Sample records for supraglottal flow structures

  1. Histological investigation of the supra-glottal structures in humans for understanding abnormal phonation (United States)

    Kimura, Miwako; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Chan, Roger; Niimi, Seijii; Tayama, Niro


    Phonation is the vocal fold vibration on normal voice. But sometimes we can observe the other phonation styles like as the pressed voice or some throat singings like as ''kargyraa'' or ''drone'' in Khoomei in Mongolian music. Also, clinically, we know that some patients who have the wide glottal slit in phonation because of the recurrence nerve palsy or after partial laryngectomy, could make the ''supra-glottal phonation.'' The ''supra-glottal phonation'' would be made from the vibration of ''supra-glottal structures'' such as the false vocal folds, the arytenoids and the epiglottis, etc. Endoscopic examination suggests the existence of some contractile functions in supra-glottal space. However, these phonation systems have not been clear to explain their neuromuscular mechanism in histology. This study aimed to find the basis for making the supra-glottal phonation from the points of view of the histological structures. We tried to investigate if there were any muscles that could contract the supra-glottal structures. The samples are the excised larynx of human beings. They were fixed by formalin after excision. We observed their macroscopic anatomy, and also with the microscopic observation their histological preparations after the process of the embedding in paraffin, slicing for the preparation and HE (hematoxylin-eosin) staining.

  2. Treatment Results for Supraglottic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu Chan; Kim, Chul Yong; Choi, Myung Sun


    Purpose: In supraglottic cancer, radiation therapy is used to preserve the laryngeal function but combined surgery and radiation therapy is required in advanced stage. The authors present the results of radiation therapy alone and combined surgery plus postoperative radiation therapy for supraglottic cancer. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was done for 43 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx who were treated from February 1982 to December 1991, in the Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea University Hospital. Patient distribution according to the AJCC staging system was as follows; I, 3(7.0%); II, 7(16.3%); III, 17(39.5%); IV, 16(37.2%). Patients' age ranged from 30 to 72 years(median 62). Follow up durations were from 21 to 137 months(median 27). Seventeen patients(39.5%) were treated by radiation therapy alone with radiation doses of 6840-7380 cGy and 26 patients(60.5%) were treated with surgery plus postoperative irradiation with doses of 5820-6660 cGy. Results: Overall five-year survival rate for all stage was 51.8%, with 100% for Stage I and II, 47.3% for Stage III, and 29.2% for Stage IV. The difference of the survival rate by stage was statistically significant(p=0.0152). Five-year survival rates were 100% for locally confined tumor in the supraglottic larynx, 37.5% for transglottic extension, 26.7% for hypopharynx extension, and only two of 5 patients with both transglottic and hypopharynx extension were alive(p=0.0033). Five-year survival rates by neck node status were as follows: 55.0% for N0, 64.3% for N1, 50.0% for N2, and all 2 of N3 were died of disease. Overall survival rate for radiation therapy alone group was 42.8% and it was 56.7% for surgery plus postoperative radiation therapy group with no statistically significant difference(p=0.5215). In Stage I and II, all patients survived. In Stage III and IV, 5-year survival rate for radiation therapy alone group was 28.5% and 43.4% for surgery plus

  3. Supraglottic stenosis in localized Wegener granulomatosis. (United States)

    Belloso, Antonio; Estrach, Cristina; Keith, Andrew O


    We present what we believe is the first reported case of a patient with supraglottic stenosis secondary to Wegener granulomatosis. The diagnosis was unclear initially because the biopsy results were nonspecific, but a finding of an elevated cytoplasmic-pattern antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (c-ANCA) level established the diagnosis of localized supraglottic Wegener granulomatosis. Wegener granulomatosis is characterized by necrotizing vasculitis that is localized predominantly to the kidneys and the upper and lower airways. In the airways, subglottic involvement is well documented, but to the best of our knowledge, supraglottic stenosis has not previously been described. Localized forms of Wegener granulomatosis are characterized by limited disease that involves only the upper airway. The diagnosis in localized forms is complex because histology is diagnostic in only 50% of cases, and only 60% of patients have a positive c-ANCA level. We discuss the diagnostic criteria and management strategies for these localized forms.

  4. Supraglottic paraganglioma originated from superior laryngeal nerve

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    Ali Akbar Beigi


    Full Text Available Neurogenic tumors, especially paraganglioma of larynx, are rare. In this article, we present a 64-year-old woman who complained of intermittent dysphagia to solid foods. Further evaluation revealed a supraglottic paraganglioma and she was treated successfully by total excision of tumor.

  5. Successful anesthetic management of a large supraglottic cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal D Wagh


    Full Text Available Excision of a huge-sized supraglottic mass nearly obstructing the airway passage is a real challenge to anesthesiologists. Upper airway obstruction due to neoplasm in supraglottic region is traditionally managed by preoperative tracheostomy. However, such a common procedure can potentially have an impact on long-term outcome.

  6. Structural power flow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.


    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  7. Airway management of a rare huge-size supraglottic mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Zeid, Haitham A.; Al-Ghamdi, Abdel Mohsin A.; Al-Qurain, Abdel-Aziz A.; Mokhazy, Khalid M.


    Laser excision of a huge-sized supraglottic mass nearly obstructing the airway passage is a real challenge to anesthesiologists. Upper airway obstruction due to neoplasm in supraglottic region, is traditionally managed by preoperative tracheostomy, however, such a common procedure can potentially have an impact on long-term outcome. A 26-year-old patient presented with dysphagia caused by left cystic vallecular synovial sarcoma. The airway was successfully secured via fiberoptic bronchoscopy, followed by excision of the supraglottic tumor with CO2 laser surgery. Tracheostomy was not required. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the 4th day of surgery. This case, highlights the possibility to secure the airway passage without performing preoperative tracheostomy resulting in good outcome and short hospital stay. (author)

  8. Flow-structure interaction simulation of voice production in a canine larynx (United States)

    Jiang, Weili; Zheng, Xudong; Xue, Qian; Oren, Liran; Khosla, Sid


    Experimental measurements conducted on a hemi-larynx canine vocal fold showed that negative pressures formed in the glottis near the superior surface of the vocal fold in the closing phase even without a supra-glottal vocal tract. It was hypothesized that such negative pressures were due to intraglottal vortices caused by flow separation in a divergent vocal tract during vocal fold closing phase. This work aims to test this hypothesis from the numerical aspect. Flow-structure interaction simulations are performed in realistic canine laryngeal shapes. In the simulations, a sharp interface immersed boundary method based incompressible flow solver is utilized to model the air flow; a finite element based solid mechanics solver is utilized to model the vocal fold vibration. The geometric structure of the vocal fold and vocal tract are based on MRI scans of a mongrel canine. The vocal fold tissue is modeled as transversely isotropic nonlinear materials with a vertical stiffness gradient. Numerical indentation is first performed and compared with the experiment data to obtain the material properties. Simulation setup about the inlet and outlet pressure follows the setup in the experiment. Simulation results including the fundamental frequency, air flow rate, the divergent angle will be compared with the experimental data, providing the validation of the simulation approach. The relationship between flow separation, intra-glottal vortices, divergent angle and flow rate will be comprehensively analyzed.

  9. Endoscopic management of posttraumatic supraglottic stenosis in the pediatric population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oosthuizen, Johannes Christiaan


    OBJECTIVES: Pediatric blunt laryngeal trauma is a rare and potentially life-threatening entity. External injuries can be misleading, and a high index of suspicion, as well as early intervention, is essential to achieve the best possible outcome. The authors of this report review the management of blunt laryngeal trauma in the pediatric population and describe the endoscopic management of posttraumatic supraglottic stenosis. METHODS: Methods used were case report from a tertiary referral institution and review of the literature. RESULTS: We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl whom developed supraglottic stenosis following blunt laryngeal trauma. Innovative endoscopic techniques were used in the successful management of this exceedingly rare entity. CONCLUSION: Early recognition and intervention are of paramount importance if successful endoscopic management of blunt laryngeal trauma is to be considered.

  10. Demonstration of transoral robotic supraglottic laryngectomy and total laryngectomy in cadaveric specimens using the Medrobotics Flex System. (United States)

    Funk, Emily; Goldenberg, David; Goyal, Neerav


    Current management of laryngeal malignancies is associated with significant morbidity. Application of minimally invasive transoral techniques may reduce the morbidity associated with traditional procedures. The purpose of this study was to present our investigation of the utility of a novel flexible robotic system for transoral supraglottic laryngectomy and total laryngectomy. Transoral total laryngectomy and transoral supraglottic laryngectomy were performed in cadaveric specimens using the Flex Robotic System (Medrobotics, Raynham, MA). All procedures were completed successfully in the cadaveric models. The articulated endoscope allowed for access to the desired surgical site. Flexible instruments enabled an atraumatic approach and allowed for precise surgical technique. Access to deep anatomic structures remains problematic using current minimally invasive robotic approaches. Improvements in visualization and access to the laryngopharyngeal complex offered by this system may improve surgical applications to the larynx. This study demonstrates the technical feasibility using the Flex Robotic System for transoral robotic supraglottic laryngectomy and total laryngectomy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 1218-1225, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Flow Control of Flexible Structures (United States)


    United States Government. Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited. PI: J. Farnsworth USAFA: Flow Control of Flexible Structures Table of...Contents Abstract iii List of Figures iv List of Tables vi Acknowledgments vii 1 Summary 1 2 Introduction 1 2.1 Proposed Research Effort...a small parabolic region of flow separation centered around 75% span location and at the wing trailing edge . The second wing section studied was a

  12. Structure - Riverine Flow Structure (Dike/Wingdam) (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — A natural or man-made flow (or sediment) control structure in a water course or water body such as a dike or weir. This feature should not be used to model a levee....

  13. State of the art: Rescue intubation through supraglottic airways

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    R. Hofmeyr*


    Full Text Available The use of supraglottic airways as rescue devices in failed intubation and resuscitation has become well accepted in emergency practice. Many offer or advertise the possibility of intubation through the device, but techniques and success rates vary greatly. Intubation can be achieved blindly, with the use a bougie or introducer, or with fiberoptic guidance. In this review, I examine the evidence behind different devices with various techniques, present the data from our on-going research, suggest further research directions and propose practical guidelines for clinical use in emergencies.

  14. Transoral videolaryngoscopic surgery (TOVS) for hypopharyngeal and supraglottic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomifuji, Masayuki; Araki, Koji; Yamashita, Taku; Shiotani, Akihiro


    We proposed transoral videolaryngoscopic surgery (TOVS) as a laryngeal preservation strategy for laryngopharyngeal cancer. By using a distending laryngoscope and rigid laryngeal endoscope, a large field of view and working space could be obtained which enabled us to resect tumors in en-bloc fashion. The indications for this surgery are oro-hypopharyngeal and supraglottic cancer in superficial, T1, T2 and selected T3 categories. TOVS can also be used for selected cases with recurrent tumor after radiation therapy. For resectable nodal metastasis, neck dissection can be performed simultaneously or 1-2 weeks later. In cases with more than a 1-year observation period (n=42), 5-year crude survival, disease-specific survival, and laryngeal preservation rate were 74%, 85% and 89%, respectively. A second advantage of TOVS is thorough evaluation of primary cancer lesion. Evaluation of tumor invasion depth is a promising way for optimizing the indication for neck dissection for clinically node negative cases. (author)

  15. A new laryngeal mask supraglottic airway device with integrated balloon line: a descriptive and comparative bench study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou YH


    Full Text Available YingHai Zhou,1 Korinne Jew2 1Research & Development, Patient Monitoring & Recovery, Medtronic Technology Center, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Medical Affairs, Minimally Invasive Therapies Group, Medtronic, Boulder, CO, USA Abstract: Laryngeal masks are invasive devices for airway management placed in the supraglottic position. The Shiley™ laryngeal mask (Shiley™ LM features an integrated inflation tube and airway shaft to facilitate product insertion and reduce the chance of tube occlusion when patients bite down. This study compared the Shiley LM to two other disposable laryngeal mask devices, the Ambu® AuraStraight™ and the LMA Unique™. Overall device design, tensile strength, flexibility of various structures, and sealing performance were measured. The Shiley LM is structurally stronger and its shaft is more resistant to compression than the other devices. The Shiley LM is generally less flexible than the other devices, but this relationship varies with device size. Sealing performance of the devices was similar in a bench assay. The results of this bench study demonstrate that the new Shiley LM resembles other commercially available laryngeal mask devices, though it exhibits greater tensile strength and lower flexibility. Keywords: laryngeal mask, supraglottic airway, supralaryngeal device

  16. The role of postradiotherapy neck dissection in supraglottic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Annie W.; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Carballo, Natalia; Montgomery, William; Wang, C.C.


    Purpose: To evaluate our policy of performing neck dissection based on regional response after definitive radiotherapy in patients with supraglottic carcinoma and to identify the prognostic factors in this group of patients. Methods and Materials: Between 1970 and 1995, 121 patients with node-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx were treated with definitive radiotherapy. Sixty-nine percent of patients presented with 1997 AJCC Stage IV disease. The N-stage distribution was N1, 49; N2, 62; and N3, 10. The median size of the lymph nodes was 3 cm (range, 0.5-8 cm). Forty-five patients received once-a-day treatment with a median total dose of 65 Gy (range, 58.0-70.8 Gy) in 1.8-2.0 Gy per fraction over 48 days, and 76 patients received split-course accelerated hyperfractionation with a median total dose of 67.2 Gy (range, 63.2-73.6 Gy) in 1.6 Gy twice a day over 43 days. Patients whose lymph nodes were not clinically detectable at 4-6 weeks after the completion of radiotherapy (complete response) were followed without any neck dissection. Patients with persistent neck adenopathy (partial response) underwent neck dissection whenever possible. Mean follow-up of the living patients was 6.5 years. Results: Regional response was related to the size of lymph nodes at presentation. Eighty-seven percent of patients with nodal size of 3 cm or less had a complete response, whereas 43% of patients with nodal size greater than 3 cm had a partial response. The rate of regional control at 3 years for all patients in the study was 66%. The 3-year ultimate regional control rate after salvage neck dissection was 75%. A relapse in both the primary and regional sites was the most common pattern of relapse, accounting for 39% of all the failures. Local failure was associated with subsequent regional relapse with a relative risk of 4.3. For patients with completeresponse in whom postradiotherapy neck dissection was withheld, the regional control rates were 75% and 86

  17. Structuring of Road Traffic Flows

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    Planko Rožić


    Full Text Available Systemic traffic count on the Croatian road network hasbeen carried out for more than three decades in different ways.During this period a large number of automatic traffic countershave been installed, and they operate on different principles.The traffic count has been analyzed from the aspect of vehicleclassification. The count results can be only partly comparedsince they yield different structures of traffic flows. Special analysisrefers to the classification of vehicles by automatic trafficcounters.During the research, a database has been formed with physicalelements of vehicles of over five thousand vehicle types. Theresearch results prove that the vehicle length only is not sufficientfor the classification of vehicles, the way it is used in thepresent automatic traffic counts, but rather the number of axles,the wheelbase as well as the front and rear overhangs needto be considered as well. Therefore, the detector system shouldapply also the detector of axles.The results have been presented that were obtained as partof the program TEST- Technological, research, developmentproject supported by the Minist1y of Science, Education andSport.

  18. Flow and scour around vertical submerged structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A comprehensive discussion of the investigations on flow characteristics and local scour due to steady currents and waves around vertical submerged structures are presented, which comprises scour process, dimensional analysis, parameters influencing scour, temporal evolution of scour, flow field, flow visualization ...

  19. 3D Printing of Fluid Flow Structures


    Taira, Kunihiko; Sun, Yiyang; Canuto, Daniel


    We discuss the use of 3D printing to physically visualize (materialize) fluid flow structures. Such 3D models can serve as a refreshing hands-on means to gain deeper physical insights into the formation of complex coherent structures in fluid flows. In this short paper, we present a general procedure for taking 3D flow field data and producing a file format that can be supplied to a 3D printer, with two examples of 3D printed flow structures. A sample code to perform this process is also prov...

  20. Flow structures in cerebral aneurysms


    Gambaruto, Alberto M; João, Ana


    Mechanical properties of blood flow are commonly correlated to a wide range of cardiovascular diseases. In this work means to describe and characterise the flow field in the free-slip and no-slip domains are discussed in the context of cerebral aneurysms, reconstructed from in-vivo medical imaging. The approaches rely on a Taylor series expansion of the velocity field to first order terms that leads to a system of ODEs, the solution to which locally describes the motion of the flow. On perfor...

  1. Beyond lognormal inequality: The Lorenz Flow Structure (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo


    Observed from a socioeconomic perspective, the intrinsic inequality of the lognormal law happens to manifest a flow generated by an underlying ordinary differential equation. In this paper we extend this feature of the lognormal law to a general ;Lorenz Flow Structure; of Lorenz curves-objects that quantify socioeconomic inequality. The Lorenz Flow Structure establishes a general framework of size distributions that span continuous spectra of socioeconomic states ranging from the pure-communism extreme to the absolute-monarchy extreme. This study introduces and explores the Lorenz Flow Structure, analyzes its statistical properties and its inequality properties, unveils the unique role of the lognormal law within this general structure, and presents various examples of this general structure. Beyond the lognormal law, the examples include the inverse-Pareto and Pareto laws-which often govern the tails of composite size distributions.

  2. A retropharyngeal-mediastinal hematoma with supraglottic and tracheal obstruction: The role of multidisciplinary airway management

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    Birkholz Torsten


    Full Text Available A 77-year-old man suffered hypoxemic cardiac arrest by supraglottic and tracheal airway obstruction in the emergency department. A previously unknown cervical fracture had caused a traumatic retropharyngeal-mediastinal hematoma. A lifesaving surgical emergency tracheostomy succeeded. Supraglottic and tracheal obstruction by a retropharyngeal-mediastinal hematoma with successful resuscitation via emergency tracheostomy after hypoxemic cardiac arrest has never been reported in a context of trauma. This clinically demanding case outlines the need for multidisciplinary airway management systems with continuous training and well-implemented guidelines. Only multidisciplinary staff preparedness and readily available equipments for the unanticipated difficult airway solved the catastrophic clinical situation.

  3. Improvement of electrolaryngeal speech quality using a supraglottal voice source with compensation of vocal tract characteristics. (United States)

    Wu, Liang; Wan, Congying; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi


    Electrolarynx (EL) is a medical speech-recovery device designed for patients who have lost their original voice box due to laryngeal cancer. As a substitute for human larynx, the current commercial EL voice source cannot reconstruct natural EL speech under laryngectomy conditions. To eliminate the abnormal acoustic properties of EL speech, a supraglottal voice source with compensation of vocal tract characteristics was proposed and provided through an experimental EL(SGVS-EL) system. The acoustic analyses of simulated EL speech and reconstructed EL speech produced with different voice sources were performed in the normal subject and laryngectomee. The results indicated that the supraglottal voice source was successful in improving the acoustic properties of EL speech by enhancing low- frequency energy, correcting the shifted formants to normal range, and eliminating the visible spectral zeros. Both normal subject and laryngectomee also produced more natural vowels using SGVS-EL than commercial EL, even if the vocal tract parameter was substituted and the supraglottal voice source was biased to a certain degree. Therefore, supraglottal voice source is a feasible and effective approach to improving the acoustic quality of EL speech.

  4. Modeling Coherent Structures in Canopy Flows (United States)

    Luhar, Mitul


    It is well known that flows over vegetation canopies are characterized by the presence of energetic coherent structures. Since the mean profile over dense canopies exhibits an inflection point, the emergence of such structures is often attributed to a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. However, though stability analyses provide useful mechanistic insights into canopy flows, they are limited in their ability to generate predictions for spectra and coherent structure. The present effort seeks to address this limitation by extending the resolvent formulation (McKeon and Sharma, 2010, J. Fluid Mech.) to canopy flows. Under the resolvent formulation, the turbulent velocity field is expressed as a superposition of propagating modes, identified via a gain-based (singular value) decomposition of the Navier-Stokes equations. A key advantage of this approach is that it reconciles multiple mechanisms that lead to high amplification in turbulent flows, including modal instability, transient growth, and critical-layer phenomena. Further, individual high-gain modes can be combined to generate more complete models for coherent structure and velocity spectra. Preliminary resolvent-based model predictions for canopy flows agree well with existing experiments and simulations.

  5. Internal wave structures in abyssal cataract flows (United States)

    Makarenko, Nikolay; Liapidevskii, Valery; Morozov, Eugene; Tarakanov, Roman


    We discuss some theoretical approaches, experimental results and field data concerning wave phenomena in ocean near-bottom stratified flows. Such strong flows of cold water form everywhere in the Atlantic abyssal channels, and these currents play significant role in the global water exchange. Most interesting wave structures arise in a powerful cataract flows near orographic obstacles which disturb gravity currents by forced lee waves, attached hydraulic jumps, mixing layers etc. All these effects were observed by the authors in the Romanche and Chain fracture zones of Atlantic Ocean during recent cruises of the R/V Akademik Ioffe and R/V Akademik Sergei Vavilov (Morozov et al., Dokl. Earth Sci., 2012, 446(2)). In a general way, deep-water cataract flows down the slope are similar to the stratified flows examined in laboratory experiments. Strong mixing in the sill region leads to the splitting of the gravity current into the layers having the fluids with different densities. Another peculiarity is the presence of critical layers in shear flows sustained over the sill. In the case under consideration, this critical level separates the flow of near-bottom cold water from opposite overflow. In accordance with known theoretical models and laboratory measurements, the critical layer can absorb and reflect internal waves generated by the topography, so the upward propagation of these perturbations is blocked from above. High velocity gradients were registered downstream in the vicinity of cataract and it indicates the existence of developed wave structures beyond the sill formed by intense internal waves. This work was supported by RFBR (grants No 12-01-00671-a, 12-08-10001-k and 13-08-10001-k).

  6. Power Flow and Structure-Borne Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachulec, Marcin

    The method of power flow analysis within a structure depends on the frequency considered. For the low frequencies the standard Finite Element Method (FEM) can be used efficiently. In the high frequencies the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) proved its usefulness. The distinction between low...... of their dynamic properties. The term medium frequency range is used to describe the range of frequencies where it is not possible to use a single method to describe the behaviour of the structure. The assembly of thin plates is a good example of built-up structure because of the differences between the properties...... in plane and out of plane of the plate....

  7. Flow acoustics in solid-fluid structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Mads, Mikhail Vladimirovich Deryabin


    The governing two-dimensional equations of a heterogeneous material composed of a fluid (allowed to flow in the absence of acoustic excitations) and a crystalline piezoelectric cubic solid stacked one-dimensionally (along the z direction) are derived and special emphasis is given to the discussion...... of acoustic group velocity for the structure as a function of the wavenumber component perpendicular to the stacking direction (being the x axis). Variations in physical parameters with y are neglected assuming infinite material homogeneity along the y direction and the flow velocity is assumed to be directed...

  8. Malaysia commercial energy flow: status and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Maragatham Kumar; Nik Arlina Nik Ali; Abi Muttaqin Jalal Bayar; Aisya Raihan Abdul Kadir; Muhammed Zulfakar Zolkaffly; Azlinda Aziz; Jamal Khaer Ibrahim


    With further growth of Malaysia economy, future development of the energy sector in Malaysia is vital to ensure targeted growth. Commercial Energy continues to play a major role in ensuring a balanced energy mix for power generation due to a potential increase in energy demand from various sectors, especially the industrial sector. This paper presents the status and structure of Malaysia Commercial Energy Flow, which gives an overview of the flow of all types of energy sources from primary energy supply to final energy use, and also the potential for nuclear power in electricity generation in Malaysia. (Author)

  9. Association of p53 protein expression with clinical outcome in advanced supraglottic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jin Oh; Hong, Seong Eon


    To determine the incidence and prognostic effect of p53 expression in patients with advanced supraglottic cancer. Twenty-one cases of total 48 advanced supraglottic cancer patients who received postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining employing p53 monoclonal antibody. Three out of six stage III patients and four out of fifteen stage IV patients showed p53 expression without statistically significant difference (p=0.608). Five year survival rates are 93% in p53 negative, 86% in p53 positive patients and there was no significant difference(p=0.776). p53 expression does not show statistically significant correlation with primary tumor status(p=0.877), lymph node status(p=0.874) and age(p=0.64). There was no statistically significant correlation between traditionally known risk factors and p53 expression

  10. Supraglottic Schwannoma Presenting as Upper Airway Obstruction in an Elderly Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou-Lin Yang


    Full Text Available Neurogenic tumors of the larynx are extremely uncommon. We herein present the case of a 70-year-old man with supraglottic schwannoma who experienced respiratory distress and deterioration of voice. Computed tomography showed a focal enhancing mass located in the supraglottic larynx causing airway compression. The patient underwent tracheostomy under local anesthesia before receiving CO2 laser-assisted microlaryngeal surgery. A sessile, well-encapsulated, submucosal solid tumor (diameter approximately 2 cm in the interarytenoid region was removed with maximal mucosal preservation. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and at follow up 3 months after the surgery, the patient was completely symptom free. Clinicians should have a heightened awareness of patients with voice change associated with dyspnea, which may suggest upper airway obstruction.

  11. i-gel™ supraglottic airway in clinical practice: a prospective observational multicentre study


    Theiler, L.; Gutzmann, M.; Kleine-Brueggeney, M.; Urwyler, N.; Kaempfen, B.; Greif, R.


    Background The i-gel™ supraglottic airway device has been studied in randomized controlled studies, but it has not been evaluated in a large prospective patient cohort. Therefore, we performed this prospective multicentre observational study to evaluate success rates, airway leak pressure, risk factors for i-gel failure, and adverse events. Methods With Ethics Committee approval and waiver of patients' consent, data about anaesthesia providers, patient characteristics, and the performance of ...

  12. Turbulent structure of stably stratified inhomogeneous flow (United States)

    Iida, Oaki


    Effects of buoyancy force stabilizing disturbances are investigated on the inhomogeneous flow where disturbances are dispersed from the turbulent to non-turbulent field in the direction perpendicular to the gravity force. Attaching the fringe region, where disturbances are excited by the artificial body force, a Fourier spectral method is used for the inhomogeneous flow stirred at one side of the cuboid computational box. As a result, it is found that the turbulent kinetic energy is dispersed as layered structures elongated in the streamwise direction through the vibrating motion. A close look at the layered structures shows that they are flanked by colder fluids at the top and hotter fluids at the bottom, and hence vertically compressed and horizontally expanded by the buoyancy related to the countergradient heat flux, though they are punctuated by the vertical expansion of fluids at the forefront of the layered structures, which is related to the downgradient heat flux, indicating that the layered structures are gravity currents. However, the phase between temperature fluctuations and vertical velocity is shifted by π/2 rad, indicating that temperature fluctuations are generated by the propagation of internal gravity waves.

  13. Comparison of Supraglottic Activity and Spectral Slope Between Theater Actors and Vocally Untrained Subjects. (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Ortega, Andres; Olavarria, Christian; Muñoz, Daniel; Cortés, Pedro; Azocar, Maria Josefina; Cayuleo, David; Quintana, Felipe; Silva, Catalina


    The present study aimed to assess supraglottic activity in theater actors and to observe whether they present differences compared with subjects with no voice training. Acoustic and perceptual analyses were also performed. A total of 20 participants were divided into two groups: an experimental group of trained theater actors, and a comparative group of subjects with no voice training. Absence of laryngeal pathology was confirmed by rigid videostroboscopy. Flexible laryngoscopy was performed to assess supraglottic activity during speaking phonatory tasks. Voice recording was also carried out. Four blinded judges were asked to assess laryngoscopic and perceptual variables using a visual analog scale. A comparison between groups, phonatory tasks, and loudness levels was performed. Multivariate linear regression showed that trained participants had a higher degree of both laryngeal and pharyngeal activities compared with untrained participants. Moreover, phonatory tasks at high intensity showed higher activity than those at medium and low intensities for most phonatory tasks and laryngoscopic parameters. Vocally trained participants evidenced higher values for all spectral variables compared with untrained participants. Actors have a greater degree of both laryngeal and pharyngeal activities than vocally untrained subjects. Apparently, this higher activity is associated to speaking voice training and not to a hyperfunctional vocal behavior. Anterior-posterior laryngeal compression is greater than medial compression. Intensity and phonatory tasks have an effect on all laryngoscopic variables. Supraglottic activity during professional speaking voice may be not necessarily a hyperfunctional behavior, but a strategy to avoid vocal fold damage while producing the desired voice quality. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Flow Structure along the 1303 UCAV (United States)

    Kosoglu, Mehmet A.; Rockwell, Donald


    The 1303 Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle is representative of a variety of UCAVs with blended wing-body configurations. Flow structure along a scale model of this configuration was investigated using dye visualization and particle image velocimetry for variations of Reynolds number and angle-of-attack. Both of these parameters substantially influence onset and structure of the leading-edge vortex (LEV) and a separation bubble/stall region along the tip. The onset of formation of the LEV initially occurs at a location well downstream of the apex and moves upstream for increasing values of either Reynolds number or angle-of-attack. In cases where a separation bubble or stall region exists, quantitative information on its structure was obtained via PIV imaging on a plane nearly parallel to the surface of the wing. By acquiring images on planes at successively larger elevations from the surface, it was possible to gain insight into the space-time features of the three-dimensional and highly time-dependent structure of the bubble or stall region. Time-averaged images indicate that maximum velocity defect decreases in magnitude and moves downstream with increasing elevation from the surface.

  15. Modal Structures in flow past a cylinder (United States)

    Murshed, Mohammad


    With the advent of data, there have been opportunities to apply formalism to detect patterns or simple relations. For instance, a phenomenon can be defined through a partial differential equation which may not be very useful right away, whereas a formula for the evolution of a primary variable may be interpreted quite easily. Having access to data is not enough to move on since doing advanced linear algebra can put strain on the way computations are being done. A canonical problem in the field of aerodynamics is the transient flow past a cylinder where the viscosity can be adjusted to set the Reynolds number (Re). We observe the effect of the critical Re on the certain modes of behavior in time scale. A 2D-velocity field works as an input to analyze the modal structure of the flow using the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and Koopman Mode/Dynamic Mode Decomposition. This will enable prediction of the solution further in time (taking into account the dependence on Re) and help us evaluate and discuss the associated error in the mechanism.

  16. Flow-induced vibrations of circular cylindrical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.


    The problems of flow-induced vibrations of circular cylindrical structures are reviewed. First, the general method of analysis and classification of structural responses are presented. Then, the presentation is broken up along the lines with stationary fluid, parallel flow, and cross flow. Finally, design considerations and future research needs are pointed out. 234 references

  17. [Horizontal supraglottic laryngectomy. Technique, indications, oncologic results and early functional results. Apropos of 87 cases]. (United States)

    Maurice, N; Delol, J; Makeieff, M; Arnoux, A; Crampette, L; Guerrier, B


    In this article, we advocate supraglottic laryngectomy with bilateral neck dissection for the treatment of supraglottic carcinomas with preserved laryngeal mobility. Post-operative results and follow-up of 87 patients are discussed. This technique allows an excellent loco-regional control of the disease with preservation of laryngeal function. Radiation therapy is preserved for treatment of metachronous (2nd primary) in cases with satisfactory local control without neck metastases. All stage 5-year overall survival rate was 55% with a 68.5% disease survival rate. Five-year local control of the disease and regional control of neck nodes were respectively 94% and 92%. Five-year disease survival rate for N- population was 71% Vs 61% for N+ population. Five-year disease survival rate according to the tumor classification was 70% for T1, 75% for T2, 69% for T3 and 54% for T4. In the post-operative follow-up, the median of time to decanulation was 17 days, that of nasogastric tube removal was 19 days, that of hospital stay 38 days.

  18. The role of primary radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Taek; Kim, Dong Won; Kwon, Byung Hyun; Nam, Ji Ho [College of Medicine, Pusan National Univ, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Won Joo [College of Medicine, Donga Univ, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)


    First of all, this study was performed to assess the result of curative radiotherapy and to evaluate different possible prognostic factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx treated at the Pusan National University Hospital. The second goal of this study was by comparing our data with those of other study groups, to determine the better treatment policy of supraglottic cancer in future. Thirty-two patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx were treated with radiotherapy at Pusan National University Hospital, from August 1985 to December 1996. Minimum follow-up period was 29 months. Twenty-seven patients (84.4%.) were followed up over 5 years. Radiotherapy was delivered with 6 MV photons to the primary laryngeal tumor and regional lymphatics with shrinking field technique. All patients received radiotherapy under conventional fractionated schedule (once a. day). Median total tumor dose was 70.2 Gy (range, 55.8 to 75.6 Gy) on primary or gross tumor lesion. Thirteen patients had induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (1-3 cycles). Patient distribution, according to the different stages, were as follows: stage I, 5/32 (15.6%); stage II, 10/32 (31.3%); stage III, 8/32 (25%); stage IV, 9/32 (28. 1 %). The 5-year overall survival rate of the whole series (32 patients) was 51.7%. The overall survival rate at 5-years was 80% in stage I, 66.7% in stage II, 42.9% in stage III, 25% in stage IV.(p= 0,0958). The 5-year local control rates after radiotherapy were as follows: stage I, 100%; stage II, 60%; stage III, 62.5%; stage lV, 44.4% (p=0.233). Overall vocal preservation rates was 65.6%,100% in stage I, 70% in stage II, 62.5% in stage III, 44.4% in stage IV (p=0.210). There was no statistical significance in survival and local control rate between neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy group and radiotherapy alone group. Severe laryngeal edema was found in 2 cases after radiotherapy. emergent tracheostomy

  19. The role of primary radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Taek; Kim, Dong Won; Kwon, Byung Hyun; Nam, Ji Ho; Hur, Won Joo


    First of all, this study was performed to assess the result of curative radiotherapy and to evaluate different possible prognostic factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx treated at the Pusan National University Hospital. The second goal of this study was by comparing our data with those of other study groups, to determine the better treatment policy of supraglottic cancer in future. Thirty-two patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx were treated with radiotherapy at Pusan National University Hospital, from August 1985 to December 1996. Minimum follow-up period was 29 months. Twenty-seven patients (84.4%.) were followed up over 5 years. Radiotherapy was delivered with 6 MV photons to the primary laryngeal tumor and regional lymphatics with shrinking field technique. All patients received radiotherapy under conventional fractionated schedule (once a. day). Median total tumor dose was 70.2 Gy (range, 55.8 to 75.6 Gy) on primary or gross tumor lesion. Thirteen patients had induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (1-3 cycles). Patient distribution, according to the different stages, were as follows: stage I, 5/32 (15.6%); stage II, 10/32 (31.3%); stage III, 8/32 (25%); stage IV, 9/32 (28. 1 %). The 5-year overall survival rate of the whole series (32 patients) was 51.7%. The overall survival rate at 5-years was 80% in stage I, 66.7% in stage II, 42.9% in stage III, 25% in stage IV.(p= 0,0958). The 5-year local control rates after radiotherapy were as follows: stage I, 100%; stage II, 60%; stage III, 62.5%; stage lV, 44.4% (p=0.233). Overall vocal preservation rates was 65.6%,100% in stage I, 70% in stage II, 62.5% in stage III, 44.4% in stage IV (p=0.210). There was no statistical significance in survival and local control rate between neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy group and radiotherapy alone group. Severe laryngeal edema was found in 2 cases after radiotherapy. emergent tracheostomy

  20. Comparative Assessment of Three Approaches of Teaching Nonmedically Trained Persons in the Handling of Supraglottic Airways: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Hensel, Mario; Schmidbauer, Willi; Benker, Michael; Schmieder, Paula; Kerner, Thoralf


    The use of supraglottic airways has been recommended in combat trauma airway management. To ensure an adequate airway management on the battlefield, suitable training concepts are sought to efficiently teach as many soldiers as possible. Our aim was to compare three approaches of teaching laypersons in the handling of supraglottic airways in a mannequin model. In this prospective randomized blinded study, 285 military service men without any medical background were divided into three groups and trained in the use of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme (LMA) and the Laryngeal Tube Disposable (LT-D). The first group received a theoretical lecture, the second group was shown an instruction video, and the third group underwent a practical training. Immediately after instruction participants were asked to place the supraglottic airway and ventilate the mannequin within 60 seconds. The entire test was repeated 3 months later. Test results were evaluated with regard to success rate, insertion time, ability to judge the correct placement, and degree of difficulty. Practical training showed the highest success rate when placing supraglottic airways immediately after the instruction (lecture: 68%, video: 74%, training: 94%); (training vs. lecture and training vs. video, p training: 78%); (training vs. lecture, p = 0.019 and training vs. video, p = 0.025). Immediately after the instruction practical training was also superior in terms of insertion time, ability to judge the correct placement, and the self-rated degree of difficulty (p place a supraglottic airway immediately following minimal instruction and after 3 months as well. Study participants achieved the best results after practical training followed by video presentation and finally lecture regardless of the airway device used. There are two possible reasons why practical training is the superior method. Firstly, the success is tied to more time spent with the learners. Secondly, practical training seems to be the best

  1. GTV delineation in supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma: interobserver agreement of CT versus CT-MR delineation. (United States)

    Jager, Elise Anne; Kasperts, Nicolien; Caldas-Magalhaes, Joana; Philippens, Mariëlle E P; Pameijer, Frank A; Terhaard, Chris H J; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P J


    GTV delineation is the first crucial step in radiotherapy and requires high accuracy, especially with the growing use of highly conformal and adaptive radiotherapy techniques. If GTV delineations of observers concord, they are considered to be of high accuracy. The aim of the study is to determine the interobserver agreement for GTV delineations of supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma on CT and on CT combined with MR-images and to determine the effect of adding MR images to CT-based delineation on the delineated volume and the interobserver agreement. Twenty patients with biopsy proven T1-T4 supraglottic laryngeal cancer, treated with curative intent were included. For all patients a contrast enhanced planning CT and a 1.5-T MRI with gadolinium were acquired in the same head-and-shoulder mask for fixation as used during treatment. For MRI, a two element surface coil was used as a receiver coil. Three dedicated observers independently delineated the GTV on CT. After an interval of 2 weeks, a set of co-registered CT and MR-images was provided to delineate the GTV on CT. Common volumes (C) and encompassing volumes (E) were calculated and C/E ratios were determined for each pair of observers. The conformity index general (CIgen) was used to quantify the interobserver agreement. In general, a large variation in interobserver agreement was found for CT (range: 0.29-0.77) as well as for CT-MR delineations (range: 0.17-0.80). The mean CIgen for CT (0.61) was larger compared to CT-MR (0.57) (p = 0.032). Mean GTV volume delineated on CT-MR (6.6 cm(3)) was larger compared to CT (5.6 cm(3)) (p = 0.002). Delineation on CT with co-registered MR-images resulted in a larger mean GTV volume and in a decrease in interobserver agreement compared to CT only delineation for supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma.

  2. Deciphering the flow structure of Czochralski melt using Partially ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudeep Verma


    Feb 5, 2018 ... Abstract. Czochralski melt flow is an outcome of complex interactions of centrifugal, buoyancy, coriolis and surface tension forces, which act at different length and time scales. As a consequence, the characteristic flow structures that develop in the melt are delineated in terms of recirculating flow cells typical ...

  3. Deciphering the flow structure of Czochralski melt using Partially ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Czochralski melt flow is an outcome of complex interactions of centrifugal, buoyancy, coriolis and surface tension forces, which act at different length and time scales. As a consequence, the characteristic flow structures that develop in the melt are delineated in terms of recirculating flow cells typical of rotating ...

  4. Flow structure of vortex-wing interaction (United States)

    McKenna, Christopher K.

    Impingement of a streamwise-oriented vortex upon a fin, tail, blade or wing represents a fundamental class of flow-structure interaction that extends across a range of applications. This interaction can give rise to time-averaged loading, as well as unsteady loading known as buffeting. The loading is sensitive to parameters of the incident vortex as well as the location of vortex impingement on the downstream aerodynamic surface, generically designated as a wing. Particle image velocimetry is employed to determine patterns of velocity, vorticity, swirl ratio, and streamlines on successive cross-flow planes upstream of and along the wing, which lead to volume representations and thereby characterization of the interaction. At locations upstream of the leading edge of the wing, the evolution of the incident vortex is affected by the presence of the wing, and is highly dependent on the spanwise location of vortex impingement. Even at spanwise locations of impingement well outboard of the wing tip, a substantial influence on the structure of the incident vortex at locations significantly upstream of the leading edge of the wing was observed. For spanwise locations close to or intersecting the vortex core, the effects of upstream influence of the wing on the vortex are to: decrease the swirl ratio; increase the streamwise velocity deficit; decrease the streamwise vorticity; increase the azimuthal vorticity; increase the upwash; decrease the downwash; and increase the root-mean-square fluctuations of both streamwise velocity and vorticity. The interrelationship between these effects is addressed, including the rapid attenuation of axial vorticity in presence of an enhanced defect of axial velocity in the central region of the vortex. Moreover, when the incident vortex is aligned with, or inboard of, the tip of the wing, the swirl ratio decreases to values associated with instability of the vortex, giving rise to enhanced values of azimuthal vorticity relative to the

  5. Complex networks from experimental horizontal oil–water flows: Community structure detection versus flow pattern discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Fang, Peng-Cheng; Ding, Mei-Shuang; Yang, Dan; Jin, Ning-De


    We propose a complex network-based method to distinguish complex patterns arising from experimental horizontal oil–water two-phase flow. We first use the adaptive optimal kernel time–frequency representation (AOK TFR) to characterize flow pattern behaviors from the energy and frequency point of view. Then, we infer two-phase flow complex networks from experimental measurements and detect the community structures associated with flow patterns. The results suggest that the community detection in two-phase flow complex network allows objectively discriminating complex horizontal oil–water flow patterns, especially for the segregated and dispersed flow patterns, a task that existing method based on AOK TFR fails to work. - Highlights: • We combine time–frequency analysis and complex network to identify flow patterns. • We explore the transitional flow behaviors in terms of betweenness centrality. • Our analysis provides a novel way for recognizing complex flow patterns. • Broader applicability of our method is demonstrated and articulated

  6. Radiotherapy in supraglottic carcinoma -with respect to locoregional control and survival-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Taek Keun; Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Chung, Woong Ki; Cho, Jae Shik; Ahn, Sung Ja; Nah, Byung Sik


    A retrospective study was undertaken to determine the role of conventional radiotherapy with or without surgery for treating a supraglottic carcinoma in terms of the local control and survival. From Jan. 1986 to Oct. 1996, a total of 134 patients were treated for a supraglottic carcinoma by radiotherapy with or without surgery. Of them, 117 patients who had completed the radiotherapy formed the base of this study. The patients were redistributed according to the revised AJCC staging system (1997). The number of patients of stage I, II, III, IVA, IVB were 6 (5%), 16 (14%), 53 (45%), 32 (27%), 10 (9%), respectively. Eighty patients were treated by radical radiotherapy in the range of 61.2 ∼ 79.2 Gy (mean:69.2 Gy) to the primary tumor and 45.0 ∼ 93.6 Gy (mean:54.0 Gy) to regional lymphatics. All patients with stage I and IVB were treated by radiotherapy alone. Thirty-seven patients underwent surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy in the range of 45.0 ∼ 68.4 Gy (mean:56.1 Gy) to the primary tumor bed and 45.0 ∼ 59.4 Gy (mean:47.2 Gy) to the regional lymphatics. Of them, 33 patients received a total laryngectomy (± lymph node dissection), three had a supraglottic horizontal laryngectomy (± lymph node dissection), and one had a primary excision alone. The 5-year survival rate (5YSR) of all patients was 43%. The 5YSR of the patients with stage I + II, III + IV were 49.9%, 41.2%, respectively (ρ = 0.27). However, the disease-specific survival rate of the patients with stage I (n=6) was 100%. The 5YSRs of patients who underwent surgery plus radiotherapy (S + RT) vs radiotherapy alone (RT) in stage II, III, IVA were 100% vs 43% (ρ = 0.17), 62% vs 52% (ρ =0.32), 58% vs 6% (ρ < 0.001), respectively. The 5-year actuarial locoregional control rate (5YLCR) of all the patients was 57%. The 5YLCR of the patients with stage I, II, III, IVA, IVB was 100%, 74%, 60%, 44%, 30%, respectively (ρ = 0.008). The 5YLCR of the patients with S + RT vs RT in stage II, III, IVA

  7. Small is the new big: An overview of newer supraglottic airways for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhee Goyal


    Full Text Available Almost all supraglottic airways (SGAs are now available in pediatric sizes. The availability of these smaller sizes, especially in the last five years has brought a marked change in the whole approach to airway management in children. SGAs are now used for laparoscopic surgeries, head and neck surgeries, remote anesthesia; and for ventilation during resuscitation. A large number of reports have described the use of SGAs in difficult airway situations, either as a primary or a rescue airway. Despite this expanded usage, there remains little evidence to support its usage in prolonged surgeries and in the intensive care unit. This article presents an overview of the current options available, suitability of one over the other and reviews the published data relating to each device. In this review, the author also addresses some of the general concerns regarding the use of SGAs and explores newer roles of their use in children.

  8. Salvage surgery following radiation failure in squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, James T.; Mendenhall, William M.; Stringer, Scott P.; Cassisi, Nicholas J.; Million, Rodney R.


    Purpose: We analyzed the clinical course of patients who developed local (primary) recurrence following high-dose irradiation of squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx. Methods and Materials: Between October 1964 and July 1991, 206 patients with previously untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx underwent radiotherapy with curative intent. Local failure occurred in 46 (22%) patients. Successful surgical salvage was defined as no evidence of recurrent cancer for at least 2 years after salvage surgery and continuously thereafter. Results: Sixteen patients did not undergo salvage surgery because of refusal (7 patients), severe medical illness (2 patients), concurrent distant metastasis (5 patients), or unresectable neck disease (2 patients). Twenty-six patients underwent total laryngectomy, and 4 patients had a voice-sparing procedure. Successful salvage was achieved in 50% of patients who underwent surgery. The rate of successful salvage did not correlate with preirradiation T-stage or time to failure after irradiation. Most of the failures after surgery were because of failure to control the primary cancer. The overall rate of postsurgical complications was 37%. No operative or perioperative deaths occurred. The 5-year survival rate for all 46 patients, calculated from the date of irradiation failure, was 20%, while the 5-year survival rate after salvage surgery for the 30 patients who underwent the procedure was 29%. Conclusion: There are few data in the literature regarding the clinical outcome in patients whose tumors are not controlled by initial radiotherapy. In the current and previous series, one-half to two-thirds of patients who developed primary failure underwent salvage surgery, which was successful in approximately half of the operated patients, leading to a 25-30% rate of long-term disease-free survival among the entire group of patients who developed failure

  9. Comparison of three supraglottic devices in anesthetised paralyzed children undergoing elective surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikramjit Das


    Full Text Available Context: The newest variation of the i-gel supraglottic airway is a pediatric version. Aims: This study was designed to investigate the usefulness of the size 2 i-gel compared with the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA and classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA of the same size in anesthetized, paralyzed children. Settings and design: A prospective, randomized, single-blinded study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods: Ninety ASA grade I-II patients undergoing lower abdominal, inguinal and orthopedic surgery were included in this prospective study. The patients were randomly assigned to the i-gel, PLMA and cLMA groups (30 patients in each group. Size 2 supraglottic airway was inserted according to the assigned group. We assessed ease of insertion, hemodynamic data, oropharyngeal sealing pressure and postoperative complications. Results: There were no differences in the demographic and hemodynamic data among the three groups. The airway leak pressure of the i-gel group (27.1±2.6 cmH 2 O was significantly higher than that of the PLMA group (22.73±1.2 cmH 2 O and the cLMA group (23.63±2.3 cmH 2 O. The success rates for first attempt of insertion were similar among the three devices. There were no differences in the incidence of postoperative airway trauma, sore throat or hoarse cry in the three groups. Conclusions: Hemodynamic parameters, ease of insertion and postoperative complications were comparable among the i-gel, PLMA and cLMA groups, but airway sealing pressure was significantly higher in the i-gel group.

  10. Constructal tree-shaped flow structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejan, A.; Lorente, S.


    This paper is an introduction to a new trend in the conceptual design of energy systems: the generation of flow configuration based on the 'constructal' principle that the global performance is maximized by balancing and arranging the various flow resistances (the irreversibilities) in a flow system that is free to morph. The paper focuses on distribution and collection, which are flows that connect one point (source, or sink) with an infinity of points (volume, area, curve). The flow configurations that emerge from this principle are tree-shaped, and the systems that employ them are 'vascularized'. The paper traces the most recent progress made on constructal vascularization. The direction is from large-scale applications toward microscales. The large-scale tree-shaped designs of electric power distribution systems and networks for natural gas and water are now invading small-scale designs such as fuel cells, heat exchangers and cooled packages of electronics. These flow configurations have several properties in common: freedom to morph, multiple scales, hierarchy, nonuniform (optimal) distribution of scales through the available volume, compactness and finite complexity

  11. Performance comparison of hydrological model structures during low flows (United States)

    Staudinger, Maria; Stahl, Kerstin; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Clark, Martyn P.; Seibert, Jan


    Low flows are still poorly reproduced by common hydrological models since they are traditionally designed to meet peak flow situations best possible. As low flow becomes increasingly important to several target areas there is a need to improve available models. We present a study that assesses the impact of model structure on low flow simulations. This is done using the Framework for Understanding Structural Errors (FUSE), which identifies the set of (subjective) decisions made when building a hydrological model, and provides multiple options for each modeling decision. 79 models were built using the FUSE framework, and applied to simulate stream flows in the Narsjø catchment in Norway (119 km²). To allow comparison all new models were calibrated using an automatic optimization method. Low flow and recession analysis of the new models enables us to evaluate model performance focusing on different aspects by using various objective functions. Additionally, model structures responsible for poor performance, and hence unsuitable, can be detected. We focused on elucidating model performance during summer (August - October) and winter low flows which evolve from entirely different hydrological processes in the Narsjø catchment. Summer low flows develop out of a lack of precipitation while winter low flows are due to water storage in ice and snow. The results showed that simulations of summer low flows were throughout poorer than simulations of winter low flows when evaluating with an objective function focusing on low flows; here, the model structure influencing winter low flow simulations is the lower layer architecture. Different model structures were found to influence model performance during the summer season. The choice of other objective functions has the potential to affect such an evaluation. These findings call for the use of different model structures tailored to particular needs.

  12. Videolaryngoscopy versus Fiber-optic Intubation through a Supraglottic Airway in Children with a Difficult Airway: An Analysis from the Multicenter Pediatric Difficult Intubation Registry. (United States)

    Burjek, Nicholas E; Nishisaki, Akira; Fiadjoe, John E; Adams, H Daniel; Peeples, Kenneth N; Raman, Vidya T; Olomu, Patrick N; Kovatsis, Pete G; Jagannathan, Narasimhan; Hunyady, Agnes; Bosenberg, Adrian; Tham, See; Low, Daniel; Hopkins, Paul; Glover, Chris; Olutoye, Olutoyin; Szmuk, Peter; McCloskey, John; Dalesio, Nicholas; Koka, Rahul; Greenberg, Robert; Watkins, Scott; Patel, Vikram; Reynolds, Paul; Matuszczak, Maria; Jain, Ranu; Khalil, Samia; Polaner, David; Zieg, Jennifer; Szolnoki, Judit; Sathyamoorthy, Kumar; Taicher, Brad; Riveros Perez, N Ricardo; Bhattacharya, Solmaletha; Bhalla, Tarun; Stricker, Paul; Lockman, Justin; Galvez, Jorge; Rehman, Mohamed; Von Ungern-Sternberg, Britta; Sommerfield, David; Soneru, Codruta; Chiao, Franklin; Richtsfeld, Martina; Belani, Kumar; Sarmiento, Lina; Mireles, Sam; Bilen Rosas, Guelay; Park, Raymond; Peyton, James


    The success rates and related complications of various techniques for intubation in children with difficult airways remain unknown. The primary aim of this study is to compare the success rates of fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway to videolaryngoscopy in children with difficult airways. Our secondary aim is to compare the complication rates of these techniques. Observational data were collected from 14 sites after management of difficult pediatric airways. Patient age, intubation technique, success per attempt, use of continuous ventilation, and complications were recorded for each case. First-attempt success and complications were compared in subjects managed with fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway and videolaryngoscopy. Fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway and videolaryngoscopy had similar first-attempt success rates (67 of 114, 59% vs. 404 of 786, 51%; odds ratio 1.35; 95% CI, 0.91 to 2.00; P = 0.16). In subjects less than 1 yr old, fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway was more successful on the first attempt than videolaryngoscopy (19 of 35, 54% vs. 79 of 220, 36%; odds ratio, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.04 to 4.31; P = 0.042). Complication rates were similar in the two groups (20 vs. 13%; P = 0.096). The incidence of hypoxemia was lower when continuous ventilation through the supraglottic airway was used throughout the fiber-optic intubation attempt. In this nonrandomized study, first-attempt success rates were similar for fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway and videolaryngoscopy. Fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway is associated with higher first-attempt success than videolaryngoscopy in infants with difficult airways. Continuous ventilation through the supraglottic airway during fiber-optic intubation attempts may lower the incidence of hypoxemia.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUTUNEA Dragos


    Full Text Available In this paper an experimental method for the investigations of flow structures encountered by automobiles was performed on two different vehicles. Currently are two methods to measure the drag, the first is to simulate the air flow with computational fluid dynamics and the second is to use a wind tunnel. Two cars were modeled to observe and track the flow structure around the bodies. This computational research will be used as an inexpensive experimental method to study the phenomenon of air flow in automotive industry.

  14. Percutaneous transtracheal jet ventilation as a guide to tracheal intubation in severe upper airway obstruction from supraglottic oedema. (United States)

    Chandradeva, K; Palin, C; Ghosh, S M; Pinches, S C


    We report two cases of severe upper airway obstruction caused by supraglottic oedema secondary to adult epiglottitis and Ludwig's angina. In the former case, attempts to intubate with a direct laryngoscope failed but were successful once percutaneous transtracheal jet ventilation (PTJV) had been instituted. In the case with Ludwig's angina, PTJV was employed as a pre-emptive measure and the subsequent tracheal intubation with a direct laryngoscope was performed with unexpected ease. In both cases recognition of the glottic aperture was made feasible with PTJV by virtue of the fact that the high intra-tracheal pressure from PTJV appeared to lift up and open the glottis. The escape of gas under high pressure caused the oedematous edges of the glottis to flutter, which facilitated the identification of the glottic aperture. We believe that the PTJV should be considered in the emergency management of severe upper airway obstruction when this involves supraglottic oedema.

  15. Molecular profiles as predictive marker for the effect of overall treatment time of radiotherapy in supraglottic larynx squamous cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Buffa, Francesca M; Alsner, Jan


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Reduction of the overall treatment time of radiotherapy increases the probability of local tumour control, but it does not benefit all patients. Identification of molecular marker profiles may aid in the selection of patients likely to benefit from accelerated radiotherapy...... as the endpoint. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular marker profiling may aid in the selection of patients that will benefit of a reduction in overall treatment time of radiotherapy in SCC of the supraglottic larynx....

  16. Three-dimensional flow and turbulence structure in electrostatic precipitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, Thorvald Uhrskov; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Özcan, Oktay


    and bulk velocity U0 on secondary flows and turbulence levels and structures due to the action of the three-dimensional electrostatic field on the charged gas. At constant bulk velocity (U0 = 1 m/s) and current density (Jm = 0.4 mA/m2), secondary flows in the form of rolls of axial vorticity with swirl...

  17. Thrust generation and wake structure for flow across a pitching ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two different wake structures (reverse Kármán shedding and deflected vortex shedding) are observed over this parameter range. The vorticity decreases substantially over a distance of two chord-lengths. The velocity profile indicates a jet-like flow downstream of the airfoil. It is shown that the jet-like flow downstream of the ...

  18. Pediatric supraglottic airway devices in clinical practice: A prospective observational study. (United States)

    Kleine-Brueggeney, Maren; Gottfried, Anne; Nabecker, Sabine; Greif, Robert; Book, Malte; Theiler, Lorenz


    Supraglottic airway devices (SGA) are commonly used in pediatric anesthesia and serve as primary or back-up devices for difficult airway management. Most SGA are marketed without proper clinical evaluation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the pediatric LMA Supreme™, Air-Q® and Ambu® Aura-i™. This prospective observational study was performed at Bern University Hospital, Switzerland. With ethics committee approval and a waiver for written informed consent 240 children undergoing elective surgery with an ASA class I-III and a weight of 5-30 kg were included. Three different pediatric supraglottic airway devices were assessed: The LMA Supreme™, Air-Q® and Ambu® Aura-i™. Primary outcome parameter was airway leak pressure. Secondary outcome parameters included first attempt and overall success rate, insertion time, fiberoptic view through the SGA, and adverse events. The primary hypothesis was that the mean airway leak pressure of each tested SGA was 20 cmH 2 O ± 10%. None of the SGA showed a mean airway leak pressure of 20 cmH 2 O ± 10%, but mean airway leak pressures differed significantly between devices [LMA Supreme™ 18.0 (3.4) cmH 2 O, Air-Q® 15.9 (3.2) cmH 2 O, Ambu® Aura-i™ 17.3 (3.7) cmH 2 O, p < 0.001]. First attempt success rates (LMA Supreme™ 100%, Air-Q® 90%, Ambu® Aura-i™ 91%, p = 0.02) and overall success rates (LMA Supreme™ 100%, Air-Q® 91%, Ambu® Aura-i™ 95%, p = 0.02) also differed significantly. Insertion times ranged from 20 (7) seconds (Air-Q®) to 24 (6) seconds (LMA Supreme™,

  19. Flow-Induced Vibration of Circular Cylindrical Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shoei-Sheng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Components Technology Division


    Flow-induced vibration is a term to denote those phenomena associated with the response of structures placed in or conveying fluid flow. More specifically, the terra covers those cases in which an interaction develops between fluid-dynamic forces and the inertia, damping or elastic forces in the structures. The study of these phenomena draws on three disciplines: (1) structural mechanics, (2) mechanical vibration, and (3) fluid dynamics. The vibration of circular cylinders subject to flow has been known to man since ancient times; the vibration of a wire at its natural frequency in response to vortex shedding was known in ancient Greece as aeolian tones. But systematic studies of the problem were not made until a century ago when Strouhal established the relationship between vortex shedding frequency and flow velocity for a given cylinder diameter. The early research in this area has beer summarized by Zdravkovich (1985) and Goldstein (1965). Flow-induced structural vibration has been experienced in numerous fields, including the aerospace industry, power generation/transmission (turbine blades, heat exchanger tubes, nuclear reactor components), civil engineering (bridges, building, smoke stacks), and undersea technology. The problems have usually been encountered or created accidentally through improper design. In most cases, a structural or mechanical component, designed to meet specific objectives, develops problems when the undesired effects of flow field have not been accounted for in the design. When a flow-induced vibration problem is noted in the design stage, the engineer has different options to eliminate the detrimental vibration. Unfortunately, in many situations, the problems occur after the components are already in operation; the "fix" usually is very costly. Flow-induced vibration comprises complex and diverse phenomena; subcritical vibration of nuclear fuel assemblies, galloping of transmission lines, flutter of pipes conveying fluid, and whirling


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonsas Rimkus


    Full Text Available In spite of the many investigations that have been conducted on turbulent flows, the generation and development of turbulent vortices has not been investigated sufficiently yet. This prevents to understand well the processes involved in the flow. That is unfavorable for the further investigations. The developing vortex structures are interacting, and this needs to be estimated. Physical summing of velocities, formed by all structures, can be unfavorable for investigations, therefore they must be separated; otherwise bias errors can occur. The difficulty for investigations is that the widely employed Particle Image Velocity (PIV method, when a detailed picture of velocity field picture is necessary, can provide photos covering only a short interval of flow, which can’t include the largest flow structures, i.e. macro whirlpools. Consequently, action of these structures could not be investigated. Therefore, in this study it is tried to obtain the necessary data about the flow structure by analyzing the instantaneous velocity measurements by 3D means, which lasts for several minutes, therefore the existence and interaction of these structures become visible in measurement data. The investigations conducted in this way have been already discussed in the article, published earlier. Mostly the generation and development of bottom vortices was analyzed. In this article, the analysis of these turbulent velocity measurements is continued and the additional data about the structure of turbulent vortices is obtained.

  1. Prognostic value of hemoglobin concentration in radiotherapy for cancer of supraglottic larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnawski, Rafal; Skladowski, Krzysztof; Maciejewski, Boguslaw


    Purpose: The aim of this work is the estimation of correlations between hemoglobin concentration either before or after radiotherapy and local tumor control probability for laryngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Retrospective analysis of 847 cases of laryngeal supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiation alone was performed using maximum likelihood estimations, and step-wise logistic regression. All patients were in good initial performance status (Karnofsky index >70). The minimum follow-up time was 3 years. Results: Logistic regression showed that the hemoglobin concentration after radiotherapy is an important prognostic factor. There was a very strong correlation between hemoglobin concentration and tumor local control probability. Hemoglobin concentration at the beginning of radiotherapy does not correlate with treatment outcome, but any decrease of hemoglobin during therapy is a strong prognostic factor for treatment failure. Conclusions: Although regression models with many variables may be instable, the present results suggest that hemoglobin concentration after treatment is at least as important as overall treatment time. It was not possible to find out whether the low concentration of hemoglobin is an independent cause of low TCP or whether it reflects other mechanisms that may influence both hemoglobin level and the TCP

  2. Three-dimensional investigation of the two-phase flow structure in a bubbly pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidl, W.; Hassan, Y.A.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, J.


    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a nonintrusive measurement technique that can be used to study the structure of various fluid flows. PIV is used to measure the time-varying, full-field velocity data of a particle-seeded flow field within either a two-dimensional plane or three-dimensional volume. PIV is a very efficient measurement technique since it can obtain both qualitative and quantitative spatial information about the flow field being studied. The quantitative spatial velocity information can be further processed into information of flow parameters such as vorticity and turbulence over extended areas. The objective of this study was to apply recent advances and improvements in the PIV flow measurement technique to the full-field, nonintrusive analysis of a three-dimensional, two-phase fluid flow system in such a manner that both components of the two-phase system could be experimentally quantified

  3. Heat flow and the structure of the lithosphere. Preface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Vladimír; Kukkonen, I. T.


    Roč. 28, 9/11 (2003), s. 345-346 ISSN 1474-7065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : heat flow * lithosphere * thermal structure Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.574, year: 2003

  4. Flow structure of knuckling effect in footballs


    Asai, Takeshi; Kamemoto, Kyoji


    The flight trajectory of a non-spinning or slow-spinning soccer ball might fluctuate in unpredictable ways, as for example, in the many free kicks of C. Ronaldo. Such anomalous horizontal shaking or rapid falling is termed the ‘knuckling effect’. However, the aerodynamic properties and boundary-layer dynamics affecting a ball during the knuckling effect are not well understood. In this study, we analyse the characteristics of the vortex structure of a soccer ball subject to the knuckling effe...

  5. Flow structure of knuckling effect in footballs (United States)

    Asai, Takeshi; Kamemoto, Kyoji


    The flight trajectory of a non-spinning or slow-spinning soccer ball might fluctuate in unpredictable ways, as for example, in the many free kicks of C. Ronaldo. Such anomalous horizontal shaking or rapid falling is termed the ‘knuckling effect’. However, the aerodynamic properties and boundary-layer dynamics affecting a ball during the knuckling effect are not well understood. In this study, we analyse the characteristics of the vortex structure of a soccer ball subject to the knuckling effect (knuckleball), using high-speed video images and smoke-generating agents. Two high-speed video cameras were set at one side and in front of the ball trajectory between the ball position and the goal; further, photographs were taken at 1000 fps and a resolution of 1024×512 pixels. Although in a previous study (Taneda, 1978), shedding of horseshoe vortices was observed for smooth spheres in the Reynolds number (Re) range of 3.8×105ball, the vortex structure, which consisted of distorted loop vortices, appeared in the wake behind the ball in the supercritical Re number region. Moreover, after the knuckleballs were airborne, large-scale undulations were observed in the vortex trail visualised with a smoke technique. On the other hand, aerodynamic forces acting on the ball were estimated from the data of the ball’s flight trajectory, and a statistically high correlation (r=0.94, pball.

  6. Tracking coherent structures in massively-separated and turbulent flows (United States)

    Rockwood, Matthew; Huang, Yangzi; Green, Melissa


    Coherent vortex structures are tracked in simulations of massively-separated and turbulent flows. Topological Lagrangian saddle points are found using intersections of the positive and negative finite-time Lyapunov exponent ridges, and these points are then followed in order to track individual coherent structure motion both in a complex interacting three-dimensional flow (turbulent channel) and during vortex formation (two-dimensional bluff body shedding). For a simulation of wall-bounded turbulence in a channel flow, tracking Lagrangian saddles shows that the average structure convection speed exhibits a similar trend as a previously published result based on velocity and pressure correlations, giving validity to the method. When this tracking method is applied in a study of a circular cylinder in cross-flow it shows that Lagrangian saddles rapidly accelerate away from the cylinder surface as the vortex sheds. This saddle behavior is compared with the time-resolved static pressure distribution on the circular cylinder, yielding locations on a cylinder surface where common sensors could detect this phenomenon, which is not available from force measurements or vortex circulation calculations. The current method of tracking coherent structures yields insight into the behavior of the coherent structures in both of the diverse flows presented, highlighting the breadth of its potential application.

  7. Evolution of vortex structures in an electromagnetically excited separated flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cierpka, Christian; Weier, Tom; Gerbeth, Gunter [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)


    Time periodic wall parallel Lorentz forces have been used to excite the separated flow on the suction side of an inclined flat plate. Experiments for a Reynolds number of 10{sup 4} and an angle of attack of {alpha}=13 are reported. The controlled flow is characterised by a small number of relatively large scale vortices, which are related to the control mechanism. The influence of the main parameters, i.e. the excitation frequency, amplitude and wave form on the suction side flow structures was investigated by analysing time resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) measurements using continuous wavelet analysis for vortex detection and characterisation. Statistical analysis of the coherent structures of the flow was performed on a large amount of data samples. (orig.)

  8. Leakage-flow induced vibrations of a chimney structure suspended in a liquid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.


    This paper presents the results of flow-induced vibration tests conducted to assess the vibration characteristics of a chimney structure suspended in a liquid flow. The test article is a full-scale model of a flow chimney used in a nuclear reactor as a part of reactor upper internals. Tests were performed by simulating all pertinent prototype conditions achievable in a laboratory environment. The test results show that there exists a fluid-elastic instability of the chimney motion which has a distinct lock-in phenomenon with respect to the flow rate. This unstable vibration is associated with the leakage-flow-modulated excitation through the small clearances between the chimney and its supports

  9. Turbulent flow in a ribbed channel: Flow structures in the vicinity of a rib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Salewski, Mirko; Sundén, Bengt


    PIV measurements are performed in a channel with periodic ribs on one wall. The emphasis of this study is to investigate the flow structures in the vicinity of a rib in terms of mean velocities, Reynolds stresses, probability density functions (PDF), and two-point correlations. The PDF distributi......-based visualization is applied to the separation bubble upstream of the rib. Salient critical points and limit cycles are extracted, which gives clues to the physical processes occurring in the flow....

  10. Three-dimensional investigation of the two-phase flow structure in a bubbly pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Y.A.; Schmidl, W.D.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, J.


    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a non-intrusive measurement technique, which can be used to study the structure of various fluid flows. PIV is used to measure the time varying full field velocity data of a particle-seeded flow field within either a two-dimensional plane or three-dimensional volume. PIV is a very efficient measurement technique since it can obtain both qualitative and quantitative spatial information about the flow field being studied. This information can be further processed into information such as vorticity and pathlines. Other flow measurement techniques (Laser Doppler Velocimetry, Hot Wire Anemometry, etc...) only provide quantitative information at a single point. PIV can be used to study turbulence structures if a sufficient amount of data can be acquired and analyzed, and it can also be extended to study two-phase flows if both phases can be distinguished. In this study, the flow structure around a bubble rising in a pipe filled with water was studied in three-dimensions. The velocity of the rising bubble and the velocity field of the surrounding water was measured. Then the turbulence intensities and Reynolds stresses were calculated from the experimental data. (author)

  11. A comparison of supraglottic airway i-gel™ vs. classic laryngeal mask airway in small children. (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Hyun; Cho, Hyun-Seok; Shin, Won-Jung; Yang, Hong-Seuk


    i-gel™ is a new single-use supraglottic airway device without an inflatable cuff. This study was designed to compare the usefulness of i-gel™ versus a classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA) in small children. Sixty-three children (age range : 4-72 months) were randomly assigned to an i-gel™ or cLMA group. We evaluated hemodynamic data, airway sealing ability, the success rate of insertion, and adverse events including an inadvertent sliding out during ventilation. Demographic data and hemodynamic data obtained immediately after the insertion of these devices did not differ between the two groups. The success rates for insertion on the first attempt were 77 and 84% for i-gel™ and cLMA, respectively (P = 0.54), and the overall success rates were 87 and 100% respectively (P = 0.14). There were no significant differences in terms of airway leak pressure. The inserted i-gel™ inadvertently slid out in 8 of 31 patients but only one sliding out case occurred in the cLMA group (P = 0.02). There were no differences between the groups in terms of other side effects (e.g., coughing, bleeding) associated with the use of i-gel™ and cLMA (P = 0.75 and 0.49, respectively). Oropharyngeal leak pressure and insertion success rate of i-gel™ are similar to those of cLMA. However, i-gel™ is prone to inadvertent sliding out of the mouth in small children. Therefore, it is recommended that the i-gel™ should be secured more tightly to avoid displacement of the device.

  12. Dynamics of generalized Gaussian polymeric structures in random layered flows. (United States)

    Katyal, Divya; Kant, Rama


    We develop a formalism for the dynamics of a flexible branched polymer with arbitrary topology in the presence of random flows. This is achieved by employing the generalized Gaussian structure (GGS) approach and the Matheron-de Marsily model for the random layered flow. The expression for the average square displacement (ASD) of the center of mass of the GGS is obtained in such flow. The averaging is done over both the thermal noise and the external random flow. Although the formalism is valid for branched polymers with various complex topologies, we mainly focus here on the dynamics of the flexible star and dendrimer. We analyze the effect of the topology (the number and length of branches for stars and the number of generations for dendrimers) on the dynamics under the influence of external flow, which is characterized by their root-mean-square velocity, persistence flow length, and flow exponent α. Our analysis shows two anomalous power-law regimes, viz., subdiffusive (intermediate-time polymer stretching and flow-induced diffusion) and superdiffusive (long-time flow-induced diffusion). The influence of the topology of the GGS is unraveled in the intermediate-time regime, while the long-time regime is only weakly dependent on the topology of the polymer. With the decrease in the value of α, the magnitude of the ASD decreases, while the temporal exponent of the ASD increases in both the time regimes. Also there is an increase in both the magnitude of the ASD and the crossover time (from the subdiffusive to the superdiffusive regime) with an increase in the total mass of the polymeric structure.

  13. Effects of lower plenum flow structure on core inlet flow of ABWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shun; Abe, Yutaka; Kaneko, Akiko; Watanabe, Fumitoshi; Tezuka, Kenichi


    The evaluation of coolant flow structure at a lower plenum of an advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) in which there are many structures is very important in order to improve generating power. Although the simulation results by CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes can predict such complicated flow in the lower plenum, it is required to establish the database of flow structure in lower plenum of ABWR experimentally for the benchmark of the CFD codes. In the model of the lower plenum, we measured velocity profiles with LDV and PIV. And differential pressure of constructed model is measured with differential pressure instrument. It was identified that the velocity and differential pressure profiles also showed the tendency to be flat in the core inlet. Moreover, vortexes were observed around side entry orifice by PIV measurement. (author)

  14. Flow structure at an ice-covered river confluence (United States)

    Martel, Nancy; Biron, Pascale; Buffin-Bélanger, Thomas


    River confluences are known to exhibit complex relationships between flow structure, sediment transport and bed-form development. Flow structure at these sites is influenced by the junction angle, the momentum flux ratio (Mr) and bed morphology. In cold regions where an ice cover is present for most of the winter period, the flow structure is also likely affected by the roughness effect of the ice. However, very few studies have examined the impact of an ice cover on the flow structure at a confluence. The aims of this study are (1) to describe the evolution of an ice cover at a river confluence and (2) to characterize and compare the flow structure at a river confluence with and without an ice cover. The field site is a medium-sized confluence (around 40 m wide) between the Mit is and Neigette Rivers in the Bas-Saint-Laurent region, Quebec (Canada). The confluence was selected because a thick ice cover is present for most of the winter allowing for safe field work. Two winter field campaigns were conducted in 2015 and 2016 to obtain ice cover measurements in addition to hydraulic and morphological measurements. Daily monitoring of the evolution of the ice cover was made with a Reconyx camera. Velocity profiles were collected with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) to reconstruct the three-dimensional flow structure. Time series of photographs allow the evolution of the ice cover to be mapped, linking the processes leading to the formation of the primary ice cover for each year. The time series suggests that these processes are closely related with both confluence flow zones and hydro-climatic conditions. Results on the thickness of the ice cover from in situ measurements reveal that the ice thickness tends to be thinner at the center of the confluence where high turbulent exchanges take place. Velocity measurements reveal that the ice cover affects velocity profiles by moving the highest velocities towards the center of the profiles. A spatio

  15. Coherent structures in compressible free-shear-layer flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeschliman, D.P.; Baty, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center; Kennedy, C.A.; Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion and Physical Sciences Center


    Large scale coherent structures are intrinsic fluid mechanical characteristics of all free-shear flows, from incompressible to compressible, and laminar to fully turbulent. These quasi-periodic fluid structures, eddies of size comparable to the thickness of the shear layer, dominate the mixing process at the free-shear interface. As a result, large scale coherent structures greatly influence the operation and efficiency of many important commercial and defense technologies. Large scale coherent structures have been studied here in a research program that combines a synergistic blend of experiment, direct numerical simulation, and analysis. This report summarizes the work completed for this Sandia Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project.

  16. Synchronous Supraglottic and Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinomas Treated with a Monoisocentric Hybrid Intensity-Modulated Radiation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian L. Barney


    Full Text Available Risk factors for squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs of the head and neck (HN and esophagus are similar. As such, synchronous primary tumors in these areas are not entirely uncommon. Definitive chemoradiation (CRT is standard care for locally advanced HNSCC and is a preferred option for inoperable esophageal SCC. Simultaneous treatment of both primaries with CRT can present technical challenges. We report a case of synchronous supraglottic and esophageal SCC primary tumors, highlighting treatment with a monoisocentric hybrid radiation technique and normal tissue toxicity considerations.

  17. Biofilm effect on flow structure over a permeable bed (United States)

    Kazemifar, Farzan; Blois, Gianluca; Aybar, Marcelo; Perez-Calleja, Patricia; Nerenberg, Robert; Sinha, Sumit; Hardy, Richard; Best, James; Sambrook Smith, Gregory; Christensen, Kenneth


    Biofilms constitute an important form of bacterial life in aquatic environments and are present at the fluid-solid interfaces in natural and industrial settings, such as water distribution systems and riverbeds among others. The permeable, heterogeneous, and deformable structure of biofilms can influence mass and momentum transport between the subsurface and freestream. However, this interaction is not fully understood, in part due to technical obstacles impeding quantitative experimental investigations. In this work, the effect of biofilm on flow structure over a permeable bed is studied. Experiments are conducted in a closed water channel equipped with an idealized two-dimensional permeable bed. Prior to conducting flow experiments, the models are placed within an independent recirculating reactor for biofilm growth. Once a targeted biofilm growth stage is achieved, the models are transferred to the water channel and subjected to transitional and turbulent flows. Long-distance microscopic particle image velocimetry measurements are performed to quantify the effect of biofilm on the turbulence structure of the free flow as well as the freestream-subsurface flow interaction. Funded by UK Natural Environment Research Council.

  18. Flow structure on a rotating wing undergoing deceleration to rest (United States)

    Tudball Smith, Daniel; Rockwell, Donald; Sheridan, John


    Inspired by the behavior of small biological flyers and micro aerial Vehicles, this study experimentally addresses the flow structure on a low aspect ratio rotating wing at low Reynolds number. The study focuses on a wing decelerating to rest after rotating at constant velocity. The wing was set to a constant 45° angle of attack and, during the initial phase of the motion, accelerated to a constant velocity at its radius of gyration, which resulted in a Reynolds number of 1400 based on the chord length. Stereoscopic PIV was used to construct phase-averaged three-dimensional (volumetric) velocity fields that develop and relax throughout the deceleration and cessation of the wing motion. During gradual deceleration, the flow structure is maintained when normalised by the instantaneous velocity; the distinguishing feature is shedding of a trailing edge vortex that develops due to the deceleration. At higher deceleration rates to rest, the flow structure quickly degrades. Induced flow in the upstream direction along the surface of the wing causes detachment of the previously stable leading edge vortex; simultaneously, a trailing-edge vortex and the reoriented tip vortex form a co-rotating vortex pair, drawing flow downward away from the wing.

  19. Channel flow structure measurements using particle image velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazizi Mohamed; Noraeini Mokhtar; Aziz Ibrahim; Ramli Abu Hassan


    Two different flow structures in a laboratory channel were examined using a flow visualization technique, known as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The first channel flow structure was that of a steady flow over a horizontal channel bottom. Photographs of particle displacements were taken in the boundary layer in a plane parallel to the flow. These photographs were analyzed to give simultaneous measurements of two components of the velocity at hundreds of points in the plane. Averaging these photographs gave the velocity profile a few millimeters from the bottom of the channel to the water surface. The results gave good agreement with the known boundary layer theory. This technique is extended to the study of the structure under a progressive wave in the channel. A wavelength of the propagating wave is divided into sections by photographing it continously for a number of frames. Each frame is analyzed and a velocity field under this wave at various phase points were produced with their respective directions. The results show that velocity vectors in a plane under the wave could be achieved instantaneously and in good agreement with the small amplitude wave theory

  20. Flow Structure and Surface Topology on a UCAV Planform (United States)

    Elkhoury, Michel; Yavuz, Metin; Rockwell, Donald


    Flow past a X-45 UCAV planform involves the complex generation and interaction of vortices, their breakdown and occurrence of surface separation and stall. A cinema technique of high-image-density particle image velocimetry, in conjunction with dye visualization, allows characterization of the time-averaged and instantaneous states of the flow, in terms of critical points of the near-surface streamlines. These features are related to patterns of surface normal vorticity and velocity fluctuation. Spectral analysis of the naturally occurring unsteadiness of the flow allows definition of the most effective frequencies for small-amplitude perturbation of the wing, which leads to substantial alterations of the aforementioned patterns of flow structure and topology adjacent to the surface.

  1. Social dilemma structures hidden behind traffic flow with lane changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Kukida, Shinji; Hagishima, Aya


    Aiming to merge traffic flow analysis with evolutionary game theory, we investigated the question of whether such structures can be formed from frequent lane changes in usual traffic flow without any explicit bottlenecks. In our model system, two classes of driver-agents coexist: C-agents (cooperative strategy) always remain in the lane they are initially assigned, whereas D-agents (defective strategy) try to change lanes to move ahead. In relatively high-density flows, such as the metastable and high-density phases, we found structures that correspond to either n-person prisoner dilemma (n-PD) games or quasi-PD games. In these situations, lane changes by D-agents create heavy traffic jams that reduce social efficiency. (paper)

  2. Statistical Characterization of the Flow Structure in the Rhine Valley (United States)

    Philippe, Philippe; Debas, Alain M.; Haeberli, Christian; Flamant, Pierre H.

    The flow structure at the intersection between the Rhine and the Seez valleys nearthe Swiss city of Bad Ragaz has been documented by means of wind and pressuremeasurements collected from 9 September to 10 November 1999 during the MesoscaleAlpine Programme (MAP) experiment. To understand better the dynamics of theageostrophic winds that develop in this part of the Rhine valley, some key questionsare answered in this paper including the following: (i) How does air blow at theintersection of the Rhine and Seez valleys? and (ii) what are the dynamical processes(mechanical or thermal) driving the flow circulations in the valleys?Statistical analysis of the wind and pressure patterns at synoptic scale and at the scaleof the valley shows that five main flow patterns, SE/S, NW/W, NW/N, NW/S, SE/N(wind direction in the Seez valley/wind direction in the Rhine valley) prevail. The SE/S regime is the flow splitting situation. It is mainly driven by a strong pressure gradient across the Alps leading to foehn, even though some nocturnal cases are generated bylocal thermal gradients. The NW/W and NW/N regimes are mechanically forced bythe synoptic pressure gradient (as the flow splitting case). The difference between thetwo regimes is due to the synoptic flow direction [westerly (northerly) synoptic flowfor the NW/W (NW/N) regime], showing that the Rhine valley (particularly from BadRagaz to Lake Constance) is less efficient in channelling the flow than the Seez valley.The NW/S (occurring mainly during nighttime) and SE/N (occurring mainly duringdaytime) regimes are mainly katabatic flows. However, the SE/N regime is also partlyforced at the synoptic scale during the foehn case that occurred between 18 October and 20 October 1999, with a complex layered vertical structure.

  3. Large-scale turbulence structures in shallow separating flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talstra, H.


    The Ph.D. thesis “Large-scale turbulence structures in shallow separating flows” by Harmen Talstra is the result of a Ph.D. research project on large-scale shallow-flow turbulence, which has been performed in the Environmental Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Delft University of Technology. The

  4. Flow-induced structured phase in nonionic micellar solutions. (United States)

    Cardiel, Joshua J; Tonggu, Lige; de la Iglesia, Pablo; Zhao, Ya; Pozzo, Danilo C; Wang, Liguo; Shen, Amy Q


    In this work, we consider the flow of a nonionic micellar solution (precursor) through an array of microposts, with focus on its microstructural and rheological evolution. The precursor contains polyoxyethylene(20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween-80) and cosurfactant monolaurin (ML). An irreversible flow-induced structured phase (NI-FISP) emerges after the nonionic precursor flows through the hexagonal micropost arrays, when subjected to strain rates ~10(4) s(-1) and strain ~10(3). NI-FISP consists of close-looped micellar bundles and multiconnected micellar networks as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). We also conduct small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements in both precursor and NI-FISP to illustrate the structural transition. We propose a potential mechanism for the NI-FISP formation that relies on the micropost arrays and the flow kinematics in the microdevice to induce entropic fluctuations in the micellar solution. Finally, we show that the rheological variation from a viscous precursor solution to a viscoelastic micellar structured phase is associated with the structural evolution from the precursor to NI-FISP.

  5. Effects of geological structures on groundwater flow and quality in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geological and structural influences on groundwater flow and quality were evaluated in the present study in the hardrock regions of Tirunelveli District, southern India. Groundwater is a major source of freshwater in this region to cater to the requirements of domestic and agricultural activity, as there are no surface water ...

  6. Detailed structure of pipe flow with water hammer oscillations | Kioni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herein, the evolution and detailed structure of velocity and pressure fields of an oscillating axi-symmetric pipe flow arising from a rapid closure of a valve has been determined through the solution, by the Finite Volume technique, of the full Navier Stokes equations. The method correctly predicts the distortion of the pressure ...

  7. Effects of geological structures on groundwater flow and quality in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 2. Effects of geological structures on groundwater flow and quality in hardrock regions of northern Tirunelveli district, southern India. M Senthilkumar R Arumugam D Gnanasundar D S C Thambi E Sampath Kumar. Volume 124 Issue 2 March 2015 pp ...

  8. Aerodynamics of unmanned combat air vehicles: Flow structure and control (United States)

    Elkhoury, Michel

    At moderate to high angle-of-attack, an Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) exhibits complex flow structure due to vortex interaction/breakdown, and the onset of separation and stall. These features of the flow patterns have received little attention. The present investigation addresses the degree of interaction of vortices, the onset of vortex breakdown, and the occurrence of a separation as a function of both Reynolds number and angle-of-attack, via dye visualization and quantitative imaging. The Reynolds number dependence of the near-surface flow structure and topology on a representative UCAV planform is characterized using a technique of high-image-density particle image velocimetry (DPIV), as a complement to classical dye visualization. This technique provides a sequence of instantaneous states, as well as the corresponding time-averaged state. Patterns of streamline topology, including bifurcation lines, contours of streamwise and transverse velocity, surface-normal vorticity and Reynolds stress correlation, all immediately adjacent to the surface of the planform, provide quantitative interpretations. At low angle-of-attack, these quantitative patterns show significant alterations with Reynolds number, as represented by: large variations of patterns of vortex breakdown and vortex interaction visualized by dye; and substantial alterations of flow patterns in the crossflow plane, including reattachment phenomena, which are interpreted with patterns of velocity and streamwise vorticity. On the other hand, at moderate angle-of-attack, the near-surface quantitative patterns show much less sensitivity to Reynolds number, which is in accord with weak variations of the onset of vortex breakdown with changes in Reynolds number. Perturbations of the planform at a small amplitude and high frequency can substantially alter both the instantaneous and time-averaged flow structure immediately adjacent to its surface, relative to the case of a stationary planform. A ramp

  9. Acoustic emissions from unsteady transitional boundary layer flow structures (United States)

    Marboe, Richard Chostner

    The acoustic radiation contribution of boundary layer flow structures has long been the subject of debate. The research described critically examines the popular approaches to modeling the radiation mechanisms and attempts to bring some degree of closure to the physical and practical significance of noise and pseudo-noise originating in the laminar-to-turbulent transition zone within a natural boundary layer. This includes improving models to include recent computational and experimental statistics, evaluation of model sensitivities to input parameters, and applicability to situations of engineering relevance. Prior efforts to model wall pressure fluctuation statistics resulting from boundary layer transition zone flow structures allow further development of direct radiation prediction codes. Several refinements were made to theoretical models for directly radiated noise based upon the Liepmann analogy for fluctuating displacement thickness including the incorporation of a semi- empirically derived space-time correlation function for the intermittency indicator. A similar two-fluids model uses a Lighthill acoustic analogy. Radiation by vortex structures and direct numerical simulation methods are reviewed to help define their useful role in predicting sound radiation from transition. The role of pressure gradient in axisymmetric body flows, flat plate flows, and over hydrofoils is investigated. A quiet airflow facility was developed to measure the direct acoustic radiation from a naturally transitioning boundary layer. Real-time acoustic intensity measurement instrumentation was developed if measurements of isolated spots in otherwise laminar flow had been necessary. This technique uses a hot film signal from the transition structure to obtain the coherent output intensity (COI). Model predictions are compared to the measured acoustic radiation from a naturally transitioning boundary layer. Radiated noise measurements isolating the direct transition zone radiation

  10. Flow structure of compound droplets moving in microchannels (United States)

    Che, Zhizhao; Yap, Yit Fatt; Wang, Tianyou


    Compound droplets can be used in substance encapsulation and material compartmentalization to achieve a precise control over the relevant processes in many applications, such as bioanalysis, pharmaceutical manufacturing, and material synthesis. The flow fields in compound droplets directly affect the performance of these applications, but it is challenging to measure them experimentally. In this study, the flow in compound droplets in axisymmetric microchannels is simulated using the finite volume method, and the interface is captured using the level set method with surface tension accounted for via the ghost fluid method. The combination of the level set method and the ghost fluid method reduces spurious currents that are produced unphysically near the interface and achieves a precise simulation of the complex flow field within compound droplets. The shape of compound droplets, the vortical patterns, the velocity fields, and the eccentricity are investigated, and the effects of the key dimensionless parameters, including the size of the compound droplet, the size of the core droplet, the capillary number, and the viscosity ratio, are analyzed. The flow structures in multi-layered compound droplets are also studied. This study not only unveils the complex flow structure within compound droplets moving in microchannels but can also be used to achieve a precise control over the relevant processes in a wide range of applications of compound droplets.

  11. Analysis and representation of complex structures in separated flows (United States)

    Helman, James; Hesselink, Lambertus


    We discuss our recent work on extraction and visualization of topological information in separated fluid flow data sets. As with scene analysis, an abstract representation of a large data set can greatly facilitate the understanding of complex, high-level structures. When studying flow topology, such a representation can be produced by locating and characterizing critical points in the velocity field and generating the associated stream surfaces. In 3D flows, the surface topology serves as the starting point. The 2D tangential velocity field near the surface of the body is examined for critical points. The tangential velocity field is integrated out along the principal directions of certain classes of critical points to produce curves depicting the topology of the flow near the body. The points and curves are linked to form a skeleton representing the 2D vector field topology. This skeleton provides a basis for analyzing the 3D structures associated with the flow separation. The points along the separation curves in the skeleton are used to start tangent curve integrations. Integration origins are successively refined to produce stream surfaces. The map of the global topology is completed by generating those stream surfaces associated with 3D critical points.

  12. Two-phase flow induced parametric vibrations in structural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Fumio


    This paper is divided into two parts concerning piping systems and a nuclear fuel pin system. The significant experimental results concerning the random vibration induced in an L-shaped pipe by air-water two-phase flow and the theoretical analysis of the vibration are described in the first part. It was clarified for the first time that the parametric excitation due to the periodic changes of system mass, centrifugal force and Coriolis force was the mechanism of exciting the vibration. Moreover, the experimental and theoretical analyses of the mechanism of exciting vibration by air-water two-phase flow in a straight, horizontal pipe were carried out, and the first natural frequency of the piping system was strongly related to the dominant frequency of void signals. The experimental results on the vibration of a nuclear fuel pin model in parallel air-water two-phase flow are reported in the latter part. The relations between vibrational strain variance and two-phase flow velocity or pressure fluctuation, and the frequency characteristics of vibrational strain variance were obtained. The theoretical analysis of the dynamic interaction between air-water two-phase flow and a fuel pin structure, and the vibrational instability of fuel pins in alternate air and water slugs or in large bubble flow are also reported. (Kako, I.)

  13. Relation of plasma flow structures to passive particle tracer orbits (United States)

    García, L.; Carreras, B. A.; Llerena, I.


    The properties of plasma flow topological structures are compared with those of passive tracer particles within a framework of the continuous random walk (CTRW) approach. Vortices may cause some of the trapping of particles, while large scale flows may carry them from vortex to vortex. The results indicate that most of the trappings that are completed during the calculation correspond to tracers trapped on broken filaments, including possible multiple trappings. The probability distribution function of the trapping times is then a function of the filament length, and has a lognormal character, like the distribution of filament lengths.

  14. A feasibility study of concomitant boost radiotheraphy for patients with cancer of the supraglottic larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujko, K.; Skoczylas, J.Z.; Bentzen, S.M.; Hliniak, A.; Wasilewski, M.; Szutkowski, Z.J.; Osmolski, A.


    Between February 1988 and December 1989, 65 patients with supraglottic cancer completed a course of concomitant boost radiotherapy. Cases with N3 disease, a Karnovsky performance score less than 70, age above 70 years, or a second primary cancer were not eligible for the study. Distribution of the patients was: Stage T1-T2 30%, T3-T4 70%, N0 68%, N+32%. The total dose ranged from 60 Gy to 76 Gy (median 66 Gy); overall treatment time ranged from 36 to 56 days with a median of 42 days. The daily dose during the first 4 weeks was 1.8 Gy, and during the last 2 weeks it was 1.6 Gy b.i.d. with a 4- or (after September 1988) 6-h interval. The clinical impression was that the early mucosal reactions were acceptable but more severe than after conventional treatment, with confluent membranous mucosal reaction being observed in 54% of the patients. Also, this reaction was significantly more frequent in patients treated with a 4-h interval (68%) than with a 6-h interval (41%) between the daily fractions. To relieve severe dysphagia, narcotics were required in 22% of the patients. The follow-up time ranged from 22 to 50 months, median 34 months. Treatment-requiring late complications were observed in 8 patients, and the 3-year actuarial risk was 17% with 95% confidence limits (6%, 27%). Two of these patients had severe complications: One of them required a temporary tracheostomy due to arytenoid edema and the other developed a laryngo-cutaneous fistula which healed after pharmacological treatment. Actuarial 3-year local-regional control was 59% (46%, 71%) and 3-year actuarial crude survival 55% (42%, 67%). There was no significant difference in the incidence of late complications or tumor control between the two groups of patients treated with a 4- or 6-h interval between the daily fractions. This study shows that the concomitant boost regimen tired here is feasible, but also stresses that the interval between dose fractions should be 6 h or more. (orig.)

  15. The structure of turbulence in a rapid tidal flow. (United States)

    Milne, I A; Sharma, R N; Flay, R G J


    The structure of turbulence in a rapid tidal flow is characterized through new observations of fundamental statistical properties at a site in the UK which has a simple geometry and sedate surface wave action. The mean flow at the Sound of Islay exceeded 2.5 m s -1 and the turbulent boundary layer occupied the majority of the water column, with an approximately logarithmic mean velocity profile identifiable close to the seabed. The anisotropic ratios, spectral scales and higher-order statistics of the turbulence generally agree well with values reported for two-dimensional open channels in the laboratory and other tidal channels, therefore providing further support for the application of universal models. The results of the study can assist in developing numerical models of turbulence in rapid tidal flows such as those proposed for tidal energy generation.

  16. 3d Numerical Simulation of Flow Structure in Confluence River (United States)

    Qing-yuan, Yang; Yi, Sun; Xian-ye, Wang; Wei-zhen, Lu; Xie-kang, Wang


    Confluence zones in rivers are common occurrence in natural rivers, and its flow structure, especially secondary flow, has much impact on sediment transport and pollutant dispersion in confluence region. Flume experiment studies have proved the variation of separation zone from the water surface to the bottom, but there are little numerical simulation studies on the scale of separation zone. As the developing of computational fluid dynamics, there are several models to simulate the turbulence properties in the river. This paper uses the standard k-e, RNG k-e and RSM turbulence model to simulate the secondary flow and separation zone in the confluence river, and compared the results with the experiment data quantification ally.

  17. High-resolution flow structure measurements in a rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ylönen, A. T.


    Flow behaviour inside a rod bundle has been an active research topic since the early days of the nuclear power industry. Of particular interest in previous studies have been topics such as flow mixing, two-phase flow structure and mapping of two-phase flow transitions. The optimisation of fuel element design can only be achieved by truly understanding the nature of flow. The ultimate goal in this research is to enhance the heat transfer and increase the critical heat flux, which would improve the fuel economy. A better understanding of the flow would also improve nuclear safety as departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) can be predicted more accurately. The motivation for the current project (SUBFLOW) was to increase knowledge of the complex flow phenomena inside a rod bundle. A dedicated sub-channel flow test facility was designed and constructed at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland. An adiabatic test loop has an up-scaled (1:2.6) vertical fuel rod bundle model with a 4 × 4 geometry. For the very first time, the wire-mesh sensor measurement technique was implemented in a rod bundle as two 64×64 conductivity wire-mesh sensors were installed in the upper part of the test section. The measurement technique enables one to study single- and two-phase flow behaviour with high spatial and temporal resolution. The research topics addressed in this thesis cover a wide range of flow conditions with and without a spacer grid in a rod bundle. The experimental campaign was started by studying natural mixing of a passive scalar to characterise the development of turbulent diffusion in an injection sub-channel and, later on, cross-mixing between adjacent sub-channels. The results were also used in comparison with the in-house CFD code PSI-Boil that is being developed at PSI. The code could estimate the mixing inside the sub-channel and the transition to cross-mixing with a good accuracy. As a natural transition, the SUBFLOW experiments were continued by

  18. Effects of polymers on the spatial structure of turbulent flows (United States)

    Sinhuber, Michael; Ballouz, Joseph G.; Ouellette, Nicholas T.


    It is well known that the addition of minor amounts of polymers to a turbulent water flow can significantly change its properties. One of the most prominent effects is the observed drastic reduction of drag in wall-bounded flows that is utilized in many engineering applications. Much of the research on polymers in turbulence has focused on their influence on the turbulent energy cascade and their interaction with the energy transfer processes. Much less investigated are their effects on the spatial structure of turbulent flows. In a classical von-Kárman swirling flow setup, we used Lagrangian particle tracking to obtain three-dimensional particle trajectories, velocities, and accelerations and find that polymers have a significant effect on Lagrangian measures of the turbulence structure such as radial distribution functions and the curvature of particle trajectories. We find that not only do the statistical distributions change, but also that polymers appear to affect the spatial statistics well beyond the size of the polymers themselves.

  19. Cross flow response of a cylindrical structure under local shear flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo-Chul Kim


    Full Text Available The VIV (Vortex-Induced Vibration analysis of a flexible cylindrical structure under locally strong shear flow is presented. The model is made of Teflon and has 9.5m length, 0.0127m diameter, and 0.001m wall thickness. 11 2-dimensional accelerometers are installed along the model. The experiment has been conducted at the ocean engineering basin in the University of Tokyo in which uniform current can be generated. The model is installed at about 30 degree of slope and submerged by almost overall length. Local shear flow is made by superposing uniform current and accelerated flow generated by an impeller. The results of frequency and modal analysis are presented.

  20. Structure of urban movements: polycentric activity and entangled hierarchical flows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Roth

    Full Text Available The spatial arrangement of urban hubs and centers and how individuals interact with these centers is a crucial problem with many applications ranging from urban planning to epidemiology. We utilize here in an unprecedented manner the large scale, real-time 'Oyster' card database of individual person movements in the London subway to reveal the structure and organization of the city. We show that patterns of intraurban movement are strongly heterogeneous in terms of volume, but not in terms of distance travelled, and that there is a polycentric structure composed of large flows organized around a limited number of activity centers. For smaller flows, the pattern of connections becomes richer and more complex and is not strictly hierarchical since it mixes different levels consisting of different orders of magnitude. This new understanding can shed light on the impact of new urban projects on the evolution of the polycentric configuration of a city and the dense structure of its centers and it provides an initial approach to modeling flows in an urban system.

  1. Lagrangian structures in time-periodic vortical flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kostrykin


    Full Text Available The Lagrangian trajectories of fluid particles are experimentally studied in an oscillating four-vortex velocity field. The oscillations occur due to a loss of stability of a steady flow and result in a regular reclosure of streamlines between the vortices of the same sign. The Eulerian velocity field is visualized by tracer displacements over a short time period. The obtained data on tracer motions during a number of oscillation periods show that the Lagrangian trajectories form quasi-regular structures. The destruction of these structures is determined by two characteristic time scales: the tracers are redistributed sufficiently fast between the vortices of the same sign and much more slowly transported into the vortices of opposite sign. The observed behavior of the Lagrangian trajectories is quantitatively reproduced in a new numerical experiment with two-dimensional model of the velocity field with a small number of spatial harmonics. A qualitative interpretation of phenomena observed on the basis of the theory of adiabatic chaos in the Hamiltonian systems is given. The Lagrangian trajectories are numerically simulated under varying flow parameters. It is shown that the spatial-temporal characteristics of the Lagrangian structures depend on the properties of temporal change in the streamlines topology and on the adiabatic parameter corresponding to the flow. The condition for the occurrence of traps (the regions where the Lagrangian particles reside for a long time is obtained.

  2. Flow structure at low momentum ratio river confluences (United States)

    Moradi, Gelare; Rennie, Colin. D.; Cardot, Romain; Mettra, François; Lane, Stuart. N.


    The flow structure at river confluences is a complex pattern of fluid motion and can be characterized by the formation of secondary circulation. As river confluences play an essential role on flow hydrodynamics and control the movement of sediment through river networks, there has been substantial attention given to this subject in recent decades. However, there is still much debate over how momentum ratio and sediment transport can control secondary circulation and mixing processes. In particular, studies have tended to assume that there is some equilibrium between the bed morphology present and the flow structures that form in the junction region. However, this overlooks the fact that tributaries may be associated with highly varying sediment supply regimes, especially for shorter and steeper tributaries, with temporal changes in sediment delivery ratios (between the main stem and the tributary) that do not follow exactly changes in momentum ratio. This may lead to bed morphologies that are a function of rates of historical sediment supply during sediment transporting events and not the momentum ratio associated with the junction during its measurement. It is quite possible that tributaries with low flow momentum ratio have a relatively higher sediment delivery ratio, such that the tributary is still able to influence significantly secondary circulation in the main channel, long after the sediment transport event, and despite its low flow momentum during measurement. The focus of this paper is low momentum ratio junctions where it is possible that the tributary can deliver large amounts of sediment. Secondary circulation at junctions is thought to be dominated by streamwise-oriented vortical cells. These cells are produced by the convergence of surface flow towards the centre of the main channel, with descending motion in the zone of maximum flow convergence. Once flow arrives at the bed, it diverges and completes its rotation by an upwelling motion through the

  3. Mixing layers and coherent structures in vegetated aquatic flows (United States)

    Ghisalberti, Marco; Nepf, Heidi M.


    To date, flow through submerged aquatic vegetation has largely been viewed as perturbed boundary layer flow, with vegetative drag treated as an extension of bed drag. However, recent studies of terrestrial canopies demonstrate that the flow structure within and just above an unconfined canopy more strongly resembles a mixing layer than a boundary layer. This paper presents laboratory measurements, obtained from a scaled seagrass model, that demonstrate the applicability of the mixing layer analogy to aquatic systems. Specifically, all vertical profiles of mean velocity contained an inflection point, which makes the flow susceptible to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. This instability leads to the generation of large, coherent vortices within the mixing layer (observed in the model at frequencies between 0.01 and 0.11 Hz), which dominate the vertical transport of momentum through the layer. The downstream advection of these vortices is shown to cause the progressive, coherent waving of aquatic vegetation, known as the monami. When the monami is present, the turbulent vertical transport of momentum is enhanced, with turbulent stresses penetrating an additional 30% of the plant height into the canopy.

  4. Reverse Kebab Structure Formed inside Carbon Nanofibers via Nanochannel Flow. (United States)

    Nie, Min; Kalyon, Dilhan M; Fisher, Frank T


    The morphology of polymers inside a confined space has raised great interest in recent years. However, polymer crystallization within a one-dimensional carbon nanostructure is challenging due to the difficulty of polar solvents carrying polymers to enter a nonpolar graphitic nanotube in bulk solution at normal temperature and pressure. Here we describe a method whereby nylon-11 was crystallized and periodically distributed on the individual graphitic nanocone structure within hollow carbon nanofibers (CNF). Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction indicate that the nylon polymer is in the crystalline phase. A mechanism is suggested for the initiation of nanochannel flow in a bulk solvent as a prerequisite condition to achieve interior polymer crystallization. Selective etching of polymer crystals on the outer wall of CNF indicates that both surface tension and viscosity affect the flow within the CNF. This approach provides an opportunity for the interior functionalization of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers for applications in the biomedical, energy, and related fields.

  5. Visualization of the structure of vortex breakdown in free swirling jet flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanierschot, M.; Perçin, M.; van Oudheusden, B.W.


    In this paper we investigate the three dimensional flow structures in a free annular swirling jet flow undergoing vortex breakdown. The flow field is analyzed by means of time-resolved Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements. Both time-averaged and instantaneous flow structures are

  6. Stereological estimation of nuclear volume and other quantitative histopathological parameters in the prognostic evaluation of supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bennedbaek, O; Pilgaard, J


    observers of the latter was poor in the material which consisted of 35 biopsy specimens. Unbiased estimates of nuclear Vv were on the average 385 microns3 (CV = 0.44), with more than 90% of the associated variance attributable to differences in nuclear Vv among individual lesions. Nuclear Vv was positively......The aim of this study was to investigate various approaches to the grading of malignancy in pre-treatment biopsies from patients with supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The prospects of objective malignancy grading based on stereological estimation of the volume-weighted mean nuclear...... volume, nuclear Vv, and nuclear volume fraction, Vv(nuc/tis), along with morphometrical 2-dimensional estimation of nuclear density index, NI, and mitotic activity index, MI, were investigated and compared with the current morphological, multifactorial grading system. The reproducibility among two...

  7. Stereological estimation of nuclear volume and other quantitative histopathological parameters in the prognostic evaluation of supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bennedbaek, O; Pilgaard, J


    The aim of this study was to investigate various approaches to the grading of malignancy in pre-treatment biopsies from patients with supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The prospects of objective malignancy grading based on stereological estimation of the volume-weighted mean nuclear...... volume, nuclear Vv, and nuclear volume fraction, Vv(nuc/tis), along with morphometrical 2-dimensional estimation of nuclear density index, NI, and mitotic activity index, MI, were investigated and compared with the current morphological, multifactorial grading system. The reproducibility among two...... observers of the latter was poor in the material which consisted of 35 biopsy specimens. Unbiased estimates of nuclear Vv were on the average 385 microns3 (CV = 0.44), with more than 90% of the associated variance attributable to differences in nuclear Vv among individual lesions. Nuclear Vv was positively...

  8. A cadaver study comparing three fibreoptic-assisted techniques for converting a supraglottic airway to a cuffed tracheal tube. (United States)

    Olesnicky, B L; Rehak, A; Bestic, W B; Brock, J T; Watterson, L


    After rescuing an airway with a supraglottic airway device, a method to convert it to a cuffed tracheal tube is often needed. The best method to do this has never been directly studied. We compared three techniques for conversion of a standard LMA ® Unique airway to a cuffed endotracheal tube using a fibrescope. The primary endpoint was time to intubation, with secondary endpoints of success rate, perceived difficulty and preferred technique. We also investigated the relationship between level of training and prior training and experience with the techniques on the primary outcome. The mean (95% CI) time to intubation using a direct tracheal tube technique of 37 (31-42) s was significantly shorter than either the Aintree intubation catheter technique at 70 (60-80) s, or a guidewire technique at 126 (110-141) s (p < 0.001). Most (13/24) participants rated the tracheal tube as their preferred technique, while 11/24 preferred the Aintree technique. In terms of perceived difficulty, 23/24, 21/24 and 9/24 participants rated the tracheal tube technique, Aintree technique and guidewire technique, respectively, as either very easy or easy. There was no relationship between prior training, prior experience or level of training on time to completion of any of the techniques. We conclude the tracheal tube and Aintree techniques both provide a rapid and easy method for conversion of a supraglottic airway device to a cuffed tracheal tube. The guidewire technique cannot be recommended. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Comparison of i-gel™ supraglottic device with classic laryngeal mask airway in anesthetized paralyzed children undergoing elective surgery. (United States)

    Das, Bikramjit; Mitra, Subhro; Samanta, Arijit; Vijay, Bhavani S


    The newest variation of the i-gel supraglottic airway is a pediatric version. This study was designed to investigate the usefulness of the size 2 i-gel compared with the classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA) of the same size in anesthetized, paralyzed children. A prospective, randomized, single-blinded study was conducted in tertiary care teaching hospital. Sixty ASA grade I-II patients undergoing lower abdominal, inguinal, and orthopedic surgery were included in this prospective study. The patients were randomly assigned to i-gel and cLMA groups (30 patients in each group). Size 2 supraglottic airway was inserted according to the assigned group. We assessed ease of insertion, hemodynamic data, oropharyngeal sealing pressure, and postoperative complications. Parametric data were analyzed with the unpaired t-test and non-parametric data were analyzed with the Chi-square test. Unless otherwise stated, data are presented as mean (SD). Significance was taken as P airway leak pressure of the i-gel group (26.1 ± 2.4 cm H2O) was significantly higher than that of the cLMA group (22.64 ± 2.2 cm H2O). The success rates for first attempt of insertion were similar among the two devices. There were no differences in the incidence of postoperative airway morbidity among the two groups. Hemodynamic parameters, ease of insertion, and postoperative complications were comparable between the i-gel and cLMA groups, but airway sealing pressure was significantly higher in i-gel group.

  10. Aerodynamic structures and processes in rotationally augmented flow fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreck, S.J.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Robinson, M.C.


    Rotational augmentation of horizontal axis wind turbine blade aerodynamics currently remains incompletely characterized and understood. To address this, the present study concurrently analysed experimental measurements and computational predictions, both of which were unique and of high quality...... to reliably identify and track pertinent features in the rotating blade boundary layer topology as they evolved in response to varying wind speed. Subsequently, boundary layer state was linked to above-surface flow field structure and used to deduce mechanisms; underlying augmented aerodynamic force...... production during rotating conditions. Copyright (C) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  11. Modification of Flow Structure Over a Van Model By Suction Flow Control to Reduce Aerodynamics Drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harinaldi Harinaldi


    Full Text Available Automobile aerodynamic studies are typically undertaken to improve safety and increase fuel efficiency as well as to  find new innovation in automobile technology to deal with the problem of energy crisis and global warming. Some car companies have the objective to develop control solutions that enable to reduce the aerodynamic drag of vehicle and  significant modification progress is still possible by reducing the mass, rolling friction or aerodynamic drag. Some flow  control method provides the possibility to modify the flow separation to reduce the development of the swirling structures around the vehicle. In this study, a family van is modeled with a modified form of Ahmed's body by changing the orientation of the flow from its original form (modified/reversed Ahmed body. This model is equipped with a suction on the rear side to comprehensively examine the pressure field modifications that occur. The investigation combines computational and experimental work. Computational approach used  a commercial software with standard k-epsilon flow turbulence model, and the objectives was  to determine the characteristics of the flow field and aerodynamic drag reduction that occurred in the test model. Experimental approach used load cell in order to validate the aerodynamic drag reduction obtained by computational approach. The results show that the application of a suction in the rear part of the van model give the effect of reducing the wake and the vortex formation. Futhermore, aerodynamic drag reduction close to 13.86% for the computational approach and 16.32% for the experimental have been obtained.

  12. Gazprom: internal structure, management principles and financial flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryukov, Valery; Moe, Arild.


    Gazprom is responsible for over 95% of total Russian natural gas production and is one of the largest companies in the world. As well as being of major importance in the Russian domestic energy balance, it is also the largest gas trader in the world, supplying about half the gas imported into western and east-central Europe. The scale of these external activities means that the terms on which it supplies gas to its customers will have an impact on business beyond the gas industry. This study investigates the roots of the company and analyses its current organisation, management structure and financial flows. The main topics covered are: the Russian gas industry in the Soviet era; the organisational structure of Gazprom after privatisation; pricing policy; the company's financial position; Gazprom in relation to the domestic economy and the outside world. (9 figures; 7 tables). (author)

  13. Undulating fins produce off-axis thrust and flow structures. (United States)

    Neveln, Izaak D; Bale, Rahul; Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh; Curet, Oscar M; Patankar, Neelesh A; MacIver, Malcolm A


    While wake structures of many forms of swimming and flying are well characterized, the wake generated by a freely swimming undulating fin has not yet been analyzed. These elongated fins allow fish to achieve enhanced agility exemplified by the forward, backward and vertical swimming capabilities of knifefish, and also have potential applications in the design of more maneuverable underwater vehicles. We present the flow structure of an undulating robotic fin model using particle image velocimetry to measure fluid velocity fields in the wake. We supplement the experimental robotic work with high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics, simulating the hydrodynamics of both a virtual fish, whose fin kinematics and fin plus body morphology are measured from a freely swimming knifefish, and a virtual rendering of our robot. Our results indicate that a series of linked vortex tubes is shed off the long edge of the fin as the undulatory wave travels lengthwise along the fin. A jet at an oblique angle to the fin is associated with the successive vortex tubes, propelling the fish forward. The vortex structure bears similarity to the linked vortex ring structure trailing the oscillating caudal fin of a carangiform swimmer, though the vortex rings are distorted because of the undulatory kinematics of the elongated fin.

  14. Research on the spatial structure of crude oil flow and the characteristics of its flow field in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yuan; Hao, Li-Sha; Wan, Lu


    Crude oil flow is a sort of oil spatial movement, and in China, it is large scale and covers wide area with extensive social-economic effects. This paper analyses the spatial structure of crude oil flow in China, the characters of its flow field and the layout of its flow track. The results show that oil flow in China has a spatial characteristic of centralized output and decentralized input; its spatial structure is composed of Source System in the shape of right-angled triangle, Confluence System in the shape of right-angled trapezium and Multiplex System in the shape of obtuse-angled triangle, which are mutually nested, and on a whole, the presence of Multiplex System balances and optimizes the flow layout; oil flow field in China can be divided into four parts, i.e. the North, North-west, East and South Field, two or three of which overlap with each other, extending the oil flow and making the flow more flexible and maneuverable; oil flow track is a multi-objective decision-making route and in the decision-making process oil transportation cost is one of the essential factors, in China, oil flow track falls into the Northeast, North, East, Northwest and South five cluster regions, which connect with each other, and series-parallel connection between various kinds of transportation channels is widely seen in them, reinforcing the supply security of crude oil

  15. Structural Control and Groundwater Flow in the Nubian Aquifer (United States)

    Fathy, K.; Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M.; Save, H.; Emil, M. K.; Elkaliouby, B.


    An integrated research approach (remote sensing, field, geophysics) was conducted to investigate the structural control on groundwater flow in large aquifers using the less studied Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS) of NE Africa as a test site. The aquifer extends over 2.2 x 106 km2 in Egypt, Libya, Chad, and Sudan and consists of thick (> 3 kms), water-bearing, Paleozoic and Mesozoic sandstone with intercalations of Tertiary shale and clay. It is subdivided into three sub-basins (Northern Sudan Platform [NSP], Dakhla [DAS], and Kufra) that are separated by basement uplifts (e.g., E-W trending Uweinat-Aswan uplift that separates DAS from the NSP). Aquifer recharge occurs in the south (NSP and southern Kufra) where the aquifer is unconfined and precipitation is high (Average Annual Precipitation [AAP]: 117 mm/yr.) and discharge is concentrated in the north (DAS and northern Kufra). Our approach is a three-fold exercise. Firstly, we compared GOCE-based Global Geopotential Models (GGMs) to terrestrial gravity anomalies for 21262 sites to select the optimum model for deriving Bouguer gravity anomalies. Secondly, structures and uplifts were mapped using hill shade images and their extension in the subsurface were mapped using the Eigen_6C4 model-derived Bouguer anomalies and their Tilt Derivative products (TDR). Thirdly, hydrological analysis was conducted using GRACE CSR 1° x 1° mascon solutions to investigate the mass variations in relation to the mapped structures. Our findings include: (1) The Eigen-6C4 is the optimum model having the lowest deviation (9.122 mGal) from the terrestrial gravity anomalies; (2) the surface expressions of structures matched fairly well with their postulated extensions in the subsurface; (3) identified fault systems include: Red Sea rift-related N-S to NW-SE trending grabens formed by reactivating basement structures during Red Sea opening and Syrian arc-related NE-SW trending dextral shear systems; (4) TWS patterns are uniform

  16. Analysis of a nanochanneled membrane structure through convective gas flow (United States)

    Grattoni, Alessandro; De Rosa, Enrica; Ferrati, Silvia; Wang, Zongxing; Gianesini, Anna; Liu, Xuewu; Hussain, Fazle; Goodall, Randy; Ferrari, Mauro


    Micro- and nano-fluidic devices are under development for a variety of applications including bio-molecular separation, drug delivery, biosensing and cell transplantation. Regulatory approval for the commercialization of these products requires the ability to fabricate a large number of these devices with high reproducibility and precision. Though traditional microscopy and particle rejection characterization techniques provide extremely useful measurements of nano-features, they are expensive and inadequate for quality control purposes. In this study, an agile and non-destructive selection method is presented which combines a predictive theoretical model with experimental analysis of convective nitrogen flow to detect structural defects in complex drug delivery membranes (nDS) combining both micro- and nanochanneled features. The mathematical model developed bridges the fluid dynamics between the micro- and nano-scales. An experimental analysis of gas flow was performed on a total of 250 membranes representing five different channel size configurations. The accuracy and reliability of this test in detecting major and minor defects of various kinds were verified by comparing the experimental results with the theoretical prediction.

  17. The process flow and structure of an integrated stroke strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma F. van Bussel


    Full Text Available Introduction: In the Canadian province of Alberta access and quality of stroke care were suboptimal, especially in remote areas. The government introduced the Alberta Provincial Stroke Strategy (APSS in 2005, an integrated strategy to improve access to stroke care, quality and efficiency which utilizes telehealth. Research question: What is the process flow and the structure of the care pathways of the APSS? Methodology: Information for this article was obtained using documentation, archival APSS records, interviews with experts, direct observation and participant observation. Results: The process flow is described. The APSS integrated evidence-based practice, multidisciplinary communication, and telestroke services. It includes regular quality evaluation and improvement. Conclusion: Access, efficiency and quality of care improved since the start of the APSS across many domains, through improvement of expertise and equipment in small hospitals, accessible consultation of stroke specialists using telestroke, enhancing preventive care, enhancing multidisciplinary collaboration, introducing uniform best practice protocols and bypass-protocols for the emergency medical services. Discussion: The APSS overcame substantial obstacles to decrease discrepancies and to deliver integrated higher quality care. Telestroke has proven itself to be safe and feasible. The APSS works efficiently, which is in line to other projects worldwide, and is, based on limited results, cost effective. Further research on cost-effectiveness is necessary.

  18. Structure of wall-bounded flows at transcritical conditions (United States)

    Ma, Peter C.; Yang, Xiang I. A.; Ihme, Matthias


    At transcritical conditions, the transition of a fluid from a liquidlike state to a gaslike state occurs continuously, which is associated with significant changes in fluid properties. Therefore, boiling in its conventional sense does not exist and the phase transition at transcritical conditions is known as "pseudoboiling." In this work, direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a channel flow at transcritical conditions are conducted in which the bottom and top walls are kept at temperatures below and above the pseudoboiling temperature, respectively. Over this temperature range, the density changes by a factor of 18 between both walls. Using the DNS data, the usefulness of the semilocal scaling and the Townsend attached-eddy hypothesis are examined in the context of flows at transcritical conditions—both models have received much empirical support from previous studies. It is found that while the semilocal scaling works reasonably well near the bottom cooled wall, where the fluid density changes only moderately, the same scaling has only limited success near the top wall. In addition, it is shown that the streamwise velocity structure function follows a logarithmic scaling and the streamwise energy spectrum exhibits an inverse wave-number scaling, thus providing support to the attached-eddy model at transcritical conditions.

  19. Hamiltonian flow over saddles for exploring molecular phase space structures (United States)

    Farantos, Stavros C.


    Despite using potential energy surfaces, multivariable functions on molecular configuration space, to comprehend chemical dynamics for decades, the real happenings in molecules occur in phase space, in which the states of a classical dynamical system are completely determined by the coordinates and their conjugate momenta. Theoretical and numerical results are presented, employing alanine dipeptide as a model system, to support the view that geometrical structures in phase space dictate the dynamics of molecules, the fingerprints of which are traced by following the Hamiltonian flow above saddles. By properly selecting initial conditions in alanine dipeptide, we have found internally free rotor trajectories the existence of which can only be justified in a phase space perspective. This article is part of the theme issue `Modern theoretical chemistry'.

  20. A survey of air flow models for multizone structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feustel, H.E.; Dieris, J.


    Air flow models are used to simulate the rates of incoming and outgoing air flows for a building with known leakage under given weather and shielding conditions. Additional information about the flow paths and air-mass flows inside the building can only by using multizone air flow models. In order to obtain more information on multizone air flow models, a literature review was performed in 1984. A second literature review and a questionnaire survey performed in 1989, revealed the existence of 50 multizone air flow models, all developed since 1966, two of which are still under development. All these programs use similar flow equations for crack flow but differ in the versatility to describe the full range of flow phenomena and the algorithm provided for solving the set of nonlinear equations. This literature review was found that newer models are able to describe and simulate the ventilation systems and interrelation of mechanical and natural ventilation. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Englacial Structures as Indicators of the Controls on Ice Flow (United States)

    Holschuh, N.; Parizek, B. R.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.


    Direct sampling of the subglacial environment is costly, and will therefore never supply the spatial coverage needed to determine the basal boundary conditions required for large-scale ice-sheet modeling. Studies of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) show that the frictional and rheologic properties of the bed are a leading control on the evolution of the system, so developing geophysical methods to help constrain the basal characteristics of WAIS will reduce uncertainty in predictions of the timing and magnitude of future sea-level rise. Radar-imaged structures within the ice are an attractive data set for this pursuit, as they contain information about the flow dynamics that transform the horizontally deposited layers to their modern configuration; however, they can be challenging to interpret, given the number of processes acting to deform the internal layers and the difficulty in automating their analysis. In this study, we move away from the layer-tracing paradigm in favor of an automated slope extraction algorithm. This has several advantages: it does not require feature-continuity, providing a more stable result in regions of intense deformation, and it results in a data product that maps directly to model output. For steady-state features, layer slopes reflect the horizontal and vertical velocity structure, making quantitative comparison of the model and observations simple compared to the more qualitative, particle tracer comparisons done in the past. Using a higher order ice-flow model, we attempt to refine our understanding of basal properties using reflector slope fields at the grounding line of Whillans Ice Stream and the shear margin of the North East Greenland Ice Stream, with the hope of eventually using this method for basin-scale inversions.

  2. Superselective intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy for laryngeal cancer. Is it reasonable to treat glottic cancer in a similar way to supraglottic cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizaki, Tomokazu; Murono, Shigeyuki; Wakisaka, Naohiro; Kondo, Satoru; Furukawa, Mitsuru


    The standard treatment for advanced laryngeal cancer has been shifting from total laryngectomy to various organ preservation therapies such as subtotal laryngectomy and chemoradiotherapy. Robbins showed remarkable results with RADPLAT, the superselective intra-arterial infusion of supradose cisplatin (150 mg/m 2 ), against advanced head and neck cancer. However, the volume of laryngeal cancer is smaller than those of the other sites of head and neck cancers, and so a swaller less dose of cisplatin could save advanced laryngeal cancer patients. It may be reasonable to treat these subtypes of laryngeal cancer with a different modality. Thirty-five patients with laryngeal cancer were treated with tri-weekly intra-arterial infusion of cisplatin (100 mg/body). A 200 times molar excessive amount of sodium thiosulfate was intravenously infused to reduce the toxicity of cisplatin. Ten of 16 patients with glottic cancer and 10 of 19 patients with supraglottic cancer were followed for more than 2 years. Larynx preservation rate of glottic and supraglottic cancer was 80% and 70%, and progression-free survival rate was 80% and 50%, respectively. Grade III and IV toxic events were less frequent than with RADPLAT or systemic administration of a similar dose of cisplatin. Glottic and supraglottic cancers show different clinical behaviors. Our protocol with less cisplatin than RADPLAT is especially effective for glottic cancer. (author)

  3. A new debris flow monitoring barrier to measure debris flow impact/structure/ground interaction in the Gadria torrent (United States)

    Nagl, Georg; Hübl, Johannes


    Debris flow monitoring is a keystone in debris flow research. Based on the lack of investigations of the interaction of rapid mass movement and structural mitigation measures, a new monitoring system has been installed in the well monitored Gadria torrent in South Tyrol. For design of active structural measures, like check dams, the engineering task is to come to an amicable solution of all necessary subjects. Starting with the estimation of parameters of the rapid mass movement itself to the design load and finally to the foundation of the structure. At all stages big uncertainties are given. The basis for accurate design is a comprehensive approach. For this reason, a new monitoring station was built in autumn 2016, to investigate the interaction of a debris flow with the structures and the ground. Two structures unify the new monitoring system. The first, a transversal check dam, flush to channel bed, contain two weighing devices each equipped with a pore pressure sensor. One device is also able to measure the shear force additional in two directions. The second barrier similar to a debris flow breaker but only with one singe wall centered on a foundation plate, is located downstream to the first one. 14 load cells are installed on the upward front of the structure to analyze the spatial force distribution of debris flow impact pressure. Nine earth pressure sensors under the foundation of the structure deliver the earth pressure distribution. The acceleration of the construction can be measured by a 3D accelerometer installed on the top. In case of a movement, two extensometers detect any displacement. Mounted strain gauges give insights of stresses in concrete and reinforcement. Each sensor has a sampling frequency of 2400 Hz. Furthermore it is planned to measure the flow velocity distribution over flow depth too. The new monitoring station should help to acquire data for understanding the debris flow/structure/ground interaction to facilitate the improvement

  4. Turbulent flow field structure of initially asymmetric jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Bong Whan; Kim, Suk Woo


    The near field structure of round turbulent jets with initially asymmetric velocity distributions is investigated experimentally. Experiments are carried out using a constant temperature hot-wire anemomentry system to measure streamwise velocity in the jets. The measurements are undertaken across the jet at various streamwise stations in a range starting from the jet exit plane and up to a downstream location of twelve diameters. The experimental results include the distributions of mean and instantaneous velocities, vorticity field, turbulence intensity, and the Reynolds shear stresses. The asymmetry of the jet exit plane was obtained by using circular cross-section pipes with a bend upstream of the exit. Three pipes used here include a straight pipe, and 90 and 160 degree-bend pipes. Therefore, at the upstream of the pipe exit, secondary flow through the bend and mean streamwise velocity distribution could be controlled by changing the curvature of pipes. The jets into the atmosphere have two levels of initial velocity skewness in addition to an axisymmetric jet from a straight pipe. In case of the curved pipe, a six diameterlong straight pipe section follows the bend upstream of the exit. The Reynolds number based on the exit bulk velocity is 13,400. The results indicate that the near field structure is considerably modified by the skewness of an initial mean velocity distribution. As the skewness increases, the decay rate of mean velocity at the centerline also increases

  5. Coherent structures in high Reynolds number turbulent shear flows (United States)

    Zare, Armin; Nichols, Joseph; Jovanovic, Mihailo


    Spatio-temporal frequency response analysis of stochastically-forced linearized Navier-Stokes equations enables efficient computation of the energy amplification as well as estimation of the convection velocity and spatial structure of fluctuations. For a turbulent channel flow with Rτ = 2003 , we build on recent work by Zare, Jovanovic, and Georgiou (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 812, 2017) to determine the forcing statistics to the linearized model that provide consistency with the result of nonlinear simulations in matching one-point velocity correlations. The frequency response of the resulting model can be used to estimate the convection velocity for various spatial length scales as a function of the wall-normal distance. We examine two-point correlations of the fluctuating velocity field and the wall-normal support of the most amplified spatial structures. Our results provide insight into the validity of Taylor's hypothesis as well as the functional forms of two-point correlations that result from Townsend's attached-eddy hypothesis.

  6. A video-image study of electrolytic flow structure in parallel electric-magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Z.H.; Fahidy, T.Z.


    The structure of free convective flow propagating from a vertical cathode into the electrolyte bulk has been studied via video-imaging. The enhancing effect of imposed horizontal uniform magnetic fields is manifest by vortex propagation and bifurcating flow

  7. Modelling of structural effects on chemical reactions in turbulent flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammelsaeter, H.R.


    Turbulence-chemistry interactions are analysed using algebraic moment closure for the chemical reaction term. The coupling between turbulence and chemical length and time scales generate a complex interaction process. This interaction process is called structural effects in this work. The structural effects are shown to take place on all scales between the largest scale of turbulence and the scales of the molecular motions. The set of equations describing turbulent correlations involved in turbulent reacting flows are derived. Interactions are shown schematically using interaction charts. Algebraic equations for the turbulent correlations in the reaction rate are given using the interaction charts to include the most significant couplings. In the frame of fundamental combustion physics, the structural effects appearing on the small scales of turbulence are proposed modelled using a discrete spectrum of turbulent scales. The well-known problem of averaging the Arrhenius law, the specific reaction rate, is proposed solved using a presumed single variable probability density function and a sub scale model for the reaction volume. Although some uncertainties are expected, the principles are addressed. Fast chemistry modelling is shown to be consistent in the frame of algebraic moment closure when the turbulence-chemistry interaction is accounted for in the turbulent diffusion. The modelling proposed in this thesis is compared with experimental data for an laboratory methane flame and advanced probability density function modelling. The results show promising features. Finally it is shown a comparison with full scale measurements for an industrial burner. All features of the burner are captured with the model. 41 refs., 33 figs.

  8. Coherent Structures in Taylor-Couette Flow : Experimental Investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tokgöz, S.


    Taylor-Couette flow is defined as the flow confined between two coaxial cylinders which can rotate independently. Several different flow states can be observed in the gap between the cylinders by changing the rotation speeds and the rotating directions of the cylinders. The aim of this thesis is to

  9. Flow in Porous Media with Special Reference to Breakwater Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O. Holst

    A literature study concerning porous flow is carried out. For the stationary case, the hydraulic radius theory, for which some justification can be given based on Navier-Stokes equations, appears to be adequate. Three different porous flow regimes are identified and the associated flow resistance...

  10. Tumorigenesis role and clinical significance of DJ-1, a negative regulator of PTEN, in supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Xiao-Lin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background DJ-1 can induce the tumor cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating PTEN in many malignant tumors, and correlated to prognostic significance. However, the tumorigenesis role and clinical significance of DJ-1 in supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma (SSCC is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the DJ-1 the relationship between DJ-1 and clinicopathological data including patient survival. Methods The expression of DJ-1 and PTEN in SSCCs (52 and adjacent non-cancerous tissues (42 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC, and the relationship between DJ-1 and clinicopathological data was analyzed. Results DJ-1 was detected mainly in SSCCs (88.5% and less frequently in adjacent non-cancerous tissues (21.0%. PTEN expression was detected in 46.2% of SSCCs and in 90.5% of adjacent non-cancerous tissues. DJ-1 expression was linked to nodal status (P = 0.009, a highly significant association of DJ-1 expression with shortened patient overall survival (5-year survival rate 88.0% versus 53.9%; P = 0.007; log rank test was demonstrated. Conclusions Our data suggested that DJ-1 over-expression was linked to nodal status, and might be an independent prognostic marker for patients with SSCC.

  11. Role of brachytherapy in treatment of epidermoid carcinomas of the vallecula after conservative supraglottic laryngectomy followed by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clippe, Sebastien; Pommier, Pascal; Poupart, Marc; Ceruse, Philippe; Rosenbusch, Thomas; Ramade, Antoine; Montbarbon, Xavier; Gerard, Jean-Pierre; Carrie, Christian; Ardiet, Jean-Michel


    Purpose:To evaluate survival and functional results of the treatment of carcinomas of the vallecula using surgery, irradiation, and interstitial brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1990 and 1998, 36 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vallecula were treated with horizontal supraglottic functional laryngectomy, external beam radiotherapy (median dose 54 Gy), and additional interstitial brachytherapy (median dose 16 Gy). Results were compared with a previous series of 22 patients treated without brachytherapy. Results: The median follow-up was 44 months. The 5-year actuarial overall survival rate was 61.3%. The 5-year specific survival rate was 86%, with 2 local failures (local control rate 94.4%) and 4 isolated distant metastases. Ten patients developed a second primary. The overall survival was 34% for 22 patients previously treated without brachytherapy. Severe toxicities occurred in 9 patients: death (related to larynx edema or inhalation, n=1), soft tissue necrosis (n=1), aspiration pneumonia (n=1), mandibular necrosis (n=2), pharyngocutaneous fistula (n=2), and laryngeal edema (n=2). All the patients fed orally with no definitive gastrostomy or tracheotomy. Conclusion: Additional brachytherapy for vallecula carcinoma seems to improve locoregional control and overall survival dramatically. Functional results were also excellent. To our knowledge, this original therapeutic schedule has never been previously described

  12. Role of low flow and backward flow zones on colloid transport in pore structures derived from real porous media. (United States)

    Li, Xiqing; Li, Zhelong; Zhang, Dongxiao


    To examine the relevance of low flow zones and flow vortices to colloid transport in real porous media, lattice-Boltzmann (LB) simulations were combined with X-ray microtomography (XMT) to simulate flow fields in glass beads and quartz sand. Backward flow zones were demonstrated to be widely present in both porous media, with a greater volume fraction in the former relative to the latter porous media. Glass beads in the XMT images were approximated as spheres and their coordinates and radii were extracted to allow reconstruction of pore structures. LB simulations were again performed and the simulated flow fields in the reconstructed pore structures were coupled to a three-dimensional particle tracking algorithm. Particle tracking simulations demonstrated that significant amounts of colloids stayed in the simulated domains for long periods (up to 50 pore volumes). The percentages of colloids with long residence time increased as the depth of the secondary energy minimum increased. The majority of the colloids with long residence time were translated to low flow zones while being associated with grain surfaces via secondary minima. A small fraction of colloids entered low flow zones without being associated with the grains surfaces. Backward flow zones were also found to trap a small fraction of colloids for significantly long time (up to 10 pore volumes). In overall, however, backward flow zones trapped fewer colloids for shorter durations than low flow zones. In summary, this work demonstrates the importance of temporary trapping of colloids by the low flow and backward flow zones in real porous media. This trapping process can explain a number of intriguing experimental observations.

  13. The flow field structure of highly stabilized partially premixed flames in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner with coflow

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.


    The stability limits, the stabilization mechanism, and the flow field structure of highly stabilized partially premixed methane flames in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner with air co-flow have been investigated and presented in this work. The stability map of partial premixed flames illustrates that the flames are stable between two extinction limits. A low extinction limit when partial premixed flames approach non-premixed flame conditions, and a high extinction limit, with the partial premixed flames approach fully premixed flame conditions. These two limits showed that the most stable flame conditions are achieved at a certain degree of partial premixed. The stability is improved by adding air co-flow. As the air co-flow velocity increases the most stable flames are those that approach fully premixed. The turbulent flow field of three flames at 0, 5, 10 m/s co-flow velocity are investigated using Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV) in order to explore the improvement of the flame stability due to the use of air co-flow. The three flames are all at a jet equivalence ratio (Φj) of 2, fixed level of partial premixing and jet Reynolds number (Rej) of 10,000. The use of co-flow results in the formation of two vortices at the cone exit. These vortices act like stabilization anchors for the flames to the nozzle tip. With these vortices in the flow field, the reaction zone shifts toward the reduced turbulence intensity at the nozzle rim of the cone. Interesting information about the structure of the flow field with and without co-flow are identified and reported in this work.

  14. Granular flows on erodible layers: type and evolution of flow and deposit structures (United States)

    Crosta, G.; De Blasio, F.; De Caro, M.; Volpi, G.; Frattini, P.


    The interaction of a fast moving landslide mass with the basal layer over which movement takes place has been discussed in previous contributions. Nevertheless, the evolution of the structures within the moving mass and the erodible layer are still to be described in detail (Hungr and Evans, 2004; Crosta et al., 1992, 2006, 2009, 2011; Dufresne et al., 2010; Mangeney et al., 2010) and modeling results (Crosta et al., 2006, 2009, 2011; Mangeney et al., 2010). We present some of the results from a campaign of laboratory experiments aimed at studying the evolution of a granular flow at the impact with and during the successive spreading over a cohesionless erodible layer. We performed these test to study the processes and to collect data and evidences to compare them with the results of numerical simulations and to verify capabilities of numerical codes. The laboratory setup consists of an inclined slope and an horizontal sector where release and transport, and deposition take place, respectively. Materials used for the tests are: a uniform rounded siliceous sand (Hostun sand; 0.125-0.5 mm) commonly adopted in lab tests because free of scale effects, and a gravel made of angular elements (12 mm in ave. size). Both the materials have been tested in dry conditions. Different slope angles have been tested (40, 45, 50, 55, 50, 66°) as well as different thicknesses of the erodible layer (0, 0.5, 1, 2 cm) and volumes of the released material (1.5, 3, 5, 9.6 liters). Tests have been monitored by means of a high speed camera and the pre- and post-failure geometries have been surveyed by means of a laser scanner. Deposit description allowed also the computation of volumes and the characterization of the different structures developed and frozen into the deposit. Experiments allowed us to observe the extreme processes occurring during the movement and the mise en place of the deposits. In particular, we observe the formation of a clear wave-like feature developing during the

  15. Reconstructing Data Flow Diagrams from Structure Charts Based on the Input and Output Relationship


    YAMAMOTO, Shuichiro


    The traceability of data flow diagrams against structure charts is very important for large software development. Specifying if there is a relationship between a data flow diagram and a structure chart is a time consuming task. Existing CASE tools provide a way to maintain traceability. If we can extract the input-output relationship of a system from a structure chart, the corresponding data flow diagram can be automatically generated from the relationship. For example, Benedusi et al. propos...

  16. Numerically stable fluid–structure interactions between compressible flow and solid structures

    KAUST Repository

    Grétarsson, Jón Tómas


    We propose a novel method to implicitly two-way couple Eulerian compressible flow to volumetric Lagrangian solids. The method works for both deformable and rigid solids and for arbitrary equations of state. The method exploits the formulation of [11] which solves compressible fluid in a semi-implicit manner, solving for the advection part explicitly and then correcting the intermediate state to time tn+1 using an implicit pressure, obtained by solving a modified Poisson system. Similar to previous fluid-structure interaction methods, we apply pressure forces to the solid and enforce a velocity boundary condition on the fluid in order to satisfy a no-slip constraint. Unlike previous methods, however, we apply these coupled interactions implicitly by adding the constraint to the pressure system and combining it with any implicit solid forces in order to obtain a strongly coupled, symmetric indefinite system (similar to [17], which only handles incompressible flow). We also show that, under a few reasonable assumptions, this system can be made symmetric positive-definite by following the methodology of [16]. Because our method handles the fluid-structure interactions implicitly, we avoid introducing any new time step restrictions and obtain stable results even for high density-to-mass ratios, where explicit methods struggle or fail. We exactly conserve momentum and kinetic energy (thermal fluid-structure interactions are not considered) at the fluid-structure interface, and hence naturally handle highly non-linear phenomenon such as shocks, contacts and rarefactions. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  17. Load Balancing Strategies for Multiphase Flows on Structured Grids (United States)

    Olshefski, Kristopher; Owkes, Mark


    The computation time required to perform large simulations of complex systems is currently one of the leading bottlenecks of computational research. Parallelization allows multiple processing cores to perform calculations simultaneously and reduces computational times. However, load imbalances between processors waste computing resources as processors wait for others to complete imbalanced tasks. In multiphase flows, these imbalances arise due to the additional computational effort required at the gas-liquid interface. However, many current load balancing schemes are only designed for unstructured grid applications. The purpose of this research is to develop a load balancing strategy while maintaining the simplicity of a structured grid. Several approaches are investigated including brute force oversubscription, node oversubscription through Message Passing Interface (MPI) commands, and shared memory load balancing using OpenMP. Each of these strategies are tested with a simple one-dimensional model prior to implementation into the three-dimensional NGA code. Current results show load balancing will reduce computational time by at least 30%.

  18. Flow Quality Analysis of Shape Morphing Structures for Hypersonic Ground Testing Applications (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Background: Shape morphing, high temperature, ceramic structural materials are now becoming available and can revolutionize ground testing by providing dynamic flow...

  19. Modeling the Structure and Effectiveness of Intelligence Organizations: Dynamic Information Flow Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Behrman, Robert; Carley, Kathleen


    This paper describes the Dynamic Information Flow Simulation (DIFS), an abstract model for analyzing the structure and function of intelligence support organizations and the activities of entities within...

  20. Spontaneous gene flow and population structure in wild and cultivated chicory, Cichorium intybus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiaer, L.P.; Felber, F.; Flavell, A.; Guadagnuola, R.; Guiatti, D.; Hauser, T.P.; Olivieri, A.M.; Scotti, I.; Syed, N.; Vischi, M.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Jorgensen, R.B.


    Spontaneous gene flow between wild and cultivated chicory, Cichorium intybus L., may have implications for the genetic structure and evolution of populations and varieties. One aspect of this crop-wild gene flow is the dispersal of transgenes from genetically modified varieties, e.g. gene flow from

  1. Flow-induced vibration of circular cylindrical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.S.


    This report summarizes the flow-induced vibration of circular cylinders in quiescent fluid, axial flow, and crossflow, and applications of the analytical methods and experimental data in design evaluation of various system components consisting of circular cylinders. 219 figs., 30 tabs

  2. Studies on turbulence structure and liquid film behavior in annular two-phase flow flowing in a throat section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kenji; Miyabe, Masaya; Matsumoto, Tadayoshi; Kataoka, Isao; Ohmori, Shuichi; Mori, Michitsugu


    Experimental studies on turbulence structure and liquid film behavior in annular two-phase flow were carried out concerned with the steam injector systems for a next-generation nuclear reactor. In the steam injector, steam/water annular two-phase flow is formed at the mixing nozzle. To make an appropriate design for high-performance steam injector system, it is very important to accumulate the fundamental data of thermo-hydro dynamic characteristics of annular flow in the steam injector. Especially, the turbulence modification in multi-phase flow due to the phase interaction is one of the most important phenomena and has attracted research attention. In this study, the liquid film behavior and the resultant turbulence modification due to the phase interaction were investigated. The behavior of the interfacial waves on liquid film flow such as the ripple or disturbance waves were observed to make clear the interfacial velocity and the special structure of the interfacial waves by using the high-speed video camera and the digital camera. The measurements for gas-phase velocity profiles and turbulent intensity in annular flow passing through the throat section were precisely performed to investigate quantitatively the turbulent modification in annular flow by using the constant temperature hot-wire anemometer. The measurements for liquid film thickness by the electrode needle method were also carried out. (author)

  3. Analysis of the flow structure and heat transfer in a vertical mantle heat exchanger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Morrison, GL; Behnia, M


    Velocimetry (PIV) system. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the vertical mantle heat exchanger was also developed for a detailed evaluation of the heat flux at the mantle wall and at the tank wall. The flow structure was evaluated for both high and low temperature incoming flows and for both......The flow structure inside the inner tank and inside the mantle of a vertical mantle heat exchanger was investigated using a full-scale tank designed to facilitate flow visualisation. The flow structure and velocities in the inner tank and in the mantle were measured using a Particle Image...... initially mixed and initially stratified inner tank and mantle. The analysis of the heat transfer showed that the flow in the mantle near the inlet is mixed convection flow and that the heat transfer is dependent on the mantle inlet temperature relative to the core tank temperature at the mantle level. (C...

  4. Flow pulsation and network structure in mesenteric microvasculature of rats. (United States)

    Seki, J


    Red cell velocity was measured by a fiber-optic laser-Doppler anemometer microscope in microvessels of the mesentery of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto control rats (WKY) with high temporal resolution. Based on the velocity data, the propagation velocity of flow pulse along single microvessels as well as the arteriovenous distributions of the mean volumetric flow, the amplitude of flow pulsation, and the phase lag of the flow relative to the systemic pressure were analyzed in relationship to the vessel wall rheology and the network topology. The propagation velocity was 3.5-134 cm/s in arterioles of 12-43 microns in diameter, and it increased with increasing diameter. The mean volumetric flow exhibited a power law relationship to the vessel diameter, in which the exponents were 3.16 and 3.30 for arterioles and 3.03 and 2.85 for venules in SHR and WKY, respectively. The exponents for arterioles were > 3 (P flow pulsation also varied in a power law with the vessel diameter, whose exponents for arterioles were 3.41 and 3.52 for SHR and WKY, respectively. The flow phase lag increased gradually with decreasing vessel diameter in arterioles and increased comparatively rapidly with increasing vessel diameter in venules, which suggests more compliant vessel walls for venules than arterioles. The slope of the increase in the flow phase lag with the vessel diameter in arterioles of SHR was larger than that for WKY (P flow phase lag distribution and the difference in the exponent of the mean flow rate vs. diameter relationship may reflect that the number of small arterioles relative to large ones is reduced in SHR microvasculature compared with that in WKY.

  5. Structural Analysis of Silicic Lavas Reveals the Importance of Endogenous Flow During Emplacement (United States)

    Andrews, G. D.; Martens, A.; Isom, S.; Maxwell, A.; Brown, S. R.


    Recent observations of silicic lava flows in Chile strongly suggest sustained, endogeneous flow beneath an insulating carapace, where the flow advances through breakouts at the flow margin. New mapping of vertical exposures around the margin of Obsidian Dome, California, has identified discreet lobe structures in cross-section, suggesting that flow-front breakouts occured there during emplacement. The flow lobes are identified through structural measurements of flow-banding orientation and the stretching directions of vesicles. Newly acquired lidar of the Inyo Domes, including Obsidian Dome, is being analyzed to better understand the patterns of folding on the upper surface of the lavas, and to test for fold vergence patterns that may distinguish between endogenous and exogenous flow.

  6. Evaluation of the runtime performance of control flow structures for dynamic dispatch in Java


    Zendra, Olivier; Driesen, Karel; Qian, Feng; Hendren, Laurie


    International audience; We present an ongoing study of control flow structures in Java. We have designed a collection of benchmarks for various JVM and hardware platforms, to characterize the performance of these structures when used to simulate dynamic dispatch implementations.

  7. Structure - Slug Flow Coupling: Small Scale Experiments with Submerged Flexible Pipes


    Mohamed Hemeda, Amr Khalil Hemeda Khalil


    Multiphase flows include several flow regimes that exist with different conditions. The time varying forces in flexible pipes conveying two-phase flows results in very dynamic structural behavior. These varying forces contribute to fatigue stresses which have a major effect on a riser life time. Studying the dynamic response of flexible pipes conveying two-phase flows can reveal crucial information regarding induced vibrations and oscillations in risers. These information can be utilized i...

  8. Mean flow structure of non-equilibrium boundary layers with adverse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marušic and Perry for non-equilibrium adverse pressure gradient layers. It is observed that structure of turbulence for this flow is well-described by these two laws. From the known structure of turbulence eddy viscosity for the flow under consideration is calculated. Self similarity in eddy viscosity is observed in the wall region.

  9. Isothermal modeling of aerodynamic structure of the swirling flow in a two-stage burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusupov Roman


    Full Text Available The work deals with the experimental study of the aerodynamic structure of a swirling flow in the isothermal model of two-stage vortex combustion chamber. The main attention is focused on the process of flow mixing of two successively connected tangential swirlers of the first and second stages of the working section. Data on flow visualization are presented for two patterns of flow swirling. Time-averaged profiles of the axial and tangential velocity components are obtained with the help of laser-Doppler anemometer. In the case of flow co-swirling between two stages of the working section, instability of a secondary flow in the form of precessing vortex was distinguished. For the regime with counter flow swirling, effective mixing of the swirl flows was found; this was reflected by formation of the flow with uniform distribution of axial velocity over the cross-section.

  10. Intravenous opioid drug abuse as an independent risk factor for supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma-A case-control study. (United States)

    Shoffel-Havakuk, H; Cohen, O; Slavin, M; Haimovich, Y; Halperin, D; Lahav, Y


    Intravenous opioid drug abuse (IVDA) was previously correlated with laryngeal cancer. However, discrimination of this correlation by anatomical subsites has not yet been described. In this study, we aim to further establish the association between IVDA and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to indicate the laryngeal subsites that are predisposed for this correlation. A retrospective matched case-control study. Patients diagnosed with supraglottic SCC (SG-SCC) between 1996 and 2016 treated in a tertiary academic referral centre were enrolled to the case group. The control group comprised of matched patients diagnosed with glottis SCC (G-SCC). Matching was based on gender, age and socio-economic rank. Variables studies as risk factors included the following: smoking, alcohol consumption, history of IVDA and infectious diseases. The variables were tested for association with the 2 groups and with each other. Forty-eight patients with SG-SCC were matched with 48 patients with G-SCC. IVDA rates significantly increased among patients with SG-SCC. Of the SG-SCC group, 18.8% had a positive history for IVDA compared with 2.1% of the G-SCC (P = .008). A history of IVDA was found to be a risk factor for SG-SCC, independent of smoking, excessive alcohol and socio-economic status. The odds ratio for patients with an IVDA history to have SG-SCC relatively to G-SCC was 10.846 (95% CI: 1.3-89.4). Intravenous opioid drug abuse represents an independent risk factor for SG-SCC. The pathogenesis should be investigated not just as a risk factor, as opioids are commonly used for pain management in oncologic patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Signatures of non-universal large scales in conditional structure functions from various turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, Daniel B; Voth, Greg A; Bewley, Gregory P; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Gibert, Mathieu; Xu Haitao; Gylfason, Ármann; Mydlarski, Laurent; Yeung, P K


    We present a systematic comparison of conditional structure functions in nine turbulent flows. The flows studied include forced isotropic turbulence simulated on a periodic domain, passive grid wind tunnel turbulence in air and in pressurized SF 6 , active grid wind tunnel turbulence (in both synchronous and random driving modes), the flow between counter-rotating discs, oscillating grid turbulence and the flow in the Lagrangian exploration module (in both constant and random driving modes). We compare longitudinal Eulerian second-order structure functions conditioned on the instantaneous large-scale velocity in each flow to assess the ways in which the large scales affect the small scales in a variety of turbulent flows. Structure functions are shown to have larger values when the large-scale velocity significantly deviates from the mean in most flows, suggesting that dependence on the large scales is typical in many turbulent flows. The effects of the large-scale velocity on the structure functions can be quite strong, with the structure function varying by up to a factor of 2 when the large-scale velocity deviates from the mean by ±2 standard deviations. In several flows, the effects of the large-scale velocity are similar at all the length scales we measured, indicating that the large-scale effects are scale independent. In a few flows, the effects of the large-scale velocity are larger on the smallest length scales. (paper)

  12. Flow structures and sandbar dynamics in a canyon river during a controlled flood, Colorado River, Arizona (United States)

    Wright, Scott A.; Kaplinski, Matt


    In canyon rivers, debris fan constrictions create rapids and downstream pools characterized by secondary flow structures that are closely linked to channel morphology. In this paper we describe detailed measurements of the three-dimensional flow structure and sandbar dynamics of two pools along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon during a controlled flood release from Glen Canyon Dam. Results indicate that the pools are characterized by large lateral recirculation zones (eddies) resulting from flow separation downstream from the channel constrictions, as well as helical flow structures in the main channel and eddy. The lateral recirculation zones are low-velocity areas conducive to fine sediment deposition, particularly in the vicinity of the separation and reattachment points and are thus the dominant flow structures controlling sandbar dynamics. The helical flow structures also affect morphology but appear secondary in importance to the lateral eddies. During the controlled flood, sandbars in the separation and reattachment zones at both sites tended to build gradually during the rising limb and peak flow. Deposition in shallow water on the sandbars was accompanied by erosion in deeper water along the sandbar slope at the interface with the main channel. Erosion occurred via rapid mass failures as well as by gradual boundary shear stress driven processes. The flow structures and morphologic links at our study sites are similar to those identified in other river environments, in particular sharply curved meanders and channel confluences where the coexistence of lateral recirculation and helical flows has been documented.

  13. Interaction of high-speed compressible viscous flow and structure by adaptive finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limtrakarn, Wiroj; Dechaumphai, Pramote


    Interaction behaviors of high-speed compressible viscous flow and thermal-structural response of structure are presented. The compressible viscous laminar flow behavior based on the Navier-Stokes equations is predicted by using an adaptive cell-centered finite-element method. The energy equation and the quasi-static structural equations for aerodynamically heated structures are solved by applying the Galerkin finite-element method. The finite-element formulation and computational procedure are described. The performance of the combined method is evaluated by solving Mach 4 flow past a flat plate and comparing with the solution from the finite different method. To demonstrate their interaction, the high-speed flow, structural heat transfer, and deformation phenomena are studied by applying the present method to Mach 10 flow past a flat plate

  14. Identification of individual coherent sets associated with flow trajectories using coherent structure coloring (United States)

    Schlueter-Kuck, Kristy L.; Dabiri, John O.


    We present a method for identifying the coherent structures associated with individual Lagrangian flow trajectories even where only sparse particle trajectory data are available. The method, based on techniques in spectral graph theory, uses the Coherent Structure Coloring vector and associated eigenvectors to analyze the distance in higher-dimensional eigenspace between a selected reference trajectory and other tracer trajectories in the flow. By analyzing this distance metric in a hierarchical clustering, the coherent structure of which the reference particle is a member can be identified. This algorithm is proven successful in identifying coherent structures of varying complexities in canonical unsteady flows. Additionally, the method is able to assess the relative coherence of the associated structure in comparison to the surrounding flow. Although the method is demonstrated here in the context of fluid flow kinematics, the generality of the approach allows for its potential application to other unsupervised clustering problems in dynamical systems such as neuronal activity, gene expression, or social networks.

  15. Dynamics of tubular cylindrical structures in axial flow.


    Paidoussis, Michael P.


    The dynamics of slender cylinders in axial flow subject to conventional boundary conditions is recalled first. This is followed by brief reviews and discussion of new developments in (i) the dynamics of unconventionally supported cylinders, e.g. cylinders free at the upstream end and supported at the downstream one, (ii) the dynamics of cylinders subject to both internal and external flow for applications in oil and gas drilling and production, as well as hydrocarbon storage in salt-mined cav...

  16. Flow structure from a horizontal cylinder coincident with a free surface in shallow water flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahraman Ali


    Full Text Available Vortex formation from a horizontal cylinder coincident with a free surface of a shallow water flow having a depth of 25.4 [mm] was experimentally investigated using the PIV technique. Instantaneous and time-averaged flow patterns in the wake region of the cylinder were examined for three different cylinder diameter values under the fully developed turbulent boundary layer condition. Reynolds numbers were in the range of 1124£ Re£ 3374 and Froude numbers were in the range of 0.41 £ Fr £ 0.71 based on the cylinder diameter. It was found that a jet-like flow giving rise to increasing the flow entrainment between the core and wake regions depending on the cylinder diameter was formed between the lower surface of the cylinder and bottom surface of the channel. Vorticity intensity, Reynolds stress correlations and the primary recirculating bubble lengths were grown to higher values with increasing the cylinder diameter. On the other hand, in the case of the lowest level of the jet-like flow emanating from the beneath of the smallest cylinder, the variation of flow characteristics were attenuated significantly in a shorter distance. The variation of the reattachment location of the separated flow to the free-surface is a strong function of the cylinder diameter and the Froude number.

  17. Results of the radiotheraphy of the supraglottic larynx carcinomas observed at the Radiotherapy Department of the District Hospital of Varese (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosentino, D.; Scandolaro, L.; Cazzaniga, F.


    The authors review the supraglottic laryngeal carcinomas examined in the Radiotherapy Department of the Ospedale Regionale of Varese, Italy, from 1979 to 1984. 255 patients have been monitored: 80 considered for radiotherapy alone and 77 for postoperatory radiotherapy treatment. The cumulative actuarial survival (pcs) after 60 months, for patients treated only with radiotherapy, is 0.66 +- e.s. 0.07; for patients treated with post-operative radiotherapy the cumulative actuarial survival (pcs) after 60 months is 0.49 +- e.s. 0.11. The irradiation techniques are described and the results achived fully discussed

  18. Identification of dominant structures and their flow dynamics in the turbulent two-phase flow using POD technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munir, Shahzad; Siddiqui, Muhammad Israr; Heikal, Morgan; Aziz, Abdul Rashid Abdul [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bander Seri Iskandar (Malaysia); Sercey, Guillaume de [University of Brighton, Brighton (United Kingdom)


    The Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method has seen increasingly used in the last two decades and has a lot of applications for the comparison of experimental and numerically simulated data. The POD technique is often used to extract information about coherent structures dominating the flow. The two-dimensional and two-component instantaneous velocity fields of both liquid and gas phases of a slug flow were obtained by Particle image velocimetry (PIV) combined with Laser induced fluorescence (LIF). POD was applied to the velocity fields of both phases separately to identify the coherent flow structures. We focused on POD eigenmodes and their corresponding energy contents of both liquid and gas phases. The sum of first few eigenmodes that contain maximum turbulent kinetic energy of the flow represents the coherent structures. In the case of liquid phase the first eigenmode contained 42% of the total energy, while in the gas phase the decaying energy distribution was flat. The POD results showed that the coefficient of mode 1 for the liquid phase oscillated between positive and negative values and had the highest amplitude. For the visualization of coherent motion different linear combinations of eigenmodes for liquid and gas phases were used. The phenomena of turbulent bursting events associated with Q2 events (low momentum fluid moving away from the wall) and Q4 events (high momentum flow moving towards the wall) were also discussed to assess its contribution in turbulence production.

  19. Stochastic estimation of the flow structure downstream of a separating/reattaching flow region using wall-pressure array measurements (United States)

    Daoud, Mohamed Ibrahim

    This study examines the spatio-temporal characteristics of the surface-pressure fluctuations and associated flow structures in the developing flow downstream of the reattachment point of a fence-with-splitter-plate flow. The investigation focuses on understanding the wall-pressure field characteristics, and the flow sources responsible for its generation in the non-equilibrium boundary layer originating from the separating/reattaching shear layer associated with the flow over the fence, using a wall-pressure database that was simultaneously acquired with X-hotwire time series. This is motivated by guiding efforts to predict and/or control flow-induced noise and vibration in applications involving flows downstream of appendages and surface protrusions. Characterization of the wall-pressure data alone showed that the wall-pressure fluctuations were dominated by large-scale downstream-traveling disturbances that were generated upstream in the separated shear layer. Notwithstanding this dominance, the p' signature of these structures decayed with increasing downstream distance as the vortices underwent a relaxation process while the contribution of eddies, associated with the development of a "sub-boundary layer", became more significant with increasing downstream distance. In addition, wavenumber-frequency-spectrum results showed that pressure signatures of all wavenumbers and frequencies were associated with flow disturbances that travel downstream with the same convection velocity. Finally, multi-point Linear Stochastic Estimation of the flow field based on instantaneous wall-pressure information confirmed the dominance of wall-pressure generation by the passage of the outer-shear layer vortical structures and their mutual interaction. Examination of the linear source term in Poisson's equation of the pressure in conjunction with the stochastically-estimated velocity field revealed two mechanisms for p' generation associated with the quasi-periodic vortex passage

  20. The algebraic structure of geometric flows in two dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bakas, Ioannis


    There is a common description of different intrinsic geometric flows in two dimensions using Toda field equations associated to continual Lie algebras that incorporate the deformation variable t into their system. The Ricci flow admits zero curvature formulation in terms of an infinite dimensional algebra with Cartan operator d/dt. Likewise, the Calabi flow arises as Toda field equation associated to a supercontinual algebra with odd Cartan operator d/d \\theta - \\theta d/dt. Thus, taking the square root of the Cartan operator allows to connect the two distinct classes of geometric deformations of second and fourth order, respectively. The algebra is also used to construct formal solutions of the Calabi flow in terms of free fields by Backlund transformations, as for the Ricci flow. Some applications of the present framework to the general class of Robinson-Trautman metrics that describe spherical gravitational radiation in vacuum in four space-time dimensions are also discussed. Further iteration of the algor...

  1. Analysis of flows by deposition of diamond-like structures (United States)

    Rebrov, Alexey; Plotnikov, Mikhail; Mankelevich, Yuri; Yudin, Ivan


    The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is used to simulate the hydrogen-methane mixtures flowing through a heated cylindrical tungsten tube and expanding into a low-pressure chamber in the substrate holder direction. The DSMC method takes into account heterogeneous reactions in the tube and on the substrate surface. The results of DSMC simulation are used for the chemical kinetics calculations, i.e., axial distributions of species concentrations in various H/C mixtures. The effects of various parameters (reactor configuration, flow rate, initial concentration of methane in the mixture with hydrogen, and pressure in the chamber) on species fluxes to the substrate, the degree of hydrogen dissociation, the degree of methane decomposition, and further conversion of CxHy components up to atomic carbon C are numerically studied. The developed method provides a possibility of solving similar problems for nonequilibrium flows.

  2. Spontaneous gene flow and population structure in wild and cultivated chicory, Cichorium intybus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Felber, F.; Flavell, A.


    Spontaneous gene flow between wild and cultivated chicory, Cichorium intybus L., may have implications for the genetic structure and evolution of populations and varieties. One aspect of this crop-wild gene flow is the dispersal of transgenes from genetically modified varieties, e.g. gene flow from...... and Mediterranean Europe. The analysis used 281 AFLP markers and 75 SSAP markers giving a total of 356 polymorphic markers. Results from model based assignments with the program STRUCTURE indicated many incidents of recent gene flow. Gene flow was observed both between cultivars and wild populations, between...... landraces and wild populations, between different wild populations as well as between cultivars. Population structure visualized by distance-based clustering showed a North–South geographical structuring of the wild populations, and a general grouping of the cultivars corresponding to known origin...

  3. Investigation of the Flow Structure in Step-Up Street Canyons—Mean Flow and Turbulence Statistics (United States)

    Addepalli, Bhagirath; Pardyjak, Eric R.


    A step-up street canyon is a characteristic urban element composed of two buildings in which the height of the upwind building (H_u) is less than the height of the downwind building (H_d). Here, the effect of canyon geometry on the flow structure in isolated step-up street canyons is investigated through isothermal wind-tunnel measurements. The measurements were acquired along the vertical symmetry plane of model buildings using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV) for normal approach flow. The building-height ratios considered were: H_d/ H_u ≈ 3, and H_d/ H_u ≈ 1.67. For each building-height ratio, the along-wind lengths ( L) of the upwind and downwind buildings, and the street-canyon width ( S) were kept constant, with L ≈ S. The cross-wind widths ( W) of the upwind and downwind buildings were varied uniformly from W/S ≈ 1 through W/S ≈ 4, in increments of W/S ≈ 1. The objective of the work was to characterize the changes in the flow structure in step-up canyons as a function of W/ S, for fixed L, S, and H_d/H_u values. The results indicate that the in-canyon flow structure does not vary significantly for H_d/H_u ≈ 3 for the W/ S values considered. Qualitatively, for H_d/H_u ≈ 3, the upwind building behaves as an obstacle in the upwind cavity of the downwind building. In contrast, the flow patterns observed for the H_d/H_u ≈ 1.67 configurations are unique and counter-intuitive, and depend strongly on building width ( W/ S). For W/S ≈ 1 and W/S ≈ 2, the effect of lateral flow into the canyon is so prominent that even the mean flow patterns are highly ambiguous. For W/S ≈ 3 and 4, the flow along the vertical symmetry plane is more shielded from the lateral flow, and hence a stable counter-rotating vortex pair is observed in the canyon. In addition to these qualitative features, a quantitative analysis of the mean flow field and turbulence stress field is presented.

  4. Embodied memory: effective and stable perception by combining optic flow and image structure. (United States)

    Pan, Jing Samantha; Bingham, Ned; Bingham, Geoffrey P


    Visual perception studies typically focus either on optic flow structure or image structure, but not on the combination and interaction of these two sources of information. Each offers unique strengths in contrast to the other's weaknesses. Optic flow yields intrinsically powerful information about 3D structure, but is ephemeral. It ceases when motion stops. Image structure is less powerful in specifying 3D structure, but is stable. It remains when motion stops. Optic flow and image structure are intrinsically related in vision because the optic flow carries one image to the next. This relation is especially important in the context of progressive occlusion, in which optic flow provides information about the location of targets hidden in subsequent image structure. In four experiments, we investigated the role of image structure in "embodied memory" in contrast to memory that is only in the head. We found that either optic flow (Experiment 1) or image structure (Experiment 2) alone were relatively ineffective, whereas the combination was effective and, in contrast to conditions requiring reliance on memory-in-the-head, much more stable over extended time (Experiments 2 through 4). Limits well documented for visual short memory (that is, memory-in-the-head) were strongly exceeded by embodied memory. The findings support J. J. Gibson's (1979/1986, The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception, Boston, MA, Houghton Mifflin) insights about progressive occlusion and the embodied nature of perception and memory.

  5. Hydraulic modeling of flow impact on bridge structures: a case study on Citarum bridge (United States)

    Siregar, R. I.


    Flood waves because of the rapid catchment response to high intense rainfall, breaches of flood defenses may induce huge impact forces on structures, causing structural damage or even failures. Overflowing stream that passes over the bridge, it means to discharge flood water level is smaller than the capacity of the river flow. In this study, the researches present the methodological approach of flood modeling on bridge structures. The amount of force that obtained because of the hydrostatic pressure received by the bridge at the time of the flood caused the bridge structure disrupted. This paper presents simulation of flow impact on bridge structures with some event flood conditions. Estimating the hydrostatic pressure developed new model components, to quantify the flow impact on structures. Flow parameters applied the model for analyzing, such as discharge, velocity, and water level or head that effect of bridge structures. The simulation will illustrate the capability of bridge structures with some event flood river and observe the behavior of the flow that occurred during the flood. Hydraulic flood modeling use HEC-RAS for simulation. This modeling will describe the impact on bridge structures. Based on the above modelling resulted, in 2008 has flood effect more than other years on the Citarum Bridge, because its flow overflow on the bridge.

  6. Multi-frequency complex network from time series for uncovering oil-water flow structure. (United States)

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Yang, Yu-Xuan; Fang, Peng-Cheng; Jin, Ning-De; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Hu, Li-Dan


    Uncovering complex oil-water flow structure represents a challenge in diverse scientific disciplines. This challenge stimulates us to develop a new distributed conductance sensor for measuring local flow signals at different positions and then propose a novel approach based on multi-frequency complex network to uncover the flow structures from experimental multivariate measurements. In particular, based on the Fast Fourier transform, we demonstrate how to derive multi-frequency complex network from multivariate time series. We construct complex networks at different frequencies and then detect community structures. Our results indicate that the community structures faithfully represent the structural features of oil-water flow patterns. Furthermore, we investigate the network statistic at different frequencies for each derived network and find that the frequency clustering coefficient enables to uncover the evolution of flow patterns and yield deep insights into the formation of flow structures. Current results present a first step towards a network visualization of complex flow patterns from a community structure perspective.

  7. Digital Image Processing in Investigations of Plasma Flow Structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chumak, Oleksiy; Hrabovský, Milan


    Roč. 39, č. 11 (2011), s. 2910-2911 ISSN 0093-3813 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010300 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma jet * plasma flow fluctuations * image processing Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.174, year: 2011

  8. Large-Eddy-Simulation-based analysis of complex flow structures ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Further, in turbulence modelling within centrifugal pumps, it is also important to model the complete interaction amongst different variables rather than a simplistic single blade passage flow analysis. In the present work, the complex blade–tongue interactions and their consequent effects on the pressure fluctuations within ...

  9. Code Flows : Visualizing Structural Evolution of Source Code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Auber, David


    Understanding detailed changes done to source code is of great importance in software maintenance. We present Code Flows, a method to visualize the evolution of source code geared to the understanding of fine and mid-level scale changes across several file versions. We enhance an existing visual

  10. Thrust generation and wake structure for flow across a pitching ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... not a sufficient condition for the generation of thrust. The vortex strength is found to be invariant of the pitching frequency. Certain differences from the reported results are noted, which may be because of difference in the airfoil shape. These results can help improve understanding of the flow behavior as the low Reynolds ...

  11. Experimental study of flow patterns near tube support structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummens, H.E.C.; Turner, C.W.


    Extensive blockage of broached support plates in steam generators has occurred at the Bruce A Nuclear Generating Station (NGS), forcing unit derating in 1988 March. Blockage has also been found on the lower broached plates of the Pickering B and Point Lepreau NGSs. Water chemistry and operating conditions are known to influence fouling directly. We suspect that flow patterns also play a role, that these patterns are influenced by the geometry of steam generator (SG) components, and that particularly the broached plate design actively creates an environment favorable to deposition. Experiments are in progress to examine the flow patterns near various tube supports: the broached plate, two types of lattice bars, and the formed bars. Preliminary tests in an air/water loop with 1/2- and 7-tube SG mockups containing the tube supports have been completed. Flow patterns were visualized using injected air bubbles. Local velocities and turbulence levels were measured using a laser technique, which confirmed observations of flow recirculation and stagnation. Axial pressure profiles were measured to determine overall resistance coefficients, and to identify local pressure extremes. Some visualization tests were also carried out on an artificially fouled broached plate. Based on results to date, several deposition mechanisms are proposed: deposition of particles in stagnant regions, deposition of solubles due to flashing in low-pressure regions, and deposition in smaller channels due to steam migration toward larger channels. A qualitative assessment of the tube support designs based on these mechanisms implies that the relative resistances to fouling are: (WORST) broach plate << lattice bars << formed bars (BEST). As the air/water simulation shows only hydraulic flow patterns, further tests will be done in a simple liquid/vapor Freon loop to examine thermal effects. (author). 3 refs., 10 figs

  12. Permeability estimations and frictional flow features passing through porous media comprised of structured microbeads (United States)

    Shin, C.


    Permeability estimation has been extensively researched in diverse fields; however, methods that suitably consider varying geometries and changes within the flow region, for example, hydraulic fracture closing for several years, are yet to be developed. Therefore, in the present study a new permeability estimation method is presented based on the generalized Darcy's friction flow relation, in particular, by examining frictional flow parameters and characteristics of their variations. For this examination, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of simple hydraulic fractures filled with five layers of structured microbeads and accompanied by geometry changes and flow transitions are performed. Consequently, it was checked whether the main structures and shapes of each flow path are preserved, even for geometry variations within porous media. However, the scarcity and discontinuity of streamlines increase dramatically in the transient- and turbulent-flow regions. The quantitative and analytic examinations of the frictional flow features were also performed. Accordingly, the modified frictional flow parameters were successfully presented as similarity parameters of porous flows. In conclusion, the generalized Darcy's friction flow relation and friction equivalent permeability (FEP) equation were both modified using the similarity parameters. For verification, the FEP values of the other aperture models were estimated and then it was checked whether they agreed well with the original permeability values. Ultimately, the proposed and verified method is expected to efficiently estimate permeability variations in porous media with changing geometric factors and flow regions, including such instances as hydraulic fracture closings.

  13. Flow structure interaction around an axial-flow hydrokinetic turbine: Experiments and CFD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S; Chamorro, L; Hill, C; Arndt, R; Sotiropoulos, F


    We carry out large-eddy simulation of turbulent flow past a complete hydrokinetic turbine mounted on the bed of a straight rectangular open channel. The complex turbine geometry, including the rotor and all stationary components, is handled by employing the curvilinear immersed boundary (CURVIB) method [1], and velocity boundary conditions near all solid surfaces are reconstructed using a wall model based on solving the simplified boundary layer equations [2]. In this study we attempt to directly resolve flow-blade interactions without introducing turbine parameterization methods. The computed wake profiles of velocities and turbulent stresses agree well with the experimentally measured values

  14. Lagrangian structure of flows in the Chesapeake Bay: challenges and perspectives on the analysis of estuarine flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Branicki


    Full Text Available In this work we discuss applications of Lagrangian techniques to study transport properties of flows generated by shallow water models of estuarine flows. We focus on the flow in the Chesapeake Bay generated by Quoddy (see Lynch and Werner, 1991, a finite-element (shallow water model adopted to the bay by Gross et al. (2001. The main goal of this analysis is to outline the potential benefits of using Lagrangian tools for both understanding transport properties of such flows, and for validating the model output and identifying model deficiencies. We argue that the currently available 2-D Lagrangian tools, including the stable and unstable manifolds of hyperbolic trajectories and techniques exploiting 2-D finite-time Lyapunov exponent fields, are of limited use in the case of partially mixed estuarine flows. A further development and efficient implementation of three-dimensional Lagrangian techniques, as well as improvements in the shallow-water modelling of 3-D velocity fields, are required for reliable transport analysis in such flows. Some aspects of the 3-D trajectory structure in the Chesapeake Bay, based on the Quoddy output, are also discussed.

  15. Biomimetic structures for fluid drag reduction in laminar and turbulent flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yong Chae; Bhushan, Bharat, E-mail: Bhushan.2@osu.ed [Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio- and Nanotechnology and Biomimetics (NLB2), Ohio State University, 201 West 19th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1142 (United States)


    Biomimetics allows one to mimic nature to develop materials and devices of commercial interest for engineers. Drag reduction in fluid flow is one of the examples found in nature. In this study, nano, micro, and hierarchical structures found in lotus plant surfaces, as well as shark skin replica and a rib patterned surface to simulate shark skin structure were fabricated. Drag reduction efficiency studies on the surfaces were systematically carried out using water flow. An experimental flow channel was used to measure the pressure drop in laminar and turbulent flows, and the trends were explained in terms of the measured and predicted values by using fluid dynamics models. The slip length for various surfaces in laminar flow was also investigated based on the measured pressure drop. For comparison, the pressure drop for various surfaces was also measured using air flow.

  16. Numerical investigation of flow structures with an oblique detonation wave in a hypersonic annular cylindrical chamber (United States)

    Trotsyuk, Anatoliy V.


    A new supersonic flow-type annular detonation combustor is designed in which steady oblique detonation waves in the channel are generated using a compression body in the form of a solid single-wound spiral with a constant pitch angle. A two-dimensional unsteady mathematical model of the reacting flow in this device is formulated. The flow dynamics at the start of the chamber operation and steady supersonic flow structures for a stoichiometric hydrogen-air flow with an inlet Mach number M0=5 are numerically investigated. Two-dimensional numerical simulation is carried out for different spiral angles and geometrical dimensions of the chamber. A bifurcation of steady flow structures with respect to the initial condition of the problem is observed.

  17. Biomimetic structures for fluid drag reduction in laminar and turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yong Chae; Bhushan, Bharat


    Biomimetics allows one to mimic nature to develop materials and devices of commercial interest for engineers. Drag reduction in fluid flow is one of the examples found in nature. In this study, nano, micro, and hierarchical structures found in lotus plant surfaces, as well as shark skin replica and a rib patterned surface to simulate shark skin structure were fabricated. Drag reduction efficiency studies on the surfaces were systematically carried out using water flow. An experimental flow channel was used to measure the pressure drop in laminar and turbulent flows, and the trends were explained in terms of the measured and predicted values by using fluid dynamics models. The slip length for various surfaces in laminar flow was also investigated based on the measured pressure drop. For comparison, the pressure drop for various surfaces was also measured using air flow.

  18. Experimental investigation of torque scaling and coherent structures in turbulent Taylor–Couette flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokgoz, S; Elsinga, G E; Delfos, R; Westerweel, J


    The effect of flow structures to the torque values of fully turbulent Taylor-Couette flow was experimentally studied using tomographic PIV. The measurements were performed for various relative cylinder rotation speeds and Reynolds numbers, based on a study of Ravelet et al. (2010). We confirmed that the flow structures are strongly influenced by the rotation number. Our analyses using time-averaged mean flow showed the presence of Taylor vortices for the two smallest rotation numbers that were studied. Increasing the rotation number initially resulted in the shape deformation of the Taylor vortices. Further increment towards only outer cylinder rotation, showed transition to the dominance of the small scale vortices and absence of Taylor vortex-like structures. We compared the transition of the flow structures with the curves of dimensionless torque. Sudden changes of the flow structures confirmed the presence of transition points on the torque curve, where the dominance of small and large scale vortical structures on the mean flow interchanges.

  19. Numerical simulation of coherent structures in axial flow through a rectangular channel containing a cylindrical rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavoularis, S.; Madrane, A.; Vaillancourt, R.


    Exploratory RANS and LES computations of turbulent flow in a rectangular channel containing a single cylindrical rod have been performed, with particular interest in the flow structure near the gap between the rod and the channel wall. The Reynolds number for the channel flow was 108,000. The computations document the formation of a sequence of large-scale, quasi-periodic pairs of counter-rotating vortices that dominate the flow in the gap region and whose effects extend far beyond the gap region. The unsteady RANS computation predict a transient state of such structures giving way to steady axial flow, while the LES computations reproduce a continuing sequence of similar structures. The simulations arc compared to recent experimental results in the same configuration. (author)

  20. Numerical, field and laboratory studies of three-dimensional flow structures at river channel confluences


    Bradbrook, Kathryn Frances


    This thesis investigates controls on and the nature of three-dimensional flow structures at river channel confluences. Previous work has shown that junction angle is an important control on the flow patterns at channel junctions since it affects the degree of curvature of flow from each tributary and sets up secondary circulation cells similar to those in meander bends. Recent work has highlighted the common occurrence of, and importance of, bed discordance at river confluences due to a signi...

  1. Improved Flow-Field Structures for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurau, Bogdan [Nuvant Systems Inc., Crown Point, IN (United States)


    The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is ideal if high energy-density liquid fuels are required. Liquid fuels have advantages over compressed hydrogen including higher energy density and ease of handling. Although state-of-the-art DMFCs exhibit manageable degradation rates, excessive fuel crossover diminishes system energy and power density. Although use of dilute methanol mitigates crossover, the concomitant lowering of the gross fuel energy density (GFED) demands a complex balance-of-plant (BOP) that includes higher flow rates, external exhaust recirculation, etc. An alternative approach is redesign of the fuel delivery system to accommodate concentrated methanol. NuVant Systems Inc. (NuVant) will maximize the GFED by design and assembly of a DMFC that uses near neat methanol. The approach is to tune the diffusion of highly concentrated methanol (to the anode catalytic layer) to the back-diffusion of water formed at the cathode (i.e. in situ generation of dilute methanol at the anode layer). Crossover will be minimized without compromising the GFED by innovative integration of the anode flow-field and the diffusion layer. The integrated flow-field-diffusion-layers (IFDLs) will widen the current and potential DMFC operating ranges and enable the use of cathodes optimized for hydrogen-air fuel cells.

  2. Thrust generation and wake structure for flow across a pitching ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, we present detailed particle image velocimetry (PIV) based investigation of wake structure of a pitching airfoil. PIV measurements have been carried out for NACA0015 airfoil at Re = 2900 with reduced frequency range of 1.82–10.92 and pitching angle of 5°. Two different wake structures (reverse Kármán ...

  3. Anthraquinone with Tailored Structure for Nonaqueous Metal-Organic Redox Flow Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo


    A nonaqueous, hybrid metal-organic redox flow battery based on tailored anthraquinone structure is demonstrated to have an energy efficiency of {approx}82% and a specific discharge energy density similar to aqueous redox flow batteries, which is due to the significantly improved solubility of anthraquinone in supporting electrolytes.

  4. Flow structure formation in an ion-unmagnetized plasma: The HYPER-II experiments (United States)

    Terasaka, K.; Tanaka, M. Y.; Yoshimura, S.; Aramaki, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kawazu, F.; Furuta, K.; Takatsuka, N.; Masuda, M.; Nakano, R.


    The HYPER-II device has been constructed in Kyushu University to investigate the flow structure formation in an ion-unmagnetized plasma, which is an intermediate state of plasma and consists of unmagnetized ions and magnetized electrons. High density plasmas are produced by electron cyclotron resonance heating, and the flow field structure in an inhomogeneous magnetic field is investigated with a directional Langmuir probe method and a laser-induced fluorescence method. The experimental setup has been completed and the diagnostic systems have been installed to start the experiments. A set of coaxial electrodes will be introduced to control the azimuthal plasma rotation, and the effect of plasma rotation to generation of rectilinear flow structure will be studied. The HYPER-II experiments will clarify the overall flow structure in the inhomogeneous magnetic field and contribute to understanding characteristic feature of the intermediate state of plasma.

  5. Thermal structure and flow patterns around Seychelles group of Islands (Indian Ocean) during austral autumn

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; RameshBabu, V.; RameshKumar, M.R.

    Properties of thermal structure in the upper 750 m around the Seychelles group of islands in the Indian Ocean, based on Expendable Bathythermograph (XBT) data collected in March 1984, are presented along with the inferred flow patterns...

  6. Toward Design Guidelines for Stream Restoration Structures: Measuring and Modeling Unsteady Turbulent Flows in Natural Streams with Complex Hydraulic Structures (United States)

    Lightbody, A.; Sotiropoulos, F.; Kang, S.; Diplas, P.


    Despite their widespread application to prevent lateral river migration, stabilize banks, and promote aquatic habitat, shallow transverse flow training structures such as rock vanes and stream barbs lack quantitative design guidelines. Due to the lack of fundamental knowledge about the interaction of the flow field with the sediment bed, existing engineering standards are typically based on various subjective criteria or on cross-sectionally-averaged shear stresses rather than local values. Here, we examine the performance and stability of in-stream structures within a field-scale single-threaded sand-bed meandering stream channel in the newly developed Outdoor StreamLab (OSL) at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL). Before and after the installation of a rock vane along the outer bank of the middle meander bend, high-resolution topography data were obtained for the entire 50-m-long reach at 1-cm spatial scale in the horizontal and sub-millimeter spatial scale in the vertical. In addition, detailed measurements of flow and turbulence were obtained using acoustic Doppler velocimetry at twelve cross-sections focused on the vicinity of the structure. Measurements were repeated at a range of extreme events, including in-bank flows with an approximate flow rate of 44 L/s (1.4 cfs) and bankfull floods with an approximate flow rate of 280 L/s (10 cfs). Under both flow rates, the structure reduced near-bank shear stresses and resulted in both a deeper thalweg and near-bank aggradation. The resulting comprehensive dataset has been used to validate a large eddy simulation carried out by SAFL’s computational fluid dynamics model, the Virtual StreamLab (VSL). This versatile computational framework is able to efficiently simulate 3D unsteady turbulent flows in natural streams with complex in-stream structures and as a result holds promise for the development of much-needed quantitative design guidelines.

  7. STRUYA a code for two-dimensional fluid flow analysis with and without structure coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, F.W.; Schlechtendahl, E.G.; Stoelting, K.


    STRUYA is a code for two-dimensional subsonic and supersonic flow analysis. Both Eulerian and Lagrangian grids are allowed. In the third dimension the flow domain may be bounded by a moving wall. The wall movement may be prescribed in a time-and space varying way or computed by a structural model. STRUYA offers a general scheme for adapting various structural models. As a standard feature it includes a cylindrical shell model (CYLDY2). (orig.) [de

  8. Canonical information flow decomposition among neural structure subsets. (United States)

    Takahashi, Daniel Y; Baccalá, Luiz A; Sameshima, Koichi


    Partial directed coherence (PDC) and directed coherence (DC) which describe complementary aspects of the directed information flow between pairs of univariate components that belong to a vector of simultaneously observed time series have recently been generalized as bPDC/bDC, respectively, to portray the relationship between subsets of component vectors (Takahashi, 2009; Faes and Nollo, 2013). This generalization is specially important for neuroscience applications as one often wishes to address the link between the set of time series from an observed ROI (region of interest) with respect to series from some other physiologically relevant ROI. bPDC/bDC are limited, however, in that several time series within a given subset may be irrelevant or may even interact opposingly with respect to one another leading to interpretation difficulties. To address this, we propose an alternative measure, termed cPDC/cDC, employing canonical decomposition to reveal the main frequency domain modes of interaction between the vector subsets. We also show bPDC/bDC and cPDC/cDC are related and possess mutual information rate interpretations. Numerical examples and a real data set illustrate the concepts. The present contribution provides what is seemingly the first canonical decomposition of information flow in the frequency domain.

  9. Canonical Information Flow Decomposition Among Neural Structure Subsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Yasumasa Takahashi


    Full Text Available Partial directed coherence (PDC and directed coherence (DC which describe complementary aspects of the directed information flow between pairs of univariate components that belong to a vector of simultaneously observed time series have recently been generalized as bPDC/bDC respectively to portray the relationship between subsets of component vectors (Takahashi, 2009; Faes and Nollo, 2013. This generalization is specially important for neuroscience applications as one often wishes to address the link between the set of time series from an observed ROI (region of interest with respect to series from some other physiologically relevant ROI. bPDC/bDC are limited, however, in that several time series within a given subset may be irrelevant or may even interact opposingly with respect to one another leading to interpretation difficulties. To address this, we propose an alternative measure, termed cPDC/cDC, employing canonical decomposition to reveal the main frequency domain modes of interaction between the vector subsets. We also show bPDC/bDC and cPDC/cDC are related and possess mutual information rate interpretations. Numerical examples and a real data set illustrate the concepts. The present contribution provides what is seemingly the first canonical decomposition of information flow in the frequency domain.

  10. Flow structures around a beetle in a tethered flight (United States)

    Lee, Boogeon; Oh, Sehyeong; Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon


    In the present study, through a wind-tunnel experiment, we visualize the flow in a tethered flight of a rhinoceros beetle using a smoke-wire visualization technique. Measurements are done at five side planes along the wind span while varying the body angle (angle between the horizontal and the body axis) to investigate the influence of the stroke plane angle that was observed to change depending on the flight mode such as hovering, forward and takeoff flights so on. Observing that a large attached leading-edge vortex is only found on the hindwing, it is inferred that most of the aerodynamic forces would be generated by hindwings (flexible inner wings) compared to the elytra (hard outer wings). In addition, it is observed to use unsteady lift-generating mechanisms such as clap-and-fling, wing-wing interaction and wake capture. Finally, we discuss the relation between the advance ratio and Strouhal number by adjusting free-stream velocity and the body angle (i.e., angle of wake-induced flow). Supported by a Grant to Bio-Mimetic Robot Research Center Funded by Defense Acquisition Program Administration, and by ADD, Korea (UD130070ID).

  11. Reconstruction of 3D flow structures in a cylindrical cavity with a rotating lid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik

    The flow in a cylindrical cavity with a rotating lid has been studied for many years, e.g. by Sørensen et al (2006). It contains general flow phenomena like vortex breakdown and in some cases the break down is accompanied by multihelix vortices (Okulov et al, 2010). This type of flow phenomenon......) is a promising method of reconstructing the full three dimensional, time-varying flow structures. This has been attempted in Meyer et al (2008) and Meyer et al (2009). The analyzed measurements show both that the vortex breakdown in some cases is asymmetrical (rotating around the cylinder axis...

  12. Horizontal Structure of Turbulence on Decimeter to 10m Scales in Fast Tidal Flows (United States)

    Horwitz, R.; Hay, A. E.


    We characterize the structure of turbulence in a very fast tidal channel in the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia that has been identified for development as a commercial tidal power resource. A subsurface mooring that orients into the flow was equipped with a horizontally-aimed AD2CP, and upward- and downward-looking ADCPs. Two week-long deployments provide velocity measurements of tidal flows up to 4 m/s that are used to describe the spatial (lateral) and temporal structure of turbulent fluctuations on decimeter to 10m scales. The spatial scales and temporal intermittency vary with both speed of the flow and the effects of upstream topography.

  13. Fluid-structure coupling between a vibrating cylinder and a narrow annular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perotin, L.


    This paper presents an analytical investigation of the fluidelastic coupling between an axial annular flow and a flexible vibrating axisymmetrical structure. The model presented is suited to single-phase, incompressible, viscous fluids and to annular flows of variable cross-section, axially symmetrical when the structure is motionless.An experimental validation of this model is presented at the end of the paper: the results obtained with the numerical model are compared with experimental data for an oscillating cylinder free to vibrate under the effect of a variable-cross-section annular flow. ((orig.))

  14. Wavelet Analysis on Turbulent Structure in Drag-Reducing Channel Flow Based on Direct Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Wu


    Full Text Available Direct numerical simulation has been performed to study a polymer drag-reducing channel flow by using a discrete-element model. And then, wavelet analyses are employed to investigate the multiresolution characteristics of velocity components based on DNS data. Wavelet decomposition is applied to decompose velocity fluctuation time series into ten different frequency components including approximate component and detailed components, which show more regular intermittency and burst events in drag-reducing flow. The energy contribution, intermittent factor, and intermittent energy are calculated to investigate characteristics of different frequency components. The results indicate that energy contributions of different frequency components are redistributed by polymer additives. The energy contribution of streamwise approximate component in drag-reducing flow is up to 82%, much more than 25% in the Newtonian flow. Feature of turbulent multiscale structures is shown intuitively by continuous wavelet transform, verifying that turbulent structures become much more regular in drag-reducing flow.

  15. Algebraic structure of general electromagnetic fields and energy flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacyan, Shahen


    Highlights: → Algebraic structure of general electromagnetic fields in stationary spacetime. → Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the electomagnetic field tensor. → Energy-momentum in terms of eigenvectors and Killing vector. → Explicit form of reference frame with vanishing Poynting vector. → Application of formalism to Bessel beams. - Abstract: The algebraic structures of a general electromagnetic field and its energy-momentum tensor in a stationary space-time are analyzed. The explicit form of the reference frame in which the energy of the field appears at rest is obtained in terms of the eigenvectors of the electromagnetic tensor and the existing Killing vector. The case of a stationary electromagnetic field is also studied and a comparison is made with the standard short-wave approximation. The results can be applied to the general case of a structured light beams, in flat or curved spaces. Bessel beams are worked out as example.

  16. Modeling turbulence structure. Chemical kinetics interaction in turbulent reactive flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, B.F. [The Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)


    The challenge of the mathematical modelling is to transfer basic physical knowledge into a mathematical formulation such that this knowledge can be utilized in computational simulation of practical problems. The combustion phenomena can be subdivided into a large set of interconnected phenomena like flow, turbulence, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, radiation, extinction, ignition etc. Combustion in one application differs from combustion in another area by the relative importance of the various phenomena. The difference in fuel, geometry and operational conditions often causes the differences. The computer offers the opportunity to treat the individual phenomena and their interactions by models with wide operational domains. The relative magnitude of the various phenomena therefore becomes the consequence of operational conditions and geometry and need not to be specified on the basis of experience for the given problem. In mathematical modelling of turbulent combustion, one of the big challenges is how to treat the interaction between the chemical reactions and the fluid flow i.e. the turbulence. Different scientists adhere to different concepts like the laminar flamelet approach, the pdf approach of the Eddy Dissipation Concept. Each of these approaches offers different opportunities and problems. All these models are based on a sound physical basis, however none of these have general validity in taking into consideration all detail of the physical chemical interaction. The merits of the models can only be judged by their ability to reproduce physical reality and consequences of operational and geometric conditions in a combustion system. The presentation demonstrates and discusses the development of a coherent combustion technology for energy conversion and safety based on the Eddy Dissipation Concept by Magnussen. (author) 30 refs.

  17. Stop Flow Lithography Synthesis and Characterization of Structured Microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Baah


    Full Text Available In this study, the synthesis of nonspherical composite particles of poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate (PEG-DA/SiO2 and PEG-DA/Al2O3 with single or multiple vias and the corresponding inorganic particles of SiO2 and Al2O3 synthesized using the Stop Flow Lithography (SFL method is reported. Precursor suspensions of PEG-DA, 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropiophenone, and SiO2 or Al2O3 nanoparticles were prepared. The precursor suspension flows through a microfluidic device mounted on an upright microscope and is polymerized in an automated process. A patterned photomask with transparent geometric features masks UV light to synthesize the particles. Composite particles with vias were synthesized and corresponding inorganic SiO2 and Al2O3 particles were obtained through polymer burn-off and sintering of the composites. The synthesis of porous inorganic particles of SiO2 and Al2O3 with vias and overall dimensions in the range of ~35–90 µm was achieved. BET specific surface area measurements for single via inorganic particles were 56–69 m2/g for SiO2 particles and 73–81 m2/g for Al2O3 particles. Surface areas as high as 114 m2/g were measured for multivia cubic SiO2 particles. The findings suggest that, with optimization, the particles should have applications in areas where high surface area is important such as catalysis and sieving.

  18. Congestion Characteristics of Interrupted Flow for Urban Roads with Heterogeneous Traffic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Hemant Kumar


    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a severe trepidation to transportation engineers for its unrestrained growth and consequential losses. This paper presents congestion models and speed-flow analysis for urban roads with interrupted flow comprising of heterogeneous structure of traffic. Models have been developed for heterogeneous traffic under constraints of roadway geometry, vehicle characteristics, driving behaviour and traffic controls. The growth of congestion with flow in unsaturated and oversaturated states of flow has been analysed and quantified. The congestion model developed in this paper shows that there exist different regions of congestion- flow behaviour that can be characterized by different rate of change of congestion and the severity of congestion becomes tremendous for oversaturated flows. Different levels of service have been proposed to define operating conditions using more realistic parameter ‘congestion’.

  19. Morphodynamics and sedimentary structures of bedforms under supercritical-flow conditions: new insights from flume experiments (United States)

    Cartigny, Matthieu; Ventra, Dario; Postma, George; Van den Berg, Jan H.


    Supercritical-flow phenomena are fairly common in modern sedimentary environments, yet their recognition remains subordinate in the rock record. This is commonly ascribed to the poor preservation potential of deposits from supercritical flows. However, the number of documented flume datasets on supercritical-flow dynamics and sedimentary structures is very limited in comparison with available data from subcritical-flow experiments, and our inability to identify and interpret such deposits might also be due to insufficient knowledge. This article describes the results of systematic experiments spanning the full range of supercritical-flow bedforms (antidunes, chutes-and-pools, cyclic steps) developed over mobile sand beds of variable grain sizes. Flow character and related bedform patterns are constrained through time-series measurements of the bed configuration, flow depth, flow velocity and Froude number. The results allow the refinement and extension of current bedform stability diagrams in the supercritical-flow domain. The experimental dataset and the stability diagram clarify morphodynamic relationships between antidune and cyclic steps. The onset of antidunes is controlled by the flow passing a threshold value of the Froude parameter. The transition from antidunes to cyclic steps instead is completed at a threshold value of the mobility parameter, and this transition spans a wider range of values for the mobility parameter as grain size increases. Sedimentary structures associated with the development of supercritical bedforms under variable aggradation rates are revealed by means of a synthetic aggradation technique and compared with examples from field and flume studies. Aggradation rate bears an important influence on the geometry of supercritical structures, and it should be held in consideration for the identification and mutual distinction of supercritical-flow bedforms in the stratigraphic record.

  20. Effects of geological structures on groundwater flow and quality in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis and field observations revealed that the north–south dykes act as a barrier of groundwater while the west–east oriented structures behave as a carrier of groundwater. Both quality and quantity of groundwater is different on the upstream and downstream sides of the dyke. Hence, it is conclusive that the west–east ...

  1. Population Genetic Structure and Gene Flow Among Nigerian Goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population Genetic structure in 200 indigenous goats sampled across four states from the South-Western and South Southern region of Nigeria was assessed using 7 microsatellite DNA markers. Observed Analysis of molecular genetic variation (AMOVA) was higher within populations (3.47) than among populations (1.84) ...

  2. Flow Structures within a Helicopter Rotor Hub Wake (United States)

    Elbing, Brian; Reich, David; Schmitz, Sven


    A scaled model of a notional helicopter rotor hub was tested in the 48'' Garfield Thomas Water Tunnel at the Applied Research Laboratory Penn State. The measurement suite included total hub drag and wake velocity measurements (LDV, PIV, stereo-PIV) at three downstream locations. The main objective was to understand the spatiotemporal evolution of the unsteady wake between the rotor hub and the nominal location of the empennage (tail). Initial analysis of the data revealed prominent two- and four-per-revolution fluid structures linked to geometric hub features persisting into the wake far-field. In addition, a six-per-revolution fluid structure was observed in the far-field, which is unexpected due to the lack of any hub feature with the corresponding symmetry. This suggests a nonlinear interaction is occurring within the wake to generate these structures. This presentation will provide an overview of the experimental data and analysis with particular emphasis on these six-per-revolution structures.

  3. Structure Formation of Thermoresponsive Microgels Suspensions Under Shear Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stieger, M.A.; Lindner, P.; Richtering, W.


    Shear-induced structures of concentrated temperature-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAM) microgel suspensions have been studied employing small angle neutron scattering (rheo-SANS). The interaction potential of swollen PNiPAM microgels could be varied from repulsive at temperatures below

  4. Flow-structure-seabed interactions in coastal and marine environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu


    related to structures such as marine pipelines, offshore windfarms, and multiuse offshore platforms. Tsunamis, which received considerable attention after two recent extreme events (2004 Indonesia tsunami and 2011 Japan tsunami) are also included in the discussion. Marine hydro-geomechanics is highlighted...

  5. 3D Evolution of Turbulent Flow Structures in Taylor-Couette (United States)

    Tokgoz, Sedat; Elsinga, Gerrit E.; Westerweel, Jerry


    In this study, we use high-speed tomographic PIV to investigate the evolution of turbulent flow structures in Taylor-Couette flow. High-speed tomographic PIV enables fully volumetric time-resolved measurements and is well-suited for this purpose. Presently, the turbulent flow is created by exact counter-rotation of the cylinders (Rei = - Reo , RΩ = 0 . 0), where the wall velocities are the same with opposite sign. Under these circumstances, the mean flow is zero in the bulk. Results indicate that the structures still advance in one direction despite the zero mean. However, the observation time for the flow structures is still at least one order magnitude longer than in the boundary layer flows, which were considered before. Results also revealed the presence of azimuthal velocity streaks. It is found that the intense vortical structures are mostly located in the shear layer between these streaks. Different events regarding the evolution of the vortical structures, such as stretching and break-up of vortices, are observed.

  6. Structure of the radial electric field and toroidal/poloidal flow in high temperature toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Katsumi


    The structure of the radial electric field and toroidal/poloidal flow is discussed for the high temperature plasma in toroidal systems, tokamak and Heliotron type magnetic configurations. The spontaneous toroidal and poloidal flows are observed in the plasma with improved confinement. The radial electric field is mainly determined by the poloidal flow, because the contribution of toroidal flow to the radial electric field is small. The jump of radial electric field and poloidal flow are commonly observed near the plasma edge in the so-called high confinement mode (H-mode) plasmas in tokamaks and electron root plasma in stellarators including Heliotrons. In general the toroidal flow is driven by the momentum input from neutral beam injected toroidally. There is toroidal flow not driven by neutral beam in the plasma and it will be more significant in the plasma with large electric field. The direction of these spontaneous toroidal flows depends on the symmetry of magnetic field. The spontaneous toroidal flow driven by the ion temperature gradient is in the direction to increase the negative radial electric field in tokamak. The direction of spontaneous toroidal flow in Heliotron plasmas is opposite to that in tokamak plasma because of the helicity of symmetry of the magnetic field configuration. (author)

  7. Thrust generation and wake structure for flow across a pitching ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The generation of thrust by a flapping airfoil depends upon the wake structure behind the ... a wake vortex pattern causes generation of net thrust on the airfoil. ..... Y. 1. 1.5. 2. -0.6. -0.2. 0.2. 0.6. X=0.5. X=1.0. X=1.5. (a). Figure 5. Mean and r.m.s. velocity profiles for three different streamwise stations, at k =1.82. (a) Mean.

  8. Timing mirror structures observed by Cluster with a magnetosheath flow model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Génot


    Full Text Available The evolution of structures associated with mirror modes during their flow in the Earth's magnetosheath is studied. The fact that the related magnetic fluctuations can take distinct shapes, from deep holes to high peaks, has been assessed in previous works on the observational, modeling and numerical points of view. In this paper we present an analytical model for the flow lines and velocity magnitude inside the magnetosheath. This model is used to interpret almost 10 years of Cluster observations of mirror structures: by back tracking each isolated observation to the shock, the "age", or flow time, of these structures is determined together with the geometry of the shock. Using this flow time the evolutionary path of the structures may be studied with respect to different quantities: the distance to mirror threshold, the amplitude of mirror fluctuations and the skewness of the magnetic amplitude distribution as a marker of the shape of the structures. These behaviours are confronted to numerical simulations which confirm the dynamical perspective gained from the association of the statistical analysis and the analytical model: magnetic peaks are mostly formed just behind the shock and are quickly overwhelmed by magnetic holes as the plasma conditions get more mirror stable. The amplitude of the fluctuations are found to saturate before the skewness vanishes, i.e. when both structures quantitatively balance each other, which typically occurs after a flow time of 100–200 s in the Earth's magnetosheath. Comparison with other astrophysical contexts is discussed.

  9. Numerical Modeling of Regional Groundwater Flow in a Structurally Complex Intermountain Basin: South Park, Colorado (United States)

    Ball, L. B.; Caine, J. S.; Ge, S.


    A steady-state, 3-D groundwater flow model of the South Park basin was developed to explore the influence of realistically complex topography and permeability structure on the patterns of basin-wide groundwater flow and to evaluate the sensitivity of the groundwater flow system to increased variability in recharge distribution and the influence of hydrogeologically distinct fault zones. South Park is a large, semi-arid intermountain basin (3300 km2) flanked by crystalline rocks and floored with faulted and folded sedimentary rocks and volcanic deposits. Model results suggest that, while the majority (>80%) of water entering the groundwater flow system is discharged through seepage faces in steep terrain or routed to mountain streams, internal exchanges of groundwater and stream flow between the mountain and valley landscapes are an important part of the dynamics of groundwater flow in the basin. The majority of topographically driven groundwater flow is focused in the upper 300 m of the model domain and would be considered local to intermediate in "Tothian" scales. Less than 1% of groundwater flow passes below 1 km in depth, and large-scale regional circulation is a limited component of the groundwater flow system. Increasingly heterogeneous recharge distributions most heavily impacted the groundwater flow system at the local scale, while basin-wide regional flow remained relatively insensitive to the increasing variability in recharge distribution. The introduction of end-member conduit and barrier types of fault zones influenced hydraulic heads and gradients within 5-10 km of the fault location where groundwater flow directions are perpendicular to the orientation of the fault. Where groundwater flow directions are oblique or subparallel to the fault, the introduction of distinct fault zones had a negligible impact on hydraulic heads or gradients.

  10. Visualization of boiling flow structure in a natural circulation boiling loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmakar, Arnab; Paruya, Swapan, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Vapor–liquid jet flows in natural circulation boiling loop. • Flow patterns and their transitions during geysering instability in the loop. • Evaluation of the efficiency of the needle probe in detecting the vapor–liquid and boiling flow structure. - Abstract: The present study reports vapor–liquid jet flows, flow patterns and their transitions during geysering instability in a natural circulation boiling loop under varied inlet subcooling ΔT{sub sub} (30–50 °C) and heater power Q (4–5 kW). Video imaging, voltage measurement using impedance needle probe, measurement of local pressure and loop flow rate have been carried out in this study. Power spectra of the voltage, the pressure and the flow rate reveal that at a high ΔT{sub sub} the jet flows have long period (21.36–86.95 s) and they are very irregular with a number of harmonics. The period decreases and becomes regular with a decrease of ΔT{sub sub}. The periods of the jet flows at ΔT{sub sub} = 30–50 °C and Q = 4 kW are in close agreement with those obtained from the video imaging. The probe was found to be more efficient than the pressure sensor in detecting the jet flows within an uncertainty of 9.5% and in detecting a variety of bubble classes. Both the imaging and the probe consistently identify the bubbly flow/vapor-mushrooms transition or the bubbly flow/slug flow transition on decreasing ΔT{sub sub} or on increasing Q.

  11. Flow structure in the locked-on wake of a circular cylinder in pulsating flow: Effect of forcing amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinidis, E.; Balabani, S.


    The wake structure of a circular cylinder in non-reversing pulsating flow is investigated by means of particle image velocimetry. Measurements are reported for pulsations at twice the natural frequency of vortex shedding in the unforced wake and for forcing amplitudes up to 23% at a constant Reynolds number of 2150. For the parameters employed the vortex shedding locks-on to the sub-harmonic of the pulsation frequency and a resonant wake is formed. The mean velocity field and the distributions of the total and coherent Reynolds stresses show that the averaged wake structure is systematically modified by the flow pulsations. It is shown that this modification is caused by changes in the dynamics of vortex formation and shedding primarily in the near wake. The recirculation bubble and the vortex formation region decrease in size, the global peak values in the distributions of the total and coherent Reynolds stresses increase asymptotically whereas the vortex strength and the mean drag coefficient increase almost linearly with increasing forcing amplitude. The measures of the minimum wake width in the formation region do not exhibit any variation with amplitude even though the wake downstream of the formation region is wider in pulsating flow due to the increased strength of the shed vortices

  12. Turbulent flow structure at a discordant river confluence: Asymmetric jet dynamics with implications for channel morphology (United States)

    Sukhodolov, Alexander N.; Krick, Julian; Sukhodolova, Tatiana A.; Cheng, Zhengyang; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Constantinescu, George S.


    Only a handful of field studies have examined turbulent flow structure at discordant confluences; the dynamics of flow at such confluences have mainly been examined in the laboratory. This paper reports results of a field-based investigation of turbulent flow structure at a discordant river confluence. These results support the hypothesis that flow at a discordant alluvial confluence with a velocity ratio greater than 2 exhibits jet-like characteristics. Scaling analysis shows that the dynamics of the jet core are quite similar to those of free jets but that the complex structure of flow at the confluence imposes strong effects that can locally suppress or enhance the spreading rate of the jet. This jet-like behavior of the flow has important implications for morphodynamic processes at these types of confluences. The highly energetic core of the jet at this discordant confluence is displaced away from the riverbed, thereby inhibiting scour; however, helical motion develops adjacent to the jet, particularly at high flows, which may promote scour. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the presence or absence of a depositional wedge at the mouth of the tributary can strongly influence detachment of the jet from the bed and the angle of the jet within the confluence.

  13. Rotating coherent flow structures as a source for narrowband tip clearance noise from axial fans (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Lallier-Daniels, Dominic; Sanjosé, Marlène; Moreau, Stéphane; Carolus, Thomas


    Noise from axial fans typically increases significantly as the tip clearance is increased. In addition to the broadband tip clearance noise at the design flow rate, narrowband humps also associated with the tip flow are observed in the far-field acoustic spectra at lower flow rate. In this study, both experimental and numerical methods are used to shed more light on the noise generation mechanism of this narrowband tip clearance noise and provide a unified description of this source. Unsteady aeroacoustic predictions with the Lattice-Boltzmann Method (LBM) are successfully compared with experiment. Such a validation allows using LBM data to conduct a detailed modal analysis of the pressure field for detecting rotating coherent flow structures which might be considered as noise sources. As previously found in ring fans the narrowband humps in the far-field noise spectra are found to be related to the tip clearance noise that is generated by an interaction of coherent flow structures present in the tip region with the leading edge of the impeller blades. The visualization of the coherent structures shows that they are indeed part of the unsteady tip clearance vortex structures. They are hidden in a complex, spatially and temporally inhomogeneous flow field, but can be recovered by means of appropriate filtering techniques. Their pressure trace corresponds to the so-called rotational instability identified in previous turbomachinery studies, which brings a unified picture of this tip-noise phenomenon for the first time.

  14. Structure parameter of electrorheological fluids in shear flow. (United States)

    Jiang, Jile; Tian, Yu; Meng, Yonggang


    A structure parameter, Sn = η(c)γ/τ(E), is proposed to represent the increase of effective viscosity due to the introduction of particles into a viscous liquid and to analyze the shear behavior of electrorheological (ER) fluids. Sn can divide the shear curves of ER fluids, τ/E(2) versus Sn, into three regimes, with two critical values Sn(c) of about 10(-4) and 10(-2), respectively. The two critical Sn(c) are applicable to ER fluids with different particle volume fractions φ in a wide range of shear rate γ and electric field E. When Sn fluids is mainly dominated by E and by shear rate when Sn > 10(-2). The electric current of ER fluids under E varied with shear stress in the same or the opposite trend in different shear rate ranges. Sn(c) also separates the conductivity variation of ER fluids into three regimes, corresponding to different structure evolutions. The change of Sn with particle volume fraction and E has also been discussed. The shear thickening in ER fluids can be characterized by Sn(c)(L) and Sn(c)(H) with a critical value about 10(-6). As an analogy to friction, the correspondence between τ/E(2) and friction coefficient, Sn and bearing numbers, as well as the similarity between the shear curve of ER fluids and the Stribeck curve of friction, indicate a possible friction origin in ER effect.

  15. High frequency jet ventilation through a supraglottic airway device: a case series of patients undergoing extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy. (United States)

    Canty, D J; Dhara, S S


    High frequency jet ventilation has been shown to be beneficial during extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy as it reduces urinary calculus movement which increases lithotripsy efficiency with better utilisation of shockwave energy and less patient exposure to tissue trauma. In all reports, sub-glottic high frequency jet ventilation was delivered through a tracheal tube or a jet catheter requiring paralysis and direct laryngoscopy. In this study, a simple method using supraglottic jet ventilation through a laryngeal mask attached to a circle absorber anaesthetic breathing system is described. The technique avoids the need for dense neuromuscular blockade for laryngoscopy and the potential complications associated with sub-glottic instrumentation and sub-glottic jet ventilation. The technique was successfully employed in a series of patients undergoing lithotripsy under general anaesthesia as an outpatient procedure.

  16. A randomised crossover comparison of manikin ventilation through Soft Seal®, i-gel™ and AuraOnce™ supraglottic airway devices by surf lifeguards. (United States)

    Adelborg, K; Al-Mashhadi, R H; Nielsen, L H; Dalgas, C; Mortensen, M B; Løfgren, B


    Forty surf lifeguards attempted to ventilate a manikin through one out of three supraglottic airways inserted in random order: the Portex® Soft Seal®; the Intersurgical® i-gel™; and the Ambu® AuraOnce™. We recorded the time to ventilate and the proportion of inflations that were successful, without and then with concurrent chest compressions. The mean (SD) time to ventilate with the Soft Seal, i-gel and AuraOnce was 35.2 (7.2)s, 15.6 (3.3)s and 35.1 (8.5) s, respectively, p surf lifeguards. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  17. i-gel: a new supraglottic device for effective resuscitation of a very low birthweight infant with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (United States)

    Galderisi, Alfonso; De Bernardo, Giuseppe; Lorenzon, Eleonora; Trevisanuto, Daniele


    Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) has been indicated as an effective device for airway management when face-mask ventilation and intubation have both failed in infants weighing >2000 g or delivered ≥34 weeks of gestation. All previous studies used a classic LMA. The current report describes the first case of a very low birthweight infant (1470 g, <3rd centile; 36+3gestational weeks) with micrognathia and palate cleft with Cornelia De Lange syndrome, resuscitated at birth with a new supraglottic airway device, i-gel size-1, positioned by a trainee paediatrician at first attempt. The procedure allowed reaching prompt effective ventilation and oxygenation of the patient, who was stabilised and intubated through i-gel. PMID:25809435

  18. Measuring three-dimensional flow structures in the conductive airways using 3D-PTV (United States)

    Janke, Thomas; Schwarze, Rüdiger; Bauer, Katrin


    Detailed information about flow patterns and mass transport in the conductive airways is of crucial interest to improve ventilation strategies as well as targeted drug delivery. Despite a vast number of flow studies in this field, there is still a dearth in experimental data of three-dimensional flow patterns, in particular for the validation of numerical results. Therefore, oscillating flow within a realistic model of the upper human conductive airways is studied here experimentally. The investigated range of Reynolds numbers is Re = 250-2000 and the Womersley number is varied between α = 1.9-5.1, whereby physiological flow at rest conditions is included. In employing the three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry measurement technique, we can directly visualize airway specific flow structures as well as examine Lagrangian trajectory statistics, which has not been covered to date. The systematic variation of characteristic flow parameters in combination with the advanced visualization technique sheds new light on the mechanisms of evolving flow patterns. By determining Lagrangian properties such as pathline curvature and torsion, we find that both strongly depend on the Reynolds number. Moreover, the probability density function of the curvature reveals a unique shape for certain flow regions and resembles a turbulent like behavior at the small scales.

  19. Fluid Structure Interaction in a Cold Flow Test and Transient CFD Analysis of Out-of-Round Nozzles (United States)

    Ruf, Joseph; Brown, Andrew; McDaniels, David; Wang, Ten-See


    This viewgraph presentation describes two nozzle fluid flow interactions. They include: 1) Cold flow nozzle tests with fluid-structure interaction at nozzle separated flow; and 2) CFD analysis for nozzle flow and side loads of nozzle extensions with various out-of-round cases.

  20. Debris flow impact on mitigation barriers: a new method for particle-fluid-structure interactions (United States)

    Marchelli, Maddalena; Pirulli, Marina; Pudasaini, Shiva P.


    Channelized debris-flows are a type of mass movements that involve water-charged, predominantly coarse-grained inorganic and organic material flowing rapidly down steep confined pre-existing channels (Van Dine, 1985). Due to their rapid movements and destructive power, structural mitigation measures have become an integral part of counter measures against these phenomena, to mitigate and prevent damages resulting from debris-flow impact on urbanized areas. In particular, debris barriers and storage basins, with some form of debris-straining structures incorporated into the barrier constructed across the path of a debris-flow, have a dual role to play: (1) to stimulate deposition by presenting a physical obstruction against flow, and (2) to guarantee that during normal conditions stream water and bedload can pass through the structure; while, during and after an extreme event, the water that is in the flow and some of the fine-grained sediment can escape. A new method to investigate the dynamic interactions between the flowing mass and the debris barrier is presented, with particular emphasis on the effect of the barrier in controlling the water and sediment content of the escaping mass. This aspect is achieved by implementing a new mechanical model into an enhanced two-phase dynamical mass flow model (Pudasaini, 2012), in which solid particles mixture and viscous fluid are taken into account. The complex mechanical model is defined as a function of the energy lost during impact, the physical and geometrical properties of the debris barrier, separate but strongly interacting dynamics of boulder and fluid flows during the impact, particle concentration distribution, and the slope characteristics. The particle-filtering-process results in a large variation in the rheological properties of the fluid-dominated escaping mass, including the substantial reduction in the bulk density, and the inertial forces of the debris-flows. Consequently, the destructive power and run

  1. Damping of cylindrical structures subject to annular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, D.E.; Dolding, M.


    In previous reports theoretical methods have been described for estimating the aerodynamic forces acting on cylinders vibrating laterally when surrounded by an annulus carrying high velocity gas. For a certain restricted set of geometries it is possible to predict whether a particular structure is stable or unstable and to determine the level of aerodynamic damping positive or negative due to the presence of the gas. This report describes experimental work which validates the computer program in which the theoretical methods are embodied; in particular the damping, inertial and decentralising forces acting on a cylinder in an annulus are measured and compared with theory over a range of frequencies from 0 to 25 Hz, and of Reynolds numbers from zero to 10 4 . In addition a summary of simple relationships is provided which can be used to provide credible initial estimates of both the positive and negative damping of cylinders in a range of annular geometries. (author)

  2. Carbon transfer tests of FBR structural materials in flowing sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Y.; Atsumo, H.; Maruyama, A.; Nakasuji, T.


    Since the secondary cooling system of Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Prototype Reactor Monju consists of a bimetallic loop of austenitic stainless steel and ferritic low alloy steel, carburization occurs in stainless steel and decarburization in low alloy steel mainly due to the difference in carbon activity between the two materials. This phenomenon is thought of suffer reduction in their mechanical properties. In Japan also, since it is necessary to clarify these phenomena quantitatively and feed back the result to the design standard, quantitative evaluation of the amounts of carburization and decarburization as well as studies on the changes in strength of the structural materials caused by these carbon transfer have been underway. Since these studies have not yet reached the final stage, this paper provides mainly an interim report on carbon transfer behavior test and introduction of partial data

  3. 331 cases of clinically node-negative supraglottic carcinoma of the larynx: a study of a modest size fixed field radiotherapy approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, Andrew J.; Slevin, Nicholas J.; Gupta, Nirmal K.; Brewster, Allison E.


    Purpose: For node-negative supraglottic carcinoma of the larynx, radiotherapy with surgery in reserve commonly provides very good results in terms of both local control and survival, while preserving function. However uncertainty exists over the treatment of the node-negative neck. Elective whole neck radiotherapy, while effective, may be associated with significant morbidity. The purpose of this study was to examine our practice of treating a modest size, fixed field to a high biologically effective dose and compare it with the patterns of recurrence from other centers that use different dose/volume approaches. Methods and Materials: Over a 10-year period 331 patients with node-negative supraglottic carcinoma of the larynx were treated with radiotherapy at the Christie Hospital Manchester. Patients were treated with doses of 50-55 Gy in 16 fractions over 3 weeks. Data were collected retrospectively for local and regional control, survival, and morbidity. Results: Overall local control, after surgical salvage in 17 cases, was 79% (T1-92%, T2-81%, T3-67%, T4-73%). Overall regional lymph node control, after surgical salvage in 13 cases, was 84% (T1-91%, T2-88%, T3-81%, T4-72%). Five-year crude survival was 50%, but after correcting for intercurrent deaths was 70% (T1-83%, T2-78%, T3-53%, T4-61%). Serious morbidity requiring surgery was seen in 7 cases (2.1%) and was related to prescribed dose (50 Gy-0%, 52.5 Gy-1.3%, 55 Gy-3.4%). Discussion: Our results confirm that treating a modest size, fixed field to a high biologically effective dose is highly effective. It enables preservation of the larynx in most cases, with acceptable regional control and no loss of survival compared to whole neck radiotherapy regimes

  4. Breaking camouflage and detecting targets require optic flow and image structure information. (United States)

    Pan, Jing Samantha; Bingham, Ned; Chen, Chang; Bingham, Geoffrey P


    Use of motion to break camouflage extends back to the Cambrian [In the Blink of an Eye: How Vision Sparked the Big Bang of Evolution (New York Basic Books, 2003)]. We investigated the ability to break camouflage and continue to see camouflaged targets after motion stops. This is crucial for the survival of hunting predators. With camouflage, visual targets and distracters cannot be distinguished using only static image structure (i.e., appearance). Motion generates another source of optical information, optic flow, which breaks camouflage and specifies target locations. Optic flow calibrates image structure with respect to spatial relations among targets and distracters, and calibrated image structure makes previously camouflaged targets perceptible in a temporally stable fashion after motion stops. We investigated this proposal using laboratory experiments and compared how many camouflaged targets were identified either with optic flow information alone or with combined optic flow and image structure information. Our results show that the combination of motion-generated optic flow and target-projected image structure information yielded efficient and stable perception of camouflaged targets.

  5. Numerical investigation of flow structure and pressure pulsation in the Francis-99 turbine during startup (United States)

    Minakov, A.; Sentyabov, A.; Platonov, D.


    We performed numerical simulation of flow in a laboratory model of a Francis hydroturbine at startup regimes. Numerical technique for calculating of low frequency pressure pulsations in a water turbine is based on the use of DES (k-ω Shear Stress Transport) turbulence model and the approach of “frozen rotor”. The structure of the flow behind the runner of turbine was analysed. Shows the effect of flow structure on the frequency and intensity of non-stationary processes in the flow path. Two version of the inlet boundary conditions were considered. The first one corresponded measured time dependence of the discharge. Comparison of the calculation results with the experimental data shows the considerable delay of the discharge in this calculation. Second version corresponded linear approximation of time dependence of the discharge. This calculation shows good agreement with experimental results.

  6. Emergence of three-dimensional flow structures in shock boundary layer interactions (United States)

    Gs, Sidharth; Dwivedi, Anubhav; Nichols, Joseph; Jovanovic, Mihailo; Candler, Graham


    Experiments and computations point to the emergence of three-dimensional (3D) flow structures in laminar shock boundary layer interactions in various configurations. We examine a Mach 5 flow over a double compression ramp and reveal the presence of a bifurcation from a steady 2D to a steady 3D flow state. This is done by varying the relative angle of the two ramps which increases the interaction strength. We employ global linear stability analysis and direct numerical simulation to characterize this bifurcation and demonstrate that global instability induces 3D flow structures. We use the direct and adjoint linear equations to further investigate the origin of this instability and examine the influence of uncertainty (including the effect of geometric irregularities in the ramp and free-stream disturbances in wind tunnel) on this bifurcation. This work was supported by Office of Naval Research through Grant Number N00014-15-1-2522.

  7. Flow structures in end-view plane of slender delta wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Besir


    Full Text Available Present investigation focuses on unsteady flow structures in end-view planes at the trailing edge of delta wing, X/C=1.0, where consequences of vortex bursting and stall phenomena vary according to angles of attack over the range of 25° ≤ α ≤ 35° and yaw angles, β over the range of 0° ≤ β ≤ 20°. Basic features of counter rotating vortices in end-view planes of delta win with 70° sweep angle, Λ are examined both qualitatively and quantitatively using Rhodamine dye and the PIV system. In the light of present experiments it is seen that with increasing yaw angle, β symmetrical flow structure is disrupted continuously. Dispersed wind-ward side leading edge vortices cover a large part of flow domain, on the other hand, lee-ward side leading edge vortices cover only a small portion of flow domain.

  8. Wave scattering approach to power flow in frame structures and piping networks (United States)

    Beale, Linda Sue


    A general matrix method is presented for the analysis of power flow in two- and three-dimensional frames using a wave scattering approach. Axial, torsional, and flexural wave modes are included. Since the method is intended to be used for mid and high frequency analysis, shear deformation and rotary inertia are included in the flexural wave modes. A general formulation is presented to determine wave scattering at structural junctions and boundaries. Although the finite element method can be used to calculate power flow, a large number of elements is required at mid and high frequencies to obtain accurate results. In the current method, exact wave mode expressions are used and therefore only one ``element'' is required for each structural member at any frequency. Power flow results using the wave scattering approach are compared to the conventional finite element method for two- and three-dimensional frames. The method is extended to analyze power flow in piping networks with steady fluid flow. Currently there is no accurate and efficient method for performing this type of analysis and the wave scattering method provides an effective approach. The effect of the fluid flow is introduced through the flexural equations of motion for a pipe. With the exception of the wave mode expressions themselves which are directly influenced by the fluid flow, the matrix formulation is essentially the same as for frames without fluid. The results from the wave scattering method with fluid flow are compared to those from an exact analysis of a simply supported beam for verification. Finally, a piping network was analyzed with and without fluid flow to observe the effects of the flow on the system.

  9. Disorder structure of free-flow and global jams in the extended BML model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaomei; Xie Dongfan; Jia Bin; Jiang Rui; Gao Ziyou


    The original BML model is extended by introducing extended sites, which can hold several vehicles at each time-step. Unexpectedly, the flow in the extended model sharply transits from free-flow to global jams, but the transition is not one-order in original BML model. And congestion in the extended model appears more easily. This can ascribe to the mixture of vehicles from different directions in one site, leading to the drop-off of the capacity of the site. Furthermore, the typical configuration of free flowing and global jams in the extended models is disorder, different from the regular structure in the original model.

  10. Numerical Simulation on the Performance of a Mixed-Flow Pump under Various Casing Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Dazhuan


    Full Text Available With regard to the reactor coolant pump and high flow-rate circulating pump, the requirements on the compactness of the structure, safety, and hydraulic performance are particularly important. Thus, the mixed-flow pump with cylindrical casing is adopted in some occasions. Due to the different characteristics between the special cylindrical casing and the common pump casing, the influence of the special casing on a mixed-flow pump characteristics was numerically investigated to obtain better performance and flow structure in the casing. The results show that the models with cylindrical casing have much worse head and efficiency characteristics than the experimental model, and this is caused by the flow in the pump casing. By moving the guide vanes half inside the pump casing, the efficiency gets improved while the low pressure zone at the corner of outlet pipe and pump casing disappeared. When the length of pump casing increases from the size equal to the diameter of outlet pipe to that larger than it, the efficiency drops obviously and the flow field in the outlet pipe improved without curved flow. In addition, the length of the pump casing has greater impacts on the pump performance than the radius of it.

  11. The feasible study of the water flow in the micro channel with the Y-junction and narrow structure for various flow rates (United States)

    Jasikova, D.; Kotek, M.; Kopecky, V.


    Here we present the results of measurement in micro-channel with the Y-junction and narrow structure for various flow rates. There was used BSG micro-channel with trapezoidal cross-section. The parameters of the channel are described in the paper. The flow in the micro-channel was invested with micro-PIV technique and various flow rates were set on each inlet. The resulting flow rate in the steady area follows the laminar flow with very low Re 30. Here we are focused on the flow characteristic in the Y-junction and in selected narrow structure. The fluid flow is evaluated with vector and scalar maps and the profile plots that were taken in the point of interest.

  12. The feasible study of the water flow in the micro channel with the Y-junction and narrow structure for various flow rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasikova D.


    Full Text Available Here we present the results of measurement in micro-channel with the Y-junction and narrow structure for various flow rates. There was used BSG micro-channel with trapezoidal cross-section. The parameters of the channel are described in the paper. The flow in the micro-channel was invested with micro-PIV technique and various flow rates were set on each inlet. The resulting flow rate in the steady area follows the laminar flow with very low Re 30. Here we are focused on the flow characteristic in the Y-junction and in selected narrow structure. The fluid flow is evaluated with vector and scalar maps and the profile plots that were taken in the point of interest.

  13. Analyzing vortex breakdown flow structures by assignment of colors to tensor invariants. (United States)

    Rütten, Markus; Chong, Min S


    Topological methods are often used to describe flow structures in fluid dynamics and topological flow field analysis usually relies on the invariants of the associated tensor fields. A visual impression of the local properties of tensor fields is often complex and the search of a suitable technique for achieving this is an ongoing topic in visualization. This paper introduces and assesses a method of representing the topological properties of tensor fields and their respective flow patterns with the use of colors. First, a tensor norm is introduced, which preserves the properties of the tensor and assigns the tensor invariants to values of the RGB color space. Secondly, the RGB colors of the tensor invariants are transferred to corresponding hue values as an alternative color representation. The vectorial tensor invariants field is reduced to a scalar hue field and visualization of iso-surfaces of this hue value field allows us to identify locations with equivalent flow topology. Additionally highlighting by the maximum of the eigenvalue difference field reflects the magnitude of the structural change of the flow. The method is applied on a vortex breakdown flow structure inside a cylinder with a rotating lid.

  14. Structural state diagram of concentrated suspensions of jammed soft particles in oscillatory shear flow (United States)

    Khabaz, Fardin; Cloitre, Michel; Bonnecaze, Roger T.


    In a recent study [Khabaz et al., Phys. Rev. Fluids 2, 093301 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.2.093301], we showed that jammed soft particle glasses (SPGs) crystallize and order in steady shear flow. Here we investigate the rheology and microstructures of these suspensions in oscillatory shear flow using particle-dynamics simulations. The microstructures in both types of flows are similar, but their evolutions are very different. In both cases the monodisperse and polydisperse suspensions form crystalline and layered structures, respectively, at high shear rates. The crystals obtained in the oscillatory shear flow show fewer defects compared to those in the steady shear. SPGs remain glassy for maximum oscillatory strains less than about the yield strain of the material. For maximum strains greater than the yield strain, microstructural and rheological transitions occur for SPGs. Polydisperse SPGs rearrange into a layered structure parallel to the flow-vorticity plane for sufficiently high maximum shear rates and maximum strains about 10 times greater than the yield strain. Monodisperse suspensions form a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure when the maximum shear rate is low and hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure when the maximum shear rate is high. In steady shear, the transition from a glassy state to a layered one for polydisperse suspensions included a significant induction strain before the transformation. In oscillatory shear, the transformation begins to occur immediately and with different microstructural changes. A state diagram for suspensions in large amplitude oscillatory shear flow is found to be in close but not exact agreement with the state diagram for steady shear flow. For more modest amplitudes of around one to five times the yield strain, there is a transition from a glassy structure to FCC and HCP crystals, at low and high frequencies, respectively, for monodisperse suspensions. At moderate frequencies, the transition is from glassy to HCP via

  15. Flow-structure interaction of falling cones in unbounded flow media (United States)

    Troolin, Dan; Wing, Lai; Jin, Yaqing; Hamed, A. H.; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Chamorro, Leonardo P.


    The kinematics of falling objects in a fluid media at rest are dominated by the vorticity dynamics generated in the vicinity of the object. At a critical Reynolds number, the large-scale vortical structures shed by the body lose their axisymmetric character leading to unsteady lift and, consequently, body rotation. The dynamics of these motions depend on the body shape and can range from simple oscillatory motions to chaotic behavior. In this study, 2D and 3D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) are used to characterize the turbulence in the vicinity of cones of various shapes (aspect ratios) falling in a fluid media at complete rest. Translations and rotations experienced by the cones are tracked with a miniature and highly sensitive 3-axis accelerometer and 3-axis gyroscope inserted in the object. Coupling between vortex dynamics and body motions is characterized at various Reynolds numbers and cone shapes.

  16. Cross-Diffusion Systems with Excluded-Volume Effects and Asymptotic Gradient Flow Structures (United States)

    Bruna, Maria; Burger, Martin; Ranetbauer, Helene; Wolfram, Marie-Therese


    In this paper, we discuss the analysis of a cross-diffusion PDE system for a mixture of hard spheres, which was derived in Bruna and Chapman (J Chem Phys 137:204116-1-204116-16, 2012a) from a stochastic system of interacting Brownian particles using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The resulting cross-diffusion system is valid in the limit of small volume fraction of particles. While the system has a gradient flow structure in the symmetric case of all particles having the same size and diffusivity, this is not valid in general. We discuss local stability and global existence for the symmetric case using the gradient flow structure and entropy variable techniques. For the general case, we introduce the concept of an asymptotic gradient flow structure and show how it can be used to study the behavior close to equilibrium. Finally, we illustrate the behavior of the model with various numerical simulations.

  17. Development of a flow structure interaction methodology applicable to a convertible car roof

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, J J


    The current research investigates the flow-induced deformation of a convertible roof of a vehicle using experimental and numerical methods. A computational methodology is developed that entails the coupling of a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code with an in-house structural code. A model two-dimensional problem is first studied. The CFD code and a Source Panel Method (SPM) code are used to predict the pressure acting on the surface of a rigid roof of a scale model. Good agreement is found between predicted pressure distribution and that obtained in a parallel wind-tunnel experimental programme. The validated computational modelling of the fluid flow is then used in a coupling strategy with a line-element structural model that incorporates initial slackness of the flexible roof material. The computed flow-structure interaction yields stable solutions, the aerodynamically loaded flexible roof settling into static equilibrium. The effects of slackness and material properties on deformation and co...

  18. Flow-structure Interaction Modeling of a Fish Caudal Fin during Steady Swimming (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Geng, Biao; Zheng, Xudong; Xue, Qian; Dong, Haibo


    It's widely thought that the flexibilities of fish fins play critical roles in propulsive performance enhancement (such as thrust augment and efficiency improvement) in nature. In order to explore the formation mechanisms of the fish fin's flexible morphing and its hydrodynamic benefits as well, a high-fidelity flow-structure/membrane interaction modeling of the fish caudal fin is conducted in this work. Following the realistic configuration of the fish caudal fin, a thin membrane supported by a series of beams is constructed. The material properties of the membrane and the beams are reversely determined by the realistic fin morphing obtained from the high-speed videos and the high fidelity flow-structure interaction simulations. With the accurate material property, we investigate the interplay between structure, kinematics and fluid flow in caudal fin propulsion. Detailed analyses on the relationship between the flexural stiffness, fin morphing patterns, hydrodynamic forces and vortex dynamics are then conducted.

  19. Computational Investigation on Fully Developed Periodic Laminar Flow Structure in Baffled Circular Tube with Various BR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Withada Jedsadaratanachai


    Full Text Available This paper presents a 3D numerical analysis of fully developed periodic laminar flow in a circular tube fitted with 45° inclined baffles with inline arrangement. The computations are based on a finite volume method, and the SIMPLE algorithm has been implemented. The characteristics of fluid flow are presented for Reynolds number, Re = 100–1000, based on the hydraulic diameter (D of the tube. The angled baffles were repeatedly inserted at the middle of the test tube with inline arrangement to generate vortex flows over the tested tube. Effects of different Reynolds numbers and blockage ratios (b/D, BR with a single pitch ratio of 1 on flow structure in the tested tube were emphasized. The flows in baffled tube show periodic flow at x/D ≈ 2-3, and become a fully developed periodic flow profiles at x/D ≈ 6-7, depending on Re, BR and transverse plane positions. The computational results reveal that the higher of BR and closer position of turbulators, the faster of fully developed periodic flow profiles.

  20. Upper flow-regime structures in a Pleistocene carbonate ramp (Favignana, Italy): diagnostic criteria and implications (United States)

    Slootman, Arnoud; Cartigny, Matthieu; de Boer, Poppe; Moscariello, Andrea


    This work presents key diagnostic criteria for the recognition of upper flow-regime sedimentary structures in clastic cool-water carbonate accumulations, illustrated by the excellent exposures of the Pleistocene carbonate ramp succession of Favignana Island (Italy). Cool-water carbonate sedimentation has dominated Mediterranean shelves since the Early Pliocene. Of the various types of marine limestones, cool-water carbonates behave most similar to siliciclastics. They typically develop ramp morphologies with skeletal sand and gravel, consisting of the remains of heterozoan organisms. Resedimentation of this loose carbonate debris during high-energy events such as storms and, more rarely, tsunamis is the norm. Off-ramp supercritical sediment density flows are important contributors to basinward sediment transport as evidenced by the prevalence of backset-stratification bounded by composite erosion surfaces, locally defining spoon-shaped scours-fills, in beds exceeding several metres in thickness. Sedimentary structures created by upper flow-regime bedforms like antidunes, chute-and-pools and cyclic steps as seen on Favignana Island, which form in association with in-phase waves and hydraulic jumps, are not commonly mentioned in carbonate ramp depositional models. For each of the bedforms we present diagnostic criteria to explain otherwise enigmatic sedimentary structures. Thick beds deposited by supercritical sediment density flows have major implications for the distribution of porosity and permeability in carbonate sandstone bodies, especially where they host hydrocarbon and/or water accumulations. The correct identification of upper flow-regime sedimentary structures in carbonate ramp accumulations is therefore important.

  1. Kinematic morphology of large-scale structure: evolution from potential to rotational flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin; Szalay, Alex; Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Eyink, Gregory L.


    As an alternative way to describe the cosmological velocity field, we discuss the evolution of rotational invariants constructed from the velocity gradient tensor. Compared with the traditional divergence-vorticity decomposition, these invariants, defined as coefficients of the characteristic equation of the velocity gradient tensor, enable a complete classification of all possible flow patterns in the dark-matter comoving frame, including both potential and vortical flows. We show that this tool, first introduced in turbulence two decades ago, is very useful for understanding the evolution of the cosmic web structure, and in classifying its morphology. Before shell crossing, different categories of potential flow are highly associated with the cosmic web structure because of the coherent evolution of density and velocity. This correspondence is even preserved at some level when vorticity is generated after shell crossing. The evolution from the potential to vortical flow can be traced continuously by these invariants. With the help of this tool, we show that the vorticity is generated in a particular way that is highly correlated with the large-scale structure. This includes a distinct spatial distribution and different types of alignment between the cosmic web and vorticity direction for various vortical flows. Incorporating shell crossing into closed dynamical systems is highly non-trivial, but we propose a possible statistical explanation for some of the phenomena relating to the internal structure of the three-dimensional invariant space.

  2. Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoop, Hans Henrik


    FLOW. Orden i hovedet på den fede måde Oplevelsesmæssigt er flow-tilstanden kendetegnet ved at man er fuldstændig involveret, fokuseret og koncentreret; at man oplever stor indre klarhed ved at vide hvad der skal gøres, og i hvilket omfang det lykkes; at man ved at det er muligt at løse opgaven...

  3. Observations of flow path interactions with surface structures during initial soil development stage using irrigation experiments (United States)

    Bartl, Steffen; Biemelt, Detlef; Badorreck, Annika; Gerke, Horst H.


    Structures and processes are dynamically linked especially during initial stages of soil and ecosystem development. Here we assume that soil pore structures and micro topography determine the flow paths and water fluxes as well as further structure changes. Reports about flow path developments at the soil surface are still limited because of an insufficient knowledge of the changing micro topography at the surface. The objective of this presentation is to evaluate methods for parameterisation of surface micro topography for analysing interactions between infiltration and surface runoff. Complex irrigation experiments were carried out at an experimental site in the neighbourhood of the artificially created water catchment "Chicken Creek". The irrigation rates between 160 mm/h and 250 mm/h were held constant over a time period of 20 minutes. The incoming intensities were measured as well as the raindrop-velocity and -size distributions. The surface runoff was continuously registered, soil samples were taken, and soil water potential heads were monitored using tensiometers. Surface and subsurface flow paths were identified using different tracers. The soil surface structures were recorded using a high resolution digital camera before, during, and after irrigation. Micro topography was surveyed using close-range photogrammetry. With this experimental design both, flow paths on the surface and in the soil as well as structure and texture changes could be observed simultaneously. In 2D vertical cross-sections, the effect of initial sediment deposition structure on infiltration and runoff was observed. Image analysis of surface pictures allowed identifying structural and soil textural changes during the runoff process. Similar structural changes related to surface flow paths were found with the photogrammetric surface analysis. We found evidence for the importance of the initial structures on the flow paths as well as a significant influence of the system development

  4. Measurement of bubble shape and size in bubbly flow structure for stagnant and pulsating liquid flow using an undivided electrochlorination cell and Telecentric Direct Image Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nikolaj; Stroe, Rodica-Elisabeta; Hedensted, Lau


    This study presents the measurement of shape and diameter of bubbles in different regions of the bubbly flow structure at the cathode for stagnant and pulsating liquid flow in a single undivided electrochlorination cell. The cell is filled with a dilute sodium chloride electrolyte solution...... is supported by an increase in fraction of total gas volume constituted by large bubbles. For pulsating liquid flow the mean bubble diameter is observed to remain constant around 35 μm when moving across the bubbly flow structure, which likewise is supported by the fraction of total gas volume investigations...

  5. Diagnostics of spatial structure of vortex multiplets in a swirl flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naumov, I. V.; Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    Results on investigation of vortex unstable breakdown are presented. The structure of vortex multiplets was visualized in a vertical cylindrical container made of transparent organic glass of the optic quality with the inner diameter of 288 mm and rotating upper lid. Visualization was performed....... Visualization of flow structure for unstable swirl flows and cylinder aspect ratios from 3.2 to 5.5 allowed first identification of these regimes as multispiral breakdowns with formation of helical-like vortex duplets, triplets and quadruplets....

  6. Fundamental interactions of vortical structures with boundary layers in two-dimensional flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutsias, E.A.; Lynov, Jens-Peter


    The effect of no-slip walls on the evolution of coherent, vortical structures in two-dimensional flows is studied by numerical calculations. The calculations are based on an accurate and efficient spectral scheme which has been developed for the solution of the 2D Navier-Stokes equations in the v......The effect of no-slip walls on the evolution of coherent, vortical structures in two-dimensional flows is studied by numerical calculations. The calculations are based on an accurate and efficient spectral scheme which has been developed for the solution of the 2D Navier-Stokes equations...... down of vortex dipoles by "vortex shielding"....

  7. Adjoint shape optimization for fluid-structure interaction of ducted flows (United States)

    Heners, J. P.; Radtke, L.; Hinze, M.; Düster, A.


    Based on the coupled problem of time-dependent fluid-structure interaction, equations for an appropriate adjoint problem are derived by the consequent use of the formal Lagrange calculus. Solutions of both primal and adjoint equations are computed in a partitioned fashion and enable the formulation of a surface sensitivity. This sensitivity is used in the context of a steepest descent algorithm for the computation of the required gradient of an appropriate cost functional. The efficiency of the developed optimization approach is demonstrated by minimization of the pressure drop in a simple two-dimensional channel flow and in a three-dimensional ducted flow surrounded by a thin-walled structure.

  8. Adjoint shape optimization for fluid-structure interaction of ducted flows (United States)

    Heners, J. P.; Radtke, L.; Hinze, M.; Düster, A.


    Based on the coupled problem of time-dependent fluid-structure interaction, equations for an appropriate adjoint problem are derived by the consequent use of the formal Lagrange calculus. Solutions of both primal and adjoint equations are computed in a partitioned fashion and enable the formulation of a surface sensitivity. This sensitivity is used in the context of a steepest descent algorithm for the computation of the required gradient of an appropriate cost functional. The efficiency of the developed optimization approach is demonstrated by minimization of the pressure drop in a simple two-dimensional channel flow and in a three-dimensional ducted flow surrounded by a thin-walled structure.

  9. PIV measurements in a microfluidic 3D-sheathing structure with three-dimensional flow behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klank, Henning; Goranovic, Goran; Kutter, Jörg Peter


    . The structures are often of complex geometry and include strongly three-dimensional flow behaviour, which poses a challenge for the micro particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) technique. The flow in a microfluidic 3D-sheathing structure has been measured throughout the volume using micro-PIV. In addition......, a stereoscopic principle was applied to obtain all three velocity components, showing the feasibility of obtaining full volume mapping (x, y, z, U, V, W) from micro-PIV measurements. The results are compared with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations....

  10. Large-Eddy Simulation of Coherent Flow Structures within a Cubical Canopy (United States)

    Inagaki, Atsushi; Castillo, Marieta Cristina L.; Yamashita, Yoshimi; Kanda, Manabu; Takimoto, Hiroshi


    Instantaneous flow structures "within" a cubical canopy are investigated via large-eddy simulation. The main topics of interest are, (1) large-scale coherent flow structures within a cubical canopy, (2) how the structures are coupled with the turbulent organized structures (TOS) above them, and (3) the classification and quantification of representative instantaneous flow patterns within a street canyon in relation to the coherent structures. We use a large numerical domain (2,560 m × 2,560 m × 1,710 m) with a fine spatial resolution (2.5 m), thereby simulating a complete daytime atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), as well as explicitly resolving a regular array of cubes (40 m in height) at the surface. A typical urban ABL is numerically modelled. In this situation, the constant heat supply from roof and floor surfaces sustains a convective mixed layer as a whole, but strong wind shear near the canopy top maintains the surface layer nearly neutral. The results reveal large coherent structures in both the velocity and temperature fields "within" the canopy layer. These structures are much larger than the cubes, and their shapes and locations are shown to be closely related to the TOS above them. We classify the instantaneous flow patterns in a cavity, specifically focusing on two characteristic flow patterns: flushing and cavity-eddy events. Flushing indicates a strong upward motion, while a cavity eddy is characterized by a dominant vortical motion within a single cavity. Flushing is clearly correlated with the TOS above, occurring frequently beneath low-momentum streaks. The instantaneous momentum and heat transport within and above a cavity due to flushing and cavity-eddy events are also quantified.

  11. Application of Dynamic Mode Decomposition: Temporal Evolution of Flow Structures in an Aneurysm (United States)

    Conlin, William; Yu, Paulo; Durgesh, Vibhav


    An aneurysm is an enlargement of a weakened arterial wall that can be fatal or debilitating on rupture. Aneurysm hemodynamics is integral to developing an understanding of aneurysm formation, growth, and rupture. The flow in an aneurysm exhibits complex fluid dynamics behavior due to an inherent unsteady inflow condition and its interactions with large-scale flow structures present in the aneurysm. The objective of this study is to identify the large-scale structures in the aneurysm, study temporal behavior, and quantify their interaction with the inflow condition. For this purpose, detailed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed at the center plane of an idealized aneurysm model for a range of inflow conditions. Inflow conditions were precisely controlled using a ViVitro SuperPump system. Dynamic Modal Decomposition (DMD) of the velocity field was used to identify coherent structures and their temporal behavior. DMD was successful in capturing the large-scale flow structures and their temporal behavior. A low dimensional approximation to the flow field was obtained with the most relevant dynamic modes and was used to obtain temporal information about the coherent structures and their interaction with the inflow, formation, evolution, and growth.

  12. Flow-induced vibration study by exploiting inherent nonlinearity of structure (United States)

    Seyed-Aghazadeh, Banafsheh; Samandari, Hamed


    Elastically mounted prismatic structures placed in flow can undergo Flow-Induced Vibration (FIV). Flow forces acting on these structures consist of a main frequency, close to the natural frequency of the system, as well as its higher harmonic components. Mostly in FIV studies, the structural stiffness is provided through linear springs. The linearity of the structure limits occurrence of potential large amplitude oscillations at higher harmonics of the main frequency. In this study, we propose implementing an inherently nonlinear structure in FIV study of a prismatic structure. Through this unique design, excitation of higher harmonics and coupling between those and natural frequencies of the system can be achieved. A square cross-section prism was mounted on the upstream tip of an elastic beam with inherent nonlinearity and was placed in the test-section of a subsonic wind tunnel. The tests were conducted in a Reynolds number range of 150structural configurations for coupling between the higher harmonics and natural frequencies of the system. This project was funded by Office for the Advancement of Research & Scholarship, Miami University and James R. Myers Endowment fund.

  13. Secondary flow structure in a model curved artery: 3D morphology and circulation budget analysis (United States)

    Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.


    In this study, we examined the rate of change of circulation within control regions encompassing the large-scale vortical structures associated with secondary flows, i.e. deformed Dean-, Lyne- and Wall-type (D-L-W) vortices at planar cross-sections in a 180° curved artery model (curvature ratio, 1/7). Magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments were performed independently, under the same physiological inflow conditions (Womersley number, 4.2) and using Newtonian blood-analog fluids. The MRV-technique performed at Stanford University produced phase-averaged, three-dimensional velocity fields. Secondary flow field comparisons of MRV-data to PIV-data at various cross-sectional planes and inflow phases were made. A wavelet-decomposition-based approach was implemented to characterize various secondary flow morphologies. We hypothesize that the persistence and decay of arterial secondary flow vortices is intrinsically related to the influence of the out-of-plane flow, tilting, in-plane convection and diffusion-related factors within the control regions. Evaluation of these factors will elucidate secondary flow structures in arterial hemodynamics. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number CBET-0828903, and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE). The MRV data were acquired at Stanford University in collaboration with Christopher Elkins and John Eaton.

  14. Streamwise vortices in shear flows: harbingers of transition and the skeleton of coherent structures (United States)

    Sherwin, Spencer; Hall, Phil


    The relationship between asymptotic descriptions of vortex-wave interactions and more recent work on "exact coherent structures" is investigated. We have recently shown that the so-called "lower branch" state, which has been identified as playing a crucial role in these self-sustained processes, is a finite Reynolds number analogue of a Rayleigh vortex-wave interaction with scales appropriately modified from those for external flows to Couette flow the flow of interest here. Remarkable agreement between the asymptotic theory and numerical solutions of the Navier Stokes equations is found even down to relatively small Reynolds numbers thereby suggesting the possible importance of vortex-wave interaction theory in turbulent shear flows. In this paper we will outline the motivation behind the asymptotic analysis and computational modelling which demonstrate the linkage between wave vortex interaction and self sustaining processes. The minimum drag configuration associated with a fixed spanwise wavenumber is also determined as a function of the downstream wavelength and this points to the crucial importance of long waves evolving on the spatial scale appropriate to the roll/streak flow. [4pt] Hall, P. & Sherwin, S.J. 2010, Streamwise vortices in shear flows: harbingers of transition and the skeleton of coherent structures, J. Fluid Mech./ in press.

  15. An integrated simulator of structure and anisotropic flow in gas diffusion layers with hydrophobic additives (United States)

    Burganos, Vasilis N.; Skouras, Eugene D.; Kalarakis, Alexandros N.


    The lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method is used in this work to reproduce the controlled addition of binder and hydrophobicity-promoting agents, like polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), into gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and to predict flow permeabilities in the through- and in-plane directions. The present simulator manages to reproduce spreading of binder and hydrophobic additives, sequentially, into the neat fibrous layer using a two-phase flow model. Gas flow simulation is achieved by the same code, sidestepping the need for a post-processing flow code and avoiding the usual input/output and data interface problems that arise in other techniques. Compression effects on flow anisotropy of the impregnated GDL are also studied. The permeability predictions for different compression levels and for different binder or PTFE loadings are found to compare well with experimental data for commercial GDL products and with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions. Alternatively, the PTFE-impregnated structure is reproduced from Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images using an independent, purely geometrical approach. A comparison of the two approaches is made regarding their adequacy to reproduce correctly the main structural features of the GDL and to predict anisotropic flow permeabilities at different volume fractions of binder and hydrophobic additives.

  16. Nanoscale fluid-structure interaction: flow resistance and energy transfer between water and carbon nanotubes. (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Ma, Ming; Jin, Kai; Liu, Jefferson Zhe; Shen, Luming; Zheng, Quanshui; Xu, Zhiping


    We investigate here water flow passing a single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT), through analysis based on combined atomistic and continuum mechanics simulations. The relation between drag coefficient C(D) and Reynolds number Re is obtained for a wide range of flow speed u from 5 to 600 m/s. The results suggest that Stokes law for creep flow works well for small Reynolds numbers up to 0.1 (u ≈ 100 m/s), and indicates a linear dependence between drag force and flow velocity. Significant deviation is observed at elevated Re values, which is discussed by considering the interfacial slippage, reduction of viscosity due to friction-induced local heating, and flow-induced structural vibration. We find that interfacial slippage has a limited contribution to the reduction of the resistance, and excitations of low-frequency vibration modes in the carbon nanotube play an important role in energy transfer between water and carbon nanotubes, especially at high flow speeds where drastic enhancement of the carbon nanotube vibration is observed. The results reported here reveal nanoscale fluid-structure interacting mechanisms, and lay the ground for rational design of nanofluidics and nanoelectromechanical devices operating in a fluidic environment.

  17. The performance of double layer structure membrane prepared from flowing coagulant (United States)

    Mieow Kee, Chan; Xeng, Anthony Leong Chan; Regal, Sasiskala; Singh, Balvinder; Raoo, Preeshaath; Koon Eu, Yap; Sok Choo, Ng


    Membrane with double layer structure is favourable as it exhibits smooth surface and macrovoids free structure. However, its’ performance in terms of permeability, porosity and strength has not been studied thoroughly. Additionally, the effect of flowing coagulant on the formation of double layer membrane has not been reported. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the performance of double layer membranes, which were prepared using flowing coagulant. Results showed that when the coagulant flow changed from laminar to turbulent, the pure water permeation of the membrane increased. It was due to the higher porosity in the membrane, which prepared by turbulent flow (CA-Turbulent) compared to the membrane which fabricated under laminar condition (CA-Laminar). This can be explained by the rapid solvent-coagulant exchange rate between the polymer solution and the turbulent coagulant. In term of strength, the tensile strength of the CA-Turbulent was ~32 MPa, which was 100% higher compared to CA-Laminar. This may due to the presence of large amount of nodules on its surface, which reduced the surface integrity. In conclusion, flowing coagulant altered the membrane properties and adopting turbulent coagulant flow in membrane fabrication would improve the porosity, surface roughness and the strength of the membrane.

  18. Structure analysis of bubble driven flow by time-resolved PIV and POD techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Dong; Yi, Seung Jae; Kim, Jong Wook; Kim, Kyung Chun


    In this paper, the recirculation flow motion and turbulence characteristics of liquid flow driven by air bubble stream in a rectangular water tank are studied. The time-resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique is adopted for the quantitative visualization and analysis. 532nm Diode CW laser is used for illumination and orange fluorescent (λex = 540nm, λem = 584nm) particle images are acquired by a 1280X1024 high-speed camera. To obtain clean particle images, 545nm long pass optical filter and an image intensifier are employed and the flow rate of compressed air is 3/min at 0.5MPa. The recirculation and mixing flow field is further investigated by timeresolved Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) analysis technique. It is observed that the large scale recirculation resulting from the interaction between rising bubble stream and side wall is the most dominant flow structure and there are small scale vortical structures moving along with the large scale recirculation flow. It is also verified that the sum of 20 modes of velocity field has about 67.4% of total turbulent energy

  19. Statistical Investigation on Coherent Vortex Structure in Turbulent Drag Reducing Channel Flow with Blown Polymer Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishitsuka, Shota; Motozawa, Masaaki; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Iwamoto, Kaoru; Ando, Hirotomo; Senda, Tetsuya


    Coherent vortex structure in turbulent drag-reducing channel flow with blown polymer solution from the wall was investigated. As a statistical analysis, we carried out Galilean decomposition, swirling strength and linear stochastic estimation of the PIV data obtained by the PIV measurement in x – y plane. Reynolds number based on bulk velocity and channel height was set to 40000. As a result, the angle of shear layer that cleared up by using Galilean decomposition becomes small in the drag-reducing flow. Q3 events were observed near the shear layer. In addition, as a result of linear stochastic estimation (LSE) based on swirling strength, we confirmed that the velocity under the vortex core is strong in the water flow. This result shows Q2 (ejection) are dominant in the water flow. However, in the drag-reducing flow with blown polymer solution, the velocity above the vortex core become strong, that is, Q4 (sweep) events are relatively strong around the vortex core. This is the result of Q4 events to come from the channel center region because the polymer solution does not exist in this region. The typical structure like this was observed in the drag -reducing flow with blown polymer solution from the wall.

  20. Renormalization-group flow of the effective action of cosmological large-scale structures

    CERN Document Server

    Floerchinger, Stefan


    Following an approach of Matarrese and Pietroni, we derive the functional renormalization group (RG) flow of the effective action of cosmological large-scale structures. Perturbative solutions of this RG flow equation are shown to be consistent with standard cosmological perturbation theory. Non-perturbative approximate solutions can be obtained by truncating the a priori infinite set of possible effective actions to a finite subspace. Using for the truncated effective action a form dictated by dissipative fluid dynamics, we derive RG flow equations for the scale dependence of the effective viscosity and sound velocity of non-interacting dark matter, and we solve them numerically. Physically, the effective viscosity and sound velocity account for the interactions of long-wavelength fluctuations with the spectrum of smaller-scale perturbations. We find that the RG flow exhibits an attractor behaviour in the IR that significantly reduces the dependence of the effective viscosity and sound velocity on the input ...

  1. Mode decomposition and Lagrangian structures of the flow dynamics in orbitally shaken bioreactors (United States)

    Weheliye, Weheliye Hashi; Cagney, Neil; Rodriguez, Gregorio; Micheletti, Martina; Ducci, Andrea


    In this study, two mode decomposition techniques were applied and compared to assess the flow dynamics in an orbital shaken bioreactor (OSB) of cylindrical geometry and flat bottom: proper orthogonal decomposition and dynamic mode decomposition. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiments were carried out for different operating conditions including fluid height, h, and shaker rotational speed, N. A detailed flow analysis is provided for conditions when the fluid and vessel motions are in-phase (Fr = 0.23) and out-of-phase (Fr = 0.47). PIV measurements in vertical and horizontal planes were combined to reconstruct low order models of the full 3D flow and to determine its Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) within OSBs. The combined results from the mode decomposition and the FTLE fields provide a useful insight into the flow dynamics and Lagrangian coherent structures in OSBs and offer a valuable tool to optimise bioprocess design in terms of mixing and cell suspension.

  2. Mathematical modeling of fluid flow in complex multi-channel structures (United States)

    Shashkin, V. Y.


    The work is focused on a numerical hydraulic model, which allows one to simulate fluid flow in a complex, arbitrarily configured multi-channel system with a capability of automatic visualization of its structure. The main elements of a system are channels which are united in the system by means of a particular set of coupling elements (local resistance, knots). The processes models in channels are based on the equation of continuity, momentum conservation. The system structure is made by forming matrices of regional and internal boundary conditions according to the developed algorithm. By the model the algorithm is created, on the basis of which the application program is developed. The application program enables one to determine parameters of a steady state of fluid flow in the complex multichannel structures. The calculation structure is shown.

  3. Analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in a double pipe heat exchanger with porous structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targui, N.; Kahalerras, H.


    A numerical study of flow and heat transfer characteristics is made in a double pipe heat exchanger with porous structures inserted in the annular gap in two configurations: on the inner cylinder (A) and on both the cylinders in a staggered fashion (B). The flow field in the porous regions is modelled by the Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model and the finite volume method is used to solve the governing equations. The effects of several parameters such as Darcy number, porous structures thickness and spacing and thermal conductivity ratio are considered in order to look for the most appropriate properties of the porous structures that allow optimal heat transfer enhancement. It is found that the highest heat transfer rates are obtained when the porous structures are attached in configuration B especially at small spacing and high thicknesses

  4. Validation of a fluid-structure interaction numerical model for predicting flow transients in arteries. (United States)

    Kanyanta, V; Ivankovic, A; Karac, A


    Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) numerical models are now widely used in predicting blood flow transients. This is because of the importance of the interaction between the flowing blood and the deforming arterial wall to blood flow behaviour. Unfortunately, most of these FSI models lack rigorous validation and, thus, cannot guarantee the accuracy of their predictions. This paper presents the comprehensive validation of a two-way coupled FSI numerical model, developed to predict flow transients in compliant conduits such as arteries. The model is validated using analytical solutions and experiments conducted on polyurethane mock artery. Flow parameters such as pressure and axial stress (and precursor) wave speeds, wall deformations and oscillating frequency, fluid velocity and Poisson coupling effects, were used as the basis of this validation. Results show very good comparison between numerical predictions, analytical solutions and experimental data. The agreement between the three approaches is generally over 95%. The model also shows accurate prediction of Poisson coupling effects in unsteady flows through flexible pipes, which up to this stage have only being predicted analytically. Therefore, this numerical model can accurately predict flow transients in compliant vessels such as arteries.

  5. Advances in Computational Fluid-Structure Interaction and Flow Simulation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Takizawa, Kenji


    This contributed volume celebrates the work of Tayfun E. Tezduyar on the occasion of his 60th birthday. The articles it contains were born out of the Advances in Computational Fluid-Structure Interaction and Flow Simulation (AFSI 2014) conference, also dedicated to Prof. Tezduyar and held at Waseda University in Tokyo, Japan on March 19-21, 2014. The contributing authors represent a group of international experts in the field who discuss recent trends and new directions in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and fluid-structure interaction (FSI). Organized into seven distinct parts arranged by thematic topics, the papers included cover basic methods and applications of CFD, flows with moving boundaries and interfaces, phase-field modeling, computer science and high-performance computing (HPC) aspects of flow simulation, mathematical methods, biomedical applications, and FSI. Researchers, practitioners, and advanced graduate students working on CFD, FSI, and related topics will find this collection to be a defi...

  6. PIV measurements in a microfluidic 3D-sheathing structure with three-dimensional flow behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klank, Henning; Goranovic, Goran; Kutter, Jörg Peter


    . The structures are often of complex geometry and include strongly three-dimensional flow behaviour, which poses a challenge for the micro particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) technique. The flow in a microfluidic 3D-sheathing structure has been measured throughout the volume using micro-PIV. In addition......The design and production time for complex microfluidic systems is considerable, often up to several months. It is therefore important to be able to understand and predict the flow phenomena prior to design and fabrication of the microdevice in order to save costly fabrication resources......, a stereoscopic principle was applied to obtain all three velocity components, showing the feasibility of obtaining full volume mapping (x, y, z, U, V, W) from micro-PIV measurements. The results are compared with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations....

  7. Simulation of free-space optical guiding structure based on colliding gas flows. (United States)

    Kaganovich, D; Palastro, J P; Chen, Y-H; Gordon, D F; Helle, M H; Ting, A


    Preformed plasma channels with parabolic radial density profiles enable the extended and stable optical guiding of high-intensity laser pulses. High-voltage discharge capillaries, commonly used for channel formation, have limited guiding length and opaque walls, complicating the diagnosis of the plasma within. This paper proposes a free-space gas channel produced by the collision of several gas flows. The collision of the gas flows forms an on-axis density depression surrounded by higher density walls. By offsetting the flows, we demonstrated the creation of what we believe is a novel vortex structure that exhibits a long-lived parabolic density profile. Once ionized, the resulting plasma density profile has a near-parabolic dependence appropriate for guiding. We then performed detailed two-dimensional (2D) fluid dynamics simulations to examine the properties and stability of the guiding structure.

  8. Fluid Flow through Porous Sandstone with Overprinting and Intersecting Geological Structures of Various Types (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Karimi-Fard, M.; Durlofsky, L.; Aydin, A.


    Impact of a wide variety of structural heterogeneities on fluid flow in an aeolian sandstone in the Valley of Fire State Park (NV), such as (1) dilatant fractures (joints), (2) shear fractures (faults), and (3) contraction/compaction structures (compaction bands), are considered. Each type of these structures has its own geometry, spacing, distribution, connectivity, and hydraulic properties, which either enhance or impede subsurface fluid flow. Permeability of these structures may, on average, be a few orders of magnitude higher or lower than those of the corresponding matrix rocks. In recent years, the influence of a single type of these heterogeneities on fluid flow has been studied individually, such as joints, compaction bands or faults. However, as different types of geological structures are commonly present together in the same rock volume, their combined effect requires a more detailed assessment. In this study, fluid flow simulations are performed using a special finite-volume discretization technique that was developed by Karimi-Fard et al. (2004; 2006). Using this approach, thin features such as fractures and compaction bands are represented as linear elements in unstructured 2D models and as planar elements in 3D models, which significantly reduces the total number of cells and simplifies grid generation. The cell geometric information and the cell-to-cell transmissibility obtained from this discretization technique are input to Stanford’s General Purpose Research Simulator (GPRS) for fluid flow simulation. To account for the effects of the various geological structures on subsurface flow, we perform permeability upscaling over regions corresponding to large-scale simulation grid blocks in order to obtain equivalent permeability components in two principal directions. We will focus on the following problems: (1) compaction bands of multisets; (2) compartmentalization of compaction bands of high-angle, low-angle and horizontal; (3) joints overprinting

  9. Evaluating shallow-flow rock structures as scour countermeasures at bridges. (United States)


    A study to determine whether or not shallow-flow rock structures could reliably be used at bridge abutments in place of riprap. Research was conducted in a two-phase effort beginning with numerical modeling and ending with field verification of model...

  10. Primary volcanic structures from a type section of Deccan Trap flows ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Field investigations of the Deccan Trap lava sequence along a 70km traverse in the Narsingpur–. Harrai–Amarwara area of central India indicate twenty lava flows comprising a total thickness of around 480 m. Primary volcanic structures like vesicles and cooling joints are conspicuous in this volcanic succession and are ...

  11. Mean flow structure of non-equilibrium boundary layers with adverse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 26, 2016 ... From the known structure of turbulence eddy viscosity for the flow under consideration is calculated. ... by the office of Indian Academy of Sciences, including those of the staff, the journals, various programmes, and Current Science, has changed from '' (or '') to ''.

  12. Flow-gauging structures in South African rivers Part 2: Calibration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper and its linked predecessor reflect the lessons that have been learnt by DWAF and other South African organisations and should be of value to others who have to perform flow measurements under similar conditions. The problems associated with the use of compound weir structures to gauge discharge and ...

  13. Identification of energy dissipation in structural joints by means of the energy flow analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez, S.S.; Metrikine, A.; Carboni, B.; Lacarbonara, W.


    In this paper, identification of energy dissipation in the joints of a lab-scale structure is accomplished. The identification is carried out by means of an energy flow analysis and experimental data. The devised procedure enables to formulate an energy balance in the vicinity of the joints to

  14. Lee-side flow structures of very low aspect ratio cruciform wing–body configurations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tuling, S


    Full Text Available OF SPACECRAFT AND ROCKETS Vol. 50, No. 6, November–December 2013 Lee-Side Flow Structures of Very Low Aspect Ratio Cruciform Wing–Body Configurations S. Tuling∗ Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001, South Africa L. Dala...

  15. Flow structure in healthy and pathological left ventricles with natural and prosthetic mitral valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meschini, Valentina; De Tullio, M.D.; Querzoli, Giorgio; Verzicco, R.


    In this paper, the structure and the dynamics of the flow in the left heart ventricle are studied for different pumping efficiencies and mitral valve types (natural, biological and mechanical prosthetic). The problem is investigated by direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations,

  16. Structure of the gas-liquid annular two-phase flow in a nozzle section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kenji; Kataoka, Isao; Ohmori, Syuichi; Mori, Michitsugu


    Experimental studies on the flow behavior of gas-liquid annular two-phase flow passing through a nozzle section were carried out. This study is concerned with the central steam jet injector for a next generation nuclear reactor. In the central steam jet injector, steam/water annular two-phase flow is formed at the mixing nozzle. To make an appropriate design and to establish the high-performance steam injector system, it is very important to accumulate the fundamental data of the thermo-hydro dynamic characteristics of annular flow passing through a nozzle section. On the other hand, the transient behavior of multiphase flow, in which the interactions between two-phases occur, is one of the most interesting scientific issues and has attracted research attention. In this study, the transient gas-phase turbulence modification in annular flow due to the gas-liquid phase interaction is experimentally investigated. The annular flow passing through a throat section is under the transient state due to the changing cross sectional area of the channel and resultantly the superficial velocities of both phases are changed compared with a fully developed flow in a straight pipe. The measurements for the gas-phase turbulence were precisely performed by using a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer, and made clear the turbulence structure such as velocity profiles, fluctuation velocity profiles. The behavior of the interfacial waves in the liquid film flow such as the ripple or disturbance waves was also observed. The measurements for the liquid film thickness by the electrode needle method were also performed to measure the base film thickness, mean film thickness, maximum film thickness and wave height of the ripple or the disturbance waves. (author)

  17. Two-Phase Gas-Liquid Flow Structure Characteristics under Periodic Cross Forces Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Perevezentsev


    Full Text Available The article presents a study of two-phase gas-liquid flow under the action of periodic cross forces. The work objective is to obtain experimental data for further analysis and have structure characteristics of the two-phase flow movement. For research, to obtain data without disturbing effect on the flow were used optic PIV (Particle Image Visualization methods because of their noninvasiveness. The cross forces influence was provided by an experimental stand design to change the angular amplitudes and the periods of channel movement cycle with two-phase flow. In the range of volume gas rates was shown a water flow rate versus the inclination angle of immovable riser section and the characteristic angular amplitudes and periods of riser section inclination cycle under periodic cross forces. Data on distribution of average water velocity in twophase flow in abovementioned cases were also obtained. These data allowed us to draw a conclusion that a velocity distribution depends on the angular amplitude and on the period of the riser section roll cycle. This article belongs to publications, which study two-phase flows with no disturbing effect on them. Obtained data give an insight into understanding a pattern of twophase gas-liquid flow under the action of periodic cross forces and can be used to verify the mathematical models of the CFD thermo-hydraulic codes. In the future, the work development expects taking measurements with more frequent interval in the ranges of angular amplitudes and periods of the channel movement cycle and create a mathematical model to show the action of periodic cross forces on two-phase gas-liquid flow.

  18. Three dimensional flow structures and turbulence distribution in an urban environment (United States)

    Monnier, Bruno

    Understanding and controlling the dispersion of pollutants and contaminants in urban areas has become a major focus recently. Field measurements, numerical studies, and wind tunnel experiments have increased in number. Specifically, there is a growing need for a spatio-temporal description of such complex flow fields under well-controlled conditions, typically obtained in wind tunnel experiments. The reduced scale model of interest is a 4 by 3 array of cuboid blocks in an experimentally modeled, neutrally stratified, atmospheric boundary-layer. The use of Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV) allows for a three-dimensional description of this urban flow. A large amount of SPIV data is collected upstream and in each middle street of the urban environment allowing for a study of the flow evolution from street to street. Valuable information about the flow structures are presented along with the mechanisms responsible for contaminant transport and dispersion. The effects of small incidence angles of the incoming flow with respect to the urban array and the effects of streamwise spacing between streets on the flow characteristics are investigated. A major observation from this work is that a strong channeling effect is observed for incidence angles as small as 4.5° and is found to be comparable in strength to that observed in other investigations for much larger angles. A coupling between this channeling effect and the structures responsible for contaminant transport is revealed. An innovative method using sparse measurements to estimate the continuous temporal evolution of the dominant structures in the flow is investigated. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition is used to obtain a reduced-order representation (ROR) of the flow field. Sparse velocity measurements within the domain serve as input to measurement models that provide an estimation of the ROR of the velocity field. This ROR of the flow field could be regarded as the first that provides a temporal

  19. New modeling and experimental approaches for characterization of two-phase flow interfacial structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Mamoru; Sun, Xiaodong


    This paper presents new experimental and modeling approaches in characterizing interfacial structures in gas-liquid two-phase flow. For the experiments, two objective approaches are developed to identify flow regimes and to obtain local interfacial structure data. First, a global measurement technique using a non-intrusive ring-type impedance void-meter and a self-organizing neural network is presented to identify the one-dimensional'' flow regimes. In the application of this measurement technique, two methods are discussed, namely, one based on the probability density function of the impedance probe measurement (PDF input method) and the other based on the sorted impedance signals, which is essentially the cumulative probability distribution function of the impedance signals (instantaneous direct signal input method). In the latter method, the identification can be made close to instantaneously since the required signals can be acquired over a very short time period. In addition, a double-sensor conductivity probe can also be used to obtain ''local'' flow regimes by using the instantaneous direct signal input method with the bubble chord length information. Furthermore, a newly designed conductivity probe with multiple double-sensor heads is proposed to obtain ''two-dimensional'' flow regimes across the flow channel. Secondly, a state-of-the-art four-sensor conductivity probe technique has been developed to obtain detailed local interfacial structure information. The four-sensor conductivity probe accommodates the double-sensor probe capability and can be applied in a wide range of flow regimes spanning from bubbly to churn-turbulent flows. The signal processing scheme is developed such that it categorizes the acquired parameters into two groups based on bubble cord length information. Furthermore, for the modeling of the interfacial structure characterization, the interfacial area transport equation proposed earlier has been studied to provide a dynamic and

  20. Data reconciliation, structure analysis and simulation of waste flows: case study Vienna. (United States)

    Matyus, Thomas; Gleiss, Andreas; Gruber, Karl; Bauer, Gerd


    The management of complex waste flow systems requires a systematic approach for the handling of data, for obtaining a consistent picture of the system under consideration, and for simulating various policy scenarios and evaluating material control strategies. In this paper the implementation of a useful methodology is presented, which has been developed in previous works and is further enhanced for modelling, identifying, analysing and simulating material flow systems for which at most one measurement per flow is available for a single balancing period. The methodology enables the analyst to cope with missing data and uncertainty in the measurements. A data reconciliation procedure is used to minimise the uncertainty concerning flows by exploiting the redundancies created by restricting the available data to fulfil the available structural information. Statistical tests are introduced to enable the user to check the compatibility of the data with the a priori information. The origins analysis and destination analysis tools allow for a deeper insight into the system structure. Policy scenarios can be treated using the simulation tools. The waste flow system of the city of Vienna has been chosen to demonstrate step-by-step the procedure for building a reliable model and the effective application of the above mentioned methods and tools. Current and future research focuses on models balancing different interrelated quantities simultaneously and on incorporating stock accumulation and depletion behaviour.

  1. Passive control of flow structure interaction between a sphere and free-surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akilli Huseyin


    Full Text Available Flow characteristics for both a smooth and a vented sphere such as velocity vectors, patterns of streamlines, vorticity contours, stream-wise fluctuations, cross-stream velocity fluctuations and Reynolds stress correlations between a sphere and free-surface for various submerged ratio at Re =5,000 are studied by using dye visualization and the particle image velocimetry technique. Passive control of flow structure interaction between sphere and free surface was examined by using a modified geometry which has a 15% sphere diameter hole passing through the sphere equator. Both of the spheres were separately placed beneath the free surface with different positions from touching to the free surface to two sphere diameters below the free surface. It is demonstrated that reattachment point of the separated flow to the free surface varies for both of the sphere cases as the sphere position alters vertically through the water flow while the flow structure for the vented sphere occurs considerably symmetrical due to forming of a pair of counter-rotating ring vortices.

  2. Stage–discharge relationship for a pipe overflow structure in both free and submerged flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Isenmann


    Full Text Available Many facilities for urban drainage systems are equipped with a pipe overflow structure that can often be treated as a circular broad-crested weir. Thus it is possible to evaluate the overflow discharge through this device by measuring the water levels in the upstream tank and at the outlet of the pipe. In the present study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD is used to determine a relationship between the discharge and the water levels upstream and downstream of the orifice for a range of diameters between 200 and 600 mm and a relative head up to 2. Over 50 numerical simulations are performed to take into account all the operating conditions of the system: free flow, submerged flow and pressurized flow. A regression is applied to the resulting data in order to obtain an orifice equation valid in both free-flow and submerged-flow regimes. Specific formulas, derived from Bernoulli's theorem, are also given for pressurized flows. The proposed methodology is applied to two examples.

  3. The evolution of viscous flow structures in the esophagus during tracheoesophageal speech (United States)

    Erath, Byron; Hemsing, Frank


    A laryngectomy is an invasive surgical procedure whereby the entire larynx is removed, usually as a result of cancer. Removal of the larynx renders conventional voiced speech impossible, with the most common remediation following surgery being tracheoeosphageal (TE) speech. TE speech is produced by inserting a one-way valve to connect the posterior wall of the trachea with the anterior wall of the esophagus. As air is forced up from the lungs it passes through the prosthesis and into the esophagus. The resulting esophageal pressure field incites self-sustained oscillations of the pharyngoesophageal segment (PES), which ultimately produces sound. Unfortunately, the physics of TE speech are not well understood, with up to 50% of individuals unable to produce intelligible sound. This failure can be related to a lack of understanding regarding the esophageal flow field, where all previous scientific investigations have assumed the flow is one-dimensional and steady. An experimental TE speech flow facility was constructed and particle image velocimetry measurements were acquired at the exit of the model prosthesis (entrance of the esophagus). The flow is observed to be highly unsteady, and the formation and propagation of vortical flow structures through the esophageal tract are identified. Observations regarding the influence of the flow dynamics on the esophageal pressure field and its relation to the successful production of TE speech are discussed.

  4. Simulation of the effect of defence structures on granular flows using SPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lachamp


    Full Text Available This paper presents the SPH (Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics numerical method adapted to complex rheology and free surface flow. It has been developed to simulate the local effect of a simple obstacle on a granular flow. We have introduced this specific rheology to the classical formalism of the method and thanks to experimental devices, we were able to validate the results. Two viscosity values have been simultaneously computed to simulate "plugs" and "dead zone" with the same code. First, some experiments have been done on a simple inclined slope to show the accuracy of the numerical results. We have fixed the mass flow rate to see the variations of the flow depth according to the channel slope. Then we put a weir to block the flow and we analysed the dependence between the obstacle height and the length of influence upstream from the obstacle. After having shown that numerical results were consistent, we have studied speed profiles and pressure impact on the structure. Also results with any topography will be presented. This will have a great interest to study real flow over natural topography while using the model for decision help.

  5. Understanding characteristics in multivariate traffic flow time series from complex network structure (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Zhang, Shen; Tang, Jinjun; Wang, Xiaofei


    Discovering dynamic characteristics in traffic flow is the significant step to design effective traffic managing and controlling strategy for relieving traffic congestion in urban cities. A new method based on complex network theory is proposed to study multivariate traffic flow time series. The data were collected from loop detectors on freeway during a year. In order to construct complex network from original traffic flow, a weighted Froenius norm is adopt to estimate similarity between multivariate time series, and Principal Component Analysis is implemented to determine the weights. We discuss how to select optimal critical threshold for networks at different hour in term of cumulative probability distribution of degree. Furthermore, two statistical properties of networks: normalized network structure entropy and cumulative probability of degree, are utilized to explore hourly variation in traffic flow. The results demonstrate these two statistical quantities express similar pattern to traffic flow parameters with morning and evening peak hours. Accordingly, we detect three traffic states: trough, peak and transitional hours, according to the correlation between two aforementioned properties. The classifying results of states can actually represent hourly fluctuation in traffic flow by analyzing annual average hourly values of traffic volume, occupancy and speed in corresponding hours.

  6. Experimental investigation of the motion of bubble clusters and the flow structures with the clusters (United States)

    Date, Masanobu; Maeda, Kazuki; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro


    In upward bubbly flows, mono-dispersed 1 mm spherical bubbles which do not coalesce in the presence of small amount of surfactants in a liquid phase migrate toward the walls due to the shear-induced lift force. Those bubbles form the bubble clusters near the walls [Takagi, S. and Matsumoto, Y., Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (2011)]. In this study flow structures of the bubbly flow with the bubble clusters and the motion of the bubble clusters are investigated using scanning stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV), respectively. In order to focus on bubble clusters, 1 mm bubbles are injected near the one of the walls and bubble clusters are formed under some conditions of gas flow rate. From the measurement of the bubbly flows by stereoscopic PIV, it is shown that the bubbles near the wall accelerate surrounding liquids due to their buoyancy and reduce Reynolds stress with increasing a void fraction. Three-dimensional velocity fields are also measured by scanning stereoscopic PIV, and the effect of the bubble cluster on the instantaneous flow fields are analyzed. The results are discussed in the presentation.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, T. K.; Marcum, W. R.; Latimer, G. D.; Weiss, A.; Jones, W. F.; Phillips, A. M.; Woolstenhulme, N.; Holdaway, K.; Campbell, J.


    Four tests characterizing the structural response of the Chopped-Dummy In-Pile tube (CDIPT) experiment design were measured in the Hydro-Mechanical Fuel Test Facility (HMFTF). Four different test configurations were tried. These configurations tested the pressure drop and flow impact of various plate configurations and flow control orifices to be used later at different reactor power levels. Accelerometers were placed on the test vehicle and flow simulation housing. A total of five accelerometers were used with one on the top and bottom of the flow simulator and vehicle, and one on the outside of the flow simulator. Data were collected at a series of flow rates for 5 seconds each at an acquisition rate of 2 kHz for a Nyquist frequency of 1 kHz. The data were then analyzed using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. The results show very coherent vibrations of the CDIPT experiment on the order of 50 Hz in frequency and 0.01 m/s2 in magnitude. The coherent vibrations, although small in magnitude pose a potential design problem if the frequencies coincide with the natural frequency of the fueled plates or test vehicle. The accelerometer data was integrated and combined to create a 3D trace of the experiment during the test. The merits of this data as well as further anomalies and artifacts are also discussed as well as their relation to the instrumentation and experiment design.

  8. Nonhydrostatic simulation of hyperpycnal river plumes on sloping continental shelves: Flow structures and nonhydrostatic effect (United States)

    Tseng, Chien-Yung; Chou, Yi-Ju


    A three-dimensional nonhydrostatic coastal model SUNTANS is used to study hyperpycnal plumes on sloping continental shelves with idealized domain setup. The study aims to examine the nonhydrostatic effect of the plunging hyperpycnal plume and the associated flow structures on different shelf slopes. The unstructured triangular grid in SUNTANS allows for local refinement of the grid size for regions in which the flow varies abruptly, while retaining low-cost computation using the coarse grid resolution for regions in which the flow is more uniform. These nonhydrostatic simulations reveal detailed three-dimensional flow structures in both transient and steady states. Via comparison with the hydrostatic simulation, we show that the nonhydrostatic effect is particularly important before plunging, when the plume is subject to significant changes in both the along-shore and vertical directions. After plunging, where the plume becomes an undercurrent that is more spatially uniform, little difference is found between the hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic simulations in the present gentle- and mild-slope cases. A grid-dependence study shows that the nonhydrostatic effect can be seen only when the grid resolution is sufficiently fine that the calculation is not overly diffusive. A depth-integrated momentum budget analysis is then conducted to show that the flow convergence due to plunging is an important factor in the three-dimensional flow structures. Moreover, it shows that the nonhydrostatic effect becomes more important as the slope increases, and in the steep-slope case, neglect of transport of the vertical momentum during plunging in the hydrostatic case further leads to an erroneous prediction for the undercurrent.

  9. Structural Changes of International Trade Flows under the Impact of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dachin


    Full Text Available Structural changes of international trade flows indicate modifications in competitiveness of countries, in terms of production, technological upgrading and exports under the pressure of globalization. The paper aims to point out sources of competitive advantages especially in manufacturing exports of different groups of countries. The focus is on the shifts in the structure of manufacturing in the European Union and their effects on international rankings in export performances. An important issue refers to the opportunities given by the enlargement of the European Union and their impact on EU trade structures.

  10. Cine magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of cardiac structure and flow dynamics in congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akagi, Teiji; Kiyomatsu, Yumi; Ohara, Nobutoshi; Takagi, Junichi; Sato, Noboru; Kato, Hirohisa; Eto, Takaharu.


    Cine magnetic resonance imaging (Cine MRI) was performed in 20 patients aged 19 days to 13 years (mean 4.0 years), who had congenital heart disease confirmed at echocardiography or angiography. Prior to cine MRI, gated MRI was performed to evaluate for cardiac structure. Cine MRI was demonstrated by fast low fip angle shot imaging technique with a 30deg flip angle, 15 msec echo time, 30-40 msec pulse repetition time, and 128 x 128 acquisition matrix. Abnormalities of cardiac structure were extremely well defined in all patients by gated MRI. Intracardiac or intravascular blood flow were visualized in 17 (85%) of 20 patients by cine MRI. Left to right shunt flow through ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, and endocardial cushion defect were visualized with low signal intensity area. Low intensity jets flow through the site of re-coarctation of the aorta were also visualized. However, the good recording of cine MRI was not obtained because of artifacts in 3 of 20 patients (15%) who had severe congestive heart failure or respiratory arrhythmia. Gated MRI provides excellent visualization of fine structure, and cine MRI can provide high spatial resolution imaging of flow dynamic in a variety of congenital heart disease, noninvasively. (author)

  11. Swirl effect on flow structure and mixing in a turbulent jet (United States)

    Kravtsov, Z. D.; Sharaborin, D. K.; Dulin, V. M.


    The paper reports on experimental study of turbulent transport in the initial region of swirling turbulent jets. The particle image velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence techniques are used to investigate the flow structure and passive scalar concentration, respectively, in free air jet with acetone vapor. Three flow cases are considered, viz., non-swirling jets and swirling jets with and without vortex breakdown and central recirculation zone. Without vortex breakdown, the swirl is shown to promote jet mixing with surrounding air and to decrease the jet core length. The vortex core breakdown further enhances mixing as the jet core disintegrates at the nozzle exit.

  12. Two-phase flow stability structure in a natural circulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhiwei [Nuclear Engineering Laboratory Zurich (Switzerland)


    The present study reports a numerical analysis of two-phase flow stability structures in a natural circulation system with two parallel, heated channels. The numerical model is derived, based on the Galerkin moving nodal method. This analysis is related to some design options applicable to integral heating reactors with a slightly-boiling operation mode, and is also of general interest to similar facilities. The options include: (1) Symmetric heating and throttling; (2) Asymmetric heating and symmetric throttling; (3) Asymmetric heating and throttling. The oscillation modes for these variants are discussed. Comparisons with the data from the INET two-phase flow stability experiment have qualitatively validated the present analysis.

  13. Development of a flow structure interaction methodology applicable to a convertible car roof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, Jason J.


    The current research investigates the flow-induced deformation of a convertible roof of a vehicle using experimental and numerical methods. A computational methodology is developed that entails the coupling of a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code with an in-house structural code. A model two-dimensional problem is first studied. The CFD code and a Source Panel Method (SPM) code are used to predict the pressure acting on the surface of a rigid roof of a scale model. Good agreement is found between predicted pressure distribution and that obtained in a parallel wind-tunnel experimental programme. The validated computational modelling of the fluid flow is then used in a coupling strategy with a line-element structural model that incorporates initial slackness of the flexible roof material. The computed flow-structure interaction yields stable solutions, the aerodynamically loaded flexible roof settling into static equilibrium. The effects of slackness and material properties on deformation and convergence are investigated using the coupled code. The three-dimensional problem is addressed by extending the two-dimensional structural solver to represent a surface by a matrix of line elements with constant tension along their length. This has been successfully coupled with the three-dimensional CFD flow-solution technique. Computed deformations show good agreement with the results of wind tunnel experiments for the well prescribed geometry. In both two-and three-dimensional computations, the flow-structure interaction is found to yield a static deformation to within 1% difference in the displacement variable after three iterations between the fluid and structural codes. The same computational methodology is applied to a real-car application using a third-party structural solver. The methodology is shown to be robust even under conditions beyond those likely to be encountered. The full methodology could be used as a design tool. The present work

  14. Lagrangian-based investigation of the transient flow structures around a pitching hydrofoil (United States)

    Wu, Qin; Huang, Biao; Wang, Guoyu


    The objective of this paper is to address the transient flow structures around a pitching hydrofoil by combining physical and numerical studies. In order to predict the dynamic behavior of the flow structure effectively, the Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) defined by the ridges of the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) are utilized under the framework of Navier-Stokes flow computations. In the numerical simulations, the k-ω shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model, coupled with a two-equation γ {-Re}_θ transition model, is used for the turbulence closure. Results are presented for a NACA66 hydrofoil undergoing slowly and rapidly pitching motions from 0° to 15° then back to 0° at a moderate Reynolds number Re=7.5× 105. The results reveal that the transient flow structures can be observed by the LCS method. For the slowly pitching case, it consists of five stages: quasi-steady and laminar, transition from laminar to turbulent, vortex development, large-scale vortex shedding, and reverting to laminar. The observation of LCS and Lagrangian particle tracers elucidates that the trailing edge vortex is nearly attached and stable during the vortex development stage and the interaction between the leading and trailing edge vortex caused by the adverse pressure gradient forces the vortexes to shed downstream during the large-scale vortex shedding stage, which corresponds to obvious fluctuations of the hydrodynamic response. For the rapidly pitching case, the inflection is hardly to be observed and the stall is delayed. The vortex formation, interaction, and shedding occurred once instead of being repeated three times, which is responsible for just one fluctuation in the hydrodynamic characteristics. The numerical results also show that the FTLE field has the potential to identify the transient flows, and the LCS can represent the divergence extent of infinite neighboring particles and capture the interface of the vortex region.

  15. A Parallel Multiblock Structured Grid Method with Automated Interblocked Unstructured Grids for Chemically Reacting Flows (United States)

    Spiegel, Seth Christian

    An automated method for using unstructured grids to patch non- C0 interfaces between structured blocks has been developed in conjunction with a finite-volume method for solving chemically reacting flows on unstructured grids. Although the standalone unstructured solver, FVFLO-NCSU, is capable of resolving flows for high-speed aeropropulsion devices with complex geometries, unstructured-mesh algorithms are inherently inefficient when compared to their structured counterparts. However, the advantages of structured algorithms in developing a flow solution in a timely manner can be negated by the amount of time required to develop a mesh for complex geometries. The global domain can be split up into numerous smaller blocks during the grid-generation process to alleviate some of the difficulties in creating these complex meshes. An even greater abatement can be found by allowing the nodes on abutting block interfaces to be nonmatching or non-C 0 continuous. One code capable of solving chemically reacting flows on these multiblock grids is VULCAN, which uses a nonconservative approach for patching non-C0 block interfaces. The developed automated unstructured-grid patching algorithm has been installed within VULCAN to provide it the capability of a fully conservative approach for patching non-C0 block interfaces. Additionally, the FVFLO-NCSU solver algorithms have been deeply intertwined with the VULCAN source code to solve chemically reacting flows on these unstructured patches. Finally, the CGNS software library was added to the VULCAN postprocessor so structured and unstructured data can be stored in a single compact file. This final upgrade to VULCAN has been successfully installed and verified using test cases with particular interest towards those involving grids with non- C0 block interfaces.

  16. Controlling Heat Transport and Flow Structures in Thermal Turbulence Using Ratchet Surfaces (United States)

    Jiang, Hechuan; Zhu, Xiaojue; Mathai, Varghese; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao


    In this combined experimental and numerical study on thermally driven turbulence in a rectangular cell, the global heat transport and the coherent flow structures are controlled with an asymmetric ratchetlike roughness on the top and bottom plates. We show that, by means of symmetry breaking due to the presence of the ratchet structures on the conducting plates, the orientation of the large scale circulation roll (LSCR) can be locked to a preferred direction even when the cell is perfectly leveled out. By introducing a small tilt to the system, we show that the LSCR orientation can be tuned and controlled. The two different orientations of LSCR give two quite different heat transport efficiencies, indicating that heat transport is sensitive to the LSCR direction over the asymmetric roughness structure. Through a quantitative analysis of the dynamics of thermal plume emissions and the orientation of the LSCR over the asymmetric structure, we provide a physical explanation for these findings. The current work has important implications for passive and active flow control in engineering, biofluid dynamics, and geophysical flows.

  17. Interfacial structures of confined air-water two-phase bubbly flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.; Ishii, M.; Wu, Q.; McCreary, D.; Beus, S.G.


    The interfacial structure of the two-phase flows is of great importance in view of theoretical modeling and practical applications. In the present study, the focus is made on obtaining detailed local two-phase parameters in the air-water bubbly flow in a rectangular vertical duct using the double-sensor conductivity probe. The characteristic wall-peak is observed in the profiles of the interracial area concentration and the void fraction. The development of the interfacial area concentration along the axial direction of the flow is studied in view of the interfacial area transport and bubble interactions. The experimental data is compared with the drift flux model with C 0 = 1.35

  18. Interfacial structures of confined air-water two-phase bubbly flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.; Ishii, M.; Wu, Q.; McCreary, D.; Beus, S.G.


    The interfacial structure of the two-phase flows is of great importance in view of theoretical modeling and practical applications. In the present study, the focus is made on obtaining detailed local two-phase parameters in the air-water bubbly flow in a rectangular vertical duct using the double-sensor conductivity probe. The characteristic wall-peak is observed in the profiles of the interracial area concentration and the void fraction. The development of the interfacial area concentration along the axial direction of the flow is studied in view of the interfacial area transport and bubble interactions. The experimental data is compared with the drift flux model with C{sub 0} = 1.35.

  19. Numerical Investigation of the Flow Structure in a Kaplan Draft Tube at Part Load (United States)

    Maddahian, R.; Cervantes, M. J.; Sotoudeh, N.


    This research presents numerical simulation of the unsteady flow field inside the draft tube of a Kaplan turbine at part load condition. Due to curvature of streamlines, the ordinary two-equations turbulence models fail to predict the flow features. Therefore, a modification of the Shear Stress Transport (SST-SAS) model is utilized to approximate the turbulent stresses. A guide vane, complete runner and draft tube are considered to insure the real boundary conditions at the draft tube inlet. The outlet boundary is assumed to discharge into the atmosphere. The obtained pressure fluctuations inside the draft tube are in good agreement with available experimental data. In order to further investigate the RVR formation and its movement, the λ2 criterion, relating the position of the vortex core and strength to the second largest Eigen value of the velocity gradient tensor, is employed. The method used for vortex identification shows the flow structure and vortex motion inside the draft tube accurately.

  20. Form and function in hillslope hydrology: in situ imaging and characterization of flow-relevant structures (United States)

    Jackisch, Conrad; Angermann, Lisa; Allroggen, Niklas; Sprenger, Matthias; Blume, Theresa; Tronicke, Jens; Zehe, Erwin


    The study deals with the identification and characterization of rapid subsurface flow structures through pedo- and geo-physical measurements and irrigation experiments at the point, plot and hillslope scale. Our investigation of flow-relevant structures and hydrological responses refers to the general interplay of form and function, respectively. To obtain a holistic picture of the subsurface, a large set of different laboratory, exploratory and experimental methods was used at the different scales. For exploration these methods included drilled soil core profiles, in situ measurements of infiltration capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity, and laboratory analyses of soil water retention and saturated hydraulic conductivity. The irrigation experiments at the plot scale were monitored through a combination of dye tracer, salt tracer, soil moisture dynamics, and 3-D time-lapse ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods. At the hillslope scale the subsurface was explored by a 3-D GPR survey. A natural storm event and an irrigation experiment were monitored by a dense network of soil moisture observations and a cascade of 2-D time-lapse GPR trenches. We show that the shift between activated and non-activated state of the flow paths is needed to distinguish structures from overall heterogeneity. Pedo-physical analyses of point-scale samples are the basis for sub-scale structure inference. At the plot and hillslope scale 3-D and 2-D time-lapse GPR applications are successfully employed as non-invasive means to image subsurface response patterns and to identify flow-relevant paths. Tracer recovery and soil water responses from irrigation experiments deliver a consistent estimate of response velocities. The combined observation of form and function under active conditions provides the means to localize and characterize the structures (this study) and the hydrological processes (companion study Angermann et al., 2017, this issue).

  1. Form and function in hillslope hydrology: in situ imaging and characterization of flow-relevant structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jackisch


    Full Text Available The study deals with the identification and characterization of rapid subsurface flow structures through pedo- and geo-physical measurements and irrigation experiments at the point, plot and hillslope scale. Our investigation of flow-relevant structures and hydrological responses refers to the general interplay of form and function, respectively. To obtain a holistic picture of the subsurface, a large set of different laboratory, exploratory and experimental methods was used at the different scales. For exploration these methods included drilled soil core profiles, in situ measurements of infiltration capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity, and laboratory analyses of soil water retention and saturated hydraulic conductivity. The irrigation experiments at the plot scale were monitored through a combination of dye tracer, salt tracer, soil moisture dynamics, and 3-D time-lapse ground penetrating radar (GPR methods. At the hillslope scale the subsurface was explored by a 3-D GPR survey. A natural storm event and an irrigation experiment were monitored by a dense network of soil moisture observations and a cascade of 2-D time-lapse GPR trenches. We show that the shift between activated and non-activated state of the flow paths is needed to distinguish structures from overall heterogeneity. Pedo-physical analyses of point-scale samples are the basis for sub-scale structure inference. At the plot and hillslope scale 3-D and 2-D time-lapse GPR applications are successfully employed as non-invasive means to image subsurface response patterns and to identify flow-relevant paths. Tracer recovery and soil water responses from irrigation experiments deliver a consistent estimate of response velocities. The combined observation of form and function under active conditions provides the means to localize and characterize the structures (this study and the hydrological processes (companion study Angermann et al., 2017, this issue.

  2. A theory of self-organized zonal flow with fine radial structure in tokamak (United States)

    Zhang, Y. Z.; Liu, Z. Y.; Xie, T.; Mahajan, S. M.; Liu, J.


    The (low frequency) zonal flow-ion temperature gradient (ITG) wave system, constructed on Braginskii's fluid model in tokamak, is shown to be a reaction-diffusion-advection system; it is derived by making use of a multiple spatiotemporal scale technique and two-dimensional (2D) ballooning theory. For real regular group velocities of ITG waves, two distinct temporal processes, sharing a very similar meso-scale radial structure, are identified in the nonlinear self-organized stage. The stationary and quasi-stationary structures reflect a particular feature of the poloidal group velocity. The equation set posed to be an initial value problem is numerically solved for JET low mode parameters; the results are presented in several figures and two movies that show the spatiotemporal evolutions as well as the spectrum analysis—frequency-wave number spectrum, auto power spectrum, and Lissajous diagram. This approach reveals that the zonal flow in tokamak is a local traveling wave. For the quasi-stationary process, the cycle of ITG wave energy is composed of two consecutive phases in distinct spatiotemporal structures: a pair of Cavitons growing and breathing slowly without long range propagation, followed by a sudden decay into many Instantons that carry negative wave energy rapidly into infinity. A spotlight onto the motion of Instantons for a given radial position reproduces a Blob-Hole temporal structure; the occurrence as well as the rapid decay of Caviton into Instantons is triggered by zero-crossing of radial group velocity. A sample of the radial profile of zonal flow contributed from 31 nonlinearly coupled rational surfaces near plasma edge is found to be very similar to that observed in the JET Ohmic phase [J. C. Hillesheim et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 165002 (2016)]. The theory predicts an interior asymmetric dipole structure associated with the zonal flow that is driven by the gradients of ITG turbulence intensity.

  3. Reconstruction of 3D flow structures in a cylindrical cavity with a rotating lid using time-resolved stereo PIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Naumov, Igor


    variations. The flow in a cylindrical cavity with a rotating lid of a height of three radii and a Reynolds number of about 3500 is used as example. The reconstruction identifies a series of flow structures including axisymmetric vortex breakdown and distinct vortex structures along the cylinder wall....

  4. Flow structure through pool-riffle sequences and a conceptual model for their sustainability in gravel-bed rivers (United States)

    D. Caamano; P. Goodwin; J. M. Buffington


    Detailed field measurements and simulations of three-dimensional flow structure were used to develop a conceptual model to explain the sustainability of self-formed pool-riffle sequences in gravel-bed rivers. The analysis was conducted at the Red River Wildlife Management Area in Idaho, USA, and enabled characterization of the flow structure through two consecutive...

  5. Directed weighted network structure analysis of complex impedance measurements for characterizing oil-in-water bubbly flow. (United States)

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Dang, Wei-Dong; Xue, Le; Zhang, Shan-Shan


    Characterizing the flow structure underlying the evolution of oil-in-water bubbly flow remains a contemporary challenge of great interests and complexity. In particular, the oil droplets dispersing in a water continuum with diverse size make the study of oil-in-water bubbly flow really difficult. To study this issue, we first design a novel complex impedance sensor and systematically conduct vertical oil-water flow experiments. Based on the multivariate complex impedance measurements, we define modalities associated with the spatial transient flow structures and construct modality transition-based network for each flow condition to study the evolution of flow structures. In order to reveal the unique flow structures underlying the oil-in-water bubbly flow, we filter the inferred modality transition-based network by removing the edges with small weight and resulting isolated nodes. Then, the weighted clustering coefficient entropy and weighted average path length are employed for quantitatively assessing the original network and filtered network. The differences in network measures enable to efficiently characterize the evolution of the oil-in-water bubbly flow structures.

  6. Leaving flatland: Diagnostics for Lagrangian coherent structures in three-dimensional flows (United States)

    Sulman, Mohamed H. M.; Huntley, Helga S.; Lipphardt, B. L.; Kirwan, A. D.


    Finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) are often used to identify Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS). Most applications are confined to flows on two-dimensional (2D) surfaces where the LCS are characterized as curves. The extension to three-dimensional (3D) flows, whose LCS are 2D structures embedded in a 3D volume, is theoretically straightforward. However, in geophysical flows at regional scales, full prognostic computation of the evolving 3D velocity field is not computationally feasible. The vertical or diabatic velocity, then, is either ignored or estimated as a diagnostic quantity with questionable accuracy. Even in cases with reliable 3D velocities, it may prove advantageous to minimize the computational burden by calculating trajectories from velocities on carefully chosen surfaces only. When reliable 3D velocity information is unavailable or one velocity component is explicitly ignored, a reduced FTLE form to approximate 2D LCS surfaces in a 3D volume is necessary. The accuracy of two reduced FTLE formulations is assessed here using the ABC flow and a 3D quadrupole flow as test models. One is the standard approach of knitting together FTLE patterns obtained on adjacent surfaces. The other is a new approximation accounting for the dispersion due to vertical (u,v) shear. The results are compared with those obtained from the full 3D velocity field. We introduce two diagnostic quantities to identify situations when a fully 3D computation is required for an accurate determination of the 2D LCS. For the ABC flow, we found the full 3D calculation to be necessary unless the vertical (u,v) shear is sufficiently small. However, both methods compare favorably with the 3D calculation for the quadrupole model scaled to typical open ocean conditions.

  7. The Far Field Structure of a Jet in Cross-Flow (United States)

    Lanitis, Nicolas; Dawson, James


    Time-resolved resolved Stereoscopic PIV measurements were performed in the far field of a cross-flow jet in order to study the large-scale vortex structures present. Measurements were taken in the spanwise-wall normal plane (y-z) containing the Counter-Rotating vortex Pair (CVP) and converted to three-dimensional volumetric data via the use of Taylor's hypothesis. The jet Reynolds number was Rejet = 2 ×104 based on the jet diameter of dj = 4 mm . Measurements were taken for a jet to cross-flow velocity ratio of Vr = 10 at the downstream positions of x /dj = 15 , 30 , 85 . The 3D velocity field at x /dj = 15 shows a high level of coherency which is reduced with downstream distance. A series of three main vortex structures are identified. First are horseshoe structures with their head on the windward side, side-arms titled forwards in the downstream direction and tails extending downstream forming the CVP. Second are arch shaped roller structures, of opposite sign to the horshoe vortex, which appear on the windward side between successive horseshoe structures. Third are straight wake vortices of alternating sign extending from the CVP into the wake. An eddy model was developed using these three main structures with the aim of reproducing the main turbulent features.


    Costa, James T; Ross, Kenneth G


    Genetic structure and inferred rates of gene flow in macrogeographic populations of the eastern tent caterpillar Malacosoma americanum were analyzed at two hierarchical scales: local demes and regional subpopulations. Wright's F-statistics were used to estimate population genetic structure using multilocus genotypic data generated electrophoretically. Estimated values of F ST and the distribution of private alleles were then used to obtain indirect estimates of gene flow. We found modest, though significant, genetic structure at both spatial scales, a pattern consistent with high rates of gene flow over the large distances involved. Modest values obtained for Nei's genetic distance also suggested high levels of gene flow across the range of this species, although some gene-flow restriction resulting from isolation by distance was suggested by a positive regression of genetic distance on geographic distance. The observed homogeneity at enzyme loci across the range of M. americanum parallels the reported uniformity in morphology, suggesting a general absence of local genetic differentiation in this widely distributed species. The genetic homogeneity observed in this wide-ranging insect is discussed in terms of organism-specific environmental experience at different spatial scales. Some organisms occupying apparently heterogeneous environments may ameliorate unsuitable local conditions through microhabitat selection or behavioral modification of their microenvironment. This may be accomplished in M. americanum through group shelter construction and behavioral thermoregulation, closely tying thermoregulation to social biology in this species. If in this way the tent helps produce an effectively homogeneous environment for this species across its extensive range, this system may provide a unique example of how social behavior can influence the distribution of genetic variation in a population. © 1994 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Effects of flow intermittency and pharmaceutical exposure on the structure and metabolism of stream biofilms. (United States)

    Corcoll, Natàlia; Casellas, Maria; Huerta, Belinda; Guasch, Helena; Acuña, Vicenç; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Serra-Compte, Albert; Barceló, Damià; Sabater, Sergi


    Increasing concentrations of pharmaceutical compounds occur in many rivers, but their environmental risk remains poorly studied in stream biofilms. Flow intermittency shapes the structure and functions of ecosystems, and may enhance their sensitivity to toxicants. This study evaluates the effects of a long-term exposure of biofilm communities to a mixture of pharmaceutical compounds at environmental concentrations on biofilm bioaccumulation capacity, the structure and metabolic processes of algae and bacteria communities, and how their potential effects were enhanced or not by the occurrence of flow intermittency. To assess the interaction between those two stressors, an experiment with artificial streams was performed. Stream biofilms were exposed to a mixture of pharmaceuticals, as well as to a short period of flow intermittency. Results indicate that biofilms were negatively affected by pharmaceuticals. The algal biomass and taxa richness decreased and unicellular green algae relatively increased. The structure of the bacterial (based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes) changed and showed a reduction of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) richness. Exposed biofilms showed higher rates of metabolic processes, such as primary production and community respiration, attributed to pharmaceuticals stimulated an increase of green algae and heterotrophs, respectively. Flow intermittency modulated the effects of chemicals on natural communities. The algal community became more sensitive to short-term exposure of pharmaceuticals (lower EC50 value) when exposed to water intermittency, indicating cumulative effects between the two assessed stressors. In contrast to algae, the bacterial community became less sensitive to short-term exposure of pharmaceuticals (higher EC50) when exposed to water intermittency, indicating co-tolerance phenomena. According to the observed effects, the environmental risk of pharmaceuticals in nature is high

  10. Differential geometric structures of stream functions: incompressible two-dimensional flow and curvatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, K; Iwayama, T; Yajima, T


    The Okubo-Weiss field, frequently used for partitioning incompressible two-dimensional (2D) fluids into coherent and incoherent regions, corresponds to the Gaussian curvature of the stream function. Therefore, we consider the differential geometric structures of stream functions and calculate the Gaussian curvatures of some basic flows. We find the following. (I) The vorticity corresponds to the mean curvature of the stream function. Thus, the stream-function surface for an irrotational flow and that for a parallel shear flow correspond to the minimal surface and a developable surface, respectively. (II) The relationship between the coherency and the magnitude of the vorticity is interpreted by the curvatures. (III) Using the Gaussian curvature, stability of single and double point vortex streets is analyzed. The results of this analysis are compared with the well-known linear stability analysis. (IV) Conformal mapping in fluid mechanics is the physical expression of the geometric fact that the sign of the Gaussian curvature does not change in conformal mapping. These findings suggest that the curvatures of stream functions are useful for understanding the geometric structure of an incompressible 2D flow.

  11. Mechanistic constitutive model for wormlike micelle solutions with flow-induced structure formation (United States)

    Dutta, Sarit; Graham, Michael


    We present a tensor constitutive model for stress and flow-induced structure formation in dilute wormlike micellar solutions. The fluid is treated as a dilute suspension of rigid Brownian rods whose length varies dynamically. Consistent with the mechanism of Turner and Cates, flow-induced alignment of the rods is assumed to promote increase of rod length that corresponds to the formation of flow-induced structures observed in experiments. At very high deformation rate, hydrodynamic stresses cause the rod length to decrease. These mechanisms are implemented in a phenomenological equation governing the evolution of rod length, with the number density of rods appropriately modified to ensure conservation of surfactant mass. The model leads first to an increase in both shear and extensional viscosity as deformation rate increases and then to a decrease at higher rates. If the rate constant for flow-induced rod growth is sufficiently large, the model predicts a multivalued relation between stress and deformation rate in both shear and uniaxial extension in agreement with experimental results. By design, the model is simple enough to serve as a tractable constitutive relation for computational fluid dynamics studies.

  12. Identification of individual coherent sets associated with flow trajectories using Coherent Structure Coloring (United States)

    Schlueter-Kuck, Kristy; Dabiri, John


    In recent years, there has been a proliferation of techniques that aim to characterize fluid flow kinematics on the basis of Lagrangian trajectories of collections of tracer particles. Most of these techniques depend on presence of tracer particles that are initially closely-spaced, in order to compute local gradients of their trajectories. In many applications, the requirement of close tracer spacing cannot be satisfied, especially when the tracers are naturally occurring and their distribution is dictated by the underlying flow. Moreover, current methods often focus on determination of the boundaries of coherent sets, whereas in practice it is often valuable to identify the complete set of trajectories that are coherent with an individual trajectory of interest. We extend the concept of Coherent Structure Coloring to achieve identification of the coherent set associated with individual Lagrangian trajectories. This algorithm is proven successful in identifying coherent structures of varying complexities in canonical unsteady flows. Importantly, although the method is demonstrated here in the context of fluid flow kinematics, the generality of the approach allows for its potential application to other unsupervised clustering problems in dynamical systems. This work was supported by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.

  13. Structure and dynamics of turbulent boundary layer flow over healthy and algae-covered corals (United States)

    Stocking, Jonathan B.; Rippe, John P.; Reidenbach, Matthew A.


    Fine-scale velocity measurements over healthy and algae-covered corals were collected in situ to characterize combined wave-current boundary layer flow and the effects of algal canopies on turbulence hydrodynamics. Data were collected using acoustic Doppler velocimetry and particle image velocimetry. Flow over healthy corals is well described by traditional wall-bounded shear layers, distinguished by a logarithmic velocity profile, a local balance of turbulence production and dissipation, and high levels of bed shear stress. Healthy corals exhibit significant spatial heterogeneity in boundary layer flow structure resulting from variations in large-scale coral topography. By contrast, the turbulence structure of algae-covered corals is best represented by a plane mixing layer, with a sharp inflection point in mean velocity at the canopy top, a large imbalance of turbulence production and dissipation, and strongly damped flow and shear stresses within the canopy. The presence of an algal canopy increases turbulent kinetic energy within the roughness sublayer by ~2.5 times compared to healthy corals while simultaneously reducing bed shear stress by nearly an order of magnitude. Reduced bed shear at the coral surface and within-canopy turbulent stresses imply reduced mass transfer of necessary metabolites (e.g., oxygen, nutrients), leading to negative impacts on coral health.

  14. Structural Controls on Groundwater Flow in Basement Terrains: Geophysical, Remote Sensing, and Field Investigations in Sinai

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Lamees


    An integrated [very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic, magnetic, remote sensing, field, and geographic information system (GIS)] study was conducted over the basement complex in southern Sinai (Feiran watershed) for a better understanding of the structural controls on the groundwater flow. The increase in satellite-based radar backscattering values following a large precipitation event (34 mm on 17–18 January 2010) was used to identify water-bearing features, here interpreted as preferred pathways for surface water infiltration. Findings include: (1) spatial analysis in a GIS environment revealed that the distribution of the water-bearing features (conductive features) corresponds to that of fractures, faults, shear zones, dike swarms, and wadi networks; (2) using VLF (43 profiles), magnetic (7 profiles) techniques, and field observations, the majority (85 %) of the investigated conductive features were determined to be preferred pathways for groundwater flow; (3) northwest–southeast- to north–south-trending conductive features that intersect the groundwater flow (southeast to northwest) at low angles capture groundwater flow, whereas northeast–southwest to east–west features that intersect the flow at high angles impound groundwater upstream and could provide potential productive well locations; and (4) similar findings are observed in central Sinai: east–west-trending dextral shear zones (Themed and Sinai Hinge Belt) impede south to north groundwater flow as evidenced by the significant drop in hydraulic head (from 467 to 248 m above mean sea level) across shear zones and by reorientation of regional flow (south–north to southwest–northeast). The adopted integrated methodologies could be readily applied to similar highly fractured basement arid terrains elsewhere. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

  15. Anisotropic Stochastic Vortex Structure Method for Simulating Particle Collision in Turbulent Shear Flows (United States)

    Dizaji, Farzad; Marshall, Jeffrey; Grant, John; Jin, Xing


    Accounting for the effect of subgrid-scale turbulence on interacting particles remains a challenge when using Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) or Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approaches for simulation of turbulent particulate flows. The standard stochastic Lagrangian method for introducing turbulence into particulate flow computations is not effective when the particles interact via collisions, contact electrification, etc., since this method is not intended to accurately model relative motion between particles. We have recently developed the stochastic vortex structure (SVS) method and demonstrated its use for accurate simulation of particle collision in homogeneous turbulence; the current work presents an extension of the SVS method to turbulent shear flows. The SVS method simulates subgrid-scale turbulence using a set of randomly-positioned, finite-length vortices to generate a synthetic fluctuating velocity field. It has been shown to accurately reproduce the turbulence inertial-range spectrum and the probability density functions for the velocity and acceleration fields. In order to extend SVS to turbulent shear flows, a new inversion method has been developed to orient the vortices in order to generate a specified Reynolds stress field. The extended SVS method is validated in the present study with comparison to direct numerical simulations for a planar turbulent jet flow. This research was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation under Grant CBET-1332472.

  16. Bladder Distension Increases Blood Flow in Pain Related Brain Structures in Subjects with Interstitial Cystitis. (United States)

    Deutsch, Georg; Deshpande, Hrishikesh; Frölich, Michael A; Lai, H Henry; Ness, Timothy J


    In healthy control subjects certain brain regions of interest demonstrate increased regional cerebral blood flow in response to painful stimuli. We examined the effect of bladder distension on arterial spin label functional magnetic resonance imaging measures of regional cerebral blood flow in regions of interest in subjects with interstitial cystitis. A total of 11 female subjects with interstitial cystitis and 11 healthy controls underwent 3 brain perfusion scan studies using arterial spin label functional magnetic resonance imaging, including 1) with a full bladder, 2) with an empty bladder and 3) while experiencing heat pain. Regional cerebral blood flow was calculated using custom software and individual scans were spatially normalized to the MNI (Montreal Neurological Institute) template. Region of interest based, absolute regional cerebral blood flow was determined for each condition and for the within group/within subject regional cerebral blood flow distribution changes induced by each condition. Bladder distension was associated with robust increases in regional cerebral blood flow in subjects with interstitial cystitis. The increases were greater than those in healthy controls in multiple regions of interest, including the supplemental motor area (mainly Brodmann area 6), the motor and sensory cortex, the insula bilaterally, the hippocampal structures bilaterally, and the middle and posterior cingulate areas bilaterally. During heat pain healthy controls had more robust regional cerebral blood flow increases in the amygdala bilaterally. At baseline with an empty bladder there was lower regional cerebral blood flow in the insula, and the mid and posterior cingulate cortex bilaterally in subjects with interstitial cystitis. Compared to healthy controls, subjects with interstitial cystitis have limited differences in regional cerebral blood flow in baseline (empty bladder) conditions as well as during heat pain. However, they had robust regional cerebral

  17. Analysis of the Impact Caused by Coherent Structures in Swirling Flow Combustion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valera-Medina A.


    Full Text Available Amongst the technologies used in the energy and propulsion generation for the reduction of emissions, the use of swirling flows has demonstrated its high performance in anchoring the flame inside of the combustion systems. This, added to the use of premixing in the pre-chambers, has created one of the most innovative methods for the reduction of highly polluting particles such as NOx. However, the lack of understanding of these flows makes it necessary to increase the research on the topic in order to clarify themes as complex as the role of the coherent structures inside of the system. This paper explains some of the phenomena produced by some of the coherent structures observed in the system. The results showed the existence of complex Recirculation Zones (RZ, Precessing Vortex Core (PVC and Combustion Induced Vortex Breakdown (CIVB.

  18. Simplified Eigen-structure decomposition solver for the simulation of two-phase flow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumbaro, Anela


    This paper discusses the development of a new solver for a system of first-order non-linear differential equations that model the dynamics of compressible two-phase flow. The solver presents a lower-complexity alternative to Roe-type solvers because it only makes use of a partial Eigen-structure information while maintaining its accuracy: the outcome is hence a good complexity-tractability trade-off to consider as relevant in a large number of situations in the scope of two-phase flow numerical simulation. A number of numerical and physical benchmarks are presented to assess the solver. Comparison between the computational results from the simplified Eigen-structure decomposition solver and the conventional Roe-type solver gives insight upon the issues of accuracy, robustness and efficiency. (authors)

  19. Effect of Anisotropy Structure on Plume Entropy and Reactive Mixing in Helical Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Yu; Chiogna, Gabriele; Lu, Chunhui


    Plume dilution and reactive mixing can be considerably enhanced by helical flows occurring in three-dimensional anisotropic porous media. In this study, we perform conservative and reactive transport simulations considering different anisotropy structures of a single inclusion with the objective...... of exploring the effect of the inclusion’s geometry and orientation on the patterns of twisted streamlines and on the overall dilution and reaction of solute plumes. We analyzed 100 different scenarios by varying key parameters such as the angle of the anisotropic structures with respect to the average flow...... velocity, the spacing between alternated heterogeneous zones of coarse and fine materials, the permeability contrast between such matrices, and the magnitude of the seepage velocity. Entropy conservation equations and entropy-based metrics for both conservative and reactive species were adopted to quantify...

  20. [Interdisciplinary consensus statement on alternative airway management with supraglottic airway devices in pediatric emergency medicine: Laryngeal mask is state of the art]. (United States)

    Keil, J; Jung, P; Schiele, A; Urban, B; Parsch, A; Matsche, B; Eich, C; Becke, K; Landsleitner, B; Russo, S G; Bernhard, M; Nicolai, T; Hoffmann, F


    Airway management with supraglottic airway devices (SGA) in life-threatening emergencies involving children is becoming increasingly more important. The laryngeal mask (LM) and the laryngeal tube (LT) are devices commonly used for this purpose. This article presents a literature review and consensus statement by various societies on the use of SGA in pediatric emergency medicine. Literature search in the database PubMed and classification of studies according to the criteria of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine levels of evidence. The evidence for successful application of the various types of LM is significantly higher than for LT application. Reports of smaller series of successful applications of LT are currently limited to selected research groups and centers. Insufficient evidence currently exists for the successful application of the LT especially for children below 10 kg body weight and, therefore, its routine use cannot currently be recommended. SGAs used for emergencies should have a possibility for gastric drainage. Considering the scientific data and the large clinical experience with the LM in medical routine and emergency situations in children, currently only the LM can be recommended for alternative (i.e. non-intubation) airway management in children. If alternative airway management is part of a local emergency strategy, the LM should be provided in all pediatric sizes (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4 and 5) for prehospital and in-hospital emergency use and all users should be regularly trained in its application.

  1. Heat and fluid flow in microscale from micro and nano structured surfaces


    İzci, Türker; Izci, Turker


    The use of enhanced surfaces became one of the most popular studies in order to increase heat transfer performances of microsystems. There are various techniques/processes applied to surfaces to enhance excess heat removal from microsystems. In parallel to these research efforts, various micro and nano structured surfaces were evaluated in channel flow, jet impingement and pool boiling applications. In the first study, single micro pin-fins having the same chord thickness/diameter but differe...

  2. Genetic Structure and Gene Flows within Horses: A Genealogical Study at the French Population Scale


    Pirault, Pauline; Danvy, Sophy; Verrier, Etienne; Leroy, Gr?goire


    Since horse breeds constitute populations submitted to variable and multiple outcrossing events, we analyzed the genetic structure and gene flows considering horses raised in France. We used genealogical data, with a reference population of 547,620 horses born in France between 2002 and 2011, grouped according to 55 breed origins. On average, individuals had 6.3 equivalent generations known. Considering different population levels, fixation index decreased from an overall species FIT of 1.37%...

  3. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in photospheric flows - Effects of coronal heating and structure (United States)

    Karpen, Judith T.; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Dahlburg, Russell B.; Spicer, Daniel S.


    A series of hydrodynamic numerical simulations has been used to investigate the nonlinear evolution of driven, subsonic velocity shears under a range of typical photospheric conditions. These calculations show that typical photospheric flows are susceptible to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI), with rapid nonlinear growth times that are approximately half of a typical granule lifetime. The KHI produces vortical structures in intergranule lanes comparable to a typical fluxule radius; this is precisely the correct scale for maximum power transfer to the corona.

  4. Pulsed flows, tributary inputs, and food web structure in a highly regulated river (United States)

    Sabo, John; Caron, Melanie; Doucett, Richard R.; Dibble, Kimberly L.; Ruhi, Albert; Marks, Jane; Hungate, Bruce; Kennedy, Theodore A.


    1.Dams disrupt the river continuum, altering hydrology, biodiversity, and energy flow. Although research indicates that tributary inputs have the potential to dilute these effects, knowledge at the food web level is still scarce.2.Here we examined the riverine food web structure of the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam, focusing on organic matter sources, trophic diversity, and food chain length. We asked how these components respond to pulsed flows from tributaries following monsoon thunderstorms that seasonally increase streamflow in the American Southwest.3.Tributaries increased the relative importance of terrestrial organic matter, particularly during the wet season below junctures of key tributaries. This contrasted with the algal-based food web present immediately below Glen Canyon Dam.4.Tributary inputs during the monsoon also increased trophic diversity and food chain length: food chain length peaked below the confluence with the largest tributary (by discharge) in Grand Canyon, increasing by >1 trophic level over a 4-5 kilometre reach possibly due to aquatic prey being flushed into the mainstem during heavy rain events.5.Our results illustrate that large tributaries can create seasonal discontinuities, influencing riverine food web structure in terms of allochthony, food web diversity, and food chain length.6.Synthesis and applications. Pulsed flows from unregulated tributaries following seasonal monsoon rains increase the importance of terrestrially-derived organic matter in large, regulated river food webs, increasing food chain length and trophic diversity downstream of tributary inputs. Protecting unregulated tributaries within hydropower cascades may be important if we are to mitigate food web structure alteration due to flow regulation by large dams. This is critical in the light of global hydropower development, especially in megadiverse, developing countries where dam placement (including completed and planned structures) is in tributaries.

  5. The Hidden Flow Structure and Metric Space of Network Embedding Algorithms Based on Random Walks. (United States)

    Gu, Weiwei; Gong, Li; Lou, Xiaodan; Zhang, Jiang


    Network embedding which encodes all vertices in a network as a set of numerical vectors in accordance with it's local and global structures, has drawn widespread attention. Network embedding not only learns significant features of a network, such as the clustering and linking prediction but also learns the latent vector representation of the nodes which provides theoretical support for a variety of applications, such as visualization, link prediction, node classification, and recommendation. As the latest progress of the research, several algorithms based on random walks have been devised. Although those algorithms have drawn much attention for their high scores in learning efficiency and accuracy, there is still a lack of theoretical explanation, and the transparency of those algorithms has been doubted. Here, we propose an approach based on the open-flow network model to reveal the underlying flow structure and its hidden metric space of different random walk strategies on networks. We show that the essence of embedding based on random walks is the latent metric structure defined on the open-flow network. This not only deepens our understanding of random- walk-based embedding algorithms but also helps in finding new potential applications in network embedding.

  6. Thermodynamics, maximum power, and the dynamics of preferential river flow structures at the continental scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kleidon


    Full Text Available The organization of drainage basins shows some reproducible phenomena, as exemplified by self-similar fractal river network structures and typical scaling laws, and these have been related to energetic optimization principles, such as minimization of stream power, minimum energy expenditure or maximum "access". Here we describe the organization and dynamics of drainage systems using thermodynamics, focusing on the generation, dissipation and transfer of free energy associated with river flow and sediment transport. We argue that the organization of drainage basins reflects the fundamental tendency of natural systems to deplete driving gradients as fast as possible through the maximization of free energy generation, thereby accelerating the dynamics of the system. This effectively results in the maximization of sediment export to deplete topographic gradients as fast as possible and potentially involves large-scale feedbacks to continental uplift. We illustrate this thermodynamic description with a set of three highly simplified models related to water and sediment flow and describe the mechanisms and feedbacks involved in the evolution and dynamics of the associated structures. We close by discussing how this thermodynamic perspective is consistent with previous approaches and the implications that such a thermodynamic description has for the understanding and prediction of sub-grid scale organization of drainage systems and preferential flow structures in general.

  7. Symmetrical retrograde actin flow in the actin fusion structure is involved in osteoclast fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Takito


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the zipper-like structure (ZLS, a podosome-related structure that transiently appears at the cell contact zone, in osteoclast fusion. Live-cell imaging of osteoclasts derived from RAW264.7 cells transfected with EGFP-actin revealed consistent symmetrical retrograde actin flow in the ZLS, but not in the podosome cluster, the podosome ring or the podosome belt. Confocal imaging showed that the distributions of F-actin, vinculin, paxillin and zyxin in the ZLS were different from those in the podosome belt. Thick actin filament bundles running outside the ZLS appeared to recruit non-muscle myosin IIA. The F-actin-rich domain of the ZLS contained actin-related protein 2/3 complex (Arp2/3. Inhibition of Arp2/3 activity disorganized the ZLS, disrupted actin flow, deteriorated cell-cell adhesion and inhibited osteoclast hypermultinucleation. In contrast, ML-7, an inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase, had little effect on the structure of ZLS and promoted osteoclast hypermultinucleation. These results reveal a link between actin flow in the ZLS and osteoclast fusion. Osteoclast fusion was promoted by branched actin elongation and negatively regulated by actomyosin contraction.

  8. The influence of cooling on the advance of lava flows: insights from analogue experiments on the feedbacks between flow dynamics and thermal structure (United States)

    Garel, F.; Kaminski, E.; Tait, S.; Limare, A.


    During an effusive volcanic eruption, the crisis management is mainly based on the prediction of lava flows advance and its velocity. The spreading of a lava flow, seen as a gravity current, depends on its "effective rheology" and the eruptive mass flux. These two parameters are not known a priori during an eruption and a key question is how to evaluate them in near real-time (rather than afterwards.) There is no generic macroscopic model for the rheology of an advancing lava flow, and analogue modelling is a precious tool to empirically estimate the rheology of a complex flow. We investigate through laboratory experiments the simultaneous spreading and cooling of horizontal currents fed at constant rate from a point source. The materials used are silicone oil (isoviscous), and poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) wax injected in liquid state and solidiying during its advance. In the isoviscous case, the temperature field is a passive tracer of the flow dynamics, whereas in the PEG experiments there is a feedback between the cooling of the flow and its effective rheology. We focus on the evolution of the current area and of the surface thermal structure, imaged with an infrared camera, to assess how the thermal structure can be related to the flow rate. The flow advance is continuous in the viscous case, and follows the predictions of Huppert (1982); in that case the surface temperature become steady after a transient time and the radiated heat flux is shown to be proportional to the input rate. For the PEG experiments, the spreading occurs through an alternation of stagnation and overflow phases, with a mean spreading rate decreasing as the experiment goes on. As in the case of lava flows, these experiments can exhibit a compound flow field, solid levees, thermal erosion, liquid overflows and channelization. A key observation is that the effective rheology of the solifying PEG material depends on the input flow rate, with high input rates yielding a rheology closer to the

  9. Structures, Compositions, and Activities of Live Shewanella Biofilms Formed on Graphite Electrodes in Electrochemical Flow Cells. (United States)

    Kitayama, Miho; Koga, Ryota; Kasai, Takuya; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuya


    An electrochemical flow cell equipped with a graphite working electrode (WE) at the bottom was inoculated with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 expressing an anaerobic fluorescent protein, and biofilm formation on the WE was observed over time during current generation at WE potentials of +0.4 and 0 V (versus standard hydrogen electrodes), under electrolyte-flow conditions. Electrochemical analyses suggested the presence of unique electron-transfer mechanisms in the +0.4-V biofilm. Microscopic analyses revealed that, in contrast to aerobic biofilms, current-generating biofilm (at +0.4 V) was thin and flat (∼10 μm in thickness), and cells were evenly and densely distributed in the biofilm. In contrast, cells were unevenly distributed in biofilm formed at 0 V. In situ fluorescence staining and biofilm recovery experiments showed that the amounts of extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) in the +0.4-V biofilm were much smaller than those in the aerobic and 0-V biofilms, suggesting that Shewanella cells suppress the production of EPSs at +0.4 V under flow conditions. We suggest that Shewanella cells perceive electrode potentials and modulate the structure and composition of biofilms to efficiently transfer electrons to electrodes. IMPORTANCE A promising application of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is to save energy in wastewater treatment. Since current is generated in these MFCs by biofilm microbes under horizontal flows of wastewater, it is important to understand the mechanisms for biofilm formation and current generation under water-flow conditions. Although massive work has been done to analyze the molecular mechanisms for current generation by model exoelectrogenic bacteria, such as Shewanella oneidensis , limited information is available regarding the formation of current-generating biofilms over time under water-flow conditions. The present study developed electrochemical flow cells and used them to examine the electrochemical and structural features of current

  10. Modeling the Link between Left Ventricular Flow and Thromboembolic Risk Using Lagrangian Coherent Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen May-Newman


    Full Text Available A thrombus is a blood clot that forms on a surface, and can grow and detach, presenting a high risk for stroke and pulmonary embolism. This risk increases with blood-contacting medical devices, due to the immunological response to foreign surfaces and altered flow patterns that activate the blood and promote thromboembolism (TE. Abnormal blood transport, including vortex behavior and regional stasis, can be assessed from Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS. LCS are flow structures that bound transport within a flow field and divide the flow into regions with maximally attracting/repelling surfaces that maximize local shear. LCS can be identified from finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE fields, which are computed from velocity field data. In this study, the goal was to use FTLE analysis to evaluate LCS in the left ventricle (LV using velocity data obtained from flow visualization of a mock circulatory loop. A model of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM was used to investigate the effect of left ventricular assist device (LVAD support on diastolic filling and transport in the LV. A small thrombus in the left ventricular outflow tract was also considered using data from a corresponding LV model. The DCM LV exhibited a direct flow of 0.8 L/cardiac cycle, which was tripled during LVAD support Delayed ejection flow was doubled, further illustrating the impact of LVAD support on blood transport. An examination of the attracting LCS ridges during diastolic filling showed that the increase is due primarily to augmentation of A wave inflow, which is associated with increased vortex circulation, kinetic energy and Forward FTLE. The introduction of a small thrombus in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT of the LV had a minimal effect on diastolic inflow, but obstructed systolic outflow leading to decreased transport compared with the unobstructed LVOT geometry. Localized FTLE in the LVOT increased dramatically with the small thrombus model, which reflects

  11. Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of Hydrofoils in a Pulsating Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiasheng


    Full Text Available The reduction of noise and vibration are very important in the design of hydrofoils. The current study focuses on establishing a theoretical and numerical model to investigate fluid-structure interaction caused by elastic hydrofoils in a pulsating flow. A fully coupled three dimensional boundary element method (BEM and finite element method (FEM code is applied to analyze the hydrodynamic performance. The numerical results show that the peak frequencies of the support reactions are related to the natural frequency of the hydrofoil. The natural frequencies and support reaction amplitudes are reduced significantly by including the fluid-structure coupling.

  12. Formation of turbulent structures and the link to fluctuation driven sheared flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windisch, T; Grulke, O; Naulin, Volker


    The formation of turbulent structures in weakly developed drift-wave turbulence is investigated using experimental data obtained in a linear laboratory device. The findings are compared with fully non-linear numerical simulation results. The formation of structures occurs in a region, in which...... the divergence of the Reynolds stress, which is one term in the momentum balance, has a maximum. The generation of a time-averaged shear layer is not observed, but for transient events the shearing rate can become sufficiently strong to decorrelate the fluctuations. This happens when the energy flow...

  13. Stereo vision for fully automatic volumetric flow measurement in urban drainage structures (United States)

    Sirazitdinova, Ekaterina; Pesic, Igor; Schwehn, Patrick; Song, Hyuk; Satzger, Matthias; Weingärtner, Dorothea; Sattler, Marcus; Deserno, Thomas M.


    Overflows in urban drainage structures, or sewers, must be prevented on time to avoid their undesirable consequences. An effective monitoring system able to measure volumetric flow in sewers is needed. Existing stateof-the-art technologies are not robust against harsh sewer conditions and, therefore, cause high maintenance expenses. Having the goal of fully automatic, robust and non-contact volumetric flow measurement in sewers, we came up with an original and innovative idea of a vision-based system for volumetric flow monitoring. On the contrast to existing video-based monitoring systems, we introduce a second camera to the setup and exploit stereo-vision aiming of automatic calibration to the real world. Depth of the flow is estimated as the difference between distances from the camera to the water surface and from the camera to the canal's bottom. Camerato-water distance is recovered automatically using large-scale stereo matching, while the distance to the canal's bottom is measured once upon installation. Surface velocity is calculated using cross-correlation template matching. Individual natural particles in the flow are detected and tracked throughout the sequence of images recorded over a fixed time interval. Having the water level and the surface velocity estimated and knowing the geometry of the canal we calculate the discharge. The preliminary evaluation has shown that the average error of depth computation was 3 cm, while the average error of surface velocity resulted in 5 cm/s. Due to the experimental design, these errors are rough estimates: at each acquisition session the reference depth value was measured only once, although the variation in volumetric flow and the gradual transitions between the automatically detected values indicated that the actual depth level has varied. We will address this issue in the next experimental session.

  14. Physical modeling of river spanning rock structures: Evaluating interstitial flow, local hydraulics, downstream scour development, and structure stability (United States)

    Collins, K.L.; Thornton, C.I.; Mefford, B.; Holmquist-Johnson, C. L.


    Rock weir and ramp structures uniquely serve a necessary role in river management: to meet water deliveries in an ecologically sound manner. Uses include functioning as low head diversion dams, permitting fish passage, creating habitat diversity, and stabilizing stream banks and profiles. Existing information on design and performance of in-stream rock structures does not provide the guidance necessary to implement repeatable and sustainable construction and retrofit techniques. As widespread use of rock structures increases, the need for reliable design methods with a broad range of applicability at individual sites grows as well. Rigorous laboratory testing programs were implemented at the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and at Colorado State University (CSU) as part of a multifaceted research project focused on expanding the current knowledge base and developing design methods to improve the success rate of river spanning rock structures in meeting project goals. Physical modeling at Reclamation is being used to measure, predict, and reduce interstitial flow through rock ramps. CSU is using physical testing to quantify and predict scour development downstream of rock weirs and its impact on the stability of rock structures. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  15. Development of measurement systems for studies of flow - structure interactions in pipe systems under LWR conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuschewski, Mario; Laurien, Eckart


    The Institute for Nuclear Power Studies and Energy Systems (IKE) of the University of Stuttgart is setting up new test rigs for studies of cyclic thermal load phenomena within the 'Studies of Flow-Structure Interactions in Light Water Reactors' joint project. The project is part of a total of three individual projects within an overarching BMBF joint project on reactor safety research, 'Basic Principles of Systems, Discharge and Materials Behavior of Pipes Under Cyclic Thermal Loads.' The article covers the aspect of experimental studies for fluid mechanics modeling of flow-structure interactions. Detailed points under study are thermal mixing processes or laminar flows in a typical tee-shaped pipe branch. The interaction between a fluid and a pipe structure exerts considerable influence on the loads and stresses acting on a component and on the resultant fatigue of a material. In this connection, modeling the mixing process, including effects of buoyancy, thermal conduction and head transfer between the fluid and the wall, is of decisive importance. The experimental data so far accumulated in studies of non-isothermal mixtures cover but a very narrow range of temperatures. The focus of this work is on the development of technical measurement systems for studies of cyclic thermal loads and stresses to be applied to pipe elements specific to LWRs under realistic thermal and flow conditions. On the basis of reliable experimental data, the processes referred to above and their underlying mechanisms can then be examined in the further course of work, and models can be studied for applicability and extended where necessary. (orig.)

  16. The population genomics of begomoviruses: global scale population structure and gene flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna HC


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapidly growing availability of diverse full genome sequences from across the world is increasing the feasibility of studying the large-scale population processes that underly observable pattern of virus diversity. In particular, characterizing the genetic structure of virus populations could potentially reveal much about how factors such as geographical distributions, host ranges and gene flow between populations combine to produce the discontinuous patterns of genetic diversity that we perceive as distinct virus species. Among the richest and most diverse full genome datasets that are available is that for the dicotyledonous plant infecting genus, Begomovirus, in the Family Geminiviridae. The begomoviruses all share the same whitefly vector, are highly recombinogenic and are distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions where they seriously threaten the food security of the world's poorest people. Results We focus here on using a model-based population genetic approach to identify the genetically distinct sub-populations within the global begomovirus meta-population. We demonstrate the existence of at least seven major sub-populations that can further be sub-divided into as many as thirty four significantly differentiated and genetically cohesive minor sub-populations. Using the population structure framework revealed in the present study, we further explored the extent of gene flow and recombination between genetic populations. Conclusions Although geographical barriers are apparently the most significant underlying cause of the seven major population sub-divisions, within the framework of these sub-divisions, we explore patterns of gene flow to reveal that both host range differences and genetic barriers to recombination have probably been major contributors to the minor population sub-divisions that we have identified. We believe that the global Begomovirus population structure revealed here could


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, David; Aydin, Atilla


    Fractures and faults are brittle structural heterogeneities that can act both as conduits and barriers with respect to fluid flow in rock. This range in the hydraulic effects of fractures and faults greatly complicates the challenges faced by geoscientists working on important problems: from groundwater aquifer and hydrocarbon reservoir management, to subsurface contaminant fate and transport, to underground nuclear waste isolation, to the subsurface sequestration of CO2 produced during fossil-fuel combustion. The research performed under DOE grant DE-FG03-94ER14462 aimed to address these challenges by laying a solid foundation, based on detailed geological mapping, laboratory experiments, and physical process modeling, on which to build our interpretive and predictive capabilities regarding the structure, patterns, and fluid flow properties of fractures and faults in sandstone reservoirs. The material in this final technical report focuses on the period of the investigation from July 1, 2001 to October 31, 2004. The Aztec Sandstone at the Valley of Fire, Nevada, provides an unusually rich natural laboratory in which exposures of joints, shear deformation bands, compaction bands and faults at scales ranging from centimeters to kilometers can be studied in an analog for sandstone aquifers and reservoirs. The suite of structures there has been documented and studied in detail using a combination of low-altitude aerial photography, outcrop-scale mapping and advanced computational analysis. In addition, chemical alteration patterns indicative of multiple paleo fluid flow events have been mapped at outcrop, local and regional scales. The Valley of Fire region has experienced multiple episodes of fluid flow and this is readily evident in the vibrant patterns of chemical alteration from which the Valley of Fire derives its name. We have successfully integrated detailed field and petrographic observation and analysis, process-based mechanical modeling, and numerical


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, David; Aydin, Atilla


    Fractures and faults are brittle structural heterogeneities that can act both as conduits and barriers with respect to fluid flow in rock. This range in the hydraulic effects of fractures and faults greatly complicates the challenges faced by geoscientists working on important problems: from groundwater aquifer and hydrocarbon reservoir management, to subsurface contaminant fate and transport, to underground nuclear waste isolation, to the subsurface sequestration of CO2 produced during fossil-fuel combustion. The research performed under DOE grant DE-FG03-94ER14462 aimed to address these challenges by laying a solid foundation, based on detailed geological mapping, laboratory experiments, and physical process modeling, on which to build our interpretive and predictive capabilities regarding the structure, patterns, and fluid flow properties of fractures and faults in sandstone reservoirs. The material in this final technical report focuses on the period of the investigation from July 1, 2001 to October 31, 2004. The Aztec Sandstone at the Valley of Fire, Nevada, provides an unusually rich natural laboratory in which exposures of joints, shear deformation bands, compaction bands and faults at scales ranging from centimeters to kilometers can be studied in an analog for sandstone aquifers and reservoirs. The suite of structures there has been documented and studied in detail using a combination of low-altitude aerial photography, outcrop-scale mapping and advanced computational analysis. In addition, chemical alteration patterns indicative of multiple paleo fluid flow events have been mapped at outcrop, local and regional scales. The Valley of Fire region has experienced multiple episodes of fluid flow and this is readily evident in the vibrant patterns of chemical alteration from which the Valley of Fire derives its name. We have successfully integrated detailed field and petrographic observation and analysis, process-based mechanical modeling, and numerical

  19. Wake structures of two side by side spheres in a tripped boundary layer flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canli Eyüb


    Full Text Available Two independent spheres were placed in a side by side arrangement and flow structure in the wake region of the spheres was investigated with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV system when the spheres were in a boundary layer over a flat plate as a special case. Reynolds number was 5000 based on the sphere diameter which was 42.5 mm. Boundary layer was tripped 8mm away from the leading edge of the flat plate with a 5 mm trip wire. The thickness of the hydrodynamically developed boundary layer was determined as 63mm which was larger than the sphere diameter of D=42.5mm. Wake region of the spheres was examined from point of flow physics for the different sphere locations in the ranges of 0≤G/D ≤1.5 and 0≤S/D ≤1.5 where G and S were the distance between the spheres and the distance between the bottom point of the spheres and the flat plate surface, respectively. Depending on the different sphere locations, instantaneous and time averaged vorticity data, scalar values of time-averaged velocity components and their root mean square (rms values and time averaged vorticity data are presented in the study for the evaluation of wake region of the spheres. It is demonstrated that the gap between the two spheres and the interaction between the gap and the boundary layer greatly affects flow pattern, especially when spheres are located near to the flat plate surface, i.e. S/D=0.1 for 0≤G/D ≤1.5. Different distances between the spheres resulted in various flow patterns as the spheres were approached to the flat plate. The distance S/D=0.1 for all gap values has the strongest effect on the wake structures. Beyond G/D=1.0, the sphere wakes tend to be similar to single sphere case. The instantaneous vorticity fields of the side by side arrangements comprised wavy structures in higher level comparing to an individual sphere case. The gap flow intensifies the occurrence of small scale eddies in the wake region. The submersion rate of the spheres

  20. Fluid-structure-interaction analysis for welded pipes with flow-accelerated corrosion wall thinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, L.; Ding, Y., E-mail: [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)


    The flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) entrance effect results in enhanced wall thinning immediately downstream of a weld if the weld connects an upstream FAC-resistant material with a downstream less resistant material. The weld regions, especially those with local repairs, are susceptible to cracking due to the high residual stresses induced by fabrication. The combined effects of the FAC entrance effect and high stresses at a weld might compromise the structural integrity of the piping and lead to a failure. Weld degradation by FAC entrance effect has been observed at nuclear and fossil power plants. This paper describes an application using fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) modelling to study the combined effects of FAC wall thinning, weld residual stresses, and in-service loads on welded structures. Simplified cases analyzed were based on CANDU outlet feeder conditions. The analysis includes the flow and mass transfer modelling of the FAC entrance effect using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and nonlinear structural analyses of the welded structures with wall thinning and an assumed weld residual stress and strain distribution. The FSI analyses were performed using ANSYS Workbench, an integrated platform that enables the coupling of CFD and structural analysis solutions. The obtained results show that the combination of FAC, weld residual stresses, in-service loads (including the internal pressure) and (or) extreme loads could cause high stresses and affect the integrity of the welded pipes. The present work demonstrated that the FSI modelling can be used as an effective approach to assess the integrity of welded structures. (author)

  1. Air-structure coupling features analysis of mining contra-rotating axial flow fan cascade (United States)

    Chen, Q. G.; Sun, W.; Li, F.; Zhang, Y. J.


    The interaction between contra-rotating axial flow fan blade and working gas has been studied by means of establishing air-structure coupling control equation and combining Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Computational solid mechanics (CSM). Based on the single flow channel model, the Finite Volume Method was used to make the field discrete. Additionally, the SIMPLE algorithm, the Standard k-ε model and the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian dynamic grids technology were utilized to get the airflow motion by solving the discrete governing equations. At the same time, the Finite Element Method was used to make the field discrete to solve dynamic response characteristics of blade. Based on weak coupling method, data exchange from the fluid solver and the solid solver was processed on the coupling interface. Then interpolation was used to obtain the coupling characteristics. The results showed that the blade's maximum amplitude was on the tip of the last-stage blade and aerodynamic force signal could reflect the blade working conditions to some extent. By analyzing the flow regime in contra-rotating axial flow fan, it could be found that the vortex core region was mainly in the blade surface, the hub and the blade clearance. In those regions, the turbulence intensity was very high. The last-stage blade's operating life is shorter than that of the pre-stage blade due to the fatigue fracture occurs much more easily on the last-stage blade which bears more stress.

  2. Flow structures in the near-wake of the Ahmed model (United States)

    Vino, G.; Watkins, S.; Mousley, P.; Watmuff, J.; Prasad, S.


    The time-averaged and time-dependent nature of the Ahmed model near- and far-wake has been investigated experimentally. The use of a new multi-hole probe allowed for measurement in regions exhibiting large flow angles (including flow reversals), and high levels of unsteadiness, allowing examination of flow regions previously difficult to investigate. Although time-averaged results of the far-wake showed good agreement with previously published work, the near-wake structure was found to be somewhat different, with much of the inconsistency being found in the interaction between a separated region over the slant and the recirculatory flows behind the model. Time-dependant analysis revealed that the shedding behind the model is analogous to vortex shedding behind bluff bodies, with most of the fluctuations confined to the axial direction. In addition, the shedding characteristics on the slant showed very similar behaviour to the vertical base, indicating strong turbulent mixing between the two regions, emphasizing time-averaged findings.

  3. Modelling and Simulation of Structural Deformation of Isothermal Subsurface Flow and Carbon Dioxide Injection

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed


    Injection of CO2 in hydrocarbon reservoir has double benefit. On the one hand, it is a profitable method due to issues related to global warming, and on the other hand it is an effective mechanism to enhance hydrocarbon recovery. Such injection associates complex processes involving, e.g., solute transport of dissolved materials, in addition to local changes in density of the phases. Also, increasing carbon dioxide injection may cause a structural deformation of the medium, so it is important to include such effect into the model. The structural deformation modelling in carbon sequestration is important to evaluate the medium stability to avoid CO2 leakage to the atmosphere. On the other hand, geologic formation of the medium is usually heterogeneous and consists of several layers of different permeability. In this work we conduct numerical simulation of two-phase flow in a heterogeneous porous medium domain with dissolved solute transport as well as structural deformation effects. The solute transport of the dissolved component is described by concentration equation. The structural deformation for geomechanics is derived from a general local differential balance equation with neglecting the local mass balance of solid phase and the inertial force term. The flux continuity condition is used at interfaces between different permeability layers of the heterogeneous medium. We analyze the vertical migration of a CO2 plume injected into a 2D layered reservoir. Analysis of distribution of flow field components such as saturation, pressures, velocities, and CO2 concentration are presented.

  4. Characterization of coherent structures in three-dimensional turbulent flows using the finite-size Lyapunov exponent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettencourt, João H; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio


    In this paper, we use the finite-size Lyapunov exponent (FSLE) to characterize Lagrangian coherent structures in three-dimensional (3D) turbulent flows. Lagrangian coherent structures act as the organizers of transport in fluid flows and are crucial to understand their stirring and mixing properties. Generalized maxima (ridges) of the FSLE fields are used to locate these coherent structures. 3D FSLE fields are calculated in two phenomenologically distinct turbulent flows: a wall-bounded flow (channel flow) and a regional oceanic flow obtained by the numerical solution of the primitive equations where two-dimensional (2D) turbulence dominates. In the channel flow, autocorrelations of the FSLE field show that the structure is substantially different from the near wall to the mid-channel region and relates well to the more widely studied Eulerian coherent structure of the turbulent channel flow. The ridges of the FSLE field have complex shapes due to the 3D character of the turbulent fluctuations. In the oceanic flow, strong horizontal stirring is present and the flow regime is similar to that of 2D turbulence where the domain is populated by coherent eddies that interact strongly. This in turn results in the presence of high FSLE lines throughout the domain leading to strong non-local mixing. The ridges of the FSLE field are quasi-vertical surfaces, indicating that the horizontal dynamics dominates the flow. Indeed, due to rotation and stratification, vertical motions in the ocean are much less intense than horizontal ones. This suppression is absent in the channel flow, as the 3D character of the FSLE ridges shows. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’. (paper)

  5. Structure of peat soils and implications for biogeochemical processes and hydrological flow (United States)

    Rezanezhad, F.; McCarter, C. P. R.; Gharedaghloo, B.; Kleimeier, C.; Milojevic, T.; Liu, H.; Weber, T. K. D.; Price, J. S.; Quinton, W. L.; Lenartz, B.; Van Cappellen, P.


    Permafrost peatlands contain globally important amounts of soil organic carbon and play major roles in global water, nutrient and biogeochemical cycles. The structure of peatland soils (i.e., peat) are highly complex with unique physical and hydraulic properties; where significant, and only partially reversible, shrinkage occurs during dewatering (including water table fluctuations), compression and/or decomposition. These distinct physical and hydraulic properties controls water flow, which in turn affect reactive and non-reactive solute transport (such as, sorption or degradation) and biogeochemical functions. Additionally, peat further attenuates solute migration through molecular diffusion into the inactive pores of Sphagnum dominated peat. These slow, diffusion-limited solute exchanges between the pore regions may give rise to pore-scale chemical gradients and heterogeneous distributions of microbial habitats and activity in peat soils. Permafrost peat plateaus have the same essential subsurface characteristics as other widely organic soil-covered peatlands, where the hydraulic conductivity is related to the degree of decomposition and soil compression. Increasing levels of decomposition correspond with a reduction of effective pore diameter and consequently restrict water and solute flow (by several orders of magnitude in hydraulic conductivity between the ground surface and a depth of 50 cm). In this presentation, we present the current knowledge of key physical and hydraulic properties related to the structure of globally available peat soils and discuss their implications for water storage, flow and the migration of solutes.

  6. Relation between flow enhancement factor and structure for core-softened fluids inside nanotubes. (United States)

    Bordin, José Rafael; Diehl, Alexandre; Barbosa, Marcia C


    The relationship between enhancement flow and structure of core-softened fluids confined inside nanotubes has been studied using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. The fluid was modeled with different types of attractive and purely repulsive two length scale potentials. Such potentials reproduce in bulk the anomalous behavior observed for liquid water. The dual control volume grand canonical molecular dynamics method was employed to create a pressure gradient between two reservoirs connected by a nanotube. We show how the nanotube radius affects the flow enhancement factor for each one of the interaction potentials. The connection between structural and dynamical properties of the confined fluid is discussed, and we show how attractive and purely repulsive fluids exhibit distinct behaviors. A continuum to subcontinuum flow transition was found for small nanotube radius. The behavior obtained for the core-softened fluids is similar to what was recently observed in all-atom molecular dynamics simulations for classical models of water and also in experimental studies. Our results are explained in the framework of the two length scale potentials.

  7. Flow cytometry as a novel tool for structural and functional characterization of isolated yeast vacuoles. (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jorge; Silva, Rui D; Noronha, Henrique; Pedras, Andreia; Gerós, Hernâni; Côrte-Real, Manuela


    The yeast vacuole is functionally analogous to the mammalian lysosome. Both play important roles in fundamental cellular processes such as protein degradation, detoxification, osmoregulation, autophagy and apoptosis which, when deregulated in humans, can lead to several diseases. Some of these vacuolar roles are difficult to study in a cellular context, and therefore the use of a cell-free system is an important approach to gain further insight into the different molecular mechanisms required for vacuolar function. In the present study, the potentialities of flow cytometry for the structural and functional characterization of isolated yeast vacuoles were explored. The isolation protocol resulted in a yeast vacuolar fraction with a degree of purity suitable for cytometric analysis. Moreover, isolated vacuoles were structurally and functionally intact and able to generate and maintain electrochemical gradients of ions across the vacuolar membrane, as assessed by flow cytometry. Proton and calcium gradients were dissipated by NH4Cl and calcimycin, respectively. These results established flow cytometry as a powerful technique for the characterization of isolated vacuoles. The protocols developed in this study can also be used to enhance our understanding of several molecular mechanisms underlying the development of lysosome-related diseases, as well as provide tools to screen for new drugs that can modulate these processes, which have promising clinical relevance.

  8. Perturbation-induced secondary flow structures due to fractured stents in arterial curvatures (United States)

    Bulusu, Kartik V.; Popma, Christopher; Penna, Leanne; Plesniak, Michael W.


    An in vitro experimental investigation of secondary flow structures was performed downstream of a model stent that embodied a ``Type-IV'' stent fracture, i.e. complete transverse fracture of elements and element displacement (of 3 diameters). One part of the fractured stent was located in the curved region of a test section comprised of a 180-degree bent tube, and the velocity field measured with PIV. Secondary flow morphologies downstream of the stent were identified with a continuous wavelet transform (CWT) algorithm (PIVlet 1.2) using a 2D Ricker wavelet. A comparison of wavelet transformed vorticity fields of fractured and unfractured model stents is presented under physiological inflow conditions. During systolic deceleration, a breakdown in symmetry of vortical structures occurred with the unfractured stent, but not with the fractured model stent. Potential mechanisms to explain the differences in secondary flow morphologies include redirection of vorticity from the meridional plane of the bend to the normal plane and diffusion of vorticity. Supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant No. CBET-0828903 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  9. Viscoelastic polymer flows and elastic turbulence in three-dimensional porous structures. (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan; Lyons, Kyle; Howe, Andrew M; Clarke, Andrew


    Viscoelastic polymer solutions flowing through reservoir rocks have been found to improve oil displacement efficiency when the aqueous-phase shear-rate exceeds a critical value. A possible mechanism for this enhanced recovery is elastic turbulence that causes breakup and mobilization of trapped oil ganglia. Here, we apply nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusion measurements in a novel way to detect increased motion of disconnected oil ganglia. The data are acquired directly from a three-dimensional (3D) opaque porous structure (sandstone) when viscoelastic fluctuations are expected to be present in the continuous phase. The measured increase in motion of trapped ganglia provides unequivocal evidence of fluctuations in the flowing phase in a fully complex 3D system. This work provides direct evidence of elastic turbulence in a realistic reservoir rock - a measurement that cannot be readily achieved by conventional laboratory methods. We support the NMR data with optical microscopy studies of fluctuating ganglia in simple two-dimensional (2D) microfluidic networks, with consistent apparent rheological behaviour of the aqueous phase, to provide conclusive evidence of elastic turbulence in the 3D structure and hence validate the proposed flow-fluctuation mechanism for enhanced oil recovery.

  10. Spatio-temporal structure and cycle to cycle variations of an in-cylinder tumbling flow (United States)

    Voisine, M.; Thomas, L.; Borée, J.; Rey, P.


    The aim of this paper is to make use of PIV and high-speed PIV in a research engine of moderate tumbling ratio in order to analyze both the spatial structure of the flow and its temporal evolution during series of consecutive cycles. Appropriate analyzing tools are introduced, and four different points are addressed: (1) the chain of events driving the generation of the three-dimensional mean tumbling motion is investigated; (2) a Lagrangian analysis of the roll-up of the tumbling jet in individual cycles demonstrates a strong cycle to cycle variation during the compression phase (the rms of the position of the jet front being approximately 10% of the piston stroke); (3) focussing on the "breakdown" phase, phase invariant proper orthogonal decomposition enables us to distinguish cycles according to their structure near top dead center (TDC). We show that when the coherent energy of the flow is conserved, there is no increase in the fluctuating kinetic energy; (4) finally, the phase-averaged Reynolds stresses is decomposed into a contribution of the in-cycle coherence and the turbulence carried by the flow states. Approximately 30% of the fluctuating kinetic energy is due to cycle to cycle fluctuations in this chamber near TDC.

  11. Three-dimensional flow structure measurements behind a queue of studied model vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.F.; Chan, T.L.; Zhou, Y.


    The three-dimensional flow structures of a queue of studied model vehicles (i.e., one-, two- and three-vehicle cases) were investigated comprehensively in a closed-circuit wind tunnel using particle image velocimetry (PIV) for the typical urban vehicle speeds (i.e., 10, 30 and 50 km/h). In this three-dimensional vehicle wake, a pair of longitudinal vortices is characterized by counter-rotating and moving downstream at relatively low velocity than their surrounding flow. The flow structures of multiple studied model vehicles are dominated by the wake generated from the last studied model vehicle but the preceding studied model vehicle(s) also has/have some minor effects. Cross-sectional turbulence distribution is non-uniform in the far-wake region for all studied cases. The lowest turbulence occurs at the center part of the vehicle wake while high turbulence occurs at its two sides. As such, it may lead to considerable underestimation in turbulence magnitude if the measurement is only taken along the centerline of the vehicle wake.

  12. Comparison between continuous and localized methods to evaluate the flow rate through containment concrete structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason, L., E-mail: [Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), DEN, DANS, DM2S, SEMT, Mechanics and System Simulation Laboratory (LM2S), F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); LaMSID, UMR CNRS-EDF-CEA 8193, F-92141 Clamart (France); Masson, B. [Electricité de France (EDF), SEPTEN, F-69628 Villeurbanne (France)


    Highlights: • The contribution focuses on the gas transfer through reinforced concrete structures. • A continuous approach with a damage–permeability law is investigated. • It is significant, for this case, only when the damage variable crosses the section. • In this case, two localized approaches are compared. • It helps at evaluating a “reference” crack opening for engineering laws. - Abstract: In this contribution, different techniques are compared to evaluate the gas flow rate through a representative section of a reinforced and prestressed concrete containment structure. A continuous approach is first applied which is based on the evaluation of the gas permeability as a function of the damage variable. The calculations show that the flow rate becomes significant only when the damage variable crosses the section. But in this situation, the continuous approach is no longer fully valid. That is why localized approaches, based on a fine description of the crack openings, are then investigated. A comparison between classical simplified laws (Poiseuille flow) and a more refined model which takes into account the evolution of the crack opening in the depth of the section enables to define the validity domain of the simplified laws and especially the definition of the associated “reference opening”.

  13. Structural characterization of wind-sheared turbulent flow using self-organized mapping (United States)

    Scott, Nicholas V.; Handler, Robert A.


    A nonlinear cluster analysis algorithm is used to characterize the spatial structure of a wind-sheared turbulent flow obtained from the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the three-dimensional temperature and momentum fields. The application of self-organizing mapping to DNS data for data reduction is utilized because of the dimensional similitude in structure between DNS data and remotely sensed hyperspectral and multispectral data where the technique has been used extensively. For the three Reynolds numbers of 150, 180, and 220 used in the DNS, self-organized mapping is successful in the extraction of boundary layer streaky structures from the turbulent temperature and momentum fields. In addition, it preserves the cross-wind scale structure of the streaks exhibited in both fields which loosely scale with the inverse of the Reynolds number. Self-organizing mapping of the along wind component of the helicity density shows a layer of the turbulence field which is spotty suggesting significant direct coupling between the large and small-scale turbulent structures. The spatial correlation of the temperature and momentum fields allows for the possibility of the remote extrapolation of the momentum structure from thermal structure.

  14. Almost Kaehler Ricci Flows and Einstein and Lagrange-Finsler Structures on Lie Algebroids

    CERN Document Server

    Vacaru, Sergiu I


    In this work we investigate Ricci flows of almost Kaehler structures on Lie algebroids when the fundamental geometric objects are completely determined by (semi) Riemannian metrics, or effective) regular generating Lagrange/ Finsler, functions. There are constructed canonical almost symplectic connections for which the geometric flows can be represented as gradient ones and characterized by nonholonomic deformations of Grigory Perelman's functionals. The first goal of this paper is to define such thermodynamical type values and derive almost K\\"ahler - Ricci geometric evolution equations. The second goal is to study how fixed Lie algebroid, i.e. Ricci soliton, configurations can be constructed for Riemannian manifolds and/or (co) tangent bundles endowed with nonholonomic distributions modelling (generalized) Einstein or Finsler - Cartan spaces. Finally, there are provided some examples of generic off-diagonal solutions for Lie algebroid type Ricci solitons and (effective) Einstein and Lagrange-Finsler algebro...

  15. Persistent Homology to describe Solid and Fluid Structures during Multiphase Flow (United States)

    Herring, A. L.; Robins, V.; Liu, Z.; Armstrong, R. T.; Sheppard, A.


    The question of how to accurately and effectively characterize essential fluid and solid distributions and structures is a long-standing topic within the field of porous media and fluid transport. For multiphase flow applications, considerable research effort has been made to describe fluid distributions under a range of conditions; including quantification of saturation levels, fluid-fluid pressure differences and interfacial areas, and fluid connectivity. Recent research has effectively used topological metrics to describe pore space and fluid connectivity, with researchers demonstrating links between pore-scale nonwetting phase topology to fluid mobilization and displacement mechanisms, relative permeability, fluid flow regimes, and thermodynamic models of multiphase flow. While topology is clearly a powerful tool to describe fluid distribution, topological metrics by definition provide information only on the connectivity of a phase, not its geometry (shape or size). Physical flow characteristics, e.g. the permeability of a fluid phase within a porous medium, are dependent on the connectivity of the pore space or fluid phase as well as the size of connections. Persistent homology is a technique which provides a direct link between topology and geometry via measurement of topological features and their persistence from the signed Euclidean distance transform of a segmented digital image (Figure 1). We apply persistent homology analysis to measure the occurrence and size of pore-scale topological features in a variety of sandstones, for both the dry state and the nonwetting phase fluid during two-phase fluid flow (drainage and imbibition) experiments, visualized with 3D X-ray microtomography. The results provide key insights into the dominant topological features and length scales of a media which control relevant field-scale engineering properties such as fluid trapping, absolute permeability, and relative permeability.

  16. Fine-scale structures and material flows of quiescent filaments observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Li; Xue, Zhi-Ke; Xiang, Yong-Yuan; Yang, Li-Heng


    Study of the small-scale structures and material flows associated with solar quiescent filaments is very important for understanding the formation and equilibrium of solar filaments. Using high resolution Hα data observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we present the structures of barbs and material flows along the threads across the spine in two quiescent filaments on 2013 September 29 and on 2012 November 2, respectively. During the evolution of the filament barb, several parallel tube-shaped structures formed and the width of the structures ranged from about 2.3 Mm to 3.3 Mm. The parallel tube-shaped structures merged together accompanied by material flows from the spine to the barb. Moreover, the boundary between the barb and surrounding atmosphere was very neat. The counter-streaming flows were not found to appear alternately in the adjacent threads of the filament. However, the large-scale patchy counter-streaming flows were detected in the filament. The flows in one patch of the filament have the same direction but flows in the adjacent patch have opposite direction. The patches of two opposite flows with a size of about 10″ were alternately exhibited along the spine of the filament. The velocity of these material flows ranged from 5.6 km s-1 to 15.0 km s-1. The material flows along the threads of the filament did not change their direction for about two hours and fourteen minutes during the evolution of the filament. Our results confirm that the large-scale counter-streaming flows with a certain width along the threads of solar filaments exist and are coaligned well with the threads.

  17. Finite element approximation of flow induced vibrations of human vocal folds model: Effects of inflow boundary conditions and the length of subglottal and supraglottal channel on phonation onset

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sváček, P.; Horáček, Jaromír


    Roč. 319, February (2018), s. 178-194 ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-01246S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : finite element method * aeroelasticity * biomechanics of voice Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.738, year: 2016

  18. SABRE observations of structured ionospheric flows during substorm expansion phase onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Bradshaw


    Full Text Available The irregularity velocity patterns observed by the SABRE coherent radar at substorm expansion phase onset, which is identified by magnetometer observations of Pi2 pulsations, are occasionally highly structured. In all the examples of structured velocity patterns examined, the SABRE viewing area is located at longitudes within the inferred substorm current wedge. Three types of structured velocity regime are apparent depending on the level of magnetic activity and the position of the radar viewing area relative to the substorm enhanced currents and the Pi2 pulsation generation region. Firstly, vortex-like velocity patterns are observed and these may be caused by the field-aligned currents associated with the substorm current wedge. Secondly, regions of equatorward velocity are also observed at times of substorm expansion phase onset moving longitudinally across the SABRE viewing area. The longitudinal movement is usually westward although an example of eastward motion has been observed. The phase velocity of these regions of equatorward flow is typically 1-3 km s-1. The observed equatorward velocities occur at the poleward edge or poleward of the background convection velocities observed by SABRE. These equatorward velocities may be related to the westward travelling surge and to the expansion (eastwards as well as westwards of the brightening arc region at substorm onset. Thirdly, the flow rotates equatorward within the field of view but does not then appear to move longitudinally. These equatorward velocities may relate to the earthward surge of plasma from the magnetotail at substorm onset.

  19. Population genetic structure and gene flow in a gleaning bat, Plecotus auritus (United States)

    Burland, T. M.; Barratt, E. M.; Beaumont, M. A.; Racey, P. A.


    During summer the brown long-eared bat Plecotus auritus (Vespertilionidae) forms stable colonies, comprised of both adult females and males and young of the year. A long-term ringing study conducted in north-east Scotland has established that little movement occurs among colonies and that both sexes are recruited into their natal colony. The aim of the present study was to investigate, using microsatellite DNA markers, if genetic structure within the population reflects the spatial structure indicated by ringing. Inter-colony FST estimates obtained for all colony members, and for females and males separately, were low (0.019, 0.026 and 0.011, respectively), but all values differed significantly from zero. These data indicate high gene flow between colonies, although some coancestry among colony members is evident in both sexes. On combining the ringing and genetic data, it is concluded that gene flow occurs via extra-colony copulation, rather than natal dispersal, and that each colony behaves as a distinct subpopulation. Microgeographical genetic isolation by distance was demonstrated for, to our knowledge, the first time in a bat species, and found to be apparent both across the entire study area and along one river valley. The results suggest that extensive macrogeographical population genetic structure may be evident across the species' range.

  20. The impact of structural development on near bed flow dynamics in gravel bed rivers: coupling flume experiments with numerical modelling (United States)

    Ockelford, A.; Hardy, R. J.; Rice, S. P.; Powell, M.


    It is increasingly being recognised that gravel bed rivers develop a surface `texture' in response to changes in the flow and sediment regime. This textural response often takes the form of a bed structure which develops to ultimately stabilise the surface across a range of spatio-temporal scales and it is these topographical structures which determine the flow structures that develop over the river bed. However, our ability to measure and parameterise that structure in ways that are useful and meaningful for the prediction of flow dynamics, still remains inadequate; this paper uses a three dimensional numerical model to assess how the temporal development of structure influences the near bed flow dynamics. Using a suite of flume based experiments a unimodal grain size distribution (σg = 1.30, D50 = 8.8mm) was exposed to three different levels of constant bed shear that produced sediment transport conditions ranging from marginal transport to conditions approaching full mobility of all size fractions. Surface structuring characteristics were measured at a high spatio-temporal resolution such that the time evolution of the beds could be fully described. In total 54 surfaces were generated and run through a Reynolds averaged three dimensional numerical model with an Rng turbulence closure. The topography input included using an immersed boundary technique within a Cartesian framework. Discussion concentrates on the how the trajectory of structural evolution under the different treatments affects the near bed flow dynamics. Specifically links are made between how the scales of boundary topography influence the flow and discusses how the measured flow variability at any one point will contain both locally derived and upstream-inherited flow structures, according to the range of scales of bed topography present. Keywords: Graded, Sediment, Structure, Turbulence, Modelling

  1. The Structure of a Hypersonic Air Flow near a Plane Surface at Various Intensities of Magnetogasdynamic Interaction (United States)

    Fomichev, V. P.; Yadrenkin, M. A.


    This Letter presents a systematization of the effects observed in experiments on the magnetogasdynamic interaction near the surface of a plate in a high-speed gas flow. Ranges of the hydromagnetic-interaction parameter determining various levels of influence on the shock-wave structure of the flow are established.

  2. Particle image velocimetry measurement of complex flow structures in the diffuser and spherical casing of a reactor coolant pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchao Zhang


    Full Text Available Understanding of turbulent flow in the reactor coolant pump (RCP is a premise of the optimal design of the RCP. Flow structures in the RCP, in view of the specially devised spherical casing, are more complicated than those associated with conventional pumps. Hitherto, knowledge of the flow characteristics of the RCP has been far from sufficient. Research into the nonintrusive measurement of the internal flow of the RCP has rarely been reported. In the present study, flow measurement using particle image velocimetry is implemented to reveal flow features of the RCP model. Velocity and vorticity distributions in the diffuser and spherical casing are obtained. The results illuminate the complexity of the flows in the RCP. Near the lower end of the discharge nozzle, three-dimensional swirling flows and flow separation are evident. In the diffuser, the imparity of the velocity profile with respect to different axial cross sections is verified, and the velocity increases gradually from the shroud to the hub. In the casing, velocity distribution is nonuniform over the circumferential direction. Vortices shed consistently from the diffuser blade trailing edge. The experimental results lend sound support for the optimal design of the RCP and provide validation of relevant numerical algorithms. Keywords: Diffuser, Flow Structures, Particle Image Velocimetry, Reactor Coolant Pump, Spherical Casing, Velocity Distribution

  3. Synchronization of chemical noise-sustained structures in asymmetrically coupled differential-flow reactors. (United States)

    Izús, Gonzalo G; Sánchez, Alejandro D


    The differential-flow-induced chemical instability is investigated in the context of two coupled reactors with cubic autocatalytic kinetics (the Gray-Scott model). Previous results for master-slave arrangement [Izús, Deza, and Sánchez, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 234112 (2010)] are extended in this study to include bidirectional coupling between reactions. Numerical simulations in the convectively unstable regime show that synchronized noise-sustained structures are developed in both reactors due to the selective amplification of noise. A theoretical analysis shows that the nature of the synchronization and the stability of the synchronized manifold are related with the properties of the critical modes.

  4. Numerical Leak Detection in a Pipeline Network of Complex Structure with Unsteady Flow (United States)

    Aida-zade, K. R.; Ashrafova, E. R.


    An inverse problem for a pipeline network of complex loopback structure is solved numerically. The problem is to determine the locations and amounts of leaks from unsteady flow characteristics measured at some pipeline points. The features of the problem include impulse functions involved in a system of hyperbolic differential equations, the absence of classical initial conditions, and boundary conditions specified as nonseparated relations between the states at the endpoints of adjacent pipeline segments. The problem is reduced to a parametric optimal control problem without initial conditions, but with nonseparated boundary conditions. The latter problem is solved by applying first-order optimization methods. Results of numerical experiments are presented.

  5. Projective structure and integrable geodesic flows on the extension of Bott-Virasoro group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Guha


    Full Text Available This is a sequel to our paper (Lett. Math. Phys. (2000, triggered from a question posed by Marcel, Ovsienko, and Roger in their paper (1997. In this paper, we show that the multicomponent (or vector Ito equation, modified dispersive water wave equation, and modified dispersionless long wave equation are the geodesic flows with respect to an L2 metric on the semidirect product space Diffs(S1⋉C∞(S1kˆ, where Diffs(S1 is the group of orientation preserving Sobolev Hs diffeomorphisms of the circle. We also study the projective structure associated with the matrix Sturm-Liouville operators on the circle.

  6. Wake structure and thrust generation of a flapping foil in two-dimensional flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Schnipper, Teis


    We present a combined numerical (particle vortex method) and experimental (soap film tunnel) study of a symmetric foil undergoing prescribed oscillations in a two-dimensional free stream. We explore pure pitching and pure heaving, and contrast these two generic types of kinematics. We compare...... measurements and simulations when the foil is forced with pitching oscillations, and we find a close correspondence between flow visualisations using thickness variations in the soap film and the numerically determined vortex structures. Numerically, we determine wake maps spanned by oscillation frequency...

  7. Structural changes in Rio Bravo´s historical flow of water in El Paso and Fort Quitman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Germán–Soto


    Full Text Available We analyze the surface water flow of Rio Grande between El Paso–Ciudad Juarez and Fort Quitman and estimate the structural changes occurred during 1923–2005. The study is based on a set of econometric equations to examine trends and turning points in data of time series. We find that water flow registered two important structural changes estimated in 1950 and 1972. There was a reduction in the water flow after the first structural change that is linked to the 1944 Treaty; whilethe second structural change is associated toincreases of the water flowthat seem to respond to the observation of the American flower and fauna law. In conclusion, the lower Rio Grande located between Ciudad–Juarez and Fort Quitman has received a minorwater flow from 1950.

  8. Theoretical and Empirical Studies of the Basic Structure of Turbulent Shear Flows, Including Separated Flows and Effects of Wall Curvature. (United States)


    in I newly’% f’ahri cated water test. Iaci ifY built expressly for this program. Heat Transfer Sfudy onI C’, neave Su.rfne Good progress has been made...TO A. LYRIO FOR FRASER B FLOW. (NOTE THI’S FLOW WAS NOT PREDICTED WELL BY ANY METHOD IN THE 19b8 AFOSR-4FP STANFORD CONFERENCE) FIGuRE t-2 --- _f0.O Hz

  9. Cinematic Characterization of Convected Coherent Structures Within an Continuous Flow Z-Pinch (United States)

    Underwood, Thomas; Rodriguez, Jesse; Loebner, Keith; Cappelli, Mark


    In this study, two separate diagnostics are applied to a plasma jet produced from a coaxial accelerator with characteristic velocities exceeding 105 m/s and timescales of 10 μs. In the first of these, an ultra-high frame rate CMOS camera coupled to a Z-type laser Schlieren apparatus is used to obtain flow-field refractometry data for the continuous flow Z-pinch formed within the plasma deflagration jet. The 10 MHz frame rate for 256 consecutive frames provides high temporal resolution, enabling turbulent fluctuations and plasma instabilities to be visualized over the course of a single pulse. The unique advantage of this diagnostic is its ability to simultaneously resolve both structural and temporal evolution of instabilities and density gradients within the flow. To allow for a more meaningful statistical analysis of the resulting wave motion, a multiple B-dot probe array was constructed and calibrated to operate over a broadband frequency range up to 100 MHz. The resulting probe measurements are incorporated into a wavelet analysis to uncover the dispersion relation of recorded wave motion and furthermore uncover instability growth rates. Finally these results are compared with theoretical growth rate estimates to identify underlying physics. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Stewardship Science Academic Program in addition to the National Defense Science Engineering Graduate Fellowship.

  10. Comparison of Flow Structures in the Downstream Region of a Cylinder with Flexible Strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekşin Süleyman


    Full Text Available The present study investigates the details of flow structure to downstream of a circular cylinder mounted on a flat surface, in successive plan-view plane both in the boundary layer and up level region. The behavior of the flow in the wake of the bare cylinder and attached a flexible strip which has a 1400 N/mm2 modulus of elasticity vinyl PVC transperent film. The length of strip 240 mm (L/D=4 is investigated using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV technique for Reynolds numbers based on the cylinder diameter of 2500. The flow data downstream of the cylinder are presented using time-averaged velocity vector map, Vavg, streamline patterns, ψavg, vorticity contours, ωavg, and Reynolds stress correlations, u’u’ avg, v’v’ avg, u’v’ avg and rms velocity values. The locations of the peak values of Reynolds stress correlations and other data are also presented in both bare cylinder and attached body in order to determine the regions under high fluctuations. Another L/D ratios will be investigated in other experiments.

  11. Population Structure and Gene Flow of the Yellow Anaconda (Eunectes notaeus) in Northern Argentina (United States)

    McCartney-Melstad, Evan; Waller, Tomás; Micucci, Patricio A.; Barros, Mariano; Draque, Juan; Amato, George; Mendez, Martin


    Yellow anacondas (Eunectes notaeus) are large, semiaquatic boid snakes found in wetland systems in South America. These snakes are commercially harvested under a sustainable management plan in Argentina, so information regarding population structuring can be helpful for determination of management units. We evaluated genetic structure and migration using partial sequences from the mitochondrial control region and mitochondrial genes cyt-b and ND4 for 183 samples collected within northern Argentina. A group of landscape features and environmental variables including several treatments of temperature and precipitation were explored as potential drivers of observed genetic patterns. We found significant population structure between most putative population comparisons and bidirectional but asymmetric migration in several cases. The configuration of rivers and wetlands was found to be significantly associated with yellow anaconda population structure (IBD), and important for gene flow, although genetic distances were not significantly correlated with the environmental variables used here. More in-depth analyses of environmental data may be needed to fully understand the importance of environmental conditions on population structure and migration. These analyses indicate that our putative populations are demographically distinct and should be treated as such in Argentina's management plan for the harvesting of yellow anacondas. PMID:22675425

  12. Drainage Structure Datasets and Effects on LiDAR-Derived Surface Flow Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruopu Li


    Full Text Available With extraordinary resolution and accuracy, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs have been increasingly used for watershed analyses and modeling by hydrologists, planners and engineers. Such high-accuracy DEMs have demonstrated their effectiveness in delineating watershed and drainage patterns at fine scales in low-relief terrains. However, these high-resolution datasets are usually only available as topographic DEMs rather than hydrologic DEMs, presenting greater land roughness that can affect natural flow accumulation. Specifically, locations of drainage structures such as road culverts and bridges were simulated as barriers to the passage of drainage. This paper proposed a geospatial method for producing LiDAR-derived hydrologic DEMs, which incorporates data collection of drainage structures (i.e., culverts and bridges, data preprocessing and burning of the drainage structures into DEMs. A case study of GIS-based watershed modeling in South Central Nebraska showed improved simulated surface water derivatives after the drainage structures were burned into the LiDAR-derived topographic DEMs. The paper culminates in a proposal and discussion of establishing a national or statewide drainage structure dataset.

  13. Investigation of the fluid flow dynamic parameters for Newtonian and non-Newtonian materials: an approach to understanding the fluid flow-like structures within fault zones (United States)

    Tanaka, H.; Shiomi, Y.; Ma, K.-F.


    To understand the fault zone fluid flow-like structure, namely the ductile deformation structure, often observed in the geological field (e.g., Ramsay and Huber The techniques of modern structure geology, vol. 1: strain analysis, Academia Press, London, 1983; Hobbs and Ord Structure geology: the mechanics of deforming metamorphic rocks, Vol. I: principles, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2015), we applied a theoretical approach to estimate the rate of deformation, the shear stress and the time to form a streak-line pattern in the boundary layer of viscous fluids. We model the dynamics of streak lines in laminar boundary layers for Newtonian and pseudoplastic fluids and compare the results to those obtained via laboratory experiments. The structure of deformed streak lines obtained using our model is consistent with experimental observations, indicating that our model is appropriate for understanding the shear rate, flow time and shear stress based on the profile of deformed streak lines in the boundary layer in Newtonian and pseudoplastic viscous materials. This study improves our understanding of the transportation processes in fluids and of the transformation processes in fluid-like materials. Further application of this model could facilitate understanding the shear stress and time history of the fluid flow-like structure of fault zones observed in the field.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Prediction of Shock Wave Structure in Weakly Ionized Gas Flow by Solving MGD Equation (United States)

    Deng, Z. T.; Oviedo-Rojas, Ruben; Chow, Alan; Litchford, Ron J.; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)


    This paper reports the recent research results of shockwave structure predictions using a new developed code. The modified Rankine-Hugoniot relations across a standing normal shock wave are discussed and adopted to obtain jump conditions. Coupling a electrostatic body force to the Burnett equations, the weakly ionized flow field across the shock wave was solved. Results indicated that the Modified Rankine-Hugoniot equations for shock wave are valid for a wide range of ionization fraction. However, this model breaks down with small free stream Mach number and with large ionization fraction. The jump conditions also depend on the value of free stream pressure, temperature and density. The computed shock wave structure with ionization provides results, which indicated that shock wave strength may be reduced by existence of weakly ionized gas.

  15. Identification of dominant flow structures in rapidly rotating convection of liquid metals using Dynamic Mode Decomposition (United States)

    Horn, S.; Schmid, P. J.; Aurnou, J. M.


    The Earth's metal core acts as a dynamo whose efficiency in generating and maintaining the magnetic field is essentially determined by the rotation rate and the convective motions occurring in its outer liquid part. For the description of the primary physics in the outer core the idealized system of rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection is often invoked, with the majority of studies considering only working fluids with Prandtl numbers of Pr ≳ 1. However, liquid metals are characterized by distinctly smaller Prandtl numbers which in turn result in an inherently different type of convection. Here, we will present results from direct numerical simulations of rapidly rotating convection in a fluid with Pr ≈ 0.025 in cylindrical containers and Ekman numbers as low as 5 × 10-6. In this system, the Coriolis force is the source of two types of inertial modes, the so-called wall modes, that also exist at moderate Prandtl numbers, and cylinder-filling oscillatory modes, that are a unique feature of small Prandtl number convection. The obtained flow fields were analyzed using the Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD). This technique allows to extract and identify the structures that govern the dynamics of the system as well as their corresponding frequencies. We have investigated both the regime where the flow is purely oscillatory and the regime where wall modes and oscillatory modes co-exist. In the purely oscillatory regime, high and low frequency oscillatory modes characterize the flow. When both types of modes are present, the DMD reveals that the wall-attached modes dominate the flow dynamics. They precess with a relatively low frequency in retrograde direction. Nonetheless, also in this case, high frequency oscillations have a significant contribution.

  16. Relationships between watershed emergy flow and coastal New England salt marsh structure, function, and condition. (United States)

    Brandt-Williams, Sherry; Wigand, Cathleen; Campbell, Daniel E


    This study evaluated the link between watershed activities and salt marsh structure, function, and condition using spatial emergy flow density (areal empower density) in the watershed and field data from 10 tidal salt marshes in Narragansett Bay, RI, USA. The field-collected data were obtained during several years of vegetation, invertebrate, soil, and water quality sampling. The use of emergy as an accounting mechanism allowed disparate factors (e.g., the amount of building construction and the consumption of electricity) to be combined into a single landscape index while retaining a uniform quantitative definition of the intensity of landscape development. It expanded upon typical land use percentage studies by weighting each category for the intensity of development. At the RI salt marsh sites, an impact index (watershed emergy flow normalized for marsh area) showed significant correlations with mudflat infauna species richness, mussel density, plant species richness, the extent and density of dominant plant species, and denitrification potential within the high salt marsh. Over the 4-year period examined, a loading index (watershed emergy flow normalized for watershed area) showed significant correlations with nitrite and nitrate concentrations, as well as with the nitrogen to phosphorus ratios in stream discharge into the marshes. Both the emergy impact and loading indices were significantly correlated with a salt marsh condition index derived from intensive field-based assessments. Comparison of the emergy indices to calculated nitrogen loading estimates for each watershed also produced significant positive correlations. These results suggest that watershed emergy flow is a robust index of human disturbance and a potential tool for rapid assessment of coastal wetland condition.

  17. Structure formation in a colliding flow: The Herschel view of the Draco nebula (United States)

    Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Salomé, Q.; Martin, P. G.; Joncas, G.; Blagrave, K.; Dassas, K.; Abergel, A.; Beelen, A.; Boulanger, F.; Lagache, G.; Lockman, F. J.; Marshall, D. J.


    Context. The Draco nebula is a high Galactic latitude interstellar cloud observed at velocities corresponding to the intermediate velocity cloud regime. This nebula shows unusually strong CO emission and remarkably high-contrast small-scale structures for such a diffuse high Galactic latitude cloud. The 21 cm emission of the Draco nebula reveals that it is likely to have been formed by the collision of a cloud entering the disk of the Milky Way. Such physical conditions are ideal to study the formation of cold and dense gas in colliding flows of diffuse and warm gas. Aims: The objective of this study is to better understand the process of structure formation in a colliding flow and to describe the effects of matter entering the disk on the interstellar medium. Methods: We conducted Herschel-SPIRE observations of the Draco nebula. The clumpfind algorithm was used to identify and characterize the small-scale structures of the cloud. Results: The high-resolution SPIRE map reveals the fragmented structure of the interface between the infalling cloud and the Galactic layer. This front is characterized by a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability structure. From the determination of the typical length of the periodic structure (2.2 pc) we estimated the gas kinematic viscosity. This allowed us to estimate the dissipation scale of the warm neutral medium (0.1 pc), which was found to be compatible with that expected if ambipolar diffusion were the main mechanism of turbulent energy dissipation. The statistical properties of the small-scale structures identified with clumpfind are found to be typical of that seen in molecular clouds and hydrodynamical turbulence in general. The density of the gas has a log-normal distribution with an average value of 103 cm-3. The typical size of the structures is 0.1-0.2 pc, but this estimate is limited by the resolution of the observations. The mass of these structures ranges from 0.2 to 20 M⊙ and the distribution of the more massive structures

  18. A high precision gas flow cell for performing in situ neutron studies of local atomic structure in catalytic materials. (United States)

    Olds, Daniel; Page, Katharine; Paecklar, Arnold; Peterson, Peter F; Liu, Jue; Rucker, Gerald; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Mariano; Olsen, Michael; Pawel, Michelle; Overbury, Steven H; Neilson, James R


    Gas-solid interfaces enable a multitude of industrial processes, including heterogeneous catalysis; however, there are few methods available for studying the structure of this interface under operating conditions. Here, we present a new sample environment for interrogating materials under gas-flow conditions using time-of-flight neutron scattering under both constant and pulse probe gas flow. Outlined are descriptions of the gas flow cell and a commissioning example using the adsorption of N 2 by Ca-exchanged zeolite-X (Na 78-2x Ca x Al 78 Si 144 O 384 ,x ≈ 38). We demonstrate sensitivities to lattice contraction and N 2 adsorption sites in the structure, with both static gas loading and gas flow. A steady-state isotope transient kinetic analysis of N 2 adsorption measured simultaneously with mass spectrometry is also demonstrated. In the experiment, the gas flow through a plugged-flow gas-solid contactor is switched between N215 and N214 isotopes at a temperature of 300 K and a constant pressure of 1 atm; the gas flow and mass spectrum are correlated with the structure factor determined from event-based neutron total scattering. Available flow conditions, sample considerations, and future applications are discussed.

  19. A high precision gas flow cell for performing in situ neutron studies of local atomic structure in catalytic materials (United States)

    Olds, Daniel; Page, Katharine; Paecklar, Arnold; Peterson, Peter F.; Liu, Jue; Rucker, Gerald; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Mariano; Olsen, Michael; Pawel, Michelle; Overbury, Steven H.; Neilson, James R.


    Gas-solid interfaces enable a multitude of industrial processes, including heterogeneous catalysis; however, there are few methods available for studying the structure of this interface under operating conditions. Here, we present a new sample environment for interrogating materials under gas-flow conditions using time-of-flight neutron scattering under both constant and pulse probe gas flow. Outlined are descriptions of the gas flow cell and a commissioning example using the adsorption of N2 by Ca-exchanged zeolite-X (Na78-2xCaxAl78Si144O384,x ≈ 38). We demonstrate sensitivities to lattice contraction and N2 adsorption sites in the structure, with both static gas loading and gas flow. A steady-state isotope transient kinetic analysis of N2 adsorption measured simultaneously with mass spectrometry is also demonstrated. In the experiment, the gas flow through a plugged-flow gas-solid contactor is switched between 15N2 and 14N2 isotopes at a temperature of 300 K and a constant pressure of 1 atm; the gas flow and mass spectrum are correlated with the structure factor determined from event-based neutron total scattering. Available flow conditions, sample considerations, and future applications are discussed.

  20. Global phylogenetic relationships, population structure and gene flow estimation of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Greenhouse whitefly). (United States)

    Wainaina, J M; De Barro, P; Kubatko, L; Kehoe, M A; Harvey, J; Karanja, D; Boykin, L M


    Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood, 1856) (Greenhouse whitefly) is an agricultural pest of global importance. It is associated with damage to plants during feeding and subsequent virus transmission. Yet, global phylogenetic relationships, population structure, and estimation of the rates of gene flow within this whitefly species remain largely unexplored. In this study, we obtained and filtered 227 GenBank records of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (mtCOI) sequences of T. vaporariorum, across various global locations to obtain a final set of 217 GenBank records. We further amplified and sequenced a ~750 bp fragment of mtCOI from an additional 31 samples collected from Kenya in 2014. Based on a total of 248 mtCOI sequences, we identified 16 haplotypes, with extensive overlap across all countries. Population structure analysis did not suggest population differentiation. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the 2014 Kenyan collection of samples clustered with a single sequence from the Netherlands to form a well-supported clade (denoted clade 1a) nested within the total set of sequences (denoted clade 1). Pairwise distances between sequences show greater sequence divergence between clades than within clades. In addition, analysis using migrate-n gave evidence for recent gene flow between the two groups. Overall, we find that T. vaporariorum forms a single large group, with evidence of further diversification consisting primarily of Kenyan sequences and one sequence from the Netherlands forming a well-supported clade.

  1. Genetic structure and gene flows within horses: a genealogical study at the french population scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Pirault

    Full Text Available Since horse breeds constitute populations submitted to variable and multiple outcrossing events, we analyzed the genetic structure and gene flows considering horses raised in France. We used genealogical data, with a reference population of 547,620 horses born in France between 2002 and 2011, grouped according to 55 breed origins. On average, individuals had 6.3 equivalent generations known. Considering different population levels, fixation index decreased from an overall species FIT of 1.37%, to an average [Formula: see text] of -0.07% when considering the 55 origins, showing that most horse breeds constitute populations without genetic structure. We illustrate the complexity of gene flows existing among horse breeds, a few populations being closed to foreign influence, most, however, being submitted to various levels of introgression. In particular, Thoroughbred and Arab breeds are largely used as introgression sources, since those two populations explain together 26% of founder origins within the overall horse population. When compared with molecular data, breeds with a small level of coancestry also showed low genetic distance; the gene pool of the breeds was probably impacted by their reproducer exchanges.

  2. Genetic structure and gene flows within horses: a genealogical study at the french population scale. (United States)

    Pirault, Pauline; Danvy, Sophy; Verrier, Etienne; Leroy, Grégoire


    Since horse breeds constitute populations submitted to variable and multiple outcrossing events, we analyzed the genetic structure and gene flows considering horses raised in France. We used genealogical data, with a reference population of 547,620 horses born in France between 2002 and 2011, grouped according to 55 breed origins. On average, individuals had 6.3 equivalent generations known. Considering different population levels, fixation index decreased from an overall species FIT of 1.37%, to an average [Formula: see text] of -0.07% when considering the 55 origins, showing that most horse breeds constitute populations without genetic structure. We illustrate the complexity of gene flows existing among horse breeds, a few populations being closed to foreign influence, most, however, being submitted to various levels of introgression. In particular, Thoroughbred and Arab breeds are largely used as introgression sources, since those two populations explain together 26% of founder origins within the overall horse population. When compared with molecular data, breeds with a small level of coancestry also showed low genetic distance; the gene pool of the breeds was probably impacted by their reproducer exchanges.

  3. Genetic diversity and population structure of Lantana camara in India indicates multiple introductions and gene flow. (United States)

    Ray, A; Quader, S


    Lantana camara is a highly invasive plant, which has spread over 60 countries and island groups of Asia, Africa and Australia. In India, it was introduced in the early nineteenth century, since when it has expanded and gradually established itself in almost every available ecosystem. We investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of this plant in India in order to understand its introduction, subsequent range expansion and gene flow. A total of 179 individuals were sequenced at three chloroplast loci and 218 individuals were genotyped for six nuclear microsatellites. Both chloroplasts (nine haplotypes) and microsatellites (83 alleles) showed high genetic diversity. Besides, each type of marker confirmed the presence of private polymorphism. We uncovered low to medium population structure in both markers, and found a faint signal of isolation by distance with microsatellites. Bayesian clustering analyses revealed multiple divergent genetic clusters. Taken together, these findings (i.e. high genetic diversity with private alleles and multiple genetic clusters) suggest that Lantana was introduced multiple times and gradually underwent spatial expansion with recurrent gene flow. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Characterization of Unsteady Flow Structures Near Leading-Edge Slat. Part 1; PIV Measurements (United States)

    Jenkins, Luther N.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Choudhari, Meelan


    A comprehensive computational and experimental study has been performed at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Program to investigate the unsteady flow near a leading-edge slat of a two-dimensional, high-lift system. This paper focuses on the experimental effort conducted in the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel (BART) where Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data was acquired in the slat cove and at the slat trailing edge of a three-element, high-lift model at 4, 6, and 8 degrees angle of attack and a freestream Mach Number of 0.17. Instantaneous velocities obtained from PIV images are used to obtain mean and fluctuating components of velocity and vorticity. The data show the recirculation in the cove, reattachment of the shear layer on the slat lower surface, and discrete vortical structures within the shear layer emanating from the slat cusp and slat trailing edge. Detailed measurements are used to examine the shear layer formation at the slat cusp, vortex shedding at the slat trailing edge, and convection of vortical structures through the slat gap. Selected results are discussed and compared with unsteady, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) computations for the same configuration in a companion paper by Khorrami, Choudhari, and Jenkins (2004). The experimental dataset provides essential flow-field information for the validation of near-field inputs to noise prediction tools.

  5. Circumpolar Genetic Structure and Recent Gene Flow of Polar Bears: A Reanalysis. (United States)

    Malenfant, René M; Davis, Corey S; Cullingham, Catherine I; Coltman, David W


    Recently, an extensive study of 2,748 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from across their circumpolar range was published in PLOS ONE, which used microsatellites and mitochondrial haplotypes to apparently show altered population structure and a dramatic change in directional gene flow towards the Canadian Archipelago-an area believed to be a future refugium for polar bears as their southernmost habitats decline under climate change. Although this study represents a major international collaborative effort and promised to be a baseline for future genetics work, methodological shortcomings and errors of interpretation undermine some of the study's main conclusions. Here, we present a reanalysis of this data in which we address some of these issues, including: (1) highly unbalanced sample sizes and large amounts of systematically missing data; (2) incorrect calculation of FST and of significance levels; (3) misleading estimates of recent gene flow resulting from non-convergence of the program BayesAss. In contrast to the original findings, in our reanalysis we find six genetic clusters of polar bears worldwide: the Hudson Bay Complex, the Western and Eastern Canadian Arctic Archipelago, the Western and Eastern Polar Basin, and-importantly-we reconfirm the presence of a unique and possibly endangered cluster of bears in Norwegian Bay near Canada's expected last sea-ice refugium. Although polar bears' abundance, distribution, and population structure will certainly be negatively affected by ongoing-and increasingly rapid-loss of Arctic sea ice, these genetic data provide no evidence of strong directional gene flow in response to recent climate change.

  6. Circumpolar Genetic Structure and Recent Gene Flow of Polar Bears: A Reanalysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René M Malenfant

    Full Text Available Recently, an extensive study of 2,748 polar bears (Ursus maritimus from across their circumpolar range was published in PLOS ONE, which used microsatellites and mitochondrial haplotypes to apparently show altered population structure and a dramatic change in directional gene flow towards the Canadian Archipelago-an area believed to be a future refugium for polar bears as their southernmost habitats decline under climate change. Although this study represents a major international collaborative effort and promised to be a baseline for future genetics work, methodological shortcomings and errors of interpretation undermine some of the study's main conclusions. Here, we present a reanalysis of this data in which we address some of these issues, including: (1 highly unbalanced sample sizes and large amounts of systematically missing data; (2 incorrect calculation of FST and of significance levels; (3 misleading estimates of recent gene flow resulting from non-convergence of the program BayesAss. In contrast to the original findings, in our reanalysis we find six genetic clusters of polar bears worldwide: the Hudson Bay Complex, the Western and Eastern Canadian Arctic Archipelago, the Western and Eastern Polar Basin, and-importantly-we reconfirm the presence of a unique and possibly endangered cluster of bears in Norwegian Bay near Canada's expected last sea-ice refugium. Although polar bears' abundance, distribution, and population structure will certainly be negatively affected by ongoing-and increasingly rapid-loss of Arctic sea ice, these genetic data provide no evidence of strong directional gene flow in response to recent climate change.

  7. Topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft, controlled by a nanosecond pulse discharge plasma actuator (United States)

    Du, Hai; Shi, Zhiwei; Cheng, Keming; Wei, Dechen; Li, Zheng; Zhou, Danjie; He, Haibo; Yao, Junkai; He, Chengjun


    Vortex control is a thriving research area, particularly in relation to flying wing or delta wing aircraft. This paper presents the topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft controlled by a nanosecond plasma dielectric barrier discharge actuator. Experiments, including oil flow visualization and two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV), were conducted in a wind tunnel with a Reynolds number of 0.5 × 106. Both oil and PIV results show that the vortex can be controlled. Oil topological structures on the aircraft surface coincide with spatial PIV flow structures. Both indicate vortex convergence and enhancement when the plasma discharge is switched on, leading to a reduced region of separated flow.

  8. Controlling heat transport and flow structures in thermal turbulence using ratchet surfaces (United States)

    Sun, Chao; Jiang, Hechuan; Zhu, Xiaojue; Mathai, Varghese; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef


    In this combined experimental and numerical study on thermally driven turbulence in a rectangular cell, the global heat transport and the coherent flow structures are controlled with an asymmetric ratchet-like roughness on the top and bottom plates. We show that, by means of symmetry breaking due to the presence of the ratchet structures on the conducting plates, the orientation of the Large Scale Circulation Roll (LSCR) can be locked to a preferred direction even when the cell is perfectly leveled out. By introducing a small tilt to the system, we show that the LSCR orientation can be tuned and controlled. The two different orientations of LSCR give two quite different heat transport efficiencies, indicating that heat transport is sensitive to the LSCR direction over the asymmetric roughness structure. Through analysis of the dynamics of thermal plume emissions and the orientation of the LSCR over the asymmetric structure, we provide a physical explanation for these findings. This work is financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11672156, the Dutch Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), the Dutch Technology Foundation (STW) and a VIDI Grant.

  9. PIV Measurement of Transient 3-D (Liquid and Gas Phases) Flow Structures Created by a Spreading Flame over 1-Propanol (United States)

    Hassan, M. I.; Kuwana, K.; Saito, K.


    In the past, we measured three-D flow structure in the liquid and gas phases that were created by a spreading flame over liquid fuels. In that effort, we employed several different techniques including our original laser sheet particle tracking (LSPT) technique, which is capable of measuring transient 2-D flow structures. Recently we obtained a state-of-the-art integrated particle image velocimetry (IPIV), whose function is similar to LSPT, but it has an integrated data recording and processing system. To evaluate the accuracy of our IPIV system, we conducted a series of flame spread tests using the same experimental apparatus that we used in our previous flame spread studies and obtained a series of 2-D flow profiles corresponding to our previous LSPT measurements. We confirmed that both LSPT and IPIV techniques produced similar data, but IPIV data contains more detailed flow structures than LSPT data. Here we present some of newly obtained IPIV flow structure data, and discuss the role of gravity in the flame-induced flow structures. Note that the application of IPIV to our flame spread problems is not straightforward, and it required several preliminary tests for its accuracy including this IPIV comparison to LSPT.

  10. Structural, micro-structural and kinematic analyses of channel flow in the Karmostaj salt diapir in the Zagros foreland folded belt, Fars province, Iran (United States)

    Sarkarinejad, Khalil; Sarshar, Maryam Asadi; Adineh, Sadegh


    One of the main characteristic of the Zagros foreland fold-and-thrust belt and the Zagros foreland folded belt are wide distributions of surface extrusion from the Hormuz salt diapirs. This study examines the structure and kinematic of channel flow in the Karmostaj salt diapir in the southwestern part of the Zagros foreland folded belt. This diapir has reached the surface as a result of the channel flow mechanism and has extruded in the southern limb of the Kuh-Gach anticline which is an asymmetric décollement fold with convergence to the south. Structural and microstructural studies and quantitative finite strain (Rs) and kinematic vorticity number (Wk) analyses were carried out within this salt diapir and its namakier. This was in order to investigate the structural evolution in the salt diapiric system, the characteristics and mechanism of the salt flow and the distribution of flow regimes within the salt diapir and interaction of regional tectonics and salt diaprism. The extruded salt has developed a flow foliation sub-parallel to the remnant bedding recorded by different colors, a variety of internal folds including symmetrical and asymmetrical folds and interference fold patterns, shear zones, and boudins. These structures were used to analyze mechanisms and history of diapiric flow and extrusion. The microstructures, reveal various deformation mechanisms in various parts of salt diapir. The measurements of finite strain show that Rs values in the margin of salt diapir are higher than within its namakier which is consistent with the results of structural studies. Mean kinematic vorticity number (Wm) measured in steady state deformation of diapir and namakier is Wm = 0.45-0.48 ± 0.13. The estimated mean finite deformation (Wm) values indicate that 67.8% pure shear and 32.2% simple shear deformation were involved; the implications of which are discussed. The vorticity of flow indicates that in the early stage of growth, Poiseuille flow was the dominate

  11. Turbulent intermittent structure in non-homogeneous non-local flows (United States)

    Mahjoub, O. B.; Castilla, R.; Vindel, J. M.; Redondo, J. M.


    Data from SABLES98 experimental campaign have been used in order to study the influence of stability (from weak to strong stratification) on intermittency [1]. Standard instrumentation, 14 thermocouples and 3 sonic anemometers at three levels (5.8, 13.5 and 32 m) were available in September 1998 and calculations are done in order to evaluate structure functions and the scale to scale characteristics. Using BDF [2-4] as well as other models of cascades, the spectral equilibrium values were used to calculate fluxes of momentum and heat as well as non-homogeneous models and the turbulent mixing produced. The differences in structure and higher order moments between stable, convective and neutral turbulence were used to identify differences in turbulent intermittent mixing and velocity PDF's. The intermittency of atmospheric turbulence in strongly stable situations affected by buoyancy and internal waves are seen to modify the structure functions exponents and intermittency, depending on the modulus of the Richardson's number,Ri, as well as of the Monin-Obukhov and Ozmidov lengthscales. The topological aspects of the turbulence affected by stratification reduce the vertical length-scales to a maximum described by the Thorpe and the Ozmidov lenth-scales, but intermittency, Kurtosis and other higher order descriptors of the turbulence based on spectral wavelet analysis are also affected in a complex way [5,6]. The relationship between stratification, intermittency, µ(Ri) and the fractal dimension of the stable flows and between the dispersion, the fractal dimension are discussed. The data analyzed is from the campaign SABLES-98 at the north-west Iberian Peninsula plateau.(Cuxart et al. 2000). Conditional statistics of the relationship between µ(Ri) are confirmed as in (Vindel et al 2008)[4] and compared with laboratory experiments and with 2D-3D aspects of the turbulence cascade. The use of BDF [3] model comparing the corresponding relative scaling exponents which are

  12. Numerical study of viscoelastic polymer flow in simplified pore structures using stabilised finite element model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, M.; Wegner, J.; Ganzer, L. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE


    Polymer flooding, as an EOR method, has become one of the most important driving forces after water flooding. The conventional believe is that polymer flooding can only improve sweep efficiency, but it has no contribution to residual oil saturation reduction. However, experimental studies indicated that polymer solution can also improve displacement efficiency and decrease residual oil saturation. To get a better understanding of the mechanism to increase the microscopic sweep efficiency and the displacement efficiency, theoretical studies are required. In this paper, we studied the viscoelasticity effect of polymer by using a numerical simulator, which is based on Finite Element Analysis. Since it is showed experimentally that the first normal stress difference of viscoelastic polymer solution is higher than the second stress difference, the Oldroyd-B model was selected as the constitutive equation in the simulation. Numerical modelling of Oldroyd-B viscoelastic fluids is notoriously difficult. Standard Galerkin finite element methods are prone to numerical oscillations, and there is no convergence as the elasticity of fluid increases. Therefore, we use a stabilised finite element model. In order to verify our model, we first built up a model with the same geometry and fluid properties as presented in literature and compared the results. Then, with the tested model we simulated the effect of viscoelastic polymer fluid on dead pores in three simplified pore structures, which are contraction structure, expansion structure and expansion-contraction structure. Correspondingly, the streamlines and velocity contours of polymer solution, with different Reynolds numbers (Re) and Weissenberg numbers (We), flowing in these three structures are showed. The simulation results indicate that the viscoelasticity of polymer solution is the main contribution to increase the micro-scale sweep efficiency. With higher elasticity, the velocity of polymer solution is getting bigger at

  13. Vortex structure analysis of unsteady cloud cavitating flows around a hydrofoil (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Guoyu; Huang, Biao


    In this paper, time dependent vortex structures are numerically analyzed for both noncavitating and cloud cavitating flows around a Clark-Y hydrofoil with angle of attack α = 8∘ at a moderate Reynolds number, Re = 7 × 105. The numerical simulations are performed using a transport equation-based cavitation model and the large eddy simulation (LES) approach with a classical eddy viscosity subgrid scale (SGS) model. Compared with experimental results, present numerical predictions are capable of capturing the initiation of cavity, growth toward the trailing edge and subsequent shedding process. Results indicate that in noncavitating conditions, the trailing edge vortex and induced positive vortex shed periodically into the wake region to form the vortex street. In cloud cavitating conditions, interrelations between cavity and vortex induce different vortex dynamics at different cavity developing stages. (i) As attached cavity grows, vorticity production is greatly enhanced by the favorable pressure gradient at the leading edge. The trailing edge flow does not have a direct impact on the attached cavity expansion process. Furthermore, the liquid-vapor interface that moves toward the trailing edge enhances the vorticity in the attached cavity closure region. (ii) When the stable attached sheet cavity grows to its maximum length, the accumulation process of vorticity is eventually interrupted by the formation of the re-entrant jet. Re-entrant jet’s moving upstream leads to a higher spreading rate of the attached cavity and the formation of a large coherent structure inside the attached cavity. Moreover, the wavy/bubbly cavity interface enhances the vorticity near the trailing edge. (iii) As the attached sheet cavity breaks up, this large vortex structure converts toward the trailing edge region, which will eventually couple with a trailing edge vortex shedding from the lower surface to form the cloud cavity. The breakup of the stable attached cavity is the main

  14. Structure of Turbulence in Katabatic Flows Below and Above the Wind-Speed Maximum (United States)

    Grachev, Andrey A.; Leo, Laura S.; Sabatino, Silvana Di; Fernando, Harindra J. S.; Pardyjak, Eric R.; Fairall, Christopher W.


    Measurements of small-scale turbulence made in the atmospheric boundary layer over complex terrain during the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program are used to describe the structure of turbulence in katabatic flows. Turbulent and mean meteorological data were continuously measured on four towers deployed along the east lower slope (2-4°) of Granite Mountain near Salt Lake City in Utah, USA. The multi-level (up to seven) observations made during a 30-day long MATERHORN field campaign in September-October 2012 allowed the study of temporal and spatial structure of katabatic flows in detail, and herein we report turbulence statistics (e.g., fluxes, variances, spectra, and cospectra) and their variations in katabatic flow. Observed vertical profiles show steep gradients near the surface, but in the layer above the slope jet the vertical variability is smaller. It is found that the vertical (normal to the slope) momentum flux and horizontal (along-slope) heat flux in a slope-following coordinate system change their sign below and above the wind maximum of a katabatic flow. The momentum flux is directed downward (upward) whereas the along-slope heat flux is downslope (upslope) below (above) the wind maximum. This suggests that the position of the jet-speed maximum can be obtained by linear interpolation between positive and negative values of the momentum flux (or the along-slope heat flux) to derive the height where the flux becomes zero. It is shown that the standard deviations of all wind-speed components (and therefore of the turbulent kinetic energy) and the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy have a local minimum, whereas the standard deviation of air temperature has an absolute maximum at the height of wind-speed maximum. We report several cases when the destructive effect of vertical heat flux is completely cancelled by the generation of turbulence due to the along-slope heat flux. Turbulence above the wind

  15. Theoretical and Empirical Studies of the Basic Structure of Turbulent Shear Flows, Including Separated Flows and Effects of Wall Curvature. (United States)


    instability leading to longitudinal roll cells called Taylor-Gortler cells is responsible for the increase of mean surface stress and heat flux. The flow...that provides a guar- antee against taking data in some range of the test-parameter hyperspace where uncertainties aggregate to high values. As Prof

  16. Flow structure and channel morphodynamics of meander bend chute cutoffs: A case study of the Wabash River, USA (United States)

    Zinger, Jessica A.; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Best, James L.; Johnson, Kevin K.


    paper documents the three-dimensional structure of flow and bed morphology of two developing chute cutoffs on a single meander bend on the lower Wabash River, USA, and relates the flow structure to patterns of morphologic change in the evolving cutoff channels. The upstream end of the cutoff channels is characterized by: (1) a zone of flow velocity reduction/stagnation and bar development in the main channel across from the cutoff entrance, (2) flow separation and bar development along the inner (left) bank of the cutoff channel immediately downstream from the cutoff entrance, and (3) helical motion and outward advection of flow momentum entering the cutoff channel, leading to erosion of the outer (right) bank of the cutoff channel. At the downstream end of the cutoff channels, the major hydrodynamic and morphologic features are: (1) flow stagnation along the bank of the main channel immediately upstream of the cutoff channel mouth, (2) convergence of flows from the cutoff and main channels, (3) helical motion of flow from the cutoff, (4) a zone of reduced velocity along the bank of the main channel immediately downstream from the cutoff channel mouth, and (5) development of a prominent bar complex that penetrates into the main channel and extends from the stagnation zone upstream to downstream of the cutoff mouth. These results provide the basis for a conceptual model of chute-cutoff dynamics in which the upstream and downstream ends of a cutoff channel are treated as a bifurcation and confluence, respectively.

  17. Development of a numerical model for fluid-structure interaction analysis of flow through and around an aquaculture net cage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Hao; Christensen, Erik Damgaard


    In the present work, we developed a numerical model for fluid-structure interaction analysis of flow through and around an aquaculture net cage. The numerical model is based on the coupling between the porous media model and the lumped mass structural model. A novel interface was implemented...

  18. Structural development of laminar flow control aircraft chordwise wing joint designs (United States)

    Fischler, J. E.; Jerstad, N. M.; Gallimore, F. H., Jr.; Pollard, T. J.


    For laminar flow to be achieved, any protuberances on the surface must be small enough to avoid transition to turbulent flow. However, the surface must have joints between the structural components to allow assembly or replacement of damaged parts, although large continuous surfaces can be utilized to minimize the number the number of joints. Aircraft structural joints usually have many countersunk bolts or rivets on the outer surface. To maintain no mismatch on outer surfaces, it is desirable to attach the components from the inner surface. It is also desirable for the panels to be interchangeable, without the need for shims at the joint, to avoid surface discontinuities that could cause turbulence. Fabricating components while pressing their outer surfaces against an accurate mold helps to ensure surface smoothness and continuity at joints. These items were considered in evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of the joint design concepts. After evaluating six design concepts, two of the leading candidates were fabricated and tested using many small test panels. One joint concept was also built and tested using large panels. The small and large test panel deflections for the leading candidate designs at load factors up to +1.5 g's were well within the step and waviness requirements for avoiding transition.The small panels were designed and tested for compression and tension at -65 F, at ambient conditions, and at 160 F. The small panel results for the three-rib and the sliding-joint concepts indicated that they were both acceptable. The three-rib concept, with tapered splice plates, was considered to be the most practical. A modified three-rib joint that combined the best attributes of previous candidates was designed, developed, and tested. This improved joint met all of the structural strength, surface smoothness, and waviness criteria for laminar flow control (LFC). The design eliminated all disadvantages of the initial three-rib concept except for

  19. Experimental support and estimate of the accuracy of the water flow model in structured soils (United States)

    Nikulina, M.


    The set of models of water flow and solute transport was developed. It takes into account spatial and time variability of soil properties and a complex structure of a soil pore space. However, its limited by physically justified methods of experimental definition of parameters. The important stage of the work with the models is checking their adequacy to described processes. It is possible only at a presence of the qualitative experi-mental data received under conditions, reproduced by model. According to this, the aim of the work is the support of methods of experimental maintenance of water flow models with taking into account of structure of soil porosity and evaluation of conditions of application of mathematical models of a dif-ferent level. The field experiments were conducted in Suzdal (Russia, Vladimirskaja oblast), in June and July 1997. The soil cover of this region has high complexity, in which grey forest soils are dominant. Genetic horizons of the grey forest soils are well structured, this causes the presence in soil profile the macropores. The field investigation consisted of three big parts: (1) the morphological research of the genetic horizons of the grey forest soil; (2) investigation of the soil filtration properties by the tube with a constant head and vacuum-infiltrometer methods; (3) study of water movement at different intensity of the irrigation. Experiments were conducted on three sets called , and . The plots had 1m x 1m a size and were equipped with the hole for measurement of soil water content by the neutron hygrometer and by the tensiometers. In labo-ratory conditions the following properties of soil were determined: density of soil, texture, porosity of the aggregates, shrinkage characteristics of soil fraction in diameter of 3-5 mm. For the simulation the model "MACRO" (Jarvis et al, 1991) was used in the work. Adequacy of the model descriptions of the field data were estimated by visual comparison of measured and calculated data

  20. Active technique by suction to control the flow structure over a van model (United States)

    Harinaldi, Budiarso, Warjito, Kosasih, Engkos A.; Tarakka, Rustan; Simanungkalit, Sabar P.


    Today research trend in car aerodynamics are carried out from the point of view of the durable development. Some car companies have the objective to develop control solution that enable to reduce the aerodynamic drag of vehicle. It provides the possibility to modify the flow separation to reduce the development of the swirling structures around the vehicle. In this study, a family van is modeled with a modified form of Ahmed's body by changing the orientation of the flow from its original form (modified/reversed Ahmed Body). This model is equipped with a suction on the rear side to comprehensively examine the pressure field modifications that occur. The investigation combines computational and experimental work. The computational simulation used is k-epsilon flow turbulence model. The reversed Ahmed body used in the investigation has slant angle (φ) 35° at the front part. In the computational work, meshing type is tetra/hybrid element with hex core type and the grid number is more than 1.7 million in order to ensure detail discretization and more accurate calculation results. The boundary condition is upstream velocity of 11.1 m/s. Mean free stream at far upstream region is assumed in a steady state condition and uniform. The suction velocity is set at 1 m/s. Meanwhile in the experimental work a reversed Ahmed model is tested in a controlled wind tunnel experiments. The main measurement is the drag aerodynamic measurement at rear of the body of the model using strain gage. The results show that the application of a suction in the rear part of the van model give the effect of reducing the wake and the vortex is formed. Aerodynamic drag reduction close to 24% for the computational approach and 14.8% for the experimental approach by introducing a suction have been obtained.

  1. Turbulent Structure of a Simplified Urban Fluid Flow Studied Through Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (United States)

    Monnier, Bruno; Goudarzi, Sepehr A.; Vinuesa, Ricardo; Wark, Candace


    Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry was used to provide a three-dimensional characterization of the flow around a simplified urban model defined by a 5 by 7 array of blocks, forming four parallel streets, perpendicular to the incoming wind direction corresponding to a zero angle of incidence. Channeling of the flow through the array under consideration was observed, and its effect increased as the incoming wind direction, or angle of incidence ( AOI), was changed from 0° to 15°, 30°, and 45°. The flow between blocks can be divided into two regions: a region of low turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) levels close to the leeward side of the upstream block, and a high TKE area close to the downstream block. The centre of the arch vortex is located in the low TKE area, and two regions of large streamwise velocity fluctuation bound the vortex in the spanwise direction. Moreover, a region of large spanwise velocity fluctuation on the downstream block is found between the vortex legs. Our results indicate that the reorientation of the arch vortex at increasing AOI is produced by the displacement of the different TKE regions and their interaction with the shear layers on the sides and top of the upstream and downstream blocks, respectively. There is also a close connection between the turbulent structure between the blocks and the wind gusts. The correlations among gust components were also studied, and it was found that in the near-wall region of the street the correlations between the streamwise and spanwise gusts R_{uv} were dominant for all four AOI cases. At higher wall-normal positions in the array, the R_{uw} correlation decreased with increasing AOI, whereas the R_{uv} coefficient increased as AOI increased, and at {it{AOI}}=45° all three correlations exhibited relatively high values of around 0.4.

  2. Structure- and fluid-borne acoustic power sources induced by turbulent flow in 90° piping elbows (United States)

    Hambric, S. A.; Boger, D. A.; Fahnline, J. B.; Campbell, R. L.


    The structure- and fluid-borne vibro-acoustic power spectra induced by turbulent fluid flow over the walls of a continuous 90° piping elbow are computed. Although the actual power input to the piping by the wall pressure fluctuations is distributed throughout the elbow, equivalent total power inputs to various structural wavetypes (bending, torsion, axial) and fluid (plane-waves) at the inlet and discharge of the elbow are computed. The powers at the elbow “ports” are suitable inputs to wave- and statistically-based models of larger piping systems that include the elbow. Calculations for several flow and structural parameters, including pipe wall thickness, flow speed, and flow Reynolds number are shown. The power spectra are scaled on flow and structural-acoustic parameters so that levels for conditions other than those considered in the paper may be estimated, subject to geometric similarity constraints (elbow radius/pipe diameter). The approach for computing the powers (called CHAMP - combined hydroacoustic modeling programs), which links computational fluid dynamics, finite element and boundary element modeling, and efficient random analysis techniques, is general, and may be applied to other piping system components excited by turbulent fluid flow, such as U-bends and T-sections.

  3. Effect of nanoscale flows on the surface structure of nanoporous catalysts. (United States)

    Montemore, Matthew M; Montessori, Andrea; Succi, Sauro; Barroo, Cédric; Falcucci, Giacomo; Bell, David C; Kaxiras, Efthimios


    The surface structure and composition of a multi-component catalyst are critical factors in determining its catalytic performance. The surface composition can depend on the local pressure of the reacting species, leading to the possibility that the flow through a nanoporous catalyst can affect its structure and reactivity. Here, we explore this possibility for oxidation reactions on nanoporous gold, an AgAu bimetallic catalyst. We use microscopy and digital reconstruction to obtain the morphology of a two-dimensional slice of a nanoporous gold sample. Using lattice Boltzmann fluid dynamics simulations along with thermodynamic models based on first-principles total-energy calculations, we show that some sections of this sample have low local O 2 partial pressures when exposed to reaction conditions, which leads to a pure Au surface in these regions, instead of the active bimetallic AgAu phase. We also explore the effect of temperature on the surface structure and find that moderate temperatures (≈300-450 K) should result in the highest intrinsic catalytic performance, in apparent agreement with experimental results.

  4. Improvement of Swirl Chamber Structure of Swirl-Chamber Diesel Engine Based on Flow Field Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Yuan


    Full Text Available In order to improve combustion characteristic of swirl chamber diesel engine, a simulation model about a traditional cylindrical flat-bottom swirl chamber turbulent combustion diesel engine was established within the timeframe of the piston motion from the bottom dead centre (BDC to the top dead centre (TDC with the fluent dynamic mesh technique and flow field vector of gas in swirl chamber and cylinder; the pressure variation and temperature variation were obtained and a new type of swirl chamber structure was proposed. The results reveal that the piston will move from BDC; air in the cylinder is compressed into the swirl chamber by the piston to develop a swirl inside the chamber, with the ongoing of compression; the pressure and temperature are also rising gradually. Under this condition, the demand of diesel oil mixing and combusting will be better satisfied. Moreover, the new structure will no longer forma small fluid retention zone at the lower end outside the chamber and will be more beneficial to the mixing of fuel oil and air, which has presented a new idea and theoretical foundation for the design and optimization of swirl chamber structure and is thus of good significance of guiding in this regard.

  5. A Structural Design Concept for a Multi-Shell Blended Wing Body with Laminar Flow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majeed Bishara


    Full Text Available Static and fatigue analyses are presented for a new blended wing body (BWB fuselage concept considering laminar flow control (LFC by boundary layer suction in order to reduce the aerodynamic drag. BWB aircraft design concepts profit from a structurally beneficial distribution of lift and weight and allow a better utilization of interior space over conventional layouts. A structurally efficient design concept for the pressurized BWB cabin is a vaulted layout that is, however, aerodynamically disadvantageous. A suitable remedy is a multi-shell design concept with a separate outer skin. The synergetic combination of such a multi-shell BWB fuselage with a LFC via perforation of the outer skin to attain a drag reduction appears promising. In this work, two relevant structural design aspects are considered. First, a numerical model for a ribbed double-shell design of a fuselage segment is analyzed. Second, fatigue aspects of the perforation in the outer skin are investigated. A design making use of controlled fiber orientation is proposed for the perforated skin. The fatigue behavior is compared to perforation methods with conventional fiber topologies and to configurations without perforations.

  6. Emergence of coherent structures and large-scale flows in motile suspensions. (United States)

    Saintillan, David; Shelley, Michael J


    The emergence of coherent structures, large-scale flows and correlated dynamics in suspensions of motile particles such as swimming micro-organisms or artificial microswimmers is studied using direct particle simulations. A detailed model is proposed for a slender rod-like particle that propels itself in a viscous fluid by exerting a prescribed tangential stress on its surface, and a method is devised for the efficient calculation of hydrodynamic interactions in large-scale suspensions of such particles using slender-body theory and a smooth particle-mesh Ewald algorithm. Simulations are performed with periodic boundary conditions for various system sizes and suspension volume fractions, and demonstrate a transition to large-scale correlated motions in suspensions of rear-actuated swimmers, or Pushers, above a critical volume fraction or system size. This transition, which is not observed in suspensions of head-actuated swimmers, or Pullers, is seen most clearly in particle velocity and passive tracer statistics. These observations are consistent with predictions from our previous mean-field kinetic theory, one of which states that instabilities will arise in uniform isotropic suspensions of Pushers when the product of the linear system size with the suspension volume fraction exceeds a given threshold. We also find that the collective dynamics of Pushers result in giant number fluctuations, local alignment of swimmers and strongly mixing flows. Suspensions of Pullers, which evince no large-scale dynamics, nonetheless display interesting deviations from the random isotropic state.

  7. Large Deformation of an Elastic Rod with Structural Anisotropy Subjected to Fluid Flow (United States)

    Hassani, Masoud; Mureithi, Njuki; Gosselin, Frederick


    In the present work, we seek to understand the fundamental mechanisms of three-dimensional reconfiguration of plants by studying the large deformation of a flexible rod in fluid flow. Flexible rods made of Polyurethane foam and reinforced with Nylon fibers are tested in a wind tunnel. The rods have bending-torsion coupling which induces a torsional deformation during asymmetric bending. A mathematical model is also developed by coupling the Kirchhoff rod theory with a semi-empirical drag formulation. Different alignments of the material frame with respect to the flow direction and a range of structural properties are considered to study their effect on the deformation of the flexible rod and its drag scaling. Results show that twisting causes the flexible rods to reorient and bend with the minimum bending rigidity. It is also found that the drag scaling of the rod in the large deformation regime is not affected by torsion. Finally, using a proper set of dimensionless numbers, the state of a bending and twisting rod is characterized as a beam undergoing a pure bending deformation.

  8. Dilemma game structure observed in traffic flow at a 2-to-1 lane junction. (United States)

    Yamauchi, Atsuo; Tanimoto, Jun; Hagishima, Aya; Sagara, Hiroki


    Using a cellular automaton traffic model based on the stochastic optimal velocity model with appropriate assumptions for both incoming and outgoing vehicle boundaries, the so-called bottleneck issue on a lane-closing section was investigated in terms of game theory. In the system, two classified driver agents coexist: C agents (cooperative strategy) always driving in the first lane and D agents (defective strategy) trying to drive in a lower-density lane whether the first or the second lane. In high-density flow, D agents' interruption into the first lane from the second just before the lane-closing section creates a heavier traffic jam, which reduces social efficiency. This particular event can be described with a prisoner's dilemma game structure.

  9. Coupling Numerical and Physical Modeling for Analysis of Flow in a Diversion Structure with Coanda-effect Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Coonrod


    Full Text Available There is an increasing need to screen water in surface water collection systems to remove floating debris and small aquatic organisms to protect receiving water bodies. Recently, the Albuquerque Metropolitan Arroyo Flood Control Authority (AMAFCA, New Mexico, USA has actively introduced structural debris removal from storm-water facilities as a best management practice. In the South Diversion Channel Project, AMAFCA’s objective is to divert the flow at the upstream end of the existing concrete structure and remove debris from this flow using Coanda-effect screens before allowing it to re-enter the channel. Design limitations, such as access to the debris removal site, existing components of the concrete structure, topography of the site, and need for flow-regulating structures complicate the design. This paper shows how numerical modeling tools (Delft3D-FLOW model and physical modeling can be used in conjunction to observe flow patterns in a diversion structure and around Coanda-effect screens, estimate design parameters and thereby provide design recommendations.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Junwei; Kosovichev, Alexander G.; Sekii, Takashi


    We analyze a solar active region observed by the Hinode Ca II H line using the time-distance helioseismology technique, and infer wave-speed perturbation structures and flow fields beneath the active region with a high spatial resolution. The general subsurface wave-speed structure is similar to the previous results obtained from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager observations. The general subsurface flow structure is also similar, and the downward flows beneath the sunspot and the mass circulations around the sunspot are clearly resolved. Below the sunspot, some organized divergent flow cells are observed, and these structures may indicate the existence of mesoscale convective motions. Near the light bridge inside the sunspot, hotter plasma is found beneath, and flows divergent from this area are observed. The Hinode data also allow us to investigate potential uncertainties caused by the use of phase-speed filter for short travel distances. Comparing the measurements with and without the phase-speed filtering, we find out that inside the sunspot, mean acoustic travel times are in basic agreement, but the values are underestimated by a factor of 20%-40% inside the sunspot umbra for measurements with the filtering. The initial acoustic tomography results from Hinode show a great potential of using high-resolution observations for probing the internal structure and dynamics of sunspots.

  11. Implementation of Speed Variation in the Structural Dynamic Assessment of Turbomachinery Flow-Path Components (United States)

    Brown, Andrew M.; Davis, R. Benjamin; DeHaye, Michael


    During the design of turbomachinery flow path components, the assessment of possible structural resonant conditions is critical. Higher frequency modes of these structures are frequently found to be subject to resonance, and in these cases, design criteria require a forced response analysis of the structure with the assumption that the excitation speed exactly equals the resonant frequency. The design becomes problematic if the response analysis shows a violation of the HCF criteria. One possible solution is to perform "finite-life" analysis, where Miner's rule is used to calculate the actual life in seconds in comparison to the required life. In this situation, it is beneficial to incorporate the fact that, for a variety of turbomachinery control reasons, the speed of the rotor does not actually dwell at a single value but instead dithers about a nominal mean speed and during the time that the excitation frequency is not equal to the resonant frequency, the damage accumulated by the structure is diminished significantly. Building on previous investigations into this process, we show that a steady-state assumption of the response is extremely accurate for this typical case, resulting in the ability to quickly account for speed variation in the finite-life analysis of a component which has previously had its peak dynamic stress at resonance calculated. A technique using Monte Carlo simulation is also presented which can be used when specific speed time histories are not available. The implementation of these techniques can prove critical for successful turbopump design, as the improvement in life when speed variation is considered is shown to be greater than a factor of two

  12. A microfluidic-structured flow field for passive direct methanol fuel cells operating with highly concentrated fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Q X; Zhao, T S; Chen, R; Yang, W W


    Conventional direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) have to operate with excessively diluted methanol solutions to limit methanol crossover and its detrimental consequences. Operation with such diluted methanol solutions not only results in a significant penalty in the specific energy of the power pack, limiting the runtime of this type of fuel cell, but also lowers the cell performance and operating stability. In this paper, a microfluidic-structured anode flow field for passive DMFCs with neither liquid pumps nor gas compressors/blowers is developed. This flow field consists of plural micro flow passages. Taking advantage of the liquid methanol and gas CO 2 two-phase counter flow, the unique fluidic structure enables the formation of a liquid–gas meniscus in each flow passage. The evaporation from the small meniscus in each flow passage can lead to an extremely large interfacial mass-transfer resistance, creating a bottleneck of methanol delivery to the anode CL. The fuel cell tests show that the innovative flow field allows passive DMFCs to achieve good cell performance with a methanol concentration as high as 18.0 M, increasing the specific energy of the DMFC system by about five times compared with conventional designs.

  13. Structural Modeling and Characteristics Analysis of Flow Interaction Networks in the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiao-Yu; Gu Ren-Tao; Pan Zhuo-Ya; Jin Wei-Qi; Ji Yue-Feng


    Applying network duality and elastic mechanics, we investigate the interactions among Internet flows by constructing a weighted undirected network, where the vertices and the edges represent the flows and the mutual dependence between flows, respectively. Based on the obtained flow interaction network, we find the existence of ‘super flow’ in the Internet, indicating that some flows have a great impact on a huge number of other flows; moreover, one flow can spread its influence to another through a limited quantity of flows (less than 5 in the experimental simulations), which shows strong small-world characteristics like the social network. To reflect the flow interactions in the physical network congestion evaluation, the ‘congestion coefficient’ is proposed as a new metric which shows a finer observation on congestion than the conventional one. (paper)

  14. Effect of bidirectional internal flow on fluid–structure interaction dynamics of conveying marine riser model subject to shear current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Shou Chen


    Full Text Available This article presents a numerical investigation concerning the effect of two kinds of axially progressing internal flows (namely, upward and downward on fluid–structure interaction (FSI dynamics about a marine riser model which is subject to external shear current. The CAE technology behind the current research is a proposed FSI solution, which combines structural analysis software with CFD technology together. Efficiency validation for the CFD software was carried out first. It has been proved that the result from numerical simulations agrees well with the observation from relating model test cases in which the fluidity of internal flow is ignorable. After verifying the numerical code accuracy, simulations are conducted to study the vibration response that attributes to the internal progressive flow. It is found that the existence of internal flow does play an important role in determining the vibration mode (/dominant frequency and the magnitude of instantaneous vibration amplitude. Since asymmetric curvature along the riser span emerges in the case of external shear current, the centrifugal and Coriolis accelerations owing to up- and downward internal progressive flows play different roles in determining the fluid–structure interaction response. The discrepancy between them becomes distinct, when the velocity ratio of internal flow against external shear current is relatively high.

  15. Heat Flow Variation along the Nankai Trough Floor Correlated with the Structure of the Shikoku Basin Oceanic Crust (United States)

    Yamano, M.; Kawada, Y.; Gao, X.


    Surface heat flow observed on the floor of the Nankai Trough, near the trench axis, is highly variable and does not well correspond to the seafloor age of the incoming Philippine Sea plate (Shikoku Basin). Recent detailed measurements between 133.5°E and 137°E revealed that heat flow on the trough floor significantly varies along the trough. The most conspicuous variation is found around 136°E. Heat flow is extremely high and variable between 135°E and 136°E, much higher than the value estimated from the age. On the east of 136°E, heat flow gradually decreases eastward over 50 km to the value nearly consistent with the age with no appreciable scatter. Elevated heat flow on the trough floor can be attributed to vigorous fluid circulation in a permeable layer (aquifer) in the subducted oceanic crust, which efficiently transports heat upward along the plate interface (Spinelli and Wang, 2008). The heat flow variation around 136°E may therefore arise from variation in the permeability structure of the crustal aquifer. A probable cause of the heterogeneity in the aquifer permeability is a structure boundary in the incoming Shikoku Basin, the boundary between the younger part on the west formed by spreading in NE-SW direction and the older part on the east formed by E-W spreading. It is located around 136°E, about the same place as the heat flow distribution boundary. A possible additional source of variation in the permeability structure is the geometry of the subducted Philippine Sea plate. A prominent bend in the subducted plate between 135°E and 136°E, which corresponds to the high heat flow area on the trough floor, may have fractured the oceanic crust and enhanced the aquifer permeability. We evaluated the influence of variations in the aquifer permeability on the thermal structure through 3D numerical modelling using a high thermal-conductivity proxy for heat transport by fluid flow. A sharp along-strike change in the permeability of the subducted

  16. Natural snowfall reveals large-scale flow structures in the wake of a 2.5-MW wind turbine. (United States)

    Hong, Jiarong; Toloui, Mostafa; Chamorro, Leonardo P; Guala, Michele; Howard, Kevin; Riley, Sean; Tucker, James; Sotiropoulos, Fotis


    To improve power production and structural reliability of wind turbines, there is a pressing need to understand how turbines interact with the atmospheric boundary layer. However, experimental techniques capable of quantifying or even qualitatively visualizing the large-scale turbulent flow structures around full-scale turbines do not exist today. Here we use snowflakes from a winter snowstorm as flow tracers to obtain velocity fields downwind of a 2.5-MW wind turbine in a sampling area of ~36 × 36 m(2). The spatial and temporal resolutions of the measurements are sufficiently high to quantify the evolution of blade-generated coherent motions, such as the tip and trailing sheet vortices, identify their instability mechanisms and correlate them with turbine operation, control and performance. Our experiment provides an unprecedented in situ characterization of flow structures around utility-scale turbines, and yields significant insights into the Reynolds number similarity issues presented in wind energy applications.

  17. Perturbed gradient flow trees and a∞-algebra structures in morse cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Mescher, Stephan


    This book elaborates on an idea put forward by M. Abouzaid on equipping the Morse cochain complex of a smooth Morse function on a closed oriented manifold with the structure of an A∞-algebra by means of perturbed gradient flow trajectories. This approach is a variation on K. Fukaya’s definition of Morse-A∞-categories for closed oriented manifolds involving families of Morse functions. To make A∞-structures in Morse theory accessible to a broader audience, this book provides a coherent and detailed treatment of Abouzaid’s approach, including a discussion of all relevant analytic notions and results, requiring only a basic grasp of Morse theory. In particular, no advanced algebra skills are required, and the perturbation theory for Morse trajectories is completely self-contained. In addition to its relevance for finite-dimensional Morse homology, this book may be used as a preparation for the study of Fukaya categories in symplectic geometry. It will be of interest to researchers in mathematics (geome...

  18. Boundary layer structure and decoupling from synoptic scale flow during NAMBLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Norton


    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the meteorology and planetary boundary layer structure observed during the NAMBLEX field campaign to aid interpretation of the chemical and aerosol measurements. The campaign has been separated into five periods corresponding to the prevailing synoptic condition. Comparisons between meteorological measurements (UHF wind profiler, Doppler sodar, sonic aneometers mounted on a tower at varying heights and a standard anemometer and the ECMWF analysis at 10m and 1100 m identified days when the internal boundary layer was decoupled from the synoptic flow aloft. Generally the agreement was remarkably good apart from during period one and on a few days during period four when the diurnal swing in wind direction implies a sea/land breeze circulation near the surface. During these periods the origin of air sampled at Mace Head would not be accurately represented by back trajectories following the winds resolved in ECMWF analyses. The wind profiler observations give a detailed record of boundary layer structure including an indication of its depth, average wind speed and direction. Turbulence statistics have been used to assess the height to which the developing internal boundary layer, caused by the increased surface drag at the coast, reaches the sampling location under a wide range of marine conditions. Sampling conducted below 10 m will be impacted by emission sources at the shoreline in all wind directions and tidal conditions, whereas sampling above 15 m is unlikely to be affected in any of the wind directions and tidal heights sampled during the experiment.

  19. Characterising the structure of quasi-periodic mixing events in stratified turbulent Taylor-Couette flow (United States)

    Singh, Kanwar Nain; Partridge, Jamie; Dalziel, Stuart; Caulfield, C. P.; Mathematical Underpinnings of Stratified Turbulence (MUST) Team


    We present results from experiments conducted to study mixing in a two-layer stably-stratified turbulent Taylor-Couette flow. It has previously been observed that there is a quasi-periodic mixing event located at the interface separating the layers. We observe, through conductivity probe measurements, that the power of the mixing event in the frequency spectrum of the density data at the interface is higher when measured near the inner cylinder than in the middle of the annular gap. This is consistent with Oglethorpe's (2014) hypothesis that the mixing structure is triggered near the inner cylinder, and then advects and decays or disperses radially. We also observe that at Ri =g/'Ro (RiΩi)2 7 , where Ri, Ro are the inner and outer cylinder radius, respectively, g ' the reduced gravity characterising the density jump between the layers and Ωi is the rotation rate of the inner cylinder, the power drops significantly at all radial locations, which is reminiscent of the onset of the enhanced flux regime as observed by Oglethorpe et al. (2013). We perform experiments to characterise the spatial extent and dynamics of this mixing structure using particle image velocimetry (PIV) giving further insights into this important mixing process. EPSRC programme Grant EP/K034529/1 & SGPC-CCT Scholarship.

  20. Synthetic jet flow control of two-dimensional NACA 65(1)-412 airfoil flow with finite-time lyapunov exponent analysis of Lagrangian coherent structures (United States)

    Jeong, Peter Inuk

    Synthetic jet (SJ) control of a low-Reynolds number, unsteady, compressible, viscous flow over a NACA 65-(1)412 airfoil, typical for unmanned air vehicles and gas turbines, has been investigated computationally. A particular focus was placed in the development and control of Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) and the associated Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) fields. The FTLE fields quantitatively measure of the repulsion rate in forward-time and the attraction rate in backward-time, and provide a unique perspective on effective flow control. A Discontinuous-Galerkin (DG) methods, high-fidelity Navier-Stokes solver performs direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the airfoil flow. Three SJ control strategies have been investigated: immediately downstream of flow separation, normal to the separated shear layer; near the leading edge, normal to the airfoil suction side; near the trailing edge, normal to the airfoil pressure side. A finite difference algorithm computes the FTLE from DNS velocity data. A baseline flow without SJ control is compared to SJ actuated flows. The baseline flow forms a regular, time-periodic, asymmetric von Karman vortex street in the wake. The SJ downstream of flow separation increases recirculation region vorticity and reduces the effective angle of attack. This decreases the time-averaged lift by 2:98% and increases the time-averaged drag by 5:21%. The leading edge SJ produces small vortices that deflect the shear layer downwards, and decreases the effective angle of attack. This reduces the time-averaged lift by 1:80%, and the time-averaged drag by 1:84%. The trailing edge SJ produces perturbations that add to pressure side vortices without affecting global flow characteristics. The time-averaged lift decreases by 0:47%, and the time-averaged drag increases by 0:20%. For all SJ cases, the aerodynamic performance is much more dependent on changes to the pressure distribution than changes to the skin friction distribution. No proposed

  1. Spatial genetic structure and asymmetrical gene flow within the Pacific walrus (United States)

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Jay, Chadwick V.; Fischbach, Anthony S.; Sage, George K.; Talbot, Sandra L.


    Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) occupying shelf waters of Pacific Arctic seas migrate during spring and summer from 3 breeding areas in the Bering Sea to form sexually segregated nonbreeding aggregations. We assessed genetic relationships among 2 putative breeding populations and 6 nonbreeding aggregations. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequence data suggest that males are distinct among breeding populations (ΦST=0.051), and between the eastern Chukchi and other nonbreeding aggregations (ΦST=0.336–0.449). Nonbreeding female aggregations were genetically distinct across marker types (microsatellite FST=0.019; mtDNA ΦST=0.313), as was eastern Chukchi and all other nonbreeding aggregations (microsatellite FST=0.019–0.035; mtDNA ΦST=0.386–0.389). Gene flow estimates are asymmetrical from St. Lawrence Island into the southeastern Bering breeding population for both sexes. Partitioning of haplotype frequencies among breeding populations suggests that individuals exhibit some degree of philopatry, although weak. High levels of genetic differentiation among eastern Chukchi and all other nonbreeding aggregations, but considerably lower genetic differentiation between breeding populations, suggest that at least 1 genetically distinct breeding population remained unsampled. Limited genetic structure at microsatellite loci between assayed breeding areas can emerge from several processes, including male-mediated gene flow, or population admixture following a decrease in census size (i.e., due to commercial harvest during 1880–1950s) and subsequent recovery. Nevertheless, high levels of genetic diversity in the Pacific walrus, which withstood prolonged decreases in census numbers with little impact on neutral genetic diversity, may reflect resiliency in the face of past environmental challenges.

  2. On homogenization of stokes flow in slowly varying media with applications to fluid–structure interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald L.


    In this paper we establish corrector estimates for Stokes flow in slowly varying perforated media via two scale asymptotic analysis. Current methods and techniques are often not able to deal with changing geometries prevalent in applied problems. For example, in a deformable porous medium environment, the geometry does not remain periodic under mechanical deformation and if slow variation in the geometry occurs. For such problems, one cannot use classical homogenization results directly and new homogenization results and estimates are needed. Our work uses asymptotic techniques of Marusic-Paloka and Mikelic (Bollettino U. M. I 7:661-671, 1996) where the authors constructed a downscaled velocity which converges to the fine-scale velocity at a rate of ε1/6 where ε is the characteristic length scale. We assume a slowly varying porous medium and study homogenization and corrector estimates for the Stokes equations. Slowly varying media arise, e. g., in fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems (Popov et al. in Iterative upscaling of flows in deformable porous media, 2008), carbonation of porous concrete (Peter in C. R. Mecanique 335:357-362, 2007a; C. R. Mecanique 335:679-684, 2007b), and various other multiphysics processes. To homogenize Stokes flows in such media we restate the cell problems of Marusic-Paloka and Mikelic (Bollettino U. M. I 7:661-671, 1996) in a moving RVE framework. Further, to recover the same convergence properties it is necessary to solve an additional cell problem and add one more corrector term to the downscaled velocity. We further extend the framework of Marusic-Paloka and Mikelic (Bollettino U. M. I 7:661-671, 1996) to three spatial dimensions in both periodic and variable pore-space cases. Next, we also propose an efficient algorithm for computing the correctors by solving a limited number of cell problems at selected spatial locations. We present two computational examples: one for a constructed medium of elliptical perforations, and

  3. Experimental investigation of three-dimensional flow structures in annular swirling jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Percin, M.; Vanierschot, M.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.


    Annular jet flows are of practical interest in view of their occurrence in many industrial applications in the context of bluff-body combustors [1]. They feature different complex flow characteristics despite their simple geometry: a central recirculation zone (CRZ) as a result of flow separation

  4. Miniaturized thermal flow sensor with planar-integrated sensor structures on semicircular surface channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Marcel; de Boer, Meint J.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    A calorimetric miniaturized flow sensor was realized with a linear sensor response measured for water flow up to flow rates in the order of 300 nl min-1. A versatile technological concept is used to realize a sensor with a thermally isolated freely suspended silicon-rich silicon-nitride microchannel

  5. New non-structured discretizations for fluid flows with reinforced incompressibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heib, S.


    This work deals with the discretization of Stokes and Navier-Stokes equations modeling the flow of incompressible fluids on 2-D or 3-D non-structured meshes. Triangles and tetrahedrons are used for 2-D and 3-D meshes, respectively. The developments and calculations are performed with the code Priceles (fast CEA-EdF industrial platform for large Eddy simulation). This code allows to perform simulations both on structured and non-structured meshes. A finite-volume resolution method is used: a finite difference volume (FDV) method is used for the structured meshes and a finite element volume (FEV) method is used for the non-structured meshes. The finite element used in the beginning of this work has several defects. Starting from this situation, the discretization is improved by adding modifications to this element and the new elements introduced are analyzed theoretically. In parallel to these analyses, the new discretizations are implemented in order to test them numerically and to confirm the theoretical analyses. The first chapter presents the physical and mathematical modeling used in this work. The second chapter treats of the discretization of Stokes equations and presents the FEV resolution method. Chapter 3 presents a first attempt of improvement of this finite element and leads to the proposal of a new element which is presented in details. The problem encountered with the new discretization leads to a modification presented in chapter 4. This new discretization gives all the expected convergence results and sometimes shows super-convergence properties. Chapter 5 deals with the study and discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations. The study of the filtered Navier-Stokes equations, used for large Eddy simulations, requires to give a particular attention to the discretization of the diffusive terms. Then, the convective terms are considered. The effects of the convective terms in the initial discretization and in the improved method are compared. The use of

  6. Interaction Between Aerothermally Compliant Structures and Boundary-Layer Transition in Hypersonic Flow (United States)

    Riley, Zachary Bryce

    The use of thin-gauge, light-weight structures in combination with the severe aero-thermodynamic loading makes reusable hypersonic cruise vehicles prone to fluid-thermal-structural interactions. These interactions result in surface perturbations in the form of temperature changes and deformations that alter the stability and eventual transition of the boundary layer. The state of the boundary layer has a significant effect on the aerothermodynamic loads acting on a hypersonic vehicle. The inherent relationship between boundary-layer stability, aerothermodynamic loading, and surface conditions make the interaction between the structural response and boundary-layer transition an important area of study in high-speed flows. The goal of this dissertation is to examine the interaction between boundary layer transition and the response of aerothermally compliant structures. This is carried out by first examining the uncoupled problems of: (1) structural deformation and temperature changes altering boundary-layer stability and (2) the boundary layer state affecting structural response. For the former, the stability of boundary layers developing over geometries that typify the response of surface panels subject to combined aerodynamic and thermal loading is numerically assessed using linear stability theory and the linear parabolized stability equations. Numerous parameters are examined including: deformation direction, deformation location, multiple deformations in series, structural boundary condition, surface temperature, the combined effect of Mach number and altitude, and deformation mode shape. The deformation-induced pressure gradient alters the boundary-layer thickness, which changes the frequency of the most-unstable disturbance. In regions of small boundary-layer growth, the disturbance frequency modulation resulting from a single or multiple panels deformed into the flowfield is found to improve boundary-layer stability and potentially delay transition. For the

  7. Shannon Entropy-Based Wavelet Transform Method for Autonomous Coherent Structure Identification in Fluid Flow Field Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik V. Bulusu


    Full Text Available The coherent secondary flow structures (i.e., swirling motions in a curved artery model possess a variety of spatio-temporal morphologies and can be encoded over an infinitely-wide range of wavelet scales. Wavelet analysis was applied to the following vorticity fields: (i a numerically-generated system of Oseen-type vortices for which the theoretical solution is known, used for bench marking and evaluation of the technique; and (ii experimental two-dimensional, particle image velocimetry data. The mother wavelet, a two-dimensional Ricker wavelet, can be dilated to infinitely large or infinitesimally small scales. We approached the problem of coherent structure detection by means of continuous wavelet transform (CWT and decomposition (or Shannon entropy. The main conclusion of this study is that the encoding of coherent secondary flow structures can be achieved by an optimal number of binary digits (or bits corresponding to an optimal wavelet scale. The optimal wavelet-scale search was driven by a decomposition entropy-based algorithmic approach and led to a threshold-free coherent structure detection method. The method presented in this paper was successfully utilized in the detection of secondary flow structures in three clinically-relevant blood flow scenarios involving the curved artery model under a carotid artery-inspired, pulsatile inflow condition. These scenarios were: (i a clean curved artery; (ii stent-implanted curved artery; and (iii an idealized Type IV stent fracture within the curved artery.

  8. Assessing River Low-Flow Uncertainties Related to Hydrological Model Calibration and Structure under Climate Change Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Trudel


    Full Text Available Low-flow is the flow of water in a river during prolonged dry weather. This paper investigated the uncertainty originating from hydrological model calibration and structure in low-flow simulations under climate change conditions. Two hydrological models of contrasting complexity, GR4J and SWAT, were applied to four sub-watersheds of the Yamaska River, Canada. The two models were calibrated using seven different objective functions including the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NSEQ and six other objective functions more related to low flows. The uncertainty in the model parameters was evaluated using a PARAmeter SOLutions procedure (PARASOL. Twelve climate projections from different combinations of General Circulation Models (GCMs and Regional Circulation Models (RCMs were used to simulate low-flow indices in a reference (1970–2000 and future (2040–2070 horizon. Results indicate that the NSEQ objective function does not properly represent low-flow indices for either model. The NSE objective function applied to the log of the flows shows the lowest total variance for all sub-watersheds. In addition, these hydrological models should be used with care for low-flow studies, since they both show some inconsistent results. The uncertainty is higher for SWAT than for GR4J. With GR4J, the uncertainties in the simulations for the 7Q2 index (the 7-day low-flow value with a 2-year return period are lower for the future period than for the reference period. This can be explained by the analysis of hydrological processes. In the future horizon, a significant worsening of low-flow conditions was projected.

  9. Development of Interfacial Structure in a Confined Air-Water Cap-Turbulent and Churn-Turbulent Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaodong Sun; Seungjin Kim; Ling Cheng; Mamoru Ishii; Beus, Stephen G.


    The objective of the present work is to study and model the interfacial structure development of air-water two-phase flow in a confined test section. Experiments of a total of 9 flow conditions in cap-turbulent and churn-turbulent flow regimes are carried out in a vertical air-water upward two-phase flow experimental loop with a test section of 200-mm in width and 10-mm in gap. Miniaturized four-sensor conductivity probes are used to measure local two-phase parameters at three different elevations for each flow condition. The bubbles captured by the probes are categorized into two groups in view of the two-group interfacial area transport equation, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as Group 1 and cap/churn-turbulent bubbles as Group 2. The acquired parameters are time-averaged local void fraction, interfacial velocity, bubble number frequency, interfacial area concentration, and bubble Sauter mean diameter for both groups of bubbles. Also, the line-averaged and area-averaged data are presented and discussed. The comparisons of these parameters at different elevations demonstrate the development of interfacial structure along the flow direction due to bubble interactions. (authors)

  10. Numerical and Experimental Study of the Flow Field Structure Evolution in the Circular Recess of Oil Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shen


    Full Text Available The laminar radial flow in the oil cavity of heavy-duty computer numerical control (CNC machines is very complicated and has not been fully explored. Navier-Stokes equations have been applied through the whole flow region using finite volume approach to explore this complicated flow phenomenon, including the influences of the clearance height (h, inlet nozzle Reynolds number (Re, and geometrical aspect ratio (e on flow behaviors. A fluid dynamic experiment has been conducted to study the flow structure by using particle image velocimetry (PIV. Numerical simulation results have been compared with the experimental results, finding a good agreement with the studied cases. The results suggest that there are complex vortices in the oil cavity. Flow field structure of the oil cavity largely depends on h, Re, and e. Re and e have a great influence on the size and amount of vortices, and h has slight effects on the size of the vortices. The lengths of primary, secondary, and tertiary isolated vortices have a linear relationship with h. The lengths of the primary and secondary isolated vortices increase linearly with ascending e as e is small. But when Re and e are large enough, the size of the three vortices decreases.

  11. Vertical Subsurface Flow Mixing and Horizontal Anisotropy in Coarse Fluvial Aquifers: Structural Aspects (United States)

    Huggenberger, P.; Huber, E.


    Detailed descriptions of the subsurface heterogeneities in coarse fluvial aquifer gravel often lack in concepts to distinguish between the essence and the noise of a permeability structure and the ability to extrapolate site specific hydraulic information at the tens to several hundred meters scale. At this scale the heterogeneity strongly influences the anisotropies of the flow field and the mixing processes in groundwater. However, in many hydrogeological models the complexity of natural systems is oversimplified. Understanding the link between the dynamics of the surface processes of braided-river systems and the resulting subsurface sedimentary structures is the key to characterizing the complexity of horizontal and vertical mixing processes in groundwater. From the different depositional elements of coarse braided-river systems, the largest permeability contrasts can be observed in the scour-fills. Other elements (e.g. different types of gravel sheets) show much smaller variabilities and could be considered as a kind of matrix. Field experiments on the river Tagliamento (Northeast Italy) based on morphological observation and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys, as well as outcrop analyses of gravel pit exposures (Switzerland) allowed us to define the shape, sizes, spatial distribution and preservation potential of scour-fills. In vertical sections (e.g. 2D GPR data, vertical outcrop), the spatial density of remnant erosional bounding surfaces of scours is an indicator for the dynamics of the braided-river system (lateral mobility of the active floodplain, rate of sediment net deposition and spatial distribution of the confluence scours). In case of combined low aggradation rate and low lateral mobility the deposits may be dominated by a complex overprinting of scour-fills. The delineation of the erosional bounding surfaces, that are coherent over the survey area, is based on the identification of angular discontinuities of the reflectors. Fence diagrams

  12. Shock formation and structure in magnetic reconnection with a streaming flow. (United States)

    Wu, Liangneng; Ma, Zhiwei; Zhang, Haowei


    The features of magnetic reconnection with a streaming flow have been investigated on the basis of compressible resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. The super-Alfvenic streaming flow largely enhances magnetic reconnection. The maximum reconnection rate is almost four times larger with super-Alfvenic streaming flow than sub-Alfvénic streaming flow. In the nonlinear stage, it is found that there is a pair of shocks observed in the inflow region, which are manifested to be slow shocks for sub-Alfvénic streaming flow, and fast shocks for super-Alfvénic streaming flow. The quasi-period oscillation of reconnection rates in the decaying phase for super-Alfvénic streaming flow is resulted from the different drifting velocities of the shock and the X point.

  13. Period ratios for standing kink and sausage modes in magnetized structures with siphon flow on the Sun (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Chen, Shao-Xia; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong


    Standing oscillations with multiple periods have been found in a number of atmospheric structures on the Sun. The ratio of the period of the fundamental to twice the one of its first overtone, P 1/2P 2, is important in applications of solar magneto-seismology. We examine how field-aligned flows impact P 1/2P 2 of standing modes in solar magnetic cylinders. For coronal loops, the flow effects are significant for both fast kink and sausage modes. For kink modes, they reduce P 1/2P 2 by up to 17% relative to the static case even when the density contrast between the loop and its surroundings approaches infinity. For sausage modes, the reduction in P 1/2P 2 due to flow is typically ≲ 5.5% compared with the static case. However, the threshold aspect ratio, only above which can trapped sausage modes be supported, may increase dramatically with the flow magnitude. For photospheric tubes, the flow effect on P 1/2P 2 is not as strong. However, when applied to sausage modes, introducing field-aligned flows offers more possibilities in interpreting the multiple periods that have recently been measured. We conclude that field-aligned flows should be taken into account to help better understand what causes the departure of P 1/2P 2 from unity.

  14. Groundwater Flow Systems at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada: A Synthesis of Potentiometric Contours, Hydrostratigraphy, and Geologic Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenelon, Joseph M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Laczniak, Randell J.


    gradients between aquifer types are downward throughout most of the study area; however, flow from the alluvial-volcanic aquifer into the underlying carbonate aquifer, where both aquifers are present, is believed to be minor because of an intervening confining unit. Limited exchange of water between aquifer types occurs by diffuse flow through the confining unit, by focused flow along fault planes, or by direct flow where the confining unit is locally absent. Interflow between regional aquifers is evaluated and mapped to define major flow paths. These flow paths delineate tributary flow systems, which converge to form intermediate and regional flow systems. The implications of these flow systems in controlling transport of radionuclides away from the underground test areas at the Nevada Test Site are briefly discussed. Additionally, uncertainties in the delineation of aquifers, the development of potentiometric contours, and the identification of flow systems are identified and evaluated. Eleven tributary flow systems and three larger flow systems are mapped in the Nevada Test Site area. Flow systems within the alluvial-volcanic aquifer dominate the western half of the study area, whereas flow systems within the carbonate aquifer are most prevalent in the southeastern half of the study area. Most of the flow in the regional alluvial-volcanic aquifer that moves through the underground testing area on Pahute Mesa is discharged to the land surface at springs and seeps in Oasis Valley. Flow in the regional carbonate aquifer is internally compartmentalized by major geologic structures, primarily thrust faults, which constrain flow into separate corridors. Contaminants that reach the regional carbonate aquifer from testing areas in Yucca and Frenchman Flats flow toward downgradient discharge areas through the Alkali Flat-Furnace Creek Ranch or Ash Meadows flow systems and their tributaries.

  15. Groundwater Flow Systems at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada: A Synthesis of Potentiometric Contours, Hydrostratigraphy, and Geologic Structures (United States)

    Fenelon, Joseph M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Laczniak, Randell J.


    gradients between aquifer types are downward throughout most of the study area; however, flow from the alluvial-volcanic aquifer into the underlying carbonate aquifer, where both aquifers are present, is believed to be minor because of an intervening confining unit. Limited exchange of water between aquifer types occurs by diffuse flow through the confining unit, by focused flow along fault planes, or by direct flow where the confining unit is locally absent. Interflow between regional aquifers is evaluated and mapped to define major flow paths. These flow paths delineate tributary flow systems, which converge to form intermediate and regional flow systems. The implications of these flow systems in controlling transport of radionuclides away from the underground test areas at the Nevada Test Site are briefly discussed. Additionally, uncertainties in the delineation of aquifers, the development of potentiometric contours, and the identification of flow systems are identified and evaluated. Eleven tributary flow systems and three larger flow systems are mapped in the Nevada Test Site area. Flow systems within the alluvial-volcanic aquifer dominate the western half of the study area, whereas flow systems within the carbonate aquifer are most prevalent in the southeastern half of the study area. Most of the flow in the regional alluvial-volcanic aquifer that moves through the underground testing area on Pahute Mesa is discharged to the land surface at springs and seeps in Oasis Valley. Flow in the regional carbonate aquifer is internally compartmentalized by major geologic structures, primarily thrust faults, which constrain flow into separate corridors. Contaminants that reach the regional carbonate aquifer from testing areas in Yucca and Frenchman Flats flow toward downgradient discharge areas through the Alkali Flat-Furnace Creek Ranch or Ash Meadows flow systems and their tributaries.

  16. Wave structure and flow amplitude-frequency characteristics in the turbine nozzle lattice in the presence of phase transition (United States)

    Gribin, V. G.; Gavrilov, I. Yu.; Tishchenko, A. A.; Tishchenko, V. A.; Alekseev, R. A.


    This paper is devoted to the wave structure of a flow at its near- and supersonic velocities in a flat turbine cascade of profiles in the zone of phase transitions. The main task was investigation of the mechanics of interaction of the condensation jump with the adiabatic jumps of packing in a change of the initial condition of the flow. The obtained results are necessary for verification of the calculation models of the moisture-steam flow in the elements of lotic parts of the steam turbines. The experimental tests were made on a stand of the wet steam contour (WSC-2) in the Moscow Power Engineering Institute (MPEI, National Research University) at various initial states of steam in a wide range of Mach numbers. In the investigation of the wave structure, use was made of an instrument based on the Schlieren-method principle. The amplitude-frequency characteristics of the flow was found by measurement of static pressure pulsations by means of the piezo resistive sensors established on a bandage plate along the bevel cut of the cascade. It is shown that appearance of phase transitions in the bevel cut of the nozzle turbine cascade leads to a change in the wave structure of the flow. In case of condensation jump, the system of adiabatic jumps in the bevel cut of the cascade becomes nonstationary, and the amplitude-frequency characteristics of static pressure pulsations are restructured. In this, a change in the frequency pulsations of pressure and amplitude takes place. It is noted that, at near-sonic speeds of the flow and the state of saturation at the input, the low-frequency pulsations of static pressure appear that lead to periodic disappearance of the condensation jump and of the adiabatic jump. As a result, in this mode, the flow discharge variations take place.

  17. An improved power flow method based on extended chain-table storage structure for distribution network with PV nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Shuheng; Wang, Xiongfei; Su, Chi


    Based on an extended chain-table storage structure, an improved power flow method is presented, which can be applied to a distribution network with multi PV nodes. The extended chain-table storage structure is designed on the basis of address-pointer technology describing the radial topology...... and the corresponding case study has been done. The experimental data and the further analysis have proved that this method can calculate the power flow of a distribution network with multi PV nodes precisely and fast. © 2014 IEEE....... with a reduced memory size. The voltage error of each PV node is adjusted by a reactive power adjusting strategy. The adjusting strategy is based on a multi-variable linear function with an accelerating factor. Finally, this new improved power flow method is realized by the software system developed in VC...

  18. Identification on the three-dimensional vortical structures of impeller flow by a multi-plane stereoscopic PIV method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang Youl; Kim, Kyung Chun


    The three-dimensional spatial structures of impeller flow created by a six bladed Rushton turbine have identified based on the volumetric velocity information from multi-plane stereoscopic PIV measurements. A total of 10 planes with 2 mm space and a 50 mm by 64 mm size of the field of view were targeted. To reduce the depth of focus, we adopted an angle offset configuration which satisfied the Scheimpflug condition. The distortion compensation procedure was utilized during the in situ calibration. Phase-locked instantaneous data were ensemble averaged and interpolated in order to obtain mean 3-D, volumetric velocity fields on a 60 degree sector of a cylindrical ring volume enclosing the turbine blade. Using the equi-vorticity surface rendering, the spatial structure of the trailing vortices was clearly demonstrated. Detail flow characteristics of the radial jet reported in previous studies of mixer flows were easily identified

  19. Gate assisted Kelvin test structure to measure the electron and hole flows at the same nanowire contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Hui; Zhu, Hao; Badwan, Ahmad; Ioannou, Dimitris E.; Li, Qiliang; Richter, Curt A.; Kirillov, Oleg


    A gate assisted Kelvin test structure based on Si nanowire field effect transistors has been designed and fabricated for the characterization of the transistor source/drain contacts. Because the Si nanowire field effect transistors exhibit ambipolar characteristics with electron current slightly lower than the hole current, we can select the type of carriers (electrons or holes) flowing through the same contacts and adjust the current by the applied gate voltage. In this way, we are able to measure the characteristics of the same contact with either pure electron or hole flow. In addition, we found that the nanowire contacts behave very differently depending on the current flow directions. This indicates that the source and drain contact resistance can be dramatically different. Such a gate assisted Kelvin Test structure will lead to future metrology and applications in nanoelectronics.

  20. Genetic structure and gene flow of the flea Xenopsylla cheopis in Madagascar and Mayotte. (United States)

    Harimalala, Mireille; Telfer, Sandra; Delatte, Hélène; Watts, Phillip C; Miarinjara, Adélaïde; Ramihangihajason, Tojo Rindra; Rahelinirina, Soanandrasana; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Boyer, Sébastien


    The flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) is a vector of plague. Despite this insect's medical importance, especially in Madagascar where plague is endemic, little is known about the organization of its natural populations. We undertook population genetic analyses (i) to determine the spatial genetic structure of X. cheopis in Madagascar and (ii) to determine the potential risk of plague introduction in the neighboring island of Mayotte. We genotyped 205 fleas from 12 sites using nine microsatellite markers. Madagascan populations of X. cheopis differed, with the mean number of alleles per locus per population ranging from 1.78 to 4.44 and with moderate to high levels of genetic differentiation between populations. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified, with different geographical distributions but with some apparent gene flow between both islands and within Malagasy regions. The approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) used to test the predominant direction of flea dispersal implied a recent population introduction from Mayotte to Madagascar, which was estimated to have occurred between 1993 and 2012. The impact of this flea introduction in terms of plague transmission in Madagascar is unclear, but the low level of flea exchange between the two islands seems to keep Mayotte free of plague for now. This study highlights the occurrence of genetic structure among populations of the flea vector of plague, X. cheopis, in Madagascar and suggests that a flea population from Mayotte has been introduced to Madagascar recently. As plague has not been reported in Mayotte, this introduction is unlikely to present a major concern for plague transmission. Nonetheless, evidence of connectivity among flea populations in the two islands indicates a possibility for dispersal by fleas in the opposite direction and thus a risk of plague introduction to Mayotte.

  1. Coupled hydrodynamic-structural analysis of an integral flowing sodium test loop in the TREAT reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeuch, W.R.; A-Moneim, M.T.


    A hydrodynamic-structural response analysis of the Mark-IICB loop was performed for the TREAT (Transient Reactor Test Facility) test AX-1. Test AX-1 is intended to provide information concerning the potential for a vapor explosion in an advanced-fueled LMFBR. The test will be conducted in TREAT with unirradiated uranium-carbide fuel pins in the Mark-IICB integral flowing sodium loop. Our analysis addressed the ability of the experimental hardware to maintain its containment integrity during the reference accident postulated for the test. Based on a thermal-hydraulics analysis and assumptions for fuel-coolant interaction in the test section, a pressure pulse of 144 MPa maximum pressure and pulse width of 1.32 ms has been calculated as the reference accident. The response of the test loop to the pressure transient was obtained with the ICEPEL and STRAW codes. Modelling of the test section was completed with STRAW and the remainder of the loop was modelled by ICEPEL

  2. Current flow instability and nonlinear structures in dissipative two-fluid plasmas (United States)

    Koshkarov, O.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Romadanov, I. V.; Chapurin, O.; Umansky, M. V.; Raitses, Y.; Kaganovich, I. D.


    The current flow in two-fluid plasma is inherently unstable if plasma components (e.g., electrons and ions) are in different collisionality regimes. A typical example is a partially magnetized E ×B plasma discharge supported by the energy released from the dissipation of the current in the direction of the applied electric field (perpendicular to the magnetic field). Ions are not magnetized so they respond to the fluctuations of the electric field ballistically on the inertial time scale. In contrast, the electron current in the direction of the applied electric field is dissipatively supported either by classical collisions or anomalous processes. The instability occurs due to a positive feedback between the electron and ion current coupled by the quasi-neutrality condition. The theory of this instability is further developed taking into account the electron inertia, finite Larmor radius and nonlinear effects. It is shown that this instability results in highly nonlinear quasi-coherent structures resembling breathing mode oscillations in Hall thrusters.

  3. Multiplex coaxial flow focusing for producing multicompartment Janus microcapsules with tunable material compositions and structural characteristics. (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Yang, Chaoyu; Liu, Guangli; Xu, Wanghuai; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Si, Ting; Xu, Ronald X


    We propose a simple but efficient multiplex coaxial flow focusing (MCFF) process for single-step fabrication of multicompartment Janus microcapsules (MJMs) in a wide range of operating parameters. The produced MJMs consist of a multicompartmental core-shell structure with material compositions tunable in individual shell and core compartments. Potential applications of such a MJM agent are demonstrated in both benchtop and in vitro experiments. For the benchtop experiment, magnetic nanoparticles are loaded into one of the shell compartments and photopolymerized under ultraviolet light for controlled alignment and rotation of the microcapsules in a magnetic field. For the in vitro experiment, four different types of cells are encapsulated in the desired compartments of sodium alginate MJMs and co-cultured for seven days. By increasing the number of coaxial needles, we are also able to produce MJMs with three or more compartments. Our studies have shown that the proposed MCFF process is able to produce MJMs with desired material compositions and narrow size distribution. This process is inexpensive and scalable for mass production of various MJMs in its potential applications in biomedical imaging, drug delivery, and regenerative medicine.

  4. Motivation, Instructional Design, Flow, and Academic Achievement at a Korean Online University: A Structural Equation Modeling Study (United States)

    Joo, Young Ju; Oh, Eunjung; Kim, Su Mi


    The purpose of this study is to examine the structural relationships among self-efficacy, intrinsic value, test anxiety, instructional design, flow, and achievement among students at a Korean online university. To address research questions, the researchers administered online surveys to 963 college students at an online university in Korea…

  5. To Investigate the Flow Structure of Discontinuous Vegetation Patches of Two Vertically Different Layers in an Open Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Anjum


    Full Text Available In the present study, the flow structure of discontinuous double-layered vegetation patches was investigated using a 3D Reynolds stress turbulence model (RSM. The channel domain was built using GAMBIT (Geometry and Mesh Building Intelligent Toolkit. For the simulation and postprocessing, FLUENT (ANSYS was used to analyze the distribution of the mean velocity, Reynolds stresses, and other flow properties against two different flow conditions. The results captured by the turbulence model at specific locations and the cross section are presented in the form of various velocity profiles and contour plots. In the gap portion, the velocity was visibly lower than that in the vegetation areas, while the influence of patch distribution was not visible in the overlying flow layer. The velocity profiles at critical locations were categorized by numerous modulation points and velocity projections close to the bed, principally for positions straight after the vegetation structures. A distinction in the velocity at the topmost of the smaller vegetation structure was prominent. Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy, and turbulence intensity exhibited large fluctuations inside the vegetation regions and just behind the vegetation structures compared with in the gap regions.

  6. Determining stocks and flows of structural wood products in single family homes in the United States between 1950 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sianchuk, Robert A.; McFarlane, Paul N.; Ackom, Emmanuel


    The stocks and flows of six major structural wood products (SWPs)-lumber, plywood, oriented strand board [OSB], glue laminated timber, I-joists, and laminated veneer lumber (LVL)-in US single family homes were modeled from 1950 to 2010. The consumption of these products in US single family homes...

  7. Influence of riparian vegetation on near-bank flow structure and erosion rates on a large meandering river (United States)

    Konsoer, K. M.; Rhoads, B. L.; Langendoen, E. J.; Johnson, K.; Ursic, M.


    Rates of meander migration are dependent upon dynamic interactions between planform geometry, three-dimensional flow structure, sediment transport, and the erodibility and geotechnical properties of the channel banks and floodplains. Riparian vegetation can greatly reduce the rate of migration through root-reinforcement and increased flow resistance near the bank. In particular, forested riverbanks can also provide large woody debris (LWD) to the channel, and if located near the outer bank, can act to amour the bank by disrupting three-dimensional flow patterns and redirecting flow away from the bank-toe, the locus of erosion in meandering rivers. In this paper, three-dimensional flow patterns and migration rates are compared for two meander bends, one forested and one non-forested, on the Wabash River, near Grayville, Illinois. Flow data were obtained using acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) for two large flow events in May and June 2011. LWD was mapped using a terrestrial LiDAR survey, and residence times for the LWD were estimated by comparing the survey data to time-series aerial photography. Rates of migration and planform evolution were determined through time-series analysis of aerial photography from 1938-2011. Results from this study show that near-bank LWD can have a significant influence on flow patterns through a meander bend and can disrupt helical flow near the outer bank, thereby reducing the effect of the high velocity core on the toe of the bank. Additionally, these effects influence migration rates and the planform evolution of meandering rivers.

  8. Large-eddy simulation of flow around an airfoil on a structured mesh (United States)

    Kaltenbach, Hans-Jakob; Choi, Haecheon


    The diversity of flow characteristics encountered in a flow over an airfoil near maximum lift taxes the presently available statistical turbulence models. This work describes our first attempt to apply the technique of large-eddy simulation to a flow of aeronautical interest. The challenge for this simulation comes from the high Reynolds number of the flow as well as the variety of flow regimes encountered, including a thin laminar boundary layer at the nose, transition, boundary layer growth under adverse pressure gradient, incipient separation near the trailing edge, and merging of two shear layers at the trailing edge. The flow configuration chosen is a NACA 4412 airfoil near maximum lift. The corresponding angle of attack was determined independently by Wadcock (1987) and Hastings & Williams (1984, 1987) to be close to 12 deg. The simulation matches the chord Reynolds number U(sub infinity)c/v = 1.64 x 10(exp 6) of Wadcock's experiment.

  9. Fundamental experiment on the problem of large, structured rooms with internal two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geweke, M.


    A loss of coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor results in two phase flow in the upper plenum region. Steam will be generated from the fuel elements and will flow upwards into the upper plenum. Water drops will be entrained and transported by the steam and will be deentrained in the upper plenum. The deentrained water and the upflowing steam can lead to a condition defined as countercurrent flow limitation which tends to restrict the water downflow. The aim of this research project is to investigate the co- and countercurrent flow in the upper plenum region. The influence of the internals, which are installed in scale 1:1 and the outlet flow conditions into the hot leg is investigated. The establishing flow regime depends on the volumetric flow rates of gas and liquid and the area in the upper plenum, which is simulated by the arangement of the internals. An increasing gas flow rate causes flooding in the tie plate. A turbulent froth layer is established above the tie plate. A further increase in the gas flow rate causes flooding in the upper plenum. The experimental results are compared with well-known empirical correlations and with the experimental investigations from the UPTF. A suitable measurement technique is developed to measure the local and time-dependent liquid hold-up, the diameter and the velocity of the drops. (orig.) [de

  10. Modeling of Cerebral Oxygen Transport Based on In vivo Microscopic Imaging of Microvascular Network Structure, Blood Flow, and Oxygenation. (United States)

    Gagnon, Louis; Smith, Amy F; Boas, David A; Devor, Anna; Secomb, Timothy W; Sakadžić, Sava


    Oxygen is delivered to brain tissue by a dense network of microvessels, which actively control cerebral blood flow (CBF) through vasodilation and contraction in response to changing levels of neural activity. Understanding these network-level processes is immediately relevant for (1) interpretation of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) signals, and (2) investigation of neurological diseases in which a deterioration of neurovascular and neuro-metabolic physiology contributes to motor and cognitive decline. Experimental data on the structure, flow and oxygen levels of microvascular networks are needed, together with theoretical methods to integrate this information and predict physiologically relevant properties that are not directly measurable. Recent progress in optical imaging technologies for high-resolution in vivo measurement of the cerebral microvascular architecture, blood flow, and oxygenation enables construction of detailed computational models of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen transport based on realistic three-dimensional microvascular networks. In this article, we review state-of-the-art optical microscopy technologies for quantitative in vivo imaging of cerebral microvascular structure, blood flow and oxygenation, and theoretical methods that utilize such data to generate spatially resolved models for blood flow and oxygen transport. These "bottom-up" models are essential for the understanding of the processes governing brain oxygenation in normal and disease states and for eventual translation of the lessons learned from animal studies to humans.

  11. Complex traffic flow that allows as well as hampers lane-changing intrinsically contains social-dilemma structures (United States)

    Iwamura, Yoshiro; Tanimoto, Jun


    To investigate an interesting question as to whether or not social dilemma structures can be found in a realistic traffic flow reproduced by a model, we built a new microscopic model in which an intentional driver may try lane-changing to go in front of other vehicles and may hamper others’ lane-changes. Our model consists of twofold parts; cellular automaton emulating a real traffic flow and evolutionary game theory to implement a driver’s decision making-process. Numerical results reveal that a social dilemma like the multi-player chicken game or prisoner’s dilemma game emerges depending on the traffic phase. This finding implies that a social dilemma, which has been investigated by applied mathematics so far, hides behind a traffic flow, which has been explored by fluid dynamics. Highlight - Complex system of traffic flow with consideration of driver’s decision making process is concerned. - A new model dovetailing cellular automaton with game theory is established. - Statistical result from numerical simulations reveals a social dilemma structure underlying traffic flow. - The social dilemma is triggered by a driver’s egocentric actions of lane-changing and hampering other’s lane-change.

  12. Coupling Analysis of Low-Speed Multiphase Flow and High-Frequency Electromagnetic Field in a Complex Pipeline Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokai Huo


    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of water content in an oil-water mixture is a key technology in oil exploration and production. Based on the principles of the microwave transmission line (MTL, the logging probe is an important water content measuring apparatus. However, the effects of mixed fluid flow on the measurement of electromagnetic field parameters are rarely considered. This study presents the coupling model for low-speed multiphase flow and high-frequency electromagnetic field in a complex pipeline structure. We derived the S-parameter equations for the stratified oil/water flow model. The corresponding relationship between the S-parameters and water holdup is established. Evident coupling effects of the fluid flow and the electromagnetic field are confirmed by comparing the calculated S-parameters for both stratified and homogeneous flow patterns. In addition, a multiple-solution problem is analyzed for the inversion of dielectric constant from the S-parameters. The most sensitive phase angle range is determined to improve the detection of variation in the dielectric constant. Suggestions are proposed based on the influence of the oil/water layer on measurement sensitivity to optimize the geometric parameters of a device structure. The method proposed elucidates how accuracy and sensitivity can be improved in water holdup measurements under high water content conditions.

  13. Modeling of cerebral oxygen transport based on in vivo microscopic imaging of microvascular network structure, blood flow and oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Gagnon


    Full Text Available Oxygen is delivered to brain tissue by a dense network of microvessels, which actively control cerebral blood flow (CBF through vasodilation and contraction in response to changing levels of neural activity. Understanding these network-level processes is immediately relevant for (1 interpretation of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI signals, and (2 investigation of neurological diseases in which a deterioration of neurovascular and neuro-metabolic physiology contributes to motor and cognitive decline. Experimental data on the structure, flow and oxygen levels of microvascular networks are needed, together with theoretical methods to integrate this information and predict physiologically relevant properties that are not directly measurable. Recent progress in optical imaging technologies for high-resolution in vivo measurement of the cerebral microvascular architecture, blood flow, and oxygenation enables construction of detailed computational models of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen transport based on realistic three-dimensional microvascular networks. In this article, we review state-of-the-art optical microscopy technologies for quantitative in vivo imaging of cerebral microvascular structure, blood flow and oxygenation, and theoretical methods that utilize such data to generate spatially resolved models for blood flow and oxygen transport. These bottom-up models are essential for the understanding of the processes governing brain oxygenation in normal and disease states and for eventual translation of the lessons learned from animal studies to humans.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Nam Lee


    Full Text Available In this study, the behaviour of green water impacting on a fixed rectangular structure is studied, and the flow kinematics is investigated with a series of experiments and computational fluid dynamic simulations. The experiments are conducted in a two-dimensional wave flume with the structure under regular wave conditions that are scaled down by the ratio of 1:125 from the BW Pioneer FPSO (Floating production storage and offloading operated in the Gulf of Mexico. The mean values of the horizontal and vertical velocity profiles are provided for the water and bubbly flow induced by the interaction between the rectangular structure and regular waves. CFD simulations are also performed by STAR-CCM+ using the volume-of-fluid (VOF method based on the finite-volume method (FVM and all of CFD results are compared with the experimental data.

  15. Large deviations in stochastic heat-conduction processes provide a gradient-flow structure for heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peletier, Mark A.; Redig, Frank; Vafayi, Kiamars


    We consider three one-dimensional continuous-time Markov processes on a lattice, each of which models the conduction of heat: the family of Brownian Energy Processes with parameter m (BEP(m)), a Generalized Brownian Energy Process, and the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) process. The hydrodynamic limit of each of these three processes is a parabolic equation, the linear heat equation in the case of the BEP(m) and the KMP, and a nonlinear heat equation for the Generalized Brownian Energy Process with parameter a (GBEP(a)). We prove the hydrodynamic limit rigorously for the BEP(m), and give a formal derivation for the GBEP(a). We then formally derive the pathwise large-deviation rate functional for the empirical measure of the three processes. These rate functionals imply gradient-flow structures for the limiting linear and nonlinear heat equations. We contrast these gradient-flow structures with those for processes describing the diffusion of mass, most importantly the class of Wasserstein gradient-flow systems. The linear and nonlinear heat-equation gradient-flow structures are each driven by entropy terms of the form −log ρ; they involve dissipation or mobility terms of order ρ 2 for the linear heat equation, and a nonlinear function of ρ for the nonlinear heat equation

  16. The mathematical model structural-parametric synthesis of working processes in an oxygen-methane steam generator with flow swirl (United States)

    Timoshinova, T. S.; Shmatov, D. P.; Kretinin, A. V.; Drozdov, I. G.


    While formulating a mathematical model of the flow and interaction between oxygen-methane fuel combustion products with tangentially swirled ballast water injected in the end of the combustion chamber in CAE product Fluent, which integrated into the ANSYS Workbench platform, the problem of structural-parametric synthesis is solved for structure optimization of the model. Equations are selected from the catalogue of Fluent physical models. Also optimization helps to find “regime” model parameters that determine the specific implementation of the model inside the synthesized structure. As a result, such solutions which were developed during creation of a numerical algorithm, as the choice of a turbulence model and the state equation, the methods for determining the thermodynamic thermophysical characteristics of combustion products, the choice of the radiation model, the choice of the resistance law for drops, the choice of the expression which allows to evaluate swirling flows lateral force, determination of the turbulent dispersion strength, choice of the mass exchange law, etc. Fields of temperature, pressure, velocity and volume fraction of phases were obtained at different ballast water mass flows. Dependence of wall temperature from mass flow of ballast water is constructed, that allows us to compare results of the experiment and mathematical modeling.

  17. Large deviations in stochastic heat-conduction processes provide a gradient-flow structure for heat conduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peletier, Mark A., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science and Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Postbus 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Redig, Frank, E-mail: [Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics, Technische Universiteit Delft, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Vafayi, Kiamars, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Postbus 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    We consider three one-dimensional continuous-time Markov processes on a lattice, each of which models the conduction of heat: the family of Brownian Energy Processes with parameter m (BEP(m)), a Generalized Brownian Energy Process, and the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) process. The hydrodynamic limit of each of these three processes is a parabolic equation, the linear heat equation in the case of the BEP(m) and the KMP, and a nonlinear heat equation for the Generalized Brownian Energy Process with parameter a (GBEP(a)). We prove the hydrodynamic limit rigorously for the BEP(m), and give a formal derivation for the GBEP(a). We then formally derive the pathwise large-deviation rate functional for the empirical measure of the three processes. These rate functionals imply gradient-flow structures for the limiting linear and nonlinear heat equations. We contrast these gradient-flow structures with those for processes describing the diffusion of mass, most importantly the class of Wasserstein gradient-flow systems. The linear and nonlinear heat-equation gradient-flow structures are each driven by entropy terms of the form -log ρ; they involve dissipation or mobility terms of order ρ² for the linear heat equation, and a nonlinear function of ρ for the nonlinear heat equation.

  18. Flow-gauging structures in South African rivers Part 1: An overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Oct 16, 2007 ... The development of flow gauging in South. Africa – Historical overview. The present network of flow-gauging stations in South Africa has grown from isolated observations of water levels (stage) on an ad hoc basis to an extensive network of stations across the country. Standardised gauging stations to suit ...

  19. Gene flow and genetic structure of the aquatic macrophyte Sparganium emersum in a linear unidirectional river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollux, B.J.A.; Luteijn, A.W.W.; Van Groenendael, J.M.; Ouborg, N.J.


    1. River systems offer special environments for the dispersal of aquatic plants because of the unidirectional (downstream) flow and linear arrangement of suitable habitats. 2. To examine the effect of this flow on microevolutionary processes in the unbranched bur-reed (Sparganium emersum) we studied

  20. On the Methodology of Vortex Structures Identification in Free Plasma Flows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Něnička, Václav; Šonský, Jiří


    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2005), s. 233-250 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/1341 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : free plasma flows * enthalpy * heat flow vector Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  1. PIV Measurement of Wall Shear Stress and Flow Structures within an Intracranial Aneurysm Model (United States)

    Chow, Ricky; Sparrow, Eph; Campbell, Gary; Divani, Afshin; Sheng, Jian


    The formation and rupture of an intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a debilitating and often lethal event. Geometric features of the aneurysm bulb and upstream artery, such as bulb size, bulb shape, and curvature of the artery, are two groups of factors that define the flow and stresses within an IA. Abnormal flow stresses are related to rupture. This presentation discusses the development of a quasi-3D PIV technique and its application in various glass models at Re = 275 and 550 to experimentally assess at a preliminary level the impact of geometry and flow rate. Some conclusions are to be drawn linking geometry of the flow domain to rupture risk. The extracted results also serve as the baseline case and as a precursor to a companion presentation by the authors discussing the impact of flow diverters, a new class of medical devices. The PIV experiments were performed in a fully index-matched flow facility, allowing for unobstructed observations over complex geometry. A reconstruction and analysis method was devised to obtain 3D mean wall stress distributions and flow fields. The quasi 3D measurements were reconstructed from orthogonal planes encompassing the entire glass model, spaced 0.4mm apart. Wall shear stresses were evaluated from the near-wall flow viscous stresses.

  2. Impact of morpho-hydraulic structure of small flows river-basins for settlement by benthic invertebrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastuchova, Z.


    We examined two types of potential habitat for macrozoobenthos: 1 morphological units; 2 types of flow as a complex of hydraulic characteristics of habitat. Both types of habitats were analyzed by their physical attributes and macroinvertebrate communities. Froude (Fr) and Reynolds (Re) number turned out to be suitable as a descriptor of the average hydraulic habitat conditions. The structure of the communities involved abundance, food types, substrate, saprobic and current preferences. From directly measured variables the most significant effect had the flow velocity. (author)

  3. Control of Structure in Conventional Friction Stir Welds through a Kinematic Theory of Metal Flow (United States)

    Rubisoff, H.A.; Schneider, J.A.; Nunes, A.C.


    In friction stir welding (FSW), a rotating pin is translated along a weld seam so as to stir the sides of the seam together. Metal is prevented from flowing up the pin, which would result in plowing/cutting instead of welding, by a shoulder on the pin. In conventional FSW, the weld metal rests on an "anvil", which supports the heavy "plunge" load on the tool. In this study, both embedded tungsten wires along and copper plating on the faying surfaces were used to trace the flow of AA2219 weld metal around the C-FSW tool. The effect of tool rotational speed, travel speed, plunge load, and pin thread pitch on the resulting weld metal flow was evaluated. Plan, longitudinal, and transverse section x-ray radiographs were examined to trace the metal flow paths. The results are interpreted in terms of a kinematic theory of metal flow in FSW.

  4. Population structure of barley landrace populations and gene-flow with modern varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bellucci

    Full Text Available Landraces are heterogeneous plant varieties that are reproduced by farmers as populations that are subject to both artificial and natural selection. Landraces are distinguished by farmers due to their specific traits, and different farmers often grow different populations of the same landrace. We used simple sequence repeats (SSRs to analyse 12 barley landrace populations from Sardinia from two collections spanning 10 years. We analysed the population structure, and compared the population diversity of the landraces that were collected at field level (population. We used a representative pool of barley varieties for diversity comparisons and to analyse the effects of gene flow from modern varieties. We found that the Sardinian landraces are a distinct gene pool from those of both two-row and six-row barley varieties. There is also a low, but significant, mean level and population-dependent level of introgression from the modern varieties into the Sardinian landraces. Moreover, we show that the Sardinian landraces have the same level of gene diversity as the representative sample of modern commercial varieties grown in Italy in the last decades, even within population level. Thus, these populations represent crucial sources of germplasm that will be useful for crop improvement and for population genomics studies and association mapping, to identify genes, loci and genome regions responsible for adaptive variations. Our data also suggest that landraces are a source of valuable germplasm for sustainable agriculture in the context of future climate change, and that in-situ conservation strategies based on farmer use can preserve the genetic identity of landraces while allowing adaptation to local environments.

  5. Dynamics of Bacterial Community Abundance and Structure in Horizontal Subsurface Flow Wetland Mesocosms Treating Municipal Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjan Oopkaup


    Full Text Available Dynamics of bacterial community abundance and structure of a newly established horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF pilot-scale wetland were studied using high-throughput sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods. Bacterial community abundance increased rapidly within one month and stabilised thereafter in three replicate HSSF constructed wetland (CW mesocosms. The most dominant phylum was Proteobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes in wetland media biofilms and Firmicutes in influent wastewater. CW bacterial community diversity increased over time and was positively related to the wastewater treatment efficiency. Increase in the abundance of total bacteria in the community was accompanied with the abundance of denitrifying bacteria that promoted nitrate and nitrite removal from the wastewater. During the 150-day study period, similar patterns of bacterial community successions were observed in replicate HSSF CW mesocosms. The data indicate that successions in the bacterial community in HSSF CW are shaped by biotic interactions, with a significant contribution made by external abiotic factors such as influent chemical parameters. Network analysis of the bacterial community revealed that organic matter and nitrogen removal in HSSF CW could be, in large part, allocated to a small subset of tightly interconnected bacterial species. The diversity of bacterial community and abundance of denitrifiers were good predictors of the removal efficiency of ammonia, nitrate and total organic C in HSSF CW mesocosms, while the removal of the seven-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD7 was best predicted by the abundance of a small set of bacterial phylotypes. The results suggest that nitrogen removal in HSSF CW consist of two main pathways. The first is heterotrophic nitrification, which is coupled with aerobic denitrification and mediated by mixotrophic nitrite-oxidizers. The second pathway is anaerobic denitrification, which leads to gaseous

  6. Bladder Distension Increases Blood Flow in Pain-Related Brain Structures in Subjects With Interstitial Cystitis (United States)

    Deutsch, Georg; Deshpande, Hrishikesh; Frölich, Michael A.; Lai, H. Henry; Ness, Timothy J.


    Purpose In Healthy Control subjects (HCs) certain brain regions of interest (ROIs) demonstrate increased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in response to painful stimuli. The effect of bladder distension on arterial spin label-functional MRI (ASL-fMRI) measures of rCBF within ROIs was examined in subjects with Interstitial Cystitis (ICs). Methods and Materials Female ICs (n= 11) and HCs (n=11) underwent three brain perfusion scan studies using ASL-fMRI: with a full bladder; with an empty bladder; and while experiencing heat pain. rCBF was calculated using custom software and individual scans were spatially normalized to the MNI template. An analysis was performed of ROI-based absolute rCBF in each condition and of the within group/within subject rCBF distribution changes induced by each condition. Results Bladder distension was associated with robust increases in rCBF in ICs greater than that of HCs in multiple ROIs including the Supplemental Motor Area (mainly Brodmann’s Area 6), motor and sensory cortex, the insula bilaterally, hippocampal structures bilaterally and the middle and posterior cingulate areas bilaterally. During heat pain, HCs had more robust rCBF increases in the amygdala bilaterally. At baseline with an empty bladder, there was a lower rCBF level in the insula and mid- and posterior cingulate cortex bilaterally of ICs. Conclusions Compared to HCs, ICs have limited differences in rCBF in baseline (empty bladder) conditions as well as during heat pain, but robust rCBF increases in the full bladder state in ROIs typically associated with pain, emotion and/or motor control indicating altered processing of bladder-related sensations. PMID:27018508

  7. Role of wall-attached structures in the interface of the quiescent core region in turbulent pipe flow (United States)

    Yang, Jongmin; Hwang, Jinyul; Sung, Hyung Jin


    The effects of low- and high-speed structures on the interface of the quiescent core region are explored using direct numerical simulation data of turbulent pipe flow. The quiescent core region is a uniform momentum zone located at the center of the pipe flow, which contains the highest streamwise momentum with a low level of turbulence. The interface of the quiescent core region can be identified from the probability density function of the streamwise modal velocity. In the vicinity of the interface of the quiescent core region, the streamwise velocity changes abruptly. The abrupt jump in velocity causes an increase of the velocity gradient. The interface of the quiescent core region is similar to the laminar superlayer in turbulent/non-turbulent interface. The interface of the quiescent core region contains the low- and high-speed structures. They can be classified into wall-attached and detached structures depending on the distance between the structures and the wall. The influence of the detached structures accounted for most of the number of detected structures is negligible due to its small volume. Conversely, the wall-attached structures adjacent to the interface have a huge influence on the statistical amount of the interface, such as entrainment characteristics. This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2017-013369) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP).

  8. Aerothermal and aeroelastic response prediction of aerospace structures in high-speed flows using direct numerical simulation (United States)

    Ostoich, Christopher Mark

    Future high-speed air vehicles will be lightweight, flexible, and reusable. Ve- hicles fitting this description are subject to severe thermal and fluid dynamic loading from multiple sources such as aerothermal heating, propulsion sys- tem exhaust, and high dynamic pressures. The combination of low-margin design requirements and extreme environmental conditions emphasizes the occurrence of fluid-thermal-structural coupling. Numerous attempts to field such vehicles have been unsuccessful over the past half-century due par- tially to the inability of traditional design and analysis practices to predict the structural response in this flight regime. In this thesis, a high-fidelity computational approach is used to examine the fluid-structural response of aerospace structures in high-speed flows. The method is applied to two cases: one involving a fluid-thermal interaction problem in a hypersonic flow and the other a fluid-structure interaction study involving a turbulent boundary layer and a compliant panel. The coupled fluid-thermal investigation features a nominally rigid alu- minum spherical dome fixed to a ceramic panel holder placed in a Mach 6.59 laminar boundary layer. The problem was originally studied by Glass and Hunt in a 1988 wind tunnel experiment in the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel and is motivated by thermally bowed body panels designed for the National Aerospace Plane. In this work, the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for a thermally perfect gas and the transient heat equation in the structure are solved simultaneously using two high-fidelity solvers coupled at the solid-fluid interface. Predicted surface heat fluxes are within 10% of the measured values in the dome interior with greater differ- ences found near the dome edges where uncertainties concerning the exper- imental model's construction likely influence the thermal dynamics. On the flat panel holder, the local surface heat fluxes approach those on the wind- ward dome face

  9. Impact of model structure on flow simulation and hydrological realism: from a lumped to a semi-distributed approach (United States)

    Garavaglia, Federico; Le Lay, Matthieu; Gottardi, Fréderic; Garçon, Rémy; Gailhard, Joël; Paquet, Emmanuel; Mathevet, Thibault


    Model intercomparison experiments are widely used to investigate and improve hydrological model performance. However, a study based only on runoff simulation is not sufficient to discriminate between different model structures. Hence, there is a need to improve hydrological models for specific streamflow signatures (e.g., low and high flow) and multi-variable predictions (e.g., soil moisture, snow and groundwater). This study assesses the impact of model structure on flow simulation and hydrological realism using three versions of a hydrological model called MORDOR: the historical lumped structure and a revisited formulation available in both lumped and semi-distributed structures. In particular, the main goal of this paper is to investigate the relative impact of model equations and spatial discretization on flow simulation, snowpack representation and evapotranspiration estimation. Comparison of the models is based on an extensive dataset composed of 50 catchments located in French mountainous regions. The evaluation framework is founded on a multi-criterion split-sample strategy. All models were calibrated using an automatic optimization method based on an efficient genetic algorithm. The evaluation framework is enriched by the assessment of snow and evapotranspiration modeling against in situ and satellite data. The results showed that the new model formulations perform significantly better than the initial one in terms of the various streamflow signatures, snow and evapotranspiration predictions. The semi-distributed approach provides better calibration-validation performance for the snow cover area, snow water equivalent and runoff simulation, especially for nival catchments.

  10. An investigation on the effect of the corporation governance structure and free cash flow on over- investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Taghavi


    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of corporate governance structure and free cash flow on over-investment on 121 firms listed in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2008-2011. To measure over-investment, free cash flow and corporate governance variables based on available information reported on financial statements are gathered and using cross section regression method, different hypotheses of the survey are examined. The results indicate that among corporate governance mechanisms investigated in survey, there is a significant relationship between percentage of non-executive directors and ownership concentration with over-investment. However, there was no meaningful relationship among controlling shareholders and duality with over-investment. Furthermore, a significant relationship between free cash flow and over-investment has been found.

  11. Power Flow Calculation for Weakly Meshed Distribution Networks with Multiple DGs Based on Generalized Chain-table Storage Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Shuheng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe


    Based on generalized chain-table storage structure (GCTSS), a novel power flow method is proposed, which can be used to solve the power flow of weakly meshed distribution networks with multiple distributed generators (DGs). GCTSS is designed based on chain-table technology and its target...... done on the modified version of the IEEE 69-bus distribution system. The results verify that the proposed method can keep a good efficiency level. Hence, it is promising to calculate the power flow of weakly meshed distribution networks with multiple DGs....... is to describe the topology of radial distribution networks with a clear logic and a small memory size. The strategies of compensating the equivalent currents of break-point branches and the reactive power outputs of PV-type DGs are presented on the basis of superposition theorem. Their formulations...

  12. Velocity-intermittency structure for wake flow of the pitched single wind turbine under different inflow conditions (United States)

    Crist, Ryan; Cal, Raul Bayoan; Ali, Naseem; Rockel, Stanislav; Peinke, Joachim; Hoelling, Michael


    The velocity-intermittency quadrant method is used to characterize the flow structure of the wake flow in the boundary layer of a wind turbine array. Multifractal framework presents the intermittency as a pointwise Hölder exponent. A 3×3 wind turbine array tested experimentally provided a velocity signal at a 21×9 downstream location, measured via hot-wire anemometry. The results show a negative correlation between the velocity and the intermittency at the hub height and bottom tip, whereas the top tip regions show a positive correlation. Sweep and ejection based on the velocity and intermittency are dominant downstream from the rotor. The pointwise results reflect large-scale organization of the flow and velocity-intermittency events corresponding to a foreshortened recirculation region near the hub height and the bottom tip.

  13. Flow Structure Downstream of a Mechanical Heart Valve during Systole: Investigation Using High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (United States)

    Oshkai, Peter; Haji-Esmaeili, Farida


    High speed digital particle image velocimetry is employed to study turbulent flow through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve during systolic and diastolic phases of a cardiac cycle. Unsteady vortex shedding from the valve's leaflets displays distinct characteristic frequencies, depending on the opening angle of each leaflet. Small- and large-scale transverse oscillations of the separated shear layers are studied using global quantitative flow imaging approach. Implementation of high-speed digital particle image velocimetry technique yields quantitative information about vortex shedding frequencies and trajectories of the shed vortices downstream of the valve. Turbulent flow structures including jet-like regions and shed vortices are characterized in terms of patterns of instantaneous and time-averaged velocity, vorticity, and streamline topology.

  14. Flow rate effect on the structure and morphology of molybdenum oxide nanoparticles deposited by atmospheric-pressure microplasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Arumugam Chandra; Shimizu, Yoshiki; Mariotti, Davide; Sasaki, Takeshi; Terashima, Kazuo; Koshizaki, Naoto


    Nanoparticles of crystalline molybdenum oxide were prepared by changing the flow rate of plasma gas (2% oxygen balanced by Ar) using an atmospheric-pressure microplasma technique. The morphology and crystalline structure of the nanoparticles were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FESEM results revealed that the shape of the deposited nanoparticles depended on the plasma gas flow rate. The TEM results supported the FESEM observations. The transmission electron diffraction (TED) pattern revealed that the obtained nanoparticles changed from MoO 2 to MoO 3 with the flow-rate increase, and correspondingly the nanoparticle size drastically decreased. A process mechanism is proposed from the observations of optical emission spectroscopy (OES) during the process and consumed wire surface analysis from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FESEM studies

  15. Structure of the Small Amplitude Motion on Transversely Sheared Mean Flows (United States)

    Goldstein, Marvin E.; Afsar, Mohamed Z.; Leib, Stewart J.


    This paper considers the small amplitude unsteady motion of an inviscid non-heat conducting compressible fluid on a transversely sheared mean flow. It extends a previous result given in Goldstein (1978(b) and 1979(a)) which shows that the hydrodynamic component of the motion is determined by two arbitrary convected quantities in the absence of solid surfaces or other external sources. The result is important because it can be used to specify appropriate boundary conditions for unsteady surface interaction problems on transversely sheared mean flows in the same way that the vortical component of the Kovasznay (1953) decomposition is used to specify these conditions for surface interaction problems on uniform mean flows. But unlike the Kovasznay (1953) case the arbitrary convected quantities no longer bear a simple relation to the physical variables. One purpose of this paper is to derive a formula that relates these quantities to the (physically measurable) vorticity and pressure fluctuations in the flow.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Bottomhole Flow Field Structure in Particle Impact Drilling (United States)

    Zhou, Weidong; Huang, Jinsong; Li, Luopeng


    In order to quantitatively describe the flow field distribution of the PID drilling bit in the bottomhole working condition, the influence of the fluid properties (pressure and viscosity) on the flow field of the bottom hole and the erosion and wear law of the drill body are compared. The flow field model of the eight - inch semi - vertical borehole drilling bit was established by CFX software. The working state of the jet was returned from the inlet of the drill bit to the nozzle outlet and flowed out at the bottom of the nozzle. The results show that there are irregular three-dimensional motion of collision and bounce after the jetting, resulting in partial impact on the drill body and causing impact and damage to the cutting teeth. The jet of particles emitted by different nozzles interfere with each other and affect the the bottom of the impact pressure; reasonable nozzle position can effectively reduce these interference.

  17. Vortex formation and stability analysis for shear flows over combined spatially and temporally structured walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riahi D. N.


    Full Text Available Benney's theory of evolution of disturbances in shear flows over smooth and flat boundary is extended to study for shear flows over combined spatially and temporally corrugated walls. Perturbation and multiple-scales analyses are employed for the case where both amplitude of the corrugations and the amplitude of wave motion are small. Analyses for instability of modulated mean shear flows with respect to spanwise-periodic disturbance rolls and for the subsequent vortex formation and vortex stability are presented, and the effects of the corrugated walls on the resulting flow and vortices are determined. It is found that particular corrugated walls can originate and control the longitudinal vortices, while some other types of corrugated walls can enhance instability of such vortices.

  18. Structural Heterogeneities in Southeast Tibet: Implications for Regional Flow in the Lower Crust and Upper Mantle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Wang


    Full Text Available Our seismic study together with the MT analysis reveal a “R-shape” flow existing in both the lower crust and uppermost mantle, which suggests the crustal deformation along the deep, large sutures (such as the Longmen Shan fault and the Anninghe Fault under the southeastern Tibetan Plateau is maintained by dynamic pressure from the regional flow intermingled with the hot upwelling asthenosphere. The material in the lower crust and uppermost mantle flowing outward from the center of the plateau is buttressed by the old, strong lithosphere that underlies the Sichuan basin, pushing up on the crust above and maintaining steep orogenic belt through dynamic pressure. We therefore consider that the “R-shape” regional flow played a key role in the crustal deformation along the deep suture zones of the Bangong-Nujiang, the Longmen-Shan faults, and other local heavily faulted zones beneath the southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

  19. Fluid-structure-interaction of a flag in a channel flow (United States)

    Liu, Yingzheng; Yu, Yuelong; Zhou, Wenwu; Wang, Weizhe


    The unsteady flow field and flapping dynamics of an inverted flag in water channel are investigated using time resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) measurements. The dynamically deformed profiles of the inverted flag are determined by a novel algorithm that combines morphological image processing and principle component analysis. Instantaneous flow field, phase averaged vorticity, time-mean flow field and turbulent kinematic energy are addressed for the flow. Four modes are discovered as the dimensionless bending stiffness decreases, i.e., the straight mode, the biased mode, the flapping mode and the deflected mode. Among all modes, the flapping mode is characterized by large flapping amplitude and the reverse von Kármán vortex street wake, which is potential to enhance heat transfer remarkably. National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  20. Experimental identification of the flow vortex structures generated in the agitated vessels


    Jasikova, D.; Kysela, B. (Bohuš); Kotek, M.; Kopecký, V.


    Mixing is a very important operation in chemical industry and process engineering because more than sixty percent of all processes are represented by mixing. The knowledge of the flow inside the agitated vessel is also the background for better understanding of the mixing processes, scale-up modelling, and geometry improvement. Here we present results obtained by TR PIV measurements focused on detailed flow analysis in two different regions in the context of impeller movement and processe...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bo; Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Chen Yanjun


    In the applications of solar magneto-seismology, the ratio of the period of the fundamental mode to twice the period of its first overtone, P 1 /2P 2 , plays an important role. We examine how field-aligned flows affect the dispersion properties, and hence the period ratios, of standing modes supported by magnetic slabs in the solar atmosphere. We numerically solve the dispersion relations and devise a graphic means to construct standing modes. For coronal slabs, we find that the flow effects are significant for the fast kink and sausage modes alike. For the kink ones, they may reduce P 1 /2P 2 by up to 23% compared with the static case, and the minimum allowed P 1 /2P 2 can fall below the lower limit analytically derived for static slabs. For the sausage modes, while introducing the flow reduces P 1 /2P 2 by typically ∼ 1 /2P 2 that deviates from unity even for a zero-width slab, while standing sausage modes no longer suffer from a threshold aspect ratio. We conclude that transverse structuring in plasma density and flow speed should be considered in seismological applications of multiple periodicities to solar atmospheric structures.

  2. Nonlinear Development of Unstable Modes and Formation of Coherent Vortex Structures in Weakly Supercritical Zonal Shear Flows (United States)

    Shagalov, S. V.; Rybushkina, G. V.

    This study explores the nonlinear development of the barotropic instability in weakly supercritical horizontally sheared zonal currents in the presence of vertical stratification. The energy exchange between unstable normal modes and the flow is shown to be confined to the common critical layer-region where the modal wave speed matches the flow velocity. A closed system of equations governing the evolution of instability wave amplitudes and critical layer vorticity distributions is derivedwith the aid of an asymptotic procedure. The dependence of the evolutionary scenarios of the flow on the values of the supercriticality and dissipation parameters is examined within the framework of qualitative and numerical analysis of the obtained equations. Nonlinear growth and saturation of the unstable barotropic and baroclinic modes lead to development of periodic coherent structures in the vorticity distribution inside the common modal critical layer. These structures take on the appearance of two-dimensional vortex chain or three-dimensional baroclinic vortex pattern depending on the flow regime at the stage of the instability equilibration.

  3. Numerical analysis on interactions between fluid flow and structure deformation in plate-fin heat exchanger by Galerkin method (United States)

    Liu, Jing-cheng; Wei, Xiu-ting; Zhou, Zhi-yong; Wei, Zhen-wen


    The fluid-structure interaction performance of plate-fin heat exchanger (PFHE) with serrated fins in large scale air-separation equipment was investigated in this paper. The stress and deformation of fins were analyzed, besides, the interaction equations were deduced by Galerkin method. The governing equations of fluid flow and heat transfer in PFHE were deduced by finite volume method (FVM). The distribution of strain and stress were calculated in large scale air separation equipment and the coupling situation of serrated fins under laminar situation was analyzed. The results indicated that the interactions between fins and fluid flow in the exchanger have significant impacts on heat transfer enhancement, meanwhile, the strain and stress of fins includes dynamic pressure of the sealing head and flow impact with the increase of flow velocity. The impacts are especially significant at the conjunction of two fins because of the non-alignment fins. It can be concluded that the soldering process and channel width led to structure deformation of fins in the exchanger, and degraded heat transfer efficiency.

  4. Cortical Actin Flow in T Cells Quantified by Spatio-temporal Image Correlation Spectroscopy of Structured Illumination Microscopy Data. (United States)

    Ashdown, George; Pandžić, Elvis; Cope, Andrew; Wiseman, Paul; Owen, Dylan


    Filamentous-actin plays a crucial role in a majority of cell processes including motility and, in immune cells, the formation of a key cell-cell interaction known as the immunological synapse. F-actin is also speculated to play a role in regulating molecular distributions at the membrane of cells including sub-membranous vesicle dynamics and protein clustering. While standard light microscope techniques allow generalized and diffraction-limited observations to be made, many cellular and molecular events including clustering and molecular flow occur in populations at length-scales far below the resolving power of standard light microscopy. By combining total internal reflection fluorescence with the super resolution imaging method structured illumination microscopy, the two-dimensional molecular flow of F-actin at the immune synapse of T cells was recorded. Spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS) was then applied, which generates quantifiable results in the form of velocity histograms and vector maps representing flow directionality and magnitude. This protocol describes the combination of super-resolution imaging and STICS techniques to generate flow vectors at sub-diffraction levels of detail. This technique was used to confirm an actin flow that is symmetrically retrograde and centripetal throughout the periphery of T cells upon synapse formation.

  5. Crystal structure and composition of BAlN thin films: Effect of boron concentration in the gas flow

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Shuo


    We have investigated the microstructure of BxAl1-xN films grown by flow-modulated epitaxy at 1010 oC, with B/(B+Al) gas-flow ratios ranging from 0.06 to 0.18. The boron content obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns ranges from x = 0.02 to 0.09. On the other hand, boron content deduced from the aluminum signal in the Rutherford backscattering spectra (RBS) ranges x = 0.06 to 0.16, closely following gas-flow ratios. Transmission electron microscopy indicates the sole presence of wurtzite crystal structure in the BAlN films, and a tendency towards columnar growth for B/(B+Al) gas-flow ratios below 0.12. For higher ratios, the BAlN films exhibit a tendency towards twin formation and finer microstructure. Electron energy loss spectroscopy has been used to profile spatial variations in the composition of the films.The RBS data suggest that the incorporation of B is highly efficient for our growth method, while the XRD data indicate that the epitaxial growth may be limited by a solubility limit in the crystal phase at about 9%, for the range of B/(B+Al) gas-flow ratios that we used, which is significantly higher than previously thought.

  6. Lava Flow Morphologies and Structural Features Along the Axis of the South Rift Zone of Loihi Seamount, Hawaii (United States)

    Deemer, J. L.; Kurz, M. D.; Fornari, D. J.


    In an effort to document the morphology of the deep South Rift Zone of the Loihi Seamount, we report new observations collected in 2008 using ROV Jason2 on the R/V Thomas G. Thompson (C. Moyer and K. Edwards, chief scientists). The South Rift Zone extends more than 20 kilometers from 4950 meters depth at its base to Loihi’s summit at 980 meters. To date, there are few studies of the deep Loihi South Rift Zone and this work provides important geologic context for ongoing microbiological studies of Loihi (Fe-Oxidizing Microbial Observatory Project). Existing EM300 multibeam bathymetry provides the broader context necessary for interpreting smaller-scale Loihi South Rift features mapped using Jason2. Three Jason2 dives included continuous low-altitude (indicated by the ubiquitous presence of glassy flows and a complete absence of sediment cover, with the exception of microbial mats in the deepest section (FeMO Deep). Flows are predominantly lobate and pillow types. Pyroclastic deposits are expressed as loose volcanic sand in localized depressions, and are found at depths as great as 4909 meters. Distinct meter-scale flow morphologies were identified and constrained, and this information can be used to determine rudimentary stratigraphic relationships of individual flows. The compilation of lava flow morphologies from the ROV data, in conjunction with along-axis structure, bathymetry, and distribution of talus and pyroclastic deposits, will be presented.

  7. Flow structure and channel morphology at a natural confluent meander bend (United States)

    Riley, James D.; Rhoads, Bruce L.


    Previous experimental, field, and modeling studies of confluence dynamics have focused mainly on junctions formed by straight channels. In contrast, natural rivers often meander and tributaries can enter meandering rivers on the outside of bends to form a junction planform known as a confluent meander bend. In this study, field measurements of three-dimensional velocity components and bed topography at a confluent meander bend reveal a complex hydrodynamic environment that responds to changes in momentum-flux ratio, while channel morphology remains relatively stable. Flow from the tributary deflects high-velocity flow and helical motion in the curving main river toward the inside of the bend, inducing bed scour and inhibiting point-bar development. The high junction angle forces the tributary flow to abruptly realign to the orientation of the downstream channel, initiating a counter-rotating helical cell over the outer portion of the bend. Two surface-convergent helical cells persist through the downstream channel, where the combined flows accelerate as the channel cross-sectional area is constricted by a bar along the downstream junction corner, precluding flow separation. Long-term stability of its planform suggests that this confluent meander bend represents a quasi-stable channel configuration. Overall, patterns of flow and channel morphology are quite different from typical patterns in most meander bends, but are generally consistent with a conceptual model of confluent meander bends derived from previous laboratory experiments and numerical modeling.

  8. Anthropogenic shift of planktonic food web structure in a coastal lagoon by freshwater flow regulation (United States)

    Hemraj, Deevesh A.; Hossain, A.; Ye, Qifeng; Qin, Jian G.; Leterme, Sophie C.


    Anthropogenic modification of aquatic systems has diverse impacts on food web interactions and ecosystem states. To reverse the adverse effects of modified freshwater flow, adequate management of discharge is required, especially due to higher water requirements and abstractions for human use. Here, we look at the effects of anthropogenically controlled freshwater flow regimes on the planktonic food web of a Ramsar listed coastal lagoon that is under recovery from degradation. Our results show shifts in water quality and plankton community interactions associated to changes in water flow. These shifts in food web interactions represent modifications in habitat complexity and water quality. At high flow, phytoplankton-zooplankton interactions dominate the food web. Conversely, at low flow, bacteria, viruses and nano/picoplankton interactions are more dominant, with a substantial switch of the food web towards heterotrophy. This switch can be associated with excess organic matter loading, decomposition of dead organisms, and synergistic and antagonistic interactions. We suggest that a lower variability in flow amplitude could be beneficial for the long-term sustaining of water quality and food web interactions, while improving the ecosystem health of systems facing similar stresses as the Coorong.

  9. Deglacial changes in flow and frontal structure through the Drake Passage (United States)

    Roberts, J.; McCave, I. N.; McClymont, E. L.; Kender, S.; Hillenbrand, C.-D.; Matano, R.; Hodell, D. A.; Peck, V. L.


    The oceanic gateways of the Drake Passage and the Agulhas Current are critical locations for the inflow of intermediate-depth water masses to the Atlantic, which contribute to the shallow return flow that balances the export of deep water from the North Atlantic. The thermohaline properties of northward flowing intermediate water are ultimately determined by the inflow of water through oceanic gateways. Here, we focus on the less well-studied ;Cold Water Route; through the Drake Passage. We present millennially-resolved bottom current flow speed and sea surface temperature records downstream of the Drake Passage spanning the last 25,000 yr. We find that prior to 15 ka, bottom current flow speeds at sites in the Drake Passage region were dissimilar and there was a marked anti-phasing between sea surface temperatures at sites upstream and downstream of the Drake Passage. After 14 ka, we observe a remarkable convergence of flow speeds coupled with a sea surface temperature phase change at sites upstream and downstream of Drake Passage. We interpret this convergence as evidence for a significant southward shift of the sub-Antarctic Front from a position north of Drake Passage. This southward shift increased the through-flow of water from the Pacific, likely reducing the density of Atlantic Intermediate Water. The timing of the southward shift in the sub-Antarctic Front is synchronous with a major re-invigoration of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, with which, we argue, it may be linked.

  10. Gene flow and genetic structure in the Galician population (NW Spain according to Alu insertions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diéguez Lois


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most recent Alu insertions reveal different degrees of polymorphism in human populations, and a series of characteristics that make them particularly suitable genetic markers for Human Biology studies. This has led these polymorphisms to be used to analyse the origin and phylogenetic relationships between contemporary human groups. This study analyses twelve Alu sequences in a sample of 216 individuals from the autochthonous population of Galicia (NW Spain, with the aim of studying their genetic structure and phylogenetic position with respect to the populations of Western and Central Europe and North Africa, research that is of special interest in revealing European population dynamics, given the peculiarities of the Galician population due to its geographical situation in western Europe, and its historical vicissitudes. Results The insertion frequencies of eleven of the Alu elements analysed were within the variability range of European populations, while Yb8NBC125 proved to be the lowest so far recorded to date in Europe. Taking the twelve polymorphisms into account, the GD value for the Galician population was 0.268. The comparative analyses carried out using the MDS, NJ and AMOVA methods reveal the existence of spatial heterogeneity, and identify three population groups that correspond to the geographic areas of Western-Central Europe, Eastern Mediterranean Europe and North Africa. Galicia is shown to be included in the Western-Central European cluster, together with other Spanish populations. When only considering populations from Mediterranean Europe, the Galician population revealed a degree of genetic flow similar to that of the majority of the populations from this geographic area. Conclusion The results of this study reveal that the Galician population, despite its geographic situation in the western edge of the European continent, occupies an intermediate position in relation to other European populations in

  11. Gene flow and genetic structure in the Galician population (NW Spain) according to Alu insertions. (United States)

    Varela, Tito A; Fariña, José; Diéguez, Lois Pérez; Lodeiro, Rosa


    The most recent Alu insertions reveal different degrees of polymorphism in human populations, and a series of characteristics that make them particularly suitable genetic markers for Human Biology studies. This has led these polymorphisms to be used to analyse the origin and phylogenetic relationships between contemporary human groups. This study analyses twelve Alu sequences in a sample of 216 individuals from the autochthonous population of Galicia (NW Spain), with the aim of studying their genetic structure and phylogenetic position with respect to the populations of Western and Central Europe and North Africa, research that is of special interest in revealing European population dynamics, given the peculiarities of the Galician population due to its geographical situation in western Europe, and its historical vicissitudes. The insertion frequencies of eleven of the Alu elements analysed were within the variability range of European populations, while Yb8NBC125 proved to be the lowest so far recorded to date in Europe. Taking the twelve polymorphisms into account, the GD value for the Galician population was 0.268. The comparative analyses carried out using the MDS, NJ and AMOVA methods reveal the existence of spatial heterogeneity, and identify three population groups that correspond to the geographic areas of Western-Central Europe, Eastern Mediterranean Europe and North Africa. Galicia is shown to be included in the Western-Central European cluster, together with other Spanish populations. When only considering populations from Mediterranean Europe, the Galician population revealed a degree of genetic flow similar to that of the majority of the populations from this geographic area. The results of this study reveal that the Galician population, despite its geographic situation in the western edge of the European continent, occupies an intermediate position in relation to other European populations in general, and Iberian populations in particular. This

  12. OpenFlow-Based Mobility Management Scheme and Data Structure for the Mobility Service at Software Defined Networking


    Park, Pill-Won; Kim, Seong-Mun; Min, Sung-Gi


    The network-based mobility management is adapted to the OpenFlow architecture for mobility service at Software Defined Networking (SDN), and data structure for mobility service is proposed. SDN is a newly proposed Internet architecture which decouples the data and control planes, and mobility management is one of the most important issues in SDN. In order to provide mobility management service by utilizing the mobility scheme proposed earlier in a new network environment, the existing mobilit...

  13. Turbulence structure and CO2 transfer at the air-sea interface and turbulent diffusion in thermally-stratified flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, S.


    A supercomputer is a nice tool for simulating environmental flows. The Center for Global Environmental Research (CGER) of the National Institute for Environmental Studies purchased a supercomputer SX-3 of CGER about three years ago, and it has been used for various environmental simulations since. Although one of the main purposes for which the supercomputer was used was to simulate global warming with a general circulation model (GCM), our research organization used the supercomputer for more fundamental work to investigate heat and mass transfer mechanisms in environmental flows. Our motivations for this work was the fact that GCMs involve a number of uncertain submodels related to heat and mass transfer in turbulent atmospheric and oceanic flows. It may be easy to write research reports by running GCMs which were developed in western countries, but it is difficult for numerical scientists to do original work with such second-hand GCMs. In this sense, we thought that it would be more original to study the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer mechanisms in environmental flows rather than to run a GCM. Therefore, we tried to numerically investigate turbulence structure and scalar transfer both at the air-sea interface and in thermally stratified flows, neither of which were well modeled by GCMs. We also employed laboratory experiments to clarify the turbulence structure and scalar transfer mechanism, since numerical simulations are not sufficiently powerful to clarify all aspects of turbulence structure and scalar transfer mechanisms. A numerical technique is a promising tool to complement measurements of processes that cannot be clarified by turbulence measurements in environmental flows. It should also be noted that most of the interesting phenomena in environmental flows can be elucidated by laboratory or field measurements but not by numerical simulations alone. Thus, it is of importance to combine laboratory or field measurements with numerical simulations

  14. Verification and Validation of Numerical Models for Air/Water Flow on Coastal and Navigation Fluid-Structure Interaction Applications (United States)

    Kees, C. E.; Farthing, M.; Dimakopoulos, A.; DeLataillade, T.


    Performance analysis and optimization of coastal and navigation structures is becoming feasible due to recent improvements in numerical methods for multiphase flows and the steady increase in capacity and availability of high performance computing resources. Now that the concept of fully three-dimensional air/water flow modelling for real world engineering analysis is achieving acceptance by the wider engineering community, it is critical to expand careful comparative studies on verification,validation, benchmarking, and uncertainty quantification for the variety of competing numerical methods that are continuing to evolve. Furthermore, uncertainty still remains about the relevance of secondary processes such as surface tension, air compressibility, air entrainment, and solid phase (structure) modelling so that questions about continuum mechanical theory and mathematical analysis of multiphase flow are still required. Two of the most popular and practical numerical approaches for large-scale engineering analysis are the Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) and Level Set (LS) approaches. In this work we will present a publically available verification and validation test set for air-water-structure interaction problems as well as computational and physical model results including a hybrid VOF-LS method, traditional VOF methods, and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) results. The test set repository and test problem formats will also be presented in order to facilitate future comparative studies and reproduction of scientific results.

  15. The Fine Transverse Structure of a Vortex Flow Beyond the Edge of a Disc Rotating in a Stratified