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Sample records for supraglottic frontolateral vertical

  1. Vertical partial frontolateral laryngectomy with simultaneous pedunculated sternothyroid muscle flap reconstruction of the vocal fold - surgical procedure and treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurek-Matusiak, Olga; Wójtowicz, Piotr; Szafarowski, Tomasz; Krzeski, Antoni

    2018-02-28

    The aim of the study was to present the treatment outcomes after vertical partial laryngectomy with or without pedunculated sternothyroid muscle flap reconstruction following the resection of neoplasm-infiltrated vocal fold. The procedure was used in a patient with glottic cancer. Oncological outcomes, morphology of neo-vocal fold and the act of swallowing were evaluated. 45 patients with T1-T2 glottic cancer were subjected to vertical partial laryngectomy with 26 patients undergoing a procedure with pedunculated sternothyroid muscle flap reconstruction and the remaining 19 patients undergoing a procedure without such a reconstruction. Two female and 43 male patients aged 35-82 years (mean age of 62.5 years) were enrolled in the study. Local tumor spread and the condition of reconstructed vocal fold were assessed in sequential videofiberoscopy examination conducted each month after surgery whereas the regional spread was assessed in ultrasound scans. Postoperative aspiration was graded according to the Pearson's scale. Six patients experienced local recurrence while 2 patients experienced regional recurrence of the tumor. The pedunculated sternothyroid muscle flap neo-fold was structurally resemblant of the non-affected vocal fold. Episodic, daily dysphagia was observed in 1 patient while normal act of swallowing with no Pearson's scale symptoms was observed in the remaining 44 patients. No necrosis of pedunculated flap was observed. Vertical partial laryngectomy with or without pedunculated sternothyroid muscle flap reconstruction is a good method for the treatment of low- or intermediate-stage glottic cancer, especially when endoscopic access to the tumor is limited and when CO2 laser cannot be used. No significant functional disorders were observed in operated larynges.

  2. Glottic ansd supraglottic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acht, M.J.J. van; Dolsma, W.V.; Hulshof, J.H.; Leer, J.W.H.; Hermans, J.

    1989-01-01

    From 1971 through 1982, 442 patients with laryngeal carcinoma were seen at the Leiden University Hospital. They were treated either with radiotherapy alone, sandwich therapy (pre- and postoperative radiotherapy) or by surgery followed by postoperative irradiation. Three hundred and sixty-six patients with glottic or supraglottic tumours could be analysed with respect to two different treatments, complications of treatment and some prognostic factors. Two endpoints of analysis were used: disease-free interval and survival to cfancer death. In patients with glottic or supraglottic carcinoma, the survival of patients with advanced disease, treated with radiotherapy only, was worse as compared to the survival of the same category of patients who were treated with sandwich therapy (p<0.005). In small supraglottic tumours, the survival with both therapy policies was equal. There was no influence on prognosis of histological differentiation of the tumour. It appeared that interruption of radiotherapy for more tah two days had an adverse effect on survival in patients with glottic carcinoma (p=0.0001). (author). 16 refs.; 4 figs.;

  3. Curative radiotherapy of supraglottic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Ho; Chai, Gyu Young

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of curative radiotherapy in the management of supraglottic cancer. Twenty-one patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottis were treated with radiotherapy at Gyeongsang National University Hospital between 1990 and 1994. Median follow-up period was 36 months and 95% were observed for at least 2 years. Actuarial survival rate at 5 years was 39.3% for 21 patients. The 5-year actuarial survival rate was 75.0% in Stage I, 42.9% in Stage II, 33.3% in Stage III, and 28.6% in Stage IV(p=0.54). The 5-year local control rate was 52.0% for 21 patients. The 5-year local control rate was 75.0% in Stage I, 57.1% in Stage II, 66.7% in Stage III, and 28.6% in Stage IV(p=0.33). Double primary cancer was developed in 3 patients and those were all esophageal cancers. In early stage(Stage I and II) supraglottic cancer, curative radiotherapy would be a treatment of choice and surgery would be better to be reserved for salvage of radiotherapy failure. In advanced stage(Stage III and IV), radiotherapy alone is inadequate for curative therapy and combination with surgery should be done in operable patients. This report emphasizes the importance of esophagoscopy and esophagogram at the follow-up of patients with supraglottic cancer

  4. Treatment Results of Supraglottic Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Charn Il; Kim, Kwang Hyun

    1984-01-01

    From March of 1979 through December of 1982, 84 patients with supraglottic carcinoma were seen and evaluated in the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital. Of these, 68 patients were treated with a curative intent by employing either radiotherapy alone or a combined approach of radiotherapy plus surgery. Sixteen patients refused to complete the treatment program. Seventy-three per cent of patients had T3 and T4 lesions and 63% of patients had lymph node metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Actuarial recurrence-free survival at 3 year was: Stage I-III 62%, Stage III 54%, Stage IV 18%. For T1-2, T3 and T4 lesions, the actuarial recurrence free survival at 3 years were 50%, 34% and 9% respectively. Of 39 patients with treatment failure, 29 patients (78%) had uncontrol or ultimate recurrence at the primary site while 9 patients having lymph node recurrence, 14 patients(21%) had lymph node recurrence, and 5 patients had distant metastasis. It is suggested that planned combined radiotherapy is indicated for advanced but respectable supraglottic carcinoma

  5. Microsurgical one-stage treatment of intracranial mirror aneurysms via bilateral frontolateral approaches

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    Hong-guang WANG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate surgical strategies, clinical effects and complications of microsurgical one-stage treatment of intracranial mirror aneurysms via bilateral frontolateral approaches.  Methods Review clinical data of 18 cases with anterior circulation mirror aneurysms who underwent one-stage clipping via bilateral frontolateral approaches from July 2010 to July 2015 admitted to Department of Neurosurgery in Tianjin Huanhu Hospital. The operative efficacy was evaluated according to postoperative Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS.  Results The 36 aneurysms in 18 patients were successfully clipped via bilateral frontolateral approaches at one-stage, including 18 posterior communicating artery (PCoA mirror aneurysms in 9 cases and 18 middle cerebral artery (MCA mirror aneurysms in 9 cases. GOS score of 5 was discovered in 16 cases, and 4 was discovered in 2 cases after operation. One case underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS due to communicating hydrocephalus, one case got postoperative pulmonary infection and no death occurred. Intracranial CTA at 6 months postoperatively showed aneurysms of 18 patients were clipped completely, the parent artery blood flow was smooth, and no recurrence was found.  Conclusions Microsurgical one-stage clipping via bilateral frontolateral approaches for treating intracranial mirror aneurysms is a sugrical method with small incision, fitting surgical field, high safety, satisfactory effect and good prognosis, which is a new minimally invasive neurosurgical technique. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.08.012

  6. Validity of the frontolateral approach as a minimally invasive corridor for olfactory groove meningiomas.

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    El-Bahy, Khaled

    2009-10-01

    Several approaches are described for olfactory groove meningiomas (OGMs) varying from a very wide bifrontal craniotomy to minimally invasive endoscopic techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the results of the frontolateral approach for olfactory groove meningioma. Pitfalls related to this corridor will be described. The impact of tumor size and encasement of the anterior cerebral artery complex on the degree of tumor removal will be described on the basis of experience with 18 cases. Eighteen patients with OGM underwent microsurgical removal using the frontolateral approach. A retrospective study was conducted by analyzing clinical data, neuroimaging studies, operative findings, clinical outcome, and degree of tumor removal. The patients were classified into group A with tumor size less than 4 cm in diameter (7 out of 18 cases, 38.9%) and group B with tumor size more than 4 cm in diameter (11 out of 18 cases, 61.1%). CSF rhinorrhea was observed in three patients (16.7%). Postoperative left frontal intracerebral hematoma occurred in one patient (5.6%) belonging to group A. In another patient (5.6%) belonging to group B, marked right frontal lobe swelling was evident after dural opening, which necessitated partial right frontal pole resection. Total tumor removal (Simpson grade 1 and 2) was achieved in 14 out of 18 patients (77.8%), while subtotal removal (Simpson grade 3 and 4) was achieved in 4 patients (22.2%). In the 14 patients in whom total removal was achieved, 7 belonged to group A (all 7 patients of group A with 100% removal), while the remaining 7 patients belonged to group B (7 out of 11 patients, 63.6% removal; one of them had anterior cerebral artery complex encasement). The four patients in whom subtotal removal was achieved belonged to group B; three of them showed anterior cerebral artery complex encasement, and one elderly patient had non-extensive paranasal sinus involvement. One patient (5.6%) in group B died from cerebral infarction

  7. Successful anesthetic management of a large supraglottic cyst

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    Harshal D Wagh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excision of a huge-sized supraglottic mass nearly obstructing the airway passage is a real challenge to anesthesiologists. Upper airway obstruction due to neoplasm in supraglottic region is traditionally managed by preoperative tracheostomy. However, such a common procedure can potentially have an impact on long-term outcome.

  8. Repair of damaged supraglottic airway devices: A novel method

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    Kapoor Dheeraj

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Damage of laryngeal mask airway and other supraglottic airway devices has always been a matter of concern. Although manufacturer recommends maximum 40 uses of LMA (and its congeners but damage before 40 uses needs to be evaluated. We hereby, describe a novel method of repair of supraglottic devices when damage occurs at mask inflation line or pilot balloon valve assembly.

  9. Analysis of Measured and Simulated Supraglottal Acoustic Waves.

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    Fraile, Rubén; Evdokimova, Vera V; Evgrafova, Karina V; Godino-Llorente, Juan I; Skrelin, Pavel A

    2016-09-01

    To date, although much attention has been paid to the estimation and modeling of the voice source (ie, the glottal airflow volume velocity), the measurement and characterization of the supraglottal pressure wave have been much less studied. Some previous results have unveiled that the supraglottal pressure wave has some spectral resonances similar to those of the voice pressure wave. This makes the supraglottal wave partially intelligible. Although the explanation for such effect seems to be clearly related to the reflected pressure wave traveling upstream along the vocal tract, the influence that nonlinear source-filter interaction has on it is not as clear. This article provides an insight into this issue by comparing the acoustic analyses of measured and simulated supraglottal and voice waves. Simulations have been performed using a high-dimensional discrete vocal fold model. Results of such comparative analysis indicate that spectral resonances in the supraglottal wave are mainly caused by the regressive pressure wave that travels upstream along the vocal tract and not by source-tract interaction. On the contrary and according to simulation results, source-tract interaction has a role in the loss of intelligibility that happens in the supraglottal wave with respect to the voice wave. This loss of intelligibility mainly corresponds to spectral differences for frequencies above 1500 Hz. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Airway management of a rare huge-size supraglottic mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Zeid, Haitham A.; Al-Ghamdi, Abdel Mohsin A.; Al-Qurain, Abdel-Aziz A.; Mokhazy, Khalid M.

    2006-01-01

    Laser excision of a huge-sized supraglottic mass nearly obstructing the airway passage is a real challenge to anesthesiologists. Upper airway obstruction due to neoplasm in supraglottic region, is traditionally managed by preoperative tracheostomy, however, such a common procedure can potentially have an impact on long-term outcome. A 26-year-old patient presented with dysphagia caused by left cystic vallecular synovial sarcoma. The airway was successfully secured via fiberoptic bronchoscopy, followed by excision of the supraglottic tumor with CO2 laser surgery. Tracheostomy was not required. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the 4th day of surgery. This case, highlights the possibility to secure the airway passage without performing preoperative tracheostomy resulting in good outcome and short hospital stay. (author)

  11. Fatores prognósticos e impacto da comorbidade na laringectomia fronto-lateral

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    Rogério Aparecido Dedivitis

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar sobrevida, impacto da comorbidade, complicações e fatores de falha da laringectomia como tratamento de tumores malignos glóticos. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas 38 pacientes com tumor glótico sob estadiamento clínico T1b/T2N0M0 submetidos à laringectomia fronto-lateral com reconstrução, de janeiro de 1995 a dezembro de 2006. Foram avaliados os resultados oncológicos, comorbidades (através da escala Adult Comorbidity Evaluation - 27 ACE-27 e complicações, sendo correlacionados com dados demográficos e características do tumor. RESULTADOS: Oito pacientes apresentaram recidiva local e foram resgatados cirurgicamente. Complicações não foram verificadas em 33 pacientes. Não houve diferença significativa das sobrevidas global em cinco anos e livre de doença ao considerarem-se as diferentes categorias de comorbidades. Somente o envolvimento patológico das margens mostrou diferenças significativas na sobrevida global (p=0,0033 e sobrevida livre de doença (p<0,0001. CONCLUSÃO: A sobrevida global em cinco anos foi de 67,6% e a sobrevida livre de doença de 73,7%; a comorbidade não representou fator prognóstico independente; o índice de complicações pós-operatórias foi de 13,2% e somente o envolvimento patológico das margens mostrou diferenças significativas na sobrevida global e livre de doença.

  12. Vision in avian emberizid foragers: maximizing both binocular vision and fronto-lateral visual acuity.

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    Moore, Bret A; Pita, Diana; Tyrrell, Luke P; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2015-05-01

    Avian species vary in their visual system configuration, but previous studies have often compared single visual traits between two to three distantly related species. However, birds use different visual dimensions that cannot be maximized simultaneously to meet different perceptual demands, potentially leading to trade-offs between visual traits. We studied the degree of inter-specific variation in multiple visual traits related to foraging and anti-predator behaviors in nine species of closely related emberizid sparrows, controlling for phylogenetic effects. Emberizid sparrows maximize binocular vision, even seeing their bill tips in some eye positions, which may enhance the detection of prey and facilitate food handling. Sparrows have a single retinal center of acute vision (i.e. fovea) projecting fronto-laterally (but not into the binocular field). The foveal projection close to the edge of the binocular field may shorten the time to gather and process both monocular and binocular visual information from the foraging substrate. Contrary to previous work, we found that species with larger visual fields had higher visual acuity, which may compensate for larger blind spots (i.e. pectens) above the center of acute vision, enhancing predator detection. Finally, species with a steeper change in ganglion cell density across the retina had higher eye movement amplitude, probably due to a more pronounced reduction in visual resolution away from the fovea, which would need to be moved around more frequently. The visual configuration of emberizid passive prey foragers is substantially different from that of previously studied avian groups (e.g. sit-and-wait and tactile foragers). © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Endoscopic management of posttraumatic supraglottic stenosis in the pediatric population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oosthuizen, Johannes Christiaan

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: Pediatric blunt laryngeal trauma is a rare and potentially life-threatening entity. External injuries can be misleading, and a high index of suspicion, as well as early intervention, is essential to achieve the best possible outcome. The authors of this report review the management of blunt laryngeal trauma in the pediatric population and describe the endoscopic management of posttraumatic supraglottic stenosis. METHODS: Methods used were case report from a tertiary referral institution and review of the literature. RESULTS: We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl whom developed supraglottic stenosis following blunt laryngeal trauma. Innovative endoscopic techniques were used in the successful management of this exceedingly rare entity. CONCLUSION: Early recognition and intervention are of paramount importance if successful endoscopic management of blunt laryngeal trauma is to be considered.

  14. Radiation recall supraglottitis. A hazard in head and neck chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenborn, P.A.; Postma, D.S.

    1984-01-01

    The enhanced effects of chemotherapy on previously irradiated tissue have been well demonstrated. When chemotherapy is given some time after irradiation and elicits a tissue reaction in the radiation field, the reaction is termed radiation recall. We review known interactions between chemotherapy and radiotherapy and report, to our knowledge, the first case of a supraglottitis radiation recall reaction. Familiarity with this phenomenon and potential complications of chemotherapy following head and neck irradiation may expedite early diagnosis and appropriate lifesaving treatment

  15. State of the art: Rescue intubation through supraglottic airways

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    R. Hofmeyr*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of supraglottic airways as rescue devices in failed intubation and resuscitation has become well accepted in emergency practice. Many offer or advertise the possibility of intubation through the device, but techniques and success rates vary greatly. Intubation can be achieved blindly, with the use a bougie or introducer, or with fiberoptic guidance. In this review, I examine the evidence behind different devices with various techniques, present the data from our on-going research, suggest further research directions and propose practical guidelines for clinical use in emergencies.

  16. An Uncommon Complication with a Supraglottic Airway: The King LT.

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    Brown, Sara; Cherian, Verghese T; Greco, Katherine; Mets, Elbert; Budde, Arne

    2016-02-15

    General anesthesia was administered in an 18-year-old man for removal of hardware from his right knee using a King Laryngeal Tube supraglottic airway. An hour after extubation, he reported inability to swallow with no respiratory distress. Examination showed an edematous uvula, which took 3 days to subside with anti-inflammatory medication. During the positioning of the King Laryngeal Tube, it was pulled back to ensure adequate ventilation. The inflated cuff could have dragged the uvula and folded it on itself, leading to venous congestion and edema.

  17. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis from squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, S.R.; Veness, M.J.; Morgan, G.J.; Shannon, J.; Kench, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis is an uncommon but devastating form of metastatic spread. To our knowledge, only 16 cases originating from a head and neck cancer have been reported. We describe the first case of a patient with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis arising from a laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Shortly after completing treatment for an advanced supraglottic laryngeal cancer, this 63-year-old man presented with lower limb neurological symptoms and signs. Radiological and cytological evidence of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis of the distal spinal canal was identified. He was treated with intrathecal methotrexate and palliative radiotherapy. Although his pain improved, his lower limb weakness worsened. He died 3 weeks after completing radiotherapy. Presumed mode of spread was via the haematogenous route. The natural history and management of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis are discussed. Clinicians should be aware of the uncommon possibility of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in a patient presenting with an appropriate constellation of symptoms and signs, and a past history of cancer. Copyright (2003) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  18. Transoral videolaryngoscopic surgery (TOVS) for hypopharyngeal and supraglottic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomifuji, Masayuki; Araki, Koji; Yamashita, Taku; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2011-01-01

    We proposed transoral videolaryngoscopic surgery (TOVS) as a laryngeal preservation strategy for laryngopharyngeal cancer. By using a distending laryngoscope and rigid laryngeal endoscope, a large field of view and working space could be obtained which enabled us to resect tumors in en-bloc fashion. The indications for this surgery are oro-hypopharyngeal and supraglottic cancer in superficial, T1, T2 and selected T3 categories. TOVS can also be used for selected cases with recurrent tumor after radiation therapy. For resectable nodal metastasis, neck dissection can be performed simultaneously or 1-2 weeks later. In cases with more than a 1-year observation period (n=42), 5-year crude survival, disease-specific survival, and laryngeal preservation rate were 74%, 85% and 89%, respectively. A second advantage of TOVS is thorough evaluation of primary cancer lesion. Evaluation of tumor invasion depth is a promising way for optimizing the indication for neck dissection for clinically node negative cases. (author)

  19. Supraglottic devices as alternative equipment to airway management in state of sudden cardiac arrest

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    Rafał Czyż

    2017-08-01

    All of supraglottic devices are characterized by easiness in applying without experience in use them. Additionally time need to airway management in use of them is many times shorter than with traditional endotracheal intubation. Fundamental defect in these devices is a fact that they don’t provide total safety before aspiration for chime. Current literature shows us that supraglottic airway devices are perfect alternative to endotracheal intubation.

  20. SUPRAGLOTTIC JET VENTILATION VERSUS CONVENTIONAL ENDOTRACHEAL VENTILATION IN MINOR LARYNGEAL SURGERIES

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    Illendual Upendranath

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Any attempt at intubation will cause many cardiovascular responses and the major concern during this time is to attenuate the same. Similar response is seen during procedures on Larynx in microlaryngeal surgery which produces an intense cardiovascular stimulation during suspension laryngoscopy and intubation. AIM OF STUDY Supraglottic jet ventilation versus conventional endotracheal ventilation in minor laryngeal surgeries. To evaluate the haemodynamic response in supraglottic jet ventilation and conventional intubation in minor laryngeal surgeries. METHODS Patients were randomised to 2 Groups: 30 patients in each group; Group A - in whom supraglottic jet ventilation was planned and Group B - in whom endotracheal intubation was planned. RESULT The haemodynamic response in terms of increase in MAP and HR is significantly more with endotracheal intubation than with supraglottic jet ventilation. CONCLUSION Our study showed that supraglottic jet ventilation showed a better haemodynamic stability when compared to conventional endotracheal intubation in patients undergoing minor laryngeal surgeries. Statistical scores were also in favour of the patients treated with supraglottic jet ventilation based on the p values.

  1. The role of postradiotherapy neck dissection in supraglottic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Annie W.; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Carballo, Natalia; Montgomery, William; Wang, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate our policy of performing neck dissection based on regional response after definitive radiotherapy in patients with supraglottic carcinoma and to identify the prognostic factors in this group of patients. Methods and Materials: Between 1970 and 1995, 121 patients with node-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx were treated with definitive radiotherapy. Sixty-nine percent of patients presented with 1997 AJCC Stage IV disease. The N-stage distribution was N1, 49; N2, 62; and N3, 10. The median size of the lymph nodes was 3 cm (range, 0.5-8 cm). Forty-five patients received once-a-day treatment with a median total dose of 65 Gy (range, 58.0-70.8 Gy) in 1.8-2.0 Gy per fraction over 48 days, and 76 patients received split-course accelerated hyperfractionation with a median total dose of 67.2 Gy (range, 63.2-73.6 Gy) in 1.6 Gy twice a day over 43 days. Patients whose lymph nodes were not clinically detectable at 4-6 weeks after the completion of radiotherapy (complete response) were followed without any neck dissection. Patients with persistent neck adenopathy (partial response) underwent neck dissection whenever possible. Mean follow-up of the living patients was 6.5 years. Results: Regional response was related to the size of lymph nodes at presentation. Eighty-seven percent of patients with nodal size of 3 cm or less had a complete response, whereas 43% of patients with nodal size greater than 3 cm had a partial response. The rate of regional control at 3 years for all patients in the study was 66%. The 3-year ultimate regional control rate after salvage neck dissection was 75%. A relapse in both the primary and regional sites was the most common pattern of relapse, accounting for 39% of all the failures. Local failure was associated with subsequent regional relapse with a relative risk of 4.3. For patients with completeresponse in whom postradiotherapy neck dissection was withheld, the regional control rates were 75% and 86

  2. Computed tomography contribution to the staging of supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Aragao Junior, Antonio Gilson; Rapoport, Abrao; Souza, Ricardo Pires de

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study was aimed at evaluating the role of computed tomography in the local clinical staging of supraglottic tumors according to the TNM classification, as well as the interobserver agreement on the detection of the tumor extent. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine dossiers of inpatients of Hospital Heliopolis with supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma in the period between 1988 and 1998 were retrospectively evaluated. CT studies were individually analyzed by two radiologists. The kappa test was utilized for evaluating the interobserver agreement. Results: Computed tomography has played a decisive role in the upstaging of 38.5% of cases, as a result of a deep tumor extent undetected at clinical examination. Conclusion: Interobserver agreement was considered as excellent for vocal folds and subglottis; good for supraglottic, paraglottic and preepiglottic spaces, thyroid and cricoid cartilages and for extralaryngeal tumor extension; and regular for the base of the tongue. (author)

  3. A retropharyngeal-mediastinal hematoma with supraglottic and tracheal obstruction: The role of multidisciplinary airway management

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    Birkholz Torsten

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 77-year-old man suffered hypoxemic cardiac arrest by supraglottic and tracheal airway obstruction in the emergency department. A previously unknown cervical fracture had caused a traumatic retropharyngeal-mediastinal hematoma. A lifesaving surgical emergency tracheostomy succeeded. Supraglottic and tracheal obstruction by a retropharyngeal-mediastinal hematoma with successful resuscitation via emergency tracheostomy after hypoxemic cardiac arrest has never been reported in a context of trauma. This clinically demanding case outlines the need for multidisciplinary airway management systems with continuous training and well-implemented guidelines. Only multidisciplinary staff preparedness and readily available equipments for the unanticipated difficult airway solved the catastrophic clinical situation.

  4. Improvement of electrolaryngeal speech quality using a supraglottal voice source with compensation of vocal tract characteristics.

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    Wu, Liang; Wan, Congying; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2013-07-01

    Electrolarynx (EL) is a medical speech-recovery device designed for patients who have lost their original voice box due to laryngeal cancer. As a substitute for human larynx, the current commercial EL voice source cannot reconstruct natural EL speech under laryngectomy conditions. To eliminate the abnormal acoustic properties of EL speech, a supraglottal voice source with compensation of vocal tract characteristics was proposed and provided through an experimental EL(SGVS-EL) system. The acoustic analyses of simulated EL speech and reconstructed EL speech produced with different voice sources were performed in the normal subject and laryngectomee. The results indicated that the supraglottal voice source was successful in improving the acoustic properties of EL speech by enhancing low- frequency energy, correcting the shifted formants to normal range, and eliminating the visible spectral zeros. Both normal subject and laryngectomee also produced more natural vowels using SGVS-EL than commercial EL, even if the vocal tract parameter was substituted and the supraglottal voice source was biased to a certain degree. Therefore, supraglottal voice source is a feasible and effective approach to improving the acoustic quality of EL speech.

  5. Evaluation of the Supraglottic and Subglottic Activities Including Acoustic Assessment of the Opera-Chant Singers.

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    Petekkaya, Emine; Yücel, Ahmet Hilmi; Sürmelioğlu, Özgür

    2017-12-28

    Opera and chant singers learn to effectively use aerodynamic components by breathing exercises during their education. Aerodynamic components, including subglottic air pressure and airflow, deteriorate in voice disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in aerodynamic parameters and supraglottic structures of men and women with different vocal registers who are in an opera and chant education program. Vocal acoustic characteristics, aerodynamic components, and supraglottic structures were evaluated in 40 opera and chant art branch students. The majority of female students were sopranos, and the male students were baritone or tenor vocalists. The acoustic analyses revealed that the mean fundamental frequency was 152.33 Hz in the males and 218.77 Hz in the females. The estimated mean subglottal pressures were similar in females (14.99 cmH 2 O) and in males (14.48 cmH 2 O). Estimated mean airflow rates were also similar in both groups. The supraglottic structure compression analyses revealed partial anterior-posterior compressions in 2 tenors and 2 sopranos, and false vocal fold compression in 2 sopranos. Opera music is sung in high-pitched sounds. Attempts to sing high-pitched notes and frequently using register transitions overstrain the vocal structures. This intense muscular effort eventually traumatizes the vocal structures and causes supraglottic activity. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison Of The I-Gel Supraglottic And King Laryngotracheal Airways In A Simulated Tactical Environment.

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    March, Juan A; Tassey, Theresa E; Resurreccion, Noel B; Portela, Roberto C; Taylor, Stephen E

    2018-01-01

    When working in a tactical environment there are several different airway management options that exist. One published manuscript suggests that when compared to endotracheal intubation, the King LT laryngotracheal airway (KA) device minimizes time to successful tube placement and minimizes exposure in a tactical environment. However, comparison of two different blind insertion supraglottic airway devices in a tactical environment has not been performed. This study compared the I-Gel airway (IGA) to the KA in a simulated tactical environment, to determine if one device is superior in minimizing exposure and minimizing time to successful tube placement. This prospective randomized cross over trial was performed using the same methods and tactical environment employed in a previously published study, which compared endotracheal intubation versus the KA in a tactical environment. The tactical environment was simulated with a one-foot vertical barrier. The participants were paramedic students who wore an Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH) and a ballistic vest (IIIA) during the study. Participants were then randomized to perform tactical airway management on an airway manikin with either the KA or the IGA, and then again using the alternate device. The participants performed a low military type crawl and remained in this low position during each tube placement. We evaluated the time to successful tube placement between the IGA and KA. During attempts, participants were videotaped to monitor their height exposure above the barrier. Following completion, participants were asked which airway device they preferred. Data was analyzed using Student's t-test across the groups for time to ventilation and height of exposure. In total 19 paramedic students who were already at the basic EMT level participated. Time to successful placement for the KA was 39.7 seconds (95%CI: 32.7-46.7) versus 14.4 seconds (95%CI: 12.0-16.9) for the IGA, p tactical environment placement of the IGA for

  7. Association of p53 protein expression with clinical outcome in advanced supraglottic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jin Oh; Hong, Seong Eon

    1998-01-01

    To determine the incidence and prognostic effect of p53 expression in patients with advanced supraglottic cancer. Twenty-one cases of total 48 advanced supraglottic cancer patients who received postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining employing p53 monoclonal antibody. Three out of six stage III patients and four out of fifteen stage IV patients showed p53 expression without statistically significant difference (p=0.608). Five year survival rates are 93% in p53 negative, 86% in p53 positive patients and there was no significant difference(p=0.776). p53 expression does not show statistically significant correlation with primary tumor status(p=0.877), lymph node status(p=0.874) and age(p=0.64). There was no statistically significant correlation between traditionally known risk factors and p53 expression

  8. Enlargement of the supraglottal cavity and its relation to stop consonant voicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, J R

    1983-04-01

    Measurements were made of saggital plane movements of the larynx, soft palate, and portions of the tongue, from a high-speed cinefluorographic film of utterances produced by one adult male speaker of American English. These measures were then used to approximate the temporal variations in supraglottal cavity volume during the closures of voiced and voiceless stop consonants. All data were subsequently related to a synchronous acoustic recording of the utterances. Instances of /p,t,k/ were always accompanied by silent closures, and sometimes accompanied by decreases in supraglottal volume. In contrast, instances of /b,d,g/ were always accompanied both by significant intervals of vocal fold vibration during closure, and relatively large increases in supraglottal volume. However, the magnitudes of volume increments during the voiced stops, and the means by which those increments were achieved, differed considerably across place of articulation and phonetic environment. These results are discussed in the context of a well-known model of the breath-stream control mechanism, and their relevance for a general theory of speech motor control is considered.

  9. Idiopathic Supraglottic Stenosis Refractory to Multiple Interventions Improved With Serial Office-based Steroid Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Matthew R; Mai, Johnny P; Dailey, Seth H

    2017-10-30

    The objective of this study was to describe a patient with idiopathic supraglottic stenosis who experienced persistent disease despite multiple office-based and operative interventions, whose disease is now better controlled with scheduled serial office-based steroid injections. This is a case report and literature review. A 42-year-old female was referred for worsening supraglottic stenosis despite systemic steroids. She underwent awake tracheotomy. A thorough historical, histologic, and laboratory workup did not reveal an etiology to her stenosis. She later underwent endoscopic partial laryngectomy and was able to be decannulated. She underwent a second endoscopic partial laryngectomy two years later for worsening disease and then was managed over the next seven years with intermittent systemic steroids. Over the last year, she has undergone eight office-based steroid injections with improvement in her degree of stenosis and symptom burden. There are only four prior reported cases of idiopathic supraglottic stenosis, none of which has been managed with serial office-based steroid injections. This case report adds to the small body of literature on the management of this rare disease and proposes a new office-based treatment pathway that may help induce regression of stenosis. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Laypersons can successfully place supraglottic airways with 3 minutes of training. A comparison of four different devices in the manikin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schälte Gereon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Supraglottic airway devices have frequently been shown to facilitate airway management and are implemented in the ILCOR resuscitation algorithm. Limited data exists concerning laypersons without any medical or paramedical background. We hypothesized that even laymen would be able to operate supraglottic airway devices after a brief training session. Methods Four different supraglottic airway devices: Laryngeal Mask Classic (LMA, Laryngeal Tube (LT, Intubating Laryngeal Mask (FT and CobraPLA (Cobra were tested in 141 volunteers recruited in a technical university cafeteria and in a shopping mall. All volunteers received a brief standardized training session. Primary endpoint was the time required to definitive insertion. In a short questionnaire applicants were asked to assess the devices and to answer some general questions about BLS. Results The longest time to insertion was observed for Cobra (31.9 ± 27.9 s, range: 9-120, p 0.05, the LT (1.36 ± 0.61, p Conclusion Laypersons are able to operate supraglottic airway devices in manikin with minimal instruction. Ventilation was achieved with all devices tested after a reasonable time and with a high success rate of > 95%. The use of supraglottic airway devices in first aid and BLS algorithms should be considered.

  11. A modified false vocal fold flap for functional reconstruction after frontolateral partial laryngectomy: a comparison with conventional open resection and laser cordectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz, Kai J.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe a modified flap technique (MFT involving the use of a false vocal fold flap for glottic reconstruction and the removal of arytenoid cartilage and to compare it with conventional frontolateral partial laryngectomy (FLPL and laser cordectomy (LC.Methods: Twenty-eight MFT, 13 FLPL and 12 LC patients completed a standardised questionnaire for assessing aspiration, respiration, quality of life, and subjective voice quality. We analysed vocal function in terms of roughness, breathiness and hoarseness, measured voice range profiles, and performed videoendoscopy. Results: No patient reported respiratory problems. Aspiration occurred in 33.3% (MFT, 41.6% (FLPL and 16.6% (LC. Voice quality was rated as good/satisfactory by 17 MFT patients (62%, satisfactory/sufficient by 69% of FLKT patients, and sufficient/poor by 75% of LC patients.Conclusions: The modified false vocal fold flap effectively covers defects and creates a neocord that ensures good phonatory rehabilitation and has positive effects on postoperative quality of life.

  12. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for laryngeal preservation in T1/T2 supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikimaru, Fumihide; Matsuo, Mioko; Taura, Masahiko; Higaki, Yuichiro; Tomita, Kichinobu

    2012-01-01

    We treated supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma (T1/2) with chemoradiation for laryngeal preservation and evaluated the effects of the chemoradiation at the dose of 40 Gy as an intermediate evaluation. To investigate the need for this intermediate evaluation, we retrospectively analyzed 46 patients, 43 men and 3 women aged 49 to 86 years, with supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma (T1/2) treated at our institution from January 1997 to May 2008. Overall and cause-specific three-year survival rates were 65% and 77% in all cases, 67% and 75% in T1, and 65% and 77% in T2. The three-year preservation rate of the larynx was 41% in all cases, 51% in T1, and 35% in T2. In the intermediate evaluation, the complete response rate was 58% in all cases, 77% in T1, and 48% in T2. In the cases of larynx preservation, the recurrence rate of the primary site was not significantly different between those cases who did not achieve complete response in the intermediate evaluation and those who did achieve complete response. (author)

  13. The role of primary radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx

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    Kim, Won Taek; Kim, Dong Won; Kwon, Byung Hyun; Nam, Ji Ho [College of Medicine, Pusan National Univ, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Won Joo [College of Medicine, Donga Univ, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    First of all, this study was performed to assess the result of curative radiotherapy and to evaluate different possible prognostic factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx treated at the Pusan National University Hospital. The second goal of this study was by comparing our data with those of other study groups, to determine the better treatment policy of supraglottic cancer in future. Thirty-two patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx were treated with radiotherapy at Pusan National University Hospital, from August 1985 to December 1996. Minimum follow-up period was 29 months. Twenty-seven patients (84.4%.) were followed up over 5 years. Radiotherapy was delivered with 6 MV photons to the primary laryngeal tumor and regional lymphatics with shrinking field technique. All patients received radiotherapy under conventional fractionated schedule (once a. day). Median total tumor dose was 70.2 Gy (range, 55.8 to 75.6 Gy) on primary or gross tumor lesion. Thirteen patients had induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (1-3 cycles). Patient distribution, according to the different stages, were as follows: stage I, 5/32 (15.6%); stage II, 10/32 (31.3%); stage III, 8/32 (25%); stage IV, 9/32 (28. 1 %). The 5-year overall survival rate of the whole series (32 patients) was 51.7%. The overall survival rate at 5-years was 80% in stage I, 66.7% in stage II, 42.9% in stage III, 25% in stage IV.(p= 0,0958). The 5-year local control rates after radiotherapy were as follows: stage I, 100%; stage II, 60%; stage III, 62.5%; stage lV, 44.4% (p=0.233). Overall vocal preservation rates was 65.6%,100% in stage I, 70% in stage II, 62.5% in stage III, 44.4% in stage IV (p=0.210). There was no statistical significance in survival and local control rate between neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy group and radiotherapy alone group. Severe laryngeal edema was found in 2 cases after radiotherapy. emergent tracheostomy

  14. The role of primary radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Taek; Kim, Dong Won; Kwon, Byung Hyun; Nam, Ji Ho; Hur, Won Joo

    2000-01-01

    First of all, this study was performed to assess the result of curative radiotherapy and to evaluate different possible prognostic factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx treated at the Pusan National University Hospital. The second goal of this study was by comparing our data with those of other study groups, to determine the better treatment policy of supraglottic cancer in future. Thirty-two patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx were treated with radiotherapy at Pusan National University Hospital, from August 1985 to December 1996. Minimum follow-up period was 29 months. Twenty-seven patients (84.4%.) were followed up over 5 years. Radiotherapy was delivered with 6 MV photons to the primary laryngeal tumor and regional lymphatics with shrinking field technique. All patients received radiotherapy under conventional fractionated schedule (once a. day). Median total tumor dose was 70.2 Gy (range, 55.8 to 75.6 Gy) on primary or gross tumor lesion. Thirteen patients had induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (1-3 cycles). Patient distribution, according to the different stages, were as follows: stage I, 5/32 (15.6%); stage II, 10/32 (31.3%); stage III, 8/32 (25%); stage IV, 9/32 (28. 1 %). The 5-year overall survival rate of the whole series (32 patients) was 51.7%. The overall survival rate at 5-years was 80% in stage I, 66.7% in stage II, 42.9% in stage III, 25% in stage IV.(p= 0,0958). The 5-year local control rates after radiotherapy were as follows: stage I, 100%; stage II, 60%; stage III, 62.5%; stage lV, 44.4% (p=0.233). Overall vocal preservation rates was 65.6%,100% in stage I, 70% in stage II, 62.5% in stage III, 44.4% in stage IV (p=0.210). There was no statistical significance in survival and local control rate between neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy group and radiotherapy alone group. Severe laryngeal edema was found in 2 cases after radiotherapy. emergent tracheostomy

  15. Modified frontolateral partial laryngectomy operation: combined muscle-pedicle hyoid bone and thyrohyoid membrane flap in laryngeal reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang, Dian; Liu, Tian-Run; Chen, Yan-Feng; Wang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Objective Laryngeal reconstruction is needed to preserve laryngeal function in patients who have undergone extensive vertical or frontal partial laryngectomy. However, the procedure remains a difficult challenge. Several reconstruction techniques have been described, but these techniques pose risks of complications such as laryngeal stenosis. This study aimed to evaluate the postoperative course and functional outcomes of a new technique that combined a muscle-pedicle hyoid bone and a thyrohy...

  16. Modified frontolateral partial laryngectomy operation: combined muscle-pedicle hyoid bone and thyrohyoid membrane flap in laryngeal reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Dian; Liu, Tian-Run; Chen, Yan-Feng; Wang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Laryngeal reconstruction is needed to preserve laryngeal function in patients who have undergone extensive vertical or frontal partial laryngectomy. However, the procedure remains a difficult challenge. Several reconstruction techniques have been described, but these techniques pose risks of complications such as laryngeal stenosis. This study aimed to evaluate the postoperative course and functional outcomes of a new technique that combined a muscle-pedicle hyoid bone and a thyrohyoid flap during laryngeal reconstruction after tumor resection. Four patients underwent extensive vertical partial or frontal partial laryngectomy for cancer. After tumor resection, laryngeal reconstruction was performed using the proposed technique. Postoperative recovery time, complications, and oncologic results were evaluated. The four patients were successfully treated with the proposed technique. No dyspnea, dysphagia, or death occurred during the postoperative course. Decannulation was performed after a median of 3 days. The average postoperative hospital stay was 7 days. Short-term postoperative functional recovery was normal. No laryngeal stenosis or tumor recurrence was observed in any of the four patients after a follow-up period of more than 24 months. The combination of the muscle-pedicle hyoid bone and the thyrohyoid flap is a reliable procedure for laryngeal reconstruction after extensive vertical partial or frontal partial laryngectomy

  17. Comparative Assessment of Three Approaches of Teaching Nonmedically Trained Persons in the Handling of Supraglottic Airways: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Mario; Schmidbauer, Willi; Benker, Michael; Schmieder, Paula; Kerner, Thoralf

    2017-03-01

    The use of supraglottic airways has been recommended in combat trauma airway management. To ensure an adequate airway management on the battlefield, suitable training concepts are sought to efficiently teach as many soldiers as possible. Our aim was to compare three approaches of teaching laypersons in the handling of supraglottic airways in a mannequin model. In this prospective randomized blinded study, 285 military service men without any medical background were divided into three groups and trained in the use of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme (LMA) and the Laryngeal Tube Disposable (LT-D). The first group received a theoretical lecture, the second group was shown an instruction video, and the third group underwent a practical training. Immediately after instruction participants were asked to place the supraglottic airway and ventilate the mannequin within 60 seconds. The entire test was repeated 3 months later. Test results were evaluated with regard to success rate, insertion time, ability to judge the correct placement, and degree of difficulty. Practical training showed the highest success rate when placing supraglottic airways immediately after the instruction (lecture: 68%, video: 74%, training: 94%); (training vs. lecture and training vs. video, p training: 78%); (training vs. lecture, p = 0.019 and training vs. video, p = 0.025). Immediately after the instruction practical training was also superior in terms of insertion time, ability to judge the correct placement, and the self-rated degree of difficulty (p place a supraglottic airway immediately following minimal instruction and after 3 months as well. Study participants achieved the best results after practical training followed by video presentation and finally lecture regardless of the airway device used. There are two possible reasons why practical training is the superior method. Firstly, the success is tied to more time spent with the learners. Secondly, practical training seems to be the best

  18. Radiotherapy in supraglottic carcinoma -with respect to locoregional control and survival-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Taek Keun; Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Chung, Woong Ki; Cho, Jae Shik; Ahn, Sung Ja; Nah, Byung Sik

    2002-01-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken to determine the role of conventional radiotherapy with or without surgery for treating a supraglottic carcinoma in terms of the local control and survival. From Jan. 1986 to Oct. 1996, a total of 134 patients were treated for a supraglottic carcinoma by radiotherapy with or without surgery. Of them, 117 patients who had completed the radiotherapy formed the base of this study. The patients were redistributed according to the revised AJCC staging system (1997). The number of patients of stage I, II, III, IVA, IVB were 6 (5%), 16 (14%), 53 (45%), 32 (27%), 10 (9%), respectively. Eighty patients were treated by radical radiotherapy in the range of 61.2 ∼ 79.2 Gy (mean:69.2 Gy) to the primary tumor and 45.0 ∼ 93.6 Gy (mean:54.0 Gy) to regional lymphatics. All patients with stage I and IVB were treated by radiotherapy alone. Thirty-seven patients underwent surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy in the range of 45.0 ∼ 68.4 Gy (mean:56.1 Gy) to the primary tumor bed and 45.0 ∼ 59.4 Gy (mean:47.2 Gy) to the regional lymphatics. Of them, 33 patients received a total laryngectomy (± lymph node dissection), three had a supraglottic horizontal laryngectomy (± lymph node dissection), and one had a primary excision alone. The 5-year survival rate (5YSR) of all patients was 43%. The 5YSR of the patients with stage I + II, III + IV were 49.9%, 41.2%, respectively (ρ = 0.27). However, the disease-specific survival rate of the patients with stage I (n=6) was 100%. The 5YSRs of patients who underwent surgery plus radiotherapy (S + RT) vs radiotherapy alone (RT) in stage II, III, IVA were 100% vs 43% (ρ = 0.17), 62% vs 52% (ρ =0.32), 58% vs 6% (ρ < 0.001), respectively. The 5-year actuarial locoregional control rate (5YLCR) of all the patients was 57%. The 5YLCR of the patients with stage I, II, III, IVA, IVB was 100%, 74%, 60%, 44%, 30%, respectively (ρ = 0.008). The 5YLCR of the patients with S + RT vs RT in stage II, III, IVA

  19. Salvage surgery following radiation failure in squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, James T.; Mendenhall, William M.; Stringer, Scott P.; Cassisi, Nicholas J.; Million, Rodney R.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: We analyzed the clinical course of patients who developed local (primary) recurrence following high-dose irradiation of squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx. Methods and Materials: Between October 1964 and July 1991, 206 patients with previously untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx underwent radiotherapy with curative intent. Local failure occurred in 46 (22%) patients. Successful surgical salvage was defined as no evidence of recurrent cancer for at least 2 years after salvage surgery and continuously thereafter. Results: Sixteen patients did not undergo salvage surgery because of refusal (7 patients), severe medical illness (2 patients), concurrent distant metastasis (5 patients), or unresectable neck disease (2 patients). Twenty-six patients underwent total laryngectomy, and 4 patients had a voice-sparing procedure. Successful salvage was achieved in 50% of patients who underwent surgery. The rate of successful salvage did not correlate with preirradiation T-stage or time to failure after irradiation. Most of the failures after surgery were because of failure to control the primary cancer. The overall rate of postsurgical complications was 37%. No operative or perioperative deaths occurred. The 5-year survival rate for all 46 patients, calculated from the date of irradiation failure, was 20%, while the 5-year survival rate after salvage surgery for the 30 patients who underwent the procedure was 29%. Conclusion: There are few data in the literature regarding the clinical outcome in patients whose tumors are not controlled by initial radiotherapy. In the current and previous series, one-half to two-thirds of patients who developed primary failure underwent salvage surgery, which was successful in approximately half of the operated patients, leading to a 25-30% rate of long-term disease-free survival among the entire group of patients who developed failure

  20. Videolaryngoscopy versus Fiber-optic Intubation through a Supraglottic Airway in Children with a Difficult Airway: An Analysis from the Multicenter Pediatric Difficult Intubation Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burjek, Nicholas E; Nishisaki, Akira; Fiadjoe, John E; Adams, H Daniel; Peeples, Kenneth N; Raman, Vidya T; Olomu, Patrick N; Kovatsis, Pete G; Jagannathan, Narasimhan; Hunyady, Agnes; Bosenberg, Adrian; Tham, See; Low, Daniel; Hopkins, Paul; Glover, Chris; Olutoye, Olutoyin; Szmuk, Peter; McCloskey, John; Dalesio, Nicholas; Koka, Rahul; Greenberg, Robert; Watkins, Scott; Patel, Vikram; Reynolds, Paul; Matuszczak, Maria; Jain, Ranu; Khalil, Samia; Polaner, David; Zieg, Jennifer; Szolnoki, Judit; Sathyamoorthy, Kumar; Taicher, Brad; Riveros Perez, N Ricardo; Bhattacharya, Solmaletha; Bhalla, Tarun; Stricker, Paul; Lockman, Justin; Galvez, Jorge; Rehman, Mohamed; Von Ungern-Sternberg, Britta; Sommerfield, David; Soneru, Codruta; Chiao, Franklin; Richtsfeld, Martina; Belani, Kumar; Sarmiento, Lina; Mireles, Sam; Bilen Rosas, Guelay; Park, Raymond; Peyton, James

    2017-09-01

    The success rates and related complications of various techniques for intubation in children with difficult airways remain unknown. The primary aim of this study is to compare the success rates of fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway to videolaryngoscopy in children with difficult airways. Our secondary aim is to compare the complication rates of these techniques. Observational data were collected from 14 sites after management of difficult pediatric airways. Patient age, intubation technique, success per attempt, use of continuous ventilation, and complications were recorded for each case. First-attempt success and complications were compared in subjects managed with fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway and videolaryngoscopy. Fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway and videolaryngoscopy had similar first-attempt success rates (67 of 114, 59% vs. 404 of 786, 51%; odds ratio 1.35; 95% CI, 0.91 to 2.00; P = 0.16). In subjects less than 1 yr old, fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway was more successful on the first attempt than videolaryngoscopy (19 of 35, 54% vs. 79 of 220, 36%; odds ratio, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.04 to 4.31; P = 0.042). Complication rates were similar in the two groups (20 vs. 13%; P = 0.096). The incidence of hypoxemia was lower when continuous ventilation through the supraglottic airway was used throughout the fiber-optic intubation attempt. In this nonrandomized study, first-attempt success rates were similar for fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway and videolaryngoscopy. Fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway is associated with higher first-attempt success than videolaryngoscopy in infants with difficult airways. Continuous ventilation through the supraglottic airway during fiber-optic intubation attempts may lower the incidence of hypoxemia.

  1. Value of computed tomography as outcome predictor of supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma treated by definitive radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, Robert; Bogaert, Walter van den; Rijnders, Alexis; Baert, Albert L.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the value of several CT-derived tumor parameters as predictors of local outcome of supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma treated by definitive radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The pretreatment CT studies of 103 patients with supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma were reviewed for tumoral involvement of specific laryngeal anatomic subsites and extralaryngeal tumor spread. After redigitizing the films, tumor volume was calculated with the summation-of-areas technique. Mean follow-up time was 3.4 years. Actuarial statistical analysis of local and locoregional outcome was done for each of the covariates; multivariate analysis was performed using Cox's proportional hazards model. Results: In the actuarial analysis CT-determined primary tumor volume was significantly correlated with local recurrence rate (p < 0.001). Degree of involvement of the paraglottic space at the level of the true vocal cord (p < 0.05) and subglottic extension (p < 0.001) were also significantly correlated with local recurrence rate. In the multivariate analysis, only degree of involvement of the preepiglottic space (p < 0.01) and subglottic extension (p < 0.01) were found to be independent predictors of local recurrence. Total tumor volume was the strongest independent predictor of locoregional failure (p < 0.01). Conclusions: CT-determined tumor parameters are strong predictors of local and locoregional outcome of supraglottic carcinoma treated by definitive irradiation

  2. Demonstration of transoral robotic supraglottic laryngectomy and total laryngectomy in cadaveric specimens using the Medrobotics Flex System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Emily; Goldenberg, David; Goyal, Neerav

    2017-06-01

    Current management of laryngeal malignancies is associated with significant morbidity. Application of minimally invasive transoral techniques may reduce the morbidity associated with traditional procedures. The purpose of this study was to present our investigation of the utility of a novel flexible robotic system for transoral supraglottic laryngectomy and total laryngectomy. Transoral total laryngectomy and transoral supraglottic laryngectomy were performed in cadaveric specimens using the Flex Robotic System (Medrobotics, Raynham, MA). All procedures were completed successfully in the cadaveric models. The articulated endoscope allowed for access to the desired surgical site. Flexible instruments enabled an atraumatic approach and allowed for precise surgical technique. Access to deep anatomic structures remains problematic using current minimally invasive robotic approaches. Improvements in visualization and access to the laryngopharyngeal complex offered by this system may improve surgical applications to the larynx. This study demonstrates the technical feasibility using the Flex Robotic System for transoral robotic supraglottic laryngectomy and total laryngectomy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 1218-1225, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Pediatric supraglottic airway devices in clinical practice: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine-Brueggeney, Maren; Gottfried, Anne; Nabecker, Sabine; Greif, Robert; Book, Malte; Theiler, Lorenz

    2017-09-02

    Supraglottic airway devices (SGA) are commonly used in pediatric anesthesia and serve as primary or back-up devices for difficult airway management. Most SGA are marketed without proper clinical evaluation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the pediatric LMA Supreme™, Air-Q® and Ambu® Aura-i™. This prospective observational study was performed at Bern University Hospital, Switzerland. With ethics committee approval and a waiver for written informed consent 240 children undergoing elective surgery with an ASA class I-III and a weight of 5-30 kg were included. Three different pediatric supraglottic airway devices were assessed: The LMA Supreme™, Air-Q® and Ambu® Aura-i™. Primary outcome parameter was airway leak pressure. Secondary outcome parameters included first attempt and overall success rate, insertion time, fiberoptic view through the SGA, and adverse events. The primary hypothesis was that the mean airway leak pressure of each tested SGA was 20 cmH 2 O ± 10%. None of the SGA showed a mean airway leak pressure of 20 cmH 2 O ± 10%, but mean airway leak pressures differed significantly between devices [LMA Supreme™ 18.0 (3.4) cmH 2 O, Air-Q® 15.9 (3.2) cmH 2 O, Ambu® Aura-i™ 17.3 (3.7) cmH 2 O, p < 0.001]. First attempt success rates (LMA Supreme™ 100%, Air-Q® 90%, Ambu® Aura-i™ 91%, p = 0.02) and overall success rates (LMA Supreme™ 100%, Air-Q® 91%, Ambu® Aura-i™ 95%, p = 0.02) also differed significantly. Insertion times ranged from 20 (7) seconds (Air-Q®) to 24 (6) seconds (LMA Supreme™,

  4. Prognostic value of hemoglobin concentration in radiotherapy for cancer of supraglottic larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnawski, Rafal; Skladowski, Krzysztof; Maciejewski, Boguslaw

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is the estimation of correlations between hemoglobin concentration either before or after radiotherapy and local tumor control probability for laryngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Retrospective analysis of 847 cases of laryngeal supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiation alone was performed using maximum likelihood estimations, and step-wise logistic regression. All patients were in good initial performance status (Karnofsky index >70). The minimum follow-up time was 3 years. Results: Logistic regression showed that the hemoglobin concentration after radiotherapy is an important prognostic factor. There was a very strong correlation between hemoglobin concentration and tumor local control probability. Hemoglobin concentration at the beginning of radiotherapy does not correlate with treatment outcome, but any decrease of hemoglobin during therapy is a strong prognostic factor for treatment failure. Conclusions: Although regression models with many variables may be instable, the present results suggest that hemoglobin concentration after treatment is at least as important as overall treatment time. It was not possible to find out whether the low concentration of hemoglobin is an independent cause of low TCP or whether it reflects other mechanisms that may influence both hemoglobin level and the TCP

  5. Are new supraglottic airway devices, tracheal tubes and airway viewing devices cost-effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinn, Simon J; Froom, Stephen R; Stacey, Mark R W; Gildersleve, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, a plethora of new airway devices has become available to the pediatric anesthetist. While all have the laudable intention of improving patient care and some have proven clinical benefits, these devices are often costly and at times claims of an advantage over current equipment and techniques are marginal. Supraglottic airway devices are used in the majority of pediatric anesthetics delivered in the U.K., and airway-viewing devices provide an alternative for routine intubation as well as an option in the management of the difficult airway. Yet hidden beneath the convenience of the former and the technology of the latter, the impact on basic airway skills with a facemask and the lack of opportunities to fine-tune the core skill of intubation represent an unrecognised and unquantifiable cost. A judgement on this value must be factored into the absolute purchase cost and any potential benefits to the quality of patient care, thus blurring any judgement on cost-effectiveness that we might have. An overall value on cost-effectiveness though not in strict monetary terms can then be ascribed. In this review, we evaluate the role of these devices in the care of the pediatric patient and attempt to balance the advantages they offer against the cost they incur, both financial and environmental, and in any quality improvement they might offer in clinical care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Synchronous Supraglottic and Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinomas Treated with a Monoisocentric Hybrid Intensity-Modulated Radiation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian L. Barney

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors for squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs of the head and neck (HN and esophagus are similar. As such, synchronous primary tumors in these areas are not entirely uncommon. Definitive chemoradiation (CRT is standard care for locally advanced HNSCC and is a preferred option for inoperable esophageal SCC. Simultaneous treatment of both primaries with CRT can present technical challenges. We report a case of synchronous supraglottic and esophageal SCC primary tumors, highlighting treatment with a monoisocentric hybrid radiation technique and normal tissue toxicity considerations.

  7. A new laryngeal mask supraglottic airway device with integrated balloon line: a descriptive and comparative bench study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou YH

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available YingHai Zhou,1 Korinne Jew2 1Research & Development, Patient Monitoring & Recovery, Medtronic Technology Center, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Medical Affairs, Minimally Invasive Therapies Group, Medtronic, Boulder, CO, USA Abstract: Laryngeal masks are invasive devices for airway management placed in the supraglottic position. The Shiley™ laryngeal mask (Shiley™ LM features an integrated inflation tube and airway shaft to facilitate product insertion and reduce the chance of tube occlusion when patients bite down. This study compared the Shiley LM to two other disposable laryngeal mask devices, the Ambu® AuraStraight™ and the LMA Unique™. Overall device design, tensile strength, flexibility of various structures, and sealing performance were measured. The Shiley LM is structurally stronger and its shaft is more resistant to compression than the other devices. The Shiley LM is generally less flexible than the other devices, but this relationship varies with device size. Sealing performance of the devices was similar in a bench assay. The results of this bench study demonstrate that the new Shiley LM resembles other commercially available laryngeal mask devices, though it exhibits greater tensile strength and lower flexibility. Keywords: laryngeal mask, supraglottic airway, supralaryngeal device

  8. A feasibility study of concomitant boost radiotheraphy for patients with cancer of the supraglottic larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujko, K.; Skoczylas, J.Z.; Bentzen, S.M.; Hliniak, A.; Wasilewski, M.; Szutkowski, Z.J.; Osmolski, A.

    1993-01-01

    Between February 1988 and December 1989, 65 patients with supraglottic cancer completed a course of concomitant boost radiotherapy. Cases with N3 disease, a Karnovsky performance score less than 70, age above 70 years, or a second primary cancer were not eligible for the study. Distribution of the patients was: Stage T1-T2 30%, T3-T4 70%, N0 68%, N+32%. The total dose ranged from 60 Gy to 76 Gy (median 66 Gy); overall treatment time ranged from 36 to 56 days with a median of 42 days. The daily dose during the first 4 weeks was 1.8 Gy, and during the last 2 weeks it was 1.6 Gy b.i.d. with a 4- or (after September 1988) 6-h interval. The clinical impression was that the early mucosal reactions were acceptable but more severe than after conventional treatment, with confluent membranous mucosal reaction being observed in 54% of the patients. Also, this reaction was significantly more frequent in patients treated with a 4-h interval (68%) than with a 6-h interval (41%) between the daily fractions. To relieve severe dysphagia, narcotics were required in 22% of the patients. The follow-up time ranged from 22 to 50 months, median 34 months. Treatment-requiring late complications were observed in 8 patients, and the 3-year actuarial risk was 17% with 95% confidence limits (6%, 27%). Two of these patients had severe complications: One of them required a temporary tracheostomy due to arytenoid edema and the other developed a laryngo-cutaneous fistula which healed after pharmacological treatment. Actuarial 3-year local-regional control was 59% (46%, 71%) and 3-year actuarial crude survival 55% (42%, 67%). There was no significant difference in the incidence of late complications or tumor control between the two groups of patients treated with a 4- or 6-h interval between the daily fractions. This study shows that the concomitant boost regimen tired here is feasible, but also stresses that the interval between dose fractions should be 6 h or more. (orig.)

  9. A comparison between the v-gel supraglottic airway device and the cuffed endotracheal tube for airway management in spontaneously breathing cats during isoflurane anaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, H.; Krauss, M.W.; Sap, R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To compare airway management using the v-gel supraglottic airway device (v-gel SGAD) to that using an endotracheal tube (ETT), with respect to practicability, leakage of volatile anaesthetics and upper airway discomfort in cats. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized clinical

  10. Stereological estimation of nuclear volume and other quantitative histopathological parameters in the prognostic evaluation of supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bennedbaek, O; Pilgaard, J

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate various approaches to the grading of malignancy in pre-treatment biopsies from patients with supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The prospects of objective malignancy grading based on stereological estimation of the volume-weighted mean nuclear...... observers of the latter was poor in the material which consisted of 35 biopsy specimens. Unbiased estimates of nuclear Vv were on the average 385 microns3 (CV = 0.44), with more than 90% of the associated variance attributable to differences in nuclear Vv among individual lesions. Nuclear Vv was positively....... None of the investigated categorical and quantitative parameters (cutoff points = means) reached the level of significance with respect to prognostic value. However, nuclear Vv showed the best information concerning survival (2p = 0.08), and this estimator offers optimal features for objective...

  11. Stereological estimation of nuclear volume and other quantitative histopathological parameters in the prognostic evaluation of supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bennedbaek, O; Pilgaard, J

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate various approaches to the grading of malignancy in pre-treatment biopsies from patients with supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The prospects of objective malignancy grading based on stereological estimation of the volume-weighted mean nuclear...... volume, nuclear Vv, and nuclear volume fraction, Vv(nuc/tis), along with morphometrical 2-dimensional estimation of nuclear density index, NI, and mitotic activity index, MI, were investigated and compared with the current morphological, multifactorial grading system. The reproducibility among two...... observers of the latter was poor in the material which consisted of 35 biopsy specimens. Unbiased estimates of nuclear Vv were on the average 385 microns3 (CV = 0.44), with more than 90% of the associated variance attributable to differences in nuclear Vv among individual lesions. Nuclear Vv was positively...

  12. A randomized double-blind phase III study of nimorazole as a hypoxic radiosensitizer of primary radiotherapy in supraglottic larynx and pharynx carcinoma. Results of the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Study (DAHANCA) Protocol 5-85

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, J; Hansen, Hanne Sand; Overgaard, Marie

    1998-01-01

    A multicenter randomized and balanced double-blind trial with the objective of assessing the efficacy and tolerance of nimorazole given as a hypoxic radiosensitizer in conjunction with primary radiotherapy of invasive carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx and pharynx....

  13. Superselective intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy for laryngeal cancer. Is it reasonable to treat glottic cancer in a similar way to supraglottic cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizaki, Tomokazu; Murono, Shigeyuki; Wakisaka, Naohiro; Kondo, Satoru; Furukawa, Mitsuru

    2006-01-01

    The standard treatment for advanced laryngeal cancer has been shifting from total laryngectomy to various organ preservation therapies such as subtotal laryngectomy and chemoradiotherapy. Robbins showed remarkable results with RADPLAT, the superselective intra-arterial infusion of supradose cisplatin (150 mg/m 2 ), against advanced head and neck cancer. However, the volume of laryngeal cancer is smaller than those of the other sites of head and neck cancers, and so a swaller less dose of cisplatin could save advanced laryngeal cancer patients. It may be reasonable to treat these subtypes of laryngeal cancer with a different modality. Thirty-five patients with laryngeal cancer were treated with tri-weekly intra-arterial infusion of cisplatin (100 mg/body). A 200 times molar excessive amount of sodium thiosulfate was intravenously infused to reduce the toxicity of cisplatin. Ten of 16 patients with glottic cancer and 10 of 19 patients with supraglottic cancer were followed for more than 2 years. Larynx preservation rate of glottic and supraglottic cancer was 80% and 70%, and progression-free survival rate was 80% and 50%, respectively. Grade III and IV toxic events were less frequent than with RADPLAT or systemic administration of a similar dose of cisplatin. Glottic and supraglottic cancers show different clinical behaviors. Our protocol with less cisplatin than RADPLAT is especially effective for glottic cancer. (author)

  14. Role of brachytherapy in treatment of epidermoid carcinomas of the vallecula after conservative supraglottic laryngectomy followed by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clippe, Sebastien; Pommier, Pascal; Poupart, Marc; Ceruse, Philippe; Rosenbusch, Thomas; Ramade, Antoine; Montbarbon, Xavier; Gerard, Jean-Pierre; Carrie, Christian; Ardiet, Jean-Michel

    2002-01-01

    Purpose:To evaluate survival and functional results of the treatment of carcinomas of the vallecula using surgery, irradiation, and interstitial brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1990 and 1998, 36 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vallecula were treated with horizontal supraglottic functional laryngectomy, external beam radiotherapy (median dose 54 Gy), and additional interstitial brachytherapy (median dose 16 Gy). Results were compared with a previous series of 22 patients treated without brachytherapy. Results: The median follow-up was 44 months. The 5-year actuarial overall survival rate was 61.3%. The 5-year specific survival rate was 86%, with 2 local failures (local control rate 94.4%) and 4 isolated distant metastases. Ten patients developed a second primary. The overall survival was 34% for 22 patients previously treated without brachytherapy. Severe toxicities occurred in 9 patients: death (related to larynx edema or inhalation, n=1), soft tissue necrosis (n=1), aspiration pneumonia (n=1), mandibular necrosis (n=2), pharyngocutaneous fistula (n=2), and laryngeal edema (n=2). All the patients fed orally with no definitive gastrostomy or tracheotomy. Conclusion: Additional brachytherapy for vallecula carcinoma seems to improve locoregional control and overall survival dramatically. Functional results were also excellent. To our knowledge, this original therapeutic schedule has never been previously described

  15. Adjuvant intravenous methotrexate or definitive radiotherapy alone for advanced squamous cancers of the oral cavity, oropharynx, supraglottic larynx or hypopharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazekas, J.T.; Sommer, C.; Kramer, S.

    1980-01-01

    Three hundred twenty-six patients with advanced head and neck cancers were randomized to receive definitive radiotherapy alone while 312 similar patients first received intravenous Methotrexate. No significant bias was demonstrated between the two patient populations. The number of annual deaths among the two randomized categories was essentially equal during the first 5 years. Nearly one-half occurred in the first year (146 for radiation alone and 143 in the chemotherapy plus irradiation groups). Median metastasis-free survival was between 12 to 13 months in both categories. The unadjusted 5 year survivals were in the 11 to 22% range for oral cavity, oropharynx, and supraglottic larynx and 3 to 9% for hypopharynx primaries. Although several variables did exert an impact upon survival, primary (T) and lymph node (N) stage seem to be of paramount importance and Methotrexate of minor consideration. Median and 5-year survivals within the various anatomic regions were consistently better when Methotrexate was given. However, these improvements were minimal and depended upon whether comparisons were performed on adjusted or unadjusted survival figures. In view of the modest benefits attained by using this Methotrexate regimen the authors suggest that other adjuvant programs be investigated and that this schedule not be adopted for routine clinical usage

  16. Vertical integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antill, N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the trend in international energy companies towards vertical integration in the gas chain from wellhead to power generation, horizontal integration in refining and marketing businesses, and the search for larger projects with lower upstream costs. The shape of the petroleum industry in the next millennium, the creation of super-major oil companies, and the relationship between size and risk are discussed. The dynamics of vertical integration, present events and future developments are considered. (UK)

  17. Supraglottic carcinoma: Impact of radiation therapy on outcome of patients with positive margins and extracapsular nodal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devineni, V.R.; Simpson, J.R.; Sessions, D.; Spector, J.G.; Hayden, R.; Fredrickson, J.; Fineberg, B.

    1991-01-01

    Seventy-nine patients with supraglottic carcinoma treated between 1966 and 1985 are reviewed. All patients were treated with surgery and postoperative radiation therapy. Thirty-five percent of the patients had positive margins at the site of resection of the primary tumor. Of the 25 patients who had positive nodal disease, 13 patients (52%) had either extracapsular extension or soft-tissue or adjacent organ invasion, referred to in composite as grave signs. The median follow-up of the patients was 4.9 years and all patients were followed for a minimum of 3 years. The disease-free survival for all patients was 76% at 2 years and 71% at 3 years. The locoregional control rate for all patients was 70%. This study demonstrates that there is no difference in local recurrence or disease-free survival, or time to recurrence relative to the status of the surgical margins, which may be a benefit of the postoperative radiation therapy. This study also demonstrates that there is an increase in the number of patients with grave signs with increasing nodal stage. The rate of neck recurrence in patients with grave signs was substantially higher (54%) than in patients without grave signs (8%), even though these patients also had positive lymph nodes. Interestingly, there was also a higher rate of local recurrence among patients who had grave signs. Patients receiving doses higher than 6000 cGy to the primary site had fewer local failures, although within each group of patients with positive or negative surgical margins the differences in survival were minimal

  18. Results of the radiotheraphy of the supraglottic larynx carcinomas observed at the Radiotherapy Department of the District Hospital of Varese (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosentino, D.; Scandolaro, L.; Cazzaniga, F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors review the supraglottic laryngeal carcinomas examined in the Radiotherapy Department of the Ospedale Regionale of Varese, Italy, from 1979 to 1984. 255 patients have been monitored: 80 considered for radiotherapy alone and 77 for postoperatory radiotherapy treatment. The cumulative actuarial survival (pcs) after 60 months, for patients treated only with radiotherapy, is 0.66 +- e.s. 0.07; for patients treated with post-operative radiotherapy the cumulative actuarial survival (pcs) after 60 months is 0.49 +- e.s. 0.11. The irradiation techniques are described and the results achived fully discussed

  19. i-gel: a new supraglottic device for effective resuscitation of a very low birthweight infant with Cornelia de Lange syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galderisi, Alfonso; De Bernardo, Giuseppe; Lorenzon, Eleonora; Trevisanuto, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) has been indicated as an effective device for airway management when face-mask ventilation and intubation have both failed in infants weighing >2000 g or delivered ≥34 weeks of gestation. All previous studies used a classic LMA. The current report describes the first case of a very low birthweight infant (1470 g, <3rd centile; 36+3gestational weeks) with micrognathia and palate cleft with Cornelia De Lange syndrome, resuscitated at birth with a new supraglottic airway device, i-gel size-1, positioned by a trainee paediatrician at first attempt. The procedure allowed reaching prompt effective ventilation and oxygenation of the patient, who was stabilised and intubated through i-gel. PMID:25809435

  20. High frequency jet ventilation through a supraglottic airway device: a case series of patients undergoing extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canty, D J; Dhara, S S

    2009-12-01

    High frequency jet ventilation has been shown to be beneficial during extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy as it reduces urinary calculus movement which increases lithotripsy efficiency with better utilisation of shockwave energy and less patient exposure to tissue trauma. In all reports, sub-glottic high frequency jet ventilation was delivered through a tracheal tube or a jet catheter requiring paralysis and direct laryngoscopy. In this study, a simple method using supraglottic jet ventilation through a laryngeal mask attached to a circle absorber anaesthetic breathing system is described. The technique avoids the need for dense neuromuscular blockade for laryngoscopy and the potential complications associated with sub-glottic instrumentation and sub-glottic jet ventilation. The technique was successfully employed in a series of patients undergoing lithotripsy under general anaesthesia as an outpatient procedure.

  1. 331 cases of clinically node-negative supraglottic carcinoma of the larynx: a study of a modest size fixed field radiotherapy approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, Andrew J.; Slevin, Nicholas J.; Gupta, Nirmal K.; Brewster, Allison E.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: For node-negative supraglottic carcinoma of the larynx, radiotherapy with surgery in reserve commonly provides very good results in terms of both local control and survival, while preserving function. However uncertainty exists over the treatment of the node-negative neck. Elective whole neck radiotherapy, while effective, may be associated with significant morbidity. The purpose of this study was to examine our practice of treating a modest size, fixed field to a high biologically effective dose and compare it with the patterns of recurrence from other centers that use different dose/volume approaches. Methods and Materials: Over a 10-year period 331 patients with node-negative supraglottic carcinoma of the larynx were treated with radiotherapy at the Christie Hospital Manchester. Patients were treated with doses of 50-55 Gy in 16 fractions over 3 weeks. Data were collected retrospectively for local and regional control, survival, and morbidity. Results: Overall local control, after surgical salvage in 17 cases, was 79% (T1-92%, T2-81%, T3-67%, T4-73%). Overall regional lymph node control, after surgical salvage in 13 cases, was 84% (T1-91%, T2-88%, T3-81%, T4-72%). Five-year crude survival was 50%, but after correcting for intercurrent deaths was 70% (T1-83%, T2-78%, T3-53%, T4-61%). Serious morbidity requiring surgery was seen in 7 cases (2.1%) and was related to prescribed dose (50 Gy-0%, 52.5 Gy-1.3%, 55 Gy-3.4%). Discussion: Our results confirm that treating a modest size, fixed field to a high biologically effective dose is highly effective. It enables preservation of the larynx in most cases, with acceptable regional control and no loss of survival compared to whole neck radiotherapy regimes

  2. Current UK practice of pediatric supraglottic airway devices - a survey of members of the Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Anthony E D; White, Michelle C; Engelhardt, Thomas; Bayley, Guy; Beringer, Richard M

    2013-11-01

    Over half of general anesthetics in the UK involve supraglottic airway devices (SADs). The National Audit Project 4 undertaken by the Royal College of Anaesthetists demonstrated that aspiration was the most frequent complication relating to SAD use. SADs designed to reduce this risk (second-generation devices) are increasingly recommended in both adults and children. As well as routine use, SADs are recommended for use in cases of 'difficult airway'. This survey assessed current usage of SADs in routine practice and difficult airways. Sixteen questions, approved by the Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland (APAGBI) survey committee, were distributed to all its members. Two hundred and forty-four members responded. Eighty-eight percent preferentially use first-generation rather than second-generation devices. The most important design feature was the availability of a complete range of sizes (84%). Seventy-seven percent felt that randomized controlled trials assessing SAD safety in children are needed. In cases of failed intubation, classically shaped SADs are preferred (79%). Three percent of responders intubate via an SAD routinely. Eighteen percent have employed this technique in an emergency. Thirty-six percent of responders have found an SAD to function poorly. Pediatric anesthesiologists appear slow to embrace second-generation SADs. The role of SADs in the management of difficult airways is widely accepted. Research currently has little influence over the choice of which SAD to use, which is more likely determined by personal choice and departmental preference. There is a risk that some SADs are unsafe. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 33, - (2004), s. 404-407 ISSN 1436-3445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : geopotential WO * vertical systems * global vertical frame Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  4. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  5. Vertical pump assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohnal, M.; Rosel, J.; Skarka, V.

    1988-01-01

    The mounting is described of the drive assembly of a vertical pump for nuclear power plants in areas with seismic risk. The assembly is attached to the building floor using flexible and damping elements. The design allows producing seismically resistant pumps without major design changes in the existing types of vertical pumps. (E.S.). 1 fig

  6. Coordination in vertical jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.; van Ingen Schenau, Gerrit Jan

    1988-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate for vertical jumping the relationships between muscle actions, movement pattern and jumping achievement. Ten skilled jumpers performed jumps with preparatory countermovement. Ground reaction forces and cinematographic data were recorded. In addition,

  7. A randomized double-blind phase III study of nimorazole as a hypoxic radiosensitizer of primary radiotherapy in supraglottic larynx and pharynx carcinoma. Results of the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Study (DAHANCA) Protocol 5-85

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, J.; Hansen, H.S.; Overgaard, M.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: A multicenter randomized and balanced double-blind trial with the objective of assessing the efficacy and tolerance of nimorazole given as a hypoxic radiosensitizer in conjunction with primary radiotherapy of invasive carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx and pharynx. PATIENTS AND TREATMENT...... for the end-points of final loco-regional control (including surgical salvage) and cancer-related deaths (52 versus 41%, P = 0.002). This trend was also found in the overall survival but to a lesser, non-significant extent (26 versus 16%, 10-year actuarial values, P = 0.32). Cox multivariate regression...... of dying from cancer. The compliance to radiotherapy was good and 98% of the patients received the planned dose. Late radiation-related morbidity was observed in 10% of the patients, irrespective of nimorazole treatment. Drug-related side-effects were minor and tolerable with transient nausea and vomiting...

  8. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  9. Vertical and horizontal subsidiarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Daniluk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article makes an attempt to analyze the principle of subsidiarity in its two main manifestations, namely vertical and horizontal, to outline the principles of relations between the state and regions within the vertical subsidiarity, and features a collaboration of the government and civil society within the horizontal subsidiarity. Scientists identify two types, or two levels of the subsidiarity principle: vertical subsidiarity and horizontal subsidiarity. First, vertical subsidiarity (or territorial concerning relations between the state and other levels of subnational government, such as regions and local authorities; second, horizontal subsidiarity (or functional concerns the relationship between state and citizen (and civil society. Vertical subsidiarity expressed in the context of the distribution of administrative responsibilities to the appropriate higher level lower levels relative to the state structure, ie giving more powers to local government. However, state intervention has subsidiary-lower action against local authorities in cases of insolvency last cope on their own, ie higher organisms intervene only if the duties are less authority is insufficient to achieve the goals. Horizontal subsidiarity is within the relationship between power and freedom, and is based on the assumption that the concern for the common good and the needs of common interest community, able to solve community members (as individuals and citizens’ associations and role of government, in accordance horizontal subsidiarity comes to attracting features subsidiarity assistance, programming, coordination and possibly control.

  10. [Duane vertical surgical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, M L; Gómez de Liaño, P; Merino, P; Franco, G

    2014-04-01

    We report 3 cases with a vertical incomitance in upgaze, narrowing of palpebral fissure, and pseudo-overaction of both inferior oblique muscles. Surgery consisted of an elevation of both lateral rectus muscles with an asymmetrical weakening. A satisfactory result was achieved in 2 cases, whereas a Lambda syndrome appeared in the other case. The surgical technique of upper-insertion with a recession of both lateral rectus muscles improved vertical incomitance in 2 of the 3 patients; however, a residual deviation remains in the majority of cases. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Vertical market participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrader, Alexander; Martin, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Firms that operate at both levels of vertically related Cournot oligopolies will purchase some input supplies from independent rivals, even though they can produce the good at a lower cost, driving up input price for nonintegrated firms at the final good level. Foreclosure, which avoids this stra......Firms that operate at both levels of vertically related Cournot oligopolies will purchase some input supplies from independent rivals, even though they can produce the good at a lower cost, driving up input price for nonintegrated firms at the final good level. Foreclosure, which avoids...

  12. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The security of key exchange and secure channel protocols, such as TLS, has been studied intensively. However, only few works have considered what happens when the established keys are actually used—to run some protocol securely over the established “channel”. We call this a vertical protocol.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  13. Vertical Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Kevin; Mc Glinchey, Jude

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines the growth in popularity of vertical search engines, their origins, the differences between them and well-known broad based search engines such as Google and Yahoo. We also discuss their use in business-to-business, their marketing and advertising costs, what the revenue streams are and who uses them.

  14. Vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides a vertical cavity laser comprising a grating layer comprising an in-plane grating, the grating layer having a first side and having a second side opposite the first side and comprising a contiguous core grating region having a grating structure, wherein an index...

  15. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    -, č. 5 (2009), s. 53-63 ISSN 1801-8483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0328 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : sea surface topography * satellite altimetry * vertical frames Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  16. Vertical steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuda, F.; Kondr, M.; Kresta, M.; Kusak, V.; Manek, O.; Turon, S.

    1982-01-01

    A vertical steam generator for nuclear power plants and dual purpose power plants consists of a cylindrical vessel in which are placed heating tubes in the form upside-down U. The heating tubes lead to the jacket of the cylindrical collector placed in the lower part of the steam generator perpendicularly to its vertical axis. The cylindrical collector is divided by a longitudinal partition into the inlet and outlet primary water sections of the heating tubes. One ends of the heating tube leads to the jacket of the collector for primary water feeding and the second ends of the heating tubes into the jacket of the collector which feeds and offtakes primary water from the heating tubes. (B.S.)

  17. Vertical organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-11-11

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted.

  18. Vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obretenov, V.; Tsalov, T.; Chakarov, T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in wind turbines with vertical axis noticeably increased. They have some important advantages: low cost, relatively simple structure, reliable packaging system of wind aggregate long period during which require no maintenance, low noise, independence of wind direction, etc.. The relatively low efficiency, however, makes them applicable mainly for small facilities. The work presents a methodology and software for approximately aerodynamic design of wind turbines of this type, and also analyzed the possibility of improving the efficiency of their workflow

  19. Vertical vector face lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoano, Brian; Chan, Joanna; Morganroth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation using local anesthesia has evolved in the past decade as a safer option for patients seeking fewer complications and minimal downtime. Mini- and short-scar face lifts using more conservative incision lengths and extent of undermining can be effective in the younger patient with lower face laxity and minimal loose, elastotic neck skin. By incorporating both an anterior and posterior approach and using an incision length between the mini and more traditional face lift, the Vertical Vector Face Lift can achieve longer-lasting and natural results with lesser cost and risk. Submentoplasty and liposuction of the neck and jawline, fundamental components of the vertical vector face lift, act synergistically with superficial musculoaponeurotic system plication to reestablish a more youthful, sculpted cervicomental angle, even in patients with prominent jowls. Dramatic results can be achieved in the right patient by combining with other procedures such as injectable fillers, chin implants, laser resurfacing, or upper and lower blepharoplasties. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Vertical organic transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted. (topical review)

  1. Vertical guidance of shearers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocock, J.

    1985-01-01

    Mining Engineers have always been aware of the basic need to avoid contamination of the mined product, by controlling the cutting horizon at the coal face. The ability to maintain the optimum cutting horizon results in more effective roof control and ensures a safer and more efficient working environment, for men and machinery. The cost of treatment in the surface coal preparation plant is reduced. Transportation through the total mine system of material finally destined for the spoil heap is minimised. A reduction in product contamination is achieved and makes more effective use of the mine capacity. These benefits make possible significant improvements in productivity and financial returns. Exploitation of micro computer based systems has enabled the successful development of equipment which employs sensors to detect the very low natural gamma radiation from roof strata; to determine and allow control of the position of the cut relative to the roof and floor. This paper reviews the experience gained by the National Coal Board, particularly in South Yorkshire Area, with the vertical steering of ranging drum shearers. It outlines the benefits and considers the future for this technology and its contribution to total coal face automation

  2. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor intensity as observed in data. Final......-good producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all...... increasing when intermediate-input or final-goods trade is liberalised and when the fixed cost of vertical integration is reduced. At the same time, one observes firms that shift away from either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting. Further, we provide guidance for testing the open...

  3. Inservice testing of vertical pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornman, R.E. Jr.; Schumann, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper focuses on the problems that may occur with vertical pumps while inservice tests are conducted in accordance with existing American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code, Section XI, standards. The vertical pump types discussed include single stage, multistage, free surface, and canned mixed flow pumps. Primary emphasis is placed on the hydraulic performance of the pump and the internal and external factors to the pump that impact hydraulic performance. In addition, the paper considers the mechanical design features that can affect the mechanical performance of vertical pumps. The conclusion shows how two recommended changes in the Code standards may increase the quality of the pump's operational readiness assessment during its service life

  4. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  5. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between four different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor (headquarter) intensity. Final......-good producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all...... increasing when intermediate-input trade or final-goods trade is liberalised. Finally, we provide guidance for testing the open-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data and surprisingly show that the relationship between factor (headquarter) intensity and the likelihood of vertical...

  6. The TEXT upgrade vertical interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallock, G.A.; Gartman, M.L.; Li, W.; Chiang, K.; Shin, S.; Castles, R.L.; Chatterjee, R.; Rahman, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    A far-infrared interferometer has been installed on TEXT upgrade to obtain electron density profiles. The primary system views the plasma vertically through a set of large (60-cm radialx7.62-cm toroidal) diagnostic ports. A 1-cm channel spacing (59 channels total) and fast electronic time response is used, to provide high resolution for radial profiles and perturbation experiments. Initial operation of the vertical system was obtained late in 1991, with six operating channels

  7. Vertical distribution of pelagic photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsgaard, Maren Moltke

    chlorophyll maxima (DCM) to be a general feature in the ocean. Today, it is generally accepted that DCMs occur in most of our oceans still, despite this empirical knowledge, subsurface primary production is still largely ignored in marine science. The work included in this PhD examines the vertical...... each of the three regions combined with 15 years of survey data for the Baltic Sea transition zone. Overall, the results of this PhD work show that the vertical distribution of phytoplankton and their activity is important for the understanding, dynamics and functioning of pelagic ecosystems. It, thus......, emphasizes that future research and modelling exercises aimed at improving understanding of pelagic ecosystems and their role in the global ocean should include a consideration of the vertical heterogeneity in phytoplankton distributions and activity....

  8. Neglected locked vertical patellar dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Gupta, Vinay; Sangwan, Sukhbir Singh; Kamboj, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Patellar dislocations occurring about the vertical and horizontal axis are rare and irreducible. The neglected patellar dislocation is still rarer. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a case of neglected vertical patellar dislocation in a 6 year-old boy who sustained an external rotational strain with a laterally directed force to his knee. Initially the diagnosis was missed and 2 months later open reduction was done. The increased tension generated by the rotation of the lateral extensor retinaculum kept the patella locked in the lateral gutter even with the knee in full extension. Traumatic patellar dislocation with rotation around a vertical axis has been described earlier, but no such neglected case has been reported to the best of our knowledge. PMID:23162154

  9. Neglected locked vertical patellar dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patellar dislocations occurring about the vertical and horizontal axis are rare and irreducible. The neglected patellar dislocation is still rarer. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a case of neglected vertical patellar dislocation in a 6 year-old boy who sustained an external rotational strain with a laterally directed force to his knee. Initially the diagnosis was missed and 2 months later open reduction was done. The increased tension generated by the rotation of the lateral extensor retinaculum kept the patella locked in the lateral gutter even with the knee in full extension. Traumatic patellar dislocation with rotation around a vertical axis has been described earlier, but no such neglected case has been reported to the best of our knowledge.

  10. Building a progressive vertical integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charette, D.

    2008-01-01

    AAER Inc. is a Quebec-based company that manufactures turbines using proven European designs. This presentation discussed the company's business model. The company places an emphasis on identifying strategic and key components currently available for its turbines. Market analyses are performed in order to determine ideal suppliers and define business strategies and needs. The company invests in long-term relationships with its suppliers. Business partners for AAER are of a similar size and have a mutual understanding and respect for the company's business practices. Long-term agreements with suppliers are signed in order to ensure reliability and control over costs. Progressive vertical integration has been achieved by progressively manufacturing key components and integrating a North American supply chain. The company's secure supply chain and progressive vertical integration has significantly reduced financial costs and provided better quality control. It was concluded that vertical integration has also allowed AAER to provide better customer service and reduce transportation costs. tabs., figs

  11. Hybrid Vertical-Cavity Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a light source (2) for light circuits on a silicon platform (3). A vertical laser cavity is formed by a gain region (101) arranged between a top mirror (4) and a bottom grating-mirror (12) in a grating region (11) in a silicon layer (10) on a substrate. A waveguide...... (18, 19) for receiving light from the grating region (11) is formed within or to be connected to the grating region, and functions as an 5 output coupler for the VCL. Thereby, vertical lasing modes (16) are coupled to lateral in-plane modes (17, 20) of the in-plane waveguide formed in the silicon...

  12. Vertical reactor coolant pump instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    The investigation conducted at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant to determine and correct increasing vibrations in the vertical reactor coolant pumps is described. Diagnostic procedures to determine the vibration causes and evaluate the corractive measures taken are also described

  13. Coexistence of Strategic Vertical Separation and Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives conditions under which vertical separation is chosen by some upstream firms, while vertical integration is chosen by others in the equilibrium of a symmetric model. A vertically separating firm trades off fixed contracting costs against the strategic benefit of writing a (two......-part tariff, exclusive dealing) contract with its retailer. Coexistence emerges when more than two vertical Cournot oligopolists supply close substitutes. When vertical integration and separation coexist, welfare could be improved by reducing the number of vertically separating firms. The scope...

  14. Vertical and lateral heterogeneous integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Jon; Okuno, Yae L.; Bowers, John E.; Jayaraman, Vijay

    2001-09-01

    A technique for achieving large-scale monolithic integration of lattice-mismatched materials in the vertical direction and the lateral integration of dissimilar lattice-matched structures has been developed. The technique uses a single nonplanar direct-wafer-bond step to transform vertically integrated epitaxial structures into lateral epitaxial variation across the surface of a wafer. Nonplanar wafer bonding is demonstrated by integrating four different unstrained multi-quantum-well active regions lattice matched to InP on a GaAs wafer surface. Microscopy is used to verify the quality of the bonded interface, and photoluminescence is used to verify that the bonding process does not degrade the optical quality of the laterally integrated wells. The authors propose this technique as a means to achieve greater levels of wafer-scale integration in optical, electrical, and micromechanical devices.

  15. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattione, Paul [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  16. Interference Lithography for Vertical Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balls, Amy; Pei, Lei; Kvavle, Joshua; Sieler, Andrew; Schultz, Stephen; Linford, Matthew; Vanfleet, Richard; Davis, Robert

    2009-10-01

    We are exploring low cost approaches for fabricating three dimensional nanoscale structures. These vertical structures could significantly improve the efficiency of devices made from low cost photovoltaic materials. The nanoscale vertical structure provides a way to increase optical absorption in thin photovoltaic films without increasing the electronic carrier separation distance. The target structure is a high temperature transparent template with a dense array of holes on a 400 - 600 nm pitch fabricated by a combination of interference lithography and nanoembossing. First a master was fabricated using ultraviolet light interference lithography and the pattern was transferred into a silicon wafer master by silicon reactive ion etching. Embossing studies were performed with the master on several high temperature polymers.

  17. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  18. Vertical Launch System Loadout Planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    United States Navy USS United States’ Ship VBA Visual Basic for Applications VLP VLS Loadout Planner VLS Vertical Launch System...with 32 gigabytes of random access memory and eight processors, General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) CPLEX version 24 (GAMS, 2015) solves this...problem in ten minutes to an integer tolerance of 10%. The GAMS interpreter and CPLEX solver require 75 Megabytes of random access memory for this

  19. NASA-Ames vertical gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A national facility, the NASA-Ames vertical gun range (AVGR) has an excellent reputation for revealing fundamental aspects of impact cratering that provide important constraints for planetary processes. The current logistics in accessing the AVGR, some of the past and ongoing experimental programs and their relevance, and the future role of this facility in planetary studies are reviewed. Publications resulting from experiments with the gun (1979 to 1984) are listed as well as the researchers and subjects studied.

  20. Strategic Inventories in Vertical Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan Anand; Ravi Anupindi; Yehuda Bassok

    2008-01-01

    Classical reasons for carrying inventory include fixed (nonlinear) production or procurement costs, lead times, nonstationary or uncertain supply/demand, and capacity constraints. The last decade has seen active research in supply chain coordination focusing on the role of incentive contracts to achieve first-best levels of inventory. An extensive literature in industrial organization that studies incentives for vertical controls largely ignores the effect of inventories. Does the ability to ...

  1. [Vertical fractures: apropos of 2 clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix Mañes Ferrer, J; Micò Muñoz, P; Sánchez Cortés, J L; Paricio Martín, J J; Miñana Laliga, R

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present a clinical review of the vertical root fractures. Two clinical cases are presented to demonstrates the criteria for obtaining a correct diagnosis of vertical root fractures.

  2. Vertical melting of a stack of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, M. E. S.; Kleinert, H.; Schakel, A. M. J.

    2001-02-01

    A stack of tensionless membranes with nonlinear curvature energy and vertical harmonic interaction is studied. At low temperatures, the system forms a lamellar phase. At a critical temperature, the stack disorders vertically in a melting-like transition.

  3. VERTICAL ACTIVITY ESTIMATION USING 2D RADAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    estimates on aircraft vertical behaviour from a single 2D radar track. ... Fortunately, the problem of detecting relative vertical motion using a single 2D ..... awareness tools in scenarios where aerial activity sensing is typically limited to 2D.

  4. Vertical structures in vibrated wormlike micellar solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Tamir; Deegan, Robert

    2008-11-01

    Vertically vibrated shear thickening particulate suspensions can support a free-standing interfaces oriented parallel to gravity. We find that shear thickening worm-like micellar solutions also support such vertical interfaces. Above a threshold in acceleration, the solution spontaneously accumulates into a labyrinthine pattern characterized by a well-defined vertical edge. The formation of vertical structures is of interest because they are unique to shear-thickening fluids, and they indicate the existence of an unknown stress bearing mechanism.

  5. Vertical sounding balloons for stratospheric photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommereau, J. P.

    The use of vertical sounding balloons for stratospheric photochemistry studies is illustrated by the use of a vertical piloted gas balloon for the search of NO2 diurnal variations. It is shown that the use of montgolfieres (hot air balloons) can enhance the vertical sounding technique. Particular attention is given to a sun-heated montgolfiere and to the more sophisticated infrared montgolfiere that is able to perform three to four vertical excursions per day and to remain aloft for weeks or months.

  6. Determinations of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke and vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke from baryonic Λ{sub b} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Y.K. [Shanxi Normal University, School of Physics and Information Engineering, Linfen (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China); Geng, C.Q. [Shanxi Normal University, School of Physics and Information Engineering, Linfen (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China); Hunan Normal University, Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications (SICQEA), Changsha (China)

    2017-10-15

    We present the first attempt to extract vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke from the Λ{sub b} → Λ{sub c}{sup +}l anti ν{sub l} decay without relying on vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke inputs from the B meson decays. Meanwhile, the hadronic Λ{sub b} → Λ{sub c}M{sub (c)} decays with M = (π{sup -},K{sup -}) and M{sub c} =(D{sup -},D{sup -}{sub s}) measured with high precisions are involved in the extraction. Explicitly, we find that vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke =(44.6 ± 3.2) x 10{sup -3}, agreeing with the value of (42.11 ± 0.74) x 10{sup -3} from the inclusive B → X{sub c}l anti ν{sub l} decays. Furthermore, based on the most recent ratio of vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke / vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke from the exclusive modes, we obtain vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke = (4.3 ± 0.4) x 10{sup -3}, which is close to the value of (4.49 ± 0.24) x 10{sup -3} from the inclusive B → X{sub u}l anti ν{sub l} decays. We conclude that our determinations of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke and vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke favor the corresponding inclusive extractions in the B decays. (orig.)

  7. Metal Oxide Vertical Graphene Hybrid Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A metal oxide vertical graphene hybrid supercapacitor is provided. The supercapacitor includes a pair of collectors facing each other, and vertical graphene electrode material grown directly on each of the pair of collectors without catalyst or binders. A separator may separate the vertical graphene electrode materials.

  8. Crystalline beams: The vertical zigzag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffmans, A.F.; Maletic, D.; Ruggiero, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    This note is the continuation of our comprehensive investigation of Crystalline Beams. After having determined the equations of motion and the conditions for the formation of the simplest configuration, i.e. the string, we study the possibility of storing an intense beam of charged particles in a storage ring where they form a vertical zigzag. We define the equilibrium configuration, and examine the confinement conditions. Subsequently, we derive the transfer matrix for motion through various elements of the storage ring. Finally we investigate the stability conditions for such a beam

  9. Vertices in the abelized picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embacher, F.

    1990-01-01

    Covariant vertices of open bosonic string theory are transformed to the abelized picture. The way the pure transverse (light-cone gauge) vertex is contained therein is exhibited explicitly. The formalism shows in a quite transparent way that all further content of a covariant vertex is of gauge type. By applying the transverse projection operator in the abelized picture, an algebraic condition whether a set of Neumann coefficients define a vertex for string theory is obtained. A speculation concerning field redefinitions in string field theory is added. (Author) 33 refs

  10. Determination of the quark coupling strength vertical bar V-ub vertical bar using baryonic decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Older, A. A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Tolk, S.

    In the Standard Model of particle physics, the strength of the couplings of the b quark to the u and c quarks, vertical bar V-ub vertical bar and vertical bar V-ub vertical bar, are governed by the coupling of the quarks to the Higgs boson. Using data from the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron

  11. Vertically stacked nanocellulose tactile sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minhyun; Kim, Kyungkwan; Kim, Bumjin; Lee, Kwang-Jae; Kang, Jae-Wook; Jeon, Sanghun

    2017-11-16

    Paper-based electronic devices are attracting considerable attention, because the paper platform has unique attributes such as flexibility and eco-friendliness. Here we report on what is claimed to be the firstly fully integrated vertically-stacked nanocellulose-based tactile sensor, which is capable of simultaneously sensing temperature and pressure. The pressure and temperature sensors are operated using different principles and are stacked vertically, thereby minimizing the interference effect. For the pressure sensor, which utilizes the piezoresistance principle under pressure, the conducting electrode was inkjet printed on the TEMPO-oxidized-nanocellulose patterned with micro-sized pyramids, and the counter electrode was placed on the nanocellulose film. The pressure sensor has a high sensitivity over a wide range (500 Pa-3 kPa) and a high durability of 10 4 loading/unloading cycles. The temperature sensor combines various materials such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form a thermocouple on the upper nanocellulose layer. The thermoelectric-based temperature sensors generate a thermoelectric voltage output of 1.7 mV for a temperature difference of 125 K. Our 5 × 5 tactile sensor arrays show a fast response, negligible interference, and durable sensing performance.

  12. Capillary holdup between vertical spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeinali Heris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The maximum volume of liquid bridge left between two vertically mounted spherical particles has been theoretically determined and experimentally measured. As the gravitational effect has not been neglected in the theoretical model, the liquid interface profile is nonsymmetrical around the X-axis. Symmetry in the interface profile only occurs when either the particle size ratio or the gravitational force becomes zero. In this paper, some equations are derived as a function of the spheres' sizes, gap width, liquid density, surface tension and body force (gravity/centrifugal to estimate the maximum amount of liquid that can be held between the two solid spheres. Then a comparison is made between the result based on these equations and several experimental results.

  13. Vertical grid of retrieved atmospheric profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccherini, Simone; Carli, Bruno; Raspollini, Piera

    2016-01-01

    The choice of the vertical grid of atmospheric profiles retrieved from remote sensing observations is discussed considering the two cases of profiles used to represent the results of individual measurements and of profiles used for subsequent data fusion applications. An ozone measurement of the MIPAS instrument is used to assess, for different vertical grids, the quality of the retrieved profiles in terms of profile values, retrieval errors, vertical resolutions and number of degrees of freedom. In the case of individual retrievals no evident advantage is obtained with the use of a grid finer than the one with a reduced number of grid points, which are optimized according to the information content of the observations. Nevertheless, this instrument dependent vertical grid, which seems to extract all the available information, provides very poor results when used for data fusion applications. A loss of about a quarter of the degrees of freedom is observed when the data fusion is made using the instrument dependent vertical grid relative to the data fusion made using a vertical grid optimized for the data fusion product. This result is explained by the analysis of the eigenvalues of the Fisher information matrix and leads to the conclusion that different vertical grids must be adopted when data fusion is the expected application. - Highlights: • Data fusion application is taken into account for the choice of the vertical grid. • The study is performed using ozone profiles retrieved from MIPAS measurements. • A very fine vertical grid is not needed for the analysis of a single instrument. • The instrument dependent vertical grid is not the best choice for data fusion. • A data fusion dependent vertical grid must be used for profiles that will be fused.

  14. Vertical and horizontal access configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spampinato, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    A number of configuration features and maintenance operations are influenced by the choice of whether a design is based on vertical or horizontal access for replacing reactor components. The features which are impacted most include the first wall/blanket segmentation, the poloidal field coil locations, the toroidal field coil number and size, access port size for in-vessel components, and facilities. Since either configuration can be made to work, the choice between the two is not clear cut because both have certain advantages. It is apparent that there are large cost benefits in the poloidal field coil system for ideal coil locations for high elongation plasmas and marginal savings for the INTOR case. If we assume that a new tokamak design will require a higher plasma elongation, the recommendation is to arrange the poloidal field coils in a cost-effective manner while providing reasonable midplane access for heating interfaces and test modules. If a new design study is not based on a high elongation plasma, it still appears prudent to consider this approach so that in-vessel maintenance can be accomplished without moving very massive structures such as the bulk shield. 10 refs., 29 figs., 3 tabs

  15. The Ames Vertical Gun Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcz, J. S.; Bowling, D.; Cornelison, C.; Parrish, A.; Perez, A.; Raiche, G.; Wiens, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) is a national facility for conducting laboratory- scale investigations of high-speed impact processes. It provides a set of light-gas, powder, and compressed gas guns capable of accelerating projectiles to speeds up to 7 km s(exp -1). The AVGR has a unique capability to vary the angle between the projectile-launch and gravity vectors between 0 and 90 deg. The target resides in a large chamber (diameter approximately 2.5 m) that can be held at vacuum or filled with an experiment-specific atmosphere. The chamber provides a number of viewing ports and feed-throughs for data, power, and fluids. Impacts are observed via high-speed digital cameras along with investigation-specific instrumentation, such as spectrometers. Use of the range is available via grant proposals through any Planetary Science Research Program element of the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) calls. Exploratory experiments (one to two days) are additionally possible in order to develop a new proposal.

  16. Flooding Mechanism in Vertical Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronny-Dwi Agussulistyo; Indarto

    2000-01-01

    This research was carried out to investigate the mechanism of flooding ina vertical liquid-gas counter current flow, along two meter length of thetube. The tube use both circular and square tube, a cross section of squaretube was made the same as a cross section of circular tube with one inchdiameter tube. The liquid enters the tube, passes through a porous wall inletand a groove inlet in a distributor and it flows downwards through a liquidoutlet in a collector. The gas is being introduced at the bottom of the tube,it flows upwards through nozzle in the collector. The results of researchshowed that the flooding occurs earlier in the circular tube than in thesquare tube, either uses a porous wall inlet or a groove inlet. In the squaretube , onset of the flooding occurs at the top of the tube, in front ofliquid injection, it is related to the formation of a film wave, just belowthe liquid feed. Whereas in the circular tube, onset of the flooding occursfrom the bottom of the tube, at the liquid outlet, it is related to theexpand of the film wave. However, in the circular tube with the groove inlet,for the higher liquid flow rate, onset of the flooding from the top, like inthe square tube. (author)

  17. Wind tower with vertical rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, A

    1978-08-03

    The invention concerns a wind tower with vertical rotors. A characteristic is that the useful output of the rotors is increased by the wind pressure, which is guided to the rotors at the central opening and over the whole height of the structure by duct slots in the inner cells. These duct slots start behind the front nose of the inner cell and lead via the transverse axis of the pillar at an angle into the space between the inner cells and the cell body. This measure appreciably increases the useful output of the rotors, as the rotors do not have to provide any displacement work from their output, but receive additional thrust. The wind pressure pressing from inside the rotor and accelerating from the outside produces a better outflow of the wind from the power plant pillar with only small tendency to turbulence, which appreciably improves the effect of the adjustable turbulence smoothers, which are situated below the rotors over the whole height.

  18. Vertical mixing by Langmuir circulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliams, James C.; Sullivan, Peter P.

    2001-01-01

    Wind and surface wave frequently induce Langmuir circulations (LC) in the upper ocean, and the LC contribute to mixing materials down from the surface. In this paper we analyze large-eddy simulation (LES) cases based on surface-wave-averaged, dynamical equations and show that the effect of the LC is a great increase in the vertical mixing efficiency for both material properties and momentum. We provide new confirmation that the previously proposed K-profile parameterization (KPP) model accurately characterizes the turbulent transport in a weakly convective, wind-driven boundary layer with stable interior stratification. We also propose a modest generalization of KPP for the regime of weakly convective Langmuir turbulence. This makes the KPP turbulent flux profiles match those in the LES case with LC present fairly well, especially so for material properties being transported downwards from the ocean surface. However, some open issues remain about how well the present LES and KPP formulations represent Langmuir turbulence, in part because wave-breaking effects are not yet included. (Author)

  19. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  20. Safety Aspects for Vertical Wall Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, H. F.; Christiani, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this appendix some safety aspects in relation to vertical wall breakwaters are discussed. Breakwater structures such as vertical wall breakwaters are used under quite different conditions. The expected lifetime can be from 5 years (interim structure) to 100 years (permanent structure) and the ...

  1. Updated Vertical Extent of Collision Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagg, R.; Bartzis, P.; Papanikolaou, P.

    2002-01-01

    The probabilistic distribution of the vertical extent of collision damage is an important and somewhat controversial component of the proposed IMO harmonized damage stability regulations for cargo and passenger ships. The only pre-existing vertical distribution, currently used in the international...

  2. Plasmon Modes of Vertically Aligned Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    By using the Finite Element Method we visualize the modes of vertically aligned superlattice composed of gold and dielectric nanocylinders and investigate the emitter-plasmon interaction in approximation of weak coupling. We find that truncated vertically aligned superlattice can function...

  3. The strategic value of partial vertical integration

    OpenAIRE

    Fiocco, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the strategic incentives for partial vertical integration, namely, partial ownership agreements between manufacturers and retailers, when retailers privately know their costs and engage in differentiated good price competition. The partial misalignment between the profit objectives within a partially integrated manufacturer-retailer hierarchy entails a higher retail price than under full integration. This `information vertical effect' translates into an opposite ...

  4. Vertical integration increases opportunities for patient flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoccia, R A; Benvenuto, J A; Blancett, L

    1991-08-01

    New sources of patients will become more and more important in the next decade as hospitals continue to feel the squeeze of a competitive marketplace. Vertical integration, a distribution tool used in other industries, will be a significant tool for health care administrators. In the following article, the authors explain the vertical integration model that shows promise for other institutions.

  5. Vertical integration from the large Hilbert space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Theodore; Konopka, Sebastian

    2017-12-01

    We develop an alternative description of the procedure of vertical integration based on the observation that amplitudes can be written in BRST exact form in the large Hilbert space. We relate this approach to the description of vertical integration given by Sen and Witten.

  6. Vertical Integration, Monopoly, and the First Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    This paper addresses the relationship between the First Amendment, monopoly of transmission media, and vertical integration of transmission and content provision. A survey of some of the incentives a profit-maximizing transmission monopolist may have with respect to content is followed by a discussion of how vertical integration affects those…

  7. Moving vertices to make drawings plane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goaoc, X.; Kratochvil, J.; Okamoto, Y.; Shin, C.S.; Wolff, A.; Hong, S.K.; Nishizeki, T.; Quan, W.

    2008-01-01

    In John Tantalo’s on-line game Planarity the player is given a non-plane straight-line drawing of a planar graph. The aim is to make the drawing plane as quickly as possible by moving vertices. In this paper we investigate the related problem MinMovedVertices which asks for the minimum number of

  8. COMPUTING VERTICES OF INTEGER PARTITION POLYTOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Vroublevski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a method of generating vertices of the polytopes of integer partitions that was used by the authors to calculate all vertices and support vertices of the partition polytopes for all n ≤ 105 and all knapsack partitions of n ≤ 165. The method avoids generating all partitions of n. The vertices are determined with the help of sufficient and necessary conditions; in the hard cases, the well-known program Polymake is used. Some computational aspects are exposed in more detail. These are the algorithm for checking the criterion that characterizes partitions that are convex combinations of two other partitions; the way of using two combinatorial operations that transform the known vertices to the new ones; and employing the Polymake to recognize a limited number (for small n of partitions that need three or more other partitions for being convexly expressed. We discuss the computational results on the numbers of vertices and support vertices of the partition polytopes and some appealing problems these results give rise to.

  9. Vertical Motions of Oceanic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    lasting a few hundred thousand years as the island migrates over a broad flexural arch related to isostatic compensation of a nearby active volcano. The arch is located about 190±30 km away from the center of volcanic activity and is also related to the rejuvenated volcanic stage on the islands. Reefs on Oahu that are uplifted several tens of m above sea level are the primary evidence for uplift as the islands over-ride the flexural arch. At the other end of the movement spectrum, both in terms of magnitude and length of response, are the rapid uplift and subsidence that occurs as magma is accumulated within or erupted from active submarine volcanoes. These changes are measured in days to years and are of cm to m variation; they are measured using leveling surveys, tiltmeters, EDM and GPS above sea level and pressure gauges and tiltmeters below sea level. Other acoustic techniques to measure such vertical movement are under development. Elsewhere, evidence for subsidence of volcanoes is also widespread, ranging from shallow water carbonates on drowned Cretaceous guyots, to mapped shoreline features, to the presence of subaerially-erupted (degassed) lavas on now submerged volcanoes. Evidence for uplift is more limited, but includes makatea islands with uplifted coral reefs surrounding low volcanic islands. These are formed due to flexural uplift associated with isostatic loading of nearby islands or seamounts. In sum, oceanic volcanoes display a long history of subsidence, rapid at first and then slow, sometimes punctuated by brief periods of uplift due to lithospheric loading by subsequently formed nearby volcanoes.

  10. Measuring of vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke in the forthcoming decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    I first introduce the importance of measuring V ub precisely. Then, from a theoretician's point of view, I review (a) past history, (b) present trials, and (c) possible future alternatives on measuring vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke and/or vertical stroke V ub /V cb vertical stroke. As of my main topic, I introduce a model-independent method, which predicts Γ(B→X u lν)/Γ(B→X c lν)≡(γ u /γ c ) x vertical stroke V ub /V cb vertical stroke 2 ≅(1.83±0.28) x vertical stroke V ub /V cb vertical stroke 2 and vertical stroke V ub /V cb vertical stroke ≡(γ c /γ u ) 1/2 x [B(B→X u lν)/B(B→ X c lν]) 1/2 ≅(0.74±0.06) x [B(B→X u lν/)B(B→X c lν)] 1/2 , based on the heavy quark effective theory I also explore the possible experimental options to separate B→X u lν from the dominant B→X c lν: the measurement of inclusive hadronic invariant mass distributions, and the 'D-π' (and 'K-π') separation conditions I also clarify the relevant experimental backgrounds. (orig.)

  11. determination of verticality of reservoir engineering structure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    applications is 3D survey and management of oil and gas facilities and other engineering structures. This recent .... also affect ground water contamination. 2. VERTICALITY ...... The soil, water and concrete in a Reservoir at the foundation bed ...

  12. Vertical activity estimation using 2D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding airspace activity is essential for airspace control. Being able to detect vertical activity in aircraft allows prediction of aircraft intent, thereby allowing more accurate situation awareness and correspondingly more appropriate...

  13. HL-LHC vertical cryostat during construction

    CERN Multimedia

    Lanaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    7m high "Cluster D" vertical test cryostat during construction at contractor's premises, Alca Technology Srl, in Schio, Italy. The inner helium vessel with its heat exchanger are visible. To be installed in the D pit in SMA18.

  14. Prefabricated vertical drains, vol. I : engineering guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    This volume presents procedures and guidelines applicable to the design and instal : tion of prefabricated vertical drains to accelerate consolidation of soils. The : contents represent the Consultant's interpretation of the state-of-the-art as of : ...

  15. Electrically Pumped Vertical-Cavity Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Tine

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the design of electrically pumped vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (eVCAs) for use in a mode-locked external-cavity laser has been developed, investigated and analysed. Four different eVCAs, one top-emitting and three bottom emitting structures, have been designed...... and discussed. The thesis concludes with recommendations for further work towards the realisation of compact electrically pumped mode-locked vertical externalcavity surface emitting lasers....

  16. Vertical Josephson Interferometer for Tunable Flux Qubit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granata, C [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Vettoliere, A [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Lisitskiy, M [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Rombetto, S [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, M [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Ruggiero, B [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Corato, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, R [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Silvestrini, P [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy)

    2006-06-01

    We present a niobium-based Josephson device as prototype for quantum computation with flux qubits. The most interesting feature of this device is the use of a Josephson vertical interferometer to tune the flux qubit allowing the control of the off-diagonal Hamiltonian terms of the system. In the vertical interferometer, the Josephson current is precisely modulated from a maximum to zero with fine control by a small transversal magnetic field parallel to the rf superconducting loop plane.

  17. Vertical Scan-Conversion for Filling Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Hersch, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional scan-conversion algorithms were developed independently of filling algorithms. They cause many problems, when used for filling purposes. However, today's raster printers and plotters require extended use of filling, especially for the generation of typographic characters and graphic line art. A new scan-conversion algorithm, called vertical scan-conversion has been specifically designed to meet the requirements of parity scan line fill algorithms. Vertical scan-conversion ensures...

  18. Frontolateral Approach Applied to Sellar Region Lesions: A Retrospective Study in 79 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Cheng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: FLA was an effective approach in the treatment of sellar region lesions with good preservation of visual function. FLA classification enabled tailored craniotomies for each patient according to the anatomic site of tumor invasion. This study found that FLA had similar outcomes to other surgical approaches of sellar region lesions.

  19. Vertical integration in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mommsen, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Vertical integration in the nuclear fuel cycle and its contribution to market power of integrated fuel suppliers were studied. The industry subdivision analyzed is the uranium raw materials sector. The hypotheses demonstrated are that (1) this sector of the industry is trending toward vertical integration between production of uranium raw materials and the manufacture of nuclear fuel elements, and (2) this vertical integration confers upon integrated firms a significant market advantage over non-integrated fuel manufacturers. Under microeconomic concepts the rationale for vertical integration is the pursuit of efficiency, and it is beneficial because it increases physical output and decreases price. The Market Advantage Model developed is an arithmetical statement of the relative market power (in terms of price) between non-integrated nuclear fuel manufacturers and integrated raw material/fuel suppliers, based on the concept of the ''squeeze.'' In operation, the model compares net profit and return on sales of nuclear fuel elements between the competitors, under different price and cost circumstances. The model shows that, if integrated and non-integrated competitors sell their final product at identical prices, the non-integrated manufacturer returns a net profit only 17% of the integrated firm. Also, the integrated supplier can price his product 35% below the non-integrated producer's price and still return the same net profit. Vertical integration confers a definite market advantage to the integrated supplier, and the basic source of that advantage is the cost-price differential of the raw material, uranium

  20. Climatology of tropospheric vertical velocity spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, W. L.; Gage, K. S.; Balsley, B. B.; Carter, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Vertical velocity power spectra obtained from Poker Flat, Alaska; Platteville, Colorado; Rhone Delta, France; and Ponape, East Caroline Islands using 50-MHz clear-air radars with vertical beams are given. The spectra were obtained by analyzing the quietest periods from the one-minute-resolution time series for each site. The lengths of available vertical records ranged from as long as 6 months at Poker Flat to about 1 month at Platteville. The quiet-time vertical velocity spectra are shown. Spectral period ranging from 2 minutes to 4 hours is shown on the abscissa and power spectral density is given on the ordinate. The Brunt-Vaisala (B-V) periods (determined from nearby sounding balloons) are indicated. All spectra (except the one from Platteville) exhibit a peak at periods slightly longer than the B-V period, are flat at longer periods, and fall rapidly at periods less than the B-V period. This behavior is expected for a spectrum of internal waves and is very similar to what is observed in the ocean (Eriksen, 1978). The spectral amplitudes vary by only a factor of 2 or 3 about the mean, and show that under quiet conditions vertical velocity spectra from the troposphere are very similar at widely different locations.

  1. A Physician's Perspective On Vertical Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Robert A

    2017-09-01

    Vertical integration has been a central feature of health care delivery system change for more than two decades. Recent studies have demonstrated that vertically integrated health care systems raise prices and costs without observable improvements in quality, despite many theoretical reasons why cost control and improved quality might occur. Less well studied is how physicians view their newfound partnerships with hospitals. In this article I review literature findings and other observations on five aspects of vertical integration that affect physicians in their professional and personal lives: patients' access to physicians, physician compensation, autonomy versus system support, medical professionalism and culture, and lifestyle. I conclude that the movement toward physicians' alignment with and employment in vertically integrated systems seems inexorable but that policy should not promote such integration either intentionally or inadvertently. Instead, policy should address the flaws in current payment approaches that reward high prices and excessive service use-outcomes that vertical integration currently produces. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  2. Measurement of vertical stroke Vcb vertical stroke at the Z energy from B mesons exclusive decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinelli, N.

    1998-01-01

    Recent ALEPH, DELPHI and OPAL measurements of the form factors in the exclusive decay modes anti B 0 → D *+ l - anti ν l and anti B 0 →D + l - anti ν l are reviewed here. The values obtained allow an almost model-independent determination of vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke in the HQET framework. (orig.)

  3. Measurement of vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke using b hadron semileptonic decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbiendi, G.; Aakesson, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    The magnitude of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke is determined by measuring the inclusive charmless semileptonic branching fraction of beauty hadrons at OPAL based on b → X u lν event topology and kinematics. This analysis uses OPAL data collected between 1991 and 1995, which correspond to about four million hadronic Z decays. We measure Br(b → X u lν) to be (1.63 ±0.53 +0.55 -0.62 ) x 10 -3 . The first uncertainty is the statistical error and the second is the systematic error. From this analysis, vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke is determined to be: vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke =(4.00±0.65(stat) +0.67 -0.76 (sys)±0.19(HQE)) x 10 -3 . The last error represents the theoretical uncertainties related to the extraction of vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke from Br(b→X u l ν) using the Heavy Quark Expansion. (orig.)

  4. A global vertical reference frame based on four regional vertical datums

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2004), s. 493-502 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : geopotentinal * local vertical datums * global vertical reference frame Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.447, year: 2004

  5. On the vertical structure of wind gusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suomi, I.; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The increasing size of wind turbines, their height and the area swept by their blades have revised the need for understanding the vertical structure of wind gusts. Information is needed for the whole profile. In this study, we analyzed turbulence measurements from a 100m high meteorological mast...... and the turbulence intensity, of which the turbulence intensity was found to dominate over the peak factor in determining the effects of stability and height above the surface on the gust factor. The peak factor only explained 15% or less of the vertical decrease of the gust factor, but determined the effect of gust...... duration on the gust factor. The statistical method to estimate the peak factor did not reproduce the observed vertical decrease in near-neutral and stable conditions and near-constant situation in unstable conditions. Despite this inconsistency, the theoretical method provides estimates for the peak...

  6. Vertical Footbridge Vibrations: The Response Spectrum Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel, accurate and readily codifiable methodology for the prediction of vertical footbridge response is presented. The methodology is based on the well-established response spectrum approach used in the majority of the world’s current seismic design codes of practice. The concept...... of a universally applicable reference response spectrum is introduced, from which the pedestrian-induced vertical response of any footbridge may be determined, based on a defined “event” and the probability of occurrence of that event. A series of Monte Carlo simulations are undertaken for the development...... period is introduced and its implication on the calculation of footbridge response is discussed. Finally, a brief comparison is made between the theoretically predicted pedestrian-induced vertical response of an 80m long RC footbridge (as an example) and actual field measurements. The comparison shows...

  7. Certified standards and vertical coordination in aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the interaction between food standards and vertical coordination in the Vietnamese pangasius sector. For farmers and processors alike, the adoption of standards is motivated by a desire to improve market access by ensuring high quality supply. Instead of encouraging the applic......This paper explores the interaction between food standards and vertical coordination in the Vietnamese pangasius sector. For farmers and processors alike, the adoption of standards is motivated by a desire to improve market access by ensuring high quality supply. Instead of encouraging...... the application of standards and contract farming, processing companies prefer to vertically integrate primary production largely due to concerns over the stable supply of pangasius with satisfactory quality and safety attributes. These tendencies increase the market dominance of industrial farming and worsen...

  8. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki; Okawa, Takeya

    2013-01-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified

  9. Plasmonic Properties of Vertically Aligned Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs/Ag sheath composites were produced to investigate plasmonic coupling between vertically aligned NWs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS applications. In this investigation, two types of vertical NW arrays were studied; those of ZnO NWs grown on nanosphere lithography patterned sapphire substrate via vapor-liquid-solid (VLS mechanism and Si NW arrays produced by wet chemical etching. Both types of vertical NW arrays were coated with a thin layer of silver by electroless silver plating for SERS enhancement studies. The experimental results show extremely strong SERS signals due to plasmonic coupling between the NWs, which was verified by COMSOL electric field simulations. We also compared the SERS enhancement intensity of aligned and random ZnO NWs, indicating that the aligned NWs show much stronger and repeatable SERS signal than those grown in nonaligned geometries.

  10. Vertical gradients of sunspot magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M. J.; Teuber, D.; West, E. A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Henze, W., Jr.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, M.; Hyder, C. L.; Woodgate, B. E.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) guest investigation to determine the vertical gradients of sunspot magnetic fields for the first time from coordinated observations of photospheric and transition-region fields are described. Descriptions are given of both the photospheric vector field of a sunspot, derived from observations using the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograph, and of the line-of-sight component in the transition region, obtained from the SMM Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter instrument. On the basis of these data, vertical gradients of the line-of-sight magnetic field component are calculated using three methods. It is found that the vertical gradient of Bz is lower than values from previous studies and that the transition-region field occurs at a height of approximately 4000-6000 km above the photosphere.

  11. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Okawa, Takeya; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki

    2013-07-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified.

  12. Study on characteristics of vertical strong motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akao, Y.; Katukura, H.; Fukushima, S.; Mizutani, M.

    1993-01-01

    Statistic properties of vertical strong ground motions from near-field earthquakes are discussed in comparison with that of horizontal motions. It is a feature of this analysis that time history of each observed record is divided into direct P- and S-wave segments from a seismological viewpoint. Following results are obtained. Vertical motion energy excited by direct S-waves is about 0.6 times of horizontal ones at deep underground, and it approaches to 1.0 at shallow place. Horizontal motion energy excited by direct P-waves becomes 0.2 times (at deep) or more (at shallow) of vertical one. These results can be available in modeling of input motions for aseismic design. (author)

  13. Vertical stability, high elongation, and the consequences of loss of vertical control on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellman, A.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Jensen, T.H.; Lao, L.L.; Luxon, J.L.; Skinner, D.G.; Strait, E.J.; Reis, E.; Taylor, T.S.; Turnbull, A.D.; Lazarus, E.A.; Lister, J.B.

    1990-09-01

    Recent modifications to the vertical control system for DIII-D has enabled operation of discharges with vertical elongation κ, up to 2.5. When vertical stability is lost, a disruption follows and a large vertical force on the vacuum vessel is observed. The loss of plasma energy begins when the edge safety factor q is 2 but the current decay does not begin until q ∼1.3. Current flow on the open field lines in the plasma scrapeoff layer has been measured and the magnitude and distribution of these currents can explain the observed force on the vessel. Equilibrium calculations and simulation of this vertical displacement episode are presented. 7 refs., 4 figs

  14. The Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology (RVLT) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Gloria K.

    2018-01-01

    The Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology (RVLT) Project is one of six projects in the Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP) of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. The overarching goal of the RVLT Project is to develop and validate tools, technologies, and concepts to overcome key barriers for vertical lift vehicles. The project vision is to enable the next generation of vertical lift vehicles with aggressive goals for efficiency, noise, and emissions, to expand current capabilities and develop new commercial markets. The RVLT Project invests in technologies that support conventional, non-conventional, and emerging vertical-lift aircraft in the very light to heavy vehicle classes. Research areas include acoustic, aeromechanics, drive systems, engines, icing, hybrid-electric systems, impact dynamics, experimental techniques, computational methods, and conceptual design. The project research is executed at NASA Ames, Glenn, and Langley Research Centers; the research extensively leverages partnerships with the US Army, the Federal Aviation Administration, industry, and academia. The primary facilities used by the project for testing of vertical-lift technologies include the 14- by 22-Ft Wind Tunnel, Icing Research Tunnel, National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, 7- by 10-Ft Wind Tunnel, Rotor Test Cell, Landing and Impact Research facility, Compressor Test Facility, Drive System Test Facilities, Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility, Vertical Motion Simulator, Mobile Acoustic Facility, Exterior Effects Synthesis and Simulation Lab, and the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Complex. To learn more about the RVLT Project, please stop by booth #1004 or visit their website at https://www.nasa.gov/aeroresearch/programs/aavp/rvlt.

  15. Vertically Integrated Multinationals and Productivity Spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementi, Federico; Bergmann, Friedrich

    are not automatic. In this paper, we study how these externalities are affected by the strategy of vertical integration of foreign multinationals. Our analysis, based on firm-level data of European manufacturing companies, shows that local firms perceive weaker backward spillovers if client foreign affiliates...... are vertically integrated in their industry. The spillovers that arise from the activity of companies that do not invest in the domestic firms’ industry are 2.6 to 5 times stronger than the ones than come from affiliates of multinationals that invest in the industry of local firms....

  16. Thermal Stratification in Vertical Mantle Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Furbo, Simon

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that it is important to have a high degree of thermal stratification in the hot water storage tank to achieve a high thermal performance of SDHW systems. This study is concentrated on thermal stratification in vertical mantle tanks. Experiments based on typical operation conditions...... are carried out to investigate how the thermal stratification is affected by different placements of the mantle inlet. The heat transfer between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the domestic water in the inner tank is analysed by CFD-simulations. Furthermore, the flow pattern in the vertical mantle...

  17. Breakwaters with Vertical and Inclined Concrete Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk

    Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects in the de......Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects...

  18. Preserving the Modernist Vertical Urban Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rappaport

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay is adapted in part, from the section, “Modern Factory Architecture” case studies from Nina Rappaport’s book Vertical Urban Factory, published by Actar this spring. Vertical Urban Factory began as an architecture studio, and then an exhibition, which opened in New York in 2011 and traveled to Detroit and Toronto in 2012. Last year the show was displayed at Archizoom at EPFL in Lausanne; Industry City, Brooklyn; and the Charles Moore School of Architecture at Kean University, in New Jersey. The project continues as a think tank evaluating factory futures and urban industrial potential.

  19. Geophysical aspects of vertical streamer seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sognnes, Walter

    1999-12-31

    Vertical cable acquisition is performed by deploying a certain number of vertical hydrophone arrays in the water column, and subsequently shooting a source point on top of it. The advantage of this particular geometry is that gives a data set with all azimuths included. Therefore a more complete 3-D velocity model can be derived. In this paper there are presented some results from the Fuji survey in the Gulf of Mexico. Based on these results, improved geometries and review recommendations for future surveys are discussed. 7 figs.

  20. Geophysical aspects of vertical streamer seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sognnes, Walter

    1998-12-31

    Vertical cable acquisition is performed by deploying a certain number of vertical hydrophone arrays in the water column, and subsequently shooting a source point on top of it. The advantage of this particular geometry is that gives a data set with all azimuths included. Therefore a more complete 3-D velocity model can be derived. In this paper there are presented some results from the Fuji survey in the Gulf of Mexico. Based on these results, improved geometries and review recommendations for future surveys are discussed. 7 figs.

  1. Measurement of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke Vts vertical stroke 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unverdorben, Christopher Gerhard

    2015-03-01

    This is the first direct measurement of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke, using data collected by the ATLAS detector in 2012 at √(s)= 8 TeV pp-collisions with a total integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb -1 . The analysis is based on 112 171 reconstructed t anti t candidate events in the lepton+jets channel, having a purity of 90.0 %. 183 t anti t→W + W - b anti s decays are expected (charge conjugation implied), which are available for the extraction of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 . To identify these rare decays, several observables are examined, such as the properties of jets, tracks and of b-quark identification algorithms. Furthermore, the s-quark hadrons K 0 s are considered, reconstructed by a kinematic fit. The best observables are combined in a multivariate analysis, called ''boosted decision trees''. The responses from Monte Carlo simulations are used as templates for a fit to data events yielding a significance value of 0.7σ for t→s+W decays. An upper limit of vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 <1.74 % at 95 % confidence level is set, including all systematic and statistical uncertainties. So this analysis, using a direct measurement of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 , provides the best direct limit on vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 up to now.

  2. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the...

  3. Vortex capturing vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zannetti, L; Gallizio, F; Ottino, G

    2007-01-01

    An analytical-numerical study is presented for an innovative lift vertical axis turbine whose blades are designed with vortex trapping cavities that act as passive flow control devices. The unsteady flow field past one-bladed and two-bladed turbines is described by a combined analytical and numerical method based on conformal mapping and on a blob vortex method

  4. Digital Microfluidic System with Vertical Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F. Bender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital (droplet microfluidics (DµF is a powerful platform for automated lab-on-a-chip procedures, ranging from quantitative bioassays such as RT-qPCR to complete mammalian cell culturing. The simple MEMS processing protocols typically employed to fabricate DµF devices limit their functionality to two dimensions, and hence constrain the applications for which these devices can be used. This paper describes the integration of vertical functionality into a DµF platform by stacking two planar digital microfluidic devices, altering the electrode fabrication process, and incorporating channels for reversibly translating droplets between layers. Vertical droplet movement was modeled to advance the device design, and three applications that were previously unachievable using a conventional format are demonstrated: (1 solutions of calcium dichloride and sodium alginate were vertically mixed to produce a hydrogel with a radially symmetric gradient in crosslink density; (2 a calcium alginate hydrogel was formed within the through-well to create a particle sieve for filtering suspensions passed from one layer to the next; and (3 a cell spheroid formed using an on-chip hanging-drop was retrieved for use in downstream processing. The general capability of vertically delivering droplets between multiple stacked levels represents a processing innovation that increases DµF functionality and has many potential applications.

  5. Vertical retorts for distilling, carbonizing, roasting, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, H R.L.; Bates, W R

    1917-11-17

    In a continuously operated vertical retort for destructive distillation or roasting the combination of an annular internally and externally heated construction with an annular plunger adapted to compress and assist the travel of the charge and to aid in discharging material substantially is described.

  6. The Design Philosophy for a Vertical Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijling, J. K.; Burcharth, H. F.; Voortman, H. G.

    2000-01-01

    A consistent risk-based design philosophy for vertical breakwaters is proposed. The design philosophy consists of a two-step approach. The first step is the definition of the main function of the breakwater, which leads to a definition of failure. The second step is the choice of the acceptable...

  7. Determinants Of Vertical And Horizontal Export Diversification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also reveals domestic investment plays an important role to enhance vertical as well as horizontal export diversification for East Asia, while it only ... resource-based industries and gradually shift production and exports from customary products to more dynamic ones by developing competitive advantage in the ...

  8. A Comparison of Methods of Vertical Equating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, Brenda H.; Hoover, H. D.

    Rasch model vertical equating procedures were applied to three mathematics computation tests for grades six, seven, and eight. Each level of the test was composed of 45 items in three sets of 15 items, arranged in such a way that tests for adjacent grades had two sets (30 items) in common, and the sixth and eighth grades had 15 items in common. In…

  9. Vertical reflector for bifacial PV-panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2016-01-01

    Bifacial solar modules offer an interesting price/performance ratio, and much work has been focused on directing the ground albedo to the back of the solar cells. In this work we design and develop a reflector for a vertical bifacial panel, with the objective to optimize the energy harvest...

  10. On production costs in vertical differentiation models

    OpenAIRE

    Dorothée Brécard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the effects of the introduction of a unit production cost beside a fixed cost of quality improvement in a duopoly model of vertical product differentiation. Thanks to an original methodology, we show that a low unit cost tends to reduce product differentiation and thus prices, whereas a high unit cost leads to widen product differentiation and to increase prices

  11. MHD stability of vertically asymmetric tokamak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalhed, H.E.; Grimm, R.C.; Johnson, J.L.

    1981-03-01

    The ideal MHD stability properties of a special class of vertically asymmetric tokamak equilibria are examined. The calculations confirm that no major new physical effects are introduced and the modifications can be understood by conventional arguments. The results indicate that significant departures from up-down symmetry can be tolerated before the reduction in β becomes important for reactor operation

  12. Optical anisotropy in vertically coupled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ping; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Leosson, Kristjan

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the polarization of surface and edge-emitted photoluminescence (PL) from structures with vertically coupled In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dots (QD's) grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The PL polarization is found to be strongly dependent on the number of stacked layers. While single...... number due to increasing dot size....

  13. Transient well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemker, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    A solution for the general problem of computing well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers is found by an integration of both analytical and numerical techniques. The radial component of flow is treated analytically; the drawdown is a continuous function of the distance to the well. The

  14. Proverbs : Probabilistic design tools for vertical breakwaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oumeraci, H.; Allsop, N.W.H.; De Groot, M.B.; Crouch, R.S.; Vrijling, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    Final report and appendices of the European project Proverbs on tools for the design of vertical breakwaters (caisson type breakwaters) and similar hydraulic structures in the coastal zone. It includes the loads (waves) as well as the strength of the structure (geotechnial aspects, structural

  15. The capillary interaction between two vertical cylinders

    KAUST Repository

    Cooray, Himantha; Cicuta, Pietro; Vella, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    surface clusters. Here we present a numerical method for determining the three-dimensional meniscus around a pair of vertical circular cylinders. This involves the numerical solution of the fully nonlinear Laplace-Young equation using a mesh-free finite

  16. Manufacturing: the new case for vertical integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumpe, Ted; Bolwijn, Piet

    1988-01-01

    The article argues that the solid corporation will continue to view vertical integration as a critical part of manufacturing reform. Manufacturing reform and backward integration are related in insidious ways to the three stages of production over which the big manufacturers preside. Without

  17. Vertical integration as organizational strategy formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romme, A.G.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper contributes to research into the strategy—environment relationship, especially looking at the issue of vertical integration. It aims at a synthesis of process and content approaches to strategic change on the level of the organization’s dominant group. The key factor is uncertainty, which

  18. Vertical Integration: Teachers' Knowledge and Teachers' Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrie, L.

    1995-01-01

    Traces the theoretical basis for vertical integration in early school years. Contrasts transmission-based pedagogy with a higher level of teacher control, and acquirer-based pedagogy with a higher level of student control. Suggests that early childhood pedagogy will be maintained when teachers are able to articulate their pedagogical knowledge and…

  19. Vertical integration of HRD policy within companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, Ida

    2001-01-01

    This study concerns HRD policy making in companies. More specifically, it explores whether so-called vertical integration of HRD policy at different organizational levels occurs within companies. The study involved forty-four large companies in the industrial and the financial and commercial

  20. A note on partial vertical integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); H.J.M. Peters (Hans)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractA simple model is constructed to show how partial vertical integration may emerge as an equilibrium market structure in a world characterized by rationing, differences in the reservation prices of buyers, and in the risk attitudes of buyers and sellers. The buyers with the high

  1. Vertical Integration Spurs American Health Care Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Richard C.

    1986-01-01

    Under new "managed health care systems," the classical functional separation of risk taker, claims payor, and provider are vertically integrated into a common entity. This evolution should produce a competitive environment with medical care rendered to all Americans on a more cost-effective basis. (CJH)

  2. Oblique patterned etching of vertical silicon sidewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Burckel, D.; Finnegan, Patrick S.; David Henry, M.; Resnick, Paul J.; Jarecki, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    A method for patterning on vertical silicon surfaces in high aspect ratio silicon topography is presented. A Faraday cage is used to direct energetic reactive ions obliquely through a patterned suspended membrane positioned over the topography. The technique is capable of forming high-fidelity pattern (100 nm) features, adding an additional fabrication capability to standard top-down fabrication approaches.

  3. Vertical Dynamic Stiffness of Offshore Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, Chiara; Cisternino, Michele; Zania, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, pile and suction caisson foundations are widely used to support offshore structures which are subjected to vertical dynamic loads. The dynamic soil-structure interaction of floating foundations (foundations embedded in a soil layer whose height is greater than the foundation length) is ...

  4. Vertical pump with free floating check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, M.

    1980-01-01

    A vertical pump is described which has a bottom discharge with a free floating check valve disposed in the outlet plenum thereof. The free floating check valve comprises a spherical member with a hemispherical cage-like member attached thereto which is capable of allowing forward or reverse flow under appropriate conditions while preventing reverse flow under inappropriate conditions

  5. Vertical field and equilibrium calculation in ETE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, Antonio; Shibata, Carlos Shinya.

    1996-01-01

    The free-boundary MHD equilibrium code HEQ is used to study the plasma behaviour in the tokamak ETE, with optimized compensations coils and vertical field coils. The changes on the equilibrium parameters for different plasma current values are also investigated. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Modeling tides and vertical tidal mixing: A reality check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great interest in the tidal contribution to vertical mixing in the ocean. In models, vertical mixing is estimated using parameterization of the sub-grid scale processes. Estimates of the vertical mixing varied widely depending on which vertical mixing parameterization was used. This study investigated the performance of ten different vertical mixing parameterizations in a terrain-following ocean model when simulating internal tides. The vertical mixing parameterization was found to have minor effects on the velocity fields at the tidal frequencies, but large effects on the estimates of vertical diffusivity of temperature. Although there was no definitive best performer for the vertical mixing parameterization, several parameterizations were eliminated based on comparison of the vertical diffusivity estimates with observations. The best performers were the new generic coefficients for the generic length scale schemes and Mellor-Yamada's 2.5 level closure scheme.

  7. Vertical Structure of Radiation-pressure-dominated Thin Disks: Link between Vertical Advection and Convective Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Hong-Yu; Gu, Wei-Min

    2017-01-01

    In the classic picture of standard thin accretion disks, viscous heating is balanced by radiative cooling through the diffusion process, and the radiation-pressure-dominated inner disk suffers convective instability. However, recent simulations have shown that, owing to the magnetic buoyancy, the vertical advection process can significantly contribute to energy transport. In addition, in comparing the simulation results with the local convective stability criterion, no convective instability has been found. In this work, following on from simulations, we revisit the vertical structure of radiation-pressure-dominated thin disks and include the vertical advection process. Our study indicates a link between the additional energy transport and the convectively stable property. Thus, the vertical advection not only significantly contributes to the energy transport, but it also plays an important role in making the disk convectively stable. Our analyses may help to explain the discrepancy between classic theory and simulations on standard thin disks.

  8. vertical bar Vub vertical bar from exclusive semileptonic B→π decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, Jonathan M.; Nieves, Juan

    2007-01-01

    We use Omnes representations of the form factors f + and f 0 for exclusive semileptonic B→π decays, paying special attention to the treatment of the B* pole and its effect on f + . We apply them to combine experimental partial branching fraction information with theoretical calculations of both form factors to extract vertical bar V ub vertical bar. The precision we achieve is competitive with the inclusive determination and we do not find a significant discrepancy between our result, vertical bar V ub vertical bar=(3.90+/-0.32+/-0.18)x10 -3 , and the inclusive world average value (4.45+/-0.20+/-0.26)x10 -3 [Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG), hep-ex/0603003

  9. The Vertical Farm: A Review of Developments and Implications for the Vertical City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheir Al-Kodmany

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the emerging need for vertical farms by examining issues related to food security, urban population growth, farmland shortages, “food miles”, and associated greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Urban planners and agricultural leaders have argued that cities will need to produce food internally to respond to demand by increasing population and to avoid paralyzing congestion, harmful pollution, and unaffordable food prices. The paper examines urban agriculture as a solution to these problems by merging food production and consumption in one place, with the vertical farm being suitable for urban areas where available land is limited and expensive. Luckily, recent advances in greenhouse technologies such as hydroponics, aeroponics, and aquaponics have provided a promising future to the vertical farm concept. These high-tech systems represent a paradigm shift in farming and food production and offer suitable and efficient methods for city farming by minimizing maintenance and maximizing yield. Upon reviewing these technologies and examining project prototypes, we find that these efforts may plant the seeds for the realization of the vertical farm. The paper, however, closes by speculating about the consequences, advantages, and disadvantages of the vertical farm’s implementation. Economic feasibility, codes, regulations, and a lack of expertise remain major obstacles in the path to implementing the vertical farm.

  10. Adaptation of the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex in cats during low-frequency vertical rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushiki, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Motoyoshi; Shojaku, Hideo

    2018-04-01

    We examined plastic changes in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during low-frequency vertical head rotation, a condition under which otolith inputs from the vestibular system are essential for VOR generation. For adaptive conditioning of the vertical VOR, 0.02Hz sinusoidal pitch rotation for one hour about the earth's horizontal axis was synchronized with out-of-phase vertical visual stimulation from a random dot pattern. A vertical VOR was well evoked when the upright animal rotated around the earth-horizontal axis (EHA) at low frequency due to the changing gravity stimulus and dynamic stimulation of the otoliths. After adaptive conditioning, the amplitude of the vertical VOR increased by an average of 32.1%. Our observations showing plasticity in the otolithic contribution to the VOR may provide a new strategy for visual-vestibular mismatch training in patients with otolithic disorders. This low-frequency vertical head rotation protocol also provides a model for investigating the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of VORs mediated by otolith activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of vertical coordinate and vertical mixing algorithms in the HYbrid-Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, George R.

    Vertical coordinate and vertical mixing algorithms included in the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) are evaluated in low-resolution climatological simulations of the Atlantic Ocean. The hybrid vertical coordinates are isopycnic in the deep ocean interior, but smoothly transition to level (pressure) coordinates near the ocean surface, to sigma coordinates in shallow water regions, and back again to level coordinates in very shallow water. By comparing simulations to climatology, the best model performance is realized using hybrid coordinates in conjunction with one of the three available differential vertical mixing models: the nonlocal K-Profile Parameterization, the NASA GISS level 2 turbulence closure, and the Mellor-Yamada level 2.5 turbulence closure. Good performance is also achieved using the quasi-slab Price-Weller-Pinkel dynamical instability model. Differences among these simulations are too small relative to other errors and biases to identify the "best" vertical mixing model for low-resolution climate simulations. Model performance deteriorates slightly when the Kraus-Turner slab mixed layer model is used with hybrid coordinates. This deterioration is smallest when solar radiation penetrates beneath the mixed layer and when shear instability mixing is included. A simulation performed using isopycnic coordinates to emulate the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM), which uses Kraus-Turner mixing without penetrating shortwave radiation and shear instability mixing, demonstrates that the advantages of switching from isopycnic to hybrid coordinates and including more sophisticated turbulence closures outweigh the negative numerical effects of maintaining hybrid vertical coordinates.

  12. Microstructure, vertical strain control and tunable functionalities in self-assembled, vertically aligned nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Aiping; Bi, Zhenxing; Jia, Quanxi; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.; Wang, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) oxide thin films have recently stimulated a significant amount of research interest owing to their novel architecture, vertical interfacial strain control and tunable material functionalities. In this work, the growth mechanisms of VAN thin films have been investigated by varying the composite material system, the ratio of the two constituent phases, and the thin film growth conditions including deposition temperature and oxygen pressure as well as growth rate. It has been shown that thermodynamic parameters, elastic and interfacial energies and the multiple phase ratio play dominant roles in the resulting microstructure. In addition, vertical interfacial strain has been observed in BiFeO 3 (BFO)- and La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 (LSMO)-based VAN thin film systems; the vertical strain could be tuned by the growth parameters and selection of a suitable secondary phase. The tunability of physical properties such as dielectric loss in BFO:Sm 2 O 3 VAN and low-field magnetoresistance in LSMO-based VAN systems has been demonstrated. The enhancement and tunability of those physical properties have been attributed to the unique VAN architecture and vertical strain control. These results suggest that VAN architecture with novel microstructure and unique vertical strain tuning could provide a general route for tailoring and manipulating the functionalities of oxide thin films

  13. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386

  14. New Urban Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Mihai CISMILIANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a different approach for enhancing the performance of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines for the use in the urban or rural environment and remote isolated residential areas. Recently the vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT have become more attractive due to the major advantages of this type of turbines in comparison to the horizontal axis wind turbines. We aim to enhance the overall performance of the VAWT by adding a second set of blades (3 x 2=6 blades following the rules of biplane airplanes. The model has been made to operate at a maximum power in the range of the TSR between 2 to 2.5. The performances of the VAWT were investigated numerically and experimentally and justify the new proposed design.

  15. Alignment analysis of a vertical sodium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, V.K.; Fair, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    With the objective of identifying important alignment features of pumps such as FFTF, HALLAM, EBR II, PNC, PHENIX, and CRBR, alignment of the vertical sodium pump for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) is investigated. The CRBRP pump includes a flexibly coupled pump shaft and motor shaft, two oil-film tilting-pad hydrodynamic radial bearings in the motor plus a vertical thrust bearing, and two sodium hydrostatic bearings straddling the double-suction centrifugal impeller in the pump. The assembled CRBRP prototype pump shows smooth predictable vibration behavior experienced during water test. An ealier swing check of the pump shaft about the motor shaft hub demonstrated that the pump is relatively insensitive to manufacturing and assembly tolerances, a consequence of close dimensional control and unique alignment features. (orig./GL)

  16. Asymmetric SOL Current in Vertically Displaced Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, J. D.; Navratil, G. A.; Hanson, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Experiments at the DIII-D tokamak demonstrate a non-monotonic relationship between measured scrape-off layer (SOL) currents and vertical displacement event (VDE) rates with SOL currents becoming largely n=1 dominant as plasma is displaced by the plasma control system (PCS) at faster rates. The DIII-D PCS is used to displace the magnetic axis 10x slower than the intrinsic growth time of similar instabilities in lower single-null plasmas. Low order (n VDE instabilities observed when vertical control is disabled. Previous inquiry shows VDE asymmetry characterized by SOL current fraction and geometric parameters of tokamak plasmas. We note that, of plasmas displaced by the PCS, short displacement time scales near the limit of the PCS temporal control appear to result in larger n=1/n=2 asymmetries. Work supported under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-FG02-04ER54761.

  17. Round beams generated by vertical dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, P.

    1990-01-01

    Simulations suggest that in e + e - storage rings collisions of round beams (equal emittances and equal β*) can produce very large tune shifts and luminosities. We understand how to make equal β*s, but generating equal emittances is more difficult. We describe an equal emittance scheme that uses several skew quads to couple horizontal dispersion into vertical dispersion. These skew quads also produce a coupling bump. At the interaction point and at other points outside the coupling bump, the motion is not coupled, so that the 'A' normal mode corresponds to horizontal motion and the 'B' normal mode corresponds to vertical motion. We present a round beam lattice for CESR that incorporates this scheme

  18. Escrita Escolar Brasileira: a escrita vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos André Xavier Villela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O exame grafoscópico visa essencialmente a determinar se duas escritas partiram ou não de um mesmo punho. A fim de buscar dados empíricos capazes de melhor embasar uma valoração de raridade, diversos pesquisadores se dedicaram ao estudo dos sistemas de escrita. O presente trabalho analisa algumas bibliografias nacionais e estrangeiras que descrevem como se deu o alvorecer da escrita vertical e sua implantação no universo escolar brasileiro. Foi a partir das últimas décadas do século XIX que alógrafos cursivos verticais começaram a ser utilizados para o ensino da escrita. Os novos sistemas, sob a denominação escrita vertical, tiveram presença marcante em todo o mundo ocidental, sendo até hoje os sistemas predominantes em diversos países.

  19. Equilibrium vertical field in the TBR Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, A.Y.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental study on the influence of the vertical magnetic field of the TBR tokamak on the stability and equilibrium of plasma column, was done. Magnetic pick-up coils were built to measure plasma current and position, together with active networks, necessary fo the electronic processing of signals. Some measurements were on the space configuration of the vertical field, and on the influence due to the toroidal vessel. From the data obtained it was possible to discuss the influence of the currents induced on the vessel surface, on plasma equilibrium. Theoretical and experimental results of the vertica field, as a function of plasma current were compared, and allowed an evaluation of the plasma kinetic pressure and temperature. (Author) [pt

  20. High-Performance Vertical Organic Electrochemical Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Mary J; Williamson, Adam; Strakosas, Xenofon; Friedlein, Jacob T; McLeod, Robert R; Gleskova, Helena; Malliaras, George G

    2018-02-01

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are promising transducers for biointerfacing due to their high transconductance, biocompatibility, and availability in a variety of form factors. Most OECTs reported to date, however, utilize rather large channels, limiting the transistor performance and resulting in a low transistor density. This is typically a consequence of limitations associated with traditional fabrication methods and with 2D substrates. Here, the fabrication and characterization of OECTs with vertically stacked contacts, which overcome these limitations, is reported. The resulting vertical transistors exhibit a reduced footprint, increased intrinsic transconductance of up to 57 mS, and a geometry-normalized transconductance of 814 S m -1 . The fabrication process is straightforward and compatible with sensitive organic materials, and allows exceptional control over the transistor channel length. This novel 3D fabrication method is particularly suited for applications where high density is needed, such as in implantable devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Soft soils reinforced by rigid vertical inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia-Victoria NEAGOE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement of soft soils by rigid vertical inclusions is an increasingly used technique over the last few years. The system consists of rigid or semi-rigid vertical inclusions and a granular platform for the loads transfer from the structure to the inclusions. This technique aims to reduce the differential settlements both at ground level as below the structure. Reinforcement by rigid inclusions is mainly used for foundation works for large commercial and industrial platforms, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants, wind farms, bridges, roads, railway embankments. The subject is one of interest as it proves the recently concerns at international level in research and design; however, most studies deal more with the static behavior and less with the dynamic one.

  2. Interaction vertices in reduced string field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embacher, F.

    1989-01-01

    In contrast to previous expectations, covariant overlap vertices are not always suitable for gauge-covariant formulations of bosonic string field theory with a reduced supplementary field content. This is demonstrated for the version of the theory suggested by Neveu, Schwarz and West. The method to construct the interaction, as formulated by Neveu and West, fails at one level higher than these authors have considered. The condition for a general vertex to describe formally a local gauge-invariant interaction is derived. The solution for the action functional and the gauge transformation law is exhibited for all fields at once, to the first order in the coupling constant. However, all these vertices seem to be unphysical. 21 refs. (Author)

  3. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  4. RADIALLY MAGNETIZED PROTOPLANETARY DISK: VERTICAL PROFILE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Matthew; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the response of a thin accretion disk to an external radial magnetic field. Our focus is on protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are exposed during their later evolution to an intense, magnetized wind from the central star. A radial magnetic field is mixed into a thin surface layer, wound up by the disk shear, and pushed downward by a combination of turbulent mixing and ambipolar and ohmic drift. The toroidal field reaches much greater strengths than the seed vertical field that is usually invoked in PPD models, even becoming superthermal. Linear stability analysis indicates that the disk experiences the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at a higher magnetization than a vertically magnetized disk when both the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift are taken into account. Steady vertical profiles of density and magnetic field are obtained at several radii between 0.06 and 1 AU in response to a wind magnetic field B r ∼ (10 −4 –10 −2 )(r/ AU) −2 G. Careful attention is given to the radial and vertical ionization structure resulting from irradiation by stellar X-rays. The disk is more strongly magnetized closer to the star, where it can support a higher rate of mass transfer. As a result, the inner ∼1 AU of a PPD is found to evolve toward lower surface density. Mass transfer rates around 10 −8 M ⊙ yr −1 are obtained under conservative assumptions about the MRI-generated stress. The evolution of the disk and the implications for planet migration are investigated in the accompanying paper

  5. RADIALLY MAGNETIZED PROTOPLANETARY DISK: VERTICAL PROFILE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Matthew [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 1A7 (Canada); Thompson, Christopher [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2015-11-10

    This paper studies the response of a thin accretion disk to an external radial magnetic field. Our focus is on protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are exposed during their later evolution to an intense, magnetized wind from the central star. A radial magnetic field is mixed into a thin surface layer, wound up by the disk shear, and pushed downward by a combination of turbulent mixing and ambipolar and ohmic drift. The toroidal field reaches much greater strengths than the seed vertical field that is usually invoked in PPD models, even becoming superthermal. Linear stability analysis indicates that the disk experiences the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at a higher magnetization than a vertically magnetized disk when both the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift are taken into account. Steady vertical profiles of density and magnetic field are obtained at several radii between 0.06 and 1 AU in response to a wind magnetic field B{sub r} ∼ (10{sup −4}–10{sup −2})(r/ AU){sup −2} G. Careful attention is given to the radial and vertical ionization structure resulting from irradiation by stellar X-rays. The disk is more strongly magnetized closer to the star, where it can support a higher rate of mass transfer. As a result, the inner ∼1 AU of a PPD is found to evolve toward lower surface density. Mass transfer rates around 10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} are obtained under conservative assumptions about the MRI-generated stress. The evolution of the disk and the implications for planet migration are investigated in the accompanying paper.

  6. Assessing verticalization effects on urban safety perception

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Ricardo Barros

    2017-01-01

    We describe an experiment with the modeling of urban verticalization effects on perceived safety scores as obtained with computer vision on Google Streetview data for New York City. Preliminary results suggests that for smaller buildings (between one and seven floors), perceived safety increases with building height, but that for high-rise buildings, perceived safety decreases with increased height. We also determined that while height contributing for this relation, other zonal aspects also ...

  7. Vertical Integration Versus Outsourcing in Industry Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Wang

    2006-01-01

    We study the determinants of the extent of in-house vertical integration and of outsourcing in foreign countries. Potential suppliers must make a relationship-specific investment in order to serve each prospective customer. Such investments are governed by imperfect contracts. A final-good producer can manufacture components for it, but the per-unit cost is higher than for specialized suppliers. We consider how the size of the cost differential, the trade costs of components, the relative cos...

  8. Vertical Integration in the Taiwan Aquaculture Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tzong-Ru Lee (Jiun-Shen); Yi-Hsu; Cheng-Jen Lin; Kongkiti Phusavat; Nirote Sinnarong

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to improve the distribution channels in the Taiwan aquaculture industry through a better vertical integration. This study is derived from a need to improve the distribution performance of agricultural-based industries in response to increasing food demands in Asia and elsewhere. Based on a four-by-eight matrix derived from both a value chain and a service profit chain, thirty different strategies are developed. This development is based on key success factors and strategies for...

  9. Vertical integration technologies for vertex detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratti, L.

    2011-01-01

    This work is focused on the use of vertical integration (3D) technologies in the design of hybrid or monolithic pixel detectors in view of applications to silicon vertex trackers (SVTs) at the future high luminosity colliders. After a short introduction on the specifications of next-generation SVTs, the paper will discuss the general features of 3D microelectronic processes and the benefits they can provide to the design of pixel detectors for high energy physics experiments.

  10. Vertical hydraulic transport of particulate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restini, C.V.; Massarani, G.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of particulate solid vertical transport is formulated using the conservation equations of Continuum Mechanics. It is shown that the constitutive equation for solid-fluid interaction term in the equations of motion may be determined by rather simple experiments of homogeneous fluidization. The predicted fluid pressure drop and solid concentration are in satisfacting agreement with past experiments and with data obtained in this work. (Author) [pt

  11. Data driven modelling of vertical atmospheric radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoch, Jaromir; Hlubinka, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) there exists a unique set of meteorological measurements consisting of the values of vertical atmospheric levels of beta and gamma radiation. In this paper a stochastic data-driven model based on nonlinear regression and on nonhomogeneous Poisson process is suggested. In the first part of the paper, growth curves were used to establish an appropriate nonlinear regression model. For comparison we considered a nonhomogeneous Poisson process with its intensity based on growth curves. In the second part both approaches were applied to the real data and compared. Computational aspects are briefly discussed as well. The primary goal of this paper is to present an improved understanding of the distribution of environmental radiation as obtained from the measurements of the vertical radioactivity profiles by the radioactivity sonde system. - Highlights: → We model vertical atmospheric levels of beta and gamma radiation. → We suggest appropriate nonlinear regression model based on growth curves. → We compare nonlinear regression modelling with Poisson process based modeling. → We apply both models to the real data.

  12. Rotation of vertically oriented objects during earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Klaus-G.

    2012-10-01

    Vertically oriented objects, such as tombstones, monuments, columns, and stone lanterns, are often observed to shift and rotate during earthquake ground motion. Such observations are usually limited to the mesoseismal zone. Whether near-field rotational ground motion components are necessary in addition to pure translational movements to explain the observed rotations is an open question. We summarize rotation data from seven earthquakes between 1925 and 2009 and perform analog and numeric rotation testing with vertically oriented objects. The free-rocking motion of a marble block on a sliding table is disturbed by a pulse in the direction orthogonal to the rocking motion. When the impulse is sufficiently strong and occurs at the `right' moment, it induces significant rotation of the block. Numeric experiments of a free-rocking block show that the initiation of vertical block rotation by a cycloidal acceleration pulse applied orthogonal to the rocking axis depends on the amplitude of the pulse and its phase relation to the rocking cycle. Rotation occurs when the pulse acceleration exceeds the threshold necessary to provoke rocking of a resting block, and the rocking block approaches its equilibrium position. Experiments with blocks subjected to full 3D strong motion signals measured during the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake confirm the observations from the tests with analytic ground motions. Significant differences in the rotational behavior of a monolithic block and two stacked blocks exist.

  13. Human sensitivity to vertical self-motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesti, Alessandro; Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Macneilage, Paul R; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2014-01-01

    Perceiving vertical self-motion is crucial for maintaining balance as well as for controlling an aircraft. Whereas heave absolute thresholds have been exhaustively studied, little work has been done in investigating how vertical sensitivity depends on motion intensity (i.e., differential thresholds). Here we measure human sensitivity for 1-Hz sinusoidal accelerations for 10 participants in darkness. Absolute and differential thresholds are measured for upward and downward translations independently at 5 different peak amplitudes ranging from 0 to 2 m/s(2). Overall vertical differential thresholds are higher than horizontal differential thresholds found in the literature. Psychometric functions are fit in linear and logarithmic space, with goodness of fit being similar in both cases. Differential thresholds are higher for upward as compared to downward motion and increase with stimulus intensity following a trend best described by two power laws. The power laws' exponents of 0.60 and 0.42 for upward and downward motion, respectively, deviate from Weber's Law in that thresholds increase less than expected at high stimulus intensity. We speculate that increased sensitivity at high accelerations and greater sensitivity to downward than upward self-motion may reflect adaptations to avoid falling.

  14. Measurement of vertical stability metrics in KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Sang-Hee; Humphreys, D. A.; Mueller, D.; Bak, J. G.; Eidietis, N. W.; Kim, H.-S.; Ko, J. S.; Walker, M. L.; Kstar Team

    2017-10-01

    The paper summarizes results of multi-year ITPA experiments regarding measurement of the vertical stabilization capability of KSTAR discharges, including most recent measurements at the highest achievable elongation (κ 2.0 - 2.1). The measurements of the open-loop growth rate of VDE (γz) and the maximum controllable vertical displacement (ΔZmax) are done by the release-and-catch method. The dynamics of the vertical movement of the plasma is verified by both relevant magnetic reconstructions and non-magnetic diagnostics. The measurements of γz and ΔZmax were done for different plasma currents, βp, internal inductances, elongations and different configurations of the vessel conductors that surround the plasma as the first wall. Effects of control design choice and diagnostics noise are discussed, and comparison with the axisymmetric plasma response model is given for partial accounting for the measured control capability. This work supported by Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning under KSTAR project.

  15. Feedback control of vertical instability in TNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantz, E.R.

    1978-05-01

    Due to the unfavorable curvature of the vertical vacuum magnetic field, elongated plasmas are vertically unstable when the elongation, epsilon, becomes too large. The TNS (The Next Step) tokamak, as evolved in the Westinghouse-ORNL studies has an inside-D configuration (epsilon = 1.6, A = 5/1.25 = 4) characterized by an average decay index n approximately equal -0.75 at the plasma flux surface near the magnetic axis and is vertically unstable with a growth rate γ 0 approximately 10 5 sec -1 . Eddy currents produced in the vacuum vessel wall will slow this instability to growth rates γ 0 approximately 10 2 sec -1 provided there are no transverse insulating gaps in the vessel wall. A matrix equation has been developed for calculating the eddy currents induced in the EF coils and their stabilizing effect. Control theory for feedback systems with and without delay time is presented and possible plasma position detectors are discussed. For a plasma current of 6.1 MA, the controller peak power requirements using separate controller circuits are approximately 1 MW depending upon EF coil configurations and time delay. This feedback system is designed to stabilize a maximum plasma excursion of 10 cm from the midplane with delay times up to 2 sec

  16. TFTR vertically viewing electron cyclotron emission diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.

    1990-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Michelson interferometer has a spectral coverage of 75--540 GHz, allowing measurement of the first four electron cyclotron harmonics. Until recently the instrument has been configured to view the TFTR plasma on the horizontal midplane, primarily in order to measure the electron temperature profile. Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) extraordinary mode spectra from TFTR Supershot plasmas exhibit a pronounced, spectrally narrow feature below the second harmonic. A similar feature is seen with the ECE radiometer diagnostic below the electron cyclotron fundamental frequency in the ordinary mode. Analysis of the ECE spectra indicates the possibility of a non-Maxwellian 40--80 keV tail on the electron distribution in or near the core. During 1990 three vertical views with silicon carbide viewing targets will be installed to provide a direct measurement of the electron energy distribution at major radii of 2.54, 2.78, and 3.09 m with an energy resolution of approximately 20% at 100 keV. To provide the maximum flexibility, the optical components for the vertical views will be remotely controlled to allow the Michelson interferometer to be reconfigured to either the midplane horizontal view or one of the three vertical views between plasma shots

  17. Vertical and horizontal seismometric observations of tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambotte, S.; Rivera, L.; Hinderer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tidal signals have been largely studied with gravimeters, strainmeters and tiltmeters, but can also be retrieved from digital records of the output of long-period seismometers, such as STS-1, particularly if they are properly isolated. Horizontal components are often noisier than the vertical ones, due to sensitivity to tilt at long periods. Hence, horizontal components are often disturbed by local effects such as topography, geology and cavity effects, which imply a strain-tilt coupling. We use series of data (duration larger than 1 month) from several permanent broadband seismological stations to examine these disturbances. We search a minimal set of observable signals (tilts, horizontal and vertical displacements, strains, gravity) necessary to reconstruct the seismological record. Such analysis gives a set of coefficients (per component for each studied station), which are stable over years and then can be used systematically to correct data from these disturbances without needing heavy numerical computation. A special attention is devoted to ocean loading for stations close to oceans (e.g. Matsushiro station in Japon (MAJO)), and to pressure correction when barometric data are available. Interesting observations are made for vertical seismometric components; in particular, we found a pressure admittance between pressure and data 10 times larger than for gravimeters for periods larger than 1 day, while this admittance reaches the usual value of -3.5 nm/s 2/mbar for periods below 3 h. This observation may be due to instrumental noise, but the exact mechanism is not yet understood.

  18. Algebraic motion of vertically displacing plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferlé, D.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2018-02-01

    The vertical motion of a tokamak plasma is analytically modelled during its non-linear phase by a free-moving current-carrying rod inductively coupled to a set of fixed conducting wires or a cylindrical conducting shell. The solutions capture the leading term in a Taylor expansion of the Green's function for the interaction between the plasma column and the surrounding vacuum vessel. The plasma shape and profiles are assumed not to vary during the vertical drifting phase such that the plasma column behaves as a rigid body. In the limit of perfectly conducting structures, the plasma is prevented to come in contact with the wall due to steep effective potential barriers created by the induced Eddy currents. Resistivity in the wall allows the equilibrium point to drift towards the vessel on the slow timescale of flux penetration. The initial exponential motion of the plasma, understood as a resistive vertical instability, is succeeded by a non-linear "sinking" behaviour shown to be algebraic and decelerating. The acceleration of the plasma column often observed in experiments is thus concluded to originate from an early sharing of toroidal current between the core, the halo plasma, and the wall or from the thermal quench dynamics precipitating loss of plasma current.

  19. Dynamic stiffness of suction caissons - vertical vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.; Andersen, Lars

    2006-12-15

    The dynamic response of offshore wind turbines are affected by the properties of the foundation and the subsoil. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the dynamic soil-structure interaction of suction caissons for offshore wind turbines. The investigation is limited to a determination of the vertical dynamic stiffness of suction caissons. The soil surrounding the foundation is homogenous with linear viscoelastic properties. The dynamic stiffness of the suction caisson is expressed by dimensionless frequency-dependent dynamic stiffness coefficients corresponding to the vertical degree of freedom. The dynamic stiffness coefficients for the foundations are evaluated by means of a dynamic three-dimensional coupled Boundary Element/Finite Element model. Comparisons are made with known analytical and numerical solutions in order to evaluate the static and dynamic behaviour of the Boundary Element/Finite Element model. The vertical frequency dependent stiffness has been determined for different combinations of the skirt length, Poisson's ratio and the ratio between soil stiffness and skirt stiffness. Finally the dynamic behaviour at high frequencies is investigated. (au)

  20. Retrieving Vertical Air Motion and Raindrop Size Distributions from Vertically Pointing Doppler Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. R.; Chandra, C. V.

    2017-12-01

    The vertical evolution of falling raindrops is a result of evaporation, breakup, and coalescence acting upon those raindrops. Computing these processes using vertically pointing radar observations is a two-step process. First, the raindrop size distribution (DSD) and vertical air motion need to be estimated throughout the rain shaft. Then, the changes in DSD properties need to be quantified as a function of height. The change in liquid water content is a measure of evaporation, and the change in raindrop number concentration and size are indicators of net breakup or coalescence in the vertical column. The DSD and air motion can be retrieved using observations from two vertically pointing radars operating side-by-side and at two different wavelengths. While both radars are observing the same raindrop distribution, they measure different reflectivity and radial velocities due to Rayleigh and Mie scattering properties. As long as raindrops with diameters greater than approximately 2 mm are in the radar pulse volumes, the Rayleigh and Mie scattering signatures are unique enough to estimate DSD parameters using radars operating at 3- and 35-GHz (Williams et al. 2016). Vertical decomposition diagrams (Williams 2016) are used to explore the processes acting on the raindrops. Specifically, changes in liquid water content with height quantify evaporation or accretion. When the raindrops are not evaporating, net raindrop breakup and coalescence are identified by changes in the total number of raindrops and changes in the DSD effective shape as the raindrops. This presentation will focus on describing the DSD and air motion retrieval method using vertical profiling radar observations from the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) central facility in Northern Oklahoma.

  1. ostglacial rebound from VLBI Geodesy: On Establishing Vertical Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, Donald .

    1996-01-01

    I propose that a useful reference frame for vertical motions is that found by minimizing differences between vertical motions observed with VLBI [Ma and Ryan, 1995] and predictions from postglacial rebound predictions [Peltier, 1995].

  2. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Qingxiao; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Zhihong; Zhang, Xixiang; Abutaha, Anas I.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) have been developed using pure semiconducting carbon nanotubes. The source and drain were vertically stacked, separated by a dielectric, and the carbon nanotubes were placed

  3. Going Up? The Pros and Cons of Vertical Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myler, Patricia A.; Boggs, Richard C.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the advantages and disadvantages of the vertical expansion of school buildings. Considers such factors as fire protection, compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, and cost. Discusses alternatives to vertical expansion. (PKP)

  4. Tolerances for the vertical emittance in damping rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1991-11-01

    Future damping rings for linear colliders will need to have very small vertical emittances. In the limit of low beam current, the vertical emittance is primarily determined by the vertical dispersion and the betatron coupling. In this paper, the contributions to these effects from random misalignments are calculated and tolerances are derived to limit the vertical emittance with a 95% confidence level. 10 refs., 5 figs

  5. The correction of occlusal vertical dimension on tooth wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostiny Rostiny

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The loss of occlusal vertical dimension which is caused by tooth wear is necessarily treated to regain vertical dimension. Correctional therapy should be done as early possible. In this case, simple and relatively low cost therapy was performed. In unserve loss of occlusal vertical dimension, partial removable denture could be used and the improvement of lengthening anterior teeth using composite resin to improve to regain vertical dimensional occlusion.

  6. Vertical specialization and industrial upgrading: a preliminary note

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Jiang; William Milberg

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vertical specialization is a measure of the import content of exports. Given the widely recognized importance of trade in tasks and global production networks, vertical specialization has recently gained the attention of international trade researchers and policy makers. In this note, we use measured changes in the within-country pattern of vertical specialization to gauge the relevance of task trade for industrial upgrading and economic development. We first calculate vertical speci...

  7. Analysis of vertical stability limits and vertical displacement event behavior on NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Mark; Battaglia, Devon; Gerhardt, Stefan; Menard, Jonathan; Mueller, Dennis; Myers, Clayton; Sabbagh, Steven; Smith, David

    2017-10-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) completed its first run campaign in 2016, including commissioning a larger center-stack and three new tangentially aimed neutral beam sources. NSTX-U operates at increased aspect ratio due to the larger center-stack, making vertical stabilization more challenging. Since ST performance is improved at high elongation, improvements to the vertical control system were made, including use of multiple up-down-symmetric flux loop pairs for real-time estimation, and filtering to remove noise. Similar operating limits to those on NSTX (in terms of elongation and internal inductance) were achieved, now at higher aspect ratio. To better understand the observed limits and project to future operating points, a database of vertical displacement events and vertical oscillations observed during the plasma current ramp-up on NSTX/NSTX-U has been generated. Shots were clustered based on the characteristics of the VDEs/oscillations, and the plasma parameter regimes associated with the classes of behavior were studied. Results provide guidance for scenario development during ramp-up to avoid large oscillations at the time of diverting, and provide the means to assess stability of target scenarios for the next campaign. Results will also guide plans for improvements to the vertical control system. Work supported by U.S. D.O.E. Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  8. 2D Vertical Heterostructures for Novel Tunneling Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    2D Vertical Heterostructures for Novel Tunneling Device Applications Philip M. Campbell, Christopher J. Perini, W. Jud Ready, and Eric M. Vogel...School of Materials Science and Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA, USA 30332 Abstract: Vertical heterostructures...digital logic, signal processing, analog-to-digital conversion, and high-frequency communications, vertical heterostructure tunneling devices have

  9. Vertical vs. Horizontal Integration: Pre-emptive Merging.

    OpenAIRE

    Colangelo, Giuseppe

    1995-01-01

    Preemption plays a crucial role in arms merger decisions. The author studies whether and under which circumstances preemptive merging occurs in vertically related industries. He finds that vertical mergers often preempt horizontal mergers and are dominant outcomes. Preempting the threat of a detrimental horizontal integration may be the main reason for vertically integrating. Copyright 1995 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Mechanical design of NASA Ames Research Center vertical motion simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbert, D. F.; Bakke, A. P.; Chargin, M. K.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    NASA has designed and is constructing a new flight simulator with large vertical travel. Several aspects of the mechanical design of this Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) are discussed, including the multiple rack and pinion vertical drive, a pneumatic equilibration system, and the friction-damped rigid link catenaries used as cable supports.

  11. Vertical selection in the information domain of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Torres, Sergio; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Huibers, Theo W.C.

    In this paper we explore the vertical selection methods in aggregated search in the specific domain of topics for children between 7 and 12 years old. A test collection consisting of 25 verticals, 3.8K queries and relevant assessments for a large sample of these queries mapping relevant verticals to

  12. Effect of vertical integration on the utilization of hardwood resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of vertical integration in promoting the efficient utilization of the hardwood resource in the eastern United States was assessed during a series of interviews with vertically integrated hardwood manufacturers in the Appalachian region. Data from 19 companies that responded to the 1996 phone survey indicate that: 1) vertically integrated hardwood...

  13. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  14. Transient well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemker, C. J.

    1999-11-01

    A solution for the general problem of computing well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers is found by an integration of both analytical and numerical techniques. The radial component of flow is treated analytically; the drawdown is a continuous function of the distance to the well. The finite-difference technique is used for the vertical flow component only. The aquifer is discretized in the vertical dimension and the heterogeneous aquifer is considered to be a layered (stratified) formation with a finite number of homogeneous sublayers, where each sublayer may have different properties. The transient part of the differential equation is solved with Stehfest's algorithm, a numerical inversion technique of the Laplace transform. The well is of constant discharge and penetrates one or more of the sublayers. The effect of wellbore storage on early drawdown data is taken into account. In this way drawdowns are found for a finite number of sublayers as a continuous function of radial distance to the well and of time since the pumping started. The model is verified by comparing results with published analytical and numerical solutions for well flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous, confined and unconfined aquifers. Instantaneous and delayed drainage of water from above the water table are considered, combined with the effects of partially penetrating and finite-diameter wells. The model is applied to demonstrate that the transient effects of wellbore storage in unconfined aquifers are less pronounced than previous numerical experiments suggest. Other applications of the presented solution technique are given for partially penetrating wells in heterogeneous formations, including a demonstration of the effect of decreasing specific storage values with depth in an otherwise homogeneous aquifer. The presented solution can be a powerful tool for the analysis of drawdown from pumping tests, because hydraulic properties of layered heterogeneous aquifer systems with

  15. Vertical Transport by Coastal Mesoscale Convective Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, K.; Kading, T.

    2016-12-01

    This work is part of an ongoing investigation of coastal mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), including changes in vertical transport of boundary layer air by storms moving from inland to offshore. The density of a storm's cold pool versus that of the offshore marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL), in part, determines the ability of the storm to successfully cross the coast, the mechanism driving storm propagation, and the ability of the storm to lift air from the boundary layer aloft. The ability of an MCS to overturn boundary layer air can be especially important over the eastern US seaboard, where warm season coastal MCSs are relatively common and where large coastal population centers generate concentrated regions of pollution. Recent work numerically simulating idealized MCSs in a coastal environment has provided some insight into the physical mechanisms governing MCS coastal crossing success and the impact on vertical transport of boundary layer air. Storms are simulated using a cloud resolving model initialized with atmospheric conditions representative of a Mid-Atlantic environment. Simulations are run in 2-D at 250 m horizontal resolution with a vertical resolution stretched from 100 m in the boundary layer to 250 m aloft. The left half of the 800 km domain is configured to represent land, while the right half is assigned as water. Sensitivity experiments are conducted to quantify the influence of varying MABL structure on MCS coastal crossing success and air transport, with MABL values representative of those observed over the western Mid-Atlantic during warm season. Preliminary results indicate that when the density of the cold pool is much greater than the MABL, the storm successfully crosses the coastline, with lifting of surface parcels, which ascend through the troposphere. When the density of the cold pool is similar to that of the MABL, parcels within the MABL remain at low levels, though parcels above the MABL ascend through the troposphere.

  16. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Febriyani, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.fanuel@students.itb.ac.id; Prijatna, Kosasih, E-mail: prijatna@gd.itb.ac.id; Meilano, Irwan, E-mail: irwan.meilano@gd.itb.ac.id

    2015-04-24

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  17. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  18. On triangle meshes with valence dominant vertices

    KAUST Repository

    Morvan, Jean-Marie

    2018-01-01

    We study triangulations $\\cal T$ defined on a closed disc $X$ satisfying the following condition: In the interior of $X$, the valence of all vertices of $\\cal T$ except one of them (the irregular vertex) is $6$. By using a flat singular Riemannian metric adapted to $\\cal T$, we prove a uniqueness theorem when the valence of the irregular vertex is not a multiple of $6$. Moreover, for a given integer $k >1$, we exhibit non isomorphic triangulations on $X$ with the same boundary, and with a unique irregular vertex whose valence is $6k$.

  19. Surface vertical deposition for gold nanoparticle film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, J J; Qiu, F S; Chen, G D; Reeves, M E

    2003-01-01

    In this rapid communication, we present the surface vertical deposition (SVD) method to synthesize the gold nanoparticle films. Under conditions where the surface of the gold nanoparticle suspension descends slowly by evaporation, the gold nanoparticles in the solid-liquid-gas junction of the suspension aggregate together on the substrate by the force of solid and liquid interface. When the surface properties of the substrate and colloidal nanoparticle suspension define for the SVD, the density of gold nanoparticles in the thin film made by SVD only depends on the descending velocity of the suspension surface and on the concentration of the gold nanoparticle suspension. (rapid communication)

  20. Biomineralization of superhydrophilic vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsi, Teresa Cristina O; Santos, Tiago G; Pacheco-Soares, Cristina; Corat, Evaldo J; Marciano, Fernanda R; Lobo, Anderson O

    2012-03-06

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT) promise a great role for the study of tissue regeneration. In this paper, we introduce a new biomimetic mineralization routine employing superhydrophilic VACNT films as highly stable template materials. The biomineralization was obtained after VACNT soaking in simulated body fluid solution. Detailed structural analysis reveals that the polycrystalline biological apatites formed due to the -COOH terminations attached to VACNT tips after oxygen plasma etching. Our approach not only provides a novel route for nanostructured materials, but also suggests that COOH termination sites can play a significant role in biomimetic mineralization. These new nanocomposites are very promising as nanobiomaterials due to the excellent human osteoblast adhesion.

  1. On triangle meshes with valence dominant vertices

    KAUST Repository

    Morvan, Jean-Marie

    2018-02-16

    We study triangulations $\\\\cal T$ defined on a closed disc $X$ satisfying the following condition: In the interior of $X$, the valence of all vertices of $\\\\cal T$ except one of them (the irregular vertex) is $6$. By using a flat singular Riemannian metric adapted to $\\\\cal T$, we prove a uniqueness theorem when the valence of the irregular vertex is not a multiple of $6$. Moreover, for a given integer $k >1$, we exhibit non isomorphic triangulations on $X$ with the same boundary, and with a unique irregular vertex whose valence is $6k$.

  2. Vertically Polarized Omnidirectional Printed Slot Loop Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Thaysen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    A novel vertically polarized omnidirectional printed slot loop antenna has been designed, simulated, fabricated and measured. The slot loop works as a magnetic loop. The loop is loaded with inductors to insure uniform and in-phase fields in the slot in order to obtain an omnidirectional radiation...... pattern. The antenna is designed for the 2.45 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band. Applications of the antenna are many. One is for on-body applications since it is ideal for launching a creeping waves due to the polarization....

  3. Vertical-Screw-Auger Conveyer Feeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Otis (Inventor); Vollmer, Hubert J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A conical feeder is attached to a vertically conveying screw auger. The feeder is equipped with scoops and rotated from the surface to force-feed regolith the auger. Additional scoops are possible by adding a cylindrical section above the conical funnel section. Such then allows the unit to collect material from swaths larger in diameter than the enclosing casing pipe of the screw auger. A third element includes a flexible screw auger. All three can be used in combination in microgravity and zero atmosphere environments to drill and recover a wide area of subsurface regolith and entrained volatiles through a single access point on the surface.

  4. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for Hydrothermal Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have, however, also confirmed that the uncertainty in the locations of the source and of the hydrophones could lower the quality of subsurface image. It is, therefore, strongly necessary to develop a total survey system that assures a accurate positioning and a deployment techniques

  5. Propulsion systems for vertical flight aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, A.

    1990-01-01

    The present evaluation of VTOL airframe/powerplant integration configurations combining high forward flight speed with safe and efficient vertical flight identifies six configurations that can be matched with one of three powerplant types: turboshafts, convertible-driveshaft lift fans, and gas-drive lift fans. The airframes configurations are (1) tilt-rotor, (2) folded tilt-rotor, (3) tilt-wing, (4) rotor wing/disk wing, (5) lift fan, and (6) variable-diameter rotor. Attention is given to the lift-fan VTOL configuration. The evaluation of these configurations has been conducted by both a joint NASA/DARPA program and the NASA High Speed Rotorcraft program. 7 refs.

  6. Dissociation of Vertical Semiconductor Diatomic Artificial Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pi, M.; Emperador, A.; Barranco, M.; Garcias, F.; Muraki, K.; Tarucha, S.; Austing, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the dissociation of few-electron circular vertical semiconductor double quantum dot artificial molecules at 0T as a function of interdot distance. A slight mismatch introduced in the fabrication of the artificial molecules from nominally identical constituent quantum wells induces localization by offsetting the energy levels in the quantum dots by up to 2meV, and this plays a crucial role in the appearance of the addition energy spectra as a function of coupling strength particularly in the weak coupling limit

  7. Carbon export by vertically migrating zooplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Agnethe Nøhr; Visser, André W.

    2016-01-01

    Through diel vertical migration (DVM), zooplankton add an active transport to the otherwise passive sinking of detrital material that constitutes the biological pump. This active transport has proven difficult to quantify. We present a model that estimates both the temporal and depth characterist...... is transported than at either equatorial or boreal latitudes. We estimate that the amount of carbon transported below the mixed layer by migrating zooplankton in the North Atlantic Ocean constitutes 27% (16–30%) of the total export flux associated with the biological pump in that region...

  8. Vertical designs and agriculture joined for food production in the modules for urban vertical gardens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Hammerling Navas Navarro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Modules for Vertical Urban Gardens (MHUG are a hybrid of vertical gardens and urban agriculture. Vertical gardens have been recognized for the past 2500 years, mainly in the form of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, while urban agriculture is being practiced today by more than 700 million people worldwide. The benefits that MHUV offers are multiple, but perhaps the most significant is the consumption of foods free of chemicals, free of GMO’s, irrigated with potable water, and that are 100% organic. It is presented a “culinary and medicinal module” that can be implemented in the kitchen area, on roofs, terraces, balconies or patios, where species such as thyme, mint, peppermint, parsley, lemon balm and rosemary can be at hand when preparing dishes. The module consists of three plastic baskets that are recyclable and resistant to decay. Each basket has four rows with space for fourteen seedlings. The baskets are first lined on the interior with a black geotextile, and then are covered with a mesh (polisombra which helps support the substrate and seedlings. Each basket rests on a structure made of recycled wood (from pallets or crates that both holds the basket vertically and serves as a rain cover. The cages measure 0.33m by 0.55m by 0.14m. Each module comes with hosing and connectors for a drip irrigation system, and an instructional manual. The modules demonstrate the benefits of urban agriculture combined with the beauty and modality of vertical gardens, leading to useful applications for food production and decoration in the spaces where vertical urban gardens are possible.

  9. Role of the vertical pressure gradient in wave boundary layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Lindegård; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Vittori, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    By direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the flow in an oscillatory boundary layer, it is possible to obtain the pressure field. From the latter, the vertical pressure gradient is determined. Turbulent spots are detected by a criterion involving the vertical pressure gradient. The vertical pressure...... gradient is also treated as any other turbulence quantity like velocity fluctuations and statistical properties of the vertical pressure gradient are calculated from the DNS data. The presence of a vertical pressure gradient in the near bed region has significant implications for sediment transport....

  10. Expected sliding distance of vertical slit caisson breakwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyawn

    2017-06-01

    Evaluating the expected sliding distance of a vertical slit caisson breakwater is proposed. Time history for the wave load to a vertical slit caisson is made. It consists of two impulsive wave pressures followed by a smooth sinusoidal pressure. In the numerical analysis, the sliding distance for an attack of single wave was shown and the expected sliding distance during 50 years was also presented. Those results were compared with a vertical front caisson breakwater without slit. It was concluded that the sliding distance of a vertical slit caisson may be over-estimated if the wave pressure on the caisson is evaluated without considering vertical slit.

  11. Processing vertical size disparities in distinct depth planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Philip A; Howard, Ian P

    2012-08-17

    A textured surface appears slanted about a vertical axis when the image in one eye is horizontally enlarged relative to the image in the other eye. The surface appears slanted in the opposite direction when the same image is vertically enlarged. Two superimposed textured surfaces with different horizontal size disparities appear as two surfaces that differ in slant. Superimposed textured surfaces with equal and opposite vertical size disparities appear as a single frontal surface. The vertical disparities are averaged. We investigated whether vertical size disparities are averaged across two superimposed textured surfaces in different depth planes or whether they induce distinct slants in the two depth planes. In Experiment 1, two superimposed textured surfaces with different vertical size disparities were presented in two depth planes defined by horizontal disparity. The surfaces induced distinct slants when the horizontal disparity was more than ±5 arcmin. Thus, vertical size disparities are not averaged over surfaces with different horizontal disparities. In Experiment 2 we confirmed that vertical size disparities are processed in surfaces away from the horopter, so the results of Experiment 1 cannot be explained by the processing of vertical size disparities in a fixated surface only. Together, these results show that vertical size disparities are processed separately in distinct depth planes. The results also suggest that vertical size disparities are not used to register slant globally by their effect on the registration of binocular direction of gaze.

  12. Vertical Slot Convection: A linear study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, A.; Steinolfson, R.; Tajima, T.

    1992-11-01

    The linear stability properties of fluid convection in a vertical slot were studied. We use a Fourier-Chebychev decomposition was used to set up the linear eigenvalue problems for the Vertical Slot Convection and Benard problems. The eigenvalues, neutral stability curves, and critical point values of the Grashof number, G, and the wavenumber were determined. Plots of the real and imaginary parts of the eigenvalues as functions of G and α are given for a wide range of the Prandtl number, Pr, and special note is made of the complex mode that becomes linearly unstable above Pr ∼ 12.5. A discussion comparing different special cases facilitates the physical understanding of the VSC equations, especially the interaction of the shear-flow and buoyancy induced physics. Making use of the real and imaginary eigenvalues and the phase properties of the eigenmodes, the eigenmodes were characterized. One finds that the mode structure becomes progressively simpler with increasing Pr, with the greatest complexity in the mid ranges where the terms in the heat equation are of roughly the same size

  13. Effective solidity in vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Colin M.; Leftwich, Megan C.

    2016-11-01

    The flow surrounding vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) is investigated using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). This is done in a low-speed wind tunnel with a scale model that closely matches geometric and dynamic properties tip-speed ratio and Reynolds number of a full size turbine. Previous results have shown a strong dependance on the tip-speed ratio on the wake structure of the spinning turbine. However, it is not clear whether this is a speed or solidity effect. To determine this, we have measured the wakes of three turbines with different chord-to-diameter ratios, and a solid cylinder. The flow is visualized at the horizontal mid-plane as well as the vertical mid-plane behind the turbine. The results are both ensemble averaged and phase averaged by syncing the PIV system with the rotation of the turbine. By keeping the Reynolds number constant with both chord and diameter, we can determine how each effects the wake structure. As these parameters are varied there are distinct changes in the mean flow of the wake. Additionally, by looking at the vorticity in the phase averaged profiles we can see structural changes to the overall wake pattern.

  14. The capillary interaction between two vertical cylinders

    KAUST Repository

    Cooray, Himantha

    2012-06-27

    Particles floating at the surface of a liquid generally deform the liquid surface. Minimizing the energetic cost of these deformations results in an inter-particle force which is usually attractive and causes floating particles to aggregate and form surface clusters. Here we present a numerical method for determining the three-dimensional meniscus around a pair of vertical circular cylinders. This involves the numerical solution of the fully nonlinear Laplace-Young equation using a mesh-free finite difference method. Inter-particle force-separation curves for pairs of vertical cylinders are then calculated for different radii and contact angles. These results are compared with previously published asymptotic and experimental results. For large inter-particle separations and conditions such that the meniscus slope remains small everywhere, good agreement is found between all three approaches (numerical, asymptotic and experimental). This is as expected since the asymptotic results were derived using the linearized Laplace-Young equation. For steeper menisci and smaller inter-particle separations, however, the numerical simulation resolves discrepancies between existing asymptotic and experimental results, demonstrating that this discrepancy was due to the nonlinearity of the Laplace-Young equation. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. Control of the vertical instability in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, E.A.; Lister, J.B.; Neilson, G.H.

    1989-05-01

    The problem of control of the vertical instability is formulated for a massless filamentary plasma. The massless approximation is justified by an examination of the role of inertia in the control problem. The system is solved using Laplace transform techniques. The linear system is studied to determine the stability boundaries. It is found that the system can be stabilized up to a critical decay index, which is predominantly a function of the geometry of the passive stabilizing shell. A second, smaller critical index, which is a function of the geometry of the control coils, determines the limit of stability in the absence of derivative gain in the control circuit. The system is also studied numerically in order to incorporate the non-linear effects of power supply dynamics. The power supply bandwidth requirement is determined by the open-loop growth rate of the instability. The system is studied for a number of control coil options which are available on the DIII-D tokamak. It is found that many of the coils will not provide adequate stabilization and that the use of inboard coils is advantageous in stabilizing the system up to the critical index. Experiments carried out on DIII-D confirm the appropriateness of the model. Using the results of the model study, we have stabilized DIII-D plasmas with decay indices up to 98% of the critical index. Measurement of the plasma vertical position is also discussed. (author) 27 figs., 6 refs

  16. Algebraic motion of vertically displacing plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Pfefferle, David; Hirvijoki, Eero

    2017-10-01

    The vertical displacement of tokamak plasmas is modelled during the non-linear phase by a free-moving current-carrying rod coupled to a set of fixed conducting wires and a cylindrical conducting shell. The models capture the leading term in a Taylor expansion of the Green's function for the interaction between the plasma column and the vacuum vessel. The plasma is assumed not to vary during the VDE such that it behaves as a rigid body. In the limit of perfectly conducting structures, the plasma is prevented from coming in contact with the wall due to steep effective potential barriers by the eddy currents, and will hence oscillate at Alfvénic frequencies about a given force-free position. In addition to damping oscillations, resistivity allows for the column to drift towards the vessel on slow flux penetration timescales. The initial exponential motion of the plasma, i.e. the resistive vertical instability, is succeeded by a non-linear sinking behaviour, that is shown analytically to be algebraic and decelerative. The acceleration of the plasma column often observed in experiments is thus conjectured to originate from an early sharing of toroidal current between the core, the halo plasma and the wall or from the thermal quench dynamics precipitating loss of plasma current

  17. Elastic kirchhoff migration for vertical seismic profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keho, T.H.; Wu, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Elastic Kirchhoff migration is implemented for the VSP recording geometry. The resulting migration formula requires measurement of the stress as well as the displacement. Since stress is not measured in a VSP, and in many cases the horizontal component of displacement is not measured, approximate migration formulas are given for these cases. The elastic migration formula for the case where only the vertical components are available, is the same as the acoustic migration formula, where the pressure data are replaced by the magnitudes of the elastic data as reconstructed from the vertical components, and the acoustic Green's functions are replaced with either the P or S wave elastic Green's functions. Two expressions for migration of two component displacement data are presented. In the first, the terms involving traction data are simply ignored. In the second, an improved backpropagation operator for the displacement field is obtained by replacing the traction data in the Kirchhoff integral by displacement data using Hooke's law. The migration expressions for the cases where two component data are available produce images which are less contaminated by artifacts than the migration images of one component data

  18. Vertical profile of 137Cs in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstić, D; Nikezić, D; Stevanović, N; Jelić, M

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, a vertical distribution of 137Cs in undisturbed soil was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Soil samples were taken from the surroundings of the city of Kragujevac in central Serbia during spring-summer of 2001. The sampling locations were chosen in such a way that the influence of soil characteristics on depth distribution of 137Cs in soil could be investigated. Activity of 137Cs in soil samples was measured using a HpGe detector and multi-channel analyzer. Based on vertical distribution of 137Cs in soil which was measured for each of 10 locations, the diffusion coefficient of 137Cs in soil was determined. In the next half-century, 137Cs will remain as the source of the exposure. Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, and more than 30 years after nuclear probes, the largest activity of 137Cs is still within 10 cm of the upper layer of the soil. This result confirms that the penetration of 137Cs in soil is a very slow process. Experimental results were compared with two different Green functions and no major differences were found between them. While both functions fit experimental data well in the upper layer of soil, the fitting is not so good in deeper layers. Although the curves obtained by these two functions are very close to each other, there are some differences in the values of parameters acquired by them.

  19. High-performance vertical organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemann, Hans; Günther, Alrun A; Leo, Karl; Lüssem, Björn

    2013-11-11

    Vertical organic thin-film transistors (VOTFTs) are promising devices to overcome the transconductance and cut-off frequency restrictions of horizontal organic thin-film transistors. The basic physical mechanisms of VOTFT operation, however, are not well understood and VOTFTs often require complex patterning techniques using self-assembly processes which impedes a future large-area production. In this contribution, high-performance vertical organic transistors comprising pentacene for p-type operation and C60 for n-type operation are presented. The static current-voltage behavior as well as the fundamental scaling laws of such transistors are studied, disclosing a remarkable transistor operation with a behavior limited by injection of charge carriers. The transistors are manufactured by photolithography, in contrast to other VOTFT concepts using self-assembled source electrodes. Fluorinated photoresist and solvent compounds allow for photolithographical patterning directly and strongly onto the organic materials, simplifying the fabrication protocol and making VOTFTs a prospective candidate for future high-performance applications of organic transistors. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Vertical transmission of macular telangiectasia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaere, Lien; Spielberg, Leigh; Leys, Anita M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report vertical transmission of macular telangiectasia type 2 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in 3 families. In this retrospective interventional case series, the charts of patients with inherited macular telangiectasia type 2 were reviewed. A large spectrum of presentations of macular telangiectasia type 2 was observed and has been studied with different techniques including best-corrected visual acuity, microperimetry, confocal blue reflectance fundus autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, and time domain and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Vertical transmission of macular telangiectasia type 2 and associated type 2 diabetes mellitus is described in 3 families. Symptomatic as well as asymptomatic eyes with macular telangiectasia type 2 were identified. In 2 families, a mother and son experienced visual loss and were diagnosed with macular telangiectasia type 2. All 4 patients had type 2 diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy was observed in one mother and her son. In the third family, the index patient was diagnosed macular telangiectasia type 2 after complaints of metamorphopsia. She and her family members had type 2 diabetes mellitus, and further screening of her family revealed familial macular telangiectasia type 2. None of the patients were treated for macular telangiectasia type 2. Macular telangiectasia type 2 may be more common than previously assumed, as vision can remain preserved and patients may go undiagnosed. Screening of family members is indicated, and detection of mild anomalies is possible using fundus autofluorescence and spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

  1. Fusion reactor horizontal versus vertical maintenance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charruyer, Ph.; Djerassi, H.; Leger, D.; Maupou, M.; Rouillard, J.; Salpietro, E.; Holloway, C.; Suppan, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper concerns the comparison of horizontal versus vertical maintenance options of internal components (blanket and segment) of fusion reactors NET (Next European Torus) and INTOR Design. The described mechanical options are taken to ensure the handling of internals with the required precision, taking into account the problems raised by the safety and confinement requirements. Handling is obviously performed remotely. The option comparisons are performed according to the criteria of feasibility, building size, duration of maintenance operations, safety, flexibility, availability and cost. The first conclusions point on that the vertical handling option offers advantages, as regards the ease of handling and confinement possibilities. From the building size point of view, the two solutions are almost equivalent, while other criteria do not provide a basis for choice. It is emphasized that the confinement option C.T.U. (Containment Transfer Unit) or T.I.C. (Tight Intermediate Confinement) should be the major factor in determining the best options. In additions, a cost comparative analysis emphasizes the best cost/benefit ratio for the different options studied

  2. Determinants of Arbovirus Vertical Transmission in Mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Lequime

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vertical transmission (VT and horizontal transmission (HT of pathogens refer to parental and non-parental chains of host-to-host transmission. Combining HT with VT enlarges considerably the range of ecological conditions in which a pathogen can persist, but the factors governing the relative frequency of each transmission mode are poorly understood for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission. Elucidating these factors is particularly important for understanding the epidemiology of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses of public health significance. Arboviruses are primarily maintained by HT between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts in nature, but are occasionally transmitted vertically in the vector population from an infected female to her offspring, which is a proposed maintenance mechanism during adverse conditions for HT. Here, we review over a century of published primary literature on natural and experimental VT, which we previously assembled into large databases, to identify biological factors associated with the efficiency of arbovirus VT in mosquito vectors. Using a robust statistical framework, we highlight a suite of environmental, taxonomic, and physiological predictors of arbovirus VT. These novel insights contribute to refine our understanding of strategies employed by arboviruses to persist in the environment and cause substantial public health concern. They also provide hypotheses on the biological processes underlying the relative VT frequency for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission that can be tested empirically.

  3. Heredity of supraglottic exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Hvedstrup, Jeppe; Eiberg, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms on exertion, such as shortness of breath and wheezing, are commonly associated with asthma, but might also arise from the larynx [1–3]. In recent years, the emergence of exercise laryngoscopy [4] has led to a better understanding of laryngeal movement during exercise, and ins...

  4. Relato de caso: transmissão vertical de dengue Case report: vertical dengue infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara L. C. Maroun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Relatar um caso de transmissão vertical de dengue ocorrido durante epidemia de 2008 pelo vírus tipo II no Rio de Janeiro e revisar a literatura sobre transmissão vertical de dengue. DESCRIÇÃO: Relatamos um caso de transmissão vertical de dengue. Recém-nascido a termo do sexo feminino, peso de nascimento de 3.940 g, foi admitida na unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal com rash cutâneo, hipoatividade e febre no quinto dia de vida. O hemograma evidenciava plaquetopenia importante (38.000 plaquetas. A mãe apresentou quadro clínico compatível com dengue 3 dias antes do parto. Foram colhidos então IgM para dengue da mãe e do recém-nascido, realizados pelo método de ELISA, sendo positivos em ambos. Dengue tipo 2 foi detectado no recém-nascido através de reação em cadeia da polimerase. COMENTÁRIOS: Este relato enfatiza a importância do pediatra estar alerta para a possibilidade de transmissão vertical de dengue iniciando precocemente o tratamento.OBJECTIVES: To report a case of vertical dengue infection in a newborn from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to review the literature concerning this problem. DESCRIPTION: We report a case of vertical dengue infection. Female neonate, birth weight 3,940 g, term, was admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit on the fifth day of life with fever and erythematous rash. Her mother had had dengue fever 3 days before delivery. Her platelet count was 38,000, dropping to 15,000. She did not have any hemorrhagic episodes, including cerebral hemorrhages. Anti-dengue antibodies (IgM were positive in the mother and infant. Dengue type 2 was detected in the infant using polymerase chain reaction. COMMENTS: This report emphasizes that pediatricians should be aware of the possibility of vertical dengue infection so that early management can be instituted.

  5. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  6. Estimating tropical vertical motion profile shapes from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, L. E.; Handlos, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The vertical structure of tropical deep convection strongly influences interactions with larger scale circulations and climate. This research focuses on investigating this vertical structure and its relationship with mesoscale tropical weather states. We test the hypothesis that vertical motion shape varies in association with weather state type. We estimate mean state vertical motion profile shapes for six tropical weather states defined using cloud top pressure and optical depth properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. The relationship between vertical motion and the dry static energy budget are utilized to set up a regression analysis that empirically determines two modes of variability in vertical motion from reanalysis data. We use these empirically determined modes, this relationship and surface convergence to estimate vertical motion profile shape from observations of satellite retrievals of rainfall and surface convergence. We find that vertical motion profile shapes vary systematically between different tropical weather states. The "isolated systems" regime exhibits a more ''bottom-heavy'' profile shape compared to the convective/thick cirrus and vigorous deep convective regimes, with maximum upward vertical motion occurring in the lower troposphere rather than the middle to upper troposphere. The variability we observe with our method does not coincide with that expected based on conventional ideas about how stratiform rain fraction and vertical motion are related.

  7. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  8. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  9. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  10. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Heeck

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ→ℓ′γ but rather ℓ→ℓ′X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z′ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ→ℓ′+inv, but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ→eX,X→γγ,ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  11. Isoline curves obtained from vertical aerophotos

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Zacarias Xavier de; Campos, Sérgio; Cardoso, Lincoln Gehring; Pollo, Ronaldo Alberto

    2000-01-01

    Objetiva-se, com este trabalho, obter curvas de nível a partir de fotografias aéreas verticais, utilizando-se de gráfico linear de correção, em áreas com diferentes classes de declividade. A análise estatística dos dados foi efetuada por meio de regressões múltiplas das variáveis, erro horizontal e erro vertical, em função das variáveis independentes: altitude; altitude e declividade. Os erros médios horizontais e verticais pouco dependem da altitude, bem como da altitude e declividade, induz...

  12. Aerodynamic drag reduction by vertical splitter plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliéron, Patrick; Kourta, Azeddine

    2010-01-01

    The capacity of vertical splitter plates placed at the front or the rear of a simplified car geometry to reduce drag, with and without skew angle, is investigated for Reynolds numbers between 1.0 × 106 and 1.6 × 106. The geometry used is a simplified geometry to represent estate-type vehicles, for the rear section, and MPV-type vehicle. Drag reductions of nearly 28% were obtained for a zero skew angle with splitter plates placed at the front of models of MPV or utility vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage of adapting the position and orientation of the splitter plates in the presence of a lateral wind. All these results confirm the advantage of this type of solution, and suggest that this expertise should be used in the automotive field to reduce consumption and improve dynamic stability of road vehicles.

  13. Aerodynamic drag reduction by vertical splitter plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillieron, Patrick [Renault Group, Research Division, Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Guyancourt (France); Kourta, Azeddine [Polytech' Orleans, Institut PRISME, ESA, Orleans (France)

    2010-01-15

    The capacity of vertical splitter plates placed at the front or the rear of a simplified car geometry to reduce drag, with and without skew angle, is investigated for Reynolds numbers between 1.0 x 10{sup 6} and 1.6 x 10{sup 6}. The geometry used is a simplified geometry to represent estate-type vehicles, for the rear section, and MPV-type vehicle. Drag reductions of nearly 28% were obtained for a zero skew angle with splitter plates placed at the front of models of MPV or utility vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage of adapting the position and orientation of the splitter plates in the presence of a lateral wind. All these results confirm the advantage of this type of solution, and suggest that this expertise should be used in the automotive field to reduce consumption and improve dynamic stability of road vehicles. (orig.)

  14. Vertically aligned BCN nanotubes with high capacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyamperumal, Eswaramoorthi; Wang, Shuangyin; Dai, Liming

    2012-06-26

    Using a chemical vapor deposition method, we have synthesized vertically aligned BCN nanotubes (VA-BCNs) on a Ni-Fe-coated SiO(2)/Si substrate from a melamine diborate precursor. The effects of pyrolysis conditions on the morphology and thermal property of grown nanotubes, as well as the nanostructure and composition of an individual BCN nanotube, were systematically studied. It was found that nitrogen atoms are bonded to carbons in both graphitic and pyridinic forms and that the resultant VA-BCNs grown at 1000 °C show the highest specific capacitance (321.0 F/g) with an excellent rate capability and high durability with respect to nonaligned BCN (167.3 F/g) and undoped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (117.3 F/g) due to synergetic effects arising from the combined co-doping of B and N in CNTs and the well-aligned nanotube structure.

  15. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooijdonk, Eloise; Bittencourt, Carla; Snyders, Rony; Colomer, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses and summarizes recent studies on the functionalization of carbon nanotubes oriented perpendicularly to their substrate, so-called vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs). The intrinsic properties of individual nanotubes make the VA-CNTs ideal candidates for integration in a wide range of devices, and many potential applications have been envisaged. These applications can benefit from the unidirectional alignment of the nanotubes, the large surface area, the high carbon purity, the outstanding electrical conductivity, and the uniformly long length. However, practical uses of VA-CNTs are limited by their surface characteristics, which must be often modified in order to meet the specificity of each particular application. The proposed approaches are based on the chemical modifications of the surface by functionalization (grafting of functional chemical groups, decoration with metal particles or wrapping of polymers) to bring new properties or to improve the interactions between the VA-CNTs and their environment while maintaining the alignment of CNTs.

  16. The ergonomics of vertical turret lathe operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, F M; Corlett, E N

    1970-12-01

    A study of the work load of 14 vertical turret lathe operators engaged on different work tasks in two factories is reported. For eight of these workers continuous heart rate recordings were made throughout the day. It was shown that in four cases improved technology was unlikely to lead to higher output and certain aspects of posture and equipment manipulation were major contributors to the limitations on increased output. The role of the work-rest schedule in increasing work loads was also demonstrated. Improvements in technology and methods to reduce the extent of certain work loads to enable heavy work to be done in shorter periods followed by light work or rest periods are given as means to modify and improve the output of these machines. Finally, the direction for the development of a predictive model for man-machine matching is introduced.

  17. The Vertical Profile of Ocean Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, R. M.; Nikurashin, M.; McDougall, T. J.; Mashayek, A.

    2014-12-01

    The upwelling of bottom waters through density surfaces in the deep ocean is not possible unless the sloping nature of the sea floor is taken into account. The bottom--intensified mixing arising from interaction of internal tides and geostrophic motions with bottom topography implies that mixing is a decreasing function of height in the deep ocean. This would further imply that the diapycnal motion in the deep ocean is downward, not upwards as is required by continuity. This conundrum regarding ocean mixing and upwelling in the deep ocean will be resolved by appealing to the fact that the ocean does not have vertical side walls. Implications of the conundrum for the representation of ocean mixing in climate models will be discussed.

  18. Solar heat gain through vertical cylindrical glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.A.; Kaseb, S.; El-Refaie, M.F. [Cairo Univ., Mechanical Power Engineering Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    1999-10-01

    Spaces with nonplanar glazed envelopes are frequently encountered in contemporary buildings. Such spaces represent a problem when calculating the solar heat gain in the course of estimating the cooling or heating load; and hence, sizing of cooling or heating systems. The calculation, using the information currently available in the literature, is tedious and/or approximate. In the present work, the computational procedure for evaluating the solar heat gain to a space having a vertical cylindrical glass envelope is established, and, a computer program is coded to carry out the necessary computations and yield the results in a detailed usable form. The program is versatile and allows for the arbitrary variation of all pertinent parameters. (Author)

  19. Solar heat gain through vertical cylindrical glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, M.A.; Kaseb, S.; El-Refaie, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    Spaces with nonplanar glazed envelopes are frequently encountered in contemporary buildings. Such spaces represent a problem when calculating the solar heat gain in the course of estimating the cooling or heating load; and hence, sizing of cooling or heating systems. The calculation, using the information currently available in the literature, is tedious and/or approximate. In the present work, the computational procedure for evaluating the solar heat gain to a space having a vertical cylindrical glass envelope is established, and, a computer program is coded to carry out the necessary computations and yield the results in a detailed usable form. The program is versatile and allows for the arbitrary variation of all pertinent parameters. (Author)

  20. Solar heat gain through vertical cylindrical glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.A.; Kaseb, S.; El-Refaie, M.F. [Cairo Univ., Mechanical Power Engineering Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    1999-07-01

    Spaces with nonplanar glazed envelopes are frequently encountered in contemporary buildings. Such spaces represent a problem when calculating the solar heat gain in the course of estimating the cooling or heating load; and hence, sizing of cooling or heating systems. The calculation, using the information currently available in the literature, is tedious and/or approximate. In the present work, the computational procedure for evaluating the solar heat gain to a space having a vertical cylindrical glass envelope is established, and, a computer program is coded to carry out the necessary computations and yield the results in a detailed usable form. The program is versatile and allows for the arbitrary variation of all pertinent parameters. (Author)

  1. Vertical pellet injection in FTU discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannozzi, E.; Annibaldi, S.V.; Buratti, P.

    2005-01-01

    Central fuelling and pellet enhanced performance modes have been obtained with pellets injected vertically from the high field side on the FTU tokamak. Four phases have been recognized: ablation of the pellets, drifting plasmoids, MHD modes which take the density to the centre of the discharge and finally an anomalous drift which further increases the density peaking. Pellet ablation data have been compared with values from a pellet ablation and deposition code. Comparison between 0.8 and 1.1 MA discharges at a high magnetic field (B T = 7 T) has been carried out: a higher performance has been obtained with the latter due to the higher target density and the larger inversion radius which would increase the effects of m = 1 modes to take the density to the plasma centre

  2. Vertical integration and optimal reimbursement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afendulis, Christopher C; Kessler, Daniel P

    2011-09-01

    Health care providers may vertically integrate not only to facilitate coordination of care, but also for strategic reasons that may not be in patients' best interests. Optimal Medicare reimbursement policy depends upon the extent to which each of these explanations is correct. To investigate, we compare the consequences of the 1997 adoption of prospective payment for skilled nursing facilities (SNF PPS) in geographic areas with high versus low levels of hospital/SNF integration. We find that SNF PPS decreased spending more in high integration areas, with no measurable consequences for patient health outcomes. Our findings suggest that integrated providers should face higher-powered reimbursement incentives, i.e., less cost-sharing. More generally, we conclude that purchasers of health services (and other services subject to agency problems) should consider the organizational form of their suppliers when choosing a reimbursement mechanism.

  3. Vertical distribution of radionuclides in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Slivka, J.; Krmar, M.; Chonkic, Lj.; Veskovic, M.; Hadzhic, V.

    1990-01-01

    Pedological profiles were opened at selected representative locations on different geomorphic types and in certain soil layers down to 3 m depth. The mechanical composition, hydro physical and chemical features were studied. The vertical distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides and 137 Cs was analyzed during 1988 and 1989. The parameter alpha of the exponential dependence of activity concentration vs. depth were calculated for the three soil types, as well as the activity concentration of 137 Cs at depths of 1 and 3 m. The extent of 137 Cs migration was evaluated at these depths and it is shown that the coefficient α is proportional to the reciprocal of the time elapsed from the surface contamination. (author)

  4. GAUGING THE VERTICAL SPECIALIZATION IN EU TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIA MONICA OEHLER-SINCAI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, we review the mechanisms and determinants of vertical specialization (VS, as this has gradually become the dominant characteristic of international trade. Second, we underline that there is a rich literature regarding VS in EU trade, at aggregate and individual levels and research is advancing together with the instruments used to measure trade in value added. Third, our investigation brings to the forefront a classification of EU countries according to their GVC participation index, taking into consideration both upstream and downstream links. As a conclusion, the VS analyses help us better understand the interconnectedness among countries and industries by means of foreign direct investment, trade, labour migration and technology transfer.

  5. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Ishikawa, K.

    2012-12-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have carried out two field surveys in 2011. One is a 3D survey with a boomer for a high-resolution surface source and the other one for an actual field survey in the Izena Cauldron an active hydrothermal area in the Okinawa Trough. Through these surveys, we have confirmed that the

  6. Vertical profiles of BC direct radiative effect over Italy: high vertical resolution data and atmospheric feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Močnik, Griša; Ferrero, Luca; Castelli, Mariapina; Ferrini, Barbara S.; Moscatelli, Marco; Grazia Perrone, Maria; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Rovelli, Grazia; D'Angelo, Luca; Moroni, Beatrice; Scardazza, Francesco; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Petitta, Marcello; Cappelletti, David

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon (BC), and its vertical distribution, affects the climate. Global measurements of BC vertical profiles are lacking to support climate change research. To fill this gap, a campaign was conducted over three Italian basin valleys, Terni Valley (Appennines), Po Valley and Passiria Valley (Alps), to characterize the impact of BC on the radiative budget under similar orographic conditions. 120 vertical profiles were measured in winter 2010. The BC vertical profiles, together with aerosol size distribution, aerosol chemistry and meteorological parameters, have been determined using a tethered balloon-based platform equipped with: a micro-Aethalometer AE51 (Magee Scientific), a 1.107 Grimm OPC (0.25-32 μm, 31 size classes), a cascade impactor (Siuotas SKC), and a meteorological station (LSI-Lastem). The aerosol chemical composition was determined from collected PM2.5 samples. The aerosol absorption along the vertical profiles was measured and optical properties calculated using the Mie theory applied to the aerosol size distribution. The aerosol optical properties were validated with AERONET data and then used as inputs to the radiative transfer model libRadtran. Vertical profiles of the aerosol direct radiative effect, the related atmospheric absorption and the heating rate were calculated. Vertical profile measurements revealed some common behaviors over the studied basin valleys. From below the mixing height to above it, a marked concentration drop was found for both BC (from -48.4±5.3% up to -69.1±5.5%) and aerosol number concentration (from -23.9±4.3% up to -46.5±7.3%). These features reflected on the optical properties of the aerosol. Absorption and scattering coefficients decreased from below the MH to above it (babs from -47.6±2.5% up to -71.3±3.0% and bsca from -23.5±0.8% up to -61.2±3.1%, respectively). Consequently, the Single Scattering Albedo increased above the MH (from +4.9±2.2% to +7.4±1.0%). The highest aerosol absorption was

  7. Decoration of vertical graphene with aerosol nanoparticles for gas sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Shumao; Guo, Xiaoru; Ren, Ren; Zhou, Guihua; Chen, Junhong

    2015-01-01

    A facile method was demonstrated to decorate aerosol Ag nanoparticles onto vertical graphene surfaces using a mini-arc plasma reactor. The vertical graphene was directly grown on a sensor electrode using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. The aerosol Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple vapor condensation process using a mini-arc plasma source. Then, the nanoparticles were assembled on the surface of vertical graphene through the assistance of an electric field. Based on our observation, nonagglomerated Ag nanoparticles formed in the gas phase and were assembled onto vertical graphene sheets. Nanohybrids of Ag nanoparticle-decorated vertical graphene were characterized for ammonia gas detection at room temperature. The vertical graphene served as the conductance channel, and the conductance change upon exposure to ammonia was used as the sensing signal. The sensing results show that Ag nanoparticles significantly improve the sensitivity, response time, and recovery time of the sensor. (paper)

  8. Analysis and design of a vertical axis wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Goyena Iriso, Joseba

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to design a new vertical axis wind turbine, specifically one Giromill wind turbine. The project development requires performing a previous study of the vertical axis wind turbines currently development. This study has to be performed before starting to design the wind turbine. Other very important aim is the development of a new vertical axis wind turbine. The after analyses that will result in the final design of the wind turbine will b...

  9. Self-starting aerodynamics analysis of vertical axis wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Jianyang Zhu; Hailin Huang; Hao Shen

    2015-01-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine is a special type of wind-force electric generator which is capable of working in the complicated wind environment. The self-starting aerodynamics is one of the most important considerations for this kind of turbine. This article aims at providing a systematic synthesis on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine based on the numerical analysis approach. First, the physical model of vertical axis wind turbine and its parameter defi...

  10. Comparison of VP broadband tiltmeter and VS vertical pendulum tiltmeter

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Wugang; Wu, Yanxia; Zhao, Huiqin

    2015-01-01

    Vertical pendulum (VP) tiltmeter is a kind of earthquake precursor observation equipment, which is used to record the interaction force associated with astronomical tidal tilts caused. Currently, VP broadband tiltmeter and vertical sensor (VS) vertical pendulum tiltmeter are primarily used. In this paper, we compare the two different instruments by using four aspects—mechanical structure, circuitry, zeroing, and bandwidth—based on their working principles and applications. We conclude that VP...

  11. Outsourcing versus Vertical Integration: A Dynamic Model of Industry Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Fossati

    2012-01-01

    Why do supply relations vary across industries and across firms within industries? Recent evidence by Hortaçsu and Syverson (2009) shows that vertically integrated producers are more productive, their size distribution dominates (in first order stochastic dominance sense) the size distribution of not vertically integrated manufacturers and there is assortative matching of upstream and downstream plants by productivity and size. Besides vertical integration (VI) and procurement of inputs from ...

  12. Robotic platform for traveling on vertical piping network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Thomas A; Vrettos, Nick J; Krementz, Daniel; Marzolf, Athneal D

    2015-02-03

    This invention relates generally to robotic systems and is specifically designed for a robotic system that can navigate vertical pipes within a waste tank or similar environment. The robotic system allows a process for sampling, cleaning, inspecting and removing waste around vertical pipes by supplying a robotic platform that uses the vertical pipes to support and navigate the platform above waste material contained in the tank.

  13. Structural reasons for vertical integration in the international oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, G.

    1991-01-01

    Once upon a time, the international oil industry was vertically integrated. A small group of companies controlled a very substantial share of international oil flows, extending their operations from the oil well to the gas pump, and relying on intracorporate transfers for most in-between transactions. The historical reasons for vertical disintegration, the market role, and structural reasons for vertical reintegration are examined. (author)

  14. Trajectory optimization for lunar rover performing vertical takeoff vertical landing maneuvers in the presence of terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Wang, Kexin; Xu, Zuhua; Shao, Zhijiang; Song, Zhengyu; Biegler, Lorenz T.

    2018-05-01

    This study presents a trajectory optimization framework for lunar rover performing vertical takeoff vertical landing (VTVL) maneuvers in the presence of terrain using variable-thrust propulsion. First, a VTVL trajectory optimization problem with three-dimensional kinematics and dynamics model, boundary conditions, and path constraints is formulated. Then, a finite-element approach transcribes the formulated trajectory optimization problem into a nonlinear programming (NLP) problem solved by a highly efficient NLP solver. A homotopy-based backtracking strategy is applied to enhance the convergence in solving the formulated VTVL trajectory optimization problem. The optimal thrust solution typically has a "bang-bang" profile considering that bounds are imposed on the magnitude of engine thrust. An adaptive mesh refinement strategy based on a constant Hamiltonian profile is designed to address the difficulty in locating the breakpoints in the thrust profile. Four scenarios are simulated. Simulation results indicate that the proposed trajectory optimization framework has sufficient adaptability to handle VTVL missions efficiently.

  15. Comparison of VP broadband tiltmeter and VS vertical pendulum tiltmeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wugang Ma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vertical pendulum (VP tiltmeter is a kind of earthquake precursor observation equipment, which is used to record the interaction force associated with astronomical tidal tilts caused. Currently, VP broadband tiltmeter and vertical sensor (VS vertical pendulum tiltmeter are primarily used. In this paper, we compare the two different instruments by using four aspects—mechanical structure, circuitry, zeroing, and bandwidth—based on their working principles and applications. We conclude that VP broadband tiltmeter is more superior compared with VS vertical pendulum tiltmeter because of its higher bandwidth and degree of automation.

  16. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Mizohata, S.; Ishikawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    The VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic) is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of the survey are from 100m up to 2100m. The target of the survey includes not only hydrothermal deposit but oil and gas exploration. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system are available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed another approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In the data acquisition stage, we estimate the position of VCS location with slant ranging method from the sea surface. The deep-towed source or ocean bottom source is estimated by SSBL/USBL. The water velocity profile is measured by XCTD. After the data acquisition, we pick the first break times of the VCS recorded data. The estimated positions of

  17. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. (1) VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey in limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Because of autonomous recording system on sea floor, various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (GI gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom source. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN, in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. Seismic Interferometry technique is also applied. The results give much clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Seismic Interferometry technique is applied to obtain the high resolution image in the very shallow zone. Based on the feasibility study, we have developed the autonomous recording VCS system and carried out the trial experiment in actual ocean at the water depth of about 400m to establish the procedures of deployment/recovery and to examine the VC position or fluctuation at seabottom. The result shows that the VC position is estimated with sufficient accuracy and very little fluctuation is observed. Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo took the research cruise NT11-02 on JAMSTEC R/V Natsushima in February, 2011. In the cruise NT11-02, JGI carried out the second VCS survey using the autonomous VCS recording system with the deep towed source provided by

  18. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for SMS exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hotoshi; Mizohata, Shigeharu

    2014-05-01

    The Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) survey is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by sea-surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because the VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed it for the SMS survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We have been developing the VCS survey system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of these surveys are from 100m up to 2100 m. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been also completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system is available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed a new approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In 2013, we have carried out the second VCS survey using the surface-towed high-voltage sparker and ocean bottom source in the Izena Cauldron, which is one of the most promising SMS areas around Japan. The positions of ocean bottom source estimated by this method are consistent with the VCS field records. The VCS data with the sparker have been processed with 3D PSTM. It gives the very high resolution 3D volume deeper than two

  19. Measurement of vertical bar Vub vertical bar in semi-inclusive charmless B → πX decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.S.; Lee, Jake; Oha, Sechul

    2002-01-01

    We study semi-inclusive charmless decays B → πX, where X does not contain a charm (anti)quark. The mode B-bar 0 → π - X turns out to be be particularly useful for determination of the CKM matrix element vertical bar V ub vertical bar. We present the branching ratio (BR) of B-bar 0 → π - X as a function of vertical bar V ub vertical bar, with an estimation of possible uncertainty. The BR is expected to be an order of 10 -4

  20. Free convective condensation in a vertical enclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.J.; Peterson, P.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Corradini, M.L.; Pernsteiner, A.P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Free convective condensation in a vertical enclosure was studied numerically and the results were compared with experiments. In both the numerical and experimental investigations, mist formation was observed to occur near the cooling wall, with significant droplet concentrations in the bulk. Large recirculation cells near the end of the condensing section were generated as the heavy noncondensing gas collecting near the cooling wall was accelerated downward. Near the top of the enclosure the recirculation cells became weaker and smaller than those below, ultimately disappearing near the top of the condenser. In the experiment the mist density was seen to be highest near the wall and at the bottom of the condensing section, whereas the numerical model predicted a much more uniform distribution. The model used to describe the formation of mist was based on a Modified Critical Saturation Model (MCSM), which allows mist to be generated once the vapor pressure exceeds a critical value. Equilibrium, nonequilibrium, and MCSM calculations were preformed, showing the experimental results to lie somewhere in between the equilibrium and nonequilibrium predictions of the numerical model. A single adjustable constant (indicating the degree to which equilibrium is achieved) is used in the model in order to match the experimental results.

  1. Vertical landscraping, a big regionalism for Dubai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Dubai's ecologic and economic complications are exacerbated by six years of accelerated expansion, a fixed top-down approach to urbanism and the construction of iconic single-phase mega-projects. With recent construction delays, project cancellations and growing landscape issues, Dubai's tower typologies have been unresponsive to changing environmental, socio-cultural and economic patterns (BBC, 2009; Gillet, 2009; Lewis, 2009). In this essay, a theory of "Big Regionalism" guides an argument for an economically and ecologically linked tower typology called the Condenser. This phased "box-to-tower" typology is part of a greater Landscape Urbanist strategy called Vertical Landscraping. Within this strategy, the Condenser's role is to densify the city, facilitating the creation of ecologic voids that order the urban region. Delineating "Big Regional" principles, the Condenser provides a time-based, global-local urban growth approach that weaves Bigness into a series of urban-regional, economic and ecological relationships, builds upon the environmental performance of the city's regional architecture and planning, promotes a continuity of Dubai's urban history, and responds to its landscape issues while condensing development. These speculations permit consideration of the overlooked opportunities embedded within Dubai's mega-projects and their long-term impact on the urban morphology.

  2. The vertical oscillations of coupled magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kewei; Lin Jiahuang; Kang Zi Yang; Liang, Samuel Yee Wei; Juan, Jeremias Wong Say

    2011-01-01

    The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for high school students. This paper is adapted from the winning solution to Problem 14, Magnetic Spring, as presented in the final round of the 23rd IYPT in Vienna, Austria. Two magnets were arranged on top of each other on a common axis. One was fixed, while the other could move vertically. Various parameters of interest were investigated, including the effective gravitational acceleration, the strength, size, mass and geometry of the magnets, and damping of the oscillations. Despite its simplicity, this setup yielded a number of interesting and unexpected relations. The first stage of the investigation was concerned only with the undamped oscillations of small amplitudes, and the period of small amplitude oscillations was found to be dependent only on the eighth root of important magnet properties such as its strength and mass. The second stage sought to investigate more general oscillations. A numerical model which took into account magnet size, magnet geometry and damping effects was developed to model the general oscillations. Air resistance and friction were found to be significant sources of damping, while eddy currents were negligible.

  3. Vertical barriers with increased sorption capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradl, H.B.

    1997-01-01

    Vertical barriers are commonly used for the containment of contaminated areas. Due to the very small permeability of the barrier material which is usually in the order of magnitude of 10-10 m/s or less the advective contaminant transport can be more or less neglected. Nevertheless, there will always be a diffusive contaminant transport through the barrier which is caused by the concentration gradient. Investigations have been made to increase the sorption capacity of the barrier material by adding substances such as organoclays, zeolites, inorganic oxides and fly ashes. The contaminants taken into account where heavy metals (Pb) and for organic contaminants Toluole and Phenantrene. The paper presents results of model calculations and experiments. As a result, barrier materials can be designed 'tailor-made' depending on the individual contaminant range of each site (e.g. landfills, gasworks etc.). The parameters relevant for construction such as rheological properties, compressive strength and permeability are not affected by the addition of the sorbents

  4. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloise Van Hooijdonk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses and summarizes recent studies on the functionalization of carbon nanotubes oriented perpendicularly to their substrate, so-called vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs. The intrinsic properties of individual nanotubes make the VA-CNTs ideal candidates for integration in a wide range of devices, and many potential applications have been envisaged. These applications can benefit from the unidirectional alignment of the nanotubes, the large surface area, the high carbon purity, the outstanding electrical conductivity, and the uniformly long length. However, practical uses of VA-CNTs are limited by their surface characteristics, which must be often modified in order to meet the specificity of each particular application. The proposed approaches are based on the chemical modifications of the surface by functionalization (grafting of functional chemical groups, decoration with metal particles or wrapping of polymers to bring new properties or to improve the interactions between the VA-CNTs and their environment while maintaining the alignment of CNTs.

  5. Separation surgery for total vertical craniopagus twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Keith Y C

    2004-08-01

    A pair of conjoined twins aged 11 months underwent investigations, followed by surgical separation in Singapore General Hospital in April 2001. They were joined at the skull vertex and facing in opposite directions. Radiological investigations including cerebral angiography, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomographic scans were performed, leading to the diagnosis of total vertical craniopagus. There were two separate brains, with separate arterial circulations, but with a common superior sagittal sinus. Tissue expanders were inserted in the subgaleal space for 6 months of scalp expansion prior to surgery. Pre-operative planning involved the use of virtual reality equipment and life-sized polymer models of the conjoined skulls and brains. Surgical separation of the twins was achieved after approximately 100 h of operating time, using intraoperative image guidance, microsurgical techniques and intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. Reconstruction of the dura, calvarium and scalp was performed with artificial dura, absorbable plates and split skin grafts. Postoperative complications included focal cortical infarction, meningitis, and hydrocephalus. Despite these complications, the twins recovered satisfactorily and were discharged to their home country within 6 months. The 3-month outcome was minor disability in one twin and severe developmental delays in the other. Separation surgery is possible for complex cranially-conjoined twins but requires detailed planning and extensive surgical management.

  6. A demographic analysis of vertical root fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Stephen; Berman, Louis H; Blanco, Lucia; Bakland, Leif; Kim, Jay S

    2006-12-01

    Teeth with vertical root fractures (VRFs) have complete or incomplete fractures that extends through the enamel, dentin and pulp, down the long axis of the tooth. Several different variables were investigated and statistically evaluated as to their correlation with the presence of VRFs. Specifically analyzed were gender, tooth location, age, radiographic and clinical findings, bruxism, and pulpal status. The data were collected from three different endodontists, from three different geographic locations, comprising a total of 227 teeth. Although VRFs may occur in conjunction with any of the parameters investigated, only certain factors were found to occur in a significant number of cases. The results indicate that VRFs are statistically more prevalent in mandibular molars and maxillary premolars. They are associated with periradicular bone loss, pain to percussion, extensive restorations, and seem to occur more often in females and older patients. However, VRFs are not necessarily related to periapical bone loss, a widening of the periodontal ligament space, associated periodontal pockets, a sinus tract, particular pulpal status, or bruxism.

  7. Engineering design of vertical test stand cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhane, S.K.; Sharma, N.K.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.; Das, S.; Kush, P.K.; Sahni, V.C.; Gupta, P.D.; Sylvester, C.; Rabehl, R.; Ozelis, J.

    2011-01-01

    Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B and PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface 2 shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN 2 cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.

  8. Learning styles in vertically integrated teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumpton, Kay; Kitchener, Scott; Sweet, Linda

    2013-10-01

    With vertical integration, registrars and medical students attend the same educational workshops. It is not known whether these learners have similar or different learning styles related to their level of education within the medical training schema. This study aims to collect information about learning styles with a view to changing teaching strategies. If a significant difference is demonstrated this will impact on required approaches to teaching. The VARK learning inventory questionnaire was administered to 36 general practice registrars and 20 medical students. The learning styles were compared as individuals and then related to their level of education within the medical training schema. Students had a greater preference for multimodal learning compared with registrars (62.5 per cent versus 33.3 per cent, respectively). More than half of the registrars preferred uni or bimodal learning modalities, compared with one-third of the medical students. The present workshop format based on visual and aural material will not match the learning needs of most learners. This small study has shown that the majority of medical students and registrars could have their learning preferences better met by the addition of written material to the workshop series. Surprisingly, a significantly larger number of medical students than registrars appeared to be broadly multimodal in their learning style, and this warrants further research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. ATLAS LTCS Vertically Challenged System Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Deepak; Garrison, Matt; Ku, Jentung

    2014-01-01

    Re-planning of LTCS TVAC testing and supporting RTA (Receiver Telescope Assembly) Test Plan and Procedure document preparation. The Laser Thermal Control System (LTCS) is designed to maintain the lasers onboard Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) at their operational temperatures. In order to verify the functionality of the LTCS, a thermal balance test of the thermal hardware was performed. During the first cold start of the LTCS, the Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) was unable to control the laser mass simulators temperature. The control heaters were fully on and the loop temperature remained well below the desired setpoint. Thermal analysis of the loop did not show these results. This unpredicted behavior of the LTCS was brought up to a panel of LHP experts. Based on the testing and a review of all the data, there were multiple diagnostic performed in order to narrow down the cause. The prevailing theory is that gravity is causing oscillating flow within the loop, which artificially increased the control power needs. This resulted in a replan of the LTCS test flow and the addition of a GSE heater to allow vertical operation.

  10. Radon 222 and tropospheric vertical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.C.; McAfee, J.R.; Cicerone, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Radon 222 is an inert gas whose loss is due only to radioactive decay with a half life of 3.83 days (5.51-day ''exponential'' lifetime). It is a very useful tracer of continental air because only ground level continental sources are significant. Thus it is similar in several ways to many air pollutants (e.g., NO/sub x/) (NO+NO 2 ), SO 2 , and certain hydrocarbons. Previously published measured 222 Rn profiles are analyzed here by averaging for the summer, winter, and spring-fall seasons. The analysis shows that in summer, about 55% of the 222 Rn is transported above the planetary boundary layer, considerably more than during the other seasons. Similarly, in summer, about 20% rises to over 5.5 km (500 mbar). The average profiles have been used to derive vertical eddy diffusion coefficients with maximum values of 5-7 x 10 5 cm 2 s -1 in the midtroposphere and 8 x 10 3 to 5 x 10 4 cm 2 s -1 near the surface

  11. Vertically Integrated Edgeless Photon Imaging Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahim, Farah [Fermilab; Deptuch, Grzegorz [Fermilab; Shenai, Alpana [Fermilab; Maj, Piotr [AGH-UST, Cracow; Kmon, Piotr [AGH-UST, Cracow; Grybos, Pawel [AGH-UST, Cracow; Szczygiel, Robert [AGH-UST, Cracow; Siddons, D. Peter [Brookhaven; Rumaiz, Abdul [Brookhaven; Kuczewski, Anthony [Brookhaven; Mead, Joseph [Brookhaven; Bradford, Rebecca [Argonne; Weizeorick, John [Argonne

    2017-01-01

    The Vertically Integrated Photon Imaging Chip - Large, (VIPIC-L), is a large area, small pixel (65μm), 3D integrated, photon counting ASIC with zero-suppressed or full frame dead-time-less data readout. It features data throughput of 14.4 Gbps per chip with a full frame readout speed of 56kframes/s in the imaging mode. VIPIC-L contain 192 x 192 pixel array and the total size of the chip is 1.248cm x 1.248cm with only a 5μm periphery. It contains about 120M transistors. A 1.3M pixel camera module will be developed by arranging a 6 x 6 array of 3D VIPIC-L’s bonded to a large area silicon sensor on the analog side and to a readout board on the digital side. The readout board hosts a bank of FPGA’s, one per VIPIC-L to allow processing of up to 0.7 Tbps of raw data produced by the camera.

  12. Vertical Distribution of Water at Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    Phoenix results, combined with coordinated observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter of the Phoenix lander site, indicate that the water vapor is nonuniform (i.e., not well mixed) up to a calculated cloud condensation level. It is important to understand the mixing profile of water vapor because (a) the assumption of a well-mixed atmosphere up to a cloud condensation level is common in retrievals of column water abundances which are in turn used to understand the seasonal and interannual behavior of water, (b) there is a long history of observations and modeling that conclude both that water vapor is and is not well-mixed, and some studies indicate that the water vapor vertical mixing profile may, in fact, change with season and location, (c) the water vapor in the lowest part of the atmosphere is the reservoir that can exchange with the regolith and higher amounts may have an impact on the surface chemistry, and (d) greater water vapor abundances close to the surface may enhance surface exchange thereby reducing regional transport, which in turn has implications to the net transport of water vapor over seasonal and annual timescales.

  13. Mudflow rheology in a vertically rotating flume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Westphal, Jerome A.; Jobson, Harvey E.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Joint research by the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Missouri-Rolla currently (1990) is being conducted on a 3.05 meters in diameter vertically rotating flume used to simulate mudflows under steady-state conditions. Observed mudflow simulations indicate flow patterns in the flume are similar to those occurring in natural mudflows. Variables such as mean and surface velocity, depth, and average boundary shear stress can be measured in this flume more easily than in the field or in a traditional tilting flume. Sensitive variables such as sediment concentration, grain-size distribution, and Atterberg limits also can be precisely and easily controlled. A known Newtonian fluid, SAE 30 motor oil, was tested in the flume and the computed value for viscosity was within 12.5 percent of the stated viscosity. This provided support that the data from the flume can be used to determine the rheological properties of fluids such as mud. Measurements on mud slurries indicate that flows with sediment concentrations ranging from 81 to 87 percent sediment by weight can be approximated as Bingham plastic for strain rates greater than 1 per second. In this approximation, the yield stress and Bingham viscosity were extremely sensitive to sediment concentration. Generally, the magnitude of the yield stress was large relative to the change in shear stress with increasing mudflow velocity.

  14. Plug cementing: Horizontal to vertical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvert, D.G.; Heathman, J.F.; Griffith, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an in-depth study of cement plug placement that was conducted with large-scale models for the improvement of plug cementing practices and plug integrity. Common hole and workstring geometries were examined with various rheology and density ratios between the drilling fluid and cement. The critical conditions dictating the difference between success and failure for various wellbore angles and conditions were explored, and the mechanisms controlling slurry movement before and after placement are now better understood. An understanding of these mechanisms allows the engineer to better tailor a design to specific hole conditions. Controversial concepts regarding plug-setting practices have been examined and resolved. The cumulative effects of density, rheology, and hole angle are major factors affecting plug success. While the Boycott effect and an extrusion effect were observed to be predominant in inclined wellbores, a spiraling or {open_quotes}roping{close_quotes} effect controls slurry movement in vertical wellbores. Ultimate success of a cement plug can be obtained if allowances are made for these effects in the job design, provided all other previously published recommended placement practices are followed. Results of this work can be applied to many sidetracking and plug-to-abandon operations. Additionally, the understanding of the fluid movement (creep) mechanisms holds potential for use in primary and remedial cementing work, and in controlling the placement of noncementitious fluids in the wellbore.

  15. Hydrodynamics of vertical jumping in Archer fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techet, Alexandra H.; Mendelson, Leah

    2017-11-01

    Vertical jumping for aerial prey from an aquatic environment requires both propulsive power and precise aim to succeed. Rapid acceleration to a ballistic velocity sufficient for reaching the prey height occurs before the fish leaves the water completely and experiences a thousandfold drop in force-producing ability. In addition to speed, accuracy and stability are crucial for successful feeding by jumping. This talk examines the physics of jumping using the archer fish as a model. Better known for their spitting abilities, archer fish will jump multiple body lengths out of the water for prey capture, from a stationary position just below the free surface. Modulation of oscillatory body kinematics and use of multiple fins for force production are identified as methods through which the fish can meet requirements for both acceleration and stabilization in limited space. Quantitative 3D PIV wake measurements reveal how variations in tail kinematics relate to thrust production throughout the course of a jumping maneuver and over a range of jump heights. By performing measurements in 3D, the timing, interactions, and relative contributions to thrust and lateral forces from each fin can be evaluated, elucidating the complex hydrodynamics that enable archer fish water exit.

  16. The Naval Ocean Vertical Aerosol Model : Progress Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Gathman, S.G.; Davidson, K.L.; Jensen, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Naval Oceanic Vertical Aerosol Model (NOVAM) has been formulated to estimate the vertical structure of the optical and infrared extinction coefficients in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL). NOVAM was designed to predict the non-uniform and non-logarithmic extinction profiles which are

  17. Verification of the Naval Oceanic Vertical Aerosol Model During Fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, K.L.; Leeuw, G. de; Gathman, S.G.; Jensen, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Naval Oceanic Vertical Aerosol Model (NOVAM) has been formulated to estimate the vertical structure of the optical and infrared extinction coefficients in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL), for waverengths between 0,2 and 40 um. NOVAM was designed to predict, utilizing a set of

  18. Private incentives to vertical disintegration among firms with heterogeneous objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Rossini, Gianpaolo

    2003-01-01

    A vertically integrated monopoly is compared to a decentralized market arrangement where production is segmented. A Labor Managed firm produces an input used by a profit maximizer manufacturer of a final good. Unlike what usually occurs between homogeneous firms we find circumstances in which the decentralised vertical arrangement is privately superior to the integrated one.

  19. CREATING EFFECTIVE MODELS OF VERTICAL INTEGRATED STRUCTURES IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Koliesnikov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of scientific research aimed at development of methodology-theoretical mechanisms of building the effective models of vertically-integrated structures are presented. A presence of vertically-integrated structures on natural-monopolistic markets at private and governmental sectors of economy and priority directions of integration are given.

  20. Buried injector logic, a vertical IIL using deep ion implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A vertically integrated alternative for integrated injection logic has been realized, named buried injector logic (BIL). 1 MeV ion implantations are used to create buried layers. The vertical pnp and npn transistors have thin base regions and exhibit a limited charge accumulation if a gate is

  1. Finding people, papers, and posts: Vertical search algorithms and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing diversity of information access applications. While general web search has been dominant in the past few decades, a wide variety of so-called vertical search tasks and applications have come to the fore. Vertical search is an often used term for search that targets specific

  2. Does Contract Complexity Limit Opportunities? Vertical Organization and Flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe vertical organization of production entails a range of make-or-buy decisions of intermediate goods that are influenced by the difficulty of writing contracts with a potential supplier. When contracting causes high transaction costs, a firm can decide to vertically integrate the

  3. Vertical dispersion produced by random closed orbit distortions and sextupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshio.

    1977-01-01

    Vertical dispersion appears even in a machine designed with plane symmetry because of vertical closed orbit distortions, linear coupling and coupling due to sextupoles. This gives rise to several undesirable effects in an electron-positron storage ring such as PEP. Vertical dispersion at the interaction point will increase beam height and reduce luminosity. Vertical dispersion around the ring will modify vertical emittance and partition numbers for synchrotron radiation damping. It will also induce betatron-synchrotron resonance and affect chromaticity correction. Vertical dispersion due to random closed orbit distortions and sextupoles has been studied by Piwinski, and he has indicated that correction of chromaticity and chromatic change of β-function is important. However, he has assumed one error element and evaluated the dispersion at the position of the element. We generalize his argument to a more realistic case and derive more precise criteria for the correction of vertical dispersion. Horizontal dispersion due to perturbations is also studied. Vertical dispersion due to linear coupling is neglected in this note, since it has been studied by other authors. 7 refs

  4. Diel vertical migration of zooplankton in the Tanzanian waters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diel vertical migration of zooplankton was studied in the Southern part of Lake Victoria in January and July 2002. A van dorn water sampler was used to collect zooplankton. In January 2002, zooplankton showed a pronounced diel vertical migration whereby zooplankton were moving upward at around sunset and ...

  5. Prevention of vertical transmission of HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M.B.; Rasmussen, J.B.; Nielsen, V.R.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a RNA virus that can be transmitted parenterally, sexually or vertically. An effective prevention strategy has been implemented in industrialised countries, thereby reducing vertical transmission from 15-25% to < 1%. The aim of this study was to...

  6. Second vertical derivative of potential fields using an adaptation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The second vertical derivative of magnetic fields is commonly used for resolution of anomalies in gravity and magnetic fields. It is also commonly used as an aid to geologic mapping i.e. for the delineation of geological discontinuities in the subsurface. Frequency domain methods for calculating second vertical derivatives ...

  7. Horizontal and vertical seismic isolation of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonomou, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a study for the horizontal and vertical seismic isolation of a nuclear power plant with a base isolation system, developed by the author, called the Alexisismon. This system -- which comprises different schemes for horizontal or vertical or both horizontal and vertical isolation -- is a linear system based on the principle of separation of functions. That is, horizontal and vertical isolation are realized through different components and act independently from each other. As far as horizontal isolation is concerned, the role of transmitting vertical loads is uncoupled from the role of inducing horizontal restoring forces so that both functions can be performed without instability. It is possible either to provide both horizontal and vertical isolation to the whole nuclear plant or to isolate the whole plant horizontally and to provide vertical isolation to sensitive and costly equipment only. When the fundamental period of the plant or equipment is 2 seconds and when the vertical displacements are of the order of + or - 20 inches, the structure or equipment are protected against earthquakes up to 1.10 and 1.30 g for actual and 0.60 and 1.50 g for artificial accelerograms. In both cases all the isolation elements behave elastically up to these acceleration limits as well as the superstructure and equipment

  8. Vertical integration and diversification of acute care hospitals: conceptual definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J P

    1988-01-01

    The terms vertical integration and diversification, although used quite frequently, are ill-defined for use in the health care field. In this article, the concepts are defined--specifically for nonuniversity acute care hospitals. The resulting definitions are more useful than previous ones for predicting the effects of vertical integration and diversification.

  9. SOMPROF: A vertically explicit soil organic matter model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakhekke, M.C.; Beer, M.; Hoosbeek, M.R.; Kruijt, B.; Kabat, P.

    2011-01-01

    Most current soil organic matter (SOM) models represent the soil as a bulk without specification of the vertical distribution of SOM in the soil profile. However, the vertical SOM profile may be of great importance for soil carbon cycling, both on short (hours to years) time scale, due to

  10. Imaging of the vertical particle tracks without any depth scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroko, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    The principle of a new optical microscope which enables us to get the image of a vertical particle track without any depth scanning is described. This new optical microscope contains a spatial transformer which consists of mirror lamellar elements and which produces a secondary in focus image of the vertical particle track. Properties of such a system are presented. A longitudinal resolution is estimated

  11. Doppler Lidar Vertical Velocity Statistics Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsom, R. K. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Shippert, T. R. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Riihimaki, L. D. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Accurate height-resolved measurements of higher-order statistical moments of vertical velocity fluctuations are crucial for improved understanding of turbulent mixing and diffusion, convective initiation, and cloud life cycles. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility operates coherent Doppler lidar systems at several sites around the globe. These instruments provide measurements of clear-air vertical velocity profiles in the lower troposphere with a nominal temporal resolution of 1 sec and height resolution of 30 m. The purpose of the Doppler lidar vertical velocity statistics (DLWSTATS) value-added product (VAP) is to produce height- and time-resolved estimates of vertical velocity variance, skewness, and kurtosis from these raw measurements. The VAP also produces estimates of cloud properties, including cloud-base height (CBH), cloud frequency, cloud-base vertical velocity, and cloud-base updraft fraction.

  12. Progress and Prospects in Developing Marine Vertical Datum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Xinghua

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine vertical datum system construction is the basic work of marine surveying. In the 2009-2012, China has preliminarily constructed the transformation and unification of different height/depth datum model in the China Sea of 80 nautical mile. In recent years, this model has been extended to the South China Sea, the western Pacific and the eastern Indian Ocean, and then a seamless vertical datum model in the south and north pole area to the whole world gradually will be constructed in the near future, this is the foundation of supporting the digital ocean construction in China. This paper mainly discusses the research status of marine vertical datum construction which had been carried out in major coastal countries or regions, analyzes the main work and approaches and key technologies in the process of the marine vertical datum system building, and then expounds the achievements and existing problems in the practice of our country marine vertical datum building.

  13. Toroidal inhomogeneity of the vertical field in a tokamak apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sometani, Taro; Takashima, Hidekazu

    1977-01-01

    An experiment with a model device has been made on the toroidal inhomogeneity of the vertical field in a Tokamak with an iron core. The D.C. vertical field is increased near the yokes of the iron core, while the gross plasma image field (consisting of the components due to the plasma current, the primary current, and its image) is reduced there. These two vertical fields, when superposed, exert force on the plasma as a less inhomogeneous external vertical field. The vertical field can be homogenized satisfactorily by using a compensation winding wound at a proper position on the iron core even if the shielding plates, which are mounted on some Tokamaks, are dispensed with. (auth.)

  14. Theoretic base of Edge Local Mode triggering by vertical displacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z. T. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); College of Physics Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); He, Z. X.; Wang, Z. H. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wu, N.; Tang, C. J. [College of Physics Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Vertical instability is studied with R-dependent displacement. For Solovev's configuration, the stability boundary of the vertical instability is calculated. The pressure gradient is a destabilizing factor which is contrary to Rebhan's result. Equilibrium parallel current density, j{sub //}, at plasma boundary is a drive of the vertical instability similar to Peeling-ballooning modes; however, the vertical instability cannot be stabilized by the magnetic shear which tends towards infinity near the separatrix. The induced current observed in the Edge Local Mode (ELM) triggering experiment by vertical modulation is derived. The theory provides some theoretic explanation for the mitigation of type-I ELMS on ASDEX Upgrade. The principle could be also used for ITER.

  15. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. North is at the top. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches). Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica. The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up onto Home Plate, then southward for the rover's summer field season.

  16. Characterization of vertical mixing in oscillatory vegetated flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolahpour, M.; Ghisalberti, M.; Lavery, P.; McMahon, K.

    2016-02-01

    Seagrass meadows are primary producers that provide important ecosystem services, such as improved water quality, sediment stabilisation and trapping and recycling of nutrients. Most of these ecological services are strongly influenced by the vertical exchange of water across the canopy-water interface. That is, vertical mixing is the main hydrodynamic process governing the large-scale ecological and environmental impact of seagrass meadows. The majority of studies into mixing in vegetated flows have focused on steady flow environments whereas many coastal canopies are subjected to oscillatory flows driven by surface waves. It is known that the rate of mass transfer will vary greatly between unidirectional and oscillatory flows, necessitating a specific investigation of mixing in oscillatory canopy flows. In this study, we conducted an extensive laboratory investigation to characterise the rate of vertical mixing through a vertical turbulent diffusivity (Dt,z). This has been done through gauging the evolution of vertical profiles of concentration (C) of a dye sheet injected into a wave-canopy flow. Instantaneous measurement of the variance of the vertical concentration distribution ( allowed the estimation of a vertical turbulent diffusivity (). Two types of model canopies, rigid and flexible, with identical heights and frontal areas, were subjected to a wide and realistic range of wave height and period. The results showed two important mechanisms that dominate vertical mixing under different conditions: a shear layer that forms at the top of the canopy and wake turbulence generated by the stems. By allowing a coupled contribution of wake and shear layer mixing, we present a relationship that can be used to predict the rate of vertical mixing in coastal canopies. The results further showed that the rate of vertical mixing within flexible vegetation was always lower than the corresponding rigid canopy, confirming the impact of plant flexibility on canopy

  17. Effect of hang cleans or squats paired with countermovement vertical jumps on vertical displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Tedi R; Mackey, Theresa; Inkrott, Thomas A; Murray, Steven R; Clark, Ida E; Pettitt, Robert W

    2011-09-01

    Complex training is characterized by pairing resistance exercise with plyometric exercise to exploit the postactivation potentiation (PAP) phenomenon, thereby promising a better training effect. Studies on PAP as measured by human power performances are equivocal. One issue may be the lack of analyses across multiple sets of paired exercises, a common practice used by athletes. We evaluated countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) performance in 19 women, collegiate athletes in 3 of the following trials: (a) CMJs-only, where 1 set of CMJs served as a conditioning exercise, (b) heavy-load, back squats paired with CMJs, and (c) hang cleans paired with CMJs. The CMJ vertical displacement (3-attempt average), as measured with digital video, served as the dependent variable of CMJ performance. Across 3 sets of paired-exercise regimens, CMJ-only depreciated 1.6 cm and CMJ paired with back squats depreciated 2.0 cm (main effect, p squats or CMJs in and of themselves. Future research on exercise modes of complex training that best help athletes preserve and train with the highest power possible, in a given training session, is warranted.

  18. Subjective visual vertical after treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Mian Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Otolith function can be studied by testing the subjective visual vertical, because the tilt of the vertical line beyond the normal range is a sign of vestibular dysfunction. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a disorder of one or more labyrinthine semicircular canals caused by fractions of otoliths derived from the utricular macula. Objective: To compare the subjective visual vertical with the bucket test before and immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Methods: We evaluated 20 patients. The estimated position where a fluorescent line within a bucket reached the vertical position was measured before and immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: Before repositioning maneuver, 9 patients (45.0% had absolute values of the subjective visual vertical above the reference standard and 2 (10.0% after the maneuver; the mean of the absolute values of the vertical deviation was significantly lower after the intervention (p < 0.001. Conclusion: There is a reduction of the deviations of the subjective visual vertical, evaluated by the bucket test, immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

  19. Response of ramus following vertical lengthening with distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzuner-Oncul, Aysegul Mine; Kisnisci, Reha S

    2011-09-01

    Vertical lengthening of the mandibular ramus is considered to be one of the least stable surgical procedures in the management of musculoskeletal maxillofacial deformities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of the mandibular ramus following vertical lengthening by means of distraction osteogenesis. This study included eight non-syndromic adult patients with temporomandibular joint ankylosis. The vertical height deficiency of the mandibular ramus and the ramus/condyle unit on the affected side were simultaneously reconstructed by transportation of a bone segment using distraction osteogenesis following gap arthroplasty. Lateral and posteroanterior (PA) cephalograms taken postoperatively before active distraction, at the completion of distraction and 6, 12, 24 months after distraction, were compared to evaluate the changes of the ramus height. In all cases the vertical ramus and ramus/condyle unit height loss were successfully reconstructed by distraction osteogenesis. There was no relapse in the amount of height gained by distraction osteogenesis at the 24 months follow-up review (p>0.05). Acute one stage vertical lengthening of the mandibular ramus is considered to be one of the least stable musculoskeletal procedures with relapse being a significant adverse outcome. In this clinical study gradual vertical lengthening of the ramus through ramus/condyle unit distraction osteogenesis has maintained the initial vertical ramus height gained for 24 months. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vertical-horizontal wells for depletion and sweep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraikhi, A. J.; Pham, T. R.; Liu, J. S.; Khatib, M. R.; Muhaish, A. S. [Saudi Aramco (Saudi Arabia)

    1998-12-31

    A well completion scheme currently in use in a thick, large, elongated carbonate anticline Middle-East oil reservoir is described. This method of well completion calls for a combination of an open hole horizontal section penetrating the top 10 feet of the reservoir and a cased or undisturbed vertical segment through the thick formation. The horizontal section is used for producing and the vertical segment is used for monitoring purposes. Field experience and supported reservoir simulation exercises have shown that the horizontal application is superior to conventional vertical completion both from the economic and from the sweep point of view. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Analytical Model of Steam Chamber Evolution from Vertical Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, D. V.; Usmanov, S. A.; Shangaraeva, A. I.; Murtaizin, T. A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper is aimed to check the possibility of applying the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage in vertical wells. This challenge seems to be vital because most of the natural bitumen reservoirs are found to occur above the oil fields being developed so that a well system is already available at the stage of field management. The existing vertical wells are hard to be used for horizontal sidetracking in most of cases as the bitumen reservoir occurs at a shallow depth. The matter is to use the existing wells as vertical ones. At the same time, it is possible to drill an additional sidetrack as a producer or an injector.

  2. A proposed orbit and vertical dispersion correction system for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, E.; Cornacchia, M.; King, A.S.; Lee, M.J.

    1978-07-01

    The proposed arrangement of position monitors and dipole magnets for the closed orbit correction system in PEP is described. The computer code ALIGN, which simulates and corrects closed orbit displacements, has been used to study the most effective layout of monitors and correctors. The vertical dispersion function has been computed before and after closed orbit correction. The results indicate that the residual vertical dispersion after the orbit is corrected could exceed the tolerable values. A correction procedure for the vertical dispersion has been studied with the compute code CO-OP and this scheme of correction has been verified experimentally in SPEAR. 9 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Beyond vertical integration--Community based medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Emma Margaret

    2006-11-01

    The term 'vertical integration' is used broadly in medical education, sometimes when discussing community based medical education (CBME). This article examines the relevance of the term 'vertical integration' and provides an alternative perspective on the complexities of facilitating the CBME process. The principles of learner centredness, patient centredness and flexibility are fundamental to learning in the diverse contexts of 'community'. Vertical integration as a structural concept is helpful for academic organisations but has less application to education in the community setting; a different approach illuminates the strengths and challenges of CBME that need consideration by these organisations.

  4. ONLINE MINIMIZATION OF VERTICAL BEAM SIZES AT APS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yipeng

    2017-06-25

    In this paper, online minimization of vertical beam sizes along the APS (Advanced Photon Source) storage ring is presented. A genetic algorithm (GA) was developed and employed for the online optimization in the APS storage ring. A total of 59 families of skew quadrupole magnets were employed as knobs to adjust the coupling and the vertical dispersion in the APS storage ring. Starting from initially zero current skew quadrupoles, small vertical beam sizes along the APS storage ring were achieved in a short optimization time of one hour. The optimization results from this method are briefly compared with the one from LOCO (Linear Optics from Closed Orbits) response matrix correction.

  5. Coupling and Vertical Dispersion Correction in the SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Franchi, A; Tomas, R; Vanbavinckhove, G

    2010-01-01

    Consolidation of the coupling correction scheme in the LHC is challenged by a missing skew quadrupole family in Sector 3-4 at the start-up in 2009-2010. Simultaneous coupling and vertical dispersion correction using vertical orbit bumps at the sextupoles, was studied by analyzing turn-byturn data. This scheme was tested in the CERN SPS where the optical structure of arc cells is quite similar to the LHC. In the SPS, horizontal and vertical beam positions are measured separately with single plane BPMs, thus a technique to construct ”pseudo double plane BPM” is also discussed.

  6. A test of vertical economies for non-vertically integrated firms: The case of rural electric cooperatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, Monica L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to evaluate unrealized economies of vertical integration for rural electric cooperatives. Given the well-established network economies that are inherent in the generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity, the coops long-standing choice of market structure is questionable (especially if their strategy is welfare maximization). Organized as either generation-and-transmission or distribution-only, the traditional measures of vertical economies will not work. Thus, I have devised an alternative method by which to measure such economies and find that, on average, cost savings in excess of 39% could have been realized had the coops adopted a vertically integrated structure. (author)

  7. Vertical motion and ''scarred'' eigenfunctions in the stadium billiard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoffel, K.M.; Brumer, P.

    1985-01-01

    A subset of pseudoregular eigenfunctions of the classically chaotic stadium billiard is shown to participate strongly in vertically directed motion, supporting the conjectures of McDonald and of Heller regarding periodic orbits and pseudoregular eigenfunctions

  8. CAMEX-3 AIRBORNE VERTICAL ATMOSPHERE PROFILING SYSTEM (AVAPS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-3 DC-8 Airborne Vertical Atmosphere Profiling System (AVAPS) uses dropwindsonde and Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to measure the atmospheric...

  9. A Method for Modeling of Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, Torgeir

    2013-01-01

    It is of interest to investigate the potential advantages of floating vertical axis wind turbine (FVAWT) due to its economical installation and maintenance. A novel 5MW vertical axis wind turbine concept with a Darrieus rotor mounted on a semi-submersible support structure is proposed in this paper....... In order to assess the technical and economic feasibility of this novel concept, a comprehensive simulation tool for modeling of the floating vertical axis wind turbine is needed. This work presents the development of a coupled method for modeling of the dynamics of a floating vertical axis wind turbine....... This integrated dynamic model takes into account the wind inflow, aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, structural dynamics (wind turbine, floating platform and the mooring lines) and a generator control. This approach calculates dynamic equilibrium at each time step and takes account of the interaction between the rotor...

  10. Vertical Wave Impacts on Offshore Wind Turbine Inspection Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl

    2011-01-01

    Breaking wave impacts on a monopile at 20 m depth are computed with a VOF (Volume Of Fluid) method. The impacting waves are generated by the second-order focused wave group technique, to obtain waves that break at the position of the monopile. The subsequent impact from the vertical run-up flow...... on a horizontal inspection platform is computed for five different platform levels. The computational results show details of monopile impact such as slamming pressures from the overturning wave front and the formation of run-up flow. The results show that vertical platform impacts can occur at 20 m water depth....... The dependence of the vertical platform load to the platform level is discussed. Attention is given to the significant downward force that occur after the upward force associated with the vertical impact. The effect of the numerical resolution on the results is assessed. The position of wave overturning is found...

  11. Performance of horizontal versus vertical vapor extraction wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsell, K.H.; Roseberg, N.D.; Edlund, K.M.

    1994-06-01

    Vapor extraction wells used for site remediation of volatile organic chemicals in the vadose zone are typically vertical wells. Over the past few years, there has been an increased interest in horizontal wells for environmental remediation. Despite the interest and potential benefits of horizontal wells, there has been little study of the relative performance of horizontal and vertical vapor extraction wells. This study uses numerical simulations to investigate the relative performance of horizontal versus vertical vapor extraction wells under a variety of conditions. The most significant conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that in a homogeneous medium, a single, horizontal vapor extraction well outperforms a single, vertical vapor extraction well (with surface capping) only for long, linear plumes. Guidelines are presented regarding the use of horizontal wells

  12. Horizontal Multinational Firms, Vertical Multinational Firms and Domestic Investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Emami Namini (Julian); H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe build a dynamic general equilibrium model with 2 countries, horizontal and vertical multinational activity and endogenous domestic and foreign investment. It is found that horizontal multinational activity always leads to a complementary relationship between domestic and foreign

  13. Vertical Lift by Series Hybrid Power, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A major market for vertical lift aircraft is in urban operations, primarily for police and electronic news gathering (typically a Bell 206 or a Eurocopter AS350)....

  14. Vertical distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa in a podzol profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosling, A.; Landeweert, R.; Lindahl, B.D.; Larsson, K.H.; Kuyper, T.W.; Taylor, A.F.S.; Finlay, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Studies of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in forest soils are usually restricted to the uppermost organic horizons. Boreal forest podzols are highly stratified and little is known about the vertical distribution of ectomycorrhizal communities in the underlying mineral horizons. Ectomycorrhizal

  15. GLOBEC NEP Vertical Plankton Tow (VPT) Data, 1997-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBEC (GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics) NEP (Northeast Pacific) California Current Program Vertical Plankton Tow (VPT) Data For more information, see...

  16. Development of an autonomous vertical profiler for oceanographic studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dabholkar, N.; Desa, E.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Madhan, R.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Navelkar, G.; Maurya, P.K.; Prabhudesai, S.; Nagvekar, S.; Martins, H.; Sawkar, G.; Fernandes, P.; Manoj, K.K.

    groups. This paper is based on a concept patent on a thruster driven Autonomous Vertical profiler [AVP], and describes the developmental steps being taken on the integration of sensors, control electronics, communications and a Graphical User interface...

  17. 1 Vertical structure of orographic precipitating clouds observed over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    11

    The present study explores the vertical structure of precipitating clouds associated with orographic features in South .... The PR, by design, detects PLW and not CLW. Dryness of ...... Organization of Asian Monsoon Convection*; J. Clim. 19(14) ...

  18. Shaping the distribution of vertical velocities of antihydrogen in GBAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufour, G.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S. [CNRS, ENS, UPMC, Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel, Paris (France); Debu, P. [CEA-Saclay, Institut de Recherche sur les lois Fondamentales de l' Univers, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Nesvizhevsky, V.V. [Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin, Grenoble (France); Voronin, A.Yu. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-15

    GBAR is a project aiming at measuring the freefall acceleration of gravity for antimatter, namely antihydrogen atoms (H). The precision of this timing experiment depends crucially on the dispersion of initial vertical velocities of the atoms as well as on the reliable control of their distribution.We propose to use a new method for shaping the distribution of the vertical velocities of H, which improves these factors simultaneously. The method is based on quantum reflection of elastically and specularly bouncing H with small initial vertical velocity on a bottom mirror disk, and absorption of atoms with large initial vertical velocities on a top rough disk.We estimate statistical and systematic uncertainties, and we show that the accuracy for measuring the free fall acceleration g of H could be pushed below 10{sup -3} under realistic experimental conditions. (orig.)

  19. AWWA E102-17 submersible vertical turbine pumps

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This standard describes minimum requirements for submersible vertical turbine pumps utilizing a discharge column pipe assembly, 5 hp or larger, used in water service, including materials, design, manufacture, inspection, and testing.

  20. Vertical partitioning of relational OLTP databases using integer programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amossen, Rasmus Resen

    2010-01-01

    A way to optimize performance of relational row store databases is to reduce the row widths by vertically partition- ing tables into table fractions in order to minimize the number of irrelevant columns/attributes read by each transaction. This pa- per considers vertical partitioning algorithms...... for relational row- store OLTP databases with an H-store-like architecture, meaning that we would like to maximize the number of single-sited transactions. We present a model for the vertical partitioning problem that, given a schema together with a vertical partitioning and a workload, estimates the costs...... applied to the TPC-C benchmark and the heuristic is shown to obtain solutions with costs close to the ones found using the quadratic program....

  1. Measurement of vertical track deflection from a moving rail car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The University of Nebraska has been conducting research sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research and Development to develop a system that measures vertical track deflection/modulus from a moving rail car. Previous work ...

  2. Ultra-Low Noise Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A unique type of vertical lift propulsor is being designed/analyzed/ developed to push blade passage frequency harmonics above the human audible range, while also...

  3. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  4. Reliability Analysis and Optimal Design of Monolithic Vertical Wall Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, Hans F.; Christiani, E.

    1994-01-01

    Reliability analysis and reliability-based design of monolithic vertical wall breakwaters are considered. Probabilistic models of the most important failure modes, sliding failure, failure of the foundation and overturning failure are described . Relevant design variables are identified...

  5. TREE STEM RECONSTRUCTION USING VERTICAL FISHEYE IMAGES: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Berveglieri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to assess a tree stem reconstruction technique with panoramic images taken with fisheye lenses. The concept is similar to the Structure from Motion (SfM technique, but the acquisition and data preparation rely on fisheye cameras to generate a vertical image sequence with height variations of the camera station. Each vertical image is rectified to four vertical planes, producing horizontal lateral views. The stems in the lateral view are rectified to the same scale in the image sequence to facilitate image matching. Using bundle adjustment, the stems are reconstructed, enabling later measurement and extraction of several attributes. The 3D reconstruction was performed with the proposed technique and compared with SfM. The preliminary results showed that the stems were correctly reconstructed by using the lateral virtual images generated from the vertical fisheye images and with the advantage of using fewer images and taken from one single station.

  6. Inverse vertical migration and feeding in glacier lanternfish (Benthosema glaciale)

    KAUST Repository

    Dypvik, Eivind; Klevjer, Thor A.; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2011-01-01

    lanternfish (Benthosema glaciale) were mainly distributed below ~200 m and displayed three different diel behavioral strategies: normal diel vertical migration (NDVM), inverse DVM (IDVM) and no DVM (NoDVM). The IDVM group was the focus of this study

  7. Shaping the distribution of vertical velocities of antihydrogen in GBAR

    CERN Document Server

    Dufour, G.; Lambrecht, A.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Reynaud, S.; Voronin, A.Yu.

    2014-01-30

    GBAR is a project aiming at measuring the free fall acceleration of gravity for antimatter, namely antihydrogen atoms ($\\overline{\\mathrm{H}}$). Precision of this timing experiment depends crucially on the dispersion of initial vertical velocities of the atoms as well as on the reliable control of their distribution. We propose to use a new method for shaping the distribution of vertical velocities of $\\overline{\\mathrm{H}}$, which improves these factors simultaneously. The method is based on quantum reflection of elastically and specularly bouncing $\\overline{\\mathrm{H}}$ with small initial vertical velocity on a bottom mirror disk, and absorption of atoms with large initial vertical velocities on a top rough disk. We estimate statistical and systematic uncertainties, and show that the accuracy for measuring the free fall acceleration $\\overline{g}$ of $\\overline{\\mathrm{H}}$ could be pushed below $10^{-3}$ under realistic experimental conditions.

  8. A method for calculating active feedback system to provide vertical

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The active feedback system is applied to control slow motions of plasma. The objective of the ... The other problem is connected with the control of plasma vertical position with active feedback system. Calculation of ... Current Issue Volume 90 ...

  9. simulation of vertical water flow through vadose zone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Simulation of vertical water flow representing the release of water from the vadose zone to the aquifer of surroundings ... ground water pollution from agricultural, industrial and municipal .... Peak Flow Characteristics of Wyoming. Streams: US ...

  10. Vertical structure of atmosphere in pre-monsoon season over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (CIN), precipitable water content (PWC) and dynamical parameter vertical wind shear difference (VWS) are studied. ... These results are found to be significant at 99% confidence. It is found ... thunderstorms are maximum in terms of number.

  11. A Location-Aware Vertical Handoff Algorithm for Hybrid Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mehbodniya, Abolfazl; Aissa, Sonia; Chitizadeh, Jalil

    2010-01-01

    . Horizontal handoff, or generally speaking handoff, is a process which maintains a mobile user's active connection as it moves within a wireless network, whereas vertical handoff (VHO) refers to handover between different types of networks or different network

  12. Vertical foramina in the lumbosacral region: CT appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beers, G.J.; Carter, A.P.; McNary, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    Several computed tomographic (CT) examples of vertically oriented foramina in the neural arches of the lumbosacral vertebrae are presented. The literature is reviewed briefly, and the possible clincal and embryologic significance of these foramina is discussed

  13. Unsteady MHD free convective flow past a vertical porous plate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology .... dimensional MHD boundary layer on the body with time varying temperature. ... flow of an electrically conducting fluid past an infinite vertical porous flat plate coinciding with.

  14. Improving performance through vertical disintegration: Evidence from UK manufacturing firms

    OpenAIRE

    Desyllas, Panos

    2009-01-01

    Unlike previous work on the vertical integration-performance relationship, we investigate the performance consequences of vertical disintegration. We offer a theoretical justification for the disintegration decision and we condition the disintegration effect on performance on the initial degree of firm integration, the timing and the direction of disintegration. Using a sample of UK manufacturing firms and controlling for disintegration endogeneity, we find that disintegration eventually resu...

  15. Refining geoid and vertical gradient of gravity anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chijun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We have derived and tested several relations between geoid (N and quasi-geoid (ζ with model validation. The elevation correction consists of the first-term (Bouguer anomaly and second-term (vertical gradient of gravity anomaly. The vertical gradient was obtained from direct measurement and terrain calculation. The test results demonstrated that the precision of geoid can reach centimeter-level in mountains less than 5000 meters high.

  16. Activity Based Startup Plan for Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-01-01

    Testing activation on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at PFP were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The restart of testing activities will require a review through an activity based startup process based upon Integrated Safety Management (ISM) principles to verify readiness. The Activity Based Startup Plan for the Prototype vertical Denitration Calciner has been developed for this process

  17. Alignment and operability analysis of a vertical sodium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, V.K.; Fair, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    With the objective of identifying important alignment features of pumps such as FFTF, HALLAM, EBR II, PNC, PHENIX, and CRBR, alignment of the vertical sodium pump for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) is investigated. The CRBRP pump includes a flexibly coupled pump shaft and motor shaft, two oil-film tilting-pad hydrodynamic radial bearings in the motor plus a vertical thrust bearing, and two sodium hydrostatic bearings straddling the double-suction centrifugal impeller in the pump

  18. A note on unionized firms' incentive to integrate vertically

    OpenAIRE

    Grandner, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I analyze a vertically structured monopolized market with unionized firms. I compare two types of contracts: vertical integration and franchising. With franchising and wage bargaining at the firm level the union in the downstream firm is either very powerful or has no bargaining power at all, depending on the specific time structure of the model. These arguments could make integration preferable for the profit owners even if integration is accompanied by small transaction costs....

  19. Vertically Integrated Models for Carbon Storage Modeling in Heterogeneous Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Numerical modeling is an essential tool for studying the impacts of geologic carbon storage (GCS). Injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into deep saline aquifers leads to multi-phase flow (injected CO2 and resident brine), which can be described by a set of three-dimensional governing equations, including mass-balance equation, volumetric flux equations (modified Darcy), and constitutive equations. This is the modeling approach on which commonly used reservoir simulators such as TOUGH2 are based. Due to the large density difference between CO2 and brine, GCS models can often be simplified by assuming buoyant segregation and integrating the three-dimensional governing equations in the vertical direction. The integration leads to a set of two-dimensional equations coupled with reconstruction operators for vertical profiles of saturation and pressure. Vertically-integrated approaches have been shown to give results of comparable quality as three-dimensional reservoir simulators when applied to realistic CO2 injection sites such as the upper sand wedge at the Sleipner site. However, vertically-integrated approaches usually rely on homogeneous properties over the thickness of a geologic layer. Here, we investigate the impact of general (vertical and horizontal) heterogeneity in intrinsic permeability, relative permeability functions, and capillary pressure functions. We consider formations involving complex fluvial deposition environments and compare the performance of vertically-integrated models to full three-dimensional models for a set of hypothetical test cases consisting of high permeability channels (streams) embedded in a low permeability background (floodplains). The domains are randomly generated assuming that stream channels can be represented by sinusoidal waves in the plan-view and by parabolas for the streams' cross-sections. Stream parameters such as width, thickness and wavelength are based on values found at the Ketzin site in Germany. Results from the

  20. 5G IoT Industry Verticals and Network Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Condoluci, Massimo; Lema Rosas, Maria Angel; Mahmoodi, Toktam; Dohler, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The effective provisioning of industry verticals over the next-to-come 5G systems opens novel business opportunities for telco operators especially when considering the integration of Internet of Things (IoT) devices as enablers of business cases based on remote sensing and control. This chapter highlights the main features of IoT verticals with particular attention on healthcare, smart cities, industry automation and entertainment business cases. The aim of this Chapter is to derive the requ...

  1. Linkages and Vertical Integration in the Chinese Economy.

    OpenAIRE

    Heimler, Alberto

    1991-01-01

    The original concept of vertical integration can be applied only to the analysis of the relationship between final demand and gross output, but is unsuitable for most of supply-oriented studies, where what matters are the interindustry relations. For example, vertical integration of an industrial district with the rest of the economy cannot be measured with the traditional technique and should be accounted for by a different measure that considers the direct and indirect demand derived from t...

  2. Alternative method for reconstruction of antihydrogen annihilation vertices

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Andresen , G B; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki,Y

    2012-01-01

    The ALPHA experiment, located at CERN, aims to compare the properties of antihydrogen atoms with those of hydrogen atoms. The neutral antihydrogen atoms are trapped using an octupole magnetic trap. The trap region is surrounded by a three layered silicon detector used to reconstruct the antiproton annihilation vertices. This paper describes a method we have devised that can be used for reconstructing annihilation vertices with a good resolution and is more efficient than the standard method currently used for the same purpose.

  3. Horizontal and Vertical Rule Bases Method in Fuzzy Controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Aminifar, Sadegh; bin Marzuki, Arjuna

    2013-01-01

    Concept of horizontal and vertical rule bases is introduced. Using this method enables the designers to look for main behaviors of system and describes them with greater approximations. The rules which describe the system in first stage are called horizontal rule base. In the second stage, the designer modulates the obtained surface by describing needed changes on first surface for handling real behaviors of system. The rules used in the second stage are called vertical rule base. Horizontal...

  4. Alternative method for reconstruction of antihydrogen annihilation vertices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C., E-mail: chanpreet.amole@cern.ch [York University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Ashkezari, M. D. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Andresen, G. B. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Bertsche, W. [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Bowe, P. D. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Butler, E. [CERN, Physics Department (Switzerland); Cesar, C. L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica (Brazil); Chapman, S. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Fajans, J. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C. [University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Gill, D. R. [TRIUMF (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hangst, J. S. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Hardy, W. N. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hayano, R. S. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics (Japan); Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-15

    The ALPHA experiment, located at CERN, aims to compare the properties of antihydrogen atoms with those of hydrogen atoms. The neutral antihydrogen atoms are trapped using an octupole magnetic trap. The trap region is surrounded by a three layered silicon detector used to reconstruct the antiproton annihilation vertices. This paper describes a method we have devised that can be used for reconstructing annihilation vertices with a good resolution and is more efficient than the standard method currently used for the same purpose.

  5. Numerical simulation of vertical infiltration for leaching fluid in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinxuan; Shi Weijun; Zhang Weimin

    1998-01-01

    Based on the analysis of movement law of leaching fluid in breaking and leaching experiment in situ, the movement of leaching fluid can be divided into two main stages in the leaching process in situ: Vertical Infiltration in unsaturation zone and horizontal runoff in saturation zone. The corresponding mathematics models are sep up, and the process of vertical infiltration of leaching fluid is numerically simulated

  6. Dynamic Modal Analysis of Vertical Machining Centre Components

    OpenAIRE

    Anayet U. Patwari; Waleed F. Faris; A. K. M. Nurul Amin; S. K. Loh

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a systematic procedure and details of the use of experimental and analytical modal analysis technique for structural dynamic evaluation processes of a vertical machining centre. The main results deal with assessment of the mode shape of the different components of the vertical machining centre. The simplified experimental modal analysis of different components of milling machine was carried out. This model of the different machine tool's structure is made by design software...

  7. The role of vertical shear on the horizontal oceanic dispersion

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Lanotte; R. Corrado; G. Lacorata; L. Palatella; C. Pizzigalli; I. Schipa; R. Santoleri

    2015-01-01

    The effect of vertical shear on the horizontal dispersion properties of passive tracer particles on the continental shelf of South Mediterranean is investigated by means of observative and model data. In-situ current measurements reveal that vertical velocity gradients in the upper mixed layer decorrelate quite fast (∼ 1 day), whereas basin-scale ocean circulation models tend to overestimate such decorrelation time because of finite resolution effects. Horizontal dispers...

  8. Factors affecting the vertical distribution of eggs [HELP 34

    OpenAIRE

    Sundby, Svein

    1990-01-01

    The spatia1 distribution of eggs and larvae is a function of the properties of the ambient water, i.e. the density, current and turbulent diffusion, and of the physical properties of the eggs, i.e. the buoyancy and dimension. The study of the vertical distribution is the first step to understanding the horizontal transport of eggs and larvae. Two models for the vertical distribution of eggs are applied to demonstrate how the physical and biological conditions influence th...

  9. DESIGN OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF VERTICALLY INTEGRATED AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Витальевич ШМАТКО

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an approach to the design and development of information systems for the management and optimization of the organizational structure of vertically integrated agricultural holdings. A review of the problems of building and improving the organizational structure of vertically integrated agricultural holding is made. A method of constructing a discrete model management structure agricultural holding, which minimizes the costs associated with attracting applicants to work, is proposed.

  10. Self-starting aerodynamics analysis of vertical axis wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyang Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertical axis wind turbine is a special type of wind-force electric generator which is capable of working in the complicated wind environment. The self-starting aerodynamics is one of the most important considerations for this kind of turbine. This article aims at providing a systematic synthesis on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine based on the numerical analysis approach. First, the physical model of vertical axis wind turbine and its parameter definitions are presented. Secondary, the interaction model between the vertical axis wind turbine and fluid is developed by using the weak coupling approach; the numerical data of this model are then compared with the wind tunnel experimental data to show its feasibility. Third, the effects of solidity and fixed pitch angle on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of the vertical axis wind turbine are analyzed systematically. Finally, the quantification effects of the solidity and fixed pitch angle on the self-starting performance of the turbine can be obtained. The analysis in this study will provide straightforward physical insight into the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine.

  11. Twilight vertical migrations of zooplankton in a Chilean fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo; Castro, Leonardo; Cáceres, Mario; Pizarro, Oscar

    2014-12-01

    Time series of acoustic backscatter and vertical velocity profiles were obtained at three sites along a Chilean fjord with the purpose of determining dominant structures of vertical migrations of the sound scattering layer. Ancillary data obtained with stratified net samples indicated that the sound scattering layer may have been dominated by euphausiids and decapods. Therefore, distributions of acoustic backscatter anomalies and vertical velocities were attributed to vertical migrations of predominantly these organisms. Migration patterns were dominated by twilight excursions in which organisms swam toward the water surface at sunset, spent 100 m). This migration strategy can also be termed 'semidiel migration' as two double excursions were linked to light levels. The reasons for this twilight migration remain uncertain. But it is possible that the up and down motion around sunset was related to predation avoidance, hunger-satiation state, ontogeny, seaward transport evasion, or reaction to the environmental shock from the pycnocline, or a combination of all or some of them. In contrast, the sunrise double excursion was probably linked to feeding requirements by organisms that need to spend the day at great depth with no food available. This study demonstrated the existence of semidiel patterns throughout the fjord and through prolonged periods. In addition, identification of this pattern by acoustic backscatter was complemented by direct vertical velocity measurements. It is proposed that twilight vertical migration is a common strategy in Chilean fjords.

  12. Development of seismic isolation system in vertical direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohoka, Makoto; Horikiri, Morito

    1999-04-01

    A structure concept of vertical seismic isolation system which uses a common deck and a set of large dish springs was created in past studies. In this report, a series of dynamic tests on a small scale model of a common deck isolation structure were performed. The model was excited by random and seismic waves in the horizontal direction and 2-D excitation, horizontal and vertical, in order to identify the characteristics of isolation effect. The tests results are summarized as below. 1) This structure has three vibration mode. The second mode is rocking. 2) Rocking frequency depends on the excitation, for this structure has dish spring which contact with cylinders. Rocking damping varies from 2 to 8%, 3) Each mode's response peak frequency to 2-D(horizontal and vertical) excitation is almost the same the some to horizontal excitation. Vertical mode damping to 2-D excitation is about three times to horizontal excitation. 4) Isolation effect depends on a characteristics of frequency of input motion. The minimum response is to the Monju design seismic wave, soil shear wave:Vs=2000 m/sec, natural frequency of horizontal isolation in vertical direction:fv=20 Hz. A relative displacement is controlled. 5) A rocking angular displacement to 2-D excitation is about 2 times to 1-D excitation(vertical). However, it is about 1.2 E-4(rad), sufficiently small for a practical plant. (author)

  13. Economies of vertical integration in the Swiss electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetz, Aurelio; Filippini, Massimo [Department of Management, Technology and Economics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Department of Economics, University of Lugano (Switzerland)

    2010-11-15

    Over the last two decades, several European nations have introduced reforms to their electricity sector. Generally, these reforms require a legal and functional unbundling of vertically integrated companies. These unbundling processes may reduce the possibilities that exist to fruitfully exploit the advantages of vertical integration. The goal of this paper is to empirically analyze the presence of economies of scale and vertical integration in the Swiss electricity sector. Economies of vertical integration between electricity production and distribution result from reduced transaction costs, better coordination of highly specific and interdependent investments and less financial risk. Different econometric specifications for panel data, including a random effects and a random-coefficients model, have been used to estimate a quadratic multi-stage cost function for a sample of electricity companies. The empirical results reflect the presence of considerable economies of vertical integration and economies of scale for most of the companies considered in the analysis. Moreover, the results suggest a variation in economies of vertical integration across companies due to unobserved heterogeneity. (author)

  14. Gold Mine or Minefield: Understanding Russian Law on Vertical Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rucker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the Russian Federation represents a significant opportunity for growth, that opportunity is coupled with serious risks. As it relates to managing product distribution, Russian vertical restraint law remains significantly more restrictive than that of the U.S. and, since unless a company is fully integrated, it must manage its distribution system by way of vertical agreements, presents a large problem for businesses seeking to conduct business in Russia. While Russia has made significant steps in the right direction, the lack of consistent application of economic analysis to evaluation of vertical restraints leaves companies exposed. Further, the sometimes inconsistent application of the laws also makes it hard to predict how any particular vertical agreement would be evaluated. Neither American nor Russian antitrust laws establish a list of possible vertical restraints. Thus, there is no exhaustive guidance regarding how these restraints should be treated. U.S. antitrust laws, however, generally place all vertical restraints into one of two categories, intrabrand restraints and interbrand restraints. Intrabrand restraints are those that restrain the downstream firm’s freedom with regard to the resale of the product at issue (distribution restrictions. Interbrand restraints are those that restrict a downstream or upstream firm’s freedom to deal with competitors of the firm imposing the restraint (interbrand restrictions. It should be noted that Russian law does not make this distinction.

  15. Gold Mine or Minefield: Understanding Russian Law on Vertical Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rucker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available While the Russian Federation represents a significant opportunity for growth, that opportunity is coupled with serious risks. As it relates to managing product distribution, Russian vertical restraint law remains significantly more restrictive than that of the U.S. and, since unless a company is fully integrated, it must manage its distribution system by way of vertical agreements, presents a large problem for businesses seeking to conduct business in Russia. While Russia has made significant steps in the right direction, the lack of consistent application of economic analysis to evaluation of vertical restraints leaves companies exposed. Further, the sometimes inconsistent application of the laws also makes it hard to predict how any particular vertical agreement would be evaluated. Neither American nor Russian antitrust laws establish a list of possible vertical restraints. Thus, there is no exhaustive guidance regarding how these restraints should be treated. U.S. antitrust laws, however, generally place all vertical restraints into one of two categories, intrabrand restraints and interbrand restraints. Intrabrand restraints are those that restrain the downstream firm’s freedom with regard to the resale of the product at issue (distribution restrictions. Interbrand restraints are those that restrict a downstream or upstream firm’s freedom to deal with competitors of the firm imposing the restraint (interbrand restrictions. It should be noted that Russian law does not make this distinction.

  16. Parameters determining efficiency and degradation of TiO2 vertical bar dye vertical bar CuI solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirimanne, P.M.; Tributsch, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The influence of the micro-morphological structure of the TiO 2 film, the distribution of CuI in TiO 2 pores and the concentration of added surfactant in the CuI coating solution on the photocurrent of solid-state TiO 2 vertical bar dye vertical bar CuI solar cells was examined by space resolved photocurrent imaging technique. Iodine is found to be competing with the oxidized dye molecules in accepting electrons from CuI and decreases the efficiency of the cell. TiO 2 vertical bar dye vertical bar CuI cell degrade two hundred times faster than wet sensitization cells. This instability is considered to be due to the decomposition of the electron transfer-bridge between the sensitizer and CuI

  17. A search for thermospheric composition perturbations due to vertical winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krynicki, Matthew P.

    The thermosphere is generally in hydrostatic equilibrium, with winds blowing horizontally along stratified constant-pressure surfaces, driven by the dayside-to-nightside pressure gradient. A marked change in this paradigm resulted after Spencer et al. [1976] reported vertical wind measurements of 80 m·s-1 from analyses of AE-C satellite data. It is now established that the thermosphere routinely supports large-magnitude (˜30-150 m·s-1) vertical winds at auroral latitudes. These vertical winds represent significant departure from hydrostatic and diffusive equilibrium, altering locally---and potentially globally---the thermosphere's and ionosphere's composition, chemistry, thermodynamics and energy budget. Because of their localized nature, large-magnitude vertical wind effects are not entirely known. This thesis presents ground-based Fabry-Perot Spectrometer OI(630.0)-nm observations of upper-thermospheric vertical winds obtained at Inuvik, NT, Canada and Poker Flat, AK. The wind measurements are compared with vertical displacement estimates at ˜104 km2 horizontal spatial scales determined from a new modification to the electron transport code of Lummerzheim and Lilensten [1994] as applied to FUV-wavelength observations by POLAR spacecraft's Ultraviolet Imager [Torr et al. , 1995]. The modification, referred to as the column shift, simulates vertical wind effects such as neutral transport and disruption of diffusive equilibrium by vertically displacing the Hedin [1991] MSIS-90 [O2]/[N2] and [O]/([N2]+[O2]) mixing ratios and subsequently redistributing the O, O2, and N 2 densities used in the transport code. Column shift estimates are inferred from comparisons of UVI OI(135.6)-nm auroral observations to their corresponding modeled emission. The modeled OI(135.6)-nm brightness is determined from the modeled thermospheric response to electron precipitation and estimations of the energy flux and characteristic energy of the precipitation, which are inferred from UVI

  18. The complete vertical stroke ΔS vertical stroke =2-hamiltonian in the next-to-leading order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrlich, S.; Nierste, U.

    1996-04-01

    We present the complete next-to-leading order short-distance QCD corrections to the effective vertical stroke ΔS vertical stroke =2-hamiltonian in the Standard Model. The calculation of the coefficient η 3 is described in great detail. It involves the two-loop mixing of bilocal structures composed of two vertical stroke ΔS vertical stroke =1 operators into vertical stroke ΔS vertical stroke =2 operators. The next-to-leading order corrections enhance η 3 by 27% to η 3 =0.47(+0.03-0.04) thereby affecting the phenomenology of ε K sizeably. η 3 depends on the physical input parameters m t , m c and Λsub(anti M anti S) only weakly. The quoted error stems from renormalization scale dependences, which have reduced compared to the old leading log result. The known calculation of η 1 and η 2 is repeated in order to compare the structure of the three QCD coefficients. We further discuss some field theoretical aspects of the calculation such as the renormalization group equation for Green's functions with two operator insertions and the renormalization scheme dependence caused by the presence of evanescent operators. (orig.)

  19. Reconstruction of B- → D*0e- anti νe decays and determination of vertical stroke Vcb vertical stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this analysis the decay B - → D *0 e - anti ν e is measured. The underlying data sample consists of about 226 million B anti B-pairs accumulated on the Υ(4S) resonance by the BABAR detector at the asymmetric e + e - collider PEP-II. The reconstruction of the decay uses the channels D *0 → D 0 π 0 , D 0 → K - π + and π 0 → γγ. The neutrino is not reconstructed. Since the rest frame of the B meson is unknown, the boost w of the D *0 meson in the B meson rest frame is estimated by w. The w spectrum of the data is described in terms of the partial decay width dΓ/dw given by theory and the detector simulation translating each spectrum dΓ/dw into an expectation of the measured w spectrum. dΓ/dw depends on a form factor F(w) parameterizing the strong interaction in the decay process. To find the best descriptive dΓ/dw a fit to the data determines the following two parameters of dΓ/dw: (i) F(1) vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke, the product between F at zero D *0 -recoil and the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke; (ii) ρ 2 A1 , a parameter of the form factor F(w). The former parameter scales the height of dΓ/dw and ρ 2 A1 varies the shape of it. The determined values of F(1) vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke, ρ 2 A1 and B(B - → D *0 e - anti ν e ) are F(1) vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke =(35.8±0.5±1.5) x 10 -3 , ρ 2 A1 =(1.08±0.05±0.09) and B(B - → D *0 e - anti ν e )=(5.60±0.08±0.42)%, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. The values of B(B - → D *0 e - anti ν e ) has been determined by an integration of dΓ/dw over the allowed w range using the fitted values of F(1) vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke and ρ 2 A1 . (orig.)

  20. Advanced Si solid phase crystallization for vertical channel in vertical NANDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangsoo Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The advanced solid phase crystallization (SPC method using the SiGe/Si bi-layer structure is proposed to obtain high-mobility poly-Si thin-film transistors in next generation vertical NAND (VNAND devices. During the SPC process, the top SiGe thin film acts as a selective nucleation layer to induce surface nucleation and equiaxial microstructure. Subsequently, this SiGe thin film microstructure is propagated to the underlying Si thin film by epitaxy-like growth. The initial nucleation at the SiGe surface was clearly observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM when heating up to 600 °C. The equiaxial microstructures of both SiGe nucleation and Si channel layers were shown in the crystallized bi-layer plan-view TEM measurements. Based on these experimental results, the large-grained and less-defective Si microstructure is expected to form near the channel region of each VNAND cell transistor, which may improve the electrical characteristics.

  1. Fibredrain method. Environmentally friendly vertical drain; Fiberdrain koho. Kankyo ni yasashii vertical drain koho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suto, Y.; Inoue, T. [Fukken Co. Ltd., Hiroshima (Japan); Miura, N. [Saga University, Saga (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Yoshida, Y.; Hamada, K. [Hiroshima Prefectural Government Office, Hiroshima (Japan); Aboshi, H. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    Ground improvement using fibredrain (FD) material has not been used in Japan. For its practical use in Japan, laboratory experiment was made on such technological characteristics of FD material as tensile strength and permeability, and field test was also made to verify its improvement effect. A plane FD specimen of nearly 90mm wide and 9mm thick is composed of a folded double jute fabrics band and 4 twisted coir ropes arranged between the jute fabrics at even intervals, and the band is sewn up along center lines between the ropes. A mean permeability coefficient is estimated to be {kappa} = 1.0times10{sup -1}cm/s and {kappa} = 1.0times10{sup -2}cm/s at {sigma}{sup 3} = 0.5kgf/cm{sup 2} and {sigma}{sup 3} = 2.0kgf/cm{sup 2} in lateral pressure, respectively, showing sufficient permeabilities for vertical drain material. The tensile strength of fresh FD material is estimated to be a little stronger than 900kg/material width which is far stronger than that of conventional FD materials. The field test result showed that the FD material achieved the target for ground improvement, and has sufficient functions as a substitute for SD material. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Is Convection Sensitive to Model Vertical Resolution and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, S.; Lin, W.; Zhang, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Model sensitivity to horizontal resolutions has been studied extensively, whereas model sensitivity to vertical resolution is much less explored. In this study, we use the US Department of Energy (DOE)'s Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) atmosphere model to examine the sensitivity of clouds and precipitation to the increase of vertical resolution of the model. We attempt to understand what results in the behavior change (if any) of convective processes represented by the unified shallow and turbulent scheme named CLUBB (Cloud Layers Unified by Binormals) and the Zhang-McFarlane deep convection scheme in ACME. A short-term hindcast approach is used to isolate parameterization issues from the large-scale circulation. The analysis emphasizes on how the change of vertical resolution could affect precipitation partitioning between convective- and grid-scale as well as the vertical profiles of convection-related quantities such as temperature, humidity, clouds, convective heating and drying, and entrainment and detrainment. The goal is to provide physical insight into potential issues with model convective processes associated with the increase of model vertical resolution. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Vertical dispersion generated by correlated closed orbit deviations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kewisch, J.; Limberg, T.; Rossbach, J.; Willeke, F.

    1986-02-01

    Vertical displacement of quadrupole magnets is one of the main causes of a vertical dispersion in a flat storage ring and thus a major contributor to the height of an electron beam. Computer simulations of the beam height in the HERA electron ring give a value of the ratio ε z /ε x of more than 10 percent. This large value occurs even for an rms value of the quadrupole vertical displacements Δz as small as 0.01 mm. Such a vertical emittance is much larger than one expects on the base of a theoretical estimate and it is clearly necessary to investigate the origin of the disagreements especially since the beam height has such an important influence on the machine performance. The key to the understanding of this discrepancy lies in the correlations of the closed orbit deviations at different position of the machine. This is investigated in the next section and in the section which follows we derive the expression for the rms value of dispersion and the vertical emittance. Finally the theoretical results are compared with computer simulations. (orig.)

  4. The WZNW model on PSU(1, 1 vertical stroke 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, G.

    2006-10-01

    According to the work of Berkovits, Vafa and Witten, the non-linear sigma model on the supergroup PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2) is the essential building block for string theory on AdS 3 xS 3 xT 4 . Models associated with a non-vanishing value of the RR flux can be obtained through a psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) invariant marginal deformation of the WZNW model on PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2). We take this as a motivation to present a manifestly psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) covariant construction of the model at the Wess-Zumino point, corresponding to a purely NSNS background 3-form flux. At this point the model possesses an enhanced psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) current algebra symmetry whose representation theory, including explicit character formulas, is developed systematically in the first part of the paper. The space of vertex operators and a free fermion representation for their correlation functions is our main subject in the second part. Contrary to a widespread claim, bosonic and fermionic fields are necessarily coupled to each other. The interaction changes the supersymmetry transformations, with drastic consequences for the multiplets of localized normalizable states in the model. It is only this fact which allows us to decompose the full state space into multiplets of the global supersymmetry. We analyze these decompositions systematically as a preparation for a forthcoming study of the RR deformation. (orig.)

  5. Vertical control in the Class III compensatory treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Márcio Costa; Habib, Fernando A L; Nascimento, Ana Carla de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Compensatory orthodontic treatment, or simply orthodontic camouflage, consists in an important alternative to orthognathic surgery in the resolution of skeletal discrepancies in adult patients. It is important to point that, to be successfully performed, diagnosis must be detailed, to evaluate, specifically, dental and facial features, as well as the limitations imposed by the magnitude of the discrepancy. The main complaint, patient's treatment expectation, periodontal limits, facial pattern and vertical control are some of the items to be explored in the determination of the viability of a compensatory treatment. Hyperdivergent patients who present with a Class III skeletal discrepancy, associated with a vertical facial pattern, with the presence or tendency to anterior open bite, deserve special attention. In these cases, an efficient strategy of vertical control must be planned and executed. The present article aims at illustrating the evolution of efficient alternatives of vertical control in hiperdivergent patients, from the use, in the recent past, of extraoral appliances on the lower dental arch (J-hook), until nowadays, with the advent of skeletal anchorage. But for patients with a more balanced facial pattern, the conventional mechanics with Class III intermaxillary elastics, associated to an accentuated curve of Spee in the upper arch and a reverse curve of Spee in the lower arch, and vertical elastics in the anterior region, continues to be an excellent alternative, if there is extreme collaboration in using the elastics.

  6. Investigating Methods for Serving Visualizations of Vertical Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. T.; Cechini, M. F.; Lanjewar, K.; Rodriguez, J.; Boller, R. A.; Baynes, K.

    2017-12-01

    Several geospatial web servers, web service standards, and mapping clients exist for the visualization of two-dimensional raster and vector-based Earth science data products. However, data products with a vertical component (i.e., vertical profiles) do not have the same mature set of technologies and pose a greater technical challenge when it comes to visualizations. There are a variety of tools and proposed standards, but no obvious solution that can handle the variety of visualizations found with vertical profiles. An effort is being led by members of the NASA Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) team to gather a list of technologies relevant to existing vertical profile data products and user stories. The goal is to find a subset of technologies, standards, and tools that can be used to build publicly accessible web services that can handle the greatest number of use cases for the widest audience possible. This presentation will describe results of the investigation and offer directions for moving forward with building a system that is capable of effectively and efficiently serving visualizations of vertical profiles.

  7. Vertical control in the Class III compensatory treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Costa Sobral

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Compensatory orthodontic treatment, or simply orthodontic camouflage, consists in an important alternative to orthognathic surgery in the resolution of skeletal discrepancies in adult patients. It is important to point that, to be successfully performed, diagnosis must be detailed, to evaluate, specifically, dental and facial features, as well as the limitations imposed by the magnitude of the discrepancy. The main complaint, patient's treatment expectation, periodontal limits, facial pattern and vertical control are some of the items to be explored in the determination of the viability of a compensatory treatment. Hyperdivergent patients who carry a Class III skeletal discrepancy, associated with a vertical facial pattern, with the presence or tendency to anterior open bite, deserve special attention. In these cases, an efficient strategy of vertical control must be planned and executed. OBJECTIVE: The present article aims at illustrating the evolution of efficient alternatives of vertical control in hiperdivergent patients, from the use, in the recent past, of extra-oral appliances on the lower dental arch (J-hook, until nowadays, with the advent of skeletal anchorage. But for patients with a more balanced facial pattern, the conventional mechanics with Class III intermaxillary elastics, associated to an accentuated curve of Spee in the upper arch and a reverse Curve of Spee in the lower arch, and vertical elastics in the anterior region, continues to be an excellent alternative, if there is extreme collaboration in using the elastics.

  8. Vertical integration of medical education: Riverland experience, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, D R; Worley, P S; Mugford, B; Stagg, P

    2004-01-01

    Vertical integration of medical education is currently a prominent international topic, resulting from recent strategic initiatives to improve medical education and service delivery in areas of poorly met medical need. In this article, vertical integration of medical education is defined as 'a grouping of curricular content and delivery mechanisms, traversing the traditional boundaries of undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing medical education, with the intent of enhancing the transfer of knowledge and skills between those involved in the learning-teaching process'. Educators closely involved with vertically integrated teaching in the Riverland of South Australia present an analytical description of the educational dynamics of this system. From this analysis, five elements are identified which underpin the process of successful vertical integration: (1) raised educational stakes; (2) local ownership; (3) broad university role; (4) longer attachments; and (5) shared workforce vision. Given the benefits to the Riverland medical education programs described in this paper, it is not surprising that vertical integration of medical education is a popular goal in many rural regions throughout the world. Although different contexts will result in different functional arrangements, it could be argued that the five principles outlined in this article can be applied in any region.

  9. The WZNW model on PSU(1, 1 vertical stroke 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, G. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique; Quella, T. [King' s College London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematics]|[Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). KdV Institute for Mathematics; Schomerus, V. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    According to the work of Berkovits, Vafa and Witten, the non-linear sigma model on the supergroup PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2) is the essential building block for string theory on AdS{sub 3}xS{sup 3}xT{sup 4}. Models associated with a non-vanishing value of the RR flux can be obtained through a psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) invariant marginal deformation of the WZNW model on PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2). We take this as a motivation to present a manifestly psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) covariant construction of the model at the Wess-Zumino point, corresponding to a purely NSNS background 3-form flux. At this point the model possesses an enhanced psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) current algebra symmetry whose representation theory, including explicit character formulas, is developed systematically in the first part of the paper. The space of vertex operators and a free fermion representation for their correlation functions is our main subject in the second part. Contrary to a widespread claim, bosonic and fermionic fields are necessarily coupled to each other. The interaction changes the supersymmetry transformations, with drastic consequences for the multiplets of localized normalizable states in the model. It is only this fact which allows us to decompose the full state space into multiplets of the global supersymmetry. We analyze these decompositions systematically as a preparation for a forthcoming study of the RR deformation. (orig.)

  10. Optimal viewing position in vertically and horizontally presented Japanese words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajii, N; Osaka, N

    2000-11-01

    In the present study, the optimal viewing position (OVP) phenomenon in Japanese Hiragana was investigated, with special reference to a comparison between the vertical and the horizontal meridians in the visual field. In the first experiment, word recognition scores were determined while the eyes were fixating predetermined locations in vertically and horizontally displayed words. Similar to what has been reported for Roman scripts, OVP curves, which were asymmetric with respect to the beginning of words, were observed in both conditions. However, this asymmetry was less pronounced for vertically than for horizontally displayed words. In the second experiment, the visibility of individual characters within strings was examined for the vertical and horizontal meridians. As for Roman characters, letter identification scores were better in the right than in the left visual field. However, identification scores did not differ between the upper and the lower sides of fixation along the vertical meridian. The results showed that the model proposed by Nazir, O'Regan, and Jacobs (1991) cannot entirely account for the OVP phenomenon. A model in which visual and lexical factors are combined is proposed instead.

  11. Sufficient Conditions for Vertical Composition of Security Protocols (Extended Version)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Viganò, Luca

    a certain kind of channel as a goal and another secure protocol P2 that assumes this kind of channel, can we then derive that their vertical composition P2[P1] is secure? It is well known that protocol composition can lead to attacks even when the individual protocols are all secure in isolation......Vertical composition of security protocols means that an application protocol (e.g., a banking service) runs over a channel established by another protocol (e.g., a secure channel provided by TLS). This naturally gives rise to a compositionality question: given a secure protocol P1 that provides....... In this paper, we formalize seven easy-to-check static conditions that support a large class of channels and applications and that we prove to be su_cient for vertical security protocol composition....

  12. Field Emission of ITO-Coated Vertically Aligned Nanowire Array.

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changhwa

    2010-04-29

    An indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated vertically aligned nanowire array is fabricated, and the field emission characteristics of the nanowire array are investigated. An array of vertically aligned nanowires is considered an ideal structure for a field emitter because of its parallel orientation to the applied electric field. In this letter, a vertically aligned nanowire array is fabricated by modified conventional UV lithography and coated with 0.1-μm-thick ITO. The turn-on electric field intensity is about 2.0 V/μm, and the field enhancement factor, β, is approximately 3,078 when the gap for field emission is 0.6 μm, as measured with a nanomanipulator in a scanning electron microscope.

  13. Field Emission of ITO-Coated Vertically Aligned Nanowire Array.

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changhwa; Lee, Seokwoo; Lee, Seung S

    2010-01-01

    An indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated vertically aligned nanowire array is fabricated, and the field emission characteristics of the nanowire array are investigated. An array of vertically aligned nanowires is considered an ideal structure for a field emitter because of its parallel orientation to the applied electric field. In this letter, a vertically aligned nanowire array is fabricated by modified conventional UV lithography and coated with 0.1-μm-thick ITO. The turn-on electric field intensity is about 2.0 V/μm, and the field enhancement factor, β, is approximately 3,078 when the gap for field emission is 0.6 μm, as measured with a nanomanipulator in a scanning electron microscope.

  14. Vertical orbit excursion fixed field alternating gradient accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Brooks

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG accelerators with vertical orbit excursion (VFFAGs provide a promising alternative design for rings with fixed-field superconducting magnets. They have a vertical magnetic field component that increases with height in the vertical aperture, yielding a skew quadrupole focusing structure. Scaling-type VFFAGs are found with fixed tunes and no intrinsic limitation on momentum range. This paper presents the first multiparticle tracking of such machines. Proton driver rings to accelerate the 800 MeV beam from the ISIS synchrotron are presented, in terms of both magnet field geometry and longitudinal behavior during acceleration with space charge. The 12 GeV ring produces an output power of at least 2.18 MW. Possible applications of VFFAGs to waste transmutation, hadron therapy, and energy-recovery electron accelerators are also discussed.

  15. The GL(1 vertical stroke 1)-symplectic fermion correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutzig, Thomas; Roenne, Peter B.

    2008-12-01

    In this note we prove a correspondence between the Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model of the Lie supergroup GL(1 vertical stroke 1) and a free model consisting of two scalars and a pair of symplectic fermions. This model was discussed earlier by LeClair. Vertex operators for the symplectic fermions include twist fields, and correlation functions of GL(1 vertical stroke 1) agree with the known results for the scalars and symplectic fermions. We perform a detailed study of boundary states for symplectic fermions and apply them to branes in GL(1 vertical stroke 1). This allows us to compute new amplitudes of strings stretching between branes of different types and confirming Cardy's condition. (orig.)

  16. The GL(1 vertical stroke 1)-symplectic fermion correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutzig, Thomas; Roenne, Peter B.

    2008-12-15

    In this note we prove a correspondence between the Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model of the Lie supergroup GL(1 vertical stroke 1) and a free model consisting of two scalars and a pair of symplectic fermions. This model was discussed earlier by LeClair. Vertex operators for the symplectic fermions include twist fields, and correlation functions of GL(1 vertical stroke 1) agree with the known results for the scalars and symplectic fermions. We perform a detailed study of boundary states for symplectic fermions and apply them to branes in GL(1 vertical stroke 1). This allows us to compute new amplitudes of strings stretching between branes of different types and confirming Cardy's condition. (orig.)

  17. Vertical compared with transverse incisions in abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grantcharov, T P; Rosenberg, J

    2001-01-01

    , and late complications (incisional hernia). RESULTS: Eleven randomised controlled trials and seven retrospective studies were identified. The transverse incision offers as good an access to most intra-abdominal structures as a vertical incision. The transverse incision results in significantly less......OBJECTIVE: To reach an evidence-based consensus on the relative merits of vertical and transverse laparotomy incisions. DESIGN: Review of all published randomised controlled trials that compared the postoperative complications after the two main types of abdominal incisions, vertical and transverse....... SETTING: Teaching hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Patients undergoing open abdominal operations. INTERVENTIONS: For some of the variables (burst abdomen and incisional hernia) it was considered adequate to include retrospective studies. Studies were identified through Medline, Cochrane library, Embase...

  18. HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEVZAT ŞİMŞEK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Crucial improvement have taken place in intra-industry trade literature since intra-industry trade phenomenon was empirically determined. Nowadays economists discuss on the necessity of distinguishing between horizontal and vertical intra-industry trade especially relating to product differentiation in each industry. As standard Grubel-Lloyd index does not determine the time when two way trade is taken into consideration, in this paper first of all Two-Way Trade index is used and then horizontal intra-industry trade and low-high quality vertical intra-industry trade are distinguished from each other regarding unit value differential. As a result of the analysis the findings show that low quality vertical intra-industry trade dominate in Turkey's intra-industry trade.

  19. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi

    2012-10-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) have been developed using pure semiconducting carbon nanotubes. The source and drain were vertically stacked, separated by a dielectric, and the carbon nanotubes were placed on the sidewall of the stack to bridge the source and drain. Both the effective gate dielectric and gate electrode were normal to the substrate surface. The channel length is determined by the dielectric thickness between source and drain electrodes, making it easier to fabricate sub-micrometer transistors without using time-consuming electron beam lithography. The transistor area is much smaller than the planar CNTFET due to the vertical arrangement of source and drain and the reduced channel area. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Facial nerve hemangioma: a rare case involving the vertical segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Neda; Newkirk, Kenneth; Kim, H Jeffrey

    2013-02-01

    This case report and literature review reports on a rare case of facial nerve hemangioma (FNH) involving the vertical facial nerve (FN) segment, and discusses the clinical presentation, imaging, pathogenesis, and management of these rare lesions. A 53-year-old male presented with a 10-year history of right hemifacial twitching and progressive facial paresis (House-Brackmann grading score V/VI). The computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies confirmed an expansile lesion along the vertical FN segment. Excision and histopathologic examination demonstrated FNH. FNHs involving the vertical FN segment are extremely rare. Despite being rare lesions, we believe that familiarity with the presentation and management of FNHs are imperative. Laryngoscope, 2012. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. The B → D* vertical bar ν form factor at zero recoil and the determination of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simone, J.N.; Hashimoto, S.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Mackenzie, P.B.; Ryan, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    We summarize our lattice QCD study of the form factor at zero recoil in the decay B → D* vertical bar ν. After careful consideration of all sources of systematic uncertainty, we find, h A 1 (1) 0.913 +24+17 -17-30 , where the first uncertainty is from statistics and fitting while the second combined uncertainty is from all other systematic effects

  2. An energetically consistent vertical mixing parameterization in CCSM4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Borg; Jochum, Markus; Eden, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    An energetically consistent stratification-dependent vertical mixing parameterization is implemented in the Community Climate System Model 4 and forced with energy conversion from the barotropic tides to internal waves. The structures of the resulting dissipation and diffusivity fields are compared......, however, depends greatly on the details of the vertical mixing parameterizations, where the new energetically consistent parameterization results in low thermocline diffusivities and a sharper and shallower thermocline. It is also investigated if the ocean state is more sensitive to a change in forcing...

  3. Vertical-Cavity In-plane Heterostructures: Physics and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug

    2015-01-01

    We show that the in-plane heterostructures realized in vertical cavities with high contrast grating(HCG) reflector enables exotic configurations of heterostructure and photonic wells. In photonic crystal heterostructures forming a photonic well, the property of a confined mode is determined...... by the well width and barrier height. We show that in vertical-cavity in-plane heterostructures, anisotropic dispersion curvatures plays a key role as well, leading to exotic effects such as a photonic well with conduction band like well and a valence band like barrier. We investigate three examples...

  4. Characteristics of Vertical Mantle Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Morrison, G.L.; Behnia, M.

    1999-01-01

    - The flow structure in vertical mantle heat exchangers was investigated using a full-scale tank designed to facilitate flow visualisation. The flow structure and velocities in the mantle were measured using a particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. A CFD simulation model of vertical mantle heat...... exchangers was also developed for detailed evaluation of the heat flux distribution over the mantle surface. Both the experimental and simulation results indicate that distribution of the flow around the mantle gap is governed by buoyancy driven recirculation in the mantle. The operation of the mantle...

  5. Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B.

    2014-01-01

    We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.

  6. Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B., E-mail: bbwei@nwpu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2014-09-08

    We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.

  7. Thermally optimum spacing of vertical, natural convection cooled, parallel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, A.; Rohsenow, W. M.

    Vertical two-dimensional channels formed by parallel plates or fins are a frequently encountered configuration in natural convection cooling in air of electronic equipment. In connection with the complexity of heat dissipation in vertical parallel plate arrays, little theoretical effort is devoted to thermal optimization of the relevant packaging configurations. The present investigation is concerned with the establishment of an analytical structure for analyses of such arrays, giving attention to useful relations for heat distribution patterns. The limiting relations for fully-developed laminar flow, in a symmetric isothermal or isoflux channel as well as in a channel with an insulated wall, are derived by use of a straightforward integral formulation.

  8. Axisymmetric stability of vertically asymmetric tokamaks at large beta poloidal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Fishman, H.; Okabayashi, M.; Todd, A.M.M.

    1981-09-01

    The stability of high-β vertically asymmetric tokamak equilibria to rigid displacements is investigated analytically. It is found that vertical stability at large beta poloidal is mainly determined by a coupling between the shape of the plasma surface and the Shafranov shift of the magnetic axis. To the lowest order, symmetric components of the plasma surface shape are found to be the critical destabilizing elements. Asymmetric components have little effect. The inclusion of higher order terms in the high β tokamak expansion leads to further destabilization. Qualitative agreement between these analytic results and numerical stability calculations using the PEST code is demonstrated

  9. Consideration of vertical seismic response spectrum in nuclear safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zaozhan; Huang Bingchen

    2011-01-01

    The basic requirements for civil nuclear installation are introduced in the article. Starting from the basic concept of seismic response spectrum, the authors analyze the site seismic response spectrum and the design seismic response spectrum that desire much consideration. By distinguishing the absolute seismic response spectrum and relative seismic response spectrum, the authors analyze the difference and relationship between the vertical seismic response spectrum and horizontal seismic response spectrum. The authors also bring forward some suggestions for determining the site vertical seismic response spectrum by considering the fact in our country. (authors)

  10. Is vertical integration adding value to health systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, T P

    2000-04-01

    Vertical integration is a concept used by health systems when attempting to achieve economies of scale, greater coordination of services, and improved market penetration. This article focuses on the actual outcomes of utilizing vertical integration in the health field and then compares these findings with those reported in other industries. This analysis concludes that this organizational model does not work particularly well in the health industry, as illustrated by health alliances' poor fiscal performance when they acquire physician practices or when they start their own HMO plans.

  11. Vertical integration and organizational networks in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J C; Casalino, L P

    1996-01-01

    This paper documents the growing linkages between primary care-centered medical groups and specialists and between physicians and hospitals under managed care. We evaluate the two alternative forms of organizational coordination: "vertical integration," based on unified ownership, and "virtual integration," based on contractual networks. Excess capacity and the need for investment capital are major short-term determinants of these vertical versus virtual integration decisions in health care. In the longer term, the principal determinants are economies of scale, risk-bearing ability, transaction costs, and the capacity for innovation in methods of managing care.

  12. Evaluation of vertical profiles to design continuous descent approach procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Priyank

    The current research focuses on predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of Continuous Descent Approach (CDA), which is among the key concepts of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The idle-thrust CDA is a fuel economical, noise and emission abatement procedure, but requires increased separation to accommodate for variability and uncertainties in vertical and speed profiles of arriving aircraft. Although a considerable amount of researches have been devoted to the estimation of potential benefits of the CDA, only few have attempted to explain the predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of CDA. The analytical equations derived using flight dynamics and Base of Aircraft and Data (BADA) Total Energy Model (TEM) in this research gives insight into dependency of vertical profile of CDA on various factors like wind speed and gradient, weight, aircraft type and configuration, thrust settings, atmospheric factors (deviation from ISA (DISA), pressure and density of the air) and descent speed profile. Application of the derived equations to idle-thrust CDA gives an insight into sensitivity of its vertical profile to multiple factors. This suggests fixed geometric flight path angle (FPA) CDA has higher degree of predictability and lesser variability at the cost of non-idle and low thrust engine settings. However, with optimized design this impact can be overall minimized. The CDA simulations were performed using Future ATM Concept Evaluation Tool (FACET) based on radar-track and aircraft type data (BADA) of the real air-traffic to some of the busiest airports in the USA (ATL, SFO and New York Metroplex (JFK, EWR and LGA)). The statistical analysis of the vertical profiles of CDA shows 1) mean geometric FPAs derived from various simulated vertical profiles are consistently shallower than 3° glideslope angle and 2) high level of variability in vertical profiles of idle-thrust CDA even in absence of

  13. CONDENSATION OF WATER VAPOR IN A VERTICAL TUBE CONDENSER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havlík

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of heat transfer in the process of condensation of water vapor in a vertical shell-and-tube condenser. We analyze the use of the Nusselt model for calculating the condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC inside a vertical tube and the Kern, Bell-Delaware and Stream-flow analysis methods for calculating the shell-side HTC from tubes to cooling water. These methods are experimentally verified for a specific condenser of waste process vapor containing air. The operating conditions of the condenser may be different from the assumptions adopted in the basic Nusselt theory. Modifications to the Nusselt condensation model are theoretically analyzed.

  14. Vertical integration as a source of market power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, J.H.

    1981-11-01

    This paper has put forward a theory of vertial integration where the ability of a group of firms to engage in noncompetitive pricing is increased by altering conjectural variations. An analysis of conditions faced by major oil companies at refining indicated little likelihood of market power, short of a complex, secret price fixing agreement. Vertical integration to branded retail outlets appears to have created the ability to price noncompetitively without overt collusion. More interesting for vertical policy are the results on non price rivalry where excess profits appear to have been turned into social costs.

  15. The SU(2 vertical stroke 3) spin chain sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, R.; Lopez, E.

    2005-01-01

    The one-loop planar dilatation operator of N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills is isomorphic to the hamiltonian of an integrable PSU(2,2 vertical stroke 4) spin chain. We construct the non-linear sigma model describing the continuum limit of the SU(2 vertical stroke 3) subsector of the N = 4 chain. We explicitly identify the spin chain sigma model with the one for a superstring moving in AdS 5 x S 5 with large angular momentum along the five-sphere. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Application of Prefabricated Vertical Drain in Soil Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedjakusuma B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the use of Prefabricated Vertical Drain (PVD in soil improvement is not new, this paper is interesting since it gives the full spectrum from preliminary design stage; trial embankment and pilot test to final soil improvement. The final installation of the PVD was based on the soil investigation report and the results of instrumentation monitoring. Finally, using back analysis, vertical and horizontal coefficients of consolidation and compression index can be determined, which can be applied to predict a more accurate prediction of settlement.

  17. Ferrofluid meniscus in a horizontal or vertical magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosensweig, R.E.; Elborai, S.; Lee, S.-H.; Zahn, M.

    2005-01-01

    An optical system using reflections of a narrow laser beam to measure the height and shape of a ferrofluid meniscus in response to uniform applied magnetic fields finds that meniscus height on a vertical flat wall decreases in horizontal applied field and increases in vertical applied field. An approximate energy minimization analysis predicts meniscus height in directional agreement with measurements. This study is a first step in calculating the tangential surface force acting in flows where magnetization magnitude and direction lag a changing magnetic field direction, and the meniscus shape is magnetically perturbed

  18. Estimating Vertical Land Motion in the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houttuijn Bloemendaal, L.; Hensel, P.

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to provide a modern measurement of subsidence in the Chesapeake Bay region and establish a methodology for measuring vertical land motion using static GPS, a cheaper alternative to InSAR or classical leveling. Vertical land motion in this area is of particular concern because tide gages are showing up to 5 mm/yr of local, relative sea level rise. While a component of this rate is the actual eustatic sea level rise itself, part of the trend may also be vertical land motion, in which subsidence exacerbates the effects of actual changes in sea level. Parts of this region are already experiencing an increase in the frequency and magnitude of near-shore coastal flooding, but the last comprehensive study of vertical land motion in this area was conducted by NOAA in 1974 (Holdahl & Morrison) using repeat leveled lines. More recent measures of vertical land motion can help inform efforts on resilience to sea level rise, such as in the Hampton Roads area. This study used measured GPS-derived vertical heights in conjunction with legacy GPS data to calculate rates of vertical motion at several points in time for a selection of benchmarks scattered throughout the region. Seventeen marks in the stable Piedmont area and in the areas suspected of subsidence in the Coastal Plain were selected for the analysis. Results indicate a significant difference between the rates of vertical motion in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, with a mean rate of -4.10 mm/yr in the Coastal Plain and 0.15 mm/yr in the Piedmont. The rates indicate particularly severe subsidence at the southern Delmarva Peninsula coast and the Hampton-Roads area, with a mean rate of -6.57 mm/yr in that region. By knowing local rates of subsidence as opposed to sea level change itself, coastal managers may make better informed decisions regarding natural resource use, such as deciding whether or not to reduce subsurface fluid withdrawals or to consider injecting treated water back into the aquifer to slow

  19. Segmental and Kinetic Contributions in Vertical Jumps Performed with and without an Arm Swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltner, Michael E.; Bishop, Elijah J.; Perez, Cassandra M.

    2004-01-01

    To determine the contributions of the motions of the body segments to the vertical ground reaction force ([F.sub.z]), the joint torques produced by the leg muscles, and the time course of vertical velocity generation during a vertical jump, 15 men were videotaped performing countermovement vertical jumps from a force plate with and without an arm…

  20. Simulation of VDE under intervention of vertical stability control and vertical electromagnetic force on the ITER vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, S.; Sugihara, M.; Shinya, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Toshimitsu, S.; Lukash, V.E.; Khayrutdinov, R.R.; Sugie, T.; Kusama, Y.; Yoshino, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Taking account of intervention of VS control, VDE simulations were carried out. ► Malfunctioning of VS circuit (positive feedback) enhances the vertical force. ► The worst case was explored for vertical force on the ITER vacuum vessel. ► We confirmed the force is still within the design margin even if the worst case. - Abstract: Vertical displacement events (VDEs) and disruptions usually take place under intervention of vertical stability (VS) control and the vertical electromagnetic force induced on vacuum vessels is potentially influenced. This paper presents assessment of the force that arises from the VS control in ITER VDEs using a numerical simulation code DINA. The focus is on a possible malfunctioning of the ex-vessel VS control circuit: radial magnetic field is unintentionally applied to the direction of enhancing the vertical displacement further. Since this type of failure usually causes the largest forces (or halo currents) observed in the present experiments, this situation must be properly accommodated in the design of the ITER vacuum vessel. DINA analysis shows that although the ex-vessel VS control modifies radial field, it does not affect plasma motion and current quench behavior including halo current generation because the vacuum vessel shields the field created by the ex-vessel coils. Nevertheless, the VS control modifies the force on the vessel by directly acting on the eddy current carried by the conducting structures of the vessel. Although the worst case was explored in a range of plasma inductance and pattern of VS control in combination with the in-vessel VS control circuit, the result confirmed that the force is still within the design margin.

  1. Entropy generation in MHD flow of a uniformly stretched vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the analytical calculation of the entropy generation due to heat and mass transfer and fluid friction in steady state of a uniformly stretched vertical permeable surface with heat and mass diffusive walls, by solving analytically the mass, momentum, species concentration and energy balance equation, using ...

  2. Reliability Analysis of Geotechnical Failure Modes for Vertical Wall Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    Vertical wall breakwaters are usually designed as concrete caissons placed on the top of a rubble mound foundation or a rubble bedding layer. The purpose of the breakwater is usually to protect the area behind the breakwater from being flooded by large waves. The area protected can for example be...

  3. Vertical and horizontal control dilemmas in public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Inger Johanne; Solstad, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    The hospital sector in Norway has been continuously reorganized since 2002 and the reforms have created organizations that are functionally/vertically controlled, whereas the production lines are coordinated on a process or a lateral basis. The purpose of this paper is to focus on both the perceived functional vertical control and horizontal controls within and between the local hospitals and the regional administrative levels. A national survey study, complemented with interviews of some key informants and document studies. The study shows that the functional and vertical lines of management control are perceived to be operating according to the traditional views of management control. The study indicates that the horizontal tasks are not very well implemented, and we did not find interactive and lateral uses of management control systems for managerial purposes. New control problems arise when services are to be coordinated between autonomous units. The paper focuses on the control problems found within the horizontal, flat relationship between production units in hospitals; new organizational structures have emerged where lateral relations are important, but traditional control practices follow functional, vertical lines.

  4. The Power of Pictures : Vertical Picture Angles in Power Pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessner, Steffen R.; Ryan, Michelle K.; Schubert, Thomas W.; van Quaquebeke, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that variations in vertical picture angle cause the subject to appear more powerful when depicted from below and less powerful when depicted from above. However, do the media actually use such associations to represent individual differences in power? We argue that the

  5. Restart plan for the prototype vertical denitration calciner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-09-01

    Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at PFP were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The Restart Plan will govern the transition of the test program from the completion of the activity based startup review; through equipment checkout and surrogate material runs; to resumption of the testing program and transition to unrestricted testing.

  6. Vertical Transmission of Hepatozoon in the Garter Snake Thamnophis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Kiera L; Sparkman, Amanda; Bronikowski, Anne M; Palacios, Maria G

    2017-01-01

    Vertical transmission of blood parasites has been demonstrated in humans and some domestic species, but it has not been well documented in wild populations. We assessed whether Hepatozoon blood parasites are vertically transmitted in naturally infected individuals of the viviparous western terrestrial garter snake ( Thamnophis elegans ). Blood smears were taken from nine wild-caught gravid female snakes at capture, preparturition, and postparturition, and then from their laboratory-born offspring at age 2 mo and 1 yr. All infected offspring were born to four infected females, although not all offspring in a given litter were necessarily infected. Parasites were not detected in offspring born to the five uninfected mothers. The highest parasite loads were found in neonates at 2 mo of age. Parasite prevalence did not vary between sexes in offspring, but females showed higher loads than did males when 2 mo old. This study supports vertical transmission of Hepatozoon in naturally infected viviparous snakes and suggests that vertical transmission of hematozoan parasites might be an overlooked mode of transmission in wildlife.

  7. Experimental characterization of individual pitch controlled vertical axis wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leblanc, B.P.; Simao Ferreira, C.

    2017-01-01

    Research into the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) has been progressing over the last few years due to
    the large shift in design constraints for large floating offshore wind turbines by leveraging tools and experience
    from research beginning in the 1970s and lasting until the HAWT

  8. Comparison of aerodynamic models for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, C. Simão; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Barone, M.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-megawatt Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) are experiencing an increased interest for floating offshore applications. However, VAWT development is hindered by the lack of fast, accurate and validated simulation models. This work compares six different numerical models for VAWTS: a multiple...

  9. Demonstration of an Enhanced Vertical Magnetic Gradient System for UXO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    fluxgate magnetometers , data recording console, laser altimeter, and acoustic altimeters were tested to ensure proper operation and performance. The VG...Simultaneous Electromagnetic Induction and Magnetometer System WAA wide area assessment ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We wish to express our sincere...sensors. The benefits of vertical gradient (VG) configurations in magnetometer systems are common knowledge, and these configurations are routinely

  10. Mixed convective heat transfer from a vertical plate embedded

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effect of melting and solute dispersion on heat and mass transfer in non-Darcy fluid flow over a vertical surface has been studied numerically in the present article. The flow is assumed to be laminar and steady state. Using similarity transformations, the governing boundary layer equations are transformed into ...

  11. Scour at the head of a vertical-wall breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the near-bed flow patterns, the bed shear stress amplification and scour around the head of a vertical-wall breakwater, using regular waves. The Keulegan-Carpenter number (KC), based on the diameter of the breakwater head, is found...

  12. [EEG-markers of vertical postural organization in healthy persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhavoronkova, L A; Zharikova, A V; Kushnir, E M; Mikhalkova, A A

    2012-01-01

    In 10 healthy persons (22.8 +/- 0.67 years) spectral-coherence parameters of EEG were analyzed in different steps of verticalizations--from gorizontal position to seat and stand one. Maximal changes of all EEG parameters were observed in state with absence of visual control. We observed an increase of power for fast spectral bands of EEG (beta- and gamma-bands) in all conditions and additional increase of these EEG parameters was observed at situation of complication of conditions of vertical pose supporting. Results of EEG coherent analysis in conditions of human verticalization showed specific increase of coherence for the majority of rhythm ranges in the right hemisphere especially in the central-frontal and in occipital-parietal areas and for interhemispheric pairs for these leads. This fact can reflect participation of cortical as well as subcortical structures in these processes. In conditions of complicate conditions of vertical pose supporting the additional increase of EEG coherence in fast bands (beta-rhythm) was observed at the frontal areas. This fact can testify about increasing of executive functions in this conditions.

  13. Calculation of Vertical Temperature Gradients in Heated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overby, H.; Steen-Thøde, Mogens

    This paper deals with a simple model which predicts the vertical temperature gradient in a heated room. The gradient is calculated from a dimensionless temperature profile which is determined by two room air temperatures only, the mean temperature in the occupied zone and the mean temperature...

  14. Form Filling with SCC in a Vertical Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from two different vertical form filling experiments with SCC that have been completed as part of the experimental work in an ongoing Ph.D project. The project is carried out at the Danish Technological Institute in collaboration with the Technical...

  15. Modeling of Aerosol Vertical Profiles Using GIS and Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Ho Lee

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Remote Sensing (RS by climatologists, environmentalists and urban planners for three dimensional modeling and visualization of the landscape is well established. However no previous study has implemented these techniques for 3D modeling of atmospheric aerosols because air quality data is traditionally measured at ground points, or from satellite images, with no vertical dimension. This study presents a prototype for modeling and visualizing aerosol vertical profiles over a 3D urban landscape in Hong Kong. The method uses a newly developed technique for the derivation of aerosol vertical profiles from AERONET sunphotometer measurements and surface visibility data, and links these to a 3D urban model. This permits automated modeling and visualization of aerosol concentrations at different atmospheric levels over the urban landscape in near-real time. Since the GIS platform permits presentation of the aerosol vertical distribution in 3D, it can be related to the built environment of the city. Examples are given of the applications of the model, including diagnosis of the relative contribution of vehicle emissions to pollution levels in the city, based on increased near-surface concentrations around weekday rush-hour times. The ability to model changes in air quality and visibility from ground level to the top of tall buildings is also demonstrated, and this has implications for energy use and environmental policies for the tall mega-cities of the future.

  16. Heat and momentum transport scalings in vertical convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkina, Olga

    2016-11-01

    For vertical convection, where a fluid is confined between two differently heated isothermal vertical walls, we investigate the heat and momentum transport, which are measured, respectively, by the Nusselt number Nu and the Reynolds number Re . For laminar vertical convection we derive analytically the dependence of Re and Nu on the Rayleigh number Ra and the Prandtl number Pr from our boundary layer equations and find two different scaling regimes: Nu Pr 1 / 4 Ra 1 / 4 , Re Pr - 1 / 2 Ra 1 / 2 for Pr > 1 . Direct numerical simulations for Ra from 105 to 1010 and Pr from 0.01 to 30 are in excellent ageement with our theoretical findings and show that the transition between the regimes takes place for Pr around 0.1. We summarize the results from and present new theoretical and numerical results for transitional and turbulent vertical convection. The work is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the Grant Sh 405/4 - Heisenberg fellowship.

  17. Cryogenic infrastructure for Fermilab's ILC vertical cavity test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcagno, R.; Ginsburg, C.; Huang, Y.; Norris, B.; Ozelis, J.; Peterson, T.; Poloubotko, V.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Wong, M.; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    Fermilab is building a Vertical Cavity Test Facility (VCTF) to provide for R and D and pre-production testing of bare 9-cell, 1.3-GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities for the International Linear Collider (ILC) program. This facility is located in the existing Industrial Building 1 (IB1) where the Magnet Test Facility (MTF) also resides. Helium and nitrogen cryogenics are shared between the VCTF and MTF including the existing 1500-W at 4.5-K helium refrigerator with vacuum pumping for super-fluid operation (125-W capacity at 2-K). The VCTF is being constructed in multiple phases. The first phase is scheduled for completion in mid 2007, and includes modifications to the IB1 cryogenic infrastructure to allow helium cooling to be directed to either the VCTF or MTF as scheduling demands require. At this stage, the VCTF consists of one Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostat for the testing of one cavity in a 2-K helium bath. Planning is underway to provide a total of three Vertical Test Stands at VCTF, each capable of accommodating two cavities. Cryogenic infrastructure improvements necessary to support these additional VCTF test stands include a dedicated ambient temperature vacuum pump, a new helium purification skid, and the addition of helium gas storage. This paper describes the system design and initial cryogenic operation results for the first VCTF phase, and outlines future cryogenic infrastructure upgrade plans for expanding to three Vertical Test Stands

  18. CRYOGENIC INFRASTRUCTURE FOR FERMILAB'S ILC VERTICAL CAVITY TEST FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcagno, R.; Ginsburg, C.; Huang, Y.; Norris, B.; Ozelis, J.; Peterson, T.; Poloubotko, V.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Wong, M.

    2008-01-01

    Fermilab is building a Vertical Cavity Test Facility (VCTF) to provide for R and D and pre-production testing of bare 9-cell, 1.3-GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities for the International Linear Collider (ILC) program. This facility is located in the existing Industrial Building 1 (IB1) where the Magnet Test Facility (MTF) also resides. Helium and nitrogen cryogenics are shared between the VCTF and MTF including the existing 1500-W at 4.5-K helium refrigerator with vacuum pumping for super-fluid operation (125-W capacity at 2-K). The VCTF is being constructed in multiple phases. The first phase is scheduled for completion in mid 2007, and includes modifications to the IB1 cryogenic infrastructure to allow helium cooling to be directed to either the VCTF or MTF as scheduling demands require. At this stage, the VCTF consists of one Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostat for the testing of one cavity in a 2-K helium bath. Planning is underway to provide a total of three Vertical Test Stands at VCTF, each capable of accommodating two cavities. Cryogenic infrastructure improvements necessary to support these additional VCTF test stands include a dedicated ambient temperature vacuum pump, a new helium purification skid, and the addition of helium gas storage. This paper describes the system design and initial cryogenic operation results for the first VCTF phase, and outlines future cryogenic infrastructure upgrade plans for expanding to three Vertical Test Stands

  19. Dynamics of force and muscle stimulation in human vertical jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M.F.; van Zandwijk, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the importance of stimulation dynamics for force development in human vertical jumping. METHODS: Maximum height squat jumps were performed by 21 male subjects. As a measure of signal dynamics, rise time (RT) was used, i.e., the time taken

  20. Modelling vertical uniform contact stress of heavy vehicle tyres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steenkamp, Anton J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available over the selected operating range of 25 kN to 45 kN which is the typical load range for heavy vehicle tyres due to legal axle load limits. The polynomial formulas require only the tyre inflation pressure and vertical tyre load as inputs, in order...

  1. Estimation of sand dune thickness using a vertical velocity profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shuhail, Abdullatif A.

    2004-01-01

    Previous field and mathematical studies have shown that sand dunes may have vertical velocity profiles (i.e. continuous increase of velocity with depth). Therefore, computing the dunes thickness using conventional seismic refraction methods that assume a vertically homogeneous layer will likely produce some errors. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of the vertical velocity profile in a sand dune on the process of thickness estimation using seismic refraction data. First, the time distance (T-X) data of the direct wave in the dune is calculated using a vertical velocity profile, V (z), derived from Hertz-Mindlin contact theory. Then the thickness is estimated from the calculated T-X data, intercept time and velocity of the refractor at the dune's base assuming a constant velocity in the dune. The error in the estimated thickness due to the constant-velocity assumption increases with increasing thickness and decreasing porosity of the dune. For sand dunes with porosities greater than 0.2 and thickness less than 200 meter, the error is less than 15%. (author)

  2. Graphene and PbS quantum dot hybrid vertical phototransistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Yating; Zhang, Haiting; Yu, Yu; Cao, Mingxuan; Che, Yongli; Dai, Haitao; Yang, Junbo; Ding, Xin; Yao, Jianquan

    2017-04-01

    A field-effect phototransistor based on a graphene and lead sulfide quantum dot (PbS QD) hybrid in which PbS QDs are embedded in a graphene matrix has been fabricated with a vertical architecture through a solution process. The n-type Si/SiO2 substrate (gate), Au/Ag nanowire transparent source electrode, active layer and Au drain electrode are vertically stacked in the device, which has a downscaled channel length of 250 nm. Photoinduced electrons in the PbS QDs leap into the conduction band and fill in the trap states, while the photoinduced holes left in the valence band transfer to the graphene and form the photocurrent under biases from which the photoconductive gain is evaluated. The graphene/QD-based vertical phototransistor shows a photoresponsivity of 2 × 103 A W-1, and specific detectivity up to 7 × 1012 Jones under 808 nm laser illumination with a light irradiance of 12 mW cm-2. The solution-processed vertical phototransistor provides a new facile method for optoelectronic device applications.

  3. Heat convection in a set of three vertical cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Ramirez, M.L. de.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental results on temperature and heat flow in a set of three vertical cylinders with internal generation of heat, water submerged and in free convection are presented in this work . Temperature distribution, Nusselt number and convective coefficient (h) for each rod, developed for the distance between the axis of cylinders in vertical position, as a consequence of the application of power in its outside, are analyzed. Experimental information about heat transfer by free convection in vertical cylinders and surfaces is analyzed. Information of the several author who have carried out studies about the heat transfer on vertical cylinders was compiled, and the proposed equations with the experimental data obtained in the thermo fluids laboratory of National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) were tested. The way in which separation distance, s, distribution temperature array, Nusselt number, and convective coefficient calculated for the proposed channel with the Keyhani, Dutton and experimental equations are tabulated and they are plotted for each power value and for each separation between rods. The scheme of the used equipment and the experimentation description as well as the observations of tests and graphical results are included. (Author)

  4. Unsteady Viscous Flow Past an Impulsively Started Porous Vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a new numerical approach for solving unsteady two dimensional boundary layer flow past an infinite vertical porous surface with the flow generated by Newtonian heating and impulsive motion in the presence of viscous dissipation and temperature dependent viscosity. The viscosity of the fluid under ...

  5. Novel vertical silicon photodiodes based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, Yelena; Shauly, Eitan; Paz, Yaron

    2015-01-01

    The classical concept of silicon photodiodes comprises of a planar design characterized by heavily doped emitters. Such geometry has low collection efficiency of the photons absorbed close to the surface. An alternative, promising, approach is to use a vertical design. Nevertheless, realization of such design is technologically challenged, hence hardly explored. Herein, a novel type of silicon photodiodes, based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts, is presented. These contacts can be prepared up to 10 μm in depth, without showing any leakage current associated with the increase in the contact area. Consequently, the trenched photodiodes revealed better performance than no-trench photodiodes. A simple two dimensional model was developed, allowing to estimate the conditions under which a vertical design has the potential to have better performance than that of a planar design. At large, the deeper the trench is, the better is the vertical design relative to the planar (up to 10 μm for silicon). The vertical design is more advantageous for materials characterized by short diffusion lengths of the carriers. Salicided polysilicon trenched contacts open new opportunities for the design of solar cells and image sensors. For example, these contacts may passivate high contact area buried contacts, by virtue of the conformity of polysilicon interlayer, thus lowering the via resistance induced recombination enhancement effect

  6. Novel vertical silicon photodiodes based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Yelena [Department of Chemical Engineering, Technion, Haifa (Israel); TowerJazz Ltd. Migdal Haemek (Israel); Shauly, Eitan [TowerJazz Ltd. Migdal Haemek (Israel); Paz, Yaron, E-mail: paz@tx.technion.ac.il [Department of Chemical Engineering, Technion, Haifa (Israel)

    2015-12-07

    The classical concept of silicon photodiodes comprises of a planar design characterized by heavily doped emitters. Such geometry has low collection efficiency of the photons absorbed close to the surface. An alternative, promising, approach is to use a vertical design. Nevertheless, realization of such design is technologically challenged, hence hardly explored. Herein, a novel type of silicon photodiodes, based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts, is presented. These contacts can be prepared up to 10 μm in depth, without showing any leakage current associated with the increase in the contact area. Consequently, the trenched photodiodes revealed better performance than no-trench photodiodes. A simple two dimensional model was developed, allowing to estimate the conditions under which a vertical design has the potential to have better performance than that of a planar design. At large, the deeper the trench is, the better is the vertical design relative to the planar (up to 10 μm for silicon). The vertical design is more advantageous for materials characterized by short diffusion lengths of the carriers. Salicided polysilicon trenched contacts open new opportunities for the design of solar cells and image sensors. For example, these contacts may passivate high contact area buried contacts, by virtue of the conformity of polysilicon interlayer, thus lowering the via resistance induced recombination enhancement effect.

  7. Vertical velocity variances and Reynold stresses at Brookhaven

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Niels E.; Brown, R.M.; Frizzola, J.A.

    1970-01-01

    Results of wind tunnel tests of the Brookhaven annular bivane are presented. The energy transfer functions describing the instrument response and the numerical filter employed in the data reduction process have been used to obtain corrected values of the normalized variance of the vertical wind v...

  8. Origami building blocks: Generic and special four-vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitukaitis, Scott; van Hecke, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Four rigid panels connected by hinges that meet at a point form a four-vertex, the fundamental building block of origami metamaterials. Most materials designed so far are based on the same four-vertex geometry, and little is known regarding how different geometries affect folding behavior. Here we systematically categorize and analyze the geometries and resulting folding motions of Euclidean four-vertices. Comparing the relative sizes of sector angles, we identify three types of generic vertices and two accompanying subtypes. We determine which folds can fully close and the possible mountain-valley assignments. Next, we consider what occurs when sector angles or sums thereof are set equal, which results in 16 special vertex types. One of these, flat-foldable vertices, has been studied extensively, but we show that a wide variety of qualitatively different folding motions exist for the other 15 special and 3 generic types. Our work establishes a straightforward set of rules for understanding the folding motion of both generic and special four-vertices and serves as a roadmap for designing origami metamaterials.

  9. Transient reflectivity on vertically aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galimberti, Gianluca; Ponzoni, Stefano; Ferrini, Gabriele; Hofmann, Stephan; Arshad, Muhammad; Cepek, Cinzia; Pagliara, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    One-color transient reflectivity measurements are carried out on two different samples of vertically aligned single-wall carbon nanotube bundles and compared with the response recently published on unaligned bundles. The negative sign of the optical response for both samples indicates that the free

  10. An Audit of Perineal Trauma and Vertical Transmisson Of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Restrictive episiotomy is recommended for the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV. The study compared the frequency of episiotomy use and the occurrence of perineal tears; and related factors in HIV positive and HIV negative women and to assess their effect on Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. A total of ...

  11. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for medical diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor

    This thesis deals with the design and fabrication of tunable Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs). The focus has been the application of tunable VCSELs in medical diagnostics, specifically OCT. VCSELs are candidates as light sources for swept-source OCT where their high sweep rate, wide...

  12. Description of the IMR Standard Light Trap and the Vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The construction of different versions of a cheap, robust, and easy to operate light trap for catching various aquatic organisms is shown. The trap can be used to > 300 m depth and meets a number of criteria. Small-scale vertical distribution of decapod larvae was investigated during trap trials. The traps (6-10) were set for 24 ...

  13. Horizontal and Vertical Attentional Orienting in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Gudrun M. S.; Santens, Patrick; Vingerhoets, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) typically suffer from an asymmetric degeneration of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra, resulting in right-sided (RPD) or left-sided (LPD) predominance of motor symptomatology. As the dopaminergic system is also involved in attention, we examined horizontal and vertical orienting of attention in LPD…

  14. Sensitivity analysis of railpad parameters on vertical railway track dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oregui Echeverria-Berreyarza, M.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.; Li, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a sensitivity analysis of railpad parameters on vertical railway track dynamics, incorporating the nonlinear behavior of the fastening (i.e., downward forces compress the railpad whereas upward forces are resisted by the clamps). For this purpose, solid railpads, rail-railpad

  15. TRANSMISIÓN VERTICAL DE HTLV-1 EN EL PERÚ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Jorge Alarcón; Romaní, Franco Romaní; Torres, Silvia Montano; Zunt, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    La infección por el virus linfotrópico humano de células T tipo 1 (HTLV-1) ha sido descrita en muchas áreas del mundo, como en los países del Caribe, Japón, África, Oceanía y en Sudamérica. En la presente revisión definimos la endemicidad del HTLV-1 en el país, planteando cuatro criterios epidemiológicos. Luego discutimos el tema central de la revisión: la transmisión vertical del HTLV-1, que en nuestro país sería uno de los principales mecanismos de transmisión. Dentro del desarrollo de este aspecto en particular, presentamos una estimación de la tasa de transmisión vertical y los factores de riesgo asociados con la transmisión vertical sobre la base de una revisión exhaustiva de estudios nacionales y extranjeros. Con esta revisión pretendemos dar una primera aproximación al estudio de la trasmisión vertical de HTLV-1, un aspecto poco estudiado en nuestro medio. PMID:21537777

  16. Vertical price leadership on local maize markets in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, WE; Lutz, C; van Tilburg, A

    This paper considers vertical price relationships between wholesalers and retailers on five local maize markets in Benin. We show that the common stochastic trend and the long-run disequilibrium error must explicitly be considered to correctly interpret the restrictions on the error-correction

  17. Full-scale fire experiments on vertical horizontal cable trays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangs, J.; Keski-Rahkonen, O.

    1997-10-01

    Two full-scale fire experiments on PVC cables used in nuclear power plants were carried out, one with cables in vertical position and one with cables in horizontal position. The vertical cable bundle, 3 m high, 300 mm wide and 30 mm thick, was attached to a steel cable ladder. The vertical bundle experiment was carried out in nearly free space with three walls near the cable ladder guiding air flow in order to stabilise flames. The horizontal cable experiment was carried out in a small room with five cable bundles attached to steel cable ladders. Three of the 2 m long cable bundles were located in an array, equally spaced above each other near one long side of the room and two correspondingly near the opposite long side. The vertical cable bundle was ignited with a small propane gas burner beneath the lower edge of the bundle. The horizontal cable bundles were ignited with a small propane burner beneath the lowest bundle in an array of three bundles. Rate of heat release by means of oxygen consumption calorimetry, mass change, CO 2 , CO and smoke production rate and gas, wall and cable surface temperatures were measured as a function of time, as well as time to sprinkler operation and failure of test voltage in cables. Additionally, the minimum rate of heat release needed to ignite the bundle was determined. This paper concentrates on describing and recording the experimental set-up and the data obtained. (orig.)

  18. Theory of nonaxisymmetric vertical displacement events in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, R.

    2011-01-01

    A semi-analytic sharp-boundary model of a nonaxisymmetric vertical displacement event (VDE) in a large aspect-ratio, high-beta (i.e. β ∼ ε), vertically elongated tokamak plasma is developed. The model is used to simulate nonaxisymmetric VDEs with a wide range of different plasma equilibrium and vacuum vessel parameters. These simulations yield poloidal halo current fractions and toroidal peaking factors whose magnitudes are similar to those seen in experiments, and also reproduce the characteristic inverse scaling between the halo current fraction and the toroidal peaking factor. Moreover, the peak poloidal halo current density in the vacuum vessel is found to correlate strongly with the reciprocal of the minimum edge safety factor attained during the VDE. In addition, under certain circumstances, the ratio of the net sideways force acting on the vacuum vessel to the net vertical force is observed to approach unity. Finally, the peak vertical force per unit area acting on the vessel is found to have a strong correlation with the equilibrium toroidal plasma current at the start of the VDE, but is also found to increase with increasing vacuum vessel resistivity relative to the scrape-off layer plasma.

  19. Efficient Extraction of High Centrality Vertices in Distributed Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumbhare, Alok [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Frincu, Marc [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Raghavendra, Cauligi S. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prasanna, Viktor K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-09-09

    Betweenness centrality (BC) is an important measure for identifying high value or critical vertices in graphs, in variety of domains such as communication networks, road networks, and social graphs. However, calculating betweenness values is prohibitively expensive and, more often, domain experts are interested only in the vertices with the highest centrality values. In this paper, we first propose a partition-centric algorithm (MS-BC) to calculate BC for a large distributed graph that optimizes resource utilization and improves overall performance. Further, we extend the notion of approximate BC by pruning the graph and removing a subset of edges and vertices that contribute the least to the betweenness values of other vertices (MSL-BC), which further improves the runtime performance. We evaluate the proposed algorithms using a mix of real-world and synthetic graphs on an HPC cluster and analyze its strengths and weaknesses. The experimental results show an improvement in performance of upto 12x for large sparse graphs as compared to the state-of-the-art, and at the same time highlights the need for better partitioning methods to enable a balanced workload across partitions for unbalanced graphs such as small-world or power-law graphs.

  20. Piezometric surface deduced from vertical electrical sounding data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In hydrogeological studies the knowledge of the water table is very essential. In this work, one hundred and eight vertical electrical soundings were carried out, with the view of unravelling the hydrogeological characteristics of Kuri River Basin, Kaduna, Nigeria. The water table for eleven hand dug wells were directly ...

  1. Resonant Tunneling in Gated Vertical One- dimensional Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolagunta, V. R.; Janes, D. B.; Melloch, M. R.; Webb, K. J.

    1997-03-01

    Vertical sub-micron transistors incorporating resonant tunneling multiple quantum well heterostructures are interesting in applications for both multi-valued logic devices and the study of quantization effects in vertical quasi- one-, zero- dimensional structures. Earlier we have demonstrated room temperature pinch-off of the resonant peak in sub-micron vertical resonant tunneling transistors structures using a self-aligned sidewall gating technique ( V.R. Kolagunta et. al., Applied Physics Lett., 69), 374(1996). In this paper we present the study of gating effects in vertical multiple quantum well resonant tunneling transistors. Multiple well quasi-1-D sidewall gated transistors with mesa dimensions of L_x=0.5-0.9μm and L_y=10-40μm were fabricated. The quantum heterostructure in these devices consists of two non-symmetric (180 ÅÅi-GaAs wells separated from each other and from the top and bottom n^+ GaAs/contacts region using Al_0.3Ga_0.7As tunneling barriers. Room temperature pinch-off of the multiple resonant peaks similar to that reported in the case of single well devices is observed in these devices^1. Current-voltage characteristics at liquid nitrogen temperatures show splitting of the resonant peaks into sub-bands with increasing negative gate bias indicative of quasi- 1-D confinement. Room-temperature and low-temperature current-voltage measurements shall be presented and discussed.

  2. Characteristics and optimisation of vertical and planar tunnelling-FETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterkel, M; Wang, P-F; Nirschl, T; Fabel, B; Bhuwalka, K K; Schulze, J; Eisele, I; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D; Hansch, W

    2005-01-01

    Scaling MOSFETs becomes more and more difficult. The tunnelling-FET is a possible successor of today's MOSFET with better scaling possibilities. Two different device structures, a vertical and a planar version of a tunnelling-FET are presented and evaluated

  3. Spiral density waves and vertical circulation in protoplanetary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riols, A.; Latter, H.

    2018-06-01

    Spiral density waves dominate several facets of accretion disc dynamics - planet-disc interactions and gravitational instability (GI) most prominently. Though they have been examined thoroughly in two-dimensional simulations, their vertical structures in the non-linear regime are somewhat unexplored. This neglect is unwarranted given that any strong vertical motions associated with these waves could profoundly impact dust dynamics, dust sedimentation, planet formation, and the emissivity of the disc surface. In this paper, we combine linear calculations and shearing box simulations in order to investigate the vertical structure of spiral waves for various polytropic stratifications and wave amplitudes. For sub-adiabatic profiles, we find that spiral waves develop a pair of counter-rotating poloidal rolls. Particularly strong in the non-linear regime, these vortical structures issue from the baroclinicity supported by the background vertical entropy gradient. They are also intimately connected to the disc's g modes which appear to interact non-linearly with the density waves. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the poloidal rolls are ubiquitous in gravitoturbulence, emerging in the vicinity of GI spiral wakes, and potentially transporting grains off the disc mid-plane. Other than hindering sedimentation and planet formation, this phenomena may bear on observations of the disc's scattered infrared luminosity. The vortical features could also impact on the turbulent dynamo operating in young protoplanetary discs subject to GI, or possibly even galactic discs.

  4. Influence of quartz particles on wear in vertical roller mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lucas R.D.; Friis, Henrik; Fundal, Erling

    2010-01-01

    The standard closed circuit comminution process commonly employed in industrial vertical roller mills has been analyzed to determine the influence of typical abrasive minerals on wear rates. With the main focus on raw mixes used in cement plants, synthetic mixtures imitating were prepared. Using...

  5. Adenocarcinoma of the pouch after silastic ring vertical gastroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, Christophe; Lemaitre, Jean; Lebrun, Eric; Journé, Stephane; Carlier, Patrick

    2002-10-01

    A 52-year-old woman was admitted because of epigastralgia, anorexia and recently increased vomiting, 2 years after silastic ring vertical gastroplasty. On gastroscopy, a tumor mass was visualized in the pouch near the "neo-pylorus". Biopsies confirmed adenocarcinoma. She underwent total gastrectomy, and has no evidence of recurrence at 1 year. The literature on gastric carcinoma after gastroplasty is reviewed.

  6. Vertical Capacity of Bucket Foundations in Undrained Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind turbine structures are traditionally founded on gravity concrete foundations or mono-piles. Bucket foundations were developed for the offshore oil and gas industry and are now being used in wind turbine construction. The loading in this application is characterized by a vertical loa...

  7. Vertical-aware click model-based effectiveness metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markov, I.; Kharitonov, E.; Nikulin, V.; Serdyukov, P.; de Rijke, M.; Crestani, F.; Li, J.; Wang, X.S.

    2014-01-01

    Today's web search systems present users with heterogeneous information coming from sources of different types, also known as verticals. Evaluating such systems is an important but complex task, which is still far from being solved. In this paper we examine the hypothesis that the use of models that

  8. Charge transport in nanoscale vertical organic semiconductor pillar devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbers, J.G.E.; Xu, B.; Bobbert, P.A.; de Jong, M.P.; van der Wiel, W.G.

    2017-01-01

    We report charge transport measurements in nanoscale vertical pillar structures incorporating ultrathin layers of the organic semiconductor poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). P3HT layers with thickness down to 5 nm are gently top-contacted using wedging transfer, yielding highly reproducible, robust

  9. Restart plan for the prototype vertical denitration calciner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-01-01

    Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at PFP were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The Restart Plan will govern the transition of the test program from the completion of the activity based startup review; through equipment checkout and surrogate material runs; to resumption of the testing program and transition to unrestricted testing

  10. The power of pictures: Vertical picture angles in power pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.R. Giessner (Steffen); M.K. Ryan (Michelle); T.W. Schubert (Thomas); N. van Quaquebeke (Niels)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: Conventional wisdom suggests that variations in vertical picture angle cause the subject to appear more powerful when depicted from below and less powerful when depicted from above. However, do the media actually use such associations to represent individual differences in

  11. Vertical integration of dual wavelength index guided lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karouta, F.; Tan, H.H.; Jagadish, C.; Roy, van B.H.

    1999-01-01

    The vertical integration of two GaAs-based lasers operating at different wavelengths has been achieved with the use of re-growth technology. A V-channel substrate inner stripe structure was used for the bottom laser and a ridge waveguide for the top laser. Both lasers shared a common electrode and

  12. Positioning for vertical integration through clinics "without walls".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B A; Schryver, D L

    1994-01-01

    Authors Bruce A. Johnson, J.D., M.P.A., and Darrell Schryver, D.P.A., offer the clinic without walls model as a transitory step to full vertical integration. They write that this model "may enable physicians to address the key issues associated with managed care and integration in a more gradual, controlled fashion.

  13. Owned vertical integration and health care: promise and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, S L; Kimberly, J R; Burns, L R

    1996-01-01

    This article examines the alleged benefits and actual outcomes of vertical integration in the health sector and compares them to those observed in other sectors of the economy. This article concludes that the organizational models on which these arrangements are based may be poorly adapted to the current environment in health care.

  14. Vertical Integration at Junior and Intermediate Levels. School Research Newsletter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Inger, Ed.; Hanse, Mona-Britt, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a rapid growth of interest in Sweden in vertically integrated classes in compulsory schools, especially at junior high school and intermediate grade levels. This development is supported in various ways by the curriculum, partly because it puts more emphasis than previous curricula on the occurrence of teaching…

  15. Improved Reading Gate For Vertical-Bloch-Line Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.; Katti, Romney R.

    1994-01-01

    Improved design for reading gate of vertical-Bloch-line magnetic-bubble memory increases reliability of discrimination between binary ones and zeros. Magnetic bubbles that signify binary "1" and "0" produced by applying sufficiently large chopping currents to memory stripes. Bubbles then propagated differentially in bubble sorter. Method of discriminating between ones and zeros more reliable.

  16. Vertical uniformity of cells and nuclei in epithelial monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelam, Srujana; Hayes, Peter Robert; Zhang, Qiao; Dickinson, Richard B; Lele, Tanmay P

    2016-01-22

    Morphological variability in cytoskeletal organization, organelle position and cell boundaries is a common feature of cultured cells. Remarkable uniformity and reproducibility in structure can be accomplished by providing cells with defined geometric cues. Cells in tissues can also self-organize in the absence of directing extracellular cues; however the mechanical principles for such self-organization are not understood. We report that unlike horizontal shapes, the vertical shapes of the cell and nucleus in the z-dimension are uniform in cells in cultured monolayers compared to isolated cells. Apical surfaces of cells and their nuclei in monolayers were flat and heights were uniform. In contrast, isolated cells, or cells with disrupted cell-cell adhesions had nuclei with curved apical surfaces and variable heights. Isolated cells cultured within micron-sized square wells displayed flat cell and nuclear shapes similar to cells in monolayers. Local disruption of nuclear-cytoskeletal linkages resulted in spatial variation in vertical uniformity. These results suggest that competition between cell-cell pulling forces that expand and shorten the vertical cell cross-section, thereby widening and flattening the nucleus, and the resistance of the nucleus to further flattening results in uniform cell and nuclear cross-sections. Our results reveal the mechanical principles of self-organized vertical uniformity in cell monolayers.

  17. Mechanistic modelling of the vertical soil organic matter profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakhekke, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) constitutes a large global pool of carbon that may play a considerable role for future climate. The vertical distribution of SOM in the profile may be important due to depth-dependence of physical, chemical, and biological conditions, and links to physical processes

  18. FLEXOWELL vertical lift systems in underground mining and construction industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paelke, J.W.

    1988-06-01

    Mining and quarrying companies are seeking improved and more continuous transport methods to reduce their costs. Frequently in the past the use of conveyors has been ruled out in steep mining applications but now the Scholtz FLEXOWELL belting which can be used at angles up to the vertical will enable many mines to consider complete belt conveyor systems for the first time. Applications will include steep conveyors for surface mines and quarries in order to eliminate the need for expensive and noisy fleets of trucks and the associated requirements to maintain haul roads. A further field is in the use of steep or vertical conveyors in underground mines to ensure improved continuity of output in existing shaft systems or reduced development costs in new mines. The Scholtz company, a member of the Nokia Group which had sales of about 3.5 billion U.S. Dollars in 1987, has more than 20 years experience with their FLEXOWELL belts. Over 40,000 units are operating around the world. These are already fully proven for vertical lifts of over 100 m (328ft) and up to 500 m (1,640 ft) is possible. Tonnage ratings of up to 4,000 t/h are achievable. Widespread acceptance of this technology has resulted in unique and major installations over the past few years. This paper reviews various applications - from the viewpoint of successfully proven vertical lift systems as well as the maintenance and downtime aspects. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Vertical distribution of living mangrove foraminifera from KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous intertidal foraminiferal studies have predominantly focused on assemblages in surface sediments (0–1 cm), with the rationale that surface assemblages reflect the modern-day environment. Foraminifera live infaunally and therefore there is a need to document the infaunal vertical distribution of living foraminifera to ...

  20. Inertial rise of a meniscus on a vertical cylinder

    KAUST Repository

    O’ Kiely, Doireann; Whiteley, Jonathan P.; Oliver, James M.; Vella, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    © © 2015 Cambridge University PressA. We consider the inertia-dominated rise of a meniscus around a vertical circular cylinder. Previous experiments and scaling analysis suggest that the height of the meniscus, h-{m}, grows with the time following