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Sample records for supraglottic frontolateral vertical

  1. Treatment Results for Supraglottic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu Chan; Kim, Chul Yong; Choi, Myung Sun

    1994-01-01

    Purpose: In supraglottic cancer, radiation therapy is used to preserve the laryngeal function but combined surgery and radiation therapy is required in advanced stage. The authors present the results of radiation therapy alone and combined surgery plus postoperative radiation therapy for supraglottic cancer. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was done for 43 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx who were treated from February 1982 to December 1991, in the Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea University Hospital. Patient distribution according to the AJCC staging system was as follows; I, 3(7.0%); II, 7(16.3%); III, 17(39.5%); IV, 16(37.2%). Patients' age ranged from 30 to 72 years(median 62). Follow up durations were from 21 to 137 months(median 27). Seventeen patients(39.5%) were treated by radiation therapy alone with radiation doses of 6840-7380 cGy and 26 patients(60.5%) were treated with surgery plus postoperative irradiation with doses of 5820-6660 cGy. Results: Overall five-year survival rate for all stage was 51.8%, with 100% for Stage I and II, 47.3% for Stage III, and 29.2% for Stage IV. The difference of the survival rate by stage was statistically significant(p=0.0152). Five-year survival rates were 100% for locally confined tumor in the supraglottic larynx, 37.5% for transglottic extension, 26.7% for hypopharynx extension, and only two of 5 patients with both transglottic and hypopharynx extension were alive(p=0.0033). Five-year survival rates by neck node status were as follows: 55.0% for N0, 64.3% for N1, 50.0% for N2, and all 2 of N3 were died of disease. Overall survival rate for radiation therapy alone group was 42.8% and it was 56.7% for surgery plus postoperative radiation therapy group with no statistically significant difference(p=0.5215). In Stage I and II, all patients survived. In Stage III and IV, 5-year survival rate for radiation therapy alone group was 28.5% and 43.4% for surgery plus

  2. Perspective of the frontolateral craniotomies Perspectivas das craniotomias frontolaterais

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    Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The pterional craniotomy is one of the most frequently surgical approaches used in neurosurgery and currently it has become a mainsteam. It allows excellent microsurgical exposure of anterior and posterior regions of the arterial circle of Willis, supra and paraselar regions, the superior orbital fissure of sphenoid bone, cavernous sinus, orbit, temporal lobe, midbrain and the frontal lobe. Like others techniques, the pterional craniotomy presented disadvantages related to dissection of the temporal muscle. From the first fronto lateral craniotomy described by Dandy to expose the optic chiasm and the pituitary we pass through the Yasargil's classical description of craniotomy centered in fronto-temporal sylvian fissure until reaching the recent"minipterional craniotomy", modifications of the pterional craniotomy were proposed to reduce the extra cranial tissue trauma and reduce the area of craniotomy without affecting the exposure of surgical targets, thus improving their aesthetic and functional results. An historical analysis of the frontolateral approaches has demonstrated that they have evolved from larger craniotomies to smaller ones, however only the minipterional craniotomy is able to offer similar surgical exposure.A craniotomia pterional é um dos acessos cirúrgicos mais freqüentemente utilizados. Esta técnica permite excelente exposição microcirúrgica das regiões anterior e posterior do polígono de Willis, regiões supra-selar, fissura orbital superior do osso esfenóide, seio cavernoso, órbita, lobo temporal, mesencéfalo e lobo frontal. Como outras técnicas, a craniotomia pterional tem desvantagens relacionadas à manipulação do músculo temporal. Desde a primeira craniotomia fronto lateral descrita por Dandy para expor o quiasma óptico e a hipófise, passando pela descrição clássica de Yasrgil para craniotomia centrada na fissura silviana, até chegar em craniotomias recentes como a"minipterional", modificações da

  3. Microsurgical one-stage treatment of intracranial mirror aneurysms via bilateral frontolateral approaches

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    Hong-guang WANG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate surgical strategies, clinical effects and complications of microsurgical one-stage treatment of intracranial mirror aneurysms via bilateral frontolateral approaches.  Methods Review clinical data of 18 cases with anterior circulation mirror aneurysms who underwent one-stage clipping via bilateral frontolateral approaches from July 2010 to July 2015 admitted to Department of Neurosurgery in Tianjin Huanhu Hospital. The operative efficacy was evaluated according to postoperative Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS.  Results The 36 aneurysms in 18 patients were successfully clipped via bilateral frontolateral approaches at one-stage, including 18 posterior communicating artery (PCoA mirror aneurysms in 9 cases and 18 middle cerebral artery (MCA mirror aneurysms in 9 cases. GOS score of 5 was discovered in 16 cases, and 4 was discovered in 2 cases after operation. One case underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS due to communicating hydrocephalus, one case got postoperative pulmonary infection and no death occurred. Intracranial CTA at 6 months postoperatively showed aneurysms of 18 patients were clipped completely, the parent artery blood flow was smooth, and no recurrence was found.  Conclusions Microsurgical one-stage clipping via bilateral frontolateral approaches for treating intracranial mirror aneurysms is a sugrical method with small incision, fitting surgical field, high safety, satisfactory effect and good prognosis, which is a new minimally invasive neurosurgical technique. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.08.012

  4. Supraglottic stenosis in localized Wegener granulomatosis.

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    Belloso, Antonio; Estrach, Cristina; Keith, Andrew O

    2008-07-01

    We present what we believe is the first reported case of a patient with supraglottic stenosis secondary to Wegener granulomatosis. The diagnosis was unclear initially because the biopsy results were nonspecific, but a finding of an elevated cytoplasmic-pattern antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (c-ANCA) level established the diagnosis of localized supraglottic Wegener granulomatosis. Wegener granulomatosis is characterized by necrotizing vasculitis that is localized predominantly to the kidneys and the upper and lower airways. In the airways, subglottic involvement is well documented, but to the best of our knowledge, supraglottic stenosis has not previously been described. Localized forms of Wegener granulomatosis are characterized by limited disease that involves only the upper airway. The diagnosis in localized forms is complex because histology is diagnostic in only 50% of cases, and only 60% of patients have a positive c-ANCA level. We discuss the diagnostic criteria and management strategies for these localized forms.

  5. Validity of the frontolateral approach as a minimally invasive corridor for olfactory groove meningiomas.

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    El-Bahy, Khaled

    2009-10-01

    Several approaches are described for olfactory groove meningiomas (OGMs) varying from a very wide bifrontal craniotomy to minimally invasive endoscopic techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the results of the frontolateral approach for olfactory groove meningioma. Pitfalls related to this corridor will be described. The impact of tumor size and encasement of the anterior cerebral artery complex on the degree of tumor removal will be described on the basis of experience with 18 cases. Eighteen patients with OGM underwent microsurgical removal using the frontolateral approach. A retrospective study was conducted by analyzing clinical data, neuroimaging studies, operative findings, clinical outcome, and degree of tumor removal. The patients were classified into group A with tumor size less than 4 cm in diameter (7 out of 18 cases, 38.9%) and group B with tumor size more than 4 cm in diameter (11 out of 18 cases, 61.1%). CSF rhinorrhea was observed in three patients (16.7%). Postoperative left frontal intracerebral hematoma occurred in one patient (5.6%) belonging to group A. In another patient (5.6%) belonging to group B, marked right frontal lobe swelling was evident after dural opening, which necessitated partial right frontal pole resection. Total tumor removal (Simpson grade 1 and 2) was achieved in 14 out of 18 patients (77.8%), while subtotal removal (Simpson grade 3 and 4) was achieved in 4 patients (22.2%). In the 14 patients in whom total removal was achieved, 7 belonged to group A (all 7 patients of group A with 100% removal), while the remaining 7 patients belonged to group B (7 out of 11 patients, 63.6% removal; one of them had anterior cerebral artery complex encasement). The four patients in whom subtotal removal was achieved belonged to group B; three of them showed anterior cerebral artery complex encasement, and one elderly patient had non-extensive paranasal sinus involvement. One patient (5.6%) in group B died from cerebral infarction

  6. Supraglottic paraganglioma originated from superior laryngeal nerve

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    Ali Akbar Beigi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic tumors, especially paraganglioma of larynx, are rare. In this article, we present a 64-year-old woman who complained of intermittent dysphagia to solid foods. Further evaluation revealed a supraglottic paraganglioma and she was treated successfully by total excision of tumor.

  7. Successful anesthetic management of a large supraglottic cyst

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    Harshal D Wagh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excision of a huge-sized supraglottic mass nearly obstructing the airway passage is a real challenge to anesthesiologists. Upper airway obstruction due to neoplasm in supraglottic region is traditionally managed by preoperative tracheostomy. However, such a common procedure can potentially have an impact on long-term outcome.

  8. Fatores prognósticos e impacto da comorbidade na laringectomia fronto-lateral

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    Rogério Aparecido Dedivitis

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar sobrevida, impacto da comorbidade, complicações e fatores de falha da laringectomia como tratamento de tumores malignos glóticos. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas 38 pacientes com tumor glótico sob estadiamento clínico T1b/T2N0M0 submetidos à laringectomia fronto-lateral com reconstrução, de janeiro de 1995 a dezembro de 2006. Foram avaliados os resultados oncológicos, comorbidades (através da escala Adult Comorbidity Evaluation - 27 ACE-27 e complicações, sendo correlacionados com dados demográficos e características do tumor. RESULTADOS: Oito pacientes apresentaram recidiva local e foram resgatados cirurgicamente. Complicações não foram verificadas em 33 pacientes. Não houve diferença significativa das sobrevidas global em cinco anos e livre de doença ao considerarem-se as diferentes categorias de comorbidades. Somente o envolvimento patológico das margens mostrou diferenças significativas na sobrevida global (p=0,0033 e sobrevida livre de doença (p<0,0001. CONCLUSÃO: A sobrevida global em cinco anos foi de 67,6% e a sobrevida livre de doença de 73,7%; a comorbidade não representou fator prognóstico independente; o índice de complicações pós-operatórias foi de 13,2% e somente o envolvimento patológico das margens mostrou diferenças significativas na sobrevida global e livre de doença.

  9. Airway management of a rare huge-size supraglottic mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Zeid, Haitham A.; Al-Ghamdi, Abdel Mohsin A.; Al-Qurain, Abdel-Aziz A.; Mokhazy, Khalid M.

    2006-01-01

    Laser excision of a huge-sized supraglottic mass nearly obstructing the airway passage is a real challenge to anesthesiologists. Upper airway obstruction due to neoplasm in supraglottic region, is traditionally managed by preoperative tracheostomy, however, such a common procedure can potentially have an impact on long-term outcome. A 26-year-old patient presented with dysphagia caused by left cystic vallecular synovial sarcoma. The airway was successfully secured via fiberoptic bronchoscopy, followed by excision of the supraglottic tumor with CO2 laser surgery. Tracheostomy was not required. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the 4th day of surgery. This case, highlights the possibility to secure the airway passage without performing preoperative tracheostomy resulting in good outcome and short hospital stay. (author)

  10. Endoscopic management of posttraumatic supraglottic stenosis in the pediatric population.

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    Oosthuizen, Johannes Christiaan

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: Pediatric blunt laryngeal trauma is a rare and potentially life-threatening entity. External injuries can be misleading, and a high index of suspicion, as well as early intervention, is essential to achieve the best possible outcome. The authors of this report review the management of blunt laryngeal trauma in the pediatric population and describe the endoscopic management of posttraumatic supraglottic stenosis. METHODS: Methods used were case report from a tertiary referral institution and review of the literature. RESULTS: We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl whom developed supraglottic stenosis following blunt laryngeal trauma. Innovative endoscopic techniques were used in the successful management of this exceedingly rare entity. CONCLUSION: Early recognition and intervention are of paramount importance if successful endoscopic management of blunt laryngeal trauma is to be considered.

  11. State of the art: Rescue intubation through supraglottic airways

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    R. Hofmeyr*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of supraglottic airways as rescue devices in failed intubation and resuscitation has become well accepted in emergency practice. Many offer or advertise the possibility of intubation through the device, but techniques and success rates vary greatly. Intubation can be achieved blindly, with the use a bougie or introducer, or with fiberoptic guidance. In this review, I examine the evidence behind different devices with various techniques, present the data from our on-going research, suggest further research directions and propose practical guidelines for clinical use in emergencies.

  12. Transoral videolaryngoscopic surgery (TOVS) for hypopharyngeal and supraglottic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomifuji, Masayuki; Araki, Koji; Yamashita, Taku; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2011-01-01

    We proposed transoral videolaryngoscopic surgery (TOVS) as a laryngeal preservation strategy for laryngopharyngeal cancer. By using a distending laryngoscope and rigid laryngeal endoscope, a large field of view and working space could be obtained which enabled us to resect tumors in en-bloc fashion. The indications for this surgery are oro-hypopharyngeal and supraglottic cancer in superficial, T1, T2 and selected T3 categories. TOVS can also be used for selected cases with recurrent tumor after radiation therapy. For resectable nodal metastasis, neck dissection can be performed simultaneously or 1-2 weeks later. In cases with more than a 1-year observation period (n=42), 5-year crude survival, disease-specific survival, and laryngeal preservation rate were 74%, 85% and 89%, respectively. A second advantage of TOVS is thorough evaluation of primary cancer lesion. Evaluation of tumor invasion depth is a promising way for optimizing the indication for neck dissection for clinically node negative cases. (author)

  13. Histological investigation of the supra-glottal structures in humans for understanding abnormal phonation

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    Kimura, Miwako; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Chan, Roger; Niimi, Seijii; Tayama, Niro

    2002-11-01

    Phonation is the vocal fold vibration on normal voice. But sometimes we can observe the other phonation styles like as the pressed voice or some throat singings like as ''kargyraa'' or ''drone'' in Khoomei in Mongolian music. Also, clinically, we know that some patients who have the wide glottal slit in phonation because of the recurrence nerve palsy or after partial laryngectomy, could make the ''supra-glottal phonation.'' The ''supra-glottal phonation'' would be made from the vibration of ''supra-glottal structures'' such as the false vocal folds, the arytenoids and the epiglottis, etc. Endoscopic examination suggests the existence of some contractile functions in supra-glottal space. However, these phonation systems have not been clear to explain their neuromuscular mechanism in histology. This study aimed to find the basis for making the supra-glottal phonation from the points of view of the histological structures. We tried to investigate if there were any muscles that could contract the supra-glottal structures. The samples are the excised larynx of human beings. They were fixed by formalin after excision. We observed their macroscopic anatomy, and also with the microscopic observation their histological preparations after the process of the embedding in paraffin, slicing for the preparation and HE (hematoxylin-eosin) staining.

  14. The role of postradiotherapy neck dissection in supraglottic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Annie W.; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Carballo, Natalia; Montgomery, William; Wang, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate our policy of performing neck dissection based on regional response after definitive radiotherapy in patients with supraglottic carcinoma and to identify the prognostic factors in this group of patients. Methods and Materials: Between 1970 and 1995, 121 patients with node-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx were treated with definitive radiotherapy. Sixty-nine percent of patients presented with 1997 AJCC Stage IV disease. The N-stage distribution was N1, 49; N2, 62; and N3, 10. The median size of the lymph nodes was 3 cm (range, 0.5-8 cm). Forty-five patients received once-a-day treatment with a median total dose of 65 Gy (range, 58.0-70.8 Gy) in 1.8-2.0 Gy per fraction over 48 days, and 76 patients received split-course accelerated hyperfractionation with a median total dose of 67.2 Gy (range, 63.2-73.6 Gy) in 1.6 Gy twice a day over 43 days. Patients whose lymph nodes were not clinically detectable at 4-6 weeks after the completion of radiotherapy (complete response) were followed without any neck dissection. Patients with persistent neck adenopathy (partial response) underwent neck dissection whenever possible. Mean follow-up of the living patients was 6.5 years. Results: Regional response was related to the size of lymph nodes at presentation. Eighty-seven percent of patients with nodal size of 3 cm or less had a complete response, whereas 43% of patients with nodal size greater than 3 cm had a partial response. The rate of regional control at 3 years for all patients in the study was 66%. The 3-year ultimate regional control rate after salvage neck dissection was 75%. A relapse in both the primary and regional sites was the most common pattern of relapse, accounting for 39% of all the failures. Local failure was associated with subsequent regional relapse with a relative risk of 4.3. For patients with completeresponse in whom postradiotherapy neck dissection was withheld, the regional control rates were 75% and 86

  15. A retropharyngeal-mediastinal hematoma with supraglottic and tracheal obstruction: The role of multidisciplinary airway management

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    Birkholz Torsten

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 77-year-old man suffered hypoxemic cardiac arrest by supraglottic and tracheal airway obstruction in the emergency department. A previously unknown cervical fracture had caused a traumatic retropharyngeal-mediastinal hematoma. A lifesaving surgical emergency tracheostomy succeeded. Supraglottic and tracheal obstruction by a retropharyngeal-mediastinal hematoma with successful resuscitation via emergency tracheostomy after hypoxemic cardiac arrest has never been reported in a context of trauma. This clinically demanding case outlines the need for multidisciplinary airway management systems with continuous training and well-implemented guidelines. Only multidisciplinary staff preparedness and readily available equipments for the unanticipated difficult airway solved the catastrophic clinical situation.

  16. Improvement of electrolaryngeal speech quality using a supraglottal voice source with compensation of vocal tract characteristics.

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    Wu, Liang; Wan, Congying; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2013-07-01

    Electrolarynx (EL) is a medical speech-recovery device designed for patients who have lost their original voice box due to laryngeal cancer. As a substitute for human larynx, the current commercial EL voice source cannot reconstruct natural EL speech under laryngectomy conditions. To eliminate the abnormal acoustic properties of EL speech, a supraglottal voice source with compensation of vocal tract characteristics was proposed and provided through an experimental EL(SGVS-EL) system. The acoustic analyses of simulated EL speech and reconstructed EL speech produced with different voice sources were performed in the normal subject and laryngectomee. The results indicated that the supraglottal voice source was successful in improving the acoustic properties of EL speech by enhancing low- frequency energy, correcting the shifted formants to normal range, and eliminating the visible spectral zeros. Both normal subject and laryngectomee also produced more natural vowels using SGVS-EL than commercial EL, even if the vocal tract parameter was substituted and the supraglottal voice source was biased to a certain degree. Therefore, supraglottal voice source is a feasible and effective approach to improving the acoustic quality of EL speech.

  17. Association of p53 protein expression with clinical outcome in advanced supraglottic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jin Oh; Hong, Seong Eon

    1998-01-01

    To determine the incidence and prognostic effect of p53 expression in patients with advanced supraglottic cancer. Twenty-one cases of total 48 advanced supraglottic cancer patients who received postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining employing p53 monoclonal antibody. Three out of six stage III patients and four out of fifteen stage IV patients showed p53 expression without statistically significant difference (p=0.608). Five year survival rates are 93% in p53 negative, 86% in p53 positive patients and there was no significant difference(p=0.776). p53 expression does not show statistically significant correlation with primary tumor status(p=0.877), lymph node status(p=0.874) and age(p=0.64). There was no statistically significant correlation between traditionally known risk factors and p53 expression

  18. Supraglottic Schwannoma Presenting as Upper Airway Obstruction in an Elderly Man

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    Mou-Lin Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic tumors of the larynx are extremely uncommon. We herein present the case of a 70-year-old man with supraglottic schwannoma who experienced respiratory distress and deterioration of voice. Computed tomography showed a focal enhancing mass located in the supraglottic larynx causing airway compression. The patient underwent tracheostomy under local anesthesia before receiving CO2 laser-assisted microlaryngeal surgery. A sessile, well-encapsulated, submucosal solid tumor (diameter approximately 2 cm in the interarytenoid region was removed with maximal mucosal preservation. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and at follow up 3 months after the surgery, the patient was completely symptom free. Clinicians should have a heightened awareness of patients with voice change associated with dyspnea, which may suggest upper airway obstruction.

  19. i-gel™ supraglottic airway in clinical practice: a prospective observational multicentre study

    OpenAIRE

    Theiler, L.; Gutzmann, M.; Kleine-Brueggeney, M.; Urwyler, N.; Kaempfen, B.; Greif, R.

    2017-01-01

    Background The i-gel™ supraglottic airway device has been studied in randomized controlled studies, but it has not been evaluated in a large prospective patient cohort. Therefore, we performed this prospective multicentre observational study to evaluate success rates, airway leak pressure, risk factors for i-gel failure, and adverse events. Methods With Ethics Committee approval and waiver of patients' consent, data about anaesthesia providers, patient characteristics, and the performance of ...

  20. Modified frontolateral partial laryngectomy operation: combined muscle-pedicle hyoid bone and thyrohyoid membrane flap in laryngeal reconstruction

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    Ouyang, Dian; Liu, Tian-Run; Chen, Yan-Feng; Wang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Objective Laryngeal reconstruction is needed to preserve laryngeal function in patients who have undergone extensive vertical or frontal partial laryngectomy. However, the procedure remains a difficult challenge. Several reconstruction techniques have been described, but these techniques pose risks of complications such as laryngeal stenosis. This study aimed to evaluate the postoperative course and functional outcomes of a new technique that combined a muscle-pedicle hyoid bone and a thyrohy...

  1. Modified frontolateral partial laryngectomy operation: combined muscle-pedicle hyoid bone and thyrohyoid membrane flap in laryngeal reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Dian; Liu, Tian-Run; Chen, Yan-Feng; Wang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Laryngeal reconstruction is needed to preserve laryngeal function in patients who have undergone extensive vertical or frontal partial laryngectomy. However, the procedure remains a difficult challenge. Several reconstruction techniques have been described, but these techniques pose risks of complications such as laryngeal stenosis. This study aimed to evaluate the postoperative course and functional outcomes of a new technique that combined a muscle-pedicle hyoid bone and a thyrohyoid flap during laryngeal reconstruction after tumor resection. Four patients underwent extensive vertical partial or frontal partial laryngectomy for cancer. After tumor resection, laryngeal reconstruction was performed using the proposed technique. Postoperative recovery time, complications, and oncologic results were evaluated. The four patients were successfully treated with the proposed technique. No dyspnea, dysphagia, or death occurred during the postoperative course. Decannulation was performed after a median of 3 days. The average postoperative hospital stay was 7 days. Short-term postoperative functional recovery was normal. No laryngeal stenosis or tumor recurrence was observed in any of the four patients after a follow-up period of more than 24 months. The combination of the muscle-pedicle hyoid bone and the thyrohyoid flap is a reliable procedure for laryngeal reconstruction after extensive vertical partial or frontal partial laryngectomy

  2. Comparison of Supraglottic Activity and Spectral Slope Between Theater Actors and Vocally Untrained Subjects.

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    Guzman, Marco; Ortega, Andres; Olavarria, Christian; Muñoz, Daniel; Cortés, Pedro; Azocar, Maria Josefina; Cayuleo, David; Quintana, Felipe; Silva, Catalina

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess supraglottic activity in theater actors and to observe whether they present differences compared with subjects with no voice training. Acoustic and perceptual analyses were also performed. A total of 20 participants were divided into two groups: an experimental group of trained theater actors, and a comparative group of subjects with no voice training. Absence of laryngeal pathology was confirmed by rigid videostroboscopy. Flexible laryngoscopy was performed to assess supraglottic activity during speaking phonatory tasks. Voice recording was also carried out. Four blinded judges were asked to assess laryngoscopic and perceptual variables using a visual analog scale. A comparison between groups, phonatory tasks, and loudness levels was performed. Multivariate linear regression showed that trained participants had a higher degree of both laryngeal and pharyngeal activities compared with untrained participants. Moreover, phonatory tasks at high intensity showed higher activity than those at medium and low intensities for most phonatory tasks and laryngoscopic parameters. Vocally trained participants evidenced higher values for all spectral variables compared with untrained participants. Actors have a greater degree of both laryngeal and pharyngeal activities than vocally untrained subjects. Apparently, this higher activity is associated to speaking voice training and not to a hyperfunctional vocal behavior. Anterior-posterior laryngeal compression is greater than medial compression. Intensity and phonatory tasks have an effect on all laryngoscopic variables. Supraglottic activity during professional speaking voice may be not necessarily a hyperfunctional behavior, but a strategy to avoid vocal fold damage while producing the desired voice quality. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Horizontal supraglottic laryngectomy. Technique, indications, oncologic results and early functional results. Apropos of 87 cases].

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    Maurice, N; Delol, J; Makeieff, M; Arnoux, A; Crampette, L; Guerrier, B

    1996-01-01

    In this article, we advocate supraglottic laryngectomy with bilateral neck dissection for the treatment of supraglottic carcinomas with preserved laryngeal mobility. Post-operative results and follow-up of 87 patients are discussed. This technique allows an excellent loco-regional control of the disease with preservation of laryngeal function. Radiation therapy is preserved for treatment of metachronous (2nd primary) in cases with satisfactory local control without neck metastases. All stage 5-year overall survival rate was 55% with a 68.5% disease survival rate. Five-year local control of the disease and regional control of neck nodes were respectively 94% and 92%. Five-year disease survival rate for N- population was 71% Vs 61% for N+ population. Five-year disease survival rate according to the tumor classification was 70% for T1, 75% for T2, 69% for T3 and 54% for T4. In the post-operative follow-up, the median of time to decanulation was 17 days, that of nasogastric tube removal was 19 days, that of hospital stay 38 days.

  4. The role of primary radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx

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    Kim, Won Taek; Kim, Dong Won; Kwon, Byung Hyun; Nam, Ji Ho [College of Medicine, Pusan National Univ, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Won Joo [College of Medicine, Donga Univ, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    First of all, this study was performed to assess the result of curative radiotherapy and to evaluate different possible prognostic factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx treated at the Pusan National University Hospital. The second goal of this study was by comparing our data with those of other study groups, to determine the better treatment policy of supraglottic cancer in future. Thirty-two patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx were treated with radiotherapy at Pusan National University Hospital, from August 1985 to December 1996. Minimum follow-up period was 29 months. Twenty-seven patients (84.4%.) were followed up over 5 years. Radiotherapy was delivered with 6 MV photons to the primary laryngeal tumor and regional lymphatics with shrinking field technique. All patients received radiotherapy under conventional fractionated schedule (once a. day). Median total tumor dose was 70.2 Gy (range, 55.8 to 75.6 Gy) on primary or gross tumor lesion. Thirteen patients had induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (1-3 cycles). Patient distribution, according to the different stages, were as follows: stage I, 5/32 (15.6%); stage II, 10/32 (31.3%); stage III, 8/32 (25%); stage IV, 9/32 (28. 1 %). The 5-year overall survival rate of the whole series (32 patients) was 51.7%. The overall survival rate at 5-years was 80% in stage I, 66.7% in stage II, 42.9% in stage III, 25% in stage IV.(p= 0,0958). The 5-year local control rates after radiotherapy were as follows: stage I, 100%; stage II, 60%; stage III, 62.5%; stage lV, 44.4% (p=0.233). Overall vocal preservation rates was 65.6%,100% in stage I, 70% in stage II, 62.5% in stage III, 44.4% in stage IV (p=0.210). There was no statistical significance in survival and local control rate between neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy group and radiotherapy alone group. Severe laryngeal edema was found in 2 cases after radiotherapy. emergent tracheostomy

  5. The role of primary radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Taek; Kim, Dong Won; Kwon, Byung Hyun; Nam, Ji Ho; Hur, Won Joo

    2000-01-01

    First of all, this study was performed to assess the result of curative radiotherapy and to evaluate different possible prognostic factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx treated at the Pusan National University Hospital. The second goal of this study was by comparing our data with those of other study groups, to determine the better treatment policy of supraglottic cancer in future. Thirty-two patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx were treated with radiotherapy at Pusan National University Hospital, from August 1985 to December 1996. Minimum follow-up period was 29 months. Twenty-seven patients (84.4%.) were followed up over 5 years. Radiotherapy was delivered with 6 MV photons to the primary laryngeal tumor and regional lymphatics with shrinking field technique. All patients received radiotherapy under conventional fractionated schedule (once a. day). Median total tumor dose was 70.2 Gy (range, 55.8 to 75.6 Gy) on primary or gross tumor lesion. Thirteen patients had induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (1-3 cycles). Patient distribution, according to the different stages, were as follows: stage I, 5/32 (15.6%); stage II, 10/32 (31.3%); stage III, 8/32 (25%); stage IV, 9/32 (28. 1 %). The 5-year overall survival rate of the whole series (32 patients) was 51.7%. The overall survival rate at 5-years was 80% in stage I, 66.7% in stage II, 42.9% in stage III, 25% in stage IV.(p= 0,0958). The 5-year local control rates after radiotherapy were as follows: stage I, 100%; stage II, 60%; stage III, 62.5%; stage lV, 44.4% (p=0.233). Overall vocal preservation rates was 65.6%,100% in stage I, 70% in stage II, 62.5% in stage III, 44.4% in stage IV (p=0.210). There was no statistical significance in survival and local control rate between neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy group and radiotherapy alone group. Severe laryngeal edema was found in 2 cases after radiotherapy. emergent tracheostomy

  6. Comparative Assessment of Three Approaches of Teaching Nonmedically Trained Persons in the Handling of Supraglottic Airways: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Mario; Schmidbauer, Willi; Benker, Michael; Schmieder, Paula; Kerner, Thoralf

    2017-03-01

    The use of supraglottic airways has been recommended in combat trauma airway management. To ensure an adequate airway management on the battlefield, suitable training concepts are sought to efficiently teach as many soldiers as possible. Our aim was to compare three approaches of teaching laypersons in the handling of supraglottic airways in a mannequin model. In this prospective randomized blinded study, 285 military service men without any medical background were divided into three groups and trained in the use of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme (LMA) and the Laryngeal Tube Disposable (LT-D). The first group received a theoretical lecture, the second group was shown an instruction video, and the third group underwent a practical training. Immediately after instruction participants were asked to place the supraglottic airway and ventilate the mannequin within 60 seconds. The entire test was repeated 3 months later. Test results were evaluated with regard to success rate, insertion time, ability to judge the correct placement, and degree of difficulty. Practical training showed the highest success rate when placing supraglottic airways immediately after the instruction (lecture: 68%, video: 74%, training: 94%); (training vs. lecture and training vs. video, p training: 78%); (training vs. lecture, p = 0.019 and training vs. video, p = 0.025). Immediately after the instruction practical training was also superior in terms of insertion time, ability to judge the correct placement, and the self-rated degree of difficulty (p place a supraglottic airway immediately following minimal instruction and after 3 months as well. Study participants achieved the best results after practical training followed by video presentation and finally lecture regardless of the airway device used. There are two possible reasons why practical training is the superior method. Firstly, the success is tied to more time spent with the learners. Secondly, practical training seems to be the best

  7. GTV delineation in supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma: interobserver agreement of CT versus CT-MR delineation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Elise Anne; Kasperts, Nicolien; Caldas-Magalhaes, Joana; Philippens, Mariëlle E P; Pameijer, Frank A; Terhaard, Chris H J; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P J

    2015-01-23

    GTV delineation is the first crucial step in radiotherapy and requires high accuracy, especially with the growing use of highly conformal and adaptive radiotherapy techniques. If GTV delineations of observers concord, they are considered to be of high accuracy. The aim of the study is to determine the interobserver agreement for GTV delineations of supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma on CT and on CT combined with MR-images and to determine the effect of adding MR images to CT-based delineation on the delineated volume and the interobserver agreement. Twenty patients with biopsy proven T1-T4 supraglottic laryngeal cancer, treated with curative intent were included. For all patients a contrast enhanced planning CT and a 1.5-T MRI with gadolinium were acquired in the same head-and-shoulder mask for fixation as used during treatment. For MRI, a two element surface coil was used as a receiver coil. Three dedicated observers independently delineated the GTV on CT. After an interval of 2 weeks, a set of co-registered CT and MR-images was provided to delineate the GTV on CT. Common volumes (C) and encompassing volumes (E) were calculated and C/E ratios were determined for each pair of observers. The conformity index general (CIgen) was used to quantify the interobserver agreement. In general, a large variation in interobserver agreement was found for CT (range: 0.29-0.77) as well as for CT-MR delineations (range: 0.17-0.80). The mean CIgen for CT (0.61) was larger compared to CT-MR (0.57) (p = 0.032). Mean GTV volume delineated on CT-MR (6.6 cm(3)) was larger compared to CT (5.6 cm(3)) (p = 0.002). Delineation on CT with co-registered MR-images resulted in a larger mean GTV volume and in a decrease in interobserver agreement compared to CT only delineation for supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma.

  8. Radiotherapy in supraglottic carcinoma -with respect to locoregional control and survival-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Taek Keun; Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Chung, Woong Ki; Cho, Jae Shik; Ahn, Sung Ja; Nah, Byung Sik

    2002-01-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken to determine the role of conventional radiotherapy with or without surgery for treating a supraglottic carcinoma in terms of the local control and survival. From Jan. 1986 to Oct. 1996, a total of 134 patients were treated for a supraglottic carcinoma by radiotherapy with or without surgery. Of them, 117 patients who had completed the radiotherapy formed the base of this study. The patients were redistributed according to the revised AJCC staging system (1997). The number of patients of stage I, II, III, IVA, IVB were 6 (5%), 16 (14%), 53 (45%), 32 (27%), 10 (9%), respectively. Eighty patients were treated by radical radiotherapy in the range of 61.2 ∼ 79.2 Gy (mean:69.2 Gy) to the primary tumor and 45.0 ∼ 93.6 Gy (mean:54.0 Gy) to regional lymphatics. All patients with stage I and IVB were treated by radiotherapy alone. Thirty-seven patients underwent surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy in the range of 45.0 ∼ 68.4 Gy (mean:56.1 Gy) to the primary tumor bed and 45.0 ∼ 59.4 Gy (mean:47.2 Gy) to the regional lymphatics. Of them, 33 patients received a total laryngectomy (± lymph node dissection), three had a supraglottic horizontal laryngectomy (± lymph node dissection), and one had a primary excision alone. The 5-year survival rate (5YSR) of all patients was 43%. The 5YSR of the patients with stage I + II, III + IV were 49.9%, 41.2%, respectively (ρ = 0.27). However, the disease-specific survival rate of the patients with stage I (n=6) was 100%. The 5YSRs of patients who underwent surgery plus radiotherapy (S + RT) vs radiotherapy alone (RT) in stage II, III, IVA were 100% vs 43% (ρ = 0.17), 62% vs 52% (ρ =0.32), 58% vs 6% (ρ < 0.001), respectively. The 5-year actuarial locoregional control rate (5YLCR) of all the patients was 57%. The 5YLCR of the patients with stage I, II, III, IVA, IVB was 100%, 74%, 60%, 44%, 30%, respectively (ρ = 0.008). The 5YLCR of the patients with S + RT vs RT in stage II, III, IVA

  9. Small is the new big: An overview of newer supraglottic airways for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhee Goyal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all supraglottic airways (SGAs are now available in pediatric sizes. The availability of these smaller sizes, especially in the last five years has brought a marked change in the whole approach to airway management in children. SGAs are now used for laparoscopic surgeries, head and neck surgeries, remote anesthesia; and for ventilation during resuscitation. A large number of reports have described the use of SGAs in difficult airway situations, either as a primary or a rescue airway. Despite this expanded usage, there remains little evidence to support its usage in prolonged surgeries and in the intensive care unit. This article presents an overview of the current options available, suitability of one over the other and reviews the published data relating to each device. In this review, the author also addresses some of the general concerns regarding the use of SGAs and explores newer roles of their use in children.

  10. Salvage surgery following radiation failure in squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, James T.; Mendenhall, William M.; Stringer, Scott P.; Cassisi, Nicholas J.; Million, Rodney R.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: We analyzed the clinical course of patients who developed local (primary) recurrence following high-dose irradiation of squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx. Methods and Materials: Between October 1964 and July 1991, 206 patients with previously untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx underwent radiotherapy with curative intent. Local failure occurred in 46 (22%) patients. Successful surgical salvage was defined as no evidence of recurrent cancer for at least 2 years after salvage surgery and continuously thereafter. Results: Sixteen patients did not undergo salvage surgery because of refusal (7 patients), severe medical illness (2 patients), concurrent distant metastasis (5 patients), or unresectable neck disease (2 patients). Twenty-six patients underwent total laryngectomy, and 4 patients had a voice-sparing procedure. Successful salvage was achieved in 50% of patients who underwent surgery. The rate of successful salvage did not correlate with preirradiation T-stage or time to failure after irradiation. Most of the failures after surgery were because of failure to control the primary cancer. The overall rate of postsurgical complications was 37%. No operative or perioperative deaths occurred. The 5-year survival rate for all 46 patients, calculated from the date of irradiation failure, was 20%, while the 5-year survival rate after salvage surgery for the 30 patients who underwent the procedure was 29%. Conclusion: There are few data in the literature regarding the clinical outcome in patients whose tumors are not controlled by initial radiotherapy. In the current and previous series, one-half to two-thirds of patients who developed primary failure underwent salvage surgery, which was successful in approximately half of the operated patients, leading to a 25-30% rate of long-term disease-free survival among the entire group of patients who developed failure

  11. Comparison of three supraglottic devices in anesthetised paralyzed children undergoing elective surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikramjit Das

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The newest variation of the i-gel supraglottic airway is a pediatric version. Aims: This study was designed to investigate the usefulness of the size 2 i-gel compared with the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA and classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA of the same size in anesthetized, paralyzed children. Settings and design: A prospective, randomized, single-blinded study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods: Ninety ASA grade I-II patients undergoing lower abdominal, inguinal and orthopedic surgery were included in this prospective study. The patients were randomly assigned to the i-gel, PLMA and cLMA groups (30 patients in each group. Size 2 supraglottic airway was inserted according to the assigned group. We assessed ease of insertion, hemodynamic data, oropharyngeal sealing pressure and postoperative complications. Results: There were no differences in the demographic and hemodynamic data among the three groups. The airway leak pressure of the i-gel group (27.1±2.6 cmH 2 O was significantly higher than that of the PLMA group (22.73±1.2 cmH 2 O and the cLMA group (23.63±2.3 cmH 2 O. The success rates for first attempt of insertion were similar among the three devices. There were no differences in the incidence of postoperative airway trauma, sore throat or hoarse cry in the three groups. Conclusions: Hemodynamic parameters, ease of insertion and postoperative complications were comparable among the i-gel, PLMA and cLMA groups, but airway sealing pressure was significantly higher in the i-gel group.

  12. Videolaryngoscopy versus Fiber-optic Intubation through a Supraglottic Airway in Children with a Difficult Airway: An Analysis from the Multicenter Pediatric Difficult Intubation Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burjek, Nicholas E; Nishisaki, Akira; Fiadjoe, John E; Adams, H Daniel; Peeples, Kenneth N; Raman, Vidya T; Olomu, Patrick N; Kovatsis, Pete G; Jagannathan, Narasimhan; Hunyady, Agnes; Bosenberg, Adrian; Tham, See; Low, Daniel; Hopkins, Paul; Glover, Chris; Olutoye, Olutoyin; Szmuk, Peter; McCloskey, John; Dalesio, Nicholas; Koka, Rahul; Greenberg, Robert; Watkins, Scott; Patel, Vikram; Reynolds, Paul; Matuszczak, Maria; Jain, Ranu; Khalil, Samia; Polaner, David; Zieg, Jennifer; Szolnoki, Judit; Sathyamoorthy, Kumar; Taicher, Brad; Riveros Perez, N Ricardo; Bhattacharya, Solmaletha; Bhalla, Tarun; Stricker, Paul; Lockman, Justin; Galvez, Jorge; Rehman, Mohamed; Von Ungern-Sternberg, Britta; Sommerfield, David; Soneru, Codruta; Chiao, Franklin; Richtsfeld, Martina; Belani, Kumar; Sarmiento, Lina; Mireles, Sam; Bilen Rosas, Guelay; Park, Raymond; Peyton, James

    2017-09-01

    The success rates and related complications of various techniques for intubation in children with difficult airways remain unknown. The primary aim of this study is to compare the success rates of fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway to videolaryngoscopy in children with difficult airways. Our secondary aim is to compare the complication rates of these techniques. Observational data were collected from 14 sites after management of difficult pediatric airways. Patient age, intubation technique, success per attempt, use of continuous ventilation, and complications were recorded for each case. First-attempt success and complications were compared in subjects managed with fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway and videolaryngoscopy. Fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway and videolaryngoscopy had similar first-attempt success rates (67 of 114, 59% vs. 404 of 786, 51%; odds ratio 1.35; 95% CI, 0.91 to 2.00; P = 0.16). In subjects less than 1 yr old, fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway was more successful on the first attempt than videolaryngoscopy (19 of 35, 54% vs. 79 of 220, 36%; odds ratio, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.04 to 4.31; P = 0.042). Complication rates were similar in the two groups (20 vs. 13%; P = 0.096). The incidence of hypoxemia was lower when continuous ventilation through the supraglottic airway was used throughout the fiber-optic intubation attempt. In this nonrandomized study, first-attempt success rates were similar for fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway and videolaryngoscopy. Fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway is associated with higher first-attempt success than videolaryngoscopy in infants with difficult airways. Continuous ventilation through the supraglottic airway during fiber-optic intubation attempts may lower the incidence of hypoxemia.

  13. Percutaneous transtracheal jet ventilation as a guide to tracheal intubation in severe upper airway obstruction from supraglottic oedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandradeva, K; Palin, C; Ghosh, S M; Pinches, S C

    2005-05-01

    We report two cases of severe upper airway obstruction caused by supraglottic oedema secondary to adult epiglottitis and Ludwig's angina. In the former case, attempts to intubate with a direct laryngoscope failed but were successful once percutaneous transtracheal jet ventilation (PTJV) had been instituted. In the case with Ludwig's angina, PTJV was employed as a pre-emptive measure and the subsequent tracheal intubation with a direct laryngoscope was performed with unexpected ease. In both cases recognition of the glottic aperture was made feasible with PTJV by virtue of the fact that the high intra-tracheal pressure from PTJV appeared to lift up and open the glottis. The escape of gas under high pressure caused the oedematous edges of the glottis to flutter, which facilitated the identification of the glottic aperture. We believe that the PTJV should be considered in the emergency management of severe upper airway obstruction when this involves supraglottic oedema.

  14. Molecular profiles as predictive marker for the effect of overall treatment time of radiotherapy in supraglottic larynx squamous cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Buffa, Francesca M; Alsner, Jan

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Reduction of the overall treatment time of radiotherapy increases the probability of local tumour control, but it does not benefit all patients. Identification of molecular marker profiles may aid in the selection of patients likely to benefit from accelerated radiotherapy...... as the endpoint. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular marker profiling may aid in the selection of patients that will benefit of a reduction in overall treatment time of radiotherapy in SCC of the supraglottic larynx....

  15. Demonstration of transoral robotic supraglottic laryngectomy and total laryngectomy in cadaveric specimens using the Medrobotics Flex System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Emily; Goldenberg, David; Goyal, Neerav

    2017-06-01

    Current management of laryngeal malignancies is associated with significant morbidity. Application of minimally invasive transoral techniques may reduce the morbidity associated with traditional procedures. The purpose of this study was to present our investigation of the utility of a novel flexible robotic system for transoral supraglottic laryngectomy and total laryngectomy. Transoral total laryngectomy and transoral supraglottic laryngectomy were performed in cadaveric specimens using the Flex Robotic System (Medrobotics, Raynham, MA). All procedures were completed successfully in the cadaveric models. The articulated endoscope allowed for access to the desired surgical site. Flexible instruments enabled an atraumatic approach and allowed for precise surgical technique. Access to deep anatomic structures remains problematic using current minimally invasive robotic approaches. Improvements in visualization and access to the laryngopharyngeal complex offered by this system may improve surgical applications to the larynx. This study demonstrates the technical feasibility using the Flex Robotic System for transoral robotic supraglottic laryngectomy and total laryngectomy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 1218-1225, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Pediatric supraglottic airway devices in clinical practice: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine-Brueggeney, Maren; Gottfried, Anne; Nabecker, Sabine; Greif, Robert; Book, Malte; Theiler, Lorenz

    2017-09-02

    Supraglottic airway devices (SGA) are commonly used in pediatric anesthesia and serve as primary or back-up devices for difficult airway management. Most SGA are marketed without proper clinical evaluation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the pediatric LMA Supreme™, Air-Q® and Ambu® Aura-i™. This prospective observational study was performed at Bern University Hospital, Switzerland. With ethics committee approval and a waiver for written informed consent 240 children undergoing elective surgery with an ASA class I-III and a weight of 5-30 kg were included. Three different pediatric supraglottic airway devices were assessed: The LMA Supreme™, Air-Q® and Ambu® Aura-i™. Primary outcome parameter was airway leak pressure. Secondary outcome parameters included first attempt and overall success rate, insertion time, fiberoptic view through the SGA, and adverse events. The primary hypothesis was that the mean airway leak pressure of each tested SGA was 20 cmH 2 O ± 10%. None of the SGA showed a mean airway leak pressure of 20 cmH 2 O ± 10%, but mean airway leak pressures differed significantly between devices [LMA Supreme™ 18.0 (3.4) cmH 2 O, Air-Q® 15.9 (3.2) cmH 2 O, Ambu® Aura-i™ 17.3 (3.7) cmH 2 O, p < 0.001]. First attempt success rates (LMA Supreme™ 100%, Air-Q® 90%, Ambu® Aura-i™ 91%, p = 0.02) and overall success rates (LMA Supreme™ 100%, Air-Q® 91%, Ambu® Aura-i™ 95%, p = 0.02) also differed significantly. Insertion times ranged from 20 (7) seconds (Air-Q®) to 24 (6) seconds (LMA Supreme™,

  17. Prognostic value of hemoglobin concentration in radiotherapy for cancer of supraglottic larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnawski, Rafal; Skladowski, Krzysztof; Maciejewski, Boguslaw

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is the estimation of correlations between hemoglobin concentration either before or after radiotherapy and local tumor control probability for laryngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Retrospective analysis of 847 cases of laryngeal supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiation alone was performed using maximum likelihood estimations, and step-wise logistic regression. All patients were in good initial performance status (Karnofsky index >70). The minimum follow-up time was 3 years. Results: Logistic regression showed that the hemoglobin concentration after radiotherapy is an important prognostic factor. There was a very strong correlation between hemoglobin concentration and tumor local control probability. Hemoglobin concentration at the beginning of radiotherapy does not correlate with treatment outcome, but any decrease of hemoglobin during therapy is a strong prognostic factor for treatment failure. Conclusions: Although regression models with many variables may be instable, the present results suggest that hemoglobin concentration after treatment is at least as important as overall treatment time. It was not possible to find out whether the low concentration of hemoglobin is an independent cause of low TCP or whether it reflects other mechanisms that may influence both hemoglobin level and the TCP

  18. A comparison of supraglottic airway i-gel™ vs. classic laryngeal mask airway in small children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Hyun; Cho, Hyun-Seok; Shin, Won-Jung; Yang, Hong-Seuk

    2014-02-01

    i-gel™ is a new single-use supraglottic airway device without an inflatable cuff. This study was designed to compare the usefulness of i-gel™ versus a classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA) in small children. Sixty-three children (age range : 4-72 months) were randomly assigned to an i-gel™ or cLMA group. We evaluated hemodynamic data, airway sealing ability, the success rate of insertion, and adverse events including an inadvertent sliding out during ventilation. Demographic data and hemodynamic data obtained immediately after the insertion of these devices did not differ between the two groups. The success rates for insertion on the first attempt were 77 and 84% for i-gel™ and cLMA, respectively (P = 0.54), and the overall success rates were 87 and 100% respectively (P = 0.14). There were no significant differences in terms of airway leak pressure. The inserted i-gel™ inadvertently slid out in 8 of 31 patients but only one sliding out case occurred in the cLMA group (P = 0.02). There were no differences between the groups in terms of other side effects (e.g., coughing, bleeding) associated with the use of i-gel™ and cLMA (P = 0.75 and 0.49, respectively). Oropharyngeal leak pressure and insertion success rate of i-gel™ are similar to those of cLMA. However, i-gel™ is prone to inadvertent sliding out of the mouth in small children. Therefore, it is recommended that the i-gel™ should be secured more tightly to avoid displacement of the device.

  19. Synchronous Supraglottic and Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinomas Treated with a Monoisocentric Hybrid Intensity-Modulated Radiation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian L. Barney

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors for squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs of the head and neck (HN and esophagus are similar. As such, synchronous primary tumors in these areas are not entirely uncommon. Definitive chemoradiation (CRT is standard care for locally advanced HNSCC and is a preferred option for inoperable esophageal SCC. Simultaneous treatment of both primaries with CRT can present technical challenges. We report a case of synchronous supraglottic and esophageal SCC primary tumors, highlighting treatment with a monoisocentric hybrid radiation technique and normal tissue toxicity considerations.

  20. A new laryngeal mask supraglottic airway device with integrated balloon line: a descriptive and comparative bench study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou YH

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available YingHai Zhou,1 Korinne Jew2 1Research & Development, Patient Monitoring & Recovery, Medtronic Technology Center, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Medical Affairs, Minimally Invasive Therapies Group, Medtronic, Boulder, CO, USA Abstract: Laryngeal masks are invasive devices for airway management placed in the supraglottic position. The Shiley™ laryngeal mask (Shiley™ LM features an integrated inflation tube and airway shaft to facilitate product insertion and reduce the chance of tube occlusion when patients bite down. This study compared the Shiley LM to two other disposable laryngeal mask devices, the Ambu® AuraStraight™ and the LMA Unique™. Overall device design, tensile strength, flexibility of various structures, and sealing performance were measured. The Shiley LM is structurally stronger and its shaft is more resistant to compression than the other devices. The Shiley LM is generally less flexible than the other devices, but this relationship varies with device size. Sealing performance of the devices was similar in a bench assay. The results of this bench study demonstrate that the new Shiley LM resembles other commercially available laryngeal mask devices, though it exhibits greater tensile strength and lower flexibility. Keywords: laryngeal mask, supraglottic airway, supralaryngeal device

  1. A feasibility study of concomitant boost radiotheraphy for patients with cancer of the supraglottic larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujko, K.; Skoczylas, J.Z.; Bentzen, S.M.; Hliniak, A.; Wasilewski, M.; Szutkowski, Z.J.; Osmolski, A.

    1993-01-01

    Between February 1988 and December 1989, 65 patients with supraglottic cancer completed a course of concomitant boost radiotherapy. Cases with N3 disease, a Karnovsky performance score less than 70, age above 70 years, or a second primary cancer were not eligible for the study. Distribution of the patients was: Stage T1-T2 30%, T3-T4 70%, N0 68%, N+32%. The total dose ranged from 60 Gy to 76 Gy (median 66 Gy); overall treatment time ranged from 36 to 56 days with a median of 42 days. The daily dose during the first 4 weeks was 1.8 Gy, and during the last 2 weeks it was 1.6 Gy b.i.d. with a 4- or (after September 1988) 6-h interval. The clinical impression was that the early mucosal reactions were acceptable but more severe than after conventional treatment, with confluent membranous mucosal reaction being observed in 54% of the patients. Also, this reaction was significantly more frequent in patients treated with a 4-h interval (68%) than with a 6-h interval (41%) between the daily fractions. To relieve severe dysphagia, narcotics were required in 22% of the patients. The follow-up time ranged from 22 to 50 months, median 34 months. Treatment-requiring late complications were observed in 8 patients, and the 3-year actuarial risk was 17% with 95% confidence limits (6%, 27%). Two of these patients had severe complications: One of them required a temporary tracheostomy due to arytenoid edema and the other developed a laryngo-cutaneous fistula which healed after pharmacological treatment. Actuarial 3-year local-regional control was 59% (46%, 71%) and 3-year actuarial crude survival 55% (42%, 67%). There was no significant difference in the incidence of late complications or tumor control between the two groups of patients treated with a 4- or 6-h interval between the daily fractions. This study shows that the concomitant boost regimen tired here is feasible, but also stresses that the interval between dose fractions should be 6 h or more. (orig.)

  2. Stereological estimation of nuclear volume and other quantitative histopathological parameters in the prognostic evaluation of supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bennedbaek, O; Pilgaard, J

    1989-01-01

    observers of the latter was poor in the material which consisted of 35 biopsy specimens. Unbiased estimates of nuclear Vv were on the average 385 microns3 (CV = 0.44), with more than 90% of the associated variance attributable to differences in nuclear Vv among individual lesions. Nuclear Vv was positively......The aim of this study was to investigate various approaches to the grading of malignancy in pre-treatment biopsies from patients with supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The prospects of objective malignancy grading based on stereological estimation of the volume-weighted mean nuclear...... volume, nuclear Vv, and nuclear volume fraction, Vv(nuc/tis), along with morphometrical 2-dimensional estimation of nuclear density index, NI, and mitotic activity index, MI, were investigated and compared with the current morphological, multifactorial grading system. The reproducibility among two...

  3. Stereological estimation of nuclear volume and other quantitative histopathological parameters in the prognostic evaluation of supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bennedbaek, O; Pilgaard, J

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate various approaches to the grading of malignancy in pre-treatment biopsies from patients with supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The prospects of objective malignancy grading based on stereological estimation of the volume-weighted mean nuclear...... volume, nuclear Vv, and nuclear volume fraction, Vv(nuc/tis), along with morphometrical 2-dimensional estimation of nuclear density index, NI, and mitotic activity index, MI, were investigated and compared with the current morphological, multifactorial grading system. The reproducibility among two...... observers of the latter was poor in the material which consisted of 35 biopsy specimens. Unbiased estimates of nuclear Vv were on the average 385 microns3 (CV = 0.44), with more than 90% of the associated variance attributable to differences in nuclear Vv among individual lesions. Nuclear Vv was positively...

  4. Vertical Bisimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Gorrieri, Roberto

    We investigate criteria to relate specifications and implementations belonging to conceptually different abstraction levels, and propose vertical bisimulation as a candidate relation for this purpose. Vertical bisimulation is indexed by a function mapping abstract actions onto concrete processes,

  5. A cadaver study comparing three fibreoptic-assisted techniques for converting a supraglottic airway to a cuffed tracheal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesnicky, B L; Rehak, A; Bestic, W B; Brock, J T; Watterson, L

    2017-02-01

    After rescuing an airway with a supraglottic airway device, a method to convert it to a cuffed tracheal tube is often needed. The best method to do this has never been directly studied. We compared three techniques for conversion of a standard LMA ® Unique airway to a cuffed endotracheal tube using a fibrescope. The primary endpoint was time to intubation, with secondary endpoints of success rate, perceived difficulty and preferred technique. We also investigated the relationship between level of training and prior training and experience with the techniques on the primary outcome. The mean (95% CI) time to intubation using a direct tracheal tube technique of 37 (31-42) s was significantly shorter than either the Aintree intubation catheter technique at 70 (60-80) s, or a guidewire technique at 126 (110-141) s (p < 0.001). Most (13/24) participants rated the tracheal tube as their preferred technique, while 11/24 preferred the Aintree technique. In terms of perceived difficulty, 23/24, 21/24 and 9/24 participants rated the tracheal tube technique, Aintree technique and guidewire technique, respectively, as either very easy or easy. There was no relationship between prior training, prior experience or level of training on time to completion of any of the techniques. We conclude the tracheal tube and Aintree techniques both provide a rapid and easy method for conversion of a supraglottic airway device to a cuffed tracheal tube. The guidewire technique cannot be recommended. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. Comparison of i-gel™ supraglottic device with classic laryngeal mask airway in anesthetized paralyzed children undergoing elective surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bikramjit; Mitra, Subhro; Samanta, Arijit; Vijay, Bhavani S

    2012-01-01

    The newest variation of the i-gel supraglottic airway is a pediatric version. This study was designed to investigate the usefulness of the size 2 i-gel compared with the classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA) of the same size in anesthetized, paralyzed children. A prospective, randomized, single-blinded study was conducted in tertiary care teaching hospital. Sixty ASA grade I-II patients undergoing lower abdominal, inguinal, and orthopedic surgery were included in this prospective study. The patients were randomly assigned to i-gel and cLMA groups (30 patients in each group). Size 2 supraglottic airway was inserted according to the assigned group. We assessed ease of insertion, hemodynamic data, oropharyngeal sealing pressure, and postoperative complications. Parametric data were analyzed with the unpaired t-test and non-parametric data were analyzed with the Chi-square test. Unless otherwise stated, data are presented as mean (SD). Significance was taken as P airway leak pressure of the i-gel group (26.1 ± 2.4 cm H2O) was significantly higher than that of the cLMA group (22.64 ± 2.2 cm H2O). The success rates for first attempt of insertion were similar among the two devices. There were no differences in the incidence of postoperative airway morbidity among the two groups. Hemodynamic parameters, ease of insertion, and postoperative complications were comparable between the i-gel and cLMA groups, but airway sealing pressure was significantly higher in i-gel group.

  7. Superselective intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy for laryngeal cancer. Is it reasonable to treat glottic cancer in a similar way to supraglottic cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizaki, Tomokazu; Murono, Shigeyuki; Wakisaka, Naohiro; Kondo, Satoru; Furukawa, Mitsuru

    2006-01-01

    The standard treatment for advanced laryngeal cancer has been shifting from total laryngectomy to various organ preservation therapies such as subtotal laryngectomy and chemoradiotherapy. Robbins showed remarkable results with RADPLAT, the superselective intra-arterial infusion of supradose cisplatin (150 mg/m 2 ), against advanced head and neck cancer. However, the volume of laryngeal cancer is smaller than those of the other sites of head and neck cancers, and so a swaller less dose of cisplatin could save advanced laryngeal cancer patients. It may be reasonable to treat these subtypes of laryngeal cancer with a different modality. Thirty-five patients with laryngeal cancer were treated with tri-weekly intra-arterial infusion of cisplatin (100 mg/body). A 200 times molar excessive amount of sodium thiosulfate was intravenously infused to reduce the toxicity of cisplatin. Ten of 16 patients with glottic cancer and 10 of 19 patients with supraglottic cancer were followed for more than 2 years. Larynx preservation rate of glottic and supraglottic cancer was 80% and 70%, and progression-free survival rate was 80% and 50%, respectively. Grade III and IV toxic events were less frequent than with RADPLAT or systemic administration of a similar dose of cisplatin. Glottic and supraglottic cancers show different clinical behaviors. Our protocol with less cisplatin than RADPLAT is especially effective for glottic cancer. (author)

  8. Tumorigenesis role and clinical significance of DJ-1, a negative regulator of PTEN, in supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Xiao-Lin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DJ-1 can induce the tumor cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating PTEN in many malignant tumors, and correlated to prognostic significance. However, the tumorigenesis role and clinical significance of DJ-1 in supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma (SSCC is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the DJ-1 the relationship between DJ-1 and clinicopathological data including patient survival. Methods The expression of DJ-1 and PTEN in SSCCs (52 and adjacent non-cancerous tissues (42 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC, and the relationship between DJ-1 and clinicopathological data was analyzed. Results DJ-1 was detected mainly in SSCCs (88.5% and less frequently in adjacent non-cancerous tissues (21.0%. PTEN expression was detected in 46.2% of SSCCs and in 90.5% of adjacent non-cancerous tissues. DJ-1 expression was linked to nodal status (P = 0.009, a highly significant association of DJ-1 expression with shortened patient overall survival (5-year survival rate 88.0% versus 53.9%; P = 0.007; log rank test was demonstrated. Conclusions Our data suggested that DJ-1 over-expression was linked to nodal status, and might be an independent prognostic marker for patients with SSCC.

  9. Role of brachytherapy in treatment of epidermoid carcinomas of the vallecula after conservative supraglottic laryngectomy followed by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clippe, Sebastien; Pommier, Pascal; Poupart, Marc; Ceruse, Philippe; Rosenbusch, Thomas; Ramade, Antoine; Montbarbon, Xavier; Gerard, Jean-Pierre; Carrie, Christian; Ardiet, Jean-Michel

    2002-01-01

    Purpose:To evaluate survival and functional results of the treatment of carcinomas of the vallecula using surgery, irradiation, and interstitial brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1990 and 1998, 36 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vallecula were treated with horizontal supraglottic functional laryngectomy, external beam radiotherapy (median dose 54 Gy), and additional interstitial brachytherapy (median dose 16 Gy). Results were compared with a previous series of 22 patients treated without brachytherapy. Results: The median follow-up was 44 months. The 5-year actuarial overall survival rate was 61.3%. The 5-year specific survival rate was 86%, with 2 local failures (local control rate 94.4%) and 4 isolated distant metastases. Ten patients developed a second primary. The overall survival was 34% for 22 patients previously treated without brachytherapy. Severe toxicities occurred in 9 patients: death (related to larynx edema or inhalation, n=1), soft tissue necrosis (n=1), aspiration pneumonia (n=1), mandibular necrosis (n=2), pharyngocutaneous fistula (n=2), and laryngeal edema (n=2). All the patients fed orally with no definitive gastrostomy or tracheotomy. Conclusion: Additional brachytherapy for vallecula carcinoma seems to improve locoregional control and overall survival dramatically. Functional results were also excellent. To our knowledge, this original therapeutic schedule has never been previously described

  10. Intravenous opioid drug abuse as an independent risk factor for supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma-A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoffel-Havakuk, H; Cohen, O; Slavin, M; Haimovich, Y; Halperin, D; Lahav, Y

    2018-04-01

    Intravenous opioid drug abuse (IVDA) was previously correlated with laryngeal cancer. However, discrimination of this correlation by anatomical subsites has not yet been described. In this study, we aim to further establish the association between IVDA and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to indicate the laryngeal subsites that are predisposed for this correlation. A retrospective matched case-control study. Patients diagnosed with supraglottic SCC (SG-SCC) between 1996 and 2016 treated in a tertiary academic referral centre were enrolled to the case group. The control group comprised of matched patients diagnosed with glottis SCC (G-SCC). Matching was based on gender, age and socio-economic rank. Variables studies as risk factors included the following: smoking, alcohol consumption, history of IVDA and infectious diseases. The variables were tested for association with the 2 groups and with each other. Forty-eight patients with SG-SCC were matched with 48 patients with G-SCC. IVDA rates significantly increased among patients with SG-SCC. Of the SG-SCC group, 18.8% had a positive history for IVDA compared with 2.1% of the G-SCC (P = .008). A history of IVDA was found to be a risk factor for SG-SCC, independent of smoking, excessive alcohol and socio-economic status. The odds ratio for patients with an IVDA history to have SG-SCC relatively to G-SCC was 10.846 (95% CI: 1.3-89.4). Intravenous opioid drug abuse represents an independent risk factor for SG-SCC. The pathogenesis should be investigated not just as a risk factor, as opioids are commonly used for pain management in oncologic patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Vertical Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Gorrieri, Roberto

    2001-01-01

    We investigate criteria to relate specifications and implementations belonging to conceptually different levels of abstraction. For this purpose, we introduce the generic concept of a vertical implementation relation, which is a family of binary relations indexed by a refinement function that maps

  12. Results of the radiotheraphy of the supraglottic larynx carcinomas observed at the Radiotherapy Department of the District Hospital of Varese (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosentino, D.; Scandolaro, L.; Cazzaniga, F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors review the supraglottic laryngeal carcinomas examined in the Radiotherapy Department of the Ospedale Regionale of Varese, Italy, from 1979 to 1984. 255 patients have been monitored: 80 considered for radiotherapy alone and 77 for postoperatory radiotherapy treatment. The cumulative actuarial survival (pcs) after 60 months, for patients treated only with radiotherapy, is 0.66 +- e.s. 0.07; for patients treated with post-operative radiotherapy the cumulative actuarial survival (pcs) after 60 months is 0.49 +- e.s. 0.11. The irradiation techniques are described and the results achived fully discussed

  13. High frequency jet ventilation through a supraglottic airway device: a case series of patients undergoing extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canty, D J; Dhara, S S

    2009-12-01

    High frequency jet ventilation has been shown to be beneficial during extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy as it reduces urinary calculus movement which increases lithotripsy efficiency with better utilisation of shockwave energy and less patient exposure to tissue trauma. In all reports, sub-glottic high frequency jet ventilation was delivered through a tracheal tube or a jet catheter requiring paralysis and direct laryngoscopy. In this study, a simple method using supraglottic jet ventilation through a laryngeal mask attached to a circle absorber anaesthetic breathing system is described. The technique avoids the need for dense neuromuscular blockade for laryngoscopy and the potential complications associated with sub-glottic instrumentation and sub-glottic jet ventilation. The technique was successfully employed in a series of patients undergoing lithotripsy under general anaesthesia as an outpatient procedure.

  14. A randomised crossover comparison of manikin ventilation through Soft Seal®, i-gel™ and AuraOnce™ supraglottic airway devices by surf lifeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelborg, K; Al-Mashhadi, R H; Nielsen, L H; Dalgas, C; Mortensen, M B; Løfgren, B

    2014-04-01

    Forty surf lifeguards attempted to ventilate a manikin through one out of three supraglottic airways inserted in random order: the Portex® Soft Seal®; the Intersurgical® i-gel™; and the Ambu® AuraOnce™. We recorded the time to ventilate and the proportion of inflations that were successful, without and then with concurrent chest compressions. The mean (SD) time to ventilate with the Soft Seal, i-gel and AuraOnce was 35.2 (7.2)s, 15.6 (3.3)s and 35.1 (8.5) s, respectively, p surf lifeguards. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  15. i-gel: a new supraglottic device for effective resuscitation of a very low birthweight infant with Cornelia de Lange syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galderisi, Alfonso; De Bernardo, Giuseppe; Lorenzon, Eleonora; Trevisanuto, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) has been indicated as an effective device for airway management when face-mask ventilation and intubation have both failed in infants weighing >2000 g or delivered ≥34 weeks of gestation. All previous studies used a classic LMA. The current report describes the first case of a very low birthweight infant (1470 g, <3rd centile; 36+3gestational weeks) with micrognathia and palate cleft with Cornelia De Lange syndrome, resuscitated at birth with a new supraglottic airway device, i-gel size-1, positioned by a trainee paediatrician at first attempt. The procedure allowed reaching prompt effective ventilation and oxygenation of the patient, who was stabilised and intubated through i-gel. PMID:25809435

  16. 331 cases of clinically node-negative supraglottic carcinoma of the larynx: a study of a modest size fixed field radiotherapy approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, Andrew J.; Slevin, Nicholas J.; Gupta, Nirmal K.; Brewster, Allison E.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: For node-negative supraglottic carcinoma of the larynx, radiotherapy with surgery in reserve commonly provides very good results in terms of both local control and survival, while preserving function. However uncertainty exists over the treatment of the node-negative neck. Elective whole neck radiotherapy, while effective, may be associated with significant morbidity. The purpose of this study was to examine our practice of treating a modest size, fixed field to a high biologically effective dose and compare it with the patterns of recurrence from other centers that use different dose/volume approaches. Methods and Materials: Over a 10-year period 331 patients with node-negative supraglottic carcinoma of the larynx were treated with radiotherapy at the Christie Hospital Manchester. Patients were treated with doses of 50-55 Gy in 16 fractions over 3 weeks. Data were collected retrospectively for local and regional control, survival, and morbidity. Results: Overall local control, after surgical salvage in 17 cases, was 79% (T1-92%, T2-81%, T3-67%, T4-73%). Overall regional lymph node control, after surgical salvage in 13 cases, was 84% (T1-91%, T2-88%, T3-81%, T4-72%). Five-year crude survival was 50%, but after correcting for intercurrent deaths was 70% (T1-83%, T2-78%, T3-53%, T4-61%). Serious morbidity requiring surgery was seen in 7 cases (2.1%) and was related to prescribed dose (50 Gy-0%, 52.5 Gy-1.3%, 55 Gy-3.4%). Discussion: Our results confirm that treating a modest size, fixed field to a high biologically effective dose is highly effective. It enables preservation of the larynx in most cases, with acceptable regional control and no loss of survival compared to whole neck radiotherapy regimes

  17. [Interdisciplinary consensus statement on alternative airway management with supraglottic airway devices in pediatric emergency medicine: Laryngeal mask is state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, J; Jung, P; Schiele, A; Urban, B; Parsch, A; Matsche, B; Eich, C; Becke, K; Landsleitner, B; Russo, S G; Bernhard, M; Nicolai, T; Hoffmann, F

    2016-01-01

    Airway management with supraglottic airway devices (SGA) in life-threatening emergencies involving children is becoming increasingly more important. The laryngeal mask (LM) and the laryngeal tube (LT) are devices commonly used for this purpose. This article presents a literature review and consensus statement by various societies on the use of SGA in pediatric emergency medicine. Literature search in the database PubMed and classification of studies according to the criteria of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine levels of evidence. The evidence for successful application of the various types of LM is significantly higher than for LT application. Reports of smaller series of successful applications of LT are currently limited to selected research groups and centers. Insufficient evidence currently exists for the successful application of the LT especially for children below 10 kg body weight and, therefore, its routine use cannot currently be recommended. SGAs used for emergencies should have a possibility for gastric drainage. Considering the scientific data and the large clinical experience with the LM in medical routine and emergency situations in children, currently only the LM can be recommended for alternative (i.e. non-intubation) airway management in children. If alternative airway management is part of a local emergency strategy, the LM should be provided in all pediatric sizes (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4 and 5) for prehospital and in-hospital emergency use and all users should be regularly trained in its application.

  18. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 33, - (2004), s. 404-407 ISSN 1436-3445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : geopotential WO * vertical systems * global vertical frame Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  19. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  20. Offset vertical radar profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, A.; Lane, J.

    2003-01-01

    Diffraction tomography imaging was applied to VRP data acquired by vertically moving a receiving antenna in a number of wells. This procedure simulated a vertical downhole receiver array. Similarly, a transmitting antenna was sequentially moved along a series of radial lines extending outward from the receiver wells. This provided a sequence of multistatic data sets and, from each data set, a two-dimensional vertical cross-sectional image of spatial variations in wave speed was reconstructed.

  1. Vertical pump assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohnal, M.; Rosel, J.; Skarka, V.

    1988-01-01

    The mounting is described of the drive assembly of a vertical pump for nuclear power plants in areas with seismic risk. The assembly is attached to the building floor using flexible and damping elements. The design allows producing seismically resistant pumps without major design changes in the existing types of vertical pumps. (E.S.). 1 fig

  2. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clots , infection Risks for vertical sleeve gastrectomy are: Gastritis (inflamed stomach lining), heartburn, or stomach ulcers Injury ... of the work. To lose weight and avoid complications from the procedure, you will need to follow ...

  3. Coordination in vertical jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.; van Ingen Schenau, Gerrit Jan

    1988-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate for vertical jumping the relationships between muscle actions, movement pattern and jumping achievement. Ten skilled jumpers performed jumps with preparatory countermovement. Ground reaction forces and cinematographic data were recorded. In addition,

  4. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  5. Vertical and horizontal subsidiarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Daniluk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article makes an attempt to analyze the principle of subsidiarity in its two main manifestations, namely vertical and horizontal, to outline the principles of relations between the state and regions within the vertical subsidiarity, and features a collaboration of the government and civil society within the horizontal subsidiarity. Scientists identify two types, or two levels of the subsidiarity principle: vertical subsidiarity and horizontal subsidiarity. First, vertical subsidiarity (or territorial concerning relations between the state and other levels of subnational government, such as regions and local authorities; second, horizontal subsidiarity (or functional concerns the relationship between state and citizen (and civil society. Vertical subsidiarity expressed in the context of the distribution of administrative responsibilities to the appropriate higher level lower levels relative to the state structure, ie giving more powers to local government. However, state intervention has subsidiary-lower action against local authorities in cases of insolvency last cope on their own, ie higher organisms intervene only if the duties are less authority is insufficient to achieve the goals. Horizontal subsidiarity is within the relationship between power and freedom, and is based on the assumption that the concern for the common good and the needs of common interest community, able to solve community members (as individuals and citizens’ associations and role of government, in accordance horizontal subsidiarity comes to attracting features subsidiarity assistance, programming, coordination and possibly control.

  6. Aiding Vertical Guidance Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael; McCrobie, Daniel; Alkin, Martin; Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Palmer, Everett; McQuinn, Noreen

    1998-01-01

    A two-part study was conducted to evaluate modern flight deck automation and interfaces. In the first part, a survey was performed to validate the existence of automation surprises with current pilots. Results indicated that pilots were often surprised by the behavior of the automation. There were several surprises that were reported more frequently than others. An experimental study was then performed to evaluate (1) the reduction of automation surprises through training specifically for the vertical guidance logic, and (2) a new display that describes the flight guidance in terms of aircraft behaviors instead of control modes. The study was performed in a simulator that was used to run a complete flight with actual airline pilots. Three groups were used to evaluate the guidance display and training. In the training, condition, participants went through a training program for vertical guidance before flying the simulation. In the display condition, participants ran through the same training program and then flew the experimental scenario with the new Guidance-Flight Mode Annunciator (G-FMA). Results showed improved pilot performance when given training specifically for the vertical guidance logic and greater improvements when given the training and the new G-FMA. Using actual behavior of the avionics to design pilot training and FMA is feasible, and when the automated vertical guidance mode of the Flight Management System is engaged, the display of the guidance mode and targets yields improved pilot performance.

  7. Vertical market participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrader, Alexander; Martin, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Firms that operate at both levels of vertically related Cournot oligopolies will purchase some input supplies from independent rivals, even though they can produce the good at a lower cost, driving up input price for nonintegrated firms at the final good level. Foreclosure, which avoids this stra...... this strategic behavior, yields better market performance than Cournot beliefs...

  8. Diel vertical migrat..

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-01-24

    Jan 24, 2002 ... Ringelberg 11964 The positively photo tactic reaction of Daphnia magna. Straus: A contribution to the understanding of diurnal vertical migration. Netherlands Journal of. Sea Research 2: 319—406. Ringelberg J 1980 Introductory remarks: causal and teleological aspects of diurnal migration. ~ In: Kerfoot,.

  9. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    -, č. 5 (2009), s. 53-63 ISSN 1801-8483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0328 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : sea surface topography * satellite altimetry * vertical frames Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  10. Vertical organic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-11-01

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted.

  11. Occlusal vertical dimension. Review article

    OpenAIRE

    Alvítez Temoche, Daniel Augusto; Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.

    2016-01-01

    Modication of occlusal vertical dimension is a procedure that is often necessary for complex oral reha-bilitation treatments to get a functional occlusal for patients. is literature review was made on databases: Medline (PubMed), Scopus, Scielo, BSV (Bireme), ISI (Web of science) and Lilacs using the keywords “occlusal vertical dimension”,”altered vertical dimension”, “temporomandibular joint”, and “masticatory muscles”. It can be said that the management of occlusal vertical dimension is a s...

  12. Vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obretenov, V.; Tsalov, T.; Chakarov, T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in wind turbines with vertical axis noticeably increased. They have some important advantages: low cost, relatively simple structure, reliable packaging system of wind aggregate long period during which require no maintenance, low noise, independence of wind direction, etc.. The relatively low efficiency, however, makes them applicable mainly for small facilities. The work presents a methodology and software for approximately aerodynamic design of wind turbines of this type, and also analyzed the possibility of improving the efficiency of their workflow

  13. Vertical vector face lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoano, Brian; Chan, Joanna; Morganroth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation using local anesthesia has evolved in the past decade as a safer option for patients seeking fewer complications and minimal downtime. Mini- and short-scar face lifts using more conservative incision lengths and extent of undermining can be effective in the younger patient with lower face laxity and minimal loose, elastotic neck skin. By incorporating both an anterior and posterior approach and using an incision length between the mini and more traditional face lift, the Vertical Vector Face Lift can achieve longer-lasting and natural results with lesser cost and risk. Submentoplasty and liposuction of the neck and jawline, fundamental components of the vertical vector face lift, act synergistically with superficial musculoaponeurotic system plication to reestablish a more youthful, sculpted cervicomental angle, even in patients with prominent jowls. Dramatic results can be achieved in the right patient by combining with other procedures such as injectable fillers, chin implants, laser resurfacing, or upper and lower blepharoplasties. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Vertical allometry: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Iftekhar; Boxenbaum, Harold

    2014-04-01

    In pharmacokinetics, vertical allometry is referred to the clearance of a drug when the predicted human clearance is substantially higher than the observed human clearance. Vertical allometry was initially reported for diazepam based on a 33-fold higher human predicted clearance than the observed human clearance. In recent years, it has been found that many other drugs besides diazepam, can be classified as drugs which exhibit vertical allometry. Over the years, many questions regarding vertical allometry have been raised. For example, (1) How to define and identify the vertical allometry? (2) How much difference should be between predicted and observed human clearance values before a drug could be declared 'a drug which follows vertical allometry'? (3) If somehow one can identify vertical allometry from animal data, how this information can be used for reasonably accurate prediction of clearance in humans? This report attempts to answer the aforementioned questions. The concept of vertical allometry at this time remains complex and obscure but with more extensive works one can have better understanding of 'vertical allometry'. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Protected Vertices in Motzkin trees

    OpenAIRE

    Van Duzer, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we find recurrence relations for the asymptotic probability a vertex is $k$ protected in all Motzkin trees. We use a similar technique to calculate the probabilities for balanced vertices of rank $k$. From this we calculate upper and lower bounds for the probability a vertex is balanced and upper and lower bounds for the expected rank of balanced vertices.

  16. The School Library Vertical File.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the maintenance of vertical files in the school library. Topics covered include circulation, weeding, using materials for special displays, acquiring materials, policies on advertising and controversial issues, cross-references, subject headings, introducing students to vertical files, beginning a collection, and preservation. (MES)

  17. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor intensity as observed in data. Final......-good producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all...... increasing when intermediate-input or final-goods trade is liberalised and when the fixed cost of vertical integration is reduced. At the same time, one observes firms that shift away from either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting. Further, we provide guidance for testing the open...

  18. Vertical quantum dot with a vertically coupled charge detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitsu, Koichiro; Kitamura, Yosuke; Ono, Keiji; Tarucha, Seigo

    2008-01-01

    We fabricated a vertical quantum dot equipped with a charge detector. The dot current flows vertically between the top and bottom contacts. The charge detector is formed at the bottom contact layer with a current channel constricted to the region just under the dot. This channel current is reduced by addition of an extra electron onto the dot due to the electrostatic coupling to the dot. The charge state of the vertical dot was detected, starting from zero electrons. The sensitivity of the charge detector was comparable to that previously reported for lateral dots with nearby quantum point contacts

  19. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  20. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between four different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor (headquarter) intensity. Final......-good producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all...... increasing when intermediate-input trade or final-goods trade is liberalised. Finally, we provide guidance for testing the open-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data and surprisingly show that the relationship between factor (headquarter) intensity and the likelihood of vertical...

  1. The TEXT upgrade vertical interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallock, G.A.; Gartman, M.L.; Li, W.; Chiang, K.; Shin, S.; Castles, R.L.; Chatterjee, R.; Rahman, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    A far-infrared interferometer has been installed on TEXT upgrade to obtain electron density profiles. The primary system views the plasma vertically through a set of large (60-cm radialx7.62-cm toroidal) diagnostic ports. A 1-cm channel spacing (59 channels total) and fast electronic time response is used, to provide high resolution for radial profiles and perturbation experiments. Initial operation of the vertical system was obtained late in 1991, with six operating channels

  2. Neglected locked vertical patellar dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patellar dislocations occurring about the vertical and horizontal axis are rare and irreducible. The neglected patellar dislocation is still rarer. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a case of neglected vertical patellar dislocation in a 6 year-old boy who sustained an external rotational strain with a laterally directed force to his knee. Initially the diagnosis was missed and 2 months later open reduction was done. The increased tension generated by the rotation of the lateral extensor retinaculum kept the patella locked in the lateral gutter even with the knee in full extension. Traumatic patellar dislocation with rotation around a vertical axis has been described earlier, but no such neglected case has been reported to the best of our knowledge.

  3. Building a progressive vertical integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charette, D.

    2008-01-01

    AAER Inc. is a Quebec-based company that manufactures turbines using proven European designs. This presentation discussed the company's business model. The company places an emphasis on identifying strategic and key components currently available for its turbines. Market analyses are performed in order to determine ideal suppliers and define business strategies and needs. The company invests in long-term relationships with its suppliers. Business partners for AAER are of a similar size and have a mutual understanding and respect for the company's business practices. Long-term agreements with suppliers are signed in order to ensure reliability and control over costs. Progressive vertical integration has been achieved by progressively manufacturing key components and integrating a North American supply chain. The company's secure supply chain and progressive vertical integration has significantly reduced financial costs and provided better quality control. It was concluded that vertical integration has also allowed AAER to provide better customer service and reduce transportation costs. tabs., figs

  4. Hybrid Vertical-Cavity Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a light source (2) for light circuits on a silicon platform (3). A vertical laser cavity is formed by a gain region (101) arranged between a top mirror (4) and a bottom grating-mirror (12) in a grating region (11) in a silicon layer (10) on a substrate. A waveguide ...

  5. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattione, Paul [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  6. INTERNATIONAL SPECIALIZATION AND VERTICAL DIFFERENTIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furia Donatella

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, market segmentation and intra-industry trade have become increasingly relevant. The underlying hypothesis of our work is that distinct articles have heterogeneous potential for vertical differentiation, implying that different patterns of international specialization should be identifiable. We carry out an analysis on revealed comparative advantage (through the Lafay Index in specific sectors of interest. Then we highlight the emergence of diverse degrees of product quality differentiation among sectors (through the Relative Quality Index. Results confirm our hypothesis. Indeed it appears that only certain goods, for which the pace of either creative or technological innovation (or both is particularly fast, present a high degree of vertical differentiation and market segmentation. This allows countries to specialize in a particular product variety and gain market power position for that variety. These findings should be taken in due consideration when designing trade policies.

  7. Vertical seismic response of overhead crane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, Akihito; Nagashima, Keisuke; Suzuki, Junya

    2002-01-01

    Vertical seismic response behavior is an important issue for the seismic design of equipments. The equipment, which is comparatively soft and unrestrained vertically, may resonate and its response is significantly magnified under vertical seismic excitation. Overhead crane is an example of equipment that is unrestrained vertically. The dynamic behavior of an 150-ton-capacity overhead crane under vertical seismic excitation was investigated by scale model excitation test and nonlinear time history analysis. The excitation tests were performed with several input levels and the vertical response with each input level was obtained. The simulation analysis approximately corresponded to the results of the excitation test

  8. Coexistence of Strategic Vertical Separation and Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives conditions under which vertical separation is chosen by some upstream firms, while vertical integration is chosen by others in the equilibrium of a symmetric model. A vertically separating firm trades off fixed contracting costs against the strategic benefit of writing a (two......-part tariff, exclusive dealing) contract with its retailer. Coexistence emerges when more than two vertical Cournot oligopolists supply close substitutes. When vertical integration and separation coexist, welfare could be improved by reducing the number of vertically separating firms. The scope...

  9. Vertical Launch System Loadout Planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    United States Navy USS United States’ Ship VBA Visual Basic for Applications VLP VLS Loadout Planner VLS Vertical Launch System...mathematically complex and require training to operate the software. A Visual Basic for Applications ( VBA ) Excel (Microsoft Corporation, 2015...lockheed/data/ms2/documents/laun chers/MK41 VLS factsheet.pdf Microsoft Excel version 14.4.3, VBA computer software. (2011). Redmond, WA: Microsoft

  10. Strategic Inventories in Vertical Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan Anand; Ravi Anupindi; Yehuda Bassok

    2008-01-01

    Classical reasons for carrying inventory include fixed (nonlinear) production or procurement costs, lead times, nonstationary or uncertain supply/demand, and capacity constraints. The last decade has seen active research in supply chain coordination focusing on the role of incentive contracts to achieve first-best levels of inventory. An extensive literature in industrial organization that studies incentives for vertical controls largely ignores the effect of inventories. Does the ability to ...

  11. Poligonación Vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Dörries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La poligonación vertical es un método de medición de diferencias de altura que aprovecha las posibilidades de las estaciones totales. Se presta fundamentalmente para líneas de nivelación entre nodos formando red. El nombre se debe a que las visuales sucesivas se proyectan sobre aristas verticales en lugar de un plano horizontal, como ocurre en la poligonación convencional.

  12. NASA-Ames vertical gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A national facility, the NASA-Ames vertical gun range (AVGR) has an excellent reputation for revealing fundamental aspects of impact cratering that provide important constraints for planetary processes. The current logistics in accessing the AVGR, some of the past and ongoing experimental programs and their relevance, and the future role of this facility in planetary studies are reviewed. Publications resulting from experiments with the gun (1979 to 1984) are listed as well as the researchers and subjects studied.

  13. vertical conveyor as Wood construction

    OpenAIRE

    Kluge, Patrick; Penno, Eric; Eichhorn, Sven; Müller, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Es wird aufbauend auf einen Vertikalförderer in Metallbauweise die konstruktive Umsetzung eines Vertikalförderers in Holzbauweise beschrieben und dessen Schwingungs- und Auslenkungsverhalten in labormäßigen Untersuchungen analysiert und bewertet. Ein Vergleich der Holz- und Metallbauweise hinsichtlich technischer (Gewicht), ökonomischer (Kosten) und ökologischer Kriterien Primärenergiebedarf, Treibhauspotential) ordnet die Holzbauweise in den Stand der Technik ein. Based on a vertical c...

  14. Prophylaxis of vertical HBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowska, Malgorzata; Pniewska, Anna; Pilarczyk, Malgorzata; Kozielewicz, Dorota; Domagalski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    An appropriate management of HBV infection is the best strategy to finally reduce the total burden of HBV infection. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is responsible for more than one third of chronic HBV infections worldwide. Because HBV infection in infancy or early childhood often leads to chronic infection, appropriate prophylaxis and management of HBV in pregnancy is crucial to prevent MTCT. The prevention of HBV vertical transmission is a complex task and includes: universal HBV screening of pregnant women, administration of antivirals in the third trimester of pregnancy in women with high viral load and passive-active HBV immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin in newborns of all HBV infected women. Universal screening of pregnant women for HBV infection, early identification of HBV DNA level in HBV-infected mothers, maternal treatment with class B according to FDA antivirals and passive/active anti-HBV immunoprophylaxis to newborns of HBV-positive mothers are crucial strategies for reducing vertical HBV transmission rates. Consideration of caesarean section in order to reduce the risk of vertical HBV transmission should be recommend in HBV infected pregnant women with high viral load despite antiviral therapy or when the therapy in the third trimester of pregnancy is not available.

  15. [Vertical fractures: apropos of 2 clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix Mañes Ferrer, J; Micò Muñoz, P; Sánchez Cortés, J L; Paricio Martín, J J; Miñana Laliga, R

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present a clinical review of the vertical root fractures. Two clinical cases are presented to demonstrates the criteria for obtaining a correct diagnosis of vertical root fractures.

  16. Determinations of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke and vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke from baryonic Λ{sub b} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Y.K. [Shanxi Normal University, School of Physics and Information Engineering, Linfen (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China); Geng, C.Q. [Shanxi Normal University, School of Physics and Information Engineering, Linfen (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China); Hunan Normal University, Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications (SICQEA), Changsha (China)

    2017-10-15

    We present the first attempt to extract vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke from the Λ{sub b} → Λ{sub c}{sup +}l anti ν{sub l} decay without relying on vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke inputs from the B meson decays. Meanwhile, the hadronic Λ{sub b} → Λ{sub c}M{sub (c)} decays with M = (π{sup -},K{sup -}) and M{sub c} =(D{sup -},D{sup -}{sub s}) measured with high precisions are involved in the extraction. Explicitly, we find that vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke =(44.6 ± 3.2) x 10{sup -3}, agreeing with the value of (42.11 ± 0.74) x 10{sup -3} from the inclusive B → X{sub c}l anti ν{sub l} decays. Furthermore, based on the most recent ratio of vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke / vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke from the exclusive modes, we obtain vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke = (4.3 ± 0.4) x 10{sup -3}, which is close to the value of (4.49 ± 0.24) x 10{sup -3} from the inclusive B → X{sub u}l anti ν{sub l} decays. We conclude that our determinations of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke and vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke favor the corresponding inclusive extractions in the B decays. (orig.)

  17. Metal Oxide Vertical Graphene Hybrid Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A metal oxide vertical graphene hybrid supercapacitor is provided. The supercapacitor includes a pair of collectors facing each other, and vertical graphene electrode material grown directly on each of the pair of collectors without catalyst or binders. A separator may separate the vertical graphene electrode materials.

  18. Radiology of vertical banded gastroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leekam, R.N.; Deitel, M.; Shankar, L.; Salsberg, B.

    1987-01-01

    Vertical banded gastroplasty is now the most common procedure for the surgical treatment of obesity. In the past 4 years 120 patients have been referred for radiologic examination. This exhibit describes the normal and abnormal findings in many of these patients. The authors divided radiologic abnormalities into three groups: abnormalities of the partition, abnormalities of the banded channel, and ulcers and extragastric leaks. The authors' examination technique has been adapted from those described by others, our important addition being the preliminary precontrast film, on which the staple lines can be examined. This has proved most effective in the detection of partition defects

  19. Vertically stacked nanocellulose tactile sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minhyun; Kim, Kyungkwan; Kim, Bumjin; Lee, Kwang-Jae; Kang, Jae-Wook; Jeon, Sanghun

    2017-11-16

    Paper-based electronic devices are attracting considerable attention, because the paper platform has unique attributes such as flexibility and eco-friendliness. Here we report on what is claimed to be the firstly fully integrated vertically-stacked nanocellulose-based tactile sensor, which is capable of simultaneously sensing temperature and pressure. The pressure and temperature sensors are operated using different principles and are stacked vertically, thereby minimizing the interference effect. For the pressure sensor, which utilizes the piezoresistance principle under pressure, the conducting electrode was inkjet printed on the TEMPO-oxidized-nanocellulose patterned with micro-sized pyramids, and the counter electrode was placed on the nanocellulose film. The pressure sensor has a high sensitivity over a wide range (500 Pa-3 kPa) and a high durability of 10 4 loading/unloading cycles. The temperature sensor combines various materials such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form a thermocouple on the upper nanocellulose layer. The thermoelectric-based temperature sensors generate a thermoelectric voltage output of 1.7 mV for a temperature difference of 125 K. Our 5 × 5 tactile sensor arrays show a fast response, negligible interference, and durable sensing performance.

  20. Capillary holdup between vertical spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeinali Heris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The maximum volume of liquid bridge left between two vertically mounted spherical particles has been theoretically determined and experimentally measured. As the gravitational effect has not been neglected in the theoretical model, the liquid interface profile is nonsymmetrical around the X-axis. Symmetry in the interface profile only occurs when either the particle size ratio or the gravitational force becomes zero. In this paper, some equations are derived as a function of the spheres' sizes, gap width, liquid density, surface tension and body force (gravity/centrifugal to estimate the maximum amount of liquid that can be held between the two solid spheres. Then a comparison is made between the result based on these equations and several experimental results.

  1. Convective evaporation of vertical films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulogne, François; Dollet, Benjamin

    2018-02-28

    Motivated by the evaporation of soap films, which has a significant effect on their lifetime, we performed an experimental study on the evaporation of vertical surfaces with model systems based on hydrogels. From the analogy between heat and mass transfer, we adopt a model describing the natural convection in the gas phase due to a density contrast between dry and saturated air. Our measurements show a good agreement with this model, both in terms of scaling law with the Grashof number and in terms of order of magnitude. We discuss the corrections to take into account, notably the contribution of edge effects, which have a small but visible contribution when lateral and bottom surface areas are not negligible compared to the main evaporating surface area.

  2. [Occlusal vertical dimension in removable complete dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Haan, R; Witter, D J

    2011-12-01

    In removable complete dentures, the occlusal vertical dimension is an important factor for patients' satisfaction with aesthetics. An excessively reduced occlusal vertical dimension is especially likely to lead to complaints about aesthetics, whereas an increased occlusal vertical dimension may lead to discomfort and a decision not to wear the complete dentures. There are various methods for determining the occlusal vertical dimension in complete dentures, based on the vertical dimension in the rest position of the mandible or on phonetics. However, none of the methods have proven to be clearly superior, in terms of reliability, than the others. The assessment of the occlusal vertical dimension will become more reliable if several methods are used simultaneously. Moreover, knowledge of the characteristics of the ageing face is essential.

  3. On Vertical Relations and Technology Adoption Timing

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Alipranti; Chrysovalantou Milliou; Emmanuel Petrakis

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how vertical relations influence the timing of new technology adoption. It shows that both the bargaining power distribution among the vertically related firms and the contract type through which vertical trading is conducted affect crucially the speed of adoption: the downstream firms can adopt later a new technology when the upstream bargaining power increases as well as when wholesale price contracts, instead of two-part tariffs, are employed. Importantly, it shows that...

  4. REVIEW ON METHODS OF RECORDING VERTICAL RELATION

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen Raj; Ashish; Shantanu; Honey

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The accuracy of recording vertical dimension at occ lusion in edentulous patients is always a prime consideration for any dent ist. Though there are many advances in techniques and materials employed in the field of pro sthodontics for recording vertical dimension at occlusion; still, there is no accurate method of assessing vertical dimension of occlusion in edentulous patients available to denti st. In assessing this component for fabrication o...

  5. Advancements of vertically aligned liquid crystal displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Jaggi, Chinky; Sharma, Vandna; Raina, Kuldeep Kumar

    2016-02-01

    This review describes the recent advancements in the field of the vertical aligned (VA) liquid crystal displays. The process and formation of different vertical alignment modes such as conventional VA, patterned VA, multi-domain VA, and polymer stabilised VA etc are widely discussed. Vertical alignment of liquid crystal due to nano particle dispersion in LC host, bifunctional PR-SAM formed by silane coupling reaction to oxide surfaces, azo dye etc., are also highlighted and discussed. Overall, the article highlights the advances in the research of vertical aligned liquid crystal in terms of their scientific and technological aspects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vertical and horizontal access configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spampinato, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    A number of configuration features and maintenance operations are influenced by the choice of whether a design is based on vertical or horizontal access for replacing reactor components. The features which are impacted most include the first wall/blanket segmentation, the poloidal field coil locations, the toroidal field coil number and size, access port size for in-vessel components, and facilities. Since either configuration can be made to work, the choice between the two is not clear cut because both have certain advantages. It is apparent that there are large cost benefits in the poloidal field coil system for ideal coil locations for high elongation plasmas and marginal savings for the INTOR case. If we assume that a new tokamak design will require a higher plasma elongation, the recommendation is to arrange the poloidal field coils in a cost-effective manner while providing reasonable midplane access for heating interfaces and test modules. If a new design study is not based on a high elongation plasma, it still appears prudent to consider this approach so that in-vessel maintenance can be accomplished without moving very massive structures such as the bulk shield. 10 refs., 29 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Safety Aspects for Vertical Wall Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, H. F.; Christiani, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this appendix some safety aspects in relation to vertical wall breakwaters are discussed. Breakwater structures such as vertical wall breakwaters are used under quite different conditions. The expected lifetime can be from 5 years (interim structure) to 100 years (permanent structure) and the ...

  8. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  9. Vertical Files in Midlands Academic Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, John G.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews survey responses from 127 nonmedical academic libraries in Nebraska, Iowa, and Kansas regarding their vertical files (e.g., acquisitions, weeding, size, nature, collection management, frequency of use, maintenance of statistics, types of users, circulation, and security), reporting that 109 had vertical files, with most emphasizing topics…

  10. Lidar measured vertical atmospheric scattering profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The vertical structure of the atmosphere, which is of invaluable interest to meteorologists, geo-physicists and environmental researchers, can be measured with LIDAR. A method has been proposed and applied to invert lidar signals from vertical soundings to height resolved scattering coefficients. In

  11. Plasmon Modes of Vertically Aligned Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    By using the Finite Element Method we visualize the modes of vertically aligned superlattice composed of gold and dielectric nanocylinders and investigate the emitter-plasmon interaction in approximation of weak coupling. We find that truncated vertically aligned superlattice can function as plas...

  12. Teaching Students the Verticality of Technical Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Peter J.

    1992-01-01

    Advocates making technical writing courses more vertical in structure by including an extensive study of at least one specific form of technical documentation. Examines how students can gain experience in the vertical process by designing, writing, testing, and producing user manuals for on-campus cooperative education clients. Lists the benefits…

  13. Vertical velocities at an ocean front

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vélez-Belchí

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Simple scaling arguments conclude that the dominant motions in the ocean are horizontal. However, the vertical velocity plays a crucial role, connecting the active upper layer with the deep ocean. Vertical velocities are mostly associated with the existence of non-transient atmospheric wind forcing or with the presence of mesoscale features. The former are the well known upwelling areas, usually found at the eastern side of the oceans and characterised by upward vertical velocities. The latter have been observed more recently in a number of areas of the world´s oceans, where the vertical velocity has been found to be of the order of several tens of meters per day, that is, an order of magnitude higher than the largest vertical velocity usually observed in upwelling areas. Nevertheless, at present, vertical velocities cannot be measured and indirect methods are therefore needed to estimate them. In this paper, the vertical velocity field is inferred via the quasi-geostrophic omega equation, using density data from a quasi-permanent upper ocean front located at the northern part of the western Alborán gyre.

  14. CBCT in diagnosis of vertical root fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Thomas Nainan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical presentation and radiographic appearance of a vertical root fracture frequently pose a diagnostic dilemma to the clinician. Lack of definitive diagnosis often leads to unnecessary invasive surgery and/or extraction of the tooth. Often exploratory surgery is resorted in order to visualize the fracture. Conventional two-dimensional radiography, including periapical and bitewing radiograph and currently cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT are being used to detect vertical root fractures. This article reviews the role of CBCT in detecting vertical root fractures.

  15. Relationships between Vertical Profiles of Radar Observed Vertical Velocity and Reflectivity in Convective Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, H.; Hagos, S. M.; Feng, Z.; Williams, C. R.; Protat, A.

    2017-12-01

    Complex relationships exist between vertical motions and microphysical processes. One source of data that provides insight into microphysical processes within convection is radar reflectivity. This study provides insight into the dynamical-microphysical interactions by evaluating several theoretical explanations that describe the relationship between vertical profiles of vertical velocity and radar reflectivity. These theoretical explanations are evaluated using data from convective storms observed near Darwin, Australia. This study first evaluates whether the vertical profile of vertical velocity can be used to describe characteristics of the vertical radar reflectivity profile. Then, the reverse is considered and this study investigates whether the vertical profile of radar reflectivity can be used to provide insight into the vertical profile of vertical velocity. These theoretical explanations are important since they provide a means to compare simulated and observed dynamical-microphysical interactions and aid in the development of future cumulus and microphysical parameterizations. Additionally, they may increase our ability observe the statistical characteristics of vertical velocity, which is highly desired by the modeling community.

  16. A high speed vertical axis wind machine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    South, P

    1976-01-01

    The operational feasibility of vertical axis wind machines was investigated at the National Aeronautical Establishment in Ottawa through use of a wind tunnel and a rotor with blades curved in a skipping rope shape...

  17. Prefabricated vertical drains, vol. I : engineering guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    This volume presents procedures and guidelines applicable to the design and instal : tion of prefabricated vertical drains to accelerate consolidation of soils. The : contents represent the Consultant's interpretation of the state-of-the-art as of : ...

  18. Relevance ranking for vertical search engines

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    In plain, uncomplicated language, and using detailed examples to explain the key concepts, models, and algorithms in vertical search ranking, Relevance Ranking for Vertical Search Engines teaches readers how to manipulate ranking algorithms to achieve better results in real-world applications. This reference book for professionals covers concepts and theories from the fundamental to the advanced, such as relevance, query intention, location-based relevance ranking, and cross-property ranking. It covers the most recent developments in vertical search ranking applications, such as freshness-based relevance theory for new search applications, location-based relevance theory for local search applications, and cross-property ranking theory for applications involving multiple verticals. It introduces ranking algorithms and teaches readers how to manipulate ranking algorithms for the best results. It covers concepts and theories from the fundamental to the advanced. It discusses the state of the art: development of ...

  19. HL-LHC vertical cryostat during construction

    CERN Multimedia

    Lanaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    7m high "Cluster D" vertical test cryostat during construction at contractor's premises, Alca Technology Srl, in Schio, Italy. The inner helium vessel with its heat exchanger are visible. To be installed in the D pit in SMA18.

  20. Updated Vertical Extent of Collision Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagg, R.; Bartzis, P.; Papanikolaou, P.

    2002-01-01

    The probabilistic distribution of the vertical extent of collision damage is an important and somewhat controversial component of the proposed IMO harmonized damage stability regulations for cargo and passenger ships. The only pre-existing vertical distribution, currently used in the international...... cargo ship regulations, was based on a very simplified presumption of bow heights. This paper investigates the development of this damage extent distribution based on three independent methodologies; actual casualty measurements, world fleet bow height statistics, and collision simulation modeling...

  1. Reliability Analysis of Existing Vertical Wall Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1998-01-01

    Vertical wall breakwaters are used under quite different conditions where failure of the breakwater or a part of it will have very different consequences. Further a number of existing vertical wall breakwaters have been subjected to significant wave loads which have caused partial failures of the...... of the structures. The main objective of this paper is to describe how the reliability of existing breakwater structures within the expected remaining lifetime can be estimated taking into account the available information....

  2. Vertical Scan-Conversion for Filling Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Hersch, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional scan-conversion algorithms were developed independently of filling algorithms. They cause many problems, when used for filling purposes. However, today's raster printers and plotters require extended use of filling, especially for the generation of typographic characters and graphic line art. A new scan-conversion algorithm, called vertical scan-conversion has been specifically designed to meet the requirements of parity scan line fill algorithms. Vertical scan-conversion ensures...

  3. Vertical integration in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mommsen, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Vertical integration in the nuclear fuel cycle and its contribution to market power of integrated fuel suppliers were studied. The industry subdivision analyzed is the uranium raw materials sector. The hypotheses demonstrated are that (1) this sector of the industry is trending toward vertical integration between production of uranium raw materials and the manufacture of nuclear fuel elements, and (2) this vertical integration confers upon integrated firms a significant market advantage over non-integrated fuel manufacturers. Under microeconomic concepts the rationale for vertical integration is the pursuit of efficiency, and it is beneficial because it increases physical output and decreases price. The Market Advantage Model developed is an arithmetical statement of the relative market power (in terms of price) between non-integrated nuclear fuel manufacturers and integrated raw material/fuel suppliers, based on the concept of the ''squeeze.'' In operation, the model compares net profit and return on sales of nuclear fuel elements between the competitors, under different price and cost circumstances. The model shows that, if integrated and non-integrated competitors sell their final product at identical prices, the non-integrated manufacturer returns a net profit only 17% of the integrated firm. Also, the integrated supplier can price his product 35% below the non-integrated producer's price and still return the same net profit. Vertical integration confers a definite market advantage to the integrated supplier, and the basic source of that advantage is the cost-price differential of the raw material, uranium

  4. Dynamic cyclovergence during vertical translation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasagasti, Itsaso; Bockisch, Christopher J; Zee, David S; Straumann, Dominik

    2011-07-06

    When humans are accelerated along the body vertical, the right and left eyes show oppositely directed torsional modulation (cyclovergence). The origin of this paradoxical response is unknown. We studied cyclovergence during linear sinusoidal vertical motion in healthy humans. A small head-fixed visual target minimized horizontal and vertical motion of the eyes and therefore isolated the torsional component. For stimuli between 1 and 2 Hz (near the natural range of head motion), the phase of cyclovergence with respect to inertial acceleration was 8.7 ± 2.4° (mean ± 95% CI) and the sensitivity (in degrees per second per g) showed a small but statistically significant increase with frequency. These characteristics contrast with those of cycloversion (conjugate torsion) during horizontal (interaural) inertial stimuli at similar frequencies. From these and previous results, we propose that cyclovergence during vertical translation has two sources, one, like cycloversion, from the low-frequency component of linear acceleration, and another, which we term dynamic cyclovergence, with high-pass characteristics. Furthermore, we suggest that this cyclovergence response in humans is a vestige of the response of lateral-eyed animals to vertical linear acceleration of the head.

  5. Measurement of vertical stroke Vcb vertical stroke at the Z energy from B mesons exclusive decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinelli, N.

    1998-01-01

    Recent ALEPH, DELPHI and OPAL measurements of the form factors in the exclusive decay modes anti B 0 → D *+ l - anti ν l and anti B 0 →D + l - anti ν l are reviewed here. The values obtained allow an almost model-independent determination of vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke in the HQET framework. (orig.)

  6. Measurement of vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke using b hadron semileptonic decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbiendi, G.; Aakesson, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    The magnitude of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke is determined by measuring the inclusive charmless semileptonic branching fraction of beauty hadrons at OPAL based on b → X u lν event topology and kinematics. This analysis uses OPAL data collected between 1991 and 1995, which correspond to about four million hadronic Z decays. We measure Br(b → X u lν) to be (1.63 ±0.53 +0.55 -0.62 ) x 10 -3 . The first uncertainty is the statistical error and the second is the systematic error. From this analysis, vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke is determined to be: vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke =(4.00±0.65(stat) +0.67 -0.76 (sys)±0.19(HQE)) x 10 -3 . The last error represents the theoretical uncertainties related to the extraction of vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke from Br(b→X u l ν) using the Heavy Quark Expansion. (orig.)

  7. Dissociated vertical deviation and eye torsion: Relation to disparity-induced vertical vergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rijn, L J; Simonsz, H J; Tusscher, M P

    1997-01-01

    We studied the relation between vertical eye movements and binocular torsion in five subjects with dissociated vertical deviation (DVD). During trials, subject viewed a well illuminated Snellen letter chart, with both eyes uncovered during 4 seconds, Subsequently, DVD was induced by covering one eye during 4 seconds. Finally, both eyes were uncovered during 4 seconds. Several trials were recorded for each subject and covered eye. Eye movements were measured with scleral coils. We found that in all subjects, the vertical divergence followed an exponential course with a time constant of 0.67 ± 0.14 seconds on average. In three of the five subjects this vertical divergence was associated with binocular torsion (cycloversion), partly, in the form of a cycloversional nystagmus. The time course of the vertical divergence as well as the direction and nystagmic nature of the cycloversion was similar to the behaviour that was previously observed in disparity induced vertical vergence in normal subjects. In two of the subjects, the torsion that was associated with the vertical divergence was monocular. Our results indicate that DVD and disparity induced vertical vergence share the same characteristics. In addition, they demonstrate that extorsion associated with the elevation in DVD possibly but not necessarily points at a dissociated torsional deviation.

  8. Dissociated vertical deviation and eye torsion: Relation to disparity-induced vertical vergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. van Rijn; H.J. Simonsz (Huib); M.P.M. ten Tusscher

    1997-01-01

    textabstractWe studied the relation between vertical eye movements and binocular torsion in five subjects with dissociated vertical deviation (DVD). During trials, subject viewed a well illuminated Snellen letter chart, with both eyes uncovered during 4 seconds. Subsequently, DVD was induced by

  9. A global vertical reference frame based on four regional vertical datums

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2004), s. 493-502 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : geopotentinal * local vertical datums * global vertical reference frame Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.447, year: 2004

  10. Liquid storage tanks under vertical excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippacopoulos, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Until recently, the hydrodynamic effects on liquid storage tanks induced by an earthquake excitation were basically treated for the horizontal component of the earthquake. Recent studies, however, showed that the hydrodynamic effects due to the vertical component of an earthquake may be significant. In these studies the tank is assumed to be fixed at the bottom. This paper is concerned with the hydrodynamic behavior of liquid storage tanks induced by vertical earthquake input excitation. First, the fluid-tank system is treated as a fixed-base system and a simple formula is obtained for the coupled fluid-structure natural frequency. Second, additional interaction effects due to the foundation flexibility on the fluid-tank system are investigated. It is concluded that the foundation flexibility may have a significant effect on the hydrodynamic behavior of the liquid storage tanks under a vertical ground shaking

  11. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki; Okawa, Takeya

    2013-01-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified

  12. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Okawa, Takeya; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki

    2013-07-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified.

  13. Plasmonic Properties of Vertically Aligned Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs/Ag sheath composites were produced to investigate plasmonic coupling between vertically aligned NWs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS applications. In this investigation, two types of vertical NW arrays were studied; those of ZnO NWs grown on nanosphere lithography patterned sapphire substrate via vapor-liquid-solid (VLS mechanism and Si NW arrays produced by wet chemical etching. Both types of vertical NW arrays were coated with a thin layer of silver by electroless silver plating for SERS enhancement studies. The experimental results show extremely strong SERS signals due to plasmonic coupling between the NWs, which was verified by COMSOL electric field simulations. We also compared the SERS enhancement intensity of aligned and random ZnO NWs, indicating that the aligned NWs show much stronger and repeatable SERS signal than those grown in nonaligned geometries.

  14. European Vertical Reference System Influence in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celms, A.; Reķe, I.; Ratkevičs, A.

    2015-11-01

    Till 1 December, 2014, in Latvia the heights were determined in Baltic Normal Height System 1977. The national height system is determined by the Cabinet of Ministers and internal laws. Now for the change of the national height system to reconcile it with the European Vertical Reference System, amendments to the laws and regulations have been developed, but so far only the amendment to the Geospatial Information Law is in force, the amendment to the regulation of the Cabinet of Ministers is still not approved. This amendment declares the Latvia Height System based on the European Vertical Reference System in Latvia as the national height system. For height transformation, there is a transformation formula for each European country. After calculations it is seen that height difference between Baltic Normal Height System 1977 and European Vertical Reference System depends on point location in the territory (coordinates). This unequal height difference between both height systems will cause unequal height values on border connection points between Baltic countries. The aim of the research is to evaluate the European Vertical Reference System in Latvia. To reach the aim the following tasks are set: 1) to evaluate the components of transformation formulas; 2) using the transformation formulas to calculate height differences between Baltic Normal Height System 1977 and the European Vertical Reference System realization EVRF2007 for the territory of Latvia and also between Baltic Normal Height System 1977 and the Latvia Normal Height System; 3) to get height differences in the European Vertical Reference System on the borderlines of Latvia - Estonia and Latvia - Lithuania.

  15. The Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology (RVLT) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Gloria K.

    2018-01-01

    The Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology (RVLT) Project is one of six projects in the Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP) of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. The overarching goal of the RVLT Project is to develop and validate tools, technologies, and concepts to overcome key barriers for vertical lift vehicles. The project vision is to enable the next generation of vertical lift vehicles with aggressive goals for efficiency, noise, and emissions, to expand current capabilities and develop new commercial markets. The RVLT Project invests in technologies that support conventional, non-conventional, and emerging vertical-lift aircraft in the very light to heavy vehicle classes. Research areas include acoustic, aeromechanics, drive systems, engines, icing, hybrid-electric systems, impact dynamics, experimental techniques, computational methods, and conceptual design. The project research is executed at NASA Ames, Glenn, and Langley Research Centers; the research extensively leverages partnerships with the US Army, the Federal Aviation Administration, industry, and academia. The primary facilities used by the project for testing of vertical-lift technologies include the 14- by 22-Ft Wind Tunnel, Icing Research Tunnel, National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, 7- by 10-Ft Wind Tunnel, Rotor Test Cell, Landing and Impact Research facility, Compressor Test Facility, Drive System Test Facilities, Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility, Vertical Motion Simulator, Mobile Acoustic Facility, Exterior Effects Synthesis and Simulation Lab, and the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Complex. To learn more about the RVLT Project, please stop by booth #1004 or visit their website at https://www.nasa.gov/aeroresearch/programs/aavp/rvlt.

  16. Breakwaters with Vertical and Inclined Concrete Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk

    Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects in the de......Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects...

  17. Confocal profilometer with nanometric vertical resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, D.J.; Horsfall, A.; Hrynevych, M.; Kearney, P.D.; Nugent, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    An optical system is described which is based on the method of Kobayashi et al. The instrument is capable of simultaneous confocal imaging and profilometry with nanometric (nm) vertical resolution. The profile is independent of the reflectivity of the sample and is obtained by raster-scanning the sample without active feedback. It is shown that the vertical resolution of this technique may be extended down to 1 nm and have recorded images with a resolution of better than 3 nm. The concept and design is considerably simpler than most optical profilometers and may represent the most affordable method of profilometry with nanometric resolution available. 15 refs., 6 figs

  18. Geophysical aspects of vertical streamer seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sognnes, Walter

    1998-12-31

    Vertical cable acquisition is performed by deploying a certain number of vertical hydrophone arrays in the water column, and subsequently shooting a source point on top of it. The advantage of this particular geometry is that gives a data set with all azimuths included. Therefore a more complete 3-D velocity model can be derived. In this paper there are presented some results from the Fuji survey in the Gulf of Mexico. Based on these results, improved geometries and review recommendations for future surveys are discussed. 7 figs.

  19. Certified standards and vertical coordination in aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the interaction between food standards and vertical coordination in the Vietnamese pangasius sector. For farmers and processors alike, the adoption of standards is motivated by a desire to improve market access by ensuring high quality supply. Instead of encouraging...... the application of standards and contract farming, processing companies prefer to vertically integrate primary production largely due to concerns over the stable supply of pangasius with satisfactory quality and safety attributes. These tendencies increase the market dominance of industrial farming and worsen...

  20. Thermal Stratification in Vertical Mantle Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Furbo, Simon

    2001-01-01

    are carried out to investigate how the thermal stratification is affected by different placements of the mantle inlet. The heat transfer between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the domestic water in the inner tank is analysed by CFD-simulations. Furthermore, the flow pattern in the vertical mantle......It is well known that it is important to have a high degree of thermal stratification in the hot water storage tank to achieve a high thermal performance of SDHW systems. This study is concentrated on thermal stratification in vertical mantle tanks. Experiments based on typical operation conditions...

  1. Measurement of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke Vts vertical stroke 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unverdorben, Christopher Gerhard

    2015-03-01

    This is the first direct measurement of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke, using data collected by the ATLAS detector in 2012 at √(s)= 8 TeV pp-collisions with a total integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb -1 . The analysis is based on 112 171 reconstructed t anti t candidate events in the lepton+jets channel, having a purity of 90.0 %. 183 t anti t→W + W - b anti s decays are expected (charge conjugation implied), which are available for the extraction of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 . To identify these rare decays, several observables are examined, such as the properties of jets, tracks and of b-quark identification algorithms. Furthermore, the s-quark hadrons K 0 s are considered, reconstructed by a kinematic fit. The best observables are combined in a multivariate analysis, called ''boosted decision trees''. The responses from Monte Carlo simulations are used as templates for a fit to data events yielding a significance value of 0.7σ for t→s+W decays. An upper limit of vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 <1.74 % at 95 % confidence level is set, including all systematic and statistical uncertainties. So this analysis, using a direct measurement of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 , provides the best direct limit on vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 up to now.

  2. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the...

  3. Phase diagram of vertically shaken ganular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, P.G.; Eshuis, Peter; van der Weele, J.P.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Bos, Robert; Lohse, Detlef

    2007-01-01

    A shallow, vertically shaken granular bed in a quasi-two-dimensional container is explored experimentally yielding a wider variety of phenomena than in any previous study: (1) bouncing bed, (2) undulations, (3) granular Leidenfrost effect, (4) convection rolls, and (5) granular gas. These phenomena

  4. Vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) based optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The optical classification of the different water types provides vital input for studies related to primary productivity, water clarity and determination of euphotic depth. Image data of the IRS-. P3 MOS-B, for Path 90 of 27th February, 1998 was used for deriving vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and an optical ...

  5. MHD stability of vertically asymmetric tokamak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalhed, H.E.; Grimm, R.C.; Johnson, J.L.

    1981-03-01

    The ideal MHD stability properties of a special class of vertically asymmetric tokamak equilibria are examined. The calculations confirm that no major new physical effects are introduced and the modifications can be understood by conventional arguments. The results indicate that significant departures from up-down symmetry can be tolerated before the reduction in β becomes important for reactor operation

  6. Manufacturing: the new case for vertical integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumpe, Ted; Bolwijn, Piet

    1988-01-01

    The article argues that the solid corporation will continue to view vertical integration as a critical part of manufacturing reform. Manufacturing reform and backward integration are related in insidious ways to the three stages of production over which the big manufacturers preside. Without

  7. Electrostatic comb drive for vertical actuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A. P., LLNL

    1997-07-10

    The electrostatic comb finger drive has become an integral design for microsensor and microactuator applications. This paper reports on utilizing the levitation effect of comb fingers to design vertical-to-the-substrate actuation for interferometric applications. For typical polysilicon comb drives with 2 {micro}m gaps between the stationary and moving fingers, as well as between the microstructures and the substrate, the equilibrium position is nominally 1-2 {micro}m above the stationary comb fingers. This distance is ideal for many phase shifting interferometric applications. Theoretical calculations of the vertical actuation characteristics are compared with the experimental results, and a general design guideline is derived from these results. The suspension flexure stiffnesses, gravity forces, squeeze film damping, and comb finger thicknesses are parameters investigated which affect the displacement curve of the vertical microactuator. By designing a parallel plate capacitor between the suspended mass and the substrate, in situ position sensing can be used to control the vertical movement, providing a total feedback-controlled system. Fundamentals of various capacitive position sensing techniques are discussed. Experimental verification is carried out by a Zygo distance measurement interferometer.

  8. Vertical strategic alignment and public service performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrews, R.; Boyne, G.A.; Meier, K.J.; O'Toole, Laurence J.; Walker, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a study examining the effects of vertical strategic alignment (that is, the degree to which strategic stances are consistent across different organizational levels) on public service performance. Longitudinal multivariate analysis is undertaken on a panel of public

  9. Integrated Vertical Photobioreactor System for Carbon Dioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vertical photobioreactor containing the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus is a highly efficient system for converting carbon dioxide (CO2) into biomass. The use of photobioreactor for CO2 mitigation has been explored using microalgae as photosynthetic microorganism. The growth rate (m, h-1) were 0.03; 0.13; 0.20; 0.09 ...

  10. Vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) based optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The optical classification of the different water types provides vital input for studies related to primary productivity, water clarity and determination of euphotic depth. Image data of the IRS- P3 MOS-B, for Path 90 of 27th February, 1998 was used for deriving vertical diffuse attenuation Coeffcient () and an optical ...

  11. Determinants Of Vertical And Horizontal Export Diversification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intuition is that East Asian countries have devoted significant amount of investment on education, health, infrastructure and these in turn created a better conducive atmosphere for FDI inflow. The study also reveals domestic investment plays an important role to enhance vertical as well as horizontal export diversification ...

  12. Vertical reflector for bifacial PV-panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2016-01-01

    Bifacial solar modules offer an interesting price/performance ratio, and much work has been focused on directing the ground albedo to the back of the solar cells. In this work we design and develop a reflector for a vertical bifacial panel, with the objective to optimize the energy harvest...

  13. On the vertical structure of wind gusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suomi, I.; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The increasing size of wind turbines, their height and the area swept by their blades have revised the need for understanding the vertical structure of wind gusts. Information is needed for the whole profile. In this study, we analyzed turbulence measurements from a 100m high meteorological mast...

  14. Optical anisotropy in vertically coupled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ping; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Leosson, Kristjan

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the polarization of surface and edge-emitted photoluminescence (PL) from structures with vertically coupled In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dots (QD's) grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The PL polarization is found to be strongly dependent on the number of stacked layers. While single...... number due to increasing dot size....

  15. Vertical coordination and cooperative member benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, Zhen; Zhang, Chen; Jia, Fu; Bijman, Jos

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural cooperatives have grown exponentially in the past few decades. There is anecdotal evidence showing that vertical coordination of cooperatives with upstream and downstream supply chain bring benefits to cooperative members; however this relationship is far from clear. In particular, the

  16. Evaluation of vertical parameters in cephalometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Jens Johannes; Fuhrmann, Robert A W

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the validity of different vertical parameters in cephalometry. The cephalograms of 94 patients were used in this study. The inclusion criteria were as follows: skeletal Class I, completion of maximum skeletal growth, and no history of orthodontic therapy. The control group consisted of 34 subjects with very good occlusion (overbite 2-4 mm). The patients were classified with the help of dental casts: Group 1 (n = 31) patients with cover-bite (overbite > 5.5 mm) and Group 2 (n = 29) patients with anterior open bite (overbite < -0.5 mm). In addition to the 24 standard cephalometric measurements (Bergen-Analysis), we included individualized norm values (Segner & Hasund), the Overbite Depth Indicator (ODI) described by Kim, the Denture Frame Analysis (DFA) described by Sato, and facial-type evaluations according to Schopf. We observed significant differences among the three study groups in all the vertical parameters tested. We demonstrated statistically-significant classification results for the Segner & Hasund harmony box's individualized norm values (83.8%), and those of the ODI (77.7%) and ML-AB angle (76.6%). Based on the vertical cephalometric parameters, we succeeded in statistically differentiating among the groups with open bite, cover-bite and the control group. Various measurements must be taken to ensure that the cephalometric vertical relationships are reliably evaluated.

  17. Vertical integration of HRD policy within companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, Ida

    2001-01-01

    This study concerns HRD policy making in companies. More specifically, it explores whether so-called vertical integration of HRD policy at different organizational levels occurs within companies. The study involved forty-four large companies in the industrial and the financial and commercial

  18. A vertically resolved model for phytoplankton aggregation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work presents models of the vertical distribution and flux of phytoplankton aggregates, including changes with time in the ... in the Arabian Sea; it demonstrates that aggregation can be important for deep sedimentation even when its effect on surface ... western parts, deep flux is strongly coupled to the increase in wind ...

  19. Digital Microfluidic System with Vertical Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F. Bender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital (droplet microfluidics (DµF is a powerful platform for automated lab-on-a-chip procedures, ranging from quantitative bioassays such as RT-qPCR to complete mammalian cell culturing. The simple MEMS processing protocols typically employed to fabricate DµF devices limit their functionality to two dimensions, and hence constrain the applications for which these devices can be used. This paper describes the integration of vertical functionality into a DµF platform by stacking two planar digital microfluidic devices, altering the electrode fabrication process, and incorporating channels for reversibly translating droplets between layers. Vertical droplet movement was modeled to advance the device design, and three applications that were previously unachievable using a conventional format are demonstrated: (1 solutions of calcium dichloride and sodium alginate were vertically mixed to produce a hydrogel with a radially symmetric gradient in crosslink density; (2 a calcium alginate hydrogel was formed within the through-well to create a particle sieve for filtering suspensions passed from one layer to the next; and (3 a cell spheroid formed using an on-chip hanging-drop was retrieved for use in downstream processing. The general capability of vertically delivering droplets between multiple stacked levels represents a processing innovation that increases DµF functionality and has many potential applications.

  20. Vertical pump with free floating check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, M.

    1980-01-01

    A vertical pump is described which has a bottom discharge with a free floating check valve disposed in the outlet plenum thereof. The free floating check valve comprises a spherical member with a hemispherical cage-like member attached thereto which is capable of allowing forward or reverse flow under appropriate conditions while preventing reverse flow under inappropriate conditions

  1. [Vertical and tortional deviations in early strabismus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, A

    1990-04-01

    The occlusion of one eye may trigger two types of deviation: 1) Heterophorias: the occluded eye deviates towards a horizontal, vertical or torsional abnormal position of rest. Fusion keeps the eyes straight during binocular fixation. 2) Dissociated deviations, horizontal (DHD), vertical (DVD), torsional (DTD): they are found in infantile strabismus. The deviation without fixation is always smaller than the deviation of the occluded eye. The more typical cases are the ones where the position of rest without fixation is an orthoposition. Normal binocular vision is lacking. Most of the time, an alternant neutralisation is found: the occlusion deviation is not the return of the occluded eye to an abnormal position of rest. The deviation is caused by a disequilibrium of binocular retinal stimulations. Horizontal and vertical deviations are easy to study. It is not the case in dissociated torsional deviation (DTD) where the incyclotorsion does not exist when fixation is absent. An indirect proof of extorsion is given by the study of horizontal and vertical deviations determined in the cardinal position of gaze. Extorsion of the globus leeds always to abnormal actions of the recti. This give a typical synoptometer chart which is found in any extorsion whatever its origins: paralysis, alphabetic patterns or infantile strabismus. Dissociated extorsions are always associated with a bilateral elevation in the primary position. Dissociated deviations are found in infantile strabismus with the other dissociations phenomenon such as nystagmus, optokinetic nystagmus asymmetry, fixation in adduction preference (and incyclotorsion).

  2. Vertical Dynamic Stiffness of Offshore Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, Chiara; Cisternino, Michele; Zania, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, pile and suction caisson foundations are widely used to support offshore structures which are subjected to vertical dynamic loads. The dynamic soil-structure interaction of floating foundations (foundations embedded in a soil layer whose height is greater than the foundation length...

  3. Proverbs : Probabilistic design tools for vertical breakwaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oumeraci, H.; Allsop, N.W.H.; De Groot, M.B.; Crouch, R.S.; Vrijling, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    Final report and appendices of the European project Proverbs on tools for the design of vertical breakwaters (caisson type breakwaters) and similar hydraulic structures in the coastal zone. It includes the loads (waves) as well as the strength of the structure (geotechnial aspects, structural

  4. Vertical root fractures and their management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasnis, Sandhya Anand; Kidiyoor, Krishnamurthy Haridas; Patil, Anand Basavaraj; Kenganal, Smita Basavaraj

    2014-03-01

    Vertical root fractures associated with endodontically treated teeth and less commonly in vital teeth represent one of the most difficult clinical problems to diagnose and treat. In as much as there are no specific symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult. Clinical detection of this condition by endodontists is becoming more frequent, where as it is rather underestimated by the general practitioners. Since, vertical root fractures almost exclusively involve endodontically treated teeth; it often becomes difficult to differentiate a tooth with this condition from an endodontically failed one or one with concomitant periodontal involvement. Also, a tooth diagnosed for vertical root fracture is usually extracted, though attempts to reunite fractured root have been done in various studies with varying success rates. Early detection of a fractured root and extraction of the tooth maintain the integrity of alveolar bone for placement of an implant. Cone beam computed tomography has been shown to be very accurate in this regard. This article focuses on the diagnostic and treatment strategies, and discusses about predisposing factors which can be useful in the prevention of vertical root fractures.

  5. Vertical Arc for ILC Low Emittance Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenenbaum, P.; Woodley, M.; SLAC

    2005-01-01

    The design and parameters of a vertical arc for the ILC Low Emittance Transport (LET) are reviewed. A 1 TeV CM ILC which relies upon 30 MV/m accelerating cavities with a packing fraction of 65% will require almost 48 km of main linac, which suggests that the total site length including BDS and bunch compressors will be on the order of 53 km. If built in a laser-straight tunnel with the low-energy ends near the surface, and assuming a perfectly spherical ''cue ball'' planetary surface with radius 6370 km, the collider halls will necessarily be 55 meters below grade, as shown in the top plot of Figure 1. Such depths would demand extensive use of deep tunneling, which would potentially drive up the cost and difficulty of ILC construction. An alternate solution is to use discrete vertical arcs at a few locations to allow a ''piecewise straight'' construction in which the depth of the tunnel below grade does not vary by more than a few meters. This approach is shown schematically in the bottom plot of Figure 1. In this Note we consider the issues for a design with one such vertical arc at the 250 GeV/c point (ie, midway down the linac for 1 TeV CM), and a second arc at the entrance to the BDS (ie, the entire BDS lies in one plane, with vertical arcs at each end)

  6. Flow and scour around vertical submerged structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A comprehensive discussion of the investigations on flow characteristics and local scour due to steady currents and waves around vertical submerged structures are presented, which comprises scour process, dimensional analysis, parameters influencing scour, temporal evolution of scour, flow field, flow visualization ...

  7. Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Vertical Cylinder Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Alan; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Gill, Tracy R.; Tri, Terry O.; Toups, Larry; Howard, Robert I.; Spexarth, Gary R.; Cavanaugh, Stephen; Langford, William M.; Dorsey, John T.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Architecture Team defined an outpost scenario optimized for intensive mobility that uses small, highly mobile pressurized rovers supported by portable habitat modules that can be carried between locations of interest on the lunar surface. A compact vertical cylinder characterizes the habitat concept, where the large diameter maximizes usable flat floor area optimized for a gravity environment and allows for efficient internal layout. The module was sized to fit into payload fairings for the Constellation Ares V launch vehicle, and optimized for surface transport carried by the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) mobility system. Launch and other loads are carried through the barrel to a top and bottom truss that interfaces with a structural support unit (SSU). The SSU contains self-leveling feet and docking interfaces for Tri-ATHLETE grasping and heavy lift. A pressurized module needed to be created that was appropriate for the lunar environment, could be easily relocated to new locations, and could be docked together in multiples for expanding pressurized volume in a lunar outpost. It was determined that horizontally oriented pressure vessels did not optimize floor area, which takes advantage of the gravity vector for full use. Hybrid hard-inflatable habitats added an unproven degree of complexity that may eventually be worked out. Other versions of vertically oriented pressure vessels were either too big, bulky, or did not optimize floor area. The purpose of the HDU vertical habitat module is to provide pressurized units that can be docked together in a modular way for lunar outpost pressurized volume expansion, and allow for other vehicles, rovers, and modules to be attached to the outpost to allow for IVA (intra-vehicular activity) transfer between them. The module is a vertically oriented cylinder with a large radius to allow for maximal floor area and use of volume. The modular, 5- m-diameter HDU vertical habitat

  8. The Vertical Farm: A Review of Developments and Implications for the Vertical City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheir Al-Kodmany

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the emerging need for vertical farms by examining issues related to food security, urban population growth, farmland shortages, “food miles”, and associated greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Urban planners and agricultural leaders have argued that cities will need to produce food internally to respond to demand by increasing population and to avoid paralyzing congestion, harmful pollution, and unaffordable food prices. The paper examines urban agriculture as a solution to these problems by merging food production and consumption in one place, with the vertical farm being suitable for urban areas where available land is limited and expensive. Luckily, recent advances in greenhouse technologies such as hydroponics, aeroponics, and aquaponics have provided a promising future to the vertical farm concept. These high-tech systems represent a paradigm shift in farming and food production and offer suitable and efficient methods for city farming by minimizing maintenance and maximizing yield. Upon reviewing these technologies and examining project prototypes, we find that these efforts may plant the seeds for the realization of the vertical farm. The paper, however, closes by speculating about the consequences, advantages, and disadvantages of the vertical farm’s implementation. Economic feasibility, codes, regulations, and a lack of expertise remain major obstacles in the path to implementing the vertical farm.

  9. Adaptation of the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex in cats during low-frequency vertical rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushiki, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Motoyoshi; Shojaku, Hideo

    2018-04-01

    We examined plastic changes in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during low-frequency vertical head rotation, a condition under which otolith inputs from the vestibular system are essential for VOR generation. For adaptive conditioning of the vertical VOR, 0.02Hz sinusoidal pitch rotation for one hour about the earth's horizontal axis was synchronized with out-of-phase vertical visual stimulation from a random dot pattern. A vertical VOR was well evoked when the upright animal rotated around the earth-horizontal axis (EHA) at low frequency due to the changing gravity stimulus and dynamic stimulation of the otoliths. After adaptive conditioning, the amplitude of the vertical VOR increased by an average of 32.1%. Our observations showing plasticity in the otolithic contribution to the VOR may provide a new strategy for visual-vestibular mismatch training in patients with otolithic disorders. This low-frequency vertical head rotation protocol also provides a model for investigating the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of VORs mediated by otolith activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Microstructure, vertical strain control and tunable functionalities in self-assembled, vertically aligned nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Aiping; Bi, Zhenxing; Jia, Quanxi; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.; Wang, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) oxide thin films have recently stimulated a significant amount of research interest owing to their novel architecture, vertical interfacial strain control and tunable material functionalities. In this work, the growth mechanisms of VAN thin films have been investigated by varying the composite material system, the ratio of the two constituent phases, and the thin film growth conditions including deposition temperature and oxygen pressure as well as growth rate. It has been shown that thermodynamic parameters, elastic and interfacial energies and the multiple phase ratio play dominant roles in the resulting microstructure. In addition, vertical interfacial strain has been observed in BiFeO 3 (BFO)- and La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 (LSMO)-based VAN thin film systems; the vertical strain could be tuned by the growth parameters and selection of a suitable secondary phase. The tunability of physical properties such as dielectric loss in BFO:Sm 2 O 3 VAN and low-field magnetoresistance in LSMO-based VAN systems has been demonstrated. The enhancement and tunability of those physical properties have been attributed to the unique VAN architecture and vertical strain control. These results suggest that VAN architecture with novel microstructure and unique vertical strain tuning could provide a general route for tailoring and manipulating the functionalities of oxide thin films

  11. Vertically Integrated Multiple Nanowire Field Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Kang, Min-Ho; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Park, Jun-Young; Bang, Tewook; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Hur, Jae; Lee, Dongil; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-12-09

    A vertically integrated multiple channel-based field-effect transistor (FET) with the highest number of nanowires reported ever is demonstrated on a bulk silicon substrate without use of wet etching. The driving current is increased by 5-fold due to the inherent vertically stacked five-level nanowires, thus showing good feasibility of three-dimensional integration-based high performance transistor. The developed fabrication process, which is simple and reproducible, is used to create multiple stiction-free and uniformly sized nanowires with the aid of the one-route all-dry etching process (ORADEP). Furthermore, the proposed FET is revamped to create nonvolatile memory with the adoption of a charge trapping layer for enhanced practicality. Thus, this research suggests an ultimate design for the end-of-the-roadmap devices to overcome the limits of scaling.

  12. Alignment analysis of a vertical sodium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, V.K.; Fair, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    With the objective of identifying important alignment features of pumps such as FFTF, HALLAM, EBR II, PNC, PHENIX, and CRBR, alignment of the vertical sodium pump for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) is investigated. The CRBRP pump includes a flexibly coupled pump shaft and motor shaft, two oil-film tilting-pad hydrodynamic radial bearings in the motor plus a vertical thrust bearing, and two sodium hydrostatic bearings straddling the double-suction centrifugal impeller in the pump. The assembled CRBRP prototype pump shows smooth predictable vibration behavior experienced during water test. An ealier swing check of the pump shaft about the motor shaft hub demonstrated that the pump is relatively insensitive to manufacturing and assembly tolerances, a consequence of close dimensional control and unique alignment features. (orig./GL)

  13. Interaction vertices in reduced string field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embacher, F.

    1989-01-01

    In contrast to previous expectations, covariant overlap vertices are not always suitable for gauge-covariant formulations of bosonic string field theory with a reduced supplementary field content. This is demonstrated for the version of the theory suggested by Neveu, Schwarz and West. The method to construct the interaction, as formulated by Neveu and West, fails at one level higher than these authors have considered. The condition for a general vertex to describe formally a local gauge-invariant interaction is derived. The solution for the action functional and the gauge transformation law is exhibited for all fields at once, to the first order in the coupling constant. However, all these vertices seem to be unphysical. 21 refs. (Author)

  14. Soft soils reinforced by rigid vertical inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia-Victoria NEAGOE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement of soft soils by rigid vertical inclusions is an increasingly used technique over the last few years. The system consists of rigid or semi-rigid vertical inclusions and a granular platform for the loads transfer from the structure to the inclusions. This technique aims to reduce the differential settlements both at ground level as below the structure. Reinforcement by rigid inclusions is mainly used for foundation works for large commercial and industrial platforms, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants, wind farms, bridges, roads, railway embankments. The subject is one of interest as it proves the recently concerns at international level in research and design; however, most studies deal more with the static behavior and less with the dynamic one.

  15. Vertically Polarized Omnidirectional Printed Slot Loop Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Thaysen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    A novel vertically polarized omnidirectional printed slot loop antenna has been designed, simulated, fabricated and measured. The slot loop works as a magnetic loop. The loop is loaded with inductors to insure uniform and in-phase fields in the slot in order to obtain an omnidirectional radiation...... pattern. The antenna is designed for the 2.45 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band. Applications of the antenna are many. One is for on-body applications since it is ideal for launching a creeping waves due to the polarization.......A novel vertically polarized omnidirectional printed slot loop antenna has been designed, simulated, fabricated and measured. The slot loop works as a magnetic loop. The loop is loaded with inductors to insure uniform and in-phase fields in the slot in order to obtain an omnidirectional radiation...

  16. Equilibrium vertical field in the TBR Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, A.Y.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental study on the influence of the vertical magnetic field of the TBR tokamak on the stability and equilibrium of plasma column, was done. Magnetic pick-up coils were built to measure plasma current and position, together with active networks, necessary fo the electronic processing of signals. Some measurements were on the space configuration of the vertical field, and on the influence due to the toroidal vessel. From the data obtained it was possible to discuss the influence of the currents induced on the vessel surface, on plasma equilibrium. Theoretical and experimental results of the vertica field, as a function of plasma current were compared, and allowed an evaluation of the plasma kinetic pressure and temperature. (Author) [pt

  17. Escrita Escolar Brasileira: a escrita vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos André Xavier Villela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O exame grafoscópico visa essencialmente a determinar se duas escritas partiram ou não de um mesmo punho. A fim de buscar dados empíricos capazes de melhor embasar uma valoração de raridade, diversos pesquisadores se dedicaram ao estudo dos sistemas de escrita. O presente trabalho analisa algumas bibliografias nacionais e estrangeiras que descrevem como se deu o alvorecer da escrita vertical e sua implantação no universo escolar brasileiro. Foi a partir das últimas décadas do século XIX que alógrafos cursivos verticais começaram a ser utilizados para o ensino da escrita. Os novos sistemas, sob a denominação escrita vertical, tiveram presença marcante em todo o mundo ocidental, sendo até hoje os sistemas predominantes em diversos países.

  18. Vertical Footbridge Vibrations: The Response Spectrum Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel, accurate and readily codifiable methodology for the prediction of vertical footbridge response is presented. The methodology is based on the well-established response spectrum approach used in the majority of the world’s current seismic design codes of practice. The concept...... of a universally applicable reference response spectrum is introduced, from which the pedestrian-induced vertical response of any footbridge may be determined, based on a defined “event” and the probability of occurrence of that event. A series of Monte Carlo simulations are undertaken for the development...... of a reference response spectrum. The simulations use known statistical data for pedestrian and population walking characteristics to generate loads for a 50m long simply-supported bridge, with a fixed level of damping and a mean pedestrian flow rate of 1 pedestrian / sec. The response obtained from...

  19. Vertical disintegration in the corporate hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Roper, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Overtime, and with the advent of moving to asset-light, the companies in the corporate hotel industry have given up parts of the value-chain. This has enabled new intermediate markets to emerge which have divided a previously integrated production/service process and enabled sets of specialised firms to enter and for the industry to become vertically disintegrated. This paper examines the drivers, as well as the necessary conditions and enabling processes, which have facilitated this industri...

  20. Vertical Carbon Nanotube Device in Nanoporous Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschmann, Matthew Ralph (Inventor); Fisher, Timothy Scott (Inventor); Sands, Timothy (Inventor); Bashir, Rashid (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A modified porous anodic alumina template (PAA) containing a thin CNT catalyst layer directly embedded into the pore walls. CNT synthesis using the template selectively catalyzes SWNTs and DWNTs from the embedded catalyst layer to the top PAA surface, creating a vertical CNT channel within the pores. Subsequent processing allows for easy contact metallization and adaptable functionalization of the CNTs and template for a myriad of applications.

  1. A national review of vertical HIV transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, John C; Alimenti, Ariane M; Singer, Joel; Brophy, Jason C; Bitnun, Ari; Samson, Lindy M; Money, Deborah M; Lee, Terry C K; Lapointe, Normand D; Read, Stanley E

    2012-03-27

    Prevention of vertical HIV transmission has evolved significantly in Canada over the last two decades. The aim of this analysis is to describe the surveillance programme used, rate of vertical HIV transmission and changing epidemiology of HIV-affected pregnancies in Canada. National perinatal HIV surveillance programme. From 1990, annual retrospective data was collected on demographic and clinical characteristics of HIV-infected mothers and their infants referred to 22 participating sites across Canada either before/during pregnancy or within 3 months after delivery. Factors impacting HIV transmission and demographic features were explored. Two thousand, six hundred and ninety-two mother-infant pairs were identified. The overall rate of vertical HIV transmission was 5.2%, declining to 2.9% since 1997. The rate of transmission for mothers who received HAART was 1%, and 0.4% if more than 4 weeks of HAART was given. Forty percent of women delivered by caesarean section, with no difference in transmission rate compared with vaginal delivery for women treated with HAART (1.4 vs. 0.6%, P = 0.129) but significant risk reduction for those who did not receive HAART (3.8 vs. 10.3%, P = 0.016). Black women were the largest group; proportions of black and aboriginal women increased significantly over time (P Vertical HIV transmission in Canada has decreased dramatically for women treated with HAART therapy. All pregnant women should be evaluated for HIV infection and programmes expanded to reach vulnerable populations including aboriginal, immigrant and IDU women.

  2. Vertical transmission of channel catfish virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J A; Harrell, S F; Busch, R L; Boyle, J A

    1988-09-01

    Channel catfish broodfish were examined nondestructively for the presence of channel catfish virus (CCV), using a nucleic acid-probing technique. A dot blot assay was tested and shown to be accurate and rapid in the diagnosis of CCV. Two CCV-positive fish were successfully mated, and fertilized eggs were collected. Offspring that hatched were tested and were shown to have CCV. This result indicated vertical transmission of CCV, a herpesvirus.

  3. Vertical integration by oil exporting countries

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Horst; Rauscher, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Most oil-producing countries have now nationalised their oil reserves and are pursuing their own pricing and marketing policies; in recent years some of them have attempted to extend their influence over the oil market by undertaking processing activities downstream from oil production. What motives underlie this strategy of vertical integration? What is its economic justification? What effects will it have on oil-importing countries?

  4. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  5. Centro-lateral subperiosteal vertical midface lift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hönig, Johannes Franz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of fiberendoscopic video-assisted technique in facial rejuvenation is one of the most advances in aesthetic plastic surgery of the face. It substitutes the coronal incision without the necessity of skin resection and allows a vertical reposition of the mobile soft tissue of the midface in indicated cases. It can easily be done through a small incision of the scalp just behind the coronal incision and in the temporal area.

  6. Option contracts in a vertical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Antelo, Manel; Bru, Lluís

    2016-01-01

    We examine, in a vertical industry, the strategic role of horizontal subcontracting through option contracts by a downstream dominant firm competing with a competitive fringe. Downstream production requires an input from an upstream component-producing industry composed of imperfectly competitive suppliers. We characterize how the dominant firm may outsource downstream production from fringe firms in order to gain bargaining clout in the upstream input market. It is shown that option contract...

  7. Vertical hydraulic transport of particulate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restini, C.V.; Massarani, G.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of particulate solid vertical transport is formulated using the conservation equations of Continuum Mechanics. It is shown that the constitutive equation for solid-fluid interaction term in the equations of motion may be determined by rather simple experiments of homogeneous fluidization. The predicted fluid pressure drop and solid concentration are in satisfacting agreement with past experiments and with data obtained in this work. (Author) [pt

  8. The Comparative Analysis of Vertical Restraints Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Agamirova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparison the way of vertical restraints regulation in the United States, the European Union and the Russian Federation is the subject to certain difficulties arising from their belonging to different types of legal system. The United States legal system belongs to the family of common law, while in the European Union and the Russian Federation operates a family of civil law. Historically, the countries that were colonies of Great Britain (the US, Canada, India, Australia steel continue the tradition of the Anglo-Saxon legal system. The civil law system dominates in Continental Europe and, consequently, in those countries that were formerly colonies of France, Denmark, Germany, Spain and Portugal. Separately to this list should include Russia and Japan. Common and civil law systems differ significantly. The common law system is characterized by a decisive role of precedents. This fact explains that in the United States the judge acts as arbiter. In contrast, the European Union civil law concept implies the existence of detailed system of rules and principles, clearly defining the regulation process for every specific area of law enforcement. Thus, every legal system determines its own peculiarities practice of vertical restraints regulation. Considering the differences of vertical restraints regulation the attention should paid not only the type of the country legal system, but also the interaction between the economic theory and the antitrust law, because the theoretical analysis played a crucial role in the regulation norms evolution.

  9. Human sensitivity to vertical self-motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesti, Alessandro; Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Macneilage, Paul R; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2014-01-01

    Perceiving vertical self-motion is crucial for maintaining balance as well as for controlling an aircraft. Whereas heave absolute thresholds have been exhaustively studied, little work has been done in investigating how vertical sensitivity depends on motion intensity (i.e., differential thresholds). Here we measure human sensitivity for 1-Hz sinusoidal accelerations for 10 participants in darkness. Absolute and differential thresholds are measured for upward and downward translations independently at 5 different peak amplitudes ranging from 0 to 2 m/s(2). Overall vertical differential thresholds are higher than horizontal differential thresholds found in the literature. Psychometric functions are fit in linear and logarithmic space, with goodness of fit being similar in both cases. Differential thresholds are higher for upward as compared to downward motion and increase with stimulus intensity following a trend best described by two power laws. The power laws' exponents of 0.60 and 0.42 for upward and downward motion, respectively, deviate from Weber's Law in that thresholds increase less than expected at high stimulus intensity. We speculate that increased sensitivity at high accelerations and greater sensitivity to downward than upward self-motion may reflect adaptations to avoid falling.

  10. Cellular heterogeneity in vertical growth phase melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laga, Alvaro C; Murphy, George F

    2010-12-01

    Melanoma growing as a tumorigenic nodule is one of the most virulent neoplasms to which the flesh is heir. At a considerably small tumor size, it incurs significant risk for widespread metastatic dissemination. There are no effective means of surgical intervention, chemical therapy, or immunologic therapy for advanced and metastatic melanoma. To review the literature and highlight recent cardinal advances in the understanding of melanoma vertical growth, with specific emphasis on how its recognition and characterization may be applied to diagnostic practice and development of novel investigative approaches. Literature review, archival material, personal experience, and research collaborators. The study of tumorigenic melanoma, both in primary lesions and in metastases, is the key to the eventual eradication of this highly virulent neoplasm that may disseminate widely when only occupying the volume of a grain of rice. Morphology often provides the first insight into structure and function. A growing database using meticulous and inclusive criteria to define tumor stem cells in the context of clinically relevant models now indicates that the key to melanoma heterogeneity may reside in a small subpopulation with the ability to self-renew and form tumors despite most cells present being significantly less virulent. Hopefully, from these insights into melanoma tumor progression from radial growth phase to heterogeneous and tumorigenic vertical growth phase will come additional answers to how smart therapies may be developed that specifically target those vertical growth phase cells that most pertain to patient survival.

  11. Improvement of vertical stabilization on KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, D.; Bak, J. G.; Boyer, M. D.; Eideitis, N.; Hahn, S. H.; Humphreys, D. A.; Kim, H. S.; Jeon, Y. M.; Lanctot, M.; Walker, M. L.

    2017-10-01

    The successful control of strongly shaped plasmas on the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device requires active feedback of fast motion of the plasma vertical position by the use of internal normal conducting coils (IVC). This has required new electronics to supply relative flux loop differences, for zp, and voltage loop differences, for dzp/dt, as well as a novel technique (Zfast) to use a high-pass filter, typically 1 Hz, on the error in the signal in the feedback loop. Use of Zfast avoids the potential contention encountered when the internal coil attempts to perform control of the plasma shape which should be controlled by the slower and more powerful superconducting coils. A common problem of this contention is saturation of the IVC and loss of fast vertical control. This is eliminated by proper use of the Zfast. A Ziegler-Nichols relay feedback system was used to fine tune the required feedback gains. The selection of the magnetic sensors, filter time constants, control gains and of the Zfast control strategy which allowed vertically stable operation at a plasma elongation, kappa. of up to 2.16 at li = 1.15 and Betap = 2.4 will be discussed which is beyond the design reference of KSTAR of kappa = 2.0 at li = 1.2 and Betap = 1.9. Work Supported by U.S.D.O.E. Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-SC0010685 and the KSTAR project.

  12. Vertical tectonics at an active continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlié, N.; Stern, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    Direct observations of vertical movements of the earth's surface are now possible with space-based GPS networks, and have applications to resources, hazards and tectonics. Here we present data on vertical movements of the Earth's surface in New Zealand, computed from the processing of GPS data collected between 2000 and 2015 by 189 permanent GPS stations. We map the geographical variation in vertical rates and show how these variations are explicable within a tectonic framework of subduction, volcanic activity and slow slip earthquakes. Subsidence of >3 mm/yr is observed along southeastern North Island and is interpreted to be due to the locked segment of the Hikurangi subduction zone. Uplift of 1-3 mm/yr further north along the margin of the eastern North Island is interpreted as being due to the plate interface being unlocked and underplating of sediment on the subduction thrust. The Volcanic Plateau of the central North Island is being uplifted at about 1 mm/yr, which can be explained by basaltic melts being injected in the active mantle-wedge at a rate of ∼6 mm/yr. Within the Central Volcanic Region there is a 250 km2 area that subsided between 2005 and 2012 at a rate of up to 14 mm/yr. Time series from the stations located within and near the zone of subsidence show a strong link between subsidence, adjacent uplift and local earthquake swarms.

  13. Dynamic stiffness of suction caissons - vertical vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.; Andersen, Lars

    2006-12-15

    The dynamic response of offshore wind turbines are affected by the properties of the foundation and the subsoil. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the dynamic soil-structure interaction of suction caissons for offshore wind turbines. The investigation is limited to a determination of the vertical dynamic stiffness of suction caissons. The soil surrounding the foundation is homogenous with linear viscoelastic properties. The dynamic stiffness of the suction caisson is expressed by dimensionless frequency-dependent dynamic stiffness coefficients corresponding to the vertical degree of freedom. The dynamic stiffness coefficients for the foundations are evaluated by means of a dynamic three-dimensional coupled Boundary Element/Finite Element model. Comparisons are made with known analytical and numerical solutions in order to evaluate the static and dynamic behaviour of the Boundary Element/Finite Element model. The vertical frequency dependent stiffness has been determined for different combinations of the skirt length, Poisson's ratio and the ratio between soil stiffness and skirt stiffness. Finally the dynamic behaviour at high frequencies is investigated. (au)

  14. Measurement of vertical stability metrics in KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Sang-Hee; Humphreys, D. A.; Mueller, D.; Bak, J. G.; Eidietis, N. W.; Kim, H.-S.; Ko, J. S.; Walker, M. L.; Kstar Team

    2017-10-01

    The paper summarizes results of multi-year ITPA experiments regarding measurement of the vertical stabilization capability of KSTAR discharges, including most recent measurements at the highest achievable elongation (κ 2.0 - 2.1). The measurements of the open-loop growth rate of VDE (γz) and the maximum controllable vertical displacement (ΔZmax) are done by the release-and-catch method. The dynamics of the vertical movement of the plasma is verified by both relevant magnetic reconstructions and non-magnetic diagnostics. The measurements of γz and ΔZmax were done for different plasma currents, βp, internal inductances, elongations and different configurations of the vessel conductors that surround the plasma as the first wall. Effects of control design choice and diagnostics noise are discussed, and comparison with the axisymmetric plasma response model is given for partial accounting for the measured control capability. This work supported by Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning under KSTAR project.

  15. The vertical distribution of tropospheric ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J. S.; Hoell, J. M.; Augustsson, T. R.

    1980-05-01

    A one-dimensional tropospheric photochemical model is used to simulate measured profiles of NH3 obtained with the Infrared Heterodyne Radiometer. The relative roles of homogeneous loss, heterogeneous loss, and vertical eddy transport are discussed in terms of selecting parameters which best fit the measurements. The best fit was obtained for a vertical eddy diffusion coefficient of 200,000/sq cm per sec or greater (corresponding to a characteristic vertical transport time in excess of about 35 days), and a characteristic heterogeneous loss time in excess of 10 days. The characteristic homogeneous chemical loss time was found to be about 40 days at the surface and decreased to about 180 days at 10 km, and not very sensitive to model chemical perturbations. Increased ground-level concentrations of NH3 to about 10 ppb, compared to background surface concentrations of about 1 ppb, were measured several weeks after application of ammonium nitrate fertilizer. This suggests that the volatilization of ammonium nitrate fertilizer is rapid, and an important source of NH3. Because of the characteristic times for the loss mechanisms, synoptic time-scale phenomena may play an important role in determining the tropospheric distribution of NH3 concentrations.

  16. TFTR vertically viewing electron cyclotron emission diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.

    1990-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Michelson interferometer has a spectral coverage of 75--540 GHz, allowing measurement of the first four electron cyclotron harmonics. Until recently the instrument has been configured to view the TFTR plasma on the horizontal midplane, primarily in order to measure the electron temperature profile. Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) extraordinary mode spectra from TFTR Supershot plasmas exhibit a pronounced, spectrally narrow feature below the second harmonic. A similar feature is seen with the ECE radiometer diagnostic below the electron cyclotron fundamental frequency in the ordinary mode. Analysis of the ECE spectra indicates the possibility of a non-Maxwellian 40--80 keV tail on the electron distribution in or near the core. During 1990 three vertical views with silicon carbide viewing targets will be installed to provide a direct measurement of the electron energy distribution at major radii of 2.54, 2.78, and 3.09 m with an energy resolution of approximately 20% at 100 keV. To provide the maximum flexibility, the optical components for the vertical views will be remotely controlled to allow the Michelson interferometer to be reconfigured to either the midplane horizontal view or one of the three vertical views between plasma shots

  17. Algebraic motion of vertically displacing plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferlé, D.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2018-02-01

    The vertical motion of a tokamak plasma is analytically modelled during its non-linear phase by a free-moving current-carrying rod inductively coupled to a set of fixed conducting wires or a cylindrical conducting shell. The solutions capture the leading term in a Taylor expansion of the Green's function for the interaction between the plasma column and the surrounding vacuum vessel. The plasma shape and profiles are assumed not to vary during the vertical drifting phase such that the plasma column behaves as a rigid body. In the limit of perfectly conducting structures, the plasma is prevented to come in contact with the wall due to steep effective potential barriers created by the induced Eddy currents. Resistivity in the wall allows the equilibrium point to drift towards the vessel on the slow timescale of flux penetration. The initial exponential motion of the plasma, understood as a resistive vertical instability, is succeeded by a non-linear "sinking" behaviour shown to be algebraic and decelerating. The acceleration of the plasma column often observed in experiments is thus concluded to originate from an early sharing of toroidal current between the core, the halo plasma, and the wall or from the thermal quench dynamics precipitating loss of plasma current.

  18. Retrieving Vertical Air Motion and Raindrop Size Distributions from Vertically Pointing Doppler Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. R.; Chandra, C. V.

    2017-12-01

    The vertical evolution of falling raindrops is a result of evaporation, breakup, and coalescence acting upon those raindrops. Computing these processes using vertically pointing radar observations is a two-step process. First, the raindrop size distribution (DSD) and vertical air motion need to be estimated throughout the rain shaft. Then, the changes in DSD properties need to be quantified as a function of height. The change in liquid water content is a measure of evaporation, and the change in raindrop number concentration and size are indicators of net breakup or coalescence in the vertical column. The DSD and air motion can be retrieved using observations from two vertically pointing radars operating side-by-side and at two different wavelengths. While both radars are observing the same raindrop distribution, they measure different reflectivity and radial velocities due to Rayleigh and Mie scattering properties. As long as raindrops with diameters greater than approximately 2 mm are in the radar pulse volumes, the Rayleigh and Mie scattering signatures are unique enough to estimate DSD parameters using radars operating at 3- and 35-GHz (Williams et al. 2016). Vertical decomposition diagrams (Williams 2016) are used to explore the processes acting on the raindrops. Specifically, changes in liquid water content with height quantify evaporation or accretion. When the raindrops are not evaporating, net raindrop breakup and coalescence are identified by changes in the total number of raindrops and changes in the DSD effective shape as the raindrops. This presentation will focus on describing the DSD and air motion retrieval method using vertical profiling radar observations from the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) central facility in Northern Oklahoma.

  19. Gating Technology for Vertically Parted Green Sand Moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per

    Gating technology for vertically parted green sand moulds. Literature study of different ways of designing gating systems.......Gating technology for vertically parted green sand moulds. Literature study of different ways of designing gating systems....

  20. Vertical Impact Tests of the Panoramic Night Vision Goggle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perry, Chris

    1998-01-01

    ...) subjected to simulated catapult dynamics while wearing the Panoramic Night Vision Goggle (PNVG). A series of vertical impacts were conducted with the PNVG using the AFRL/HEPA Vertical Deceleration Tower...

  1. A Vertical Grid Module for Baroclinic Models of the Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, John B [ORNL

    2008-04-01

    The vertical grid of an atmospheric model assigns dynamic and thermo- dynamic variables to grid locations. The vertical coordinate is typically not height but one of a class of meteorological variables that vary with atmo- spheric conditions. The grid system is chosen to further numerical approx- imations of the boundary conditions so that the system is terrain following at the surface. Lagrangian vertical coordinates are useful in reducing the numerical errors from advection processes. That the choices will effect the numercial properties and accuracy is explored in this report. A MATLAB class for Lorentz vertical grids is described and applied to the vertical struc- ture equation and baroclinic atmospheric circulation. A generalized meteo- rolgoical coordinate system is developed which can support σ, isentropic θ vertical coordinate, or Lagrangian vertical coordinates. The vertical atmo- spheric column is a MATLAB class that includes the kinematic and ther- modynamic variables along with methods for computing geopoentials and terms relevant to a 3D baroclinc atmospheric model.

  2. Temporomandibular Disorders Treatment with Correction of Decreased Occlusal Vertical Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuben Guguvcevski

    2017-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Occlusal splint is a part of reversible occlusal therapy in cases with decreased occlusal vertical dimension. After reducing the symptoms related to decreased occlusal vertical dimension definitive prosthetic therapy can be done.

  3. The correction of occlusal vertical dimension on tooth wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostiny Rostiny

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The loss of occlusal vertical dimension which is caused by tooth wear is necessarily treated to regain vertical dimension. Correctional therapy should be done as early possible. In this case, simple and relatively low cost therapy was performed. In unserve loss of occlusal vertical dimension, partial removable denture could be used and the improvement of lengthening anterior teeth using composite resin to improve to regain vertical dimensional occlusion.

  4. The correction of occlusal vertical dimension on tooth wear

    OpenAIRE

    Rostiny, Rostiny

    2007-01-01

    The loss of occlusal vertical dimension which is caused by tooth wear is necessarily treated to regain vertical dimension. Correctional therapy should be done as early possible. In this case, simple and relatively low cost therapy was performed. In unserve loss of occlusal vertical dimension, partial removable denture could be used and the improvement of lengthening anterior teeth using composite resin to improve to regain vertical dimensional occlusion.

  5. Vertical specialization and industrial upgrading: a preliminary note

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Jiang; William Milberg

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vertical specialization is a measure of the import content of exports. Given the widely recognized importance of trade in tasks and global production networks, vertical specialization has recently gained the attention of international trade researchers and policy makers. In this note, we use measured changes in the within-country pattern of vertical specialization to gauge the relevance of task trade for industrial upgrading and economic development. We first calculate vertical speci...

  6. Analysis of vertical stability limits and vertical displacement event behavior on NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Mark; Battaglia, Devon; Gerhardt, Stefan; Menard, Jonathan; Mueller, Dennis; Myers, Clayton; Sabbagh, Steven; Smith, David

    2017-10-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) completed its first run campaign in 2016, including commissioning a larger center-stack and three new tangentially aimed neutral beam sources. NSTX-U operates at increased aspect ratio due to the larger center-stack, making vertical stabilization more challenging. Since ST performance is improved at high elongation, improvements to the vertical control system were made, including use of multiple up-down-symmetric flux loop pairs for real-time estimation, and filtering to remove noise. Similar operating limits to those on NSTX (in terms of elongation and internal inductance) were achieved, now at higher aspect ratio. To better understand the observed limits and project to future operating points, a database of vertical displacement events and vertical oscillations observed during the plasma current ramp-up on NSTX/NSTX-U has been generated. Shots were clustered based on the characteristics of the VDEs/oscillations, and the plasma parameter regimes associated with the classes of behavior were studied. Results provide guidance for scenario development during ramp-up to avoid large oscillations at the time of diverting, and provide the means to assess stability of target scenarios for the next campaign. Results will also guide plans for improvements to the vertical control system. Work supported by U.S. D.O.E. Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  7. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  8. Mechanical design of NASA Ames Research Center vertical motion simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbert, D. F.; Bakke, A. P.; Chargin, M. K.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    NASA has designed and is constructing a new flight simulator with large vertical travel. Several aspects of the mechanical design of this Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) are discussed, including the multiple rack and pinion vertical drive, a pneumatic equilibration system, and the friction-damped rigid link catenaries used as cable supports.

  9. The temporal structure of vertical arm movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie Gaveau

    Full Text Available The present study investigates how the CNS deals with the omnipresent force of gravity during arm motor planning. Previous studies have reported direction-dependent kinematic differences in the vertical plane; notably, acceleration duration was greater during a downward than an upward arm movement. Although the analysis of acceleration and deceleration phases has permitted to explore the integration of gravity force, further investigation is necessary to conclude whether feedforward or feedback control processes are at the origin of this incorporation. We considered that a more detailed analysis of the temporal features of vertical arm movements could provide additional information about gravity force integration into the motor planning. Eight subjects performed single joint vertical arm movements (45° rotation around the shoulder joint in two opposite directions (upwards and downwards and at three different speeds (slow, natural and fast. We calculated different parameters of hand acceleration profiles: movement duration (MD, duration to peak acceleration (D PA, duration from peak acceleration to peak velocity (D PA-PV, duration from peak velocity to peak deceleration (D PV-PD, duration from peak deceleration to the movement end (D PD-End, acceleration duration (AD, deceleration duration (DD, peak acceleration (PA, peak velocity (PV, and peak deceleration (PD. While movement durations and amplitudes were similar for upward and downward movements, the temporal structure of acceleration profiles differed between the two directions. More specifically, subjects performed upward movements faster than downward movements; these direction-dependent asymmetries appeared early in the movement (i.e., before PA and lasted until the moment of PD. Additionally, PA and PV were greater for upward than downward movements. Movement speed also changed the temporal structure of acceleration profiles. The effect of speed and direction on the form of acceleration

  10. The temporal structure of vertical arm movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, Jérémie; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates how the CNS deals with the omnipresent force of gravity during arm motor planning. Previous studies have reported direction-dependent kinematic differences in the vertical plane; notably, acceleration duration was greater during a downward than an upward arm movement. Although the analysis of acceleration and deceleration phases has permitted to explore the integration of gravity force, further investigation is necessary to conclude whether feedforward or feedback control processes are at the origin of this incorporation. We considered that a more detailed analysis of the temporal features of vertical arm movements could provide additional information about gravity force integration into the motor planning. Eight subjects performed single joint vertical arm movements (45° rotation around the shoulder joint) in two opposite directions (upwards and downwards) and at three different speeds (slow, natural and fast). We calculated different parameters of hand acceleration profiles: movement duration (MD), duration to peak acceleration (D PA), duration from peak acceleration to peak velocity (D PA-PV), duration from peak velocity to peak deceleration (D PV-PD), duration from peak deceleration to the movement end (D PD-End), acceleration duration (AD), deceleration duration (DD), peak acceleration (PA), peak velocity (PV), and peak deceleration (PD). While movement durations and amplitudes were similar for upward and downward movements, the temporal structure of acceleration profiles differed between the two directions. More specifically, subjects performed upward movements faster than downward movements; these direction-dependent asymmetries appeared early in the movement (i.e., before PA) and lasted until the moment of PD. Additionally, PA and PV were greater for upward than downward movements. Movement speed also changed the temporal structure of acceleration profiles. The effect of speed and direction on the form of acceleration

  11. Vertical Redistribution of Ocean Salt Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X.; Liu, C.; Ponte, R. M.; Piecuch, C. G.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean salinity is an important proxy for change and variability in the global water cycle. Multi-decadal trends have been observed in both surface and subsurface salinity in the past decades, and are usually attributed to the change in air-sea freshwater flux. Although air-sea freshwater flux, a major component of the global water cycle, certainly contributes to the change in surface and upper ocean salinity, the salt redistribution inside the ocean can affect the surface and upper ocean salinity as well. Also, the mechanisms controlling the surface and upper ocean salinity changes likely depend on timescales. Here we examined the ocean salinity changes as well as the contribution of the vertical redistribution of salt with a 20-year dynamically consistent and data-constrained ocean state estimate (ECCO: Estimating Circulation and Climate of the Ocean). A decrease in the spatial mean upper ocean salinity and an upward salt flux inside the ocean were observed. These findings indicate that over 1992-2011, surface freshwater fluxes contribute to the decrease in spatial mean upper ocean salinity and are partly compensated by the vertical redistribution of salt inside the ocean. Between advection and diffusion, the two major processes determining the vertical exchange of salt, the advective term at different depths shows a downward transport, while the diffusive term is the dominant upward transport contributor. These results suggest that the salt transport in the ocean interior should be considered in interpreting the observed surface and upper ocean salinity changes, as well as inferring information about the changes in the global water cycle.

  12. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Febriyani, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.fanuel@students.itb.ac.id; Prijatna, Kosasih, E-mail: prijatna@gd.itb.ac.id; Meilano, Irwan, E-mail: irwan.meilano@gd.itb.ac.id

    2015-04-24

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  13. Innovative Design of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    The wind turbines can be classified as: i) Horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT), and ii) Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT). The HAWT is fully developed and the size is growing higher. Whereas, the VAWT is not developed because of the less efficiency and vibration issues of big structure. However......, and its aerodynamic characteristics are obtained by an experimental method. A new design is called D2퐴 − 푉퐴푊푇 and a test ring is made to validate the numerical results. A double multiple stream tube method (DMSTM) and blade element method (BEM) are used to determine the numerical performance of a proposed...

  14. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  15. On triangle meshes with valence dominant vertices

    KAUST Repository

    Morvan, Jean-Marie

    2018-02-16

    We study triangulations $\\\\cal T$ defined on a closed disc $X$ satisfying the following condition: In the interior of $X$, the valence of all vertices of $\\\\cal T$ except one of them (the irregular vertex) is $6$. By using a flat singular Riemannian metric adapted to $\\\\cal T$, we prove a uniqueness theorem when the valence of the irregular vertex is not a multiple of $6$. Moreover, for a given integer $k >1$, we exhibit non isomorphic triangulations on $X$ with the same boundary, and with a unique irregular vertex whose valence is $6k$.

  16. Recent Arctic warming vertical structure contested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, A N; Brönnimann, S; Haimberger, L

    2008-09-11

    The vertical structure of the recent Arctic warming contains information about the processes governing Arctic climate trends. Graversen et al. argue, on the basis of ERA-40 reanalysis data, that a distinct maximum in 1979-2001 warm-season (April-October) Arctic temperature trends appears around 3 km above ground. Here we show that this is due to the heterogeneous nature of the data source, which incorporates information from satellites and radiosondes. Radiosonde data alone suggest the warming was strongest near ground.

  17. Propulsion systems for vertical flight aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, A.

    1990-01-01

    The present evaluation of VTOL airframe/powerplant integration configurations combining high forward flight speed with safe and efficient vertical flight identifies six configurations that can be matched with one of three powerplant types: turboshafts, convertible-driveshaft lift fans, and gas-drive lift fans. The airframes configurations are (1) tilt-rotor, (2) folded tilt-rotor, (3) tilt-wing, (4) rotor wing/disk wing, (5) lift fan, and (6) variable-diameter rotor. Attention is given to the lift-fan VTOL configuration. The evaluation of these configurations has been conducted by both a joint NASA/DARPA program and the NASA High Speed Rotorcraft program. 7 refs.

  18. Carbon export by vertically migrating zooplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Agnethe Nøhr; Visser, André W.

    2016-01-01

    Through diel vertical migration (DVM), zooplankton add an active transport to the otherwise passive sinking of detrital material that constitutes the biological pump. This active transport has proven difficult to quantify. We present a model that estimates both the temporal and depth characterist...... is transported than at either equatorial or boreal latitudes. We estimate that the amount of carbon transported below the mixed layer by migrating zooplankton in the North Atlantic Ocean constitutes 27% (16–30%) of the total export flux associated with the biological pump in that region...

  19. Surface vertical deposition for gold nanoparticle film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, J J; Qiu, F S; Chen, G D; Reeves, M E

    2003-01-01

    In this rapid communication, we present the surface vertical deposition (SVD) method to synthesize the gold nanoparticle films. Under conditions where the surface of the gold nanoparticle suspension descends slowly by evaporation, the gold nanoparticles in the solid-liquid-gas junction of the suspension aggregate together on the substrate by the force of solid and liquid interface. When the surface properties of the substrate and colloidal nanoparticle suspension define for the SVD, the density of gold nanoparticles in the thin film made by SVD only depends on the descending velocity of the suspension surface and on the concentration of the gold nanoparticle suspension. (rapid communication)

  20. Radiology of vertical-banded gastroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leekam, R.N.; Deitel, M.; Shankar, L.; Salsberg, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    Vertical banded gastroplasty is the most frequently performed operation for the treatment of morbid obesity. More than 550 such procedures have been done at our hospital over the past 4 years. This presentation describes the postoperative radiographic findings in many of these patients. Normal and abnormal appearances on plain films and on contrast agent-enhanced examinations are discussed. The authors found it useful to divide abnormal findings into three groups: abnormalities of the partition, abnormalities of the banded channel, and ulcers and extragastric leaks

  1. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for Hydrothermal Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have, however, also confirmed that the uncertainty in the locations of the source and of the hydrophones could lower the quality of subsurface image. It is, therefore, strongly necessary to develop a total survey system that assures a accurate positioning and a deployment techniques

  2. Vertically Polarized Omnidirectional Printed Slot Loop Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Thaysen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    A novel vertically polarized omnidirectional printed slot loop antenna has been designed, simulated, fabricated and measured. The slot loop works as a magnetic loop. The loop is loaded with inductors to insure uniform and in-phase fields in the slot in order to obtain an omnidirectional radiation...... pattern. The antenna is designed for the 2.45 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band. Applications of the antenna are many. One is for on-body applications since it is ideal for launching a creeping waves due to the polarization....

  3. Dissociation of Vertical Semiconductor Diatomic Artificial Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pi, M.; Emperador, A.; Barranco, M.; Garcias, F.; Muraki, K.; Tarucha, S.; Austing, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the dissociation of few-electron circular vertical semiconductor double quantum dot artificial molecules at 0T as a function of interdot distance. A slight mismatch introduced in the fabrication of the artificial molecules from nominally identical constituent quantum wells induces localization by offsetting the energy levels in the quantum dots by up to 2meV, and this plays a crucial role in the appearance of the addition energy spectra as a function of coupling strength particularly in the weak coupling limit

  4. Vertical designs and agriculture joined for food production in the modules for urban vertical gardens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Hammerling Navas Navarro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Modules for Vertical Urban Gardens (MHUG are a hybrid of vertical gardens and urban agriculture. Vertical gardens have been recognized for the past 2500 years, mainly in the form of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, while urban agriculture is being practiced today by more than 700 million people worldwide. The benefits that MHUV offers are multiple, but perhaps the most significant is the consumption of foods free of chemicals, free of GMO’s, irrigated with potable water, and that are 100% organic. It is presented a “culinary and medicinal module” that can be implemented in the kitchen area, on roofs, terraces, balconies or patios, where species such as thyme, mint, peppermint, parsley, lemon balm and rosemary can be at hand when preparing dishes. The module consists of three plastic baskets that are recyclable and resistant to decay. Each basket has four rows with space for fourteen seedlings. The baskets are first lined on the interior with a black geotextile, and then are covered with a mesh (polisombra which helps support the substrate and seedlings. Each basket rests on a structure made of recycled wood (from pallets or crates that both holds the basket vertically and serves as a rain cover. The cages measure 0.33m by 0.55m by 0.14m. Each module comes with hosing and connectors for a drip irrigation system, and an instructional manual. The modules demonstrate the benefits of urban agriculture combined with the beauty and modality of vertical gardens, leading to useful applications for food production and decoration in the spaces where vertical urban gardens are possible.

  5. Intraoperative monitoring of torsion to prevent vertical deviations during augmented vertical rectus transposition surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jonathan M; Hatt, Sarah R; Leske, David A

    2012-04-01

    Total transposition of the superior and inferior rectus muscle laterally, with augmentation sutures, may be complicated by induction of an undesirable vertical deviation. Induced vertical misalignment may be associated with changes in torsion. We have developed a simple method to monitor intraoperative torsion that may reduce the incidence of vertical deviations. We reviewed consecutive cases of total abducens palsy or esotropic Duane syndrome treated with augmented lateral transposition of the superior and inferior rectus muscles, where the 12 o'clock and 6 o'clock intraoperative positions were initially marked with a dot at the limbus using a surgical pen. The location of the marks was monitored during tying of the augmentation sutures; changes in torsion were monitored intraoperatively. Records of 9 cases of augmented vertical rectus transposition were reviewed. On the basis of intraoperative assessment of torsion, by observing the position of preplaced limbal dots, the inferior rectus augmentation suture was tied less tightly than the superior rectus suture, leaving a gap of 1 to 3 mm between the inferior and lateral rectus muscles in 8 of 9 cases. The augmentation suture was totally removed in 1 case. After these intraoperative adjustments, there was no induced intraoperative torsion, whereas further tightening of the inferior suture induced extorsion. Six weeks postoperatively, 8 of 9 patients did not experience a symptomatic vertical deviation. When performing augmented transposition procedures, intraoperative monitoring of torsion may reduce the incidence of inadvertent vertical deviations and torsion. This technique may also be useful in other cases where correction or avoidance of torsion is needed. Copyright © 2012 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prospects of measuring the CKM matrix element vertical stroke Vts vertical stroke at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Ahmed; Barreiro, Fernando; Lagouri, Theodota

    2010-05-01

    We study the prospects of measuring the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke at the LHC with the top quarks produced in the processes pp→t anti tX and pp→t/ anti tX, and the subsequent decays t→W + s and anti t→W - anti s. To reduce the jet activity in top quark decays, we insist on tagging the W ± leptonically, W ± →l ± ν l (l = e,μ,τ), and analyse the anticipated jet profiles in the signal process t→Ws and the dominant background from the decay t→Wb. To that end, we analyse the V 0 (K 0 and Λ) distributions in the s- and b-quark jets concentrating on the energy and transverse momentum distributions of these particles. The V 0 s emanating from the t→Wb branch have displaced decay vertexes from the interaction point due to the weak decays b→c→s and the b-quark jets are rich in charged leptons. Hence, the absence of secondary vertexes and of the energetic charged leptons in the jet provide additional (b-jet vs. s-jet) discrimination in top quark decays. These distributions are used to train a boosted decision tree (BDT), a technique used successfully in measuring the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V tb vertical stroke in single top production at the Tevatron. Using the BDT classifier, and a variant of it called BDTD, which makes use of decorrelated variables, we calculate the BDT(D)-response functions corresponding to the signal (t→Ws) and background (t→Wb). Detailed simulations undertaken by us with the Monte Carlo generator PYTHIA are used to estimate the background rejection versus signal efficiency for three representative LHC energies √(s)=7 TeV, 10 TeV and 14 TeV, of which only the analysis for the √(s)=14 TeV case is shown in detail. We argue that a benchmark with 10% signal (t→Ws) efficiency and a background (t→Wb) rejection by a factor 10 3 (required due to the anticipated value of the ratio vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 / vertical stroke V tb vertical stroke 2 ≅1.6 x 10 -3 ) can be

  7. Expected sliding distance of vertical slit caisson breakwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyawn

    2017-06-01

    Evaluating the expected sliding distance of a vertical slit caisson breakwater is proposed. Time history for the wave load to a vertical slit caisson is made. It consists of two impulsive wave pressures followed by a smooth sinusoidal pressure. In the numerical analysis, the sliding distance for an attack of single wave was shown and the expected sliding distance during 50 years was also presented. Those results were compared with a vertical front caisson breakwater without slit. It was concluded that the sliding distance of a vertical slit caisson may be over-estimated if the wave pressure on the caisson is evaluated without considering vertical slit.

  8. Vertical transmission of HIV-an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, Mamatha M; Merchant, Rashid H

    2010-11-01

    One of the greatest successes in AIDS research to date has by far been the discovery of successful interventions that interrupt the transmission of HIV from mother to child. It is however important to note that these successes have occurred largely in countries with great resources and the least burden of perinatal transmission of HIV. In the developing world wherein currently 95% of vertical transmission of HIV occurs, it is highly condemnable that still every minute an infected infant is said to be born in spite of the fact that vertical transmission is largely preventable, mainly because translating knowledge into practice is not always possible or feasible; This has led to a continuous growing numbers of children with HIV, thereby making pediatric HIV a looming problem rapidly draining the already burdened health care system of these countries. It is the need of the hour to appropriately address the challenges to achieve zero percent transmission of HIV from an infected mother to her child thereby giving a hope for an AIDS-free new generation worldwide.

  9. Intuitive Mechanics: Inferences of Vertical Projectile Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milana Damjenić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our intuitive knowledge of physics mechanics, i.e. knowledge defined through personal experience about velocity, acceleration, motion causes, etc., is often wrong. This research examined whether similar misconceptions occur systematically in the case of vertical projectiles launched upwards. The first experiment examined inferences of velocity and acceleration of the ball moving vertically upwards, while the second experiment examined whether the mass of the thrown ball and force of the throw have an impact on the inference. The results showed that more than three quarters of the participants wrongly assumed that maximum velocity and peak acceleration did not occur at the initial launch of the projectile. There was no effect of object mass or effect of the force of the throw on the inference relating to the velocity and acceleration of the ball. The results exceed the explanatory reach of the impetus theory, most commonly used to explain the naive understanding of the mechanics of object motion. This research supports that the actions on objects approach and the property transmission heuristics may more aptly explain the dissidence between perceived and actual implications in projectile motion.

  10. Elastic kirchhoff migration for vertical seismic profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keho, T.H.; Wu, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Elastic Kirchhoff migration is implemented for the VSP recording geometry. The resulting migration formula requires measurement of the stress as well as the displacement. Since stress is not measured in a VSP, and in many cases the horizontal component of displacement is not measured, approximate migration formulas are given for these cases. The elastic migration formula for the case where only the vertical components are available, is the same as the acoustic migration formula, where the pressure data are replaced by the magnitudes of the elastic data as reconstructed from the vertical components, and the acoustic Green's functions are replaced with either the P or S wave elastic Green's functions. Two expressions for migration of two component displacement data are presented. In the first, the terms involving traction data are simply ignored. In the second, an improved backpropagation operator for the displacement field is obtained by replacing the traction data in the Kirchhoff integral by displacement data using Hooke's law. The migration expressions for the cases where two component data are available produce images which are less contaminated by artifacts than the migration images of one component data

  11. The capillary interaction between two vertical cylinders

    KAUST Repository

    Cooray, Himantha

    2012-06-27

    Particles floating at the surface of a liquid generally deform the liquid surface. Minimizing the energetic cost of these deformations results in an inter-particle force which is usually attractive and causes floating particles to aggregate and form surface clusters. Here we present a numerical method for determining the three-dimensional meniscus around a pair of vertical circular cylinders. This involves the numerical solution of the fully nonlinear Laplace-Young equation using a mesh-free finite difference method. Inter-particle force-separation curves for pairs of vertical cylinders are then calculated for different radii and contact angles. These results are compared with previously published asymptotic and experimental results. For large inter-particle separations and conditions such that the meniscus slope remains small everywhere, good agreement is found between all three approaches (numerical, asymptotic and experimental). This is as expected since the asymptotic results were derived using the linearized Laplace-Young equation. For steeper menisci and smaller inter-particle separations, however, the numerical simulation resolves discrepancies between existing asymptotic and experimental results, demonstrating that this discrepancy was due to the nonlinearity of the Laplace-Young equation. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  12. Muscle activation history at different vertical jumps and its influence on vertical velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopper, Bence; Csende, Zsolt; Safar, Sandor; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Tihanyi, Jozsef

    In the present study we investigated displacement, time, velocity and acceleration history of center of mass (COM) and electrical activity of knee extensors to estimate the dominance of the factors influencing the vertical velocity in squat jumps (SJs), countermovement jumps (CMJs) and drop jumps

  13. Heredity of supraglottic exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Hvedstrup, Jeppe; Eiberg, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms on exertion, such as shortness of breath and wheezing, are commonly associated with asthma, but might also arise from the larynx [1–3]. In recent years, the emergence of exercise laryngoscopy [4] has led to a better understanding of laryngeal movement during exercise, and ins...

  14. Estimating tropical vertical motion profile shapes from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, L. E.; Handlos, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The vertical structure of tropical deep convection strongly influences interactions with larger scale circulations and climate. This research focuses on investigating this vertical structure and its relationship with mesoscale tropical weather states. We test the hypothesis that vertical motion shape varies in association with weather state type. We estimate mean state vertical motion profile shapes for six tropical weather states defined using cloud top pressure and optical depth properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. The relationship between vertical motion and the dry static energy budget are utilized to set up a regression analysis that empirically determines two modes of variability in vertical motion from reanalysis data. We use these empirically determined modes, this relationship and surface convergence to estimate vertical motion profile shape from observations of satellite retrievals of rainfall and surface convergence. We find that vertical motion profile shapes vary systematically between different tropical weather states. The "isolated systems" regime exhibits a more ''bottom-heavy'' profile shape compared to the convective/thick cirrus and vigorous deep convective regimes, with maximum upward vertical motion occurring in the lower troposphere rather than the middle to upper troposphere. The variability we observe with our method does not coincide with that expected based on conventional ideas about how stratiform rain fraction and vertical motion are related.

  15. Multispectral imaging with vertical silicon nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunsung; Crozier, Kenneth B

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral imaging is a powerful tool that extends the capabilities of the human eye. However, multispectral imaging systems generally are expensive and bulky, and multiple exposures are needed. Here, we report the demonstration of a compact multispectral imaging system that uses vertical silicon nanowires to realize a filter array. Multiple filter functions covering visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths are simultaneously defined in a single lithography step using a single material (silicon). Nanowires are then etched and embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), thereby realizing a device with eight filter functions. By attaching it to a monochrome silicon image sensor, we successfully realize an all-silicon multispectral imaging system. We demonstrate visible and NIR imaging. We show that the latter is highly sensitive to vegetation and furthermore enables imaging through objects opaque to the eye.

  16. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Heeck

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ→ℓ′γ but rather ℓ→ℓ′X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z′ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ→ℓ′+inv, but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ→eX,X→γγ,ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  17. [The hyoid bone and vertical dimension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doual, A; Léger, J L; Doual, J M; Hadjiat, F

    2003-09-01

    Located at the center of the neck and the pharyngeal column and, thanks to its attachments, tied to the base of the skull, to the mandible, to the tongue, to the larynx, and to the scapular belt, the hyoid bone is intimately related to an extensive tendino-muscular complex. From this strategic position, the hyoid bone participates in all functional and nutritional activities of the oro-facial complex. Heavily involved in the physiology of the pharyngeal column, it appears to enjoy a remarkable stability in relation to its surrounding structures as it participates in the critical process of vertical ontogenetic development. Deceptively simple in its shape and location it is anything but. While it would be easy to scorn it as a vestigial organ of little importance, the hyoid bone is actually an ancient witness of the evolution of the first human vertebrae and a vestige of the 2nd and 3rd brachial arches. Like a toy buffeted by powerful groups of muscles and tendons, the hyoid bone occupies a crossroads position where it is solicited by many vital functions, the most critical of which is respiration. Its functional behavior seems to have evolved considerably over the course of phylogeny. By piecing together the conceptions of many authors, we can conclude that the similarities--and, later, the differences--existing between the human fetus and those of other primates, and, then between young children and young primates, are related to an essentially different status quo, which modifies the delicate equilibrium of the pharyngeal region. In metamorphosing from a sagittal equilibrium to one that is vertical, this very status quo maintains an open respiratory airway during each time frame, continuously permitting the articulation and modulation of sounds, particularly during the vertical period. The hyoid bone is unpaired, in a mid-line position, symmetrical, and located just below the mandible with which it shares, to an astonishing extent, certain morphological

  18. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  19. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  20. Investigation of APS PAR Vertical Beam Instability

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Chihyuan; Sereno, Nicholas S; Yang Bing Xin

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) particle accumulator ring (PAR) is a 325-MeV storage ring that collects and compresses linac pulse trains into a single bunch for booster injection. A vertical beam instability has been observed when only a single linac bunch is injected and the total beam charge is from 0.15 to 0.7 nC. The instability starts about 80 ms after the injection, lasts about 160 ms, and is highly reproducible. We performed spectral measurement and time-resolved imaging with both a gated-intensified camera and a streak camera in order to characterize this instability. Initial analysis of the data indicates that the instability is due to ion trapping. A stable lattice was established as result of the investigation. This report summarizes the experimental results and gives some preliminary analysis.

  1. Ultrahigh efficiencies in vertical epitaxial heterostructure architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafard, S.; York, M. C. A.; Proulx, F.; Valdivia, C. E.; Wilkins, M. M.; Arès, R.; Aimez, V.; Hinzer, K.; Masson, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    Optical to electrical power converting semiconductor devices were achieved with breakthrough performance by designing a Vertical Epitaxial Heterostructure Architecture. The devices are featuring modeled and measured conversion efficiencies greater than 65%. The ultrahigh conversion efficiencies were obtained by monolithically integrating several thin GaAs photovoltaic junctions tailored with submicron absorption thicknesses and grown in a single crystal by epitaxy. The heterostructures that were engineered with a number N of such ultrathin junctions yielded an optimal external quantum efficiencies approaching 100%/N. The heterostructures are capable of output voltages that are multiple times larger than the corresponding photovoltage of the input light. The individual nanoscale junctions are each generating up to ˜1.2 V of output voltage when illuminated in the infrared. We compare the optoelectronic properties of phototransducers prepared with designs having 5 to 12 junctions and that are exhibiting voltage outputs between >5 V and >14 V.

  2. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Ishikawa, K.

    2012-12-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have carried out two field surveys in 2011. One is a 3D survey with a boomer for a high-resolution surface source and the other one for an actual field survey in the Izena Cauldron an active hydrothermal area in the Okinawa Trough. Through these surveys, we have confirmed that the

  3. Problems of protection of vertical mine shafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozel, A.M. (Vsesoyuznyi Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Institut Gornoi Geomekhaniki i Marksheiderskogo Dela, Sankt Petersburg (Russian Federation))

    1993-03-01

    Discusses problems related to methods of selecting proper dimensions of shaft bottom support pillars. The angular measure adopted for delimitation of the zone of hazardous effect of coal-face work on a mine shaft itself and on surface structures is thought to be insufficient. It is maintained that it is necessary to modify the angles of shaft bottom support pillars as shafts become ever deeper. The dimensions of support pillars have to be determined on the basis of magnitude of rock deformation. Relative vertical shaft deformation permissible according to Russian and Czech standards is compared. It is concluded that hazardous deformations of shafts and surface structures provided in codes of practice differ in magnitude. 6 refs.

  4. Predicting Vertical Jump Height from Bar Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador García-Ramos, Igor Štirn, Paulino Padial, Javier Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Blanca De la Fuente, Vojko Strojnik, Belén Feriche

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax and final propulsive phase (FPV bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s-2. Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384 was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504 was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r2 = 0.307, while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r2 = 0.071. These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine.

  5. Robotic platform for traveling on vertical piping network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Thomas A; Vrettos, Nick J; Krementz, Daniel; Marzolf, Athneal D

    2015-02-03

    This invention relates generally to robotic systems and is specifically designed for a robotic system that can navigate vertical pipes within a waste tank or similar environment. The robotic system allows a process for sampling, cleaning, inspecting and removing waste around vertical pipes by supplying a robotic platform that uses the vertical pipes to support and navigate the platform above waste material contained in the tank.

  6. Surface tension and buoyancy in vertical soap films

    OpenAIRE

    Adami, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    This manuscrit presents our experimental works about maintained vertical soap films. The purpose of this thesis was to realize experiments on vertical soap films. We designed a setup which allows to maintain vertical soap films on large timescales. The thickness profiles of those films were characterized using an infrared absorption method. We then designed an elastic sensor in order to probe the surface tension profiles in our films. Simple mechanical considerations allowed us to draw a s...

  7. Vertical-Tail Aerodynamic Configuration of Space Shuttle Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-16

    effect of a rapid drop in aerodynamic efficiency of the vertical tail. Fig. 6. Scheme of a hypersonic Fig. 7. British Hotal scheme research craft KEY: a...5 - SSTO in the absence of vertical tail 6 - U.S. Space Shuttle In the British Hotal scheme (Fig. 7) the anomalous central single vertical tail...Feiji Sheji [Aircraft Design], National Defense Industry Publishing House, 1987, pp. 227-235. 2 Young J C, Underwood J M. e: at. NASA CP-2283, 1983

  8. A Method for Modeling of Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, Torgeir

    2013-01-01

    It is of interest to investigate the potential advantages of floating vertical axis wind turbine (FVAWT) due to its economical installation and maintenance. A novel 5MW vertical axis wind turbine concept with a Darrieus rotor mounted on a semi-submersible support structure is proposed in this paper....... In order to assess the technical and economic feasibility of this novel concept, a comprehensive simulation tool for modeling of the floating vertical axis wind turbine is needed. This work presents the development of a coupled method for modeling of the dynamics of a floating vertical axis wind turbine...

  9. Vertically homogeneous stationary tornado-type vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkevich, P. B.; Rutkevych, P. P.

    2010-05-01

    Tornado is regarded as one of the most dangerous atmosphere phenomena. The tornado phenomenon has been intensively studied so far, however, there is still no established and accepted theory of how tornadoes form, an uncertainty still exists concerning extreme winds and pressure drops in tornadoes. It is commonly accepted that it is possible to describe tornado from the set of nonlinear hydrodynamical equations, however, it is still unclear which non-linear processes are responsible for its formation. Nonlinear terms in the system are associated with either centrifugal force, or entropy transport, or transport of humidity. It appears that the amount and spatial distribution of precipitation with the convection are important indicators of the weather phenomena associated with a particular storm. The low-precipitation supercells that produce relatively little precipitation and yet show clear visual signs of rotation. Low-precipitation supercells occur most often near the surface dryline and, owing to the sparse precipitation and relatively dry environments with little cloudiness. Low-precipitation storms are frequently non-tornadic and many are non-severe despite exhibiting persistent rotation. On the other hand, the so-called high-precipitation storms are characterized by substantial precipitation within their mesocyclonic circulations. When high-precipitation storms have a recognizable hook radar echo, reflectivity in the hook is comparable to those in the precipitation core. High-precipitation supercells are probably the most common form of supercell and produce severe weather of all types including tornadoes. Therefore, in this work we consider a hydrodynamic system with only one nonlinear term associated with atmosphere humidity, which yields energy to the system. The tornado vortex is usually to a good approximation cylindrical so we use cylindrical geometry and homogeneity in vertical direction. In this case the problem reduces to a system of ordinary

  10. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. (1) VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey in limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Because of autonomous recording system on sea floor, various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (GI gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom source. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN, in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. Seismic Interferometry technique is also applied. The results give much clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Seismic Interferometry technique is applied to obtain the high resolution image in the very shallow zone. Based on the feasibility study, we have developed the autonomous recording VCS system and carried out the trial experiment in actual ocean at the water depth of about 400m to establish the procedures of deployment/recovery and to examine the VC position or fluctuation at seabottom. The result shows that the VC position is estimated with sufficient accuracy and very little fluctuation is observed. Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo took the research cruise NT11-02 on JAMSTEC R/V Natsushima in February, 2011. In the cruise NT11-02, JGI carried out the second VCS survey using the autonomous VCS recording system with the deep towed source provided by

  11. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Mizohata, S.; Ishikawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    The VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic) is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of the survey are from 100m up to 2100m. The target of the survey includes not only hydrothermal deposit but oil and gas exploration. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system are available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed another approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In the data acquisition stage, we estimate the position of VCS location with slant ranging method from the sea surface. The deep-towed source or ocean bottom source is estimated by SSBL/USBL. The water velocity profile is measured by XCTD. After the data acquisition, we pick the first break times of the VCS recorded data. The estimated positions of

  12. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for SMS exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hotoshi; Mizohata, Shigeharu

    2014-05-01

    The Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) survey is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by sea-surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because the VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed it for the SMS survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We have been developing the VCS survey system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of these surveys are from 100m up to 2100 m. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been also completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system is available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed a new approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In 2013, we have carried out the second VCS survey using the surface-towed high-voltage sparker and ocean bottom source in the Izena Cauldron, which is one of the most promising SMS areas around Japan. The positions of ocean bottom source estimated by this method are consistent with the VCS field records. The VCS data with the sparker have been processed with 3D PSTM. It gives the very high resolution 3D volume deeper than two

  13. Separation surgery for total vertical craniopagus twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Keith Y C

    2004-08-01

    A pair of conjoined twins aged 11 months underwent investigations, followed by surgical separation in Singapore General Hospital in April 2001. They were joined at the skull vertex and facing in opposite directions. Radiological investigations including cerebral angiography, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomographic scans were performed, leading to the diagnosis of total vertical craniopagus. There were two separate brains, with separate arterial circulations, but with a common superior sagittal sinus. Tissue expanders were inserted in the subgaleal space for 6 months of scalp expansion prior to surgery. Pre-operative planning involved the use of virtual reality equipment and life-sized polymer models of the conjoined skulls and brains. Surgical separation of the twins was achieved after approximately 100 h of operating time, using intraoperative image guidance, microsurgical techniques and intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. Reconstruction of the dura, calvarium and scalp was performed with artificial dura, absorbable plates and split skin grafts. Postoperative complications included focal cortical infarction, meningitis, and hydrocephalus. Despite these complications, the twins recovered satisfactorily and were discharged to their home country within 6 months. The 3-month outcome was minor disability in one twin and severe developmental delays in the other. Separation surgery is possible for complex cranially-conjoined twins but requires detailed planning and extensive surgical management.

  14. Vertical Distribution of Water at Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    Phoenix results, combined with coordinated observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter of the Phoenix lander site, indicate that the water vapor is nonuniform (i.e., not well mixed) up to a calculated cloud condensation level. It is important to understand the mixing profile of water vapor because (a) the assumption of a well-mixed atmosphere up to a cloud condensation level is common in retrievals of column water abundances which are in turn used to understand the seasonal and interannual behavior of water, (b) there is a long history of observations and modeling that conclude both that water vapor is and is not well-mixed, and some studies indicate that the water vapor vertical mixing profile may, in fact, change with season and location, (c) the water vapor in the lowest part of the atmosphere is the reservoir that can exchange with the regolith and higher amounts may have an impact on the surface chemistry, and (d) greater water vapor abundances close to the surface may enhance surface exchange thereby reducing regional transport, which in turn has implications to the net transport of water vapor over seasonal and annual timescales.

  15. Free convective condensation in a vertical enclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.J.; Peterson, P.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Corradini, M.L.; Pernsteiner, A.P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Free convective condensation in a vertical enclosure was studied numerically and the results were compared with experiments. In both the numerical and experimental investigations, mist formation was observed to occur near the cooling wall, with significant droplet concentrations in the bulk. Large recirculation cells near the end of the condensing section were generated as the heavy noncondensing gas collecting near the cooling wall was accelerated downward. Near the top of the enclosure the recirculation cells became weaker and smaller than those below, ultimately disappearing near the top of the condenser. In the experiment the mist density was seen to be highest near the wall and at the bottom of the condensing section, whereas the numerical model predicted a much more uniform distribution. The model used to describe the formation of mist was based on a Modified Critical Saturation Model (MCSM), which allows mist to be generated once the vapor pressure exceeds a critical value. Equilibrium, nonequilibrium, and MCSM calculations were preformed, showing the experimental results to lie somewhere in between the equilibrium and nonequilibrium predictions of the numerical model. A single adjustable constant (indicating the degree to which equilibrium is achieved) is used in the model in order to match the experimental results.

  16. The vertical oscillations of coupled magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kewei, Li; Jiahuang, Lin; Yang, Kang Zi; Liang, Samuel Yee Wei; Wong Say Juan, Jeremias

    2011-07-01

    The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for high school students. This paper is adapted from the winning solution to Problem 14, Magnetic Spring, as presented in the final round of the 23rd IYPT in Vienna, Austria. Two magnets were arranged on top of each other on a common axis. One was fixed, while the other could move vertically. Various parameters of interest were investigated, including the effective gravitational acceleration, the strength, size, mass and geometry of the magnets, and damping of the oscillations. Despite its simplicity, this setup yielded a number of interesting and unexpected relations. The first stage of the investigation was concerned only with the undamped oscillations of small amplitudes, and the period of small amplitude oscillations was found to be dependent only on the eighth root of important magnet properties such as its strength and mass. The second stage sought to investigate more general oscillations. A numerical model which took into account magnet size, magnet geometry and damping effects was developed to model the general oscillations. Air resistance and friction were found to be significant sources of damping, while eddy currents were negligible.

  17. A theoretical analysis of vertical flow equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1992-01-01

    The assumption of Vertical Flow Equilibrium (VFE) and of parallel flow conditions, in general, is often applied to the modeling of flow and displacement in natural porous media. However, the methodology for the development of the various models is rather intuitive, and no rigorous method is currently available. In this paper, we develop an asymptotic theory using as parameter the variable R{sub L} = (L/H){radical}(k{sub V})/(k{sub H}). It is rigorously shown that present models represent the leading order term of an asymptotic expansion with respect to 1/R{sub L}{sup 2}. Although this was numerically suspected, it is the first time that is is theoretically proved. Based on the general formulation, a series of models are subsequently obtained. In the absence of strong gravity effects, they generalize previous works by Zapata and Lake (1981), Yokoyama and Lake (1981) and Lake and Hirasaki (1981), on immiscible and miscible displacements. In the limit of gravity-segregated flow, we prove conditions for the fluids to be segregated and derive the Dupuit and Dietz (1953) approximations. Finally, we also discuss effects of capillarity and transverse dispersion.

  18. Vertically Integrated Edgeless Photon Imaging Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahim, Farah [Fermilab; Deptuch, Grzegorz [Fermilab; Shenai, Alpana [Fermilab; Maj, Piotr [AGH-UST, Cracow; Kmon, Piotr [AGH-UST, Cracow; Grybos, Pawel [AGH-UST, Cracow; Szczygiel, Robert [AGH-UST, Cracow; Siddons, D. Peter [Brookhaven; Rumaiz, Abdul [Brookhaven; Kuczewski, Anthony [Brookhaven; Mead, Joseph [Brookhaven; Bradford, Rebecca [Argonne; Weizeorick, John [Argonne

    2017-01-01

    The Vertically Integrated Photon Imaging Chip - Large, (VIPIC-L), is a large area, small pixel (65μm), 3D integrated, photon counting ASIC with zero-suppressed or full frame dead-time-less data readout. It features data throughput of 14.4 Gbps per chip with a full frame readout speed of 56kframes/s in the imaging mode. VIPIC-L contain 192 x 192 pixel array and the total size of the chip is 1.248cm x 1.248cm with only a 5μm periphery. It contains about 120M transistors. A 1.3M pixel camera module will be developed by arranging a 6 x 6 array of 3D VIPIC-L’s bonded to a large area silicon sensor on the analog side and to a readout board on the digital side. The readout board hosts a bank of FPGA’s, one per VIPIC-L to allow processing of up to 0.7 Tbps of raw data produced by the camera.

  19. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloise Van Hooijdonk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses and summarizes recent studies on the functionalization of carbon nanotubes oriented perpendicularly to their substrate, so-called vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs. The intrinsic properties of individual nanotubes make the VA-CNTs ideal candidates for integration in a wide range of devices, and many potential applications have been envisaged. These applications can benefit from the unidirectional alignment of the nanotubes, the large surface area, the high carbon purity, the outstanding electrical conductivity, and the uniformly long length. However, practical uses of VA-CNTs are limited by their surface characteristics, which must be often modified in order to meet the specificity of each particular application. The proposed approaches are based on the chemical modifications of the surface by functionalization (grafting of functional chemical groups, decoration with metal particles or wrapping of polymers to bring new properties or to improve the interactions between the VA-CNTs and their environment while maintaining the alignment of CNTs.

  20. Mudflow rheology in a vertically rotating flume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Westphal, Jerome A.; Jobson, Harvey E.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Joint research by the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Missouri-Rolla currently (1990) is being conducted on a 3.05 meters in diameter vertically rotating flume used to simulate mudflows under steady-state conditions. Observed mudflow simulations indicate flow patterns in the flume are similar to those occurring in natural mudflows. Variables such as mean and surface velocity, depth, and average boundary shear stress can be measured in this flume more easily than in the field or in a traditional tilting flume. Sensitive variables such as sediment concentration, grain-size distribution, and Atterberg limits also can be precisely and easily controlled. A known Newtonian fluid, SAE 30 motor oil, was tested in the flume and the computed value for viscosity was within 12.5 percent of the stated viscosity. This provided support that the data from the flume can be used to determine the rheological properties of fluids such as mud. Measurements on mud slurries indicate that flows with sediment concentrations ranging from 81 to 87 percent sediment by weight can be approximated as Bingham plastic for strain rates greater than 1 per second. In this approximation, the yield stress and Bingham viscosity were extremely sensitive to sediment concentration. Generally, the magnitude of the yield stress was large relative to the change in shear stress with increasing mudflow velocity.

  1. Plug cementing: Horizontal to vertical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvert, D.G.; Heathman, J.F.; Griffith, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an in-depth study of cement plug placement that was conducted with large-scale models for the improvement of plug cementing practices and plug integrity. Common hole and workstring geometries were examined with various rheology and density ratios between the drilling fluid and cement. The critical conditions dictating the difference between success and failure for various wellbore angles and conditions were explored, and the mechanisms controlling slurry movement before and after placement are now better understood. An understanding of these mechanisms allows the engineer to better tailor a design to specific hole conditions. Controversial concepts regarding plug-setting practices have been examined and resolved. The cumulative effects of density, rheology, and hole angle are major factors affecting plug success. While the Boycott effect and an extrusion effect were observed to be predominant in inclined wellbores, a spiraling or {open_quotes}roping{close_quotes} effect controls slurry movement in vertical wellbores. Ultimate success of a cement plug can be obtained if allowances are made for these effects in the job design, provided all other previously published recommended placement practices are followed. Results of this work can be applied to many sidetracking and plug-to-abandon operations. Additionally, the understanding of the fluid movement (creep) mechanisms holds potential for use in primary and remedial cementing work, and in controlling the placement of noncementitious fluids in the wellbore.

  2. Hydrodynamics of vertical jumping in Archer fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techet, Alexandra H.; Mendelson, Leah

    2017-11-01

    Vertical jumping for aerial prey from an aquatic environment requires both propulsive power and precise aim to succeed. Rapid acceleration to a ballistic velocity sufficient for reaching the prey height occurs before the fish leaves the water completely and experiences a thousandfold drop in force-producing ability. In addition to speed, accuracy and stability are crucial for successful feeding by jumping. This talk examines the physics of jumping using the archer fish as a model. Better known for their spitting abilities, archer fish will jump multiple body lengths out of the water for prey capture, from a stationary position just below the free surface. Modulation of oscillatory body kinematics and use of multiple fins for force production are identified as methods through which the fish can meet requirements for both acceleration and stabilization in limited space. Quantitative 3D PIV wake measurements reveal how variations in tail kinematics relate to thrust production throughout the course of a jumping maneuver and over a range of jump heights. By performing measurements in 3D, the timing, interactions, and relative contributions to thrust and lateral forces from each fin can be evaluated, elucidating the complex hydrodynamics that enable archer fish water exit.

  3. Learning styles in vertically integrated teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumpton, Kay; Kitchener, Scott; Sweet, Linda

    2013-10-01

    With vertical integration, registrars and medical students attend the same educational workshops. It is not known whether these learners have similar or different learning styles related to their level of education within the medical training schema. This study aims to collect information about learning styles with a view to changing teaching strategies. If a significant difference is demonstrated this will impact on required approaches to teaching. The VARK learning inventory questionnaire was administered to 36 general practice registrars and 20 medical students. The learning styles were compared as individuals and then related to their level of education within the medical training schema. Students had a greater preference for multimodal learning compared with registrars (62.5 per cent versus 33.3 per cent, respectively). More than half of the registrars preferred uni or bimodal learning modalities, compared with one-third of the medical students. The present workshop format based on visual and aural material will not match the learning needs of most learners. This small study has shown that the majority of medical students and registrars could have their learning preferences better met by the addition of written material to the workshop series. Surprisingly, a significantly larger number of medical students than registrars appeared to be broadly multimodal in their learning style, and this warrants further research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Sacrococcygeal teratoma excision: a vertical rather than transverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overall, we did not find the vertical approach to add any extra limitations to the surgical exposure or dissection; meanwhile, it provided a well-recognized cosmetic advantage. Conclusion: The vertical posterior sagittal approach for excision of SCT is both feasible and advantageous in terms of the cosmetic outcome.

  5. Estimation of spinal loading in vertical vibrations by numerical simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verver, M.M.; Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Oomens, C.W.J.; Wouw, N. van de; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective. This paper describes the prediction of spinal forces in car occupants during vertical vibrations using a numerical multi-body occupant model. Background. An increasing part of the population is exposed to whole body vibrations in vehicles. In literature, vertical vibrations and low back

  6. Horizontal and vertical seismic isolation of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonomou, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a study for the horizontal and vertical seismic isolation of a nuclear power plant with a base isolation system, developed by the author, called the Alexisismon. This system -- which comprises different schemes for horizontal or vertical or both horizontal and vertical isolation -- is a linear system based on the principle of separation of functions. That is, horizontal and vertical isolation are realized through different components and act independently from each other. As far as horizontal isolation is concerned, the role of transmitting vertical loads is uncoupled from the role of inducing horizontal restoring forces so that both functions can be performed without instability. It is possible either to provide both horizontal and vertical isolation to the whole nuclear plant or to isolate the whole plant horizontally and to provide vertical isolation to sensitive and costly equipment only. When the fundamental period of the plant or equipment is 2 seconds and when the vertical displacements are of the order of + or - 20 inches, the structure or equipment are protected against earthquakes up to 1.10 and 1.30 g for actual and 0.60 and 1.50 g for artificial accelerograms. In both cases all the isolation elements behave elastically up to these acceleration limits as well as the superstructure and equipment

  7. CREATING EFFECTIVE MODELS OF VERTICAL INTEGRATED STRUCTURES IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Koliesnikov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of scientific research aimed at development of methodology-theoretical mechanisms of building the effective models of vertically-integrated structures are presented. A presence of vertically-integrated structures on natural-monopolistic markets at private and governmental sectors of economy and priority directions of integration are given.

  8. Diel vertical migration of anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus larvae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diel vertical migration of anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus larvae was studied in the northern Benguela during a survey in April 2001. The diel pattern is described in relation to the degree of swimbladder inflation and the vertical structure of temperature and dissolved oxygen. During the survey, samples were also ...

  9. Does Contract Complexity Limit Opportunities? Vertical Organization and Flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe vertical organization of production entails a range of make-or-buy decisions of intermediate goods that are influenced by the difficulty of writing contracts with a potential supplier. When contracting causes high transaction costs, a firm can decide to vertically integrate the

  10. Vertical activity estimation using 2D radar | Hakl | Scientia Militaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding airspace activity is essential for airspace control. Being able to detect vertical activity in aircraft allows prediction of aircraft intent, thereby allowing more accurate situation awareness and correspondingly more appropriate airspace control response. The method for qualitative vertical activity estimation as ...

  11. design, construction and evaluation of a vertical plate maize seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Metering mechanism is a key component of planters that directly affect crop development and yield based on the performance of the particular design. Vertical plate metering device is intended to minimize seed damage during planting while improving metering efficiency and field capacity. A vertical plate maize seed ...

  12. Free Convective Flow of a Reacting Fluid between Vertical Porous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free Convective Flow of a Reacting Fluid between Vertical Porous Plates. ... written in dimensionless forms. The resulting second order equations are solved to obtain expressions for the velocity, temperature, mass transfer skin friction, and rate of heat transfer. Keywords: Convective flow, reacting fluid, vertical porous plates ...

  13. Second vertical derivative of potential fields using an adaptation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The second vertical derivative of magnetic fields is commonly used for resolution of anomalies in gravity and magnetic fields. It is also commonly used as an aid to geologic mapping i.e. for the delineation of geological discontinuities in the subsurface. Frequency domain methods for calculating second vertical derivatives ...

  14. diel vertical migration of zooplankton in a hypertrophic shallow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    In current literature their diel vertical migration (DVM) is a highly discussed issue. In this investigation ... Dagowsee despite the limited range of depth for migration, wind action can influence DVM and L. kindtii poses a ..... Diel vertical distribution of Eudiaptomus gracilis, Lake Dagowsee ((June 12, 13 and 26, 2002). Biomass ...

  15. Experimental Vertical Stability Studies for ITER Performance and Design Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, D A; Casper, T A; Eidietis, N; Ferrera, M; Gates, D A; Hutchinson, I H; Jackson, G L; Kolemen, E; Leuer, J A; Lister, J; LoDestro, L L; Meyer, W H; Pearlstein, L D; Sartori, F; Walker, M L; Welander, A S; Wolfe, S M

    2008-10-13

    Operating experimental devices have provided key inputs to the design process for ITER axisymmetric control. In particular, experiments have quantified controllability and robustness requirements in the presence of realistic noise and disturbance environments, which are difficult or impossible to characterize with modeling and simulation alone. This kind of information is particularly critical for ITER vertical control, which poses some of the highest demands on poloidal field system performance, since the consequences of loss of vertical control can be very severe. The present work describes results of multi-machine studies performed under a joint ITPA experiment on fundamental vertical control performance and controllability limits. We present experimental results from Alcator C-Mod, DIII-D, NSTX, TCV, and JET, along with analysis of these data to provide vertical control performance guidance to ITER. Useful metrics to quantify this control performance include the stability margin and maximum controllable vertical displacement. Theoretical analysis of the maximum controllable vertical displacement suggests effective approaches to improving performance in terms of this metric, with implications for ITER design modifications. Typical levels of noise in the vertical position measurement which can challenge the vertical control loop are assessed and analyzed.

  16. Diel vertical migration of zooplankton in a hypertrophic shallow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diel vertical migration of zooplankton in a hypertrophic shallow temperate lake, Germany. Brook Lemma. Abstract. Zooplankton as important links in the food web of aquatic ecosystems have been studied extensively. In current literature their diel vertical migration (DVM) is a highly discussed issue. In this investigation DVM ...

  17. Dynamic optimal foraging theory explains vertical migrations of bigeye tuna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Sommer, Lene; Evans, Karen

    2016-01-01

    dynamic programming. With little calibration of model parameters, our results are consistent with observed data on vertical movement: we find that small tuna should display constant-depth strategies while large tuna should display vertical migrations. The analysis supports the hypothesis that the tuna...

  18. Finding people, papers, and posts: Vertical search algorithms and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing diversity of information access applications. While general web search has been dominant in the past few decades, a wide variety of so-called vertical search tasks and applications have come to the fore. Vertical search is an often used term for search that targets specific

  19. Identification and classification of vertical chlorophyll patterns in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on the vertical chlorophyll structure in the ocean is important for estimating integrated chlorophyll a and primary production from satellite. For this study, vertical chlorophyll profiles from the Benguela upwelling system and the Angola-Benguela front were collected in winter to identify characteristic profiles.

  20. Aspects of Geophysical Exploration for Groundwater Using Vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A geophysical survey using vertical electrical sounding (VES) was undertaken within the University of Benin (Ugbowo Campus) in an attempt to ascertain aspects of the hydrogeological parameters for groundwater exploitation. Six (6) vertical electrical soundings with electrode spacing of 215m AB/2 were occupied along ...

  1. Diel vertical migration of zooplankton in the Tanzanian waters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diel vertical migration of zooplankton was studied in the Southern part of Lake Victoria in January and July 2002. A van dorn water sampler was used to collect zooplankton. In January 2002, zooplankton showed a pronounced diel vertical migration whereby zooplankton were moving upward at around sunset and ...

  2. Characteristics of Vertical Mantle Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Morrison, G.L.; Behnia, M.

    1999-01-01

    - The flow structure in vertical mantle heat exchangers was investigated using a full-scale tank designed to facilitate flow visualisation. The flow structure and velocities in the mantle were measured using a particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. A CFD simulation model of vertical mantle heat...

  3. Direct growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on silicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes have been synthesized by spray pyrolysis from Glycine max oil on silicon substrate using ferrocene as catalyst at 650 °C. Glycine max oil, a plant-based hydrocarbon precursor was used as a source of carbon and argon as a carrier gas. The as-grown vertically aligned carbon nanotubes ...

  4. Impact of Vertical Wind Shear on Tropical Cyclone Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Dan; Marchok, Tim

    2014-01-01

    While tropical cyclone rainfall has a large axisymmetric component, previous observational and theoretical studies have shown that environmental vertical wind shear leads to an asymmetric component of the vertical motion and precipitation fields. Composites consistently depict a precipitation enhancement downshear and also cyclonically downwind from the downshear direction. For consistence with much of the literature and with Northern Hemisphere observations, this is subsequently referred to as "Downshear-Left". Stronger shear magnitudes are associated with greater amplitude precipitation asymmetries. Recent work has reinforced the prior findings, and explored details of the response of the precipitation and kinematic fields to environmental vertical wind shear. Much of this research has focused on tropical cyclones away from land, to limit the influence of other processes that might distort the signal related to vertical wind shear. Recent evidence does suggest vertical wind shear can also play a major role in precipitation asymmetries during and after landfall.

  5. Doppler Lidar Vertical Velocity Statistics Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsom, R. K. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Shippert, T. R. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Riihimaki, L. D. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Accurate height-resolved measurements of higher-order statistical moments of vertical velocity fluctuations are crucial for improved understanding of turbulent mixing and diffusion, convective initiation, and cloud life cycles. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility operates coherent Doppler lidar systems at several sites around the globe. These instruments provide measurements of clear-air vertical velocity profiles in the lower troposphere with a nominal temporal resolution of 1 sec and height resolution of 30 m. The purpose of the Doppler lidar vertical velocity statistics (DLWSTATS) value-added product (VAP) is to produce height- and time-resolved estimates of vertical velocity variance, skewness, and kurtosis from these raw measurements. The VAP also produces estimates of cloud properties, including cloud-base height (CBH), cloud frequency, cloud-base vertical velocity, and cloud-base updraft fraction.

  6. Rehabilitation of partially edentulous patient with loss of vertical dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccioni, F; Laino, A; Papadia, D

    2004-01-01

    A case of rehabilitation of an edentulous patient with loss of vertical dimension is presented here. This patient presents with a Class III dental and skeletal malocclusion with an anterior cross-bite. The objective of this case report is to demonstrate that an accurate assessment of vertical dimension is necessary for good rehabilitation. The original vertical dimension was determined by a series of tests including, kinesiographic, electromyographic and transcutaneous electronic neural stimulation (TENS). Subsequently, the lost vertical dimension was re-established orthodontically. These examinations revealed a general hypertonicity of masticatory muscles due to the lost vertical dimension. Additionally, radiographs of the temporomandibular joint showed anteriorly displaced condyles. Following the completion of orthodontic treatment osseointegrated implants were placed to restore the dental arches.

  7. Progress and Prospects in Developing Marine Vertical Datum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Xinghua

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine vertical datum system construction is the basic work of marine surveying. In the 2009-2012, China has preliminarily constructed the transformation and unification of different height/depth datum model in the China Sea of 80 nautical mile. In recent years, this model has been extended to the South China Sea, the western Pacific and the eastern Indian Ocean, and then a seamless vertical datum model in the south and north pole area to the whole world gradually will be constructed in the near future, this is the foundation of supporting the digital ocean construction in China. This paper mainly discusses the research status of marine vertical datum construction which had been carried out in major coastal countries or regions, analyzes the main work and approaches and key technologies in the process of the marine vertical datum system building, and then expounds the achievements and existing problems in the practice of our country marine vertical datum building.

  8. Characterization of vertical mixing in oscillatory vegetated flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolahpour, M.; Ghisalberti, M.; Lavery, P.; McMahon, K.

    2016-02-01

    Seagrass meadows are primary producers that provide important ecosystem services, such as improved water quality, sediment stabilisation and trapping and recycling of nutrients. Most of these ecological services are strongly influenced by the vertical exchange of water across the canopy-water interface. That is, vertical mixing is the main hydrodynamic process governing the large-scale ecological and environmental impact of seagrass meadows. The majority of studies into mixing in vegetated flows have focused on steady flow environments whereas many coastal canopies are subjected to oscillatory flows driven by surface waves. It is known that the rate of mass transfer will vary greatly between unidirectional and oscillatory flows, necessitating a specific investigation of mixing in oscillatory canopy flows. In this study, we conducted an extensive laboratory investigation to characterise the rate of vertical mixing through a vertical turbulent diffusivity (Dt,z). This has been done through gauging the evolution of vertical profiles of concentration (C) of a dye sheet injected into a wave-canopy flow. Instantaneous measurement of the variance of the vertical concentration distribution ( allowed the estimation of a vertical turbulent diffusivity (). Two types of model canopies, rigid and flexible, with identical heights and frontal areas, were subjected to a wide and realistic range of wave height and period. The results showed two important mechanisms that dominate vertical mixing under different conditions: a shear layer that forms at the top of the canopy and wake turbulence generated by the stems. By allowing a coupled contribution of wake and shear layer mixing, we present a relationship that can be used to predict the rate of vertical mixing in coastal canopies. The results further showed that the rate of vertical mixing within flexible vegetation was always lower than the corresponding rigid canopy, confirming the impact of plant flexibility on canopy

  9. On the centrality of vertices of molecular graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randić, Milan; Novič, Marjana; Vračko, Marjan; Plavšić, Dejan

    2013-11-05

    For acyclic systems the center of a graph has been known to be either a single vertex of two adjacent vertices, that is, an edge. It has not been quite clear how to extend the concept of graph center to polycyclic systems. Several approaches to the graph center of molecular graphs of polycyclic graphs have been proposed in the literature. In most cases alternative approaches, however, while being apparently equally plausible, gave the same results for many molecules, but occasionally they differ in their characterization of molecular center. In order to reduce the number of vertices that would qualify as forming the center of the graph, a hierarchy of rules have been considered in the search for graph centers. We reconsidered the problem of "the center of a graph" by using a novel concept of graph theory, the vertex "weights," defined by counting the number of pairs of vertices at the same distance from the vertex considered. This approach gives often the same results for graph centers of acyclic graphs as the standard definition of graph center based on vertex eccentricities. However, in some cases when two nonequivalent vertices have been found as graph center, the novel approach can discriminate between the two. The same approach applies to cyclic graphs without additional rules to locate the vertex or vertices forming the center of polycyclic graphs, vertices referred to as central vertices of a graph. In addition, the novel vertex "weights," in the case of acyclic, cyclic, and polycyclic graphs can be interpreted as vertex centralities, a measure for how close or distant vertices are from the center or central vertices of the graph. Besides illustrating the centralities of a number of smaller polycyclic graphs, we also report on several acyclic graphs showing the same centrality values of their vertices. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Longitudinal differences of ionospheric vertical density distribution and equatorial electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizengaw, E.; Zesta, E.; Moldwin, M. B.; Damtie, B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Valladares, C. E.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2012-07-01

    Accurate estimation of global vertical distribution of ionospheric and plasmaspheric density as a function of local time, season, and magnetic activity is required to improve the operation of space-based navigation and communication systems. The vertical density distribution, especially at low and equatorial latitudes, is governed by the equatorial electrodynamics that produces a vertical driving force. The vertical structure of the equatorial density distribution can be observed by using tomographic reconstruction techniques on ground-based global positioning system (GPS) total electron content (TEC). Similarly, the vertical drift, which is one of the driving mechanisms that govern equatorial electrodynamics and strongly affect the structure and dynamics of the ionosphere in the low/midlatitude region, can be estimated using ground magnetometer observations. We present tomographically reconstructed density distribution and the corresponding vertical drifts at two different longitudes: the East African and west South American sectors. Chains of GPS stations in the east African and west South American longitudinal sectors, covering the equatorial anomaly region of meridian ˜37°E and 290°E, respectively, are used to reconstruct the vertical density distribution. Similarly, magnetometer sites of African Meridian B-field Education and Research (AMBER) and INTERMAGNET for the east African sector and South American Meridional B-field Array (SAMBA) and Low Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) are used to estimate the vertical drift velocity at two distinct longitudes. The comparison between the reconstructed and Jicamarca Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) measured density profiles shows excellent agreement, demonstrating the usefulness of tomographic reconstruction technique in providing the vertical density distribution at different longitudes. Similarly, the comparison between magnetometer estimated vertical drift and other independent drift observation, such as

  11. Vertical stiffness and muscle strain in professional Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Benjamin G; Scarvell, Jennie M; Ball, Nick B; Smith, Paul N

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to establish if vertical stiffness was greater in professional Australian rules footballers who sustained a lower limb skeletal muscle strain compared to those who did not, and to establish if a relationship between age, or training history, and vertical stiffness existed. Thirty-one participants underwent weekly rebound jump testing on a force platform over two seasons. Vertical stiffness was calculated for injured players and the uninjured cohort 1 and 3 weeks prior to sustaining an injury and at the end of preseason. Eighteen athletes were in the "uninjured" cohort and 13 in the "injured" cohort. No significant difference in vertical stiffness was observed between groups (P = 0.18 for absolute stiffness; P = 0.08 for stiffness relative to body mass), within groups (P = 0.83 and P = 0.88, respectively) or for a time*cohort interaction (P = 0.77 and P = 0.80, respectively). No relationship between age and vertical stiffness existed (r = -0.06 for absolute and relative stiffness), or training history and vertical stiffness (r = -0.01 and 0.00 for absolute and relative stiffness, respectively) existed. These results and others lend to suggest that vertical stiffness is not related to lower limb muscle strain injury.

  12. Subjective visual vertical after treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Mian Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Otolith function can be studied by testing the subjective visual vertical, because the tilt of the vertical line beyond the normal range is a sign of vestibular dysfunction. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a disorder of one or more labyrinthine semicircular canals caused by fractions of otoliths derived from the utricular macula. Objective: To compare the subjective visual vertical with the bucket test before and immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Methods: We evaluated 20 patients. The estimated position where a fluorescent line within a bucket reached the vertical position was measured before and immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: Before repositioning maneuver, 9 patients (45.0% had absolute values of the subjective visual vertical above the reference standard and 2 (10.0% after the maneuver; the mean of the absolute values of the vertical deviation was significantly lower after the intervention (p < 0.001. Conclusion: There is a reduction of the deviations of the subjective visual vertical, evaluated by the bucket test, immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

  13. Temporomandibular Disorders Treatment with Correction of Decreased Occlusal Vertical Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guguvcevski, Ljuben; Gigovski, Nikola; Mijoska, Aneta; Zlatanovska, Katerina; Arsova-Gigovska, Ana

    2017-12-15

    The term decreased occlusal vertical dimension refers to the reduced distance between two anatomical points while the teeth are in a state of occlusion. The development of this situation is about some parafunctional activities of the masticatory system. To evaluate the value of decreased occlusal vertical dimension in cases with temporomandibular disorder and to follow up the influence of corrective treatment with occlusal splints and definitive prosthetic construction upon the elimination of clinical symptoms. Eight cases with decreased occlusal vertical dimension accompanied with temporomandibular disorders were treated with an occlusal splint, as part of reversible occlusal treatment. After reducing, or complete elimination of the symptoms related to problems of decreased occlusal vertical dimension, the definitive prosthetic therapy was performed. The mean value of decreased occlusal vertical dimension in our patients is 8.5 mm, and the mean value of therapy time with an occlusal splint in these patients was 3.5 months. Occlusal splint is a part of reversible occlusal therapy in cases with decreased occlusal vertical dimension. After reducing the symptoms related to decreased occlusal vertical dimension definitive prosthetic therapy can be done.

  14. Skeletal muscle abnormalities and genetic factors related to vertical talus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Laura J; Gurnett, Christina A; Connolly, Anne M; Pestronk, Alan; Dobbs, Matthew B

    2011-04-01

    Congenital vertical talus is a fixed dorsal dislocation of the talonavicular joint and fixed equinus contracture of the hindfoot, causing a rigid deformity recognizable at birth. The etiology and epidemiology of this condition are largely unknown, but some evidence suggests it relates to aberrations of skeletal muscle. Identifying the tissue abnormalities and genetic causes responsible for vertical talus has the potential to lead to improved treatment and preventive strategies. We therefore (1) determined whether skeletal muscle abnormalities are present in patients with vertical talus and (2) identified associated congenital anomalies and genetic abnormalities in these patients. We identified associated congenital anomalies and genetic abnormalities present in 61 patients affected with vertical talus. We obtained abductor hallucis muscle biopsy specimens from the affected limbs of 11 of the 61 patients and compared the histopathologic characteristics with those of age-matched control subjects. All muscle biopsy specimens (n = 11) had abnormalities compared with those from control subjects including combinations of abnormal variation in muscle fiber size (n = 7), type I muscle fiber smallness (n = 6), and abnormal fiber type predominance (n = 5). Isolated vertical talus occurred in 23 of the 61 patients (38%), whereas the remaining 38 patients had associated nervous system, musculoskeletal system, and/or genetic and genomic abnormalities. Ten of the 61 patients (16%) had vertical talus in one foot and clubfoot in the other. Chromosomal abnormalities, all complete or partial trisomies, were identified in three patients with vertical talus who had additional congenital abnormalities. Vertical talus is a heterogeneous birth defect resulting from many diverse etiologies. Abnormal skeletal muscle biopsies are common in patients with vertical talus although it is unclear whether this is primary or secondary to the joint deformity. Associated anomalies are present in 62

  15. ONLINE MINIMIZATION OF VERTICAL BEAM SIZES AT APS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yipeng

    2017-06-25

    In this paper, online minimization of vertical beam sizes along the APS (Advanced Photon Source) storage ring is presented. A genetic algorithm (GA) was developed and employed for the online optimization in the APS storage ring. A total of 59 families of skew quadrupole magnets were employed as knobs to adjust the coupling and the vertical dispersion in the APS storage ring. Starting from initially zero current skew quadrupoles, small vertical beam sizes along the APS storage ring were achieved in a short optimization time of one hour. The optimization results from this method are briefly compared with the one from LOCO (Linear Optics from Closed Orbits) response matrix correction.

  16. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.; Battles, James E.; Hull, John R.; Rote, Donald M.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel.

  17. Vertices in parameter space: Double crises which destroy chaotic attractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallas, J.A.C.; Grebogi, C.; Yorke, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    We report a new phenomenon observed along a crisis locus when two control parameters of physical models are varied simultaneously: the existence of one or several vertices. The occurrence of a vertex (loss of differentiability) on a crisis locus implies the existence of simultaneous sudden changes in the structure of both the chaotic attractor and of its basin boundary. Vertices correspond to degenerate tangencies between manifolds of the unstable periodic orbits accessible from the basin of the chaotic attractor. Physically, small parameter perturbations (noise) about such vertices induce drastic changes in the dynamics

  18. The decision to integrate vertically in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, S S; Conrad, D A

    1988-01-01

    A scheme to help health care managers make decisions regarding vertical integration (and deintegration) strategies and to alert health care managers to a more analytic view of vertical integration that may help avoid costly mistakes is presented. Central to the decision-making scheme is the comparison between the costs of purchasing goods and services from (and selling them to) other organizations and the costs of acquiring (and supplying) the same goods and services within one's own organization. Whether outside or inside an organizational boundary, these costs (called transaction costs) may be important in determining whether vertical integration is an appropriate organizational strategy (Williamson 1975).

  19. A proposed orbit and vertical dispersion correction system for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, E.; Cornacchia, M.; King, A.S.; Lee, M.J.

    1978-07-01

    The proposed arrangement of position monitors and dipole magnets for the closed orbit correction system in PEP is described. The computer code ALIGN, which simulates and corrects closed orbit displacements, has been used to study the most effective layout of monitors and correctors. The vertical dispersion function has been computed before and after closed orbit correction. The results indicate that the residual vertical dispersion after the orbit is corrected could exceed the tolerable values. A correction procedure for the vertical dispersion has been studied with the compute code CO-OP and this scheme of correction has been verified experimentally in SPEAR. 9 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  20. A Compact Vertical Scanner for Atomic Force Microscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hong Park

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A compact vertical scanner for an atomic force microscope (AFM is developed. The vertical scanner is designed to have no interference with the optical microscope for viewing the cantilever. The theoretical stiffness and resonance of the scanner are derived and verified via finite element analysis. An optimal design process that maximizes the resonance frequency is performed. To evaluate the scanner’s performance, experiments are performed to evaluate the travel range, resonance frequency, and feedback noise level. In addition, an AFM image using the proposed vertical scanner is generated.

  1. Influence of short incompatible practice on the Simon effect: transfer along the vertical dimension and across vertical and horizontal dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Erick F Q; Fraga-Filho, Roberto Sena; Lameira, Allan Pablo; Mograbi, Daniel C; Riggio, Lucia; Gawryszewski, Luiz G

    2015-11-01

    In spatial compatibility and Simon tasks, the response is faster when stimulus and response locations are on the same side than when they are on opposite sides. It has been shown that a spatial incompatible practice leads to a subsequent modulation of the Simon effect along the horizontal dimension. It has also been reported that this modulation occurs both along and across vertical and horizontal dimensions, but only after intensive incompatible training (600 trials). In this work, we show that this modulatory effect can be obtained with a smaller number of incompatible trials, changing the spatial arrangement of the vertical response keys to obtain a stronger dimensional overlap between the spatial codes of stimuli and response keys. The results of Experiment 1 showed that 80 incompatible vertical trials abolished the Simon effect in the same dimension. Experiment 2 showed that a modulation of the vertical Simon effect could be obtained after 80 horizontal incompatible trials. Experiment 3 explored whether the transfer effect can also occur in a horizontal Simon task after a brief vertical spatial incompatibility task, and results were similar to the previous experiments. In conclusion, we suggest that the spatial arrangement between response key and stimulus locations may be critical to establish the short-term memory links that enable the transfer of learning between brief incompatible practices and the Simon effects, both along the vertical dimension and across vertical and horizontal dimensions.

  2. A test of vertical economies for non-vertically integrated firms: The case of rural electric cooperatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, Monica L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to evaluate unrealized economies of vertical integration for rural electric cooperatives. Given the well-established network economies that are inherent in the generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity, the coops long-standing choice of market structure is questionable (especially if their strategy is welfare maximization). Organized as either generation-and-transmission or distribution-only, the traditional measures of vertical economies will not work. Thus, I have devised an alternative method by which to measure such economies and find that, on average, cost savings in excess of 39% could have been realized had the coops adopted a vertically integrated structure. (author)

  3. Convectively driven flow past an infinite moving vertical cylinder with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , free convective flow over an infinite moving vertical cylinder under combined buoyancy effects of heat and mass transfer with thermal and mass stratifications. Laplace transform technique is adopted for finding solutions for velocity, ...

  4. CAMEX-3 AIRBORNE VERTICAL ATMOSPHERE PROFILING SYSTEM (AVAPS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-3 DC-8 Airborne Vertical Atmosphere Profiling System (AVAPS) uses dropwinsonde and Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to measure the atmospheric...

  5. Vertical Wave Impacts on Offshore Wind Turbine Inspection Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl

    2011-01-01

    Breaking wave impacts on a monopile at 20 m depth are computed with a VOF (Volume Of Fluid) method. The impacting waves are generated by the second-order focused wave group technique, to obtain waves that break at the position of the monopile. The subsequent impact from the vertical run-up flow....... The dependence of the vertical platform load to the platform level is discussed. Attention is given to the significant downward force that occur after the upward force associated with the vertical impact. The effect of the numerical resolution on the results is assessed. The position of wave overturning is found...... to be influenced by the grid resolution. For the lowest platform levels, the vertical impact is found to contribute to the peak values of in-line force and overturning moment....

  6. Vertical steam generators for VVER: myths and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trunov, N.

    2009-01-01

    The paper covers two basic concepts of steam generators, horizontal and vertical. It gives references to the analysis of 40-year operating experience and a short description of recent and future designs of horizontal SGs. The main design features and efficiency of the two SG concepts are compared including a comparative calculation analysis of heat efficiency. A short review of alternative designs of vertical steam generators (SG) for VVER of Russian design is presented with an analysis of the possible benefits of implementing vertical SGs in VVER reactor plants. The paper also covers an analysis of the effect of SG type on the layout of reactor plant building, taking into account the transportation and replacement technologies. The concept of VVER-1200A advanced reactor plant taken as an example corroborates lack of arguments in favor of vertical SGs implementation. (author)

  7. Shaping the distribution of vertical velocities of antihydrogen in GBAR

    CERN Document Server

    Dufour, G.; Lambrecht, A.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Reynaud, S.; Voronin, A.Yu.

    2014-01-30

    GBAR is a project aiming at measuring the free fall acceleration of gravity for antimatter, namely antihydrogen atoms ($\\overline{\\mathrm{H}}$). Precision of this timing experiment depends crucially on the dispersion of initial vertical velocities of the atoms as well as on the reliable control of their distribution. We propose to use a new method for shaping the distribution of vertical velocities of $\\overline{\\mathrm{H}}$, which improves these factors simultaneously. The method is based on quantum reflection of elastically and specularly bouncing $\\overline{\\mathrm{H}}$ with small initial vertical velocity on a bottom mirror disk, and absorption of atoms with large initial vertical velocities on a top rough disk. We estimate statistical and systematic uncertainties, and show that the accuracy for measuring the free fall acceleration $\\overline{g}$ of $\\overline{\\mathrm{H}}$ could be pushed below $10^{-3}$ under realistic experimental conditions.

  8. Reliability Analysis and Optimal Design of Monolithic Vertical Wall Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, Hans F.; Christiani, E.

    1994-01-01

    Reliability analysis and reliability-based design of monolithic vertical wall breakwaters are considered. Probabilistic models of the most important failure modes, sliding failure, failure of the foundation and overturning failure are described . Relevant design variables are identified and relia...

  9. Vertical and horizontal spheroidal boundary-value problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šprlák, Michal; Tangdamrongsub, Natthachet

    2017-12-01

    Vertical and horizontal spheroidal boundary-value problems (BVPs), i.e., determination of the external gravitational potential from the components of the gravitational gradient on the spheroid, are discussed in this article. The gravitational gradient is decomposed into the series of the vertical and horizontal vector spheroidal harmonics, before being orthogonalized in a weighted sense by two different approaches. The vertical and horizontal spheroidal BVPs are then formulated and solved in the spectral and spatial domains. Both orthogonalization methods provide the same analytical solutions for the vertical spheroidal BVP, and give distinct, but equivalent, analytical solutions for the horizontal spheroidal BVP. A closed-loop simulation is performed to test the correctness of the analytical solutions, and we investigate analytical properties of the sub-integral kernels. The systematic treatment of the spheroidal BVPs and the resulting mathematical equations extend the theoretical apparatus of geodesy and of the potential theory.

  10. Determination of horizontal and vertical distribution of tree species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of horizontal and vertical distribution of tree species in Turkey via Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) satellite data and geographic information system: the case of Crimean pine ( Pinus nigra )

  11. Cubic interaction vertices for fermionic and bosonic arbitrary spin fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2012-06-01

    Using the light-cone gauge approach to relativistic field dynamics, we study arbitrary spin fermionic and bosonic fields propagating in flat space of dimension greater than or equal to four. Generating functions of parity invariant cubic interaction vertices for totally symmetric and mixed-symmetry massive and massless fields are obtained. For the case of totally symmetric fields, we derive restrictions on the allowed values of spins and the number of derivatives. These restrictions provide a complete classification of parity invariant cubic interaction vertices for totally symmetric fermionic and bosonic fields. As an example of application of the light-cone formalism, we obtain simple expressions for the Yang-Mills and gravitational interactions of massive arbitrary spin fermionic fields. For some particular cases, using our light-cone cubic vertices, we discuss the corresponding manifestly Lorentz invariant and on-shell gauge invariant cubic vertices.

  12. Ultra-Low Noise Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A unique type of vertical lift propulsor is being designed/analyzed/ developed to push blade passage frequency harmonics above the human audible range, while also...

  13. Vertical compared with transverse incisions in abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grantcharov, T P; Rosenberg, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To reach an evidence-based consensus on the relative merits of vertical and transverse laparotomy incisions. DESIGN: Review of all published randomised controlled trials that compared the postoperative complications after the two main types of abdominal incisions, vertical and transverse...... postoperative pain and fewer pulmonary complications. Vertical laparotomy, however, is associated with shorter operating time and better possibilities for extension of the incision. The pooled odds ratio for burst abdomen in the vertical incision group was 2.86 (95% confidence interval 1.72 to 4.73, p = 0.......0001), and regarding late incisional hernia the pooled odds ratio was 1.68 (95% confidence interval 1.10 to 2.57. p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Transverse incisions in abdominal surgery are based on better anatomical and physiological principles. They should be recommended, as the early postoperative period is associated...

  14. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  15. Vertical Lift by Series Hybrid Power, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A major market for vertical lift aircraft is in urban operations, primarily for police and electronic news gathering (typically a Bell 206 or a Eurocopter AS350)....

  16. CAMEX-3 AIRBORNE VERTICAL ATMOSPHERE PROFILING SYSTEM (AVAPS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-3 DC-8 Airborne Vertical Atmosphere Profiling System (AVAPS) uses dropwindsonde and Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to measure the atmospheric...

  17. GLOBEC NEP Vertical Plankton Tow (VPT) Data, 1997-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBEC (GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics) NEP (Northeast Pacific) California Current Program Vertical Plankton Tow (VPT) Data For more information, see...

  18. Vertical motion and ''scarred'' eigenfunctions in the stadium billiard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoffel, K.M.; Brumer, P.

    1985-01-01

    A subset of pseudoregular eigenfunctions of the classically chaotic stadium billiard is shown to participate strongly in vertically directed motion, supporting the conjectures of McDonald and of Heller regarding periodic orbits and pseudoregular eigenfunctions

  19. Measurement of vertical track deflection from a moving rail car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The University of Nebraska has been conducting research sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research and Development to develop a system that measures vertical track deflection/modulus from a moving rail car. Previous work ...

  20. AWWA E102-17 submersible vertical turbine pumps

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This standard describes minimum requirements for submersible vertical turbine pumps utilizing a discharge column pipe assembly, 5 hp or larger, used in water service, including materials, design, manufacture, inspection, and testing.

  1. Flambage vertical des conduites en souillées Vertical Buckling of Buried Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bournazel C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Si l'apparition d'un flambage vertical des conduites rigides enfouies dans une tranchée est un phénomène assez rare, il peut ne pas en être de même pour des conduites flexibles dont les propriétés mécaniques sont de nature différente. Une étude théorique et expérimentale, ayant pour but de proposer une méthode analytique de calcul de l'apparition du flambage et de son évolution sous l'effet de la pression interne, a été réalisée. II apparaît que les conduites flexibles actuelles sont très sensibles à ce phénomène et qu'il serait nécessaire, pour l'éliminer à coup sûr, de réexaminer la structure des flexibles ou d'imaginer des artifices dans la procédure d'ensouillage Whereas the appearance of vertical buckling in rigid pipes buried in a trench is a relatively rare phenomenon, the same cannot be said for flexible pipes which have mechanical properties of a different nature. A theoretical and experimental study has been made with the aim of proposing an analytical method for computing the appearance of buckling and its evolution under the effect of outside pressure. Current flexible pipes appear to be very sensitive to this phenomenon, and to be certain of eliminating it the structure of flexible pipes should be reexamined or stratagems in the burying procedure should be devised.

  2. Activity Based Startup Plan for Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-01-01

    Testing activation on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at PFP were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The restart of testing activities will require a review through an activity based startup process based upon Integrated Safety Management (ISM) principles to verify readiness. The Activity Based Startup Plan for the Prototype vertical Denitration Calciner has been developed for this process

  3. Refining geoid and vertical gradient of gravity anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chijun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We have derived and tested several relations between geoid (N and quasi-geoid (ζ with model validation. The elevation correction consists of the first-term (Bouguer anomaly and second-term (vertical gradient of gravity anomaly. The vertical gradient was obtained from direct measurement and terrain calculation. The test results demonstrated that the precision of geoid can reach centimeter-level in mountains less than 5000 meters high.

  4. Alignment and operability analysis of a vertical sodium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, V.K.; Fair, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    With the objective of identifying important alignment features of pumps such as FFTF, HALLAM, EBR II, PNC, PHENIX, and CRBR, alignment of the vertical sodium pump for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) is investigated. The CRBRP pump includes a flexibly coupled pump shaft and motor shaft, two oil-film tilting-pad hydrodynamic radial bearings in the motor plus a vertical thrust bearing, and two sodium hydrostatic bearings straddling the double-suction centrifugal impeller in the pump

  5. Horizontal and Vertical Rule Bases Method in Fuzzy Controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Aminifar, Sadegh; bin Marzuki, Arjuna

    2013-01-01

    Concept of horizontal and vertical rule bases is introduced. Using this method enables the designers to look for main behaviors of system and describes them with greater approximations. The rules which describe the system in first stage are called horizontal rule base. In the second stage, the designer modulates the obtained surface by describing needed changes on first surface for handling real behaviors of system. The rules used in the second stage are called vertical rule base. Horizontal...

  6. Spillover Effects in a Federal Country with Vertical Tax Externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Grazzini; Alessandro Petretto

    2015-01-01

    We analyse how spillover effects may affect the choice of a federal tax rate in a federal country with vertical tax externalities. Our main result shows under which conditions the federal tax rate with spillover effects is lower or higher than the federal tax rate without spillover effects. The standard result on inefficiently high tax rates due to vertical tax externalities can be modified by the reaction of the federal government to the horizontal externality due to spillover effects.

  7. The Vertical Integration of Mechatronics at Virginia Tech

    OpenAIRE

    Grove, Donald E

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on the vertical integration of mechatronics in the mechanical engineering curriculum at Virginia Tech. It reports the details of an experimental strategy to integrate mechatronics at an early level in the education of engineers. A proposal was submitted to and accepted by the NSF/SUCCEED coalition to fund this experiment. Through this assistance, the experiment of vertically integrating mechatronics was initiated. The methodology in which it was inte...

  8. Cephalometric Approach to the Occlusal Vertical Dimension Reestablishment

    OpenAIRE

    Zielak, João César; Gulin Neto, David; Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes da; Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda; Giovanini, Allan Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) refers to the length of the face as determined by the amount of separation of the jaws. Its determination is important for the manufacture of restorations. However, defining the correct occlusal vertical dimension for edentulous patients is one of the most important steps for function and esthetics rehabilitation. Cephalometry is a standardized method of assessing dental and facial proportions and their interrelation. Additionally, cephalometric analysis ...

  9. DESIGN OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF VERTICALLY INTEGRATED AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Витальевич ШМАТКО

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an approach to the design and development of information systems for the management and optimization of the organizational structure of vertically integrated agricultural holdings. A review of the problems of building and improving the organizational structure of vertically integrated agricultural holding is made. A method of constructing a discrete model management structure agricultural holding, which minimizes the costs associated with attracting applicants to work, is proposed.

  10. Climatology of Neutral vertical winds in the midlatitude thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, R.; Kapali, S.; Riccobono, J.; Migliozzi, M. A.; Noto, J.; Brum, C. G. M.; Garcia, R.

    2017-12-01

    More than one thousand measurements of neutral vertical winds, relative to an assumed average of 0 m/s during a nighttime period, have been made at Arecibo Observatory and the Millstone Hill Optical Facility since 2012, using imaging Fabry-Perot interferometers. These instruments, tuned to the 630 nm OI emission, are carefully calibrated for instrumental frequency drift using frequency stabilized lasers, allowing isolation of Doppler motion in the zenith with 1-2 m/s accuracy. As one example of the results, relative vertical winds at Arecibo during quiet geomagnetic conditions near winter solstice 2016, range ±70 m/s and have a one standard deviation statistical variability of ±34 m/s. This compares with a ±53 m/s deviation from the average meridional wind, and a ±56 m/s deviation from the average zonal wind measured during the same period. Vertical neutral wind velocities for all periods range from roughly 30% - 60% of the horizontal velocity domain at Arecibo. At Millstone Hill, the vertical velocities relative to horizontal velocities are similar, but slightly smaller. The midnight temperature maximum at Arecibo is usually correlated with a surge in the upward wind, and vertical wind excursions of more than 80 m/s are common during magnetic storms at both sites. Until this compilation of vertical wind climatology, vertical motions of the neutral atmosphere outside of the auroral zone have generally been assumed to be very small compared to horizontal transport. In fact, excursions from small vertical velocities in the mid-latitude thermosphere near the F2 ionospheric peak are common, and are not isolated events associated with unsettled geomagnetic conditions or other special dynamic conditions.

  11. Temporomandibular Disorders Treatment with Correction of Decreased Occlusal Vertical Dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Guguvcevski, Ljuben; Gigovski, Nikola; Mijoska, Aneta; Zlatanovska, Katerina; Arsova-Gigovska, Ana

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The term decreased occlusal vertical dimension refers to the reduced distance between two anatomical points while the teeth are in a state of occlusion. The development of this situation is about some parafunctional activities of the masticatory system. AIM: To evaluate the value of decreased occlusal vertical dimension in cases with temporomandibular disorder and to follow up the influence of corrective treatment with occlusal splints and definitive prosthetic construction up...

  12. Cephalometric analysis for accurately determining the vertical dimension (case report)

    OpenAIRE

    Wahipa Wiro; Ike Damayanti Habar

    2017-01-01

    Objective : Determination of the vertical dimension of occlusion (DVO) tends to changes throughout the human life. The vertical dimension is determined by the interocclusal point of the upper and lower teeth contact so the application is limited when the natural teeth was missing. As the result, many functional and aesthetic changes are occurred in the whole orofacial region and stomatognathic system. DVO is one of the difficult stages in prosthodontic treatment. Most of the techniques to det...

  13. Comparing reading speed for horizontal and vertical English text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deyue; Park, Heejung; Gerold, David; Legge, Gordon E

    2010-02-23

    There are three formats for arranging English text for vertical reading-upright letters arranged vertically (marquee), and horizontal text rotated 90 degrees clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous research has shown that reading is slower for all three vertical formats than for horizontal text, with marquee being slowest (M. D. Byrne, 2002). It has been proposed that the size of the visual span-the number of letters recognized with high accuracy without moving the eyes-is a visual factor limiting reading speed. We predicted that reduced visual-span size would be correlated with the slower reading for the three vertical formats. We tested this prediction with uppercase and lowercase letters. Reading performance was measured using two presentation methods: RSVP (Rapid Serial Visual Presentation) and flashcard (a block of text on four lines). On average, reading speed for horizontal text was 139% faster than marquee text and 81% faster than the rotated texts. Size of the visual span was highly correlated with changes in reading speed for both lowercase and uppercase letters and for both RSVP and flashcard reading. Our results are consistent with the view that slower reading of vertical text is due to a decrease in the size of the visual span for vertical reading.

  14. Twilight vertical migrations of zooplankton in a Chilean fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo; Castro, Leonardo; Cáceres, Mario; Pizarro, Oscar

    2014-12-01

    Time series of acoustic backscatter and vertical velocity profiles were obtained at three sites along a Chilean fjord with the purpose of determining dominant structures of vertical migrations of the sound scattering layer. Ancillary data obtained with stratified net samples indicated that the sound scattering layer may have been dominated by euphausiids and decapods. Therefore, distributions of acoustic backscatter anomalies and vertical velocities were attributed to vertical migrations of predominantly these organisms. Migration patterns were dominated by twilight excursions in which organisms swam toward the water surface at sunset, spent 100 m). This migration strategy can also be termed 'semidiel migration' as two double excursions were linked to light levels. The reasons for this twilight migration remain uncertain. But it is possible that the up and down motion around sunset was related to predation avoidance, hunger-satiation state, ontogeny, seaward transport evasion, or reaction to the environmental shock from the pycnocline, or a combination of all or some of them. In contrast, the sunrise double excursion was probably linked to feeding requirements by organisms that need to spend the day at great depth with no food available. This study demonstrated the existence of semidiel patterns throughout the fjord and through prolonged periods. In addition, identification of this pattern by acoustic backscatter was complemented by direct vertical velocity measurements. It is proposed that twilight vertical migration is a common strategy in Chilean fjords.

  15. Esthetic factors of smile in vertical dimensions: A comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyaroop Rai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The variations in aesthetic perception among the professionals and the laypersons were compared, to understand the association of various skeletal and dental factors in vertical dimension, which alter the soft-tissue characteristics during posed/social smile, among young adults. Methods: Images of the posed smile were captured with a digital camera from the 60 nonorthodontic treated young adults (30 girls, 30 boys. Determinants of the "pleasing smile" were identified from the results of a Visual Analog Scale. Quantitative measurements of the soft- and hard-tissue were made by using the smile images and cephalometric radiographs. The esthetics of the smile was correlated with specific skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue structures in the anteroposterior and vertical dimensions. Results: Three factors formed significant components of a pleasant smile, for orthodontists (incisogingival display, upper lip, and buccal corridor and three for laypersons (upper lip, lower lip, and smile arc. A strong positive correlation was seen among skeletal and dental vertical dimensions and incisor show. The vertical thickness of the upper lip had a significant positive correlation with the position of the maxillary incisor. Conclusion: Incisogingival display, upper lip, lower lip and buccal corridor proved to be the most influential variables in smile esthetics. The significant relationship of incisor protrusion with the vertical thickness of the vermilion border of the upper lip shows that skeletal and dental vertical dimensions for incisal display must be considered when planning orthodontic treatment.

  16. Subjective visual vertical after treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maristela Mian; Ganança, Maurício Malavasi; Caovilla, Heloisa Helena

    Otolith function can be studied by testing the subjective visual vertical, because the tilt of the vertical line beyond the normal range is a sign of vestibular dysfunction. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a disorder of one or more labyrinthine semicircular canals caused by fractions of otoliths derived from the utricular macula. To compare the subjective visual vertical with the bucket test before and immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. We evaluated 20 patients. The estimated position where a fluorescent line within a bucket reached the vertical position was measured before and immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Before repositioning maneuver, 9 patients (45.0%) had absolute values of the subjective visual vertical above the reference standard and 2 (10.0%) after the maneuver; the mean of the absolute values of the vertical deviation was significantly lower after the intervention (pparoxysmal positional vertigo. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-starting aerodynamics analysis of vertical axis wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyang Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertical axis wind turbine is a special type of wind-force electric generator which is capable of working in the complicated wind environment. The self-starting aerodynamics is one of the most important considerations for this kind of turbine. This article aims at providing a systematic synthesis on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine based on the numerical analysis approach. First, the physical model of vertical axis wind turbine and its parameter definitions are presented. Secondary, the interaction model between the vertical axis wind turbine and fluid is developed by using the weak coupling approach; the numerical data of this model are then compared with the wind tunnel experimental data to show its feasibility. Third, the effects of solidity and fixed pitch angle on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of the vertical axis wind turbine are analyzed systematically. Finally, the quantification effects of the solidity and fixed pitch angle on the self-starting performance of the turbine can be obtained. The analysis in this study will provide straightforward physical insight into the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine.

  18. Development of seismic isolation system in vertical direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohoka, Makoto; Horikiri, Morito

    1999-04-01

    A structure concept of vertical seismic isolation system which uses a common deck and a set of large dish springs was created in past studies. In this report, a series of dynamic tests on a small scale model of a common deck isolation structure were performed. The model was excited by random and seismic waves in the horizontal direction and 2-D excitation, horizontal and vertical, in order to identify the characteristics of isolation effect. The tests results are summarized as below. 1) This structure has three vibration mode. The second mode is rocking. 2) Rocking frequency depends on the excitation, for this structure has dish spring which contact with cylinders. Rocking damping varies from 2 to 8%, 3) Each mode's response peak frequency to 2-D(horizontal and vertical) excitation is almost the same the some to horizontal excitation. Vertical mode damping to 2-D excitation is about three times to horizontal excitation. 4) Isolation effect depends on a characteristics of frequency of input motion. The minimum response is to the Monju design seismic wave, soil shear wave:Vs=2000 m/sec, natural frequency of horizontal isolation in vertical direction:fv=20 Hz. A relative displacement is controlled. 5) A rocking angular displacement to 2-D excitation is about 2 times to 1-D excitation(vertical). However, it is about 1.2 E-4(rad), sufficiently small for a practical plant. (author)

  19. Gold Mine or Minefield: Understanding Russian Law on Vertical Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rucker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available While the Russian Federation represents a significant opportunity for growth, that opportunity is coupled with serious risks. As it relates to managing product distribution, Russian vertical restraint law remains significantly more restrictive than that of the U.S. and, since unless a company is fully integrated, it must manage its distribution system by way of vertical agreements, presents a large problem for businesses seeking to conduct business in Russia. While Russia has made significant steps in the right direction, the lack of consistent application of economic analysis to evaluation of vertical restraints leaves companies exposed. Further, the sometimes inconsistent application of the laws also makes it hard to predict how any particular vertical agreement would be evaluated. Neither American nor Russian antitrust laws establish a list of possible vertical restraints. Thus, there is no exhaustive guidance regarding how these restraints should be treated. U.S. antitrust laws, however, generally place all vertical restraints into one of two categories, intrabrand restraints and interbrand restraints. Intrabrand restraints are those that restrain the downstream firm’s freedom with regard to the resale of the product at issue (distribution restrictions. Interbrand restraints are those that restrict a downstream or upstream firm’s freedom to deal with competitors of the firm imposing the restraint (interbrand restrictions. It should be noted that Russian law does not make this distinction.

  20. Gold Mine or Minefield: Understanding Russian Law on Vertical Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rucker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the Russian Federation represents a significant opportunity for growth, that opportunity is coupled with serious risks. As it relates to managing product distribution, Russian vertical restraint law remains significantly more restrictive than that of the U.S. and, since unless a company is fully integrated, it must manage its distribution system by way of vertical agreements, presents a large problem for businesses seeking to conduct business in Russia. While Russia has made significant steps in the right direction, the lack of consistent application of economic analysis to evaluation of vertical restraints leaves companies exposed. Further, the sometimes inconsistent application of the laws also makes it hard to predict how any particular vertical agreement would be evaluated. Neither American nor Russian antitrust laws establish a list of possible vertical restraints. Thus, there is no exhaustive guidance regarding how these restraints should be treated. U.S. antitrust laws, however, generally place all vertical restraints into one of two categories, intrabrand restraints and interbrand restraints. Intrabrand restraints are those that restrain the downstream firm’s freedom with regard to the resale of the product at issue (distribution restrictions. Interbrand restraints are those that restrict a downstream or upstream firm’s freedom to deal with competitors of the firm imposing the restraint (interbrand restrictions. It should be noted that Russian law does not make this distinction.

  1. STEREOLOGICAL ESTIMATION OF TUBULAR LENGTH FROM THIN VERTICAL SECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle V Clausen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study tubular structures are represented by stem villous arteries of the human placenta. The architecture of the vascular tree in the human placenta makes it appropriate to use vertical histological sections. Describing tubules, estimates of total length and diameter are informative. The aim of the study was to derive a new stereological estimator of the total length of circular tubules observed in thin vertical sections. Design: Dual perfusion fixed human placentas. Systematic, uniformly random sampling of vertical sections. Five-μm-sections were stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E and the vertical axis was identified in all sections. A test system with cycloid test lines was used. Since tubular surface area is proportional to length and diameter, S ∝ πdL, surface-weightening is equivalent to diameter×lengthweightening. As each diameter (extra weight is known, one may eliminate the diameter-weightening by computing the harmonic mean diameter, which is thus the correct, length-weighted mean tubular diameter, dL = d hS . Surface area is estimated in the ordinary way from vertical sections, and with unbiased and robust estimates of S and dL respectively, total length may be estimated L = S / πdhs Conclusion: A new stereological estimator of total length of a circular tubular structure observed in thin vertical sections is presented.

  2. Dissociated vertical deviation: etiology, mechanism, and associated phenomena. Costenbader Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, D L

    2000-06-01

    The etiology and mechanism of dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) are explored. In 6 young adults with DVD, the simultaneous horizontal, vertical, and torsional eye movements for both eyes were recorded by using dual-coil scleral search coils. Analysis of the simultaneous vertical and torsional movements that occurred during the DVD response identified the primary muscles acting in the vergences and versions involved. Typically, both horizontal and cyclovertical latent nystagmus developed upon occlusion of either eye. A cycloversion/vertical vergence then occurred, with the fixing eye intorting and tending to depress and the covered eye extorting and elevating. Simultaneously, upward versions occurred for the maintenance of fixation, consisting of various saccades and smooth eye movements, and this led to further elevation of the eye behind the cover. The cyclovertical component of the latent nystagmus became partially damped as the DVD developed. In patients with an early onset defect of binocular function, the occlusion of one eye, or even concentration on fixing with one eye, produces unbalanced input to the vestibular system. This results in latent nystagmus with a cyclovertical component, sometimes only seen with magnification. A normal, oblique-muscle-produced, cycloversion/vertical vergence then comes into play, occurring in an exaggerated form in the absence of binocular vision, probably as a learned response. This cycloversion/vertical vergence helps damp the cyclovertical nystagmus (a cyclovertical "nystagmus blockage" phenomenon), aiding vision in the fixing eye. But this mechanism also produces unavoidable and undesirable elevation and extorsion of the fellow eye, which we call DVD.

  3. A Comparison between Horizontal and Vertical Interchannel Decorrelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Gribben

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The perceptual effects of interchannel decorrelation on perceived image spread have been investigated subjectively in both horizontal and vertical stereophonic reproductions, looking specifically at the frequency dependency of decorrelation. Fourteen and thirteen subjects graded the horizontal and vertical image spreads of a pink noise sample, respectively. The pink noise signal had been decorrelated by a complementary comb-filter decorrelation algorithm, varying the frequency-band, time-delay and decorrelation factor for each sample. Results generally indicated that interchannel decorrelation had a significant effect on auditory image spread both horizontally and vertically, with spread increasing as correlation decreases. However, it was found that the effect of vertical decorrelation was less effective than that of horizontal decorrelation. The results also suggest that the decorrelation effect was frequency-dependent; changes in horizontal image spread were more apparent in the high frequency band, whereas those in vertical image spread were in the low band. Furthermore, objective analysis suggests that the perception of vertical image spread for the low and middle frequency bands could be associated with a floor reflection; whereas for the high band, the results appear to be related to spectral notches in the ear input signals.

  4. Vertical datum unification for the International Height Reference System (IHRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Laura; Sideris, Michael G.

    2017-05-01

    The International Association of Geodesy released in July 2015 a resolution for the definition and realisation of an International Height Reference System (IHRS). According to this resolution, the IHRS coordinates are potential differences referring to the equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field realised by the conventional value W0 = 62 636 853.4 m2s-2. A main component of the IHRS realisation is the integration of the existing height systems into the global one; that is existing vertical coordinates should be referred to one and the same reference level realised by the conventional W0. This procedure is known as vertical datum unification and its main result are the vertical datum parameters, that is the potential differences between the local and the global reference levels. In this paper, we rigorously derive the observation equations for the vertical datum unification in terms of potential quantities based on the geodetic boundary value problem (GBVP) approach. Those observation equations are then empirically evaluated for the vertical datum unification of the North American and South American height systems. In the first case, simulations performed in North America provide numerical estimates about the impact of omission errors and direct and indirect effects on the vertical datum parameters. In the second case, a combination of local geopotential numbers, ITRF coordinates, satellite altimetry observations, tide gauge registrations and high-resolution gravity field models is performed to estimate the level differences between the South American height systems and the global level W0. Results show that indirect effects vanish when a satellite-only gravity field model with a degree higher than n ≥ 180 is used for the solution of the GBVP. However, the component derived from satellite-only global gravity models has to be refined with terrestrial gravity data to minimise the omission error and its effect on the vertical datum parameter estimation

  5. Effect of occlusal vertical dimension on lip positions at smile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Jang-Ching; Thompson, Geoffrey A; Aggarwal, Harshit A; Bosio, Jose A; Irelan, Jon P

    2014-09-01

    In complete mouth reconstructive dentistry, the occlusal vertical dimension may be increased to provide adequate restorative space or to improve esthetics. The effect of increasing the occlusal vertical dimension on the smile is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing the occlusal vertical dimension on the dimensions of the smile. Thirty dental students, 12 men and 18 women between the ages of 21 and 30 years old, participated in this study. Polyvinyl siloxane occlusal registrations 2, 4, 6, and 8 mm in thickness were fabricated from articulated stone casts. Posed smile images at occlusal vertical dimension +0, +2, +4, +6, and +8 mm were made with a digital single lens reflex camera mounted on a tripod. A wall-mounted head-positioning device, modified from a cephalometric unit, was used to stabilize the head position. Interlabial gap height, intercommissural width, incisal edge to upper lip, and incisal edge-to-lower lip measurements were made with computer software. The smile index was obtained by dividing width by height. The display zone area was measured by using computer software tracing. One-way repeated measures ANOVA (α=.05) was used for statistical analysis. With an increase in the occlusal vertical dimension, the interlabial gap height, incisal edge to lower lip distance, and display zone area increased significantly (Pocclusal vertical dimension. The smile index decreases with increased occlusal vertical dimension. However, the width of the smile and the length of the upper lip tend to remain unchanged. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reconstruction of B- → D*0e- anti νe decays and determination of vertical stroke Vcb vertical stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this analysis the decay B - → D *0 e - anti ν e is measured. The underlying data sample consists of about 226 million B anti B-pairs accumulated on the Υ(4S) resonance by the BABAR detector at the asymmetric e + e - collider PEP-II. The reconstruction of the decay uses the channels D *0 → D 0 π 0 , D 0 → K - π + and π 0 → γγ. The neutrino is not reconstructed. Since the rest frame of the B meson is unknown, the boost w of the D *0 meson in the B meson rest frame is estimated by w. The w spectrum of the data is described in terms of the partial decay width dΓ/dw given by theory and the detector simulation translating each spectrum dΓ/dw into an expectation of the measured w spectrum. dΓ/dw depends on a form factor F(w) parameterizing the strong interaction in the decay process. To find the best descriptive dΓ/dw a fit to the data determines the following two parameters of dΓ/dw: (i) F(1) vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke, the product between F at zero D *0 -recoil and the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke; (ii) ρ 2 A1 , a parameter of the form factor F(w). The former parameter scales the height of dΓ/dw and ρ 2 A1 varies the shape of it. The determined values of F(1) vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke, ρ 2 A1 and B(B - → D *0 e - anti ν e ) are F(1) vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke =(35.8±0.5±1.5) x 10 -3 , ρ 2 A1 =(1.08±0.05±0.09) and B(B - → D *0 e - anti ν e )=(5.60±0.08±0.42)%, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. The values of B(B - → D *0 e - anti ν e ) has been determined by an integration of dΓ/dw over the allowed w range using the fitted values of F(1) vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke and ρ 2 A1 . (orig.)

  7. Advanced Si solid phase crystallization for vertical channel in vertical NANDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangsoo Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The advanced solid phase crystallization (SPC method using the SiGe/Si bi-layer structure is proposed to obtain high-mobility poly-Si thin-film transistors in next generation vertical NAND (VNAND devices. During the SPC process, the top SiGe thin film acts as a selective nucleation layer to induce surface nucleation and equiaxial microstructure. Subsequently, this SiGe thin film microstructure is propagated to the underlying Si thin film by epitaxy-like growth. The initial nucleation at the SiGe surface was clearly observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM when heating up to 600 °C. The equiaxial microstructures of both SiGe nucleation and Si channel layers were shown in the crystallized bi-layer plan-view TEM measurements. Based on these experimental results, the large-grained and less-defective Si microstructure is expected to form near the channel region of each VNAND cell transistor, which may improve the electrical characteristics.

  8. Effects of Foam Rolling on Vertical Jump Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Jones

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foam rolling is a popular activity utilized by strength and conditioning coaches as it is believed to increase muscle length and break up fibrous adhesions located in connective tissue. However, there is little research investigating the effects of foam rolling on athletic performance. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of lower body foam rolling on vertical jump performance. Methods: Twenty males (age 24.05 ± 2.02 years; height 177.43 ± 6.31 cm; mass 81.41 ± 8.76 kg volunteered to participate. Subjects completed three days of testing, separated by at least twenty-four hours. Day one consisted of baseline vertical jumps on a force plate, followed by familiarization with foam rolling and control protocols. Subjects returned on days two and three and performed 30-second bouts of lower body foam rolling or mimicked foam rolling movements on a skateboard followed by vertical jumps on a force plate. The highest jump from each day was used for statistical analyses. Results: Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed no significant differences in Jump height, impulse, relative ground reaction force, or take-off velocity between conditions. Conclusion: 30-second bouts of lower body foam rolling do not improve vertical jump performance. Keywords: Dynamic Warm-Up, Foam Rolling, Vertical Jump

  9. Evidence of diel vertical migration in Mnemiopsis leidyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilda Haraldsson

    Full Text Available The vertical distribution and migration of plankton organisms may have a large impact on their horizontal dispersal and distribution, and consequently on trophic interactions. In this study we used video-net profiling to describe the fine scale vertical distribution of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Kattegat and Baltic Proper. Potential diel vertical migration was also investigated by frequent filming during a 24-hour cycle at two contrasting locations with respect to salinity stratification. The video profiles revealed a pronounced diel vertical migration at one of the locations. However, only the small and medium size classes migrated, on average 0.85 m h(-1, corresponding to a total migration distance of 10 m during 12 h. Larger individuals (with well developed lobes, approx. >27 mm stay on average in the same depth interval at all times. Biophysical data suggest that migrating individuals likely responded to light, and avoided irradiance levels higher than approx. 10 µmol quanta m(-2 s(-1. We suggest that strong stratification caused by low surface salinity seemed to prohibit vertical migration.

  10. Vertical control in the Class III compensatory treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Costa Sobral

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Compensatory orthodontic treatment, or simply orthodontic camouflage, consists in an important alternative to orthognathic surgery in the resolution of skeletal discrepancies in adult patients. It is important to point that, to be successfully performed, diagnosis must be detailed, to evaluate, specifically, dental and facial features, as well as the limitations imposed by the magnitude of the discrepancy. The main complaint, patient's treatment expectation, periodontal limits, facial pattern and vertical control are some of the items to be explored in the determination of the viability of a compensatory treatment. Hyperdivergent patients who carry a Class III skeletal discrepancy, associated with a vertical facial pattern, with the presence or tendency to anterior open bite, deserve special attention. In these cases, an efficient strategy of vertical control must be planned and executed. OBJECTIVE: The present article aims at illustrating the evolution of efficient alternatives of vertical control in hiperdivergent patients, from the use, in the recent past, of extra-oral appliances on the lower dental arch (J-hook, until nowadays, with the advent of skeletal anchorage. But for patients with a more balanced facial pattern, the conventional mechanics with Class III intermaxillary elastics, associated to an accentuated curve of Spee in the upper arch and a reverse Curve of Spee in the lower arch, and vertical elastics in the anterior region, continues to be an excellent alternative, if there is extreme collaboration in using the elastics.

  11. The WZNW model on PSU(1, 1 vertical stroke 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, G. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique; Quella, T. [King' s College London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematics]|[Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). KdV Institute for Mathematics; Schomerus, V. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    According to the work of Berkovits, Vafa and Witten, the non-linear sigma model on the supergroup PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2) is the essential building block for string theory on AdS{sub 3}xS{sup 3}xT{sup 4}. Models associated with a non-vanishing value of the RR flux can be obtained through a psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) invariant marginal deformation of the WZNW model on PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2). We take this as a motivation to present a manifestly psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) covariant construction of the model at the Wess-Zumino point, corresponding to a purely NSNS background 3-form flux. At this point the model possesses an enhanced psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) current algebra symmetry whose representation theory, including explicit character formulas, is developed systematically in the first part of the paper. The space of vertex operators and a free fermion representation for their correlation functions is our main subject in the second part. Contrary to a widespread claim, bosonic and fermionic fields are necessarily coupled to each other. The interaction changes the supersymmetry transformations, with drastic consequences for the multiplets of localized normalizable states in the model. It is only this fact which allows us to decompose the full state space into multiplets of the global supersymmetry. We analyze these decompositions systematically as a preparation for a forthcoming study of the RR deformation. (orig.)

  12. The WZNW model on PSU(1, 1 vertical stroke 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, G.

    2006-10-01

    According to the work of Berkovits, Vafa and Witten, the non-linear sigma model on the supergroup PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2) is the essential building block for string theory on AdS 3 xS 3 xT 4 . Models associated with a non-vanishing value of the RR flux can be obtained through a psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) invariant marginal deformation of the WZNW model on PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2). We take this as a motivation to present a manifestly psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) covariant construction of the model at the Wess-Zumino point, corresponding to a purely NSNS background 3-form flux. At this point the model possesses an enhanced psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) current algebra symmetry whose representation theory, including explicit character formulas, is developed systematically in the first part of the paper. The space of vertex operators and a free fermion representation for their correlation functions is our main subject in the second part. Contrary to a widespread claim, bosonic and fermionic fields are necessarily coupled to each other. The interaction changes the supersymmetry transformations, with drastic consequences for the multiplets of localized normalizable states in the model. It is only this fact which allows us to decompose the full state space into multiplets of the global supersymmetry. We analyze these decompositions systematically as a preparation for a forthcoming study of the RR deformation. (orig.)

  13. Is Convection Sensitive to Model Vertical Resolution and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, S.; Lin, W.; Zhang, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Model sensitivity to horizontal resolutions has been studied extensively, whereas model sensitivity to vertical resolution is much less explored. In this study, we use the US Department of Energy (DOE)'s Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) atmosphere model to examine the sensitivity of clouds and precipitation to the increase of vertical resolution of the model. We attempt to understand what results in the behavior change (if any) of convective processes represented by the unified shallow and turbulent scheme named CLUBB (Cloud Layers Unified by Binormals) and the Zhang-McFarlane deep convection scheme in ACME. A short-term hindcast approach is used to isolate parameterization issues from the large-scale circulation. The analysis emphasizes on how the change of vertical resolution could affect precipitation partitioning between convective- and grid-scale as well as the vertical profiles of convection-related quantities such as temperature, humidity, clouds, convective heating and drying, and entrainment and detrainment. The goal is to provide physical insight into potential issues with model convective processes associated with the increase of model vertical resolution. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Investigating Methods for Serving Visualizations of Vertical Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. T.; Cechini, M. F.; Lanjewar, K.; Rodriguez, J.; Boller, R. A.; Baynes, K.

    2017-12-01

    Several geospatial web servers, web service standards, and mapping clients exist for the visualization of two-dimensional raster and vector-based Earth science data products. However, data products with a vertical component (i.e., vertical profiles) do not have the same mature set of technologies and pose a greater technical challenge when it comes to visualizations. There are a variety of tools and proposed standards, but no obvious solution that can handle the variety of visualizations found with vertical profiles. An effort is being led by members of the NASA Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) team to gather a list of technologies relevant to existing vertical profile data products and user stories. The goal is to find a subset of technologies, standards, and tools that can be used to build publicly accessible web services that can handle the greatest number of use cases for the widest audience possible. This presentation will describe results of the investigation and offer directions for moving forward with building a system that is capable of effectively and efficiently serving visualizations of vertical profiles.

  15. Safety of increasing vertical dimension of occlusion: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, Jaafar

    2012-05-01

    To review all the literature investigating the implications of increasing the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO). A comprehensive electronic search was conducted through PubMed with the aid of Boolean operators to combine the following key words: "occlusal vertical dimension," "increasing vertical dimension," "bite raising," "occlusal space," "resting vertical dimension," "rest position," "altered vertical dimension," "mandibular posture," "temporomandibular joint," and "masticatory muscles." The search was limited to peer-reviewed articles written in English and published through August 2011. Further, the literature search was endorsed by manual searching through peer-reviewed journals and reference lists of the selected articles. A total of 902 studies were initially retrieved, but only 9 met the specified inclusion criteria for the review. From the selected studies, four variables were identified to be relevant to the topic of VDO increase: magnitude of VDO increase, method of increasing VDO, occlusion scheme, and the adaptation period. Considering the limitations of this review, it could be concluded that whenever indicated, permanent increase of the VDO is a safe and predictable procedure. Intervention with a fixed restoration is more predictable and results in a higher adaptation level. Negative signs and symptoms were identified, but they were self-limiting. Due to the lack of a well-designed study, further controlled and randomized studies are needed to confirm the outcome of this review.

  16. Topographic enhancement of vertical turbulent mixing in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayek, A.; Ferrari, R.; Merrifield, S.; Ledwell, J. R.; St Laurent, L.; Garabato, A. Naveira

    2017-03-01

    It is an open question whether turbulent mixing across density surfaces is sufficiently large to play a dominant role in closing the deep branch of the ocean meridional overturning circulation. The diapycnal and isopycnal mixing experiment in the Southern Ocean found the turbulent diffusivity inferred from the vertical spreading of a tracer to be an order of magnitude larger than that inferred from the microstructure profiles at the mean tracer depth of 1,500 m in the Drake Passage. Using a high-resolution ocean model, it is shown that the fast vertical spreading of tracer occurs when it comes in contact with mixing hotspots over rough topography. The sparsity of such hotspots is made up for by enhanced tracer residence time in their vicinity due to diffusion toward weak bottom flows. The increased tracer residence time may explain the large vertical fluxes of heat and salt required to close the abyssal circulation.

  17. The GL(1 vertical stroke 1)-symplectic fermion correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutzig, Thomas; Roenne, Peter B.

    2008-12-15

    In this note we prove a correspondence between the Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model of the Lie supergroup GL(1 vertical stroke 1) and a free model consisting of two scalars and a pair of symplectic fermions. This model was discussed earlier by LeClair. Vertex operators for the symplectic fermions include twist fields, and correlation functions of GL(1 vertical stroke 1) agree with the known results for the scalars and symplectic fermions. We perform a detailed study of boundary states for symplectic fermions and apply them to branes in GL(1 vertical stroke 1). This allows us to compute new amplitudes of strings stretching between branes of different types and confirming Cardy's condition. (orig.)

  18. Vertical pressure gradient and particle motions in wave boundary layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Lindegård

    weight of sediment. This revels that the upward directed vertical pressure gradient on average has a magnitude that yields in a contribution to the force needed to overcome the submerged weight of the water-sediment mixture. Secondly particle motion in the oscillatory boundary layer is investigated......The present study covers both a numerical and experimental investigation of the processes in the oscillatory boundary layer. In the first part a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is conducted to study the vertical pressure gradient, and its role in relation to laminar to turbulent transition...... and its role in the fully turbulent boundary layer. The pressure in the flow is obtained from the flow fields of the oscillatory boundary layer. What differs, the vertical pressure gradient, from other turbulent quantities, like e.g. velocity fluctuations is that it can detect newly generated turbulence...

  19. Reaching saturation in patterned source vertical organic field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Michael; Sheleg, Gil; Keum, Chang-min; Zucker, Jonathan; Lussem, Bjorn; Tessler, Nir

    2017-05-01

    Like most of the vertical transistors, the Patterned Source Vertical Organic Field Effect Transistor (PS-VOFET) does not exhibit saturation in the output characteristics. The importance of achieving a good saturation is demonstrated in a vertical organic light emitting transistor; however, this is critical for any application requiring the transistor to act as a current source. Thereafter, a 2D simulation tool was used to explain the physical mechanisms that prevent saturation as well as to suggest ways to overcome them. We found that by isolating the source facet from the drain-source electric field, the PS-VOFET architecture exhibits saturation. The process used for fabricating such saturation-enhancing structure is then described. The new device demonstrated close to an ideal saturation with only 1% change in the drain-source current over a 10 V change in the drain-source voltage.

  20. Vertical pillar nanoantenna for emission enhancement and redirection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparone, J.; Laverdant, J.; Brucoli, G.; Symonds, C.; Crut, A.; Del Fatti, N.; Benoit, J. M.; Bellessa, J.

    2018-01-01

    Designing efficient metallic nanostructures can help in realizing bright single photon emission in the visible and near-infrared ranges. We propose a novel nanostructure design that combines the benefits of plasmonic hot spot generation in the near-field and the concept of antennas developed in the radio-frequency range. The antenna is formed by a vertical stack of metallic and dielectric nanocylinders. When used for controlling the far-field emission of a localized source, its key features are moderate losses in the metal, relatively large Purcell factors, as well as a low sensibility to the lateral position of the emitter. A redirection process necessary for these vertical structures is proposed, based on the versatility of the vertical geometry, and allows an efficient redirection of the emitted light even for antennas on dielectric substrates.

  1. Field Emission of ITO-Coated Vertically Aligned Nanowire Array.

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changhwa

    2010-04-29

    An indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated vertically aligned nanowire array is fabricated, and the field emission characteristics of the nanowire array are investigated. An array of vertically aligned nanowires is considered an ideal structure for a field emitter because of its parallel orientation to the applied electric field. In this letter, a vertically aligned nanowire array is fabricated by modified conventional UV lithography and coated with 0.1-μm-thick ITO. The turn-on electric field intensity is about 2.0 V/μm, and the field enhancement factor, β, is approximately 3,078 when the gap for field emission is 0.6 μm, as measured with a nanomanipulator in a scanning electron microscope.

  2. Cephalometric approach to the occlusal vertical dimension reestablishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielak, João César; Gulin Neto, David; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda; Giovanini, Allan Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) refers to the length of the face as determined by the amount of separation of the jaws. Its determination is important for the manufacture of restorations. However, defining the correct occlusal vertical dimension for edentulous patients is one of the most important steps for function and esthetics rehabilitation. Cephalometry is a standardized method of assessing dental and facial proportions and their interrelation. Additionally, cephalometric analysis of the facial vertical dimension can establish an individual pattern for each patient. This analysis should become a permanent part of each patient's record. Hence, this study presented a case report with the use of cephalometry as an auxiliary tool in the rehabilitation of OVD. Clinical relevance showed that cephalometric analysis can be an accurate and convenient instrument to treatment planning and prognostic of oral rehabilitation. The reader should understand the clinical implications of using cephalometry as a tool in the rehabilitation of OVD.

  3. Comparison of Vertical Light Wooden Constructions Insulated by Straw Bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováč, Miloslav

    2015-11-01

    The main task of configuring engineer by designing enclosure construction is to setup performances of the wall to the best options for existing conditions of the structure. Selecting and adjusting bearing elements of perimeter wall is the first step, however appropriateness and position of chosen materials has major influence on technical properties and architectural expression of structure. Besides light vertical constructions (LVC) there are light wooden constructions from glued elements (LPVC), heavy vertical constructions (HVC) and prefabricated vertical constructions (PVC). All types have specifications allowing alternatives in terms of layer structure and bearing elements position. Each type is considered in terms of: structure - 2D drawing and 3D model, thermal insulation, overall heat transfer coefficient, architectural examination.

  4. Comparison of Vertical Light Wooden Constructions Insulated by Straw Bales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kováč Miloslav

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main task of configuring engineer by designing enclosure construction is to setup performances of the wall to the best options for existing conditions of the structure. Selecting and adjusting bearing elements of perimeter wall is the first step, however appropriateness and position of chosen materials has major influence on technical properties and architectural expression of structure. Besides light vertical constructions (LVC there are light wooden constructions from glued elements (LPVC, heavy vertical constructions (HVC and prefabricated vertical constructions (PVC. All types have specifications allowing alternatives in terms of layer structure and bearing elements position. Each type is considered in terms of: structure – 2D drawing and 3D model, thermal insulation, overall heat transfer coefficient, architectural examination.

  5. Cephalometric Approach to the Occlusal Vertical Dimension Reestablishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João César Zielak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The occlusal vertical dimension (OVD refers to the length of the face as determined by the amount of separation of the jaws. Its determination is important for the manufacture of restorations. However, defining the correct occlusal vertical dimension for edentulous patients is one of the most important steps for function and esthetics rehabilitation. Cephalometry is a standardized method of assessing dental and facial proportions and their interrelation. Additionally, cephalometric analysis of the facial vertical dimension can establish an individual pattern for each patient. This analysis should become a permanent part of each patient’s record. Hence, this study presented a case report with the use of cephalometry as an auxiliary tool in the rehabilitation of OVD. Clinical relevance showed that cephalometric analysis can be an accurate and convenient instrument to treatment planning and prognostic of oral rehabilitation. The reader should understand the clinical implications of using cephalometry as a tool in the rehabilitation of OVD.

  6. Sufficient Conditions for Vertical Composition of Security Protocols (Extended Version)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Viganò, Luca

    Vertical composition of security protocols means that an application protocol (e.g., a banking service) runs over a channel established by another protocol (e.g., a secure channel provided by TLS). This naturally gives rise to a compositionality question: given a secure protocol P1 that provides...... a certain kind of channel as a goal and another secure protocol P2 that assumes this kind of channel, can we then derive that their vertical composition P2[P1] is secure? It is well known that protocol composition can lead to attacks even when the individual protocols are all secure in isolation....... In this paper, we formalize seven easy-to-check static conditions that support a large class of channels and applications and that we prove to be su_cient for vertical security protocol composition....

  7. Support schemes and vertical integration - who skims the cream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Jensen, Stine Grenaa

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how the effectiveness of feed-in tariffs for distributed generators, producing renewable electricity, depends on industry structure, i.e., vertical integration vs. unbundling. A stylized analytical model with a monopolist and a competitive fringe (distributed generators......) will be developed to analyze the impact of feed-in tariffs on renewable power production. The vertically integrated monopolist maximizes profits by setting the electricity price for residual demand and a network access charge incurred by the fringe. The fringe receives a fixed feed-in tariff per unit of electricity...... produced. Under vertical integration, a rise in the feed-in tariff induces the monopolist to raise access charges for fringe firms and skim part of their additional income. This partially offsets the supply increase of the fringe firms stimulated by the feed-in tariff. However, in the case of effective...

  8. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi

    2012-10-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) have been developed using pure semiconducting carbon nanotubes. The source and drain were vertically stacked, separated by a dielectric, and the carbon nanotubes were placed on the sidewall of the stack to bridge the source and drain. Both the effective gate dielectric and gate electrode were normal to the substrate surface. The channel length is determined by the dielectric thickness between source and drain electrodes, making it easier to fabricate sub-micrometer transistors without using time-consuming electron beam lithography. The transistor area is much smaller than the planar CNTFET due to the vertical arrangement of source and drain and the reduced channel area. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mixed multilayered vertical heterostructures utilizing strained monolayer WS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yuewen; Xu, Wenshuo; Wang, Xiaochen; He, Zhengyu; Rong, Youmin; Warner, Jamie H.

    2016-01-01

    Creating alternating layers of 2D materials forms vertical heterostructures with diverse electronic and opto-electronic properties. Monolayer WS2 grown by chemical vapour deposition can have inherent strain due to interactions with the substrate. The strain modifies the band structure and properties of monolayer WS2 and can be exploited in a wide range of applications. We demonstrate a non-aqueous transfer method for creating vertical stacks of mixed 2D layers containing a strained monolayer of WS2, with Boron Nitride and Graphene. The 2D materials are all grown by CVD, enabling large area vertical heterostructures to be formed. WS2 monolayers grown by CVD directly on Si substrates with SiO2 surface are easily washed off by water and this makes aqueous based transfer methods challenging for creating vertical stacks on the growth substrate. 2D hexagonal Boron Nitride films are used to provide an insulating layer that limits interactions with a top graphene layer and preserve the strong photoluminescence from the WS2. This transfer method is suitable for layer by layer control of 2D material vertical stacks and is shown to be possible for all CVD grown samples, which opens up pathways for the rapid large scale fabrication of vertical heterostructure systems with atomic thickness depth control and large area coverage.Creating alternating layers of 2D materials forms vertical heterostructures with diverse electronic and opto-electronic properties. Monolayer WS2 grown by chemical vapour deposition can have inherent strain due to interactions with the substrate. The strain modifies the band structure and properties of monolayer WS2 and can be exploited in a wide range of applications. We demonstrate a non-aqueous transfer method for creating vertical stacks of mixed 2D layers containing a strained monolayer of WS2, with Boron Nitride and Graphene. The 2D materials are all grown by CVD, enabling large area vertical heterostructures to be formed. WS2 monolayers grown by

  10. Vertical transmission of HTLV-I/II: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, A L

    1998-01-01

    The vertical transmission of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) occurs predominantly through breast-feeding. Since some bottle-fed children born to carrier mothers still remain seropositive with a frequency that varies from 3.3% to 12.8%, an alternative pathway of vertical transmission must be considered. The prevalence rate of vertical transmission observed in Japan varied from 15% to 25% in different surveys. In Brazil there is no evaluation of this form of transmission until now. However, it is known that in Salvador, Bahia, 0.7% to 0.88% of pregnant women of low socio-economic class are HTLV-I carriers. Furthermore the occurrence of many cases of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and of four cases of infective dermatitis in Salvador, diseases directly linked to the vertical transmission of HTLV-I, indicates the importance of this route of infection among us. Through prenatal screening for HTLV-I and the refraining from breast-feeding a reduction of approximately 80% of vertical transmission has been observed in Japan. We suggest that in Brazil serologic screening for HTLV-I infection must be done for selected groups in the prenatal care: pregnant women from endemic areas, Japanese immigrants or Japanese descendents, intravenous drug users (IDU) or women whose partners are IDU, Human immunodeficiency virus carriers, pregnant women with promiscuous sexual behavior and pregnant women that have received blood transfusions in areas where blood donors screening is not performed. There are in the literature few reports demonstrating the vertical transmission of HTLV-II.

  11. Reconstruction of Vertical Profile of Permittivity of Layered Media which is Probed Using Vertical Differential Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochanin, Gennadiy P.; Poyedinchuk, Anatoliy Y.; Varianytsia-Roshchupkina, Liudmyla A.; Pochanina, Iryna Ye.

    2016-04-01

    Results of this research are intended to use at GPR investigations of layered media (for example, at roads' inspection) for the processing of collected data and reconstruction of dependence of permittivity on the depth. Recently, an antenna system with a vertical differential configuration of receiving module (Patent UA81652) for GPR was suggested and developed The main advantage of the differential antennas in comparison with bistatic antennas is a high electromagnetic decoupling between the transmitting and receiving modules. The new vertical differential configuration has an additional advantage because it allows collecting GPR data reflected by layered media without any losses of information about these layers [1] and, potentially, it is a more accurate instrument for the layers thickness measurements [2]. The developed antenna system is tested in practice with the GPR at asphalt thickness measurements [3] and shown an accuracy which is better than 0.5 cm. Since this antenna system is good for sounding from above the surface (air coupled technique), the mobile laboratory was equipped with the developed GPR [3]. In order to process big set of GPR data that collected during probing at long routes of the roads, for the data processing it was tested new algorithm of the inverse problem solution. It uses a fast algorithm for calculation of electromagnetic wave diffraction by non-uniform anisotropic layers [4]. The algorithm is based on constructing a special case solution to the Riccati equation for the Cauchy problem and enables a qualitative description of the wave diffraction by the electromagnetic structure of the type within a unitary framework. At this stage as initial data we used synthetic GPR data that were obtained as results of the FDTD simulation of the problem of UWB electromagnetic impulse diffraction on layered media. Differential and bistatic antenna configurations were tested at several different profiles of permittivity. Meanings of permittivity of

  12. Axisymmetric stability of vertically asymmetric tokamaks at large beta poloidal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Fishman, H.; Okabayashi, M.; Todd, A.M.M.

    1981-09-01

    The stability of high-β vertically asymmetric tokamak equilibria to rigid displacements is investigated analytically. It is found that vertical stability at large beta poloidal is mainly determined by a coupling between the shape of the plasma surface and the Shafranov shift of the magnetic axis. To the lowest order, symmetric components of the plasma surface shape are found to be the critical destabilizing elements. Asymmetric components have little effect. The inclusion of higher order terms in the high β tokamak expansion leads to further destabilization. Qualitative agreement between these analytic results and numerical stability calculations using the PEST code is demonstrated

  13. Bathymetry predicted from vertical gravity gradient anomalies and ship soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Minzhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the admittance function between seafloor undulations and vertical gravity gradient anomalies was derived. Based on this admittance function, the bathymetry model of 1 minute resolution was predicted from vertical gravity gradient anomalies and ship soundings in the experimental area from the northwest Pacific. The accuracy of the model is evaluated using ship soundings and existing models, including ETOPOl, GEBCO, DTU10 and V15. 1 from SIO. The model's STD is 69.481m, comparable with V15. 1 which is generally believed to have the highest accuracy.

  14. Estimating Vertical Land Motion in the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houttuijn Bloemendaal, L.; Hensel, P.

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to provide a modern measurement of subsidence in the Chesapeake Bay region and establish a methodology for measuring vertical land motion using static GPS, a cheaper alternative to InSAR or classical leveling. Vertical land motion in this area is of particular concern because tide gages are showing up to 5 mm/yr of local, relative sea level rise. While a component of this rate is the actual eustatic sea level rise itself, part of the trend may also be vertical land motion, in which subsidence exacerbates the effects of actual changes in sea level. Parts of this region are already experiencing an increase in the frequency and magnitude of near-shore coastal flooding, but the last comprehensive study of vertical land motion in this area was conducted by NOAA in 1974 (Holdahl & Morrison) using repeat leveled lines. More recent measures of vertical land motion can help inform efforts on resilience to sea level rise, such as in the Hampton Roads area. This study used measured GPS-derived vertical heights in conjunction with legacy GPS data to calculate rates of vertical motion at several points in time for a selection of benchmarks scattered throughout the region. Seventeen marks in the stable Piedmont area and in the areas suspected of subsidence in the Coastal Plain were selected for the analysis. Results indicate a significant difference between the rates of vertical motion in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, with a mean rate of -4.10 mm/yr in the Coastal Plain and 0.15 mm/yr in the Piedmont. The rates indicate particularly severe subsidence at the southern Delmarva Peninsula coast and the Hampton-Roads area, with a mean rate of -6.57 mm/yr in that region. By knowing local rates of subsidence as opposed to sea level change itself, coastal managers may make better informed decisions regarding natural resource use, such as deciding whether or not to reduce subsurface fluid withdrawals or to consider injecting treated water back into the aquifer to slow

  15. Characteristics of Vertical Mantle Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Morrison, G.L.; Behnia, M.

    1999-01-01

    - The flow structure in vertical mantle heat exchangers was investigated using a full-scale tank designed to facilitate flow visualisation. The flow structure and velocities in the mantle were measured using a particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. A CFD simulation model of vertical mantle heat...... exchangers was also developed for detailed evaluation of the heat flux distribution over the mantle surface. Both the experimental and simulation results indicate that distribution of the flow around the mantle gap is governed by buoyancy driven recirculation in the mantle. The operation of the mantle...

  16. HLA-G 3' UTR haplotypes and HIV vertical transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segat, Ludovica; Catamo, Eulalia; Fabris, Annalisa; Padovan, Lara; Morgutti, Marcello; Crovella, Sergio

    2009-09-10

    We evaluated the possible association of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) 3777G>C and 14-bp deletion/insertion (D/I) polymorphisms haplotypes and combined genotypes with perinatal HIV transmission in Brazilian children. The 3777G>C polymorphism alone has no effect on HIV vertical transmission but, when linked with the D allele, exerts a positive role in the protection. Indeed, we identified the DC HLA-G haplotype as significantly associated with a protective effect towards HIV vertical transmission.

  17. Axi-symmetric analysis of vertically inhomogeneous elastic multilayered systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maina, JW

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available : MPa : MPa : MPa Vertical load Young's modulus Poisson's ration Young's modulus Poisson's ration Young's modulus Poisson's ration Unit Unit Unit Figure 1. Hypothetical pavement model. 0.022 0.026 0.03 0.034 0.038 0 20 40 60 80 100Z (cm... in the first layer on horizontal normal strain results in the third layer was insignificant. r z Young's modulus Poisson's ration Vertical load kN49=P cm15=a MPa603 =E 35.03 =ν m15.01 =h m35.02 =h MPa10002 =E 53.01 =ν 53.02 =ν MPa50001 =E...

  18. Thermally optimum spacing of vertical, natural convection cooled, parallel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, A.; Rohsenow, W. M.

    Vertical two-dimensional channels formed by parallel plates or fins are a frequently encountered configuration in natural convection cooling in air of electronic equipment. In connection with the complexity of heat dissipation in vertical parallel plate arrays, little theoretical effort is devoted to thermal optimization of the relevant packaging configurations. The present investigation is concerned with the establishment of an analytical structure for analyses of such arrays, giving attention to useful relations for heat distribution patterns. The limiting relations for fully-developed laminar flow, in a symmetric isothermal or isoflux channel as well as in a channel with an insulated wall, are derived by use of a straightforward integral formulation.

  19. First plasma operation of the enhanced JET vertical stabilisation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimini, Fernanda G., E-mail: fernanda.rimini@jet.efda.org [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); EFDA Close Support Unit, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); European Commission, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Crisanti, Flavio [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); ENEA Fus, EURATOM Assoc, 00040 Frascati (Italy); Albanese, Raffaele; Ambrosino, Giuseppe; Ariola, Marco; Artaserse, Giovanni; Bellizio, Teresa [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Assoc. Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, University Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Coccorese, Vincenzo [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); EFDA Close Support Unit, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Assoc. Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, University Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); De Tommasi, Gianmaria [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Assoc. Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, University Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); De Vries, Peter [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); FOM Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM (Italy); Lomas, Peter J. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Maviglia, Francesco [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Assoc. Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, University Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Neto, Andre [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Associacao Euratom-IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    A project dedicated to the enhancement of the JET vertical stabilization system was launched in 2006, including an upgrade of the Power Supply of the Radial Field Amplifier, of hardware and software of the vertical stabilization control system. The main aim was to double the JET capability in stabilising high current plasmas when subject to perturbations, in particular large Edge Localised Modes. We present here the results of first plasma operation with the new Enhanced Radial Field Amplifier and its data acquisition and control system, focussing on the benefits of an approach based on phased commissioning, modelling and offline algorithm validation.

  20. First plasma operation of the enhanced JET vertical stabilisation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimini, Fernanda G.; Crisanti, Flavio; Albanese, Raffaele; Ambrosino, Giuseppe; Ariola, Marco; Artaserse, Giovanni; Bellizio, Teresa; Coccorese, Vincenzo; De Tommasi, Gianmaria; De Vries, Peter; Lomas, Peter J.; Maviglia, Francesco; Neto, Andre

    2011-01-01

    A project dedicated to the enhancement of the JET vertical stabilization system was launched in 2006, including an upgrade of the Power Supply of the Radial Field Amplifier, of hardware and software of the vertical stabilization control system. The main aim was to double the JET capability in stabilising high current plasmas when subject to perturbations, in particular large Edge Localised Modes. We present here the results of first plasma operation with the new Enhanced Radial Field Amplifier and its data acquisition and control system, focussing on the benefits of an approach based on phased commissioning, modelling and offline algorithm validation.

  1. Application of Prefabricated Vertical Drain in Soil Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedjakusuma B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the use of Prefabricated Vertical Drain (PVD in soil improvement is not new, this paper is interesting since it gives the full spectrum from preliminary design stage; trial embankment and pilot test to final soil improvement. The final installation of the PVD was based on the soil investigation report and the results of instrumentation monitoring. Finally, using back analysis, vertical and horizontal coefficients of consolidation and compression index can be determined, which can be applied to predict a more accurate prediction of settlement.

  2. Image Pre-processing in Vertical Traffic Signs Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávid Solus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the first steps of the systems design that will be able to detect vertical traffic signs and to provide descriptions of the applied data processing methods. This system includes various functional blocks that are described in this paper. The basis of Vertical Traffic Signs Detection System is a pre-processing of a captured traffic scene ahead of vehicle. Main part of this paper contains a description of user friendly software interface for an image pre-processing.

  3. Ferrofluid meniscus in a horizontal or vertical magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosensweig, R.E.; Elborai, S.; Lee, S.-H.; Zahn, M.

    2005-01-01

    An optical system using reflections of a narrow laser beam to measure the height and shape of a ferrofluid meniscus in response to uniform applied magnetic fields finds that meniscus height on a vertical flat wall decreases in horizontal applied field and increases in vertical applied field. An approximate energy minimization analysis predicts meniscus height in directional agreement with measurements. This study is a first step in calculating the tangential surface force acting in flows where magnetization magnitude and direction lag a changing magnetic field direction, and the meniscus shape is magnetically perturbed

  4. Numerical Modeling of the Vertical Heat Transport Through the Diffusive Layer of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    transport through thermohaline staircases in the Arctic region. Results revealed that vertical fluxes exceeded those of extant “four-thirds flux...vertical heat flux, thermohaline staircase 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 73 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18...DNS) were conducted to assess the vertical heat transport through thermohaline staircases in the Arctic region. Results revealed that vertical

  5. Ultrahigh Mobility in an Organic Semiconductor by Vertical Chain Alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skrypnychuk, Vasyl; Wetzelaer, Gert-Jan A H; Gordiichuk, Pavlo I; Mannsfeld, Stefan C B; Herrmann, Andreas; Toney, Michael F; Barbero, David R

    2016-01-01

    A method to produce highly efficient and long range vertical charge transport is demonstrated in an undoped polythiophene thin film, with average mobilities above 3.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) . These record high mobilities are achieved by controlled orientation of the polymer crystallites enabling the most

  6. Magnetic and velocity fields MHD flow of a stretched vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analytical solutions for heat and mass transfer by laminar flow of Newtonian, viscous, electrically conducting and heat generation/absorbing fluid on a continuously moving vertical permeable surface with buoyancy in the presence of a magnetic field and a first order chemical reaction are reported. The solutions for magnetic ...

  7. MHV Vertices And Tree Amplitudes In Gauge Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachazo, Freddy; Svrcek, Peter; Witten, Edward E-mail: witten@ias.edu

    2004-09-01

    As an alternative to the usual Feynman graphs, tree amplitudes in Yang-Mills theory can be constructed from tree graphs in which the vertices are tree level MHV scattering amplitudes, continued off shell in a particular fashion. The formalism leads to new and relatively simple formulas for many amplitudes, and can be heuristically derived from twistor space. (author)

  8. Near Vertical Incidence Skywave: Interaction of antenna and propagation mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, Ben A.

    2015-01-01

    In areas where no telecommunication infrastructure exists, or when that infrastructure is destroyed by a natural disaster, Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS) radio wave propagation may provide a lifeline to the outside world. To exploit NVIS propagation, radio waves are transmitted straight up,

  9. Restart plan for the prototype vertical denitration calciner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-01-01

    Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at PFP were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The Restart Plan will govern the transition of the test program from the completion of the activity based startup review; through equipment checkout and surrogate material runs; to resumption of the testing program and transition to unrestricted testing

  10. Vertical motion of particles in vibration-induced granular capillarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Fengxian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When a narrow tube inserted into a static container filled with particles is subjected to vertical vibration, the particles rise in the tube, much resembling the ascending motion of a liquid column in a capillary tube. To gain insights on the particle dynamics dictating this phenomenon – which we term granular capillarity – we numerically investigate the system using the Discrete Element Method (DEM. We reproduce the dynamical process of the granular capillarity and analyze the vertical motion of the individual particles in the tube, as well as the average vertical velocities of the particles. Our simulations show that the height of the granular column fluctuates in a periodic or period-doubling manner as the tube vibrates, until a steady-state (capillary height is reached. Moreover, our results for the average vertical velocity of the particles in the tube at different radial positions suggest that granular convection is one major factor underlying the particle-based dynamics that lead to the granular capillarity phenomenon.

  11. Human surrogate neck response to +Gz vertical impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, L. van; Uittenbogaard, J.

    2011-01-01

    For the evaluation of impact scenarios with a substantial vertical component, the performance of current human surrogates - the RID 3D hardware dummy and two numerical human models - was evaluated. Volunteer tests with 10G and 6G pulses were compared to reconstructed tests with human surrogates.

  12. Vertical electric sounding investigation of aquifers in the Ekpoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... existence was investigated in Eguare-Egoro, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria by using vertical electric sounding (VES) of schlumberger array. The array was employed with minimum drilling spread of 2m and maximum spread of 500m. The need to investigate aquifer existence in Eguare-Egoro becomes inevitable because of ...

  13. Vertical III-nitride thin-film power diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierer, Jr., Jonathan; Fischer, Arthur J.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2017-03-14

    A vertical III-nitride thin-film power diode can hold off high voltages (kV's) when operated under reverse bias. The III-nitride device layers can be grown on a wider bandgap template layer and growth substrate, which can be removed by laser lift-off of the epitaxial device layers grown thereon.

  14. Heat convection in a set of three vertical cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Ramirez, M.L. de.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental results on temperature and heat flow in a set of three vertical cylinders with internal generation of heat, water submerged and in free convection are presented in this work . Temperature distribution, Nusselt number and convective coefficient (h) for each rod, developed for the distance between the axis of cylinders in vertical position, as a consequence of the application of power in its outside, are analyzed. Experimental information about heat transfer by free convection in vertical cylinders and surfaces is analyzed. Information of the several author who have carried out studies about the heat transfer on vertical cylinders was compiled, and the proposed equations with the experimental data obtained in the thermo fluids laboratory of National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) were tested. The way in which separation distance, s, distribution temperature array, Nusselt number, and convective coefficient calculated for the proposed channel with the Keyhani, Dutton and experimental equations are tabulated and they are plotted for each power value and for each separation between rods. The scheme of the used equipment and the experimentation description as well as the observations of tests and graphical results are included. (Author)

  15. Uplift Capacity of Inclined Underreamed Piles Subjected to Vertical Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Akilur; Sengupta, Siddhartha

    2017-12-01

    Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Inclined (batter) piles are used to support such structures, and to carry the horizontal and vertical loads resulted from the overturning moments. Though studies have been done with inclined piles having no underream bulb, little information is available in the literature about estimating the uplift capacity of inclined underreamed piles. In the present study laboratory experiments have been done with vertically loaded model piles having no underream as well as with one and two underreams. The piles were positioned at angle of inclination of θ = 0°, 10°, 20°, 30° (with vertical); and placed in locally available sand under vertical uplift load. Three different pile stem diameters (D = 20, 25, and 35 mm) were used. The corresponding pile length to stem diameter (l/D) ratio were 18, 14, and 10 respectively. Experiments had been conducted with two relative different densities (45 and 70%) of sand. The failure uplift loads were obtained in each case. It had been found that for inclined piles increase in number of underream bulbs from 0 to 2 was quite effective in resisting uplift loads corresponding to piles having l/D equals to 10. The percentage decreases in uplift capacity corresponding to increase in inclination angle were more pronounced for piles with double underreams.

  16. Sensitivity analysis of railpad parameters on vertical railway track dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oregui Echeverria-Berreyarza, M.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.; Li, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a sensitivity analysis of railpad parameters on vertical railway track dynamics, incorporating the nonlinear behavior of the fastening (i.e., downward forces compress the railpad whereas upward forces are resisted by the clamps). For this purpose, solid railpads, rail-railpad

  17. An Audit of Perineal Trauma and Vertical Transmisson Of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Restrictive episiotomy is recommended for the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV. The study compared the frequency of episiotomy use and the occurrence of perineal tears; and related factors in HIV positive and HIV negative women and to assess their effect on Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. A total of ...

  18. Vertical III-nitride thin-film power diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wierer, Jr., Jonathan; Fischer, Arthur J.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2017-03-14

    A vertical III-nitride thin-film power diode can hold off high voltages (kV's) when operated under reverse bias. The III-nitride device layers can be grown on a wider bandgap template layer and growth substrate, which can be removed by laser lift-off of the epitaxial device layers grown thereon.

  19. On the vertical-shear instability in astrophysical discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, A. J.; Latter, H. N.

    2015-06-01

    We explore the linear stability of astrophysical discs exhibiting vertical shear, which arises when there is a radial variation in the temperature or entropy. Such discs are subject to a `vertical-shear instability', which recent non-linear simulations have shown to drive hydrodynamic activity in the MRI-stable regions of protoplanetary discs. We first revisit locally isothermal discs using the quasi-global reduced model derived by Nelson et al. This analysis is then extended to global axisymmetric perturbations in a cylindrical domain. We also derive and study a reduced model describing discs with power-law radial entropy profiles (`locally polytropic discs'), which are somewhat more realistic in that they possess physical (as opposed to numerical) surfaces. The fastest growing modes have very short wavelengths and are localized at the disc surfaces (if present), where the vertical shear is maximal. An additional class of modestly growing vertically global body modes is excited, corresponding to destabilized classical inertial waves (`r modes'). We discuss the properties of both types of modes, and stress that those that grow fastest occur on the shortest available length-scales (determined either by the numerical grid or the physical viscous length). This ill-posedness makes simulations of the instability difficult to interpret. We end with some brief speculation on the non-linear saturation and resulting angular momentum transport.

  20. Dynamics of force and muscle stimulation in human vertical jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M.F.; van Zandwijk, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the importance of stimulation dynamics for force development in human vertical jumping. METHODS: Maximum height squat jumps were performed by 21 male subjects. As a measure of signal dynamics, rise time (RT) was used, i.e., the time taken

  1. Retrieval of vertical wind profiles during monsoon from satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    algorithm which ensures the retrieval of vertical profiles of winds using satellite tracked cloud motion vector winds. Under the assumption that accurate measurements of wind are available at the above mentioned levels, the r.m.s. error of retrieval of each component of wind is estimated to range between. 2 msю1 and 6 ...

  2. Entropy generation in MHD flow of a uniformly stretched vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the analytical calculation of the entropy generation due to heat and mass transfer and fluid friction in steady state of a uniformly stretched vertical permeable surface with heat and mass diffusive walls, by solving analytically the mass, momentum, species concentration and energy balance equation, using ...

  3. Influence of buoyancy and vertical distribution of sardine Sardinops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, vertical migration of larvae is an additional factor mitigating their loss from nearshore. Taken together, these features seem to minimize the offshore loss of offspring, particularly in periods of low stock biomass when spawning close to the shore seems to be common. Keywords: buoyancy, northern Benguela, sardine, ...

  4. Viral lysis of marine microbes in relation to vertical stratification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojica, K.D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Marine microorganisms represent the largest reservoir of living organic carbon in the ocean and collectively manage the pools and fluxes of nutrients and energy. Climate-induced increases in sea surface temperature and associated modifications to vertical stratification are affecting the structure

  5. Viral lysis of marine microbes in relation to vertical stratification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojica, K.D.A.

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate how changes in vertical stratification affect autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial communities along a meridional gradient in the Atlantic Ocean. The Northeast Atlantic Ocean is a key area in global ocean circulation and a important sink for

  6. Restart plan for the prototype vertical denitration calciner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-09-01

    Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at PFP were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The Restart Plan will govern the transition of the test program from the completion of the activity based startup review; through equipment checkout and surrogate material runs; to resumption of the testing program and transition to unrestricted testing.

  7. Vertical migration, catchability and acoustic assessment of semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vertical distribution and migration of the Cape horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus capensis were investigated on the basis of midwater and bottom trawl collections taken over diel cycles at two sites on South Africa's south coast. Attempts were also made to investigate the relationship between bottom trawl catch rates ...

  8. Control and modelling of vertical temperature distribution in greenhouse crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempkes, F.L.K.; Bakker, J.C.; Braak, van de N.J.

    1998-01-01

    Based on physical transport processes (radiation, convection and latent heat transfer) a model has been developed to describe the vertical temperature distribution of a greenhouse crop. The radiation exchange factors between heating pipes, crop layers, soil and roof were determined as a function of

  9. An Audit of Perineal Trauma and Vertical Transmisson Of HIV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. An Audit of Perineal Trauma and Vertical Transmisson Of HIV. DOI: 10.29063/ajrh2017/v21i4.7. Amaka N. Ocheke. 1. *, Ephraim Samuels .... Ethics Committees of the participating hospitals. Informed consent was obtained from the patients prior to administration of the questionnaires. Data.

  10. Description of the IMR Standard Light Trap and the Vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The construction of different versions of a cheap, robust, and easy to operate light trap for catching various aquatic organisms is shown. The trap can be used to > 300 m depth and meets a number of criteria. Small-scale vertical distribution of decapod larvae was investigated during trap trials. The traps (6-10) were set for 24 ...

  11. The notion of vertical alignment in Regulation 1/2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergqvist, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Since 2004, EU Member States have been mandated and obligated to apply EU competition law parallel to national law and refrain from condemning agreements permissible under art.101. Moreover, a close co-operation forum has been established to co-ordinate decisions and secure this vertical alignment...

  12. Vertical Scope, Turbulence, and the Benefits of Commitment and Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claussen, Jörg; Kretschmer, Tobias; Stieglitz, Nils

    2015-01-01

    We address the contested state of theory and the mixed empirical evidence on the relationship between turbulence and vertical scope by studying how turbulence affects the benefits of commitment from integrated development of components and the benefits of flexibility from sourcing components...

  13. Piezometric surface deduced from vertical electrical sounding data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, one hundred and eight vertical electrical soundings were carried out, with the view of unravelling the hydrogeological characteristics of Kuri River Basin, Kaduna, Nigeria. The water table for eleven hand dug wells were directly measured and a comparison was made with cumulative resistivity (Σρa) plots at such ...

  14. Tying and entry deterrence in vertically differentiated markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kováč, Eugen

    -, č. 266 (2005), s. 1-37 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : industrial organization * vertical differentiation * anti-trust policy Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp266.pdf

  15. 3-D Simulation of Vertical-Axial Tidal Current Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyang Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertical-axial tidal current turbine is the key for the energy converter, which has the advantages of simple structure, adaptability to flow and uncomplex convection device. It has become the hot point for research and application recently. At present, the study on the hydrodynamic performance of vertical-axial tidal current turbine is almost on 2-D numerical simulation, without the consideration of 3-D effect. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics method and blade optimal control technique are used to improve accuracy in the prediction of tidal current turbine hydrodynamic performance. Numerical simulation of vertical-axial tidal current turbine is validated. Fixed and variable deflection angle turbine are comparatively studied to analysis the influence of 3-D effect and the character of fluid field and pressure field. The method, put the plate on the end of blade, of reduce the energy loss caused by 3-D effect is proposed. The 3-D CFD numerical model of vertical-axial tidal current turbine hydrodynamic performance in this study may provide theoretical, methodical and technical reference for the optimal design of turbine.

  16. Evaluation of Vertical Marginal Adaptation of Provisional Crowns by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate and compare the degree of vertical marginal discrepancy of four provisional crown materials by digital microscope. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 provisional crowns were fabricated on standardized resin dies by direct technique of provisional fabrication, using four different provisional ...

  17. TRANSMISIÓN VERTICAL DE HTLV-1 EN EL PERÚ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Jorge Alarcón; Romaní, Franco Romaní; Torres, Silvia Montano; Zunt, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    La infección por el virus linfotrópico humano de células T tipo 1 (HTLV-1) ha sido descrita en muchas áreas del mundo, como en los países del Caribe, Japón, África, Oceanía y en Sudamérica. En la presente revisión definimos la endemicidad del HTLV-1 en el país, planteando cuatro criterios epidemiológicos. Luego discutimos el tema central de la revisión: la transmisión vertical del HTLV-1, que en nuestro país sería uno de los principales mecanismos de transmisión. Dentro del desarrollo de este aspecto en particular, presentamos una estimación de la tasa de transmisión vertical y los factores de riesgo asociados con la transmisión vertical sobre la base de una revisión exhaustiva de estudios nacionales y extranjeros. Con esta revisión pretendemos dar una primera aproximación al estudio de la trasmisión vertical de HTLV-1, un aspecto poco estudiado en nuestro medio. PMID:21537777

  18. Effect of vertical oscillatory pressure on disability of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of vertical oscillatory pressure on disability of patients with chronic mechanical low back pain using Roland Morris Disability questionnaire. ... VOP was then administered to each patient twice in a week for 6 weeks making 12 treatment sessions. Pain intensity and disability were assessed regularly every week of ...

  19. Comparison of aerodynamic models for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simao Ferreira, C.J.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Barone, M.; Roscher, B.; Deglaire, P.; Arduin, I.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-megawatt Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) are experiencing an increased interest for floating offshore applications. However, VAWT development is hindered by the lack of fast, accurate and validated simulation models. This work compares six different numerical models for VAWTS: a multiple

  20. Vertical price leadership on local maize markets in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, W.E.; Lutz, C.; Tilburg, van A.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract This paper considers vertical price relationships between wholesalers and retailers on five local maize markets in Benin. We show that the common stochastic trend and the long-run disequilibrium error must explicitly be considered to correctly interpret the restrictions on the

  1. Active vertical tail buffeting suppression based on macro fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chengzhe; Li, Bin; Liang, Li; Wang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Aerodynamic buffet is unsteady airflow exerting forces onto a surface, which can lead to premature fatigue damage of aircraft vertical tail structures, especially for aircrafts with twin vertical tails at high angles of attack. In this work, Macro Fiber Composite (MFC), which can provide strain actuation, was used as the actuator for the buffet-induced vibration control, and the positioning of the MFC patches was led by the strain energy distribution on the vertical tail. Positive Position Feedback (PPF) control algorithm has been widely used for its robustness and simplicity in practice, and consequently it was developed to suppress the buffet responses of first bending and torsional mode of vertical tail. However, its performance is usually attenuated by the phase contributions from non-collocated sensor/actuator configuration and plants. The phase lag between the input and output signals of the control system was identified experimentally, and the phase compensation was considered in the PPF control algorithm. The simulation results of the amplitude frequency of the closed-loop system showed that the buffet response was alleviated notably around the concerned bandwidth. Then the wind tunnel experiment was conducted to verify the effectiveness of MFC actuators and compensated PPF, and the Root Mean Square (RMS) of the acceleration response was reduced 43.4%, 28.4% and 39.5%, respectively, under three different buffeting conditions.

  2. Full-scale fire experiments on vertical horizontal cable trays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangs, J.; Keski-Rahkonen, O.

    1997-10-01

    Two full-scale fire experiments on PVC cables used in nuclear power plants were carried out, one with cables in vertical position and one with cables in horizontal position. The vertical cable bundle, 3 m high, 300 mm wide and 30 mm thick, was attached to a steel cable ladder. The vertical bundle experiment was carried out in nearly free space with three walls near the cable ladder guiding air flow in order to stabilise flames. The horizontal cable experiment was carried out in a small room with five cable bundles attached to steel cable ladders. Three of the 2 m long cable bundles were located in an array, equally spaced above each other near one long side of the room and two correspondingly near the opposite long side. The vertical cable bundle was ignited with a small propane gas burner beneath the lower edge of the bundle. The horizontal cable bundles were ignited with a small propane burner beneath the lowest bundle in an array of three bundles. Rate of heat release by means of oxygen consumption calorimetry, mass change, CO 2 , CO and smoke production rate and gas, wall and cable surface temperatures were measured as a function of time, as well as time to sprinkler operation and failure of test voltage in cables. Additionally, the minimum rate of heat release needed to ignite the bundle was determined. This paper concentrates on describing and recording the experimental set-up and the data obtained. (orig.)

  3. Effect of vertical oscillatory pressure on disability of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among Africans is rising. Many adults in any given year experience low back pain at one time or the other, this should be of concern. It is then imperative to research into how to reduce the disability caused by LBP. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Vertical ...

  4. Vertically transmitted HIV-l infection in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-08-09

    Aug 9, 1990 ... ratios were present in all but 1 of 16 children tested and hypergammaglobulinaemia and anaemia ... women of child-bearing age the number of vertically infected. Department of Paediatrics, Baragwanath ... Cytometer (Becton Dickinson, Mountainview, California,-. USA). Results. The incidence of cases of ...

  5. Growth of lead molybdate crystals by vertical Bridgman method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In this paper, we present what is to our knowledge the first report on the vertical Bridgman growth of PMO crystals, which is demonstrated to be an advantageous process for ..... ratio. Owing to the advantages mentioned above, the pre- sent Bridgman process is promising for mass production of PMO crystals with lower cost.

  6. Vertical Pointing Weather Radar for Built-up Urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

      A cost effective vertical pointing X-band weather radar (VPR) has been tested for measurement of precipitation in urban areas. Stationary tests indicate that the VPR performs well compared to horizontal weather radars, such as the local area weather radars (LAWR). The test illustrated...

  7. Vertical-aware click model-based effectiveness metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markov, I.; Kharitonov, E.; Nikulin, V.; Serdyukov, P.; de Rijke, M.; Crestani, F.; Li, J.; Wang, X.S.

    2014-01-01

    Today's web search systems present users with heterogeneous information coming from sources of different types, also known as verticals. Evaluating such systems is an important but complex task, which is still far from being solved. In this paper we examine the hypothesis that the use of models that

  8. Vertical structure of orographic precipitating clouds observed over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 8. Vertical structure of orographic precipitating clouds observed over south Asia during summer monsoon season ... Orography profoundly influences seasonal rainfall amount in several places in south Asia by affecting rain intensity and duration. One of ...

  9. MHD flow of a uniformly stretched vertical permeable membrane in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... Abstract. We present a magneto - hydrodynamic flow of a uniformly stretched vertical permeable surface undergoing Arrhenius heat reaction. ... It is also established that maximum velocity occurs in the body of the fluid close to the surface and not the surface.

  10. Unsteady Viscous Flow Past an Impulsively Started Porous Vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a new numerical approach for solving unsteady two dimensional boundary layer flow past an infinite vertical porous surface with the flow generated by Newtonian heating and impulsive motion in the presence of viscous dissipation and temperature dependent viscosity. The viscosity of the fluid under ...

  11. Graphene and PbS quantum dot hybrid vertical phototransistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Yating; Zhang, Haiting; Yu, Yu; Cao, Mingxuan; Che, Yongli; Dai, Haitao; Yang, Junbo; Ding, Xin; Yao, Jianquan

    2017-04-01

    A field-effect phototransistor based on a graphene and lead sulfide quantum dot (PbS QD) hybrid in which PbS QDs are embedded in a graphene matrix has been fabricated with a vertical architecture through a solution process. The n-type Si/SiO2 substrate (gate), Au/Ag nanowire transparent source electrode, active layer and Au drain electrode are vertically stacked in the device, which has a downscaled channel length of 250 nm. Photoinduced electrons in the PbS QDs leap into the conduction band and fill in the trap states, while the photoinduced holes left in the valence band transfer to the graphene and form the photocurrent under biases from which the photoconductive gain is evaluated. The graphene/QD-based vertical phototransistor shows a photoresponsivity of 2 × 103 A W-1, and specific detectivity up to 7 × 1012 Jones under 808 nm laser illumination with a light irradiance of 12 mW cm-2. The solution-processed vertical phototransistor provides a new facile method for optoelectronic device applications.

  12. Specimen housing unit for cinemicrographic studies in the vertical plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, J R; Tynan, C I; Boykin, E H

    1976-08-01

    A compact housing unit for low-power (X6 to X50) cinemicrographic studies of microbial specimens in the vertical plane is described. This unit was used successfully to record the development of a "halo" of cells around subsurface colonies of Escherichia coli.

  13. Resonant Tunneling in Gated Vertical One- dimensional Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolagunta, V. R.; Janes, D. B.; Melloch, M. R.; Webb, K. J.

    1997-03-01

    Vertical sub-micron transistors incorporating resonant tunneling multiple quantum well heterostructures are interesting in applications for both multi-valued logic devices and the study of quantization effects in vertical quasi- one-, zero- dimensional structures. Earlier we have demonstrated room temperature pinch-off of the resonant peak in sub-micron vertical resonant tunneling transistors structures using a self-aligned sidewall gating technique ( V.R. Kolagunta et. al., Applied Physics Lett., 69), 374(1996). In this paper we present the study of gating effects in vertical multiple quantum well resonant tunneling transistors. Multiple well quasi-1-D sidewall gated transistors with mesa dimensions of L_x=0.5-0.9μm and L_y=10-40μm were fabricated. The quantum heterostructure in these devices consists of two non-symmetric (180 ÅÅi-GaAs wells separated from each other and from the top and bottom n^+ GaAs/contacts region using Al_0.3Ga_0.7As tunneling barriers. Room temperature pinch-off of the multiple resonant peaks similar to that reported in the case of single well devices is observed in these devices^1. Current-voltage characteristics at liquid nitrogen temperatures show splitting of the resonant peaks into sub-bands with increasing negative gate bias indicative of quasi- 1-D confinement. Room-temperature and low-temperature current-voltage measurements shall be presented and discussed.

  14. Characteristics and optimisation of vertical and planar tunnelling-FETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterkel, M; Wang, P-F; Nirschl, T; Fabel, B; Bhuwalka, K K; Schulze, J; Eisele, I; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D; Hansch, W

    2005-01-01

    Scaling MOSFETs becomes more and more difficult. The tunnelling-FET is a possible successor of today's MOSFET with better scaling possibilities. Two different device structures, a vertical and a planar version of a tunnelling-FET are presented and evaluated

  15. The vertical migration behaviour of estuarine plankton | Grindley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of investigations on the vertical migration behaviour of estuarine zooplankton have been carried out in recent years. Several of these investigations have been carried out in collaboration with other zoologists and the detailed findings are being published separately. The work is reviewed here and an attempt is ...

  16. Intrapartum practices to limit vertical transmission of HIV | du Preez ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to improve health services to HIV-positive women requires a specific focus on limiting mother-to-child transmission. Vertical transmission most often takes place during the intrapartum period; hence, it is essential to alert midwives to what constitutes safe or risky intrapartum practices. Midwives in the southern ...

  17. Evaluation of factors associated with vertical HIV-1 transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Matheus Costa da; Lobato, Rubens Caurio; Gonçalves, Carla Vitola; Silva, Naylê Maria Oliveira da; Barral, Maria Fernanda Martínez; Martinez, Ana Maria Barral de; Hora, Vanusa Pousada da

    2015-01-01

    To compare the prevalence and factors associated with vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) among pregnant women treated in the periods of 1998-2004 and 2005-2011 in a reference service for the care of HIV-infected patients in southern Brazil. This was a descriptive and analytical study that used the databases of laboratories from the CD4 and STDs/AIDS Viral Load National Laboratory Network of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. HIV-1-infected pregnant women were selected after an active search for clinical information and obstetric and neonatal data from their medical records between the years of 1998 and 2011. 102 pregnant women were analyzed between 1998 and 2004 and 251 in the period between 2005 and 2011, totaling 353 children born to pregnant women with HIV-1. It was observed that the vertical transmission rate was 11.8% between 1998 and 2004 and 3.2% between 2005 and 2011 (pvertical transmission factors when comparing the two periods. It was observed a decrease in the rate of vertical transmission in recent years. According to the studied variables, is suggested that the risk factors for vertical transmission of HIV-1 were absence of antiretroviral therapy, high viral load in the pregnant women, and membrane rupture time >4h. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Electronic structure analysis and vertical ionization energies of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Electronic structure analysis and vertical ionization energies of thiophene and ethynylthiophenes. RAMAN K SINGH and MANOJ K MISHRA*. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai 400 076 e-mail: mmishra@iitb.ac.in. Abstract. Results from different decouplings of the electron propagator ...

  19. Horizontal and vertical projectile motion in a resistant medium under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Horizontal and vertical projectile motion in a resistant medium under the influence of magnetic field is carried out. Solutions to the governing equations is developed using integrating factor method. The results are in reasonable agreement with the findings of [2] and [3] JONAMP Vol. 11 2007: pp. 83-86 ...

  20. Two-dimensional weak pseudomanifolds on eight vertices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We explicitly determine all the two-dimensional weak pseudomanifolds on 8 vertices. We prove that there are (up to isomorphism) exactly 95 such weak pseudomanifolds, 44 of which are combinatorial 2-manifolds. These 95 weak pseudomanifolds triangulate 16 topological spaces. As a consequence, we prove that there ...

  1. Vertical distribution of living mangrove foraminifera from KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous intertidal foraminiferal studies have predominantly focused on assemblages in surface sediments (0–1 cm), with the rationale that surface assemblages reflect the modern-day environment. Foraminifera live infaunally and therefore there is a need to document the infaunal vertical distribution of living foraminifera to ...

  2. Efficient Extraction of High Centrality Vertices in Distributed Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumbhare, Alok [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Frincu, Marc [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Raghavendra, Cauligi S. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prasanna, Viktor K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-09-09

    Betweenness centrality (BC) is an important measure for identifying high value or critical vertices in graphs, in variety of domains such as communication networks, road networks, and social graphs. However, calculating betweenness values is prohibitively expensive and, more often, domain experts are interested only in the vertices with the highest centrality values. In this paper, we first propose a partition-centric algorithm (MS-BC) to calculate BC for a large distributed graph that optimizes resource utilization and improves overall performance. Further, we extend the notion of approximate BC by pruning the graph and removing a subset of edges and vertices that contribute the least to the betweenness values of other vertices (MSL-BC), which further improves the runtime performance. We evaluate the proposed algorithms using a mix of real-world and synthetic graphs on an HPC cluster and analyze its strengths and weaknesses. The experimental results show an improvement in performance of upto 12x for large sparse graphs as compared to the state-of-the-art, and at the same time highlights the need for better partitioning methods to enable a balanced workload across partitions for unbalanced graphs such as small-world or power-law graphs.

  3. A seismic vertical vibrator driven by linear motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorlandt, R.P.; Drijkoningen, G.G.; Schneider, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a newly developed vertical seismic vibrator driven by linear motors. We explain the different components the vibrator consists of. We show that the harmonic distortion of the linear-motor vibrator signal is very small. We also show that, without applying a feedback loop on

  4. Vertical-Cavity In-plane Heterostructures: Physics and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug

    2015-01-01

    We show that the in-plane heterostructures realized in vertical cavities with high contrast grating(HCG) reflector enables exotic configurations of heterostructure and photonic wells. In photonic crystal heterostructures forming a photonic well, the property of a confined mode is determined by th...

  5. Carbon Nanotubes as Vertical Interconnects in 3D Integrated Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollebregt, S.

    2014-01-01

    Interconnects in integrated circuits (IC) are the major cause of power dissipation and delay. 3D integration has been proposed as a method to reduce these issues. For this 3D integration, fabrication of high aspect ratio reliable vertical interconnects (vias) are required. For this new materials,

  6. Horizontal stresses induced by vertical processes in planetary lithospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerdt, W. B.

    1993-01-01

    Understanding the state of stress in the elastic lithosphere is of fundamental importance for planetary geophysics, as it is the link between the observed geologic structures on the surface and the processes which form and modify these structures. As such, it can provide valuable constraints for the difficult problem of determining interior structure and processes. On the Earth, most large scale, organized deformation can be related to lateral tectonics associated with plate dynamics; however, the tectonics on many extraterrestrial bodies (such as the Moon, Mars, and most of the outer-planet satellites) appears to be primarily vertical in nature, and the horizontal stresses induced by vertical motions and loads are expected to dominate the deformation of their lithospheres. The largest stress contributions from vertical loading come from the flexure of the lithosphere, which induces both bending moments and membrane stresses. We are concerned here only with nonflexural changes in the state of stress induced by processes such as sedimentary and volcanic deposition, erosional denudation, and changes in the thermal gradient that induce uplift or subsidence. This analysis is important both for evaluating stresses for specific regions in which the vertical stress history can be estimated, as well as for applying the proper loading conditions to global stress models. It is also of interest for providing a reference state of stress for interpreting stress measurements in the crust of the Earth.

  7. A method for calculating active feedback system to provide vertical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In designing tokamaks, the maintenance of vertical stability of plasma is one of the most important problems. Systems of the passive and active feedbacks are applied for this purpose. Role of the passive system consisting of a vacuum vessel and passive coils is to suppress fast MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) instabilities.

  8. MHV Vertices And Tree Amplitudes In Gauge Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachazo, Freddy; Svrcek, Peter; Witten, Edward

    2004-01-01

    As an alternative to the usual Feynman graphs, tree amplitudes in Yang-Mills theory can be constructed from tree graphs in which the vertices are tree level MHV scattering amplitudes, continued off shell in a particular fashion. The formalism leads to new and relatively simple formulas for many amplitudes, and can be heuristically derived from twistor space. (author)

  9. Comparison of aerodynamic models for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, C. Simão; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Barone, M.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-megawatt Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) are experiencing an increased interest for floating offshore applications. However, VAWT development is hindered by the lack of fast, accurate and validated simulation models. This work compares six different numerical models for VAWTS: a multipl...

  10. Modeling of Aerosol Vertical Profiles Using GIS and Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Ho Lee

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Remote Sensing (RS by climatologists, environmentalists and urban planners for three dimensional modeling and visualization of the landscape is well established. However no previous study has implemented these techniques for 3D modeling of atmospheric aerosols because air quality data is traditionally measured at ground points, or from satellite images, with no vertical dimension. This study presents a prototype for modeling and visualizing aerosol vertical profiles over a 3D urban landscape in Hong Kong. The method uses a newly developed technique for the derivation of aerosol vertical profiles from AERONET sunphotometer measurements and surface visibility data, and links these to a 3D urban model. This permits automated modeling and visualization of aerosol concentrations at different atmospheric levels over the urban landscape in near-real time. Since the GIS platform permits presentation of the aerosol vertical distribution in 3D, it can be related to the built environment of the city. Examples are given of the applications of the model, including diagnosis of the relative contribution of vehicle emissions to pollution levels in the city, based on increased near-surface concentrations around weekday rush-hour times. The ability to model changes in air quality and visibility from ground level to the top of tall buildings is also demonstrated, and this has implications for energy use and environmental policies for the tall mega-cities of the future.

  11. Vertical structure of orographic precipitating clouds observed over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2017-11-23

    Nov 23, 2017 ... https://doi.org/10.1007/s12040-017-0897-9. Vertical structure of orographic precipitating clouds observed over south Asia during summer monsoon season. Shailendra Kumar* and G S Bhat. Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences (CAOS), Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560 012, India.

  12. Legal unbundling and auctions in vertically integrated (utilities) markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Koten, Silvester

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2013), s. 543-573 ISSN 0929-1261 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : regulation * vertical integration * electricity markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.330, year: 2013

  13. How does tooth eruption relate to vertical mandibular growth displacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sean Shih-Yao; Buschang, Peter H

    2011-06-01

    Our objectives were to investigate the eruptive patterns of the mandibular teeth and assess their associations with mandibular growth displacements. Cephalograms for a mixed-longitudinal sample of 124 French-Canadian girls were evaluated between 10 and 15 years of age. Vertical mandibular displacement and mandibular eruption were evaluated by using cranial and mandibular superimpositions, respectively. Multilevel modeling procedures were used to estimate each subject's growth change over time. Stepwise multiple regressions were used to determine the amount and relative magnitudes of variations in mandibular eruption explained by mandibular growth displacement, controlling for vertical maxillary tooth movements. Cubic polynomial models explained between 91% and 98% of the variations in eruption and vertical growth displacement. All curves showed acceleration of eruption until approximately 12 years of age, after which eruption decelerated. The eruption of the mandibular teeth demonstrated greater relative variability than did vertical mandibular growth displacements. Independent of the overall movements of the maxillary molars, inferior mandibular growth displacement explained approximately 54% of the variation in mandibular molar eruption between 10.5 and 14.5 years of age. Inferior mandibular growth displacement and dental eruption followed similar patterns of change during adolescence. Based on their associations and the differences in variability identified, mandibular eruption appears to compensate for or adapt to growth displacements. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Is vertical migration in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) influenced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-31

    Dec 31, 2008 ... The hunger/satiation hypothesis in vertical migration: history, evidence and consequences. Biol. Rev. 78, 1–79. Pittendrigh C. S., Kyner W. T. and Takamura T. 1991 The ampli- tude of circadian oscillations: temperature dependence, latitu- dinal clines, and the photoperiodic time measurement. J. Biol.

  15. Improved Reading Gate For Vertical-Bloch-Line Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.; Katti, Romney R.

    1994-01-01

    Improved design for reading gate of vertical-Bloch-line magnetic-bubble memory increases reliability of discrimination between binary ones and zeros. Magnetic bubbles that signify binary "1" and "0" produced by applying sufficiently large chopping currents to memory stripes. Bubbles then propagated differentially in bubble sorter. Method of discriminating between ones and zeros more reliable.

  16. A method for calculating active feedback system to provide vertical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Once the coordinates of active coils are defined, the problem of selection of the active feedback system consists of the following: Find values of control vectors a and b ensuring stabilization of plasma vertical motion and requiring minimal power consumption. Let us calculate power requirement for realizing active feedbacks.

  17. Voice quality after laser cordectomy and vertical hemilaryngectomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Most acoustic and aerodynamic parameters are significant different between patients from control. Subharmonics parameters (NSH and DSH) and degree of voice breaks (DVB) in addition to phonatory resistance specifically differentiate the voice of laser cordectomized from that of vertical hemilaryngectomized ...

  18. Horizontal or vertical photobioreactors? How to improve microalgae photosynthetic efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuaresma, M.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Vilchez, C.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The productivity of a vertical outdoor photobioreactor was quantitatively assessed and compared to a horizontal reactor. Daily light cycles in southern Spain were simulated and applied to grow the microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana in a flat panel photobioreactor. The maximal irradiance around noon

  19. Internet Sales and the New EU Rules on Vertical Restraints

    OpenAIRE

    Filippo Amato

    2010-01-01

    It is therefore not surprising that the guidance concerning internet sales provided in the Guidelines constitutes the Commission’s most, if not the primary, debated novelty introduced into the law on vertical restraints. Filippo Amato, Jones Day

  20. Evaluation of Vertical Marginal Adaptation of Provisional Crowns by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... Department of Prosthetic Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry,. King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. E‑mail: malrifaiy@hotmail.com. How to cite this article: Al Rifaiy MQ. Evaluation of vertical marginal adaptation of provisional crowns by digital microscope. Niger J Clin Pract. 2017 ...

  1. Horizontal and Vertical Attentional Orienting in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Gudrun M. S.; Santens, Patrick; Vingerhoets, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) typically suffer from an asymmetric degeneration of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra, resulting in right-sided (RPD) or left-sided (LPD) predominance of motor symptomatology. As the dopaminergic system is also involved in attention, we examined horizontal and vertical orienting of attention in LPD…

  2. Reliability Analysis of Geotechnical Failure Modes for Vertical Wall Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    Vertical wall breakwaters are usually designed as concrete caissons placed on the top of a rubble mound foundation or a rubble bedding layer. The purpose of the breakwater is usually to protect the area behind the breakwater from being flooded by large waves. The area protected can for example...

  3. Diagnosis and clinical management of teeth with vertical root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis of vertical root fracture (VRF) is at times complicated for lack of specific signs, symptoms and/or radiographic features. It constitutes an important threat to the tooth's prognosis during and after root canal therapy and may result in root or tooth extraction. Early detection and management of VRF remain a vexing ...

  4. Intrapartum practices to limit vertical transmission of HIV | du Preez ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accordingly, we formulate general recommendations for nursing education, future research, and midwifery practice. In particular we suggest ways the national Guidelines for Maternity Care in South Africa may be adapted and better implemented to enhance safe intrapartum practices to limit vertical transmission of HIV.

  5. Vertically integrated moisture flux convergence as a predictor of thunderstorms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zomeren, J.; van Delden, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Vertically Integrated Moisture Flux Convergence (VIMFC) alone and in combination with the lifted stability index of the most unstable layer (SMUL) is evaluated as a thunderstorm predictor. By using six-hourly standard pressure weather analysis data from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather

  6. Determination of vertical transmission rate of Hepatitis B Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the vertical transmission rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the socio-demographic factors associated with its transmission in pregnant women (PW). The subjects were pregnant women who presented for delivery in the prenatal wards and their newborns at Muhimbili ...

  7. Entire vertical graphs in Riemannian product spaces | de Lima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We extend the technique developed by S.T. Yau in [21] in order to investigate the rigidity of entire vertical graphs in a Riemannian product space R × Mn, whose fiber Mn is supposed to have Ricci curvature with strict sign. In this setting, under a suitable restriction on the norm of the gradient of the function u which ...

  8. Unsteady MHD free convective flow past a vertical porous plate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attempt has been made to study the unsteady MHD free convective flow past a vertical porous plate immersed in a porous medium with Hall current, thermal diffusion and heat source. Analytical solution has been found depending on the physical parameters including the Hartmann number M, the Prandtl number Pr, the ...

  9. Vertical cross-spectral phases in neutral atmospheric flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Abhijit S.; Mann, Jakob; Kelly, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    leads (or lags) in time the turbulence sensed at the other height. The phase angle of the cross-wind component is observed to be significantly greater than the phase for the along-wind component, which in turn is greater than the phase for the vertical component. The cross-wind and along-wind phases...

  10. Vertical Transmission of Hepatozoon in the Garter Snake Thamnophis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Kiera L; Sparkman, Amanda; Bronikowski, Anne M; Palacios, Maria G

    2017-01-01

    Vertical transmission of blood parasites has been demonstrated in humans and some domestic species, but it has not been well documented in wild populations. We assessed whether Hepatozoon blood parasites are vertically transmitted in naturally infected individuals of the viviparous western terrestrial garter snake ( Thamnophis elegans ). Blood smears were taken from nine wild-caught gravid female snakes at capture, preparturition, and postparturition, and then from their laboratory-born offspring at age 2 mo and 1 yr. All infected offspring were born to four infected females, although not all offspring in a given litter were necessarily infected. Parasites were not detected in offspring born to the five uninfected mothers. The highest parasite loads were found in neonates at 2 mo of age. Parasite prevalence did not vary between sexes in offspring, but females showed higher loads than did males when 2 mo old. This study supports vertical transmission of Hepatozoon in naturally infected viviparous snakes and suggests that vertical transmission of hematozoan parasites might be an overlooked mode of transmission in wildlife.

  11. Severe vertical atlanto-axial subluxation in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the imaging study of a case of severe vertical atlanto-axial subluxation in a 60-year-old male with long-term rheumatoid arthritis with severe polyarticular involvement (Class IV of Steinbrocker functional classification.

  12. Application of Schlumberger array of vertical electric sounding to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schlumberger array of vertical electric sounding (VES) was employed. Interpretation of data was done initially by curve matching which made it possible to produce computer iterative model. The results obtained were correlated using bore-hole log as a control to determine various aquifers (water bearing formations) at each ...

  13. A method for calculating active feedback system to provide vertical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the control of plasma vertical position with active feedback system. Calculation of feed- back control parameters is formulated as an optimization problem and an approximate method to solve the problem is suggested. Numerical simulations are performed with parameters of the T-15M tokamak in order to justify the ...

  14. minimal pairs of polytopes and their number of vertices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    number of their vertices is minimal in the class. However, it is shown in the paper that, this last statement does not hold true in general for higher dimensional spaces. Key words/phrases: Pairs of compact convex sets, Blaschke addition, Minkowski sum, mnimality, quasidiffenertial calculus. INTRODUCTION. Vector addition ...

  15. Vertical dimension of occlusion in implant dentistry: significance and approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelson, Glenn L

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the principles of occlusion as they relate to managing bite forces on implants is extremely important to maintain the longevity of dental implant prostheses. Specifically, altering vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) scientifically and predictably is critical to the creation of proper tooth form and guidance when fabricating a full-arch implant-supported prosthesis.

  16. [The neutral zone and vertical dimension of occlusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksov, Ljiljana; Stanković, Sasa; Ajduković, Zorica

    2009-01-01

    More recent research points out to the existence of a new concept of the technique for locating the neutral zone. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of changing vertical dimension of occlusion, as well as that of the alveolar ridge type, on the neutral zone dimensions. The neutral zone was investigated in two groups of patients, with prominent (the control group) and flat alveolar ridges and it was determined for each patient at 3 heights (the correct, the increased and the decreased vertical dimension of occlusion). It was studied both vertically and horizontally. The width of the neutral zone was measured in different regions. The width of the neutral zone was minimal at the level of the occlusal plane, and it increased gradually as the occlusal plane went down and up, towards the anterior region. No statistically significant difference was found in the width of the neutral zone, between the group of patients with prominent alveolar ridges (the control group), and that with the flat ones. There was, also, no difference at all, at any level of the vertical dimension of occlusion, that could possibly bear statistical significance.

  17. Positioning for vertical integration through clinics "without walls".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B A; Schryver, D L

    1994-01-01

    Authors Bruce A. Johnson, J.D., M.P.A., and Darrell Schryver, D.P.A., offer the clinic without walls model as a transitory step to full vertical integration. They write that this model "may enable physicians to address the key issues associated with managed care and integration in a more gradual, controlled fashion.

  18. Serotyping of Salmonella Isolates from Broiler Vertical Integrations in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study analyzed 106 Salmonella isolates from different points in broiler vertical integrations of two important poultry areas of Colombia. It was possible to identify the presence of Salmonella in five categories: breeder farm (17.9%), hatchery (6.6 %), broiler farm (38.7 %), processing plant (9...

  19. A Vertical Diffusion Scheme to estimate the atmospheric rectifier effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baozhang; Chen, Jing M.; Liu, Jane; Chan, Douglas; Higuchi, Kaz; Shashkov, Alexander

    2004-02-01

    The magnitude and spatial distribution of the carbon sink in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere remain uncertain in spite of much progress made in recent decades. Vertical CO2 diffusion in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is an integral part of atmospheric CO2 transport and is important in understanding the global CO2 distribution pattern, in particular, the rectifier effect on the distribution [Keeling et al., 1989; Denning et al., 1995]. Attempts to constrain carbon fluxes using surface measurements and inversion models are limited by large uncertainties in this effect governed by different processes. In this study, we developed a Vertical Diffusion Scheme (VDS) to investigate the vertical CO2 transport in the PBL and to evaluate CO2 vertical rectification. The VDS was driven by the net ecosystem carbon flux and the surface sensible heat flux, simulated using the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) and a land surface scheme. The VDS model was validated against half-hourly CO2 concentration measurements at 20 m and 40 m heights above a boreal forest, at Fraserdale (49°52'29.9''N, 81°34'12.3''W), Ontario, Canada. The amplitude and phase of the diurnal/seasonal cycles of simulated CO2 concentration during the growing season agreed closely with the measurements (linear correlation coefficient (R) equals 0.81). Simulated vertical and temporal distribution patterns of CO2 concentration were comparable to those measured at the North Carolina tower. The rectifier effect, in terms of an annual-mean vertical gradient of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere that decreases from the surface to the top of PBL, was found at Fraserdale to be about 3.56 ppmv. Positive covariance between the seasonal cycles of plant growth and PBL vertical diffusion was responsible for about 75% of the effect, and the rest was caused by covariance between their diurnal cycles. The rectifier effect exhibited strong seasonal variations, and the contribution from the diurnal cycle

  20. Discriminant analysis of maintaining a vertical position in the water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratuša Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water polo is the only sports game that takes place in the water. During the outplay, a vertical body position with the two basic mechanisms of the leg work - a breaststroke leg kick and an eggbeater leg kick, prevails. Starting from the significance of a vertical position during the game play, the methods of assessing physical preparedness of the athletes of all the categories also include the evaluation of maintaining a vertical position and consequently the load of the leg muscles. The measurements are performed during the maintenance of a vertical position (swimming in place through one of the specified mechanisms of leg work, i.e. a vertical position technique. The aim of this paper was to determine the application of different mechanisms of the leg kicks in maintaining a vertical position with young water polo players in relation to their position. The study included 29 selected junior water polo players (age_15.8 ± 0.8 years; BH_185.2 ± 5.3cm and BW_81.7 ± 7.7kg. The measurements were performed during the tests of swimming in place at the maximum intensity lasting 10 seconds, by the breaststroke and eggbeater leg kicks. The isometric tensiometry tests were used for the measurements. The results were analysed by the application of descriptive statistics, and the kinetic selection characteristic was defined by the application of discriminant analysis. Higher average values were achieved with the breaststroke leg kick technique Fmax, ImpF and RFD (avgFmaxLEGGBK =157.46±19.93N; avgImpF_LEGGBK =45.43±10.64Ns; avgRFD_LEGGBK=337.85±80.73N/s; avgFmaxLBKICK=227.18±49.17N; avgImpF_LBKICK=55.99±14.59Ns; avgRFD_LBKICK=545.47±159.15N/s. After discriminant analysis, the results have shown that the eggbeater leg kick is a selection technique, whereas the force - Fmax is a kinetic selection variable. Based on the obtained results and the analyses performed it may be concluded that a training factor dominant for maintaining a vertical position by

  1. Assessment of vertical fracture using cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moudi, Ehsan; Madani, Zahrasadat; Alhavaz, Abdolhamid; Bijani, Ali [Dental Material Research Center, Dental School, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, (Korea, Republic of); Bagheri, Mohammad [Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the diagnosis of vertical root fractures in a tooth with gutta-percha and prefabricated posts. This study selected 96 extracted molar and premolar teeth of the mandible. These teeth were divided into six groups as follows: Groups A, B, and C consisted of teeth with vertical root fractures, and groups D, E, and F had teeth without vertical root fractures; groups A and D had teeth with gutta-percha and prefabricated posts; groups B and E had teeth with gutta-percha but without prefabricated posts, and groups C and F had teeth without gutta-percha or prefabricated posts. Then, the CBCT scans were obtained and examined by three oral and maxillofacial radiologists in order to determine the presence of vertical root fractures. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS 20.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). The kappa coefficient was 0.875 ± 0.049. Groups A and D showed a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 100%; groups E and B, a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 100%; and groups C and F, a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 100%. The CBCT scans revealed a high accuracy in the diagnosis of vertical root fractures; the accuracy did not decrease in the presence of gutta-percha. The presence of prefabricated posts also had little effect on the accuracy of the system, which was, of course, not statistically significant.

  2. Assessment of vertical fracture using cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moudi, Ehsan; Madani, Zahrasadat; Alhavaz, Abdolhamid; Bijani, Ali; Bagheri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the diagnosis of vertical root fractures in a tooth with gutta-percha and prefabricated posts. This study selected 96 extracted molar and premolar teeth of the mandible. These teeth were divided into six groups as follows: Groups A, B, and C consisted of teeth with vertical root fractures, and groups D, E, and F had teeth without vertical root fractures; groups A and D had teeth with gutta-percha and prefabricated posts; groups B and E had teeth with gutta-percha but without prefabricated posts, and groups C and F had teeth without gutta-percha or prefabricated posts. Then, the CBCT scans were obtained and examined by three oral and maxillofacial radiologists in order to determine the presence of vertical root fractures. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS 20.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). The kappa coefficient was 0.875 ± 0.049. Groups A and D showed a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 100%; groups E and B, a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 100%; and groups C and F, a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 100%. The CBCT scans revealed a high accuracy in the diagnosis of vertical root fractures; the accuracy did not decrease in the presence of gutta-percha. The presence of prefabricated posts also had little effect on the accuracy of the system, which was, of course, not statistically significant.

  3. Vertically-integrated Approaches for Carbon Sequestration Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.; Guo, B.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is being considered as an approach to mitigate anthropogenic CO2 emissions from large stationary sources such as coal fired power plants and natural gas processing plants. Computer modeling is an essential tool for site design and operational planning as it allows prediction of the pressure response as well as the migration of both CO2 and brine in the subsurface. Many processes, such as buoyancy, hysteresis, geomechanics and geochemistry, can have important impacts on the system. While all of the processes can be taken into account simultaneously, the resulting models are computationally very expensive and require large numbers of parameters which are often uncertain or unknown. In many cases of practical interest, the computational and data requirements can be reduced by choosing a smaller domain and/or by neglecting or simplifying certain processes. This leads to a series of models with different complexity, ranging from coupled multi-physics, multi-phase three-dimensional models to semi-analytical single-phase models. Under certain conditions the three-dimensional equations can be integrated in the vertical direction, leading to a suite of two-dimensional multi-phase models, termed vertically-integrated models. These models are either solved numerically or simplified further (e.g., assumption of vertical equilibrium) to allow analytical or semi-analytical solutions. This presentation focuses on how different vertically-integrated models have been applied to the simulation of CO2 and brine migration during CCS projects. Several example sites, such as the Illinois Basin and the Wabamun Lake region of the Alberta Basin, are discussed to show how vertically-integrated models can be used to gain understanding of CCS operations.

  4. Scour around vertical wall abutment in cohesionless sediment bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, M.; Sharma, P. K.; Ahmad, Z.

    2017-12-01

    At the time of floods, failure of bridges is the biggest disaster and mainly sub-structure (bridge abutments and piers) are responsible for this failure of bridges. It is very risky if these sub structures are not constructed after proper designing and analysis. Scour is a natural phenomenon in rivers or streams caused by the erosive action of the flowing water on the bed and banks. The abutment undermines due to river-bed erosion and scouring, which generally recognized as the main cause of abutment failure. Most of the previous studies conducted on scour around abutment have concerned with the prediction of the maximum scour depth (Lim, 1994; Melvill, 1992, 1997 and Dey and Barbhuiya, 2005). Dey and Barbhuiya (2005) proposed a relationship for computing maximum scour depth near an abutment, based on laboratory experiments, for computing maximum scour depth around vertical wall abutment, which was confined to their experimental data only. However, this relationship needs to be also verified by the other researchers data in order to support the reliability to the relationship and its wider applicability. In this study, controlled experimentations have been carried out on the scour near a vertical wall abutment. The collected data in this study along with data of the previous investigators have been carried out on the scour near vertical wall abutment. The collected data in this study along with data of the previous have been used to check the validity of the existing equation (Lim, 1994; Melvill, 1992, 1997 and Dey and Barbhuiya, 2005) of maximum scour depth around the vertical wall abutment. A new relationship is proposed to estimate the maximum scour depth around vertical wall abutment, it gives better results all relationships.

  5. Bangbang controller design and implementation for EAST vertical instability control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuehang, E-mail: wagn8901@mail.ustc.edu.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Xiao, Bingjia, E-mail: bjxiao@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Liu, Lei, E-mail: liulei@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Yuan, Qiping, E-mail: qpyuan@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The linearized plasma vertical response model is designed and analysed. • The Bangbang controller for EAST vertical displacement is designed. • The Bangbang controller is optimized for time delay of control system. • We investigate efficacy of Bangbang controller with simulations. • Performance of the controller is roughly given by experiments. - Abstract: In the EAST 2014 campaign, a new internal coil (IC) power supply was used in order to enhance the control over the plasma’s vertical instabilities. The IC power supply now allows for current and voltage working modes with much higher peak voltages and currents and faster response time. In comparison the previous power supply only allowed for the current mode. A Bangbang and PID composite controller has been designed for the voltage mode based on optimal control theory and the RZIP rigid plasma response model. This paper will demonstrate that faster and enhanced controllability are realized with the combination of Bangbang and PID controller. For the large z position drift, the Bangbang controller will export the maximum voltage to achieve much faster power supply response and slow the vertical displacement events (VDEs). The PID controller is used for the small z drifts which will finally stabilize the VDEs with minimum z position oscillation. Furthermore, to evaluate the time latency of this control system and power supply, the stability and performance of the closed loop were simulated and analysed. This controller was finally implementation and test on EAST using the Quasi-snowflake shape which achieved growth rates of 500 s{sup −1}. This paper shows that the new power supply using the bangbang + PID controller can significantly enhance the control over vertical instabilities.

  6. Cephalometric analysis for accurately determining the vertical dimension (case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahipa Wiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Determination of the vertical dimension of occlusion (DVO tends to changes throughout the human life. The vertical dimension is determined by the interocclusal point of the upper and lower teeth contact so the application is limited when the natural teeth was missing. As the result, many functional and aesthetic changes are occurred in the whole orofacial region and stomatognathic system. DVO is one of the difficult stages in prosthodontic treatment. Most of the techniques to determine DVO in edentulous patients are based on the soft tissue references, which can cause the different measurements. Cephalometric analysis allows the evaluation of bone growth changes and can be used as a diagnostic tool in prosthodontics to evaluate the results of prosthodontic rehabilitation. Methods : The purpose of this case report was to find out the results of the vertical dimension of occlusion measurements in maxillomandibular relation by using cephalometric photo in patients who have been long lost their teeth and have never been using denture. Results : A 50 year old female patient, partially edentulous on the upper and lower jaw with the remaining teeth were 12 (residual root, 11,21,23,33 and 43. The remaining teeth were endodontically treated prior the complete denture procedure. Cephalometric photo was done in patients after making bite rim, upper and lower bite rim were given metal marker, the image was traced, then measured between metal to get the vertical dimension of occlusion. Conclusion : The measurement results of the vertical dimension of occlusion by using cephalometric photo on making full denture were more accurate, so it could improve and restore the masticatory function, aesthetic function and phonetics.

  7. ON-LINE TOOLS FOR PROPER VERTICAL POSITIONING OF VERTICAL SAMPLING INTERVALS DURING SITE ASSESSMENT: MEETING IN MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, On-Line Tools for Proper Vertical Positioning of Sampling Intervals During Site Assessment, describes an approach to locating monitoring wells that is based on application of ground water models. The ideal use of both the model and site assessment funds is to ...

  8. The minimal access deep plane extended vertical facelift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacono, Andrew A; Parikh, Sachin S

    2011-11-01

    Modern facelift techniques have benefited from a "repopularization" of shorter incisions, limited skin elevation, and more limited dissection of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and platysma in order to shorten postoperative recovery times and reduce surgical risks for patients. The authors describe their minimal access deep plane extended (MADE) vertical vector facelift, which is a hybrid technique combining the optimal features of the deep plane facelift and the short scar, minimal access cranial suspension (MACS) lift. The authors retrospectively reviewed the case records of 181 patients who underwent facelift procedures performed by the senior author (AAJ) during a two year period between March 2008 and March 2010. Of those patients, 153 underwent facelifting with the MADE vertical technique. With this technique, deep plane dissection releases the zygomatico-cutaneous ligaments, allowing for more significant vertical motion of the midface and jawline during suspension. Extended platysmal dissection was utilized with a lateral platysmal myotomy, which is not traditionally included in a deep plane facelift. The lateral platysmal myotomy allowed for separation of the vertical vector of suspension in the midface and jawline from the superolateral vector of suspension that is required for neck rejuvenation, obviating the need for additional anterior platysmal surgery. The average age of the patients was 57.8 years. The average length of follow-up was 12.7 months. In 69 consecutive patients from this series, average vertical skin excision measured 3.02 cm on each side of the face at the junction of the pre auricular and temporal hair tuft incision (resulting in a total excision of 6.04 cm of skin). Data from the entire series revealed a revision rate of 3.9%, a hematoma rate of 1.9%, and a temporary facial nerve injury rate of 1.3%. The common goal of all facelifting procedures is to provide a long-lasting, natural, balanced, rejuvenated aesthetic

  9. Subjective visual vertical assessment with mobile virtual reality system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Ulozienė

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The subjective visual vertical (SVV is a measure of a subject's perceived verticality, and a sensitive test of vestibular dysfunction. Despite this, and consequent upon technical and logistical limitations, SVV has not entered mainstream clinical practice. The aim of the study was to develop a mobile virtual reality based system for SVV test, evaluate the suitability of different controllers and assess the system's usability in practical settings. Materials and methods: In this study, we describe a novel virtual reality based system that has been developed to test SVV using integrated software and hardware, and report normative values across healthy population. Participants wore a mobile virtual reality headset in order to observe a 3D stimulus presented across separate conditions – static, dynamic and an immersive real-world (“boat in the sea” SVV tests. The virtual reality environment was controlled by the tester using a Bluetooth connected controllers. Participants controlled the movement of a vertical arrow using either a gesture control armband or a general-purpose gamepad, to indicate perceived verticality. We wanted to compare 2 different methods for object control in the system, determine normal values and compare them with literature data, to evaluate the developed system with the help of the system usability scale questionnaire and evaluate possible virtually induced dizziness with the help of subjective visual analog scale. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in SVV values during static, dynamic and virtual reality stimulus conditions, obtained using the two different controllers and the results are compared to those previously reported in the literature using alternative methodologies. The SUS scores for the system were high, with a median of 82.5 for the Myo controller and of 95.0 for the Gamepad controller, representing a statistically significant difference between the two

  10. A new design of automatic vertical drilling tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively improve penetration rates and enhance wellbore quality for vertical wells, a new Automatic Vertical Drilling Tool (AVDT based on Eccentric Braced Structure (EBS is designed. Applying operating principle of rotary steering drilling, AVDT adds offset gravity block automatic induction inclination mechanism. When hole straightening happens, tools take essentric moment to be produced by gravity of offset gravity lock to control the bearing of guide force, so that well straightening is achieved. The normal tool's size of the AVDT is designed as 215.9 mm,other major components' sizes are worked out by the result of theoretical analysis, including the offset angle of EBS. This paper aims to introduce the structure, operating principle, theoretical analysis and describe the key components' parameters setting of the AVDT.

  11. Liquid Crystal Microlens Using Nanoparticle-Induced Vertical Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shug-June Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanoparticle-induced vertical alignment (NIVA of the nematic liquid crystals (LC is applied to achieve an adaptive flat LC microlens with hybrid-aligned nematic (HAN mode by dropping polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS nanoparticle solution on a homogeneous alignment layer. The vertical alignment induced by the POSS nanoparticles resulted in the formation of a hybrid-aligned LC layer with concentric nonuniform distribution of the refractive index in the planar LC cell, which subsequently played the role of the lens, even in the absence of any applied voltages. The dimensions of the concentric HAN structure significantly depend on the volume of the microdroplet and the POSS concentration. The focus effect of this flat microlens was observed while electrically controlling its focal length using the applied voltages from −50 mm to −90 mm.

  12. Taxel-addressable matrix of vertical nanowire piezotronic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Wu, Wenzhuo; Wen, Xiaonan

    2015-05-05

    A tactile sensing matrix includes a substrate, a first plurality of elongated electrode structures, a plurality of vertically aligned piezoelectric members, an insulating layer infused into the piezoelectric members and a second plurality of elongated electrode structures. The first plurality of elongated electrode structures is disposed on the substrate along a first orientation. The vertically aligned piezoelectric members is disposed on the first plurality of elongated electrode structures and form a matrix having columns of piezoelectric members disposed along the first orientation and rows of piezoelectric members disposed along a second orientation that is transverse to the first orientation. The second plurality of elongated electrode structures is disposed on the insulating layer along the second orientation. The elongated electrode structures form a Schottky contact with the piezoelectric members. When pressure is applied to the piezoelectric members, current flow therethrough is modulated.

  13. Vertical elliptic operator for efficient wave propagation in TTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2015-08-19

    Elliptic wave extrapolation operators require significantly less computational cost than the ones for transversely isotropic (TI) media. However, it does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for the prevalent TI media. We propose a new vertical elliptically anisotropic (VEA) wave equation by decomposing the acoustic TI pseudo-differential wave equation. The decomposition results in a vertical elliptic differential equation and a scalar operator. The new VEA-like wave equation shares the same dispersion relation as that of the original acoustic TI wave equation. Therefore, the kinematic contents are correctly matched to the original equation. Moreover, the proposed decomposition yields better amplitude properties than the isotropic decomposition without increasing the computational load. Therefore, it exhibits better cost versus accuracy tradeoff compared to the isotropic or the tilted elliptic decompositions. We demonstrate with numerical examples that the proposed methodology is numerically stable for complex models and is free from shear-wave artifacts.

  14. Vertical-cavity laser with a novel grating mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Gyeong Cheol

    Hybrid III-V on silicon (Si) ‘vertical cavity lasers’ (hybrid VCLs), which can emit light laterally into a Si waveguide, are fabricated and investigated. The Si-integrated hybrid VCL consists of a top dielectric Bragg reflector (DBR), a III-V active layer, and a bottom high contrast grating (HCG...... VCLs have been fabricated. The first version of hybrid VCL is designed for demonstrating in-plane emission into a Si waveguide. The in-plane emission is enabled by the bottom HCG abutting the Si waveguide, which not only functions as a highly reflective mirror but also routes the light from...... dispersion has been observed and discussed, which is unique for HCG-based vertical cavities. The second version proves the potential for high-speed operation of hybrid VCL structure. In the hybrid VCL structure, the effective cavity length is substantially reduced by using a dielectric DBR and a TM-HCG...

  15. Optimal Control of Vertically Transmitted Disease: An Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samit Bhattacharyya

    2010-01-01

    horizontal transmission, administration of the antiviral drug to infected individuals lessens the chance of vertical transmission. Thus the vaccine and antiviral drug play different roles in controlling the disease, which has both vertical and horizontal transmission. We develop a 3D model with Susceptible–Infected–Recovered under vaccination to the susceptible and antiviral treatment to the infected and consider a control theoretic approach using the Pontryagin maximum principle to analyse the costeffectiveness of the control process. Our results demonstrate that a mixed intervention strategy of vaccination and antiviral drug in a proper ratio is the most effective way to control the disease. We show that cost-effectiveness of both intervention strategies intimately depends on disease-related parameters, such as force of infection, probability of being infected to offspring from infected mothers, loss of immunity or reinfection and also on cost of treatment.

  16. Physics of vertically integrated waveguide photodetectors and amplifiers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, E.M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Optical Sciences Center

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the efforts supported by LLNL under the Subcontract No. B239593 at the University of Arizona during the Fiscal Year 1992. A solid physical foundation has been developed for understanding the operation of vertically integrated photodetectors and amplifiers. This has been achieved through a combination of numerical simulation and development of simple coupled-mode theories. Coupled-mode theory has been used to elucidate the physics underlying the operation of vertically integrated photodetectors. In particular, the relation between the spatial transients observed in experiments and numerical simulations, and the non-power orthogonality of the underlying modes has been clarified. The coupled-mode theory has been extended to the case of coupled waveguide-amplifiers.

  17. A MARTe based simulator for the JET Vertical Stabilization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellizio, Teresa, E-mail: teresa.bellizio@unina.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, University di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); De Tommasi, Gianmaria; Risoli, Nicola; Albanese, Raffaele [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, University di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Neto, Andre [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Inst. de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior, Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    Validation by means of simulation is a crucial step when developing real-time control systems. Modeling and simulation are an essential tool since the early design phase, when the control algorithms are designed and tested. This phase is commonly carried out in off-line environments such as Matlab and Simulink. A MARTe-based simulator has been recently developed to validate the new JET Vertical Stabilization (VS) system. MARTe is the multi-thread framework used at JET to deploy hard real-time control systems. This paper presents the software architecture of the MARTe-based simulator and it shows how this tool has been effectively used to evaluate the effects of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) on the VS system. By using the simulator it is possible to analyze different plasma configurations, extrapolating the limit of the new vertical amplifier in terms of the energy of the largest rejectable ELM.

  18. ISAL experiment documentation of vertical tail and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Investigation of Space Transportation System (STS) Atmospheric Luminosities (ISAL) experiment documentation includes vertical tail and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods with surface glow against the blackness of space. This glowing scene was provided by a long duration exposure with a 35mm camera aimed toward the tail of the Earth-orbiting Challenger, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 099. OV-099 was maneuvered to a 120-nautical-mile altitude and flown with open payload bay (PLB) in the velocity vector for the conducting of a test titled, 'Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM)'. Atomic oxygen within the low orbital environment is known to be extremely reactive when in contact with solid surfaces. In the darkened area between the camera and the glowing OMS pods and vertical stabilizer are two trays of test materials.

  19. Dynamic Modal Analysis of Vertical Machining Centre Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anayet U. Patwari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a systematic procedure and details of the use of experimental and analytical modal analysis technique for structural dynamic evaluation processes of a vertical machining centre. The main results deal with assessment of the mode shape of the different components of the vertical machining centre. The simplified experimental modal analysis of different components of milling machine was carried out. This model of the different machine tool's structure is made by design software and analyzed by finite element simulation using ABAQUS software to extract the different theoretical mode shape of the components. The model is evaluated and corrected with experimental results by modal testing of the machine components in which the natural frequencies and the shape of vibration modes are analyzed. The analysis resulted in determination of the direction of the maximal compliance of a particular machine component.

  20. Magnetic Field Fluctuations Due to Diel Vertical Migrations of Zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, C.; Soloviev, A.

    2016-12-01

    Dean et al. (2016) have indicated that at high zooplankton concentrations, diel vertical migrations (DVM) cause velocity fluctuations and a respective increase of the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). In this work, we used a 3D non-hydrostatic computational fluid dynamics model with Lagrangian particle injections (a proxy for migrating organisms) via a discrete phase model to simulate the effect of turbulence generation by DVM. We tested a range of organism concentrations from 1000 to 10,000 organisms/m3. The simulation at an extreme concentration of zooplankton showed an increase in dissipation rate of TKE by two to three orders of magnitude during DVM over background turbulence, 10-8 W kg-1. At lower concentrations (Frank, J. Wood, 2016: Biomixing due to diel vertical migrations of zooplankton. Ocean Modelling 98, 51-64.