respectively). Moreover, papillary RCC incidence increased more rapidly for blacks than whites (P < 0.01) over this period. We also observed that increased incidence of papillary histology among blacks is not limited to the smallest size strata. We observed racial differences in proportionate incidence of RCC subtypes, which appear to be increasing over time; this novel finding motivates further etiologic, clinical, molecular, and genetic studies. Using national data, we observed a higher proportion of black renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cases with papillary histology compared to Caucasian cases. We also observed time trends in black-white incidence differences in histologic RCC subtypes, with rapid increases in the disproportionate share of black cases with papillary histology

  5. Renal cell carcinoma: histological classification and correlation with imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muglia, Valdair F., E-mail: fmuglia@fmrp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CCIFM/FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica. Faculdade de Medicina; Prando, Adilson [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Hospital Vera Cruz, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Imaginologia

    2015-05-15

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the seventh most common histological type of cancer in the Western world and has shown a sustained increase in its prevalence. The histological classification of RCCs is of utmost importance, considering the significant prognostic and therapeutic implications of its histological subtypes. Imaging methods play an outstanding role in the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of RCC. Clear cell, papillary and chromophobe are the most common histological subtypes of RCC, and their preoperative radiological characterization, either followed or not by confirmatory percutaneous biopsy, may be particularly useful in cases of poor surgical condition, metastatic disease, central mass in a solitary kidney, and in patients eligible for molecular targeted therapy. New strategies recently developed for treating renal cancer, such as cryo and radiofrequency ablation, molecularly targeted therapy and active surveillance also require appropriate preoperative characterization of renal masses. Less common histological types, although sharing nonspecific imaging features, may be suspected on the basis of clinical and epidemiological data. The present study is aimed at reviewing the main clinical and imaging findings of histological RCC subtypes. (author)

  6. Diagnostic criteria for selenium toxicosis in aquatic birds: histologic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D.E.; Albers, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Chronic selenium toxicosis was induced in 1-year-old male mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) by feeding selenium, as seleno-DL-methionine, in amounts of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 parts per million (ppm) to five groups of 21 ducks each for 16 wk during March to July 1988. All mallards in the 80 ppm group, three in the 40 ppm group, and one in the 20 ppm group died. Histologic lesions in mallards that died of selenosis were hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration progressing to centrolobular and panlobular necrosis, nephrosis, apoptosis of pancreatic exocrine cells, hypermaturity and avascularity of contour feathers of the head with atrophy of feather follicles, lymphocytic necrosis and atrophy of lymphoid organs (spleen, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and lumbar lymph nodes), and severe atrophy and degeneration of fat. Histologic lesions in surviving mallards in the 40 ppm group, which had tissue residues of selenium comparable to mallards that died, were fewer and much milder than mallards that died; lesions consisted of atrophy of lymphoid tissue, hyalinogranular swelling of hepatocytes, atrophy of seminiferous tubules, and senescence of feathers. No significant histologic lesions were detected in euthanized mallards in the 0, 10 and 20 ppm groups. Based on tissue residues and histologic findings, primarily in the liver, there was a threshold of selenium accumulation above which pathophysiologic changes were rapid and fatal. Pathognomonic histologic lesions of fatal and nonfatal selenosis were not detected. Criteria for diagnosis of fatal selenosis in aquatic birds include consistent histologic lesions in the liver, kidneys, and organs of the immune system. Although histologic changes were present in cases of chronic non-fatal selenosis, these were inconsistent. Consistent features of fatal and non-fatal chronic selenosis were marked weight loss and elevated concentrations of selenium in organs.

  7. Histologic examination of the rat central nervous system after intrathecal administration of human beta-endorphin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hée, P.; Klinken, Leif; Ballegaard, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity......Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity...

  8. Comparative histological and immunohistochemical study of ameloblastomas and ameloblastic carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Carlos-Bregni, Román; Pires, Fabio-Ramoa; Delgado-Azañero, Wilson; Neves-Silva, Rodrigo; Aldape-Barrios, Beatriz; Paes-de Almeida, Oslei

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to compare the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of ameloblastomas (AM) and ameloblastic carcinomas (AC). Material and Methods Fifteen cases of AM and 9 AC were submitted to hematoxilin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical analysis with the following antibodies: cytokeratins 5,7,8,14 and 19, Ki-67, p53, p63 and the cellular adhesion molecules CD138 (Syndecan-1), E-cadherin and β-catenin. The mean score of the expression of Ki-67 and p53 labelling index (LIs) were compared between the groups using the t test. A value of p<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results All cases were positive for CKs 5, 14 and 19, but negative for CKs 7 and 8. CKs 5 and 19 were positive mainly in the central regions of the ameloblastic islands, while the expression in AC was variable in intensity and localization. CK14 was also variably expressed in both AM and AC. Ki-67 (P=.001) and p53 (P=.004) immunoexpression was higher in AC. All cases were positive for p63, but values were higher in AC. CD138 was mainly expressed in peripheral cells of AM, with a weak positivity in the central areas, while it was positive in most areas of ACs, except in less differentiated regions, where expression was decreased or lost. E-cadherin and β-catenin were weakly positive in both AM and AC. Conclusions These results shows that Ki-67, p53 and p63 expression was higher in AC as compared to AM, suggesting that these markers can be useful when considering diagnosis of malignancy, and perhaps could play a role in malignant transformation of AM. Pattern of expression of CKs 5 and 19 in AC were different to those found in AM, suggesting genetic alterations of these proteins in malignant cells. It was confirmed that CK19 is a good marker for benign odontogenic tumors, such as AM, but it is variably expressed in malignant cases. Key words:Ameloblastoma, ameloblastic carcinoma, immunohistochemistry, odontogenic tumors. PMID:28390135

  9. Osteoarthritis - histology and pathogenetic concepts; Arthrose - Histologie und pathogenetische Ansaetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulzbacher, I. [Universitaetsklinik Wien (Austria). Klinisches Inst. fuer Klinische Pathologie

    2000-12-01

    Osteoarthitis is the most common joint disease affecting over 60% of the elderly population. It is characterized by the progressive erosion of articular cartilage leading to incapacity of movement. In the great majority of instances, osteoarthritis appears insidiously, without apparent initiating cause. This primary form is usually oligoarticular involving hip, knee, cervical vertebrae, interphalangeal joints of the fingers or tarsometatarsal joints of the feet. In case of an underlying systemic diasease or local injury the cartilage destruction is considered as secondary osteoarthritis. The pathogenesis of primary osteoarthritis suggests an intrinsic disease of cartilage in which biochemical and metabolic alterations result in its breakdown. Within the last decades different models were stablished which also concentrated on other joint structures such as bone or ligaments. Changes of the subchondral bone were found to precide cartilage damage suggesting a primary alteration of the subchondral region. Other studies concentrated on the metabolic activity of chondrocytes in healthy cartilage of osteoarthritis patients. The precise event that leads to these changes is still not clear. This review concentrates on the histological features in the course of the disease and tries to provide a summary on different pathogenetic concepts. (orig.) [German] Die Arthrosis deformans ist die haeufigste Gelenkerkrankung und betrifft ueber 60% der aelteren Population. Die Erkrankung ist durch fortschreitenden Knorpelverlust gekennzeichnet und fuehrt zu einer limitierteren Bewegungsfreiheit. In den meisten Faellen beginnt der Krankheitsverlauf heimtueckisch ohne ersichtlichen Grund. Diese primaere Form manifestiert sich oft polyartikulaer und betrifft vor allem die Huefte, das Knie, die Halswirbelsaeule, die interphalangealen Gelenke der Finger oder die tarsometatarsalen Gelenke. Bei einer zugrunde liegenden systemischen Erkrankung oder lokal destruierenden Faktoren ist der

  10. Infiltration patterns in monoclonal plasma cell disorders: correlation of magnetic resonance imaging with matched bone marrow histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrulis, Mindaugas [Institute of Pathology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Bäuerle, Tobias [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Goldschmidt, Hartmut [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, Stefan [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Landgren, Ola [Multiple Myeloma Section, Metabolism Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda (United States); Schirmacher, Peter [Institute of Pathology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Hillengass, Jens, E-mail: jens.hillengass@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Objectives: To investigate how plasma cell infiltration patterns detected by MRI match the plasma cell distribution in bone marrow biopsy. Methods: We assessed 50 patients with monoclonal plasma cell disorders of all clinical stages. MRI infiltration pattern was compared with matched BM histology from the same anatomic region. Results: MRI revealed a minimal (n = 11, 22%), focal (n = 5, 10%), diffuse (n = 14, 28%) and mixed (n = 20, 40%) infiltration pattern. Diffuse MRI pattern was predominant in smoldering myeloma patients whereas the MRI patterns with “focal component” (i.e. focal and mixed) were most common in symptomatic myeloma (p < 0.01). In histology an interstitial (n = 13, 26%), nodular (n = 23, 46%) and packed marrow (n = 14, 28%) was found respectively. All three histological types of infiltration were observed in patients with diffuse and mixed MRI patterns. Minimal MRI pattern was found in all MGUS patients and was associated with an interstitial BM infiltration. In two patients with minimal MRI pattern an extensive micro-nodular BM infiltration was found in histology. Conclusions: Infiltration patterns in MRI represent different histological growth patterns of plasma cells, but the MRI resolution is not sufficient to visualize micro-nodular aggregates of plasma cells.

  11. Infiltration patterns in monoclonal plasma cell disorders: correlation of magnetic resonance imaging with matched bone marrow histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrulis, Mindaugas; Bäuerle, Tobias; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Delorme, Stefan; Landgren, Ola; Schirmacher, Peter; Hillengass, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate how plasma cell infiltration patterns detected by MRI match the plasma cell distribution in bone marrow biopsy. Methods: We assessed 50 patients with monoclonal plasma cell disorders of all clinical stages. MRI infiltration pattern was compared with matched BM histology from the same anatomic region. Results: MRI revealed a minimal (n = 11, 22%), focal (n = 5, 10%), diffuse (n = 14, 28%) and mixed (n = 20, 40%) infiltration pattern. Diffuse MRI pattern was predominant in smoldering myeloma patients whereas the MRI patterns with “focal component” (i.e. focal and mixed) were most common in symptomatic myeloma (p < 0.01). In histology an interstitial (n = 13, 26%), nodular (n = 23, 46%) and packed marrow (n = 14, 28%) was found respectively. All three histological types of infiltration were observed in patients with diffuse and mixed MRI patterns. Minimal MRI pattern was found in all MGUS patients and was associated with an interstitial BM infiltration. In two patients with minimal MRI pattern an extensive micro-nodular BM infiltration was found in histology. Conclusions: Infiltration patterns in MRI represent different histological growth patterns of plasma cells, but the MRI resolution is not sufficient to visualize micro-nodular aggregates of plasma cells

  12. Late radiation effects in the dog brain: correlation of MRI and histological changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopewell, J.; Tenhunen, M.; Joensuu, H.; Farkkila, M.; Joensuu, R.; Ramadan, U.A.; Kallio, M.; Snellman, M.; DeGritz, B.; Morris, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    The brains of groups of five beagle dogs were locally irradiated with single doses of 10 - 16 Gy of 6 MV photons in order to determine the correlation between sequential changes in the brain, as detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with the eventual appearance of histological lesions. Sequential MRIs were made to detect changes in the brain for up to 77-115 weeks after irradiation. Dose-effect relationships were established for changes in the brain as detected by MRI, gross morphology and histology. The doses that caused a specified response in 50 % of the animals (ED50 ± SE) were calculated using these dose-effect relationships for each endpoint. The ED50 values (± SE) for focal and diffuse changes on T2-weighted MRI were 11.0 ± 1.1 Gy and 10.8 ± 0.9 Gy, respectively. The ED50 values (± SE) for contrast enhancement on T1-weighted MRI was 13.4 ± 0.6 Gy. It was 11.4 ± 0.6 Gy for any type of histological lesion (haemorrhage, reactive change or glial scar) 77-115 weeks after irradiation. For a macroscopic lesion and for the histological appearance of a glial scar (indicative of an earlier area of necrosis) the ED50 (± SE) values were 13.0 ± 1.1 Gy and 13.4 ± 0.57 Gy, respectively. The presence of focal or diffuse changes on T2-weighted MRIs was the best indicator for the eventual appearance of any type of histological lesion in the dog brain after irradiation with single doses of photons. The ED50 for any histological lesion did not differ significantly from the ED50 for a focal (p > 0.35) or diffuse (p = 0.3) change on T2-weighted MRIs. The ED50 for a glial scar, indicative of an earlier region of necrosis, was not significantly different (p > 0.4) from that for the appearance of contrast enhancement on T1-weighted MRI

  13. Histological observation and occurrence of apoptosis in the gill from estuary Amazon fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Maria Nunes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sciades herszbergii is a fish species commomly know as "blue catfish" and is one the most important natural resources an estuary in the Amazon region. In this study histological observations and apoptosis analysis was made in a gill tissue of the S. herszbergii from two environments: I, away from pollution sources and; II, waste from industry, the last one was used to relate the health status of the fishes in the environmental. Gill fragments were fixed 4% paraformaldehyde solution for 24 h and submitted for histological routine processing for embedding in paraffin. Sections of 7 μm were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin for analysis under light microscopy. For immunohistochemycal analyses gill sections were incubated in the primary polyclonal antibody anti-caspase 3, made in rabbit. Slides were revealed using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine. The results showed the type and level of lesions were verified between two study sites. A variety of severe damages were observed in specimens including aneurysms, epithelial lifting, and intense hyperplasia, specially on the site II. Apoptosis analyses also revealed injuries in the gill tissue of specimens from these two sites. While on site I only few specimens showed mild changes in gill tissues and rare apoptosis marking. These results suggest the gill histological and immunohistochemical analysis are a good biomarker, and the specie S. herszbergii could be used as a bioindicator for environmental monitoring.

  14. Review of our histological criteria for the radiosensitivity of uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukahara, Yoshiharu; Shiozawa, Kyuyo; Tsukamoto, Takashi; Sonehara, Morio; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    The determination of radiosensitiveness based on 111 operated specimens after test irradiation of 1000R was compared with that based on 64 specimens which had received biopsies seven days after irradiation. It was concluded that the determination of radiosensitiveness by local biopsy could be applied to practical use. The results of this study are listed as follows: (1) Radiosensitivity exists within tumor cells themselves before irradiation, while radiosensitiveness is a complicated change in which some reaction on the host side added to degenerated tumor cells. (2) In the determination of radio-sensitiveness, there was a good accordance of 85% between biopsies and removed specimens. (3) The followings are findings of favorable radiosensitiveness based on the removed specimens; (a) neutrocyte infiltration within cancer nests, (b) lysis of cancer nests, (c) destruction of fundus of cancer nests, (d) damages of advanced sites of cancer infiltration, (e) damages of chromatin. As unfavorable findings, (f) mitosis, (g) abundant viable cells. (4) Various histological findings within cancer nests and variation of radiosensitiveness according to various regions of the tumor often cause a discord with biopsies. (5) Many specimens which show the intermediate histological type in maturation before irradiation indicate favorable radiosensitiveness. Even if they belong to the intermediate type, the specimens in which the issued histological findings are mixed show mostly unfavorable radiosensitiveness. (6) Removed specimens can be expressed in indices of radiosensitiveness. (Ichikawa, K.)

  15. Blockface histology with optical coherence tomography: a comparison with Nissl staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnain, Caroline; Augustinack, Jean C; Reuter, Martin; Wachinger, Christian; Frosch, Matthew P; Ragan, Timothy; Akkin, Taner; Wedeen, Van J; Boas, David A; Fischl, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is a high resolution imaging technique that generates excellent contrast based on intrinsic optical properties of the tissue, such as neurons and fibers. The SD-OCT data acquisition is performed directly on the tissue block, diminishing the need for cutting, mounting and staining. We utilized SD-OCT to visualize the laminar structure of the isocortex and compared cortical cytoarchitecture with the gold standard Nissl staining, both qualitatively and quantitatively. In histological processing, distortions routinely affect registration to the blockface image and prevent accurate 3D reconstruction of regions of tissue. We compared blockface registration to SD-OCT and Nissl, respectively, and found that SD-OCT-blockface registration was significantly more accurate than Nissl-blockface registration. Two independent observers manually labeled cortical laminae (e.g. III, IV and V) in SD-OCT images and Nissl stained sections. Our results show that OCT images exhibit sufficient contrast in the cortex to reliably differentiate the cortical layers. Furthermore, the modalities were compared with regard to cortical laminar organization and showed good agreement. Taken together, these SD-OCT results suggest that SD-OCT contains information comparable to standard histological stains such as Nissl in terms of distinguishing cortical layers and architectonic areas. Given these data, we propose that SD-OCT can be used to reliably generate 3D reconstructions of multiple cubic centimeters of cortex that can be used to accurately and semi-automatically perform standard histological analyses. © 2013.

  16. Correlation among ultrasound, cross-sectional anatomy, and histology of the sciatic nerve: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayeri, Nizar; van Geffen, Geert J; Bruhn, Jörgen; Chan, Vincent W; Groen, Gerbrand J

    2010-01-01

    Efficient identification of the sciatic nerve (SN) requires a thorough knowledge of its topography in relation to the surrounding structures. Anatomic cross sections in similar oblique planes as observed during SN ultrasonography are lacking. A survey of sonoanatomy matched with ultrasound views of the major SN block sites will be helpful in pattern recognition, especially when combined with images that show the internal architecture of the nerve. From 1 cadaver, consecutive parts of the upper leg corresponding to the 4 major blocks sites were sectioned and deeply frozen. Using cryomicrotomy, consecutive transverse sections were acquired and photographed at 78-microm intervals, along with histologic sections at 5-mm intervals. Multiplanar reformatting was done to reconstruct the optimal planes for an accurate comparison of ultrasonography and gross anatomy. The anatomic and histologic images were matched with ultrasound images that were obtained from 2 healthy volunteers. By simulating the exact position and angulation as in the ultrasonographic images, detailed anatomic overviews of SN and adjacent structures were reconstructed in the gluteal, subgluteal, midfemoral, and popliteal regions. Throughout its trajectory, SN contains numerous fascicles with connective and adipose tissues. In this study, we provide an optimal matching between histology, anatomic cross sections, and short-axis ultrasound images of SN. Reconstructing ultrasonographic planes with this high-resolution digitized anatomy not only enables an overview but also shows detailed views of the architecture of internal SN. The undulating course of the nerve fascicles within SN may explain its varying echogenic appearance during probe manipulation.

  17. Using web-based animations to teach histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbourne, Marc A S; Chin, Susan S-L; Melnyk, Erica; Begg, David A

    2002-02-15

    We have been experimenting with the use of animations to teach histology as part of an interactive multimedia program we are developing to replace the traditional lecture/laboratory-based histology course in our medical and dental curricula. This program, called HistoQuest, uses animations to illustrate basic histologic principles, explain dynamic processes, integrate histologic structure with physiological function, and assist students in forming mental models with which to organize and integrate new information into their learning. With this article, we first briefly discuss the theory of mental modeling, principles of visual presentation, and how mental modeling and visual presentation can be integrated to create effective animations. We then discuss the major Web-based animation technologies that are currently available and their suitability for different visual styles and navigational structures. Finally, we describe the process we use to produce animations for our program. The approach described in this study can be used by other developers to create animations for delivery over the Internet for the teaching of histology.

  18. Histological Stains: A Literature Review and Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alturkistani, Hani A; Tashkandi, Faris M; Mohammedsaleh, Zuhair M

    2015-06-25

    The history of histology indicates that there have been significant changes in the techniques used for histological staining through chemical, molecular biology assays and immunological techniques, collectively referred to as histochemistry. Early histologists used the readily available chemicals to prepare tissues for microscopic studies; these laboratory chemicals were potassium dichromate, alcohol and the mercuric chloride to harden cellular tissues. Staining techniques used were carmine, silver nitrate, Giemsa, Trichrome Stains, Gram Stain and Hematoxylin among others. The purpose of this research was to assess past and current literature reviews, as well as case studies, with the aim of informing ways in which histological stains have been improved in the modern age. Results from the literature review has indicated that there has been an improvement in histopathology and histotechnology in stains used. There has been a rising need for efficient, accurate and less complex staining procedures. Many stain procedures are still in use today, and many others have been replaced with new immunostaining, molecular, non-culture and other advanced staining techniques. Some staining methods have been abandoned because the chemicals required have been medically proven to be toxic. The case studies indicated that in modern histology a combination of different stain techniques are used to enhance the effectiveness of the staining process. Currently, improved histological stains, have been modified and combined with other stains to improve their effectiveness.

  19. Histological image classification using biologically interpretable shape-based features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, Sonal; Phan, John H; Young, Andrew N; Wang, May D

    2013-01-01

    Automatic cancer diagnostic systems based on histological image classification are important for improving therapeutic decisions. Previous studies propose textural and morphological features for such systems. These features capture patterns in histological images that are useful for both cancer grading and subtyping. However, because many of these features lack a clear biological interpretation, pathologists may be reluctant to adopt these features for clinical diagnosis. We examine the utility of biologically interpretable shape-based features for classification of histological renal tumor images. Using Fourier shape descriptors, we extract shape-based features that capture the distribution of stain-enhanced cellular and tissue structures in each image and evaluate these features using a multi-class prediction model. We compare the predictive performance of the shape-based diagnostic model to that of traditional models, i.e., using textural, morphological and topological features. The shape-based model, with an average accuracy of 77%, outperforms or complements traditional models. We identify the most informative shapes for each renal tumor subtype from the top-selected features. Results suggest that these shapes are not only accurate diagnostic features, but also correlate with known biological characteristics of renal tumors. Shape-based analysis of histological renal tumor images accurately classifies disease subtypes and reveals biologically insightful discriminatory features. This method for shape-based analysis can be extended to other histological datasets to aid pathologists in diagnostic and therapeutic decisions

  20. Climbing Bloom's taxonomy pyramid: Lessons from a graduate histology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Nikki B; Hwang, Charles; Scott, Sara; Stallard, Stefanie; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Bloom's taxonomy was adopted to create a subject-specific scoring tool for histology multiple-choice questions (MCQs). This Bloom's Taxonomy Histology Tool (BTHT) was used to analyze teacher- and student-generated quiz and examination questions from a graduate level histology course. Multiple-choice questions using histological images were generally assigned a higher BTHT level than simple text questions. The type of microscopy technique (light or electron microscopy) used for these image-based questions did not result in any significant differences in their Bloom's taxonomy scores. The BTHT levels for teacher-generated MCQs correlated positively with higher discrimination indices and inversely with the percent of students answering these questions correctly (difficulty index), suggesting that higher-level Bloom's taxonomy questions differentiate well between higher- and lower-performing students. When examining BTHT scores for MCQs that were written by students in a Multiple-Choice Item Development Assignment (MCIDA) there was no significant correlation between these scores and the students' ability to answer teacher-generated MCQs. This suggests that the ability to answer histology MCQs relies on a different skill set than the aptitude to construct higher-level Bloom's taxonomy questions. However, students significantly improved their average BTHT scores from the midterm to the final MCIDA task, which indicates that practice, experience and feedback increased their MCQ writing proficiency. Anat Sci Educ 10: 456-464. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Comparative histology of mouse, rat, and human pelvic ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Ritsuko; Orlicky, David J; Arnett, Jameson; Guess, Marsha K; Hurt, K Joseph; Connell, Kathleen A

    2016-11-01

    The uterosacral (USL) and cardinal ligaments (CL) provide support to the uterus and pelvic organs, and the round ligaments (RL) maintain their position in the pelvis. In women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP), the connective tissue, smooth muscle, vasculature, and innervation of the pelvic support structures are altered. Rodents are commonly used animal models for POP research. However, the pelvic ligaments have not been defined in these animals. In this study, we hypothesized that the gross anatomy and histological composition of pelvic ligaments in rodents and humans are similar. We performed an extensive literature search for anatomical and histological descriptions of the pelvic support ligaments in rodents. We also performed anatomical dissections of the pelvis to define anatomical landmarks in relation to the ligaments. In addition, we identified the histological components of the pelvic ligaments and performed quantitative analysis of the smooth muscle bundles and connective tissue of the USL and RL. The anatomy of the USL, CL, and RL and their anatomical landmarks are similar in mice, rats, and humans. All species contain the same cellular components and have similar histological architecture. However, the cervical portion of the mouse USL and RL contain more smooth muscle and less connective tissue compared with rat and human ligaments. The pelvic support structures of rats and mice are anatomically and histologically similar to those of humans. We propose that both mice and rats are appropriate, cost-effective models for directed studies in POP research.

  2. Genome-Wide Associations Related to Hepatic Histology in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Hispanic Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattacheril, Julia; Lavine, Joel E; Chalasani, Naga P; Guo, Xiuqing; Kwon, Soonil; Schwimmer, Jeffrey; Molleston, Jean P; Loomba, Rohit; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Goodarzi, Mark O; Taylor, Kent D; Yates, Katherine P; Tonascia, James; Rotter, Jerome I

    2017-11-01

    To identify genetic loci associated with features of histologic severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a cohort of Hispanic boys. There were 234 eligible Hispanic boys age 2-17 years with clinical, laboratory, and histologic data enrolled in the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network included in the analysis of 624 297 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). After the elimination of 4 outliers and 22 boys with cryptic relatedness, association analyses were performed on 208 DNA samples with corresponding liver histology. Logistic regression analyses were carried out for qualitative traits and linear regression analyses were applied for quantitative traits. The median age and body mass index z-score were 12.0 years (IQR, 11.0-14.0) and 2.4 (IQR, 2.1-2.6), respectively. The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score (scores 1-4 vs 5-8) was associated with SNP rs11166927 on chromosome 8 in the TRAPPC9 region (P = 8.7 -07 ). Fibrosis stage was associated with SNP rs6128907 on chromosome 20, near actin related protein 5 homolog (p = 9.9 -07 ). In comparing our results in Hispanic boys with those of previously reported SNPs in adult nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, 2 of 26 susceptibility loci were associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score and 2 were associated with fibrosis stage. In this discovery genome-wide association study, we found significant novel gene effects on histologic traits associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score and fibrosis that are distinct from those previously recognized by adult nonalcoholic fatty liver disease genome-wide association studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Retrospective Methods Analysis of Semiautomated Intracerebral Hemorrhage Volume Quantification From a Selection of the STICH II Cohort (Early Surgery Versus Initial Conservative Treatment in Patients With Spontaneous Supratentorial Lobar Intracerebral Haematomas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Mark D; Gregson, Barbara A; Mould, W Andrew; Hanley, Daniel F; Mendelow, Alexander David

    2018-02-01

    The ABC/2 method for calculating intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume has been well validated. However, the formula, derived from the volume of an ellipse, assumes the shape of ICH is elliptical. We sought to compare the agreement of the ABC/2 formula with other methods through retrospective analysis of a selection of the STICH II cohort (Early Surgery Versus Initial Conservative Treatment in Patients With Spontaneous Supratentorial Lobar Intracerebral Haematomas). From 390 patients, 739 scans were selected from the STICH II image archive based on the availability of a CT scan compatible with OsiriX DICOM viewer. ICH volumes were calculated by the reference standard semiautomatic segmentation in OsiriX software and compared with calculated arithmetic methods (ABC/2, ABC/2.4, ABC/3, and 2/3SC) volumes. Volumes were compared by difference plots for specific groups: randomization ICH (n=374), 3- to 7-day postsurgical ICH (n=206), antithrombotic-associated ICH (n=79), irregular-shape ICH (n=703) and irregular-density ICH (n=650). Density and shape were measured by the Barras ordinal shape and density groups (1-5). The ABC/2.4 method had the closest agreement to the semiautomatic segmentation volume in all groups, except for the 3- to 7-day postsurgical ICH group where the ABC/3 method was superior. Although the ABC/2 formula for calculating elliptical ICH is well validated, it must be used with caution in ICH scans where the elliptical shape of ICH is a false assumption. We validated the adjustment of the ABC/2.4 method in randomization, antithrombotic-associated, heterogeneous-density, and irregular-shape ICH. URL: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN22153967. Unique identifier: ISRCTN22153967. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Amnioinfusion in preterm PROM: effects on amnion and cord histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, A; Andreani, M; Ghidini, A; Verderio, M; Pizzardi, A; Vergani, P; Salafia, C M

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the effects of transabdominal amnioinfusion (TA) on the histology of amnion (A) and umbilical cord (UC). From a cohort of 56 singleton pregnancies with premature rupture of membranes (PROM) at histologic features of A or UC. A and UC histology is not significantly affected by exposure to saline solution even for prolonged periods of time.

  5. Histological evaluation of vertical laser channels from ablative fractional resurfacing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbølling Haak, Christina; Illes, Monica; Paasch, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) represents a new treatment potential for various skin conditions and new laser devices are being introduced. It is important to gain information about the impact of laser settings on the dimensions of the created laser channels for obtaining a safe...... and efficient treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to establish a standard model to document the histological tissue damage profiles after AFR and to test a new laser device at diverse settings. Ex vivo abdominal pig skin was treated with a MedArt 620, prototype fractional carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser...... (Medart, Hvidovre, Denmark) delivering single microbeams (MB) with a spot size of 165 µm. By using a constant pulse duration of 2 ms, intensities of 1-18 W, single and 2-4 stacked pulses, energies were delivered in a range from 2-144 mJ/MB. Histological evaluations included 3-4 high-quality histological...

  6. Histological evaluation of vertical laser channels from ablative fractional resurfacing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbølling Haak, Christina; Illes, Monica; Paasch, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) represents a new treatment potential for various skin conditions and new laser devices are being introduced. It is important to gain information about the impact of laser settings on the dimensions of the created laser channels for obtaining a safe...... and efficient treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to establish a standard model to document the histological tissue damage profiles after AFR and to test a new laser device at diverse settings. Ex vivo abdominal pig skin was treated with a MedArt 620, prototype fractional carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser...... (Medart, Hvidovre, Denmark) delivering single microbeams (MB) with a spot size of 165 μm. By using a constant pulse duration of 2 ms, intensities of 1-18 W, single and 2-4 stacked pulses, energies were delivered in a range from 2-144 mJ/MB. Histological evaluations included 3-4 high-quality histological...

  7. Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective

  8. Syphilitic lymphadenitis clinically and histologically mimicking lymphogranuloma venereum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Annesu; Bamford, Colleen; Lewis, David; Martini, Markus; Wainwright, Helen

    2016-04-19

    An inguinal lymph node was discovered incidentally during surgery for a suspected strangulated inguinal hernia. The patient had recently been treated for candidal balanoposthitis and was known to have a paraphimosis. A new foreskin ulcer was discovered when he was admitted for the hernia surgery. The lymph node histology showed stellate abscesses suggestive of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). Chlamydial serologic tests were negative. As the histological appearance and clinical details provided were thought to suggest LGV, tissue was also sent for a real-time quadriplex polymerase chain reaction assay. This was used to screen for Chlamydia trachomatis in conjunction with other genital ulcer-related pathogens. The assay was negative for C. trachomatis, but positive for Treponema pallidum. Further histochemical staining of the histological specimen confirmed the presence of spirochaetes.

  9. Automated recognition of cell phenotypes in histology images based on membrane- and nuclei-targeting biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaçalı, Bilge; Vamvakidou, Alexandra P; Tözeren, Aydın

    2007-01-01

    Three-dimensional in vitro culture of cancer cells are used to predict the effects of prospective anti-cancer drugs in vivo. In this study, we present an automated image analysis protocol for detailed morphological protein marker profiling of tumoroid cross section images. Histologic cross sections of breast tumoroids developed in co-culture suspensions of breast cancer cell lines, stained for E-cadherin and progesterone receptor, were digitized and pixels in these images were classified into five categories using k-means clustering. Automated segmentation was used to identify image regions composed of cells expressing a given biomarker. Synthesized images were created to check the accuracy of the image processing system. Accuracy of automated segmentation was over 95% in identifying regions of interest in synthesized images. Image analysis of adjacent histology slides stained, respectively, for Ecad and PR, accurately predicted regions of different cell phenotypes. Image analysis of tumoroid cross sections from different tumoroids obtained under the same co-culture conditions indicated the variation of cellular composition from one tumoroid to another. Variations in the compositions of cross sections obtained from the same tumoroid were established by parallel analysis of Ecad and PR-stained cross section images. Proposed image analysis methods offer standardized high throughput profiling of molecular anatomy of tumoroids based on both membrane and nuclei markers that is suitable to rapid large scale investigations of anti-cancer compounds for drug development

  10. Anatomy and histology of the prostate and glands of Cowper in three species of neotropical bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotti, María Daniela; Mollerach, Marcos I; Barquez, Ruben M

    2018-03-01

    The reproductive accessory glands (RAG) are essential components in reproduction because their secretion products ensure survival, viability, and sperm motility. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the morphological and histological structure of the RAG in three species of bats of the genus Sturnira (S. erythromos, S. lilium, and S. oporaphilum). The RAG complex comprise a compact gland (prostate), which surrounds the urethra, and a pair of Glands of Cowper at the base of penis. Anatomical and histologically, the prostate are differentiated in two regions, ventral and dorsal. The dorsal region has tubuloalveolar glands with secretions fine granular or accumulations of a gel-like substance with bubbles and the ventral region, has alveolar glands with secretory cells form a single-layer of small cells. The seminal vesicles are absent. The prostatic morphology of the three species is similar to that of other studied Stenodermatinae and Desmodontinae, but differs from other subfamilies of Phyllostomidae (Carollinae, Glossophaginae, and Phyllostominae) as that of Molossidae and Vespertilionidae. The RAG complex has no annual variation in relation to functionality or size, but it is variable depending on age (subadults and adults). This agrees with the annual reproductive pattern described for these species in these latitudes, where adult males are reproductively active throughout the year. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Histologic analysis of a retrieved hydroxyapatite-coated femoral prosthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søballe, K; Gotfredsen, K; Brockstedt-Rasmussen, H

    1991-01-01

    A hydroxyapatite-coated hip hemi-prosthesis was retrieved from a 98-year-old osteoporotic woman 12 weeks after implantation. Histologic analysis revealed bone and fibrous tissue almost evenly distributed around the surface of the implant circumference. Quantitative histologic analysis showed...... that 48% of the hydroxyapatite surface was covered by bone. Fibrous tissue covered 30% of the prosthetic surface, and 20% of the surface had no tissue coverage. Scanning electron microscopy showed direct contact without any clear boundary between the newly formed bone and the hydroxyapatite ceramic....

  12. Histologic features of mesotherapy-induced orbital fat inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Cameron B; Minckler, Donald S; Tao, Jeremiah P

    2009-01-01

    A 67-year-old man developed acute orbital inflammation after receiving cosmetic mesotherapy (Lipo-Dissolve) to the inferior orbital fat compartments. The injection was intended to cause lipolysis and shrinkage of fat lobules with subsequent cosmetic improvement. Injections of a mixture of bile salts, phospholipid, and alcohol preservative bilaterally in inferior orbital fat lobules led to an acute inflammatory reaction characterized histologically 12 days later by mild lymphocytic infiltration, fat necrosis, and fibrosis in the target areas. Benign proliferation of peripheral nerve trunks consistent with a traumatic neuroma was also noted histologically on one side. Inflammation including fat necrosis and traumatic neuroma are all possible consequences of mesotherapy.

  13. EVALUATION OF INHOMOGENEITIES IN HISTOLOGICAL STRUCTURES (CARTILAGE, RETINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Muche

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates histological tissues by means of image analysis and spatial statistics. For the quantification of cell frequencies and accumulations two statistical characteristics, intensity function and cluster density, are suggested. The samples are histological sections of human articular cartilage and human retina considered in view of changes during the ageing process. The articular cartilage is characterized by continuous changes of both functions, the cell intensity as well as the clusterization. In contrast, the retina is a trilaminar structure formed in the early embryonic stage without changes by ageing.

  14. Examination of Cervical Spine Histological Sections - A Technical Note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Ullerup, Rita; Vesterby, Annie

    2006-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the cervical spine facet joints morphology and anatomy is increasingly important since improved understanding of clinical syndromes, such as whiplash injuries, and therapeutic interventions is based on this knowledge. So far systematic examination of the age-related morphology...... of these joints has not yet been performed, nor has any generally accepted histological classification system for degenerative changes in the cervical spine facet joints been proposed. In the case of whiplash injuries the presented histological method has particular relevance since it allows detailed description...

  15. Diagnostic performance of in vivo 3-T MRI for articular cartilage abnormalities in human osteoarthritic knees using histology as standard of reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadat, Ehsan; Jobke, Bjoern; Chu, Bill; Lu, Ying; Cheng, Jonathan; Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.; Ries, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of sagittal in vivo 3-T intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo (iwFSE) sequences in the assessment of knee cartilage pathologies using histology as the reference standard in patients undergoing total knee replacement, and (2) to correlate MR imaging findings typically associated with osteoarthritis such as bone marrow edema pattern (BMEP) and cartilage swelling with histological findings. Tibial plateaus and femoral condyles of eight knees of seven patients were resected during surgery, and sagittal histological sections were prepared for histology. Preoperative MRI findings were compared to the corresponding region in histological sections for thickness, surface integrity and signal pattern of cartilage, and histological findings in areas of BMEP and swelling were documented. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 72%, 69% and 70% for thickness, 69%, 74% and 73% for surface and 36%, 62% and 45% for intracartilaginous signal pattern. For all cases of BMEP on MRI subchondral ingrowth of fibrovascular tissue and increased bone remodeling were observed. MRI using fat-saturated iwFSE sequences showed good performance in assessing cartilage thickness and surface lesions, while signal changes of cartilage were not suited to characterize the severity of cartilage degeneration as validated by histology. (orig.)

  16. Diagnostic performance of in vivo 3-T MRI for articular cartilage abnormalities in human osteoarthritic knees using histology as standard of reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saadat, Ehsan [University of California San Francisco, School of Medicine and Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Jobke, Bjoern; Chu, Bill; Lu, Ying; Cheng, Jonathan; Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ries, Michael D. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2008-10-15

    The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of sagittal in vivo 3-T intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo (iwFSE) sequences in the assessment of knee cartilage pathologies using histology as the reference standard in patients undergoing total knee replacement, and (2) to correlate MR imaging findings typically associated with osteoarthritis such as bone marrow edema pattern (BMEP) and cartilage swelling with histological findings. Tibial plateaus and femoral condyles of eight knees of seven patients were resected during surgery, and sagittal histological sections were prepared for histology. Preoperative MRI findings were compared to the corresponding region in histological sections for thickness, surface integrity and signal pattern of cartilage, and histological findings in areas of BMEP and swelling were documented. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 72%, 69% and 70% for thickness, 69%, 74% and 73% for surface and 36%, 62% and 45% for intracartilaginous signal pattern. For all cases of BMEP on MRI subchondral ingrowth of fibrovascular tissue and increased bone remodeling were observed. MRI using fat-saturated iwFSE sequences showed good performance in assessing cartilage thickness and surface lesions, while signal changes of cartilage were not suited to characterize the severity of cartilage degeneration as validated by histology. (orig.)

  17. Climbing Bloom's Taxonomy Pyramid: Lessons from a Graduate Histology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Nikki B.; Hwang, Charles; Scott, Sara; Stallard, Stefanie; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Bloom's taxonomy was adopted to create a subject-specific scoring tool for histology multiple-choice questions (MCQs). This Bloom's Taxonomy Histology Tool (BTHT) was used to analyze teacher- and student-generated quiz and examination questions from a graduate level histology course. Multiple-choice questions using histological images were…

  18. Symplastic leiomyoma of uterus: a rare histological variant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasmeen, F.; Hafeez, M.; Hameed, S.; Ibnerasa, S.N.

    2008-01-01

    Symplastic leiomyoma is a rare histological variant of leiomyoma. This is a case report of a young nulliparous patient who presented with primary infertility for 2 years and swelling in lower abdomen for 6 months. Intramural fibroid was diagnosed during a pelvic ultrasound. Histopathology of that myomectomy showed symplastic leiomyoma with absent mitotic figures. The patient was managed as for a benign tumor. (author)

  19. Repeating hemorrhage after radiotherapy for glioma. Radiological and histological observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Hirokazu [Miyakonojo Medical Association Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan); Wakisaka, Shinichiro; Kubota, Toshihiko; Hosotani, Kazuo

    1998-02-01

    A case of radiation necrosis which was observed six years after radiotherapy for a glioma in the right parietal lobe is reported. This patient developed hemiparesis, and radiological examinations showed similar findings consisted with recurrent glioma. Histological examination disclosed that the lesion is correspond to the radiation necrosis. (author)

  20. The spinoglenoid ligament. Anatomy, morphology, and histological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancher, Kevin D; Peterson, Robert K; Johnston, Jack C; Luke, Timothy A

    2005-02-01

    Dysfunction of the distal branch of the suprascapular nerve has been reported in athletes involved in throwing or overhead sports. The consistent presence of a dynamic anatomic structure, the spinoglenoid ligament, overlying the nerve in the spinoglenoid notch may be a contributing factor to the dysfunction of this nerve. The purpose of this study was to report the anatomy, morphology, and histological characteristics of the spinoglenoid ligament. The spinoglenoid ligaments of fifty-eight fresh-frozen cadaver shoulders were dissected to evaluate their anatomic dimensions, histological characteristics, and relationship to the suprascapular nerve, the posterior part of the capsule, and the glenoid rim. The spinoglenoid ligament was harvested, with its insertions on the scapular spine and on the capsule and glenoid left intact, for the histological analysis. Dissection revealed that a spinoglenoid ligament was present in all specimens. The ligament was found to form an irregular quadrangular shape. On gross examination, the deep fibers of the ligament extended from the lateral aspect of the scapular spine to the posterior part of the glenoid and the superficial fibers blended with the posterior aspect of the shoulder capsule. Histological sections demonstrated Sharpey fibers inserting into bone at the scapular spine and blending with the posterior aspect of the shoulder capsule to insert into the posterior surface of the glenoid, findings that confirmed the ligamentous nature of this structure. This study revealed the presence of the spinoglenoid ligament in all of the shoulders that were examined, with some variation in the size of the ligament.

  1. Biological, Histological and Ultra-Structural Studies of Female Mullet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological, Histological and Ultra-Structural Studies of Female Mullet, Mugil cephalus , Ovaries Collected from Different Habitats during Annual Reproductive Cycle. ... 35 and 52 cm, respectively; whereas, the total number of ripe ova in brackish water fish ranged from 0.57±0.14 to 3.81±0.59 x106 for the same length groups.

  2. histological alterations of the pancreas of wistar rats following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bmjwa

    snuff) on the histological features of the pancreas of adult wistar rats. .... tobacco harvesters. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 229: 1880-8. Guyton, A. C. and Hall, J. E., 1996. Textbook of Medical. Physiology, 9th. Ed. W. B. Saunders Company,. Philadelphia, pp.

  3. Effects of Vanadium Pentoxide on the Histological and Sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pharmacological effects of intraperitoneal administration of different doses of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) on the histological and sperm parameters of male guinea pigs were investigated. Also investigated were the effects of oral pretreatment with different doses of vitamin E (a known protein kinase C inhibitor) on the ...

  4. Histological Studies of Some Organs of Squirrels ( Xerus erythropus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological Studies of Some Organs of Squirrels ( Xerus erythropus ) in Tropical Ecological Zone. ... The ground squirrels were trapped using rodent traps, anesthetized identified to species level and dissected to expose the viscera. The organs (liver brain, heart, gonads (testes and ovaries) were dissected out, clean off ...

  5. Biochemical and histological evidences for the antitumor potential of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical and histological evidences for the antitumor potential of Teucrium Oliverianum and Rhazya stricta in chemically-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. ... Photomicrograph of liver tissue sections of rats in HCC revealed hepatic parenchyma with foci of anaplastic hepatocellular carcinoma as well as other foci of ...

  6. Histological exploration of follicular population of the Moroccan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The histological study of the ovary revealed that the ovarian cortex is composed of different areas (from the periphery to the medulla), the non stratified epithelium of the ovary, the tunica albuginea composed of two areas rich of collagen fibers directed into different ways white variable thickness. The primordial and antral ...

  7. Mucin expression patterns in histological grades of colonic cancers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathological expression of mucins has been noted in cancer development and progression. This study sought to identify and quantify the types of mucins produced during various histological grades of colon cancer and to assess the diagnostic significance. Methods: Formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks, ...

  8. Histological properties of intramuscular connective tissues in native ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conventional histological study revealed that except the endomysium which was similar in both muscles, the other intramuscular connective tissues' layers varied between leg and breast muscles and were affected by sex. All the connective tissue fibers were observed in all the intramuscular connective tissues of both ...

  9. Hematological and histological changes induced on the selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on the adverse effects of the extract of a mixture of 11 different herbs on the hematology and histology of liver, and kidney of rats. 20 rats were grouped into four different groups of 5 and were administered concentrations of 100mgkg-1, 200mgkg-1, 400mgkg-1 and the last group as control for 29 days.

  10. Histological and ultrastructural study of the gastric wall of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-01-05

    Jan 5, 1989 ... The stomach wall of the freshwater bream 0. mossambicus is described and compared with that of other bony fishes and vertebrates. The histology of the stomach layers and fine structure of the various cell types of. 0. mossambicus are basically similar to the correspondlngcells of other vertebrates although ...

  11. Histological Chorioamnionitis: Effects on Premature Delivery and Neonatal Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulin Erdemir

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Chorioamnionitis not only causes premature deliveries, but is also associated with neonatal complications and increased mortality. Clinical findings and infectious markers in mother or infant do not predict the diagnosis of histological chorioamnionitis. Therefore, placental histopathology may have a role in predicting neonatal outcome in premature deliveries, especially those below 30 weeks.

  12. Long bone histology and microanatomy of Placodontia (Diapsida: Sauropterygia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, N.; Houssaye, A.; Neenan, J.M.; Scheyer, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Placodontia, an enigmatic group of durophagous and in part heavily armoured animals, were members of Sauropterygia, the most diverse and successful group of Mesozoic marine reptiles. Microanatomy and histology of long bones of several armoured and non-armoured Placodontia were studied, covering most

  13. The reproductive biology and the histological and ultrastructural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-26

    Apr 26, 2010 ... characterized by “appearance of isolated follicular epithelial cells around the oocyte and the formation ... Sea. Murua and Motos (2004) studied reproductive biology and histological examination of European hake. (Merluccius merluccius) in the Bay of ... female M. merluccius in the Mediterranean Sea.

  14. A rare case of multiple meningiomas with different histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma I. Papacocea

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Meningiomas are generally benign tumors but sometimes they manifest tendency to progress towards malignancy. It is not yet clear if anaplastic meningiomas have an innate malignancy characteristic, or an initially beginning histological appearance that degenerates malignantly in time. According to literature data, the risk of a benign meningioma to progress towards malignant phenotype is about 0.16-2%, such malignant transformation occurring after a variable period of time (2-16 years. A still unanswered question is how many of the malignant meningiomas present this appearance as an innate feature and how many of them originate from benign meningiomas. Multiple meningiomas are defined as the presence of two or more distinct meningiomas. They occur in 6-10% of all patients that present meningiomas. Multiple meningiomas with a distinct histological appearance are rarely discovered. They support the theory of meningiomas that develop independently in the same patient. Different histology of multiple meningiomas is found in less than a third of the patients who suffer from this pathology. We are presenting the case of a patient with multiple meningiomas with distinct histology, one being benign and the other malignant. In connection with this case we are raising a question of therapeutic management in patients diagnosed with malignant meningiomas, namely if other possible small/ benign meningiomas should be also entirely resected.

  15. Radiation diagnosis in fibroadenomas of various histological structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, V.P.; Rozhkova, N.I.; Meskikh, E.V.

    1999-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of preoperational diagnosis of fibroadenomas of different histological structure the results of examination of 500 women with mammary gland diseases are generalized. Manifestations of fibroadenomas depending on different diagnostic techniques used are studied as well as their morphological features. Potentialities and results of surgical treatment are analysed [ru

  16. Ethnic variation of the histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E.V. Ezenwa

    The content of the data obtained included the ethnicity categorized as Chinese, Malays, Indians and others (Indonesians, Vietnamese and other minor groups). Other data collected included age, gender and the histological subtype categorized as clear cell, papillary, chromophobe, collecting duct and unclassified subtypes.

  17. Incidence and histological features of colorectal cancer in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence and histological features of colorectal cancer in the Northern Cape province, South Africa. ... This is a retrospective review of all cases of primary adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum diagnosed by the two pathology laboratories operating in the Northern Cape between January 2002 and February 2009.

  18. Influence of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) on histology, blood profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study using ninety-nine day old Marshal Broiler chicks was conducted to investigate the effect of ginger root meal on the histology, blood profile and internal organ characteristics of broilers. The birds were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments replicated three times in a completely Randomized Design.

  19. Osseointegration of a Zirconia Implant : A Histologic Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepke, Ulf; Meijer, Gert J; Meijer, Henny Ja; Walboomers, X Frank; Cune, Marco

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe the histologic and histomorphometric features of a retrieved, functional endosseous zirconia implant in a human subject. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A maxillary zirconia implant (ZV3) placed in a 52-year-old man was retrieved after 2 years of uncompromised

  20. Correlation between the mechanical and histological properties of liver tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarpuzlu, Berkay; Ayyildiz, Mehmet; Tok, Olgu Enis; Aktas, Ranan Gulhan; Basdogan, Cagatay

    2014-01-01

    In order to gain further insight into the mechanisms of tissue damage during the progression of liver diseases as well as the liver preservation for transplantation, an improved understanding of the relation between the mechanical and histological properties of liver is necessary. We suggest that this relation can only be established truly if the changes in the states of those properties are investigated dynamically as a function of post mortem time. In this regard, we first perform mechanical characterization experiments on three bovine livers to investigate the changes in gross mechanical properties (stiffness, viscosity, and fracture toughness) for the preservation periods of 5, 11, 17, 29, 41 and 53h after harvesting. Then, the histological examination is performed on the samples taken from the same livers to investigate the changes in apoptotic cell count, collagen accumulation, sinusoidal dilatation, and glycogen deposition as a function of the same preservation periods. Finally, the correlation between the mechanical and histological properties is investigated via the Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation method. The results of our study show that stiffness, viscosity, and fracture toughness of bovine liver increase as the preservation period is increased. These macroscopic changes are very strongly correlated with the increase in collagen accumulation and decrease in deposited glycogen level at the microscopic level. Also, we observe that the largest changes in mechanical and histological properties occur after the first 11-17h of preservation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease. Scintigraphic, endoscopic and histologic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kault, B.; Halvorsen, T.; Petersen, H.; Grette, K.; Myrvold, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Radionucleotide scintigraphy and esophagoscopy with biopsy were carried out in 101 patients with symptoms strongly suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. GER was visualized by scintigraphy in 86.1% of the patients. Endoscopic and histologic esophagitis were found in 68.1% and 58.4% of the patients, respectively, whereas both examinations taken together showed evidence of esophagitis in 82%. Histologic evidence of esophagitis was found in nearly all patients with severe endoscopic changes, and in 43.7% of the patients with no endoscopic abnormality. Scintigraphic reflux was demonstrated more frequently in the patients with severe endoscopic esophagitis (97.5%) than in those with no or only mild endoscopic changes (78.6%). Scintigraphic reflux was found in 91.5% and 78.5% of the patients with and without histologic evidence of esophagitis. 15 of the 18 patients (83.3%) without endoscopic and histologic abnormalities in the esophagus had scintigraphic evidence of reflux. The present study strongly supports the clinical significance of scintigraphy in GER disease and confirms that esophageal biopsy specimens increase the sensitivity of endoscopic evaluation. 31 refs.

  2. A Histological Autopsy Study of the Thyroid gland in Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SITWALA COMPUTERS

    Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the histological appearances of adult thyroid glands in patients who died of HIV related diseases at UTH in the period 2010 to 2012. Materials and Methods: This research was a descriptive retrospective study of adult thyroid glands collected at autopsy during the period 2010 ...

  3. Histology of periapical lesions obtained during apical surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Malte; von Arx, Thomas; Altermatt, Hans Jörg; Bosshardt, Dieter

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this was to evaluate the histology of periapical lesions in teeth treated with periapical surgery. After root-end resection, the root tip was removed together with the periapical pathological tissue. Histologic sectioning was performed on calcified specimens embedded in methylmethacrylate (MMA) and on demineralized specimens embedded in LR White (Fluka, Buchs, Switzerland). The samples were evaluated with light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The histologic findings were classified into periapical abscesses, granulomas, or cystic lesions (true or pocket cysts). The final material comprised 70% granulomas, 23% cysts and 5% abscesses, 1% scar tissues, and 1% keratocysts. Six of 125 samples could not be used. The cystic lesions could not be subdivided into pocket or true cysts. All cysts had an epithelium-lined cavity, two of them with cilia-lined epithelium. These results show the high incidence of periapical granulomas among periapical lesions obtained during apical surgery. Periapical abscesses were a rare occasion. The histologic findings from samples obtained during apical surgery may differ from findings obtained by teeth extractions. A determination between pocket and true apical cysts is hardly possible when collecting samples by apical surgery.

  4. Histological Pattern of Cervical Malignancies in Southwestern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malignant diseases of the uterine cervix are typically common among women in the developing countries of the world where they cause a lot of reproductive ill-health and mortality at the prime of age. Objectives:The aim of this study is to present the histological pattern of cervical malignancies as they present at ...

  5. Histological Studies Of The Pancreas Of Wistar Rats Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to find the probable effect of Nicotiana tabacum (snuff) on the histological features of the pancreas of adult wistar rats. Nicotiana tabacum is a product of smokeless tobacco which contains many toxins and high levels of nicotine. Twenty male wistar rats weighing 200-210g were used for this study. The control ...

  6. Lip histology of the adult farmed African Catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lip histology of the adult farmed African catfish was investigated to fill the knowledge gap in available literature especially those from commercial concrete tanks. This microanatomy is important as the lip is the principal organ involved in prehension. The lip epidermis was lined by stratified squamous epithelium ...

  7. Histological structure and hormonal profile of pituitary and thyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of castration and iodine supplementaion on the histological structure of pituitary and thyroid glands and their related hormones in NZW male rabbits. Animals were randomly divided into two groups. The first group was supplemented with iodine as potassium iodide at a level of 400 ppm ...

  8. Cryptorchidism--aspects of pathogenesis, histology and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina

    1998-01-01

    of the caudal developmental field, cryptorchidism may be interpreted as a feature of such an abnormal differentiation. The general significance of our hypothesis is supported by the fact that both position and histology of the undescended testes were independent of a possible presence of the malformations...

  9. Remote Histology Learning from Static versus Dynamic Microscopic Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Histology is the study of microscopic structures in normal tissue sections. Curriculum redesign in medicine has led to a decrease in the use of optical microscopes during practical classes. Other imaging solutions have been implemented to facilitate remote learning. With advancements in imaging technologies, learning material can now be digitized.…

  10. Evaluation of Virtual Microscopy in Medical Histology Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Histology stands as a major discipline in the life science curricula, and the practice of teaching it is based on theoretical didactic strategies along with practical training. Traditionally, students achieve practical competence in this subject by learning optical microscopy. Today, students can use newer information and communication…

  11. Patho-morphology of bone tumors (radiology and histology)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, P.

    1982-01-01

    Using the example of osteosarcoma, the article shows some findings and phenomena which are interpreted as epiphenomena of tumours and could lead to a ''wrong-positive'' diagnosis due to the radiological findings as bone destruction is misinterpreted as tumour destruction and the reactive or degenerative mineralisation as tumour mineralisation. Histological findings are also shown, for example the differences in the tumour type and the maximal size of a bone tumour which cannot be recognized definitely by means of radiology. An important practical example of interdisciplinary cooperation is a patient with a Ewing-sarcoma: for the histological examination, a thin layer of bone tissue was chiselled off twice. Each time, only a reactive bone formation was recognized as the tumour located deeper was not detected. Here, the radiologist must know that the histological recognition of reactive bones does not exclude the Ewing sarcoma; the surgeon must know that, in accordance with the X-ray findings, deeper located tissue must be taken for histological examination and the pathologist, cooperating with the radiologist and knowing the radiological changes, must point out that reactive bone formations do not exclude a deeper-located sarcoma, especially a Ewing sarcoma, and that they can even be typical side symptoms of a Ewing sarcoma. (orig./APR) [de

  12. Histological changes in kidney structure following a long – term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological changes in kidney structure following paracetamol administration in pregnant Sprague - Dawley rats were studied. 10 Sprague-Dawley rats divided into five animals per group were used for the study. They were divided into two groups (A and B). Group A served as a control group, while group B received ...

  13. Faeco-histological Method of Studying Worm Endemicity with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worms are endemic in various parts of the world, the patterns varying from community to community, even in the same country. A rough index of those common among Nigerians of the Igbo ethnic group has been obtained using a histological study of the ova present in the luminal faeces of the vermiform appendix in 559 ...

  14. Endometrial Histology of Depomedroxyprogesterone Acetate Users: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To obtain pilot data on the endometrial histology of Depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera, DMPA users experiencing breakthrough bleeding (BTB versus users with amenorrhea. To compare the endometrial histology of patients who used DMPA continuously for 3–12 months versus those who used it for 13 months or more. Methods. Cross-sectional study. Endometrial biopsy was obtained from all consenting patients who used DMPA for at least 3 months. Patients were divided into those with BTB in the last 3 months versus those with amenorrhea for at least 3 months. Histology results and duration of therapy were compared. Results. The proportion of women with chronic endometritis, uterine polyps, atrophic, proliferative, or progesterone-dominant endometrium did not differ between those DMPA users with BTB versus those with amenorrhea. Duration of therapy did not correlate with symptoms of BTB or endometrial histology. Chronic endometritis was the most common histologic finding (10/40, 25% and occurred more often in women experiencing BTB (35% versus 15% (RR 1.62 CI 0.91–2.87. Moreover, 45% of women with BTB had received DMPA for more than 12 months. Conclusions. BTB was more common than previously reported in women using DMPA for more than 12 months. Chronic endometritis, which may indicate an underlying infectious or intracavitary anatomic etiology, has not been previously reported as a frequent finding in DMPA users, and may be related to ethnic or other sociodemographic characteristics of our patient population. Further study to elucidate the etiology of chronic endometritis in these patients is warranted.

  15. Plain radiologic findings of primary lung cancer by histologic types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Seok; Park, Jae Hyung; Choi, Byung In; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Kim, Chu Wan

    1983-01-01

    Plain chest films are the most useful modality in diagnosis of primary lung cancer, but it is difficult to interpret the radiologic findings by histological types. Authors reviewed chest films of 324 cases of histologically confirmed primary lung cancer from January 1974 to April 1982 at Seoul National University. The results are as follows; 1. Incidence was most common in the 6th decade as 34.4%. Male to female sex radio was 3.8 : 1 and there was no sex difference in Adenocarcinoma. 2. Distribution of histologic types of primary lung cancers as follows; Squamous cell carcinoma 50.6%, Small cell carcinoma 22.5%, Large cell carcinoma 9.3%, Bronchogenic adeno carcinoma 10.5%, Bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma 1.9%, Adenosquamous carcinoma 0.6%, Carcinoid tumor 0.3%, Adenoid cystic carcinoma 0.3%. 3. Radiologic findings by histologic types are follows; a) Squamous cell carcinoma commonly present as collapse (51.8%), peripheral mass (40.8%), pneumonitis (37.2%), hilar involvement (34.8%), and in single abnormality, peripheral mass (44.4%). b) Small cell carcinoma commonly present as hilar involvement (78.1%), mediastinal widening or mass (53.4%) and in single abnormality, hilar involvement (58.3%). c) Large cell carcinoma commonly present as hilar involvement (50%), pneumonia (46.7%), collapse (40%), peripheral mass (36.7%) and in single abnormality, large peripheral mass (33.3%). d) Bronchogenic adenocarcinoma commonly present as peripheral mass (44.1%), collapse (41.2%), pleural effusion (35.2%) and in single abnormality, peripheral mass (50%). e) Solitary peripheral mass commonly present as lobulation (48%) and spiculated margin (51%), but no specific findings by histologic types. Cavitary formation was most common in Squamous cell carcinoma

  16. Multiparametric evaluation by simultaneous PET-MRI examination in patients with histologically proven laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Carlo; Romeo, Valeria; Aiello, Marco; Mesolella, Massimo; Iorio, Brigida; Barbuto, Luigi; Cantone, Elena; Nicolai, Emanuele; Covello, Mario

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the relationship between metabolic 18Fluoro-Deoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography (18FDG/PET) and morpho-functional parameters derived by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in patients with histologically proven laryngeal cancer. To assess the clinical impact of PET/MRI examination on patient's staging and treatment planning. 16 patients with histologically proven laryngeal cancer were enrolled and underwent whole body PET/CT followed by a dedicated PET/MRI of the head/neck region. Data were separately evaluated by two blinded groups: metabolic (SUV and MTV), diffusion (ADC) and perfusion (K trans , V e , k ep and iAUC) maps were obtained by positioning regions of interest (ROIs). Tumoral local extension assessed on PET/MRI was compared to endoscopic findings. A good inter-observer agreement was found in anatomical location and local extension of PET/MRI lesions (Cohen's kappa 0.9). PET/CT SUV measures highly correlate with ones derived by PET/MRI (e.g., p=0.96 for measures on VOI). Significant correlations among metabolic, diffusion and perfusion parameters have been detected. PET/MRI had a relevant clinical impact, confirming endoscopic findings (6 cases), helping treatment planning (9 cases), and modifying endoscopic primary staging (1 case). PET/MRI is useful for primary staging of laryngeal cancer, allowing simultaneous collection of metabolic and functional data and conditioning the therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The anterior cruciate ligament-lateral meniscus complex: A histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumatsu, Takayuki; Kodama, Yuya; Maehara, Ami; Miyazawa, Shinichi; Fujii, Masataka; Tanaka, Takaaki; Inoue, Hiroto; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The anterior root of the lateral meniscus (LM) dives underneath the tibial attachment of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Although the distinct role of meniscal attachments has been investigated, the relationship between the LM anterior insertion (LMAI) and ACL tibial insertion (ACLTI) remains unclear. This study histologically analyzed the LMAI and ACLTI. Samples were divided into four regions in an anterior-to-posterior direction. Histological measurements of these insertion sites were performed using safranin O-stained coronal sections. Distribution and signal densities of type I and II collagen were quantified. The ACLTI and LMAI formed the ACL-LM complex via fiber connections. The anterior part of the ACLTI had a widespread attachment composed of dense fibers. Attachment fibers of the LMAI became dense and wide gradually at the middle-to-posterior region. The ACL-LM transition zone (ALTZ) was observed between the LMAI and the lateral border of the ACLTI at the middle part of the ACL tibial footprint. Type II collagen density of the LMAI was higher than that of the ACLTI and ALTZ. Our results can help create an accurate tibial bone tunnel within the dense ACL attachment during ACL reconstruction surgery.

  18. Histology of somatic embryos of eurycoma longifolia (simaroubaceae): relevance in agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, B.; Rabiah, S.S.; Keng, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    Histological analysis conducted on somatic embryos of Eurycoma longifolia shows the developmental structures that are remarkably similar to seeds found in the wild. The primary components of a growing somatic embryo are its shoot and root apical meristems indicated by dense layers of rapidly growing cells. The increased understanding of In vitro culture systems and anatomical changes provide information into cellular processes that govern genetic transformation of E. longifolia with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The presence of meristematic regions on cultured somatic embryos suggests that they are suitable for genetic transformation as genetic elements could be transported to these regions where growth and differentiation are centered. This allows the successful integration and expression of transferred DNA in the host organism, leading the way for an efficient A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation protocol. (author)

  19. Improved correlation of histological data with DCE MRI parameter maps by 3D reconstruction, reslicing and parameterization of the histological images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiessling, Fabian; Le-Huu, Martin; Semmler, Wolfhard; Kunert, Tobias; Thorn, Matthias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Vosseler, Silvia; Fusenig, Norbert E.; Schmidt, Kerstin; Hoffend, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Due to poor correlation of slice thickness and orientation, verification of radiological methods with histology is difficult. Thus, a procedure for three-dimensional reconstruction, reslicing and parameterization of histological data was developed, enabling a proper correlation with radiological data. Two different subcutaneous tumors were examined by MR microangiography and DCE-MRI, the latter being post-processed using a pharmacokinetic two-compartment model. Subsequently, tumors were serially sectioned and vessels stained with immunofluorescence markers. A ray-tracing algorithm performed three-dimensional visualization of the histological data, allowing virtually reslicing to thicker sections analogous to MRI slice geometry. Thick slices were processed as parameter maps color coding the marker density in the depth of the slice. Histological 3D reconstructions displayed the diffuse angioarchitecture of malignant tumors. Resliced histological images enabled specification of high enhancing areas seen on MR microangiography as large single vessels or vessel assemblies. In orthogonally reconstructed histological slices, single vessels were delineated. ROI analysis showed significant correlation between histological parameter maps of vessel density and MR parameter maps (r=0.83, P=0.05). The 3D approach to histology improves correlation of histological and radiological data due to proper matching of slice geometry. This method can be used with any histological stain, thus enabling a multivariable correlation of non-invasive data and histology. (orig.)

  20. Histology study of the somatic embryogenesis in Agave fourcroydes Lem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Alemán García

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A histological study of the structures embryogenic formed from meristem of Agave fourcroydes, with the objective of observing the behavior of the somatic embryogenesis from the induction until the formation of the embryo was carried out. The meristem cultivated in vitro was subculture in modified MS medium the induction. The samples to be included intheresinJB–4weretakenperiodically.Thehistologicalscutsof5-10µmwerecarriedoutwithrotatorymicrotome and strained in 2% toluidine blue. The sections were observed and photographed in light microscopy Axioplan Zeiis with increases of 20X. The results show to the 60 days of culture the presence of cells meristematic pre-embrygenic. Embryos in different phases of formation globular and scutellum were observed in all the mass of the callus in the following subculture. Key words: Agavaceae, in vitro culture, embryo, histology

  1. Radiopacity and histological assessment of Portland cement plus bismuth oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho-Filho, Tauby; De-Deus, Gustavo; Klein, Leila; Manera, Gisele; Peixoto, Carla; Gurgel-Filho, Eduardo Diogo

    2008-12-01

    The present study evaluated the subcutaneous connective tissue reactions and the radiopacity of MTA, Portland cement (PC), and Portland cement plus bismuth oxide (BO). Forty rats were divided into 5 groups (n = 8 per group): A1: Control (empty capsule); A2: Pro-Root MTA; A3: PC; A4: PC + BO 1:1; and A5: PC + BO 2:1. Polyethylene tubes were filled with the test materials and standardized radiographic images were taken. Histological evaluation was done after 7 and 60 days. Student t test and Fisher's test were used in the statistical analysis (P A4 > A5 > A3. No differences were found for the tissue response in the 2 experimental periods. A positive correlation between BO concentration and radiopacity of PC was determined. The histological evaluation suggests that all studied materials were biocompatible at 7 and 60 days.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of massive bone allografts with histologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeffner, E.G.; Soulen, R.L.; Ryan, J.R.; Qureshi, F.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand the MRI appearance of massive bone allografts. The MRI findings of three massive bone allografts imaged in vivo were correlated with the histologic findings following removal of the allografts. A fourth allograft, never implanted, was imaged and evaluated histologically. Allografts were placed for the treatment of primary or recurrent osteosarcoma. The in-vivo allografts have a heterogeneous appearance on MRI which we attribute to the revascularization process. Fibrovascular connective tissue grows into the graft in a patchy, focal fashion, down the medullary canal from the graft-host junction and adjacent to the periosteum. The marrow spaces are initially devoid of normal cellular elements and occupied by fat and gelatinous material. This normal postoperative appearance of massive bone allografts must not be interpreted as recurrent neoplasm or infection in the allograft. Recognition of these complications rests on features outside the marrow. (orig./MG)

  3. Examination of Cervical Spine Histological Sections - A Technical Note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Ullerup, Rita; Vesterby, Annie

    2006-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the cervical spine facet joints morphology and anatomy is increasingly important since improved understanding of clinical syndromes, such as whiplash injuries, and therapeutic interventions is based on this knowledge. So far systematic examination of the age-related morphology...... of these joints has not yet been performed, nor has any generally accepted histological classification system for degenerative changes in the cervical spine facet joints been proposed. In the case of whiplash injuries the presented histological method has particular relevance since it allows detailed description...... of the anatomy and pathoanatomical status of the osteo-cartilagenous structures, including the facet joints from where a major portion of chronic whiplash patients experience their pain symptoms....

  4. Validation of optical coherence tomography in vivo using cryostat histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambichler, T; Moussa, G; Regeniter, P; Kasseck, C; Hofmann, M R; Bechara, F G; Sand, M; Altmeyer, P; Hoffmann, K

    2007-01-01

    We aimed to validate for the first time optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements of epidermal thickness (ET) using cryopreparation for histology. OCT assessments of ET were performed on healthy skin using the algorithms as follows: first, peak-to-valley analysis of the A-scan (ET-OCT-V), second, line-traced image analysis of the B-scan (ET-OCT-IA). Histology was performed using cryostat sections which were also evaluated using the image analysis (ET-Histo). We selected 114 samples, including B-scans and corresponding histology, for method comparison between ET-OCT-IA and ET-Histo. Forty-two A-scans were available for method comparison between ET-OCT-V and ET-Histo. Bland and Altman plots revealed a marked bias with wide 95% limits of agreement for ET-OCT-V versus ET-Histo. Comparison of ET-OCT-IA versus ET-Histo revealed only a slight bias and narrow 95% limits of agreement. A-scan analysis for ET determination is linked to significant limitations and lacks agreement with histology. By contrast, we observed satisfactory agreement between ET-OCT-IA and ET-Histo indicating that both methods can be utilized interchangeably. OCT using the line-traced image analysis of the B-scan appears to be a valid and relatively practicable method for the determination of ET in vivo. Furthermore, the comparisons with the in vivo OCT profiles demonstrate that cryostat sectioning provides a better preservation of relative and absolute dimensions of skin layers than paraffin embedding. (note)

  5. The method for glomerulations detection in histological images of prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavarzin, A. A.; Pronichev, A. N.; Rodionova, O. V.; Komochkina, E. A.; Prilepskaya, E. A.; Kovylina, M. V.

    2018-01-01

    In the work presented, a method for detecting glomeruli in pictures of histological preparations of the prostate gland is described, the presence of which indicates a malignant neoplasm. Pathological structures at the level of microimages are investigated. The developed method is the result of joint activity of the National Research Nuclear University "MEPhI" and the Moscow State Medical and Stomatological University named after A.I. Evdokimova.

  6. Observer reliability in assessing placental maturity by histology.

    OpenAIRE

    Khong, T Y; Staples, A; Bendon, R W; Chambers, H M; Gould, S J; Knowles, S; Shen-Schwarz, S

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To evaluate the ability of five experienced perinatal pathologists to assess placental maturity reliably by histology. METHODS--Twenty four haematoxylin and eosin slides, six each from placentas of 27, 31, 35, and 39 weeks' gestation, were circulated to five pathologists on three separate occasions. The slides were labelled with the correct or incorrect gestational ages. RESULTS--The mean absolute error over all 360 readings was 2.72 weeks. Only 54% of the slides were assessed within tw...

  7. Comparative digital cartilage histology for human and common osteoarthritis models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen DR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Douglas R Pedersen, Jessica E Goetz, Gail L Kurriger, James A MartinDepartment of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USAPurpose: This study addresses the species-specific and site-specific details of weight-bearing articular cartilage zone depths and chondrocyte distributions among humans and common osteoarthritis (OA animal models using contemporary digital imaging tools. Histological analysis is the gold-standard research tool for evaluating cartilage health, OA severity, and treatment efficacy. Historically, evaluations were made by expert analysts. However, state-of-the-art tools have been developed that allow for digitization of entire histological sections for computer-aided analysis. Large volumes of common digital cartilage metrics directly complement elucidation of trends in OA inducement and concomitant potential treatments.Materials and methods: Sixteen fresh human knees, 26 adult New Zealand rabbit stifles, and 104 bovine lateral plateaus were measured for four cartilage zones and the cell densities within each zone. Each knee was divided into four weight-bearing sites: the medial and lateral plateaus and femoral condyles.Results: One-way analysis of variance followed by pairwise multiple comparisons (Holm–Sidak method at a significance of 0.05 clearly confirmed the variability between cartilage depths at each site, between sites in the same species, and between weight-bearing articular cartilage definitions in different species.Conclusion: The present study clearly demonstrates multisite, multispecies differences in normal weight-bearing articular cartilage, which can be objectively quantified by a common digital histology imaging technique. The clear site-specific differences in normal cartilage must be taken into consideration when characterizing the pathoetiology of OA models. Together, these provide a path to consistently analyze the volume and variety of histologic slides necessarily generated

  8. Histological grading patterns in patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, K.; Ayaz, B.; Shaikh, A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the histological grading patterns in a cohort of hospitalized patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis. One hundred patients of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL), admitted in dermatology wards at PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi, were examined. Only admitted patients of all ages and both sexes were included in the study. Patients of CL, who had received or were receiving systemic treatment were excluded. The lesions having marked secondary bacterial infection were also excluded. Initial diagnosis was clinical. History of being to an endemic area supported the diagnosis. The lesions were divided in two groups. Early, with duration less than 03 months and late, with duration between 3 and 12 months. The clinical lesions were noted as nodules, plaques, ulcers, crusted ulcers, lupoid lesions and plaques with scarring. Three types of skin smears (slit skin smear, saline aspirate smear and dab smear) were taken and examined with Giemsa stain. Cultures were performed on Nicolle-Novy-MacNeal (NNN) culture medium from Defense Scientific and Technology Organization (DESTO) Lab., Pakistan. Incisional skin biopsies were done. The biopsy specimens were examined by hemotoxylin and eosin stain (H and E stain). The number of Leishmania Tropica (LT) bodies was graded according to modified Ridley's parasitic index 1983. Clinical features were correlated with the histological patterns. Five histological patterns were identified in current study: 1) diffuse dermal infiltration without necrosis, 2) patchy dermal infiltration, 3) diffuse dermal infiltration with necrosis, 4) early reactive granuloma formation and 5) established epithelioid granuloma formation. LT bodies were identified in 75% of cases. Epidermal features were non-specific. The early lesions presented with diffuse infiltrate and late lesions showed granuloma formation. Five distinct types of histological patterns of CL have been recognized in this study. The early lesions presented with diffuse infiltrate and late lesions

  9. Histologic response of soft tissue sarcoma to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willett, C.G.; Schiller, A.L.; Suit, H.D.; Mankin, H.J.; Rosenberg, A.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with soft tissue sarcoma had preoperative radiotherapy, limb-sparing marginal surgical resection and whole-mount tumor histologic analysis. Incisional biopsy specimens before radiotherapy were reviewed for tumor type, grade, and extent of necrosis. Preoperative radiotherapy was given in either of two regimens: 13 patients received a mean total dose of 5250 cGy in one daily 180 to 200 cGy fractions and 14 patients a mean total dose of 4770 cGy in two daily fractions of 180 to 200 cGy separated by 4 hours. Twenty-one specimens had at least 80% necrosis or severely altered cells, a 3+ to 4+ response. Grade and size of the tumor appeared to be indicators of response to treatment rather than histologic type. Three of five patients (60%) with Grade 1, eight of 11 patients (73%) with Grade 2 lesions, and ten of 11 patients (91%) with Grade 3 tumors had 80% or greater necrosis or severely altered cells. For tumors 10 cm or less in greatest diameter, the 3+ to 4+ histologic response was seen in 12 of 14 patients (86%) whereas for lesions greater than 10 cm, this response was observed in nine of 13 patients (69%). For patients with Grade 2 or 3 soft tissue sarcoma, 13 of 14 patients (93%) treated with two fractions per day and two of four patients (50%) receiving one fraction per day exhibited significant response. All six patients treated twice daily for lesions greater than 10 cm had 3+ to 4+ histologic response compared to three of seven (43%) patients treated once per day. Therefore, grade and size of soft tissue sarcoma are important predictors of response to radiotherapy and preoperative twice daily radiotherapy may more likely permit the conservative surgical excision of sarcomas of borderline resectability

  10. Reliability of histologic assessment in patients with eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warners, M J; Ambarus, C A; Bredenoord, A J; Verheij, J; Lauwers, G Y; Walsh, J C; Katzka, D A; Nelson, S; van Viegen, T; Furuta, G T; Gupta, S K; Stitt, L; Zou, G; Parker, C E; Shackelton, L M; D Haens, G R; Sandborn, W J; Dellon, E S; Feagan, B G; Collins, M H; Jairath, V; Pai, R K

    2018-04-01

    The validity of the eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) histologic scoring system (EoEHSS) has been demonstrated, but only preliminary reliability data exist. Formally assess the reliability of the EoEHSS and additional histologic features. Four expert gastrointestinal pathologists independently reviewed slides from adult patients with EoE (N = 45) twice, in random order, using standardised training materials and scoring conventions for the EoEHSS and additional histologic features agreed upon during a modified Delphi process. Intra- and inter-rater reliability for scoring the EoEHSS, a visual analogue scale (VAS) of overall histopathologic disease severity, and additional histologic features were assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Almost perfect intra-rater reliability was observed for the composite EoEHSS scores and the VAS. Inter-rater reliability was also almost perfect for the composite EoEHSS scores and substantial for the VAS. Of the EoEHSS items, eosinophilic inflammation was associated with the highest ICC estimates and consistent with almost perfect intra- and inter-rater reliability. With the exception of dyskeratotic epithelial cells and surface epithelial alteration, ICC estimates for the remaining EoEHSS items were above the benchmarks for substantial intra-rater, and moderate inter-rater reliability. Estimation of peak eosinophil count and number of lamina propria eosinophils were associated with the highest ICC estimates among the exploratory items. The composite EoEHSS and most component items are associated with substantial reliability when assessed by central pathologists. Future studies should assess responsiveness of the score to change after a therapeutic intervention to facilitate its use in clinical trials. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effect of hyaluronan on periodontitis: A clinical and histological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri Gontiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conventional, non-surgical periodontal therapy consists of supra- and subgingival tooth debridement. However, it is a technically demanding procedure and is not always efficient at eradicating all periodontal pathogens and in reducing inflammation. Therefore, local subgingival application of other chemotherapeutic agents may be used as an adjunct to non-surgical therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and histological outcomes of local subgingival application of 0.2% hyaluronic acid gel (GENGIGEL® as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty sites were chosen from 26 patients with chronic periodontitis (criteria being periodontal pockets ≥5mm. Experimental sites additionally received HA gel subgingivally at baseline, 1 st , 2 nd , and 3 rd week. Clinical parameters were re-assessed at 4 th , 6 th , and 12 th week. At 4 th week recall, a gingival biopsy was obtained from test and control site for histologic examination. Results: Intra-group analysis of all the clinical parameters at all sites from baseline to 4 th , 6 th , and 12 th week showed statistically significant changes. Experimental sites showed statistically significant improvement in Gingival index and Bleeding index at 6 th and 12 th week when compared with control sites. However, no statistically significant differences were observed in the PPD and RAL between control and experimental sites at 4 th , 6 th , and 12 th week time interval. No statistically significant association was found between the histological grading of the sites that received HA treatment. Conclusion: Subgingival placement of 0.2% HA gel along with SRP provided a significant improvement in gingival parameters. However, no additional benefit was found in periodontal parameters. Histologically, experimental sites showed reduced inflammatory infiltrate, but it was not statistically significant.

  12. Cutaneous Leiomyoma: Novel Histologic Findings for Classification and Diagnosis

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    Kambiz Kamyab Hesari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle tumors rather benign or malignant can arise wherever the muscular tissue presents but cutaneous leiomyoma is one of the rare benign tumors of the which even the diagnostic criteria from the malignant type of the tumor is still in doubt. This study was aimed to compare the subtypes of cutaneous leiomyoma from different histologic aspects in order to find unique criteria for better classification and diagnosis. The six year data base of our center was reviewed and 25 patients with cutaneous leiomyoma were included in this study. Of 25 patients, 5 were female and 20 were male. 5 patients had angioleiomyoma (ALM and 20 had pilar leiomyoma (PLM. ALM had following characteristics: dilated vascular canals intermingled with compact smooth muscle bundles; well circumscribe counter and myxoid and hyaline changes through the tumor. In contrast, PLMs had following histologic features: poor defined outline, entrapped hair follicles and eccrine glands, acanthosis and elongated rete ridges with hyperpigmentation and smooth muscle bundles which are interdigitated with elongated rete ridges. Here we introduced some distinct histological features for each subtype of the cutaneous leiomyoma which can lead to create novel criteria for classification and diagnosis of the lesion.

  13. Histological analysis of trachea and lung of newborn dogs

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    Andrezza Braga Soares da Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The neonatology science is, in Veterinary Medicine, studying the post-birth to the development of certain characteristics of resistance, which for canines occurs until the second week of life. The newborn requires a precise approach given the particularities of their physiology and immunology extremely immature. The histological study elucidates problems morphological and functional abnormalities, as it provides a reliable and microscopic analysis. Aimed to analyze trachea and lung of newborn dogs through techniques of basic histology. We used five neonates that died postpartum. These were weighed, measured and dissected. Proceeded to the extraction of the trachea, bronchus and lung for submitting these samples to histological routine. The tracheal tissue presents a pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with globet cells, a small amount of glands in the lamina propria and hyaline cartilage not fully developed. As regards the bronchial tissue may be observed well defined layers, pulmonary pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells in the lamina propria several bundles of smooth muscle and thick vascularized tissue. Likewise, the signs of bronchial cartilage present under development. The bronchioles also feature the common pulmonary epithelium and lamina propria also normal pens without smooth muscle. The bags alveolar lung cells showed typical. The lung tissues of newborn dogs present is still in development stage. It is possible to understand patterns of histogenesis and morphogenesis in newborn dogs.

  14. The Effect of Amifostine on Submandibular Gland Histology after Radiation

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    Jacqueline C. Junn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of amifostine on submandibular gland histology in patients receiving chemoradiation therapy. Methods. We conducted a retrospective submandibular gland histologic slide review of HNSCC patients receiving chemoradiation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with three different levels of amifostine exposure. We used six scoring parameters: fatty replacement, lobular architecture degeneration, interstitial fibrosis, ductal degeneration, acinar degeneration, and inflammatory component presence. Results. Differences in gender, tumor stage, amifostine dose, age, number of days after neck dissection, and smoking history (pack years exposure were not significant between the three groups, although there was a difference between groups in the primary subsite (P=0.006. The nonparametric Cuzick's test for histologic parameters with varied amifostine treatment showed no significance among the three groups. Conclusions. Although patients did not receive a full dose of amifostine due to side effects, varying doses of amifostine had no apparent evident cytoprotective effects in three groups of cancer patients treated with primary chemoradiation.

  15. Femoral neck buttressing: a radiographic and histologic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, T.; Benjamin, J.; Lund, P.; Graham, A.; Krupinski, E.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To examine the incidence, radiographic and histologic findings of medial femoral neck buttressing in a consecutive group of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty.Design. Biomechanical parameters were evaluated on standard anteroposterior pelvic radiographs of 113 patients prior to hip replacement surgery. Demographic information on all patients was reviewed and histologic evaluation was performed on specimens obtained at the time of surgery.Results. The incidence of medial femoral neck buttressing was found to be 50% in a consecutive series of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. The incidence was slightly higher in women (56% vs 41%). Patients with buttressing had increased neck-shaft angles and smaller femoral neck diameters than were seen in patients without buttressing. Histologic evaluation demonstrated that the buttress resulted from deposition bone by the periosteum on the femoral neck in the absence of any evidence of femoral neck fracture.Conclusion. It would appear that femoral neck buttressing occurs in response to increased joint reactive forces seen at the hip being transmitted through the femoral neck. The increased joint reactive force can be related to the increased neck shaft angle seen in patients with buttressing. (orig.)

  16. The human sunburn reaction: histologic and biochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilchrest, B.A.; Soter, N.A.; Stoff, J.S.; Mihm, M.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The ultraviolet-induced erythema reaction was investigated histologically and biochemically in four subjects, utilizing suction blister aspirates, analyzed for histamine and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and Epon-embedded 1-mu skin biopsy sections from control skin and from irradiated skin at intervals for 72 hours after exposure to a Hanovia lamp. Major histologic alterations in the epidermis included dyskeratotic and vacuolated keratinocytes (sunburn cells), and disappearance of Langerhans cells. In the dermis the major changes were vascular, involving both the superficial and deep venular plexuses. Endothelial cell enlargement was first apparent within 30 minutes of irradiation, peaked at 24 hours, and persisted throughout the 72-hour study period. Mast cell degranulation and associated perivenular edema were first apparent at 1 hour and striking at the onset of erythema, 3 to 4 hours postirradiation; edema was absent and mast cells were again normal in number and granule content at 24 hours. Histamine levels rose approximately fourfold above control values immediately after the onset of erythema and returned to baseline within 24 hours. PGE2 levels were statistically elevated even before the onset of erythema and reached approximately 150% of the control value at 24 hours. These data provide the first evidence that histamine may mediate the early phase of the human sunburn reaction and increase our understanding of its complex histologic and biochemical sequelae

  17. Prognosis and histology in Stage I nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, D.; Ho, J.H.C.; Fong, M.; Chan, C.L.; Tse, C.H.; Lau, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    During 1969-1975, 212 new patients with Stage I nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with a tumor apparently confined to the nasopharynx were treated at Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kowloon, Hong Kong. The initial histologies of 137 patients were available for review and further studies. The primary tumors were histologically classified into two major types - squamous cell carcinoma (35 patients) and undifferentiated carcinoma (102 patients). The latter was further divided into 4 sub-types: lymphoepithelioma of the Schmincke type, lymphoepithelioma of the Regaud type, spindle cell carcinoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharyngeal type. Such histological typing of the initial tumor was not of value in predicting the clinical outcome, whether in terms of 5-year crude or disease-free survival rate, or the tendency of the tumor to develop recurrence at the primary site, or distance metastases after a standardized course of radiation therapy. There is not significant correlation between the extent of mononuclear infiltration nor fibrosis in the tumor stroma and the survival or tumor control rates

  18. Histologic scoring of gastritis and gastric cancer in mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Arlin B

    2012-01-01

    Histopathology is a defining endpoint in mouse models of experimental gastritis and gastric adenocarcinoma. Presented here is an overview of the histology of gastritis and gastric cancer in mice experimentally infected with Helicobacter pylori or H. felis. A modular histopathologic scoring scheme is provided that incorporates relevant disease-associated changes. Whereas the guide uses Helicobacter infection as the prototype challenge, features may be applied to chemical and genetically engineered mouse models of stomach cancer as well. Specific criteria included in the combined gastric histologic activity index (HAI) include inflammation, epithelial defects, oxyntic atrophy, hyperplasia, pseudopyloric metaplasia, and dysplasia or neoplasia. Representative photomicrographs accompany descriptions for each lesion grade. Differentiation of genuine tumor invasion from pseudoinvasion is highlighted. A brief comparison of normal rodent versus human stomach anatomy and physiology is accompanied by an introduction to mouse-specific lesions including mucous metaplasia and eosinophilic droplets (hyalinosis). In conjunction with qualified pathology support, this guide is intended to assist research scientists, postdoctoral fellows, graduate students, and medical professionals from affiliated disciplines in the interpretation and histologic grading of chronic gastritis and gastric carcinoma in mouse models.

  19. CT Perfusion evaluation of gastric cancer. Correlation with histologic type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Ho; Joo, Ijin [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-02-15

    To prospectively evaluate if the perfusion parameters of gastric cancer can provide information on histologic subtypes of gastric cancer. We performed preoperative perfusion CT (PCT) and curative gastrectomy in 46 patients. PCT data were analysed using a dedicated software program. Perfusion parameters were obtained by two independent radiologists and were compared according to histologic type using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U test and receiver operating characteristic analysis. To assess inter-reader agreement, we used intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Inter-reader agreement for perfusion parameters was moderate to substantial (ICC = 0.585-0.678). Permeability surface value of poorly cohesive carcinoma (PCC) was significantly higher than other histologic types (47.3 ml/100 g/min in PCC vs 26.5 ml/100 g/min in non-PCC, P < 0.001). Mean transit time (MTT) of PCC was also significantly longer than non-PCC (13.0 s in PCC vs 10.3 s in non-PCC, P = 0.032). The area under the curve to predict PCC was 0.891 (P < 0.001) for permeability surface and 0.697 (P = 0.015) for MTT. Obtaining perfusion parameters from PCT was feasible in gastric cancer patients and can aid in the preoperative imaging diagnosis of PCC-type gastric cancer as the permeability surface and MTT value of PCC type gastric cancer were significantly higher than those of non-PCC. (orig.)

  20. CT Perfusion evaluation of gastric cancer. Correlation with histologic type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Ho; Joo, Ijin; Kim, Se Hyung; Han, Joon Koo

    2018-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate if the perfusion parameters of gastric cancer can provide information on histologic subtypes of gastric cancer. We performed preoperative perfusion CT (PCT) and curative gastrectomy in 46 patients. PCT data were analysed using a dedicated software program. Perfusion parameters were obtained by two independent radiologists and were compared according to histologic type using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U test and receiver operating characteristic analysis. To assess inter-reader agreement, we used intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Inter-reader agreement for perfusion parameters was moderate to substantial (ICC = 0.585-0.678). Permeability surface value of poorly cohesive carcinoma (PCC) was significantly higher than other histologic types (47.3 ml/100 g/min in PCC vs 26.5 ml/100 g/min in non-PCC, P < 0.001). Mean transit time (MTT) of PCC was also significantly longer than non-PCC (13.0 s in PCC vs 10.3 s in non-PCC, P = 0.032). The area under the curve to predict PCC was 0.891 (P < 0.001) for permeability surface and 0.697 (P = 0.015) for MTT. Obtaining perfusion parameters from PCT was feasible in gastric cancer patients and can aid in the preoperative imaging diagnosis of PCC-type gastric cancer as the permeability surface and MTT value of PCC type gastric cancer were significantly higher than those of non-PCC. (orig.)

  1. A Chemoenzymatic Histology Method for O-GlcNAc Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Aime Lopez; Hou, Xiaomeng; Wen, Liuqing; Wang, Peng G; Wu, Peng

    2017-12-14

    Modification of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins by the addition or removal of O-GlcNAc dynamically impacts multiple biological processes. Here, we present the development of a chemoenzymatic histology method for the detection of O-GlcNAc in tissue specimens. We applied this method to screen murine organs, uncovering specific O-GlcNAc distribution patterns in different tissue structures. We then utilized our histology method for O-GlcNAc detection in human brain specimens from healthy donors and donors with Alzheimer's disease and found higher levels of O-GlcNAc in specimens from healthy donors. We also performed an analysis using a multiple cancer tissue array, uncovering different O-GlcNAc levels between healthy and cancerous tissues, as well as different O-GlcNAc cellular distributions within certain tissue specimens. This chemoenzymatic histology method therefore holds great potential for revealing the biology of O-GlcNAc in physiopathological processes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Histological study of rat masseter muscle following experimental occlusal alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishide, N; Baba, S; Hori, N; Nishikawa, H

    2001-03-01

    It has been suggested that occlusal interference results in masticatory muscle dysfunction. In our previous study, occlusal interference reduced the rat masseter energy level during masticatory movements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the histological alterations of rat masseter muscles following experimental occlusal alteration with unilateral bite-raising. A total of eight male adult Wistar rats were equally divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental rats wore bite-raising splints on the unilateral upper molar. However, 4 weeks after the operation, the anterior deep masseter muscles were removed and then stained for succinic acid dehydrogenase (SDH), haematoxylin eosin (HE) and myofibrillar ATPase. Most of the muscle fibres in experimental rats remained intact, although partial histological changes were observed, such as extended connective tissue, appearance of inflammatory cells in the muscle fibres and existence of muscle fibres with central nuclei and central cores. Moreover, the fibre area-fibre frequency histograms of experimental muscle indicated a broad pattern than that of controls. These results indicated that occlusal interference caused histological changes in masseter muscles and that this may be related to the fact that the masseter energy level was reduced during masticatory movements in unilateral bite-raised rats.

  3. Modified paraffin wax for improvement of histological analysis efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin Ik; Lim, Kook-Jin; Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2010-08-01

    Paraffin wax is usually used as an embedding medium for histological analysis of natural tissue. However, it is not easy to obtain enough numbers of satisfactory sectioned slices because of the difference in mechanical properties between the paraffin and embedded tissue. We describe a modified paraffin wax that can improve the histological analysis efficiency of natural tissue, composed of paraffin and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) resin (0, 3, 5, and 10 wt %). Softening temperature of the paraffin/EVA media was similar to that of paraffin (50-60 degrees C). The paraffin/EVA media dissolved completely in xylene after 30 min at 50 degrees C. Physical properties such as the amount of load under the same compressive displacement, elastic recovery, and crystal intensity increased with increased EVA content. EVA medium (5 wt %) was regarded as an optimal composition, based on the sectioning efficiency measured by the numbers of unimpaired sectioned slices, amount of load under the same compressive displacement, and elastic recovery test. Based on the staining test of sectioned slices embedded in a 5 wt % EVA medium by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson trichrome (MT), and other staining tests, it was concluded that the modified paraffin wax can improve the histological analysis efficiency with various natural tissues. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Histologic definition of gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasoma, Parakrama T

    2013-07-01

    To review recent data supporting the development of new histology-based definitions of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Three precisely definable columnar epithelial types--cardiac, oxyntocardiac and intestinal--may be interposed between esophageal squamous epithelium and gastric oxyntic (acid secreting) mucosa. This enables definition of a new histologic concept: the squamo-oxyntic gap. The squamo-oxyntic gap is zero or very small in autopsies performed on patients without evidence of GERD. The gap progressively increases in length with the severity of GERD, indicating that the squamo-oxyntic gap is a marker for chronic GERD. The distal part of the gap lines gastric-type rugal folds and, therefore, is distal to the present endoscopic definition of the gastro-esophageal junction. I contend that this distal gap segment (which has esophageal submucosal glands) is actually the dilated distal esophagus; this is the pathologic correlate of destruction of the abdominal segment of the lower esophageal sphincter. The dilated distal esophagus is mistaken for 'gastric cardia' by present endoscopic definitions. I believe that these data support the adoption of novel histologic definitions of GERD as follows: the presence of any squamo-oxyntic gap defines GERD; the length of the gap is a measure of severity of chronic GERD; and the presence of intestinal metaplasia in the gap defines Barrett esophagus and cancer risk.

  5. A comparative study between magnetic resonance imaging and histological findings of bone and soft tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Koichi

    1995-01-01

    Diagnostic methodology for bone and soft tissue tumors has made great strides recently through the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here we report a comparative assessment of the histological findings of bone and soft tissue tumors with MRI from 212 cases. The accuracy of a qualitative diagnosis was observed in a solitary bone cyst, enchondroma, giant cell tumor, chondrosarcoma, lipoma, hemangioma, neurinoma, and in a synovial cyst. However, the qualitative diagnosis of a malignant tumor was difficult because of the variety of the intratumoral histological changes. An enhanced-image using Gd-DTPA was useful for differentiation of the viable region in the internal area of a tumor, discrimination of the reactive zone of an edema or assessing vascularity, and for discrimination between a cyst and a solid tumor. Based on comparison with findings from the excised specimen, it was found that histological changes such as calcification, fibrosis, hemorrhaging and necrosis, and the presence or absence of a tumor capsule had been reflected accurately on MR images. However, infiltration of the tumor into the bone cortex and into the articular cartilage were found frequently to be false-positive on MRI. Although problems remained to be solved regarding the evaluation of the presence or absence of tumor infiltration into adjacent tissue, the depiction of periosteal reaction, and regarding differentiation from inflammatory disease, MRI was a very useful information source for operative planning because it could evaluate the relationship between the tumor and adjacent blood vessels or nerves, the effect of preoperative therapy, and effectively discriminate between benign and malignant tumors. (author)

  6. Comparisons Between Histology and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of the Periarterial Capillary-Free Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaratnasingam, Chandrakumar; An, Dong; Sakurada, Yoichi; Lee, Cecilia S; Lee, Aaron Y; McAllister, Ian L; Freund, K Bailey; Sarunic, Marinko; Yu, Dao-Yi

    2018-05-01

    To use the capillary-free zone along retinal arteries, a physiologic area of superficial avascularization, as an anatomic paradigm to investigate the reliability of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) for visualizing the deep retinal circulation. Validity analysis and laboratory investigation. Five normal human donor eyes (mean age 69.8 years) were perfusion-labeled with endothelial antibodies and the capillary networks of the perifovea were visualized using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Regions of the capillary-free zone along the retinal artery were imaged using OCTA in 16 normal subjects (age range 24-51 years). Then, 3 × 3-mm scans were acquired using the RTVue XR Avanti (ver. 2016.1.0.26; Optovue, Inc, Fremont, California, USA), PLEX Elite 9000 (ver. 1.5.0.15909; Zeiss Meditec, Inc, Dublin, California, USA), Heidelberg Spectralis OCT2 (Family acquisition module 6.7.21.0; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), and DRI-OCT Triton (Ver. 1.1.1; Topcon Corp, Tokyo, Japan). Images of the superficial plexus, deep vascular plexus, and a slab containing all vascular plexuses were generated using manufacturer-recommended default settings. Comparisons between histology and OCTA were performed. Histologic analysis revealed that the capillary-free zone along the retinal artery was confined to the plane of the superficial capillary plexus and did not include the intermediate and deep capillary plexuses. Images derived from OCTA instruments demonstrated a prominent capillary-free zone along the retinal artery in slabs of the superficial plexus, deep plexus, and all capillary plexuses. The number of deep retinal capillaries seen in the capillary-free zone was significantly greater on histology than on OCTA (P zone as an anatomic paradigm, we show that the deep vascular beds of the retina are not completely visualized using OCTA. This may be a limitation of current OCTA techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Latent heat loss and sweat gland histology of male goats in an equatorial semi-arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Costa, Cíntia Carol; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Neto, José Domingues Fontenele; Oliveira, Steffan Edward Octávio; de Queiroz, João Paulo Araújo Fernandes

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this work was to quantify the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation of goats in an equatorial semi-arid environment. The latent heat loss from the body surfaces of these ten undefined breed goats was measured using a ventilated capsule in sun and shade and in the three body regions (neck, flank and hindquarters). Skin samples from these three regions were histologically analyzed to relate the quantity of sweat glands, the area of sweat glands and the epithelium thickness of each of these regions to the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation of the examined goats. The epithelium thickness that was measured varied significantly for body regions with different quantities and areas of sweat glands ( P < 0.01). Among the body regions that were examined, the samples from the neck demonstrated the highest epithelium thickness (16.23 ± 0.13 μm). However, the samples of sweat glands from the flank had the biggest area (43330.51 ± 778.71 μm2) and quantity per square centimeter (390 ± 9 cm-2). After the animals were exposed to sun, the flanks lost the greatest amount of heat by cutaneous evaporation (73.03 ± 1.75 W m-2) and possessed the highest surface temperatures (39.47 ± 0.18 °C). The histological characteristics may have influenced the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation that was observed in the flank region after the animals were exposed to sun.

  8. Histological and elemental changes in the rat brain after local irradiation with carbon ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Sentaro; Sun, Xue-Zhi; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Takai, Nobuhiko; Nojima, Kumie [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    The left cerebral hemispheres of adult Sprague-Dawley rat brains were irradiated at doses of 30, 50, or 100 Gy with charged carbon particles (290 MeV/nucleon; 5 mm spread-out Bragg peak). The spread-out Bragg peak used here successfully and satisfactorily retained its high-dose localization in the defined region. A histological examination showed that necrotic tissue damage, hemorrhage in the thalamus, and vasodilatations around the necrotic region were induced at 8 weeks after 100 Gy irradiation. The regions with tissue damage correlated well with those expected from the radiation-dose distribution, indicating an advantage of charged carbon particles for irradiating restricted brain regions. An X-ray fluorescent analysis demonstrated a decrease in the concentrations of K and P, and an increase in the concentrations of Cl, Fe, Zn in the damaged region at 8 weeks post-irradiation, though no significant changes were observed before 4 weeks of post-irradiation. This may indicate that even the very high radiation doses used here did not induce acute and immediate neuronal cell death, in contrast with ischemic brain injury where acute neuronal cell death occurred and the elemental concentrations changed within a day after the induction of ischemia. (author)

  9. Correlation of laminated MR apperance of articular cartilage with histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Joon; Suh, Jin Suck; Jeong, Eun Kee; Shin, Kyu Ho; Yang, Woo Ick

    1999-01-01

    To determine the correlation of laminae of different signal intensities (SI) of articular cartilage, as seen on magnetic resonance(MR) imaging with histologic layers, using artificially constructed landmarks. For a landmark that can exactly correlate the cartilage specimen with the MR image, five 'V'-shaped markings of different depths were made on the surface of bovine patella. Both T1-weighted (TR/TE : 300/14) and FSE T2-weighted images (TR/TE : 2000/53) were obtained on a 1.5T system with high gradient echo strength (25mT/m) and a voxel size of 78X78X2000μm. Images were obtained with 1) changed frequency-encoding directions on T1-weighted study, and 2) changed readout gradient strength ( X2, X1/2) on T2-weighted sequence. Raw image data were transferred to a workstation and signal intensity profile was generated for each image. 1 : 1 correlation of histologic specimens and MR images was performed. Line profile through the cartilage showed few peaks, suggesting changes in signal intensity profile in the cartilage. On the basis of artificial landmarks, the histologic zone was accurately identified. The histologic tangential and transitional zones correlated with superficial high SI on T1WI, as well as high and low SI on T2WI. On T1WI, the radial zone correlated with a lamina of intermediate SI, and on T2WI, with a lamina for which SI gradually decreased from high to low. Additional well-defined low and intermediate SI bands were noted on bovine T1WI in the lower radial zone. In both T1 and T2 studies, calcified cartilage layers were of low SI. On T1-weighted study, changes in the direction of frequency gradient did not lead to changes in the laminae. The alteration of readout gradient strengths did not result in an inversely proportional difference in the thickness of the laminae. These became more distinct thus ruling out chemical shift and susceptibility artifacts. The laminated appearance of articular cartilage, as seen on spin echo and fast spin-echo MR

  10. Early Cerebral Hemodynamic, Metabolic, and Histological Changes in Hypoxic-Ischemic Fetal Lambs during Postnatal Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Santano, Carmen; Mielgo, Victoria E; Gastiasoro, Elena; Murgia, Xabier; Lafuente, Hector; Ruiz-Del-Yerro, Estibaliz; Valls-I-Soler, Adolf; Hilario, Enrique; Alvarez, Francisco J

    2011-01-01

    The hemodynamic, metabolic, and biochemical changes produced during the transition from fetal to neonatal life may be aggravated if an episode of asphyxia occurs during fetal life. The aim of the study was to examine regional cerebral blood flow (RCBF), histological changes, and cerebral brain metabolism in preterm lambs, and to analyze the role of oxidative stress in the first hours of postnatal life following severe fetal asphyxia. Eighteen chronically instrumented newborn lambs were randomly assigned to either a control group or the hypoxic-ischemic (HI) group, in which case fetal asphyxia was induced just before delivery. All the animals were maintained on intermittent positive pressure ventilation for 3 h after delivery. During the HI insult, the injured group developed acidosis, hypoxia, hypercapnia, lactic acidosis, and tachycardia (relative to the control group), without hypotension. The intermittent positive pressure ventilation transiently improved gas exchange and cardiovascular parameters. After HI injury and during ventilatory support, there continued to be an increased RCBF in inner regions among the HI group, but no significant differences were detected in cortical flow compared to the control group. Also, the magnitude of the increase in TUNEL positive cells (apoptosis) and antioxidant enzymes, and decrease of ATP reserves was significantly greater in the brain regions where the RCBF was not higher. In conclusion, our findings identify early metabolic, histological, and hemodynamic changes involved in brain damage in premature asphyxiated lambs. Such changes have been described in human neonates, so our model could be useful to test the safety and the effectiveness of different neuroprotective or ventilation strategies applied in the first hours after fetal HI injury.

  11. Ultrasonographic, endoscopic and histological appearances of the caecum in cats presenting with chronic clinical signs of caecocolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Harriet; Pey, Pascaline; Baril, Aurélie; Charpentier, Julie; Desquilbet, Loic; Le Poder, Sophie; Château-Joubert, Sophie; Laloy, Eve; Freiche, Valerie

    2017-02-01

    sole methods to investigate the ileocaecocolic region in cats with clinical signs suggestive of caecocolic disease. The presence of chronic clinical signs should routinely prompt histological biopsy.

  12. Using LEAN principles to improve quality, patient safety, and workflow in histology and anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Leo; Hegge, Pamela; Sato, Brendon; Richmond, Barbara; Stahnke, Lennis

    2010-05-01

    Histology and anatomic pathology have historically been slow to accept many of the process changes that have been widely accepted in the clinical laboratory. In this article, we describe the application of the Toyota Production System (LEAN) to histology and anatomic pathology as implemented at the Avera McKennan Hospital laboratory. Avera McKennan is the flagship hospital of the Avera Health System, a faith based, not for profit healthcare system based in South Dakota. Comprised of 235 hospitals, clinics, and physicians, with over 12,000 employees, Avera Health is one of the largest healthcare systems in the region. Beginning in 2004, Avera McKennan's laboratory began its "LEAN journey" and in the intervening years has expanded it throughout all areas of the laboratory. Following the example set by the laboratory, many other areas of the hospital have joined in the LEAN Process Improvement journey. In January 2009, the Avera McKennan Laboratory became the first hospital laboratory in the US to achieve the CAP ISO-15189 accreditation in both clinical and anatomic pathology.

  13. Morphometric and Histological Study of Osteophytes in Human Cadaveric Lumbar Vertebrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Aithal Padur

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteophytes are bony outgrowth on the vertebral column. Its prevalence in the lumbar region and clinical importance mandates to conduct a detailed study of lumbar osteophytes in the cadaveric vertebral column. Aim: The present study was conducted to study the detailed features of lumbar osteophytes and document its prevalence, morphometric and histological structure. Materials and Methods: This was an observational study in which frequency of occurrence of lumbar osteophytes was studied in 40 cadaveric vertebral columns over a period of four years. The lumbar part of the vertebral columns was dissected and examined meticulously. The occurrence of lumbar osteophytes with their vertebral levels and morphometric measurements were recorded. A small excision of the osteophyte was processed histologically to study its microscopic details using routine Haematoxylin & Eosin stain. Results: Lumbar osteophytes were present in 4 specimens (10%. They were mostly found on the right side of the vertebral bodies. Histopathological examination of the osteophytes revealed degenerative osteophytic cartilage and fibrillation overlying the trabecular bone enclosing fatty marrow spaces containing haematopoietic elements. Conclusion: Lumbar osteophytes were found in 10% of the specimens studied and it is assumed that these cadaveric reports deserve further attention given their potential clinical implications. Knowledge regarding occurrence and incidence of osteophytes is essential for management of common degenerative changes of the vertebral column.

  14. Identifying ambiguous prostate gland contours from histology using capsule shape information and least squares curve fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Rania [DigiPen Institute of Technology, Department of Computer Engineering, Redmond, WA (United States); McKenzie, Frederic D. [Old Dominion University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2007-12-15

    To obtain an accurate assessment of the percentage and depth of extra-capsular soft tissue removed with the prostate by the various surgical techniques in order to help surgeons in determining the appropriateness of different surgical approaches. This can be enhanced by an accurate and automated means of identifying the prostate gland contour. To facilitate 3D reconstruction and, ultimately, more accurate analyses, it is essential for us to identify the capsule boundary that separates the prostate gland tissue from its extra-capsular tissue. However, the capsule is sometimes unrecognizable due to the naturally occurring intrusion of muscle and connective tissue into the prostate gland. At these regions where the capsule disappears, its contour can be arbitrarily created with a continuing contour line based on the natural shape of the prostate. We utilize an algorithm based on a least squares curve fitting technique that uses a prostate shape equation to merge previously detected capsule parts with the shape equation to produce an approximated curve that represents the prostate capsule. We have tested our algorithm using three different shapes on 13 histologic prostate slices that are cut at different locations from the apex. The best result shows a 90% average contour match when compared to pathologist-drawn contours. We believe that automatically identifying histologic prostate contours will lead to increased objective analyses of surgical margins and extracapsular spread of cancer. Our results show that this is achievable. (orig.)

  15. Identifying ambiguous prostate gland contours from histology using capsule shape information and least squares curve fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Rania; McKenzie, Frederic D.

    2007-01-01

    To obtain an accurate assessment of the percentage and depth of extra-capsular soft tissue removed with the prostate by the various surgical techniques in order to help surgeons in determining the appropriateness of different surgical approaches. This can be enhanced by an accurate and automated means of identifying the prostate gland contour. To facilitate 3D reconstruction and, ultimately, more accurate analyses, it is essential for us to identify the capsule boundary that separates the prostate gland tissue from its extra-capsular tissue. However, the capsule is sometimes unrecognizable due to the naturally occurring intrusion of muscle and connective tissue into the prostate gland. At these regions where the capsule disappears, its contour can be arbitrarily created with a continuing contour line based on the natural shape of the prostate. We utilize an algorithm based on a least squares curve fitting technique that uses a prostate shape equation to merge previously detected capsule parts with the shape equation to produce an approximated curve that represents the prostate capsule. We have tested our algorithm using three different shapes on 13 histologic prostate slices that are cut at different locations from the apex. The best result shows a 90% average contour match when compared to pathologist-drawn contours. We believe that automatically identifying histologic prostate contours will lead to increased objective analyses of surgical margins and extracapsular spread of cancer. Our results show that this is achievable. (orig.)

  16. Histological analysis of the alterations on cortical bone channels network after radiotherapy: A rabbit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Gustavo Davi; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; Dechichi, Paula

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiotherapy in cortical bone channels network. Fourteen rabbits were divided in two groups and test group received single dose of 15 Gy cobalt-60 radiation in tibia, bilaterally. The animals were sacrificed and a segment of tibia was removed and histologically processed. Histological images were taken and had their bone channels segmented and called regions of interest (ROI). Images were analyzed through developed algorithms using the SCILAB mathematical environment, getting percentage of bone matrix, ROI areas, ROI perimeters, their standard deviations and Lacunarity. The osteocytes and empty lacunae were also counted. Data were evaluated using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann Whitney, and Student's t test (P < 0.05). Significant differences in bone matrix percentage, area and perimeters of the channels, their respective standard deviations and lacunarity were found between groups. In conclusion, the radiotherapy causes reduction of bone matrix and modifies the morphology of bone channels network. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Glioblastomas with oligodendroglial component - common origin of the different histological parts and genetic subclassification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, Barbara; Schlingelhof, Ben; Klink, Martin; Stout-Weider, Karen; Patt, Stephan; Schrock, Evelin

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastomas are the most common and most malignant brain tumors in adults. A small subgroup of glioblastomas contains areas with histological features of oligodendroglial differentiation (GBMO). Our objective was to genetically characterize the oligodendroglial and the astrocytic parts of GBMOs and correlate morphologic and genetic features with clinical data. The oligodendroglial and the "classic" glioblastoma parts of 13 GBMO were analyzed separately by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on paraffin sections using a custom probe set (regions 1p, 1q, 7q, 10q, 17p, 19q, cen18, 21q) and by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) of microdissected paraffin embedded tumor tissue. We identified four distinct genetic subtypes in 13 GBMOs: an "astrocytic" subtype (9/13) characterized by +7/-10; an "oligodendroglial" subtype with -1p/-19q (1/13); an "intermediate" subtype showing +7/-1p (1/13), and an "other" subtype having none of the former aberrations typical for gliomas (2/13). The different histological tumor parts of GBMO revealed common genetic changes in all tumors and showed additional aberrations specific for each part. Our findings demonstrate the monoclonal origin of GBMO followed by the development of the astrocytic and oligodendroglial components. The diagnostic determination of the genetic signatures may allow for a better prognostication of the patients.

  18. Glioblastomas with Oligodendroglial Component – Common Origin of the Different Histological Parts and Genetic Subclassification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, Barbara; Schlingelhof, Ben; Klink, Martin; Stout-Weider, Karen; Patt, Stephan; Schrock, Evelin

    2010-01-01

    Background: Glioblastomas are the most common and most malignant brain tumors in adults. A small subgroup of glioblastomas contains areas with histological features of oligodendroglial differentiation (GBMO). Our objective was to genetically characterize the oligodendroglial and the astrocytic parts of GBMOs and correlate morphologic and genetic features with clinical data. Methods: The oligodendroglial and the “classic” glioblastoma parts of 13 GBMO were analyzed separately by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on paraffin sections using a custom probe set (regions 1p, 1q, 7q, 10q, 17p, 19q, cen18, 21q) and by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) of microdissected paraffin embedded tumor tissue. Results: We identified four distinct genetic subtypes in 13 GBMOs: an “astrocytic” subtype (9/13) characterized by +7/−10; an “oligodendroglial” subtype with −1p/−19q (1/13); an “intermediate” subtype showing +7/−1p (1/13), and an “other” subtype having none of the former aberrations typical for gliomas (2/13). The different histological tumor parts of GBMO revealed common genetic changes in all tumors and showed additional aberrations specific for each part. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate the monoclonal origin of GBMO followed by the development of the astrocytic and oligodendroglial components. The diagnostic determination of the genetic signatures may allow for a better prognostication of the patients. PMID:20966543

  19. Comparative histology in the liver and spleen of three species of freshwater teleost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila F. Sales

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We describe and compare the histology of liver and spleen ofGeophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes, Hypostomus francisci (Siluriformes and Hoplias aff. malabaricus (Characiformes, tropical freshwater fishes. InG. brasiliensisandH. aff. malabaricusthe hepatocytes were arranged in tubular form whereas in H. franciscithey cord-like. In all species, hepatocytes presented glycogen, but in G. brasiliensis and H. aff. malabaricus they showed strong stained for hemossiderin in the cytoplasm. InG. brasiliensis and H. aff. malabaricus, melanomacrophage centres (MMCs were associated to hepatic structures and only in G. brasiliensis was observed intrahepatic exocrine pancreas. The spleen, in all species, was characterized by red and white pulp without boundary between the two regions, but only in H. francisci was recorded nodular organization in splenic parenchyma. The G. brasiliensisandH. aff. malabaricuspresented in the white pulp MMCs linked mainly to ellipsoids. Besides, we observed large MMCs in the spleen in relation to liver of G. brasiliensis and H. aff. malabaricus. In liver, highest values of reticular fibers and collagen were observed inG. brasiliensis. In spleen, highest values of reticular fibers and collagen were recorded inH. aff. malabaricusandH. francisci, respectively. Histological differences confirm the hypothesis that the phylogenetic distance is reflected in liver and spleen.

  20. A histological and clinical study on oral cancer: descriptive analyses of 365 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Gonçalo Seguro; Almeida, Arlindo Pereira de

    2007-11-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death in Portugal right after cardio vascular diseases. In Portugal the incidence of oral and pharynx cancer (OPC) is higher than uterus and larynx cancers, and in US its frequency is higher than melanoma or uterus cancer, diseases that concern more population than oral cancer. The aim of this paper is to identify preferable anatomic location for oral cancer, mean age of patients, the use of tobacco and alcohol, histological characteristics, staging, type of therapeutics, presence of metastases and 1 and 5 year follow up. Data was collected from clinical charts of 365 cases from the Centro de Lisboa do Instituto Portugues de Oncologia with histological confirmation of malign tumor of the mouth. These cases are the total of oral malign tumors in the years of 1997, 1998 and 1999 in that institution. We observe that despite modern diagnostic and treatment techniques 37,9% of all patients died after first year with evidence of tumor. From all patients just 23,7% were free of disease after 5 years of treatment. Tongue was the principal region affected and the average age was 62, 25 years. It was concluded that 57, 8% of patient were smokers and 43,8% were alcohol drinkers. A high number of patients were submitted to radiotherapy either alone or with other treatment options.

  1. Slide-free histology via MUSE: UV surface excitation microscopy for imaging unsectioned tissue (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Richard M.; Harmany, Zachary; Demos, Stavros G.; Fereidouni, Farzad

    2016-03-01

    Widely used methods for preparing and viewing tissue specimens at microscopic resolution have not changed for over a century. They provide high-quality images but can involve time-frames of hours or even weeks, depending on logistics. There is increasing interest in slide-free methods for rapid tissue analysis that can both decrease turn-around times and reduce costs. One new approach is MUSE (microscopy with UV surface excitation), which exploits the shallow penetration of UV light to excite fluorescent signals from only the most superficial tissue elements. The method is non-destructive, and eliminates requirement for conventional histology processing, formalin fixation, paraffin embedding, or thin sectioning. It requires no lasers, confocal, multiphoton or optical coherence tomography optics. MUSE generates diagnostic-quality histological images that can be rendered to resemble conventional hematoxylin- and eosin-stained samples, with enhanced topographical information, from fresh or fixed, but unsectioned tissue, rapidly, with high resolution, simply and inexpensively. We anticipate that there could be widespread adoption in research facilities, hospital-based and stand-alone clinical settings, in local or regional pathology labs, as well as in low-resource environments.

  2. Multi-Resolution Wavelet-Transformed Image Analysis of Histological Sections of Breast Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Gil Hwang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-resolution images of histological sections of breast cancer tissue were analyzed using texture features of Haar- and Daubechies transform wavelets. Tissue samples analyzed were from ductal regions of the breast and included benign ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, and invasive ductal carcinoma (CA. To assess the correlation between computerized image analysis and visual analysis by a pathologist, we created a two-step classification system based on feature extraction and classification. In the feature extraction step, we extracted texture features from wavelet-transformed images at 10× magnification. In the classification step, we applied two types of classifiers to the extracted features, namely a statistics-based multivariate (discriminant analysis and a neural network. Using features from second-level Haar transform wavelet images in combination with discriminant analysis, we obtained classification accuracies of 96.67 and 87.78% for the training and testing set (90 images each, respectively. We conclude that the best classifier of carcinomas in histological sections of breast tissue are the texture features from the second-level Haar transform wavelet images used in a discriminant function.

  3. Relationship between reflection spectra of breast adipose tissue with histologic grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Morales, Aarón; Vázquez Y Montiel, Sergio; Reigosa, Aldo

    2011-08-01

    Optical spectroscopy allows the characterization, recognition and differentiation of subcutaneous tissues healthy and no-healthy, to facilitate the diagnosis or early detection for breast cancer are studied white adipose tissue by the subcutaneous region with the help of the diffuse reflection spectroscopy in the visible areas (400 to 700 nm) of electromagnetic spectrum for them using a spectrometer portable of integrating sphere, Hunter lab Model Mini-Scan. The problem to be solved for cancer detection by optical techniques is to find the solution to the inverse problem of scattering of radiation in tissue where it is necessary to solve the equation of energy transfer. us through the trigonometric interpolation and by the data adjustment by least squares using Fourier series expansion to parameterize the spectral response curves of each sample of breast adipose tissue then correlated with histological grades established by the optical biopsy for each one of the samples, allowing use this technique to the study of anomalies in White Adipose Tissue Breast, changes are evident in the spectral response for Breast Adipose Tissue carcinogens with respect to healthy tissues and for the different histological grades.

  4. Histological evidence for drug diffusion across the cerebral meninges into the underlying neocortex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvig, Nandor; Sheffield, Lynette G; Tang, Hai M; Baptiste, Shirn L; Devinsky, Orrin; Kuzniecky, Ruben I

    2008-01-10

    Transmeningeal pharmacotherapy has been proposed to treat neurological disorders with localized pathology, such as intractable focal epilepsy. As a step toward understanding the diffusion and intracortical spread of transmeningeally delivered drugs, the present study used histological methods to determine the extent to which a marker compound, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), can diffuse into the neocortex through the meninges. Rats were implanted with bilateral parietal cortical epidural cups filled with 50 mM NMDA on the right side and artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) in the contralateral side. After 24 h, the histological effects of these treatments were evaluated using cresyl violet (Nissl) staining. The epidural NMDA exposure caused neuronal loss that in most animals extended from the pial surface through layer V. The area indicated by this neuronal loss was localized to the neocortical region underlying the epidural cup. These results suggest that NMDA-like, water soluble, small molecules can diffuse through the subdural/subarachnoid space into the underlying neocortex and spread in a limited fashion, close to the meningeal penetration site.

  5. Anatomy and histology of apical support: a literature review concerning cardinal and uterosacral ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanah, Rajeev; Berger, Mitchell B; Parratte, Bernard M; DeLancey, John O L

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this work was to collect and summarize relevant literature on the anatomy, histology, and imaging of apical support of the upper vagina and the uterus provided by the cardinal (CL) and uterosacral (USL) ligaments. A literature search in English, French, and German languages was carried out with the keywords apical support, cardinal ligament, transverse cervical ligament, Mackenrodt ligament, parametrium, paracervix, retinaculum uteri, web, uterosacral ligament, and sacrouterine ligament in the PubMed database. Other relevant journal and textbook articles were sought by retrieving references cited in previous PubMed articles. Fifty references were examined in peer-reviewed journals and textbooks. The USL extends from the S2 to the S4 vertebra region to the dorsal margin of the uterine cervix and/or to the upper third of the posterior vaginal wall. It has a superficial and deep component. Autonomous nerve fibers are a major constituent of the deep USL. CL is defined as a perivascular sheath with a proximal insertion around the origin of the internal iliac artery and a distal insertion on the cervix and/or vagina. It is divided into a cranial (vascular) and a caudal (neural) portions. Histologically, it contains mainly vessels, with no distinct band of connective tissue. Both the deep USL and the caudal CL are closely related to the inferior hypogastric plexus. USL and CL are visceral ligaments, with mesentery-like structures containing vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and adipose tissue.

  6. Early diagnosis of regional odontodysplasia in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Alfredo Hiram Carrillo; Rezende, Karla Mayra Pinto E Carvalho; Benitez, Mirtha; Bönecker, Marcelo

    2012-03-01

    Regional odontodysplasia is a rare and significant dental malformation. It is a dental alteration of unknown etiology, involving both mesodermal and ectodermal dental components, which present clinical, radiographic, and histologic features. This article reports a clinical case of a 10-month-old child who was diagnosed with regional odontodysplasia in the maxilla, confirmed by radiographic examination, with a follow-up of 5 years. The clinical, radiographic, and histologic features were reviewed.

  7. Relation between histological prostatitis and lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiki Mizuno

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: We found a correlation only between histological prostatitis and LUTS, but not erectile dysfunction. Especially, the subscore of urinary symptoms (residual feeling and urinary frequency was associated with histological prostatitis.

  8. Association between endometriosis and risk of histological subtypes of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Templeman, Claire; Rossing, Mary Anne

    2012-01-01

    Endometriosis is a risk factor for epithelial ovarian cancer; however, whether this risk extends to all invasive histological subtypes or borderline tumours is not clear. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess the association between endometriosis and histological subtypes...

  9. Changes in histology and fibrogenic cytokines in irradiated colorectum of two murine strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarchuk, Mark W.; Travis, Elizabeth L.

    1998-01-01

    colitis cystica profunda adjacent to regions of fibrosis, histological changes that were present predominately in the B6 strain. Conclusions: The response of the colorectum to irradiation involves changes in the expression of several different cytokines. However, the lack of a consistent strain difference in TGFβ1, 2, 3 and TNFα mRNA levels, despite strain differences in both the incidence of colorectal obstruction and histological features preceding obstruction, suggests that mRNA changes in these fibrogenic cytokines are not the critical determinant of the strain difference and are not related to the process of radiation-induced colorectal fibrosis in these mouse strains. Strain-dependent differences were observed in the localization of active TGFβ, but these differences were related to the histological changes specifically found in the irradiated colon of the B6 strain

  10. Real-time histology in liver disease using multiphoton microscopy with fluorescence lifetime imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haolu; Liang, Xiaowen; Mohammed, Yousuf H.; Thomas, James A.; Bridle, Kim R.; Thorling, Camilla A.; Grice, Jeffrey E.; Xu, Zhi Ping; Liu, Xin; Crawford, Darrell H. G.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional histology with light microscopy is essential in the diagnosis of most liver diseases. Recently, a concept of real-time histology with optical biopsy has been advocated. In this study, live mice livers (normal, with fibrosis, steatosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and ischemia-reperfusion injury) were imaged by MPM-FLIM for stain-free real-time histology. The acquired MPM-FLIM images were compared with conventional histological images. MPM-FLIM imaged subsurface cellular and subcellu...

  11. Treatment for Supra-tentorial Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    長島, 梧郎; 藤本, 司; 鈴木, 龍太; 浅井, 潤一郎; 松永, 篤子; 張, 智為; 永井, 美穂; Goro, NAGASHIMA; Tsukasa, FUJIMOTO; Ryuta, SUZUKI; Jun-ichiro, ASAI; Atsuko, MATSUNAGA; Tomoo, CHANG; Miho, NAGAI; 昭和大学藤が丘病院脳神経外科

    2002-01-01

    Only vague guidelines exist for the surgical management of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We investigated the indications for surgical management of intracerebral hemorrhage and compared the outcomes of computed tomography (CT)-guided stereotactic hematoma aspiration with those after hematoma removal under craniotomy. Our indications for CT-guided stereotactic hematoma aspiration were an age < 80 years old, a hematoma volume ≧ 10 ml, and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score ≦ 14. Those for hemat...

  12. Peritumoral brain edema in angiomatous supratentorial meningiomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nassehi, Damoun; Sørensen, Lars Peter; Dyrbye, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) pathway and peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) through comparison of non-angiomatous and angiomatous meningiomas. Meningiomas are common intracranial tumors, which often have PTBE. VEGF-A is an integral part of PTBE...

  13. Morphological, histological and histochemical analysis of the digestive tract of Trachelyopterusstriatulus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella L. dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The digestive tract of Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1877 was studied using morphological, histological, and histochemical techniques. The barbels, lips and tongue had stratified squamous epithelium with mucous, claviform cells, and taste buds. Trachelyopterus striatulus had a dental plaque with villiform teeth. The bucopharyngeal cavity was formed by the gill apparatus and pharyngeal teeth with vilifform denticles. The oesophagus presented stratified squamous epithelium with mucous cells and taste buds. The stomach included cardiac, fundic, and pyloric regions and a simple prismatic epithelium with prismatic cells that reacted positively to periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and amylase+PAS. Only the cardiac and pyloric regions responded positively to alcian blue pH 2.5 (Ab pH 2.5 and alcian blue pH 0.5 (Ab pH 0.5. The cardiac and fundic regions exhibited tubular gastric glands. The intestine was 118.90 ± 22.49 mm long with an intestinal coefficient (CO of 0.83 ± 0.13. The epithelium was simple prismatic with a brush border and goblet cells, and a greater number of goblet cells were found in the caudal region of the intestine. The mucous cells and goblet cells reacted positively to PAS, amylase+PAS, Ab pH 2.5, and Ab pH 0.5. We analysed if the function of the mucosubstances and morphological characteristics of the digestive tract of T. striatulus are compatible with omnivorous feeding habit.

  14. Prognostic Utility of Histological Growth Patterns of Colorectal Lung Oligometastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Son Jae; Pak, Min Gyoung; Lee, Hyoun Wook; Ha, Seung Yeon; Roh, Mee Sook

    2018-03-01

    Patients with resectable colorectal lung oligometastasis (CLOM) demonstrate a heterogeneous oncological outcome. However, the parameters for predicting tumor aggressiveness have not yet been fully investigated in CLOM. This study was performed to determine the prognostic value of histological growth patterns in patients who underwent surgery for CLOM. The study included 92 patients who were diagnosed with CLOM among the first resection cases. CLOMs grow according to three histological patterns: aerogenous, pushing, and desmoplastic patterns. The growth patterns were evaluated on archival hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections. The aerogenous pattern was found in 29.4% (n=27) of patients, the pushing pattern in 34.7% (n=32), the desmoplastic pattern in 6.5% (n=6), and a mix of two growth patterns in 29.4% (n=27). The size of the aerogenous pattern was significantly smaller than that of metastases with other patterns (p=.033). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients showing an aerogenous pattern appeared to have a poorer prognosis, which was calculated from the time of diagnosis of the CLOM (p=.044). The 5-year survival rate from the diagnosis of colorectal cancer tended to be lower in patients with an aerogenous pattern than in those who had a non-aerogenous pattern; however, the difference was marginally significant (p=.051). In the multivariate Cox analysis, the aerogenous pattern appeared as an independent predictor of poor overall survival (hazard ratio, 3.122; 95% confidence interval, 1.196 to 8.145; p=.020). These results suggest that the growth patterns may play a part as a histology-based prognostic parameter for patients with CLOM.

  15. Histologically confirmed intracranial tumors managed at Enugu, Nigeria

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    Chika Anele Ndubuisi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is controversy about the global distribution of intracranial tumors (ICTs. The previous reports from Africa suggested low frequency and different pattern of distribution of brain tumors from what obtains in other continents. The limitations at that time, including paucity of diagnostic facilities and personnel, have improved. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze the current trend and distribution of histology confirmed brain tumors managed in Enugu, in a decade. Methods: A retrospective analysis of ICTs managed between 2006 and 2015 at Memfys Hospital, Enugu. Only cases with conclusive histology report were analyzed. The World Health Organization ICT classification was used. Results: This study reviewed 252 patients out of 612 neuroimaging diagnosed brain tumors. Mean age was 42.8 years and male-to-female ratio was 1.2:1.0. Annual frequency increased from 11 in 2006 to 55 in 2015. Metastatic brain tumors accounted for 5.6%, and infratentorial tumors represented 16.3%. Frequency of the common primary tumors were meningioma (32.9%, glioma (23.8%, pituitary adenomas (13.5%, and craniopharyngioma (7.5% (P = 0.001. Vestibular schwannoma accounted for 1.2%. Meningioma did not have gender difference (P = 0.714. Medulloblastoma, glioma, and craniopharyngioma were the most common pediatric tumors. About 8.7% presented unconscious (P < 0.001. There was no significant difference between radiology and histology diagnosis (P = 0.932. Conclusion: Meningioma is the most frequent tumor with increasing male incidence, but the frequency of glioma is increasing. Metastasis, acoustic schwannoma, lymphoma, and germ cell tumors seem to be uncommon. Late presentation is the rule.

  16. CT diagnosis of rare histological variant of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huaibo; Feng Zhipeng; Duan Shaoyin; Zhaugn Xiangrong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore and understand the CT findings of 5 rare histological variants of hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: CT findings of 31 cases of rare histological variants confirmed by surgery and pathology were analyzed retrospectively. Results: 13 cases were clear cell hepatocellular carcinoma. 3 cases of them showed patchy fat density in plain scans. Enhanced CT showed features of 'fast in fast out' which was similar to the common hepatocellular carcinoma. 4 cases belonged to sclerosis hepatocellular carcinoma. They appeared as heterogeneous, slowly enhancement on arterial phase images, and delay enhancement on portal venous phase and delay phase images. 9 cases belonged to mixed hepatocellular carcinoma. 5 cases of them showed inhomogeneous enhancement and 4 without enhancement during arterial phase, 3 cases showed delay enhancement and 4 without during portal venous and delay phase. 3 cases were fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. All showed obvious and fastly enhancement on arterial phase images, subsided slowly on the portal venous and delay phase images, showing features of 'fast in slow out', no enhancement was seen in the central scar. Shrinkage phenomenon on the surface of liver could be seen on the CT plain scans in sclerosis, mixed and fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. 2 cases were the type of dense hepatocellular carcinoma. The surrounding part in the 2 cases were slightly enhanced, while the most part of the center were not enhanced similar to necrosis. Conclusion: The CT findings of rate histological variant of hepatocellular carcinoma are characteristic. Analyzing the CT plain and enhancement finding is helpful to the diagnosis of these types of hepatocellular carcinoma. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of virtual microscopy in medical histology teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Histology stands as a major discipline in the life science curricula, and the practice of teaching it is based on theoretical didactic strategies along with practical training. Traditionally, students achieve practical competence in this subject by learning optical microscopy. Today, students can use newer information and communication technologies in the study of digital microscopic images. A virtual microscopy program was recently introduced at Ghent University. Since little empirical evidence is available concerning the impact of virtual microscopy (VM) versus optical microscopy (OM) on the acquisition of histology knowledge, this study was set up in the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. A pretest-post test and cross-over design was adopted. In the first phase, the experiment yielded two groups in a total population of 199 students, Group 1 performing the practical sessions with OM versus Group 2 performing the same sessions with VM. In the second phase, the research subjects switched conditions. The prior knowledge level of all research subjects was assessed with a pretest. Knowledge acquisition was measured with a post test after each phase (T1 and T2). Analysis of covariance was carried out to study the differential gain in knowledge at T1 and T2, considering the possible differences in prior knowledge at the start of the study. The results pointed to non-significant differences at T1 and at T2. This supports the assumption that the acquisition of the histology knowledge is independent of the microscopy representation mode (VM versus OM) of the learning material. The conclusion that VM is equivalent to OM offers new directions in view of ongoing innovations in medical education technology. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  18. Kidney cancer in Lebanon: a specific histological distribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafaja, Sarah; Kourie, Hampig Raphael; Matar, Dany; Sader-Ghorra, Claude; Kattan, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Kidney cancer is the third most frequent urologic cancer in Lebanon after prostate and bladder cancer, accounting for 1.5% of all diagnosed cancers. In this paper, we report the histologic characteristics and distribution of kidney cancer, never described in Lebanon or the Middle East. Pathology results of operated kidney cancer were collected during a two year period (2010-2011) from two different Lebanese hospitals (Hotel-Dieu de France University Hospital and Saint Joseph Hospital). A total of 124 reports were reviewed and analyzed according to WHO classification of 2009. The 124 patients diagnosed with kidney cancer had a median age of 62.4 [18-86], 75% being men and 25% women. Some 71 % of the lesions were renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 25.8% had a urothelial histology, 1.6% were lymphomas and 1.6% were metastases to the kidney. Patients having RCC had a median age of 60.3 [18-85], 77.3% were men and 22.7% women. Of the RCCs, 59.1% were clear cell carcinoma, 22.7% papillary, 11.4% chromophobic, 3.4% rom the collecting ducts of Bellini and 3.4% were not otherwise classified. Histological distribution of Lebanese kidney cancer seems unusual when compared to the literature. The percentage of urothelial renal pelvis tumors is strikingly high. Moreover, clear cell carcinoma accounts for only 59.1% of RCCS in contrast to the 75% described elsewhere, while papillary carcinoma represents more than 22.7% compared to 10%.

  19. Histologic assessment of peritumoral edema in soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Lawrence M.; Wunder, Jay S.; Bell, Robert S.; O'Sullivan, Brian; Catton, Charles; Ferguson, Peter; Blackstein, Martin; Kandel, Rita A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether satellite tumor cells can be identified histologically in the tissues surrounding a soft tissue sarcoma and whether their presence correlates with increased T 2 -weighted signal intensity on MRI. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with a high-grade extremity or truncal soft tissue sarcoma underwent preoperative MRI. The extent of high T 2 -weighted signal changes in the tissues surrounding tumor, thought to represent peritumoral edema/reactive changes, was determined. Twelve patients received i.v. gadolinium, and contrast enhancement was determined. All patients underwent surgical resection in the absence of preoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The presence of tumor cells in the surrounding tissues was determined histologically in representative paraffin-embedded sections and correlated with the MRI findings. Results: The extent of peritumoral T 2 -weighted MRI signal changes ranged from 0 to 7.1 cm (mean, 2.5 cm); contrast enhancement ranged from 0 to 5.3 cm (mean, 1.1 cm). Sarcoma cells were identified histologically in the tissues beyond the tumor in 10 of 15 cases. In 6 cases, tumor cells were located within 1 cm of the tumor margin, and in 4 cases, malignant cells were found at a distance >1 cm and up to a maximum of 4 cm. The location of tumor cells beyond the margin did not correlate with tumor size nor did it correlate with the location or extent of peritumoral changes. Conclusion: The ability to identify tumor cells beyond the margin of a soft tissue sarcoma has important implications in planning appropriate targets for treatment. This could influence the use of new radiotherapy technologies such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy that aim to minimize treatment volumes through conformal planning

  20. Histological evaluation of AMPK signalling in primary breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadad, Sirwan M; Hardie, David G; Fleming, Stewart; Thompson, Alastair M; Baker, Lee; Quinlan, Philip R; Robertson, Katherine E; Bray, Susan E; Thomson, George; Kellock, David; Jordan, Lee B; Purdie, Colin A

    2009-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a cellular fuel gauge that responds to energy stress by suppressing cell growth and biosynthetic processes, thus ensuring that energy-consuming processes proceed only if there are sufficient metabolic resources. Malfunction of the AMPK pathway may allow cancer cells to undergo uncontrolled proliferation irrespective of their molecular energy levels. The aim of this study was to examine the state of AMPK phosphorylation histologically in primary breast cancer in relation to clinical and pathological parameters. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies to phospho-AMPK (pAMPK), phospho-Acetyl Co-A Carboxylase (pACC) an established target for AMPK, HER2, ERα, and Ki67 on Tissue Micro-Array (TMA) slides of two cohorts of 117 and 237 primary breast cancers. The quick score method was used for scoring and patterns of protein expression were compared with clinical and pathological data, including a minimum 5 years follow up. Reduced signal, compared with the strong expression in normal breast epithelium, using a pAMPK antibody was demonstrated in 101/113 (89.4%) and 217/236 (91.9%) of two cohorts of patients. pACC was significantly associated with pAMPK expression (p = 0.007 & p = 0.014 respectively). For both cohorts, reduced pAMPK signal was significantly associated with higher histological grade (p = 0.010 & p = 0.021 respectively) and axillary node metastasis (p = 0.061 & p = 0.039 respectively). No significant association was found between pAMPK and any of HER2, ERα, or Ki67 expression, disease-free survival or overall survival. This study extends in vitro evidence through immunohistochemistry to confirm that AMPK is dysfunctional in primary breast cancer. Reduced signalling via the AMPK pathway, and the inverse relationship with histological grade and axillary node metastasis, suggests that AMPK re-activation could have therapeutic potential in breast cancer

  1. Prognostic Utility of Histological Growth Patterns of Colorectal Lung Oligometastasis

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    Son Jae Yeong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Patients with resectable colorectal lung oligometastasis (CLOM demonstrate a heterogeneous oncological outcome. However, the parameters for predicting tumor aggressiveness have not yet been fully investigated in CLOM. This study was performed to determine the prognostic value of histological growth patterns in patients who underwent surgery for CLOM. Methods The study included 92 patients who were diagnosed with CLOM among the first resection cases. CLOMs grow according to three histological patterns: aerogenous, pushing, and desmoplastic patterns. The growth patterns were evaluated on archival hematoxylin and eosin–stained tissue sections. Results The aerogenous pattern was found in 29.4% (n=27 of patients, the pushing pattern in 34.7% (n=32, the desmoplastic pattern in 6.5% (n=6, and a mix of two growth patterns in 29.4% (n=27. The size of the aerogenous pattern was significantly smaller than that of metastases with other patterns (p=.033. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients showing an aerogenous pattern appeared to have a poorer prognosis, which was calculated from the time of diagnosis of the CLOM (p=.044. The 5-year survival rate from the diagnosis of colorectal cancer tended to be lower in patients with an aerogenous pattern than in those who had a non-aerogenous pattern; however, the difference was marginally significant (p=.051. In the multivariate Cox analysis, the aerogenous pattern appeared as an independent predictor of poor overall survival (hazard ratio, 3.122; 95% confidence interval, 1.196 to 8.145; p=.020. Conclusions These results suggest that the growth patterns may play a part as a histology-based prognostic parameter for patients with CLOM.

  2. Correlating students' educational background, study habits, and resource usage with learning success in medical histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvig, Daniel; Holaday, Louisa W; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a traditional core basic science component of most medical and dental education programs and presents a didactic challenge for many students. Identifying students that are likely to struggle with histology would allow for early intervention to support and encourage their learning success. To identify student characteristics that are associated with learning success in histology, three first-year medical school classes at the University of Michigan (>440 students) were surveyed about their educational background, attitudes toward learning histology, and their use of histology learning strategies and resources. These characteristics were linked with the students' quiz and examination results in histology. Students who reported previous experience in histology or pathology and hold science or biomedical science college degrees usually did well in histology. Learning success in histology was also positively associated with students' perception that histology is important for their professional career. Other positive indicators were in-person participation in teacher-guided learning experiences, specifically lecture and laboratory sessions. In contrast, students who relied on watching histology lectures by video rather than going to lectures in-person performed significantly worse. These characteristics and learning strategies of students who did well in this very visual and challenging study subject should be of help for identifying and advising students early, who might be at risk of failing a histology course or component. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. 76 FR 82306 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Use of Histology in Biomarker Qualification Studies; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Use of Histology in Biomarker Qualification Studies; Availability AGENCY... announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Use of Histology in Biomarker... studies for which histology is a reference standard. This guidance discusses the processes that should be...

  4. Histological types of lung cancer in uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, T.; Tomasek, L.; Placek, V.

    1995-01-01

    The recent results confirm linear dependence of exposure and relative risk, decrease of alpha radiation effect with time since exposure and decrease of effect in older age categories. A detailed analysis of exposure -effect relationship for two main histologic types of lung cancer confirms hypothesis formulated by J. Sevc about parallel inhibition effect of alpha radiation in higher exposure rates which followed after period of initiation of malignant processes of bronchial epithelium cells. This phenomenon was observed only in small cell type of lung cancer (authors). 4 tabs., 5 refs

  5. Fibroadenomas Frequency in uncertain mammographic lesions: Histology Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapie Uribe, Ana Lucia; Patino Pacheco, Jairo H; Restrepo Mejia, Ana Lucia

    1997-01-01

    Purpose was to determine the frequency of fibroadenomas in non-palpable mammographic lesions, histologically evaluated and describe its radiological characteristics according to the type of mammographic presentation and classification. 60 (8.6%) fibroadenomas were found in 692 biopsies performed. 50% of these were mammographicaly classified as category 3 and 50% in the category 4. 66.6% of them were nodules, 20% isolated calcifications and nodules with calcifications 13.3%. fibroadenomas were 26.4% of nodules in category 3 and 18.8% of them in category 4

  6. Spreading of suppository bases assessed with histological and scintigraphic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tupper, C.H.; Copping, N.; Thomas, N.W.; Wilson, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Suppositories of PEG 15400 and PEG 600, Myrj 52 and Brij 35, were administered rectally to fasted male rats. 30 and 60 mins after liquefaction time samples of rectal mucosa were taken from treated and untreated rats. The reduction in rectal cell volume and density in treated rats was noted. Similar suppositories, containing anion exchange resin and labelled with technetium 99, were administered to other rats. Serial scintiscanning was carried out using a gamma camera linked to a computer. Spreading of the suppository bases was assessed histologically and by imaging. (U.K.)

  7. Histological types of lung cancer in uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, T; Tomasek, L [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic); Placek, V [Inst. for Experises and Emergencies, Pribram0Kamenna (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The recent results confirm linear dependence of exposure and relative risk, decrease of alpha radiation effect with time since exposure and decrease of effect in older age categories. A detailed analysis of exposure -effect relationship for two main histologic types of lung cancer confirms hypothesis formulated by J. Sevc about parallel inhibition effect of alpha radiation in higher exposure rates which followed after period of initiation of malignant processes of bronchial epithelium cells. This phenomenon was observed only in small cell type of lung cancer (authors). 4 tabs., 5 refs.

  8. A Novel Non-Toxic Xylene Substitute (SBO) for Histology

    OpenAIRE

    Kunhua, Wang; Chuming, Fan; Tao, Lai; Yanmei, Yang; Xin, Yang; Xiaoming, Zhang; Xuezhong, Guo; Xun, Lai

    2011-01-01

    Xylene has been generally used as a clearing and deparaffinizing agent in histology. Because of the potential toxic and flammable nature of xylene, its substitutes have been introduced into some laboratories. In this study, we introduced a novel, non-toxic xylene substitute (SBO), which was generated through a mixture of 86% of white oil No.2 and 14% of N-heptane. SBO had a high boiling point (188°C) and flash point (144°C) coupled with a scentless and decreased volatility. To compare the eff...

  9. Evaluation of gastric histology in children and adolescents with Helicobacter pylori gastritis using the Update Sydney System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Marini; Machado, Rodrigo Strehl; Patrício, Francy R S; Kawakami, Elisabete

    2009-01-01

    Although Helicobacter pylori infection is prevalent in our country, there are few studies evaluating the associated histological abnormalities in children. To evaluate the histological features of the gastric mucosa in children and adolescents with Helicobacter pylori gastritis. One hundred and thirty two gastric biopsies from 22 symptomatic patients infected with H. pylori (14F/8M, median age 10 y 5 mo, age range 2 y 11 mo to 16 y 9 mo) were evaluated. Evaluated gastric regions included: antrum (lesser and greater curvature), corpus (lesser and greater curvature), incisura angularis and fundus. Histological examination was performed according to the Updated Sydney System, and regional scores for polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cell infiltrate as well as bacterial density were generated. Fifteen (68.2%) patients presented H. pylori-chronic active gastritis, six (27.3%) presented antrum-predominant H. pylori-chronic active gastritis, and one (4.5%) presented corpus-predominant H. pylori-chronic active gastritis. Polymorphonuclear cell infiltrate and mononuclear cell infiltrate were observed in 93.9% and 98.5% of the biopsy specimens, respectively. Higher histological scores for polymorphonuclear infiltrate, mononuclear infiltrate, and bacterial density were observed in the gastric antrum. Intestinal metaplasia and gastric atrophy were not identified in any patient. Lymphoid aggregates and lymphoid follicles were observed in the gastric antrum of three (13.6%) and seven (31.8%) patients, respectively, but they were not related to antral nodularity. Chronic active gastritis was observed in all patients with H. pylori infection. However, antral or corporeal predominance was not observed in most patients.

  10. Histological study of subcutaneous fat at NIR laser treatment of the rat skin in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanina, I. Y.; Svenskaya, Yu. I.; Navolokin, N. A.; Matveeva, O. V.; Bucharskaya, A. B.; Maslyakova, G. N.; Gorin, D. A.; Sukhorukov, G. B.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this work is to quantify impact of in vivo photochemical treatment using indocyanine green (ICG) or encapsulated ICG and NIR laser irradiation through skin of rat with obesity by the follow up tissue sampling and histochemistry. After 1 hour elapsed since 1-min light exposure samples of rat skin with subcutaneous tissue of thickness of 1.5-2.5 mm were taken by surgery from rats within marked 4-zones of the skin site. For hematoxylin-eosin histological examination of excised tissue samples, fixation was carried out by 10%-formaldehyde solution. For ICG and encapsulated ICG subcutaneous injection and subsequent 1-min diode laser irradiation with power density of 8 W/cm2, different necrotic regions with lipolysis of subcutaneous fat were observed. The obtained data can be used for safe layer-by-layer laser treatment of obesity and cellulite.

  11. Morphological and histological characters of penile organization in eleven species of molossid bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comelis, Manuela T; Bueno, Larissa M; Góes, Rejane M; Taboga, S R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana

    2018-04-01

    The penis is the reproductive organ that ensures efficient copulation and success of internal fertilization in all species of mammals, with special challenges for bats, where copulation can occur during flight. Comparative anatomical analyses of different species of bats can contribute to a better understanding of morphological diversity of this organ, concerning organization and function. In this study, we describe the external morphology and histomorphology of the penis and baculum in eleven species of molossid bats. The present study showed that penile organization in these species displayed the basic vascular mammalian pattern and had a similar pattern concerning the presence of the tissues constituting the penis, exhibiting three types of erectile tissue (the corpus cavernosum, accessory cavernous tissue, and corpus spongiosum) around the urethra. However, certain features varied among the species, demonstrating that most species are distinguishable by glans and baculum morphology and glans histological organization. Major variations in glans morphology were genus-specific, and the greatest similarities were shared by Eumops species and N. laticaudatus. The greatest interspecific similarities occurred between M. molossus and M. rufus and between Eumops species. Save for M. molossus and M. rufus, morphology of the baculum was species-specific; and in E. perotis, it did not occur in all specimens, indicating that it is probably under selection. In the histological organization, the most evident differences were number of septa and localization of the corpora cavernosa. In species with a baculum (Molossus, Eumops and Nyctinomops species), the corpora cavernosa predominantly occupied the dorsal region of the penile glans and is associated with the proximal (basal) portion of the baculum. In species that do not have a baculum (Cynomops, Molossops and Neoplatymops species), the corpora cavernosa predominantly occupied the ventro-lateral region of the glans

  12. Histological-subtypes and anatomical location correlated in meningeal brain tumors (meningiomas

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    Abdul Rashid Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Not enough literature is available to suggest a link between the histological subtypes of intracranial meningeal brain tumors, called ′meningiomas′ and their location of origin. Aim: The evidence of correlation between the anatomical location of the intracranial meningiomas and the histopathological grades will facilitate specific diagnosis and accurate treatment. Materials and Methods: The retrospective study was conducted in a single high-patient-inflow Neurosurgical Center, under a standard and uniform medical protocol, over a period of 30 years from December 1982 to December 2012. The records of all the operated 729 meningiomas were analyzed from the patient files in the Medical Records Department. The biodata, x-rays, angiography, computed tomography (CT scans, imaging, histopathological reports, and mortality were evaluated and results drawn. Results: The uncommon histopathological types of meningiomas (16.88% had common locations of origin in the sphenoid ridge, posterior parafalcine, jugular foramen, peritorcular and intraventricular regions, cerebellopontine angle, and tentorial and petroclival areas. The histopathological World Health Organization (WHO Grade I (Benign Type meningiomas were noted in 89.30%, WHO Grade II (Atypical Type in 5.90%, and WHO Grade III (Malignant Type in 4.80% of all meningiomas. Meningiomas of 64.60% were found in females, 47.32% were in the age group of 41-50 years, and 3.43% meningiomas were found in children. An overall mortality of 6.04% was noted. WHO Grade III (malignant meningiomas carried a high mortality (25.71% and the most common sites of meningiomas with high mortality were: The cerebellopontine angles, intraventricular region, sphenoid ridge, tuberculum sellae, and the posterior parafalcine areas. Conclusion: The correlation between the histological subtypes and the anatomical location of intracranial meningeal brain tumors, called meningiomas, is evident, but further research is

  13. Multiparametric evaluation by simultaneous PET-MRI examination in patients with histologically proven laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaliere, Carlo; Romeo, Valeria; Aiello, Marco; Mesolella, Massimo; Iorio, Brigida; Barbuto, Luigi; Cantone, Elena; Nicolai, Emanuele; Covello, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • PET/MRI is feasible and useful for primary staging of laryngeal cancer. • PET/MRI simultaneously provides morphological, metabolic and functional parameters of tumoral laryngeal lesions. • PET/MRI allows an appropriate tumoral staging in terms of lesion extension with significant impact on therapeutic strategies. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between metabolic 18Fluoro-Deoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography (18FDG/PET) and morpho-functional parameters derived by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in patients with histologically proven laryngeal cancer. To assess the clinical impact of PET/MRI examination on patient’s staging and treatment planning. Methods: 16 patients with histologically proven laryngeal cancer were enrolled and underwent whole body PET/CT followed by a dedicated PET/MRI of the head/neck region. Data were separately evaluated by two blinded groups: metabolic (SUV and MTV), diffusion (ADC) and perfusion (K trans , V e , k ep and iAUC) maps were obtained by positioning regions of interest (ROIs). Tumoral local extension assessed on PET/MRI was compared to endoscopic findings. Results: A good inter-observer agreement was found in anatomical location and local extension of PET/MRI lesions (Cohen’s kappa 0.9). PET/CT SUV measures highly correlate with ones derived by PET/MRI (e.g., p = 0.96 for measures on VOI). Significant correlations among metabolic, diffusion and perfusion parameters have been detected. PET/MRI had a relevant clinical impact, confirming endoscopic findings (6 cases), helping treatment planning (9 cases), and modifying endoscopic primary staging (1 case). Conclusions: PET/MRI is useful for primary staging of laryngeal cancer, allowing simultaneous collection of metabolic and functional data and conditioning the therapeutic strategies.

  14. Multiparametric evaluation by simultaneous PET-MRI examination in patients with histologically proven laryngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaliere, Carlo [IRCCS SDN, Via E. Gianturco, 113-80143, Naples (Italy); Romeo, Valeria, E-mail: valeria.romeo@unina.it [Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Federico II University, Naples (Italy); Aiello, Marco [IRCCS SDN, Via E. Gianturco, 113-80143, Naples (Italy); Mesolella, Massimo; Iorio, Brigida [Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Science, ENT Section, Federico II University, Naples (Italy); Barbuto, Luigi [Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Federico II University, Naples (Italy); Cantone, Elena [Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Science, ENT Section, Federico II University, Naples (Italy); Nicolai, Emanuele; Covello, Mario [IRCCS SDN, Via E. Gianturco, 113-80143, Naples (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • PET/MRI is feasible and useful for primary staging of laryngeal cancer. • PET/MRI simultaneously provides morphological, metabolic and functional parameters of tumoral laryngeal lesions. • PET/MRI allows an appropriate tumoral staging in terms of lesion extension with significant impact on therapeutic strategies. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between metabolic 18Fluoro-Deoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography (18FDG/PET) and morpho-functional parameters derived by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in patients with histologically proven laryngeal cancer. To assess the clinical impact of PET/MRI examination on patient’s staging and treatment planning. Methods: 16 patients with histologically proven laryngeal cancer were enrolled and underwent whole body PET/CT followed by a dedicated PET/MRI of the head/neck region. Data were separately evaluated by two blinded groups: metabolic (SUV and MTV), diffusion (ADC) and perfusion (K{sub trans}, V{sub e}, k{sub ep} and iAUC) maps were obtained by positioning regions of interest (ROIs). Tumoral local extension assessed on PET/MRI was compared to endoscopic findings. Results: A good inter-observer agreement was found in anatomical location and local extension of PET/MRI lesions (Cohen’s kappa 0.9). PET/CT SUV measures highly correlate with ones derived by PET/MRI (e.g., p = 0.96 for measures on VOI). Significant correlations among metabolic, diffusion and perfusion parameters have been detected. PET/MRI had a relevant clinical impact, confirming endoscopic findings (6 cases), helping treatment planning (9 cases), and modifying endoscopic primary staging (1 case). Conclusions: PET/MRI is useful for primary staging of laryngeal cancer, allowing simultaneous collection of metabolic and functional data and conditioning the therapeutic strategies.

  15. Early cerebral hemodynamic, metabolic and histological changes in hypoxic-ischemic fetal lambs during postnatal life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eRey-Santano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The hemodynamic, metabolic and biochemical changes produce during transition from fetal to neonatal life could be aggravated if asphyctic event occur during fetal life. The aim of the study was to examine the regional cerebral blood flow (RCBF, histological changes, and cerebral brain metabolism in preterm lambs, and to analyze the role of oxidative stress for the first hours of postnatal life following severe fetal asphyxia. 18 chronically instrumented fetal lambs were assigned to: hypoxic-ischemic group, following fetal asphyxia animals were delivered and maintained on intermittent-positive-pressure-ventilation for 3 hours, and non-injured animals that were managed similarly to the previous group and used as control group. During hypoxic-ischemic insult, injured group developed acidosis, hypoxia, hypercapnia, latacidaemia and tachycardia in comparison to control group, without hypotension. Intermittent-positive-pressure-ventilation transiently improved gas exchange and cardiovascular parameters. After HI injury and during ventilation-support, the increased RCBF in inner zones was maintained for hypoxic-ischemic group, but cortical flow did not exhibit differences compared to the control group. Also, the increase of TUNEL positive cells (apoptosis and antioxidant enzymes, and decrease of ATP reserves was significantly higher in the brain regions where the RCBF were not increased.In conclusion, early metabolic, histological and hemodynamic changes involved in brain damage have been intensively investigated and reported in premature asphyctic lambs for the first 3 hours of postnatal life. Those changes have been described in human neonates, so our model could be useful to test the security and the effectiveness of different neuroprotective or ventilatory strategies when are applied in the first hours after fetal hypoxic-ischemic injury.

  16. Histological chorioamnionitis shapes the neonatal transcriptomic immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik; Guthrie, Scott O; Wong, Hector R; Moldawer, Lyle L; Baker, Henry V; Wynn, James L

    2016-07-01

    Histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) is commonly associated with preterm birth and deleterious post-natal outcomes including sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. Transcriptomic analysis has been used to uncover gene signatures that permit diagnosis and prognostication, show new therapeutic targets, and reveal mechanisms that underlie differential outcomes with other complex disease states in neonates such as sepsis. To define the transcriptomic and inflammatory protein response in peripheral blood among infants with exposure to histologic chorioamnionitis. Prospective, observational study. Uninfected preterm neonates retrospectively categorized based on placental pathology with no HCA exposure (n=18) or HCA exposure (n=15). We measured the transcriptomic and inflammatory mediator response in prospectively collected whole blood. We found 488 significant (p<0.001), differentially expressed genes in whole blood samples among uninfected neonates with HCA exposure that collectively represented activated innate and adaptive immune cellular pathways and revealed a potential regulatory role for the pleotropic microRNA molecule miR-155. Differentially secreted plasma cytokines in patients with HCA exposure compared to patients without HCA included MCP-1, MPO, and MMP-9 (p<0.05). Exposure to HCA distinctively activates the neonatal immune system in utero with potentially long-term health consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictive features for histology of gastric subepithelial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Teles SCHULZ

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Gastric subepithelial lesion is a relatively common diagnosis after routine upper endoscopy. The diagnostic workup of an undetermined gastric subepithelial lesion should take into consideration clinical and endoscopic features. OBJECTIVE We aimed to investigate the association between patients' characteristics, endoscopic and echographic features with the histologic diagnosis of the gastric subepithelial lesions. METHODS This is a retrospective study with 55 patients, who were consecutively diagnosed with gastric subepithelial lesions, from October 2008 to August 2011. Patients' characteristics, endoscopic and echografic features of each gastric subepithelial lesion were analysed. Histologic diagnosis provided by EUS-guided fine needle aspiration or endoscopic/surgical resection was used as gold standard. RESULTS The probability of gastrointestinal stromal tumors to be located in the cardia was low (4.5%, while for leiomyoma it was high (>95%. In addition, there was a higher risk of gastrointestinal stromal tumors in patients older than 57 years (OR 8.9; 95% CI, with lesions ≥21 mm (OR 7.15; 95% CI, located at 4th layer (OR 18.8; 95% CI, with positive Doppler sign (OR 9; 95% CI, and irregular outer border (OR 7.75; 95% CI. CONCLUSION The location of gastric subepithelial lesions in the gastric cardia lowers the risk of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. While gastric subepithelial lesions occurring in elderly patients, located in the gastric body, with positive Doppler signal and irregular outer border increase the risk of gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

  18. Histological chorioamnionitis is associated with cerebral palsy in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Boldizsár; Grasselly, Magda; Bodecs, Tamas; Boncz, Imre; Bodis, József

    2012-08-01

    To determine the interaction between histological chorioamnionitis and unexplained neonatal cerebral palsy among low birth weight infants. We studied 141 preterm infants below 1500 g delivered between 2000 and 2010. Clinical data, neonatal neuroimaging, laboratory results, the histopathological features of the placenta and gastric smear within the first hour of delivery, were evaluated. Cerebral palsy was detected in 11 out of 141 preterm newborns (7.8%). The incidence of silent histological chorioamnionitis was 33.6% (43 of 128 cases). Chorioamniontis was significantly associated with the risk of unexplained cerebral palsy (p=0.024). There were also significant correlations between maternal genital infections and chorioamnionitis (p=0.005), and between maternal infections and a positive smear of neonatal gastric aspirates (p=0.000). The rate of cesarean section was 67.4% (95 out of 141 deliveries), and elective cesarean section was performed in 68 cases. Intrauterine exposure to maternal infection was associated with a marked increase in the risk of cerebral palsy in preterm infants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Histological and Transcriptomic Analysis during Bulbil Formation in Lilium lancifolium

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    Panpan Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aerial bulbils are an important propagative organ, playing an important role in population expansion. However, the detailed gene regulatory patterns and molecular mechanism underlying bulbil formation remain unclear. Triploid Lilium lancifolium, which develops many aerial bulbils on the leaf axils of middle-upper stem, is a useful species for investigating bulbil formation. To investigate the mechanism of bulbil formation in triploid L. lancifolium, we performed histological and transcriptomic analyses using samples of leaf axils located in the upper and lower stem of triploid L. lancifolium during bulbil formation. Histological results indicated that the bulbils of triploid L. lancifolium are derived from axillary meristems that initiate de novo from cells on the adaxial side of the petiole base. Transcriptomic analysis generated ~650 million high-quality reads and 11,871 differentially expressed genes (DEGs. Functional analysis showed that the DEGs were significantly enriched in starch and sucrose metabolism and plant hormone signal transduction. Starch synthesis and accumulation likely promoted the initiation of upper bulbils in triploid L. lancifolium. Hormone-associated pathways exhibited distinct patterns of change in each sample. Auxin likely promoted the initiation of bulbils and then inhibited further bulbil formation. High biosynthesis and low degradation of cytokinin might have led to bulbil formation in the upper leaf axil. The present study achieved a global transcriptomic analysis focused on gene expression changes and pathways' enrichment during upper bulbil formation in triploid L. lancifolium, laying a solid foundation for future molecular studies on bulbil formation.

  20. Endosonographic Features of Histologically Proven Gastric Ectopic Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Wei Chou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric ectopic pancreas is an uncommon developmental anomaly and its histological diagnosis is usually difficult by using a conventional biopsy forceps. In the literature, most cases of gastric ectopic pancreas were usually diagnosed by gross pattern during endoscopic examination or features of endoscopic ultrasound. In contrast, this disease was seldom diagnosed by histology in clinical practice. Although the typical endoscopic ultrasonographic features of ectopic pancreas include heterogeneous echogenicity, indistinct borders, and a location within 2 or more layers, it can also exhibit hypoechoic homogeneous echogenicity and a distinct border within the fourth sonographic layer (muscularis propria similar to the endoscopic ultrasonographic features of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. In our study, we found that 53% of gastric ectopic pancreas originated within the fourth sonographic layer, demonstrating hypoechoic, homogeneous echogenicity, and distinct borders. Therefore, recognizing endoscopic ultrasonographic features, combining with deep biopsy, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration/core needle biopsy can prevent conducting unnecessary resection. Surgical resection is the mainstay treatment for symptomatic gastric ectopic pancreas, but endoscopic resection using endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection technique provides an alternative method of removing superficial-type and deep-type gastric ectopic pancreas.

  1. Introducing evidence-based dentistry to dental students using histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallier, Thomas E

    2014-03-01

    The expansion of evidence-based dentistry (EBD) is essential to the continued growth and development of the dental profession. Expanding EBD requires increased emphasis on critical thinking skills during dental education, as noted in the American Dental Education Association's Competencies for the New General Dentist. In order to achieve this goal, educational exercises must be introduced to increase the use of critical thinking skills early in the dental curriculum, with continued reinforcement as students progress through subsequent years. Described in this article is one approach to increasing student exposure to critical thinking during the early basic science curriculum-specifically, within the confines of a traditional histology course. A method of utilizing the medical and dental research literature to reinforce and enliven the concepts taught in histology is described, along with an approach for using peer-to-peer presentations to demonstrate the tools needed to critically evaluate research studies and their presentation in published articles. This approach, which could be applied to any basic science course, will result in a stronger foundation on which students can build their EBD and critical thinking skills.

  2. Alteration of histological gastritis after cure of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, M; Miwa, H; Ohkusa, T; Ohkura, R; Kurosawa, A; Sato, N

    2002-11-01

    It is still disputed whether gastric atrophy or intestinal metaplasia improves after the cure of Helicobacter pylori infection. To clarify the histological changes after the cure of H. pylori infection through a literature survey. Fifty-one selected reports from 1066 relevant articles were reviewed. The extracted data were pooled according to histological parameters of gastritis based on the (updated) Sydney system. Activity improved more rapidly than inflammation. Eleven of 25 reports described significant improvement of atrophy. Atrophy was not improved in one of four studies with a large sample size (> 100 samples) and in two of five studies with a long follow-up period (> 12 months), suggesting that disagreement between the studies was not totally due to sample size or follow-up period. Methodological flaws, such as patient selection, and statistical analysis based on the assumption that atrophy improves continuously and generally in all patients might be responsible for the inconsistent results. Four of 28 studies described significant improvement of intestinal metaplasia [corrected]. Activity and inflammation were improved after the cure of H. pylori infection. Atrophy did not improve generally among all patients, but improved in certain patients. Improvement of intestinal metaplasia was difficult to analyse due to methodological problems including statistical power.

  3. Are insertion torque and early osseointegration proportional? A histologic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Felipe E B; Jimbo, Ryo; Bonfante, Estevam A; Barbosa, Darceny Z; Oliveira, Maiolino T F; Janal, Malvin N; Coelho, Paulo G

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this histologic study was to determine the effect of three drilling protocols (oversized, intermediate, and undersized) on biologic responses to a single implant type at early healing periods (2 weeks in vivo) in a beagle dog model. Ten beagle dogs were acquired and subjected to surgeries in the tibia 2 weeks before euthanasia. During surgery, each dog received three Unitite implants, 4 mm in diameter by 10 mm in length, in bone sites drilled to 3.5, 3.75, and 4.0 mm in final diameter. The insertion torque was recorded during surgery, and bone-to-implant contact (BIC), and bone area fraction occupied (BAFO) measured from the histology. Each outcome measure was compared between treatment conditions with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Bonferroni-corrected statistical significance was set to 95%. Insertion torque increased as an inverse function of drilling diameter, as indicated by significant differences in torque levels between each pair of conditions (P = 0.005). BIC and BAFO levels were highest and statistically similar in the recommended and undersized conditions and significantly reduced in the oversized condition (P torque (primary stability). While BIC and BAFO were maximized when drilling the recommended diameter hole, only the oversized hole resulted in evidence of statistically reduced integration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Spectral CT of carotid atherosclerotic plaque: comparison with histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zainon, R.; Doesburg, R.M. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); Ronaldson, J.P.; Gieseg, S.P. [University of Otago, Centre for Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); Janmale, T. [University of Canterbury, Free Radical Biochemistry Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, Christchurch (New Zealand); Scott, N.J. [University of Otago, Department of Medicine, Christchurch (New Zealand); Buckenham, T.M. [University of Otago, Department of Academic Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); Butler, A.P.H. [University of Otago, Centre for Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Otago, Department of Academic Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Canterbury, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Butler, P.H. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Roake, J.A. [Christchurch Hospital, Department of Vascular, Endovascular and Transplant Surgery, Christchurch (New Zealand); Anderson, N.G. [University of Otago, Centre for Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Otago, Department of Academic Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Otago, Christchurch, Department of Radiology, PO Box 4345, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2012-12-15

    To distinguish components of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque by imaging their energy response using spectral CT and comparing images with histology. After spectroscopic calibration using phantoms of plaque surrogates, excised human carotid atherosclerotic plaques were imaged using MARS CT using a photon-processing detector with a silicon sensor layer and microfocus X-ray tube (50 kVp, 0.5 mA) at 38-{mu}m voxel size. The plaques were imaged, sectioned and re-imaged using four threshold energies: 10, 16, 22 and 28 keV; then sequentially stained with modified Von Kossa, Perl's Prussian blue and Oil-Red O, and photographed. Relative Hounsfield units across the energies were entered into a linear algebraic material decomposition model to identify the unknown plaque components. Lipid, calcium, iron and water-like components of plaque have distinguishable energy responses to X-ray, visible on spectral CT images. CT images of the plaque surface correlated very well with histological photographs. Calcium deposits (>1,000 {mu}m) in plaque are larger than iron deposits (<100 {mu}m), but could not be distinguished from each other within the same voxel using the energy range available. Spectral CT displays energy information in image form at high spatial resolution, enhancing the intrinsic contrast of lipid, calcium and iron within atheroma. (orig.)

  5. Stented Vessels: A Challenge for Histological Preparation and Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Nolte

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The first procedure to treat blocked coronary arteries was coronary artery bypass graft surgery. In 1977, Andreas Gruntzig introduced percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA. Today, several stent systems exist ranging from bare metal stents to various drug-eluting stents. Unfortunately, our understanding of the arterial reaction to stent implantation is incomplete – primarily due to technical limitations in the histological study of stented vascular tissue. Methods: In our study, we examined different histological preparation methods based on the embedding material methacrylate. The procedure of embedding and sectioning stented porcine arteries was optimized for the specific requirements, like histochemistry, immunohistochemistry or pre-stained fluorescence. Furthermore, we used a microscopical technique described as fluorescence intensity decay shape analysis microscopy (FIDSAM to eliminate auto-fluorescence from fluorescently labeled tissue. Results: The sections were suitable for histochemical and immunohistochemical staining. Additionally, pre-labeled fluorescence in the porcine tissue was not lost by the embedding process. The evaluation of arterial cross sections with FIDSAM technology gave new, very important insights into the examination possibilities of fluorescently labeled tissue. Conclusions: Future studies of the vascular response to a variety of new stent materials will provide important clues to the pathogenesis resulting in restenosis and occlusion of stents. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(3.000: 104-112

  6. Mucinous carcinoma of the breast: mammographic features with histologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Chunyan; Zhang Ling; Wu Yaopan; Li Shuqin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To correlate the mammographic findings of mucinous carcinoma with histologic features. Methods: Retrospective analysis of the mammographic and pathologic findings of 37 patients with mucinous carcinomas of the breasts was performed. Results: Mammograms of ten (52.6%) women with mucinous carcinomas showed masses with well-defined, lobu-lated margins correlating well with the pure histologic type. Thirteen (81.3%) mixed type of mucinous carcinomas demonstrated poorly defined or spiculated margins (P<0.05). Most of the pure type carcinomas were hyperdense similar to most of mixed type carcinomas (P<0.05). Of 34 mucinous carcinomas tested, there were 25 ER-positive, 29 PR-positive, 24 C-erbB-2 negative expressions with pure type carcinomas accounting for 78.9%, 89.5% and 78.9%, respectively. Conclusion: The mammographic features of pure type are different from those of mixed type of mucinous breast carcinomas. The most common mammographic appearance of pure mucinous carcinoma is a well-defined mass without calcification whereas the mixed type carcinomas have more aggressive imaging characteristics. (authors)

  7. Histologic diagnosis of metabolic bone diseases: bone histomorphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dalle Carbonare

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Histomorphometry or quantitative histology is the analysis on histologic sections of bone resorption parameters, formation and structure. It is the only technique that allows a dynamic evaluation of the activity of bone modelling after labelling with tetracycline. Moreover, the new measurement procedures through the use of the computer allow an assessment of bone microarchitecture too. Histomorphometric bone biopsy is a reliable and well-tolerated procedure. Complications are reported only in 1% of the subjects (hematoma, pain, transient neuralgia. Histomorphometry is used to exclude or confirm the diagnosis of osteomalacia. It is employed in the evaluation of bone damage associated with particular treatments (for example, anticonvulsants or in case of rare bone diseases (osteogenesis imperfecta, systemic mastocytosis. It is also an essential approach when clinical, biochemical and other diagnostic data are not consistent. Finally, it is a useful method to understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of drugs. The bone sample is taken at the level of iliac crest under local anesthesia. It is then put into methyl-metacrilate resin where the sections are prepared for the microscopic analysis of the various histomorphometric parameters.

  8. Crosslinking and corneal cryotherapy in acanthamoeba keratitis -- a histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Tobias; Hasenfus, A; Stachon, T; Seitz, B; Szentmáry, N

    2016-01-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis is rare, but difficult to treat. Penetrating keratoplasty is performed in therapy-resistant cases. Nevertheless, subsequent recurrences occur in 40 % of the cases. In addition to triple-topical therapy (polyhexamid, propamidinisoethionat, neomycin), treatment alternatives are corneal cryotherapy and/or crosslinking (CXL). The aim of our present histological study was to analyze the persistence of acanthamoebatrophozoites and cysts, the persistence of bacteria, and activation of keratocytes in corneas of acanthamoeba keratitis patients following corneal cryotherapy and/or CXL. We analyzed histologically corneal buttons (from penetrating keratoplasties) of nine patients with acanthamoeba keratitis, following corneal cryotherapy (two patients) or a combination of crosslinking and corneal cryotherapy (seven patients), using haematoxilin–eosin, periodic acid Schiff (PAS), Gram and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) stainings. Acanthamoeba trophozoites persisted in three corneas after cryotherapy and CXL. Cysts persisted in one of two corneas following corneal cryotherapy and in six of seven corneas after a combination of CXL and cryotherapy. One cornea showed positive Gram staining, but there were no alpha-SMA positive keratocytes in any of the corneas. Crosslinking and corneal cryotherapy have only limited impact on killing of acanthamoeba trophozoites, cysts, or bacteria. Corneal cryotherapy and CXL did not stimulate myofibroblastic transformation of keratocytes.

  9. Histological and histochemical alterations in the kidney induced by lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrar, Bashir M.

    2003-01-01

    Although lead intoxication is one of the most common forms of metal intoxication,the histochemichal alterations in renal tissues due to chronic lead exposure is limited and has not yet been well identified. A total of 60 male Wistar albino rats were exposed to lead acetate trihydrate( 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2% for 1 to 12 months) in drinking water to investigate the histological and histochemical alterations in renal tissues due to lead. Chronic exposure to the subtoxic doses of lead produced distinct progressive tubular, glomerular and interstitial damages. Tubular changes occured earlier than the glomerular and interstitial ones,and included anisokaryosis, nuclear pyknosis,karyomeglay, development of intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions together with tubular dilation, necrosis,vacuolization, tubular hyperplasia and solid tubular adenoma. The glomrular alterations were mainly mesangial hypercellularity, segmental glomerulosclerosis, glomerular hyalinization and glomerular tuft alterations. The findings indicate that lead produces significant histological and histochemical changes in the kidney that lead to severe complications. (author)

  10. Histologic features of alopecias: part II: scarring alopecias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  11. A parallel solution for high resolution histological image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, G; González, R; Déniz, O; García-Rojo, M; González-García, J; Fernández-Carrobles, M M; Vállez, N; Salido, J

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes a general methodology for developing parallel image processing algorithms based on message passing for high resolution images (on the order of several Gigabytes). These algorithms have been applied to histological images and must be executed on massively parallel processing architectures. Advances in new technologies for complete slide digitalization in pathology have been combined with developments in biomedical informatics. However, the efficient use of these digital slide systems is still a challenge. The image processing that these slides are subject to is still limited both in terms of data processed and processing methods. The work presented here focuses on the need to design and develop parallel image processing tools capable of obtaining and analyzing the entire gamut of information included in digital slides. Tools have been developed to assist pathologists in image analysis and diagnosis, and they cover low and high-level image processing methods applied to histological images. Code portability, reusability and scalability have been tested by using the following parallel computing architectures: distributed memory with massive parallel processors and two networks, INFINIBAND and Myrinet, composed of 17 and 1024 nodes respectively. The parallel framework proposed is flexible, high performance solution and it shows that the efficient processing of digital microscopic images is possible and may offer important benefits to pathology laboratories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Histological and Immunohistochemical Revision of Hepatocellular Adenomas: A Learning Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Light has been shed on the genotype/phenotype correlation in hepatocellular adenoma (HCA recognizing HNF1α-inactivated HCA (H-HCA, inflammatory HCA (IHCA, and β-catenin-activated HCA (b-HCA. We reviewed retrospectively our surgical HCA series to learn how to recognize the different subtypes histopathologically and how to interpret adequately their immunohistochemical staining. From January 1992 to January 2012, 37 patients underwent surgical resection for HCA in our institution. Nine had H-HCA (25% characterized by steatosis and loss of L-FABP expression; 20 had IHCA (55.5% showing CRP and/or SAA expression, sinusoidal dilatation, and variable inflammation; and 1 patient had both H-HCA and IHCA. In 5 patients (14%, b-HCA with GS and β-catenin nuclear positivity was diagnosed, two already with hepatocellular carcinoma. Two cases (5.5% remained unclassified. One of the b-HCA showed also the H-HCA histological and immunohistochemical characteristics suggesting a subgroup of β-catenin-activated/HNF1α-inactivated HCA, another b-HCA exhibited the IHCA histological and immunohistochemical characteristics suggesting a subgroup of β-catenin-activated/inflammatory HCA. Interestingly, three patients had underlying vascular abnormalities. Using the recently published criteria enabled us to classify histopathologically our retrospective HCA surgical series with accurate recognition of b-HCA for which we confirm the higher risk of malignant transformation. We also underlined the association between HCA and vascular abnormalities.

  13. [Anatomy and histology of salivary glands of Triatominae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, D

    1999-01-01

    Histological studies upon the salivary glands of ten species of triatomine bugs were performed looking for their number and structural organization in different genera. It was possible to evaluate the celular epithelium type of each gland, as well as the merocrine and apocrine secretions of the glands. Secretion run until the hilo and after to salivary pump and hypofaringe. The glandular components, D1, D2 and D3 are always present in the Triatoma, Panstrongylus and Diptelogaster but in Rhodnius there are only the first two pairs of glands. The salivary channels and the hilo are analyzed by histology. The whole pair D3 has a clear valve that regularizes the exit of the secretions to the hilo. According to the genus the valves appear in different locations. They have low and dense epithelium, and their nucleus are rich in chromatin. The secondary channels leaving these valves, are very different, with clear chitinous ringer, low level of chromatin in the nucleus and homogeneous cytoplasm.

  14. [Alfred Kohn, professor of histology at German University in Prague].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanka, O; Grim, M

    2008-01-01

    Prof. Kohn (1867-1959) was the head of the Institute of Histology at the Medical Faculty of German University in Prague for 26 years. In 2007 we commemorated his 140th birthday, and 2009 we will remember the 50th anniversary of his death. He entered the history of medicine by discovery of nature and origin of parathyroid glands and by pioneer research into chromaffin cells and sympathetic paraganglia. Kohn's papers on the pituitary, interstitial cells of testes, and ovaries are also related to endocrinology. All his studies are based on descriptive and comparative histological and embryological observations. Kohn was twice the dean of German Medical Faculty, and a member or honorary member of many important scientific societies. He was repeatedly nominated for Nobel Prize for physiology and medicine. For his Jewish origin he was expelled from Deutsche Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften und Künste für die Tschechoslowakische Republik in 1939 and transported to Terezin ghetto in 1943. After the war he lived in Prague. On the occasion of his 90th birthday he was elected honorary president of Anatomische Gesellschaft and awarded by the Czechoslovak Order of Labour. Alfred Kohn died in 1959. He was one of the outstanding personalities that Prague gave to the world of science.

  15. A novel non-toxic xylene substitute (SBO) for histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunhua, Wang; Chuming, Fan; Tao, Lai; Yanmei, Yang; Xin, Yang; Xiaoming, Zhang; Xuezhong, Guo; Xun, Lai

    2012-01-01

    Xylene has been generally used as a clearing and deparaffinizing agent in histology. Because of the potential toxic and flammable nature of xylene, its substitutes have been introduced into some laboratories. In this study, we introduced a novel, non-toxic xylene substitute (SBO), which was generated through a mixture of 86% of white oil No.2 and 14% of N-heptane. SBO had a high boiling point (188°C) and flash point (144°C) coupled with a scentless and decreased volatility. To compare the effectiveness of SBO and xylene in histology, a wide range of tissue samples from rats and human beings were processed in parallel in SBO and xylene, subjected to various staining procedures. Similar to the xylene-processed paraffin blocks, the SBO-processed counterparts were easy to section without any evidence of cell shrinkage. Assessment of the SBO-treated sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin revealed a good maintenance of cell morphology and structure, and a clear definition of the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Moreover, comparable good results were achieved between the SBO- and xylene-processed tissues in other histochemical and immunohistochemical stainings. Six-month clinical applications at one department of pathology supported the potentials of SBO as a xylene substitute. In conclusion, we suggest that SBO is a safe and efficient substitute of xylene and may probably replace xylene without losing valuable diagnostic information.

  16. Anatomy and histology of the transverse humeral ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Brian J; Narvy, Steven J; Omid, Reza; Atkinson, Roscoe D; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2013-10-01

    The classic literature describes the transverse humeral ligament (THL) as a distinct anatomic structure with a role in biceps tendon stability; however, recent literature suggests that it is not a distinct anatomic structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gross and microscopic anatomy of the THL, including a specific investigation of the histology of this ligament. Thirty frozen, embalmed cadaveric specimens were dissected to determine the gross anatomy of the THL. Seven specimens were evaluated histologically for the presence of mechanoreceptors and free nerve endings. Two tissue layers were identified in the area described as the THL. In the deep layer, fibers of the subscapularis tendon were found to span the bicipital groove with contributions from the coracohumeral ligament and the supraspinatus tendon. Superficial to this layer was a fibrous fascial covering consisting of distinct bands of tissue. Neurohistology staining revealed the presence of free nerve endings but no mechanoreceptors. This study's findings demonstrate that the THL is a distinct structure continuous with the rotator cuff tendons and the coracohumeral ligament. The finding of free nerve endings in the THL suggests a potential role as a shoulder pain generator. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Normal anatomy and histology of the adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Aswin L; Spitsbergen, Jan M; Wolterbeek, Andre P M; Woutersen, Ruud A

    2011-08-01

    The zebrafish has been shown to be an excellent vertebrate model for studying the roles of specific genes and signaling pathways. The sequencing of its genome and the relative ease with which gene modifications can be performed have led to the creation of numerous human disease models that can be used for testing the potential and the toxicity of new pharmaceutical compounds. Many pharmaceutical companies already use the zebrafish for prescreening purposes. So far, the focus has been on ecotoxicity and the effects on embryonic development, but there is a trend to expand the use of the zebrafish with acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity studies that are currently still carried out with the more conventional test animals such as rodents. However, before we can fully realize the potential of the zebrafish as an animal model for understanding human development, disease, and toxicology, we must first greatly advance our knowledge of normal zebrafish physiology, anatomy, and histology. To further this knowledge, we describe, in the present article, location and histology of the major zebrafish organ systems with a brief description of their function.

  18. Inhibition of colon cancer growth by methylselenocysteine-induced angiogenic chemomodulation is influenced by histologic characteristics of the tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Arup; Tóth, Károly; Sen, Arindam; Seshadri, Mukund; Cao, Shousong; Durrani, Farukh A; Faber, Erik; Repasky, Elizabeth A; Rustum, Youcef M

    2009-07-01

    Despite an armamentarium that is wide in range, scope of action, and target, chemotherapy has limited success in colorectal cancer (CRC). Novel approaches are needed to overcome tumor barriers to chemotherapy that includes an abnormal tumor vasculature constituting a poor drug delivery system. We have previously shown that 5-methylselenocysteine (MSC) enhances therapeutic efficacy of irinotecan in various human tumor xenografts. We have recently demonstrated that MSC through vascular normalization leads to better tumor vascular function in vivo. In this study, we examined the role of MSC on tumor vasculature, interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and drug delivery in 2 histologically distinct CRC xenografts, HCT-8 (uniformly poorly differentiated) and HT-29 (moderately differentiated tumor with avascular glandular regions). The presence of specific histologic structures as a barrier to therapy in these xenografts and their clinical relevance was studied using tissue microarray of human surgical samples of CRC. MSC led to a significant tumor growth inhibition, a reduced microvessel density, and a more normalized vasculature in both colorectal xenografts. While IFP was found to be significantly improved in HCT-8, an improved intratumoral doxorubicin delivery seen in both xenografts could explain the observed increase in therapeutic efficacy. Differentiated, glandular, avascular and hypoxic regions that contribute to tumor heterogeneity in HT-29 were also evident in the majority of surgical samples of CRC. Such regions constitute a physical barrier to chemotherapy and can confer drug resistance. Our results indicate that MSC could enhance chemotherapeutic efficacy in human CRC, especially in CRC with few or no hypoxic regions.

  19. Extramammary Paget's disease: extended subclinical growth detected using three-dimensional histology in routine paraffin procedure and course of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Alexandra; Leiter, Ulrike; Metzler, Gisela; Moehrle, Matthias; Garbe, Claus; Breuninger, Helmut

    2011-10-01

    Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare tumor of the skin characterized by extended irregular subclinical growth and high recurrence rates after surgery. To show that, using three-dimensional (3D) histology in surgical excision, the size of the safety margin can be individually determined and locally adjusted to subclinical growth and to evaluate the course of the disease in 33 patients. The clinical records of 33 patients with primary lesions of EMPD were prospectively documented, retrospectively confirmed, and analyzed. EMPD was found more frequently in women (54.5%). Dermal invasion was found in 21.2%, and regional lymph node metastases were present in one patient; 30.3% of the patients had secondary internal malignancies. In 25 cases examined using 3D histology, a mean surgical margin of 22 mm in asymmetric shape (range 5-65 mm) was achieved, with a recurrence rate of 28%. Surgery with conventional histologic examination had a higher recurrence rate of 62.5% using a mean surgical margin of 19 mm (range 7-40 mm). Subclinical spread of EMPD demonstrated using 3D histology with paraffin sectioning can be large. Three-dimensional histology allows individually defined safety margins to be locally adjusted to subclinical growth and gives low recurrence rates. The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  20. Detection of histological anaplasia in gliomas with oligodendroglial components using positron emission tomography with (18)F-FDG and (11)C-methionine: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Kenji; Shiga, Tohru; Tanaka, Shinya; Murata, Junichi; Terasaka, Shunsuke

    2011-01-01

    Gliomas are regionally heterogeneous tumors. Positron emission tomography (PET) with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and (11)C-methionine (MET) evaluates the heterogeneity of histological malignancy within the tumor. We present two patients with oligodendrocytic tumors that showed discrepancies in the highest uptake areas with these two tracers. PET studies with MET and FDG were performed on the same day, 2 weeks before surgery. In both cases, biopsy specimens were separately obtained from the highest MET and FDG uptake areas guided by intraoperative neuronavigation. Histological examinations demonstrated that the specimens from the highest MET uptake area revealed low-grade oligoastrocytoma or oligodendroglioma, whereas histological anaplasias were contained in the specimens from the highest FDG uptake area. With gliomas with oligodendroglial components, the MET uptake ratio does not always correspond to histological anaplasia, which can be detected only by FDG PET. Sole application of MET PET for preoperative evaluation may lead to misunderstanding of histological heterogeneity in gliomas, especially those with oligodendroglial components. FDG and MET tracers play complementary roles in preoperative evaluation of gliomas.

  1. Bone histological correlates for air sacs and their implications for understanding the origin of the dinosaurian respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertz, Markus; Bertozzo, Filippo; Sander, P Martin

    2018-01-01

    Air sacs are an important component of the avian respiratory system, and corresponding structures also were crucial for the evolution of sauropod dinosaur gigantism. Inferring the presence of air sacs in fossils so far is restricted to bones preserving internal pneumatic cavities and foramina as osteological correlates. We here present bone histological correlates for air sacs as a new potential identification tool for these elements of the respiratory system. The analysis of several avian and non-avian dinosaur samples revealed delicate fibres in secondary trabecular and secondary endosteal bone that in the former case (birds) is known or in the latter (non-avian dinosaurs) assumed to have been in contact with air sacs, respectively. The bone histology of this 'pneumosteal tissue' is markedly different from those regions where muscles attached presenting classical Sharpey's fibres. The pneumatized bones of several non-dinosaurian taxa do not exhibit the characteristics of this 'pneumosteum'. Our new histology-based approach thus can be instrumental in reconstructing the origin of air sacs among dinosaurs and hence for our understanding of this remarkable evolutionary novelty of the respiratory system. © 2018 The Author(s).

  2. Histological Study on the Skin of Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jie; ZHANG Xiumei; GAO Tianxiang

    2005-01-01

    Histological development of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus larval skin and ultrastructural difference of skin between reared normal and malpigmented Japanese flounder were studied with light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the skin develops slowly before the metamorphosis, while at the onset of metamorphosis, the skin develops quickly and becomes complete in structure till about 50 d after being hatched. Ultrastructural observation on the normal and malpigmented skins shows that the iridophore and melanophore are adjacent to each other. Profile and structure of the two kinds of pigment cells are more complete in the skin of normal ocular side than in the skin of pigmented blind side. The ultrastructure of typical chloride cell was observed in the skin of Japanese flounder larvae for the first time.

  3. Computer tomographic and angiographic studies of histologically confirmed intrahepatic masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janson, R.; Lackner, K.; Paquet, K.J.; Thelen, M.; Thurn, P.

    1980-01-01

    The computer tomographic and angiographic findings in 53 patients with intrahepatic masses were compared. The histological findings show that 17 were due to echinococcus, 12 were due to hepatic carcinoma, ten were metastases, five patients had focal nodular hyperplasia, three an alveolar echinococcus and there were three cases with an haemangioma of the liver and a further three liver abscesses. Computer tomography proved superior in peripherally situated lesions, and in those in the left lobe of the liver. Arteriography was better at demonstrating lesions below 2 cm in size, particularly vascular tumours. As a pre-operative measure, angiography is to be preferred since it is able to demonstrate anatomic anomalies and variations in the blood supply, as well as invasion of the portal vein or of the inferior vena cava. (orig.) [de

  4. Computer tomographic and angiographic studies of histologically confirmed intrahepatic masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janson, R.; Lackner, K.; Paquet, K.J.; Thelen, M.; Thurn, P.

    1980-06-01

    The computer tomographic and angiographic findings in 53 patients with intrahepatic masses were compared. The histological findings show that 17 were due to echinococcus, 12 were due to hepatic carcinoma, ten were metastases, five patients had focal nodular hyperplasia, three an alveolar echinococcus and there were three cases with an haemangioma of the liver and a further three liver abscesses. Computer tomography proved superior in peripherally situated lesions, and in those in the left lobe of the liver. Arteriography was better at demonstrating lesions below 2 cm in size, particularly vascular tumours. As a pre-operative measure, angiography is to be preferred since it is able to demonstrate anatomic anomalies and variations in the blood supply, as well as invasion of the portal vein or of the inferior vena cava.

  5. Liposoluble vitamins in Crustacean feed: Metabolic and Histological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gimenez, Analía Verónica

    2016-05-01

    Vitamins are vital for normal growth and survival of living organisms and they are distributed in feedstuffs in small quantities. This review is focused on the liposoluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) in the diets and metabolic responses of the Argentine penaeoid shrimps Pleoticus muelleri and Artemesia longinaris, distributed along the South American coast line. Growth, survival and histological analyses serve as indicators of the nutritional value derived from vitamin deficiency. Liposoluble vitamins are also related to stress, antioxidant defense and immune response of shrimps. Effective diet for shrimp culture that provide not only macronutrients including protein and lipid but also micronutrients such as vitamins for optimal growth is an ever improving subject. This review may help formulating suitable feeds for shrimps.

  6. Histological identification of muscular sarcocystis: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Makhija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcocystis is an apicomplexan protozoan belonging to same phylum as toxoplasma. The parasite encysts inside striated muscles of its intermediate host. Humans are accidental host infected by eating food or water contaminated with oocysts or sporocysts of an infected definitive host. The infection is increasing in Southeast Asia and may be overlooked in histological sections if one is not aware of the histomorphological features. The size and shape of the bradyzoites and the appearance of the cyst wall are the reliable features to distinguish this parasite from other parasites of the same phylum. The incidence of human infection is rising in Southeast Asia and histopathology is an important method for the diagnosis of muscular infection. It is important to recognize the histomorphology of this parasite and its differentiation from similar parasites.

  7. Histological Examination of Precious Corals from the Ryukyu Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Nonaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examined the histology of three commercially valuable species of precious corals (Paracorallium japonicum, Corallium elatius, and C. konojoi from the Ryukyu Archipelago. In order to observe their inner structure, samples were thin sectioned and examined with a digital light microscope. Colonies of C. konojoi had thicker coenenchyme and larger autozooids than those of C. elatius and P. japonicum. The sclerites of the three species tended to be concentrated in the outer layers of coenenchyme. The gastric cavities of autozooids of all three species were found to be relatively empty. Some symbiotic polychates were observed in the axis of P. japonicum. As well, a zoanthid (Corallizoanthus tsukaharai was often observed living on the coenenchyme surface of P. japonicum. It is hoped our observations will provide a good foundation of future study of Japanese Coralliidae corals.

  8. Pulmonary Arteriovenous Fistula: Clinical and Histologic Spectrum of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soomin Ahn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (PAVF is abnormally dilated vessels that provide a right-to-left shunt between pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein and is clinically divided into simple and complex type. Here, we report four cases of surgically resected sporadic PAVFs presenting various clinical and histologic spectrums. Cases 1 (a 57-old-female and 2 (a 54-old-female presented as incidentally identified single aneurysmal fistulas and the lesions were surgically removed without complication. On the other hand, case 3 (an 11-old-male showed diffuse dilated vascular sacs involving both lungs and caused severe hemodynamic and pulmonary dysfunction. Embolization and surgical resection of the main lesion failed to relieve the symptoms. Case 4 (a 36-old-male had a localized multiloculated cyst clinically mimicking congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation. Microscopically, the lesion consisted of dilated thick vessels, consistent with the diagnosis of fistulous arteriovenous malformation/hemangioma.

  9. Microcalcifications in mammography: Relation between radiologic criteria and histologic dignity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbach, G.E.; Kreth, U.; Deck, H.J.; Schnuerch, H.G.; Bender, H.G.

    1989-01-01

    We analyzed the correlation between radiologic criteria of microcalcifications and the probability of a histologic benign versus malignant breast condition. After reviewing 19 534 mammographic reports, we found 63 biopsied cases with adequately visualized, clinically occult microcalcifications as the only mammographic abnormality. The risk for breast cancer varied for the individual radiological criteria. No cancer could be detected in seven cases showing the 'tea cup sign' arising from calcified milk cysts, in twelve cases in which the form of the group of microcalcifications was circular in both planes, and in 16 cases with monomorphous punctate calcifications. The limited number of cases does not allow any definitive conclusion. However, we feel that with adequate experience biopsy might be spared in selected cases where the above criteria apply. (orig.) [de

  10. Lethal midline granuloma histologically. Management with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga T, L.; Misad, O.; Moscol, A.; Pinillos G, L.; Barriga T, O.; Heredia, A.; Pinillos A, L.; Mayer Z, T.

    1995-01-01

    From 1973 through 1990, 24 patients with lethal midline granuloma histologically demonstrated were treated with radiation therapy at the Radiation Oncology Department of the National Institute of Neoplasmic Diseases from Peru. The authors reports the results of their experience, reviewed the literature and present a clinic and pathologic discussion of this rare entity. All the patients received radiotherapy as the main treatment and 12 of them received chemotherapy. The male to female ratio was 5:3 with a mean age of 29.33 years (range 6 to 84 years old). Symptoms of nasal obstruction were presented 45.83%, nasal enlargement in 33.33%, nasal discharge in 29.16% and fever in 29.16%, principally. We believe that radiotherapy is the treatment of choice in this report we can not demonstrate it because of the small number of patients. (authors). 28 refs., 10 tabs

  11. Acetylcholinesterase and Nissl staining in the same histological section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, M T; Ennis, M; Behbehani, M M

    1989-12-18

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme histochemistry and Nissl staining are commonly utilized in neural architectonic studies. However, the opaque reaction deposit produced by the most commonly used AChE histochemical methods is not compatible with satisfactory Nissl staining. As a result, precise correlation of AChE and Nissl staining necessitates time-consuming comparisons of adjacent sections which may have differential shrinkage. Here, we have modified the Koelle-Friedenwald histochemical reaction for AChE by omitting the final intensification steps. The modified reaction yields a non-opaque reaction product that is selectively visualized by darkfield illumination. This non-intensified darkfield AChE (NIDA) reaction allows clear visualization of Nissl staining in the same histological section. This combined AChE-Nissl method greatly facilitates detailed correlation of enzyme and cytoarchitectonic organization.

  12. Dysplastic naevus: histological criteria and their inter-observer reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, N; Clemmensen, O J; Spaun, E; Søndergaard, K

    1994-06-01

    Forty melanocytic lesions were examined in a pilot study, which was followed by a final series of 100 consecutive melanocytic lesions, in order to evaluate the inter-observer reproducibility of the histological criteria proposed for the dysplastic naevus. The specimens were examined in a blind fashion by four observers. Analysis by kappa statistics showed poor reproducibility of nuclear features, while reproducibility of architectural features was acceptable, improving in the final series. Consequently, we cannot apply the combined criteria of cytological and architectural features with any confidence in the diagnosis of dysplastic naevus, and, until further studies have documented that architectural criteria alone will suffice in the diagnosis of dysplastic naevus, we, as pathologists, shall avoid this term.

  13. Histological and pathological characteristics of the homogeneous oral leucoplakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izaguirre Bordelois, Marioneya; Soriano Gonzalez, Blanca Ines

    2011-01-01

    A descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional, and analytical study of 35 patients with homogeneous oral leucoplakia associated to the smoking habit, assisted at the Outpatient Department of Maxillofacial Surgery from 'Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso' Teaching General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba was carried out from January, 2007 to the same month of 2009, aimed at determining the presence not only of changes of keratinisation as parakeratosis, orthokeratosis, and dyskeratosis, but also of epithelial dysplasia. The primary information was obtained through the histological-pathological study of the biopsies processed in the Pathology Department of the aforementioned institution. The distinctive microscopic characteristic was the hyperparakeratosis, with the presence of the abnormal development of the tissue or without it. (author)

  14. Renal histology in the elderly: indications and outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brown, Catherine M

    2011-06-28

    Background: Renal disease is being increasingly diagnosed in the elderly. However, reports on biopsy-confirmed renal disease in this population are limited. The aim of this study was to give an overview of the most important indications, diagnoses and outcomes of renal biopsies in the elderly in our center. Methods: This was a retrospective review of all elderly renal biopsies over 5 years. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they were aged =65 years and had had a native kidney biopsy performed. The data recorded included age, sex, indications for biopsy, histological diagnoses and outcomes. Results: During this time, 1,372 native renal biopsies were performed. Of these, 236 (17%) were in patients aged =65 years; 150 male (64%) and 86 female (36%). The most common indications for biopsy were acute renal failure and nephrotic syndrome. Common diagnoses included pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, membranous nephropathy, IgA nephropathy and chronic thrombotic microangiopathy. Long-term follow-up of 3 years was available for 102 patients; median serum creatinine at the time of biopsy was 427 µmol\\/L (interquartile range 204-702) and at 3 years post biopsy had fallen to 192 µmol\\/L (interquartile range 152-408). Conclusions: In our center, 17% of native kidney biopsies are performed in elderly patients aged =65 years. In our experience, this procedure was safe and had a 97% diagnostic rate. The available follow-up data of patients suggest that renal histology is not only of benefit in diagnosis but also of potential value in terms of prognosis and treatment.

  15. A clinical prediction rule for histological chorioamnionitis in preterm newborns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper V Been

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histological chorioamnionitis (HC is an intrauterine inflammatory process highly associated with preterm birth and adverse neonatal outcome. HC is often clinically silent and diagnosed postnatally by placental histology. Earlier identification could facilitate treatment individualisation to improve outcome in preterm newborns. AIM: Develop a clinical prediction rule at birth for HC and HC with fetal involvement (HCF in preterm newborns. METHODS: Clinical data and placental pathology were obtained from singleton preterm newborns (gestational age ≤ 32.0 weeks born at Erasmus UMC Rotterdam from 2001 to 2003 (derivation cohort; n = 216 or Máxima MC Veldhoven from 2009 to 2010 (validation cohort; n = 206. HC and HCF prediction rules were developed with preference for high sensitivity using clinical variables available at birth. RESULTS: HC and HCF were present in 39% and 24% in the derivation cohort and in 44% and 22% in the validation cohort, respectively. HC was predicted with 87% accuracy, yielding an area under ROC curve of 0.95 (95%CI = 0.92-0.98, a positive predictive value of 80% (95%CI = 74-84%, and a negative predictive value of 93% (95%CI = 88-96%. Corresponding figures for HCF were: accuracy 83%, area under ROC curve 0.92 (95%CI = 0.88-0.96, positive predictive value 59% (95%CI = 52-62%, and negative predictive value 97% (95%CI = 93-99%. External validation expectedly resulted in some loss of test performance, preferentially affecting positive predictive rather than negative predictive values. CONCLUSION: Using a clinical prediction rule composed of clinical variables available at birth, HC and HCF could be predicted with good test characteristics in preterm newborns. Further studies should evaluate the clinical value of these rules to guide early treatment individualisation.

  16. Actual drawing of histological images improves knowledge retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balemans, Monique C M; Kooloos, Jan G M; Donders, A Rogier T; Van der Zee, Catharina E E M

    2016-01-01

    Medical students have to process a large amount of information during the first years of their study, which has to be retained over long periods of nonuse. Therefore, it would be beneficial when knowledge is gained in a way that promotes long-term retention. Paper-and-pencil drawings for the uptake of form-function relationships of basic tissues has been a teaching tool for a long time, but now seems to be redundant with virtual microscopy on computer-screens and printers everywhere. Several studies claimed that, apart from learning from pictures, actual drawing of images significantly improved knowledge retention. However, these studies applied only immediate post-tests. We investigated the effects of actual drawing of histological images, using randomized cross-over design and different retention periods. The first part of the study concerned esophageal and tracheal epithelium, with 384 medical and biomedical sciences students randomly assigned to either the drawing or the nondrawing group. For the second part of the study, concerning heart muscle cells, students from the previous drawing group were now assigned to the nondrawing group and vice versa. One, four, and six weeks after the experimental intervention, the students were given a free recall test and a questionnaire or drawing exercise, to determine the amount of knowledge retention. The data from this study showed that knowledge retention was significantly improved in the drawing groups compared with the nondrawing groups, even after four or six weeks. This suggests that actual drawing of histological images can be used as a tool to improve long-term knowledge retention. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Histologic Anatomy of the Anterior Vagina and Urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloomdoost, Donna; Westermann, Lauren B; Mutema, George; Crisp, Catrina C; Kleeman, Steven D; Pauls, Rachel N

    Vaginal and urethral histology is important to understanding the pathophysiology of the pelvic floor. En bloc removal of 4 female cadaveric pelvises was performed, with 18 to 25 serial sections obtained from each. The vaginal and urethral lengths were divided into distal and proximal sections; urethra was divided into anterior and posterior segments as well. Innervation and vasculature were qualified as small and large and quantified per high-power field. The mean vaginal length was 7.45 cm, and the mean urethral length was 3.38 cm. A distinct vaginal fibromuscular layer was noted, without evidence of a dense sheet of continuous collagen. An epithelial, lamina propria, and muscular layer surrounded the urethral lumen. Adipose and loose fibroconnective tissue separated the urethra from the anterior vagina in 41% of slides. Nerves and vasculature were concentrated in the lamina propria. More small nerves and vessels were grossly seen compared with larger counterparts in both the vagina and urethra. No significant differences in layer thickness, innervation, or vasculature were observed along the vaginal length. The posterior urethra had greater innervation than did the anterior (P = 0.012). The distal posterior urethra had more large vessels than did the proximal posterior urethra (P = 0.03). No other differences were noted in urethral sections. A vaginal fibromuscular layer was confirmed, refuting a true fascia. Innervation and vasculature were quantitatively the same along the anterior vagina. However, the posterior urethra had greater innervation than did anterior and is most innervated proximally. Nerve and vascular histology may relate to pelvic floor disorder etiology.

  18. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome: demographic, clinical, endoscopic and histological panorama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, A.; Bhutto, K. A.R.; Baloch, A.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the demographic, clinical, endoscopic and histological spectrum of Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome (SRUS). Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical Unit-III, Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK) and Ward 7, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Karachi, from January 2009 to June 2012. Methodology: Patients with SRUS, based on characteristic endoscopic and histological findings, were enrolled. Patients were excluded if they had other causes of the rectal lesions (neoplasm, infection, inflammatory bowel disease, and trauma). Endoscopically, lesions were divided on the basis of number (solitary or multiple) and appearance (ulcerative, polypoidal/nodular or erythematous mucosa). Demographic, clinical and endoscopic characteristics of subjects were evaluated. Results: Forty-four patients met the inclusion criteria; 21 (47.7%) were females and 23 (52.3%) were males with overall mean age of 33.73 ±13.28 years. Symptom-wise 41 (93.2%) had bleeding per rectum, 39 (88.6%) had mucous discharge, 34 (77.3%) had straining, 34 (77.3%) had constipation, 32 (72.7%) had tenesmus, 5 (11.4%) had rectal prolapse and 2 (4.5%) had fecal incontinence. Twelve (27.27%) patients presented with hemoglobin less 10 gm/dl, 27 (61.36%) with 10 - 12 gm/dl and 05 (11.36%) subjects had hemoglobin more than 12 gm/dl. Endoscopically, 26 (59.1%) patients had mucosal ulceration, 11 (25.0%) had mucosal ulceration with polypoid characteristics; while only polypoid features were found in 7 (15.9%) subjects. Conclusion: Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome affects adults of both genders with diverse clinical presentation and nonspecific endoscopic features. (author)

  19. Cesarean scar pregnancy and early placenta accreta share common histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timor-Tritsch, I E; Monteagudo, A; Cali, G; Palacios-Jaraquemada, J M; Maymon, R; Arslan, A A; Patil, N; Popiolek, D; Mittal, K R

    2014-04-01

    To determine, by evaluation of histological slides, images and descriptions of early (second-trimester) placenta accreta (EPA) and placental implantation in cases of Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP), whether these are pathologically indistinguishable and whether they both represent different stages in the disease continuum leading to morbidly adherent placenta in the third trimester. The database of a previously published review of CSP and EPA was used to identify articles with histopathological descriptions and electronic images for pathological review. When possible, microscopic slides and/or paraffin blocks were obtained from the original researchers. We also included from our own institutions cases of CSP and EPA for which pathology specimens were available. Two pathologists examined all the material independently and, blinded to each other's findings, provided a pathological diagnosis based on microscopic appearance. Interobserver agreement in diagnosis was determined. Forty articles were identified, which included 31 cases of CSP and 13 cases of EPA containing histopathological descriptions and/or images of the pathology. We additionally included six cases of CSP and eight cases of EPA from our own institutions, giving a total of 58 cases available for histological evaluation (37 CSP and 21 EPA) containing clear definitions of morbidly adherent placenta. In the 29 cases for which images/slides were available for histopathological evaluation, both pathologists attested to the various degrees of myometrial and/or scar tissue invasion by placental villi with scant or no intervening decidua, consistent with the classic definition of morbidly adherent placenta. Based on the reviewed material, cases with a diagnosis of EPA and those with a diagnosis of CSP showed identical histopathological features. Interobserver correlation was high (kappa = 0.93). EPA and placental implantation in CSP are histopathologically indistinguishable and may represent different stages in

  20. Color normalization of histology slides using graph regularized sparse NMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Lingdao; Schonfeld, Dan; Sethi, Amit

    2017-03-01

    Computer based automatic medical image processing and quantification are becoming popular in digital pathology. However, preparation of histology slides can vary widely due to differences in staining equipment, procedures and reagents, which can reduce the accuracy of algorithms that analyze their color and texture information. To re- duce the unwanted color variations, various supervised and unsupervised color normalization methods have been proposed. Compared with supervised color normalization methods, unsupervised color normalization methods have advantages of time and cost efficient and universal applicability. Most of the unsupervised color normaliza- tion methods for histology are based on stain separation. Based on the fact that stain concentration cannot be negative and different parts of the tissue absorb different stains, nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), and particular its sparse version (SNMF), are good candidates for stain separation. However, most of the existing unsupervised color normalization method like PCA, ICA, NMF and SNMF fail to consider important information about sparse manifolds that its pixels occupy, which could potentially result in loss of texture information during color normalization. Manifold learning methods like Graph Laplacian have proven to be very effective in interpreting high-dimensional data. In this paper, we propose a novel unsupervised stain separation method called graph regularized sparse nonnegative matrix factorization (GSNMF). By considering the sparse prior of stain concentration together with manifold information from high-dimensional image data, our method shows better performance in stain color deconvolution than existing unsupervised color deconvolution methods, especially in keeping connected texture information. To utilized the texture information, we construct a nearest neighbor graph between pixels within a spatial area of an image based on their distances using heat kernal in lαβ space. The

  1. Renal histology in the elderly: indications and outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Background: Renal disease is being increasingly diagnosed in the elderly. However, reports on biopsy-confirmed renal disease in this population are limited. The aim of this study was to give an overview of the most important indications, diagnoses and outcomes of renal biopsies in the elderly in our center. Methods: This was a retrospective review of all elderly renal biopsies over 5 years. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they were aged =65 years and had had a native kidney biopsy performed. The data recorded included age, sex, indications for biopsy, histological diagnoses and outcomes. Results: During this time, 1,372 native renal biopsies were performed. Of these, 236 (17%) were in patients aged =65 years; 150 male (64%) and 86 female (36%). The most common indications for biopsy were acute renal failure and nephrotic syndrome. Common diagnoses included pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, membranous nephropathy, IgA nephropathy and chronic thrombotic microangiopathy. Long-term follow-up of 3 years was available for 102 patients; median serum creatinine at the time of biopsy was 427 micromol\\/L (interquartile range 204-702) and at 3 years post biopsy had fallen to 192 micromol\\/L (interquartile range 152-408). Conclusions: In our center, 17% of native kidney biopsies are performed in elderly patients aged =65 years. In our experience, this procedure was safe and had a 97% diagnostic rate. The available follow-up data of patients suggest that renal histology is not only of benefit in diagnosis but also of potential value in terms of prognosis and treatment.

  2. Micro-CT evaluation and histological analysis of screw-bone interface of expansive pedicle screw in osteoporotic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shi-yong; Lei, Wei; Wu, Zi-xiang; Lv, Rong; Wang, Jun; Fu, Suo-chao; Li, Bo; Zhan, Ce

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the properties of screw-bone interface of expansive pedicle screw (EPS) in osteoporotic sheep by micro-CT and histological observation. Six female sheep with bilateral ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis were employed in this experiment. After EPS insertion in each femoral condyle, the sheep were randomly divided into two groups: 3 sheep were bred for 3 months (Group A), while the other 3 were bred for 6 months (Group B). After the animals being killed, the femoral condyles with EPS were obtained, which were three-dimensionally-imaged and reconstructed by micro-CT. Histological evaluation was made thereafter. The trabecular microstructure was denser at the screw-bone interface than in the distant parts in expansive section, especially within the spiral marking. In the non-expansive section, however, there was no significant difference between the interface and the distant parts. The regions of interest (ROI) adjacent to EPS were reconstructed and analyzed by micro-CT with the same thresholds. The three-dimensional (3-D) parameters, including tissue mineral density (TMD), bone volume fraction (BVF, BV/TV), bone surface/bone volume (BS/BV) ratio, trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), were significantly better in expansive sections than non-expansive sections (P less than 0.05). Histologically, newly-formed bony trabeculae crawled along the expansive fissures and into the center of EPS. The newly-formed bones, as well as the bones at the bone-screw interface, closely contacted with the EPS and constructed four compartments. The findings of the current study, based on micro-CT and histological evaluation, suggest that EPS can significantly provide stabilization in osteoporotic cancellous bones.

  3. Comparison of neurite density measured by MRI and histology after TBI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyang Wang

    Full Text Available Functional recovery after brain injury in animals is improved by marrow stromal cells (MSC which stimulate neurite reorganization. However, MRI measurement of neurite density changes after injury has not been performed. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of MRI measurement of neurite density in an animal model of traumatic brain injury (TBI with and without MSC treatment.Fifteen male Wistar rats, were treated with saline (n = 6 or MSCs (n = 9 and were sacrificed at 6 weeks after controlled cortical impact (CCI. Healthy non-CCI rats (n = 5, were also employed. Ex-vivo MRI scans were performed two days after the rats were sacrificed. Multiple-shell hybrid diffusion imaging encoding scheme and spherical harmonic expansion of a two-compartment water diffusion displacement model were used to extract neurite related parameters. Bielshowski and Luxol Fast blue was used for staining axons and myelin, respectively. Modified Morris water maze and neurological severity score (mNSS test were performed for functional evaluation. The treatment effects, the correlations between neurite densities measured by MRI and histology, and the correlations between MRI and functional variables were calculated by repeated measures analysis of variance, the regression correlation analysis tests, and spearman correlation coefficients.Neurite densities exhibited a significant correlation (R(2>0.80, p<1E-20 between MRI and immuno-histochemistry measurements with 95% lower bound of the intra-correlation coefficient (ICC as 0.86. The conventional fractional anisotropy (FA correlated moderately with histological neurite density (R(2 = 0.59, P<1E-5 with 95% lower bound of ICC as 0.76. MRI data revealed increased neurite reorganization with MSC treatment compared with saline treatment, confirmed by histological data from the same animals. mNSS were significantly correlated with MRI neurite density in the hippocampus region.The present studies

  4. Quantum molecular resonance technology in hard-to-heal extremity wounds: histological and clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraccalvieri, Marco; Salomone, Marco; Di Santo, Claudia; Ruka, Erind; Morozzo, Umberto; Bruschi, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    Chronic wounds are commonly associated with high morbidity rates due to the patient's need of frequent dressing changes and repeated visits to the outpatient wound clinic. Furthermore, chronic wounds are often characterised by severe pain, which can cause significant disability to the patient. New technologies aim to develop an optimal device to reduce discomfort of the patient and to heal wounds. The device Rexon-age ® is introduced for the first time in wound healing, and preliminary data on clinical and histological results are shown. From April 2014 to April 2015, 11 patients - 7 females and 4 males - were enrolled in the present study. The study was conducted at the Plastic and Reconstructive Institute of the Università degli Studi di Torino, Città della Salute e della Scienza of Torino, Italy. For histological characterisation, pre- and post-treatment biopsies on the wound bed were performed. Data regarding age, gender, weight, height, comorbidity, drug therapy and topical pre-treatment and dressings of the wound were collected as well. Moreover, local factors regarding the wound data were as follows: aetiology, time of the wound formation until first Rexon-age treatment, wound dimensions, wound bed, moisture, margins and anatomical region of the wound. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to monitor the pain before and after each treatment. Rexon-age treatment resulted in improvement in granulation tissue and wound contraction. Moreover, a significant reduction of pain was observed with the reduction of painkillers drug usage. Among these Rexon-age-treated patients, three patients displayed 60-80% reduction in pain intensity, and two patients showed complete pain relief. In outpatient follow-up appointments, we registered long-term durability of pain relief. As assessed by histological analyses, post-treatment biopsies of all nine patients revealed a decreased amount of inflammatory cells and lower expression levels of metalloproteinases (e.g. MMP9). We

  5. Quantitative analysis of ultrasound B-mode images of carotid atherosclerotic plaque: correlation with visual classification and histological examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Grønholdt, Marie-Louise; Wiebe, Brit

    1998-01-01

    regions of the plaque in still ultrasound images from three orthogonal scan planes and finally a histological analysis of the surgically removed plaque. The quantitative comparison was made with the linear model and with separation of the available data into training and test sets. The comparison......This paper presents a quantitative comparison of three types of information available for 52 patients scheduled for carotid endarterectomy: subjective classification of the ultrasound images obtained during scanning before operation, first- and second-order statistical features extracted from...

  6. Skin histology and its role in heat dissipation in three pinniped species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamas Wael A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pinnipeds have a thick blubber layer and may have difficulty maintaining their body temperature during hot weather when on land. The skin is the main thermoregulatory conduit which emits excessive body heat. Methods Thorough evaluation of the skin histology in three pinniped species; the California sea lion-Zalophus californianus, the Pacific harbor seal-Phoca vitulina richardsi, and the Northern elephant seal-Mirounga angustirostris, was conducted to identify the presence, location and distribution of skin structures which contribute to thermoregulation. These structures included hair, adipose tissue, sweat glands, vasculature, and arteriovenous anastomoses (AVA. Thermal imaging was performed on live animals of the same species to correlate histological findings with thermal emission of the skin. Results The presence and distribution of skin structures directly relates to emissivity of the skin in all three species. Emissivity of skin in phocids (Pacific harbor and Northern elephant seals follows a different pattern than skin in otariids (California sea lions. The flipper skin in phocids tends to be the most emissive region during hot weather and least emissive during cold weather. On the contrary in otariids, skin of the entire body has a tendency to be emissive during both hot and cold weather. Conclusion Heat dissipation of the skin directly relates to the presence and distribution of skin structures in all three species. Different skin thermal dissipation patterns were observed in phocid versus otariid seals. Observed thermal patterns can be used for proper understanding of optimum thermal needs of seals housed in research facilities, rescue centers and zoo exhibits.

  7. The anatomy and histology of the bicipital tunnel of the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Samuel A; Fabricant, Peter D; Bansal, Manjula; Khair, M Michael; McLawhorn, Alexander; DiCarlo, Edward F; Shorey, Mary; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2015-04-01

    The bicipital tunnel is the extra-articular, fibro-osseous structure that encloses the long head of the biceps tendon. Twelve cadaveric shoulder specimens underwent in situ casting of the bicipital tunnel with methyl methacrylate cement to demonstrate structural competence (n = 6) and en bloc harvest with gross and histologic evaluation (n = 6). The percentage of empty tunnel was calculated histologically by subtracting the proportion of cross-sectional area of the long head of the biceps tendon from that of the bicipital tunnel for each zone. Cement casting demonstrated that the bicipital tunnel was a closed space. Zone 1 extended from the articular margin to the distal margin of the subscapularis tendon. Zone 2 extended from the distal margin of the subscapularis tendon to the proximal margin of the pectoralis major tendon. Zone 3 was the subpectoral region. Zones 1 and 2 were both enclosed by a dense connective tissue sheath and demonstrated the presence of synovium. Zone 3 had significantly greater percentage of empty tunnel than zones 1 and 2 did (P < .01). The bicipital tunnel is a closed space with 3 distinct zones. Zones 1 and 2 have similar features, including the presence of synovium, but differ from zone 3. A significant bottleneck occurs between zone 2 and zone 3, most likely at the proximal margin of the pectoralis major tendon. The bicipital tunnel is a closed space where space-occupying lesions may produce a bicipital tunnel syndrome. Careful consideration should be given to surgical techniques that decompress both zones 1 and 2 of the bicipital tunnel. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Estudos sobre estrutura, ciclo de vida e comportamento de Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879, na área entre 22ºS e 28ºS, Brasil: 3. morfologia e histologia de ovários e escala de maturidade Studies on the structure, life cycle and behaviour of Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879, in the region between 22ºS and 28ºS, Brazil: 3. Morphology and histology of ovaries and maturity scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Judith Isaac-Nahum

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma melhor compreensão da dinâmica do processo reprodutivo de Sardinella brasiliensis e obtida através da associação de aspectos micro e macroscópicos das gonadas durante o ciclo sexual. O presente trabalho apresenta uma descrição das fases de desenvolvimento ovocitarias e dos estadios de maturidade dos ovarios de 119 fêmeas de S. brasiliensis, coletados na costa brasileira entre 22ºS e 28ºS. São descritas seis fases ovocitarias e duas estruturas derivadas, analisando-se as características citologicas das células germinativas durante o processo de maturação. Foram estabelecidos sete estadios: A (virgem, Bi (em início de maturação, Bf (em maturação avançada, Cf (maduro inicial, Cf (maduro desovado, D (es vaziado e R (em repouso, sendo discutida sua correspondência com outras es calas aplicadas as espécies.A better understanding of the reproductive process is obtained when histologic analysis of gonades is associated with macroscopic observations during the sexual cycles. This paper describes the developmental stages of the oocytes of the ovaries in 119 females of S. brasiliensis sampled along the Brazilian coast, between 22ºS and 28ºS. The cytologic characteristics of the germinative cells during the maturation process are given and six oocyte phases are described. Seven maturity stages are established: A (virgin, Bi (incipient maturation, Bf (advanced maturation, Ci (mature, Cf (ripe, D (spent and R (repose. These stages are compared to those presently used with respect to S. brasiliensis.

  9. Skin Histology and Microtopography of Papuan White Snake (Micropechis ikaheka in Relation to Their Zoogeographical Distribution

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    KELIOPAS KREY

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Papuan white snake (Micropechis ikaheka is endemic to New Guinea (the region of the Papua and Papua New Guinea. Internal histology of skin layer and the microtopography structure on the surface scales of M. ikaheka were the aims of the study. This study also related to zoogeographical of the snake in Papua. Geographical skin color variation of M. ikaheka can be described in three groups, i.e. brown, yellow and black group. The three groups of the snake have specific zoogeography in the mainland of Papua and satellite islands to Papua New Guinea. Paraffin method used in this work showed approximately five layers i.e. oberhautchen, the beta (β-layer, the mesos layer, the alpha (α-layer, and the dermis in the snake skin. Although the paraffin method cannot explain the arrangement of pigment cells, however, the dark color on the dermis might contain melanophores that might cause dark color of the snake body. Overlapping scales formed the hinge region were flexible to assist the snakes when they moved across substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM of the oberhautchen of all of M. ikaheka revealed no microornamentation. However, dorsal and ventral scales showed many follicles on the entire surface of the boundary scales.

  10. Biometry, histology, and morphometry of the digestive system of wild crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreíza Ramos Heleno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous is found throughout Brazil. It has a nocturnal habit and can be seen on roadsides, where it looks for remains of run over animals and, therefore, it is also a victim of roadkill. This study aimed to characterize the macro and microscopic anatomy of the digestive system of the crab-eating fox. It helps to carry out medical and surgical procedures, besides important information on the feeding strategies, especially for wild individuals needing veterinary care after rescue in cases of running over, burnings, and floods caused by the filling of hydroelectric reservoir lakes or even in projects on captive breeding and restocking. Samples were collected from the digestive system of three wild animals in the region of Guarapuava-PR region. The crab-eating foxes under study were longer than the average reported for the species, had a shorter intestine, and a lower small intestine/body length ratio than other carnivores, besides other anatomical and histological characteristics different from those found in the literature on carnivores.

  11. Histology and histochemistry of the gekkotan notochord and their bearing on the development of notochordal cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Kristin A; Russell, Anthony P; Vickaryous, Matthew K

    2012-06-01

    The persistence of the notochord into the skeletally mature life stage is characteristic of gekkotans, but is otherwise of rare occurrence among amniotes. The taxonomic diversity of Gekkota affords the opportunity to investigate the structure and development of this phylogenetically ancestral component of the skeleton, and to determine its basic characteristics. The gekkotan notochord spans almost the entire postcranial long axis and is characterized by a moniliform morphology with regularly alternating zones of chordoid and chondroid tissue. Chordoid tissue persists in the region of intervertebral articulations and occupies the cavitations that lie between the centra of the amphicoelous vertebrae. Chondroid tissue is restricted to zones in which the diameter of the notochord is reduced, corresponding to mid-vertebral locations. In the tail, these zones of chondroid tissue are associated with the autotomic fracture planes. Chondroid tissue first manifests during late embryogenesis, appears to differentiate from pre-existing chordoid tissue, and has the histological and histochemical characteristics of cartilage. Our observations lend support to the hypothesis that cartilage can be derived directly from notochordal tissue, and suggest that the latter may be an evolutionary and developmental precursor to chordate cartilage. The persistence of chordoid tissue in the intervertebral regions of amphicoelous vertebrae is consistent with a suite of paedomorphic traits exhibited by gekkotans and suggests that the typical hydrostatic nature of notochordal tissue may play a role in mechanically governing patterns of displacement between adjacent amphicoelous vertebrae that lack extensive centrum-to-centrum contact. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Oil exudation and histological structures of duck egg yolks during brining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, K M; Chung, W H; Jao, C L; Hsu, K C

    2010-04-01

    Changes in oil exudation and histological structures of salted duck egg yolks during brining up to 5 wk were investigated. During brining, the salt contents of albumen, exterior yolk (hardened portion), and interior yolk (soft or liquid portion) gradually increased accompanied by slight decreases in moisture content. The hardening ratio of salted egg yolks increased rapidly to about 60% during the first week of brining and then reached 100% at the end of brining. After brining, part of the lipids in salted egg yolk became free due to the structural changes of low-density lipoprotein induced by dehydration and increase of salt content, and more free lipids in salted egg yolk were released after the cooking process. With the brining time increased up to 5 wk, the outer region of the cooked salted yolk gradually changed into dark brown, brown, orange, and then dark brown, whereas the center region changed into light yellow, yellow, dark yellow, and then yellow again. The microstructures of cooked salted egg yolks showed that the yolk spheres in the outer and middle regions retained their original shape, with some shrinking and being packed more loosely when brining time increased, and the exuded oil filled the space between the spheres. Furthermore, the yolk spheres in the center region transformed to a round shape but still showed granulation after 4 wk of brining, whereas they were mostly disrupted after 2 to 5 wk of brining. One of the most important characteristics of cooked salted egg yolks, gritty texture, contributed to oil exudation and granulated yolk spheres were observed at the brining time of 4 wk.

  13. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: correlation with gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and tumour histology.

    OpenAIRE

    Wee, A; Kang, J Y; Teh, M

    1992-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between Helicobacter pylori, histological gastritis, and intestinal metaplasia in gastric cancers of different histological types. A total of 169 gastrectomy specimens received in one pathology department were studied. Altogether 156 were adenocarcinomas (intestinal type 87, diffuse type 50, mixed type 19). Gastritis occurred in 137 of 163 body specimens (84%) and in 126 of 131 antral specimens (96%). Its presence was unrelated to tumour histology. ...

  14. Subclassification of autoimmune pancreatitis: a histologic classification with clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Vikram; Gupta, Rajib; Sainani, Nisha; Sahani, Dushyant V; Virk, Renu; Ferrone, Cristina; Khosroshahi, Arezou; Stone, John H; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Examination of pancreatic resection specimens from patients with AIP has shown that there are 2 subclasses of this disease. However, there is no widely accepted pathologic classification scheme and the clinical significance of such a classification remains to be established. In this study, we revisited the subclassification of AIP and examine whether this provides clinically and prognostically meaningful information. We evaluated 29 pancreatic resection specimens from patients with AIP. Demographic, clinical, and imaging data were recorded, as was evidence of extrapancreatic manifestations. In addition to a detailed and semiquantitative histologic evaluation, immunohistochemistry for IgG4 was performed on pancreatic and extrapancreatic tissues. We also evaluated 48 consecutive cases of chronic pancreatitis, not otherwise specified. The resected specimens could readily be subclassified into 2 subtypes: type 1 (n=11) and type 2 (n=18). In comparison with patients with type 2 disease, patients with type 1 disease were significantly more likely to be males (P=0.09), older (P=0.02), and present with jaundice (P=0.01), and less likely to be associated with abdominal pain (P=0.04). On imaging, the pancreatic tail cut-off sign was exclusively seen in patients with type 2 disease (4 of 10 cases). Hypercellular inflamed interlobular stroma was unique to type 1 pattern (91%), whereas significant ductal injury in the form of microabscesses and ductal ulceration was almost exclusively seen in type 2 pattern (78%). Eight of 10 patients with a type 1 pattern had evidence of a systemic disease. Three patients with type 2 disease had recurrent episodes of pancreatitis after their pancreatic resection. In comparison with the cohort of chronic pancreatitis, not otherwise specified, type 2 AIP cases were less likely to be associated with a history of alcohol abuse, and showed significantly more foci of

  15. Bone histology in extant and fossil penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Werning, Sarah; Sclafani, Michelle; Boles, Zachary M

    2015-11-01

    Substantial changes in bone histology accompany the secondary adaptation to life in the water. This transition is well documented in several lineages of mammals and non-avian reptiles, but has received relatively little attention in birds. This study presents new observations on the long bone microstructure of penguins, based on histological sections from two extant taxa (Spheniscus and Aptenodytes) and eight fossil specimens belonging to stem lineages (†Palaeospheniscus and several indeterminate Eocene taxa). High bone density in penguins results from compaction of the internal cortical tissues, and thus penguin bones are best considered osteosclerotic rather than pachyostotic. Although the oldest specimens sampled in this study represent stages of penguin evolution that occurred at least 25 million years after the loss of flight, major differences in humeral structure were observed between these Eocene stem taxa and extant taxa. This indicates that the modification of flipper bone microstructure continued long after the initial loss of flight in penguins. It is proposed that two key transitions occurred during the shift from the typical hollow avian humerus to the dense osteosclerotic humerus in penguins. First, a reduction of the medullary cavity occurred due to a decrease in the amount of perimedullary osteoclastic activity. Second, a more solid cortex was achieved by compaction. In extant penguins and †Palaeospheniscus, most of the inner cortex is formed by rapid osteogenesis, resulting an initial latticework of woven-fibered bone. Subsequently, open spaces are filled by slower, centripetal deposition of parallel-fibered bone. Eocene stem penguins formed the initial latticework, but the subsequent round of compaction was less complete, and thus open spaces remained in the adult bone. In contrast to the humerus, hindlimb bones from Eocene stem penguins had smaller medullary cavities and thus higher compactness values compared with extant taxa. Although

  16. Framework for 3D histologic reconstruction and fusion with in vivo MRI: Preliminary results of characterizing pulmonary inflammation in a mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusu, Mirabela, E-mail: mirabela.rusu@gmail.com; Wang, Haibo; Madabhushi, Anant [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Golden, Thea; Gow, Andrew [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    inflammation in a mouse model. The authors’ evaluation considered three mice, two with an inflammation phenotype and one control. The authors’ iterative 3D histology reconstruction yielded a 70.1% ± 2.7% overlap with the ex vivo MRI volume. Across a total of 17 anatomic landmarks manually delineated at the division of airways, the target registration error between the ex vivo MRI and 3D histology reconstruction was 0.85 ± 0.44 mm, suggesting that a good alignment of the ex vivo 3D histology and ex vivo MRI had been achieved. The 3D histology-in vivo MRI coregistered volumes resulted in an overlap of 73.7% ± 0.9%. Preliminary computerized feature analysis was performed on an additional four control mice, for a total of seven mice considered in this study. Gabor texture filters appeared to best capture differences between the inflamed and noninflamed regions on MRI. Conclusions: The authors’ 3D histology reconstruction and multimodal registration framework were successfully employed to reconstruct the histology volume of the lung and fuse it with in vivo MRI to create a ground truth map for inflammation on in vivo MRI. The analytic platform presented here lays the framework for a rigorous validation of the identified imaging features for chronic lung inflammation on MRI in a large prospective cohort.

  17. Framework for 3D histologic reconstruction and fusion with in vivo MRI: Preliminary results of characterizing pulmonary inflammation in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusu, Mirabela; Wang, Haibo; Madabhushi, Anant; Golden, Thea; Gow, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    inflammation in a mouse model. The authors’ evaluation considered three mice, two with an inflammation phenotype and one control. The authors’ iterative 3D histology reconstruction yielded a 70.1% ± 2.7% overlap with the ex vivo MRI volume. Across a total of 17 anatomic landmarks manually delineated at the division of airways, the target registration error between the ex vivo MRI and 3D histology reconstruction was 0.85 ± 0.44 mm, suggesting that a good alignment of the ex vivo 3D histology and ex vivo MRI had been achieved. The 3D histology-in vivo MRI coregistered volumes resulted in an overlap of 73.7% ± 0.9%. Preliminary computerized feature analysis was performed on an additional four control mice, for a total of seven mice considered in this study. Gabor texture filters appeared to best capture differences between the inflamed and noninflamed regions on MRI. Conclusions: The authors’ 3D histology reconstruction and multimodal registration framework were successfully employed to reconstruct the histology volume of the lung and fuse it with in vivo MRI to create a ground truth map for inflammation on in vivo MRI. The analytic platform presented here lays the framework for a rigorous validation of the identified imaging features for chronic lung inflammation on MRI in a large prospective cohort

  18. Histologic prognosticators in feline osteosarcoma: a comparison with phenotypically similar canine osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulou, Maria; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Moens, Hester; Kik, Marja

    2008-07-01

    To investigate the histologic characteristics of feline osteosarcoma (OS) and compare the histologic data with phenotypically comparable canine OS. The effects of histologic and clinical variables on survival statistics were evaluated. Retrospective study. Cats (n=62) and dogs (22). Medical records of 62 cats with OS were reviewed for clinically relevant data. Clinical outcome was obtained by telephone interview. Histologic characteristics of OS were classified using a standardized grading system. Histologic characteristics in 22 feline skeletal OS were compared with 22 canine skeletal OS of identical location and subtype. Prognostic variables for clinical outcome were determined using multivariate analysis. Feline OS was characterized by moderate to abundant cellular pleomorphism, low mitotic index, small to moderate amounts of matrix, high cellularity, and a moderate amount of necrosis. There was no significant difference between histologic variables in feline and canine OS. Histologic grade, surgery, and mitotic index significantly influenced clinical outcome as determined by multivariate analysis. Tumor invasion into vessels was not identified as a significant prognosticator. Feline and canine skeletal OS have similar histologic but different prognostic characteristics. Prognosis for cats with OS is related to histologic grade and mitotic index of the tumor.

  19. Validity of gradient-echo three-dimensional delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of hip joint cartilage: A histologically controlled study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilkens, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.zilkens@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Moorenstraße 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Miese, Falk, E-mail: falk.miese@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstraße 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Herten, Monika, E-mail: Moherten@web.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Moorenstraße 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Kurzidem, Sabine, E-mail: sabine.kurzidem@uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Moorenstraße 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Jäger, Marcus [Univ Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, D-45147 Essen (Germany); König, Dietmar, E-mail: Dietmarpierre.koenig@lvr.de [LVR Clinic for Orthopedic Surgery, D-41749 Viersen (Germany); Antoch, Gerald, E-mail: antoch@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstraße 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Krauspe, Rüdiger, E-mail: krauspe@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Moorenstraße 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Bittersohl, Bernd, E-mail: bernd.bittersohl@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Moorenstraße 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Objective: To validate gradient-echo three-dimensional (3D) delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) by means of histological analyses in the assessment of hip joint cartilage. Materials and methods: Twenty-one femoral head specimens collected from 21 patients (7 males, 14 females, mean age: 60.9 ± 9.6 years; range: 37.6–77.3 years), who underwent total hip replacement for symptomatic hip joint osteoarthritis, underwent MRI and histological assessment. A region of 2 cm{sup 2} at the weight-bearing area was marked with four pins to enable multi-planar MRI reformatting to be matched with histological sections. MRI was performed at 3 T with a 3D double-echo steady-state (DESS) sequence for morphological cartilage assessment and 3D Volumetric Interpolated Breathhold Examination (VIBE) for T1{sub Gd} mapping. Histological sections were evaluated according to the Mankin score system. Total Mankin score, grade of toluidine staining (sensitive for glycosaminoglycan content) and a modified Mankin score classification system with four sub-groups of cartilage damage were correlated with MRI data. Results: Spearman's rho correlation analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between T1{sub Gd} mapping and histological analyses in all categories including total Mankin score (r = −0.658, p-value ≤ 0.001), toluidine staining (r = −0.802, p-value < 0.001) and modified Mankin score (r = −0.716, p-value < 0.001). The correlation between morphological MRI and histological cartilage assessment was statistically significant but inferior to the biochemical cartilage MRI (r-values ranging from −0.411 to 0.525, p-values < 0.001). Conclusions: Gradient-echo dGEMRIC is reliable while offering the unique features of high image resolution and 3D biochemically sensitive MRI for the assessment of early cartilage degeneration.

  20. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Long Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT is larger than that of wild type (WT and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape.

  1. Current Issues in Histology, Biology and Prognosis of Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Goran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High risk Hodgkin lymphoma patients may occasionally have borderline characteristics similar to gray zone lymphomas and T-cell/histiocyte rich B cell lymphomas. These entities require different and more aggressive treatment modalities. Aggressive behavior is often associated with disturbances caused by Epstein Barr virus, or immune evasion caused by overexpression of check point inhibitors PDL-1 and PDL-2 coupled with the lack of expression of Class I and II MHC molecules. Galectin-1, TARC, sCD163 and other surrogate markers of immunosuppression in Hodgkin lymphoma may be useful for the assessment of treatment response. The improvements in lymphoma management diminished the importance of prognostic factors unified in the International Prognostic Scoring system, reducing them from 7 to 3 factors that remained relevant. Interim PET analysis is the only method able to identify resistant patients while chemotherapy is ongoing, thus enabling adjustment of treatment according to the treatment response. Efforts for stratification of patients according to disease histology, biology, microenvironment, clinical scoring systems and PET scan are ongoing. Current breakthroughs have set strong background for novel therapies with monoclonal antibodies and check point inhibitors that will result in improvement of management of high risk patients.

  2. A histological study of scala communis with radiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makary, Chadi; Shin, Jennifer; Caruso, Paul; Curtin, Hugh; Merchant, Saumil

    2010-01-01

    Scala communis or interscalar septum (IS) defect is a developmental abnormality of the inner ear characterized by a dehiscence in the partition separating the turns of the cochlea. The goals of the present study were to (1) study this anomaly and describe its characteristics compared to control ears using a histological analysis of temporal bones, (2) discuss radiological implications regarding its diagnosis, and (3) describe its embryological derivation. Out of 1775 temporal bones assessed, 22 specimens were found to have scala communis in cochleae containing all 3 turns (basal, middle and apical). These 22 ears were studied in detail by qualitative and quantitative methods using light microscopy. Scala communis occurred as an isolated inner ear anomaly, or in association with other congenital cochlear and/or vestibular anomalies. The defect occurred most often between the middle and apical turns of the cochlea. Compared to control ears, scala communis ears were found to have a smaller modiolar area (p Scala communis was compatible with normal hearing. Flattening of the interscalar ridge has the potential to improve the diagnosis of scala communis in patients using CT scanning. The anomaly may result from a mesodermal defect such as excessive resorption of mesenchyme during the formation of the scalae, an error in the formation of bone, or both. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Histological evidence for a dynamic dental battery in hadrosaurid dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Katherine; LeBlanc, Aaron R H; Lamoureux, Denis O; Wosik, Mateusz; Currie, Philip J

    2017-11-17

    The first histological study of an entire hadrosaurid dental battery provides a comprehensive look at tooth movement within this complex structure. Previous studies have focused on isolated teeth, or in-situ batteries, but this is the first study to examine an entire dental battery of any dinosaur. The absence of direct tooth-to-tooth contact across the entire battery and a unique arrangement of the dental tissues in hadrosaurids led us to compare their teeth with the ever-growing incisors of mammals. The similarity in the distributions of tissues along the incisor, coupled with continuous eruption, make for helpful comparisons to hadrosaurid teeth. The mammalian ever-growing incisor can be used as a model to extrapolate the soft tissue connections and eruptive mechanisms within the hadrosaurid dental battery. Serial sections across the adult dental battery reveal signs of gradual ontogenetic tooth migration. Extensive remodeling of the alveolar septa and the anteroposterior displacement of successive generations of teeth highlight the gradual migration of tooth generations within the battery. These eruptive and ontogenetic tooth movements would not be possible without a ligamentous connection between successive teeth and the jaws, underscoring the dynamic nature of one of the most unique and complex dental systems in vertebrate history.

  4. Histological changes associated with mesotherapy for fat dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Paul T; Morgan, Michael

    2005-03-01

    Mesotherapy is a form of medical therapy popular in Europe and South America. It is used for treating a variety of medical conditions, including the treatment of localized fat deposits and cellulite. Phosphatidylcholine/deoxycholate injections are a popular technique to treat localized fat accumulations and have recently become synonymous with mesotherapy, although their history and technique are distinct. To treat localized fat deposits, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and deoxycholate (DC) are utilized. To date, there have been no published histological studies that explain the mechanism of action of PC and DC.Method. In this study the authors have obtained skin biopsies from a patient who had undergone mesotherapy with PC and DC. Punch biopsies were taken at one and two weeks after the procedure.Results. Each of the biopsies taken at one and two weeks after treatment with PC and DC showed a normal epithelium and dermis, with a mixed septal and lobular panniculitis. The fat lobules were infiltrated by increased numbers of lymphocytes and, in particular, macrophages. The macrophages consisted of conventional forms, foam cells, and multinucleated fat-containing giant cells. The inflammation was associated with serous atrophy and microcyst formation.Conclusion. This study demonstrates that mesotherapy with PC and DC affects the subcutaneous fat. We theorize that the reduction of subcutaneous fat likely follows inflammatory-mediated necrosis and resorption.

  5. Classification of breast cancer histology images using Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Araújo

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the main causes of cancer death worldwide. The diagnosis of biopsy tissue with hematoxylin and eosin stained images is non-trivial and specialists often disagree on the final diagnosis. Computer-aided Diagnosis systems contribute to reduce the cost and increase the efficiency of this process. Conventional classification approaches rely on feature extraction methods designed for a specific problem based on field-knowledge. To overcome the many difficulties of the feature-based approaches, deep learning methods are becoming important alternatives. A method for the classification of hematoxylin and eosin stained breast biopsy images using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs is proposed. Images are classified in four classes, normal tissue, benign lesion, in situ carcinoma and invasive carcinoma, and in two classes, carcinoma and non-carcinoma. The architecture of the network is designed to retrieve information at different scales, including both nuclei and overall tissue organization. This design allows the extension of the proposed system to whole-slide histology images. The features extracted by the CNN are also used for training a Support Vector Machine classifier. Accuracies of 77.8% for four class and 83.3% for carcinoma/non-carcinoma are achieved. The sensitivity of our method for cancer cases is 95.6%.

  6. Histological and microbiological aspects of actinomycetoma cases in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Serrano

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available A ten year (1976-1986 review study of cases of Actinomycetoma in Venezuela was made through personal interview and clinical examinations, analysis of medical records of patients with actinomycetoma, histological studies of biopsy samples, as well as microbiological studies of isolates strain, also through out personal interviews with researchers and dermatologists who were sources of information on mycetoma cases. A total of 47 cases were recorded. As etiologic agent Actinomadura madurae was found in 20 cases - (42.5%, Nocardia brasiliensis in 13 cases (27.6%, Nocardia spp 7 cases (14.8%, Streptomyces somaliensis in 4 cases (8.5%, N. asteroides in 2 cases (4.2% and N. otitidis caviarum, (N. caviae in 1 case (2.1%. Most of the reported cases involved individuals living and working in rural areas, mostly males who outnumber females 4:1. The patients were 18 to 80 years old. A. madurae was reported as the most frequent etiologic agent. Most of the clinical cases were seen when the disease was well established. Twenty four of the forty seven cases reported were observed in Lara State, which represents a 51.0% of all the cases studied.

  7. Histological characterization of peppermint shrimp ( Lysmata wurdemanni) androgenic gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Dong; Lin, Tingting

    2017-12-01

    The androgenic gland (AG) is an important endocrine gland for male reproductive function in crustaceans. In the present study, we investigated the histological characteristics of the androgenic gland of peppermint shrimp, Lysmata wurdemanni. The peppermint shrimp matures as male first, then some individuals may become euhermaphrodite after several moltings (transitional phase). Euhermaphrodite-phase shrimp acts as male at intermolts. However, it can be fertilized as a female immediately after molting. Considering the male reproductive function acts in its lifespan except for at larval stages, and female reproductive system starts to develop at transitional phase, we hypothesized that AG activity might be reduced to allow and promote vitellogenesis onset in early transitional phase and the following euhermaphrodite phase. So AG cell structure might be different in three phases in L. wurdemanni. The results showed that AG exists in the male in transitional and euhermaphrodite phases. The gland cell clusters surrounding the ejaculatory ducts locate at the roots of the fifth pereopods. The nucleus diameters are similar in the three phases while the nucleus- to-cell ratio is the lowest in euhermaphrodite phase. Our results indicated that for the individuals that will become euhermaphrodite, the cellular structure of AG changes since transitional phase. Male reproductive function which is still available in euhermaphrodite-phase shrimp should be due to the existence of the gland.

  8. [Diverse histological lesions in a patient with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Ermanno; Luciani, Remo; Di Palma, Annamaria; Aversano, Arturo; Stellato, Davide; Liuzzi, Marco; Iele, Emilio; Martignetti, Vinicio; Spagnuolo, Enrico; Morrone, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a rare autoimmune disorder. It can be secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or occur in the absence of autoimmune disease. The hallmark of this so-called primary APS is the presence of circulating antiphospholipid antibodies. Renal involvement in primary APS is caused by thrombosis within the renal vasculature. Recently, nonthrombotic glomerulonephritic renal lesions have been described in primary APS as a new histological entity. We here report a patient with primary APS in whom both lesion types were present. A 58-year-old Caucasian man with no significant past medical history presented to our nephrology unit with diffuse edema. Urinalysis showed proteinuria exceeding 400 mg/dL. The autoantibody panel (p-ANCA, c- ANCA, anti-nucleus, anti-DS-DNA) was negative except for anticardiolipin antibodies, which tested positive in two different samples. The diagnostic workup included a kidney biopsy that revealed thrombotic lesions compatible with primary APS and a typical pattern of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The kidney is a major target in APS but the exact mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of APS nephropathy has been poorly recognized. The use of kidney biopsy is a fundamental diagnostic tool in this setting, with possible implications also from a prognostic and therapeutic viewpoint.

  9. Rat intermediate lobe in culture: a histological and biochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronwall, B M; Bishop, J F; Gehlert, D R

    1988-01-01

    The histology, immunohistochemistry, peptide synthesis and secretion as well as proliferation rate of rat intermediate lobe (IL) were studied in primary cultures. The cultures contained two populations of cells: melanotrophs either organized in free floating lobules or in lobules which attached to the dishes and formed a monolayer. Both populations retained their in vivo morphology: polyhedral cells with smooth, ovoid nuclei and a large number of cytoplasmic secretory coated vesicles, a well developed Golgi apparatus, abundant mitochondria and extensive areas of rough endoplasmic reticulum. The melanotrophs stained with varying intensity for alpha-MSH and in situ hybridization showed the presence of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA. 35S-methionine incorporation combined with 2-D gel electrophoresis demonstrated POMC peptide synthesis and radioimmunoassay confirmed its secretion into the medium. 3H-thymidine uptake in the attached melanotrophs was considerably higher than that in the free-floating melanotrophs, demonstrating the dependency of proliferation rate on the cytoarchitecture of the explant. The retention of melanotroph morphology, biosynthetic and proliferative capacity in vitro affords a valid model system for studying POMC gene expression.

  10. Histology of Epiphyseal Plate of Adolescent Rat Stimulated by Laserpuncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Selfi; Ramelan, Ari H.; Purwanto, Bambang; Saputra, Koosnadi; Tamtomo, Didik G.

    2017-11-01

    Epiphyseal plate was used for determining longitudinal bone growth. Laserpuncture was believed to stimulate height growth. We used 40 male Wistar rats which aged three weeks old and weighed more than 40 g as subjects. They randomly divided into group A or B and each group evenly divided into four subgroups which were a negative control and others applied with laser on GV20, ST 36 or combination of GV 20+ST 36 respectively. These acupoints were then stimulated using the laser. After treatment, mice were sacrificed, then tibias were taken for histology preparation processes. By light microscope, epiphyseal plate (EP) height (µm) and chondrocytes hypertrophy (CH) height were measured at six equidistant points, and the values were averaged to obtain a final result for each section. Collected data were analyzed using ANOVA test, and the significant value was set up p< 0.05. The mean of EC and CH were lower than control, but mean of ratio EP/CH were higher than control. However, ANOVA showed that there did not differ significantly (p=0.36).

  11. Anatomy and histology of the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradidarcheep, Wisuit; Wallner, Christian; Dabhoiwala, Noshir F; Lamers, Wouter H

    2011-01-01

    The function of the lower urinary tract is basically storage of urine in the bladder and the at-will periodic evacuation of the stored urine. Urinary incontinence is one of the most common lower urinary tract disorders in adults, but especially in the elderly female. The urethra, its sphincters, and the pelvic floor are key structures in the achievement of continence, but their basic anatomy is little known and, to some extent, still incompletely understood. Because questions with respect to continence arise from human morbidity, but are often investigated in rodent animal models, we present findings in human and rodent anatomy and histology. Differences between males and females in the role that the pelvic floor plays in the maintenance of continence are described. Furthermore, we briefly describe the embryologic origin of ureters, bladder, and urethra, because the developmental origin of structures such as the vesicoureteral junction, the bladder trigone, and the penile urethra are often invoked to explain (clinical) observations. As the human pelvic floor has acquired features in evolution that are typical for a species with bipedal movement, we also compare the pelvic floor of humans with that of rodents to better understand the rodent (or any other quadruped, for that matter) as an experimental model species. The general conclusion is that the "Bauplan" is well conserved, even though its common features are sometimes difficult to discern.

  12. 3D morphological measurement of whole slide histological vasculature reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiwen; Pickering, J. G.; Nong, Zengxuan; Ward, Aaron D.

    2016-03-01

    Properties of the microvasculature that contribute to tissue perfusion can be assessed using immunohistochemistry on 2D histology sections. However, the vasculature is inherently 3D and the ability to measure and visualize the vessel wall components in 3D will aid in detecting focal pathologies. Our objectives were (1) to develop a method for 3D measurement and visualization of microvasculature in 3D, (2) to compare the normal and regenerated post-ischemia mouse hind limb microvasculature, and (3) to compare the 2D and 3D vessel morphology measures. Vessels were stained for smooth muscle using 3,3'-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) immunostain for both normal (n = 6 mice) and regenerated vasculature (n = 5 mice). 2D vessel segmentations were reconstructed into 3D using landmark based registration. No substantial bias was found in the 2D measurements relative to 3D, but larger differences were observed for individual vessels oriented non-orthogonally to the plane of sectioning. A larger value of area, perimeter, and vessel wall thickness was found in the normal vasculature as compared to the regenerated vasculature, for both the 2D and 3D measurements (p pathologies on a whole slide level.

  13. Shell bone histology indicates terrestrial palaeoecology of basal turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Sander, P Martin

    2007-08-07

    The palaeoecology of basal turtles from the Late Triassic was classically viewed as being semi-aquatic, similar to the lifestyle of modern snapping turtles. Lately, this view was questioned based on limb bone proportions, and a terrestrial palaeoecology was suggested for the turtle stem. Here, we present independent shell bone microstructural evidence for a terrestrial habitat of the oldest and basal most well-known turtles, i.e. the Upper Triassic Proterochersis robusta and Proganochelys quenstedti. Comparison of their shell bone histology with that of extant turtles preferring either aquatic habitats or terrestrial habitats clearly reveals congruence with terrestrial turtle taxa. Similarities in the shell bones of these turtles are a diploe structure with well-developed external and internal cortices, weak vascularization of the compact bone layers and a dense nature of the interior cancellous bone with overall short trabeculae. On the other hand, 'aquatic' turtles tend to reduce cortical bone layers, while increasing overall vascularization of the bone tissue. In contrast to the study of limb bone proportions, the present study is independent from the uncommon preservation of appendicular skeletal elements in fossil turtles, enabling the palaeoecological study of a much broader range of incompletely known turtle taxa in the fossil record.

  14. Stereotactic radiotherapy of histologically proven inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer: Patterns of failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andratschke, Nicolaus; Zimmermann, Frank; Boehm, Eva; Schill, Sabine; Schoenknecht, Christine; Thamm, Reinhard; Molls, Michael; Nieder, Carsten; Geinitz, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: To report patterns of failure of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in inoperable patients with histologically confirmed stage I NSCLC. Materials and methods: Ninety-two inoperable patients (median age: 75 years) with clinically staged, histologically proven T1 (n = 31) or T2 (n = 61), N0, M0 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were included in this study. Treatment consisted of 3–5 fractions with 7–15 Gy per fraction prescribed to the 60% isodose. Results: Freedom from local recurrence at 1, 3 and 5 years was 89%, 83% and 83%, respectively. All 10 local failures were observed in patients with T2 tumors. Isolated regional recurrence was observed in 7.6%. The crude rate of distant progression was 20.7%. Overall survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 79%, 38% and 17% with a median survival of 29 months. Disease specific survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 93%, 64% and 48%. Karnofsky performance status, T stage, gross tumor volume and tumor location had no significant impact on overall and disease specific survival. SBRT was generally well tolerated and all patients completed therapy as planned. Conclusion: SBRT for stage I lung cancer is very well tolerated in this patient cohort with significant cardiopulmonal comorbidity and results in excellent local control rates, although a considerable portion develops regional and distant metastases.

  15. Histologic Evaluation of Gastric Biopsies According to Sydney Classification and Comparison of Chronic Gastritis Mucosal Histological Findings by Age Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin Ugras

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the materials of gastric biopsies in cases diagnosed as chronic gastritis according to the Sydney system and to compare the parameters according to age groups. The Sydney system of gastritis has five main histological features of changes in gastric mucosa graded (chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity, glandular atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori density In our study, we evaluated 63 patients under 31 years, 177 patients between the ages of 31-60 and 187 patients over 61 years, who were diagnosed as having chronic gastritis by endoscopic biopsy. In 31-60 age group, the localization of Helicobacter pylori was often the antrum. In contrast, in the under 31 years of age group, Helicobacter pylori infection were found to be in the form of the distribution pangastrit. Acute inflammation in the under31 years group was found to be significantly higher than other age groups. In over 61years group, high incidence of atrophy was found. In our study, we detected the rate in atrophy and intestinal metaplasia with Helicobacter pylori is independently increased with age. [J Contemp Med 2012; 2(3.000: 173-178

  16. Regions Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Masciarelli, Francesca; Prencipe, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    capital at the regional level, with a large-scale data set of the innovative activities of a representative sample of 2,413 Italian manufacturing firms from 21 regions, and controlling for a large set of firm and regional characteristics, we find that being located in a region characterized by a high...

  17. Different Achilles Tendon Pathologies Show Distinct Histological and Molecular Characteristics

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    Franka Klatte-Schulz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reasons for the development of chronic tendon pathologies are still under debate and more basic knowledge is needed about the different diseases. The aim of the present study was therefore to characterize different acute and chronic Achilles tendon disorders. Achilles tendon samples from patients with chronic tendinopathy (n = 7, chronic ruptures (n = 6, acute ruptures (n = 13, and intact tendons (n = 4 were analyzed. The histological score investigating pathological changes was significantly increased in tendinopathy and chronic ruptures compared to acute ruptures. Inflammatory infiltration was detected by immunohistochemistry in all tendon pathology groups, but was significantly lower in tendinopathy compared to chronic ruptures. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis revealed significantly altered expression of genes related to collagens and matrix modeling/remodeling (matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in tendinopathy and chronic ruptures compared to intact tendons and/or acute ruptures. In all three tendon pathology groups markers of inflammation (interleukin (IL 1β, tumor necrosis factor α, IL6, IL10, IL33, soluble ST2, transforming growth factor β1, cyclooxygenase 2, inflammatory cells (cluster of differentaition (CD 3, CD68, CD80, CD206, fat metabolism (fatty acid binding protein 4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, adiponectin, and innervation (protein gene product 9.5, growth associated protein 43, macrophage migration inhibitory factor were detectable, but only in acute ruptures significantly regulated compared to intact tendons. The study gives an insight into structural and molecular changes of pathological processes in tendons and might be used to identify targets for future therapy of tendon pathologies.

  18. Development of the rat larynx: a histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alli, Opeyemi; Berzofsky, Craig; Sharma, Sansar; Pitman, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate and describe the cartilaginous and muscular development of the rat larynx. Histologic evaluation. The larynges of Sprague Dawley rats of embryonic day (E) 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, postnatal day 0, 14, and adult of 250 gm were collected. Four larynges of each age were harvested, cut into 15-μm serial sections, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and evaluated under light microscopy. Representative digital images were recorded and evaluated at the preglottic (supraglottic in humans), glottic, and postglottic (subglottic in humans) levels. Brachial arches were observed at E13. At E17, immature structures of the larynx, including skeletal muscle, cartilage, and the lumen were identifiable. Chondrification and muscle formation were clearly seen by E19. The muscular and cartilagenous components of the larynx were well established by E21. During the span between birth and adult maturation, the size of the larynx increased from a height of 1.10 mm to 2.90 mm, and from a width of 1.80 mm to 5.40 mm, and from a length of 1.38 mm to 4.77 mm in the stained section. Although developed at E21, the laryngeal structures continued to grow by approximately 30%. Rat laryngeal development parallels that in mice and humans. In the rat, at E17 immature structures of the larynx are identifiable, they are well developed at birth and grow by approximately 30% into adulthood. Understanding the chronology and morphology of the embryogenesis of the rat laryngeal musculature is essential and will allow for further evaluation of the embryologic innervation of these muscles. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Hilar cholangiocarcinoma: MR correlation with surgical and histological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chryssou, E.; Guthrie, J.A.; Ward, J.; Robinson, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) with high-resolution dynamic gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in determining the imaging features of hilar cholangiocarcinoma that relate to tumour extent and influence resectability. Materials and methods: Twenty-six patients that underwent resection were reviewed. Tumour location and extent, lobar atrophy, the degree of portal vein and hepatic artery involvement were recorded. The findings were correlated with surgical and histopathological findings. Results: Biliary assessment was concordant in 14 and discordant in eight of 14 stented and four of 12 non-stented patients. In 63/82 veins and 43/74 arteries results were fully concordant. The mean sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) in predicting involvement of the main portal vein (MPV) at surgery were 83.3, 100, 100, and 92.5%; of the left main branch of the portal vein (LPV) were 100, 91.6, 93.3, and 100%; and of the right branch of the portal vein (RPV) were 87.5, 100, 100, and 87.5%. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of MRI in determining histological involvement of the MPV was 75, 90.9, 60, and 92.5%; 100, 73.3, 73, and 100% for the LPV, and 100, 66.6, 42.8, and 100% for the RPV, respectively. Conclusion: MRC with high-resolution dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MRI is effective in determining tumour extent and vascular involvement, but prior stenting may lead to overestimation.

  20. Hilar cholangiocarcinoma: MR correlation with surgical and histological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chryssou, E. [MRI Department, Clinical Radiology, St James' s University Hospital, Beckett Street, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Guthrie, J.A., E-mail: ashguthrie@hotmail.co [MRI Department, Clinical Radiology, St James' s University Hospital, Beckett Street, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Ward, J.; Robinson, P.J. [MRI Department, Clinical Radiology, St James' s University Hospital, Beckett Street, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Aim: To evaluate magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) with high-resolution dynamic gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in determining the imaging features of hilar cholangiocarcinoma that relate to tumour extent and influence resectability. Materials and methods: Twenty-six patients that underwent resection were reviewed. Tumour location and extent, lobar atrophy, the degree of portal vein and hepatic artery involvement were recorded. The findings were correlated with surgical and histopathological findings. Results: Biliary assessment was concordant in 14 and discordant in eight of 14 stented and four of 12 non-stented patients. In 63/82 veins and 43/74 arteries results were fully concordant. The mean sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) in predicting involvement of the main portal vein (MPV) at surgery were 83.3, 100, 100, and 92.5%; of the left main branch of the portal vein (LPV) were 100, 91.6, 93.3, and 100%; and of the right branch of the portal vein (RPV) were 87.5, 100, 100, and 87.5%. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of MRI in determining histological involvement of the MPV was 75, 90.9, 60, and 92.5%; 100, 73.3, 73, and 100% for the LPV, and 100, 66.6, 42.8, and 100% for the RPV, respectively. Conclusion: MRC with high-resolution dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MRI is effective in determining tumour extent and vascular involvement, but prior stenting may lead to overestimation.

  1. Histologic assessment of biliary obstruction with different percutaneous endoluminal techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Giampiero

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the sophisticated cross sectional image techniques currently available, a number of biliary stenosis or obstructions remain of an uncertain nature. In these pathological conditions, an "intrinsic" parietal alteration is the cause of biliary obstruction and it is very difficult to differentiate benign from malignant lesions using cross-sectional imaging procedures alone. We evaluated the efficacy of different endoluminal techniques to achieve a definitive pathological diagnosis in these situations. Methods Eighty patients underwent brushing, and or biopsy of the biliary tree through an existing transhepatic biliary drainage route. A subcoort of 12 patients needed balloon-dilatation of the bile duct and the material covering the balloon surface was also sent for pathological examination (balloon surface sampling. Pathological results were compared with surgical findings or with long-term clinical and instrumental follow-ups. Success rates, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, confidential intervals, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the three percutaneous techniques in differentiating benign from malignant disease were assessed. The agreement coefficient of biopsy and brushing with final diagnosis was calculated using the Cohen's "K" value. Results Fifty-six patients had malignant strictures confirmed by surgery, histology, and by clinical follow-ups. Success rates of brushing, balloon surface sampling, and biopsy were 90.7, 100, and 100%, respectively. The comparative efficacy of brushing, balloon-surface sampling, and biopsy resulted as follows: sensitivity of 47.8, 87.5, and 92.1%, respectively; specificity of 100% for all the techniques; accuracy of 69.2, 91.7 and 93.6%, Positive Predictive Value of 100% for all the procedures and Negative Predictive Value of 55, 80, and 75%, respectively. Conclusions Percutaneous endoluminal biopsy is more accurate and sensitive than percutaneous bile duct

  2. Histological evaluation of thyroid lesions using a scanning acoustic microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura K

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Katsutoshi Miura,1 Hiroyuki Mineta2 1Department of Health Science, Pathology, and Anatomy, 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan Purpose: A scanning acoustic microscope (SAM uses an ultrasound to image an object by plotting the speed-of-sound (SOS through tissues on screen. Because hard tissues result in great SOS, SAM can provide data on the tissue elasticity. This paper investigated the utility of SAM in evaluating thyroid lesions. Methods: Formalin-fixed, paraffin sections were scanned with a 120 MHz transducer. SOS through each area was calculated and plotted on the screen to provide histological images, and SOS of each lesion was compared and statistically analyzed. Results: High-concentrated colloids, red blood cells, and collagen fibers showed great SOS, while low-concentrated colloids, parathyroids, lymph follicles, and epithelial tissues including carcinomas demonstrated lower SOS. SAM clearly discriminated structure of thyroid components corresponding to low magnification of light microscopy. Thyroid tumors were classified into three groups by average SOS: the fast group consisted of follicular adenomas/carcinomas and malignant lymphomas; the slow group contained poorly differentiated/undifferentiated carcinomas; and the intermediate group comprised papillary/medullary carcinomas. Fragmented colloids, irregular-shaped follicles, and desmoplastic reactions were observed in the invasive area of surrounding carcinomas. Conclusion: The SAM imaging method had the following benefits: 1 precise images were acquired in a few minutes without special staining; 2 structural irregularity and desmoplastic reactions, which indicated malignancy, were detected; 3 images reflected tissue elasticity, which was statistically comparable among lesions by SOS; 4 follicular functional activity was predictable by converting colloid concentration to SOS; and 5 tumor classification was predictable by SOS

  3. Use of key performance indicators in histological dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Matthew; Gillibrand, Rachel

    2017-12-01

    Reports into standards in the National Health Service and quality in pathology have focused on the way we work in pathology and how to provide assurance that this is of a high standard. There are a number of external quality assurance schemes covering pathology and histopathology specifically; however, there is no scheme covering the process of histological surgical dissection. This is an area undergoing development, emerging from the sole preserve of medically qualified pathologists to a field populated by a number of highly trained biomedical scientists, but remains without any formal quality assurance. This work builds on Barnes, taking the guidance of the Royal College of Pathologists (RCPath)and Institute of Biomedical Science (IBMS)to form a series of key performance indicators relating to dissection. These were developed for use as an indicator of individual practice, highlighting areas of variation, weakness or strength. Once identified, a feedback event provided opportunities to address these errors and omissions, or to enable areas of strength to be shared. The data obtained from the checklists demonstrate a large variation in practice at the outset of this study. The use of the checklists alone served to reduce this variation in practice, the addition of the training event showed further reduction in variation. The combination of these two tools was an effective method for enhancing standardisation of practice. The results of this work show that training events serve to reduce variation in practice by, and between, dissectors, driving up standards in dissection-directly addressing the needs of the modern pathology service. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Immune response and histology of humoral rejection in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Molina, Miguel; Ruiz-Esteban, Pedro; Caballero, Abelardo; Burgos, Dolores; Cabello, Mercedes; Leon, Miriam; Fuentes, Laura; Hernandez, Domingo

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive immune response forms the basis of allograft rejection. Its weapons are direct cellular cytotoxicity, identified from the beginning of organ transplantation, and/or antibodies, limited to hyperacute rejection by preformed antibodies and not as an allogenic response. This resulted in allogenic response being thought for decades to have just a cellular origin. But the experimental studies by Gorer demonstrating tissue damage in allografts due to antibodies secreted by B lymphocytes activated against polymorphic molecules were disregarded. The special coexistence of binding and unbinding between antibodies and antigens of the endothe