WorldWideScience

Sample records for supramaximal electrical stimulation

  1. Intracellular transport of pancreatic zymogens during caerulein supramaximal stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, I.; Hashmimoto, S.; Saluja, A.; Steer, M.L.; Meldolesi, J.

    1987-01-01

    Rats infused with a dose of the secretagogue caerulein that is in excess of that which stimulates a maximal rate of pancreatic digestive enzyme secretion develop acute edematous pancreatitis. The authors have previously noted that infusion of this dose of caerulein induces the appearance of large heterogeneous vacuoles in acinar cell, blockage of exocytosis, and intracellular accumulation of digestive zymogens. The current studies were performed to further elucidate these phenomena at the electron microscopic level of resolution and employed the techniques of pulse labeling, radioautography, and immunolocalization. Rats were infused with caerulein for 1 h, given a pulse of [ 3 H]phenylalanine, and killed at selected times during the subsequent 5- to 180-min postpulse period during which caerulein infusion was continued. Transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi cisternae was not altered by supramaximal stimulation, but transport through post-Golgi elements was altered. In particular, the maturation of condensing vacuoles into zymogen granules was found to be impaired. Thus these studies indicate that the large heterogeneous vacuoles that appear during supramaximal secretagogue stimulation and that contain admixed digestive zymogens and lysosomal hydrolases arise by at least two mechanisms, impaired condensing vacuole maturation and crinophagy

  2. Supramaximal stimulation during intraoperative facial nerve monitoring as a simple parameter to predict early functional outcome after parotidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamelle, Elisabeth; Bernat, Isabelle; Pichon, Soizic; Granger, Benjamin; Sain-Oulhen, Charlotte; Lamas, Georges; Tankéré, Frédéric

    2013-07-01

    A supramaximal stimulation at 2 mA during intraoperative electromyographic (EMG) facial nerve monitoring appears to be a simple and effective parameter to predict immediate postoperative injury. To assess the role of systematic intraoperative facial nerve monitoring in predicting the early functional outcomes obtained after parotidectomy. Data were collected from patients who underwent parotidectomy. Intraoperative EMG monitoring of the facial nerve was performed by registering two parameters, event intensity (>100 μV) and amplitude of response after a supramaximal stimulation at 2 mA, at the beginning and end of gland removal. Early postoperative clinical functional facial nerve disorder was assessed at day 2. Overall, 50 patients were included and an early facial dysfunction was detected in 27 cases (54%). The maximal response amplitude after supramaximal stimulation at the trunk of the facial nerve was higher in patients with normal facial function compared with those with poor outcomes at the end of surgery (p stimulation thresholds, were indicative of a nerve conduction block and were significantly lower in the patient group with a poor outcome compared with the group with a normal facial outcome (p < 0.02).

  3. Supramaximal stimuli do not evoke a maximal contraction in urinary bladder smooth muscle fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Minekus (Joanne); A.J. Visser (Anna); R. van Mastrigt (Ron)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Smooth muscle fibers can be stimulated with an electrical field, high potassium or carbachol. We studied the effect of combined, supramaximal stimulation on the isometric force and the maximum shortening velocity of the pig urinary bladder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After

  4. Low intensity transcranial electric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antal, A.; Alekseichuk, I.; Bikson, M.

    2017-01-01

    Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears...

  5. Electrical stimulation in exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Walter

    1994-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has a long history of use in medicine dating back to 46 A.D. when the Roman physician Largus found the electrical discharge of torpedo fishes useful in the treatment of pain produced by headache and gout. A rival Greek physician, Dioscorides, discounted the value of the torpedo fish for headache relief but did recommend its use in the treatment of hemorrhoids. In 1745, the Leyden jar and various sized electrostatic generators were used to treat angina pectoris, epilepsy, hemiplegia, kidney stones, and sciatica. Benjamin Franklin used an electrical device to treat successfully a young woman suffering from convulsive fits. In the late 1800's battery powered hydroelectric baths were used to treat chronic inflammation of the uterus while electrified athletic supporters were advertised for the treatment of male problems. Fortunately, such an amusing early history of the simple beginnings of electrical stimulation did not prevent eventual development of a variety of useful therapeutic and rehabilitative applications of electrical stimulation. Over the centuries electrical stimulation has survived as a modality in the treatment of various medical disorders with its primary application being in the rehabilitation area. Recently, a surge of new interest in electrical stimulation has been kindled by the work of a Russian sport scientist who reported remarkable muscle strength and endurance improvements in elite athletes. Yakov Kots reported his research on electric stimulation and strength improvements in 1977 at a Canadian-Soviet Exchange Symposium held at Concordia University in Montreal. Since then an explosion of new studies has been seen in both sport science and in medicine. Based upon the reported works of Kots and the present surge of new investigations, one could be misled as to the origin of electrical stimulation as a technique to increase muscle strength. As a matter of fact, electric stimulation has been used as a technique to improve

  6. Evoked Electromyographically Controlled Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Hayashibe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Time-variant muscle responses under electrical stimulation (ES are often problematic for all the applications of neuroprosthetic muscle control. This situation limits the range of ES usage in relevant areas, mainly due to muscle fatigue and also to changes in stimulation electrode contact conditions, especially in transcutaneous ES. Surface electrodes are still the most widely used in noninvasive applications.Electrical field variations caused by changes in the stimulation contact condition markedly affect the resulting total muscle activation levels. Fatigue phenomena under functional electrical stimulation (FES are also well known source of time-varying characteristics coming from muscle response under ES. Therefore it is essential to monitor the actual muscle state and assess the expected muscle response by ES so as to improve the current ES system in favour of adaptive muscle-response-aware FES control. To deal with this issue, we have been studying a novel control technique using evoked electromyography (eEMG signals to compensate for these muscle time-variances under ES for stable neuroprosthetic muscle control. In this perspective article, I overview the background of this topic and highlight important points to be aware of when using ES to induce the desired muscle activation regardless of the time-variance. I also demonstrate how to deal with the common critical problem of ES to move toward robust neuroprosthetic muscle control with the Evoked Electromyographically Controlled Electrical Stimulation paradigm.

  7. Electrical stimulation of mechanoreceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echenique, A M; Graffigna, J P

    2011-01-01

    Within the field of Rehabilitation Engineering, this work is aimed at identifying the optimal parameters of electric current stimulus which activate the nervous axons of mecanoreceptors found in the fingertip, allowing, this way, to resemble tactile senses. These sensorial feelings can be used by aiding technological means, namely, the sensorial substitution technology, in an attempt to render information to blind people through the tactile sense. The physical pressure on sensorial areas (fingertips) used for reading activities through the Braille System is the main effect that is imitated and studied in this research work. An experimental aiding prototype for Braille reading research has been developed and tested with blinds and reduced vision people, with highly satisfactory results.

  8. The Electrical Stimulation Modifies the Cerebral Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Luisa Lilia; López-Meraz, María Leonor; Cuéllar-Herrera, Manola; Neri-Bazán., Leticia

    2002-08-01

    Electrical stimulation has been used for therapeuthic purposes. In this review, we present the clinical and scientific bases for using electrical stimulation as a treatment for pharmacological refractory epilepsy. We also describe results in receptors of inhibitory neurotransmitters obtained in rat brain with or without epilepsy, undergoing brain stimulation. Brain electrical stimulation may improve our understanding of brain function and neuroplasticity.

  9. Magnetic lumbosacral motor root stimulation with a flat, large round coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Octaviana, Fitri; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Terao, Yasuo; Yugeta, Akihiro; Hamada, Masashi; Inomata-Terada, Satomi; Nakatani-Enomoto, Setsu; Tsuji, Shoji; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a reliable method for supramaximal magnetic spinal motor root stimulation (MRS) for lower limb muscles using a specially devised coil. For this study, 42 healthy subjects were recruited. A 20-cm diameter coil designated as a Magnetic Augmented Translumbosacral Stimulation (MATS) coil was used. Compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) were recorded from the abductor hallucis muscle. Their CMAPs were compared with those obtained by MRS using a conventional round or double coil and with those obtained using high-voltage electrical stimulation. The MATS coil evoked CMAPs to supramaximal stimulation in 80 of 84 muscles, although round and double coils elicited supramaximal CMAPs in only 15 and 18 of 84 muscles, respectively. The CMAP size to the MATS coil stimulation was the same as that to high-voltage electrical motor root stimulation. MATS coil achieved supramaximal stimulation of the lumbosacral spinal nerves. The CMAPs to supramaximal stimulation are necessary for measurement of the amplitude and area for the detection of conduction blocks. The MATS coil stimulation of lumbosacral motor roots is a reliable method for measuring the CMAP size from lower limb muscles in spinal motor root stimulation.

  10. Braille line using electrical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puertas, A; Pures, P; Echenique, A M; Ensinck, J P Graffigna y G

    2007-01-01

    Conceived within the field of Rehabilitation Technologies for visually impaired persons, the present work aims at enabling the blind user to read written material by means of a tactile display. Once he is familiarized to operate this system, the user will be able to achieve greater performance in study, academic and job activities, thus achieving a rapid and easier social inclusion. The devise accepts any kind of text that is computer-loadable (documents, books, Internet information, and the like) which, through digital means, can be read as Braille text on the pad. This tactile display is composed of an electrodes platform that simulate, through stimulation the writing/reading Braille characters. In order to perceive said characters in similar way to the tactile feeling from paper material, the skin receptor of fingers are stimulated electrically so as to simulate the same pressure and depressions as those of the paper-based counterpart information. Once designed and developed, the display was tested with blind subjects, with relatively satisfactory results. As a continuing project, this prototype is currently being improved as regards

  11. Magnetic versus electrical stimulation in the interpolation twitch technique of elbow flexors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampropoulou, Sofia I; Nowicky, Alexander V; Marston, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The study compared peripheral magnetic with electrical stimulation of the biceps brachii m. (BB) in the single pulse Interpolation Twitch Technique (ITT). 14 healthy participants (31±7 years) participated in a within-subjects repeated-measures design study. Single, constant-current electrical and magnetic stimuli were delivered over the motor point of BB with supramaximal intensity (20% above maximum) at rest and at various levels of voluntary contraction. Force measurements from right elbow isometric flexion and muscle electromyograms (EMG) from the BB, the triceps brachii m. (TB) and the abductor pollicis brevis m. (APB) were obtained. The twitch forces at rest and maximal contractions, the twitch force-voluntary force relationship, the M-waves and the voluntary activation (VA) of BB between magnetic and electrical stimulation were compared. The mean amplitude of the twitches evoked at MVC was not significantly different between electrical (0.62 ± 0.49 N) and magnetic (0.81 ± 0.49 N) stimulation (p > 0.05), and the maximum VA of BB was comparable between electrical (95%) and magnetic (93%) stimulation (p > 0. 05). No differences (p >0.05) were revealed in the BB M-waves between electrical (13.47 ± 0.49 mV.ms) and magnetic (12.61 ± 0.58 mV.ms) stimulation. The TB M-waves were also similar (p > 0.05) but electrically evoked APB M-waves were significantly larger than those evoked by magnetic stimulation (p twitch-voluntary force relationship over the range of MVCs was best described by non-linear functions for both electrical and magnetic stimulation. The electrically evoked resting twitches were consistently larger in amplitude than the magnetically evoked ones (mean difference 3.1 ± 3.34 N, p twitch amplitude by 6.5 ± 6.2 N (p < 0.05). The fundamental similarities in voluntary activation assessment of BB with peripheral electrical and magnetic stimulation point towards a promising new application of peripheral magnetic stimulation as an alternative to the

  12. MAGNETIC VERSUS ELECTRICAL STIMULATION IN THE INTERPOLATION TWITCH TECHNIQUE OF ELBOW FLEXORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia I. Lampropoulou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study compared peripheral magnetic with electrical stimulation of the biceps brachii m. (BB in the single pulse Interpolation Twitch Technique (ITT. 14 healthy participants (31±7 years participated in a within-subjects repeated-measures design study. Single, constant-current electrical and magnetic stimuli were delivered over the motor point of BB with supramaximal intensity (20% above maximum at rest and at various levels of voluntary contraction. Force measurements from right elbow isometric flexion and muscle electromyograms (EMG from the BB, the triceps brachii m. (TB and the abductor pollicis brevis m. (APB were obtained. The twitch forces at rest and maximal contractions, the twitch force-voluntary force relationship, the M-waves and the voluntary activation (VA of BB between magnetic and electrical stimulation were compared. The mean amplitude of the twitches evoked at MVC was not significantly different between electrical (0.62 ± 0.49 N and magnetic (0.81 ± 0.49 N stimulation (p > 0.05, and the maximum VA of BB was comparable between electrical (95% and magnetic (93% stimulation (p > 0. 05. No differences (p >0.05 were revealed in the BB M-waves between electrical (13.47 ± 0.49 mV.ms and magnetic (12.61 ± 0.58 mV.ms stimulation. The TB M-waves were also similar (p > 0.05 but electrically evoked APB M-waves were significantly larger than those evoked by magnetic stimulation (p < 0.05. The twitch-voluntary force relationship over the range of MVCs was best described by non-linear functions for both electrical and magnetic stimulation. The electrically evoked resting twitches were consistently larger in amplitude than the magnetically evoked ones (mean difference 3.1 ± 3.34 N, p < 0.05. Reduction of the inter-electrodes distance reduced the twitch amplitude by 6.5 ± 6.2 N (p < 0.05. The fundamental similarities in voluntary activation assessment of BB with peripheral electrical and magnetic stimulation point towards a promising

  13. Mimicking muscle activity with electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lise A.; Fuglevand, Andrew J.

    2011-02-01

    Functional electrical stimulation is a rehabilitation technology that can restore some degree of motor function in individuals who have sustained a spinal cord injury or stroke. One way to identify the spatio-temporal patterns of muscle stimulation needed to elicit complex upper limb movements is to use electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from able-bodied subjects as a template for electrical stimulation. However, this requires a transfer function to convert the recorded (or predicted) EMG signals into an appropriate pattern of electrical stimulation. Here we develop a generalized transfer function that maps EMG activity into a stimulation pattern that modulates muscle output by varying both the pulse frequency and the pulse amplitude. We show that the stimulation patterns produced by this transfer function mimic the active state measured by EMG insofar as they reproduce with good fidelity the complex patterns of joint torque and joint displacement.

  14. Electrical stimulation to accelerate wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakral, Gaurav; LaFontaine, Javier; Najafi, Bijan; Talal, Talal K.; Kim, Paul; Lavery, Lawrence A.

    2013-01-01

    Background There are several applications of electrical stimulation described in medical literature to accelerate wound healing and improve cutaneous perfusion. This is a simple technique that could be incorporated as an adjunctive therapy in plastic surgery. The objective of this review was to evaluate the results of randomized clinical trials that use electrical stimulation for wound healing. Method We identified 21 randomized clinical trials that used electrical stimulation for wound healing. We did not include five studies with treatment groups with less than eight subjects. Results Electrical stimulation was associated with faster wound area reduction or a higher proportion of wounds that healed in 14 out of 16 wound randomized clinical trials. The type of electrical stimulation, waveform, and duration of therapy vary in the literature. Conclusion Electrical stimulation has been shown to accelerate wound healing and increase cutaneous perfusion in human studies. Electrical stimulation is an adjunctive therapy that is underutilized in plastic surgery and could improve flap and graft survival, accelerate postoperative recovery, and decrease necrosis following foot reconstruction. PMID:24049559

  15. Neural adaptations to electrical stimulation strength training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Maffiuletti, Nicola A.

    2011-01-01

    This review provides evidence for the hypothesis that electrostimulation strength training (EST) increases the force of a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) through neural adaptations in healthy skeletal muscle. Although electrical stimulation and voluntary effort activate muscle differently, there

  16. [Novel functional electrical stimulation for neurorehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yukihiro

    2010-02-01

    Our understanding of motor learning, neuroplasticity, and functional recovery after the occurrence of brain lesions has increased considerably. New findings in basic neuroscience have provided an impetus for research in motor rehabilitation. Several prospective studies have shown that repeated motor practice and motor activity in a real world environment have a favorable effect on motor recovery in stroke patients. Electrical stimulation can be applied in a variety of ways to the hemiparetic upper extremity following a stroke. In particular, electromyography (EMG)-triggered electrical muscle stimulation improves the motor function of the hemiparetic arm and hand. Triggered electrical stimulation is reported to be more effective than non-triggered electrical stimulation in facilitating upper extremity motor recovery after stroke. Power-assisted functional electrical stimulation (FES) induces greater muscle contraction by electrical stimulation that is in proportion to voluntary integrated EMG signals. Daily power-assisted FES home-program therapy with novel equipment has been shown to effectively improve wrist, finger extension, and shoulder flexion. Combined modulation of voluntary movement, proprioceptive sensory feedback, and electrical stimulation might play an important role in improving impaired sensory-motor integration by power-assisted FES therapy. A multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) studies in which the hemoglobin levels in the brain were non-invasively and dynamically measured during functional activity found that the cerebral blood flow in the injured sensory-motor cortex area is greater during a power-assisted FES session than during simple active movement or simple electrical stimulation. A novel power-assisted FES sleeve (Cyberhand) has been developed for the rehabilitation of hemiplegic upper extremities.

  17. Gastric applications of electrical field stimulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M

    2012-02-01

    Advances in clinical applications of electricity have been vast since the launch of Hayman\\'s first cardiac pacemaker more than 70 years ago. Gastric electrical stimulation devices have been recently licensed for treatment of gastroparesis and preliminary studies examining their potential for use in refractory obesity yield promising results.

  18. Distributed stimulation increases force elicited with functional electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmire, Alie J.; Lockwood, Danielle R.; Doane, Cynthia J.; Fuglevand, Andrew J.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. The maximum muscle forces that can be evoked using functional electrical stimulation (FES) are relatively modest. The reason for this weakness is not fully understood but could be partly related to the widespread distribution of motor nerve branches within muscle. As such, a single stimulating electrode (as is conventionally used) may be incapable of activating the entire array of motor axons supplying a muscle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether stimulating a muscle with more than one source of current could boost force above that achievable with a single source. Approach. We compared the maximum isometric forces that could be evoked in the anterior deltoid of anesthetized monkeys using one or two intramuscular electrodes. We also evaluated whether temporally interleaved stimulation between two electrodes might reduce fatigue during prolonged activity compared to synchronized stimulation through two electrodes. Main results. We found that dual electrode stimulation consistently produced greater force (~50% greater on average) than maximal stimulation with single electrodes. No differences, however, were found in the fatigue responses using interleaved versus synchronized stimulation. Significance. It seems reasonable to consider using multi-electrode stimulation to augment the force-generating capacity of muscles and thereby increase the utility of FES systems.

  19. Ipsilateral masking between acoustic and electric stimulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Payton; Turner, Christopher W; Gantz, Bruce J; Djalilian, Hamid R; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-08-01

    Residual acoustic hearing can be preserved in the same ear following cochlear implantation with minimally traumatic surgical techniques and short-electrode arrays. The combined electric-acoustic stimulation significantly improves cochlear implant performance, particularly speech recognition in noise. The present study measures simultaneous masking by electric pulses on acoustic pure tones, or vice versa, to investigate electric-acoustic interactions and their underlying psychophysical mechanisms. Six subjects, with acoustic hearing preserved at low frequencies in their implanted ear, participated in the study. One subject had a fully inserted 24 mm Nucleus Freedom array and five subjects had Iowa/Nucleus hybrid implants that were only 10 mm in length. Electric masking data of the long-electrode subject showed that stimulation from the most apical electrodes produced threshold elevations over 10 dB for 500, 625, and 750 Hz probe tones, but no elevation for 125 and 250 Hz tones. On the contrary, electric stimulation did not produce any electric masking in the short-electrode subjects. In the acoustic masking experiment, 125-750 Hz pure tones were used to acoustically mask electric stimulation. The acoustic masking results showed that, independent of pure tone frequency, both long- and short-electrode subjects showed threshold elevations at apical and basal electrodes. The present results can be interpreted in terms of underlying physiological mechanisms related to either place-dependent peripheral masking or place-independent central masking.

  20. Anal sphincter responses after perianal electrical stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ejnar; Klemar, B; Schrøder, H D

    1982-01-01

    not fatigued by repeated stimulation, were most dependent on placement of stimulating and recording electrodes, and always had a higher threshold than the third response. The third response was constantly present in normal subjects. It had the longest EMG response and the latency decreased with increasing......By perianal electrical stimulation and EMG recording from the external anal sphincter three responses were found with latencies of 2-8, 13-18 and 30-60 ms, respectively. The two first responses were recorded in most cases. They were characterised by constant latency and uniform pattern, were...

  1. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation: Research Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Florene Carnicelli

    Currently, research is being performed in the area of nonsurgical and nonchemical means for influencing the body's threshold for pain. Today, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is being widely used for this purpose. Application of this treatment can be confusing, however, because determining such things as selection of the proper…

  2. Tissue damage thresholds during therapeutic electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Ludwig, Kip A.; Welle, Cristin G.; Takmakov, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Recent initiatives in bioelectronic modulation of the nervous system by the NIH (SPARC), DARPA (ElectRx, SUBNETS) and the GlaxoSmithKline Bioelectronic Medicines effort are ushering in a new era of therapeutic electrical stimulation. These novel therapies are prompting a re-evaluation of established electrical thresholds for stimulation-induced tissue damage. Approach. In this review, we explore what is known and unknown in published literature regarding tissue damage from electrical stimulation. Main results. For macroelectrodes, the potential for tissue damage is often assessed by comparing the intensity of stimulation, characterized by the charge density and charge per phase of a stimulus pulse, with a damage threshold identified through histological evidence from in vivo experiments as described by the Shannon equation. While the Shannon equation has proved useful in assessing the likely occurrence of tissue damage, the analysis is limited by the experimental parameters of the original studies. Tissue damage is influenced by factors not explicitly incorporated into the Shannon equation, including pulse frequency, duty cycle, current density, and electrode size. Microelectrodes in particular do not follow the charge per phase and charge density co-dependence reflected in the Shannon equation. The relevance of these factors to tissue damage is framed in the context of available reports from modeling and in vivo studies. Significance. It is apparent that emerging applications, especially with microelectrodes, will require clinical charge densities that exceed traditional damage thresholds. Experimental data show that stimulation at higher charge densities can be achieved without causing tissue damage, suggesting that safety parameters for microelectrodes might be distinct from those defined for macroelectrodes. However, these increased charge densities may need to be justified by bench, non-clinical or clinical testing to provide evidence of device

  3. Electrical stimulation in dysphagia treatment: a justified controversy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaardt, H. C. A.

    2008-01-01

    Electrical stimulation in dysphagia treatment: a justified controversy? Neuromuscular electrostimulation (LAMES) is a method for stimulating muscles with short electrical pulses. Neuromuscular electrostimulation is frequently used in physiotherapy to strengthen healthy muscles (as in sports

  4. Functional Electrical Stimulation in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Marietta

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about functional electrical stimulation in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is defined as the electrical stimulation of muscles that have impaired motor control, in order to produce a contraction to obtain functionally useful movement. It was first proposed in…

  5. Medical back belt with integrated neuromuscular electrical stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottenberg, E. (Eliza); Brinks, G.J. (Ger); Hesse, J. (Jenny)

    2014-01-01

    The medical back belt with integrated neuromuscular electrical stimulation is anorthopedic device, which has two main functions. The first function is to stimulate the backmuscles by using a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device that releases regular,electrical impulses. The second function of

  6. Effect of bleeding method and low voltage electrical stimulation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An early post mortem low voltage electrical stimulation (ES) of the carcasses also had no influence on the cooking loss, drip loss and colour of these muscles. Electrical stimulation did result in a lower pH45 in both the fillet and big drum muscles. However, after 24 h the pH of the muscles did not differ. Electrical stimulation ...

  7. 21 CFR 868.2775 - Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. 868.2775... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2775 Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. (a) Identification. An electrical peripheral nerve stimulator (neuromuscular blockade monitor) is...

  8. Smart control for functional electrical stimulation with optimal pulse intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinert Aljoscha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous electrical stimulation is a common treatment option for patients suffering from spinal cord injury or stroke. Two major difficulties arise when employing electrical stimulation in patients: Accurate stimulation electrode placement and configuration of optimal stimulation parameters. Optimizing the stimulation parameters has the advantage to reduce muscle fatigue after repetitive stimulation. Here we present a newly developed system which is able to automatically find the optimal individual stimulation intensity by varying the pulse length. The effectiveness is measured with flex sensors. By adapting the stimulation parameters, the effect of muscle fatigue can be compensated, allowing for a more stable movement upon stimulation over time.

  9. Therapeutic electrical stimulation of injured peripheral nerve tissue using implantable thin-film wireless nerve stimulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEwan, Matthew R; Gamble, Paul; Stephen, Manu; Ray, Wilson Z

    2018-02-09

    OBJECTIVE Electrical stimulation of peripheral nerve tissue has been shown to accelerate axonal regeneration. Yet existing methods of applying electrical stimulation to injured peripheral nerves have presented significant barriers to clinical translation. In this study, the authors examined the use of a novel implantable wireless nerve stimulator capable of simultaneously delivering therapeutic electrical stimulation of injured peripheral nerve tissue and providing postoperative serial assessment of functional recovery. METHODS Flexible wireless stimulators were fabricated and implanted into Lewis rats. Thin-film implants were used to deliver brief electrical stimulation (1 hour, 20 Hz) to sciatic nerves after nerve crush or nerve transection-and-repair injuries. RESULTS Electrical stimulation of injured nerves via implanted wireless stimulators significantly improved functional recovery. Brief electrical stimulation was observed to increase the rate of functional recovery after both nerve crush and nerve transection-and-repair injuries. Wireless stimulators successfully facilitated therapeutic stimulation of peripheral nerve tissue and serial assessment of nerve recovery. CONCLUSIONS Implantable wireless stimulators can deliver therapeutic electrical stimulation to injured peripheral nerve tissue. Implantable wireless nerve stimulators might represent a novel means of facilitating therapeutic electrical stimulation in both intraoperative and postoperative settings.

  10. Urinary bladder control by electrical stimulation: review of electrical stimulation techniques in spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkhoff, N. J.; Wijkstra, H.; van Kerrebroeck, P. E.; Debruyne, F. M.

    1997-01-01

    Evacuation of urine in paraplegics without the need for catheters would be possible when voiding could be induced by eliciting a bladder contraction. A challenging option to obtain detrusor contraction is electrical stimulation of the detrusor muscle or its motor nerves. This article reviews the 4

  11. Immediate effect of laryngeal surface electrical stimulation on swallowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keizo; Hori, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Fujiu-Kurachi, Masako; Ono, Takahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Inoue, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation of the laryngeal region is used to improve swallowing in dysphagic patients. However, little is known about how electrical stimulation affects tongue movements and related functions. We investigated the effect of electrical stimulation on tongue pressure and hyoid movement, as well as suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscle activity, in 18 healthy young participants. Electrical stimulation (0.2-ms duration, 80 Hz, 80% of each participant's maximal tolerance) of the laryngeal region was applied. Each subject swallowed 5 ml of barium sulfate liquid 36 times at 10-s intervals. During the middle 2 min, electrical stimulation was delivered. Tongue pressure, electromyographic activity of the suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles, and videofluorographic images were simultaneously recorded. Tongue pressure during stimulation was significantly lower than before or after stimulation and was significantly greater after stimulation than at baseline. Suprahyoid activity after stimulation was larger than at baseline, while infrahyoid muscle activity did not change. During stimulation, the position of the hyoid at rest was descended, the highest hyoid position was significantly inferior, and the vertical movement was greater than before or after stimulation. After stimulation, the positions of the hyoid at rest and at the maximum elevation were more superior than before stimulation. The deviation of the highest positions of the hyoid before and after stimulation corresponded to the differences in tongue pressures at those times. These results suggest that surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. Tongue muscles may contribute to overshot recovery

  12. Surface electrical stimulation to evoke referred sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forst, Johanna C; Blok, Derek C; Slopsema, Julia P; Boss, John M; Heyboer, Lane A; Tobias, Carson M; Polasek, Katharine H

    2015-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation (SES) is being investigated as a noninvasive method to evoke natural sensations distal to electrode location. This may improve treatment for phantom limb pain as well as provide an alternative method to deliver sensory feedback. The median and/or ulnar nerves of 35 subjects were stimulated at the elbow using surface electrodes. Strength-duration curves of hand sensation were found for each subject. All subjects experienced sensation in their hand, which was mostly described as a paresthesia-like sensation. The rheobase and chronaxie values were found to be lower for the median nerve than the ulnar nerve, with no significant difference between sexes. Repeated sessions with the same subject resulted in sufficient variability to suggest that recalculating the strength-duration curve for each electrode placement is necessary. Most of the recruitment curves in this study were generated with 28 to 36 data points. To quickly reproduce these curves with limited increase in error, we recommend 10 data points. Future studies will focus on obtaining different sensations using SES with the strength-duration curve defining the threshold of the effective parameter space.

  13. Supramaximal Stimulus Intensity as a Diagnostic Tool in Chronic Demyelinating Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien Parker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The ability to correctly identify chronic demyelinating neuropathy can have important therapeutic and prognostic significance. The stimulus intensity value required to obtain a supramaximal compound muscle action potential amplitude is a commonly acquired data point that has not been formally assessed as a diagnostic tool in routine nerve conduction studies to identify chronic neuropathies. We postulated that this value was significantly elevated in chronic demyelinating neuropathy. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed electrophysiology laboratory records to compare the stimulus intensity values recorded during median and ulnar motor nerve conduction studies. The groups studied included normal controls (n=42 and the following diagnostic categories: chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (CIDP (n=20, acquired inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (AIDP (n=13, Charcot Marie Tooth (CMT type 1 or 4C (n=15, carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS (n=11, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS (n=18. Results. Supramaximal intensities were significantly higher in patients with CMT (median nerve: 43.4 mA and CIDP (median nerve: 38.9 mA, whereas values similar to normal controls (median nerve: 25.3 mA were obtained in ALS, CTS, and AIDP. Conclusions. Supramaximal stimulus intensity may be used as an additional criterion to identify the pathophysiology of neuropathy. We postulate that endoneurial hypertrophic changes may increase electrical impedance and thus the threshold of excitation at nodes of Ranvier.

  14. Stimulating the Comfort of Textile Electrodes in Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Zhou; Yi Lu; Wanzhen Chen; Zhen Wu; Haiqing Zou; Ludovic Krundel; Guanglin Li

    2015-01-01

    Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation. However, the stimulation comfort of textile electrodes and the mechanism behind stimulation discomfort is still unknown. In this study, a textile stimulation electrode was developed using conductive fabrics and then its impedance spectroscopy, stimulation thresholds, and stimulation comfort were quantitatively assessed and compared with those of a wet textile electrode and a hydrogel ele...

  15. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for the prevention of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Raveena; Williams, Katherine J; Babber, Adarsh; Moore, Hayley M; Lane, Tristan Ra; Shalhoub, Joseph; Davies, Alun H

    2017-01-01

    Objective Venous thromboembolism, encompassing deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, affecting one in 1000 adults per year. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation is the transcutaneous application of electrical impulses to elicit muscle contraction, preventing venous stasis. This review aims to investigate the evidence underlying the use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in thromboprophylaxis. Methods The Medline and Embase databases were systematically searched, adhering to PRISMA guidelines, for articles relating to electrical stimulation and thromboprophylaxis. Articles were screened according to a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results The search strategy identified 10 randomised controlled trials, which were used in three separate meta-analyses: five trials compared neuromuscular electrical stimulation to control, favouring neuromuscular electrical stimulation (odds ratio of deep vein thrombosis 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.65; P = .003); three trials compared neuromuscular electrical stimulation to heparin, favouring heparin (odds ratio of deep vein thrombosis 2.00, 95% confidence interval 1.13-3.52; P = .02); three trials compared neuromuscular electrical stimulation as an adjunct to heparin versus heparin only, demonstrating no significant difference (odds ratio of deep vein thrombosis 0.33, 95% confidence interval 0.10-1.14; P = .08). Conclusion Neuromuscular electrical stimulation significantly reduces the risk of deep vein thrombosis compared to no prophylaxis. It is inferior to heparin in preventing deep vein thrombosis and there is no evidence for its use as an adjunct to heparin.

  16. Modulation of auditory percepts by transcutaneous electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueberfuhr, Margarete Anna; Braun, Amalia; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Grothe, Benedikt; Drexl, Markus

    2017-07-01

    Transcutaneous, electrical stimulation with electrodes placed on the mastoid processes represents a specific way to elicit vestibular reflexes in humans without active or passive subject movements, for which the term galvanic vestibular stimulation was coined. It has been suggested that galvanic vestibular stimulation mainly affects the vestibular periphery, but whether vestibular hair cells, vestibular afferents, or a combination of both are excited, is still a matter of debate. Galvanic vestibular stimulation has been in use since the late 18th century, but despite the long-known and well-documented effects on the vestibular system, reports of the effect of electrical stimulation on the adjacent cochlea or the ascending auditory pathway are surprisingly sparse. The present study examines the effect of transcutaneous, electrical stimulation of the human auditory periphery employing evoked and spontaneous otoacoustic emissions and several psychoacoustic measures. In particular, level growth functions of distortion product otoacoustic emissions were recorded during electrical stimulation with alternating currents (2 Hz, 1-4 mA in 1 mA-steps). In addition, the level and frequency of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions were followed before, during, and after electrical stimulation (2 Hz, 1-4 mA). To explore the effect of electrical stimulation on the retrocochlear level (i.e. on the ascending auditory pathway beyond the cochlea), psychoacoustic experiments were carried out. Specifically, participants indicated whether electrical stimulation (4 Hz, 2 and 3 mA) induced amplitude modulations of the perception of a pure tone, and of auditory illusions after presentation of either an intense, low-frequency sound (Bounce tinnitus) or a faint band-stop noise (Zwicker tone). These three psychoacoustic measures revealed significant perceived amplitude modulations during electrical stimulation in the majority of participants. However, no significant changes of evoked and

  17. Wireless distributed functional electrical stimulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovičić, Nenad S; Saranovac, Lazar V; Popović, Dejan B

    2012-08-09

    The control of movement in humans is hierarchical and distributed and uses feedback. An assistive system could be best integrated into the therapy of a human with a central nervous system lesion if the system is controlled in a similar manner. Here, we present a novel wireless architecture and routing protocol for a distributed functional electrical stimulation system that enables control of movement. The new system comprises a set of miniature battery-powered devices with stimulating and sensing functionality mounted on the body of the subject. The devices communicate wirelessly with one coordinator device, which is connected to a host computer. The control algorithm runs on the computer in open- or closed-loop form. A prototype of the system was designed using commercial, off-the-shelf components. The propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves and the distributed nature of the system were considered during the development of a two-hop routing protocol, which was implemented in the prototype's software. The outcomes of this research include a novel system architecture and routing protocol and a functional prototype based on commercial, off-the-shelf components. A proof-of-concept study was performed on a hemiplegic subject with paresis of the right arm. The subject was tasked with generating a fully functional palmar grasp (closing of the fingers). One node was used to provide this movement, while a second node controlled the activation of extensor muscles to eliminate undesired wrist flexion. The system was tested with the open- and closed-loop control algorithms. The system fulfilled technical and application requirements. The novel communication protocol enabled reliable real-time use of the system in both closed- and open-loop forms. The testing on a patient showed that the multi-node system could operate effectively to generate functional movement.

  18. Wireless distributed functional electrical stimulation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Nenad S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of movement in humans is hierarchical and distributed and uses feedback. An assistive system could be best integrated into the therapy of a human with a central nervous system lesion if the system is controlled in a similar manner. Here, we present a novel wireless architecture and routing protocol for a distributed functional electrical stimulation system that enables control of movement. Methods The new system comprises a set of miniature battery-powered devices with stimulating and sensing functionality mounted on the body of the subject. The devices communicate wirelessly with one coordinator device, which is connected to a host computer. The control algorithm runs on the computer in open- or closed-loop form. A prototype of the system was designed using commercial, off-the-shelf components. The propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves and the distributed nature of the system were considered during the development of a two-hop routing protocol, which was implemented in the prototype’s software. Results The outcomes of this research include a novel system architecture and routing protocol and a functional prototype based on commercial, off-the-shelf components. A proof-of-concept study was performed on a hemiplegic subject with paresis of the right arm. The subject was tasked with generating a fully functional palmar grasp (closing of the fingers. One node was used to provide this movement, while a second node controlled the activation of extensor muscles to eliminate undesired wrist flexion. The system was tested with the open- and closed-loop control algorithms. Conclusions The system fulfilled technical and application requirements. The novel communication protocol enabled reliable real-time use of the system in both closed- and open-loop forms. The testing on a patient showed that the multi-node system could operate effectively to generate functional movement.

  19. Influence of electrical stimulation on carcass and meat quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a previous study regarding the effects of Kosher and conventional slaughter techniques on carcass and meat quality of cattle, it was speculated that electrical stimulation may have affected some of the meat qualities. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) and ...

  20. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for thromboprophylaxis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajibandeh, S; Hajibandeh, S; Antoniou, G A; Scurr, J R H; Torella, F

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on lower limb venous blood flow and its role in thromboprophylaxis. Systematic review of randomised and non-randomised studies evaluating neuromuscular electrical stimulation, and reporting one or more of the following outcomes: incidence of venous thromboembolism, venous blood flow and discomfort profile. Twenty-one articles were identified. Review of these articles showed that neuromuscular electrical stimulation increases venous blood flow and is generally associated with an acceptable tolerability, potentially leading to good patient compliance. Ten comparative studies reported DVT incidence, ranging from 2% to 50% with neuromuscular electrical stimulation and 6% to 47.1% in controls. There were significant differences, among included studies, in terms of patient population, neuromuscular electrical stimulation delivery, diagnosis of venous thromboembolism and blood flow measurements. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation increases venous blood flow and is well tolerated, but current evidence does not support a role for neuromuscular electrical stimulation in thromboprophylaxis. Randomised controlled trials are required to investigate the clinical utility of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in this setting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Dynamic electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) training of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous research on muscle strengthening using electrical stimulation has mainly focused on isometric training. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of isokinetic and isotonic electrical muscle stimulation training on the strength of the quadriceps femoris muscle group. A quantitative, experimental ...

  2. Electrical stimulation counteracts muscle decline in seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Helmut; Barberi, Laura; Löfler, Stefan; Sbardella, Simona; Burggraf, Samantha; Fruhmann, Hannah; Carraro, Ugo; Mosole, Simone; Sarabon, Nejc; Vogelauer, Michael; Mayr, Winfried; Krenn, Matthias; Cvecka, Jan; Romanello, Vanina; Pietrangelo, Laura; Protasi, Feliciano; Sandri, Marco; Zampieri, Sandra; Musaro, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The loss in muscle mass coupled with a decrease in specific force and shift in fiber composition are hallmarks of aging. Training and regular exercise attenuate the signs of sarcopenia. However, pathologic conditions limit the ability to perform physical exercise. We addressed whether electrical stimulation (ES) is an alternative intervention to improve muscle recovery and defined the molecular mechanism associated with improvement in muscle structure and function. We analyzed, at functional, structural, and molecular level, the effects of ES training on healthy seniors with normal life style, without routine sport activity. ES was able to improve muscle torque and functional performances of seniors and increased the size of fast muscle fibers. At molecular level, ES induced up-regulation of IGF-1 and modulation of MuRF-1, a muscle-specific atrophy-related gene. ES also induced up-regulation of relevant markers of differentiating satellite cells and of extracellular matrix remodeling, which might guarantee shape and mechanical forces of trained skeletal muscle as well as maintenance of satellite cell function, reducing fibrosis. Our data provide evidence that ES is a safe method to counteract muscle decline associated with aging.

  3. Electrical stimulation for urinary incontinence in women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Lucas; Santos, Thais Guimarães dos; Souza, Alessandra Borba Anton de; Nygaard, Christiana Campani; Silva Filho, Irenio Gomes da

    2013-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is commonly recommended to treat urinary incontinence in women. It includes several techniques that can be used to improve stress, urge, and mixed symptoms. However, the magnitude of the alleged benefits is not completely established. To determine the effects of electrical stimulation in women with symptoms or urodynamic diagnoses of stress, urge, and mixed incontinence. Our review included articles published between January 1980 and January 2012. We used the search terms ″urinary incontinence″, ″electrical stimulation ″, ″ intravaginal ″, ″ tibial nerve ″ and ″ neuromodulation ″ for studies including female patients. We evaluated randomized trials that included electrical stimulation in at least one arm of the trial, to treat women with urinary incontinence. Two reviewers independently assessed the data from the trials, for inclusion or exclusion, and methodological analysis. A total of 30 randomized clinical trials were included. Most of the trials involved intravaginal electrical stimulation. Intravaginal electrical stimulation showed effectiveness in treating urge urinary incontinence, but reported contradictory data regarding stress and mixed incontinence. Tibial-nerve stimulation showed promising results in randomized trials with a short follow-up period. Sacral-nerve stimulation yielded interesting results in refractory patients. Tibial-nerve and intravaginal stimulation have shown effectiveness in treating urge urinary incontinence. Sacral-nerve stimulation provided benefits in refractory cases. Presently available data provide no support for the use of intravaginal electrical stimulation to treat stress urinary incontinence in women. Further randomized trials are necessary to determine the magnitude of benefits, with long-term follow-up, and the effectiveness of other electrical-stimulation therapies.

  4. Electrical Stimulation for Urinary Incontinence in Women: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Schreiner

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Electrical stimulation is commonly recommended to treat urinary incontinence in women. It includes several techniques that can be used to improve stress, urge, and mixed symptoms. However, the magnitude of the alleged benefits is not completely established. Objectives To determine the effects of electrical stimulation in women with symptoms or urodynamic diagnoses of stress, urge, and mixed incontinence. Search Strategy: Our review included articles published between January 1980 and January 2012. We used the search terms “urinary incontinence”, “electrical stimulation”, “intravaginal”, “tibial nerve” and “neuromodulation” for studies including female patients. Selection Criteria We evaluated randomized trials that included electrical stimulation in at least one arm of the trial, to treat women with urinary incontinence. Data Collection and Analysis Two reviewers independently assessed the data from the trials, for inclusion or exclusion, and methodological analysis. Main Results A total of 30 randomized clinical trials were included. Most of the trials involved intravaginal electrical stimulation. Intravaginal electrical stimulation showed effectiveness in treating urge urinary incontinence, but reported contradictory data regarding stress and mixed incontinence. Tibial-nerve stimulation showed promising results in randomized trials with a short follow-up period. Sacral-nerve stimulation yielded interesting results in refractory patients. Conclusions Tibial-nerve and intravaginal stimulation have shown effectiveness in treating urge urinary incontinence. Sacral-nerve stimulation provided benefits in refractory cases. Presently available data provide no support for the use of intravaginal electrical stimulation to treat stress urinary incontinence in women. Further randomized trials are necessary to determine the magnitude of benefits, with long-term follow-up, and the effectiveness of other electrical-stimulation

  5. Outcomes of electrically stimulated gracilis neosphincter surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillin, T; Chambers, M; Feldman, R

    2005-07-01

    To examine patient quality of life (QoL) and long-term costs of electrically stimulated gracilis neosphincter surgery (ESGNS). Independently conducted prospective case-comparison study of patients at the Royal London Hospital (RLH), plus a cross-sectional study of outcomes of ESGNS performed at three other UK centres. Cases were patients who underwent ESGNS at the participating hospitals during a 5-year period from 1977. Comparisons were made with two groups of people with similar bowel disorders who did not undergo ESGNS. ESGNS is a procedure designed to improve bowel function for people living with severe faecal incontinence or stomas. It involves transposition of the gracilis muscle to form a neo-anal sphincter. The transposed muscle is electrically stimulated via an electronic pulse generator implanted beneath the skin of the abdomen. Clinical success and symptomatic outcomes of surgery. Generic, domain and condition specific measures of QoL. Comparative costs to the NHS of ESGNS and conventional alternatives. At 3 years after surgery approximately three-quarters of patients still had functioning neosphincters. At this stage, bowel-related QoL and continence improved by more than 20% for nearly two-thirds of RLH patients. However, ongoing bowel evacuation difficulties occurred in half of those with good continence outcomes. QoL improvements were maintained in the smaller group of RLH patients who had reached 4 and 5 years of follow-up, although at this stage the proportion with failed neosphincters had increased. The RLH findings were supported by those from the three other UK centres. No significant changes in QoL were observed in the comparison groups during the follow-up period. The mean cost of patient care at RLH, was 23,253 pounds. In the other three centres, the estimated mean cost of the intervention per patient was 11,731 pounds, reflecting fewer planned operations and repeat admissions. Costs of patient care for those with stomas who did not undergo

  6. Functional electrical stimulation on paraplegic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kern

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on clinical and physiological effects of 8 months Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES of quadriceps femoris muscle on 16 paraplegic patients. Each patient had muscle biopsies, CT-muscle diameter measurements, knee extension strength testing carried out before and after 8 months FES training. Skin perfusion was documented through infrared telethermography and xenon clearance, muscle perfusion was recorded through thallium scintigraphy. After 8 months FES training baseline skin perfusion showed 86 % increase, muscle perfusion was augmented by 87 %. Muscle fiber diameters showed an average increase of 59 % after 8 months FES training. Muscles in patients with spastic paresis as well as in patients with denervation showed an increase in aerob and anaerob muscle enzymes up to the normal range. Even without axonal neurotropic substances FES was able to demonstrate fiberhypertrophy, enzyme adaptation and intracellular structural benefits in denervated muscles. The increment in muscle area as visible on CT-scans of quadriceps femoris was 30 % in spastic paraplegia and 10 % in denervated patients respectively. FES induced changes were less in areas not directly underneath the surface electrodes. We strongly recommend the use of Kern`s current for FES in denervated muscles to induce tetanic muscle contractions as we formed a very critical opinion of conventional exponential current. In patients with conus-cauda-lesions FES must be integrated into modern rehabilitation to prevent extreme muscle degeneration and decubital ulcers. Using FES we are able to improve metabolism and induce positive trophic changes in our patients lower extremities. In spastic paraplegics the functions „rising and walking“ achieved through FES are much better training than FES ergometers. Larger muscle masses are activated and an increased heart rate is measured, therefore the impact on cardiovascular fitness and metabolism is much greater. This effectively

  7. Toward rational design of electrical stimulation strategies for epilepsy control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderam, Sridhar; Gluckman, Bruce; Reato, Davide; Bikson, Marom

    2009-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is emerging as a viable alternative for epilepsy patients whose seizures are not alleviated by drugs or surgery. Its attractions are temporal and spatial specificity of action, flexibility of waveform parameters and timing, and the perception that its effects are reversible unlike resective surgery. However, despite significant advances in our understanding of mechanisms of neural electrical stimulation, clinical electrotherapy for seizures relies heavily on empirical tuning of parameters and protocols. We highlight concurrent treatment goals with potentially conflicting design constraints that must be resolved when formulating rational strategies for epilepsy electrotherapy: namely seizure reduction versus cognitive impairment, stimulation efficacy versus tissue safety, and mechanistic insight versus clinical pragmatism. First, treatment markers, objectives, and metrics relevant to electrical stimulation for epilepsy are discussed from a clinical perspective. Then the experimental perspective is presented, with the biophysical mechanisms and modalities of open-loop electrical stimulation, and the potential benefits of closed-loop control for epilepsy. PMID:19926525

  8. Efficacy of Electrical Pudendal Nerve Stimulation versus Transvaginal Electrical Stimulation in Treating Female Idiopathic Urgency Urinary Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siyou; Lv, Jianwei; Feng, Xiaoming; Lv, Tingting

    2017-06-01

    We compared the efficacy of electrical pudendal nerve stimulation vs transvaginal electrical stimulation to treat female idiopathic urgency urinary incontinence. A total of 120 female patients with idiopathic urgency urinary incontinence refractory to medication were randomized at a ratio of 2:1 to group 1 of 80 patients and group 2 of 40. Groups 1 and 2 were treated with electrical pudendal nerve stimulation and transvaginal electrical stimulation, respectively. To perform electrical pudendal nerve stimulation long acupuncture needles were deeply inserted into 4 sacrococcygeal points and electrified to stimulate pudendal nerves. Outcome measures were the 24-hour pad test and a questionnaire to measure the severity of symptoms and quality of life in women with urgency urinary incontinence. The median severity of symptoms and quality of life score on the urgency urinary incontinence questionnaire (urgency urinary incontinence total score) was 13 (range 7 to 18.75) in group 1 and 11 (range 8 to 16) in group 2 before treatment, which decreased to 2 (range 0 to 6.75) in group 1 and 6.5 (range 3.25 to 10.75) in group 2 (both p Electrical pudendal nerve stimulation is more effective than transvaginal electrical stimulation in treating drug refractory, female idiopathic urgency urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Noninvasive Deep Brain Stimulation via Temporally Interfering Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Nir; Bono, David; Dedic, Nina; Kodandaramaiah, Suhasa B; Rudenko, Andrii; Suk, Ho-Jun; Cassara, Antonino M; Neufeld, Esra; Kuster, Niels; Tsai, Li-Huei; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Boyden, Edward S

    2017-06-01

    We report a noninvasive strategy for electrically stimulating neurons at depth. By delivering to the brain multiple electric fields at frequencies too high to recruit neural firing, but which differ by a frequency within the dynamic range of neural firing, we can electrically stimulate neurons throughout a region where interference between the multiple fields results in a prominent electric field envelope modulated at the difference frequency. We validated this temporal interference (TI) concept via modeling and physics experiments, and verified that neurons in the living mouse brain could follow the electric field envelope. We demonstrate the utility of TI stimulation by stimulating neurons in the hippocampus of living mice without recruiting neurons of the overlying cortex. Finally, we show that by altering the currents delivered to a set of immobile electrodes, we can steerably evoke different motor patterns in living mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrical Stimulation for Pressure Injuries: A Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Pressure injuries (bedsores) are common and reduce quality of life. They are also costly and difficult to treat. This health technology assessment evaluates the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, budget impact, and lived experience of adding electrical stimulation to standard wound care for pressure injuries. We conducted a systematic search for studies published to December 7, 2016, limited to randomized and non-randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of electrical stimulation plus standard wound care versus standard wound care alone for patients with pressure injuries. We assessed the quality of evidence through Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE). In addition, we conducted an economic literature review and a budget impact analysis to assess the cost-effectiveness and affordability of electrical stimulation for treatment of pressure ulcers in Ontario. Given uncertainties in clinical evidence and resource use, we did not conduct a primary economic evaluation. Finally, we conducted qualitative interviews with patients and caregivers about their experiences with pressure injuries, currently available treatments, and (if applicable) electrical stimulation. Nine randomized controlled trials and two non-randomized controlled trials were found from the systematic search. There was no significant difference in complete pressure injury healing between adjunct electrical stimulation and standard wound care. There was a significant difference in wound surface area reduction favouring electrical stimulation compared with standard wound care.The only study on cost-effectiveness of electrical stimulation was partially applicable to the patient population of interest. Therefore, the cost-effectiveness of electrical stimulation cannot be determined. We estimate that the cost of publicly funding electrical stimulation for pressure injuries would be $0.77 to $3.85 million yearly for the next 5 years.Patients and caregivers

  11. Electrical Stimulation for Pressure Injuries: A Health Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinos, Anna; Falk, Lindsey; Ali, Arshia; Holubowich, Corinne; Walter, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Background Pressure injuries (bedsores) are common and reduce quality of life. They are also costly and difficult to treat. This health technology assessment evaluates the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, budget impact, and lived experience of adding electrical stimulation to standard wound care for pressure injuries. Methods We conducted a systematic search for studies published to December 7, 2016, limited to randomized and non–randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of electrical stimulation plus standard wound care versus standard wound care alone for patients with pressure injuries. We assessed the quality of evidence through Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE). In addition, we conducted an economic literature review and a budget impact analysis to assess the cost-effectiveness and affordability of electrical stimulation for treatment of pressure ulcers in Ontario. Given uncertainties in clinical evidence and resource use, we did not conduct a primary economic evaluation. Finally, we conducted qualitative interviews with patients and caregivers about their experiences with pressure injuries, currently available treatments, and (if applicable) electrical stimulation. Results Nine randomized controlled trials and two non–randomized controlled trials were found from the systematic search. There was no significant difference in complete pressure injury healing between adjunct electrical stimulation and standard wound care. There was a significant difference in wound surface area reduction favouring electrical stimulation compared with standard wound care. The only study on cost-effectiveness of electrical stimulation was partially applicable to the patient population of interest. Therefore, the cost-effectiveness of electrical stimulation cannot be determined. We estimate that the cost of publicly funding electrical stimulation for pressure injuries would be $0.77 to $3.85 million yearly for the next 5

  12. Electrical Stimulation of the Heart: Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Defibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Bradley J.

    2000-03-01

    Electrical stimulation of the heart underlies cardiac pacing and defibrillation. The "bidomain model" describes the anisotropic electrical properties of cardiac tissue. In particular, this model predicts mechanisms by which applied electric fields change the transmembrane potential of the myocardial cells. During unipolar stimulation, the bidomain model can explain "make" and "break" stimulation. Furthermore, it elucidates the cause of the "dip" in the anodal strength-interval curve, and predicts the initiation of novel quatrefoil reentry patterns. These results are beginning to shed light on the mechanisms of arrhythmia induction and defibrillation.

  13. Design of Electrical Stimulation Bioreactors for Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, N.; Marsano, A.; Cannizzaro, C.; Voldman, J.; Vunjak-Novakovic, G.

    2009-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has been shown to improve functional assembly of cardiomyocytes in vitro for cardiac tissue engineering. Carbon electrodes were found in past studies to have the best current injection characteristics. The goal of this study was to develop rational experimental design principles for the electrodes and stimulation regime, in particular electrode configuration, electrode ageing, and stimulation amplitude. Carbon rod electrodes were compared via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and we identified a safety range of 0 to 8 V/cm by comparing excitation thresholds and maximum capture rates for neonatal rat cardiomyocytes cultured with electrical stimulation. We conclude with recommendations for studies involving carbon electrodes for cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:19163486

  14. Comparison of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Cryotherapy for Increasing Quadriceps Activation in Patients With Knee Pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabler, Conrad M; Lepley, Adam S; Uhl, Tim L; Mattacola, Carl G

    2016-08-01

    Proper neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps muscle is essential for maintaining quadriceps (quad) strength and lower-extremity function. Quad activation (QA) failure is a common characteristic observed in patients with knee pathologies, defined as an inability to voluntarily activate the entire alpha-motor-neuron pool innervating the quad. One of the more popular techniques used to assess QA is the superimposed burst (SIB) technique, a force-based technique that uses a supramaximal, percutaneous electrical stimulation to activate all of the motor units in the quad during a maximal, voluntary isometric contraction. Central activation ratio (CAR) is the formula used to calculate QA level (CAR = voluntary force/SIB force) with the SIB technique. People who can voluntarily activate 95% or more (CAR = 0.95-1.0) of their motor units are defined as being fully activated. Therapeutic exercises aimed at improving quad strength in patients with knee pathologies are limited in their effectiveness due to a failure to fully activate the muscle. Within the past decade, several disinhibitory interventions have been introduced to treat QA failure in patients with knee pathologies. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and cryotherapy are sensory-targeted modalities traditionally used to treat pain, but they have been shown to be 2 of the most successful treatments for increasing QA levels in patients with QA failure. Both modalities are hypothesized to positively affect voluntary QA by disinhibiting the motor-neuron pool of the quad. In essence, these modalities provide excitatory afferent stimuli to the spinal cord, which thereby overrides the inhibitory afferent signaling that arises from the involved joint. However, it remains unknown whether 1 is more effective than the other for restoring QA levels in patients with knee pathologies. By knowing the capabilities of each disinhibitory modality, clinicians can tailor treatments based on the rehabilitation goals

  15. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Anabolic Signaling in Patients with Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Joni A; Bennett, Sydney M; Doucet, Barbara M; Magee, Dillon M

    2017-12-01

    Stroke results in limited ability to produce voluntary muscle contraction and movement on one side of the body, leading to further muscle wasting and weakness. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation is often used to facilitate involuntary muscle contraction; however, the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on muscle growth and strengthening processes in hemiparetic muscle is not clear. This study examined the skeletal muscle anabolic response of an acute bout of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in individuals with chronic stroke and healthy older adults. Eleven individuals (59.8 ± 2.7 years old) were divided into a chronic stroke group (n = 5) and a healthy older adult control group (n = 6). Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after stimulation from the vastus lateralis of the hemiparetic leg for the stroke group and the right leg for the control group. The neuromuscular electrical stimulation protocol consisted of a 60-minute, intermittent stimulation train at 60 Hz. Phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin and ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1 were analyzed by Western blot. An acute bout of neuromuscular electrical stimulation increased phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (stroke: 56.0%; control: 51.4%; P = .002) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1 (stroke: 131.2%; control: 156.3%; P = .002) from resting levels to post-neuromuscular electrical stimulation treatment, respectively. Phosphorylated protein content was similar between stroke and control groups at both time points. Findings suggest that paretic muscles of patients with chronic stroke may maintain ability to stimulate protein synthesis machinery in response to neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anal sphincter responses after perianal electrical stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ejnar; Klemar, B; Schrøder, H D

    1982-01-01

    not fatigued by repeated stimulation, were most dependent on placement of stimulating and recording electrodes, and always had a higher threshold than the third response. The third response was constantly present in normal subjects. It had the longest EMG response and the latency decreased with increasing...

  17. Sodium-potassium pump assessment by submaximal electrical nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Steven; Kovalchuk, Maria O; Sleutjes, Boudewijn T H M; van Schelven, Leonard J; van den Berg, Leonard H; Franssen, Hessel

    2018-04-01

    Sodium-potassium pump dysfunction in peripheral nerve is usually assessed by determining axonal hyperpolarization following maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) or maximal electrical nerve stimulation. As MVC may be unreliable and maximal electrical stimulation too painful, we assessed if hyperpolarization can also be induced by submaximal electrical nerve stimulation. In 8 healthy volunteers different submaximal electrical stimulus trains were given to the median nerve at the wrist, followed by 5 min assessment of thresholds for compound muscle action potentials of 20%, 40% or 60% of maximal. Threshold increase after submaximal electrical nerve stimulation was most prominent after an 8 Hz train of at least 5 min duration evoking submaximal CMAPs of 60%. It induced minimal discomfort and was not painful. Threshold increase after MVC was not significantly higher than this stimulus train. Submaximal electrical stimulation evokes activity dependent hyperpolarization in healthy test subjects without causing significant discomfort. Sodium-potassium pump function may be assessed using submaximal electrical stimulation. Copyright © 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cortical excitability changes following grasping exercise augmented with electrical stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barsi, Gergely Istvan; Popovic, Dejan B.; Tarkka, Ina M.

    2008-01-01

    Rehabilitation with augmented electrical stimulation can enhance functional recovery after stroke, and cortical plasticity may play a role in this process. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of three training paradigms on cortical excitability in healthy subjects. Cortical......) functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the finger flexors and extensors, (2) voluntary movement (VOL) with sensory stimulation, and (3) therapeutic FES (TFES) where the electrical stimulation augmented voluntary activation. TFES training produced a significant increase in MEP magnitude throughout...... excitability was evaluated by analysing the input-output relationship between transcranial magnetic stimulation intensity and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the flexor muscles of the fingers. The study was performed with 25 healthy volunteers who underwent 20-min simulated therapy sessions of: (1...

  19. Transient finite element modeling of functional electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovic, Nenad D; Peulic, Aleksandar S; Zdravkovic, Nebojsa D; Grbovic-Markovic, Vesna M; Jurisic-Skevin, Aleksandra J

    2011-03-01

    Transcutaneous functional electrical stimulation is commonly used for strengthening muscle. However, transient effects during stimulation are not yet well explored. The effect of an amplitude change of the stimulation can be described by static model, but there is no differency for different pulse duration. The aim of this study is to present the finite element (FE) model of a transient electrical stimulation on the forearm. Discrete FE equations were derived by using a standard Galerkin procedure. Different tissue conductive and dielectric properties are fitted using least square method and trial and error analysis from experimental measurement. This study showed that FE modeling of electrical stimulation can give the spatial-temporal distribution of applied current in the forearm. Three different cases were modeled with the same geometry but with different input of the current pulse, in order to fit the tissue properties by using transient FE analysis. All three cases were compared with experimental measurements of intramuscular voltage on one volunteer.

  20. Electrical Stimulation for Urinary Incontinence in Women: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiner, Lucas; Santos, Thais Guimaraes dos; Souza, Alessandra Borba Anton de; Nygaard, Christiana Campani; Filho, Irenio Gomes da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Background Electrical stimulation is commonly recommended to treat urinary incontinence in women. It includes several techniques that can be used to improve stress, urge, and mixed symptoms. However, the magnitude of the alleged benefits is not completely established. Objectives To determine the effects of electrical stimulation in women with symptoms or urodynamic diagnoses of stress, urge, and mixed incontinence. Search Strategy: Our review included articles published between January 1980...

  1. Determinants of the electric field during transcranial direct current stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opitz, Alexander; Paulus, Walter; Will, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) causes a complex spatial distribution of the electric current flow in the head which hampers the accurate localization of the stimulated brain areas. In this study we show how various anatomical features systematically shape the electric field...... over the motor cortex in small steps to examine the resulting changes of the electric field distribution in the underlying cortex. We examined the effect of skull thickness and composition on the passing currents showing that thinner skull regions lead to higher electric field strengths. This effect...... fluid and the skull, the gyral depth and the distance to the anode and cathode. These factors account for up to 50% of the spatial variation of the electric field strength. Further, we demonstrate that individual anatomical factors can lead to stimulation "hotspots" which are partly resistant...

  2. Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) training of the hamstrings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) training on hamstring muscle strength. The study utilised a quantitative experimental research design. The intervention was assessed using a Humac Norm 7000 Dynamometer. A Chattanooga Intelect Mobile Combo muscle stimulator ...

  3. Ultrasound guided, painful electrical stimulation of lumbar facet joint structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Søren; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Manniche, Claus

    2009-01-01

    placed either side of a lumbar facet joint (right L3-4) and used to induce experimental low back pain for 10 min with continuous stimulation. Thresholds, stimulus-response relationships, distribution and quality of the electrically induced pain were recorded. Electrical facet joint stimulation induced...... low back pain and pain referral into the anterior leg, ipsilaterally, proximal to the knee, similar to what is observed clinically. Pressure pain thresholds did not change significantly before, during and after facet joint stimulation. In conclusion, we describe a novel model of acute experimental low...

  4. Sensory adaptation to electrical stimulation of the somatosensory nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Emily Lauren; Delhaye, Benoit; Schiefer, Matthew A; Bensmaia, Sliman J; Tyler, Dustin J

    2018-03-19

    Sensory systems adapt their sensitivity to ambient stimulation levels to improve their responsiveness to changes in stimulation. The sense of touch is also subject to adaptation, as evidenced by the desensitization produced by prolonged vibratory stimulation of the skin. Electrical stimulation of nerves elicits tactile sensations that can convey feedback for bionic limbs. In this study, we investigate whether artificial touch is also subject to adaptation, despite the fact that the peripheral mechanotransducers are bypassed. Approach: Using well-established psychophysical paradigms, we characterize the time course and magnitude of sensory adaptation caused by extended electrical stimulation of the residual somatosensory nerves in three human amputees implanted with cuff electrodes. Main results: We find that electrical stimulation of the nerve also induces perceptual adaptation that recovers after cessation of the stimulus. The time course and magnitude of electrically-induced adaptation are equivalent to their mechanically-induced counterparts. Significance: We conclude that, in natural touch, the process of mechanotransduction is not required for adaptation, and artificial touch naturally experiences adaptation-induced adjustments of the dynamic range of sensations. Further, as it does for native hands, adaptation confers to bionic hands enhanced sensitivity to changes in stimulation and thus a more natural sensory experience. . Creative Commons Attribution license.

  5. Approximating transcranial magnetic stimulation with electric stimulation in mouse: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Walter L; Lee, Won Hee; Peterchev, Angel V

    2014-01-01

    Rodent models are valuable for preclinical examination of novel therapeutic techniques, including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). However, comparison of TMS effects in rodents and humans is confounded by inaccurate scaling of the spatial extent of the induced electric field in rodents. The electric field is substantially less focal in rodent models of TMS due to the technical restrictions of making very small coils that can handle the currents required for TMS. We examine the electric field distributions generated by various electrode configurations of electric stimulation in an inhomogeneous high-resolution finite element mouse model, and show that the electric field distributions produced by human TMS can be approximated by electric stimulation in mouse. Based on these results and the limits of magnetic stimulation in mice, we argue that the most practical and accurate way to model focal TMS in mice is electric stimulation through either cortical surface electrodes or electrodes implanted halfway through the mouse cranium. This approach could allow much more accurate approximation of the human TMS electric field focality and strength than that offered by TMS in mouse, enabling, for example, focal targeting of specific cortical regions, which is common in human TMS paradigms.

  6. Electrical stimulation of the upper extremity in stroke: cyclic versus EMG-triggered stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kroon, Joke R.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of cyclic and electromyography (EMG)-triggered electrical stimulation on motor impairment and function of the affected upper extremity in chronic stroke. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Outpatient clinic of a rehabilitation centre. Subjects and

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Tactile Sensation by Electrical and Mechanical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yem, Vibol; Kajimoto, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    An electrotactile display is a tactile interface that provides tactile perception by passing electrical current through the surface of the skin. It is actively used instead of mechanical tactile displays for tactile feedback because of several advantages such as its small and thin size, light weight, and high responsiveness. However, the similarities and differences between these sensations is still not clear. This study directly compares the intensity sensation of electrotactile stimulation to that of mechanical stimulation, and investigates the characteristic sensation of anodic and cathodic stimulation. In the experiment, participants underwent a 30 pps electrotactile stimulus every one second to their middle finger, and were asked to match this intensity by adjusting the intensity of a mechanical tactile stimulus to an index finger. The results showed that anodic stimulation mainly produced vibration sensation, whereas cathodic sensation produced both vibration and pressure sensations. Relatively low pressure sensation was also observed for anodic stimulation but it remains low, regardless of the increasing of electrical intensity.

  8. Dobutamine use for arrhythmia induction during electrical programmed heart stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanegas, Diego I; Perez, Climaco de J; Montenegro, Juan de J; Orjuela, Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    isoproterenol is the traditionally used drug for incrementing arrhythmia induction when this induction is not achieved during electric programmed heart stimulation under basal conditions. Dobutamine is an adrenergic agent, chemical precursor of isoproterenol, which can be an alternative for inducing arrhythmia during electrical programmed heart stimulation (PES). Patients and methods: a retrospective comparative study of the experience with dobutamine for inducing arrhythmia during electrical programmed heart stimulation was performed. The following data were collected: number of studies, data about the patient (medical record, age, gender, and study indication) protocol of programmed electrical stimulation, basal and under dobutamine or isoproterenol, and result of the study. Isoproterenol was used in doses of 1 to 3 micrograms per minute until the basal heart rate was incremented at least in 25%. Dobutamine was used in doses of 10 to 40 micrograms per kg of body weight, until obtaining the same increment in the basal heart rate. Results: 1054 electrophysiological studies were evaluated. In 144 patients (group A) isoproterenol was used and in 140, dobutamine (group B). In A group the mean age was 39.2 ± 16.2 and 58.3% were females. In-group B, mean age was 41.9 ± 18.6 and 51% were females. The most frequent symptom was palpitation and the most commonly induced arrhythmia was AV nodal reentry tachycardia in both groups. The induction of arrhythmia during the electrical programmed heat stimulation under drugs was similar in-group A (isoproterenol) respect to group B (dobutamine). Conclusions: There were no statistical significant differences in the induction of arrhythmia during electrical programmed heart stimulation using dobutamine or isoproterenol. Dobutamine may be safe and may be successfully used as an alternative to isoproterenol for arrhythmia induction during electrical programmed stimulation

  9. Stimulating the Comfort of Textile Electrodes in Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Lu, Yi; Chen, Wanzhen; Wu, Zhen; Zou, Haiqing; Krundel, Ludovic; Li, Guanglin

    2015-07-16

    Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation. However, the stimulation comfort of textile electrodes and the mechanism behind stimulation discomfort is still unknown. In this study, a textile stimulation electrode was developed using conductive fabrics and then its impedance spectroscopy, stimulation thresholds, and stimulation comfort were quantitatively assessed and compared with those of a wet textile electrode and a hydrogel electrode on healthy subjects. The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain. Our results showed that the wet textile electrode could achieve similar stimulation performance as the hydrogel electrode in motor threshold and stimulation comfort. However, the dry textile electrode was found to have very low pain threshold and induced obvious cutaneous painful sensations during stimulation, in comparison to the wet and hydrogel electrodes. Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers. Future work will be done to make textile electrodes have similar stimulation performance and comfort as hydrogel electrodes.

  10. Stimulating the Comfort of Textile Electrodes in Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation. However, the stimulation comfort of textile electrodes and the mechanism behind stimulation discomfort is still unknown. In this study, a textile stimulation electrode was developed using conductive fabrics and then its impedance spectroscopy, stimulation thresholds, and stimulation comfort were quantitatively assessed and compared with those of a wet textile electrode and a hydrogel electrode on healthy subjects. The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain. Our results showed that the wet textile electrode could achieve similar stimulation performance as the hydrogel electrode in motor threshold and stimulation comfort. However, the dry textile electrode was found to have very low pain threshold and induced obvious cutaneous painful sensations during stimulation, in comparison to the wet and hydrogel electrodes. Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers. Future work will be done to make textile electrodes have similar stimulation performance and comfort as hydrogel electrodes.

  11. Electrical stimulation of a small brain area reversibly disrupts consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubeissi, Mohamad Z; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Beltagy, Abdelrahman; Picard, Fabienne

    2014-08-01

    The neural mechanisms that underlie consciousness are not fully understood. We describe a region in the human brain where electrical stimulation reproducibly disrupted consciousness. A 54-year-old woman with intractable epilepsy underwent depth electrode implantation and electrical stimulation mapping. The electrode whose stimulation disrupted consciousness was between the left claustrum and anterior-dorsal insula. Stimulation of electrodes within 5mm did not affect consciousness. We studied the interdependencies among depth recording signals as a function of time by nonlinear regression analysis (h(2) coefficient) during stimulations that altered consciousness and stimulations of the same electrode at lower current intensities that were asymptomatic. Stimulation of the claustral electrode reproducibly resulted in a complete arrest of volitional behavior, unresponsiveness, and amnesia without negative motor symptoms or mere aphasia. The disruption of consciousness did not outlast the stimulation and occurred without any epileptiform discharges. We found a significant increase in correlation for interactions affecting medial parietal and posterior frontal channels during stimulations that disrupted consciousness compared with those that did not. Our findings suggest that the left claustrum/anterior insula is an important part of a network that subserves consciousness and that disruption of consciousness is related to increased EEG signal synchrony within frontal-parietal networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intracavitary electrical stimulation as treatment for overactive bladder: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Fintelman Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Overactive bladder (OAB is a clinical diagnosis of irritating urinary symptoms that influence on sufferers' life quality. There are effective treatments described in literature, but most of them present adverse effects. One way of treatment is the use of electrical stimulation, which has been widely used, but studies show varying results. Objective: To verify if intracavitary electrical stimulation can be effective in patients with OAB. Methods: online databases were searched with specific descriptors to find randomized clinical trials on overactive bladder treated with intracavitary electrical stimulation. Only articles with score equal or higher than 5 in methodological PEDro scale were used and those that described intra and / or inter-group P-value. Results: 217 articles were found, but only 6 were analyzed by the selection criteria. The studies show that electrical stimulation promotes the reduction of urinary frequency, urinary incontinence, nocturia, urgency and the number of protectors used, and improvements in maximum cystometric bladder capacity, symptoms of OAB and quality of life. Conclusion: Electrical stimulation was effective in patients with OAB and can be used before any invasive treatment due to none side effects.

  13. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for refractory daytime urinary urge incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstroem, Søren; Mahler, Birgitte; Madsen, Bodil; Djurhuus, Jens Christian; Rittig, Søren

    2009-10-01

    We studied the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in children with overactive bladder and treatment refractory daytime urinary incontinence. We recruited 27 children 5 to 14 years old with daytime urge incontinence refractory to timer assisted standard urotherapy and anticholinergics who had normal urinalysis, and unremarkable urinary tract ultrasound and physical examination. Study exclusion criteria were bladder underactivity, lower urinary tract obstruction, ongoing defecation disorders, lower urinary tract surgery and previous transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. After a 2-week run-in of standard urotherapy the children underwent natural fill ambulatory urodynamics to confirm detrusor overactivity. Subsequently they were randomly allocated to 4 weeks of 2 hours of daily active or placebo S2-S3 transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. The severity of incontinence and urgency, and 48-hour bladder diaries were recorded before randomization and during intervention week 4. Children withdrew from anticholinergics throughout the study period. Two children were excluded from randomization due to urodynamic signs of lower urinary tract obstruction. After 4 weeks of intervention 8 children (61%) in the active group showed a significant decrease in incontinence severity but this occurred in only 2 (17%) in the sham treated group (p incontinence episodes compared to the sham treated group (p electrical nerve stimulation did not alter maximal and average voided volumes. Sacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation seems superior to placebo for refractory daytime incontinence in children with overactive bladder. This effect does not seem to be a consequence of improved bladder reservoir function.

  14. Concurrent electrical cervicomedullary stimulation and cervical transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation result in a stimulus interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongés, Siobhan C; Bai, Siwei; Taylor, Janet L

    2017-10-01

    What is the central question of this study? We previously showed that the motor pathway is not modified after cervical transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) applied using anterior-posterior electrodes. Here, we examine the motor pathway during stimulation. What is the main finding and its importance? We show that electrically elicited muscle responses to cervicomedullary stimulation are modified during tsDCS, whereas magnetically elicited responses are not. Modelling reveals electrical field modifications during concurrent tsDCS and electrical cervicomedullary stimulation. Changes in muscle response probably result from electrical field modifications rather than physiological changes. Care should be taken when applying electrical stimuli simultaneously. Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) can modulate neuronal excitability within the human spinal cord; however, few studies have used tsDCS at a cervical level. This study aimed to characterize cervical tsDCS further by observing its acute effects on motor responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation and cervicomedullary stimulation. In both studies 1 and 2, participants (study 1, n = 8, four female; and study 2, n = 8, three female) received two periods of 10 min, 3 mA cervical tsDCS on the same day through electrodes placed in an anterior-posterior configuration over the neck; one period with the cathode posterior (c-tsDCS) and the other with the anode posterior (a-tsDCS). In study 1, electrically elicited cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials (eCMEPs) and transcranial magnetic stimulation-elicited motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured in biceps brachii and flexor carpi radialis before, during and after each tsDCS period. In study 2, eCMEPs and magnetically elicited CMEPs (mCMEPs) were measured before, during and after each tsDCS period. For study 3, computational modelling was used to observe possible interactions of cervical tsDCS and electrical

  15. Higher-order power harmonics of pulsed electrical stimulation modulates corticospinal contribution of peripheral nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiun-Fan; Bikson, Marom; Chou, Li-Wei; Shan, Chunlei; Khadka, Niranjan; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Fregni, Felipe

    2017-03-03

    It is well established that electrical-stimulation frequency is crucial to determining the scale of induced neuromodulation, particularly when attempting to modulate corticospinal excitability. However, the modulatory effects of stimulation frequency are not only determined by its absolute value but also by other parameters such as power at harmonics. The stimulus pulse shape further influences parameters such as excitation threshold and fiber selectivity. The explicit role of the power in these harmonics in determining the outcome of stimulation has not previously been analyzed. In this study, we adopted an animal model of peripheral electrical stimulation that includes an amplitude-adapted pulse train which induces force enhancements with a corticospinal contribution. We report that the electrical-stimulation-induced force enhancements were correlated with the amplitude of stimulation power harmonics during the amplitude-adapted pulse train. In an exploratory analysis, different levels of correlation were observed between force enhancement and power harmonics of 20-80 Hz (r = 0.4247, p = 0.0243), 100-180 Hz (r = 0.5894, p = 0.0001), 200-280 Hz (r = 0.7002, p harmonics. This is a pilot, but important first demonstration that power at high order harmonics in the frequency spectrum of electrical stimulation pulses may contribute to neuromodulation, thus warrant explicit attention in therapy design and analysis.

  16. Modeling auditory-nerve responses to electrical stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Suyash Narendra; Dau, Torsten; Epp, Bastian

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CI) directly stimulate the auditory nerve (AN), bypassing the mechano-electrical transduction in the inner ear. Trains of biphasic, charge balanced pulses (anodic and cathodic) are used as stimuli to avoid damage of the tissue. The pulses of either polarity are capable......μs, which is large enough to affect the temporal coding of sounds and hence, potentially, the communication abilities of the CI listener. In the present study, two recently proposed models of electric stimulation of the AN [1,2] were considered in terms of their efficacy to predict the spike timing...... for anodic and cathodic stimulation of the AN of cat [3]. The models’ responses to the electrical pulses of various shapes [4,5,6] were also analyzed. It was found that, while the models can account for the firing rates in response to various biphasic pulse shapes, they fail to correctly describe the timing...

  17. Soft Encapsulation of Flexible Electrical Stimulation Implant: Challenges and Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Debelle

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this document we discuss the main challenges encountered when producing flexible electrical stimulation implants, and present our approach to solving them for prototype production. We include a study of the optimization of the flexible PCB design, the selection of additive manufacturing materials for the mold, and the chemical compatibility of the different materials. Our approach was tested on a flexible gastro-stimulator as part of the ENDOGES research program.

  18. Economic substitutability of electrical brain stimulation, food, and water.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, L; Rachlin, H

    1991-01-01

    Concurrent variable-ratio schedules of electrical brain stimulation, food, and water were paired in various combinations as reinforcement of rats' lever presses. Relative prices of the concurrent reinforcers were varied by changing the ratio of the response requirements on the two levers. Economic substitutability, measured by the sensitivity of response ratio to changes in relative price, was highest with brain stimulation reinforcement of presses on both levers and lowest with food reinforc...

  19. Prediction and control of neural responses to pulsatile electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Luke J.; Sly, David James; O'Leary, Stephen John

    2012-04-01

    This paper aims to predict and control the probability of firing of a neuron in response to pulsatile electrical stimulation of the type delivered by neural prostheses such as the cochlear implant, bionic eye or in deep brain stimulation. Using the cochlear implant as a model, we developed an efficient computational model that predicts the responses of auditory nerve fibers to electrical stimulation and evaluated the model's accuracy by comparing the model output with pooled responses from a group of guinea pig auditory nerve fibers. It was found that the model accurately predicted the changes in neural firing probability over time to constant and variable amplitude electrical pulse trains, including speech-derived signals, delivered at rates up to 889 pulses s-1. A simplified version of the model that did not incorporate adaptation was used to adaptively predict, within its limitations, the pulsatile electrical stimulus required to cause a desired response from neurons up to 250 pulses s-1. Future stimulation strategies for cochlear implants and other neural prostheses may be enhanced using similar models that account for the way that neural responses are altered by previous stimulation.

  20. Electrical stimulation induces propagated colonic contractions in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aellen, S; Wiesel, P H; Gardaz, J-P; Schlageter, V; Bertschi, M; Virag, N; Givel, J-C

    2009-02-01

    Direct colonic electrical stimulation may prove to be a treatment option for specific motility disorders such as chronic constipation. The aim of this study was to provoke colonic contractions using electrical stimulation delivered from a battery-operated device. Electrodes were inserted into the caecal seromuscular layer of eight anaesthetized pigs. Contractions were induced by a neurostimulator (Medtronic 3625). Caecal motility was measured simultaneously by video image analysis, manometry and a technique assessing colonic transit. Caecal contractions were generated using 8-10 V amplitude, 1000 micros pulse width, 120 Hz frequency for 10-30 s, with an intensity of 7-15 mA. The maximal contraction strength was observed after 20-25 s. Electrical stimulation was followed by a relaxation phase of 1.5-2 min during which contractions propagated orally and aborally over at least 10 cm. Spontaneous and stimulated caecal motility values were significantly different for both intraluminal pressure (mean(s.d.) 332(124) and 463(187) mmHg respectively; P < 0.001, 42 experiments) and movement of contents (1.6(0.9) and 3.9(2.8) mm; P < 0.001, 40 experiments). Electrical stimulation modulated caecal motility, and provoked localized and propagated colonic contractions.

  1. Mapping of electrical muscle stimulation using MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Gregory R.; Harris, Robert T.; Woodard, Daniel; Dudley, Gary A.

    1993-01-01

    The pattern of muscle contractile activity elicited by electromyostimulation (EMS) was mapped and compared to the contractile-activity pattern produced by voluntary effort. This was done by examining the patterns and the extent of contrast shift, as indicated by T2 values, im magnetic resonance (MR) images after isometric activity of the left m. quadriceps of human subjects was elicited by EMS (1-sec train of 500-microsec sine wave pulses at 50 Hz) or voluntary effort. The results suggest that, whereas EMS stimulates the same fibers repeatedly, thereby increasing the metabolic demand and T2 values, the voluntary efforts are performed by more diffuse asynchronous activation of skeletal muscle even at forces up to 75 percent of maximal to maintain performance.

  2. FUNCTIONAL ELECTRICAL STIMULATION FOR CONTROL OF EPILEPTIC SEIZURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Jianhang

    parameters regarding their ability to inhibit seizures. The present thesis hypothesized that the antiepileptic effects of vagus nerve stimulation and spinal cord stimulation could be improved by using higher stimulation frequencies than those that are currently used in clinic or proposed in the literature.......Nearly 50 million people worldwide have epilepsy and one-third of them do not respond well to any antiepileptic drugs. Given the large population of patients experiencing drug resistant epilepsy, increased attention has been paid over the last two decades to the development of electrical...

  3. Interferential electric stimulation applied to the neck increases swallowing frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Takayuki; Takemura, Masanori; Tsujita, Junzo; Oku, Yoshitaka

    2012-03-01

    Swallowing disorders are a common complaint among the elderly. Recently, surface electrical stimulation applied to the neck region has received increased attention as a new modality to treat pharyngeal dysphagia. Previous reports used pulsed current at a frequency range of 1-120 Hz. Kilohertz-frequency alternating currents (ACs) have not been tested for treating dysphagia. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of interferential currents (IFCs), the most popular modality of amplitude-modulated kilohertz-frequency ACs in clinical practice, on the swallowing reflex in healthy subjects. We found that IFC stimulation at the sensory threshold with 50-Hz modulation significantly increased the number of swallows without any discomfort, but pure AC stimulation at the carrier frequency did not have a significant effect. There was no statistically significant difference in the time course of the number of swallows among 1,000-, 2,000-, 4,000-, and 6,000-Hz carrier frequencies. The number of swallows remained increased during the 15-min IFC stimulation, suggesting that IFC stimulation facilitates the swallowing reflex without adaptation, at least during this stimulation period. We suggest that an IFC stimulation or a low-frequency, modulated kilohertz AC stimulation, which would be more comfortable than pulsed currents, is an alternative stimulation mode for treating pharyngeal dysphagia.

  4. Magnetic-motor-root stimulation: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Terao, Yasuo; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2013-06-01

    Magnetic stimulation can activate the human central and peripheral nervous systems non-invasively and virtually painlessly. Magnetic stimulation over the spinal enlargements can activate spinal nerves at the neuroforamina (magnetic-neuroforamina stimulation). This stimulation method provides us with information related to the latency of compound-muscle action potential (CMAP), which is usually interpreted as peripheral motor-conduction time (PMCT). However, this stimulation method has faced several problems in clinical applications. One is that supramaximal CMAPs were unobtainable. Another is that magnetic stimulation did not usually activate the spinal nerves in the spinal canal, i.e., the cauda equina, which prevented an evaluation of its conduction. For these reasons, magnetic-neuroforamina stimulation was rarely used to evaluate the conduction of peripheral nerves. It was mainly used to evaluate the conduction of the corticospinal tract using the parameter of central motor-conduction time (CMCT), which was calculated by subtracting PMCT from the latency of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex. Recently, supramaximal stimulation has been achieved in magnetic-neuroforamina stimulation, and this has contributed to the measurement of both CMAP size and latency. The achievement of supramaximal stimulation is ascribed to the increase in magnetic-stimulator output and a novel coil, the magnetic augmented translumbosacral stimulation (MATS) coil. The most proximal part of the cauda equina can be reliably activated using the MATS coil (magnetic-conus stimulation), thus contributing to the measurement of cauda equina conduction time (CECT) and cortico-conus motor-conduction time (CCCT). These recent developments in magnetic-motor-root stimulation enable us to more precisely evaluate the conduction of the proximal part of peripheral nerves and that of the corticospinal tract for lower-limb muscles

  5. Optogenetic versus Electrical Stimulation of Human Cardiomyocytes: Modeling Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John C.; Entcheva, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetics provides an alternative to electrical stimulation to manipulate membrane voltage, and trigger or modify action potentials (APs) in excitable cells. We compare biophysically and energetically the cellular responses to direct electrical current injection versus optical stimulation mediated by genetically expressed light-sensitive ion channels, e.g., Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). Using a computational model of ChR2(H134R mutant), we show that both stimulation modalities produce similar-in-morphology APs in human cardiomyocytes, and that electrical and optical excitability vary with cell type in a similar fashion. However, whereas the strength-duration curves for electrical excitation in ventricular and atrial cardiomyocytes closely follow the theoretical exponential relationship for an equivalent RC circuit, the respective optical strength-duration curves significantly deviate, exhibiting higher nonlinearity. We trace the origin of this deviation to the waveform of the excitatory current—a nonrectangular self-terminating inward current produced in optical stimulation due to ChR2 kinetics and voltage-dependent rectification. Using a unifying charge measure to compare energy needed for electrical and optical stimulation, we reveal that direct electrical current injection (rectangular pulse) is more efficient at short pulses, whereas voltage-mediated negative feedback leads to self-termination of ChR2 current and renders optical stimulation more efficient for long low-intensity pulses. This applies to cardiomyocytes but not to neuronal cells (with much shorter APs). Furthermore, we demonstrate the cell-specific use of ChR2 current as a unique modulator of intrinsic activity, allowing for optical control of AP duration in atrial and, to a lesser degree, in ventricular myocytes. For self-oscillatory cells, such as Purkinje, constant light at extremely low irradiance can be used for fine control of oscillatory frequency, whereas constant electrical stimulation

  6. Comparison of cortical responses to the activation of retina by visual stimulation and transcorneal electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pengcheng; Li, Heng; Lu, Zhuofan; Su, Xiaofan; Ma, Zengguang; Chen, Jianpin; Li, Liming; Zhou, Chuanqing; Chen, Yao; Chai, Xinyu

    2018-02-21

    Electrical stimulation has been widely used in many ophthalmic diseases to modulate neuronal activities or restore partial visual function. Due to the different processing pathways and mechanisms, responses to visual and electrical stimulation in the primary visual cortex and higher visual areas might be different. This differences would shed some light on the properties of cortical responses evoked by electrical stimulation. This study's goal was to directly compare the cortical responses evoked by visual and electrical stimulation and investigate the cortical processing of visual information and extrinsic electrical signal. Optical imaging of intrinsic signals (OIS) was used to probe the cortical hemodynamic responses in 11 cats. Transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES) through an ERG-jet contact lens electrode was used to activate visual cortices. Full-field and peripheral drifting gratings were used as the visual stimuli. The response latency evoked by TES was shorter than that responding to visual stimulation (VS). Cortical responses evoked by VS were retinotopically organized, which was consistent with previous studies. On the other hand, the cortical region activated by TES was preferentially located in the secondary visual cortex (Area 18), while the primary visual cortex (Area 17) was activated by a higher current intensity. Compared with the full-field VS, the cortical response in Area 18 to TES with a current intensity above 1.2 mA was significantly stronger. According to our results, we provided some evidence that the cortical processing of TES was influenced by the distribution of the electrical field in the retina and the activating threshold of different retinal ganglion cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrical field stimulation improves bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.R. Lirani-Galvão

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and its consequent fractures are a great social and medical problem mainly occurring in post-menopausal women. Effective forms of prevention and treatment of osteoporosis associated with lower costs and the least side effects are needed. Electrical fields are able to stimulate osteogenesis in fractures, but little is known about their action on osteoporotic tissue. The aim of the present study was to determine by bone densitometry the effects of electrical stimulation on ovariectomized female Wistar rats. Thirty rats (220 ± 10 g were divided into three groups: sham surgery (SHAM, bilateral ovariectomy (OVX and bilateral ovariectomy + electrical stimulation (OVX + ES. The OVX + ES group was submitted to a 20-min session of a low-intensity pulsed electrical field (1.5 MHz, 30 mW/cm² starting on the 7th day after surgery, five times a week (total = 55 sessions. Global, spine and limb bone mineral density were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA Hologic 4500A before surgery and at the end of protocol (84 days after surgery. Electrical stimulation improved (P < 0.05 global (0.1522 ± 0.002, spine (0.1502 ± 0.003, and limb (0.1294 ± 0.003 g/cm² bone mineral density compared to OVX group (0.1447 ± 0.001, 0.1393 ± 0.002, and 0.1212 ± 0.001, respectively. The OVX + ES group also showed significantly higher global bone mineral content (9.547 ± 0.114 g when compared to both SHAM (8.693 ± 0.165 g and OVX (8.522 ± 0.207 g groups (P < 0.05. We have demonstrated that electrical fields stimulate osteogenesis in ovariectomized female rats. Their efficacy in osteoporosis remains to be demonstrated.

  8. Investigation of electrical responses to acupuncture stimulation: the effect of electrical grounding and insulation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Heum; Ryu, Yeon-Hang; Jung, Byungjo

    2009-03-01

    Acupuncture in Oriental medicine has been widely used as a core therapeutic method due to its minimal side-effects and therapeutic efficacy. However, the electrical response to acupuncture stimulation (ERAS) has not been clearly studied under acupuncture conditions that might affect the efficacy of acupuncture therapy. In this study, the ERAS was objectively investigated by measuring meridian electric potentials (MEPs) when the electrical grounding conditions of the operator and subject were varied, and when the insulation conditions of acupuncture needle were varied. MEPs between Sang-geoheo (ST37) and Ha-geoheo (ST39) of the Stomach Meridian (ST) were measured by stimulating Jok-samni (ST36) with an acupuncture needle. For non-insulated acupuncture stimulation (NIAS), the average MEP peak was 148.6 +/- 20.6 when neither the operator nor the subject were electrically grounded, 23.1 +/- 8.8 when the subject only was electrically grounded, 348 +/- 76.8 when the operator only was electrically grounded, and 19.9 +/- 4.7 when both the operator and the subject were electrically grounded. The MEPs presented various magnitudes and patterns depending on the electrical grounding conditions. The MEP pattern was very similar to that of the charge and discharge of a capacitor. For insulated acupuncture stimulation (IAS), the average MEP peak was 20 +/- 4 in all electrical grounding conditions, which is not a significant electric response for acupuncture stimulation. In terms of electricity, this study verified that acupuncture therapy might be affected by acupuncture conditions such as (1) the electrical grounding condition of the operator and the subject and (2) the insulation condition of the acupuncture needle.

  9. Effects of Electrical Vagal Stimulation and Bilateral Vagotomy on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of electrical vagal stimulation and bilateral vagotomy on the flow and electrolyte composition of bile was studied in fasted and anaesthetized male albino Wistar Rats. Entero-hepatic circulation was maintained artificially by continuous infusion of 1% sodium teurocholate. In each experiment, bile was collected at 15 ...

  10. Electrical and mechanical stimulation of cardiac cells and tissue constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppel, Whitney L; Kaplan, David L; Black, Lauren D

    2016-01-15

    The field of cardiac tissue engineering has made significant strides over the last few decades, highlighted by the development of human cell derived constructs that have shown increasing functional maturity over time, particularly using bioreactor systems to stimulate the constructs. However, the functionality of these tissues is still unable to match that of native cardiac tissue and many of the stem-cell derived cardiomyocytes display an immature, fetal like phenotype. In this review, we seek to elucidate the biological underpinnings of both mechanical and electrical signaling, as identified via studies related to cardiac development and those related to an evaluation of cardiac disease progression. Next, we review the different types of bioreactors developed to individually deliver electrical and mechanical stimulation to cardiomyocytes in vitro in both two and three-dimensional tissue platforms. Reactors and culture conditions that promote functional cardiomyogenesis in vitro are also highlighted. We then cover the more recent work in the development of bioreactors that combine electrical and mechanical stimulation in order to mimic the complex signaling environment present in vivo. We conclude by offering our impressions on the important next steps for physiologically relevant mechanical and electrical stimulation of cardiac cells and engineered tissue in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Motor Restoration in Hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Jayme S.; Fu, Michael J.; Sheffler, Lynne R.; Chae, John

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews the most common therapeutic and neuroprosthetic applications of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for upper and lower extremity stroke rehabilitation. Fundamental NMES principles and purposes in stroke rehabilitation are explained. NMES modalities used for upper and lower limb rehabilitation are described and efficacy studies are summarized. The evidence for peripheral and central mechanisms of action is also summarized. PMID:26522909

  12. Effect of electrical stimulation of carcasses from Dorper sheep with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three consumer sensory tests, namely the hedonic rating of the acceptability of each sensory attribute, a preference test and a food action rating test, were conducted in sequence. The acceptability of the juiciness, tenderness, flavour and overall acceptability were not significantly influenced by the electrical stimulation of ...

  13. Effect of electrical muscle stimulation on prevention of ICU acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hassan Abdelaziz Abu-Khaber

    2013-04-19

    Apr 19, 2013 ... possible relation between the limb and respiratory neuromuscular involvement. There is no preven- tive tool and ... electrical muscle stimulation; MRCS, medical research council scale. * Corresponding author. Tel. .... Diseases with systemic vascular involvement such as sys- temic lupus erythematosus. 7.

  14. Comparison of the Effect of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) often demonstrate poor hand function due to spasticity. Thus spasticity in the wrist and finger flexors poses a great deal of functional limitations. This study was therefore designed to compare the effectiveness of Cryotherapy and Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) on spasticity ...

  15. Bio mathematical aspects of chronic cardiac electric stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R

    1984-01-01

    In the framework a mathematical model of the electrode-tissue system new several concepts are introduced(global versus local threshold variables,critical region for electric stimulation,mechanical hysteresis amongst others) several well known facts are explained,and some guidelines for electrode design are derived

  16. Electrical field stimulation-induced excitatory responses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effect of the endothelium on electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced excitatory responses of pulmonary artery segments from pulmonary hypertensive rats. Methods: Pulmonary hypertension was induced in rats with a single dose of monocrotaline (60 mg/kg) and 21 days later, arterial rings were set up for isometric tension ...

  17. Pharyngeal Electrical Stimulation for Treatment of Dysphagia in Subacute Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bath, Philip M W; Scutt, Polly; Love, Jo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dysphagia is common after stroke, associated with increased death and dependency, and treatment options are limited. Pharyngeal electric stimulation (PES) is a novel treatment for poststroke dysphagia that has shown promise in 3 pilot randomized controlled trials. METHODS:...

  18. Electric stimulation with sinusoids and white noise for neural prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel K Freeman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We are investigating the use of novel stimulus waveforms in neural prostheses to determine whether they can provide more precise control over the temporal and spatial pattern of elicited activity as compared to conventional pulsatile stimulation. To study this, we measured the response of retinal ganglion cells to both sinusoidal and white noise waveforms. The use of cell-attached and whole cell patch clamp recordings allowed the responses to be observed without significant obstruction from the stimulus artifact. Electric stimulation with sinusoids elicited robust responses. White noise analysis was used to derive the linear kernel for the ganglion cell’s spiking response as well as for the underlying excitatory currents. These results suggest that in response to electric stimulation, presynaptic retinal neurons exhibit bandpass filtering characteristics with peak response that occur 25ms after onset. The experimental approach demonstrated here may be useful for studying the temporal response properties of other neurons in the CNS.

  19. Electrical stimulation using kilohertz-frequency alternating current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alex R

    2009-02-01

    Transcutaneous electrical stimulation using kilohertz-frequency alternating current (AC) became popular in the 1950s with the introduction of "interferential currents," promoted as a means of producing depth-efficient stimulation of nerve and muscle. Later, "Russian current" was adopted as a means of muscle strengthening. This article reviews some clinically relevant, laboratory-based studies that offer an insight into the mechanism of action of kilohertz-frequency AC. It provides some answers to the question: "What are the optimal stimulus parameters for eliciting forceful, yet comfortable, electrically induced muscle contractions?" It is concluded that the stimulation parameters commonly used clinically (Russian and interferential currents) are suboptimal for achieving their stated goals and that greater benefit would be obtained using short-duration (2-4 millisecond), rectangular bursts of kilohertz-frequency AC with a frequency chosen to maximize the desired outcome.

  20. Electrical stimulation mapping of nouns and verbs in Broca's area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Viktória; Gabarrós, Andreu; Juncadella, Montserrat; Rifa-Ros, Xavi; Plans, Gerard; Acebes, Juan José; de Diego Balaguer, Ruth; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Electric stimulation mapping (ESM) is frequently used during brain surgery to localise higher cognitive functions to avoid post-chirurgical disabilities. Experiments with brain imaging techniques and neuropsychological studies showed differences in the cortical representation and processing of nouns and verbs. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether electric stimulation in specific sites in the frontal cortex disrupted noun and verb production selectively. We found that most of the stimulated areas showed disruption of both verbs and nouns at the inferior frontal gyrus. However, when selective effects were obtained, verbs were more prone to disruption than nouns with important individual differences. The overall results indicate that selective impairments can be observed at inferior and middle frontal regions and the action naming task seems to be more suitable to avoid post-chirurgical language disabilities, as it shows a greater sensitivity to disruption with ESM than the classical object naming task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Gait training and functional electric stimulation with hemiplegic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanović, Edina

    2007-01-01

    Cerebrovascular accident (stroke) is focal neurological deficiency occurring suddenly and lasting for more than 24 hours. Among its consequences are hemiplegia, speech impairment, swallowing impairment, changes of the facial nerve, sensibility, sphincter control or physiological changes. The goals of the study are to show the place functional electrical stimulation (FES) in the rehabilitation hemiplegic patients after cerebrovascular accident. In our study we analyzed two comparative groups with 40 hemiplegic patients, the first one, control group treated only with kinezitheraphy, and the second one, tested group treated with kinezitheraphy and functional electrical stimulation. Both groups of patients were analyzed according to gender, the etiology of the cerebrovascular accident and the duration of rehabilitation. We also had special analyzed of walking by BI index. Results has shown that we had two comparative groups according to gender and the etiology of the cerebrovascular accident. The duration of rehabilitation was longer in control group (77.5% for four months, 10% for five months) which is treated with kinezitherapy than in the tested group treated with kinezitheraphy and functional electrical stimulation (80% for three months, 20% for four months). After 4 weeks of rehabilitation of hemiplegic patients there are no significant differences between groups tested by BI index. After 8 and 12 weeks of rehabilitation tested gruop of patients treated with kinezitheraphy and functional electrical stimulation showed statistically significant better results than control group by BI index. In the conclusion we can say that functional electrical stimulation and kinezitherapy is methods which is faster, more successful and with better results in gait training.

  2. Power amplifier circuits for functional electrical stimulation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmar Carvalho de Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Functional electrical stimulation (FES is a technique that has been successfully employed in rehabilitation treatment to mitigate problems after spinal cord injury (SCI. One of the most relevant modules in a typical FES system is the power or output amplifier stage, which is responsible for the application of voltage or current pulses of proper intensity to the biological tissue, applied noninvasively via electrodes, placed on the skin surface or inside the muscular tissue, closer to the nervous fibers. The goals of this paper are to describe and discuss about the main power output designs usually employed in transcutaneous functional electrical stimulators as well as safety precautions taken to protect patients. Methods A systematic review investigated the circuits of papers published in IEEE Xplore and ScienceDirect databases from 2000 to 2016. The query terms were “((FES or Functional electric stimulator and (circuit or design” with 274 papers retrieved from IEEE Xplore and 29 from ScienceDirect. After the application of exclusion criteria the amount of papers decreased to 9 and 2 from IEEE Xplore and ScienceDirect, respectively. One paper was inserted in the results as a technological contribution to the field. Therefore, 12 papers presented power stage circuits suitable to stimulate great muscles. Discussion The retrieved results presented relevant circuits with different electronic strategies and circuit components. Some of them considered patient safety strategies or aimed to preserve muscle homeostasis such as biphasic current application, which prevents charge accumulation in stimulated tissues as well as circuits that dealt with electrical impedance variation to keep the electrode-tissue interface within an electrochemical safe regime. The investigation revealed a predominance of design strategies using operational amplifiers in power circuits, current outputs, and safety methods to reduce risks of electrical

  3. Effectiveness of Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) versus Conventional Electrical Stimulation in Gait Rehabilitation of Patients with Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Freeha; Ghulam, Samina; Malik, Arshad Nawaz; Saeed, Quratulain

    2017-11-01

    To compare the effectiveness of functional electrical stimulation (FES) versus conventional electrical stimulation in gait rehabilitation of patients with stroke for finding the most appropriate problem-oriented treatment for foot drop patients in a shorter time period. Randomized controlled trial. Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Rawalpindi, from July to December 2016. Subjects with foot drop due to stroke were allotted randomly into 1 of 2 groups receiving standard rehabilitation with Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) or Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS). FES was applied on tibialis anterior 30 minutes/day, five days/week for six weeks. EMS was also applied on the tibialis anterior five days/week for six weeks. Outcome measures included Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale, Modified Ashworth Scale, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Time Up and Go Test (TUG) and Gait Dynamic Index (GDI). They were recorded at baseline, after 3 and 6 weeks. Pre- and post-treatment scores were analyzed between two groups on SPSS-20. After six weeks of intervention, significant improvement was recorded in Fugl-Meyer Assessment score (pAshworth Scale score (p=0.027), Berg Balance Scale score (p<0.001), Time Up and Go Test (p<0.001) and Gait Dynamic Index (p=0.012) of the group subjected to FES. Gait training with FES is more effective than EMS in improving mobility, balance, gait performance and reducing spasticity in stroke patients. The research will help clinicians to select appropriate treatment of foot drop in stroke patients.

  4. Effect of stimulation intensity on assessment of voluntary activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, D.M.; de Ruiter, C.J.; de Haan, A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The interpolated twitch technique is often used to assess voluntary activation (VA) of skeletal muscles. We investigated VA and the voluntary torque-superimposed torque relationship using either supramaximal nerve stimulation or better tolerated submaximal muscle stimulation, which is

  5. Effect of stimulation intensity on assessment of voluntary activation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. D.M. van Leeuwen; C.J. de Ruiter; A.J. de Haan

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The interpolated twitch technique is often used to assess voluntary activation (VA) of skeletal muscles. We investigated VA and the voluntary torque-superimposed torque relationship using either supramaximal nerve stimulation or better tolerated submaximal muscle stimulation, which is

  6. Volume conductor model of transcutaneous electrical stimulation with kilohertz signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Leonel E.; Grill, Warren M.

    2014-12-01

    Objective. Incorporating high-frequency components in transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) waveforms may make it possible to stimulate deeper nerve fibers since the impedance of tissue declines with increasing frequency. However, the mechanisms of high-frequency TES remain largely unexplored. We investigated the properties of TES with frequencies beyond those typically used in neural stimulation. Approach. We implemented a multilayer volume conductor model including dispersion and capacitive effects, coupled to a cable model of a nerve fiber. We simulated voltage- and current-controlled transcutaneous stimulation, and quantified the effects of frequency on the distribution of potentials and fiber excitation. We also quantified the effects of a novel transdermal amplitude modulated signal (TAMS) consisting of a non-zero offset sinusoidal carrier modulated by a square-pulse train. Main results. The model revealed that high-frequency signals generated larger potentials at depth than did low frequencies, but this did not translate into lower stimulation thresholds. Both TAMS and conventional rectangular pulses activated more superficial fibers in addition to the deeper, target fibers, and at no frequency did we observe an inversion of the strength-distance relationship. Current regulated stimulation was more strongly influenced by fiber depth, whereas voltage regulated stimulation was more strongly influenced by skin thickness. Finally, our model reproduced the threshold-frequency relationship of experimentally measured motor thresholds. Significance. The model may be used for prediction of motor thresholds in TES, and contributes to the understanding of high-frequency TES.

  7. ELECTRICAL MUSCLE STIMULATION (EMS IMPLEMENTATION IN EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Đokić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS, is also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES may be used for therapeutic purposes and training. EMS is causing muscle contractions via electrical impulses. The survey was conducted as a case study. The study was conducted on subject of 3 male of different ages. The study lasted 4 weeks, and the respondents have not used any type of training or activity, which would affect the development of explosive strength of the lower extremities. Electrical stimulation was performed in the evening, every other day, with COMPEX mi sport apparatus (Medical SA - All rights reserved - 07/06 - Art. 885,616 - V.2 model. In 4 week period, a total of 13 treatments were performed on selected muscle groups - quadriceps femoris and gastrocnemius. Program of plyometric training (Plyometric (28 min per treatment, for each muscle group were applied. The main objective of this study was to quantify and compare explosive leg strength, using different vertical jump protocols, before and after the EMS program. The initial and final testing was conducted in the laboratory of the Faculty of Sport and Tourism in Novi Sad, on the contact plate AXON JUMP (Bioingeniería Deportiva, VACUMED, 4538 Westinghouse Street Ventura, CA 93 003 under identical conditions. In all three of the respondents indicated an increase in vertical jump in all applied protocols.

  8. A distributed transducer system for functional electrical stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudnason, Gunnar; Nielsen, Jannik Hammel; Bruun, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Implanted transducers for functional electrical stimulation (FES) powered by inductive links are subject to conflicting requirements arising from low link efficiency, a low power budget and the need for protection of the weak signals against strong RF electromagnetic fields. We propose a solution...... to be affected by the inductive link. Neural stimulators are affected to a lesser degree, but still benefit from the partitioning. As a test case, we have designed a transceiver and a sensor chip which implement this partitioning policy. The transceiver is designed to operate in the 6.78 MHz ISM band...

  9. Electrically responsive microstructured polypyrrole-polyurethane composites for stimulated osteogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luculescu, Catalin Romeo; Acasandrei, Adriana Maria; Mustaciosu, Cosmin Catalin; Zamfirescu, Marian; Dinescu, Maria; Calin, Bogdan Stefanita; Popescu, Andrei; Chioibasu, Diana; Cristian, Dan; Paun, Irina Alexandra

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the efficiency of substrate-mediated electrical stimulation of micropatterned polypyrrole/polyurethane (PPy/PU) composites for enhancing the osteogenesis in osteoblast-like cells. The PPy/PU substrates were obtained by dispersing electrically conductive PPy nanograins within a mechanically resistant PU matrix. Spin-coated PPy/PU layers were micropatterned with predefined 3D geometries by ultrashort laser ablation. Then they were conformally coated by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation, in order to restore their chemical and electrical integrity. The chemical structure of the laser-processed PPy/PU substrates was investigated by 2D and 3D mapping of the laser-processed areas, via Raman microspectroscopy. In vitro studies revealed that the micropatterned PPy/PU substrates facilitated the topological and electrical communication of the seeded osteoblasts. Specifically, we demonstrated the cells attachment on the predefined 3D micropatterns. More importantly, we found evidence about the cells mineralization inside the 3D micropatterns by investigating the calcium deposits by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and Alizarin Red staining. We found that the substrate-mediated electrical stimulation of the PPy/PU substrates induced a twofold increase of the Ca deposits in the cultured cells.

  10. Modeling auditory-nerve responses to electrical stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Suyash Narendra; Dau, Torsten; Epp, Bastian

    2014-01-01

    large enough to affect the temporal coding of sounds and hence, potentially, the communication abilities of the CI listener. In the present study, two recently proposed models of electric stimulationof the AN [1, 2, 3] were considered in terms of their efficacy to predict the spike timing for anodic...... andcathodic stimulation of the AN of cat [4]. The models' responses to the electrical pulses of variousshapes [5] were also analyzed. It was found that, while the models can account for the ring rates inresponse to various biphasic pulse shapes, they fail to correctly describe the timing of AP in response...

  11. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for mobility support of elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Mayr

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The stimulator for neuromuscular electrical stimulation for mobility support of elderly is not very complicated, but for application within "MOBIL" we have some additional demands to fulfill. First we have specific safety issues for this user group. A powerful compliance management system is crucial not only to guide daily application, but for creating hard data for the scientific outcome. We also need to assure easy handling of the stimulator, because the subjects are generally not able to cope with too difficult and complex motor skills. So, we developed five generations of stimulators and optimizing solutions after field tests. We are already planning the sixth generation with wireless control of the stimulation units by the central main handheld control unit. In a prototype, we have implemented a newly available high capacity memory, a breakthrough in “compliance data storage” as they offer the necessary high storage capacity and fast data handling for an affordable prize. The circuit also contains a 3D accelerometer sensor which acts as a further important safety features: if the control unit drops, this event is detected automatically by the sensor and activates an emergency switch-off that disables the stimulation to avoid associated risks. Further, we have implemented a hardware emergence shutdown and other safety measures. Finally, in the last example muscle torque measurements are referenced with compliance data. In the study normalized maximum voluntary contraction (MVC and maximum stimulation induced contraction (MSC were assessed in regular check-ups along the training period. With additional consideration of adjusted stimulation intensity for training out of the compliance data records we are able to estimate the induced contraction strength, which turned out to amount in average 11% of MVC. This value may seem on a first sight rather low, and ought to be considered in relation to the results at the end of the training period

  12. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in female stress urinary incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Shahshahan; Marjan Labbaf

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a prevalent medical problem for women especially through escalation of age. Many conservative nonsurgical therapies have been used for management of this problem which will usually be followed by high relapse rates or frequent side effects. Evaluation of the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in management of genuine SUI has been studied in a few trials. We sought to assess the effectiveness and complications of high...

  13. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) in dentistry: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Kasat, Vikrant O.; Gupta, Aditi; Ladda, Ruchi; Kathariya, Mitesh; Saluja, Harish; Farooqui, Anjum Ara

    2014-01-01

    Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological method which is widely used by medical and paramedical professionals for the management of acute and chronic pain in a variety of conditions. Similarly, it can be utilized for the management of pain during various dental procedures as well as pain due to various conditions affecting maxillofacial region. This review aims to provide an insight into clinical research evidence available for the analgesic and non analgesic ...

  14. Effect of electrical stimulation on blood flow velocity and vessel size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hee-Kyung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Interferential current electrical stimulation alters blood flow velocity and vessel size. We aimed to investigate the changes in the autonomic nervous system depending on electrical stimulation parameters.

  15. Electric field calculations in brain stimulation based on finite elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windhoff, Mirko; Opitz, Alexander; Thielscher, Axel

    2013-01-01

    The need for realistic electric field calculations in human noninvasive brain stimulation is undisputed to more accurately determine the affected brain areas. However, using numerical techniques such as the finite element method (FEM) is methodologically complex, starting with the creation...... high-quality head models from magnetic resonance images and their usage in subsequent field calculations based on the FEM. The pipeline starts by extracting the borders between skin, skull, cerebrospinal fluid, gray and white matter. The quality of the resulting surfaces is subsequently improved...... the successful usage of the pipeline in six subjects, including field calculations for transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. The quality of the head volume meshes is validated both in terms of capturing the underlying anatomy and of the well-shapedness of the mesh...

  16. Feedback control of retrograde peristalsis using Neural Gastric Electrical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aelen, Paul; Aulanier, Anne-Lise; Mintchev, Martin P

    2008-01-01

    Neural Gastric Electrical Stimulation (NGES) is a new method for invoking gastric contractions under microprocessor control. However, optimization of this technique using feedback mechanisms to minimize power consumption and maximize effectiveness has been lacking. The present work proposes a prototype feedback-controlled neural gastric electrical stimulator for the treatment of obesity. Both a force-based and an interelectrode impedance-based feedback neurostimulator were implemented and tested. Four mongrel dogs (2 M, 2 F, weight 14.9 ++/- 2.3kg) underwent subserosal implantation of 2-channel 1-cm bipolar electrode leads in the distal antrum. Two of the dogs were stimulated with a force-based feedback system and the other two animals were stimulated utilizing an interelectrode impedance-based feedback system. Both feedback systems were able to recognize Erythromycin-driven contractions of the stomach and were capable of overriding them with NGES-invoked retrograde contractions. The proposed technique could be helpful for retaining food longer in the stomach, thus inducing early satiety and diminishing food intake.

  17. Direct Electrical Stimulation in the Human Brain Disrupts Melody Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcea, Frank E; Chernoff, Benjamin L; Diamond, Bram; Lewis, Wesley; Sims, Maxwell H; Tomlinson, Samuel B; Teghipco, Alexander; Belkhir, Raouf; Gannon, Sarah B; Erickson, Steve; Smith, Susan O; Stone, Jonathan; Liu, Lynn; Tollefson, Trenton; Langfitt, John; Marvin, Elizabeth; Pilcher, Webster H; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2017-09-11

    Prior research using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) [1-4] and behavioral studies of patients with acquired or congenital amusia [5-8] suggest that the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) in the human brain is specialized for aspects of music processing (for review, see [9-12]). Intracranial electrical brain stimulation in awake neurosurgery patients is a powerful means to determine the computations supported by specific brain regions and networks [13-21] because it provides reversible causal evidence with high spatial resolution (for review, see [22, 23]). Prior intracranial stimulation or cortical cooling studies have investigated musical abilities related to reading music scores [13, 14] and singing familiar songs [24, 25]. However, individuals with amusia (congenitally, or from a brain injury) have difficulty humming melodies but can be spared for singing familiar songs with familiar lyrics [26]. Here we report a detailed study of a musician with a low-grade tumor in the right temporal lobe. Functional MRI was used pre-operatively to localize music processing to the right STG, and the patient subsequently underwent awake intraoperative mapping using direct electrical stimulation during a melody repetition task. Stimulation of the right STG induced "music arrest" and errors in pitch but did not affect language processing. These findings provide causal evidence for the functional segregation of music and language processing in the human brain and confirm a specific role of the right STG in melody processing. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Realistic Electric Field Mapping of Anisotropic Muscle During Electrical Stimulation Using a Combination of Water Diffusion Tensor and Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bup Kyung; Oh, Tong In; Sajib, Saurav Zk; Kim, Jin Woong; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2017-04-01

    To realistically map the electric fields of biological tissues using a diffusion tensor magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (DT-MREIT) method to estimate tissue response during electrical stimulation. Imaging experiments were performed using chunks of bovine muscle. Two silver wire electrodes were positioned inside the muscle tissue for electrical stimulation. Electric pulses were applied with a 100-V amplitude and 100-μs width using a voltage stimulator. During electrical stimulation, we collected DT-MREIT data from a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We adopted the projected current density method to calculate the electric field. Based on the relation between the water diffusion tensor and the conductivity tensor, we computed the position-dependent scale factor using the measured magnetic flux density data. Then, a final conductivity tensor map was reconstructed using the multiplication of the water diffusion tensor and the scale factor. The current density images from DT-MREIT data represent the internal current flows that exist not only in the electrodes but also in surrounding regions. The reconstructed electric filed map from our anisotropic conductivity tensor with the projected current density shows coverage that is more than 2 times as wide, and higher signals in both the electrodes and surrounding tissues, than the previous isotropic method owing to the consideration of tissue anisotropy. An electric field map obtained by an anisotropic reconstruction method showed different patterns from the results of the previous isotropic reconstruction method. Since accurate electric field mapping is important to correctly estimate the coverage of the electrical treatment, future studies should include more rigorous validations of the new method through in vivo and in situ experiments.

  19. The transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation of variable frequency intensity has a longer-lasting analgesic action than the burst transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in cancer pain

    OpenAIRE

    Schleder, Juliana Carvalho; Verner, Fernanda Aparecida; Mauda, Loriane; Mazzo, Débora Melo; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pain is one of the most frequent symptoms in cancer, and physical therapy offers non-invasive methods such as the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for the relief of symptoms. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of the burst transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with variable intensity frequency in cancer pain. METHODS: This study was conducted with 53 patients of the H...

  20. Emotional responses to subcortical electrical stimulation in psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, L V

    1979-01-01

    Subcortical electrical stimulation was applied to the prospective surgical target area during 158 stereotactic operations in 135 psychiatric patients. The following target areas were studied: rostral cingulum below and in front of the genu of the corpus callosum (52 cases) genu (46) cingululum just above the genu (11) middle cingulum (6) anterior internal capsule (33) subcaudate region, 'substantia innominata' (10 cases). Forty-seven per cent of the cases reacted to stimulation with subjective emotional sensory responses. Stimulation of differ targets had significantly different results. Responses were obtained most frequently from the cingulum and genu, and least frequently from the anterior capsule and subcaudate regions. Stimulation of the rostral cingulum often caused 'negative' responses, i.e. an increase in or the appearance of anxiety and tension (11/15 cases). The opposite was true of the adjacent genu of the corpus callosum; on stimulation of this structure anxiety and tension disappeared or diminished (18/19 cases). Schizophrenic patients experienced such 'positive' responses significantly more often than non-schizophrenics. In non-anesthetized patients autonomic reactions were very rare.

  1. Habituation to experimentally induced electrical pain during voluntary-breathing controlled electrical stimulation (BreEStim.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengai Li

    Full Text Available Painful peripheral electrical stimulation to acupuncture points was found to cause sensitization if delivered randomly (EStim, but induced habituation if triggered by voluntary breathing (BreEStim. The objective was to systematically compare the effectiveness of BreEStim and EStim and to investigate the possible mechanisms mediating the habituation effect of BreEStim.Eleven pain-free, healthy subjects (6 males, 5 females participated in the study. Each subject received the BreEStim and EStim treatments in a random order at least three days apart. Both treatments consisted of 120 painful but tolerable stimuli to the ulnar nerve at the elbow on the dominant arm. BreEStim was triggered by voluntary breathing while EStim was delivered randomly. Electrical sensation threshold (EST and electrical pain threshold (EPT were measured from the thenar and hypothenar eminences on both hands at pre-intervention and 10-minutes post-intervention.There was no difference in the pre-intervention baseline measurement of EST and EPT between BreEStim and EStim. BreEStim increased EPT in all tested sites on both hands, while EStim increased EPT in the dominant hypothenar eminence distal to the stimulating site and had no effect on EPT in other sites. There was no difference in the intensity of electrical stimulation between EStim and BreEStim.Our findings support the important role human voluntary breathing plays in the systemic habituation effect of BreEStim to peripheral painful electrical stimulation.

  2. Effectiveness of functional electrical stimulation (fes) versus conventional electrical stimulation in gait rehabilitation of patients with stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, F.; Ghulam, S.; Malik, A.N.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of functional electrical stimulation (FES) versus conventional electrical stimulation in gait rehabilitation of patients with stroke for finding the most appropriate problem-oriented treatment for foot drop patients in a shorter time period. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study:Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Rawalpindi, from July to December 2016. Methodology: Subjects with foot drop due to stroke were allotted randomly into 1 of 2 groups receiving standard rehabilitation with Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) or Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS). FES was applied on tibialis anterior 30 minutes/day, five days/week for six weeks. EMS was also applied on the tibialis anterior five days/week for six weeks. Outcome measures included Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale, Modified Ashworth Scale, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Time Up and Go Test (TUG) and Gait Dynamic Index (GDI). They were recorded at baseline, after 3 and 6 weeks. Pre- and post-treatment scores were analyzed between two groups on SPSS-20. Results: After six weeks of intervention, significant improvement was recorded in Fugl-Meyer Assessment score (p<0.001), modified Ashworth Scale score (p=0.027), Berg Balance Scale score (p<0.001), Time Up and Go Test (p<0.001) and Gait Dynamic Index (p=0.012) of the group subjected to FES. Conclusion: Gait training with FES is more effective than EMS in improving mobility, balance, gait performance and reducing spasticity in stroke patients. The research will help clinicians to select appropriate treatment of foot drop in stroke patients. (author)

  3. Gender differences in current received during transcranial electrical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eRussell

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Low current transcranial electrical stimulation is an effective but somewhat inconsistent tool for augmenting neuromodulation. In this study, we used 3D MRI guided electrical transcranial stimulation (GETS modeling to estimate the range of current intensities received at cortical brain tissues. Combined T1, T2, Proton Density MRIs from 24 adult subjects (12 male and 12 female were modeled with virtual electrodes placed at F3, F4, C3 and C4. Two sizes of electrodes 20 mm round and 50 x 45 mm square were examined at 0.5, 1 and 2 mA input currents. The intensity of current received was sampled in a one centimeter sphere placed at the cortex directly under each scalp electrode. There was a tenfold range in the current received by individuals. A large gender difference was observed with female subjects receiving significantly less current at targeted parietal cortex than male subjects when stimulated at identical current levels (P <0.05. Larger electrodes delivered somewhat larger amounts of current then the smaller ones (P <0.01. Electrodes in the frontal regions delivered less current than those in the parietal region (P<0.05. There were large individual differences in current levels the subjects received. Analysis of the cranial bone showed that the gender difference and the frontal parietal differences are due to differences in cranial bone. Males have more cancellous parietal bone and females more dense parietal bone (p<0.01. These differences should be considered when planning transcranial electrical stimulation studies and call into question earlier reports of gender differences due to hormonal influences.

  4. Electrical stimulation vs thermal effects in a complex electromagnetic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paniagua, Jesus M.; Rufo, Montana; Jimenez, Antonio; Antolin, Alicia; Sanchez, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Studies linking exposure to low levels of radiofrequencies with adverse health effects, notwithstanding their present apparent inconsistency, have contributed to a steady improvement in the quality of evaluating that exposure. In complex electromagnetic environments, with a multitude of emissions of different frequencies acting simultaneously, knowledge of the spectral content is fundamental to evaluating human exposure to non-ionizing radiation. In the present work, we quantify the most significant spectral components in the frequency band 0.5-2200 MHz in an urban area. The measurements were made with a spectrum analyzer and monopole, biconical, and log-periodic antennas. Power density levels were calculated separately for the medium wave, short wave, and frequency modulation radio broadcasting bands, and for the television and GSM, DCS, and UMTS mobile telephony bands. The measured levels were compared with the ICNIRP reference levels for exposure to multiple frequency sources for thermal effects and electrical stimulation. The results showed the criterion limiting exposure on the basis of preventing electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves and muscles to be stricter (exposure quotient 24.7 10 -4 ) than that based on thermal considerations (exposure quotient 0.16 10 -4 ). The bands that contribute most to the latter are short wave, with 46.2%, and mobile telephony with 32.6% of the total exposure. In a complex electromagnetic environment, knowledge of the radiofrequency spectrum is essential in order to quantify the contribution of each type of emission to the public's exposure. It is also necessary to evaluate the electrical effects as well as the thermal effects because the criterion to limit exposure on the basis of the effect of the electrical stimulation of tissues is stricter than that based on thermal effects.

  5. Effects of Functional Electrical Stimulation in Rehabilitation with Hemiparesis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina Tanović

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrovascular accident is a focal neurological deficiency occurring suddenly and lasting for more than 24 hours. The purpose of our work is to determine the role of the functional electrical simulation (FES in the rehabilitation of patients with hemiparesis, which occurred as a consequence of a cerebrovascular accident. This study includes the analysis of two groups of 40 patients with hemiparesis (20 patients with deep hemiparesis and 20 patients with light hemi- paresis, a control group which was only treated with kinesiotherapy and a tested group which was treated with kinesiotherapy and functional electrical stimulation. Both groups of patients were analyzed in respect to their sex and age. Additional analysis of the walking function was completed in accordance with the BI and RAP index. The analysis of the basic demographical data demonstrated that there is no significant difference between the control and tested group. The patients of both groups are equal in respect of age and sex. After 4 weeks of rehabilitation of patients with deep and light hemiparesis there were no statistically significant differences between the groups after evaluation by the BI index. However, a statistically significant difference was noted between the groups by the RAP index among patients with deep hemiparesis. After 8 weeks of rehabilitation the group of patients who were treated with kinesiotherapy and functional electrical stimulation showed better statistically significant results of rehabilitation in respect to the control group with both the BI index and the RAP index (p<0,001.In conclusion, we can state that the patients in rehabilitation after a cerebrovascular accident require rehabilitation longer than 4 weeks. Walking rehabilitation after stroke is faster and more successful if we used functional electrical stimulation, in combination with kinesiotherapy, in patients with disabled extremities.

  6. Analgesic effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and interferential currents on heat pain in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheing, Gladys L Y; Hui-Chan, Christina W Y

    2003-01-01

    This study examined whether transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation or interferential current was more effective in reducing experimentally induced heat pain. Forty-eight young healthy subjects were randomly divided into the following groups: (i) transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation; (ii) interferential current; and (iii) no stimulation. A multi-function electrical stimulator was used to generate the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation or interferential current. A thermal sensory analyser was used to record the heat pain threshold. The stimulation lasted for 30 minutes and the heat pain thresholds were measured before, during and after the stimulation. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (p = 0.003) and interferential current (p = 0.004) significantly elevated the heat pain threshold, but "no stimulation" did not. The thresholds of the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and interferential current groups were significantly higher than that of the control group 30 minutes into the stimulation (p = 0.017). Both transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and interferential current increased the heat pain threshold to a similar extent during stimulation. However, the post-stimulation effect of interferential current lasted longer than that of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.

  7. Perceptual embodiment of prosthetic limbs by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Matthew R; Fawkner, Helen J; Radford, Helen E; Johnson, Mark I

    2012-01-01

      In able-bodied participants, it is possible to induce a sense of perceptual embodiment in an artificial hand using a visual-tactile illusion. In amputee patients, electrical stimulation of sensory afferents using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has been shown to generate somatic sensations in an amputee's phantom limb(s). However, the effects of TENS on the perceptual embodiment of an artificial limb are not known. Our objective was to investigate the effects of TENS on the perceptual embodiment of an artificial limb in fully intact able-bodied participants.   We used a modified version of the rubber hand illusion presented to 30 able-bodied participants (16 women, 14 men) to convey TENS paresthesia to an artificial hand. TENS electrodes were located over superficial radial nerve on the lateral aspect of the right forearm (1 cm proximal to the wrist), which was hidden from view. TENS intensity was increased to a strong non-painful TENS sensation (electrical paresthesia) was felt beneath the electrodes and projecting into the fingers of the hand. The electrical characteristics of TENS were asymmetric biphasic electrical pulsed waves, continuous pulse pattern, 120 Hz pulse frequency (rate), and 80 µs pulse duration (width).   Participants reported significantly higher intensities of the rubber hand illusion during the two TENS conditions (mean = 5.8, standard deviation = 1.9) compared with the two non-TENS conditions (mean = 4.9, standard deviation = 1.7), p embodiment of an artificial hand. Further exploratory studies involving an amputee population are warranted. © 2011 International Neuromodulation Society.

  8. Generation of Electrical Power from Stimulated Muscle Contractions Evaluated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Beth; Kilgore, Kevin; Ercegovic, David B.

    2004-01-01

    This project is a collaborative effort between NASA Glenn Research Center's Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concepts (RAC) Project, part of the NASA Aerospace Propulsion and Power Program of the Aerospace Technology Enterprise, and Case Western Reserve University's Cleveland Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) Center. The RAC Project foresees implantable power requirements for future applications such as organically based sensor platforms and robotics that can interface with the human senses. One of the goals of the FES Center is to develop a totally implantable neural prosthesis. This goal is based on feedback from patients who would prefer a system with an internal power source over the currently used system with an external power source. The conversion system under investigation would transform the energy produced from a stimulated muscle contraction into electrical energy. We hypothesize that the output power of the system will be greater than the input power necessary to initiate, sustain, and control the electrical conversion system because of the stored potential energy of the muscle. If the system can be made biocompatible, durable, and with the potential for sustained use, then the biological power source will be a viable solution.

  9. Transcutaneous Sacral Electrical Stimulation for Chronic Functional Constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Fareed; Thomas, Gregory P; Tan, Emile; Askari, Alan; Dastur, Jamasp K; Nicholls, John; Vaizey, Carolynne J

    2016-02-01

    Transcutaneous sacral nerve stimulation is reported to improve symptoms of fecal incontinence. Chronic constipation may also respond to stimulation, but this is poorly reported in the literature. The study assessed the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical stimulation directly over the sacral nerve roots in chronic constipation. Chronic functional constipation was established in all patients using the Rome III criteria. The therapy was self-administered at home. A pilot study was conducted of transcutaneous sacral stimulation given over a 4-week period for 12 hours a day. Patients were assessed using the Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms, the Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life, and the Cleveland constipation tool. A Global Rating of Change measure and a 1-week bowel diary was kept for the final week and compared with baseline. Of the 20 patients recruited (16 female, median age 38.5 years), 80% (16) completed the trial. Five (31%) patients reported at least a point reduction in the Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms score, 4 (25%) deteriorated, and 7 (44%) improved by less than one point. Median (interquartile range) Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms scores were 2.33 (2.34) at baseline and 2.08 (2.58) at follow-up (p = 0.074). Median scores for the Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life and Cleveland systems were 3.00 (1.64) and 17.15 (18) at baseline and 2.22 (3.04) and 15.31 (12) at follow-up (p = 0.096 and 0.111). One-third of patients reported a positive Global Rating of Change measure, although 68% required concurrent laxatives during the trial. This is a pilot study and is limited by its small sample size. Continuous transcutaneous sacral stimulation in the short term appears to be ineffective for chronic constipation. Larger well-powered studies with intermittent stimulation regimens are required to investigate this further.

  10. [Mechanisms and applications of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in analgesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zheng-Yu; Wang, Hui-Quan; Xia, Xiao-Lei; Tang, Yi; Peng, Wei-Wei; Hu, Li

    2017-06-25

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), as a non-pharmacological and non-invasive analgesic therapy with low-cost, has been widely used to relieve pain in various clinical applications, by delivering current pulses to the skin area to activate the peripheral nerve fibers. Nevertheless, analgesia induced by TENS varied in the clinical practice, which could be caused by the fact that TENS with different stimulus parameters has different biological mechanisms in relieving pain. Therefore, to advance our understanding of TENS in various basic and clinical studies, we discussed (1) neurophysiological and biochemical mechanisms of TENS-induced analgesia; (2) relevant factors that may influence analgesic effects of TENS from the perspectives of stimulus parameters, including stimulated position, pulse parameters (current intensity, frequency, and pulse width), stimulus duration and used times in each day; and (3) applications of TENS in relieving clinical pain, including post-operative pain, chronic low back pain and labor pain. Finally, we propose that TENS may involve multiple and complex psychological neurophysiological mechanisms, and suggest that different analgesic effects of TENS with different stimulus parameters should be taken into consideration in clinical applications. In addition, to optimize analgesic effect, we recommend that individual-based TENS stimulation parameters should be designed by considering individual differences among patients, e.g., adaptively adjusting the stimulation parameters based on the dynamic ratings of patients' pain.

  11. Designing electrical stimulated bioreactors for nerve tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagita, Ignasius Dwi; Whulanza, Yudan; Dhelika, Radon; Nurhadi, Ibrahim

    2018-02-01

    Bioreactor provides a biomimetic ecosystem that is able to culture cells in a physically controlled system. In general, the controlled-parameters are temperature, pH, fluid flow, nutrition flow, etc. In this study, we develop a bioreactor that specifically targeted to culture neural stem cells. This bioreactor could overcome some limitations of conventional culture technology, such as petri dish, by providing specific range of observation area and a uniform treatment. Moreover, the microfluidic bioreactor, which is a small-controlled environment, is able to observe as small number of cells as possible. A perfusion flow is applied to mimic the physiological environment in human body. Additionally, this bioreactor also provides an electrical stimulation which is needed by neural stem cells. In conclusion, we found the correlation between the induced shear stress with geometric parameters of the bioreactor. Ultimately, this system shall be used to observe the interaction between stimulation and cell growth.

  12. Bio-robots automatic navigation with electrical reward stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chao; Zhang, Xinlu; Zheng, Nenggan; Chen, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2012-01-01

    Bio-robots that controlled by outer stimulation through brain computer interface (BCI) suffer from the dependence on realtime guidance of human operators. Current automatic navigation methods for bio-robots focus on the controlling rules to force animals to obey man-made commands, with animals' intelligence ignored. This paper proposes a new method to realize the automatic navigation for bio-robots with electrical micro-stimulation as real-time rewards. Due to the reward-seeking instinct and trial-and-error capability, bio-robot can be steered to keep walking along the right route with rewards and correct its direction spontaneously when rewards are deprived. In navigation experiments, rat-robots learn the controlling methods in short time. The results show that our method simplifies the controlling logic and realizes the automatic navigation for rat-robots successfully. Our work might have significant implication for the further development of bio-robots with hybrid intelligence.

  13. Functional electrical stimulation for incomplete spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Fazio, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes the early use of functional electrical stimulation on an individual with an incomplete spinal cord injury to assist with motor recovery and a return to ambulation. A 32-year-old woman sustained a C7 burst fracture after a fall, requiring anterior cervical fixation from C6 to T1 prior to transfer to acute rehabilitation. She presented as a C8 AIS B spinal cord injury, meaning she had some sensory function spared below the level of injury but not motor function. At di...

  14. Preventing Ischial Pressure Ulcers: I. Review of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton M. Kaplan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pressure ulcers (PUs are common and debilitating wounds that arise when immobilized patients cannot shift their weight. Treatment is expensive and recurrence rates are high. Pathophysiological mechanisms include reduced bulk and perfusion of chronically atrophic muscles as well as prolonged occlusion of blood flow to soft tissues from lack of voluntary postural shifting of body weight. This has suggested that PUs might be prevented by reanimating the paralyzed muscles using neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES. A review of the published literature over the past 2 decades is detailed.

  15. Modulation of proprioceptive feedback during functional electrical stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Grey, Michael James

    2013-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is sometimes used as a therapeutic modality in motor rehabilitation to augment voluntary motor drive to effect movement that would otherwise not be possible through voluntary activation alone. Effective motor rehabilitation should require that the central...... nervous system integrate efferent commands and appropriate afferent information to update the internal models of acquired skills. Here, we investigate whether FES-evoked (FES-ev) and FES-assisted (FES-as) movement are associated with the normal integration of motor commands and sensory feedback in a group...

  16. Gastric electrical stimulation: a report of two cases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sibartie, V

    2012-02-03

    Gastroparesis refractory to prokinetic agents poses a major challenge to the physician and patient, alike. In the past 5 years, electrical methods to treat gastroparesis have emerged from animal and human experiments to a potentially valuable tool in clinical gastroenterology. One of these methods, known as gastric electrical stimulation (GES), is being increasingly used in specialized centres worldwide, but had never been tried in Ireland. We describe here our experience with the first two implantations of gastric neurostimulators performed in Ireland and the outcome with these 2 patients. Our results at 6 months show reduction in symptoms and improvement in quality of life, which is encouraging and should prompt further evaluation of GES for patients with gastroparesis refractory to medical therapy.

  17. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) in dentistry- A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasat, Vikrant; Gupta, Aditi; Ladda, Ruchi; Kathariya, Mitesh; Saluja, Harish; Farooqui, Anjum-Ara

    2014-12-01

    Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological method which is widely used by medical and paramedical professionals for the management of acute and chronic pain in a variety of conditions. Similarly, it can be utilized for the management of pain during various dental procedures as well as pain due to various conditions affecting maxillofacial region. This review aims to provide an insight into clinical research evidence available for the analgesic and non analgesic uses of TENS in pediatric as well as adult patients related to the field of dentistry. Also, an attempt is made to briefly discuss history of therapeutic electricity, mechanism of action of TENS, components of TENs equipment, types, techniques of administration, advantages and contradictions of TENS. With this we hope to raise awareness among dental fraternity regarding its dental applications thereby increasing its use in dentistry. Key words:Dentistry, pain, TENS.

  18. Transvaginal electrical stimulation in the treatment of urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, J C V; Ramos, J G L; Martins-Costa, S; Sanches, P R S; Muller, A F

    2004-02-01

    To determine the effectiveness of transvaginal electrical stimulation (TES) in treating urinary incontinence, and to assess the clinical improvement 6 months after ending the treatment. In a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 36 women (24 patients and 12 controls) with stress, urge or mixed urinary incontinence were chosen to use TES or placebo (identical equipment but with no electrical current). The patients had their treatment at home twice a day (20-min sessions) for 12 weeks. They completed a voiding diary and had a urodynamic study at the beginning and end of treatment. They were clinically re-evaluated after 6 months. The mean time of use of TES was similar in both groups (approximately 40 h); the treatment group had a significant increase in maximum bladder capacity (P urinary incontinence (P female urinary incontinence.

  19. Contralaterally Controlled Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Recovery of Ankle Dorsiflexion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Jayme S.; Hansen, Kristine; Nagy, Jennifer; Bailey, Stephanie N.; Gunzler, Douglas D.; Sheffler, Lynne R.; Chae, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective Compare the effects of contralaterally controlled neuromuscular electrical stimulation (CCNMES) versus cyclic neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on lower extremity impairment, functional ambulation, and gait characteristics. Design Twenty-six stroke survivors with chronic (≥6mo) footdrop during ambulation were randomly assigned to six weeks of CCNMES or cyclic NMES. Both groups had ten sessions per week of self-administered home application of either CCNMES or cyclic NMES plus two sessions per week of gait training with a physical therapist. Primary outcomes included lower extremity Fugl-Meyer score, modified Emory Functional Ambulation Profile, and gait velocity. Assessments were made at pretreatment, posttreatment, and at 1 and 3 months posttreatment. Results There were no significant differences between groups in the outcome trajectories for any of the measures. With data from both groups pooled, there were significant but modest and sustained improvements in the Fugl-Meyer score and the modified Emory Functional Ambulation Profile, but not in gait velocity. Conclusions The results support the hypothesis that gait training combined with either CCNMES or cyclic NMES reduces lower extremity impairment and functional ambulation, but do not support the hypothesis that CCNMES is more effective than cyclic NMES in chronic patients. PMID:23867888

  20. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in female stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahshahan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI is a prevalent medical problem for women especially through escalation of age. Many conservative nonsurgical therapies have been used for management of this problem which will usually be followed by high relapse rates or frequent side effects. Evaluation of the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS in management of genuine SUI has been studied in a few trials. We sought to assess the effectiveness and complications of high frequency TENS in SUI. METHODS: In a clinical trial, 10 sessions of high frequency TENS with 15 minutes duration every other day were applied for 40 women with genuine SUI. Treatment results were evaluated by SUI severity index at the end of first and sixth months after final session of TENS and they were compared with the baseline index. RESULTS: Seven patients (17.5% were omitted from the study because of intolerance of TENS. In the remaining 33 patients, there was no sign of any complication. In comparison to baseline, severities of SUI showed significant decrements at first and second post-intervention evaluations (P<0.0001. There was a significant increase in SUI index from first month to sixth month (P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: TENS is a safe and cost-effective method for SUI management but its effectiveness decreases by time. KEY WORDS: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, stress urinary incontinence.

  1. Sex and Electrode Configuration in Transcranial Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Russell

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES can be an effective non-invasive neuromodulation procedure. Unfortunately, the considerable variation in reported treatment outcomes, both within and between studies, has made the procedure unreliable for many applications. To determine if individual differences in cranium morphology and tissue conductivity can account for some of this variation, the electrical density at two cortical locations (temporal and frontal directly under scalp electrodes was modeled using a validated MRI modeling procedure in 23 subjects (12 males and 11 females. Three different electrode configurations (non-cephalic, bi-cranial, and ring commonly used in tES were modeled at three current intensities (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mA. The aims were to assess the effects of configuration and current intensity on relative current received at a cortical brain target directly under the stimulating electrode and to characterize individual variation. The different electrode configurations resulted in up to a ninefold difference in mean current densities delivered to the brains. The ring configuration delivered the least current and the non-cephalic the most. Female subjects showed much less current to the brain than male subjects. Individual differences in the current received and differences in electrode configurations may account for significant variability in current delivered and, thus, potentially a significant portion of reported variation in clinical outcomes at two commonly targeted regions of the brain.

  2. Treatment of vocal fold bowing using neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagorio, Lisa A; Carnaby-Mann, Giselle D; Crary, Michael A

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the clinical effectiveness and safety of a novel behavioral voice therapy program combining structured vocal exercise with adjunctive neuromuscular electrical stimulation for rehabilitating dysphonia secondary to vocal fold bowing. Prospective interventional clinical case series with a 3-month follow-up. Outpatient speech and hearing clinic in an academic medical center. Convenience sample of 7 patients diagnosed by an otolaryngologist as having chronic dysphonia for at least 3 months due to bilateral vocal fold bowing. A novel voice therapy program incorporating exercise principles and sustained phonations of increasing length, volume, and pitch paired with concurrent transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Change in maximum phonation time, highest attainable pitch, glottal closure, supraglottic compression, and Voice Handicap Index. Maximum phonation time for /i/ increased significantly (z = -2.201, P vocal fold bowing, resulting in improved acoustic, laryngeal, and patient-centered outcomes. Maximum phonation time and glottal closure results imply increased vocal fold tension secondary to enhanced thyroarytenoid or cricothyroid muscle function after voice therapy.

  3. [Effect of electric acupoint stimulation on shivering in cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dai-He; Zhu, Yu-Ling; Huang, Wen; Tang, Lin-Feng; Sun, Yi-Hua

    2013-11-01

    To explore the efficacy of electric acupoint stimulation on shivering in cesarean section. Eighty cases of parturients, under the America Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status II , were randomized into a transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) assisted anesthesia group (group A) and an anesthesia group (group B). Spinal-epidural anesthesia(CSEA) puncture was applied to both groups and 8 mg of 0. 75% bubivacaine was given by spinal injection, the block level was T4 T8. In group A, TEAS was applied before CSEA at paired acupoints-ipsilateral Hegu (LI 4)-Laogong (PC 8) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6)-Zusanli (ST 36) till ending the surgery. The 4 pair of bilateral acupoints were fixed with self-adhesive electrodes and connected with Han's acupoint and nerve stimulator (HANS, LH402H), the frequency was 2 Hz/ 15 Hz, the intensity was 10- 30 mA and the form was densedisperse wave within the patients' tolarance. The heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), oxyhemoglobin saturation (SPO) and shivering degree were recorded before anesthesia (To), 1 min after anesthesia puncture (Ti), 1 min after the delivery (Tz), during abdomen closure (T3) and at the end of surgery (T4). The occurrence rate of shivering was 35. 0% (14/40) in group A, which was lower to 67. 5% (27/40, Pshivering was lighter in group A than that in group B at T2, T3 and T4 (all P0. 05). In group B, the HR was faster at T1, T2, T3 and T4 compared to that at T0 (P0.05); there was no statistical significance of SPO2 in both groups (all P>0.05). TEAS can reduce the occurrence rate of shivering and steady the heart rate in cesarean section.

  4. Spatiotemporal structure of intracranial electric fields induced by transcranial electric stimulation in humans and nonhuman primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opitz, Alexander; Falchier, Arnaud; Yan, Chao-Gan

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial electric stimulation (TES) is an emerging technique, developed to non-invasively modulate brain function. However, the spatiotemporal distribution of the intracranial electric fields induced by TES remains poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear how much current actually...... reaches the brain, and how it distributes across the brain. Lack of this basic information precludes a firm mechanistic understanding of TES effects. In this study we directly measure the spatial and temporal characteristics of the electric field generated by TES using stereotactic EEG (s-EEG) electrode...... arrays implanted in cebus monkeys and surgical epilepsy patients. We found a small frequency dependent decrease (10%) in magnitudes of TES induced potentials and negligible phase shifts over space. Electric field strengths were strongest in superficial brain regions with maximum values of about 0.5 m...

  5. Interferential electrical stimulation improves peripheral vasodilatation in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco V. Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interferential electrical stimulation (IES, which may be linked to greater penetration of deep tissue, may restore blood flow by sympathetic nervous modulation; however, studies have found no association between the frequency and duration of the application and blood flow. We hypothesized that 30 min of IES applied to the ganglion stellate region might improve blood flow redistribution. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of IES on metaboreflex activation in healthy individuals. METHOD: Interferential electrical stimulation or a placebo stimulus (same protocol without electrical output was applied to the stellate ganglion region in eleven healthy subjects (age 25±1.3 years prior to exercise. Mean blood pressure (MBP, heart rate (HR, calf blood flow (CBF and calf vascular resistance (CVR were measured throughout exercise protocols (submaximal static handgrip exercise and with recovery periods with or without postexercise circulatory occlusion (PECO+ and PECO -, respectively. Muscle metaboreflex control of calf vascular resistance was estimated by subtracting the area under the curve when circulation was occluded from the area under the curve from the AUC without circulatory occlusion. RESULTS: At peak exercise, increases in mean blood pressure were attenuated by IES (p<0.05, and the effect persisted under both the PECO+ and PECO- treatments. IES promoted higher CBF and lower CVR during exercise and recovery. Likewise, IES induced a reduction in the estimated muscle metaboreflex control (placebo, 21±5 units vs. IES, 6±3, p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Acute application of IES prior to exercise attenuates the increase in blood pressure and vasoconstriction during exercise and metaboreflex activation in healthy subjects.

  6. Modulation of Illusory Auditory Perception by Transcranial Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Prete

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to test whether transcranial electrical stimulation can modulate illusory perception in the auditory domain. In two separate experiments we applied transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (anodal/cathodal tDCS, 2 mA; N = 60 and high-frequency transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (hf-tRNS, 1.5 mA, offset 0; N = 45 on the temporal cortex during the presentation of the stimuli eliciting the Deutsch's illusion. The illusion arises when two sine tones spaced one octave apart (400 and 800 Hz are presented dichotically in alternation, one in the left and the other in the right ear, so that when the right ear receives the high tone, the left ear receives the low tone, and vice versa. The majority of the population perceives one high-pitched tone in one ear alternating with one low-pitched tone in the other ear. The results revealed that neither anodal nor cathodal tDCS applied over the left/right temporal cortex modulated the perception of the illusion, whereas hf-tRNS applied bilaterally on the temporal cortex reduced the number of times the sequence of sounds is perceived as the Deutsch's illusion with respect to the sham control condition. The stimulation time before the beginning of the task (5 or 15 min did not influence the perceptual outcome. In accordance with previous findings, we conclude that hf-tRNS can modulate auditory perception more efficiently than tDCS.

  7. A murine model of muscle training by neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Fabrisia; Fitzgerald, G Kelley; Ferrari, Ricardo; Distefano, Giovanna; Carvell, George

    2012-05-09

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a common clinical modality that is widely used to restore (1), maintain (2) or enhance (3-5) muscle functional capacity. Transcutaneous surface stimulation of skeletal muscle involves a current flow between a cathode and an anode, thereby inducing excitement of the motor unit and the surrounding muscle fibers. NMES is an attractive modality to evaluate skeletal muscle adaptive responses for several reasons. First, it provides a reproducible experimental model in which physiological adaptations, such as myofiber hypertophy and muscle strengthening (6), angiogenesis (7-9), growth factor secretion (9-11), and muscle precursor cell activation (12) are well documented. Such physiological responses may be carefully titrated using different parameters of stimulation (for Cochrane review, see (13)). In addition, NMES recruits motor units non-selectively, and in a spatially fixed and temporally synchronous manner (14), offering the advantage of exerting a treatment effect on all fibers, regardless of fiber type. Although there are specified contraindications to NMES in clinical populations, including peripheral venous disorders or malignancy, for example, NMES is safe and feasible, even for those who are ill and/or bedridden and for populations in which rigorous exercise may be challenging. Here, we demonstrate the protocol for adapting commercially available electrodes and performing a NMES protocol using a murine model. This animal model has the advantage of utilizing a clinically available device and providing instant feedback regarding positioning of the electrode to elicit the desired muscle contractile effect. For the purpose of this manuscript, we will describe the protocol for muscle stimulation of the anterior compartment muscles of a mouse hindlimb.

  8. 21 CFR 882.5890 - Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pain relief. 882.5890 Section 882.5890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 882.5890 Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device used to apply an electrical current to...

  9. Development of Functional Electrical Stimulation Rowing: The Rowstim Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Brian; Gibbons, Robin; Wheeler, Garry

    2017-11-01

    Potentially, functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted exercise may have an important therapeutic role in reducing comorbidities associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we present an overview of these secondary life-threatening conditions, discuss the rationale behind the development of a hybrid exercise called FES rowing, and describe our experience in developing FES rowing technology. FES rowing and sculling are unique forms of adaptive rowing for those with SCI. The paralyzed leg musculature is activated by multiple channels of electrical pulses delivered via self-adhesive electrodes attached to the skin. The stimulated muscle contractions are synchronized with voluntary rowing movements of the upper limbs. A range of steady-state FES rowing exercise intensities have been demonstrated from 15.2 ± 1.8 mL/kg/min in tetraplegia to 22.9 ±7.1 mL/kg/min in paraplegia. We expect that such high levels may help some to achieve significant reductions in the risks to their health, particularly where a dose-response relationship exists as is the case for cardiovascular disease and Type II diabetes. Furthermore, preliminary results suggest that cyclical forces more than 1.5 times body weight are imposed on the leg long bones which may help to reduce the risk of fragility fractures. We have demonstrated the feasibility of FES rowing on land and water using adapted rowing technology that includes; a fixed stretcher indoor ergometer (adapted Concept 2, Model E), a floating stretcher indoor ergometer (adapted Concept 2 Dynamic), a turbine powered water rowing tank, a custom hydraulic sculling simulator and a single scull (adapted Alden 16). This has involved volunteers with paraplegia and tetraplegia with SCI ranging from C4 to T12 AIS A using at least 4-channels of surface electrical stimulation. FES rowers, with SCI, have competed alongside non-SCI rowers over the Olympic distance of 2000 m at the British Indoor Rowing Championships in 2004, 2005, and 2006

  10. Effect of ethanol on potassium-stimulated and electrically stimulated acetylcholine release in vitro from rat cortical slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunahara, G I; Kalant, H

    1980-06-01

    The effects of ethanol (EtOH) on potassium and electrically stimulated acetylcholine (ACh) release were compared in rat cerebral cortical slices in vitro. ACh was measured by pyrolysis - gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). Paired samples were incubated with and without 0.11 M EtOH. In the potassium stimulation experiments, cortical slices were serially incubated for three 45-min periods in normal incubation medium followed by two periods in medium containing either 15 or 27 mM K+. In the electrical stimulation experiments, the cortical slices were similarly incubated for three 30-min periods without stimulation followed by two periods of electrical (10 HZ) stimulation. ACh output rose 20% at 15 mM K+ and 160% at 27 mM K+. Ethanol had no effect on spontaneous ACh release and did not influence the ACh response to high K+ stimulation. Electrical stimulation approximately doubled the ACh output but EtOH reduced electrically stimulated ACh relese by 50--80%. These findings are compatible with the view that EtOH acts primarily on Na+ influx during the action potential.

  11. The influence of antagonist muscle electrical stimulation on maximal hip adduction force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Sota; Wada, Chikamune

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine whether electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata muscle decreases voluntary maximum resistance to passive abduction motion in participants without disease of the central nervous system. [Subjects] The participants were 16 healthy men. [Methods] The hip joint was moved from 10° adduction to 0° adduction with an angular velocity of 7°/s. During the passive leg motion, the subject was asked to resist the motion with maximum force. Two experimental conditions were prepared: (1) electrical stimulation provided to the tensor fascia lata muscle during the passive motion; and (2) no electrical stimulation provided. [Results] The force was 10.2 ± 3.5 kgf with electrical stimulation and 12.2 ± 3.8 kgf without electrical stimulation. [Conclusion] The results suggested that the maximum hip adduction force decreased in participants because of electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata muscle.

  12. Selective detrusor activation by electrical sacral nerve root stimulation in spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkhoff, N. J.; Wijkstra, H.; van Kerrebroeck, P. E.; Debruyne, F. M.

    1997-01-01

    Electrical sacral nerve root stimulation can be used in spinal cord injury patients to induce urinary bladder contraction. However, existing stimulation methods activate simultaneously both the detrusor muscle and the urethral sphincter. Urine evacuation is therefore only possible using poststimulus

  13. Role of Functional Electrical Stimulation in Tetraplegia Hand Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersch, Ines; Fridén, Jan

    2016-06-01

    The use of functional electrical stimulation (FES) to improve upper limb function is an established method in the rehabilitation of persons with tetraplegia after spinal cord injury. Surgical reconstruction is another well-established yet underused technique to improve the performance of the upper extremities. Hand surgery plays an essential role in restoring hand function, mobility, and quality of life in the tetraplegic population. The knowledge about the effects of FES on a structural and functional level is fundamental for understanding how and when FES can be used best to support the effect of hand surgery, both pre- and postoperatively. In this article we discuss principles of FES and how FES improves functional outcome after surgical reconstruction. The reported results are based on preliminary clinical observations. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Therapy for Dysphagia Caused by Wilson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon Yeong; Yang, Hee Seung; Lee, Seung Hwa; Jeung, Hae Won; Park, Young Ok

    2012-01-01

    Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of abnormal copper metabolism. Although dysphagia is a common complaint of patients with Wilson's disease and pneumonia is an important cause of death in these patients, management of swallowing function has rarely been reported in the context of Wilson's disease. Hence, we report a case of Wilson's disease presenting with dysphagia. A 33-year-old man visited our hospital with a complaint of difficulty in swallowing, since about last 7 years and which had worsened since the last 2-3 months. He was diagnosed with Wilson's disease about 13 years ago. On the initial VFSS, reduced hyoid bone movement, impaired epiglottic movement and moderate amount of residue in the valleculae during the pharyngeal phase were noted. After 10 sessions of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for 1 hour per day, decreased amount of residue was observed in the valleculae during the pharyngeal phase on the follow-up VFSS. PMID:22837979

  15. Functional electrical stimulation for incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Christina

    2014-10-01

    This case report describes the early use of functional electrical stimulation on an individual with an incomplete spinal cord injury to assist with motor recovery and a return to ambulation. A 32-year-old woman sustained a C7 burst fracture after a fall, requiring anterior cervical fixation from C6 to T1 prior to transfer to acute rehabilitation. She presented as a C8 AIS B spinal cord injury, meaning she had some sensory function spared below the level of injury but not motor function. At discharge from acute inpatient rehabilitation, she was able to ambulate household distances with supervision using a rolling walker and required a manual wheelchair for community mobility. Four months after discharge, she was ambulating in the community using a standard cane.

  16. Shocking therapy: Brief electrical stimulation for delayed nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Yuval; Midha, Rajiv

    2015-09-01

    This commentary provides perspective on a recent paper published in Experimental Neurology by Elzinga et al. where the authors investigated the effect of brief electrical stimulation (ES) on nerve regeneration after delayed nerve repair in a rodent model. Their results from a well controlled series of experiments indicated that brief ES promoted axonal outgrowth after chronic axotomy as well after chronic Schwann cell and muscle denervation. ES also increased chronically axotomized neurons regenerating into chronically denervated stumps, which represent a true delayed repair. The authors conclude that brief ES promotion of nerve regeneration after delayed nerve repair is as effective as after immediate repair. Given the prior experimental evidence, and the prior clinical data from patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and digital nerve repair, the implication of this new work is to consider a well designed clinical trial for use of brief ES in nerve graft and nerve transfer repairs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Deqi Sensations of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Auricular Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deqi sensation, a psychophysical response characterized by a spectrum of different needling sensations, is essential for Chinese acupuncture clinical efficacy. Previous research works have investigated the component of Deqi response upon acupuncture on acupoints on the trunk and limbs. However, the characteristics of Deqi sensations of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS on auricular points are seldom reported. In this study, we investigated the individual components of Deqi during TENS on auricular concha area and the superior scapha using quantitative measurements in the healthy subjects and depression patients. The most striking characteristics of Deqi sensations upon TENS on auricular points were tingling, numbness, and fullness. The frequencies of pressure, warmness, heaviness, and soreness were relatively lower. The dull pain and coolness are rare. The characteristics of Deqi were similar for the TENS on concha and on the superior scapha.

  18. Iterative learning control for electrical stimulation and stroke rehabilitation

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Chris T; Burridge, Jane H; Hughes, Ann-Marie; Meadmore, Katie L

    2015-01-01

    Iterative learning control (ILC) has its origins in the control of processes that perform a task repetitively with a view to improving accuracy from trial to trial by using information from previous executions of the task. This brief shows how a classic application of this technique – trajectory following in robots – can be extended to neurological rehabilitation after stroke. Regaining upper limb movement is an important step in a return to independence after stroke, but the prognosis for such recovery has remained poor. Rehabilitation robotics provides the opportunity for repetitive task-oriented movement practice reflecting the importance of such intense practice demonstrated by conventional therapeutic research and motor learning theory. Until now this technique has not allowed feedback from one practice repetition to influence the next, also implicated as an important factor in therapy. The authors demonstrate how ILC can be used to adjust external functional electrical stimulation of patients’ mus...

  19. Biophysical Model of Cortical Network Activity and the Influence of Electrical Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-13

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We examined the effects of subdural electrical stimulation on a high-density network consisting of several populations of...multicompartment cell types. The results can be summarized as follows: 1) Electrical stimulation mainly affects and activates axon initial and the most...of Electrical Stimulation . The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an

  20. Subthalamic nucleus electrical stimulation modulates calcium activity of nigral astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Barat

    Full Text Available The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr is a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, delivering inhibitory efferents to the relay nuclei of the thalamus. Pathological hyperactivity of SNr neurons is known to be responsible for some motor disorders e.g. in Parkinson's disease. One way to restore this pathological activity is to electrically stimulate one of the SNr input, the excitatory subthalamic nucleus (STN, which has emerged as an effective treatment for parkinsonian patients. The neuronal network and signal processing of the basal ganglia are well known but, paradoxically, the role of astrocytes in the regulation of SNr activity has never been studied.In this work, we developed a rat brain slice model to study the influence of spontaneous and induced excitability of afferent nuclei on SNr astrocytes calcium activity. Astrocytes represent the main cellular population in the SNr and display spontaneous calcium activities in basal conditions. Half of this activity is autonomous (i.e. independent of synaptic activity while the other half is dependent on spontaneous glutamate and GABA release, probably controlled by the pace-maker activity of the pallido-nigral and subthalamo-nigral loops. Modification of the activity of the loops by STN electrical stimulation disrupted this astrocytic calcium excitability through an increase of glutamate and GABA releases. Astrocytic AMPA, mGlu and GABA(A receptors were involved in this effect.Astrocytes are now viewed as active components of neural networks but their role depends on the brain structure concerned. In the SNr, evoked activity prevails and autonomous calcium activity is lower than in the cortex or hippocampus. Our data therefore reflect a specific role of SNr astrocytes in sensing the STN-GPe-SNr loops activity and suggest that SNr astrocytes could potentially feedback on SNr neuronal activity. These findings have major implications given the position of SNr in the basal ganglia network.

  1. Subthalamic nucleus electrical stimulation modulates calcium activity of nigral astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, Elodie; Boisseau, Sylvie; Bouyssières, Céline; Appaix, Florence; Savasta, Marc; Albrieux, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, delivering inhibitory efferents to the relay nuclei of the thalamus. Pathological hyperactivity of SNr neurons is known to be responsible for some motor disorders e.g. in Parkinson's disease. One way to restore this pathological activity is to electrically stimulate one of the SNr input, the excitatory subthalamic nucleus (STN), which has emerged as an effective treatment for parkinsonian patients. The neuronal network and signal processing of the basal ganglia are well known but, paradoxically, the role of astrocytes in the regulation of SNr activity has never been studied. In this work, we developed a rat brain slice model to study the influence of spontaneous and induced excitability of afferent nuclei on SNr astrocytes calcium activity. Astrocytes represent the main cellular population in the SNr and display spontaneous calcium activities in basal conditions. Half of this activity is autonomous (i.e. independent of synaptic activity) while the other half is dependent on spontaneous glutamate and GABA release, probably controlled by the pace-maker activity of the pallido-nigral and subthalamo-nigral loops. Modification of the activity of the loops by STN electrical stimulation disrupted this astrocytic calcium excitability through an increase of glutamate and GABA releases. Astrocytic AMPA, mGlu and GABA(A) receptors were involved in this effect. Astrocytes are now viewed as active components of neural networks but their role depends on the brain structure concerned. In the SNr, evoked activity prevails and autonomous calcium activity is lower than in the cortex or hippocampus. Our data therefore reflect a specific role of SNr astrocytes in sensing the STN-GPe-SNr loops activity and suggest that SNr astrocytes could potentially feedback on SNr neuronal activity. These findings have major implications given the position of SNr in the basal ganglia network.

  2. Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation induced parotid stimulation on salivary flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasulu Pattipati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the duration of stimulation over the parotid salivary flow following the use of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS in different age groups. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in three different age groups. Under group A individuals from 21 to 35 years of age, group B 36-50 years and group C above 51 years were considered. In each group 30 subjects were taken of whom 15 were males and 15 were females. The placement of pads was approximated bilaterally over the parotid glands. The working parameters of TENS unit were fixed at 50 Hz and the unit was in normal mode. Results: Subjects belonging to group B were showing statistically significant increases in the duration of stimulated parotid salivary flow following the use of TENS. Conclusion: TENS can be considered as a non-pharmacological alternative to improve salivation for longer period in xerostomia patients.

  3. Kilohertz Electrical Stimulation Nerve Conduction Block: Effects of Electrode Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Yogi A; Kim, Brian S; Butera, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    Kilohertz electrical stimulation (KES) has enabled a novel new paradigm for spinal cord and peripheral nerve stimulation to treat a variety of neurological diseases. KES can excite or inhibit nerve activity and is used in many clinical devices today. However, the impact of different electrode materials on the efficacy of KES is unknown. We investigated the effect of different electrode materials and their respective charge injection mechanisms on KES nerve block thresholds using 20- and 40-kHz current-controlled sinusoidal KES waveforms. We evaluated the nerve block threshold and the power requirements for achieving an effective KES nerve block. In addition, we evaluated potential effects on the onset duration and recovery of normal conduction after delivery of KES. We found that thresholds and the onset and recovery of KES nerve block are not a function of the electrode material. In contrast, the power dissipation varies among electrode materials and is a function of the materials' properties at high frequencies. We conclude that materials with a proven track record of chronic stability, both for the tissue and electrode, are suitable for developing KES nerve block therapies.

  4. Electrical stimulation enhances sensory recovery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joshua N; Olson, Jaret L; Morhart, Michael J; Chan, K Ming

    2015-06-01

    Brief postsurgical electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration in animal models following axotomy and crush injury. However, whether this treatment is beneficial in humans with sensory nerve injury has not been tested. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that ES would enhance sensory nerve regeneration following digital nerve transection compared to surgery alone. Patients with complete digital nerve transection underwent epineurial nerve repair. After coaptation of the severed nerve ends, fine wire electrodes were implanted before skin closure. Postoperatively, patients were randomized to receiving either 1 hour of 20Hz continuous ES or sham stimulation in a double-blinded manner. Patients were followed monthly for 6 months by a blinded evaluator to monitor physiological recovery of spatial discrimination, pressure threshold, and quantitative small fiber sensory testing. Functional disability was measured using the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire. A total of 36 patients were recruited, with 18 in each group. Those in the ES group showed consistently greater improvements in all sensory modalities by 5 to 6 months postoperatively compared to the controls. Although there was a trend of greater functional improvements in the ES group, it was not statistically significant (p > 0.01). Postsurgical ES enhanced sensory reinnervation in patients who sustained complete digital nerve transection. The conferred benefits apply to a wide range of sensory functions. © 2015 American Neurological Association.

  5. Highly Flexible Silicone Coated Neural Array for Intracochlear Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bhatti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an effective method for tailoring the flexibility of a commercial thin-film polymer electrode array for intracochlear electrical stimulation. Using a pneumatically driven dispensing system, an average 232±64 μm (mean ± SD thickness layer of silicone adhesive coating was applied to stiffen the underside of polyimide multisite arrays. Additional silicone was applied to the tip to protect neural tissue during insertion and along the array to improve surgical handling. Each array supported 20 platinum sites (180 μm dia., 250 μm pitch, spanning nearly 28 mm in length and 400 μm in width. We report an average intracochlear stimulating current threshold of 170±93 μA to evoke an auditory brainstem response in 7 acutely deafened felines. A total of 10 arrays were each inserted through a round window approach into the cochlea’s basal turn of eight felines with one delamination occurring upon insertion (preliminary results of the in vivo data presented at the 48th Annual Meeting American Neurotology Society, Orlando, FL, April 2013, and reported in Van Beek-King 2014. Using microcomputed tomography imaging (50 μm resolution, distances ranging from 100 to 565 μm from the cochlea’s central modiolus were measured. Our method combines the utility of readily available commercial devices with a straightforward postprocessing step on the order of 24 hours.

  6. The value of electrical stimulation as an exercise training modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Dean P.; Ray, J. Michael; Nyland, John; Noteboom, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Voluntary exercise is the traditional way of improving performance of the human body in both the healthy and unhealthy states. Physiological responses to voluntary exercise are well documented. It benefits the functions of bone, joints, connective tissue, and muscle. In recent years, research has shown that neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) simulates voluntary exercise in many ways. Generically, NMES can perform three major functions: suppression of pain, improve healing of soft tissues, and produce muscle contractions. Low frequency NMES may gate or disrupt the sensory input to the central nervous system which results in masking or control of pain. At the same time NMES may contribute to the activation of endorphins, serotonin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptides, and ACTH which control pain and may even cause improved athletic performances. Soft tissue conditions such as wounds and inflammations have responded very favorably to NMES. NMES of various amplitudes can induce muscle contractions ranging from weak to intense levels. NMES seems to have made its greatest gains in rehabilitation where directed muscle contractions may improve joint ranges of motion correct joint contractures that result from shortening muscles; control abnormal movements through facilitating recruitment or excitation into the alpha motoneuron in orthopedically, neurologically, or healthy subjects with intense sensory, kinesthetic, and proprioceptive information; provide a conservative approach to management of spasticity in neurological patients; by stimulation of the antagonist muscle to a spastic muscle stimulation of the agonist muscle, and sensory habituation; serve as an orthotic substitute to conventional bracing used with stroke patients in lieu of dorsiflexor muscles in preventing step page gait and for shoulder muscles to maintain glenohumeral alignment to prevent subluxation; and of course NMES is used in maintaining or improving the performance or torque producing

  7. Effects of a multichannel dynamic functional electrical stimulation system on hemiplegic gait and muscle forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jing-Guang; Rong, Ke; Qian, Zhenyun; Wen, Chen; Zhang, Songning

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to design and implement a multichannel dynamic functional electrical stimulation system and investigate acute effects of functional electrical stimulation of the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris on ankle and knee sagittal-plane kinematics and related muscle forces of hemiplegic gait. [Subjects and Methods] A multichannel dynamic electrical stimulation system was developed with 8-channel low frequency current generators. Eight male hemiplegic patients were trained for 4 weeks with electric stimulation of the tibia anterior and rectus femoris muscles during walking, which was coupled with active contraction. Kinematic data were collected, and muscle forces of the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris of the affected limbs were analyzed using a musculoskelatal modeling approach before and after training. A paired sample t-test was used to detect the differences between before and after training. [Results] The step length of the affected limb significantly increased after the stimulation was applied. The maximum dorsiflexion angle and maximum knee flexion angle of the affected limb were both increased significantly during stimulation. The maximum muscle forces of both the tibia anterior and rectus femoris increased significantly during stimulation compared with before functional electrical stimulation was applied. [Conclusion] This study established a functional electrical stimulation strategy based on hemiplegic gait analysis and musculoskeletal modeling. The multichannel functional electrical stimulation system successfully corrected foot drop and altered circumduction hemiplegic gait pattern.

  8. Short-term electrical stimulation to promote nerve repair and functional recovery in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvey, Colleen; Zhou, Wenda; Stakleff, Kimberly Sloan; Sendelbach-Sloan, Patricia; Harkins, Amy B; Lanzinger, William; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of duration of electrical stimulation on peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Based on previous work, we hypothesized that applying 10 minutes of electrical stimulation to a 10-mm rat sciatic nerve defect would significantly improve nerve regeneration and functional recovery compared with the non-electrical stimulation group. A silicone tube filled with a collagen gel was used to bridge a 10-mm nerve defect in rats, and either 10 minutes or 60 minutes of electrical stimulation was applied to the nerve during surgery. Controls consisted of a silicone tube with collagen gel and no electrical stimulation or an isograft. We analyzed recovery over a 12-week period, measuring sciatic functional index and extensor postural thrust scores and concluding with histological examination of the nerve. Functional assessment scores at week 12 increased 24% in the 10-minute group as compared to the no stimulation control group. Electrical stimulation of either 10 or 60 minutes improved the number of nerve fibers over no stimulation. Additionally, the electrical stimulation group's histomorphometric analysis was not different from the isograft group. Several previous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of 60-minute stimulations on peripheral nerve regeneration. This study demonstrated that an electrical stimulation of 10 minutes enhanced several functional and histomorphometric outcomes of nerve regeneration and was overall similar to a 60-minute stimulation over 12 weeks. Decreasing the electrical stimulation time from 60 minutes to 10 minutes provided a potential clinically feasible and safe method to enhance nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Validating computationally predicted TMS stimulation areas using direct electrical stimulation in patients with brain tumors near precentral regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Alexander; Zafar, Noman; Bockermann, Volker; Rohde, Veit; Paulus, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The spatial extent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is of paramount interest for all studies employing this method. It is generally assumed that the induced electric field is the crucial parameter to determine which cortical regions are excited. While it is difficult to directly measure the electric field, one usually relies on computational models to estimate the electric field distribution. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a local brain stimulation method generally considered the gold standard to map structure-function relationships in the brain. Its application is typically limited to patients undergoing brain surgery. In this study we compare the computationally predicted stimulation area in TMS with the DES area in six patients with tumors near precentral regions. We combine a motor evoked potential (MEP) mapping experiment for both TMS and DES with realistic individual finite element method (FEM) simulations of the electric field distribution during TMS and DES. On average, stimulation areas in TMS and DES show an overlap of up to 80%, thus validating our computational physiology approach to estimate TMS excitation volumes. Our results can help in understanding the spatial spread of TMS effects and in optimizing stimulation protocols to more specifically target certain cortical regions based on computational modeling.

  10. Pharyngeal Electrical Stimulation for Treatment of Dysphagia in Subacute Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutt, Polly; Love, Jo; Clavé, Pere; Cohen, David; Dziewas, Rainer; Iversen, Helle K.; Ledl, Christian; Ragab, Suzanne; Soda, Hassan; Warusevitane, Anushka; Woisard, Virginie; Hamdy, Shaheen

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Dysphagia is common after stroke, associated with increased death and dependency, and treatment options are limited. Pharyngeal electric stimulation (PES) is a novel treatment for poststroke dysphagia that has shown promise in 3 pilot randomized controlled trials. Methods— We randomly assigned 162 patients with a recent ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke and dysphagia, defined as a penetration aspiration score (PAS) of ≥3 on video fluoroscopy, to PES or sham treatment given on 3 consecutive days. The primary outcome was swallowing safety, assessed using the PAS, at 2 weeks. Secondary outcomes included dysphagia severity, function, quality of life, and serious adverse events at 6 and 12 weeks. Results— In randomized patients, the mean age was 74 years, male 58%, ischemic stroke 89%, and PAS 4.8. The mean treatment current was 14.8 (7.9) mA and duration 9.9 (1.2) minutes per session. On the basis of previous data, 45 patients (58.4%) randomized to PES seemed to receive suboptimal stimulation. The PAS at 2 weeks, adjusted for baseline, did not differ between the randomized groups: PES 3.7 (2.0) versus sham 3.6 (1.9), P=0.60. Similarly, the secondary outcomes did not differ, including clinical swallowing and functional outcome. No serious adverse device-related events occurred. Conclusions— In patients with subacute stroke and dysphagia, PES was safe but did not improve dysphagia. Undertreatment of patients receiving PES may have contributed to the neutral result. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN25681641. PMID:27165955

  11. Spasticity reduction using electrical stimulation in the lower limb of spinal cord injury patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Salm, Arjan

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to investigate the influence of electrical stimulation on spasticity of leg muscles in spinal cord injury patients and its impact on gait. Both, the carry-over effect and the instant effect of electrical stimulation during gait were investigated.

  12. Electrical field stimulation promotes anastomotic healing in poorly perfused rat colon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, Rory

    2011-03-01

    Hypoperfusion of the bowel is a risk factor for anastomotic failure. Electrical field stimulation has been shown to improve repair in ischemic tissue, but its influence in hypoperfused colon has not been investigated. The hypothesis of this experimental animal study was that electrical field stimulation improves anastomotic healing in ischemic bowel.

  13. Electrical Stimulation Promotes Cardiac Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs are an attractive source of cardiomyocytes for cardiac repair and regeneration. In this study, we aim to determine whether acute electrical stimulation of human iPSCs can promote their differentiation to cardiomyocytes. Methods. Human iPSCs were differentiated to cardiac cells by forming embryoid bodies (EBs for 5 days. EBs were then subjected to brief electrical stimulation and plated down for 14 days. Results. In iPS(Foreskin-2 cell line, brief electrical stimulation at 65 mV/mm or 200 mV/mm for 5 min significantly increased the percentage of beating EBs present by day 14 after plating. Acute electrical stimulation also significantly increased the cardiac gene expression of ACTC1, TNNT2, MYH7, and MYL7. However, the cardiogenic effect of electrical stimulation was not reproducible in another iPS cell line, CERA007c6. Beating EBs from control and electrically stimulated groups expressed various cardiac-specific transcription factors and contractile muscle markers. Beating EBs were also shown to cycle calcium and were responsive to the chronotropic agents, isoproterenol and carbamylcholine, in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that brief electrical stimulation can promote cardiac differentiation of human iPS cells. The cardiogenic effect of brief electrical stimulation is dependent on the cell line used.

  14. Videoradiography at submental electrical stimulation during apnea in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillarp, B.; Rosen, I.; Wickstroem, O.; Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus

    1991-01-01

    Percutaneous submental electrical stimulation during sleep may be a new therapeutic method for patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Electrical stimulation to the submental region during obstructive apnea is reported to break the apnea without arousal and to diminish apneic index, time spent in apnea, and oxygen desaturation. The mode of breaking the apnea by electrical stimulation has not yet been shown. However, genioglossus is supposed to be the muscle responsible for breaking the apnea by forward movement of the tongue. To visualize the effect of submental electrical stimulation, one patient with severe OSAS has been examined with videoradiography. Submental electrical stimulation evoked an immediate complex muscle activity in the tongue, palate, and hyoid bone. This was followed by a forward movement of the tongue which consistently broke obstructive apnea without apparent arousal. Time spent in apnea was diminished but intervals between apnea were not affected. (orig.)

  15. Videoradiography at submental electrical stimulation during apnea in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome; A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillarp, B.; Rosen, I.; Wickstroem, O. (Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus (Sweden). Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology)

    1991-05-01

    Percutaneous submental electrical stimulation during sleep may be a new therapeutic method for patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Electrical stimulation to the submental region during obstructive apnea is reported to break the apnea without arousal and to diminish apneic index, time spent in apnea, and oxygen desaturation. The mode of breaking the apnea by electrical stimulation has not yet been shown. However, genioglossus is supposed to be the muscle responsible for breaking the apnea by forward movement of the tongue. To visualize the effect of submental electrical stimulation, one patient with severe OSAS has been examined with videoradiography. Submental electrical stimulation evoked an immediate complex muscle activity in the tongue, palate, and hyoid bone. This was followed by a forward movement of the tongue which consistently broke obstructive apnea without apparent arousal. Time spent in apnea was diminished but intervals between apnea were not affected. (orig.).

  16. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation therapy in reduction of orofacial pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Igor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients with craniomandibular disorders suffer from hypertonic, fatigued and painful masticatory muscles. This condition can lead to limitation of mandibular jaw movements. All of these symptoms and signs are included in myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS has been used for treatment of these patients. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of TENS therapy on chronic pain reduction in patients with the muscular dysfunction symptom. Methods. In order to evaluate the effect of TENS therapy before and after the treatment, Craniomandibular Index (Helkimo was used. Pain intensity was measured by VAS. Patients had TENS treatment over two-week period. BURST TENS modality was used. Current intensity was individually adjusted. Results. Two patients did not respond to TENS therapy. Complete pain reduction was recorded in 8 patients, while pain reduction was not significantly different after TENS therapy in 10 patients. Conclusion. TENS therapy was confirmed as therapeutic procedure in orofacial muscle relaxation and pain reduction.

  17. Prototype neural semicircular canal prosthesis using patterned electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W; Merfeld, D M

    2000-05-01

    The design of a prototype semicircular canal prosthesis is presented along with preliminary results. This device measures angular velocity of the head (+/-500 degrees/s) using a piezoelectric vibrating gyroscope. With a digital filter this velocity is filtered to match the dynamic characteristics of the semicircular canals, which are the physiological rotation sensors of the vestibular system. This digitally filtered signal is used to modulate the pulse rate of electrical stimulation. The pulse rate is varied between 50 and 250 Hz via a sigmoidal lookup table relating pulse rate to angular velocity; the steady-state rate is 150 Hz. A current source utilizes these timing pulses to deliver charge balanced, cathodic-first, biphasic, current pulses to the nerves innervating the semicircular canal via platinum electrodes. Power is supplied via lithium batteries. dc/dc converters are used to generate regulated +/-5 V supplies from the batteries. All of the components are contained in a small, lightweight, Nylon box measuring roughly 43 mm x 31 mm x 25 mm, which can be mounted on the top of an animal's head. This device has been tested in guinea pigs having surgically implanted platinum electrodes, and the results show that the prosthesis can provide a rotational cue to the nervous system.

  18. A Modified Dynamic Surface Controller for Delayed Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibeji, Naji; Kirsch, Nicholas; Dicianno, Brad E; Sharma, Nitin

    2017-08-01

    A widely accepted model of muscle force generation during neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a second-order nonlinear musculoskeletal dynamics cascaded to a delayed first-order muscle activation dynamics. However, most nonlinear NMES control methods have either neglected the muscle activation dynamics or used an ad hoc strategies to tackle the muscle activation dynamics, which may not guarantee control stability. We hypothesized that a nonlinear control design that includes muscle activation dynamics can improve the control performance. In this paper, a dynamic surface control (DSC) approach was used to design a PID-based NMES controller that compensates for EMD in the activation dynamics. Because the muscle activation is unmeasurable, a model based estimator was used to estimate the muscle activation in realtime. The Lyapunov stability analysis confirmed that the newly developed controller achieves semi-global uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB) tracking for the musculoskeletal system. Experiments were performed on two able-bodied subjects and one spinal cord injury subject using a modified leg extension machine. These experiments illustrate the performance of the new controller and compare it to a previous PID-DC controller that did not consider muscle activation dynamics in the control design. These experiments support our hypothesis that a control design that includes muscle activation improves the NMES control performance.

  19. Electrical stimulation (ES counteracts muscle decline in seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut eKern

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The loss in muscle mass coupled with a decrease in specific force and shift in fiber composition are all marks of aging. Training and regular exercise attenuate the signs of sarcopenia. However, pathologic conditions limit the ability to perform physical exercise.We addressed whether electrical stimulation (ES is an alternative intervention to improve muscle recovery and defined the molecular mechanism associated with improvement in muscle structure and function.We analyzed, at functional, structural, and molecular level, the effects of ES training on healthy seniors with normal life style, without routine sport activity.ES was able to improve muscle torque and functional performances of seniors and increased the size of fast muscle fibers. At molecular level, ES induced up-regulation of IGF-1 and modulation of MuRF1, a muscle-specific atrophy-related gene. ES also induced up-regulation of relevant markers of differentiating satellite cells and of extracellular matrix remodeling, which might guarantee shape and mechanical forces of trained skeletal muscle as well as maintenance of satellite cell function, reducing fibrosis.Our data provide evidence that ES is a safe method to counteract muscle decline associated with aging.

  20. Feedback controlled electrical nerve stimulation: a computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doruk, R Ozgur

    2010-07-01

    The role of repetitive firing in neurophysiologic or neuropsychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson, epilepsy and bipolar type disorders, has always been a topic of medical research as therapies target either the cease of firing or a decrease in its frequency. In electrotherapy, one of the mechanisms to achieve the purpose in point is to apply a low density electric current to the nervous system. In this study, a computer simulation is provided of a treatment in which the stimulation current is computed by nerve fiber cell membrane potential feedback so that the level of the current is automatically instead of manually adjusted. The behavior of the nerve cell is represented by the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model, which is slightly modified into a linear model with state dependent coefficients. Due to this modification, the algebraic and differential Riccati equations can be applied, which allows an optimal controller minimizing a quadratic performance index given by the user. Using a controlled current injection can decrease unnecessarily long current injection times that may be harmful to the neuronal network. This study introduces a prototype for a possible future application to a network of neurons as it is more realistic than a single neuron. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of electrical stimulation of the neurohypophysis on labour in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, K.; Lincoln, D. W.; Swaab, D. F.

    1975-01-01

    Labour was studied in 69 primiparous and multiparous rats by continuous observation and by the recording of intra-uterine activity. The effect of electrical stimulation of the neurohypophysis with stimulation parameters selected to create a pulsatile release of oxytocin was investigated. Stimulation

  2. Saccade Modulation by Optical and Electrical Stimulation in the Macaque Frontal Eye Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Piercesare; Schweers, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that strong neural modulations can be evoked with optogenetic stimulation in macaque motor cortex without observing any evoked movements (Han et al., 2009, 2011; Diester et al., 2011). It remains unclear why such perturbations do not generate movements and if conditions exist under which they may evoke movements. In this study, we examine the effects of five optogenetic constructs in the macaque frontal eye field and use electrical microstimulation to assess whether optical perturbation of the local network leads to observable motor changes during optical, electrical, and combined stimulation. We report a significant increase in the probability of evoking saccadic eye movements when low current electrical stimulation is coupled to optical stimulation compared with when electrical stimulation is used alone. Experiments combining channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2) and electrical stimulation with simultaneous fMRI revealed no discernible fMRI activity at the electrode tip with optical stimulation but strong activity with electrical stimulation. Our findings suggest that stimulation with current ChR2 optogenetic constructs generates subthreshold activity that contributes to the initiation of movements but, in most cases, is not sufficient to evoke a motor response. PMID:24133271

  3. Psychophysical Evaluation of Subdermal Electrical Stimulation in Relation to Prosthesis Sensory Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Bo; Dong, Jian; Jensen, Winnie; Dosen, Strahinja; Farina, Dario; Kamavuako, Ernest Nlandu

    2018-03-01

    This paper evaluated the psychophysical properties of subdermal electrical stimulation to investigate its feasibility in providing sensory feedback for limb prostheses. The detection threshold (DT), pain threshold (PT), just noticeable difference (JND), as well as the elicited sensation quality, comfort, intensity, and location were assessed in 16 healthy volunteers during stimulation of the ventral and dorsal forearm with subdermal electrodes. Moreover, the results were compared with those obtained from transcutaneous electrical stimulation. Despite a lower DT and PT, subdermal stimulation attained a greater relative dynamic range (i.e., PT/DT) and significantly smaller JNDs for stimulation amplitude. Muscle twitches and movements were more commonly elicited by surface stimulation, especially at the higher stimulation frequencies, whereas the pinprick sensation was more often reported with subdermal stimulation. Less comfort was perceived in subdermal stimulation of the ventral forearm at the highest tested stimulation frequency of 100 Hz. In summary, subdermal electrical stimulation was demonstrated to be able to produce similar sensation quality as transcutaneous stimulation and outperformed the latter in terms of energy efficiency and sensitivity. These results suggest that stimulation through implantable subdermal electrodes may lead to an efficient and compact sensory feedback system for substituting the lost sense in amputees.

  4. A Novel In Vitro System for Comparative Analyses of Bone Cells and Bacteria under Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Josef Dauben

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical stimulation is a promising approach to enhance bone regeneration while having potential to inhibit bacterial growth. To investigate effects of alternating electric field stimulation on both human osteoblasts and bacteria, a novel in vitro system was designed. Electric field distribution was simulated numerically and proved by experimental validation. Cells were stimulated on Ti6Al4V electrodes and in short distance to electrodes. Bacterial growth was enumerated in supernatant and on the electrode surface and biofilm formation was quantified. Electrical stimulation modulated gene expression of osteoblastic differentiation markers in a voltage-dependent manner, resulting in significantly enhanced osteocalcin mRNA synthesis rate on electrodes after stimulation with 1.4VRMS. While collagen type I synthesis increased when stimulated with 0.2VRMS, it decreased after stimulation with 1.4VRMS. Only slight and infrequent influence on bacterial growth was observed following stimulations with 0.2VRMS and 1.4VRMS after 48 and 72 h, respectively. In summary this novel test system is applicable for extended in vitro studies concerning definition of appropriate stimulation parameters for bone cell growth and differentiation, bacterial growth suppression, and investigation of general effects of electrical stimulation.

  5. Gastric electrical stimulation for treatment of clinically severe gastroparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga Venkatesh G Jayanthi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe, drug-resistant gastroparesis is a debilitating condition. Several, but not all, patients can get significant relief from nausea and vomiting by gastric electrical stimulation (GES. A trial of temporary, endoscopically delivered GES may be of predictive value to select patients for laparoscopic-implantation of a permanent GES device. Materials and Methods: We conducted a clinical audit of consecutive gastroparesis patients, who had been selected for GES, from May 2008 to January 2012. Delayed gastric emptying was diagnosed by scintigraphy of ≥50% global improvement in symptom-severity and well-being was a good response. Results: There were 71 patients (51 women, 72% with a median age of 42 years (range: 14-69. The aetiology of gastroparesis was idiopathic (43 patients, 61%, diabetes (15, 21%, or post-surgical (anti-reflux surgery, 6 patients; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 3; subtotal gastrectomy, 1; cardiomyotomy, 1; other gastric surgery, 2 (18%. At presentation, oral nutrition was supplemented by naso-jejunal tube feeding in 7 patients, surgical jejunostomy in 8, or parenterally in 1 (total 16 patients; 22%. Previous intervention included endoscopic injection of botulinum toxin (botox into the pylorus in 16 patients (22%, pyloroplasty in 2, distal gastrectomy in 1, and gastrojejunostomy in 1. It was decided to directly proceed with permanent GES in 4 patients. Of the remaining, 51 patients have currently completed a trial of temporary stimulation and 39 (77% had a good response and were selected for permanent GES, which has been completed in 35 patients. Outcome data are currently available for 31 patients (idiopathic, 21 patients; diabetes, 3; post-surgical, 7 with a median follow-up period of 10 months (1-28; 22 patients (71% had a good response to permanent GES, these included 14 (68% with idiopathic, 5 (71% with post-surgical, and remaining 3 with diabetic gastroparesis. Conclusions: Overall, 71% of well-selected patients

  6. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain management in labour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowswell, Therese; Bedwell, Carol; Lavender, Tina; Neilson, James P

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) has been proposed as a means of reducing pain in labour. The TENS unit emits low-voltage electrical impulses which vary in frequency and intensity. During labour, TENS electrodes are generally placed on the lower back, although TENS may be used to stimulate acupuncture points or other parts of the body. The physiological mechanisms whereby TENS relieves pain are uncertain. TENS machines are frequently operated by women, which may increase a sense of control in labour. Objectives To assess the effects of TENS on pain in labour. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 April 2011) and reference lists of retrieved papers. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing women receiving TENS for pain management in labour versus routine care, alternative non-pharmacological methods of pain relief, or placebo devices. We included all types of TENS machines. Data collection and analysis Two review authors assessed for inclusion all trials identified by the search strategy, carried out data extraction and assessed risk of bias. We have recorded reasons for excluding studies. Main results Seventeen trials with 1466 women contribute data to the review. Thirteen examined TENS applied to the back, two to acupuncture points, and two to the cranium. Overall, there was little difference in pain ratings between TENS and control groups, although women receiving TENS to acupuncture points were less likely to report severe pain (average risk ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 0.54; measured in two studies). The majority of women using TENS said they would be willing to use it again in a future labour. Where TENS was used as an adjunct to epidural analgesia there was no evidence that it reduced pain. There was no consistent evidence that TENS had any impact on interventions and outcomes in labour. There was little information on outcomes for mothers and babies. No

  7. Muscle electrical stimulation improves neurovascular control and exercise tolerance in hospitalised advanced heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groehs, Raphaela V; Antunes-Correa, Ligia M; Nobre, Thais S; Alves, Maria-Janieire Nn; Rondon, Maria Urbana Pb; Barreto, Antônio Carlos Pereira; Negrão, Carlos E

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the effects of muscle functional electrical stimulation on muscle sympathetic nerve activity and muscle blood flow, and, in addition, exercise tolerance in hospitalised patients for stabilisation of heart failure. Thirty patients hospitalised for treatment of decompensated heart failure, class IV New York Heart Association and ejection fraction ≤ 30% were consecutively randomly assigned into two groups: functional electrical stimulation (n = 15; 54 ± 2 years) and control (n = 15; 49 ± 2 years). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity was directly recorded via microneurography and blood flow by venous occlusion plethysmography. Heart rate and blood pressure were evaluated on a beat-to-beat basis (Finometer), exercise tolerance by 6-minute walk test, quadriceps muscle strength by a dynamometer and quality of life by Minnesota questionnaire. Functional electrical stimulation consisted of stimulating the lower limbs at 10 Hz frequency, 150 ms pulse width and 70 mA intensity for 60 minutes/day for 8-10 consecutive days. The control group underwent electrical stimulation at an intensity of electrical stimulation group. Functional electrical stimulation significantly decreased muscle sympathetic nerve activity and increased muscle blood flow and muscle strength. No changes were found in the control group. Walking distance and quality of life increased in both groups. However, these changes were greater in the functional electrical stimulation group. Functional electrical stimulation improves muscle sympathetic nerve activity and vasoconstriction and increases exercise tolerance, muscle strength and quality of life in hospitalised heart failure patients. These findings suggest that functional electrical stimulation may be useful to hospitalised patients with decompensated chronic heart failure. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  8. Motile Responses of Cochlear Outer Hair Cells Stimulated with an Alternating Electrical Field

    OpenAIRE

    Kitani, Rei; Kakehata, Seiji; Kalinec, Federico

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate and characterize the motile responses of guinea pig OHCs, stimulated at frequencies varying from 50 Hz to 4 kHz, using high-definition, high-speed video recording and fully automatic image analysis software. Cells stimulated in continuous, burst and sweeping modes with an external alternating electrical field showed robust fast and slow motility, which were dependent on frequency, mode and intensity of stimulation. In response to continuous stimul...

  9. [Electrical failure with nerve stimulation: cases report and check list for prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquet, O; Feugeas, J-L; Capdevila, X; Manelli, J-C

    2007-03-01

    Functionality of the nerve stimulator and integrity of the electrical circuit should be verified and confirmed before performing peripheral nerve blockade. The clinical cases reported here demonstrate that electrical disconnection or malfunction during nerve localization can unpredictably occur and a checklist is described to prevent the unknown electrical circuit failure.

  10. Sensory threshold neuromuscular electrical stimulation fosters motor imagery performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, Tiffany; Iturrate, Iñaki; Pereira, Michael; Perdikis, Serafeim; Millán, José Del R

    2018-04-21

    Motor imagery (MI) has been largely studied as a way to enhance motor learning and to restore motor functions. Although it is agreed that users should emphasize kinesthetic imagery during MI, recordings of MI brain patterns are not sufficiently reliable for many subjects. It has been suggested that the usage of somatosensory feedback would be more suitable than standardly used visual feedback to enhance MI brain patterns. However, somatosensory feed-back should not interfere with the recorded MI brain pattern. In this study we propose a novel feedback modality to guide subjects during MI based on sensory threshold neuromuscular electrical stimulation (St-NMES). St-NMES depolarizes sensory and motor axons without eliciting any muscular contraction. We hypothesize that St-NMES does not induce detectable ERD brain patterns and fosters MI performance. Twelve novice subjects were included in a cross-over design study. We recorded their EEG, comparing St-NMES with visual feed-back during MI or resting tasks. We found that St-NMES not only induced significantly larger desynchronization over sensorimotor areas (p<0.05) but also significantly enhanced MI brain connectivity patterns. Moreover, classification accuracy and stability were significantly higher with St-NMES. Importantly, St-NMES alone did not induce detectable artifacts, but rather the changes in the detected patterns were due to an increased MI performance. Our findings indicate that St-NMES is a promising feedback in order to foster MI performance and cold be used for BMI online applications. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Clinical practice of functional electrical stimulation: from "Yesterday" to "Today".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Milan R

    2008-08-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is an accepted treatment method for paresis or paralysis after spinal cord and head injury as well as stroke and other neurological upper motor neuron disorders. At the beginning, FES worked like an electrophysiological brace for the correction of drop foot of patients after a stroke. When analyzing early accomplishments, it becomes evident that FES was influenced rather by technological and biomedical engineering development than by contemporary knowledge on neurocontrol of movement in individuals with upper motor neuron paralysis. Nevertheless, with better understanding of pathophysiology of spasticity and neurocontrol of impaired movement, FES advanced from an electrophysiological brace to a treatment modality for the improvement of muscle control, neuroaugmentation of residual movements, and supportive procedure for "spontaneous recovery" of motor control. In the present article we shall illustrate barriers which delayed FES to be applied in clinical practice of neuron rehabilitation from "Yesterday" to "Today." We shall discuss the importance to apply FES early after the onset of neurological conditions to prevent disuse of noninjured portions of the CNS. Moreover, FES can play a significant role in the supporting processes of neuroplasticity in the subacute phase of upper motor neuron dysfunction. Therefore, the electrophysiological brace of "Yesterday" provides "Today" a correction of missing neuromuscular function. At the same time, it is an active external device for the correction of motor deficits interacting with the somatosensory-motor integration. Thus, "Yesterday" and "Today" of the same technological approach can be very different, thanks to a different understanding and assessment of "external" and "internal" components of human motor control.

  12. Vestibulodynia: synergy between palmitoylethanolamide + transpolydatin and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murina, Filippo; Graziottin, Alessandra; Felice, Raffaele; Radici, Gianluigi; Tognocchi, Cinzia

    2013-04-01

    The study aimed to assess the effect of palmitoylethanolamide + transpolydatin combination in patients with vestibulodynia undergoing transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) therapy and to confirm the effectiveness of TENS also in a domiciliary protocol. The study is based on the premise that palmitoylethanolamide + transpolydatin combination may contribute to a down-regulation of mast cell hyperactivity, which is believed to be responsible for the proliferation and sprouting of vestibular pain fibers and the associated hyperalgesia and allodynia. Twenty women with vestibulodynia were randomly assigned to receive oral palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) 400 mg and transpolydatin 40 mg or placebo, twice daily for 60 days. All patients underwent TENS therapy in a self-administered home protocol. Visual analogue scale (VAS), Marinoff score for dyspareunia, and current perception threshold obtained from the vulvar vestibule were assessed at baseline and at the end of treatment. The patients received a mean of 26.7 TENS sessions. All scores in the 2 groups improved significantly, although the level of improvement was similar between the groups (VAS, p < .57; dyspareunia, p < .38). Nevertheless, the analysis of regression of symptoms related to the duration of disease revealed the therapy to be more effective when PEA + transpolydatin is included in cases with more recent disease onset, as compared with the placebo group (PEA: VAS, p < .01; dyspareunia, p < .01) (placebo: VAS, p = nonsignificant; dyspareunia, p = nonsignificant). This study confirms that TENS is of significant benefit in the management of vestibulodynia, also in a home environment. PEA + transpolydatin can be a value-added treatment adjunct when the onset of vestibulodynia is more recent or when the disease relapses.

  13. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Superimposed on Movement Early after ACL Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labanca, Luciana; Rocchi, Jacopo Emanuele; Laudani, Luca; Guitaldi, Rita; Virgulti, Alessandro; Mariani, Pier Paolo; Macaluso, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    Quadriceps weakness and asymmetrical loading of lower limbs are two major issues after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 6-wk training protocol involving neuromuscular electrical stimulations (NMES) of the quadriceps muscle superimposed on repeated sit-to-stand-to-sit exercises (STSTS), as an additional treatment to standard rehabilitation, from the 15th to the 60th day after ACLR. Sixty-three ACLR patients were randomly allocated to one of the three treatment groups: NMES superimposed on STSTS (NMES + STSTS), STSTS only, or no additional treatment (NAT) to standard rehabilitation. Maximal isometric strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles was measured 60 and 180 d after surgery. Asymmetry in lower extremity loading was measured during a sit-to-stand movement at 15, 30, 60, and 180 d after surgery and during a countermovement jump 180 d after surgery by means of two adjacent force platforms placed under each foot. The NMES + STSTS participants showed higher muscle strength of the knee extensors, which was accompanied by lower perception of pain and higher symmetry in lower extremity loading compared with STSTS-only and NAT participants after both 60 and 180 d from surgery. Participants in the STSTS-only treatment group showed higher symmetry in lower extremity loading compared with those in the NAT group 60 d after surgery. These results suggest that an early intervention based on NMES superimposed to repeated STSTS exercises is effective for recovering quadriceps strength and symmetry in lower extremity loading by the time of return to sport.

  14. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for neuropathic pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, William; Wand, Benedict M; O'Connell, Neil E

    2017-09-14

    Neuropathic pain, which is due to nerve disease or damage, represents a significant burden on people and society. It can be particularly unpleasant and achieving adequate symptom control can be difficult. Non-pharmacological methods of treatment are often employed by people with neuropathic pain and may include transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). This review supersedes one Cochrane Review 'Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for chronic pain' (Nnoaham 2014) and one withdrawn protocol 'Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for neuropathic pain in adults' (Claydon 2014). This review replaces the original protocol for neuropathic pain that was withdrawn. To determine the analgesic effectiveness of TENS versus placebo (sham) TENS, TENS versus usual care, TENS versus no treatment and TENS in addition to usual care versus usual care alone in the management of neuropathic pain in adults. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, CINAHL, Web of Science, PEDro, LILACS (up to September 2016) and various clinical trials registries. We also searched bibliographies of included studies for further relevant studies. We included randomised controlled trials where TENS was evaluated in the treatment of central or peripheral neuropathic pain. We included studies if they investigated the following: TENS versus placebo (sham) TENS, TENS versus usual care, TENS versus no treatment and TENS in addition to usual care versus usual care alone in the management of neuropathic pain in adults. Two review authors independently screened all database search results and identified papers requiring full-text assessment. Subsequently, two review authors independently applied inclusion/exclusion criteria to these studies. The same review authors then independently extracted data, assessed for risk of bias using the Cochrane standard tool and rated the quality of evidence using GRADE. We included 15 studies with 724 participants. We found a

  15. Model study of combined electrical and near-infrared neural stimulation on the bullfrog sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Mengxian; Mou, Zongxia

    2017-07-01

    This paper implemented a model study of combined electrical and near-infrared (808 nm) neural stimulation (NINS) on the bullfrog sciatic nerve. The model includes a COMSOL model to calculate the electric-field distribution of the surrounding area of the nerve, a Monte Carlo model to simulate light transport and absorption in the bullfrog sciatic nerve during NINS, and a NEURON model to simulate the neural electrophysiology changes under electrical stimulus and laser irradiation. The optical thermal effect is considered the main mechanism during NINS. Therefore, thermal change during laser irradiation was calculated by the Monte Carlo method, and the temperature distribution was then transferred to the NEURON model to stimulate the sciatic nerve. The effects on thermal response by adjusting the laser spot size, energy of the beam, and the absorption coefficient of the nerve are analyzed. The effect of the ambient temperature on the electrical stimulation or laser stimulation and the interaction between laser irradiation and electrical stimulation are also studied. The results indicate that the needed stimulus threshold for neural activation or inhibition is reduced by laser irradiation. Additionally, the needed laser energy for blocking the action potential is reduced by electrical stimulus. Both electrical and laser stimulation are affected by the ambient temperature. These results provide references for subsequent animal experiments and could be of great help to future basic and applied studies of infrared neural stimulation (INS).

  16. Electrical stimulation of prelymbic with different currents intensities on morphine induced spatial memory deficit in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdipour, Shima; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Reisi, Parham; Marghmaleki, Vajihe Saedi

    2016-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a part of brain reward system involved in cognitive functions such as learning and memory. Previous studies showed that electrical stimulation of prelymbic produced different effects on morphine-induced condition place preference. In this study, we investigated the electrical stimulation with different current intensities on spatial memory in rats. In this study, male Wister rats weighing approximately 200-300 g were used. The effect of prelymbic electrical stimulation with 25 and 150 μA currents intensities in healthy and addicted rats on spatial memory was studied. Spatial memory was investigated using the Morris water maze test in addicted rats after 9 days of electrical stimulation. Our findings have shown that morphine reduces the memory and learning, whereas the present results indicated that electrical stimulation of prelymbic area with current intensity of the 25 μA shortened the time and distance to reach to platform that indicated improvement in spatial memory on addicted rats. Whereas the electrical stimulation of prelymbic area with the current intensity of 150 μA has special weakening effects on spatial memory and prolongs the time and distance to reach the platform. The electrical stimulations of prelymbic with 25 μA current intensity improved the spatial memory in addicted rats while with 150 μA current intensity weakened spatial memory in rats. It is possible that increase in the release of some neurotransmitters reverses the effect of morphine on spatial memory.

  17. Comparison electrical stimulation and passive stretching for blood glucose control type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsianti, Rika Wahyuni; Parman, Dewy Haryanti; Lesmana, Hendy

    2018-04-01

    Physical exercise is one of the cornerstones for management and treatment type 2 diabetes mellitus. But not all people are able to perform physical exercise because of their physical limitation condition. The strategy for those people in this study is electrical stimulation and passive stretching. The aim of this study is to find out the effect of electrical stimulation and passive stretching to lowering blood glucose level. 20 subjects is divided into electrical stimulation and passive stretching group. The provision of electrical stimulation on lower extremities muscles for 30 minutes for electrical stimulation group (N=10). And other underwent passive stretching for 30 minutes (N=10). The result shows that blood glucose level is decrease from 192.9 ± 10.7087 mg/dL to 165.3 ± 10.527 mg/dL for electrical stimulation intervention group while for the passive stretching group the blood glucose decrease from 153 ± 12.468 mg/dL to 136.1 ± 12.346 mg/dL. Both electrical stimulation and passive stretching are effective to lowering blood glucose level and can be proposed for those people restricted to perform exercise.

  18. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistolfi, Alessandro; Zanovello, Jessica; Ferracini, Riccardo; Allisiardi, Fabrizio; Lioce, Elisa; Magistroni, Ernesta; Berchialla, Paola; Da Rold, Ilaria; Massazza, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the use of the neuromuscular electrical stimulation after total knee arthroplasty. The study used a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PEDro) using Patient Population or Problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes, Setting approach to formulate the research question, controlled terms, and Boolean operators. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined in advance. "Neuromuscular electrical stimulation" and "total knee arthroplasty" were used as keywords. The overall risk of bias was determined according to the following: random sequence generation, concealment, blinding mass of participants and staff, commissioning blind assessment results, incomplete data, and loans received. Of the 36 identified studies, six were included in the review (496 participants). In these studies, one group of patients followed a rehabilitation protocol (control group) and the other followed a rehabilitation program plus a session of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (neuromuscular electrical stimulation group). Patients of neuromuscular electrical stimulation groups got the best scores (timed up and go test, stair climbing test, and walk test). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation benefits were strong in the first postoperative weeks/months and gradually diminished. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation allows a slightly better functional recovery after total knee arthroplasty, especially in the first period, with more evident benefits in patients with a severe lack of muscular activation. Nevertheless, there is no difference at medium-long term.

  19. A multi-channel stimulator and electrode array providing a rotating current whirlpool for electrical stimulation of wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, J; Suh, H J; Fish, A; Hernandez, V; Abdo, A; Collins, K; Mendoza, E; Yang, T-N

    2008-01-01

    When electrical stimulation is used on wounds, the electrical current has difficulty penetrating areas where there is necrotic tissue. Further, for an irregularly shaped wound, current distribution is poor in some areas of the wound since conventional two-electrode delivery systems provide the greatest current in a line directly between the electrodes. A new stimulator and electrode system is described which uses three electrodes spaced around a wound to disperse current more evenly. The stimulator senses tissue impedance and then redirects current by altering its Thevenin's output impedance for each electrode; each of the three electrodes becomes the active one in sequence while the remaining are the sink electrodes. Eight subjects were examined to test the stimulator. Electrical stimulation was applied to the skin above the quadriceps muscle at currents of 15 mA in six subjects without wounds and in two subjects with wounds. The relationship between electrode position and current dispersion on the skin was examined with a two-electrode vs. a three-electrode system to set stimulation parameters for the computer. The results showed that the three-electrode system could (1) detect areas of the skin with high impedance; (2) compensate by altering the Thevenin's output impedance at each of the three electrodes to shift current to high impedance areas; (3) provide uniform current across the skin as assessed by skin current and blood flow measurements with a laser Doppler flow imager.

  20. The difference between electrical microstimulation and direct electrical stimulation - towards new opportunities for innovative functional brain mapping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Marion; Rossel, Olivier; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues; Guiraud, David; Bonnetblanc, François

    2016-04-01

    Both electrical microstimulation (EMS) and direct electrical stimulation (DES) of the brain are used to perform functional brain mapping. EMS is applied to animal fundamental neuroscience experiments, whereas DES is performed in the operating theatre on neurosurgery patients. The objective of the present review was to shed new light on electrical stimulation techniques in brain mapping by comparing EMS and DES. There is much controversy as to whether the use of DES during wide-awake surgery is the 'gold standard' for studying the brain function. As part of this debate, it is sometimes wrongly assumed that EMS and DES induce similar effects in the nervous tissues and have comparable behavioural consequences. In fact, the respective stimulation parameters in EMS and DES are clearly different. More surprisingly, there is no solid biophysical rationale for setting the stimulation parameters in EMS and DES; this may be due to historical, methodological and technical constraints that have limited the experimental protocols and prompted the use of empirical methods. In contrast, the gap between EMS and DES highlights the potential for new experimental paradigms in electrical stimulation for functional brain mapping. In view of this gap and recent technical developments in stimulator design, it may now be time to move towards alternative, innovative protocols based on the functional stimulation of peripheral nerves (for which a more solid theoretical grounding exists).

  1. Observation of pressure stimulated voltages in rocks using an electric potential sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, A.; Prance, R. J.; Prance, H.; Harland, C. J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent interest in the electrical activity in rock and the use of electric field transients as candidates for earthquake precursors has led to studies of pressure stimulated currents in laboratory samples. In this paper, an electric field sensor is used to measure directly the voltages associated with these currents. Stress was applied as uniaxial compression to marble and granite at an approximately constant rate. In contrast with the small pressure stimulated currents previously measured, large voltage signals are reported. Polarity reversal of the signal was observed immediately before fracture for the marble, in agreement with previous pressure stimulated current studies.

  2. Relation between stimulation characteristics and clinical outcome in studies using electrical stimulation to improve motor control of the upper extremity in stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kroon, J.R.; IJzerman, M.J.; Chae, J.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Zilvold, G.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Electrical stimulation can be applied in a variety of ways to the hemiparetic upper extremity following stroke. The aim of this review is to explore the relationship between characteristics of stimulation and the effect of electrical stimulation on the recovery of upper limb motor control

  3. Relation between stimulation characteristics and clinical outcome in studies using electrical stimulation to improve motor control of the upper extremity in stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kroon, Joke R.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Chae, John; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.; Zilvold, G.; Zilvold, Gerrit

    Objective: Electrical stimulation can be applied in a variety of ways to the hemiparetic upper extremity following stroke. The aim of this review is to explore the relationship between characteristics of stimulation and the effect of electrical stimulation on the recovery of upper limb motor control

  4. Bioreactor for modulation of cardiac microtissue phenotype by combined static stretch and electrical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklas, Jason W; Sofla, Aarash; Reis, Lewis A; Pahnke, Aric; Xiao, Yun; Laschinger, Carol; Radisic, Milica; Nunes, Sara S

    2014-01-01

    We describe here a bioreactor capable of applying electrical field stimulation in conjunction with static strain and on-line force of contraction measurements. It consisted of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tissue chamber and a pneumatically driven stretch platform. The chamber contained eight tissue microwells (8.05 mm in length and 2.5 mm in width) with a pair of posts (2.78 mm in height and 0.8 mm in diameter) in each well to serve as fixation points and for measurements of contraction force. Carbon rods, stimulating electrodes, were placed into the PDMS chamber such that one pair stimulated four microwells. For feasibility studies, neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were seeded in collagen gels into the microwells. Following 3 days of gel compaction, electrical field stimulation at 3–4 V cm −1 and 1 Hz, mechanical stimulation of 5% static strain or electromechanical stimulation (field stimulation at 3–4 V cm −1 , 1 Hz and 5% static strain) were applied for 3 days. Cardiac microtissues subjected to electromechanical stimulation exhibited elevated amplitude of contraction and improved sarcomere structure as evidenced by sarcomeric α-actinin, actin and troponin T staining compared to microtissues subjected to electrical or mechanical stimulation alone or non-stimulated controls. The expression of atrial natriuretic factor and brain natriuretic peptide was also elevated in the electromechanically stimulated group. (papers)

  5. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for fibromyalgia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark I; Claydon, Leica S; Herbison, G Peter; Jones, Gareth; Paley, Carole A

    2017-10-09

    Fibromyalgia is characterised by persistent, widespread pain; sleep problems; and fatigue. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is the delivery of pulsed electrical currents across the intact surface of the skin to stimulate peripheral nerves and is used extensively to manage painful conditions. TENS is inexpensive, safe, and can be self-administered. TENS reduces pain during movement in some people so it may be a useful adjunct to assist participation in exercise and activities of daily living. To date, there has been only one systematic review in 2012 which included TENS, amongst other treatments, for fibromyalgia, and the authors concluded that TENS was not effective. To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse events of TENS alone or added to usual care (including exercise) compared with placebo (sham) TENS; no treatment; exercise alone; or other treatment including medication, electroacupuncture, warmth therapy, or hydrotherapy for fibromyalgia in adults. We searched the following electronic databases up to 18 January 2017: CENTRAL (CRSO); MEDLINE (Ovid); Embase (Ovid); CINAHL (EBSCO); PsycINFO (Ovid); LILACS; PEDRO; Web of Science (ISI); AMED (Ovid); and SPORTDiscus (EBSCO). We also searched three trial registries. There were no language restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-randomised trials of TENS treatment for pain associated with fibromyalgia in adults. We included cross-over and parallel-group trial designs. We included studies that evaluated TENS administered using non-invasive techniques at intensities that produced perceptible TENS sensations during stimulation at either the site of pain or over nerve bundles proximal (or near) to the site of pain. We included TENS administered as a sole treatment or TENS in combination with other treatments, and TENS given as a single treatment or as a course of treatments. Two review authors independently determined study eligibility by assessing each record and

  6. Effects of biofeedback versus switch-triggered functional electrical stimulation on sciatica-related foot drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardaru, Dragos Petrica; Matei, Daniela; Zaharia-Kezdi, Dan; Pendefunda, Liviu

    2018-01-01

    Sciatica-related Foot Drop is a peripheral nervous condition that produces a loss of power in the ankle dorsiflexion muscles. Functional electrical stimulation is a modality of electrical stimulation that produces muscle contraction in a functional movement of the limb. This technique was utilized with positive effects in central nervous afflictions but it is not known whether or not it has any influence in motor recovery following peripheral nervous system problems. This study aims to clarify the effects of functional electrical stimulation on foot drop caused by peripheral nerve compression resulting from lumbar disc herniation. Fifty patients were enrolled in our study; of whom 25 were treated with EMG triggered electrical stimulation (EMG-FES) and 25 with heel-floor sensor triggered electrical stimulation (SWITCH-FES) during normal gait cycle. Patients received functional electrical stimulation (with a pulse of 60 Hz and phase duration of 200 ms) once a day, for 30 minutes during 5 consecutive days, over a period of 4 weeks. Electrical diagnostic tests (nerve conduction velocity/NCV and the amplitude of compound muscle action potential/CMAP), dynamometry and Osvestry Disability Index scores were measured at baseline and after treatment. We found that axonal loss was lower in the EMG-FES group than in the SWITCH-FES group (pelectrical stimulation technique had a higher influence on the quality of the muscle action control. For patients who cannot yet produce minimal muscle active contraction we recommend switch triggered stimulation first and then, immediately after the recovery of the motor control, to change to EMG triggered functional electrical stimulation.

  7. Subcellular electrical stimulation of neurons enhances the myelination of axons by oligodendrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Ung; Blasiak, Agata; Agrawal, Devansh R.; Loong, Daniel Teh Boon; Thakor, Nitish V.; All, Angelo H.; Ho, John S.

    2017-01-01

    Myelin formation has been identified as a modulator of neural plasticity. New tools are required to investigate the mechanisms by which environmental inputs and neural activity regulate myelination patterns. In this study, we demonstrate a microfluidic compartmentalized culture system with integrated electrical stimulation capabilities that can induce neural activity by whole cell and focal stimulation. A set of electric field simulations was performed to confirm spatial restriction of the electrical input in the compartmentalized culture system. We further demonstrate that electrode localization is a key consideration for generating uniform the stimulation of neuron and oligodendrocytes within the compartments. Using three configurations of the electrodes we tested the effects of subcellular activation of neural activity on distal axon myelination with oligodendrocytes. We further investigated if oligodendrocytes have to be exposed to the electrical field to induce axon myelination. An isolated stimulation of cell bodies and proximal axons had the same effect as an isolated stimulation of distal axons co-cultured with oligodendrocytes, and the two modes had a non-different result than whole cell stimulation. Our platform enabled the demonstration that electrical stimulation enhances oligodendrocyte maturation and myelin formation independent of the input localization and oligodendrocyte exposure to the electrical field. PMID:28671962

  8. Tissue heterogeneity as a mechanism for localized neural stimulation by applied electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, P C; Correia, L; Salvador, R; Basser, P J

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the heterogeneity of electrical conductivity as a new mechanism to stimulate excitable tissues via applied electric fields. In particular, we show that stimulation of axons crossing internal boundaries can occur at boundaries where the electric conductivity of the volume conductor changes abruptly. The effectiveness of this and other stimulation mechanisms was compared by means of models and computer simulations in the context of transcranial magnetic stimulation. While, for a given stimulation intensity, the largest membrane depolarization occurred where an axon terminates or bends sharply in a high electric field region, a slightly smaller membrane depolarization, still sufficient to generate action potentials, also occurred at an internal boundary where the conductivity jumped from 0.143 S m -1 to 0.333 S m -1 , simulating a white-matter-grey-matter interface. Tissue heterogeneity can also give rise to local electric field gradients that are considerably stronger and more focal than those impressed by the stimulation coil and that can affect the membrane potential, albeit to a lesser extent than the two mechanisms mentioned above. Tissue heterogeneity may play an important role in electric and magnetic 'far-field' stimulation

  9. [Ocular electrical stimulation: Therapeutic application and active retinal implants for hereditary retinal degenerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekeler, F; Zrenner, E; Bartz-Schmidt, K U

    2015-09-01

    Electrical stimulation has a long history in ophthalmology. Subthreshold electrical stimulation can have beneficial therapeutic effects on hereditary degenerative retinal diseases. Suprathreshold stimulation is able to elicit visual perceptions and, if multielectrode fields are arranged as an array, usable pictures can be perceived by blind patients. This is a review article on the current situation and studies on therapeutic transcorneal electrical stimulation. Moreover, the challenges, surgical concepts and visual results of active retinal implants are discussed. This article gives an overview on transcorneal electrical stimulation and active retinal implants based on published results, with special emphasis on the clinical application. The results of initial controlled studies on therapeutic transcorneal electrical stimulation in hereditary retinal diseases were very promising. The largest controlled study so far in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) has yielded many positive trends and some significant improvements in electrophysiological data. Currently, two retinal implants have regulatory approval, the Argus II retinal prosthesis system® (SecondSight®) and the Alpha-IMS© (Retina Implant AG). Both systems can be used to improve visual perception and under test conditions can achieve visual acuities of 0.02 and 0.04, respectively. In-depth analyses and follow-up studies in larger patient groups are currently planned to definitively clarify the potential of therapeutic transcorneal electrical stimulation in RP patients. The challenges of currently available active retinal implants are the technical biostability and the limited spatial resolution.

  10. Direct Measurement of Bipolar Cell Responses to Electrical Stimulation in Wholemount Mouse Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Steven T; Chow, Robert H; Weiland, James D

    2018-03-07

    This in vitro investigation examines the response of retinal bipolar cells to extracellular electrical stimulation. Approach: In vitro investigations characterizing the response of retinal neurons to electrical stimulation have primarily focused on retinal ganglion cells because they are the output neurons of the retina and their superficial position in the retina makes them readily accessible to in vitro recording techniques. Thus, the majority of information regarding the response of inner retinal neurons has been inferred from ganglion cell activity. Here we use patch clamp electrophysiology to directly record electrically-evoked activity in bipolar cells within the inner retina of normal Tg(Gng13-EGFP)GI206Gsat and degenerate rd10 Tg(Gng13-EGFP)GI206Gsat mice using a wholemount preparation. Main Results: Bipolar cells respond to electrical stimulation with time-locked depolarizing voltage transients. The latency of the response declines with increases in stimulation amplitude. A desensitizing response is observed during repeated stimulation with 25-ms biphasic current pulses delivered at pulse rates greater than 6 pps. A burst of long-latency (200-1000 ms) inhibitory postsynaptic potentials are evoked by the stimulus and the burst exhibits evidence of a lower and upper stimulation threshold. Significance: These results provide insights into the various types of bipolar cell activity elicited by electrical stimulation and may be useful for future retinal prosthesis stimulation protocols. . © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Distribution of electrical stimulation current in a planar multilayer anisotropic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesin, Luca; Merletti, Roberto

    2008-02-01

    This study analytically addresses the problem of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for a planar, multilayer, anisotropic model of a physiological tissue (referred to as volume conductor). Both conductivity and permittivity of the volume conductor are considered, including dispersive properties. The analytical solution is obtained in the 2-D Fourier transform domain, transforming in the planes parallel to the volume conductor surface. The model is efficient in terms of computational cost, as the solution is analytical (only numerical Fourier inversion is needed). It provides the current distribution in a physiological tissue induced by an electrical current delivered at the skin surface. Three representative examples of application of the model are considered. 1) The simulation of stimulation artefact during transcutaneous electrical stimulation and EMG detection. Only the effect of the volume conductor is considered, neglecting the other sources of artefact (such as the capacitive coupling between the stimulating and recording electrodes). 2) The simulation of the electrical current distribution within the muscle and the low-pass filter effect of the volume conductor on sinusoidal stimulation currents with different stimulation frequencies. 3) The estimation of the amplitude modulated current distribution within the muscle for interferential stimulation. The model is devoted to the simulation of neuromuscular stimulation, but the same method could be applied in other fields in which the estimation of the electrical current distribution in a medium induced by the injection of a current from the boundary of the medium is of interest.

  12. [Efficacy observation of dysphagia after acute stroke treated with acupuncture and functional electric stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ling; He, Peng-Lan; Zhou, Zhen-Zhong; Li, Yan-Hua

    2014-08-01

    To observe the impacts on the recovery of swallowing function in patients of dysphagia after acute stroke treated with acupuncture and functional electric stimulation. Seventy-four patients were randomized into an acupuncture plus electric stimulation group (38 cases) and an electric stimulation group (36 cases). The functional electric stimulator was used in the two groups. The electric pads were placed on the hyoid bone, the upper part of thyroid cartilage, the masseter muscle and the mandibular joint. The treatment lasted for 30 mm each time. In the acupuncture plus electric stimulation group, acupuncture was supplemented at motor area of Jiao's scalp acupuncture, lower 2/5 of sensory area, Baihui (CV 20), Lianquan (CV 23), Jinjin (EX-HN 12) and Yuye (EX-HN 13), 30 mm each time. The treatment was given once a day, 6 treatments for one session and there was 1 day at interval between the sessions, 4 sessions were required totally in the two groups. The dysphagia scale was adopted for efficacy evaluation before treatment and after 4 sessions of treatment in the two groups. The removal rate of nasal feeding tube was observed after treatment. The dysphagia score was increased apparently after treatment compared with that before treatment in the two groups (both P vs 6.73 +/- 1.36, P stroke and promotes the early removal of nasal feeding tube. The efficacy is better than that of the simple electric stimulation therapy.

  13. Effect of Electrical Stimulation on Blood Flow Velocity and Vessel Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hee-Kyung; Hwang, Tae-Yeon; Cho, Sung-Hyoun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Interferential current electrical stimulation alters blood flow velocity and vessel size. We aimed to investigate the changes in the autonomic nervous system depending on electrical stimulation parameters. Forty-five healthy adult male and female subjects were studied. Bipolar adhesive pad electrodes were used to stimulate the autonomic nervous system at the thoracic vertebrae 1-4 levels for 20 min. Using Doppler ultrasonography, blood flow was measured to determine velocity and vessel size before, immediately after, and 30 min after electrical stimulation. Changes in blood flow velocity were significantly different immediately and 30 min after stimulation. The interaction between intervention periods and groups was significantly different between the exercise and pain stimulation groups immediately after stimulation (p<0.05). The vessel size was significantly different before and 30 min after stimulation (p<0.05). Imbalances in the sympathetic nervous system, which regulates balance throughout the body, may present with various symptoms. Therefore, in the clinical practice, the parameters of electrical stimulation should be selectively applied in accordance with various conditions and changes in form. PMID:28401194

  14. Effect of Electrical Stimulation on Blood Flow Velocity and Vessel Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hee-Kyung; Hwang, Tae-Yeon; Cho, Sung-Hyoun

    2017-01-01

    Interferential current electrical stimulation alters blood flow velocity and vessel size. We aimed to investigate the changes in the autonomic nervous system depending on electrical stimulation parameters. Forty-five healthy adult male and female subjects were studied. Bipolar adhesive pad electrodes were used to stimulate the autonomic nervous system at the thoracic vertebrae 1-4 levels for 20 min. Using Doppler ultrasonography, blood flow was measured to determine velocity and vessel size before, immediately after, and 30 min after electrical stimulation. Changes in blood flow velocity were significantly different immediately and 30 min after stimulation. The interaction between intervention periods and groups was significantly different between the exercise and pain stimulation groups immediately after stimulation (p<0.05). The vessel size was significantly different before and 30 min after stimulation (p<0.05). Imbalances in the sympathetic nervous system, which regulates balance throughout the body, may present with various symptoms. Therefore, in the clinical practice, the parameters of electrical stimulation should be selectively applied in accordance with various conditions and changes in form.

  15. Local depletion of glycogen with supra-maximal exercise in human skeletal muscle fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Kasper Degn; Ørtenblad, Niels; Andersson, Erik

    2017-01-01

    importance to muscle function. The present study was designed to investigate the depletion of these three sub-cellular glycogen compartments during repeated supra-maximal exercise in elite athletes. Ten elite cross-country skiers (age: 25 ± 4 yrs., VO2 max : 65 ± 4 ml kg(-1) min(-1) , mean ± SD) performed...... of spatially distinct glycogen compartments differs during supra-maximal exercise. Furthermore, the depletion changes with repeated exercise and is fibre type-dependent. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  16. Surface Electrical Stimulation for Treating Swallowing Disorders after Stroke: A Review of the Stimulation Intensity Levels and the Electrode Placements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Poorjavad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES for treating dysphagia is a relatively new therapeutic method. There is a paucity of evidence about the use of NMES in patients with dysphagia caused by stroke. The present review aimed to introduce and discuss studies that have evaluated the efficacy of this method amongst dysphagic patients following stroke with emphasis on the intensity of stimulation (sensory or motor level and the method of electrode placement on the neck. The majority of the reviewed studies describe some positive effects of the NMES on the neck musculature in the swallowing performance of poststroke dysphagic patients, especially when the intensity of the stimulus is adjusted at the sensory level or when the motor electrical stimulation is applied on the infrahyoid muscles during swallowing.

  17. Passive reach and grasp with functional electrical stimulation and robotic arm support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, Ard J.; Schouten, Alfred C.; Veltink, Peter H.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2014-01-01

    Rehabilitation of arm and hand function is crucial to increase functional independence of stroke subjects. Here, we investigate the technical feasibility of an integrated training system combining robotics and functional electrical stimulation (FES) to support reach and grasp during functional

  18. Effects of Cobalt-60 on Electrical Self-Stimulation of the Brain and Blood Pressure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruner, Alfred

    1974-01-01

    The effects of 1000 and 2000 rad Cobalt-60 on electrical self- stimulation of subcortical brain areas and blood pressure were investigated to determine whether radiation-induced performance decrement...

  19. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for preventing skeletal-muscle weakness and wasting in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A.; Roig, Marc; Karatzanos, Eleftherios

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) therapy may be useful in early musculoskeletal rehabilitation during acute critical illness. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of NMES for preventing skeletal-muscle weakness and wasting in critically...

  20. Single Pulse Electrical Stimulation to identify epileptogenic cortex : Clinical information obtained from early evoked responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, B.E.; van 't Klooster, M.A.; Keizer, D.; Hebbink, G.J.; Leijten, F.S.S.; Ferrier, C.H.; van Putten, M.J.A.M.; Zijlmans, M.; Huiskamp, G.J.M.

    Objective: Single Pulse Electrical Stimulation (SPES) probes epileptogenic cortex during electrocorticography. Two SPES responses are described: pathological delayed responses (DR, >100 ms) associated with the seizure onset zone (SOZ) and physiological early responses (ER, <100 ms) that map cortical

  1. Hypoalgesia in response to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) depends on stimulation intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Fidelma; Leonard, Tracey; Hawthorne, Stephanie; Hughes, Ciara M; McCrum-Gardner, Evie; Johnson, Mark I; Rakel, Barbara A; Sluka, Kathleen A; Walsh, Deirdre M

    2011-08-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is an electrophysical modality used for pain management. This study investigated the dose response of different TENS intensities on experimentally induced pressure pain. One hundred and thirty TENS naïve healthy individuals (18-64 years old; 65 males, 65 females) were randomly allocated to 5 groups (n = 26 per group): Strong Non Painful TENS; Sensory Threshold TENS; Below Sensory Threshold TENS; No Current Placebo TENS; and Transient Placebo TENS. Active TENS (80 Hz) was applied to the forearm for 30 minutes. Transient Placebo TENS was applied for 42 seconds after which the current amplitude automatically reset to 0 mA. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were recorded from 2 points on the hand and forearm before and after TENS to measure hypoalgesia. There were significant differences between groups at both the hand and forearm (ANOVA; P = .005 and .002). At 30 minutes, there was a significant hypoalgesic effect in the Strong Non Painful TENS group compared to: Below Sensory Threshold TENS, No Current Placebo TENS and Transient Placebo TENS groups (P TENS and No Current Placebo TENS groups at the hand (P = .001). There was no significant difference between Strong Non Painful TENS and Sensory Threshold TENS groups. The area under the curve for the changes in PPT significantly correlated with the current amplitude (r(2) = .33, P = .003). These data therefore show that there is a dose-response effect of TENS with the largest effect occurring with the highest current amplitudes. This study shows a dose response for the intensity of TENS for pain relief with the strongest intensities showing the greatest effect; thus, we suggest that TENS intensity should be titrated to achieve the strongest possible intensity to achieve maximum pain relief. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) for treatment of constipation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ruey Terng; Lee, Way Seah; Ang, Hak Lee; Teo, Kai Ming; Yik, Yee Ian; Lai, Nai Ming

    2016-11-11

    Childhood constipation is a common problem with substantial health, economic and emotional burdens. Existing therapeutic options, mainly pharmacological, are not consistently effective, and some are associated with adverse effects after prolonged use. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES), a non-pharmacological approach, is postulated to facilitate bowel movement by modulating the nerves of the large bowel via the application of electrical current transmitted through the abdominal wall. Our main objective was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of TES when employed to improve bowel function and constipation-related symptoms in children with constipation. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed) (1950 to July 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 7, 2015), EMBASE (1980 to July 2015), the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Register, trial registries and conference proceedings to identify applicable studies . Randomized controlled trials that assessed any type of TES, administered at home or in a clinical setting, compared to no treatment, a sham TES, other forms of nerve stimulation or any other pharmaceutical or non-pharmaceutical measures used to treat constipation in children were considered for inclusion. Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias of the included studies. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for categorical outcomes data and the mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% CI for continuous outcomes. We evaluated the overall quality of the evidence supporting the outcomes assessed in this review using the GRADE criteria. One study from Australia including 46 children aged 8 to 18 years was eligible for inclusion. There were multiple reports identified, including one unpublished report, that focused on different outcomes of the same study. The study had unclear risk of selection bias, high risks of

  3. Differential effect of brief electrical stimulation on voltage-gated potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Morven A; Al Abed, Amr; Buskila, Yossi; Dokos, Socrates; Lovell, Nigel H; Morley, John W

    2017-05-01

    Electrical stimulation of neuronal tissue is a promising strategy to treat a variety of neurological disorders. The mechanism of neuronal activation by external electrical stimulation is governed by voltage-gated ion channels. This stimulus, typically brief in nature, leads to membrane potential depolarization, which increases ion flow across the membrane by increasing the open probability of these voltage-gated channels. In spiking neurons, it is activation of voltage-gated sodium channels (Na V channels) that leads to action potential generation. However, several other types of voltage-gated channels are expressed that also respond to electrical stimulation. In this study, we examine the response of voltage-gated potassium channels (K V channels) to brief electrical stimulation by whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiology and computational modeling. We show that nonspiking amacrine neurons of the retina exhibit a large variety of responses to stimulation, driven by different K V -channel subtypes. Computational modeling reveals substantial differences in the response of specific K V -channel subtypes that is dependent on channel kinetics. This suggests that the expression levels of different K V -channel subtypes in retinal neurons are a crucial predictor of the response that can be obtained. These data expand our knowledge of the mechanisms of neuronal activation and suggest that K V -channel expression is an important determinant of the sensitivity of neurons to electrical stimulation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This paper describes the response of various voltage-gated potassium channels (K V channels) to brief electrical stimulation, such as is applied during prosthetic electrical stimulation. We show that the pattern of response greatly varies between K V channel subtypes depending on activation and inactivation kinetics of each channel. Our data suggest that problems encountered when artificially stimulating neurons such as cessation in firing at high frequencies, or

  4. Electrical stimulation of superior colliculus affects strabismus angle in monkey models for strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Suraj; Meng, Hui; Das, Vallabh E

    2017-03-01

    Disruption of binocular vision during the critical period for development leads to eye misalignment in humans and in monkey models. We have previously suggested that disruption within a vergence circuit could be the neural basis for strabismus. Electrical stimulation in the rostral superior colliculus (rSC) leads to vergence eye movements in normal monkeys. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SC stimulation on eye misalignment in strabismic monkeys. Electrical stimulation was delivered to 51 sites in the intermediate and deep layers of the SC (400 Hz, 0.5-s duration, 10-40 μA) in 3 adult optical prism-reared strabismic monkeys. Scleral search coils were used to measure movements of both eyes during a fixation task. Staircase saccades with horizontal and vertical components were elicited by stimulation as predicted from the SC topographic map. Electrical stimulation also resulted in significant changes in horizontal strabismus angle, i.e., a shift toward exotropia/esotropia depending on stimulation site. Electrically evoked saccade vector amplitude in the two eyes was not significantly different ( P > 0.05; paired t -test) but saccade direction differed. However, saccade disconjugacy accounted for only ~50% of the change in horizontal misalignment while disconjugate postsaccadic movements accounted for the other ~50% of the change in misalignment due to electrical stimulation. In summary, our data suggest that electrical stimulation of the SC of strabismic monkeys produces a change in horizontal eye alignment that is due to a combination of disconjugate saccadic eye movements and disconjugate postsaccadic movements. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Electrical stimulation of the superior colliculus in strabismic monkeys results in a change in eye misalignment. These data support the notion of developmental disruption of vergence circuits leading to maintenance of eye misalignment in strabismus. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Electrical stimulation of superior colliculus affects strabismus angle in monkey models for strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Suraj; Meng, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of binocular vision during the critical period for development leads to eye misalignment in humans and in monkey models. We have previously suggested that disruption within a vergence circuit could be the neural basis for strabismus. Electrical stimulation in the rostral superior colliculus (rSC) leads to vergence eye movements in normal monkeys. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SC stimulation on eye misalignment in strabismic monkeys. Electrical stimulation was delivered to 51 sites in the intermediate and deep layers of the SC (400 Hz, 0.5-s duration, 10–40 μA) in 3 adult optical prism-reared strabismic monkeys. Scleral search coils were used to measure movements of both eyes during a fixation task. Staircase saccades with horizontal and vertical components were elicited by stimulation as predicted from the SC topographic map. Electrical stimulation also resulted in significant changes in horizontal strabismus angle, i.e., a shift toward exotropia/esotropia depending on stimulation site. Electrically evoked saccade vector amplitude in the two eyes was not significantly different (P > 0.05; paired t-test) but saccade direction differed. However, saccade disconjugacy accounted for only ~50% of the change in horizontal misalignment while disconjugate postsaccadic movements accounted for the other ~50% of the change in misalignment due to electrical stimulation. In summary, our data suggest that electrical stimulation of the SC of strabismic monkeys produces a change in horizontal eye alignment that is due to a combination of disconjugate saccadic eye movements and disconjugate postsaccadic movements. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Electrical stimulation of the superior colliculus in strabismic monkeys results in a change in eye misalignment. These data support the notion of developmental disruption of vergence circuits leading to maintenance of eye misalignment in strabismus. PMID:28031397

  6. ANTAGONIST VERSUS AGONIST MUSCLE NEUROMUSCULAR ELECTRICAL STIMULATION ON SPASTICITY IN STROKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchetha P. S

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spasticity is the common problem encountered in the treatment of hemiplegic patients. Various treatment techniques have been developed to reduce spasticity, neuromuscular electrical stimulation is one of them. Several studies have proved that stimulation of either spastic muscle or stimulation of antagonist muscle to spastic muscle results in a reduction of spasticity. However, there is no literature available on a comparative study to suggest which method is more effective in spasticity reduction. Hence this study was undertaken to find out the efficacy of each technique and to compare the two techniques of Neuromuscular electrical stimulation to determine the most effective technique. Methods: In this study with pre and post-experimental design 30 post-stroke patients were selected and they were randomly assigned into two groups. Group A received anatagonist (triceps muscle Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and Group B received agonist (biceps brachii muscle Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for 2 weeks, one session per day for a duration of 30 minutes. Outcome measures were recorded using modified Ashworth scale and deep tendon reflex grading scale. Results: Statistical analysis was carried out by using Wilcoxon signed rank sum test and Mann-Whitney U test at 0.05 level of significance. There was a significant recovery after the treatment based on the Modified Ashworth Scale and deep tendon reflex grading scale scores before and after the intervention within the groups and between the groups with p-value< 0.001. The group receiving the antagonist muscle neuromuscular electrical stimulation showed better recovery with a mean difference of 1.8 and 1.2 on Modified Ashworth Scale and reflex grading scale respectively. Conclusion: The study concluded that both the techniques resulted in reduction of spasticity and on comparison it was found that antagonist muscle (triceps Neuromuscular electrical stimulation reduced spasticity

  7. Medical devices; neurological devices; classification of the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator to treat headache. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-03

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator to treat headache into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order, and will be part of the codified language for the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator to treat headache classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  8. Efficacy of two forms of electrical stimulation in increasing quadriceps strength: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircan, Cigdem; Senocak, Ozlem; Peker, Ozlen; Kaya, Aylin; Tamci, Sebnem Akgol; Gulbahar, Selmin; Akalin, Elif

    2002-03-01

    To investigate whether electrical stimulation is effective in improving quadriceps strength in healthy subjects and to compare interferential and low-frequency current in terms of the effects on quadriceps strength and perceived discomfort. Randomized, controlled study. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department in a university hospital. Thirty medical faculty students, divided into three groups, participated in the study. Group A received electrical stimulation with bipolar interferential current while group B received electrical stimulation with low-frequency current (symmetrical biphasic). Group C served as the control group. Electrical stimulation was given for 15 minutes, five days a week for three weeks, at a maximally tolerated intensity with the knee fully extended in the sitting position. Before and after the study, quadriceps strength was measured with a Cybex dynamometer isokinetically at the angular velocities of 60 degrees/s and 120 degrees/s. The perceived discomfort experienced with each type of electrical stimulation was quantified by the use of a visual analogue scale (VAS). Statistically significant increase in isokinetic strength was observed after training in group A and group B. Increase in strength did not differ between the stimulation groups. No significant change in strength occurred in group C. Perceived discomfort by the stimulation groups was not significantly different. Both interferential and low-frequency currents can be used in strength training with the parameters used in this study.

  9. Experimental electrical stimulation of the bladder using a new device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, T; Christiansen, P; Nielsen, B

    1986-01-01

    Repeated bladder contractions were evoked during a six month period in three unanaesthetized female minipigs by using unipolar carbon fiber electrodes embedded in the bladder wall adjacent to the ureterovesical junction. In contrast to bipolar and direct bladder muscle stimulation unipolar...... electrodes at each ureterovesical junction evoked bladder pressure increase similar to those produced in previous investigations in dogs. Sacral nerve stimulation of S2 evoked bladder contraction at a minimal current. Microscopic examination revealed no cellular reactions to the carbon fibers...

  10. The effect of subthreshold continuous electrical stimulation on the facial function of patients with Bell's palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin; Choi, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    The drug regimen plus electrical stimulation was more effective in treating Bell's palsy than the conventional drug treatment alone. The effectiveness of such a sub-threshold, continuous, low frequency electrical stimulation suggests a new therapeutic approach to accelerate nerve regeneration and improve functional recovery after injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sub-threshold, continuous electrical stimulation at 20 Hz facilitates functional recovery of patients with Bell's palsy. The authors performed a prospective randomized study that included 60 patients with mild-to-moderate grade Bell's palsy (HB grade ≤4, SB grade ≥40), to evaluate the effect of developed electrical stimulation on the resolution of symptoms. Thirty patients were treated with prednisolone or/and acyclovir plus electrical stimulation within 7 days of the onset of symptoms. The other 30 patients were treated with only prednisolone or/and acyclovir as a control group. The overall rate of patient recovery among those treated with prednisolone or/and acyclovir plus electrical stimulation (96%) was significantly better (p < 0.05) than the rate among those treated with only prednisolone or/and acyclovir (88%).

  11. The Spatial Extent of Epiretinal Electrical Stimulation in the Healthy Mouse Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Zohreh; Jalligampala, Archana; Zrenner, Eberhart; Rathbun, Daniel Lleweylln

    2017-01-01

    Retinal prostheses use electrical stimulation to restore functional vision to patients blinded by retinitis pigmentosa. A key detail is the spatial pattern of ganglion cells activated by stimulation. Therefore, we characterized the spatial extent of network-mediated electrical activation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the epiretinal monopolar electrode configuration. Healthy mouse RGC activities were recorded with a micro-electrode array (MEA). The stimuli consisted of monophasic rectangular cathodic voltage pulses and cycling full-field light flashes. Voltage tuning curves exhibited significant hysteresis, reflecting adaptation to electrical stimulation on the time scale of seconds. Responses decreased from 0 to 300 µm, and were also dependent on the strength of stimulation. Applying the Rayleigh criterion to the half-width at half-maximum of the electrical point spread function suggests a visual acuity limit of no better than 20/946. Threshold voltage showed only a modest increase across these distances. The existence of significant hysteresis requires that future investigations of electrical retinal stimulation control for such long-memory adaptation. The spread of electrical activation beyond 200 µm suggests that neighbouring electrodes in epiretinal implants based on indirect stimulation of RGCs may be indiscriminable at interelectrode spacings as large as 400 µm. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. The Spatial Extent of Epiretinal Electrical Stimulation in the Healthy Mouse Retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Hosseinazdeh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Retinal prostheses use electrical stimulation to restore functional vision to patients blinded by retinitis pigmentosa. A key detail is the spatial pattern of ganglion cells activated by stimulation. Therefore, we characterized the spatial extent of network-mediated electrical activation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs in the epiretinal monopolar electrode configuration. Methods: Healthy mouse RGC activities were recorded with a micro-electrode array (MEA. The stimuli consisted of monophasic rectangular cathodic voltage pulses and cycling full-field light flashes. Results: Voltage tuning curves exhibited significant hysteresis, reflecting adaptation to electrical stimulation on the time scale of seconds. Responses decreased from 0 to 300 µm, and were also dependent on the strength of stimulation. Applying the Rayleigh criterion to the half-width at half-maximum of the electrical point spread function suggests a visual acuity limit of no better than 20/946. Threshold voltage showed only a modest increase across these distances. Conclusion: The existence of significant hysteresis requires that future investigations of electrical retinal stimulation control for such long-memory adaptation. The spread of electrical activation beyond 200 µm suggests that neighbouring electrodes in epiretinal implants based on indirect stimulation of RGCs may be indiscriminable at interelectrode spacings as large as 400 µm.

  13. 42 CFR 414.232 - Special payment rules for transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators (TENS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... nerve stimulators (TENS). 414.232 Section 414.232 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Special payment rules for transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators (TENS). (a) General payment rule. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, payment for TENS is made on a purchase basis with...

  14. Cycle-to-cycle control of swing phase of paraplegic gait induced by surface electrical stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, H.M.; Franken, H.M.; Veltink, Petrus H.; Baardman, G.; Redmeijer, R.A.; Boom, H.B.K.

    1995-01-01

    Parameterised swing phase of gait in paraplegics was obtained using surface electrical stimulation of the hip flexors, hamstrings and quadriceps; the hip flexors were stimulated to obtain a desired hip angle range, the hamstrings to provide foot clearance in the forward swing, and the quadriceps to

  15. Acupuncture with manual and electrical stimulation for labour pain : a longitudinal randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Vixner, Linda; Schytt, Erica; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Waldenström, Ulla; Pettersson, Hans; Mårtensson, Lena B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acupuncture is commonly used to reduce pain during labour despite contradictory results. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture with manual stimulation and acupuncture with combined manual and electrical stimulation (electro-acupuncture) compared with standard care in reducing labour pain. Our hypothesis was that both acupuncture stimulation techniques were more effective than standard care, and that electro-acupuncture was most effective.  Methods: ...

  16. Comparison of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) for spasticity in spinal cord injury - A pilot randomized cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anjali; Solomon, John M; Manikandan, Natarajan

    2017-10-25

    Spasticity following spinal cord injury (SCI) can impair function and affect quality of life. This study compared the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) on lower limb spasticity in patients with SCI. Double blind randomized crossover design. Neuro-rehabilitation unit, Manipal University, India. Ten participants (age: 39 ± 13.6 years, C1-T11, 1-26 months post SCI) with lower limb spasticity were enrolled in this study. Participants were administered electrical stimulation with TENS and FES (duration - 30 minutes) in a cross over manner separated by 24 hours. Spasticity was measured using modified Ashworth scale (MAS) [for hip abductors, knee extensors and ankle plantar flexors] and spinal cord assessment tool for spastic reflexes (SCATS). Assessments were performed at baseline, immediately, 1 hour, 4 hours, and 24 hours post intervention. A between group analysis did not show statistically significant differences between FES and TENS (P > 0.05). In the within group analyses, TENS and FES significantly reduced spasticity up to 4 hours in hip adductors and knee extensors (P electrical stimulation with FES and TENS appears to have similar anti-spasticity effects that last for 4 hours. The findings of this preliminary study suggest that both TENS and FES have the potential to be used as therapeutic adjuncts to relieve spasticity in the clinic. In addition, FES may have better effects on patients presenting with spastic reflexes.

  17. The efficacy of electrical stimulation in lower extremity cutaneous wound healing: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mohammed; Alonso-Rasgado, Teresa; Baguneid, Mohamed; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2017-02-01

    Current gold standard lower extremity cutaneous wound management is not always effective. Cutaneous wounds generate a "current of injury" which is directly involved in wound healing processes. Application of exogenous electrical stimulation has been hypothesised to imitate the natural electric current that occurs in cutaneous wounds. The aim of this extensive review was to provide a detailed update on the variety of electrical stimulation modalities used in the management of lower extremity wounds. Several different waveforms and delivery methods of electrical stimulation have been used. Pulsed current appears superior to other electrical modalities available. The majority of studies support the beneficial effects of pulsed current over conservative management of lower extremity cutaneous wounds. Although it appears to have no benefit over causal surgical intervention, it is a treatment option which could be utilised in those patients unsuitable for surgery. Other waveforms and modalities appear promising; however, they still lack large trial data to recommend a firm conclusion with regards to their use. Current studies also vary in quantity, quality and protocol across the different modalities. The ideal electrical stimulation device needs to be non-invasive, portable and cost-effective and provides minimal interference with patients' daily life. Further studies are necessary to establish the ideal electrical stimulation modality, parameters, method of delivery and duration of treatment. The development and implementation of newer devices in the management of acute and chronic wounds provides an exciting direction in the field of electrotherapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Right median nerve electrical stimulation for acute traumatic coma (the Asia Coma Electrical Stimulation trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Zhang, Chao; Feng, Junfeng; Mao, Qing; Gao, Guoyi; Jiang, Jiyao

    2017-07-10

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become the most common cause of death and disability in persons between 15 and 30 years of age, and about 10-15% of patients affected by TBI will end up in a coma. Coma caused by TBI presents a significant challenge to neuroscientists. Right median nerve electrical stimulation has been reported as a simple, inexpensive, non-invasive technique to speed recovery and improve outcomes for traumatic comatose patients. This multicentre, prospective, randomised (1:1) controlled trial aims to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of electrical right median nerve stimulation (RMNS) in both accelerating emergence from coma and promoting long-term outcomes. This trial aims to enrol 380 TBI comatose patients to partake in either an electrical stimulation group or a non-stimulation group. Patients assigned to the stimulation group will receive RMNS in addition to standard treatment at an amplitude of 15-20 mA with a pulse width of 300 μs at 40 Hz ON for 20 s and OFF for 40 s. The electrical treatment will last for 8 h per day for 2 weeks. The primary endpoint will be the percentage of patients regaining consciousness 6 months after injury. The secondary endpoints will be Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale, Coma Recovery Scale-Revised and Disability Rating Scale scores at 28 days, 3 months and 6 months after injury; Glasgow Coma Scale, Glasgow Coma Scale Motor Part and Full Outline of Unresponsiveness scale scores on day 1 and day 7 after enrolment and 28 days, 3 months and 6 months after injury; duration of unconsciousness and mechanical ventilation; length of intensive care unit and hospital stays; and incidence of adverse events. Right median nerve electrical stimulation has been used as a safe, inexpensive, non-invasive therapy for neuroresuscitation of coma patients for more than two decades, yet no trial has robustly proven the efficacy and safety of this treatment. The Asia Coma Electrical Stimulation (ACES) trial has the

  19. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) for cancer pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlow, Adam; Bennett, Michael I; Robb, Karen A; Johnson, Mark I; Simpson, Karen H; Oxberry, Stephen G

    2012-03-14

    Cancer-related pain is complex and multi-dimensional but the mainstay of cancer pain management has predominantly used a biomedical approach. There is a need for non-pharmacological and innovative approaches. Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation (TENS) may have a role in pain management but the effectiveness of TENS is currently unknown. This is an update of the original review published in Issue 3, 2008. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of TENS for cancer-related pain in adults. The initial review searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, AMED and PEDRO databases in April 2008. We performed an updated search of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PEDRO databases in November 2011. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTS) investigating the use of TENS for the management of cancer-related pain in adults. The search strategy identified a further two studies for possible inclusion. One of the review authors screened each abstract using a study eligibility tool. Where eligibility could not be determined, a second author assessed the full paper. One author used a standardised data extraction sheet to collect information on the studies and independently assess the quality of the studies using the validated five-point Oxford Quality Scale. The small sample sizes and differences in patient study populations of the three included studies (two from the original review and a third included in this update) prevented meta-analysis. For the original review the search strategy identified 37 possible published studies; we divided these between two pairs of review authors who decided on study selection; all four review authors discussed and agreed final scores. Only one additional RCT met the eligibility criteria (24 participants) for this updated review. Although this was a feasibility study, not designed to investigate intervention effect, it suggested that TENS may improve bone pain on movement in a

  20. Electrical stimulation of human embryonic stem cells: cardiac differentiation and the generation of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serena, Elena; Figallo, Elisa; Tandon, Nina; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Gerecht, Sharon; Elvassore, Nicola; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-12-10

    Exogenous electric fields have been implied in cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this work, we explored the effects of electrical field stimulation on ROS generation and cardiogenesis in embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC, line H13), using a custom-built electrical stimulation bioreactor. Electrical properties of the bioreactor system were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and analysis of electrical currents. The effects of the electrode material (stainless steel, titanium-nitride-coated titanium, titanium), length of stimulus (1 and 90 s) and age of EBs at the onset of electrical stimulation (4 and 8 days) were investigated with respect to ROS generation. The amplitude of the applied electrical field was 1 V/mm. The highest rate of ROS generation was observed for stainless steel electrodes, for signal duration of 90 s and for 4-day-old EBs. Notably, comparable ROS generation was achieved by incubation of EBs with 1 nM H(2)O(2). Cardiac differentiation in these EBs was evidenced by spontaneous contractions, expression of troponin T and its sarcomeric organization. These results imply that electrical stimulation plays a role in cardiac differentiation of hESCs, through mechanisms associated with the intracellular generation of ROS.

  1. On the cause and control of residual voltage generated by electrical stimulation of neural tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ashwati; Kelly, Shawn K

    2012-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation of neural tissue is traditionally performed with symmetric cathodic-first biphasic pulses of current through an electrode/electrolyte interface. When the interface is modeled by a series R-C circuit, as is sometimes done for stimulator circuit design, the appearance of a net residual voltage across the electrode cannot be explained. Residual voltage can cause polarization of the electrode and pose a problem for safe electrical stimulation. This paper aims to (1) theoretically explain one reason for the residual voltage, which is the inclusion of the Faradaic impedance (2) suggest a simple dynamic feedback mechanism to eliminate residual voltage.

  2. Electrical Stimulation of the Upper Limb in Stroke: Stimulation of the Extensors of the Hand vs. Alternate Stimulation of Flexors and Extensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kroon, J.R.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Lankhorst, G.J.; Zilvold, G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether there is a difference in functional improvement in the affected arm of chronic stroke patients when comparing two methods of electrical stimulation. Design: Explanatory trial in which 30 chronic stroke patients with impaired arm function were randomly allocated to

  3. Effect of electrical stimulation on motor nerve regeneration in sciatic nerve ligated-mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiee, Farzaneh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-06-27

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of electrical stimulation on sciatic nerve regeneration and functional recovery of target muscles. Mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: ligated without electrical stimulation, ligated with electrical stimulation and control (non-ligated). The unilateral peripheral mononeuropathy was produced on the right hind limb. Sciatic nerve was then electrically stimulated daily for a period of 2 weeks (duration: 0.2 msec, frequency: 100Hz, amplitude: 15mA). Evoked surface EMG was recorded from biceps femoris (BF) and gluteus maximus (GM) muscles on the 3rd, 7th, 10th and 14th day after sciatic nerve ligation. Muscle force and sensitivity was determined by processing of the recorded EMG signals in time and frequency domains respectively. The results showed electrical stimulation (ES) produced a significant increase in the EMG response of BF, and muscle force significantly increased on the 14th day (pelectrical stimulation of sciatic nerve accelerates nerve repair and indirectly improves BF muscle force to a comparable level with control without effect on muscle sensitivity. However, ES had no effect on GM muscle force and sensitivity.

  4. Influence of transcutaneous electrical stimulation on heterotopic ossification: an experimental study in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.G.G. Zotz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic ossification (HO is a metaplastic biological process in which there is newly formed bone in soft tissues, resulting in joint mobility deficit and pain. Different treatment modalities have been tried to prevent HO development, but there is no consensus on a therapeutic approach. Since electrical stimulation is a widely used resource in physiotherapy practice to stimulate joint mobility, with analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, its usefulness for HO treatment was investigated. We aimed to identify the influence of electrical stimulation on induced HO in Wistar rats. Thirty-six male rats (350-390 g were used, and all animals were anesthetized for blood sampling before HO induction, to quantify the serum alkaline phosphatase. HO induction was performed by bone marrow implantation in both quadriceps of the animals, which were then divided into 3 groups: control (CG, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS group (TG, and functional electrical stimulation (FES group (FG with 12 rats each. All animals were anesthetized and electrically stimulated twice per week, for 35 days from induction day. After this period, another blood sample was collected and quadriceps muscles were bilaterally removed for histological and calcium analysis and the rats were killed. Calcium levels in muscles showed significantly lower results when comparing TG and FG (P

  5. Postcontraction hyperemia after electrical stimulation: potential utility in rehabilitation of patients with upper extremity paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Nobusuke; Matsunaga, Toshiki; Kudo, Daisuke; Sasaki, Kana; Mizutani, Takashi; Sato, Mineyoshi; Chida, Satoaki; Hatakeyama, Kazutoshi; Watanabe, Motoyuki; Shimada, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare postcontraction hyperemia after electrical stimulation between patients with upper extremity paralysis caused by upper motor neuron diseases and healthy controls. Thirteen healthy controls and eleven patients with upper extremity paralysis were enrolled. The blood flow in the basilic vein was measured by ultrasound before the electrical stimulation of the biceps brachii muscle and 30 s after the stimulation. The stimulation was performed at 10 mA and at a frequency of 70 Hz for 20 s. The mean blood flow in the healthy control group and in upper extremity paralysis group before the electrical stimulation was 60 ± 20 mL/min (mean ± SD) and 48 ± 25 mL/min, respectively. After the stimulation, blood flow in both groups increased to 117 ± 23 mL/min and 81 ± 41 mL/min, respectively. We show that it is possible to measure postcontraction hyperemia using an ultrasound system. In addition, blood flow in both groups increased after the electrical stimulation because of postcontraction hyperemia. These findings suggest that evaluating post contraction hyperemia in patients with upper extremity paralysis can assess rehabilitation effects.

  6. ERAASR: an algorithm for removing electrical stimulation artifacts from multielectrode array recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Daniel J.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Electrical stimulation is a widely used and effective tool in systems neuroscience, neural prosthetics, and clinical neurostimulation. However, electrical artifacts evoked by stimulation prevent the detection of spiking activity on nearby recording electrodes, which obscures the neural population response evoked by stimulation. We sought to develop a method to clean artifact-corrupted electrode signals recorded on multielectrode arrays in order to recover the underlying neural spiking activity. Approach. We created an algorithm, which performs estimation and removal of array artifacts via sequential principal components regression (ERAASR). This approach leverages the similar structure of artifact transients, but not spiking activity, across simultaneously recorded channels on the array, across pulses within a train, and across trials. The ERAASR algorithm requires no special hardware, imposes no requirements on the shape of the artifact or the multielectrode array geometry, and comprises sequential application of straightforward linear methods with intuitive parameters. The approach should be readily applicable to most datasets where stimulation does not saturate the recording amplifier. Main results. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated in macaque dorsal premotor cortex using acute linear multielectrode array recordings and single electrode stimulation. Large electrical artifacts appeared on all channels during stimulation. After application of ERAASR, the cleaned signals were quiescent on channels with no spontaneous spiking activity, whereas spontaneously active channels exhibited evoked spikes which closely resembled spontaneously occurring spiking waveforms. Significance. We hope that enabling simultaneous electrical stimulation and multielectrode array recording will help elucidate the causal links between neural activity and cognition and facilitate naturalistic sensory protheses.

  7. Treatment of refractory chest angina with spinal electrical stimulator: literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomezese, Omar F; Paola, Aranda; Echeverria, Luis E; Saibi, Jose F; Calderon, Jaime; Barrera, Juan G

    2008-01-01

    There is a group of patients with chronic refractory chest angina, who are not ideal candidates for surgical or percutaneous revascularization and who although having a good medical handling continues to experience severe episodes of angina. The spinal electrical stimulator is a neuromodulators used as an alternative to treat these patients. The objective is to realize a review of scientific literature regarding the spinal electric stimulation in the treatment of chest angina, its mechanism of action, benefits and its cost effectiveness. Materials and methods: using the Cochrane methodology, a search of articles published from January 1980 to January 2007 in Medline using the terms spinal cord stimulation, was realized. The papers considered most pertinent were selected. Conclusions: the anti-ischemic effect of the electrical spinal stimulator reduces the episodes of chest angina, improves the quality of life and the tolerance to exercise, diminishes the hospital stay and delays the appearance of ischemic signs

  8. Effects of sustained electrical stimulation on spasticity assessed by the pendulum test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas Luna José L.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuromodulation using electrical stimulation is able to enhance motor control of individuals suffering an upper motor neuron disorder. This work examined the effect of sustained electrical stimulation to modify spasticity in the leg muscles. We applied transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation with a pulse rate of 50 Hz for 30 min. The subjects were assessed before and after the intervention using in a pendulum test setup. The motion of the free swinging leg was acquired through video tracking and goniometer measurements. The quantification was done through the R2n index which shows consistency identifying the spasticity levels. In all incomplete SCI subjects having severe spasticity, the results show that electrical stimulation is effective to modify the increased muscle tone.

  9. Stimulated Raman scattering by an intense relativistic electron beam subjected to a rippled electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekefi, G.; Shefer, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Generation of submillimeter radiation by stimulated Raman scattering in an intense relativistic electron beam subjected to a spatially periodic transverse electric field is examined. The requisite electric field modulation can be obtained by rippling the wall of the conducting drift tube. When the electron beam is subjected to a periodic longitudinal electric field, short-wavelength plasmons, rather than photons, are generated. The growth rate and other parameters related to this instability are discussed

  10. Intrinsic optical imaging study on cortical responses to electrical stimulation in ventral posterior medial nucleus of thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiacheng; Zhang, Shaomin; Yu, Chaonan; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Xu, Kedi

    2018-04-01

    Intracortical electrical micro-stimulation has been applied widely for the attempts on reconstruction of sensory functions. More recently, thalamic electrical stimulation has been proposed as a promising target for somatosensory stimulation. However, the cortical activations and mechanisms evoked by VPM stimulation remained unclear. In this report, the cortical neural responses to electrical stimulations were recorded by optical imaging of intrinsic signals. The impact of stimulation parameters was characterized to illustrate how the VPM stimulation alter cortical activities. Significant increases were found in cortical responses with increased stimulation amplitude or pulse width. However, frequency modulation exhibited significant inhibition with higher frequency stimulation. Our results suggest that optical imaging of intrinsic signals is sensitive and reliable to deep brain stimulations. These results may not only help to understand the modulation effects through thalamocortical pathway, but also show the possibility to use VPM stimulation to evoke frequency-tuned tactile sensations in rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of acute selective pudendal nerve electrical stimulation after simulated childbirth injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai-Hong; Gill, Bradley C; Dissaranan, Charuspong; Zutshi, Massarat; Balog, Brian M; Lin, Danli; Damaser, Margot S

    2013-02-01

    During childbirth, a combinatorial injury occurs and can result in stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Simulated childbirth injury, consisting of vaginal distension (VD) and pudendal nerve crush (PNC), results in slowed recovery of continence, as well as decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a regenerative cytokine. Electrical stimulation has been shown to upregulate BDNF in motor neurons and facilitate axon regrowth through the increase of β(II)-tubulin expression after injury. In this study, female rats underwent selective pudendal nerve motor branch (PNMB) stimulation after simulated childbirth injury or sham injury to determine whether such stimulation affects bladder and anal function after injury and whether the stimulation increases BDNF expression in Onuf's nucleus after injury. Rats received 4 h of VD followed by bilateral PNC and 1 h of subthreshold electrical stimulation of the left PNMB and sham stimulation of the right PNMB. Rats underwent filling cystometry and anal pressure recording before, during, and after the stimulation. Bladder and anal contractile function were partially disrupted after injury. PNMB stimulation temporarily inhibited bladder contraction after injury. Two days and 1 wk after injury, BDNF expression in Onuf's nucleus of the stimulated side was significantly increased compared with the sham-stimulated side, whereas β(II)-tubulin expression in Onuf's nucleus of the stimulated side was significantly increased only 1 wk after injury. Acute electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve proximal to the crush site upregulates BDNF and β(II)-tubulin in Onuf's nucleus after simulated childbirth injury, which could be a potential preventive option for SUI after childbirth injury.

  12. Therapeutic electrical stimulation of the upper extremity in stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kroon, Joke Rinske

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to progress towards evidence based application of ES. In order to reach this goal it was necessary to evaluate the available evidence on the effectiveness of ES, to explore the relative value of the different methods of stimulation and parameter settings and gain more

  13. TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NERVE-STIMULATION (TENS) IN RAYNAUDS-PHENOMENON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULDER, P; DOMPELING, EC; VANSLOCHTERENVANDERBOOR, JC; KUIPERS, WD; SMIT, AJ

    Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) has been described as resulting in vasodilatation. The effect of 2 Hz TENS of the right hand during forty-five minutes on skin temperature and plethysmography of the third digit of both hands and feet and on transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcpO2) of the right

  14. Influence of electrical stimulation on carcass and meat quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agbeniga

    2014-08-24

    Aug 24, 2014 ... After the stimulation, evisceration and carcass splitting procedures were carried out before the carcasses enter the chillers. In total, 57 animals were assigned to this treatment. Conventional slaughter was done with the aid of a pneumatic captive bolt gun which utilises compressed air (Anil et al., 2002). Here ...

  15. Experimental electrical stimulation of the bladder using a new device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, T; Christiansen, P; Nielsen, B

    1986-01-01

    electrodes at each ureterovesical junction evoked bladder pressure increase similar to those produced in previous investigations in dogs. Sacral nerve stimulation of S2 evoked bladder contraction at a minimal current. Microscopic examination revealed no cellular reactions to the carbon fibers...

  16. Dynamic impedance model of the skin-electrode interface for transcutaneous electrical stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Vargas Luna

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous electrical stimulation can depolarize nerve or muscle cells applying impulses through electrodes attached on the skin. For these applications, the electrode-skin impedance is an important factor which influences effectiveness. Various models describe the interface using constant or current-depending resistive-capacitive equivalent circuit. Here, we develop a dynamic impedance model valid for a wide range stimulation intensities. The model considers electroporation and charge-dependent effects to describe the impedance variation, which allows to describe high-charge pulses. The parameters were adjusted based on rectangular, biphasic stimulation pulses generated by a stimulator, providing optionally current or voltage-controlled impulses, and applied through electrodes of different sizes. Both control methods deliver a different electrical field to the tissue, which is constant throughout the impulse duration for current-controlled mode or have a very current peak for voltage-controlled. The results show a predominant dependence in the current intensity in the case of both stimulation techniques that allows to keep a simple model. A verification simulation using the proposed dynamic model shows coefficient of determination of around 0.99 in both stimulation types. The presented method for fitting electrode-skin impedance can be simple extended to other stimulation waveforms and electrode configuration. Therefore, it can be embedded in optimization algorithms for designing electrical stimulation applications even for pulses with high charges and high current spikes.

  17. Direct electrical stimulation of human cortex evokes high gamma activity that predicts conscious somatosensory perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Leah; Rolston, John D.; Fox, Neal P.; Knowlton, Robert; Rao, Vikram R.; Chang, Edward F.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a clinical gold standard for human brain mapping and readily evokes conscious percepts, yet the neurophysiological changes underlying these percepts are not well understood. Approach. To determine the neural correlates of DES, we stimulated the somatosensory cortex of ten human participants at frequency-amplitude combinations that both elicited and failed to elicit conscious percepts, meanwhile recording neural activity directly surrounding the stimulation site. We then compared the neural activity of perceived trials to that of non-perceived trials. Main results. We found that stimulation evokes distributed high gamma activity, which correlates with conscious perception better than stimulation parameters themselves. Significance. Our findings suggest that high gamma activity is a reliable biomarker for perception evoked by both natural and electrical stimuli.

  18. Vestibular implantation and longitudinal electrical stimulation of the semicircular canal afferents in human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Leo; Nie, Kaibao; Jameyson, Elyse; Phillips, Christopher M.; Nowack, Amy L.; Golub, Justin S.; Rubinstein, Jay T.

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments and limited data in humans suggest that electrical stimulation of the vestibular end organs could be used to treat loss of vestibular function. In this paper we demonstrate that canal-specific two-dimensionally (2D) measured eye velocities are elicited from intermittent brief 2 s biphasic pulse electrical stimulation in four human subjects implanted with a vestibular prosthesis. The 2D measured direction of the slow phase eye movements changed with the canal stimulated. Increasing pulse current over a 0–400 μA range typically produced a monotonic increase in slow phase eye velocity. The responses decremented or in some cases fluctuated over time in most implanted canals but could be partially restored by changing the return path of the stimulation current. Implantation of the device in Meniere's patients produced hearing and vestibular loss in the implanted ear. Electrical stimulation was well tolerated, producing no sensation of pain, nausea, or auditory percept with stimulation that elicited robust eye movements. There were changes in slow phase eye velocity with current and over time, and changes in electrically evoked compound action potentials produced by stimulation and recorded with the implanted device. Perceived rotation in subjects was consistent with the slow phase eye movements in direction and scaled with stimulation current in magnitude. These results suggest that electrical stimulation of the vestibular end organ in human subjects provided controlled vestibular inputs over time, but in Meniere's patients this apparently came at the cost of hearing and vestibular function in the implanted ear. PMID:25652917

  19. Pure-Tone Masking Patterns for Monopolar and Phantom Electrical Stimulation in Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoji, Aniket A; Koka, Kanthaiah; Litvak, Leonid M; Finley, Charles C

    Monopolar stimulation of the most apical electrode produces the lowest pitch sensation in cochlear implants clinically. A phantom electrode that uses out-of-phase electrical stimulation between the most apical and the neighboring basal electrode can produce a lower pitch sensation than that associated with the most apical electrode. However, because of the absence of contacts beyond the apical tip of the array, the ability to assess the spread of electrical excitation associated with phantom stimulation is limited in the typical cochlear implant subject with no residual hearing. In the present study, the spread of electrical excitation associated with monopolar and phantom stimulation of the most apical electrode was assessed using electrical masking of acoustic thresholds in cochlear implant subjects with residual, low-frequency, acoustic hearing. Eight subjects with an Advanced Bionics cochlear implant and residual hearing in the implanted ear participated in this study (nine ears in total). Unmasked and masked thresholds for acoustic pure tones were measured at 125, 250, 500, 750, 1000, and 2000 Hz in the presence of monopolar and phantom electrode stimulation presented at the apical-most end of the array. The current compensation for phantom electrode stimulation was fixed at 50%. The two electrical maskers were loudness balanced. Differences between the unmasked and masked acoustic thresholds can be attributed to (1) the electrical stimulus-induced interference in the transduction/conduction of the acoustic signal through cochlear periphery and the auditory nerve and/or (2) masking at the level of the central auditory system. The results show a significant elevation in pure-tone thresholds in the presence of the monopolar and phantom electrical maskers. The unmasked thresholds were subtracted from the masked thresholds to derive masking patterns as a function of the acoustic probe frequency. The masking patterns show that phantom stimulation was able to

  20. Electrical stimulation in white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, I.; Nurfazira, K. M. P.; Fern, C. Shi; Ain, M. S. Nur

    2017-09-01

    White oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) is an edible mushroom that gained popularity due to its nutritional values, low production cost and ease of cultivation. There are several research reported on the mushroom fruiting bodies which were actively developed when applying electrical shock treatment. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of different electrical voltages on the growth and yield of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida). Five different electrical voltages had been applied during spawning period which were 6V, 9V, 12V, 15V and mushroom bags without any treatment served as control. Treatment at 6V showed the highest rate for mycelium growth while 15V took the shortest time for fruiting body formation. However, no significant different (P>0.05) among all the treatments was observed for the time taken for the mycelium to fill-up the bag and pinhead emergence. The total fresh weight and percentage of biological efficiency for treatment at 9V showed higher values compared to control. Treatment at 9V also showed the largest pileus diameter and the most firm in the pileus texture. Meanwhile, treatment at 6V showed the highest a* value (redness). In addition, different electrical voltage treatments applied did not show any significant effect on substrate utilization efficiency, colour L* and b* values. In conclusion, among all the electrical treatments applied, 9V could be considered as the best treatment to enhance the yield of white oyster mushroom.

  1. Tissue engineering bioreactor systems for applying physical and electrical stimulations to cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, GyuHyun; Yang, Gi-Hoon; Kim, GeunHyung

    2015-05-01

    Bioreactor systems in tissue engineering applications provide various types of stimulation to mimic the tissues in vitro and in vivo. Various bioreactors have been designed to induce high cellular activities, including initial cell attachment, cell growth, and differentiation. Although cell-stimulation processes exert mostly positive effects on cellular responses, in some cases such stimulation can also have a negative effect on cultured cells. In this review, we discuss various types of bioreactor and the positive and negative effects of stimulation (physical, chemical, and electrical) on various cultured cell types. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Role of Cortical Cell Type and Morphology in Sub- and Suprathreshold Uniform Electric Field Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radman, Thomas; Ramos, Raddy L; Brumberg, Joshua C; Bikson, Marom

    2009-01-01

    Background The neocortex is the most common target of sub-dural electrotherapy and non-invasive brain stimulation modalities including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial current simulation (TCS). Specific neuronal elements targeted by cortical stimulation are considered to underlie therapeutic effects, but the exact cell-type(s) affected by these methods remains poorly understood. Objective We determined if neuronal morphology or cell type predicted responses to sub- and suprathreshold uniform electric fields. Methods We characterized the effects of sub- and supra-threshold electrical stimulation on identified cortical neurons in vitro. Uniform electric fields were applied to rat motor cortex brain slices, while recording from interneurons and pyramidal cells across cortical layers, using whole cell patch clamp. Neuron morphology was reconstructed following intracellular dialysis of biocytin. Based solely on volume-weighted morphology, we developed a parsimonious model of neuronal soma polarization by sub-threshold electric fields. Results We found that neuronal morphology correlated with somatic sub-threshold polarization. Based on neuronal morphology, we predict layer V pyramidal neuronal soma to be the most sensitive to polarization by optimally oriented sub-threshold fields. Supra-threshold electric field action potential threshold was shown to reflect both direct cell polarization and synaptic (network) activation. Layer V/VI neuron absolute electric field action potential thresholds were lower than Layer II/III pyramidal neurons and interneurons. Compared to somatic current injection, electric fields promoted burst firing and modulated action potential firing times. PMID:20161507

  3. Neurite outgrowth on electrospun PLLA fibers is enhanced by exogenous electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppes, A. N.; Zaccor, N. W.; Rivet, C. J.; Williams, L. A.; Piselli, J. M.; Gilbert, R. J.; Thompson, D. M.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Both electrical stimuli (endogenous and exogenous) and topographical cues are instructive to axonal extension. This report, for the first time, investigated the relative dominance of directional topographical guidance cues and directional electrical cues to enhance and/or direct primary neurite extension. We hypothesized the combination of electrical stimulation with electrospun fiber topography would induce longer neurite extension from dorsal root ganglia neurons than the presence of electrical stimulation or aligned topography alone. Approach. To test the hypothesis, neurite outgrowth was examined on laminin-coated poly-L-lactide films or electrospun fibers (2 µm in diameter) in the presence or absence of electrical stimulation. Immunostained neurons were semi-automatically traced using Neurolucida software and morphology was evaluated. Main Results. Neurite extension increased 74% on the aligned fibers compared to film controls. Stimulation alone increased outgrowth by 32% on films or fibers relative to unstimulated film controls. The co-presentation of topographical (fibers) with biophysical (electrical stimulation) cues resulted in a synergistic 126% increase in outgrowth relative to unstimulated film controls. Field polarity had no influence on the directionality of neurites, indicating topographical cues are responsible for guiding neurite extension. Significance. Both cues (electrical stimulation and fiber geometry) are modular in nature and can be synergistically applied in conjunction with other common methods in regenerative medicine such as controlled release of growth factors to further influence axonal growth in vivo. The combined application of electrical and aligned fiber topographical guidance cues described herein, if translated in vivo, could provide a more supportive environment for directed and robust axonal regeneration following peripheral nerve injury.

  4. Applied electric field enhances DRG neurite growth: influence of stimulation media, surface coating and growth supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Matthew D.; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz

    2009-08-01

    Electrical therapies have been found to aid repair of nerve injuries and have been shown to increase and direct neurite outgrowth during stimulation. This enhanced neural growth existed even after the electric field (EF) or stimulation was removed, but the factors that may influence the enhanced growth, such as stimulation media or surface coating, have not been fully investigated. This study characterized neurite outgrowth and branching under various conditions: EF magnitude and application time, ECM surface coating, medium during EF application and growth supplements. A uniform, low-magnitude EF (24 or 44 V m-1) was applied to dissociated chick embryo dorsal root ganglia seeded on collagen or laminin-coated surfaces. During the growth period, cells were either exposed to NGF or N2, and during stimulation cells were exposed to either unsupplemented media (Ca2+) or PBS (no Ca2+). Parallel controls for each experiment included cells exposed to the chamber with no stimulation and cells remaining outside the chamber. After brief electrical stimulation (10 min), neurite length significantly increased 24 h after application for all conditions studied. Of particular interest, increased stimulation time (10-100 min) further enhanced neurite length on laminin but not on collagen surfaces. Neurite branching was not affected by stimulation on any surface, and no preferential growth of neurites was noted after stimulation. Overall, the results of this report suggest that short-duration electric stimulation is sufficient to enhance neurite length under a variety of conditions. While further data are needed to fully elucidate a mechanism for this increased growth, these data suggest that one focus of those investigations should be the interaction between the growth cone and the substrata.

  5. Robust neurite extension following exogenous electrical stimulation within single walled carbon nanotube-composite hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppes, A N; Keating, K W; McGregor, A L; Koppes, R A; Kearns, K R; Ziemba, A M; McKay, C A; Zuidema, J M; Rivet, C J; Gilbert, R J; Thompson, D M

    2016-07-15

    The use of exogenous electrical stimulation to promote nerve regeneration has achieved only limited success. Conditions impeding optimized outgrowth may arise from inadequate stimulus presentation due to differences in injury geometry or signal attenuation. Implantation of an electrically-conductive biomaterial may mitigate this attenuation and provide a more reproducible signal. In this study, a conductive nanofiller (single-walled carbon nanotubes [SWCNT]) was selected as one possible material to manipulate the bulk electrical properties of a collagen type I-10% Matrigel™ composite hydrogel. Neurite outgrowth within hydrogels (SWCNT or nanofiller-free controls) was characterized to determine if: (1) nanofillers influence neurite extension and (2) electrical stimulation of the nanofiller composite hydrogel enhances neurite outgrowth. Increased SWCNT loading (10-100-μg/mL) resulted in greater bulk conductivity (up to 1.7-fold) with no significant changes to elastic modulus. Neurite outgrowth increased 3.3-fold in 20-μg/mL SWCNT loaded biomaterials relative to the nanofiller-free control. Electrical stimulation promoted greater outgrowth (2.9-fold) within SWCNT-free control. The concurrent presentation of electrical stimulation and SWCNT-loaded biomaterials resulted in a 7.0-fold increase in outgrowth relative to the unstimulated, nanofiller-free controls. Local glia residing within the DRG likely contribute, in part, to the observed increases in outgrowth; but it is unknown which specific nanofiller properties influence neurite extension. Characterization of neuronal behavior in model systems, such as those described here, will aid the rational development of biomaterials as well as the appropriate delivery of electrical stimuli to support nerve repair. Novel biomedical devices delivering electrical stimulation are being developed to mitigate symptoms of Parkinson's, treat drug-resistant depression, control movement or enhance verve regeneration. Carbon

  6. Modification of electrical pain threshold by voluntary breathing-controlled electrical stimulation (BreEStim in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengai Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain has a distinct sensory and affective (i.e., unpleasantness component. BreEStim, during which electrical stimulation is delivered during voluntary breathing, has been shown to selectively reduce the affective component of post-amputation phantom pain. The objective was to examine whether BreEStim increases pain threshold such that subjects could have improved tolerance of sensation of painful stimuli. METHODS: Eleven pain-free healthy subjects (7 males, 4 females participated in the study. All subjects received BreEStim (100 stimuli and conventional electrical stimulation (EStim, 100 stimuli to two acupuncture points (Neiguan and Weiguan of the dominant hand in a random order. The two different treatments were provided at least three days apart. Painful, but tolerable electrical stimuli were delivered randomly during EStim, but were triggered by effortful inhalation during BreEStim. Measurements of tactile sensation threshold, electrical sensation and electrical pain thresholds, thermal (cold sensation, warm sensation, cold pain and heat pain thresholds were recorded from the thenar eminence of both hands. These measurements were taken pre-intervention and 10-min post-intervention. RESULTS: There was no difference in the pre-intervention baseline measurement of all thresholds between BreEStim and EStim. The electrical pain threshold significantly increased after BreEStim (27.5±6.7% for the dominant hand and 28.5±10.8% for the non-dominant hand, respectively. The electrical pain threshold significantly decreased after EStim (9.1±2.8% for the dominant hand and 10.2±4.6% for the non-dominant hand, respectively (F[1, 10] = 30.992, p = .00024. There was no statistically significant change in other thresholds after BreEStim and EStim. The intensity of electrical stimuli was progressively increased, but no difference was found between BreEStim and EStim. CONCLUSION: Voluntary breathing controlled electrical stimulation

  7. The effect of surface electrical stimulation on swallowing in dysphagic Parkinson patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baijens, Laura W J; Speyer, Renée; Passos, Valeria Lima; Pilz, Walmari; Roodenburg, Nel; Clavé, Père

    2012-12-01

    Surface electrical stimulation has been applied on a large scale to treat oropharyngeal dysphagia. Patients suffering from oropharyngeal dysphagia in the presence of Parkinson's disease have been treated with surface electrical stimulation. Because of controversial reports on this treatment, a pilot study was set up. This study describes the effects of a single session of surface electrical stimulation using different electrode positions in ten patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (median Hoehn and Yahr score: II) and oropharyngeal dysphagia compared to ten age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects during videofluoroscopy of swallowing. Three different electrode positions were applied in random order per subject. For each electrode position, the electrical current was respectively turned "on" and "off" in random order. Temporal, spatial, and visuoperceptual variables were scored by experienced raters who were blinded to the group, electrode position, and status (on/off) of the electrical current. Interrater and interrater reliabilities were calculated. Only a few significant effects of a single session of surface electrical stimulation using different electrode positions in dysphagic Parkinson patients could be observed in this study. Furthermore, significant results for temporal and spatial variables were found regardless of the status of the electrical current in both groups suggesting placebo effects. Following adjustment for electrical current status as well as electrode positions (both not significant, P > 0.05) in the statistical model, significant group differences between Parkinson patients and healthy control subjects emerged. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect and mechanism of electrical stimulation in dysphagic patients with Parkinson's disease.

  8. The effects of high-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with transcutaneous electrical stimulation in a severe stroke patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Soichiro; Tanabe, Shigeo; Takeda, Kazuya; Warashina, Hiroaki; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Kanada, Yoshikiyo; Okumura, Ryuji; Shinoda, Jun; Nagata, Junji; Kanno, Tetsuo

    2012-10-12

    The case report describes the effects of 5 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) in a patient with severe stroke. The patient was a 69-year-old male who was affected by a left middle cerebral artery infarction. The patient had no movement in his right hand. To assess the effects, cerebral blood flow and motor function were measured before and after treatment. This treatment delivered rTMS over the affected M1 with TES at the paretic wrist extensor muscles for 10 days. The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the entire brain was measured by positronemission tomography. To evaluate the motor function, the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) was used. After treatment, the rCBF was increased (except for the stimulated region), and the FMA score was slightly improved. These results suggest the potential therapeutic use of rTMS combined with TES for recovery in severe stroke.

  9. Prediction of cortical responses to simultaneous electrical stimulation of the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halupka, Kerry J; Shivdasani, Mohit N; Cloherty, Shaun L; Grayden, David B; Wong, Yan T; Burkitt, Anthony N; Meffin, Hamish

    2017-02-01

    Simultaneous electrical stimulation of multiple electrodes has shown promise in diversifying the responses that can be elicited by retinal prostheses compared to interleaved single electrode stimulation. However, the effects of interactions between electrodes are not well understood and clinical trials with simultaneous stimulation have produced inconsistent results. We investigated the effects of multiple electrode stimulation of the retina by developing a model of cortical responses to retinal stimulation. Electrical stimuli consisting of temporally sparse, biphasic current pulses, with amplitudes sampled from a bi-dimensional Gaussian distribution, were simultaneously delivered to the retina across a 42-channel electrode array implanted in the suprachoroidal space of anesthetized cats. Visual cortex activity was recorded using penetrating microelectrode arrays. These data were used to identify a linear-nonlinear model of cortical responses to retinal stimulation. The ability of the model to generalize was tested by predicting responses to non-white patterned stimuli. The model accurately predicted two cortical activity measures: multi-unit neural responses and evoked potential responses to white noise stimuli. The model also provides information about electrical receptive fields, including the relative effects of each stimulating electrode on every recording site. We have demonstrated a simple model that accurately describes cortical responses to simultaneous stimulation of a suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis. Overall, our results demonstrate that cortical responses to simultaneous multi-electrode stimulation of the retina are repeatable and predictable, and that interactions between electrodes during simultaneous stimulation are predominantly linear. The model shows promise for determining optimal stimulation paradigms for exploiting interactions between electrodes to shape neural activity, thereby improving outcomes for patients with retinal prostheses.

  10. A model of auditory nerve responses to electrical stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Suyash Narendra; Dau, Torsten; Epp, Bastian

    peripheral for the cathodic phase. This results in an average difference of 200 μs in spike latency for AP generated by anodic vs cathodic pulses. It is hypothesized here that this difference is large enough to corrupt the temporal coding in the AN. To quantify effects of pulse polarity on auditory...... as a framework to test various stimulation strategies and to quantify their effect on the performance of CI listeners in psychophysical tasks....

  11. Epilepsia partialis continua responsive to neocortical electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Antonio; Ughratdar, Ismail; Cheserem, Beverly; Morris, Robert; Selway, Richard; Alarcon, Gonzalo

    2015-08-01

    Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC), defined as a syndrome of continuous focal jerking, is a rare form of focal status epilepticus that usually affects a distal limb, and when prolonged, can produce long-lasting deficits in limb function. Substantial electrophysiologic evidence links the origin of EPC to the motor cortex; thus surgical resection carries the risk of significant handicap. We present two patients with focal, drug-resistant EPC, who were admitted for intracranial video-electroencephalography monitoring to elucidate the location of the epileptogenic focus and identification of eloquent motor cortex with functional mapping. In both cases, the focus resided at or near eloquent motor cortex and therefore precluded resective surgery. Chronic cortical stimulation delivered through subdural strips at the seizure focus (continuous stimulation at 60-130 Hz, 2-3 mA) resulted in >90% reduction in seizures and abolition of the EPC after a follow-up of 22 months in both patients. Following permanent implantation of cortical stimulators, no adverse effects were noted. EPC restarted when intensity was reduced or batteries depleted. Battery replacement restored previous improvement. This two-case report opens up avenues for the treatment of this debilitating condition. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  12. ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF THE SKIN--A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GIBSON, ROBERT H., COMP.

    ONE OF A SERIES OF PROVISIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHIES IN THE FIELD OF SENSORY RESEARCH RELATED TO SENSORY (ESPECIALLY VISUAL) IMPAIRMENT, THE DOCUMENT LISTS 284 SELECTED WORKS ON ELECTRICAL STIMUATION OF SKIN. PRIMARILY JOURNAL ARTICLES, BUT INCLUDING SOME BOOKS AND SEVERAL THESES, THE ITEMS DATE FROM 1891 THROUGH 1967 (IN PRESS). PUBLICATIONS CITED ARE…

  13. Cardiomyocyte behavior on biodegradable polyurethane/gold nanocomposite scaffolds under electrical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganji, Yasaman; Li, Qian; Quabius, Elgar Susanne; Böttner, Martina; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine; Kasra, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Following a myocardial infarction (MI), cardiomyocytes are replaced by scar tissue, which decreases ventricular contractile function. Tissue engineering is a promising approach to regenerate such damaged cardiomyocyte tissue. Engineered cardiac patches can be fabricated by seeding a high density of cardiac cells onto a synthetic or natural porous polymer. In this study, nanocomposite scaffolds made of gold nanotubes/nanowires incorporated into biodegradable castor oil-based polyurethane were employed to make micro-porous scaffolds. H9C2 cardiomyocyte cells were cultured on the scaffolds for one day, and electrical stimulation was applied to improve cell communication and interaction in neighboring pores. Cells on scaffolds were examined by fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, revealing that the combination of scaffold design and electrical stimulation significantly increased cell confluency of H9C2 cells on the scaffolds. Furthermore, we showed that the gene expression levels of Nkx2.5, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANF) and natriuretic peptide precursor B (NPPB), which are functional genes of the myocardium, were up-regulated by the incorporation of gold nanotubes/nanowires into the polyurethane scaffolds, in particular after electrical stimulation. - Highlights: • Biodegradable polyurethane/gold nanocomposites for cardiomyocyte adhesion are proposed. • The nanocomposite scaffolds are porous and electrical stimulation enhances cell adhesion. • Expression levels of functional myocardium genes were upregulated after electrical stimulation.

  14. Effects of BAY K 8644 on the responses of rabbit ear artery to electrical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, M.; Scriabine, A.; Steinsland, O.S.

    1988-01-01

    BAY K 8644 at 6.25 nM to 1 microM enhanced, in a concentration-dependent manner, both phases of the vasoconstrictor response of the isolated perfused rabbit ear artery to electrical stimulation. At 1 microM, BAY K 8644 enhanced the constrictor response by more than 250%. To study possible involvement of neurotransmitter release in the enhancement of the vasoconstrictor response by BAY K 8644, rabbit ear arteries were preincubated with [ 3 H]norepinephrine and stimulated either electrically (for 1 or 5 min) or by 60 mM K+. BAY K 8644 (1 microM) had no effect on tritium release caused by 1-min periods of electrical stimulation. However, tritium release caused by 5-min periods of electrical stimulation or by 60 mM K+ was enhanced in the presence of BAY K 8644. It was concluded that BAY K 8644 enhances vasoconstrictor effects of electrical stimulation of rabbit ear artery by primarily a direct agonist action on Ca2+ channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. Following sustained depolarization, however, the drug may also enhance the release of neurotransmitter from sympathetic nerve endings. Under certain conditions, this release may contribute to the overall action of BAY K 8644

  15. Synergy of substrate conductivity and intermittent electrical stimulation towards osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, K; Boda, Sunil Kumar; Basu, Bikramjit

    2017-08-01

    Human Mesenchymal Stem cells (hMSCs) have the unique potential to differentiate into multiple cell types. Depending on the cellular microenvironment (physical and biochemical cues), hMSCs can be directed to differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, myogenic and adipogenic lineages. Among the strategies available to direct stem cell fate processes, electrical stimulation based approach has been extensively investigated in recent studies. In the present study, the conducting Hydroxyapatite-CaTiO 3 (HA-CT) composites are used as electroconductive platforms to support the differentiation of hMSCs, in vitro. During culture without osteogenic supplements, intermittent electrical stimulation is provided every 24h over a period of 4weeks through parallel plate electrodes separated by a distance of 15mm and maintained at a static potential of 15V for 10min. In addition to cell morphological changes, the differentiation behavior of hMSCs after electrical stimulation is evaluated by mRNA expression analysis through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Importantly, specific bone markers, in particular ALP, Col IA and Osteocalcin are expressed more significantly due to electrical stimulation, which also enhances the extent of extracellular matrix mineralization. Taken together, this study establishes the effectiveness of electroconductive HA-CT composites together with intermittent electrical stimulation to direct osteogenesis of hMSCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of intra-operative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on posterior neck pain following thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C; Choi, J B; Lee, Y-S; Chang, H-S; Shin, C S; Kim, S; Han, D W

    2015-04-01

    Posterior neck pain following thyroidectomy is common because full neck extension is required during the procedure. We evaluated the effect of intra-operative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on postoperative neck pain in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy under general anaesthesia. One hundred patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups; 50 patients received transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation applied to the trapezius muscle and 50 patients acted as controls. Postoperative posterior neck pain and anterior wound pain were evaluated using an 11-point numerical rating scale at 30 min, 6 h, 24 h and 48 h following surgery. The numerical rating scale for posterior neck pain was significantly lower in the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation group compared with the control group at all time points (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the numerical rating scale for anterior wound pain at any time point. No adverse effects related to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation were observed. We conclude that intra-operative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation applied to the trapezius muscle reduced posterior neck pain following thyroidectomy. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  17. Cardiomyocyte behavior on biodegradable polyurethane/gold nanocomposite scaffolds under electrical stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganji, Yasaman [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424 Hafez Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Materials Science, Dept. Biocompatible Nanomaterials, University of Kiel, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Li, Qian [Institute for Materials Science, Dept. Biocompatible Nanomaterials, University of Kiel, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Quabius, Elgar Susanne [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 3, Building 27, D-24105 Kiel (Germany); Institute of Immunology, University of Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 3, Building 17, D-24105 Kiel (Germany); Böttner, Martina [Department of Anatomy, University of Kiel, Otto-Hahn-Platz 8, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Selhuber-Unkel, Christine, E-mail: cse@tf.uni-kiel.de [Institute for Materials Science, Dept. Biocompatible Nanomaterials, University of Kiel, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Kasra, Mehran [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424 Hafez Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-01

    Following a myocardial infarction (MI), cardiomyocytes are replaced by scar tissue, which decreases ventricular contractile function. Tissue engineering is a promising approach to regenerate such damaged cardiomyocyte tissue. Engineered cardiac patches can be fabricated by seeding a high density of cardiac cells onto a synthetic or natural porous polymer. In this study, nanocomposite scaffolds made of gold nanotubes/nanowires incorporated into biodegradable castor oil-based polyurethane were employed to make micro-porous scaffolds. H9C2 cardiomyocyte cells were cultured on the scaffolds for one day, and electrical stimulation was applied to improve cell communication and interaction in neighboring pores. Cells on scaffolds were examined by fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, revealing that the combination of scaffold design and electrical stimulation significantly increased cell confluency of H9C2 cells on the scaffolds. Furthermore, we showed that the gene expression levels of Nkx2.5, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANF) and natriuretic peptide precursor B (NPPB), which are functional genes of the myocardium, were up-regulated by the incorporation of gold nanotubes/nanowires into the polyurethane scaffolds, in particular after electrical stimulation. - Highlights: • Biodegradable polyurethane/gold nanocomposites for cardiomyocyte adhesion are proposed. • The nanocomposite scaffolds are porous and electrical stimulation enhances cell adhesion. • Expression levels of functional myocardium genes were upregulated after electrical stimulation.

  18. Effects of repetition and temperature on Contingent Electrical Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrillon, Eduardo E.; Zhou, Xinwen; Svensson, Peter

    ) activity associated with bruxism. Repetition of the electrical stimulus and skin surface temperature (ST) may affect the perception of CES and possibly also the inhibitory EMG effects.Objectives: To determine the effects of stimulus repetition and skin ST on the perception of CES.  Methods: Healthy...... participants (n=14, 7 males, 7 females) were included. CES was applied to the anterior temporalis muscle with a surface electrode using a portable EMG device (GrindCare®). The participants rated the perceived sensation using a 0-50-100 numerical rating scale (NRS) immediately after the stimulus. NRS = “0......” represented “no sensation at all”, “50” “just barely painful” and “100” “the worst pain imaginable”. All the participants were scheduled for one single session in which the effects of A) repetition and B) temperature were tested. A: A total of 30 consecutive electrical stimuli were divided into 3 series. Each...

  19. Electric field stimulation setup for photoemission electron microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, M; Vaz, C A F; Raabe, J; Nolting, F

    2015-08-01

    Manipulating magnetisation by the application of an electric field in magnetoelectric multiferroics represents a timely issue due to the potential applications in low power electronics and the novel physics involved. Thanks to its element sensitivity and high spatial resolution, X-ray photoemission electron microscopy is a uniquely suited technique for the investigation of magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic materials. In this work, we present a setup that allows for the application of in situ electric and magnetic fields while the sample is analysed in the microscope. As an example of the performances of the setup, we present measurements on Ni/Pb(Mg(0.66)Nb(0.33))O3-PbTiO3 and La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO3/PMN-PT artificial multiferroic nanostructures.

  20. Does electric light stimulate cancer development in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard G

    2012-05-01

    Incidence of cancer in children has increased in recent decades, and known risk factors can account for only a small minority of cases. Gestation and early childhood are particularly vulnerable periods in human development and an important aspect of development is in circadian rhythmicity. Emerging evidence implicates the molecular circadian mechanism in a vast array of other physiologic functions including metabolism, DNA damage response and cell-cycle regulation. Electric light exposure at night can disrupt circadian rhythms and, thereby, many other physiologic processes that are under circadian control. On this basis, it is proposed that ill-timed electric light exposure to pregnant women, to neonates, infants, and small children may increase cancer risk in those children. There are practical implications and interventions that accrue from this idea should it later be confirmed to be true.

  1. Signal processing methods for reducing artifacts in microelectrode brain recordings caused by functional electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D; Willett, F; Memberg, W D; Murphy, B; Walter, B; Sweet, J; Miller, J; Hochberg, L R; Kirsch, R F; Ajiboye, A B

    2018-04-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a promising technology for restoring movement to paralyzed limbs. Intracortical brain-computer interfaces (iBCIs) have enabled intuitive control over virtual and robotic movements, and more recently over upper extremity FES neuroprostheses. However, electrical stimulation of muscles creates artifacts in intracortical microelectrode recordings that could degrade iBCI performance. Here, we investigate methods for reducing the cortically recorded artifacts that result from peripheral electrical stimulation. One participant in the BrainGate2 pilot clinical trial had two intracortical microelectrode arrays placed in the motor cortex, and thirty-six stimulating intramuscular electrodes placed in the muscles of the contralateral limb. We characterized intracortically recorded electrical artifacts during both intramuscular and surface stimulation. We compared the performance of three artifact reduction methods: blanking, common average reference (CAR) and linear regression reference (LRR), which creates channel-specific reference signals, composed of weighted sums of other channels. Electrical artifacts resulting from surface stimulation were 175  ×  larger than baseline neural recordings (which were 110 µV peak-to-peak), while intramuscular stimulation artifacts were only 4  ×  larger. The artifact waveforms were highly consistent across electrodes within each array. Application of LRR reduced artifact magnitudes to less than 10 µV and largely preserved the original neural feature values used for decoding. Unmitigated stimulation artifacts decreased iBCI decoding performance, but performance was almost completely recovered using LRR, which outperformed CAR and blanking and extracted useful neural information during stimulation artifact periods. The LRR method was effective at reducing electrical artifacts resulting from both intramuscular and surface FES, and almost completely restored iBCI decoding

  2. Signal processing methods for reducing artifacts in microelectrode brain recordings caused by functional electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D.; Willett, F.; Memberg, W. D.; Murphy, B.; Walter, B.; Sweet, J.; Miller, J.; Hochberg, L. R.; Kirsch, R. F.; Ajiboye, A. B.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a promising technology for restoring movement to paralyzed limbs. Intracortical brain-computer interfaces (iBCIs) have enabled intuitive control over virtual and robotic movements, and more recently over upper extremity FES neuroprostheses. However, electrical stimulation of muscles creates artifacts in intracortical microelectrode recordings that could degrade iBCI performance. Here, we investigate methods for reducing the cortically recorded artifacts that result from peripheral electrical stimulation. Approach. One participant in the BrainGate2 pilot clinical trial had two intracortical microelectrode arrays placed in the motor cortex, and thirty-six stimulating intramuscular electrodes placed in the muscles of the contralateral limb. We characterized intracortically recorded electrical artifacts during both intramuscular and surface stimulation. We compared the performance of three artifact reduction methods: blanking, common average reference (CAR) and linear regression reference (LRR), which creates channel-specific reference signals, composed of weighted sums of other channels. Main results. Electrical artifacts resulting from surface stimulation were 175  ×  larger than baseline neural recordings (which were 110 µV peak-to-peak), while intramuscular stimulation artifacts were only 4  ×  larger. The artifact waveforms were highly consistent across electrodes within each array. Application of LRR reduced artifact magnitudes to less than 10 µV and largely preserved the original neural feature values used for decoding. Unmitigated stimulation artifacts decreased iBCI decoding performance, but performance was almost completely recovered using LRR, which outperformed CAR and blanking and extracted useful neural information during stimulation artifact periods. Significance. The LRR method was effective at reducing electrical artifacts resulting from both intramuscular and surface FES, and

  3. Differential effects of subcutaneous electrical stimulation (SQS) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in rodent models of chronic neuropathic or inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Portocarrero, Louis P; Cordero, Toni; Billstrom, Tina; Swearingen, Kim; Wacnik, Paul W; Johanek, Lisa M

    2013-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has been used for many years for the treatment of pain. Present-day research demonstrates that stimulation targets and parameters impact the induction of specific pain-modulating mechanisms. New targets are increasingly being investigated clinically, but the scientific rationale for a particular target is often not well established. This present study compares the behavioral effects of targeting peripheral axons by electrode placement in the subcutaneous space vs. electrode placement on the surface of the skin in a rodent model. Rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain were used to investigate subcutaneous electrical stimulation (SQS) vs. transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). Electrical parameters and relative location of the leads were held constant under each condition. SQS had cumulative antihypersensitivity effects in both inflammatory and neuropathic pain rodent models, with significant inhibition of mechanical hypersensitivity observed on days 3-4 of treatment. In contrast, reduction of thermal hyperalgesia in the inflammatory model was observed during the first four days of treatment with SQS, and reduction of cold allodynia in the neuropathic pain model was seen only on the first day with SQS. TENS was effective in the inflammation model, and in agreement with previous studies, tolerance developed to the antihypersensitivity effects of TENS. With the exception of a reversal of cold hypersensitivity on day 1 of testing, TENS did not reveal significant analgesic effects in the neuropathic pain rodent model. The results presented show that TENS and SQS have different effects that could point to unique biologic mechanisms underlying the analgesic effect of each therapy. Furthermore, this study is the first to demonstrate in an animal model that SQS attenuates neuropathic and inflammatory-induced pain behaviors. © 2013 Medtronic, Inc.

  4. Electrical stimulation of the primate lateral habenula suppresses saccadic eye movement through a learning mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The lateral habenula (LHb is a brain structure which represents negative motivational value. Neurons in the LHb are excited by unpleasant events such as reward omission and aversive stimuli, and transmit these signals to midbrain dopamine neurons which are involved in learning and motivation. However, it remains unclear whether these phasic changes in LHb neuronal activity actually influence animal behavior. To answer this question, we artificially activated the LHb by electrical stimulation while monkeys were performing a visually guided saccade task. In one block of trials, saccades to one fixed direction (e.g., right direction were followed by electrical stimulation of the LHb while saccades to the other direction (e.g., left direction were not. The direction-stimulation contingency was reversed in the next block. We found that the post-saccadic stimulation of the LHb increased the latencies of saccades in subsequent trials. Notably, the increase of the latency occurred gradually as the saccade was repeatedly followed by the stimulation, suggesting that the effect of the post-saccadic stimulation was accumulated across trials. LHb stimulation starting before saccades, on the other hand, had no effect on saccade latency. Together with previous studies showing LHb activation by reward omission and aversive stimuli, the present stimulation experiment suggests that LHb activity contributes to learning to suppress actions which lead to unpleasant events.

  5. A Closed Loop Brain-machine Interface for Epilepsy Control Using Dorsal Column Electrical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Yadav, Amol P; Moreira, Derek; Guggenmos, David; Santos, Amílcar; Lebedev, Mikhail; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2016-09-08

    Although electrical neurostimulation has been proposed as an alternative treatment for drug-resistant cases of epilepsy, current procedures such as deep brain stimulation, vagus, and trigeminal nerve stimulation are effective only in a fraction of the patients. Here we demonstrate a closed loop brain-machine interface that delivers electrical stimulation to the dorsal column (DCS) of the spinal cord to suppress epileptic seizures. Rats were implanted with cortical recording microelectrodes and spinal cord stimulating electrodes, and then injected with pentylenetetrazole to induce seizures. Seizures were detected in real time from cortical local field potentials, after which DCS was applied. This method decreased seizure episode frequency by 44% and seizure duration by 38%. We argue that the therapeutic effect of DCS is related to modulation of cortical theta waves, and propose that this closed-loop interface has the potential to become an effective and semi-invasive treatment for refractory epilepsy and other neurological disorders.

  6. Direct Electrical Stimulation of the Human Entorhinal Region and Hippocampus Impairs Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Joshua; Miller, Jonathan; Lee, Sang Ah; Coffey, Tom; Watrous, Andrew J; Sperling, Michael R; Sharan, Ashwini; Worrell, Gregory; Berry, Brent; Lega, Bradley; Jobst, Barbara C; Davis, Kathryn; Gross, Robert E; Sheth, Sameer A; Ezzyat, Youssef; Das, Sandhitsu R; Stein, Joel; Gorniak, Richard; Kahana, Michael J; Rizzuto, Daniel S

    2016-12-07

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has shown promise for treating a range of brain disorders and neurological conditions. One recent study showed that DBS in the entorhinal region improved the accuracy of human spatial memory. Based on this line of work, we performed a series of experiments to more fully characterize the effects of DBS in the medial temporal lobe on human memory. Neurosurgical patients with implanted electrodes performed spatial and verbal-episodic memory tasks. During the encoding periods of both tasks, subjects received electrical stimulation at 50 Hz. In contrast to earlier work, electrical stimulation impaired memory performance significantly in both spatial and verbal tasks. Stimulation in both the entorhinal region and hippocampus caused decreased memory performance. These findings indicate that the entorhinal region and hippocampus are causally involved in human memory and suggest that refined methods are needed to use DBS in these regions to improve memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A systematic review of clinical studies of electrical stimulation for treatment of lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monga, Ash K; Tracey, Michael R; Subbaroyan, Jeyakumar

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this manuscript was to provide a systematic literature review of clinical trial evidence for a range of electrical stimulation therapies in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The databases MEDLINE, BIOSIS Previews, Inside Conferences, and EMBASE were searched. Original clinical studies with greater than 15 subjects were included. Seventy-three studies were included, representing implanted sacral nerve stimulation (SNS), percutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS), and transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS) therapy modalities. Median mean reductions in incontinence episodes and voiding frequency were similar for implanted SNS and PTNS. However, long-term follow-up data to validate the sustained benefit of PTNS are lacking. Despite a substantial body of research devoted to SNS validation, it is not possible to definitively define the appropriate role of this therapy owing largely to study design flaws that inhibited rigorous intention to treat analyses for the majority of these studies.

  8. Local depletion of glycogen with supramaximal exercise in human skeletal muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gejl, Kasper D; Ørtenblad, Niels; Andersson, Erik; Plomgaard, Peter; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Nielsen, Joachim

    2017-05-01

    Glycogen is stored in local spatially distinct compartments within skeletal muscle fibres and is the main energy source during supramaximal exercise. Using quantitative electron microscopy, we show that supramaximal exercise induces a differential depletion of glycogen from these compartments and also demonstrate how this varies with fibre types. Repeated exercise alters this compartmentalized glycogen depletion. The results obtained in the present study help us understand the muscle metabolic dynamics of whole body repeated supramaximal exercise, and suggest that the muscle has a compartmentalized local adaptation to repeated exercise, which affects glycogen depletion. Skeletal muscle glycogen is heterogeneously distributed in three separated compartments (intramyofibrillar, intermyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal). Although only constituting 3-13% of the total glycogen volume, the availability of intramyofibrillar glycogen is of particular importance to muscle function. The present study aimed to investigate the depletion of these three subcellular glycogen compartments during repeated supramaximal exercise in elite athletes. Ten elite cross-country skiers (aged 25 ± 4 years, V̇O2 max : 65 ± 4 ml kg -1  min -1 ; mean ± SD) performed four ∼4 min supramaximal sprint time trials (STT 1-4) with 45 min of recovery. The subcellular glycogen volumes in musculus triceps brachii were quantified from electron microscopy images before and after both STT 1 and 4. During STT 1, the depletion of intramyofibrillar glycogen was higher in type 1 fibres [-52%; (-89:-15%)] than type 2 fibres [-15% (-52:22%)] (P = 0.02), whereas the depletion of intermyofibrillar glycogen [main effect: -19% (-33:0%), P = 0.006] and subsarcolemmal glycogen [main effect: -35% (-66:0%), P = 0.03] was similar between fibre types. By contrast, only intermyofibrillar glycogen volume was significantly reduced during STT 4, in both fibre types [main effect: -31% (-50:-11%), P = 0

  9. Effect of recovery mode on exercise time to exhaustion, cardiorespiratory responses, and blood lactate after prior, intermittent supramaximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladi, Imed; Temfemo, Abdou; Mandengué, Samuel H; Ahmaidi, Said

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of 3 different recovery modes (passive [PR], active [AR], and dynamic stretching [SR]) on exercise time to exhaustion (Tlim) and cardiorespiratory and blood lactate responses during supramaximal exercise. Exercise sessions consisted of 2 series of 4 repeated, intermittent supramaximal cycling exercise interspersed in random order with PR, AR, or SR before the supramaximal continuous cycling time limit (Tlim) exercise test performed at 120% of maximal aerobic power. Ten healthy volunteer soccer athletes aged 25.7 ± 2.4 years participated in this study. During each exercise session, heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption V(O2)), blood lactate concentration, and Tlim exercise performance were recorded. Higher values were obtained in HR (p recovery mode to enhance performance and cardiorespiratory and lactate responses during intermittent supramaximal cycling exercise.

  10. Sequential application of mineralized electroconductive scaffold and electrical stimulation for efficient osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oftadeh, Mohammad Omid; Bakhshandeh, Behnaz; Dehghan, Mohammad Mehdi; Khojasteh, Arash

    2018-05-01

    Osteogenic differentiation is enhanced by many inductive factors including biochemical agents, biomechanical stresses, and electrical stimulation. Regularly studies have focused on one factor at a time, while synergies can promote more effective and functional osteogenesis. Herein, for the first time, functional synergism between application of electrical stimulation and HA nanoparticles was evaluated in osteogenic differentiation. Prepared electrospun biocompatible conductive scaffold by amalgamating chitosan, aniline-pentamer, and hydroxyapatite incorporation was seeded by human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The cells seeded on the scaffolds with and without hydroxyapatite were exposed to electrical stimulation and subsequently, osteogenic molecular markers and related signaling pathways were investigated. In general, all investigated osteogenic markers (osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, osteonectin, and Runx2) were upregulated transcriptionally in the cells seeded on the chitosan-embedded scaffolds. Separate utilization of electrical stimulation or hydroxyapatite-enhanced osteogenesis, while the cells exposed to both stimulators simultaneously, expressed higher levels of some of osteogenic genes significantly. Considering the functions and the positions of the markers in osteogenic signaling pathways, it can be concluded that HA might cooperate in the allocation of stem cells to osteoprogenitors in the early phase of osteogenesis while electrical stimulation helps committed cells with maturation and acquiring functional phenotypes. Altogether investigation of the synergism between different stimulators and exploiting the interactions in an optimized manner could lead to more efficient osteogenesis protocol for effective bone regeneration and tissue engineering. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 1200-1210, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Blink restoration by the functional electrical stimulation in unilateral facial nerve palsy rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yubin; Feng, Guodong; Ding, Xiuyong; Zhao, Yang; Cui, Tingting; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2014-07-01

    Tocompare the effects of different waveforms and parameters of electrical stimulation to elicit a blink, and construct a functional electrical stimulation (FES) system to restore synchronous blink in unilateral facial nerve palsy (FNP). Firstly, twenty-four rabbits were surgically induced unilateral FNP and were divided into three groups, who received square, sine and triangle pulse wareforms, respectirely. Both the healthy and the paralysis eyelids of the rabbits received pulse train stimulation to produce a blink in both eyes. For each rabbit, twenty-seven combinations of frequencies (25 Hz, 50 Hz and 100 Hz) and nine pulse widths (1-9 ms) were stimulated. The threshold amplitude and electric charge to elicit a blink was compared between different waveforms and different parameters. Secondly, a FES system was constructed to treat six surgically induced unilateral FNP rabbit chosen in the twenty-four rabbits, it consisted by an electromyogram (EMG) amplifier module which record the EMG of the healthy muscle, and a stimulator which received the EMG input and output a pulse train stimulation when triggered by the EMG. When the carrier frequency of the pulse train was 25 Hz, it was not able to induce a smooth blink. However, when the carrier frequencies were 50 Hz and 100 Hz, a smooth blink could be induced. The voltage required by 100 Hz was lower than 50 Hz, but it cost more electric charge. The amplitude that square waveforms required was far lower than sine and triangle, but the electric charge between the three waveforms was similar. Synchronous blink could be restored in the six unilateral FNP rabbits with the FES system. To elicit a blink, square pulse train delivered in 50 Hz is a preferable option. The motion of the healthy eyelids as a source of information for stimulation of the paralyzed sides can restore the synchronous blink in unilateral FNP rabbits.

  12. Effects of sympathetic stimulation on the rhythmical jaw movements produced by electrical stimulation of the cortical masticatory areas of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatta, S; Windhorst, U; Djupsjöbacka, M; Lytvynenko, S; Passatore, M

    2005-03-01

    The somatomotor and sympathetic nervous systems are intimately linked. One example is the influence of peripheral sympathetic fibers on the discharge characteristics of muscle spindles. Since muscle spindles play important roles in various motor behaviors, including rhythmic movements, the working hypothesis of this research was that changes in sympathetic outflow to muscle spindles can change rhythmic movement patterns. We tested this hypothesis in the masticatory system of rabbits. Rhythmic jaw movements and EMG activity induced by long-lasting electrical cortical stimulation were powerfully modulated by electrical stimulation of the peripheral stump of the cervical sympathetic nerve (CSN). This modulation manifested itself as a consistent and marked reduction in the excursion of the mandibular movements (often preceded by a transient modest enhancement), which could be attributed mainly to corresponding changes in masseter muscle activity. These changes outlasted the duration of CSN stimulation. In some of the cortically evoked rhythmic jaw movements (CRJMs) changes in masticatory frequency were also observed. When the jaw-closing muscles were subjected to repetitive ramp-and-hold force pulses, the CRMJs changed characteristics. Masseter EMG activity was strongly enhanced and digastric EMG slightly decreased. This change was considerably depressed during CSN stimulation. These effects of CSN stimulation are similar in sign and time course to the depression exerted by sympathetic activity on the jaw-closing muscle spindle discharge. It is suggested that the change in proprioceptive information induced by an increase in sympathetic outflow (a) has important implications even under normal conditions for the control of motor function in states of high sympathetic activity, and (b) is one of the mechanisms responsible for motor impairment under certain pathological conditions such as chronic musculoskeletal head-neck disorders, associated with stress conditions.

  13. Effect of electrical stimulation on motor nerve regeneration in sciatic nerve ligated-mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Samiee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of electrical stimulation on sciatic nerve regeneration and functional recovery of target muscles. Mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: ligated without electrical stimulation, ligated with electrical stimulation and control (non-ligated. The unilateral peripheral mononeuropathy was produced on the right hind limb. Sciatic nerve was then electrically stimulated daily for a period of 2 weeks (duration: 0.2 msec, frequency: 100Hz, amplitude: 15mA. Evoked surface EMG was recorded from biceps femoris (BF and gluteus maximus (GM muscles on the 3rd, 7th, 10th and 14th day after sciatic nerve ligation. Muscle force and sensitivity was determined by processing of the recorded EMG signals in time and frequency domains respectively. The results showed electrical stimulation (ES produced a significant increase in the EMG response of BF, and muscle force significantly increased on the 14th day (p<0.001, however no significant difference was found in GM muscle force between experimental groups. This may be due to possible innervation by inferior gluteal nerve. Frequency analysis of BF signals indicates that hyperalgesia remained after 14 days in both ligated groups. On the 14th day no difference in GM muscle sensitivity was found between groups. In conclusion, the results of this study have shown that the electrical stimulation of sciatic nerve accelerates nerve repair and indirectly improves BF muscle force to a comparable level with control without effect on muscle sensitivity. However, ES had no effect on GM muscle force and sensitivity.

  14. Effect of electrical stimulation on motor nerve regeneration in sciatic nerve ligated-mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiee, Farzaneh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of electrical stimulation on sciatic nerve regeneration and functional recovery of target muscles. Mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: ligated without electrical stimulation, ligated with electrical stimulation and control (non-ligated). The unilateral peripheral mononeuropathy was produced on the right hind limb. Sciatic nerve was then electrically stimulated daily for a period of 2 weeks (duration: 0.2 msec, frequency: 100Hz, amplitude: 15mA). Evoked surface EMG was recorded from biceps femoris (BF) and gluteus maximus (GM) muscles on the 3rd, 7th, 10th and 14th day after sciatic nerve ligation. Muscle force and sensitivity was determined by processing of the recorded EMG signals in time and frequency domains respectively. The results showed electrical stimulation (ES) produced a significant increase in the EMG response of BF, and muscle force significantly increased on the 14th day (p<0.001), however no significant difference was found in GM muscle force between experimental groups. This may be due to possible innervation by inferior gluteal nerve. Frequency analysis of BF signals indicates that hyperalgesia remained after 14 days in both ligated groups. On the 14th day no difference in GM muscle sensitivity was found between groups. In conclusion, the results of this study have shown that the electrical stimulation of sciatic nerve accelerates nerve repair and indirectly improves BF muscle force to a comparable level with control without effect on muscle sensitivity. However, ES had no effect on GM muscle force and sensitivity. PMID:29118955

  15. A reliable method for intracranial electrode implantation and chronic electrical stimulation in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Melanie; Lang, Min; Gane, Jonathan; Wu, Chiping; Burnham, W McIntyre; Zhang, Liang

    2013-08-06

    Electrical stimulation of brain structures has been widely used in rodent models for kindling or modeling deep brain stimulation used clinically. This requires surgical implantation of intracranial electrodes and subsequent chronic stimulation in individual animals for several weeks. Anchoring screws and dental acrylic have long been used to secure implanted intracranial electrodes in rats. However, such an approach is limited when carried out in mouse models as the thin mouse skull may not be strong enough to accommodate the anchoring screws. We describe here a screw-free, glue-based method for implanting bipolar stimulating electrodes in the mouse brain and validate this method in a mouse model of hippocampal electrical kindling. Male C57 black mice (initial ages of 6-8 months) were used in the present experiments. Bipolar electrodes were implanted bilaterally in the hippocampal CA3 area for electrical stimulation and electroencephalographic recordings. The electrodes were secured onto the skull via glue and dental acrylic but without anchoring screws. A daily stimulation protocol was used to induce electrographic discharges and motor seizures. The locations of implanted electrodes were verified by hippocampal electrographic activities and later histological assessments. Using the glue-based implantation method, we implanted bilateral bipolar electrodes in 25 mice. Electrographic discharges and motor seizures were successfully induced via hippocampal electrical kindling. Importantly, no animal encountered infection in the implanted area or a loss of implanted electrodes after 4-6 months of repetitive stimulation/recording. We suggest that the glue-based, screw-free method is reliable for chronic brain stimulation and high-quality electroencephalographic recordings in mice. The technical aspects described this study may help future studies in mouse models.

  16. NEUROMUSCULAR ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF THE HINDLIMB MUSCLES FOR MOVEMENT THERAPY IN A RODENT MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Ichihara, Kazuhiko; Venkatasubramanian, Ganapriya; Abbas, James J.; Jung, Ranu

    2008-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can provide functional movements in people after central nervous system injury. The neuroplastic effects of long-term NMES induced repetitive limb movement are not well understood. A rodent model of neurotrauma in which NMES can be implemented may be effective for such investigations. We present a rodent model for NMES of the flexor and extensor muscles of the hip, knee, and ankle hindlimb muscles. Custom fabricated intramuscular stimulating electro...

  17. Wearable Neural Prostheses - Restoration of Sensory-Motor Function by Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Micera, Silvestro; Keller, Thierry; Lawrence, Marc; Morari, Manfred; Popovic, Dejan B.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we focus on the least invasive interface: transcutaneous ES (TES), i.e., the use of surface electrodes as an interface between the stimulator and sensory-motor systems. TES is delivered by a burst of short electrical charge pulses applied between pairs of electrodes positioned on the skin. Monophasic or charge-balanced biphasic (symmetric or asymmetric) stimulation pulses can be delivered. The latter ones have the advantage to provide contraction force while minimizing tissue...

  18. Wearable neural prostheses. Restoration of sensory-motor function by transcutaneous electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micera, Silvestro; Keller, Thierry; Lawrence, Marc; Morari, Manfred; Popović, Dejan B

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we focus on the least invasive interface: transcutaneous ES (TES), i.e., the use of surface electrodes as an interface between the stimulator and sensory-motor systems. TES is delivered by a burst of short electrical charge pulses applied between pairs of electrodes positioned on the skin. Monophasic or charge-balanced biphasic (symmetric or asymmetric) stimulation pulses can be delivered. The latter ones have the advantage to provide contraction force while minimizing tissue damage.

  19. Electric field distribution in a finite-volume head model of deep brain stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Peadar F.; Lowery, Madeleine M.

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a whole-head finite element model of deep brain stimulation to examine the effect of electrical grounding, the finite conducting volume of the head, and scalp, skull and cerebrospinal fluid layers. The impedance between the stimulating and reference electrodes in the whole-head model was found to lie within clinically reported values when the reference electrode was incorporated on a localized surface in the model. Incorporation of the finite volume of the head and inclusi...

  20. Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord, roots and peripheral nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossini, P M; Burke, D; Chen, R

    2015-01-01

    These guidelines provide an up-date of previous IFCN report on "Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord and roots: basic principles and procedures for routine clinical application" (Rossini et al., 1994). A new Committee, composed of international experts, some...... theoretical, physiological and practical aspects of non-invasive stimulation of brain, spinal cord, nerve roots and peripheral nerves in the light of more updated knowledge, and include some recent extensions and developments....

  1. Neuromodulation via Interferential Electrical Stimulation as a Novel Therapy in Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Judith S; Gibson, Peter R; Burgell, Rebecca E

    2018-01-01

    The concept of therapeutic percutaneous neuromodulation has, until recently, been limited by the ability to penetrate deeply enough to stimulate internal organs. By utilizing 2 medium frequency, slightly out of phase electrical currents passing diagonally through the abdomen, a third, low frequency current is created at the point of bisection. This interferential current appears to stimulate nerve fibers in the target organs and may have a therapeutic action. The aim of the study is to review...

  2. Electrical stimulation enhances the acetylcholine receptors available for neuromuscular junction formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Rodrigo; Gilmore, Kerry J; Thompson, Brianna C; Stewart, Elise M; Waters, Aaron M; Romero-Ortega, Mario; Wallace, Gordon G

    2016-11-01

    Neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) are specialized synapses that link motor neurons with muscle fibers. These sites are fundamental to human muscle activity, controlling swallowing and breathing amongst many other vital functions. Study of this synapse formation is an essential area in neuroscience; the understanding of how neurons interact and control their targets during development and regeneration are fundamental questions. Existing data reveals that during initial stages of development neurons target and form synapses driven by biophysical and biochemical cues, and during later stages they require electrical activity to develop their functional interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exogenous electrical stimulation (ES) electrodes directly in contact with cells, on the number and size of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clusters available for NMJ formation. We used a novel in vitro model that utilizes a flexible electrical stimulation system and allows the systematic testing of several stimulation parameters simultaneously as well as the use of alternative electrode materials such as conductive polymers to deliver the stimulation. Functionality of NMJs under our co-culture conditions was demonstrated by monitoring changes in the responses of primary myoblasts to chemical stimulants that specifically target neuronal signaling. Our results suggest that biphasic electrical stimulation at 250Hz, 100μs pulse width and current density of 1mA/cm 2 for 8h, applied via either gold-coated mylar or the conductive polymer PPy, significantly increased the number and size of AChRs clusters available for NMJ formation. This study supports the beneficial use of direct electrical stimulation as a strategic therapy for neuromuscular disorders. The beneficial effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on human cells in vitro and in vivo have long been known. Although the effects of stimulation are clear and the therapeutic benefits are known, no uniform

  3. Intramuscular Electrical Stimulation for Muscle Activation of the Tibialis Anterior After Surgical Repair: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Sharon; McClure, Philip

    2017-12-01

    Background Loss of voluntary activation of musculature can result in muscle weakness. External neuromuscular stimulation can be utilized to improve voluntary activation but is often poorly tolerated because of pain associated with required stimulus level. Intramuscular electrical stimulation requires much lower voltage and may be better tolerated, and therefore more effective at restoring voluntary muscle activation. Case Description A 71-year-old man sustained a rupture of the distal attachment of the tibialis anterior tendon. Thirty-two weeks after surgical repair, there was no palpable or visible tension development in the muscle belly or tendon. Dorsiflexion was dependent on toe extensors. Electrical stimulation applied via a dry needling placement in the muscle belly was utilized to induce an isometric contraction. Outcomes Five sessions of intramuscular electrical stimulation were delivered. By day 4 (second visit), the patient was able to dorsiflex without prominent use of the extensor hallucis longus. By day 6 (third visit), active-range-of-motion dorsiflexion with toes flexed increased 20° (-10° to 10°). Eighteen days after the initial treatment, the patient walked without his previous high-step gait pattern, and the tibialis anterior muscle test improved to withstanding moderate resistance (manual muscle test score, 4/5). Discussion The rapid change in muscle function observed suggests that intramuscular electrical stimulation may facilitate voluntary muscle activation. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 5. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(12):965-969. Epub 15 Oct 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7368.

  4. TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation) for labour pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Richard

    2012-05-01

    Because TENS is applied inconsistently and not always in line with optimal TENS application theory, this may explain why TENS for labour pain appears to be effective in some individuals and not in others. This article reviews TENS theory, advises upon optimal TENS application for labour pain and discusses some of the limitations of TENS research on labour pain. TENS application for labour pain may include TENS applied to either side of the lower spine, set to 200 mus pulse duration and 100 pulses per second. As pain increases, TENS intensity should be increased and as pain decreases, TENS intensity should be reduced to maintain a strong but pain free intensity of stimulation. This application may particularly reduce back pain during labour.

  5. Electrical stimulation with non-implanted electrodes for urinary incontinence in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghmans, Bary; Hendriks, Erik; Bernards, Arnold; de Bie, Rob; Omar, Muhammad Imran

    2013-06-06

    Electrical stimulation with non-implanted devices is used for patients with different types of urinary incontinence and symptoms of urgency, frequency and nocturia. The current review focused on electrical stimulation with non-implanted devices for the treatment of urinary incontinence in men. To determine the effectiveness of electrical stimulation with non-implanted devices for men with stress, urgency or mixed urinary incontinence in comparison with no treatment, placebo treatment, or any other 'single' treatment. Additionally, the effectiveness of electrical stimulation with non-implanted devices in combination with another intervention was compared with the other intervention alone. Finally, the effectiveness of one method of electrical stimulation with non-implanted devices was compared with another method. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Trials Register, which contains trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, and handsearching of journals and conference proceedings (searched 21 January 2012). We also searched other electronic and non-electronic bibliographic databases and the reference lists of the included studies as well as contacting researchers in the field to identify other relevant trials. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Two review authors independently assessed all the identified trials for eligibility. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane tool for determining bias. Disagreements were resolved by discussion, and a third review author was involved in the case of no consensus. Data were analysed using Cochrane methods. Six randomized controlled trials (five full papers and one abstract) were included. There was considerable variation in the interventions used, study protocols, types of electrical stimulation parameters and devices, study populations and outcome measures. In total 544 men were included, of whom 305 received some form of

  6. Synchronization of FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons in external electrical stimulation via nonlinear control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiang; Zhang Ting; Deng Bin

    2007-01-01

    Synchronization of FitzHugh-Nagumo neural system under external electrical stimulation via the nonlinear control is investigated in this paper. Firstly, the different dynamical behavior of the nonlinear cable model based on the FitzHugh-Nagumo model responding to various external electrical stimulations is studied. Next, using the result of the analysis, a nonlinear feedback linearization control scheme and an adaptive control strategy are designed to synchronization two neurons. Computer simulations are provided to verify the efficiency of the designed synchronization schemes

  7. Synchronizing two coupled chaotic neurons in external electrical stimulation using backstepping control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Bin; Wang Jiang; Fei Xiangyang

    2006-01-01

    Backstepping design is a recursive procedure that combines the choice of a Lyapunov function with the design of a controller. In this paper, the backstepping control is used to synchronize two coupled chaotic neurons in external electrical stimulation. The coupled model is based on the nonlinear cable model and only one state variable can be controlled in practice. The backstepping design needs only one controller to synchronize two chaotic systems and it can be applied to a variety of chaotic systems whether they contain external excitation or not, so the two coupled chaotic neurons in external electrical stimulation can be synchronized perfectly by backstepping control. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of this design

  8. Electrical Stimulation of the Ventral Tegmental Area Induces Reanimation from General Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solt, Ken; Van Dort, Christa J.; Chemali, Jessica J.; Taylor, Norman E.; Kenny, Jonathan D.; Brown, Emery N.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Methylphenidate or a D1 dopamine receptor agonist induce reanimation (active emergence) from general anesthesia. We tested whether electrical stimulation of dopaminergic nuclei also induces reanimation from general anesthesia. METHODS In adult rats, a bipolar insulated stainless steel electrode was placed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA, n = 5) or substantia nigra (SN, n = 5). After a minimum 7-day recovery period, the isoflurane dose sufficient to maintain loss of righting was established. Electrical stimulation was initiated and increased in intensity every 3 min to a maximum of 120μA. If stimulation restored the righting reflex, an additional experiment was performed at least 3 days later during continuous propofol anesthesia. Histological analysis was conducted to identify the location of the electrode tip. In separate experiments, stimulation was performed in the prone position during general anesthesia with isoflurane or propofol, and the electroencephalogram was recorded. RESULTS To maintain loss of righting, the dose of isoflurane was 0.9% ± 0.1 vol%, and the target plasma dose of propofol was 4.4 μg/ml ± 1.1 μg/ml (mean ± SD). In all rats with VTA electrodes, electrical stimulation induced a graded arousal response including righting that increased with current intensity. VTA stimulation induced a shift in electroencephalogram peak power from δ (anesthesia with isoflurane or propofol. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that dopamine release by VTA, but not SN, neurons induces reanimation from general anesthesia. PMID:24398816

  9. Manual and Electrical Needle Stimulation in Acupuncture Research: Pitfalls and Challenges of Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyer, Rosa; MacPherson, Hugh; Davis, Robert; Harris, Richard E.; Napadow, Vitaly; Wayne, Peter M.; Milley, Ryan J.; Lao, Lixing; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Kong, Jiang-Ti; Hammerschlag, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the field of acupuncture research there is an implicit yet unexplored assumption that the evidence on manual and electrical stimulation techniques, derived from basic science studies, clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, is generally interchangeable. Such interchangeability would justify a bidirectional approach to acupuncture research, where basic science studies and clinical trials each inform the other. This article examines the validity of this fundamental assumption by critically reviewing the literature and comparing manual to electrical acupuncture in basic science studies, clinical trials, and meta-analyses. The evidence from this study does not support the assumption that these techniques are interchangeable. This article also identifies endemic methodologic limitations that have impaired progress in the field. For example, basic science studies have not matched the frequency and duration of manual needle stimulation to the frequency and duration of electrical stimulation. Further, most clinical trials purporting to compare the two types of stimulation have instead tested electroacupuncture as an adjunct to manual acupuncture. The current findings reveal fundamental gaps in the understanding of the mechanisms and relative effectiveness of manual versus electrical acupuncture. Finally, future research directions are suggested to better differentiate electrical from manual simulation, and implications for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:25710206

  10. An investigation into the induced electric fields from transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadimani, Ravi; Lee, Erik; Duffy, Walter; Waris, Mohammed; Siddiqui, Waquar; Islam, Faisal; Rajamani, Mahesh; Nathan, Ryan; Jiles, David; David C Jiles Team; Walter Duffy Collaboration

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a promising tool for noninvasive brain stimulation that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of major depressive disorder. To stimulate the brain, TMS uses large, transient pulses of magnetic field to induce an electric field in the head. This transient magnetic field is large enough to cause the depolarization of cortical neurons and initiate a synaptic signal transmission. For this study, 50 unique head models were created from MRI images. Previous simulation studies have primarily used a single head model, and thus give a limited image of the induced electric field from TMS. This study uses finite element analysis simulations on 50 unique, heterogeneous head models to better investigate the relationship between TMS and the electric field induced in brain tissues. Results showed a significant variation in the strength of the induced electric field in the brain, which can be reasonably predicted by the distance from the TMS coil to the stimulated brain. Further, it was seen that some models had high electric field intensities in over five times as much brain volume as other models.

  11. Delay-Dependent Response in Weakly Electric Fish under Closed-Loop Pulse Stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Garcia Forlim

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply a real time activity-dependent protocol to study how freely swimming weakly electric fish produce and process the timing of their own electric signals. Specifically, we address this study in the elephant fish, Gnathonemus petersii, an animal that uses weak discharges to locate obstacles or food while navigating, as well as for electro-communication with conspecifics. To investigate how the inter pulse intervals vary in response to external stimuli, we compare the response to a simple closed-loop stimulation protocol and the signals generated without electrical stimulation. The activity-dependent stimulation protocol explores different stimulus delivery delays relative to the fish's own electric discharges. We show that there is a critical time delay in this closed-loop interaction, as the largest changes in inter pulse intervals occur when the stimulation delay is below 100 ms. We also discuss the implications of these findings in the context of information processing in weakly electric fish.

  12. Electrical stimulation enhances cell migration and integrative repair in the meniscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoning; Arkonac, Derya E.; Chao, Pen-hsiu Grace; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Electrical signals have been applied towards the repair of articular tissues in the laboratory and clinical settings for over seventy years. We focus on healing of the meniscus, a tissue essential to knee function with limited innate repair potential, which has been largely unexplored in the context of electrical stimulation. Here we demonstrate for the first time that electrical stimulation enhances meniscus cell migration and integrative tissue repair. We optimize pulsatile direct current electrical stimulation parameters on cells at the micro-scale, and apply these to healing of full-thickness defects in explants at the macro-scale. We report increased expression of the adenosine A2b receptor in meniscus cells after stimulation at the micro- and macro-scale, and propose a role for A2bR in meniscus electrotransduction. Taken together, these findings advance our understanding of the effects of electrical signals and their mechanisms of action, and contribute to developing electrotherapeutic strategies for meniscus repair. PMID:24419206

  13. Can preoperative electrical nociceptive stimulation predict acute pain after groin herniotomy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Hansen, J.B.; Kehlet, H.

    2008-01-01

    Preoperative identification of patients at risk for high-intensity postoperative pain may be used to predict patients at risk for development of a persistent pain state and allocate patients to more intensive specific pain therapy. Preoperative pain threshold to electrocutaneus stimulation has...... recently been shown to correlate to acute postoperative pain after cesarean section, but the findings have not been confirmed in larger studies or other procedures. Preoperative electrical pain detection threshold and pain tolerance were assessed in patients undergoing a primary unilateral groin hernia...... repair. The correlation between the pain data for electrical stimulation was compared with the postoperative pain during the first week in 165 patients, whereof 3 were excluded. Preoperative electrical pain detection threshold and electrical pain tolerance threshold did not correlate to postoperative...

  14. Interaction of transcranial magnetic stimulation and electrical transmastoid stimulation in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Janet L; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Butler, Jane E

    2002-01-01

    was designed to determine whether the two stimuli activate the same descending axons. Responses to transcranial magnetic stimuli paired with electrical transmastoid stimuli were examined in biceps brachii in human subjects. Twelve interstimulus intervals (ISIs) from -6 ms (magnet before transmastoid) to 5 ms...

  15. Mandarin speech perception in combined electric and acoustic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Li

    Full Text Available For deaf individuals with residual low-frequency acoustic hearing, combined use of a cochlear implant (CI and hearing aid (HA typically provides better speech understanding than with either device alone. Because of coarse spectral resolution, CIs do not provide fundamental frequency (F0 information that contributes to understanding of tonal languages such as Mandarin Chinese. The HA can provide good representation of F0 and, depending on the range of aided acoustic hearing, first and second formant (F1 and F2 information. In this study, Mandarin tone, vowel, and consonant recognition in quiet and noise was measured in 12 adult Mandarin-speaking bimodal listeners with the CI-only and with the CI+HA. Tone recognition was significantly better with the CI+HA in noise, but not in quiet. Vowel recognition was significantly better with the CI+HA in quiet, but not in noise. There was no significant difference in consonant recognition between the CI-only and the CI+HA in quiet or in noise. There was a wide range in bimodal benefit, with improvements often greater than 20 percentage points in some tests and conditions. The bimodal benefit was compared to CI subjects' HA-aided pure-tone average (PTA thresholds between 250 and 2000 Hz; subjects were divided into two groups: "better" PTA (50 dB HL. The bimodal benefit differed significantly between groups only for consonant recognition. The bimodal benefit for tone recognition in quiet was significantly correlated with CI experience, suggesting that bimodal CI users learn to better combine low-frequency spectro-temporal information from acoustic hearing with temporal envelope information from electric hearing. Given the small number of subjects in this study (n = 12, further research with Chinese bimodal listeners may provide more information regarding the contribution of acoustic and electric hearing to tonal language perception.

  16. Implantable power generation system utilizing muscle contractions excited by electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahara, Genta; Hijikata, Wataru; Tomioka, Kota; Shinshi, Tadahiko

    2016-06-01

    An implantable power generation system driven by muscle contractions for supplying power to active implantable medical devices, such as pacemakers and neurostimulators, is proposed. In this system, a muscle is intentionally contracted by an electrical stimulation in accordance with the demands of the active implantable medical device for electrical power. The proposed system, which comprises a small electromagnetic induction generator, electrodes with an electrical circuit for stimulation and a transmission device to convert the linear motion of the muscle contractions into rotational motion for the magneto rotor, generates electrical energy. In an ex vivo demonstration using the gastrocnemius muscle of a toad, which was 28 mm in length and weighed 1.3 g, the electrical energy generated by the prototype exceeded the energy consumed for electrical stimulation, with the net power being 111 µW. It was demonstrated that the proposed implantable power generation system has the potential to replace implantable batteries for active implantable medical devices. © IMechE 2016.

  17. Sensory electrical stimulation for suppression of postural tremor in patients with essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Ji-Won; Kwon, Yuri; Lee, Sang-Ki; Eom, Gwang-Moon; Kwon, Do-Young; Lee, Chan-Nyeong; Park, Kun-Woo; Manto, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Essential tremor is an involuntary trembling of body limbs in people without tremor-related disease. In previous study, suppression of tremor by sensory electrical stimulation was confirmed on the index finger. This study investigates the effect of sensory stimulation on multiple segments and joints of the upper limb. It denotes the observation regarding the effect's continuity after halting the stimulation. 18 patients with essential tremor (8 men and 10 women) participated in this study. The task, "arms stretched forward", was performed and sensory electrical stimulation was applied on four muscles of the upper limb (Flexor Carpi Radialis, Extensor Carpi Radialis, Biceps Brachii, and Triceps Brachii) for 15 seconds. Three 3-D gyro sensors were used to measure the angular velocities of segments (finger, hand, and forearm) and joints (metacarpophalangeal and wrist joints) for three phases of pre-stimulation (Pre), during-stimulation (On), and 5 minute post-stimulation (P5). Three characteristic variables of root-mean-squared angular velocity, peak power, and peak power frequency were derived from the vector sum of the sensor signals. At On phase, RMS velocity was reduced from Pre in all segments and joints while peak power was reduced from Pre in all segments and joints except for forearm segment. Sensory stimulation showed no effect on peak power frequency. All variables at P5 were similar to those at On at all segments and joints. The decrease of peak power of the index finger was noted by 90% during stimulation from that of On phase, which was maintained even after 5 min. The results indicate that sensory stimulation may be an effective clinical method to treat the essential tremor.

  18. Cortical potentials after electrical intraneural stimulation of the optic nerve during orbital enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedičič, Mitja; Beltram, Matej; Olup, Brigita Drnovšek; Bošnjak, Roman

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to present cortical potentials after electrical intraneural stimulation of the optic nerve during orbital enucleation due to malignant melanoma of the choroid or the ciliary body. These cortical potentials were related to cortical potentials after electrical epidural stimulation of the optic nerve, recorded during non-manipulative phases of neurosurgery for central skull base tumors. Cortical potentials were recorded with surface occipital electrode (Oz) in six patients undergoing orbital enucleation under total intravenous anesthesia. Two thin needle stimulating electrodes were inserted inside the intraorbital part of the optic nerve. The electrical stimulus consisted of a rectangular current pulse of varying intensity (0.2-10.0 mA) and duration (0.1-0.3 ms); the stimulation rate was 2 Hz; the bandpass filter was 1-1,000 Hz; the analysis time was 50-300 ms. Cortical potentials could not be obtained or were inconsistently elicitable in three patients with longstanding history (>3 months) of severe visual deterioration, while they consisted of several positive and negative deflections in a patient with a short history of mild visual impairment. In two other patients, cortical potentials consisted of N20, P30 and N40 waves. Cortical potentials after electrical intraneural stimulation of the optic nerve could be recorded in patients with a short history of visual deterioration and without optic nerve atrophy and appear more heterogeneous than cortical potentials after electrical epidural stimulation of the optic nerve, recorded during non-manipulative phases of neurosurgery for central skull base tumors.

  19. Motile responses of cochlear outer hair cells stimulated with an alternating electrical field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitani, Rei; Kakehata, Seiji; Kalinec, Federico

    2011-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate and characterize the motile responses of guinea pig OHCs, stimulated at frequencies varying from 50 Hz to 4 kHz, using high-definition, high-speed video recording and fully automatic image analysis software. Cells stimulated in continuous, burst and sweeping modes with an external alternating electrical field showed robust fast and slow motility, which were dependent on frequency, mode and intensity of stimulation. In response to continuous stimulation, electromotile amplitude ranged from 0.3% to 3.2% of total cell length, whereas cell length usually decreased in amounts varying from 0.1% to 4.3%. Electromotile amplitude in OHCs stimulated with square wave's sweeps was near constant up to 200 Hz, progressively decreased between 200 Hz and 2 kHz, and then remained constant up to 4 kHz. In continuous and burst modes electromotility followed cycle-by-cycle the electrical stimulus, but it required 1-2 s to fully develop and reach maximal amplitude. Instead, slow cell length changes started about 0.6 s after the beginning and continuously developed up to 3 s after the end of electrical stimulation. Incubation of OHCs with 10 mM salicylate affected electromotility but not slow motility, whereas incubation with 3 mM gadolinium affected both. Thus, combination of external electrical stimulation, high-speed video recording and advanced image analysis software provides information about OHC motile responses at acoustic frequencies with an unprecedented detail, opening new areas of research in the field of OHC mechanics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of electrical vs. chemical deep brain stimulation at midbrain sites on micturition in anaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, E; Coote, J H; Lovick, T A

    2015-05-01

    To understand how deep brain stimulation of the midbrain influences control of the urinary bladder. In urethane-anaesthetized male rats, saline was infused continuously into the bladder to evoke cycles of filling and voiding. The effect of electrical (0.1-2.0 ms pulses, 5-180 Hz, 0.5-2.5 V) compared to chemical stimulation (microinjection of D,L-homocysteic acid, 50 nL 0.1 M solution) at the same midbrain sites was tested. Electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal grey matter and surrounding midbrain disrupted normal coordinated voiding activity in detrusor and sphincters muscles and suppressed urine output. The effect occurred within seconds was reversible and not secondary to cardiorespiratory changes. Bladder compliance remained unchanged. Chemical stimulation over the same area using microinjection of D,L-homocysteic acid (DLH) to preferentially activate somatodendritic receptors decreased the frequency of micturition but did not disrupt the coordinated pattern of voiding. In contrast, chemical stimulation within the caudal ventrolateral periaqueductal grey, in the area where critical synapses in the micturition reflex pathway are located, increased the frequency of micturition. Electrical deep brain stimulation within the midbrain can inhibit reflex micturition. We suggest that the applied stimulus entrained activity in the neural circuitry locally, thereby imposing an unphysiological pattern of activity. In a way similar to the use of electrical signals to 'jam' radio transmission, this may prevent a synchronized pattern of efferent activity being transmitted to the spinal outflows to orchestrate a coordinated voiding response. Further experiments to record neuronal firing in the midbrain during the deep brain stimulation will be necessary to test this hypothesis. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Electrical stimulation modulates injury potentials in rats after spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanghao; Huo, Xiaolin; Wang, Aihua; Wu, Changzhe; Zhang, Cheng; Bai, Jinzhu

    2013-01-01

    An injury potential is the direct current potential difference between the site of spinal cord injury and the healthy nerves. Its initial amplitude is a significant indicator of the severity of spinal cord injury, and many cations, such as sodium and calcium, account for the major portion of injury potentials. This injury potential, as well as injury current, can be modulated by direct current field stimulation; however, the appropriate parameters of the electrical field are hard to define. In this paper, injury potential is used as a parameter to adjust the intensity of electrical stimulation. Injury potential could be modulated to slightly above 0 mV (as the anode-centered group) by placing the anodes at the site of the injured spinal cord and the cathodes at the rostral and caudal sections, or around –70 mV, which is resting membrane potential (as the cathode-centered group) by reversing the polarity of electrodes in the anode-centered group. In addition, rats receiving no electrical stimulation were used as the control group. Results showed that the absolute value of the injury potentials acquired after 30 minutes of electrical stimulation was higher than the control group rats and much lower than the initial absolute value, whether the anodes or the cathodes were placed at the site of injury. This phenomenon illustrates that by changing the polarity of the electrical field, electrical stimulation can effectively modulate the injury potentials in rats after spinal cord injury. This is also beneficial for the spontaneous repair of the cell membrane and the reduction of cation influx. PMID:25206563

  2. A mm-Sized Wireless Implantable Device for Electrical Stimulation of Peripheral Nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charthad, Jayant; Chang, Ting Chia; Liu, Zhaokai; Sawaby, Ahmed; Weber, Marcus J; Baker, Sam; Gore, Felicity; Felt, Stephen A; Arbabian, Amin

    2018-04-01

    A wireless electrical stimulation implant for peripheral nerves, achieving >10× improvement over state of the art in the depth/volume figure of merit, is presented. The fully integrated implant measures just 2 mm × 3 mm × 6.5 mm (39 mm 3 , 78 mg), and operates at a large depth of 10.5 cm in a tissue phantom. The implant is powered using ultrasound and includes a miniaturized piezoelectric receiver (piezo), an IC designed in 180 nm HV BCD process, an off-chip energy storage capacitor, and platinum stimulation electrodes. The package also includes an optional blue light-emitting diode for potential applications in optogenetic stimulation in the future. A system-level design strategy for complete operation of the implant during the charging transient of the storage capacitor, as well as a unique downlink command/data transfer protocol, is presented. The implant enables externally programmable current-controlled stimulation of peripheral nerves, with a wide range of stimulation parameters, both for electrical (22 to 5000 μA amplitude, ∼14 to 470 μs pulse-width, 0 to 60 Hz repetition rate) and optical (up to 23 mW/mm 2 optical intensity) stimulation. Additionally, the implant achieves 15 V compliance voltage for chronic applications. Full integration of the implant components, end-to-end in vitro system characterizations, and results for the electrical stimulation of a sciatic nerve, demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of the proposed stimulator for peripheral nerves.

  3. Effects of carbohydrate intake on time to exhaustion and anaerobic contribution during supramaximal exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor José BASTOS-SILVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study evaluated the effect of carbohydrate intake on time to exhaustion and anaerobic contribution during supramaximal exercise on a cycle ergometer. Methods: The sample comprised ten participants with a mean age of 23.9±2.5 years, mean body mass of 75.1±12.3 kg, mean height of 170.0±1.0 cm, and mean body fat of 11.3±5.2%. The participants underwent an incremental test to determine maximal oxygen uptake and maximum power output, and two supramaximal tests with a constant load of 110% of the maximum power output to exhaustion. Thirty minutes before the supramaximal tests the participants consumed carbohydrates (2 g.kg-1 or placebo. Results: The times to exhaustion of carbohydrate and placebo did not differ (carbohydrate: 170.7±44.6s; placebo: 156.1±26.7s, p=0.17; effect size=0.39. Similarly, the anaerobic contributions of the two treatments did not differ (carbohydrate: 3.0±0.9 L; placebo: 2.7±1.1 L, p=0.23; effect size=0.29. Conclusion: Carbohydrate intake was not capable of increasing time to exhaustion and anaerobic contribution in physically active men cycling at 110% of maximum power output.

  4. Playing the electric light orchestra--how electrical stimulation of visual cortex elucidates the neural basis of perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicmil, Nela; Krug, Kristine

    2015-09-19

    Vision research has the potential to reveal fundamental mechanisms underlying sensory experience. Causal experimental approaches, such as electrical microstimulation, provide a unique opportunity to test the direct contributions of visual cortical neurons to perception and behaviour. But in spite of their importance, causal methods constitute a minority of the experiments used to investigate the visual cortex to date. We reconsider the function and organization of visual cortex according to results obtained from stimulation techniques, with a special emphasis on electrical stimulation of small groups of cells in awake subjects who can report their visual experience. We compare findings from humans and monkeys, striate and extrastriate cortex, and superficial versus deep cortical layers, and identify a number of revealing gaps in the 'causal map' of visual cortex. Integrating results from different methods and species, we provide a critical overview of the ways in which causal approaches have been used to further our understanding of circuitry, plasticity and information integration in visual cortex. Electrical stimulation not only elucidates the contributions of different visual areas to perception, but also contributes to our understanding of neuronal mechanisms underlying memory, attention and decision-making.

  5. Playing the electric light orchestra—how electrical stimulation of visual cortex elucidates the neural basis of perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicmil, Nela; Krug, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Vision research has the potential to reveal fundamental mechanisms underlying sensory experience. Causal experimental approaches, such as electrical microstimulation, provide a unique opportunity to test the direct contributions of visual cortical neurons to perception and behaviour. But in spite of their importance, causal methods constitute a minority of the experiments used to investigate the visual cortex to date. We reconsider the function and organization of visual cortex according to results obtained from stimulation techniques, with a special emphasis on electrical stimulation of small groups of cells in awake subjects who can report their visual experience. We compare findings from humans and monkeys, striate and extrastriate cortex, and superficial versus deep cortical layers, and identify a number of revealing gaps in the ‘causal map′ of visual cortex. Integrating results from different methods and species, we provide a critical overview of the ways in which causal approaches have been used to further our understanding of circuitry, plasticity and information integration in visual cortex. Electrical stimulation not only elucidates the contributions of different visual areas to perception, but also contributes to our understanding of neuronal mechanisms underlying memory, attention and decision-making. PMID:26240421

  6. Recording of the Neural Activity Induced by the Electrical Subthalamic Stimulation Using Ca2+ Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Atsushi; Yagi, Tetsuya; Osanai, Makoto

    The basal ganglia (BG) have important roles in some kind of motor control and learning. Parkinson's disease is one of the motor impairment disease. Recently, to recover a motor severity in patients of Parkinsonism, the stimulus electrode is implanted to the subthalamic nucleus, which is a part of the basal ganglia, and the deep brain stimulation (DBS) is often conducted. However, the effects of the DBS on the subthalamic neurons have not been elucidated. Thus, to analyze the effects of the electrical stimulation on the subthalamic neurons, we conducted the calcium imaging at the mouse subthalamic nucleus. When the single stimulus was applied to the subthalamic nucleus, the intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) transients were observed. In the case of application of the single electrical stimulation, the [Ca2+]i arose near the stimulus position. When 100 Hz 10-100 times tetanic stimulations were applied, the responded area and the amplitudes of [Ca2+]i transients were increased. The [Ca2+]i transients were disappeared almost completely on the action potential blockade, but blockade of the excitatory and the inhibitory synaptic transmission had little effects on the responded area and the amplitudes of the [Ca2+]i transients. These results suggested that the electrical stimulation to the subthalamic neurons led to activate the subthalamic neurons directly but not via synaptic transmissions. Thus, DBS may change the activity of the subthalamic neurons, hence, may alter the input-output relationship of the subthalamic neurons

  7. Evidence-Based Systematic Review: Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Swallowing and Neural Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heather; Lazarus, Cathy; Arvedson, Joan; Schooling, Tracy; Frymark, Tobi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review the literature examining the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on swallowing and neural activation. The review was conducted as part of a series examining the effects of oral motor exercises (OMEs) on speech, swallowing, and neural activation. Method: A systematic search was conducted to…

  8. Angiotensin II modulates conducted vasoconstriction to norepinephrine and local electrical stimulation in rat mesenteric arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, F; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1999-01-01

    the effect of intravenous infusion of angiotensin II (ANG II), losartan or methoxamine on conducted vasoconstriction to local application of norepinephrine (NE) or local electrical stimulation onto the surface of rat mesenteric arterioles in vivo. METHODS: In anesthetized male Wistar rats (n = 43) NE (0.1 m...

  9. Anxiolytic and antidepressive effects of electric stimulation of the paleocerebellar cortex in pentylenetetrazol kindled rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godlevsky, L.S.; Muratova, T.N.; Kresyun, N.V.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are component of interictal behavioral deteriorations that occur as a consequence of kindling, a procedure to induce chronic epilepsy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of electrical stimulation (ES) of paleocerebellar cortex on anxiety and

  10. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) improves the rest-activity rhythm in midstage Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E. J.; van Someren, E. J.; Swaab, D. F.

    1999-01-01

    Nightly restlessness in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is probably due to a disorder of circadian rhythms. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was previously reported to increase the strength of coupling of the circadian rest activity rhythm to Zeitgebers in early stage

  11. Prospective study of transcutaneous parasacral electrical stimulation for overactive bladder in children: long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordêlo, Patrícia; Soares, Paulo Vitor Lima; Maciel, Iza; Macedo, Antonio; Barroso, Ubirajara

    2009-12-01

    We evaluated the long-term success of transcutaneous parasacral electrical stimulation for overactive bladder in children. We prospectively evaluated children who underwent transcutaneous parasacral electrical stimulation for overactive bladder. All patients had symptoms of overactive bladder, bell curve in uroflowmetry and low post-void residual urine. The procedure was performed using a frequency of 10 Hz for 20-minute sessions 3 times weekly for a maximum of 20 sessions. Initial and long-term (more than 6 months) success rates were evaluated. Transcutaneous parasacral electrical stimulation was performed in 36 girls and 13 boys with a mean age of 10.2 years (range 5 to 17). Mean followup was 35.3 months (range 6 to 80). Before treatment urgency, daytime incontinence and urinary tract infection were seen in 100%, 88% and 71% of cases, respectively. Initial success (full response) was demonstrated in 79% of patients for urgency, 76% for incontinence and 77% for all symptoms. Continued success was seen in 84% of patients for urgency, 74% for daytime incontinence and 78% for all symptoms. If the 30 patients with at least 2 years of followup were considered, treatment was successful in 73%. Recurrence of symptoms after a full response was seen in 10% of cases. Two of 33 patients (6%) with urinary tract infection before the procedure still had infection after treatment. Transcutaneous parasacral electrical stimulation is well tolerated, and demonstrates short and long-term effectiveness in treating overactive bladder in children. Symptoms eventually will recur in 10% of patients.

  12. [Pelvic floor muscle training with and without functional electrical stimulation as treatment for stress urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyjólfsdóttir, Halldóra; Ragnarsdóttir, María; Geirsson, Gudmundur

    2009-09-01

    Twelve to 55% of women experience stress urinary incontinence at some time during their lifetime. To compare the effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle training with and without electrical stimulation in treatment of stress urinary incontinence. Participants were 24 women, 27-73 years of age, diagnosed with stress urinary incontinence. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy and urge urinary incontinence. These participants were randomly divided into group 1 and 2. Both groups trained 15 min. twice a day for 9 weeks. Group 2 used simultaneously intermittent electrical stimulation. The pelvic floor muscles were evaluated using the Oxford scale, vaginal palpation, and by electromyogram, (Myomed 930, Enraf Nonius). The quantity and frequency of urinary incontinence episodes was evaluated using a questionnaire and a VAS scale before and after the treatment. The groups were demographically similar, except group 2 was significantly younger. Both groups had significantly increased pelvic floor muscle strength (p=0.007; p=0.005 respectively) after the treatment and 70% of all the women had reduced or no stress urinary incontinence. Group 2 had significantly (p=0.013) better relaxation post treatment. Pelvic floor muscle training is an effective treatment for stress urinary incontinence, but electrical stimulation gave no additional effect for this patient group. The significantly lower relaxation threshold in group 2 indicates that electrical stimulation could be a possible treatment for symptoms caused by hypertensive pelvic floor muscles.

  13. Nanofiber containing carbon nanotubes enhanced PC12 cell proliferation and neuritogenesis by electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wen-Ta; Shih, Yi-An

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system is an important regulator of the human body because it adapts our responses to the external environment and provides people the ability of thought, memory, and emotion. PC12 is a cell line that is commonly used to study the behavior of neural differentiation. PC12 cells further differentiate into nerve cells when stimulated by nerve growth factor (NGF), which have neurite, dendrite, and axon, and form synapses with neighboring cells to build neural networks. Micropatterns and electric stimulation can significantly influence cellular attachment, proliferation, orientation, extracellular matrix (ECM) expression, neural differentiation, and cellular motion. We fabricated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber with or without carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by electrospinning and promoted the neural differentiation of PC12 cells by electric stimulation. We used scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluorescence microscope to observe the NGF-induced growth of PC12 cells on PCL nanofiber. Axon formation and cellular activity expression, that confirm that PC12 cells can grow well on PCL nanofiber, and the gene expressions of MAP1b and GAP43 significantly increased after electric stimulation. Based on the results, the structure of nanofibers containing CNTs can effectively induce neural differentiation of PC12 cells in an electric field. This experimental model can be used for future clinical applications.

  14. Recovery characteristics of the electrically stimulated auditory nerve in deafened guinea pigs : Relation to neuronal status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramekers, Dyan; Versnel, Huib; Strahl, Stefan B.; Klis, Sjaak F L; Grolman, Wilko

    2015-01-01

    Successful cochlear implant performance requires adequate responsiveness of the auditory nerve to prolonged pulsatile electrical stimulation. Degeneration of the auditory nerve as a result of severe hair cell loss could considerably compromise this ability. The main objective of this study was to

  15. Peripheral electrical stimulation in Alzheimer's disease - A randomized controlled trial on cognition and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Koene R.A.; Scheltens, Philip; Luijpen, Marijn W.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Scherder, Erik J.A.

    2005-01-01

    In a number of studies, peripheral electrical nerve stimulation has been applied to Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients who lived in a nursing home. Improvements were observed in memory, verbal fluency, affective behavior, activities of daily living and on the rest-activity rhythm and pupillary light

  16. Electrically Stimulated Adipose Stem Cells on Polypyrrole-Coated Scaffolds for Smooth Muscle Tissue Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Björninen, M.; Gilmore, K.; Pelto, J.; Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, R.; Kellomäki, M.; Miettinen, S.; Wallace, G.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Haimi, Suvi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the use of polypyrrole (PPy)-coated polymer scaffolds and electrical stimulation (ES) to differentiate adipose stem cells (ASCs) towards smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Since tissue engineering lacks robust and reusable 3D ES devices we developed a device that can deliver ES in a

  17. Electrically Stimulated Adipose Stem Cells on Polypyrrole-Coated Scaffolds for Smooth Muscle Tissue Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjorninen, Miina; Gilmore, Kerry; Pelto, Jani; Seppanen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta; Kellomaki, Minna; Miettinen, Susanna; Wallace, Gordon; Grijpma, Dirk; Haimi, Suvi

    We investigated the use of polypyrrole (PPy)-coated polymer scaffolds and electrical stimulation (ES) to differentiate adipose stem cells (ASCs) towards smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Since tissue engineering lacks robust and reusable 3D ES devices we developed a device that can deliver ES in a

  18. Morphometric data of canine sacral nerve roots with reference to electrical sacral root stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkhoff, N. J.; Koldewijn, E. L.; d'Hollosy, W.; Debruyne, F. M.; Wijkstra, H.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments to investigate restoration of lower urinary tract control by electrical stimulation of the sacral nerve roots are mostly performed on dogs, yet little morphometric data (such as canine root and fiber diameter distributions) are available. The aim of this study was to acquire morphometric

  19. Muscle reflexes during gait elicited by electrical stimulation of the posterior cruciate ligament in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Rasmussen, T.; Krogsgaard, M.R.; Jensen, D.B.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the influence of electrical stimulation of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) on the motoneuron pool of the thigh and calf muscle during gait. The study group comprised eight young men without any history of injury to the knee joints. Multistranded teflon-insulated stainless...

  20. Functional electrical stimulation-assisted walking for persons with incomplete spinal injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladouceur, M.; Barbeau, H.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the changes in maximal overground walking speed (MOWS) that occurred during; walking training with a functional electrical stimulation (FES) orthosis by chronic spinal cord injured persons with incomplete motor function loss. The average walking: speed over a distance of 10...

  1. The effects of acupuncture, electroneedling and transcutaneous electrical stimulation therapies on peripheral haemodynamic functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, J A; Biasci, S; Han, L

    1998-02-01

    For decades, acupuncture and electroneedling treatments have been used, predominately in the Eastern countries, in the management of patients with compromised cardiovascular and digestive functions. Similarly, neuromuscular electrical stimulation is commonly employed in Western countries to modulate pain, augment muscle strength and enhance blood flow in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Many rehabilitation specialists believe that electrical stimulation of acupuncture points with surface electrodes can elicit the same physiological and therapeutic effects as those produced by acupuncture and electroneedling techniques. Electrical stimulation of acupuncture points with surface electrodes is a relatively new and non-invasive treatment with potential clinical application in the management of patients with peripheral vascular disease. Presently, there are controversies in the literature as to the effects of traditional acupuncture, electroneedling and neuromuscular electrical stimulation treatments on peripheral haemodynamic functioning. This paper provides a detailed review of published studies on the above promising therapies. An attempt was made to clarify the pitfalls in the extant literature and delineate the fact from the fiction. Areas for further research were proposed.

  2. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on cognition and behaviour in aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E.J A; van Someren, E.W J; Bouma, J.M.; van der Berg, M

    2000-01-01

    In previous studies, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) improved cognition and behaviour in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The rationale underlying these studies was that TENS could activate, e.g. the septo-hippocampal region and the hypothalamus through direct and indirect

  3. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on memory in elderly with mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijpen, M.W.; Swaab, D.F.; Sergeant, J.A.; van Dijk, K.R.A.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2005-01-01

    In previous studies, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was shown to have a positive effect on memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Moreover, the reported effects appeared to be more beneficial in early stages of Alzheimer's disease compared to later stage intervention. Based

  4. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on memory in elderly with mild cognitive impairment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijpen, M.W.; Swaab, D.F.; Sergeant, J.A.; Dijk, K.R.A.; Scherder, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    In previous studies, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was shown to have a positive effect on memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Moreover, the reported effects appeared to be more beneficial in early stages of Alzheimer's disease compared to later stage intervention. Based

  5. Effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) on cognition and behaviour in aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E.J.A.; Bouma, A.; van den Berg, M.

    2000-01-01

    In previous studies, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) improved cognition and behaviour in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The rationale underlying these studies was that TENS could activate, e.g. the septo-hippocampal region and the hypothalamus through direct and indirect

  6. Clinical efficacy of electrical stimulation exercise training : Effects on health, fitness, and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T. W J; Glaser, R. M.; Shuster, D. B.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize research findings pertaining to the effects of functional electrical stimulation (FES) lower limb exercise training on health, fitness, and function in individuals with spinal cord injury. This lays the foundation for defining the potential clinical

  7. Self directed home based electrical muscle stimulation training improves exercise tolerance and strength in healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Brian; Prendergast, Ann; Rainsford, Gary; Minogue, Conor

    2013-01-01

    Advancing age is associated with a gradual decline in muscle strength, exercise tolerance and subsequent capacity for activities of daily living. It is important that we develop effective strategies to halt this process of gradual decline in order to enhance functional ability and capacity for independent living. To achieve this, we must overcome the challenge of sustaining ongoing engagement in physical exercise programmes in the sedentary elderly population, particularly those who experience barriers to exercise participation. Recent developments in electrical muscle stimulation technology could provide a potential solution. In this pilot case-control study we investigated the effects of a self-directed home based programme of electrical muscle stimulation training on muscle strength and exercise tolerance in a group of 16 healthy elderly volunteers (10f, 6m). Study participants completed 30 separate 1-hour electrical muscle stimulation sessions at home over a 6-week period. We observed significant improvements in quadriceps muscle strength and 6-minute walk distance, suggesting that this form of electrical muscle stimulation training has promise as an exercise modality in the elderly population.

  8. Electrical stimulation therapy for slow transit constipation in children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Liang; He, Jin; Lu, Shifeier

    2015-05-01

    Slow transit constipation is a common disorder in children, which often does not respond well to ordinary treatments. We have conducted a systematic review of reported studies in order to better define the current state of knowledge about electrical stimulation treatment of slow transit constipation in children. We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, BioMed Central, and ISI Web of Knowledge with relevant terms; six studies, all from one center, met the criteria for inclusion. Two trials were randomized clinical trials, and four were prospective studies. The number of subjects included in the studies was 8 to 39, with ages 3 to 18 years. Treatment sessions varied from 20 to 30 min 3 times per week to 1 h daily, and duration of therapy varied from 3 weeks to 6 months. Statistically significant improvements after electrical stimulation therapy were recorded in one to four outcome measures in each of the studies: frequency of defecation, soiling, Bristol Stool Scale, radionuclear transit studies, and quality of life; however, the improvements were of modest degree and of uncertain clinical significance. Quality assessment of the studies found various levels of bias, with attrition bias and reporting bias in all six. This systemic review found moderate support for the effectiveness of electrical stimulation therapy in slow transit constipation in children. However, better-designed studies, with larger and more diverse patient populations followed for longer time periods, will be needed in order to reliably determine the efficacy of electrical stimulation therapy in the treatment of this disorder.

  9. Detection of a diabetic sural nerve from the magnetic field after electric stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayami, Takehito; Iramina, Keiji; Hyodo, Akira; Chen, Xian; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we proposed a new diagnostic technique for diabetic neuropathy using biomagnetic measurement. Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes. To examine the injury, the skin potential around the nerve is often measured after electric stimulation. However, measuring the magnetic field may reveal precise condition of the injury. To evaluate the effect of measuring the magnetic field, a simulation study was performed. A diabetic sural nerve was simulated as a bundle of myelinated nerve fibers. Each fiber was modeled as an electric cable of Ranvier's nodes. Anatomical data were used to determine the number of nerve fibers and distribution of nerve fiber diameters. The electric potential and the magnetic field on the skin after electric stimulation were computed to the boundary element method. Biphasic time courses were obtained as the electric potential and the magnetic flux density at measurement points. In diabetic nerves, the longer interpeak latency of the electric potential wave and the shorter interpeak latency of the magnetic flux wave were obtained. Measuring both the electric potential and the magnetic flux density seemed to provide a noninvasive and objective marker for diabetic neuropathy.

  10. Cortical mapping of painful electrical stimulation by quantitative electroencephalography: unraveling the time–frequency–channel domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goudman L

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lisa Goudman,1–3 Jorne Laton,4 Raf Brouns,4,5 Guy Nagels,4–6 Eva Huysmans,2,3,7,8 Ronald Buyl,7,9 Kelly Ickmans,2,3,10 Jo Nijs,2,3,10 Maarten Moens,1,2,4,11 1Department of Neurosurgery, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, 2Pain in Motion International Research Group, 3Department of Physiotherapy, Human Physiology and Anatomy, Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, 4Center for Neurosciences (C4N, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB, 5Department of Neurology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, 6National MS Center, 7Department of Public Health (GEWE, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 8Interuniversity Centre for Health Economics Research (I-CHER, 9Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 10Department of Physical Medicine and Physiotherapy, 11Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels, Belgium Abstract: The goal of this study was to capture the electroencephalographic signature of experimentally induced pain and pain-modulating mechanisms after painful peripheral electrical stimulation to determine one or a selected group of electrodes at a specific time point with a specific frequency range. In the first experiment, ten healthy participants were exposed to stimulation of the right median nerve while registering brain activity using 32-channel electroencephalography. Electrical stimulations were organized in four blocks of 20 stimuli with four intensities – 100%, 120%, 140%, and 160% – of the electrical pain threshold. In the second experiment, 15 healthy participants received electrical stimulation on the dominant median nerve before and during the application of a second painful stimulus. Raw data were converted into the time–frequency domain by applying a continuous wavelet transform. Separated domain information was extracted by calculating Parafac models. The results demonstrated that it is possible to capture

  11. [Real-time Gait Training System with Embedded Functional Electrical Stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Linyan; Ruan, Zhaomin; Jia, Guifeng; Xla, Jing; Qiu, Lijian; Wu, Changwang; Jin, Xiaoqing; Ning, Gangmin

    2015-07-01

    To solve the problem that mostly gait analysis is independent from the treatment, this work proposes a system that integrates the functions of gait training and assessment for foot drop treatment. The system uses a set of sensors to collect gait parameters and designes multi-mode functional electrical stimulators as actuator. Body area network technology is introduced to coordinate the data communication and execution of the sensors and stimulators, synchronize the gait analysis and foot drop treatment. Bluetooth 4.0 is applied to low the power consumption of the system. The system realizes the synchronization of treatment and gait analysis. It is able to acquire and analyze the dynamic parameters of ankle, knee and hip in real-time, and treat patients by guiding functional electrical stimulation delivery to the specific body locations of patients.

  12. Twitch potentiation induced by two different modalities of neuromuscular electrical stimulation: implications for motor unit recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regina Dias Da Silva, Sarah; Neyroud, Daria; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Gondin, Julien; Place, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that twitch potentiation would be greater following conventional (CONV) neuromuscular electrical stimulation (50-µs pulse width and 25-Hz frequency) compared with wide-pulse high-frequency (WPHF) neuromuscular electrical stimulation (1-ms, 100-Hz) and voluntary (VOL) contractions, because of specificities in motor unit recruitment (random in CONV vs. random and orderly in WPHF vs. orderly in VOL). A single twitch was evoked by means of tibial nerve stimulation before and 2 s after CONV, WPHF, and VOL conditioning contractions of the plantar flexors (intensity: 10% maximal voluntary contraction; duration: 10 s) in 13 young healthy subjects. Peak twitch increased (Ptwitch potentiation results. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Effects of Dual-Channel Functional Electrical Stimulation on Gait Performance in Patients with Hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Springer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to assess the effect of functional electrical stimulation (FES applied to the peroneal nerve and thigh muscles on gait performance in subjects with hemiparesis. Participants were 45 subjects (age 57.8 ± 14.8 years with hemiparesis (5.37 ± 5.43 years since diagnosis demonstrating a foot-drop and impaired knee control. Thigh stimulation was applied either to the quadriceps or hamstrings muscles, depending on the dysfunction most affecting gait. Gait was assessed during a two-minute walk test with/without stimulation and with peroneal stimulation alone. A second assessment was conducted after six weeks of daily use. The addition of thigh muscles stimulation to peroneal stimulation significantly enhanced gait velocity measures at the initial and second evaluation. Gait symmetry was enhanced by the dual-channel stimulation only at the initial evaluation, and single-limb stance percentage only at the second assessment. For example, after six weeks, the two-minute gait speed with peroneal stimulation and with the dual channel was 0.66 ± 0.30 m/sec and 0.70 ± 0.31 m/sec, respectively (. In conclusion, dual-channel FES may enhance gait performance in subjects with hemiparesis more than peroneal FES alone.

  14. Effect of Neuromuscular Electrical Muscle Stimulation on Energy Expenditure in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ju Chang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Weight loss/weight control is a major concern in prevention of cardiovascular disease and the realm of health promotion. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES at different intensities on energy expenditure (oxygen and calories in healthy adults. The secondary aim was to develop a generalized linear regression (GEE model to predict the increase of energy expenditure facilitated by NMES and identify factors (NMES stimulation intensity level, age, body mass index, weight, body fat percentage, waist/hip ratio, and gender associated with this NMES-induced increase of energy expenditure. Forty sedentary healthy adults (18 males and 22 females participated. NMES was given at the following stimulation intensities for 10 minutes each: sensory level (E1, motor threshold (E2, and maximal intensity comfortably tolerated (E3. Cardiopulmonary gas exchange was evaluated during rest, NMES, and recovery stage. The results revealed that NMES at E2 and E3 significantly increased energy expenditure and the energy expenditure at recovery stage was still significantly higher than baseline. The GEE model demonstrated that a linear dose-response relationship existed between the stimulation intensity and the increase of energy expenditure. No subject’s demographic or anthropometric characteristics tested were significantly associated with the increase of energy expenditure. This study suggested NMES may be used to serve as an additional intervention for weight loss programs. Future studies to develop electrical stimulators or stimulation electrodes to maximize the comfort of NMES are recommended.

  15. A preparation for studying electrical stimulation of the retina in vivo in rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig-Silva, M. S.; Hathcock, C. D.; Hetling, J. R.

    2005-03-01

    A remaining challenge to the development of electronic prostheses for vision is improving the effectiveness of retinal stimulation. Electrode design and stimulus parameters need to be optimized such that the neural output from the retina conveys information to the mind's eye that aids the patient in interpreting his or her environment. This optimization will require a detailed understanding of the response of the retina to electrical stimulation. The identity and response characteristics of the cellular targets of stimulation need to be defined and evaluated. Described here is an in vivo preparation for studying electrical stimulation of the retina in rat at the cellular level. The use of rat makes available a number of well-described models of retinal disease that motivate prosthesis development. Artificial stimulation can be investigated by adapting techniques traditionally employed to study the response of the retina to photic stimuli, such as recording at the cornea, single-cell recording, and pharmacological dissection of the response. Pilot studies include amplitude-intensity response data for subretinal and transretinal stimulation paradigms recorded in wild-type rats and a transgenic rat model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. The ability to record single-unit ganglion cell activity in vivo is also demonstrated.

  16. Reevaluation of reflex responses of the human masseter muscle to electrical lip stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uginčius, Paulius; Yilmaz, Gizem; Sebik, Oğuz; Türker, Kemal S

    2017-08-01

    We examined the reflex response of the human masseter muscle to electrical stimulation of the lip using both single motor unit and surface electromyogram based methods. Using the classical analysis methods, reflex response to mild electrical stimuli generated two distinct short-lasting inhibitions. This pattern may reflect the development of combinations of short- and long-latency inhibitory postsynaptic potentials as a result of the mildly painful electrical lip stimulation. However, this pattern appearing in the classical analysis methods may have developed as a consequence of earlier responses and may not be genuine. This study examined the genuineness of these responses using both the classical analysis methods and the discharge rate method to uncover the realistic postsynaptic potentials in human trigeminal motor nucleus. Using the discharge rate method, we found that the electrical lip stimulation only generated a long-lasting single or compound inhibitory response that is followed by late, long-lasting excitation. These findings have important implications on the redrawing of the neuronal pathways of the trigeminal nerve that are frequently used to judge neuromuscular disorders of the trigeminal region. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We examined the human masseter reflex response to electrical stimulation of lower lip to uncover realistic postsynaptic potentials in the trigeminal motor nucleus. We found that the stimulation generates a long-lasting single or compound inhibitory response that is followed by a late, long-lasting excitation. These findings have important implications on the redrawing of the neuronal pathways of the trigeminal nerve that are frequently used to judge neuromuscular disorders of the trigeminal region. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Effect of functional electrical stimulation on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoglou, Nikolaos Pe; Mandila, Christina; Karavidas, Apostolos; Farmakis, Dimitrios; Matzaraki, Vasiliki; Varounis, Christos; Arapi, Sofia; Perpinia, Anastasia; Parissis, John

    2017-05-01

    Background/design Functional electrical stimulation of lower limb muscles is an alternative method of training in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Although it improves exercise capacity in CHF, we performed a randomised, placebo-controlled study to investigate its effects on long-term clinical outcomes. Methods We randomly assigned 120 patients, aged 71 ± 8 years, with stable CHF (New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II/III (63%/37%), mean left ventricular ejection fraction 28 ± 5%), to either a 6-week functional electrical stimulation training programme or placebo. Patients were followed for up to 19 months for death and/or hospitalisation due to CHF decompensation. Results At baseline, there were no significant differences in demographic parameters, CHF severity and medications between groups. During a median follow-up of 383 days, 14 patients died (11 cardiac, three non-cardiac deaths), while 40 patients were hospitalised for CHF decompensation. Mortality did not differ between groups (log rank test P = 0.680), while the heart failure-related hospitalisation rate was significantly lower in the functional electrical stimulation group (hazard ratio (HR) 0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.78, P = 0.007). The latter difference remained significant after adjustment for prognostic factors: age, gender, baseline NYHA class and left ventricular ejection fraction (HR 0.22, 95% CI 0.10-0.46, P electrical stimulation training was associated with a lower occurrence of the composite endpoint (death or heart failure-related hospitalisation) after adjustment for the above-mentioned prognostic factors (HR 0.21, 95% CI 0.103-0.435, P electrical stimulation training reduced the risk of heart failure-related hospitalisations, without affecting the mortality rate. The beneficial long-term effects of this alternative method of training require further investigation.

  18. Nonpharmacological treatment of lower urinary tract dysfunction using biofeedback and transcutaneous electrical stimulation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Ubirajara; Lordêlo, Patrícia; Lopes, Antônio A; Andrade, Juarez; Macedo, Antonio; Ortiz, Valdemar

    2006-07-01

    To report a series of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) whose urge syndrome was treated by electrical stimulation, and their voiding dysfunction by biofeedback; none of the children were using anticholinergic drugs during treatment. In all, 36 children who presented with symptoms of urinary urgency and/or daily incontinence completed the treatment and were prospectively evaluated. The mean (range) follow-up was 13.8 (4-24) months, and their mean age 7 (3-14) years, 17 children were aged electrical stimulation, and group 2, with voiding dysfunction, treated with biofeedback. In group 1, the mean (range) number of electrical stimulation sessions was 13.1 (4-20). Of the 19 children treated, 12 had a complete clinical improvement, six a significant improvement, and one a mild improvement. In group 2, the mean (range) number of biofeedback sessions was 6 (4-14). Of the 17 children treated, there was complete improvement of symptoms in 10, significant improvement in two and mild improvement in five. Six children who had no resolution of symptoms after biofeedback had salvage therapy with electrical stimulation, after which four had complete improvement of symptoms, and two a 90% and 40% improvement, respectively. Taking the two groups together, after treatment, four children developed isolated episodes of urinary tract infection. Of 21 children with nocturnal enuresis, bed-wetting continued in 13 (62%) after treatment. In this short-term follow-up, the nonpharmacological treatment of voiding dysfunction using biofeedback, and of urge syndrome by electrical stimulation, was effective for treating LUTD in children.

  19. The torque-velocity relationship in large human muscles: maximum voluntary versus electrically stimulated behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Matthew T G; Young, Fraser; Kim, Jinwoo; Forrester, Stephanie E

    2013-02-22

    The in vivo maximum voluntary torque-velocity profile for large muscle groups differs from the in vitro tetanic profile with lower than expected eccentric torques. Using sub-maximal transcutaneous electrical stimulation has given torque-velocity profiles with an eccentric torque plateau ∼1.4 times the isometric value. This is closer to, but still less than, the in vitro tetanic profiles with plateaus between 1.5 and 1.9 times isometric. This study investigated the maximum voluntary and sub-maximum transcutaneous electrical stimulated torque-angle-angular velocity profiles for the knee extensors and flexors in a group of healthy males. Fifteen male subjects performed maximum voluntary and sub-maximum electrically stimulated (∼40% for extensors and ∼20% for flexors) eccentric and concentric knee extension and flexions on an isovelocity dynamometer at velocities ranging from ±50°s(-1) to ±400°s(-1). The ratio of peak eccentric to peak isometric torque (T(ecc)/T(0)) was compared between the maximum voluntary and electrically stimulated conditions for both extensors and flexors, and between muscle groups. Under maximum voluntary conditions the peak torque ratio, T(ecc)/T(0), remained close to 1 (0.9-1.2) while for the electrically stimulated conditions it was significantly higher (1.4-1.7; pmuscle groups have an intrinsic T(ecc)/T(0) comparable with in vitro muscle tests, and it can be ascertained from appropriate in vivo testing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of electrical stimulation for functional tissue engineering in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radisic, Milica (Inventor); Park, Hyoungshin (Inventor); Langer, Robert (Inventor); Freed, Lisa (Inventor); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides new methods for the in vitro preparation of bioartificial tissue equivalents and their enhanced integration after implantation in vivo. These methods include submitting a tissue construct to a biomimetic electrical stimulation during cultivation in vitro to improve its structural and functional properties, and/or in vivo, after implantation of the construct, to enhance its integration with host tissue and increase cell survival and functionality. The inventive methods are particularly useful for the production of bioartificial equivalents and/or the repair and replacement of native tissues that contain electrically excitable cells and are subject to electrical stimulation in vivo, such as, for example, cardiac muscle tissue, striated skeletal muscle tissue, smooth muscle tissue, bone, vasculature, and nerve tissue.

  1. Towards an ankle neuroprosthesis for hybrid robotics: Concepts and current sources for functional electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casco, S; Fuster, I; Galeano, R; Moreno, J C; Pons, J L; Brunetti, F

    2017-07-01

    Hybrid rehabilitation robotics combine neuro-prosthetic devices (close-loop functional electrical stimulation systems) and traditional robotic structures and actuators to explore better therapies and promote a more efficient motor function recovery or compensation. Although hybrid robotics and ankle neuroprostheses (NPs) have been widely developed over the last years, there are just few studies on the use of NPs to electrically control both ankle flexion and extension to promote ankle recovery and improved gait patterns in paretic limbs. The aim of this work is to develop an ankle NP specifically designed to work in the field of hybrid robotics. This article presents early steps towards this goal and makes a brief review about motor NPs and Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) principles and most common devices used to aid the ankle functioning during the gait cycle. It also shows a current sources analysis done in this framework, in order to choose the best one for this intended application.

  2. Foot salvage and improvement of microvascular blood flow as a result of epidural spinal cord electrical stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M. J.; Jörning, P. J.; Beckers, R. C.; Ubbink, D. T.; van Kleef, Maarten; Slaaf, D. W.; Reneman, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    Epidural spinal cord electrical stimulation has been suggested as an alternative treatment in patients with limb-threatening ischemia in whom vascular reconstructive surgery is not possible anymore. We studied the effects of epidural spinal cord electrical stimulation on microcirculatory blood flow

  3. Effect of electrical stimulation of hamstrings and L3/4 dermatome on gait in spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Salm, Arjan; Veltink, Petrus H.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Nene, A.V.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effect of electrical stimulation of hamstrings and L3/4 dermatome on the swing phase of gait. Materials and Methods. Five subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) with spasticity were included. Two electrical stimulation methods were investigated, i.e.,

  4. Electrical Stimulation of Visual Cortex: Relevance for the Development of Visual Cortical Prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosking, William H; Beauchamp, Michael S; Yoshor, Daniel

    2017-09-15

    Electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex is a powerful tool for exploring cortical function. Stimulation of early visual cortical areas is easily detected by subjects and produces simple visual percepts known as phosphenes. A device implanted in visual cortex that generates patterns of phosphenes could be used as a substitute for natural vision in blind patients. We review the possibilities and limitations of such a device, termed a visual cortical prosthetic. Currently, we can predict the location and size of phosphenes produced by stimulation of single electrodes. A functional prosthetic, however, must produce spatial temporal patterns of activity that will result in the perception of complex visual objects. Although stimulation of later visual cortical areas alone usually does not lead to a visual percept, it can alter visual perception and the performance of visual behaviors, and training subjects to use signals injected into these areas may be possible.

  5. The role of electrical stimulation techniques in the management of the male patient with urgency incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Niels V; Osborn, David J; Dmochowski, Roger R

    2014-11-01

    Overactive bladder affects 10-27% of men, a significant portion of whom report urge urinary incontinence that is inadequately treated with first-line and second-line treatments. There is thus a substantial need to critically evaluate the alternative means of clinical management. This review presents the current evidence for the use of sacral neuromodulation and percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation in the treatment of men with urge incontinence, as well as evaluates the financial implications of these treatments. Other alternative modes of electrical stimulation for urge incontinence are also briefly reviewed. Both sacral neuromodulation and percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation prove to be viable, durable options for treating patients with refractory urge incontinence. Alternative modes of stimulation are also beginning to show promise.

  6. A comparison of functional electrical and magnetic stimulation for propelled cycling of paretic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szecsi, Johann; Schiller, Martin; Straube, Andreas; Gerling, Dieter

    2009-04-01

    To compare isometric torque and cycling power, smoothness and symmetry using repetitive functional magnetic stimulation (FMS) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) in patients with paretic legs with preserved sensibility and in patients without sensibility. Repeated-measures design. Laboratory setting. Eleven subjects with complete spinal cord injury (SCI) and 29 subjects with chronic hemiparesis (16.6+/-5.5mo poststroke) volunteered. Using a tricycle testbed, participants were exposed to isometric measurements and ergometric cycling experiments, performed during both 20Hz FMS and FES stimulation. Subjects with hemiparesis and with complete SCI were stimulated at maximally tolerable level and maximal intensity, respectively. Maximal isometric pedaling torque and mean ergometric power, smoothness, and symmetry were recorded for voluntary, FES, and FMS conditions. Two different patterns of the efficacy of FMS were identified. (1) Patients with complete SCI did not benefit (less torque and power was evoked with FMS than with FES, Psensibility could improve their torque output (Psensibility.

  7. Electrical stimulation of dog pudendal nerve regulates the excitatory pudendal-to-bladder reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-he Ju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pudendal nerve plays an important role in urine storage and voiding. Our hypothesis is that a neuroprosthetic device placed in the pudendal nerve trunk can modulate bladder function after suprasacral spinal cord injury. We had confirmed the inhibitory pudendal-to-bladder reflex by stimulating either the branch or the trunk of the pudendal nerve. This study explored the excitatory pudendal-to-bladder reflex in beagle dogs, with intact or injured spinal cord, by electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve trunk. The optimal stimulation frequency was approximately 15-25 Hz. This excitatory effect was dependent to some extent on the bladder volume. We conclude that stimulation of the pudendal nerve trunk is a promising method to modulate bladder function.

  8. The effects of high-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with transcutaneous electrical stimulation in a severe stroke patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro Koyama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The case report describes the effects of 5 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS combined with transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES in a patient with severe stroke. The patient was a 69-year-old male who was affected by a left middle cerebral artery infarction. The patient had no movement in his right hand. To assess the effects, cerebral blood flow and motor function were measured before and after treatment. This treatment delivered rTMS over the affected M1 with TES at the paretic wrist extensor muscles for 10 days. The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in the entire brain was measured by positronemission tomography. To evaluate the motor function, the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA was used. After treatment, the rCBF was increased (except for the stimulated region, and the FMA score was slightly improved. These results suggest the potential therapeutic use of rTMS combined with TES for recovery in severe stroke.

  9. Influence of patterned electrical neuromuscular stimulation on quadriceps activation in individuals with knee joint injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaviano, Neal R; Langston, William T; Hart, Joseph M; Saliba, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation is a common intervention to address muscle weakness, however presents with many limitations such as fatigue, muscle damage, and patient discomfort that may influence its effectiveness. One novel form of electrical stimulation purported to improve neuromuscular re-education is Patterned Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation (PENS), which is proposed to mimic muscle-firing patterns of healthy individuals. PENS provides patterned stimulating to the agonist muscle, antagonist muscle and then agonist muscle again in an effort to replicate firing patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a single PENS treatment on knee extension torque and quadriceps activation in individuals with quadriceps inhibition. 18 subjects (10 males and 8 females: 24.2±3.4 years, 175.3±11.8cm, 81.8±12.4kg) with a history of knee injury/pain participated in this double-blinded randomized controlled laboratory trial. Participants demonstrated quadriceps inhibition with a central activation ratio of ≤90%. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps and central activation ratio were measured before and after treatment. The treatment intervention was a 15-minute patterned electrical stimulation applied to the quadriceps and hamstring muscles with a strong motor contraction or a sham group, who received an identical set up as the PENS group, but received a 1mA subsensory stimulation. A 2×2 (group × time) ANCOVA was used to determine differences in maximal voluntary isometric contraction and central activation ratio between groups. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction was selected as a covariate due to baseline differences. There were no differences in change scores between pre- and post-intervention for maximal voluntary isometric contraction: (PENS: 0.09±0.32Nm/kg and Sham 0.15±0.18Nm/kg, p=0.713), or central activation ratio:(PENS: -1.22±6.06 and Sham: 1.48±3.7, p=0.270). A single Patterned Electrical

  10. Transient Sensory Recovery in Stroke Patients After Pulsed Radiofrequency Electrical Stimulation on Dorsal Root Ganglia: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apiliogullari, Seza; Gezer, Ilknur A; Levendoglu, Funda

    2017-01-01

    The integrity of the somatosensory system is important for motor recovery and neuroplasticity after strokes. Peripheral stimulation or central stimulation in patients with central nervous system lesions can be an effective modality in improving function and in facilitating neuroplasticity. We present 2 hemiplegic cases with sensory motor deficit and the result of the pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) electrical stimulation to the dorsal root ganglia. After PRF electrical stimulation, significant improvement was achieved in the examination of patients with superficial and deep sensation. However, during the follow-up visits were observed that the effect of PRF electrical stimulation disappeared. We believe that these preliminary results could be used in the development of future prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials that focus on the effect of PRF electrical stimulation on dorsal root ganglia to treat sensory deficits in poststroke patients.

  11. Real-time changes in corticospinal excitability during voluntary contraction with concurrent electrical stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomofumi Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available While previous studies have assessed changes in corticospinal excitability following voluntary contraction coupled with electrical stimulation (ES, we sought to examine, for the first time in the field, real-time changes in corticospinal excitability. We monitored motor evoked potentials (MEPs elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation and recorded the MEPs using a mechanomyogram, which is less susceptible to electrical artifacts. We assessed the MEPs at each level of muscle contraction of wrist flexion (0%, 5%, or 20% of maximum voluntary contraction during voluntary wrist flexion (flexor carpi radialis (FCR voluntary contraction, either with or without simultaneous low-frequency (10 Hz ES of the median nerve that innervates the FCR. The stimulus intensity corresponded to 1.2 × perception threshold. In the FCR, voluntary contraction with median nerve stimulation significantly increased corticospinal excitability compared with FCR voluntary contraction without median nerve stimulation (p<0.01. In addition, corticospinal excitability was significantly modulated by the level of FCR voluntary contraction. In contrast, in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR, FCR voluntary contraction with median nerve stimulation significantly decreased corticospinal excitability compared with FCR voluntary contraction without median nerve stimulation (p<0.05. Thus, median nerve stimulation during FCR voluntary contraction induces reciprocal changes in cortical excitability in agonist and antagonist muscles. Finally we also showed that even mental imagery of FCR voluntary contraction with median nerve stimulation induced the same reciprocal changes in cortical excitability in agonist and antagonist muscles. Our results support the use of voluntary contraction coupled with ES in neurorehabilitation therapy for patients.

  12. Coupled chemo-electro-mechanical finite element simulation of hydrogels: II. Electrical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallmersperger, Thomas; Ballhause, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Certain polyelectrolyte gels are distinguished by a large swelling or bending capability under the influence of external physical, chemical or electrical stimuli. In this paper we investigate the mechanisms occurring in polyelectrolyte gels due to externally applied electric fields. By applying a coupled chemo-electro-mechanical model which is extended and predestined for electrical stimulation, we describe the concentrations and the electric potential in both the gel and the solution as well as the locally different swelling and shrinking in the gel. The local change of geometry is formulated by a local osmotic pressure difference between the gel and the solution next to the gel phase. In addition to this effect, the change of the local gel domain leads to a local variation of the concentration of bound groups and thus to a change of the local concentrations of mobile ions. As the focus of the presented work we demonstrate the superiority of the fully coupled chemo-electro-mechanical description compared to the previously developed one-way chemo-electric to mechanical coupled model. Finally, by a qualitative comparison with experimental results, the validity of the fully coupled chemo-electro-mechanical model for electrical stimulation is demonstrated

  13. In situ electric fields causing electro-stimulation from conductor contact of charged human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, T.; Hirata, A.

    2010-01-01

    Contact currents flow from/into a human body when touching an object such as a metal structure with a different electric potential. These currents can stimulate muscle and peripheral nerves. In this context, computational analyses of in situ electric fields caused by the contact current have been performed, while their effectiveness for transient contact currents has not well been investigated. In the present study, using an anatomically based human model, a dispersive finite-difference time-domain model was utilised to computed transient contact current and in situ electric fields from a charged human. Computed in situ electric fields were highly localised in the hand. In order to obtain an insight into the relationship between in situ electric field and electro-stimulation, cell-maximum and 5-mm averaged in situ electric fields were computed and compared with strength-duration curves. The comparison suggests that both measures could be larger than thresholds derived from the strength- duration curves with parameters used in previous studies. (authors)

  14. Comparison of skin sensory thresholds using pre-programmed or single-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jong Ho

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to compare the sensory thresholds of healthy subjects using pre-programmed or single-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. [Subjects] Ninety healthy adult subjects were randomly assigned to pre-programmed or single-frequency stimulation groups, each consisting of 45 participants. [Methods] Sensory thresholds were measured in the participants' forearms using von Frey filaments before and after pre-programmed or single-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and the result in values were analyzed. [Results] Significant increases in sensory threshold after stimulation were observed in both groups. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in sensory thresholds after stimulation or in the magnitude of threshold increases following stimulation. [Conclusion] Our results show that there are no differences between sensory threshold increases induced by pre-programmed and single-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.

  15. Home-Based Transabdominal Interferential Electrical Stimulation for Six Months Improves Paediatric Slow Transit Constipation (STC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yik, Yee Ian; Hutson, John; Southwell, Bridget

    2017-11-22

    Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) for one to two months has produced some improvement in treatment-resistant slow-transit constipation (STC) in children. Optimal parameters for treatment are not known. It is possible that more improvement would occur with stimulation for longer. This study examined the effectiveness of stimulation for six months. Children with STC confirmed by nuclear transit study (NTS) were enrolled prospectively. All had chronic constipation for greater than two years and had failed medical treatment. TES was performed for one hour/day for six months using the INF 4160 (Fuji Dynamics) portable stimulator and 4 cm × 4 cm electrodes near the belly button and on the back. Families kept bowel diaries and completed PEDSQLCore QOL (4.0) questionnaires before and at end of treatment. Sixty-two children (34 females; seven years, 2-16 year) with STC were studied. Defecation frequency increased in 57/62 (91%, mean ± SEM pre- 1.49 ± 0.20 vs. post- 3.25 ± 0.25 defecation/week, p interferential current across the abdomen when given daily for many months. Battery operated stimulators allowed stimulation at home for an hour each day. Stimulation for six months produced clinically significant improvement in defecation frequency, soiling, abdominal pain, urge to defecate, and quality of life in half of these chronic patients. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  16. Unloaded shortening velocity of voluntarily and electrically activated human dorsiflexor muscles in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushige Sasaki

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that unloaded shortening velocity (V(0 of human plantar flexors can be determined in vivo, by applying the "slack test" to submaximal voluntary contractions (J Physiol 567:1047-1056, 2005. In the present study, to investigate the effect of motor unit recruitment pattern on V(0 of human muscle, we modified the slack test and applied this method to both voluntary and electrically elicited contractions of dorsiflexors. A series of quick releases (i.e., rapid ankle joint rotation driven by an electrical dynamometer was applied to voluntarily activated dorsiflexor muscles at three different contraction intensities (15, 50, and 85% of maximal voluntary contraction; MVC. The quick-release trials were also performed on electrically activated dorsiflexor muscles, in which three stimulus conditions were used: submaximal (equal to 15%MVC 50-Hz stimulation, supramaximal 50-Hz stimulation, and supramaximal 20-Hz stimulation. Modification of the slack test in vivo resulted in good reproducibility of V(0, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.95. Regression analysis showed that V(0 of voluntarily activated dorsiflexor muscles significantly increased with increasing contraction intensity (R(2 = 0.52, P<0.001. By contrast, V(0 of electrically activated dorsiflexor muscles remained unchanged (R(2<0.001, P = 0.98 among three different stimulus conditions showing a large variation of tetanic torque. These results suggest that the recruitment pattern of motor units, which is quite different between voluntary and electrically elicited contractions, plays an important role in determining shortening velocity of human skeletal muscle in vivo.

  17. Efficacy of Carcass Electrical Stimulation in Meat Quality Enhancement: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem Dauda Adeyemi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of electrical stimulation (ES as a management tool to improve meat quality and efficiency of meat processing is reviewed. The basis of the efficacy of ES is its ability to fast track postmortem glycolysis, which in turn stimulates myriad histological, physical, biochemical, biophysical and physiological changes in the postmortem muscle. Electrical stimulation hastens the onset and resolution of rigor mortis thereby reducing processing time and labor and plays a vital role in improving meat tenderness and other meat quality traits. However, ES may have negative impacts on some meat quality traits such as color stability and water holding capacity in some animals. Electrical stimulation is not an end in itself. In order to achieve the desired benefits from its application, the technique must be properly used in conjunction with various intricate antemortem, perimortem and postmortem management practices. Despite extensive research on ES, the fundamental mechanisms and the appropriate commercial applications remained obscured. In addition, muscles differ in their response to ES. Thus, elementary knowledge of the various alterations with respect to muscle type is needed in order to optimize the effectiveness of ES in the improvement of meat quality.

  18. Electrical stimulation of human forearm extensor muscles as an indicator of handgrip fatigue and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byström, S; Kilbom, A

    1991-01-01

    A set-up for percutaneous electrical stimulation of the forearm extensor muscles and measurement of wrist extension force is described. The frequency-force relationship and pulse duration-force relationship are described together with an experimental protocol showing that brief electrical test stimulations do not produce fatigue. In another set of experiments carried out a few weeks later, the subjects performed handgrip contractions: protocol A at 25% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) continuously until exhaustion, protocol B at 25% MVC intermittent (contraction + relaxation = 10 + 2 s) until exhaustion, and protocol C at 25% MVC intermittent until half the time to exhaustion. In all experiments, brief electrical stimulations were used to test the degree of fatigue during and up to 24 h after the experiments. There were marked changes in the force during stimulation at 20 and 100 Hz and these changes did not correlate with the increase in intramuscular temperature. Low frequency fatigue persisted for at least 24 h after protocol A and 1 h after protocols B and C. The significance of this is discussed and it is suggested that low frequency fatigue could be used as a sensitive indicator of muscle dysfunction after low and medium intensity exercise.

  19. Low current electrical stimulation upregulates cytokine expression in the anal sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Levilester; Lian, Lei; Jiang, Hai-Hong; Sopko, Nikolai; Penn, Marc; Damaser, Margot; Zutshi, Massarat

    2012-02-01

    Stem cells are an emerging treatment for regeneration of damaged anal sphincter tissues. Homing to the site of injury can be potentiated by stromal derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3) expression. The effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on upregulation of these cytokines were investigated. The anal sphincter complex of Sprague Dawley rats was stimulated with current of 0.25 mA, pulse duration of 40 pulses/s, pulse width of 100 μs, and frequency of 100 Hz for 1 or 4 h. Sham was created using the same needle which was inserted into the anal sphincter without electrical stimulation in different groups of animals. The rats were euthanized immediately or 24 h after stimulation. Cytokine analysis was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Statistical analysis was performed. Results are presented as a fold increase compared to sham that was normalized to 1. SDF-1 and MCP-3 immediately after 1 h were 2.5 ± 0.77 and 3.1± 0.93 vs. sham, respectively, showing significant increase. After 1-h stimulation and euthanasia 24 h after, SDF-1 and MCP-3 were 1.49 ± 0.16 and 1.51± 0.14 vs. sham, respectively, showing significant increase. Immediately and 24 h after 4-h stimulation, SDF-1 was 1.21 ± 0.16 and 0.54 ± 0.16 vs. sham, respectively, and was not significantly different. Immediately and 24 h after 4-h stimulation, MCP-3 was 1.29 ± 0.41 and 0.35 ±1.0 vs. sham, respectively, and was not significantly different. SDF-1 and MCP-3 after 1 h were significantly higher than after 4 h of stimulation at both time points. Electrical stimulation for 1 h significantly upregulates SDF-1 and MCP-3 expression that persists for 24 h. Prolonged stimulation reduced chemokine expression, suggesting electrolysis of cells.

  20. The effects of surface neuromuscular electrical stimulation on post-stroke dysphagia: a systemic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Chen, Hung-Chou; Liang, Wen-Miin; Wang, Ya-Hui; Lin, Yen-Nung

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we intended to evaluate whether swallow treatment with neuromuscular electrical stimulation is superior to that without neuromuscular electrical stimulation, and whether neuromuscular electrical stimulation alone is superior to swallow therapy. We searched the PubMed and Scopus databases from their earliest record to 31 December 2014 for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that used neuromuscular electrical stimulation to treat post-stroke dysphagia. The Jadad scale was used to assess the quality of the included studies. We extracted the mean differences and standard deviation (SD) between baseline and posttreatment or posttreatment mean and SD for selected outcomes measured in the experimental and control groups for subsequent meta-analyses. Eight studies were identified. For the comparison "swallow treatment with neuromuscular electrical stimulation vs. swallow treatment without neuromuscular electrical stimulation," we found a significant standardized mean difference (SMD) of 1.27 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.51-2.02, P = 0.001) with significant heterogeneity (I(2) = 85%). The meta-analysis for the comparison of neuromuscular electrical stimulation alone and swallow therapy demonstrated a non-significant SMD of 0.25 (95% CI = -0.16-0.65, P = 0.23) without significant heterogeneity (I(2) = 16%). Swallow treatment with neuromuscular electrical stimulation seems to be more effective than that without neuromuscular electrical stimulation for post-stroke dysphagia in the short term considering the limited number of studies available. Evidence was insufficient to indicate that neuromuscular electrical stimulation alone was superior to swallow therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Differential responses to high-frequency electrical stimulation in ON and OFF retinal ganglion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyford, Perry; Cai, Changsi; Fried, Shelley

    2014-04-01

    Objective. The field of retinal prosthetics for artificial vision has advanced considerably in recent years, however clinical outcomes remain inconsistent. The performance of retinal prostheses is likely limited by the inability of electrical stimuli to preferentially activate different types of retinal ganglion cell (RGC). Approach. Here we examine the response of rabbit RGCs to high-frequency stimulation, using biphasic pulses applied at 2000 pulses per second. Responses were recorded using cell-attached patch clamp methods, and stimulation was applied epiretinally via a small cone electrode. Main results. When prolonged stimulus trains were applied to OFF-brisk transient (BT) RGCs, the cells exhibited a non-monotonic relationship between response strength and stimulus amplitude; this response pattern was different from those elicited previously by other electrical stimuli. When the amplitude of the stimulus was modulated transiently from a non-zero baseline amplitude, ON-BT and OFF-BT cells exhibited different activity patterns: ON cells showed an increase in activity while OFF cells exhibited a decrease in activity. Using a different envelope to modulate the amplitude of the stimulus, we observed the opposite effect: ON cells exhibited a decrease in activity while OFF cells show an increase in activity. Significance. As ON and OFF RGCs often exhibit opposing activity patterns in response to light stimulation, this work suggests that high-frequency electrical stimulation of RGCs may be able to elicit responses that are more physiological than traditional pulsatile stimuli. Additionally, the prospect of an electrical stimulus capable of cell-type specific selective activation has broad applications throughout the fields of neural stimulation and neuroprostheses.

  2. New waves: Rhythmic electrical field stimulation systematically alters spontaneous slow dynamics across mouse neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Anastasia; Abadchi, Javad Karimi; Dickson, Clayton T; Mohajerani, Majid H

    2018-03-10

    The signature rhythm of slow-wave forebrain activity is the large amplitude, slow oscillation (SO: ∼1 Hz) made up of alternating synchronous periods of activity and silence at the single cell and network levels. On each wave, the SO originates at a unique location and propagates across the neocortex. Attempts to manipulate SO activity using electrical fields have been shown to entrain cortical networks and enhance memory performance. However, neural activity during this manipulation has remained elusive due to methodological issues in typical electrical recordings. Here we took advantage of voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging in a bilateral cortical preparation of urethane-anesthetized mice to track SO cortical activity and its modulation by sinusoidal electrical field stimulation applied to frontal regions. We show that under spontaneous conditions, the SO propagates in two main opposing directional patterns along an anterior lateral - posterior medial axis, displaying a rich variety of possible trajectories on any given wave. Under rhythmic field stimulation, new propagation patterns emerge, which are not observed under spontaneous conditions, reflecting stimulus-entrained activity with distributed and varied anterior initiation zones and a consistent termination zone in the posterior somatosensory cortex. Furthermore, stimulus-induced activity patterns tend to repeat cycle after cycle, showing higher stereotypy than during spontaneous activity. Our results show that slow electrical field stimulation robustly entrain and alter ongoing slow cortical dynamics during sleep-like states, suggesting a mechanism for targeting specific cortical representations to manipulate memory processes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Electric field distribution in a finite-volume head model of deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Peadar F; Lowery, Madeleine M

    2009-11-01

    This study presents a whole-head finite element model of deep brain stimulation to examine the effect of electrical grounding, the finite conducting volume of the head, and scalp, skull and cerebrospinal fluid layers. The impedance between the stimulating and reference electrodes in the whole-head model was found to lie within clinically reported values when the reference electrode was incorporated on a localized surface in the model. Incorporation of the finite volume of the head and inclusion of surrounding outer tissue layers reduced the magnitude of the electric field and activating function by approximately 20% in the region surrounding the electrode. Localized distortions of the electric field were also observed when the electrode was placed close to the skull. Under bipolar conditions the effect of the finite conducting volume was shown to be negligible. The results indicate that, for monopolar stimulation, incorporation of the finite volume and outer tissue layers can alter the magnitude of the electric field and activating function when the electrode is deep within the brain, and may further affect the shape if the electrode is close to the skull.

  4. A multi-pad electrode based functional electrical stimulation system for restoration of grasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Nebojša M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional electrical stimulation (FES applied via transcutaneous electrodes is a common rehabilitation technique for assisting grasp in patients with central nervous system lesions. To improve the stimulation effectiveness of conventional FES, we introduce multi-pad electrodes and a new stimulation paradigm. Methods The new FES system comprises an electrode composed of small pads that can be activated individually. This electrode allows the targeting of motoneurons that activate synergistic muscles and produce a functional movement. The new stimulation paradigm allows asynchronous activation of motoneurons and provides controlled spatial distribution of the electrical charge that is delivered to the motoneurons. We developed an automated technique for the determination of the preferred electrode based on a cost function that considers the required movement of the fingers and the stabilization of the wrist joint. The data used within the cost function come from a sensorized garment that is easy to implement and does not require calibration. The design of the system also includes the possibility for fine-tuning and adaptation with a manually controllable interface. Results The device was tested on three stroke patients. The results show that the multi-pad electrodes provide the desired level of selectivity and can be used for generating a functional grasp. The results also show that the procedure, when performed on a specific user, results in the preferred electrode configuration characteristics for that patient. The findings from this study are of importance for the application of transcutaneous stimulation in the clinical and home environments.

  5. Functional electrical stimulation of intrinsic laryngeal muscles under varying loads in exercising horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Cheetham

    Full Text Available Bilateral vocal fold paralysis (BVCP is a life threatening condition and appears to be a good candidate for therapy using functional electrical stimulation (FES. Developing a working FES system has been technically difficult due to the inaccessible location and small size of the sole arytenoid abductor, the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA muscle. A naturally-occurring disease in horses shares many functional and etiological features with BVCP. In this study, the feasibility of FES for equine vocal fold paralysis was explored by testing arytenoid abduction evoked by electrical stimulation of the PCA muscle. Rheobase and chronaxie were determined for innervated PCA muscle. We then tested the hypothesis that direct muscle stimulation can maintain airway patency during strenuous exercise in horses with induced transient conduction block of the laryngeal motor nerve. Six adult horses were instrumented with a single bipolar intra-muscular electrode in the left PCA muscle. Rheobase and chronaxie were within the normal range for innervated muscle at 0.55±0.38 v and 0.38±0.19 ms respectively. Intramuscular stimulation of the PCA muscle significantly improved arytenoid abduction at all levels of exercise intensity and there was no significant difference between the level of abduction achieved with stimulation and control values under moderate loads. The equine larynx may provide a useful model for the study of bilateral fold paralysis.

  6. Effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and microcurrent electrical nerve stimulation in bruxism associated with masticatory muscle pain - A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajpurohit Bharat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS and microcurrent electrical nerve stimulation (MENS on masticatory muscles pain bruxism patient. Materials and Methods : A total of 60 subjects with the clinical diagnosis of bruxism were randomly allocated to two study groups. Group A received TENS (50 Hz, pulse width 0.5 mSec, intensity 0-60 mA for 20 minutes for a period of seven days and Group B received MENS (0.5 Hz, intensity 1,000 μA for 20 minutes for a period of seven days. The outcome measures were assessed in term of Visual Analog Scale (VAS and digital pressometer of 2 Kgf. Results : The study showed significant change in intensity of pain as per VAS score ( P ≤ 0.0001 and tenderness as per digital pressometer ( P ≤ 0.0001. Conclusion : MENS could be used as an effective pain-relieving adjunct to TENS in the treatment of masticatory muscle pain due to bruxism.

  7. [Post-stroke dysphagia treated with acupoint injection combined with neural electrical stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei-Xiang; Cao, Gui-Ping; Li, Wan-Lang

    2014-12-01

    To observe the effect differences on post-stroke dysphagia among acupoint injection combined with neural electrical stimulation, acupoint injection, neural electrical stimulation, and swallowing training respectively, so eligible intervention can be applied to this kind of disease. One hundred and eight-three patients of post-stroke dysphagia were randomized into a comprehensive treatment group (42 cases), an acupoint injection group (44 cases), a neural electrical stimulation group (49 cases) and a swallow training group (48 cases) and were treated with the comprehensive therapy of acupoint injection and neural electrical stimulation, acupoint injection, neural electrical stimulation and swallowing training separately. The treatments for 10 days made one session. There were 3 days at the interval among treatment sessions and 3 sessions were required totally. The cases in those treatment groups were blankly controlled with the other 47 patients of post-stroke dysphagia. All the patients received basic rehabilitation treatment. The modified water swallowing test was conducted to assess the efficacy before treatment, 10 days after treatment and 30 days after treatment in each group separately. The clinical efficacy, score of water swallowing test and improvement in water swallow test were compared among the groups. After 10-day treatment, the differences in efficacy and score of water swallow test were not significant in each group (all P > 0.05). After 30-day treatment, the effective rate (94.29%, 33/35) in the comprehensive treatment group was apparently better than 68.75% (22/32) in the acupoint injection group, 80.00% (32/40) in the neural electrical stimulation group, 67.50% (27/40) in the swallowing training group and 42.86% (12/28) in the blank group separately. The score in water swallow test in the comprehensive treatment group was lower than that in each of the other groups (1.37 ± 0.60 vs 2.03 ± 1.00, 1.90 ± 0.90, 2.20 ± 0.72, 2.71 ± 0.90, all P 0

  8. Infrared neural stimulation (INS) inhibits electrically evoked neural responses in the deaf white cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Rajguru, Suhrud M.; Robinson, Alan; Young, Hunter K.

    2014-03-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has been used in the past to evoke neural activity from hearing and partially deaf animals. All the responses were excitatory. In Aplysia californica, Duke and coworkers demonstrated that INS also inhibits neural responses [1], which similar observations were made in the vestibular system [2, 3]. In deaf white cats that have cochleae with largely reduced spiral ganglion neuron counts and a significant degeneration of the organ of Corti, no cochlear compound action potentials could be observed during INS alone. However, the combined electrical and optical stimulation demonstrated inhibitory responses during irradiation with infrared light.

  9. The effects of temperature changes on retinal ganglion cell responses to electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturana, Matias I; Apollo, Nicholas V; Garrett, David J; Kameneva, Tatiana; Meffin, Hamish; Ibbotson, Michael R; Cloherty, Shaun L; Grayden, David B

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how the retina's response to electrical stimulation is modified by temperatures. In vitro experiments are often used to inform in vivo studies, hence it is important to understand what changes occur at physiological temperature. To investigate this, we recorded from eight RGCs in vitro at three temperatures; room temperature (24°C), 30°C and 34°C. Results show that response latencies and thresholds are reduced, bursting spike rates in response to stimulation increases, and the spiking becomes more consistently locked to the stimulus at higher temperatures.

  10. Study of nerve fibers nature reinforcing duodenal contractions by electrical stimulation of sympathetic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sveshnikov D.S.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article is to investigate the mechanism of increased reactions by electrical stimulation of the sympathetic nerve. Materials and methods: Experiments on dogs have shown that stimulant reactions during blockade of a-adrenergic by phentolamine and (3-adrenergic receptors with propranolol were completely eliminated by lizer-gol —the blocker of 5-HT12-receptors. Results: Infusion of lizergol did not influence on duodenal motor activity and the function of the vagus nerve. Conclusion: Effector neuron is found out to be serotonergic and its action is provided by 5-HT1 2 receptors

  11. Calculating the electric field in real human head by transcranial magnetic stimulation with shield plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mai; Ueno, Shoogo

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we present a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) system by incorporating a conductive shield plate. The magnetic field, induced current density, and electric field in a real human head were calculated by impedance method and the results were compared with TMS without shielding. Our results show that the field localization can be improved by introducing a conductive shield plate; the stimulation magnitude (depth) in the brain is reduced comparing with the TMS without shielding. The strong magnetic field near the TMS coil is difficult to be efficiently shielded by a thinner conductive shield plate.

  12. Visualization of the electric field evoked by transcranial electric stimulation during a craniotomy using the finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomio, Ryosuke; Akiyama, Takenori; Horikoshi, Tomo; Ohira, Takayuki; Yoshida, Kazunari

    2015-12-30

    Transcranial MEP (tMEP) monitoring is more readily performed than cortical MEP (cMEP), however, tMEP is considered as less accurate than cMEP. The craniotomy procedure and changes in CSF levels must affect current spread. These changes can impair the accuracy. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of skull deformation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) decrease on tMEP monitoring during frontotemporal craniotomy. We used the finite element method to visualize the electric field in the brain, which was generated by transcranial electric stimulation, using realistic 3-dimensional head models developed from T1-weighted images. Surfaces of 5 layers of the head were separated as accurately as possible. We created 3 brain types and 5 craniotomy models. The electric field in the brain radiates out from the cortex just below the electrodes. When the CSF layer is thick, a decrease in CSF volume and depression of CSF surface level during the craniotomy has a major impact on the electric field. When the CSF layer is thin and the distance between the skull and brain is short, the craniotomy has a larger effect on the electric field than the CSF decrease. So far no report in the literature the electric field during intraoperative tMEP using a 3-dimensional realistic head model. Our main finding was that the intensity of the electric field in the brain is most affected by changes in the thickness and volume of the CSF layer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A methodological reappraisal of non invasive high voltage electrical stimulation of lumbosacral nerve roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troni, Walter; Di Sapio, Alessia; Berra, Eliana; Duca, Sergio; Merola, Aristide; Sperli, Francesca; Bertolotto, Antonio

    2011-10-01

    To describe a neurophysiological method to locate the optimal stimulation site (OSS) over the vertebral column, customized to the individual subject, to achieve maximal activation of lumbosacral roots by means of non-invasive high voltage electrical stimulation (HVES). OSS was located in 30 volunteers by testing different stimulation points of a surface multi-electrode array placed over the dorso-lumbar junction of the vertebral column. The dorso-ventral stimulating montage was used (Troni et al., 1996). Motor responses to root stimulation (rCMAPs) were bilaterally recorded from Vastus Medialis (VM), Tibialis Anterior (TA), Soleus (SL) and Flexor Hallucis Brevis (FHB) muscles. The direct nature of rCMAPs was tested by delivering two maximal stimuli 50 ms apart. Except for a few subjects with large girth, maximal rCMAPs could be obtained from all muscles with a stimulating current intensity up to 550 V (1050 mA). Maximal double HVES excluded any reflex component in the recorded rCMAPs. The procedure was well tolerated and no side effects were observed. A single maximal electric shock delivered at the proper vertebral level by means of the dorso-ventral montage is able to safely achieve synchronous, bilateral maximal activation of several roots, from L3 to S1. Maximal activation of lumbosacral roots at their origin, unattainable with magnetic stimulation, is the essential requirement for direct detection of proximal nerve conduction slowing and block in lower limbs. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The morphological and molecular changes of brain cells exposed to direct current electric field stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Simon J; Lagacé, Marie; St-Amour, Isabelle; Arsenault, Dany; Cisbani, Giulia; Chabrat, Audrey; Fecteau, Shirley; Lévesque, Martin; Cicchetti, Francesca

    2014-12-07

    The application of low-intensity direct current electric fields has been experimentally used in the clinic to treat a number of brain disorders, predominantly using transcranial direct current stimulation approaches. However, the cellular and molecular changes induced by such treatment remain largely unknown. Here, we tested various intensities of direct current electric fields (0, 25, 50, and 100V/m) in a well-controlled in vitro environment in order to investigate the responses of neurons, microglia, and astrocytes to this type of stimulation. This included morphological assessments of the cells, viability, as well as shape and fiber outgrowth relative to the orientation of the direct current electric field. We also undertook enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and western immunoblotting to identify which molecular pathways were affected by direct current electric fields. In response to direct current electric field, neurons developed an elongated cell body shape with neurite outgrowth that was associated with a significant increase in growth associated protein-43. Fetal midbrain dopaminergic explants grown in a collagen gel matrix also showed a reorientation of their neurites towards the cathode. BV2 microglial cells adopted distinct morphological changes with an increase in cyclooxygenase-2 expression, but these were dependent on whether they had already been activated with lipopolysaccharide. Finally, astrocytes displayed elongated cell bodies with cellular filopodia that were oriented perpendicularly to the direct current electric field. We show that cells of the central nervous system can respond to direct current electric fields both in terms of their morphological shape and molecular expression of certain proteins, and this in turn can help us to begin understand the mechanisms underlying the clinical benefits of direct current electric field. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  15. Electric Stimulation at 448 kHz Promotes Proliferation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Hernández-Bule

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Capacitive-resistive electric transfer (CRET is a non invasive electrothermal therapy that applies electric currents within the 400 kHz - 450 kHz frequency range to the treatment of musculoskeletal lesions. Evidence exists that electric currents and electric or magnetic fields can influence proliferative and/or differentiating processes involved in tissue regeneration. This work investigates proliferative responses potentially underlying CRET effects on tissue repair. Methods: XTT assay, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and Western Blot analyses were conducted to asses viability, proliferation and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC from healthy donors, after short, repeated (5 m On/4 h Off in vitro stimulation with a 448-kHz electric signal currently used in CRET therapy, applied at a subthermal dose of 50 μA/mm2Results: The treatment induced PCNA and ERK1/2 upregulation, together with significant increases in the fractions of ADSC undergoing cycle phases S, G2 and M, and enhanced cell proliferation rate. This proliferative effect did not compromise the multipotential ability of ADSC for subsequent adipogenic, chondrogenic or osteogenic differentiation. Conclusions: These data identify cellular and molecular phenomena potentially underlying the response to CRET and indicate that CRET-induced lesion repair could be mediated by stimulation of the proliferation of stem cells present in the injured tissues.

  16. The impact of calcium current reversal on neurotransmitter release in the electrically stimulated retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werginz, Paul; Rattay, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Objective. In spite of intense theoretical and experimental investigations on electrical nerve stimulation, the influence of reversed ion currents on network activity during extracellular stimulation has not been investigated so far. Approach. Here, the impact of calcium current reversal on neurotransmitter release during subretinal stimulation was analyzed with a computational multi-compartment model of a retinal bipolar cell (BC) that was coupled with a four-pool model for the exocytosis from its ribbon synapses. Emphasis was laid on calcium channel dynamics and how these channels influence synaptic release. Main results. Stronger stimulation with anodic pulses caused transmembrane voltages above the Nernst potential of calcium in the terminals and, by this means, forced calcium ions to flow in the reversed direction from inside to the outside of the cell. Consequently, intracellular calcium concentration decreased resulting in a reduced vesicle release or preventing release at all. This mechanism is expected to lead to a pronounced ring-shaped pattern of exocytosis within a group of neighbored BCs when the stronger stimulated cells close to the electrode fail in releasing vesicles. Significance. Stronger subretinal stimulation causes failure of synaptic exocytosis due to reversal of calcium flow into the extracellular space in cells close to the electrode.

  17. Hardware System for Real-Time EMG Signal Acquisition and Separation Processing during Electrical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Ya-Hsin; Yin, Chieh; Chen, Yan-Hong

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to develop a real-time electromyography (EMG) signal acquiring and processing device that can acquire signal during electrical stimulation. Since electrical stimulation output can affect EMG signal acquisition, to integrate the two elements into one system, EMG signal transmitting and processing method has to be modified. The whole system was designed in a user-friendly and flexible manner. For EMG signal processing, the system applied Altera Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) as the core to instantly process real-time hybrid EMG signal and output the isolated signal in a highly efficient way. The system used the power spectral density to evaluate the accuracy of signal processing, and the cross correlation showed that the delay of real-time processing was only 250 μs.

  18. Portable EMG devices, Biofeedback and Contingent Electrical Stimulation applications in Bruxism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrillon, Eduardo

    characteristics make it complicated to assess bruxism using portable EMG devices. The possibility to assess bruxism like EMG activity on a portable device made it possible to use biofeedback and CES approaches in order to treat / manage bruxism. The available scientific information about CES effects on bruxism......Portable EMG devices, Biofeedback and Contingent Electrical Stimulation applications in Bruxism Eduardo Enrique, Castrillon Watanabe, DDS, MSc, PhD Section of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Department of Dentistry, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neuroscience...... Summary: Bruxism is a parafunctional activity, which involves the masticatory muscles and probably it is as old as human mankind. Different methods such as portable EMG devices have been proposed to diagnose and understand the pathophysiology of bruxism. Biofeedback / contingent electrical stimulation...

  19. Effect of transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation on postoperative muscle mass and protein synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinge, O; Edvardsen, L; Jensen, F

    1996-01-01

    In an experimental study, 13 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery were given postoperative transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation (TEMS) to the quadriceps femoris muscle on one leg; the opposite leg served as control. Changes in cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle protein ...... muscle protein synthesis and muscle mass after abdominal surgery and should be evaluated in other catabolic states with muscle wasting.......In an experimental study, 13 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery were given postoperative transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation (TEMS) to the quadriceps femoris muscle on one leg; the opposite leg served as control. Changes in cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle protein...... synthesis were assessed by computed tomography and ribosome analysis of percutaneous muscle biopsies before surgery and on the sixth postoperative day. The percentage of polyribosomes in the ribosome suspension decreased significantly (P

  20. Electrical Stimulation Elicit Neural Stem Cells Activation:New Perspectives in CNS Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratrel eHuang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are enthusiastically concerned about neural stem cell (NSC therapy in a wide array of diseases, including stroke, neurodegenerative disease, spinal cord injury (SCI and depression. Although enormous evidences have demonstrated that neurobehavioral improvement may benefit from NSC-supporting regeneration in animal models, approaches to endogenous and transplanted NSCs are blocked by hurdles of migration, proliferation, maturation and integration of NSCs. Electrical stimulation (ES may be a selective nondrug approach for mobilizing NSCs in the central nervous system (CNS. This technique is suitable for clinic application, because it is well established and its potential complications are manageable. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the emerging positive role of different electrical cues in regulating NSC biology in vitro and in vivo, as well as biomaterial-based and chemical stimulation of NSCs. In the future, ES combined with stem cell therapy or other cues probably becomes an approach for promoting brain repair.

  1. Alternating current electrical stimulation enhanced chemotherapy: a novel strategy to bypass multidrug resistance in tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janigro, Damir; Perju, Catalin; Fazio, Vincent; Hallene, Kerri; Dini, Gabriele; Agarwal, Mukesh K; Cucullo, Luca

    2006-01-01

    Tumor burden can be pharmacologically controlled by inhibiting cell division and by direct, specific toxicity to the cancerous tissue. Unfortunately, tumors often develop intrinsic pharmacoresistance mediated by specialized drug extrusion mechanisms such as P-glycoprotein. As a consequence, malignant cells may become insensitive to various anti-cancer drugs. Recent studies have shown that low intensity very low frequency electrical stimulation by alternating current (AC) reduces the proliferation of different tumor cell lines by a mechanism affecting potassium channels while at intermediate frequencies interfere with cytoskeletal mechanisms of cell division. The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that permeability of several MDR1 over-expressing tumor cell lines to the chemotherapic agent doxorubicin is enhanced by low frequency, low intensity AC stimulation. We grew human and rodent cells (C6, HT-1080, H-1299, SKOV-3 and PC-3) which over-expressed MDR1 in 24-well Petri dishes equipped with an array of stainless steel electrodes connected to a computer via a programmable I/O board. We used a dedicated program to generate and monitor the electrical stimulation protocol. Parallel cultures were exposed for 3 hours to increasing concentrations (1, 2, 4, and 8 μM) of doxorubicin following stimulation to 50 Hz AC (7.5 μA) or MDR1 inhibitor XR9576. Cell viability was assessed by determination of adenylate kinase (AK) release. The relationship between MDR1 expression and the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin as well as the cellular distribution of MDR1 was investigated by computerized image analysis immunohistochemistry and Western blot techniques. By the use of a variety of tumor cell lines, we show that low frequency, low intensity AC stimulation enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy. This effect was due to an altered expression of intrinsic cellular drug resistance mechanisms. Immunohistochemical, Western blot and fluorescence analysis revealed

  2. Efficacy of transcutaneous functional electrical stimulation on urinary incontinence in myelomeningocele: results of a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Sharifi-Rad, Lida; Dianat, Seyedsaeid

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of transcutaneous functional electrical stimulation (FES) on voiding symptoms in children with myelomeningocele (MMC) suffering from neuropathic urinary incontinence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six girls and 6 boys with moderate to severe urinary incontinence secondary to MMC were included. Median age of children was 5.04 (range: 3-11) years. They underwent a urodynamic study (UDS) before and 3 months after FES with special attention to detrusor leak point pre...

  3. Electrical stimulation drives chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells in the absence of exogenous growth factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hyuck Joon Kwon; Gyu Seok Lee; Honggu Chun

    2016-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) is known to guide the development and regeneration of many tissues. However, although preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated superior effects of ES on cartilage repair, the effects of ES on chondrogenesis remain elusive. Since mesenchyme stem cells (MSCs) have high therapeutic potential for cartilage regeneration, we investigated the actions of ES during chondrogenesis of MSCs. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time that ES enhances expression levels...

  4. Surface neuromuscular electrical stimulation for quadriceps strengthening pre and post total knee replacement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Monaghan, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Total knee replacement has been demonstrated to be one of the most successful procedures in the treatment of osteoarthritis. However quadriceps weakness and reductions in function are commonly reported following surgery. Recently Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) has been used as an adjunct to traditional strengthening programmes. This review considers the effectiveness of NMES as a means of increasing quadriceps strength in patients before and after total knee replacement.

  5. Electrical stimulation attenuates morphological alterations and prevents atrophy of the denervated cranial tibial muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, Cleuber Rodrigo de Souza; Pereira, Mizael; Favaretto, Idvaldo Aparecido; Bortoluci, Carlos Henrique Fachin; dos Santos, Thais Caroline Pereira; Dias, Daniel Ventura; Dar?, Let?cia Rossi; Rosa, Geraldo Marco

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate if electrical stimulation through Russian current is able to maintain morphology of the cranial tibial muscle of experimentally denervated rats. Methods Thirty-six Wistar rats were divided into four groups: the Initial Control Group, Final Control Group, Experimental Denervated and Treated Group, Experimental Denervated Group. The electrostimulation was performed with a protocol of Russian current applied three times per week, for 45 days. At the end, the ani...

  6. Electrical stimulation attenuates morphological alterations and prevents atrophy of the denervated cranial tibial muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, Cleuber Rodrigo de Souza; Pereira, Mizael; Favaretto Junior, Idvaldo Aparecido; Bortoluci, Carlos Henrique Fachin; Santos, Thais Caroline Pereira dos; Dias, Daniel Ventura; Daré, Letícia Rossi; Rosa Junior, Geraldo Marco

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate if electrical stimulation through Russian current is able to maintain morphology of the cranial tibial muscle of experimentally denervated rats. Methods Thirty-six Wistar rats were divided into four groups: the Initial Control Group, Final Control Group, Experimental Denervated and Treated Group, Experimental Denervated Group. The electrostimulation was performed with a protocol of Russian current applied three times per week, for 45 days. At the end, the...

  7. Activation of ganglion cells and axon bundles using epiretinal electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosberg, Lauren E; Ganesan, Karthik; Goetz, Georges A; Madugula, Sasidhar S; Bhaskhar, Nandita; Fan, Victoria; Li, Peter; Hottowy, Pawel; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Sher, Alexander; Litke, Alan M; Mitra, Subhasish; Chichilnisky, E J

    2017-09-01

    Epiretinal prostheses for treating blindness activate axon bundles, causing large, arc-shaped visual percepts that limit the quality of artificial vision. Improving the function of epiretinal prostheses therefore requires understanding and avoiding axon bundle activation. This study introduces a method to detect axon bundle activation on the basis of its electrical signature and uses the method to test whether epiretinal stimulation can directly elicit spikes in individual retinal ganglion cells without activating nearby axon bundles. Combined electrical stimulation and recording from isolated primate retina were performed using a custom multielectrode system (512 electrodes, 10-μm diameter, 60-μm pitch). Axon bundle signals were identified by their bidirectional propagation, speed, and increasing amplitude as a function of stimulation current. The threshold for bundle activation varied across electrodes and retinas, and was in the same range as the threshold for activating retinal ganglion cells near their somas. In the peripheral retina, 45% of electrodes that activated individual ganglion cells (17% of all electrodes) did so without activating bundles. This permitted selective activation of 21% of recorded ganglion cells (7% of expected ganglion cells) over the array. In one recording in the central retina, 75% of electrodes that activated individual ganglion cells (16% of all electrodes) did so without activating bundles. The ability to selectively activate a subset of retinal ganglion cells without axon bundles suggests a possible novel architecture for future epiretinal prostheses. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Large-scale multielectrode recording and stimulation were used to test how selectively retinal ganglion cells can be electrically activated without activating axon bundles. A novel method was developed to identify axon activation on the basis of its unique electrical signature and was used to find that a subset of ganglion cells can be activated at single

  8. Effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in the functional knee rehabilitation in soldiers

    OpenAIRE

    R. Castillo-Lozano

    2015-01-01

    Background: The versatility of military physical therapist practice enables them not only to diagnose knee injuries but also to provide a wide range of definitive care and rehabilitation, reducing the need for costly evacuation. The aim this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) in the functional knee rehabilitation in soldiers and describe the main predictors and determinants in each intervention. Methods: A systematic search ...

  9. Electrical stimulation affects metabolic enzyme phosphorylation, protease activation and meat tenderization in beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, C.B.; Li, J.; Zhou, G.H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the response of sarcoplasmic proteins in bovine longissimus muscle to low-voltage electrical stimulation (ES, 80 V, 35 s) after dressing and its contribution to meat tenderization at early postmortem time. Proteome analysis showed that ES resulted...... muscles up to 24 h. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy further indicated that lysosomal enzymes were released at early postmortem time. ES also induced ultrastructural disruption of sarcomeres. In addition, ES accelerated (P

  10. Effects of acute selective pudendal nerve electrical stimulation after simulated childbirth injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Hai-Hong; Gill, Bradley C.; Dissaranan, Charuspong; Zutshi, Massarat; Balog, Brian M.; Lin, Danli; Damaser, Margot S.

    2012-01-01

    During childbirth, a combinatorial injury occurs and can result in stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Simulated childbirth injury, consisting of vaginal distension (VD) and pudendal nerve crush (PNC), results in slowed recovery of continence, as well as decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a regenerative cytokine. Electrical stimulation has been shown to upregulate BDNF in motor neurons and facilitate axon regrowth through the increase of βII-tubulin expression af...

  11. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and transcutaneous spinal electroanalgesia: a preliminary efficacy and mechanisms-based investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Shea; Cramp, Fiona; Propert, Kate; Godfrey, Helen

    2009-09-01

    To determine the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and transcutaneous spinal electroanalgesia (TSE) on mechanical pain threshold (MPT) and vibration threshold (VT). A prospective, single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Laboratory based. Thirty-four healthy volunteers (12 men and 22 women; mean age+/-standard deviation 30+/-8 years). Exclusion criteria were conditions affecting upper limb sensation and contraindications to electrical stimulation. Participants were allocated at random to receive TENS (n=8), TSE (n=8), placebo (n=9) or control (n=9). Electrical stimulation was applied for 30 minutes (from time 18 minutes to 48 minutes) via electrodes (5 cmx5 cm) placed centrally above and below the space between the C6 and C7 spinous processes, with 5 cm between electrodes. MPT (using an algometer) and VT (using a vibrameter) were recorded on seven occasions from the first dorsal interosseous muscle of the right hand - at baseline (0 minutes) and then at 10-minute intervals until the end of the 60-minute testing period. There were no statistically significant group differences in MPT (all p>0.05). Significant group differences in VT were found at 20, 30 and 40 minutes (all ptests showed that the TENS group had significantly greater VT than both the placebo [median difference 0.30 microm, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.05 to 0.66] and control (0.51 microm, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.97) groups at 20 minutes, and significantly greater VT than the control group (0.69 microm, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.17) at 30 minutes (all p<0.008). Electrical stimulation did not alter MPT. The increase in VT during TENS may be due to distraction or antidromic block of large-diameter nerve fibres. TSE failed to alter either outcome measure significantly.

  12. Electrical stimulation as a modality to improve performance of the neuromuscular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderthommen, Marc; Duchateau, Jacques

    2007-10-01

    Transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can modify the order of motor unit recruitment and has a profound influence on the metabolic demand associated with producing a given muscle force. Because of these differences, interventions that combine NMES with voluntary contractions can provide beneficial outcomes for some individuals. The adaptations evoked by NMES are not confined to the activated muscle but also involve neural adaptations through reflex inputs to the spinal cord and supraspinal centers.

  13. Real-time Simulation for a Functional Electrical Stimulation system validation

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Daniel; Andreu, David; Lafnoune, Samy

    2015-01-01

    National audience; Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) is used in therapy for rehabilitation or substitution for disabled people. They are control systems using electrodes to interface a digital control system with livings. Hence the whole system gathers continuous-time (muscles and nerves) and discrete-time (controllers and links) components. During the design process, realistic simulation remains a precious tool ahead of real experiments to check without danger that the implementation m...

  14. Chaotic synchronization with gap junction of multi-neurons in external electrical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Bin; Wang Jiang; Fei Xiangyang

    2005-01-01

    The synchronization of n(n 3) neurons coupled with gap junction in external electrical stimulation is investigated. In this paper, the coupled model is established on the basis of nonlinear cable model, and then the relation between coupling strength of the gap junction and the synchronization is discussed in detail. The sufficient condition of complete synchronization is attained from rigorous mathematical derivation. The synchronizations of periodic neurons and chaotic neurons are studied respectively

  15. The implementation of a multi-channel interferential current electrical stimulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Chay; Huang, Ke-Nung; Jen, Sun-Lon; Chen, Chun-Jen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we developed a signal generation method which can be used in the interferential current electrical stimulating device. A low-cost, 8-bit microcontroller and a very compact algorithm were adopted here to generate the sine wave. Using the method, we can easily modify the frequency and phase difference between two channels with high resolution. The preliminary experiment shows that this method can reduce the circuit complexity and improve the signal stability.

  16. Differential responsiveness of the right parahippocampal region to electrical stimulation in fixed human brains: Implications for historical surgical stimulation studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Nicolas; Persinger, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    If structure dictates function within the living human brain, then the persistence of specific responses to weak electric currents in fixed, deceased brains could reflect "hardwired" properties. Different key structures from the left and right hemispheres of brains that had been fixed for over 20years with ethanol-formalin-acetic acid were stimulated with either 1-Hz, 7-Hz, 10-Hz, 20-Hz, or 30-Hz, sine-wave, square-wave, or pulsed currents while needle-recorded quantitative electroencephalographic responses were obtained. Differential responses occurred only within the right hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. The right hippocampus displayed frequency-independent increases in gamma power relative to the left hemispheric homologue. The parahippocampal region responded exclusively to 7-Hz pulsed currents with wideband (8-30Hz) power. These profiles are consistent with dynamic connections associated with memory and consciousness and may partially explain the interactions resultant of pulse type and hemisphere for experiential elicitations during the golden age of surgical stimulations. The results also indicate that there may be an essential "hardwiring" within the human brain that is maintained for decades when it is fixed appropriately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An Effective Method on Applying Feedback Error Learning Scheme to Functional Electrical Stimulation Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Kurosawa, Kenji; Yoshizawa, Makoto

    A Feedback Error Learning (FEL) scheme was found to be applicable to joint angle control by Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) in our previous study. However, the FEL-FES controller had a problem in learning of the inverse dynamics model (IDM) in some cases. In this paper, methods of applying the FEL to FES control were examined in controlling 1-DOF movement of the wrist joint stimulating 2 muscles through computer simulation under several control conditions with several subject models. The problems in applying FEL to FES controller were suggested to be in restricting stimulation intensity to positive values between the minimum and the maximum intensities and in the case of very small output values of the IDM. Learning of the IDM was greatly improved by considering the IDM output range with setting the minimum ANN output value in calculating ANN connection weight change.

  18. Evidence of skeletal muscle damage following electrically stimulated isometric muscle contractions in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Bojsen-Moller, Jens; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    It is unknown whether muscle damage at the level of the sarcomere can be induced without lengthening contractions. To investigate this, we designed a study where seven young, healthy men underwent 30 min of repeated electrical stimulated contraction of m. gastrocnemius medialis, with the ankle...... changes at the level of the z-lines were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Blood samples were collected for measurement of creatine kinase activity, and muscle soreness was assessed in the days following stimulation. The biopsies from the stimulated muscle revealed macrophage infiltration...... of damage at the myofiber and sarcomere levels. These data support the hypothesis that muscle damage at the level of the sarcomere can be induced without lengthening muscle contractions....

  19. A Mixed Integer Linear Programming Approach to Electrical Stimulation Optimization Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelseoud, Gehan; Abouelseoud, Yasmine; Shoukry, Amin; Ismail, Nour; Mekky, Jaidaa

    2018-02-01

    Electrical stimulation optimization is a challenging problem. Even when a single region is targeted for excitation, the problem remains a constrained multi-objective optimization problem. The constrained nature of the problem results from safety concerns while its multi-objectives originate from the requirement that non-targeted regions should remain unaffected. In this paper, we propose a mixed integer linear programming formulation that can successfully address the challenges facing this problem. Moreover, the proposed framework can conclusively check the feasibility of the stimulation goals. This helps researchers to avoid wasting time trying to achieve goals that are impossible under a chosen stimulation setup. The superiority of the proposed framework over alternative methods is demonstrated through simulation examples.

  20. Effects of submaximal and supramaximal interval training on determinants of endurance performance in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, M; Le Blanc, O; Lucas, S J E; Thibault, G; Bailey, D M; Brassard, P

    2017-03-01

    We compared the effects of submaximal and supramaximal cycling interval training on determinants of exercise performance in moderately endurance-trained men. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2max ), peak power output (P peak ), and peak and mean anaerobic power were measured before and after 6 weeks (3 sessions/week) of submaximal (85% maximal aerobic power [MP], HIIT 85 , n = 8) or supramaximal (115% MP, HIIT 115 , n = 9) interval training to exhaustion in moderately endurance-trained men. High-intensity training volume was 47% lower in HIIT 115 vs HIIT 85 (304 ± 77 vs 571 ± 200 min; P training was generally associated with increased VO 2max (HIIT 85 : +3.3 ± 3.1 mL/kg/min; HIIT 115 : +3.3 ± 3.6 ml/kg/min; Time effect P = 0.002; Group effect: P = 0.95), P peak (HIIT 85 : +18 ± 9 W; HIIT 115 : +16 ± 27 W; Time effect P = 0.045; Group effect: P = 0.49), and mean anaerobic power (HIIT 85 : +0.42 ± 0.69 W/kg; HIIT 115 : +0.55 ± 0.65 W/kg; Time effect P = 0.01; Group effect: P = 0.18). Six weeks of submaximal and supramaximal interval training performed to exhaustion seems to equally improve VO 2max and anaerobic power in endurance-trained men, despite half the accumulated time spent at the target intensity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Electric field depth-focality tradeoff in transcranial magnetic stimulation: simulation comparison of 50 coil designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhi-De; Lisanby, Sarah H; Peterchev, Angel V

    2013-01-01

    Various transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coil designs are available or have been proposed. However, key coil characteristics such as electric field focality and attenuation in depth have not been adequately compared. Knowledge of the coil focality and depth characteristics can help TMS researchers and clinicians with coil selection and interpretation of TMS studies. To quantify the electric field focality and depth of penetration of various TMS coils. The electric field distributions induced by 50 TMS coils were simulated in a spherical human head model using the finite element method. For each coil design, we quantified the electric field penetration by the half-value depth, d(1/2), and focality by the tangential spread, S(1/2), defined as the half-value volume (V(1/2)) divided by the half-value depth, S(1/2) = V(1/2)/d(1/2). The 50 TMS coils exhibit a wide range of electric field focality and depth, but all followed a depth-focality tradeoff: coils with larger half-value depth cannot be as focal as more superficial coils. The ranges of achievable d(1/2) are similar between coils producing circular and figure-8 electric field patterns, ranging 1.0-3.5 cm and 0.9-3.4 cm, respectively. However, figure-8 field coils are more focal, having S(1/2) as low as 5 cm(2) compared to 34 cm(2) for circular field coils. For any coil design, the ability to directly stimulate deeper brain structures is obtained at the expense of inducing wider electrical field spread. Novel coil designs should be benchmarked against comparison coils with consistent metrics such as d(1/2) and S(1/2). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [The study of electrical acupuncture stimulation therapy combined with pelvic floor muscle therapy for postprostatectomy incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo-shuai; Ye, Ding-wei; Yao, Xu-dong; Peng, Jiang-yan; Zhang, Shi-lin; Dai, Bo; Zhang, Hai-liang; Shen, Yi-jun; Zhu, Yao; Zhu, Yi-ping; Shi, Guo-hai

    2010-09-01

    To explore the effectiveness and significance of whether electrical acupuncture stimulation combining with pelvic floor muscle therapy (PFMT) can improve the recovery of urinary continence. A total of 109 patients took part in the study of novel combination treatment for urinary continence from September 2008 to September 2009. Patients were divided into study group (n = 40) and control group (n = 69). The patients in study group received electrical acupuncture stimulation therapy combined with PFMT one week after removal the catheter. The patients in control group performed PFMT as the only treatment for post prostatectomy incontinence. The patients were followed up closely, with their clinical characteristics recorded, questionnaires of ICI-Q-SF filled up, and all the data for statistical analysis collected. There was a significant difference between the study group and the control group in the urinary control curve (P = 0.029). The difference of continence probability between these two groups became greater from 4 weeks after surgery, and the difference reached the peak at 6 weeks (P = 0.023). Then the difference became smaller, and there was no difference at 16 weeks after surgery. ICI-Q-SF questionnaires showed the same results. Electrical acupuncture stimulation therapy combining with PFMT can improve the recovery of patients' urinary continence after radical prostatectomy.

  3. Effects of involuntary eccentric contraction training by neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the enhancement of muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jongsang; Lee, Dongyeop; Kim, Youngho

    2014-08-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation is well-known as a modality to improve the performance of neuromuscular system, but its clinical value on muscle strengthening remains equivocal. In this study, we designed a system for an involuntary eccentric contraction of biceps brachii muscles using continuous passive movement and commercial neuromuscular electrical stimulation devices. To investigate the effects of involuntary eccentric contraction training by neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the enhancement of muscle strength, seven healthy men between the ages of 24 and 29 years participated in this study. Participants were trained two times per week for 12 weeks. Each exercise session was performed for 30 min with no rest intervals. Isometric elbow flexion torque and biceps brachii muscle thickness were chosen as evaluation indices, and were measured at pre-/post-training. After the 12-week training, the isometric elbow flexion torque of the trained side significantly increased by approximately 23% compared to the initial performance (Pcontraction (P<0.01). The developed system and the technique show promising results, suggesting that it has the potential to be used to increase the muscle strength in patients with neuromuscular disease and to be implemented in design rehabilitative protocols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Therapeutic efficacy of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and electromyographic biofeedback on Alzheimer's disease patients with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Lin, Xiang; Lin, Xiao-Juan; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Zhi-Kai; Lin, Zhao-Min; Chen, Jian-Hao

    2017-09-01

    To study the therapeutic effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and electromyographic biofeedback (EMG-biofeedback) therapy in improving swallowing function of Alzheimer's disease patients with dysphagia.A series of 103 Alzheimer's disease patients with dysphagia were divided into 2 groups, among which the control group (n = 50) received swallowing function training and the treatment group (n = 53) received neuromuscular electrical stimulation plus EMG-biofeedback therapy. The mini-mental state scale score was performed in all patients along the treatment period. Twelve weeks after the treatment, the swallowing function was assessed by the water swallow test. The nutritional status was evaluated by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) as well as the levels of hemoglobin and serum albumin. The frequency and course of aspiration pneumonia were also recorded.No significant difference on mini-mental state scale score was noted between 2 groups. More improvement of swallowing function, better nutritional status, and less frequency and shorter course of aspiration pneumonia were presented in treatment group when compared with the control group.Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and EMG-biofeedback treatment can improve swallowing function in patients with Alzheimer's disease and significantly reduce the incidence of adverse outcomes. Thus, they should be promoted in clinical practice.

  5. Setup and procedure for online identification of electrically stimulated muscle with Matlab Simulink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponikvar, M; Munih, M

    2001-09-01

    This paper first describes a laboratory setup for biomechanical experiments that runs within the universal simulation environment Matlab Simulink. The overall system comprises a personal computer, two AMTI (Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc., Watertown, MA 02472) force plates, Parotec force-sensor shoe insoles, Optotrak system for noncontact three-dimensional (3-D)-position measuring, and a computer-controlled four-channel electrical stimulator. Conceptually, the most important application is implementation of closed-loop electrical stimulation of intact and paralyzed subjects in the laboratory. Second, the system was tested in real-time muscle model identification procedure during a standing experiment. The plantarflexors of three nonimpaired subjects were excited with pseudorandom binary sequences (PRBSs) with small deviations around selected operating points. Electrically stimulated muscles were presented with a linear local dynamic block that was identified with a recursive least-square method (RARX). RARX block was designed with fundamental Matlab Simulink blocks that support real-time operation. Introduced was online estimation of model output, which offers a great manner of instant model validation. Two modes of operation with online validation were tested. In the first mode, the operating point for selected excitation level was identified online. In the second mode, the operating point was measured in preceding experiments. Both procedures resulted in satisfying second-order models that will be used in the adaptive controller design.

  6. Development of a Pain Measurement Device Using Electrical Stimulation and Pressure: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Ho Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and precise assessment of pain level are key factors in rehabilitation therapy. Pain is a complex and subjective experience that is affected by an individual’s emotion and health conditions. Various methods have been developed for quantitative evaluation of pain level; however, these methods have several drawbacks. In this work, we developed a pain measurement device for quantitative pain assessment. The system consists of two parts, a component for electrical stimulation and a pressure dolorimeter, for application of two different stresses. Regarding electrical stimulation, the degree of pain is assessed by the applied current. Skin resistance was also analyzed by applying current to remove the effects caused by skin conditions. The electrical stimulation did not induce any histological changes or inflammation in the tissues. Using the pressure dolorimeter, the pain level was assessed according to the degree of inflammation. This system could be used for the quantitative assessment of pain induced by inflammation, wounds, and other factors. Since the described system is the first of its kind, there are many problems that remain to be solved. However, with continuous development, our system could provide more accurate pain assessment by removing skin condition effects and through cross-validation.

  7. Clinical trial: interferential electric stimulation in functional dyspepsia patients - a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köklü, S; Köklü, G; Ozgüçlü, E; Kayani, G U; Akbal, E; Hasçelik, Z

    2010-05-01

    There are several studies reporting the beneficial effects of transcutaneous electrical stimulation in patients with gastroparesis and chronic constipation. To analyse whether transcutaneous electrical stimulation is an effective procedure in functional dyspepsia patients. Functional dyspepsia patients were randomly placed in vacuum interferential current (IFC) and placebo groups. Both treatments consisted of 12 sessions administered over 4 weeks. Upper gastrointestinal system symptoms were documented at the beginning, during and after the treatment sessions. Patients in therapy (23 cases) and placebo (21 cases) groups were homogeneous with respect to demographic data and upper gastrointestinal system symptoms. In the therapy group, all symptoms other than early satiation improved significantly during and after the treatment sessions, whereas in the placebo group, symptoms including heartburn and vomiting did not change significantly. IFC therapy was superior to placebo with respect to epigastric discomfort, pyrosis, bloating, early satiation and postprandial fullness during the treatment sessions. One month after the treatment sessions, vacuum IFC proved to be superior to placebo with regard to early satiation and heartburn. Vacuum IFC is a non-invasive and effective therapy for functional dyspepsia. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation may represent a new treatment modality for drug-refractory functional dyspepsia patients.

  8. Effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and interferential current in primary dysmenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugay, Nazan; Akbayrak, Türkan; Demirtürk, Funda; Karakaya, Ilkim Citak; Kocaacar, Ozge; Tugay, Umut; Karakaya, Mehmet Gürhan; Demirtürk, Fazli

    2007-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and interferential current in primary dysmenorrhea. A prospective, randomized, and controlled study. Hacettepe University School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation. Thirty-four volunteer subjects with primary dysmenorrhea (mean age: 21.35 +/- 1.70 years) were included. Statistical analyses were performed in 32 subjects who completed all measures. Fifteen subjects received interferential current application for 20 minutes and 17 subjects received transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for 20 minutes when they were experiencing dysmenorrhea. Physical characteristics, years since menarche, length of menstrual cycle (days), and duration of menstruation (days) were recorded. Visual analog scale ( VAS) intensities of menstrual pain, referred lower limb pain, and low back pain were recorded before treatment, and immediately, 8 hours, and 24 hours after treatment. Intensities of the evaluated parameters decreased beginning from just after the applications in both groups (P0.05). Both transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and interferential current appear to be effective in primary dysmenorrhea. As they are free from the potentially adverse effects of analgesics, and no adverse effects are reported in the literature nor observed in this study, a clinical trial of their effectiveness in comparison with untreated and placebo-treated control groups is warranted.

  9. The Methodical Aspects of Material Stimulation in the Motivation System at Enterprises of Electricity Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostіn Dmytro Yu.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article improves the methodical aspects of estimating material stimulation at enterprises of electricity industry. It has been determined that the provided taxonomy coefficients synthetically characterize changes in the values of attributes of the groups studied. Their most important advantage is that, in the course of analysis, we can now use only one indicator, which characterizes the direction and scope of changes in the processes described by the set of arbitrary numbers of incoming attributes. The level of material stimulation in the motivation system of enterprises of electricity in 2012–2015 was researched. It has been noted that during the outlined period there has been a general trend towards an increase in the integral indicator. This results from the economic crisis occurrences and the lack of a well-functioning organizational and economic mechanism for managing the motivation system at enterprises of this industry branch. The integrated assessment of enterprises extends the economic essence of the concept of material stimulation in the motivation system at enterprises of electricity industry, allowing it to be used to characterize the enterprise’s ability to return to its equilibrium status, preserve the parameters and move to a new stage of development in the conditions of accidental changes in the external and internal environment.

  10. The Efficacy of Transcorneal Electrical Stimulation for the Treatment of Primary Open-angle Glaucoma: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Yuka; Ozeki, Naoki; Yuki, Kenya; Shiba, Daisuke; Kimura, Itaru; Tsunoda, Kazushige; Shinoda, Kei; Ohde, Hisao; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2018-02-07

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of transcorneal electrical stimulation in subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma. Five eyes of four male subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma (average age: 52.25 ± 14.68 years) were enrolled. The subjects underwent transcorneal electrical stimulation every 3 months according to the following procedure. A Dawson-Trick-Litzkow electrode was placed on the cornea, and biphasic electric current pulses (10 ms, 20 Hz) were delivered using a stimulator (BPG-1,BAK Electronics) and a stimulus isolation unit (BSI-2). A current that evoked a phosphene that the subject perceived in the whole visual area was delivered continuously for 30 min. Humphrey visual field testing was performed after every third transcorneal electrical stimulation treatment. Changes in mean deviation (MD) values were evaluated with a linear regression model. Transcorneal electrical stimulation was performed 18.2 ± 9.4 times over a period of 49.8 ± 23.0 months. The average pretranscorneal electrical stimulation intraocular pressure, best corrected visual acuity, and MD values were 11.8 ± 1.79 mmHg, 0.14 ± 0.19 (logMAR) and -17.28 ± 6.24 dB, respectively. No significant differences were observed in intraocular pressure before and after transcorneal electrical stimulation. However, there was a significant positive linear relationship between changes in MD values and the number of transcorneal electrical stimulation treatments (R 2 = 0.176, P = 0.005, Spearman correlation R =0.294, P = 0.008). Transcorneal electrical stimulation treatment may improve glaucomatous visual field defects in subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma. Large-scale studies are necessary to confirm these preliminary findings.

  11. Functional electrical stimulation for management of urinary incontinence in children with myelomeningocele: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Sharifi-Rad, Lida; Ladi Seyedian, Seyedeh Sanam; Masoumi, Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    To report the efficacy of transcutaneous functional electrical stimulation (FES) in children with refractory neuropathic urinary incontinence secondary to myelomeningocele (MMC). Thirty children with history of MMC (12 girls and 18 boys, mean age 6.7 ± 3.6 years) with refractory urinary incontinence were enrolled in this study. They were randomly allocated to treatment (FES, 15 children) and control (sham stimulation, 15 children) groups. All patients underwent urodynamic study (UDS) before and 6 months after FES considering detrusor leak point pressure (DLPP), mean maximal detrusor pressure, and mean maximal bladder capacity. Daily incontinence score, frequency of pad changing, and enuresis were also assessed before and 6 months after treatment. A 15-course FES was performed for 15 min and 3 times per week. Children were followed for at least 6 months. Of UDS variables, DLPP increased significantly from 32 ± 10.7 cmH2O before treatment to 55.6 ± 24.9 cmH2O in treatment group after 6 months (P incontinence score (range 0-3) improved significantly in treatment group from 2.7 ± 0.4 before treatment to 1.3 ± 0.9 after treatment compared with sham stimulation group (P electrical stimulation is a safe, noninvasive, and effective modality to improve urinary incontinence in myelomeningocele children and can be used at home.

  12. Effects of two types of neuromuscular electrical stimulation training on vertical jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry; Noe, Frederic; Bernard, Nicolas; Dupui, Philippe; Hazard, Clement

    2008-07-01

    This study examined the effects of different types of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) programs on vertical jump performance. Twenty seven healthy trained male students in sports-sciences were recruited and randomized into three groups. The control group (C group, n = 8) did not perform NMES training. Two other groups underwent 3 training sessions a week over 5 weeks on the quadriceps femoris muscle [F group (n = 9): stimulation with an 80 Hz current for 15 min for improving muscle strength; E group (n = 10): stimulation with a 25 Hz current for 60 min for improving muscle endurance]. The height of the vertical jump was measured before NMES training (test 1), one week (test 2) and five weeks (test 3) after the end of the programs. The results showed that the height of the vertical jump significantly increased in both the F and E groups between tests 1 and 2 (5 cm and 3 cm respectively). Results of test 3 showed that both groups preserved their gains. A NMES training program destined to improve muscle endurance does not interfere on vertical jump performance. It can even durably enhance it in the same way as a NMES training program destined to improve muscle strength. Thus, to improve muscle endurance without deteriorating muscle power, sportsmen can use electrical stimulation.

  13. Effectiveness of functional magnetic versus electrical stimulation in women with urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölükbaş, N; Vural, M; Karan, A; Yalçin, O; Eskiyurt, N

    2005-12-01

    Urinary incontinence is one of the most common medical complaints in women. We here propose to evaluate and compare the effects of 2 conservative treatment modalities, functional electrical stimulation (FES) and functional magnetic stimulation (FMS). We studied 22 female patients with urinary incontinence and divided them into 2 treatment groups (14 patients in the FES and 8 in the FMS group). The mean age of the patients in the FES group was 51.14+/-11.9 and in the FMS group 42.25+/-6.9 years. Functional electrical stimulation was applied continuously at 10 Hz and 30-50 Hz in urge and stress urinary incontinence respectively. In mixed urinary incontinence stimulation was applied at 10 Hz for 15 min and at 50 Hz for 15 min. The treatment sessions were for 20 min, 3 times a week for 6-8 weeks (12 with mixed, 2 with stress incontinence). FMS was applied by a magnetic chair, twice weekly for 6 weeks (6 with mixed, 1 with stress urinary and 1 with urge urinary incontinence). The efficacy of the treatment was judged from patient impressions, records in urinary diaries, results of 1 h pad test, perineometry value and digital palpation score. The perineometry value, digital palpation score increased significantly during stimulation compared with prestimulation levels in both groups (Purinary diaries and frequency of micturition were significantly more cured or improved in the FES group (P0.05). Both FES and FMS treatments were effective. FMS does not involve intravaginal stimulation and it is twice a week. Although FMS is not often used it is more cost effective than FES. In order to have exact knowledge of this issue; more research than has been done in a greater number of subjects is required.

  14. Effects of Novel Supramaximal Interval Training Versus Continuous Training on Performance in Preconditioned Collegiate, National, and International Class Rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, Sylvie D; Nolte, Volker W; Bechard, Dan J; Belfry, Glen R

    2016-06-01

    This investigation compared supramaximal oxygen uptake interval training with continuous training in collegiate, national, and international class rowers. It was hypothesized that 6 supramaximal intensity sessions over 11 days would increase power on selected power measures. After 8 weeks of training for a new season, 10 heavyweight and 6 lightweight rowers were randomized into 2 groups. A ramp test to limit of tolerance to determine peak aerobic power (6 females: 25 W·min; 10 males: 30 W·min) and an all-out 3-minute test to determine peak power, 60-second power, critical power, and work above critical power (W') were performed before and after training. A supramaximal training session consisted of 10 cycles of 10-second work (140% peak aerobic power):5-second recovery followed by 8 minutes of active recovery, and repeated 6 times. The continuous group performed predominantly moderate intensity (below lactate threshold) training. All training was performed on rowing ergometers. Critical power increased pre-to-post supramaximal (Δ7%) and continuous training (Δ9%), respectively (336 ± 59W to 360 ± 59W; 290 ± 73W to 316 ± 74W; p ≤ 0.05), whereas the mean power output from all performance measures increased only after supramaximal training (Δ7%) (464 ± 158W to 496 ± 184W; p ≤ 0.05). Testing also revealed decreased W' (Δ21%) and 60-second power (Δ4%) pre-to-post continuous training only (p ≤ 0.05). No differences (p > 0.05) in peak aerobic power or peak power were observed pre-to-post training in either group. In conclusion, after an 8-week preconditioning period, supramaximal interval training preserved anaerobic capacity compared with predominantly continuous training and elicited similar increases in critical power in rowers.

  15. [Negative air ions generated by plants upon pulsed electric field stimulation applied to soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ren-ye; Deng, Chuan-yuan; Yang, Zhi-jian; Weng, Hai-yong; Zhu, Tie-jun-rong; Zheng, Jin-gui

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigated the capacity of plants (Schlumbergera truncata, Aloe vera var. chinensis, Chlorophytum comosum, Schlumbergera bridgesii, Gymnocalycium mihanovichii var. friedrichii, Aspidistra elatior, Cymbidium kanran, Echinocactus grusonii, Agave americana var. marginata, Asparagus setaceus) to generate negative air ions (NAI) under pulsed electric field stimulation. The results showed that single plant generated low amounts of NAI in natural condition. The capacity of C. comosum and G. mihanovichii var. friedrichii generated most NAI among the above ten species, with a daily average of 43 ion · cm(-3). The least one was A. americana var. marginata with the value of 19 ion · cm(-3). When proper pulsed electric field stimulation was applied to soil, the NAI of ten plant species were greatly improved. The effect of pulsed electric field u3 (average voltage over the pulse period was 2.0 x 10(4) V, pulse frequency was 1 Hz, and pulse duration was 50 ms) was the greatest. The mean NAI concentration of C. kanran was the highest 1454967 ion · cm(-3), which was 48498.9 times as much as that in natural condition. The lowest one was S. truncata with the value of 34567 ion · cm(-3), which was 843.1 times as much as that in natural condition. The capacity of the same plants to generate negative air ion varied extremely under different intensity pulsed electric fields.

  16. Electrical stimulation directs engineered cardiac tissue to an age-matched native phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Lasher

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying structural features of native myocardium in engineered tissue is essential for creating functional tissue that can serve as a surrogate for in vitro testing or the eventual replacement of diseased or injured myocardium. We applied three-dimensional confocal imaging and image analysis to quantitatively describe the features of native and engineered cardiac tissue. Quantitative analysis methods were developed and applied to test the hypothesis that environmental cues direct engineered tissue toward a phenotype resembling that of age-matched native myocardium. The analytical approach was applied to engineered cardiac tissue with and without the application of electrical stimulation as well as to age-matched and adult native tissue. Individual myocytes were segmented from confocal image stacks and assigned a coordinate system from which measures of cell geometry and connexin-43 spatial distribution were calculated. The data were collected from 9 nonstimulated and 12 electrically stimulated engineered tissue constructs and 5 postnatal day 12 and 7 adult hearts. The myocyte volume fraction was nearly double in stimulated engineered tissue compared to nonstimulated engineered tissue (0.34 ± 0.14 vs 0.18 ± 0.06 but less than half of the native postnatal day 12 (0.90 ± 0.06 and adult (0.91 ± 0.04 myocardium. The myocytes under electrical stimulation were more elongated compared to nonstimulated myocytes and exhibited similar lengths, widths, and heights as in age-matched myocardium. Furthermore, the percentage of connexin-43-positive membrane staining was similar in the electrically stimulated, postnatal day 12, and adult myocytes, whereas it was significantly lower in the nonstimulated myocytes. Connexin-43 was found to be primarily located at cell ends for adult myocytes and irregularly but densely clustered over the membranes of nonstimulated, stimulated, and postnatal day 12 myocytes. These findings support our hypothesis and reveal

  17. Temporal Code-Driven Stimulation: Definition and Application to Electric Fish Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lareo, Angel; Forlim, Caroline G; Pinto, Reynaldo D; Varona, Pablo; Rodriguez, Francisco de Borja

    2016-01-01

    Closed-loop activity-dependent stimulation is a powerful methodology to assess information processing in biological systems. In this context, the development of novel protocols, their implementation in bioinformatics toolboxes and their application to different description levels open up a wide range of possibilities in the study of biological systems. We developed a methodology for studying biological signals representing them as temporal sequences of binary events. A specific sequence of these events (code) is chosen to deliver a predefined stimulation in a closed-loop manner. The response to this code-driven stimulation can be used to characterize the system. This methodology was implemented in a real time toolbox and tested in the context of electric fish signaling. We show that while there are codes that evoke a response that cannot be distinguished from a control recording without stimulation, other codes evoke a characteristic distinct response. We also compare the code-driven response to open-loop stimulation. The discussed experiments validate the proposed methodology and the software toolbox.

  18. Human perception of electrical stimulation on the surface of somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Shivayogi V; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C; Wheeler, Jesse J; Moran, Daniel W; Gaunt, Robert A; Collinger, Jennifer L; Foldes, Stephen T; Weber, Douglas J; Chen, Weidong; Boninger, Michael L; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Recent advancement in electrocorticography (ECoG)-based brain-computer interface technology has sparked a new interest in providing somatosensory feedback using ECoG electrodes, i.e., cortical surface electrodes. We conducted a 28-day study of cortical surface stimulation in an individual with arm paralysis due to brachial plexus injury to examine the sensation produced by electrical stimulation of the somatosensory cortex. A high-density ECoG grid was implanted over the somatosensory and motor cortices. Stimulation through cortical surface electrodes over the somatosensory cortex successfully elicited arm and hand sensations in our participant with chronic paralysis. There were three key findings. First, the intensity of perceived sensation increased monotonically with both pulse amplitude and pulse frequency. Second, changing pulse width changed the type of sensation based on qualitative description provided by the human participant. Third, the participant could distinguish between stimulation applied to two neighboring cortical surface electrodes, 4.5 mm center-to-center distance, for three out of seven electrode pairs tested. Taken together, we found that it was possible to modulate sensation intensity, sensation type, and evoke sensations across a range of locations from the fingers to the upper arm using different stimulation electrodes even in an individual with chronic impairment of somatosensory function. These three features are essential to provide effective somatosensory feedback for neuroprosthetic applications.

  19. Human perception of electrical stimulation on the surface of somatosensory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivayogi V Hiremath

    Full Text Available Recent advancement in electrocorticography (ECoG-based brain-computer interface technology has sparked a new interest in providing somatosensory feedback using ECoG electrodes, i.e., cortical surface electrodes. We conducted a 28-day study of cortical surface stimulation in an individual with arm paralysis due to brachial plexus injury to examine the sensation produced by electrical stimulation of the somatosensory cortex. A high-density ECoG grid was implanted over the somatosensory and motor cortices. Stimulation through cortical surface electrodes over the somatosensory cortex successfully elicited arm and hand sensations in our participant with chronic paralysis. There were three key findings. First, the intensity of perceived sensation increased monotonically with both pulse amplitude and pulse frequency. Second, changing pulse width changed the type of sensation based on qualitative description provided by the human participant. Third, the participant could distinguish between stimulation applied to two neighboring cortical surface electrodes, 4.5 mm center-to-center distance, for three out of seven electrode pairs tested. Taken together, we found that it was possible to modulate sensation intensity, sensation type, and evoke sensations across a range of locations from the fingers to the upper arm using different stimulation electrodes even in an individual with chronic impairment of somatosensory function. These three features are essential to provide effective somatosensory feedback for neuroprosthetic applications.

  20. Chronological changes in astrocytes induced by chronic electrical sensorimotor cortex stimulation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Takashi; Yamashita, Akiko; Katayama, Yoichi; Oshima, Hideki; Nishizaki, Yuji; Shijo, Katsunori; Fukaya, Chikashi; Yamamoto, Takamitsu

    2011-01-01

    Motor cortex stimulation (MCS) is a treatment option for various disorders such as medically refractory pain, poststroke hemiplegia, and movement disorders. However, the exact mechanisms underlying its effects remain unknown. In this study, the effects of long-term chronic MCS were investigated by observing changes in astrocytes. A quadripolar stimulation electrode was implanted on the dura over the sensorimotor cortex of adult rats, and the cortex was continuously stimulated for 3 hours, 1 week, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Immunohistochemical staining of microglia (ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 [Iba1] staining) and astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP] staining), and neuronal degeneration histochemistry (Fluoro-Jade B staining) were carried out to investigate the morphological changes following long-term chronic MCS. Iba1 staining and Fluoro-Jade B staining showed no evidence of Iba1-positive microglial changes or neurodegeneration. Following continuous MCS, GFAP-positive astrocytes were enlarged and their number increased in the cortex and the thalamus of the stimulated hemisphere. These findings indicate that chronic electrical stimulation can continuously activate astrocytes and result in morphological and quantitative changes. These changes may be involved in the mechanisms underlying the neuroplasticity effect induced by MCS.

  1. Temporal code-driven stimulation: definition and application to electric fish signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Lareo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Closed-loop activity-dependent stimulation is a powerful methodology to assess information processing in biological systems. In this context, the development of novel protocols, their implementation in bioinformatics toolboxes and their application to different description levels open up a wide range of possibilities in the study of biological systems. We developed a methodology for studying biological signals representing them as temporal sequences of binary events. A specific sequence of these events (code is chosen to deliver a predefined stimulation in a closed-loop manner. The response to this code-driven stimulation can be used to characterize the system. This methodology was implemented in a real time toolbox and tested in the context of electric fish signaling. We show that while there are codes that evoke a response that cannot be distinguished from a control recording without stimulation, other codes evoke a characteristic distinct response. We also compare the code-driven response to open-loop stimulation. The discussed experiments validate the proposed methodology and the software toolbox.

  2. Efficacy of EMG/bioimpedance-triggered functional electrical stimulation on swallowing performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Schultheiss

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to support swallowing, the efficacy of functional electrical stimulation for different stimulation settings of the submental musculature has been investigated. The stimulation was administrated at rest and synchronously to voluntary initiated swallows. The onset of a swallow was detected in real-time by a combined electromyography/ bioimpedance measurement at the neck in order to trigger the stimulation. The amplitude and speed of larynx elevation caused by the FES has been assessed by the observed change in bioimpedance whereas a reduction of bioimpedance corresponds to an increase in larynx elevation. Study results from 40 healthy subjects revealed that 73% of the subjects achieved a larger and faster larynx elevation during swallowing with triggered FES and therefor a better protection of their airways. However, we also observed a decrease in larynx elevation compared to normal swallowing in 11 out of the 40 subjects what might not benefit from such a treatment. The largest improvement of larynx elevation and speed during swallowing could be achieved with three stimulation channels formed by four electrodes in the submental region.

  3. Functional electrical stimulation to the abdominal wall muscles synchronized with the expiratory flow does not induce muscle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Yukako; Takahashi, Ryoichi; Sewa, Yoko; Ohse, Hirotaka; Imura, Shigeyuki; Tomita, Kazuhide

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] Continuous electrical stimulation of abdominal wall muscles is known to induce mild muscle fatigue. However, it is not clear whether this is also true for functional electrical stimulation delivered only during the expiratory phase of breathing. This study aimed to examine whether or not intermittent electrical stimulation delivered to abdominal wall muscles induces muscle fatigue. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were nine healthy adults. Abdominal electrical stimulation was applied for 1.5 seconds from the start of expiration and then turned off during inspiration. The electrodes were attached to both sides of the abdomen at the lower margin of the 12th rib. Abdominal electrical stimulation was delivered for 15 minutes with the subject in a seated position. Expiratory flow was measured during stimulus. Trunk flexor torque and electromyography activity were measured to evaluate abdominal muscle fatigue. [Results] The mean stimulation on/off ratio was 1:2.3. The declining rate of abdominal muscle torque was 61.1 ± 19.1% before stimulus and 56.5 ± 20.9% after stimulus, not significantly different. The declining rate of mean power frequency was 47.8 ± 11.7% before stimulus and 47.9 ± 10.2% after stimulus, not significantly different. [Conclusion] It was found that intermittent electrical stimulation to abdominal muscles synchronized with the expiratory would not induce muscle fatigue.

  4. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves exercise tolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with better preserved fat-free mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Maris Nápolis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation increases exercise tolerance in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients. However, it is conceivable that its benefits are more prominent in patients with better-preserved peripheral muscle function and structure. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation in COPD patients with better-preserved peripheral muscle function. Design: Prospective and cross-over study. METHODS: Thirty COPD patients were randomly assigned to either home-based, high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation or sham stimulation for six weeks. The training intensity was adjusted according to each subject's tolerance. Fat-free mass, isometric strength, six-minute walking distance and time to exercise intolerance (Tlim were assessed. RESULTS: Thirteen (46.4% patients responded to high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation; that is, they had a post/pre Δ Tlim >10% after stimulation (unimproved after sham stimulation. Responders had a higher baseline fat-free mass and six-minute walking distance than their seventeen (53.6% non-responding counterparts. Responders trained at higher stimulation intensities; their mean amplitude of stimulation during training was significantly related to their fat-free mass (r = 0.65; p<0.01. Logistic regression revealed that fat-free mass was the single independent predictor of Tlim improvement (odds ratio [95% CI] = 1.15 [1.04-1.26]; p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation improved the exercise capacity of COPD patients with better-preserved fat-free mass because they tolerated higher training stimulus levels. These data suggest that early training with high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation before tissue wasting begins might enhance exercise tolerance in patients with less advanced COPD.

  5. Effect of early treatment with transcutaneous electrical diaphragmatic stimulation (TEDS on pulmonary inflammation induced by bleomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laisa A. Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Bleomycin (B is an antineoplastic drug that has pulmonary fibrosis as a side effect. There are few experimental studies about the effects of physical therapy treatment in this case. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study rat lungs treated with B and precocious intervention by transcutaneous electrical diaphragmatic stimulation (TEDS. METHOD : Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n=5: a control group (C; a stimulated group (TEDS; a group treated with a single dose of B (intratracheally, 2.5 mg/kg (B; and a group treated with B and electric stimulation (B + TEDS. After the B instillation, the electrical stimulation was applied for 7 days, for a duration of 20 minutes. Lung fragments were histologically processed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE and 8-isoprostane-PGF2α (8-iso-PGF2α. The density of the alveolar area was determined by planimetry, the inflammatory profile was defined by the number of cells, and the level of oxidative stress in the pulmonary tissue was evaluated by 8-iso-PGF2α. For statistical analysis of the data, the Shapiro-Wilk test was used, followed by a one-way ANOVA with the post-hoc Bonferroni test (p≤0.05. RESULTS : The B group exhibited a significant reduction in the area density, and the acute treatment with B + TEDS prevented this reduction. There were increased numbers of fibroblasts, leukocytes, and macrophages in the B group, as well as increased lipid peroxidation, which was observed only in this group. CONCLUSION : B promoted a reduction in the alveolar density area, thereby inducing the inflammatory process and increasing the production of free radicals. These effects were minimized by the application of TEDS at the initial treatment stage.

  6. Potentiation of fentanyl suppression of the jaw-opening reflex by transcranial electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alantar, A; Azerad, J; Limoge, A; Robert, C; Rokyta, R; Pollin, B

    1997-07-18

    Stinus et al. [L. Stinus, M. Auriacombe, J. Tignol, A. Limoge, M. Le Moal, Transcranial electrical stimulation with high frequency intermittent current (Limoge's) potentiates opiate-induced analgesia: blind studies, Pain, 42 (1990) 351-363.] observed that transcranial electrical stimulation (TCES) with high-frequency intermittent current potentiated opiate-induced analgesia using the tail-flick test. In unanesthetized, chronic preparations, electrical stimulation (0.5 Hz) of the lower incisor pulp of rats elicits a short-(6 ms) and a long-latency (12-18 ms) jaw-opening reflex (JOR) without any evidence of aversive behavior [J. Azerad, F. Fuentes, I. Lendais, A. Limoge, B. Pollin, Methods for selective tooth pulp stimulation in acute and chronic preparations in rats, J. Physiol., 406 (1988) 3P.]. Fentanyl increases thresholds of both reflexes and transiently suppresses the long-latency JOR. We then decided to look at the influence of TCES on both drug-induced mean of maximal threshold variation (MMTV) and duration of JOR suppression period. These parameters have been investigated in 43 Wistar rats with or without TCES administered for 3 h before the drug injection and throughout the testing period. TCES alone has no effect. In contrast, it significantly increases the duration of the reflex suppression period (149 +/- 5% vs. control, P < 0.001) while fentanyl-increased reflex thresholds remain unchanged. The fentanyl-induced JOR suppression period returns to the control values 2 days later. When a second 3-h TCES session is delivered 2 or 4 days after the first TCES session, a similar increase of this suppression period is observed. Moreover, 2 days after a second TCES session, an increase of the duration of the fentanyl-induced JOR suppression period is systematically observed. In contrast, a 6-h TCES session never induces such effects. These results confirm a potentiating effect of TCES on opioid action and demonstrate the value of repeated TCES sessions.

  7. Properties and application of a multichannel integrated circuit for low-artifact, patterned electrical stimulation of neural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottowy, Paweł; Skoczeń, Andrzej; Gunning, Deborah E.; Kachiguine, Sergei; Mathieson, Keith; Sher, Alexander; Wiącek, Piotr; Litke, Alan M.; Dąbrowski, Władysław

    2012-12-01

    Objective. Modern multielectrode array (MEA) systems can record the neuronal activity from thousands of electrodes, but their ability to provide spatio-temporal patterns of electrical stimulation is very limited. Furthermore, the stimulus-related artifacts significantly limit the ability to record the neuronal responses to the stimulation. To address these issues, we designed a multichannel integrated circuit for a patterned MEA-based electrical stimulation and evaluated its performance in experiments with isolated mouse and rat retina. Approach. The Stimchip includes 64 independent stimulation channels. Each channel comprises an internal digital-to-analogue converter that can be configured as a current or voltage source. The shape of the stimulation waveform is defined independently for each channel by the real-time data stream. In addition, each channel is equipped with circuitry for reduction of the stimulus artifact. Main results. Using a high-density MEA stimulation/recording system, we effectively stimulated individual retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and recorded the neuronal responses with minimal distortion, even on the stimulating electrodes. We independently stimulated a population of RGCs in rat retina, and using a complex spatio-temporal pattern of electrical stimulation pulses, we replicated visually evoked spiking activity of a subset of these cells with high fidelity. Significance. Compared with current state-of-the-art MEA systems, the Stimchip is able to stimulate neuronal cells with much more complex sequences of electrical pulses and with significantly reduced artifacts. This opens up new possibilities for studies of neuronal responses to electrical stimulation, both in the context of neuroscience research and in the development of neuroprosthetic devices.

  8. A Novel Cystometric Model of Pelvic Floor Dysfunction After Rabbit Pelvic Floor Noxious Electrical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobberfuhl, Amy D; Spettel, Sara; Schuler, Catherine; Dubin, Andrew H; Levin, Robert M; De, Elise J B

    2016-01-01

    Although a relationship between pelvic floor dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms is described in the literature, the mechanism and pathways need further characterization. We developed an animal model of pelvic floor dysfunction after noxious stimulation of the pubococcygeus (PC) muscle. Fifteen female adult rabbits were evaluated with cystometry (CMG) and electromyography (EMG) recordings from the PC muscle. Cystometry/EMG was performed before and after treatment animal (n = 11) received noxious pelvic floor electrical stimulation through the PC EMG electrode, and controls (n = 4) underwent sham needle placement. Two animals underwent S3 dorsal rhizotomy to demonstrate that the observed results required afferent innervation. Voiding changes were demonstrated in 9 of 11 rabbits after stimulation. Most of the rabbits (7/9) exhibited a prolonged-dysfunctional voiding pattern with larger capacity (mean, 17 mL [SEM, ±8 mL]), longer intercontractile interval (227% [SEM, ±76%]) and duration (163% [SEM, ±20%]), and increased postvoid residual (24 mL [SEM, ±6 mL]). The remaining dysfunctional rabbits (2/9) exhibited an overactive-dysfunctional voiding pattern with lower capacity (-26 mL [SEM, ±6 mL]), shortened intercontractile interval (16% [SEM, ±9%]) and duration (56% [SEM, ±30%]), and decreased postvoid residual (-27 mL [SEM, ±6 mL]). Nonresponder rabbits (2/11) were relatively unchanged in their micturition cycles after stimulation. Rhizotomy animals were acontractile and filled until overflow incontinence occurred. Using noxious electrical stimulation of the pelvic musculature, we were able to produce an animal model of pelvic floor dysfunction in most rabbits as hallmarked by a larger bladder capacity, an increased intercontractile interval, and prolonged contraction duration.

  9. Transcutaneous interferential electrical stimulation for management of neurogenic bowel dysfunction in children with myelomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Sharifi-Rad, Lida; Nejat, Farideh; Kajbafzadeh, Majid; Talaei, Hamid-Reza

    2012-04-01

    We describe the efficacy of transcutaneous interferential (IF) electrical stimulation on constipation symptoms in children with myelomeningocele (MMC). MMC children (30, comprising of 17 girls and 13 boys), mean age 6.7 ± 2.9, with moderate to severe intractable constipation were enrolled in this study. They were divided into treatment (IF stimulation, 15 children) and control (sham stimulation, 15 children) groups. All children underwent anorectal manometry before and 6 months after IF therapy considering the rectoanal inhibitory reflex and sphincter pressure. Parents were instructed to complete a bowel habit diary by providing data on the number of defecations per week, form of stool and episodes of pain during defecation. According to parents' report a total neurogenic bowel dysfunction score questionnaire was filled before and 6 months after treatment. A 15-course abdominal area IF electrical stimulation was performed for 20 min and three times per week, with low-frequency current in a duration of 250 μs every 6 s. Children were followed up for a minimum period of 6 months. In the treatment group, sphincter pressure and rectoanal inhibitory reflex significantly improved compared with sham stimulation and pretreatment measures (P < .05). In 73% of patients, the characteristics of constipation decreased immediately after IF therapy, while in 53% patients, they persisted for 6 months. Frequency of defecation increased statistically significant from 2.5 ± 1.1 per week before treatment to 4.7 ± 2.3 per week after treatment (P < .001). This pilot study showed that IF therapy is safe, noninvasive, and effective modality to improve constipation symptoms and anorectal manometry parameters in children with history of myelomeningocele.

  10. Vertical electric field stimulated neural cell functionality on porous amorphous carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shilpee; Sharma, Ashutosh; Basu, Bikramjit

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrate the efficacy of amorphous macroporous carbon substrates as electrodes to support neuronal cell proliferation and differentiation in electric field mediated culture conditions. The electric field was applied perpendicular to carbon substrate electrode, while growing mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells in vitro. The placement of the second electrode outside of the cell culture medium allows the investigation of cell response to electric field without the concurrent complexities of submerged electrodes such as potentially toxic electrode reactions, electro-kinetic flows and charge transfer (electrical current) in the cell medium. The macroporous carbon electrodes are uniquely characterized by a higher specific charge storage capacity (0.2 mC/cm(2)) and low impedance (3.3 kΩ at 1 kHz). The optimal window of electric field stimulation for better cell viability and neurite outgrowth is established. When a uniform or a gradient electric field was applied perpendicular to the amorphous carbon substrate, it was found that the N2a cell viability and neurite length were higher at low electric field strengths (≤ 2.5 V/cm) compared to that measured without an applied field (0 V/cm). While the cell viability was assessed by two complementary biochemical assays (MTT and LDH), the differentiation was studied by indirect immunostaining. Overall, the results of the present study unambiguously establish the uniform/gradient vertical electric field based culture protocol to either enhance or to restrict neurite outgrowth respectively at lower or higher field strengths, when neuroblastoma cells are cultured on porous glassy carbon electrodes having a desired combination of electrochemical properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High-CHO diet increases post-exercise oxygen consumption after a supramaximal exercise bout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, G.A.; Bertuzzi, R.; De-Oliveira, F.R.; Pires, F.O.; Lima-Silva, A.E.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated if carbohydrate (CHO) availability could affect the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after a single supramaximal exercise bout. Five physically active men cycled at 115% of peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2 peak) until exhaustion with low or high pre-exercise CHO availability. The endogenous CHO stores were manipulated by performing a glycogen-depletion exercise protocol 48 h before the trial, followed by 48 h consuming either a low- (10% CHO) or a high-CHO (80% CHO) diet regime. Compared to the low-CHO diet, the high-CHO diet increased time to exhaustion (3.0±0.6 min vs 4.4±0.6, respectively, P=0.01) and the total O2 consumption during the exercise (6.9±0.9 L and 11.3±2.1, respectively, P=0.01). This was accompanied by a higher EPOC magnitude (4.6±1.8 L vs 6.2±2.8, respectively, P=0.03) and a greater total O2 consumption throughout the session (exercise+recovery: 11.5±2.5 L vs 17.5±4.2, respectively, P=0.01). These results suggest that a single bout of supramaximal exercise performed with high CHO availability increases both exercise and post-exercise energy expenditure. PMID:27783812

  12. Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation During Hemodialysis on Peripheral Muscle Strength and Exercise Capacity: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Ana Karla; Mello, Carolina Luana; Dal Pont, Tarcila; Hizume Kunzler, Deborah; Martins, Daniel Fernandes; Bobinski, Franciane; Pereira Yamaguti, Wellington; Paulin, Elaine

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation of high and low frequency and intensity, performed during hemodialysis, on physical function and inflammation markers in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Randomized clinical trial. Hemodialysis clinic. Patients with CKD (N=51) were randomized into blocks of 4 using opaque sealed envelopes. They were divided into a group of high frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation and a group of low frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation. The high frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation group was submitted to neuromuscular electrical stimulation at a frequency of 50Hz and a medium intensity of 72.90mA, and the low frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation group used a frequency of 5Hz and a medium intensity of 13.85mA, 3 times per week for 1 hour, during 12 sessions. Peripheral muscle strength, exercise capacity, levels of muscle trophism marker (insulin growth factor 1) and levels of proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor α) and anti-inflammatory (interleukin 10) cytokines. The high frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation group showed a significant increase in right peripheral muscle strength (155.35±65.32Nm initial vs 161.60±68.73Nm final; P=.01) and left peripheral muscle strength (156.60±66.51Nm initial vs 164.10±69.76Nm final; P=.02) after the training, which did not occur in the low frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation group for both right muscle strength (109.40±32.08Nm initial vs 112.65±38.44Nm final; P=.50) and left muscle strength (113.65±37.79Nm initial vs 116.15±43.01Nm final; P=.61). The 6-minute walk test distance (6MWTD) increased in both groups: high frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation group (435.55±95.81m initial vs 457.25±90.64m final; P=.02) and low frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation group (403.80

  13. [The impact of electrical stimulation on the functional status of cochlear nervous structures in cats with experimentally induced hearing disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinitskiĭ, M E; Bakhtin, O M; Filatova, V S

    1998-01-01

    Effects of non-invasive electric stimulation on hearing were studied in cats with depressed periphery of the acoustic analyser. Experimental neurosensory hypoacusis was induced by large doses of canamycin (25-30 mg/kg). The hearing was assessed by short-latent stem and cortical long-latent evoked potentials (EP). Consideration was also given to changes in the amplitude of the wave V of short-latent EP in varying intensity of the sound stimulus. When deep suppression was reached, 8-day course of electric stimulation was started with registration of EP. It was found that canamycin elevates thresholds of identification of wave V of short-latent stem EP and thresholds of emergence of long-latent stem EP. The curve amplitude/intensity was also affected. The course of electrical stimulation returned the above parameters of the thresholds and the curve to the baseline levels. This is the evidence of therapeutic action of non-invasive electrical stimulation.

  14. Classification of methods in transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES) and evolving strategy from historical approaches to contemporary innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleyupoglu, Berkan; Schestatsky, Pedro; Edwards, Dylan; Fregni, Felipe; Bikson, Marom

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES) encompasses all methods of non-invasive current application to the brain used in research and clinical practice. We present the first comprehensive and technical review, explaining the evolution of tES in both terminology and dosage over the past 100 years of research to present day. Current transcranial Pulsed Current Stimulation (tPCS) approaches such as Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) descended from Electrosleep (ES) through Cranial Electro-stimulation Therapy (CET), Transcerebral Electrotherapy (TCET), and NeuroElectric Therapy (NET) while others like Transcutaneous Cranial Electrical Stimulation (TCES) descended from Electroanesthesia (EA) through Limoge, and Interferential Stimulation. Prior to a contemporary resurgence in interest, variations of trans-cranial Direct Current Stimulation were explored intermittently, including Polarizing current, Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS), and Transcranial Micropolarization. The development of these approaches alongside Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) and pharmacological developments are considered. Both the roots and unique features of contemporary approaches such as transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS) and transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS) are discussed. Trends and incremental developments in electrode montage and waveform spanning decades are presented leading to the present day. Commercial devices, seminal conferences, and regulatory decisions are noted. We conclude with six rules on how increasing medical and technological sophistication may now be leveraged for broader success and adoption of tES. PMID:23954780

  15. Classification of methods in transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) and evolving strategy from historical approaches to contemporary innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleyupoglu, Berkan; Schestatsky, Pedro; Edwards, Dylan; Fregni, Felipe; Bikson, Marom

    2013-10-15

    Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES) encompasses all methods of non-invasive current application to the brain used in research and clinical practice. We present the first comprehensive and technical review, explaining the evolution of tES in both terminology and dosage over the past 100 years of research to present day. Current transcranial Pulsed Current Stimulation (tPCS) approaches such as Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) descended from Electrosleep (ES) through Cranial Electro-stimulation Therapy (CET), Transcerebral Electrotherapy (TCET), and NeuroElectric Therapy (NET) while others like Transcutaneous Cranial Electrical Stimulation (TCES) descended from Electroanesthesia (EA) through Limoge, and Interferential Stimulation. Prior to a contemporary resurgence in interest, variations of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation were explored intermittently, including Polarizing current, Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS), and Transcranial Micropolarization. The development of these approaches alongside Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) and pharmacological developments are considered. Both the roots and unique features of contemporary approaches such as transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS) and transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS) are discussed. Trends and incremental developments in electrode montage and waveform spanning decades are presented leading to the present day. Commercial devices, seminal conferences, and regulatory decisions are noted. We conclude with six rules on how increasing medical and technological sophistication may now be leveraged for broader success and adoption of tES. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of electrical stimulation in early Bells palsy on facial disability index scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alakram

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recovery following facial nerve palsy is variable. Physiotherapists try  to restore  function  in  patients  with  Bell’s  palsy.  The  choice  of treatment modality  depends  on  the  stage  of  the  condition.  Although limited  evidence  exists  for  the  use  of  electrical  stimulation  in  the acute  stage  of  Bell’s  palsy, some physiotherapists in South Africa have been applying this modality. This study examined the effects of electrical stimulation on functional recovery from  Bell’s palsy using the Facial Disability Index, a tool that documents recovery from the patients’ perspective. A two group pre-test post-test experimental design comprising of 16 patients with Bell’s Palsy of less than 30 days duration was utilized. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of Bell’s Palsy were systematically allocated to the control and experimental groups. Patients (n=16 were pre-tested and post-tested using the Facial Disability Index. Both groups were treated with heat, massage, exercises and given a home program. The experimental group also received electrical stimulation. The FDI of the control group improved between 17, 8% and 95, 4% with a mean of 52, 8%. The improvement in the experimental group ranged between 14, 8% and 126% with a mean of 49, 8%. Certain clinical residuals persisted in a mild form in both groups on discharge from the study.  The effects of electrical stimulation as used in this study during the acute phase of Bell’s palsy, quantified as the FDI was clinically but not statistically significant. A larger sample size, longer stimulation time or both should be investigated.

  17. Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain's ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable and provides imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles. SR using imperceptible stochastic electrical stimulation of the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation, SVS) applied to normal subjects has shown to improve the degree of association between the weak input periodic signals introduced via venous blood pressure receptors and the heart-rate responses. Also, application of SVS over 24

  18. A probabilistic map of the human ventral sensorimotor cortex using electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breshears, Jonathan D; Molinaro, Annette M; Chang, Edward F

    2015-08-01

    The human ventral sensorimotor cortex (vSMC) is involved in facial expression, mastication, and swallowing, as well as the dynamic and highly coordinated movements of human speech production. However, vSMC organization remains poorly understood, and previously published population-driven maps of its somatotopy do not accurately reflect the variability across individuals in a quantitative, probabilistic fashion. The goal of this study was to describe the responses to electrical stimulation of the vSMC, generate probabilistic maps of function in the vSMC, and quantify the variability across individuals. Photographic, video, and stereotactic MRI data of intraoperative electrical stimulation of the vSMC were collected for 33 patients undergoing awake craniotomy. Stimulation sites were converted to a 2D coordinate system based on anatomical landmarks. Motor, sensory, and speech stimulation responses were reviewed and classified. Probabilistic maps of stimulation responses were generated, and spatial variance was quantified. In 33 patients, the authors identified 194 motor, 212 sensory, 61 speech-arrest, and 27 mixed responses. Responses were complex, stereotyped, and mostly nonphysiological movements, involving hand, orofacial, and laryngeal musculature. Within individuals, the presence of oral movement representations varied; however, the dorsal-ventral order was always preserved. The most robust motor responses were jaw (probability 0.85), tongue (0.64), lips (0.58), and throat (0.52). Vocalizations were seen in 6 patients (0.18), more dorsally near lip and dorsal throat areas. Sensory responses were spatially dispersed; however, patients' subjective reports were highly precise in localization within the mouth. The most robust responses included tongue (0.82) and lips (0.42). The probability of speech arrest was 0.85, highest 15-20 mm anterior to the central sulcus and just dorsal to the sylvian fissure, in the anterior precentral gyrus or pars opercularis. The

  19. Interaction of post-stroke voluntary effort and functional neuromuscular electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Nathaniel; Knutson, Jayme; Chae, John; Crago, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) may be able to augment functional arm and hand movement after stroke. Post-stroke neuroprostheses that incorporate voluntary effort and FES to produce the desired movement need to consider how the forces generated by voluntary effort and FES combine together, even in the same muscle, in order to provide an appropriate level of stimulation to elicit the desired assistive force. The goal of this study was to determine if the force produced by voluntary effort and FES add together independently of effort, or if the increment in force is dependent on the level of voluntary effort. Isometric force matching tasks were performed under different combinations of voluntary effort and electrical stimulation. Participants reached a steady level of force and while attempting to maintain a constant effort level, FES was applied to augment the force. Results indicate that the increment in force produced by FES decreases as the level of initial voluntary effort increases. Potential mechanisms causing the change in force output are proposed, but the relative contribution of each mechanism is unknown. PMID:23516086

  20. Effectiveness of daily eccentric contractions induced via kilohertz frequency transcutaneous electrical stimulation on muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Minoru; Nakanishi, Ryosuke; Murakami, Shinichiro; Fujita, Naoto; Kondo, Hiroyo; Ishihara, Akihiko; Roy, Roland R; Fujino, Hidemi

    2016-01-01

    The effects of daily repeated bouts of concentric, isometric, or eccentric contractions induced by high frequency (kilohertz) transcutaneous electrical stimulation in ameliorating atrophy of the soleus muscle in hindlimb unloaded rats were determined. Five groups of male rats were studied: control, hindlimb unloaded for 2 weeks (HU), or HU plus two daily bouts of concentric, isometric, or eccentric high-frequency electrical stimulation-induced contractions of the calf musculature. Soleus mass and fiber size were smaller, the levels of phosphorylated Akt1 and FoxO3a lower, and atrogin-1 and ubiquitinated proteins higher in the HU, and the HU plus concentric or isometric contraction groups than in the control group. In contrast, daily bouts of eccentric contractions maintained these values at near control levels and all measures were significantly different from all other HU groups. These results indicate that daily bouts of eccentric contractions induced by high-frequency stimulation inhibited the ubiquitin-proteasome catabolic pathway and enhanced the Akt1/FoxO3a anabolic pathway that resulted in a prevention of the atrophic response of the soleus muscle to chronic unloading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. The use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (tens in the treatment of the spasticity - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahyan Wagner da Silva Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study it has as objective to argue the job of TENS in the spasticity, observing the main parameters, form of application and the mechanism for which TENS it acts in the spasticity. One is about a bibliographical revision based in the literature specialized selected scientific articles through search in the data base of scielo and of bireme, from the sources Medline and Lilacs. The studies found on the job of TENS in the spasticity, had pointed mainly that this chain reduces the spasticity significantly, in lower degrees. The stimulation electrical parameters had disclosed that TENS it (about 100Hz of raised frequency provides one better effect in the reduction of the spasticity. The types of TENS more used had been the conventional and the soon-intense one, however some studies had not presented the used duration of pulse, limit the determination of one better modality of TENS. Few studies had explained the mechanism of performance of the current related one. The ones that had made it, had pointed the release of opioid endogenous (Dynorphins for the central nervous system as main mechanism of performance, however this contrasts with the neurophysiologic bases of the high-frequency stimulation, that demonstrated better resulted in the joined studies. Still it is necessary more studies on the job of this modality of stimulation electrical in the spasticity, since important parameters as duration of pulse, time of application, numbers of attendance and performance mechanism remains without scientific evidence.

  2. Electric pulse stimulation of cultured murine muscle cells reproduces gene expression changes of trained mouse muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Burch

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Adequate levels of physical activity are at the center of a healthy lifestyle. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate the beneficial effects of exercise remain enigmatic. This gap in knowledge is caused by the lack of an amenable experimental model system. Therefore, we optimized electric pulse stimulation of muscle cells to closely recapitulate the plastic changes in gene expression observed in a trained skeletal muscle. The exact experimental conditions were established using the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha as a marker for an endurance-trained muscle fiber. We subsequently compared the changes in the relative expression of metabolic and myofibrillar genes in the muscle cell system with those observed in mouse muscle in vivo following either an acute or repeated bouts of treadmill exercise. Importantly, in electrically stimulated C2C12 mouse muscle cells, the qualitative transcriptional adaptations were almost identical to those in trained muscle, but differ from the acute effects of exercise on muscle gene expression. In addition, significant alterations in the expression of myofibrillar proteins indicate that this stimulation could be used to modulate the fiber-type of muscle cells in culture. Our data thus describe an experimental cell culture model for the study of at least some of the transcriptional aspects of skeletal muscle adaptation to physical activity. This system will be useful for the study of the molecular mechanisms that regulate exercise adaptation in muscle.

  3. Augmented visual feedback counteracts the effects of surface muscular functional electrical stimulation on physiological tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that surface muscular functional electrical stimulation (FES) might suppress neurological upper limb tremor. We assessed its effects on upper limb physiological tremor, which is mainly driven by mechanical-reflex oscillations. We investigated the interaction between FES and augmented visual feedback, since (a) most daily activities are performed using visual cues, and (b) augmented visual feedback exacerbates upper limb tremor. Methods 10 healthy subjects (23.4 ± 7.7 years) performed 2 postural tasks with combinations of FES (4 sites; frequency of stimulation: 30 Hz; pulse width: 300 microsec; range of current delivered 10–34 mAmp) and augmented visual feedback. Results Spectral analysis of tremor showed a decrease of power spectral density to 62.18% (p = 0.01), of the integral in the 8-12 Hz frequency band to 57.67% (p = 0.003), and of tremor root mean square (RMS) to 57.16% (p = 0.002) during FES, without any changes in tremor frequency. Augmented visual feedback blocked the beneficial effect of FES, as confirmed by power spectral analysis (p = 0.01). We found a statistically significant interaction between augmented visual feedback and electrical stimulation (p = 0.039). Conclusions Augmented visual feedback antagonizes the effects of FES on physiological tremor. The absence of changes of peak frequency argues against an effect of FES on mechanical properties of the upper limb. PMID:24063436

  4. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Treatment of Muscle Impairment: Critical Review and Recommendations for Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Pamela; Anthony, Joseph; Rennie, Sandy; Shay, Barbara L.; Hoens, Alison M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In response to requests from physiotherapists for guidance on optimal stimulation of muscle using neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), a review, synthesis, and extraction of key data from the literature was undertaken by six Canadian physical therapy (PT) educators, clinicians, and researchers in the field of electrophysical agents. The objective was to identify commonly treated conditions for which there was a substantial body of literature from which to draw conclusions regarding the effectiveness of NMES. Included studies had to apply NMES with visible and tetanic muscle contractions. Method: Four electronic databases (CINAHL, Embase, PUBMED, and SCOPUS) were searched for relevant literature published between database inceptions until May 2015. Additional articles were identified from bibliographies of the systematic reviews and from personal collections. Results: The extracted data were synthesized using a consensus process among the authors to provide recommendations for optimal stimulation parameters and application techniques to address muscle impairments associated with the following conditions: stroke (upper or lower extremity; both acute and chronic), anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, patellofemoral pain syndrome, knee osteoarthritis, and total knee arthroplasty as well as critical illness and advanced disease states. Summaries of key details from each study incorporated into the review were also developed. The final sections of the article outline the recommended terminology for describing practice using electrical currents and provide tips for safe and effective clinical practice using NMES. Conclusion: This article provides physiotherapists with a resource to enable evidence-informed, effective use of NMES for PT practice. PMID:29162949

  5. Inhibitory mechanisms following electrical stimulation of tendon and cutaneous afferents in the lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Serajul I; Burne, John A

    2010-01-13

    Electrical stimulation of the Achilles tendon (TES) produced strong reflex depression (duration>250 ms) of a small background contraction in both heads of gastrocnemius (GA) via large diameter electrodes localized to the tendon. The inhibitory responses were produced without electrical (M wave) or mechanical (muscle twitch) signs of direct muscle stimulation. In this study, the contribution of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms to the depression was investigated by studying conditioning effects of tendon afferent stimulation on the mechanical tendon reflex (TR) and magnetic motor evoked potential (MEP). TES completely inhibited the TR over an ISI of 300 ms that commenced before and continued during and after the period of voluntary EMG depression. Tendon afferent conditioning stimuli also partially inhibited the MEP, but over a short time course confined to the period of voluntary EMG depression. The strength and extended time course of tendon afferent conditioning of the TR and its failure to produce a similar depression of the MEP are consistent with a mechanism involving presynaptic inhibition of Ia terminals. Cutaneous (sural nerve) afferent conditioning partially inhibited the TR and MEP over a short time course (ISI origin of cutaneous inhibition of the motoneurons.

  6. Myocardial scaffold-based cardiac tissue engineering: application of coordinated mechanical and electrical stimulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Guangjun; To, Filip; Butler, J Ryan; Claude, Andrew; McLaughlin, Ronald M; Williams, Lakiesha N; de Jongh Curry, Amy L; Liao, Jun

    2013-09-03

    Recently, we developed an optimal decellularization protocol to generate 3D porcine myocardial scaffolds, which preserve the natural extracellular matrix structure, mechanical anisotropy, and vasculature templates and also show good cell recellularization and differentiation potential. In this study, a multistimulation bioreactor was built to provide coordinated mechanical and electrical stimulation for facilitating stem cell differentiation and cardiac construct development. The acellular myocardial scaffolds were seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (10(6) cells/mL) by needle injection and subjected to 5-azacytidine treatment (3 μmol/L, 24 h) and various bioreactor conditioning protocols. We found that after 2 days of culturing with mechanical (20% strain) and electrical stimulation (5 V, 1 Hz), high cell density and good cell viability were observed in the reseeded scaffold. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that the differentiated cells showed a cardiomyocyte-like phenotype by expressing sarcomeric α-actinin, myosin heavy chain, cardiac troponin T, connexin-43, and N-cadherin. Biaxial mechanical testing demonstrated that positive tissue remodeling took place after 2 days of bioreactor conditioning (20% strain + 5 V, 1 Hz); passive mechanical properties of the 2 day and 4 day tissue constructs were comparable to those of the tissue constructs produced by stirring reseeding followed by 2 weeks of static culturing, implying the effectiveness and efficiency of the coordinated simulations in promoting tissue remodeling. In short, the synergistic stimulations might be beneficial not only for the quality of cardiac construct development but also for patients by reducing the waiting time in future clinical scenarios.

  7. Pharyngeal electrical stimulation device for the treatment of neurogenic dysphagia: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restivo DA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Domenico A Restivo,1 Shaheen Hamdy2 1Neurological Unit, Garibaldi Hospital, Catania, Italy; 2School of Translational Medicine—Inflammation Sciences, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, University of Manchester, Salford Royal Hospital, Salford, UK Abstract: Neurogenic dysphagia (ND can occur in patients with nervous system diseases of varying etiologies. Moreover, recovery from ND is not guaranteed. The therapeutic approaches for oropharyngeal ND have drastically changed over the last decade, mainly due to a better knowledge of the neurophysiology of swallowing along with the progress of neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies. For this reason, it is a priority to develop a treatment that is repeatable, safe, and can be carried out at the bedside as well as for outpatients. Pharyngeal electrical stimulation (PES is a novel rehabilitation treatment for ND. PES is carried out via location-specific intraluminal catheters that are introduced transnasally and enable clinicians to stimulate the pharynx directly. This technique has demonstrated increasingly promising evidence in improving swallowing performance in patients with ND associated with stroke and multiple sclerosis, probably by increasing the corticobulbar excitability and inducing cortical reorganization of swallowing motor cortex. In this article, we update the reader as to both the physiologic background and past and current studies of PES in an effort to highlight the clinical progress of this important technique. Keywords: pharyngeal electrical stimulation, swallowing, neurogenic dysphagia, swallowing motor cortex, pharynx, catheter

  8. Adverse events of gastric electrical stimulators recorded in the Manufacturer and User Device Experience (MAUDE) Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielefeldt, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    The role of gastric electrical stimulation for patients with refractory symptoms of gastroparesis remains controversial. Open label studies suggest benefit while randomized controlled trials did not demonstrate differences between active and sham intervention. Using a voluntary reporting system of the Federal Drug Administration, we examined the type and frequency of adverse events. We conducted an electronic search of the Manufacturer and User Device Experience (MAUDE) databank using the keyword 'Enterra' for the time between January of 2001 and October of 2015. We abstracted information about the year of stimulator implantation, the year and type of adverse effect, the resulting intervention and outcome if available. A total of 1587 entries described adverse effects related the GES. Only 36 of the reports listed perioperative complications. The vast majority described problems that could be classified as patient concerns, local complications, or system failure. The most common problem related lack or loss of efficacy, followed by pain or complications affecting the pocket site. A subset of 801 reports provided information about the time between system implant and registration of concerns, which gradually declined over time. More than one third (35.7%) of the reported adverse events prompted surgical correction. The number of voluntarily reported adverse events and the high likelihood of repeated surgical interventions clearly demonstrate the potential downside of gastric electrical stimulation. Physicians considering this intervention will need to carefully weigh these risks and include this information when counseling or consenting patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Neuromodulation via Interferential Electrical Stimulation as a Novel Therapy in Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Judith S; Gibson, Peter R; Burgell, Rebecca E

    2018-01-30

    The concept of therapeutic percutaneous neuromodulation has, until recently, been limited by the ability to penetrate deeply enough to stimulate internal organs. By utilizing 2 medium frequency, slightly out of phase electrical currents passing diagonally through the abdomen, a third, low frequency current is created at the point of bisection. This interferential current appears to stimulate nerve fibers in the target organs and may have a therapeutic action. The aim of the study is to review the use of transcutaneous interferential electrical stimulation with a focus on its application in gastroenterology, particularly in motility disorders. Studies involving use of interferential current therapy were searched from Medline, PubMed, and Scopus databases, and articles pertaining to history, its application and all those treating abdominal and gastrointestinal disorders were retrieved. Seventeen studies were identified, 13 involved children only. Eleven of these were randomised controlled trials (3 in adults). Four trials were from the one center, where each paper reported on different outcomes such as soiling, defecation frequency, quality of life, and colon transit studies from the one pool of children. All studies found statistically significant improvement in symptom reduction. However, weaknesses in study design were apparent in some. In particular, finding an adequate placebo to interferential current therapy has been difficult. Interferential current therapy shows potential as a novel, non-pharmacological and economical means of treating gastrointestinal dysfunction such as constipation. More studies are needed particularly in the adult population. However, the design of a suitable placebo is challenging.

  10. The effect of electrical stimulation of the corticospinal tract on motor units of the human biceps brachii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Taylor, Janet L; Gandevia, Simon C

    2002-01-01

    In healthy human subjects, descending motor pathways including the corticospinal tract were stimulated electrically at the level of the cervicomedullary junction to determine the effects on the discharge of motoneurones innervating the biceps brachii. Post-stimulus time histograms (PSTHs) were...... delays). We propose that in response to electrical stimulation of the descending tract fibres, biceps motoneurones receive a large excitatory input with minimal dispersion and it presumably contains a dominant monosynaptic component....

  11. Pelvic floor muscle exercises with or without electric stimulation and post-prostectomy urinary incontinence: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidan,Patrícia; Silva,Elirez Bezerra da

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Urinary incontinence (UI) after prostatectomy is difficult to treat and causes profound adverse impacts on the individual's quality of life. The main clinical treatments available for post-prostatectomy UI consist of behavioral techniques and physical therapy techniques, such as exercises, electrical stimulation and biofeedback for pelvic floor muscles (PFMs). Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of PFM exercises with or without electrical stimulation for reduc...

  12. Combination of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Improves Gait Ability in a Patient in Chronic Stage of Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Satow, Takeshi; Kawase, Tomotaka; Kitamura, Atsushi; Kajitani, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Tanabe, Nobuhiko; Otoi, Reiko; Komuro, Taro; Kobayashi, Akira; Nagata, Hirokazu; Mima, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Walking ability is important in stroke patients to maintain daily life. Nevertheless, its improvement is limited with conventional physical therapy in chronic stage. We report the case of a chronic stroke patient showing a remarkable improvement in gait function after a new neurorehabilitation protocol using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Case Presentation: A 62-year-old male with left putaminal hemorrhage suffered f...

  13. Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/ sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain s ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable providing imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improve