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Sample records for suprabasal ck19 expression

  1. [Expression and significance of CK7 and CK19 in colon cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Zheng, Peng-sheng

    2010-02-01

    To detect the cytokeratin (CK) genes expression in the colon cancer, and investigate the expression variability in different pathological types and clinical stages. The CK gene expression pattern in normal colon, colon cancer tissues and colon cancer cell lines were analyzed by using Immunohistochemical, Immunocytochemical and Western blot ways. CK7 and CK19 didn't express in normal colon tissues. CK7 was low or not expressed in the colon cancer, and CK19 was highly expressed in the colon cancer. There were significant deviation (Pcolon cancer, and CK7-)/CK19+ may be one of the expression characteristics in colon cancer.

  2. Significance of CK19, TPO, and HBME-1 expression for diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

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    Liu, Zeming; Yu, Pan; Xiong, Yiquan; Zeng, Wen; Li, Xiaoyu; Maiaiti, Yusufu; Wang, Shuntao; Song, Haiping; Shi, Lan; Liu, Chunping; Cheng, Bo; Zhang, Bo; Ming, Jie; Dong, Fang; Ge, Hui; Nie, Xiu; Huang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the expression and significance of CK19, TPO, and HBME-1 in the differential diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and nonmalignant nodules. Tissue samples were obtained from 257 patients with PTC and 149 patients with nonmalignant thyroid specimens, and immunohistochemical staining for CK-19, TPO, and HBME-1 was performed. The expression of CK-19, TPO, and HBME-1 was 96.3%, 12.0%, and 85.3%, respectively, for the PTC group. For nonmalignant thyroid lesions group, the expression of these markers was 40.4%, 86.2%, and 37.2%, respectively. Further, the expression of CK-19 and HBME-1 in PTCs was much higher than that in the benign thyroid lesions (P TPO in PTC specimens was much lower than that in the nonmalignant specimens (P TPO had the highest sensitivity (98.50%), while that of the positive expression of HBME-1 and negative expression of TPO had the highest specificity (92.90%). The combination of positive expression of CK-19 or HBME-1 or negative expression of TPO can improve the specificity of the diagnosis of PTC.

  3. Oral dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma: correlation between increased expression of CD21, Epstein-Barr virus and CK19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ru; Gu, Xin; Moore-Medlin, Tara N; Nathan, Cherie-Ann; Hutt-Fletcher, Lindsey M

    2012-09-01

    Epstein-Barr virus is an orally transmitted human gammaherpesvirus that infects B lymphocytes and epithelial cells. Although most primary infections are asymptomatic, long term carriage of the virus can be associated with either lymphoid or epithelial malignancies. The association of EBV with oral squamous cell carcinomas is sporadic and it is uncertain if the virus is involved in initiation of the tumor or, possibly, in its progression. Complement receptor type 2, CR2 or CD21, is a receptor for the major attachment protein of EBV, which significantly enhances epithelial cell infection, but its expression on normal tissues is restricted to tonsil and adenoid epithelium. As cells become dysplastic they are reported to express higher levels of CK19. We sought to evaluate whether CD21 and CK19 expression change as oral epithelial cells outside Waldeyer's ring become dysplastic. Epithelial cells were isolated by laser capture microdissection and levels of CD21, CK19 and EBV RNA were measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. We report that expression of CD21 increases in frequency and intensity as oral epithelial cells become more dysplastic and that expression correlates with an increase in infection by EBV. Tumors or dysplastic lesions that carry EBV also generally express higher levels of CK19 than those that do not. The findings suggest that dysplasia may make cells more susceptible to infection by EBV and that infection by the virus may alter the phenotype of the infected cell in a manner which could affect prognosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression and Significance of Stem Cell Markers CK19, Notch3, CD133, P75NTR, STRO-1 and ABCG2 in Pulmonary Squamous Carcinomas

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    Xuyong LIN, , , , ,

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Increasing reports showed that some tumor stem cells were selfrenewal and multi-lineage differentiated in tumors, similar to the normal stem cells in human body. The aim of this study is to observe the expression of stem cell markers in lung squamous carcinoma tissues. Methods Fifty-four lung cancer specimens from surgery were analyzed for CK19, Notch3, CD133, P75NTR, STRO-1 and ABCG2 expression by using S-P immunohistochemistry. In addition, ten normal lung tissue samples were included as control. Results CK19, Notch3, CD133 and ABCG2 were expressed in 54 Lung cancer tissues, without expression of P75NTR and STRO-1. The expressionrate of CK19, Notch3, CD133 and ABCG2 was 66.67% (36/54, 87.04% (47/54, 50% (27/54, and 61.11% (33/54 respectively. The levels of expression of Notch3, CD133 and ABCG2 were significantly lower in high differentiation group than those in moderate and low differentiation group (P <0.05. The levels of expression of CK19, CD133 and ABCG2 were significantly higher in lymph node metastasis group than those in non-metastasis group (P <0.05. The percentage of total positive cells of four stem cell markers in serial tissue sections was lower than 2%. Conclusion There was expression ofsome stem cell markers in pulmonary squamous carcinomas, and there was relationship between expression degree withdifferentiation degree and lymph node metastasis.

  5. Clinical Significance of CK19 Negative Breast Cancer

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    Fujisue, Mamiko, E-mail: nishimura.reiki@cityhosp-kumamoto.jp; Nishimura, Reiki; Okumura, Yasuhiro [Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan); Tashima, Rumiko [Department of Surgery, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan); Nishiyama, Yasuyuki; Osako, Tomofumi [Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan); Toyozumi, Yasuo; Arima, Nobuyuki [Department of Pathology, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan)

    2012-12-21

    Analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) by means of One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA) is gaining widespread use as a quick and accurate method. This assay detects the expression level of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) which is present in some but not all breast tumors. In this study, the clinical significance of negative CK19 was investigated in 219 cases of primary breast cancer. In 179 patients with clinically negative nodes, OSNA and imprint smear cytology of SLN were performed simultaneously. The OSNA revealed a node-positive rate of 24.6%. Negative CK19 correlated significantly with negative ER/PgR and higher Ki-67 values, and marginally with higher nuclear grade and p53 overexpression. The triple negative subtype showed lower CK19 expression. OSNA revealed that one of the negative CK19 cases was actually a false negative but this was corrected with the use of the imprint smear cytology. In conclusion, CK19 negativity reflected the aggressiveness of primary breast cancer. OSNA assay used to analyze SLN was useful, but there is a possibility that it will mistakenly detect false negatives in CK19 negative tumors. Therefore, in tumors with negative CK19, the imprint smear cytology may be more useful in cases with macrometastasis.

  6. Clinical Significance of CK19 Negative Breast Cancer

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    Nobuyuki Arima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs by means of One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA is gaining widespread use as a quick and accurate method. This assay detects the expression level of cytokeratin 19 (CK19 which is present in some but not all breast tumors. In this study, the clinical significance of negative CK19 was investigated in 219 cases of primary breast cancer. In 179 patients with clinically negative nodes, OSNA and imprint smear cytology of SLN were performed simultaneously. The OSNA revealed a node-positive rate of 24.6%. Negative CK19 correlated significantly with negative ER/PgR and higher Ki-67 values, and marginally with higher nuclear grade and p53 overexpression. The triple negative subtype showed lower CK19 expression. OSNA revealed that one of the negative CK19 cases was actually a false negative but this was corrected with the use of the imprint smear cytology. In conclusion, CK19 negativity reflected the aggressiveness of primary breast cancer. OSNA assay used to analyze SLN was useful, but there is a possibility that it will mistakenly detect false negatives in CK19 negative tumors. Therefore, in tumors with negative CK19, the imprint smear cytology may be more useful in cases with macrometastasis.

  7. Differential expression of galectin-3, CK19, HBME1, and Ret oncoprotein in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms by fine needle aspiration biopsy

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    Saleh Husain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB is a common and excellent procedure for the evaluation of thyroid lesions that require surgical resection. At times, the FNAB diagnosis can be difficult, particularly of follicular-patterned lesions. Previous studies have shown that some immunohistochemical (IHC markers may be helpful in establishing more accurate diagnosis. In this study, our goal was to evaluate four of the recently investigated markers in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules on FNABs. Materials and Methods: We performed IHC staining of galectin-3, Ret oncoprotein (Ret, HBME-1, and cytokeratin 19 (CK19, on cell block sections of thyroid FNAB cases that had corresponding surgical resections. They included 44 benign lesions (37 hyperplastic or cellular nodules, HN; and 7 follicular adenomas, FA and 27 malignant tumors (6 follicular carcinoma, FC; 19 classic papillary carcinoma, PTC; and 2 follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, FVPC. The stains were done according to the standard avidin-biotin-peroxidase method. Results: Statistical analysis showed that immunoexpression was significantly higher in the malignant group for all four markers. The sensitivity for positive expression for all benign lesions versus malignant tumors was as follows: 10/44 (22.7% versus 25/27 (92.6% for galectin-3; 14/44 (31.8% versus 23/27 (85% for Ret; 12/44 (27.3% versus 24/27 (88.8% for HBME-1; and 13/44 (29.5% versus 23/27 (85% for CK19. The sensitivity and specificity was highest for galectin-3 (92.6% and 77.3%, respectively followed by HMBE-1 (88.9% and 72.7%, respectively. When combining the markers′ expressions, the panel of galectin-3 + HBME-1 showed the highest sensitivity and specificity (90.7% and 75%, respectively, but this was, however, lower than galectin-3 alone (92.3% and 77.3%, respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that galectin-3 is the best single marker in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid lesions with

  8. Suprabasal expression of Ki-67 as a marker for the severity of oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

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    Nidhi Dwivedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transition of the normal oral epithelium to dysplasia and to malignancy is featured by increased cell proliferation. To evaluate the hypothesis of distributional disturbances in proliferating and stem cells in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Aim: To evaluate layer wise expression of Ki-67 in oral epithelial dysplasia and in OSCC. Materials and Methods: Thirty histologically confirmed cases of oral epithelial dysplasia, fifteen cases of OSCC and five cases of normal buccal mucosa were immunohistochemically examined and nuclear expression of Ki-67 was counted according to basal, parabasal, and suprabasal layers in epithelial dysplasia and number of positive cells per 100 cells in OSCC as labeling index (LI. Results: Suprabasal expression of Ki-67 increased according to the severity of epithelial dysplasia and the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0.001. The mean Ki-67LI was 12.78 for low risk lesions, 28.68 for high risk lesions, 39.45 for OSCC and 13.6 for normal buccal mucosa. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate the use of proliferative marker Ki-67 in assessing the severity of epithelial dysplasia. Suprabasal expression of Ki-67 provides an objective criteria for determining the severity of epithelial dysplasia and histological grading of OSCC.

  9. Expression of ck-19, galectin-3 and hbme-1 in the differentiation of thyroid lesions: systematic review and diagnostic meta-analysis

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    de Matos Leandro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To distinguish between malignant and benign lesions of the thyroid gland histological demonstration is often required since the fine-needle aspiration biopsy method applied pre-operatively has some limitations. In an attempt to improve diagnostic accuracy, markers using immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry techniques have been studied, mainly cytokeratin-19 (CK-19, galectin-3 (Gal-3 and Hector Battifora mesothelial-1 (HBME-1. However, current results remain controversial. The aim of the present article was to establish the diagnostic accuracy of CK-19, Gal-3 and HBME-1 markers, as well as their associations, in the differentiation of malignant and benign thyroid lesions. Methods A systematic review of published articles on MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library was performed. After establishing inclusion and exclusion criteria, 66 articles were selected. The technique of meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy was employed and global values of sensitivity, specificity, area under the summary ROC curve, and diagnostic odds ratio (dOR were calculated. Results For the immunohistochemistry technique, the positivity of CK-19 for the diagnosis of malignant thyroid lesions demonstrated global sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 73%; for Gal-3, sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 81%; and for HBME-1, sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 83%. The association of the three markers determined sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 97%, and diagnostic odds ratio of 95.1. Similar results were also found for the immunocytochemistry assay. Conclusion This meta-analysis demonstrated that the three immunomarkers studied are accurate in pre- and postoperative diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Nevertheless, the search for other molecular markers must continue in order to enhance this diagnostic accuracy since the results found still show a persistency of false-negative and false-positive tests. Virtual slides Http

  10. A stem cell proliferation burst forms new layers of P63 expressing suprabasal cells during zebrafish postembryonic epidermal development

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    Aida Guzman

    2013-09-01

    Organ growth during development is a highly regulated process with both temporal and spatial constraints. Epidermal stratification is essential for skin growth and development. Although the zebrafish has been well studied, it is not known when and how epidermal stratification occurs. This is because beyond the first five days of development our knowledge is currently limited. We found that epidermal stratification in zebrafish begins when the larvae reach a standard length (SL of 6 mm at approximately 25 days of age. Over the next four days (from a SL of 6 to 9 mm, epidermis thickness increases almost four-fold. This represents a sudden increase in organ size, since for the previous 20 days of development, the epidermis has been only two layers thick. This pattern is different from that observed in mammals that undergo continuous stratification from E14.5–E18.5. To study how stem cell proliferation gives rise to the new epidermal layers, we used a combination of markers: one for cell proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear-antigen PCNA and one for epidermal stem cells (P63 transcription factor. We identified, throughout the stratification process, two different waves of cell division. Initially, the most basal epidermal cells divided and generated a subset of suprabasal cells (possibly transient-amplifying cells; within the next several days, the basal cells stopped dividing, and the suprabasal cells began proliferation, giving rise to most of the cell types in the new layers. This part of the process is similar to what has been recently found during epidermal stratification in mammals.

  11. Analisis inmunohistoquimico de CK14 y CK19 en germen dentario y ameloblastoma

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    Delmira Apellaniz

    Full Text Available Resumen Introducción. La odontogénesis es el proceso de formación de los órganos dentarios, en el cual se expresan diversas moléculas, dentro de las cuales encontramos las citoqueratinas 14 y 19 (CK14, CK19. Una vez concluido el proceso de formación del diente quedan restos del epitelio odontogénico, el cual se ha sugerido se encuentra implicado en el desarrollo del ameloblastoma, uno de los tumores odontogénicos más frecuentes. Se ha sugerido que las CK14 y CK19 tienen utilidad como marcadores de diferenciación ameloblástica, y podrían tener implicación dentro del comportamiento tumoral de los ameloblastomas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue describir los patrones de expresión inmunohistoquímica de estas dos citoqueratinas en gérmenes dentarios y ameloblastomas. Materiales y métodos. Se incluyeron 6 ameloblastomas sólidos multiquísticos y 5 gérmenes dentarios a los cuales se les realizó técnica de inmunohistoquímica para CK14 y CK19. Resultados. Este estudio permitió visualizar la inmunoexpresión de CK14 y CK19 en el epitelio y la negatividad en el ectomesénquima, tanto en los gérmenes dentarios como en ameloblastomas. También permitió concluir que CK19 puede ser considerada como un eficiente marcador de diferenciación ameloblástica, mientras que CK14 es gradualmente remplazada por CK19 en el epitelio interno del órgano del esmalte, evidenciándose marcada inmunoexpresión de esta última en ameloblastos secretores

  12. Cytokeratin 19 Expression Patterns of Dentigerous Cysts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to be reduced in oral submucous fibrosis compared to healthy mucosa and CK 19 gene is one of the genes with decreased expression in oral submucous fibrosis.[20]. The pattern of expression of CK 19 in odontogenic keratocysts and dentigerous cysts has been previously investigated. Hormia et al., in their study with ...

  13. Intra-operative rapid diagnostic method based on CK19 mRNA expression for the detection of lymph node metastases in breast cancer

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    Visser, Mike; Jiwa, Mehdi; Horstman, Anja; Brink, Antoinette A. T. P.; Pol, Rene P.; van Diest, Paul; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.

    2008-01-01

    Staging by sentinel node (SN) biopsy is the standard procedure for clinically node-negative breast cancer patients. Intra-operative analysis of the SN allows immediate axillary lymph node (ALN) dissection in SN positive patients, but a quick, reliable and reproducible method is lacking. We tested

  14. Assessment of Cytokeratin-19 Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood of Breast Cancer Patients and Breast Cancer Cell Lines

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    Saeideh Keyvani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of cytokeratin-19 (CK19 expression as an epithelial-specific marker in circulating tumor cells (CTCs of breast cancer patients can be important for diagnostic purposes. Comparison of CK19 expression in breast cancer cell lines can indicate that expression of this marker is different in various breast cancer cell lines based on their category. Thirty-five breast cancer patients were evaluated for detection of CK19 mRNA in their peripheral blood using CK19-specific primers and a nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR technique. CK19 expression levels were detected in MCF7, T47D, SK-BR-3, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Statistical analysis of our data indicates that there is no significant difference between CK19 expression and histopathological parameters and some molecular markers, including Ki-67, HER-2, and P53, but there are statistically significant correlations between estrogen receptor (P = 0.040 and progesterone receptor ( P = 0.046 with CK19 expression. CK19 expression was detected in MCF7, T47D, and SK-BR-3 cell lines but not in MDA-MB-231 cell line. More studies are needed to determine the relationship between this marker and other markers in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. On the other hand, the study of different markers using breast cancer cell lines as experimental models of breast cancer could have an impact on improving the health outcomes of patients with breast cancer.

  15. CD56, HBME-1 and cytokeratin 19 expressions in papillary thyroid carcinoma and nodular thyroid lesions

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    Erdogan-Durmus, Senay; Ozcan, Deniz; Yarikkaya, Enver; Kurt, Ali; Arslan, Aynur

    2016-01-01

    Background: Carcinomas of the thyroid follicular epithelium are the most common cancers of the endocrine system. In the diagnosis of thyroid nodules and tumors, the gold standard is histological evaluation. In cases which have morphological overlap, immunohistochemistry is needed for differential diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the expressions of CD56, HBME-1, cytokeratin 19 (CK19) antibodies in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and thyroid nodular lesions and their contributions to differential diagnosis. Materials and Methods: In this study, 47 PTCs (26 follicular variant, 21 classic type) and 26 benign thyroid lesions (15 nodular hyperplasia, 10 follicular adenomas, 1 Hurtle cell adenoma) were analyzed retrospectively. HBME-1, CK19, and CD56 antibodies were performed with immunohistochemical methods. The results were evaluated statistically. Results: +3 staining with HBME-1 and CK19 was observed in 72.3% and 83% of patients with PTC. In 95.7% of PTC cases, loss of CD56 expressions in various degrees was identified. A statistically significant difference was detected in HBME-1, CK19, and CD56 expressions between PTCs and benign lesions (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In our study, positive staining of HBME-1, CK19, and loosing expression of CD56 that supports malignancy was found and concluded that CD56 is a helpful antibody for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions and may increase the diagnostic accuracy when used with HBME-1 and CK19. PMID:27904595

  16. Clinical meaning of age-related expression of fecal cytokeratin 19 in colorectal malignancy

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    Chang, Chun-Chao; Wu, Yih-Yiing; Yang, Ruey-Neng; Huang, Chi-Jung; Yang, Shung-Haur; Chien, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Shu-Hung; Pan, Shiann; Lee, Chia-Long; Lin, Chih-Ming; Sun, Hsiao-Lun; Huang, Chi-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of malignant death worldwide. Because young age of onset is often considered a poor prognostic factor for CRC, it is important to identify the poor outcomes of CRC in a younger population and to consider an aggressive approach by implementing early treatment. Our aim was to specifically quantify the fecal cytokeratin 19 (CK19) transcript from CRC patients and investigate its correlation with clinical stage, tumor malignancy, and age. The quantitation of fecal CK19 transcript was determined by a quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain in 129 CRC patients (45 younger than 60 years at diagnosis) and 85 healthy controls. The levels of CK19 protein were examined both in colonic cell lines and tissues. The analysis of 45 younger CRC patients (age ≤ 60 years) revealed that patients at the M1 stage had significantly higher expression levels of fecal CK19 mRNA when compared with healthy controls (p < 0.001) and patients at the M0 stage (p = 0.004). Additionally, the degree of consistency between the mean level of fecal CK19 mRNA and the distant metastatic rate in each age interval was up to 89% (p = 0.042). These results indicate that high levels of fecal CK19 mRNA represent a potential marker for colorectal malignancy and for aggressive treatment of younger CRC patients

  17. Clinical meaning of age-related expression of fecal cytokeratin 19 in colorectal malignancy

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    Sun Hsiao-Lun

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the leading causes of malignant death worldwide. Because young age of onset is often considered a poor prognostic factor for CRC, it is important to identify the poor outcomes of CRC in a younger population and to consider an aggressive approach by implementing early treatment. Our aim was to specifically quantify the fecal cytokeratin 19 (CK19 transcript from CRC patients and investigate its correlation with clinical stage, tumor malignancy, and age. Methods The quantitation of fecal CK19 transcript was determined by a quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain in 129 CRC patients (45 younger than 60 years at diagnosis and 85 healthy controls. The levels of CK19 protein were examined both in colonic cell lines and tissues. Results The analysis of 45 younger CRC patients (age ≤ 60 years revealed that patients at the M1 stage had significantly higher expression levels of fecal CK19 mRNA when compared with healthy controls (p p = 0.004. Additionally, the degree of consistency between the mean level of fecal CK19 mRNA and the distant metastatic rate in each age interval was up to 89% (p = 0.042. Conclusion These results indicate that high levels of fecal CK19 mRNA represent a potential marker for colorectal malignancy and for aggressive treatment of younger CRC patients.

  18. Sana AISSI, Metastasis CK-19 marker

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marouen

    2014-01-15

    Jan 15, 2014 ... Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) are tumors of nasopharynx origin with high rate of distance metastases after radiotherapy. Therefore, detection of micrometastasis will be an important issue in the prognostic and the choice of the systemic treatment. Our aim was early detection of circulating tumor.

  19. Epithelial expression of cytokeratins 15 and 19 in vitiligo.

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    Saleh, Fatma Y; Awad, Sherif S; Nasif, Ghada A; Halim, Christein

    2016-12-01

    Cytokeratins (CK) belong to the family of intermediate filament proteins, and among them specific epithelial keratins are considered markers for stem cells activation. This study aims to investigate the expression of CK15 and CK19 as possible stem cell markers in vitiligo during phototherapy. The study was conducted on vitiligo patients receiving narrow-band ultraviolet therapy. Immunohistochemical staining for CK15 and CK19 was carried out, and clinical follow-up continued for 4 weeks. Of 28 patients, CK15 expression was demonstrated in 17 cases (61%) while CK19 expression was demonstrated in 11 cases (39%). Cells expressing positive staining were demonstrated in follicular and interfollicular epithelium. Expression was clearly demonstrated in patients younger than 20 years old, with shorter disease duration, with disease stability, and with normally pigmented hairs. Expression of cytokeratins was significantly correlated to improvement of vitiligo lesions. CK15 and CK19 are expressed in vitiligo during UV repigmentation in the follicular and interfollicular epithelium. This expression of cytokeratins was significantly correlated to improvement and can be considered valuable tool to monitor stem cells stimulation for the sake of the repigmentation process in vitiligo. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Cytokeratin 19 Expression Patterns of Dentigerous Cysts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although numerous investigators have studied the pattern of keratin expression in different odontogenic cysts, the results have been variable. Aim: The present study was conducted to determine the pattern of expression of cytokeratin 19 (CK 19) in the epithelial lining of odontogenic keratocysts and ...

  1. Modulation of Molecular Biomarker Expression in Response to Chemotherapy in Invasive Ductal Carcinoma.

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    Oloomi, Mana; Moazzezy, Neda; Bouzari, Saeid

    2018-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) has varied morphological and biological features and is classified based on molecular and morphological examinations. Molecular classification of BC is based on biological gene-expression profiling. In this study, biomarker modulation was assessed during BC treatment in 30 previously untreated patients. Heterogeneity among patients was pathologically diagnosed and classified into luminal and basal-like immunohistochemical profiles based on estrogen, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor receptor (ER/PR/HER2) status. Marker heterogeneity was compared with mRNA biomarker expression in patients with BC before and after therapy. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed for molecular characterization. Expression and modulation of biological markers, CK19, hMAM, CEA, MUC, Myc, Ki-67, HER2/neu, ErbB2, and ER, were assessed after treatment, where the expression of the biomarkers CK19, Ki-67, Myc, and CEA was noted to be significantly decreased. Marker expression modulation was determined according to different stages and pathological characteristics of patients; coexpression of three markers (CK19, Ki-67, and Myc) was specifically modulated after therapy. In the histopathologically classified basal-like group, two markers (CK19 and Ki-67) were downregulated and could be considered as diagnostic biomarkers. In conclusion, pathological characteristics and marker variation levels can be evaluated to decide a personalized treatment for patients.

  2. Modulation of Molecular Biomarker Expression in Response to Chemotherapy in Invasive Ductal Carcinoma

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    Mana Oloomi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC has varied morphological and biological features and is classified based on molecular and morphological examinations. Molecular classification of BC is based on biological gene-expression profiling. In this study, biomarker modulation was assessed during BC treatment in 30 previously untreated patients. Heterogeneity among patients was pathologically diagnosed and classified into luminal and basal-like immunohistochemical profiles based on estrogen, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor receptor (ER/PR/HER2 status. Marker heterogeneity was compared with mRNA biomarker expression in patients with BC before and after therapy. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed for molecular characterization. Expression and modulation of biological markers, CK19, hMAM, CEA, MUC, Myc, Ki-67, HER2/neu, ErbB2, and ER, were assessed after treatment, where the expression of the biomarkers CK19, Ki-67, Myc, and CEA was noted to be significantly decreased. Marker expression modulation was determined according to different stages and pathological characteristics of patients; coexpression of three markers (CK19, Ki-67, and Myc was specifically modulated after therapy. In the histopathologically classified basal-like group, two markers (CK19 and Ki-67 were downregulated and could be considered as diagnostic biomarkers. In conclusion, pathological characteristics and marker variation levels can be evaluated to decide a personalized treatment for patients.

  3. Fos and jun proteins are specifically expressed during differentiation of human keratinocytes.

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    Mehic, Denis; Bakiri, Latifa; Ghannadan, Minoo; Wagner, Erwin F; Tschachler, Erwin

    2005-01-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) proteins play key roles in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study we investigated the expression of Fos and Jun proteins in different models of terminal differentiation of human keratinocytes and in skin from psoriasis patients. All Jun and Fos proteins, with the exception of FosB, were efficiently expressed in keratinocytes in monolayer cultures. In contrast, in normal epidermis as well as in organotypic epidermal cultures, the expression pattern of AP-1 proteins was dependent on the differentiation stage. Fos proteins were readily detected in nuclei of keratinocytes of basal and suprabasal layers. JunB and JunD were expressed in all layers of normal epidermis. Interestingly, expression of c-Jun started suprabasally, then disappeared and became detectable again in distinct cells of the outermost granular layer directly at the transition zone to the stratum corneum. In psoriatic epidermis, c-Jun expression was prominent in both hyperproliferating basal and suprabasal keratinocytes, whereas c-Fos expression was unchanged. These data indicate that AP-1 proteins are expressed in a highly specific manner during terminal differentiation of keratinocytes and that the enhanced expression of c-Jun in basal and suprabasal keratinocytes might contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  4. Decorin gene expression and its regulation in human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We showed that cultured human diploid epidermal keratinocytes express and synthesize decorin. → Decorin is found intracytoplasmic in suprabasal cells of cultures and in human epidermis. → Decorin mRNA expression in cHEK is regulated by pro-inflammatory and proliferative cytokines. → Decorin immunostaining of psoriatic lesions showed a lower intensity and altered intracytoplasmic arrangements. -- Abstract: In various cell types, including cancer cells, decorin is involved in regulation of cell attachment, migration and proliferation. In skin, decorin is seen in dermis, but not in keratinocytes. We show that decorin gene (DCN) is expressed in the cultured keratinocytes, and the protein is found in the cytoplasm of differentiating keratinocytes and in suprabasal layers of human epidermis. RT-PCR experiments showed that DCN expression is regulated by pro-inflammatory and proliferative cytokines. Our data suggest that decorin should play a significant role in keratinocyte terminal differentiation, cutaneous homeostasis and dermatological diseases.

  5. Decorin gene expression and its regulation in human keratinocytes

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    Velez-DelValle, Cristina; Marsch-Moreno, Meytha; Castro-Munozledo, Federico [Department of Cell Biology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Kuri-Harcuch, Walid, E-mail: walidkuri@gmail.com [Department of Cell Biology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico)

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} We showed that cultured human diploid epidermal keratinocytes express and synthesize decorin. {yields} Decorin is found intracytoplasmic in suprabasal cells of cultures and in human epidermis. {yields} Decorin mRNA expression in cHEK is regulated by pro-inflammatory and proliferative cytokines. {yields} Decorin immunostaining of psoriatic lesions showed a lower intensity and altered intracytoplasmic arrangements. -- Abstract: In various cell types, including cancer cells, decorin is involved in regulation of cell attachment, migration and proliferation. In skin, decorin is seen in dermis, but not in keratinocytes. We show that decorin gene (DCN) is expressed in the cultured keratinocytes, and the protein is found in the cytoplasm of differentiating keratinocytes and in suprabasal layers of human epidermis. RT-PCR experiments showed that DCN expression is regulated by pro-inflammatory and proliferative cytokines. Our data suggest that decorin should play a significant role in keratinocyte terminal differentiation, cutaneous homeostasis and dermatological diseases.

  6. Altered expression of the urokinase receptor homologue, C4.4A, in invasive areas of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.V.; Laerum, O.D.; Illemann, M.

    2008-01-01

    . In the present study, we have therefore analyzed the expression of C4.4A in 14 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC). Normal squamous esophageal epithelium shows a strong cell surface associated C4.4A expression in the suprabasal layers, whereas basal cells are negative. Upon transition to dysplasia...... and carcinoma in situ the expression of C4.4A is abruptly and coordinately weakened. Double immunofluorescence staining of normal and dysplastic tissue showed that C4.4A colocalizes with the epithelial cell surface marker E-cadherin in the suprabasal cells and has a complementary expression pattern compared...... to the proliferation marker Ki-67. A prominent, but frequently intracellular, C4.4A expression reappeared in tumor cells located at the invasive front and local lymph node metastases. Because C4.4A was reported previously to be a putative laminin-5 (LN5) ligand, and both proteins are expressed by invasive tumor cells...

  7. Variation of stemness markers expression in tumor nodules from synchronous multi-focal hepatocellular carcinoma - an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Regina Cheuk-Lam; Leung, Carmen Oi-Ning; Chok, Kenneth Siu-Ho; Ng, Irene Oi-Lin

    2017-08-01

    Advancing knowledge in molecular pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) opens up new horizons in the diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic perspectives. Assessing the expression of molecular targets prior to definitive treatment is gaining importance in clinical practice. In this study, we investigated the variation in expression pattern of stemness markers in synchronous multi-focal HCC. In the first cohort, 21 liver explants with multi-focal HCC were examined for expression of stemness markers EpCAM, Sox9 and CK19 by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Expression data of 50 tumor nodules were analyzed to determine the concordance of expression among nodules in the same livers. In the second cohort, 14 tumor nodules from 6 multi-focal HCC cases proven as intra-hepatic metastasis were examined for Soc9 immunoexpression. In the first cohort, thirty nodules from 16 cases expressed one or more markers, with Sox9 being most frequently expressed. Complete concordance of expression pattern for all 3 markers was observed in 6 cases. Discrepancy of staining degree was noted in 4 cases for EpCAM, 14 cases for Sox9, and 6 cases for CK19. A two-tier or three-tier difference in staining scores was noted in 5 cases for Sox9 and one case for CK19. With Sox9, identical tumor morphology in terms of Edmondson grading and growth pattern did not infer the same degree of immunoexpression; and the largest tumor nodule was not representative of highest IHC score. In the second cohort of intra-hepatic metastasis, complete concordance of Sox9 expression level was observed in 5 out of 6 cases; while the remaining case showed a 1-tier difference of positive staining. Our findings suggested that clonality of tumor nodules is apparently an important factor to infer immunoexpression pattern. When there is limited information to discern multiple primaries versus intra-hepatic metastasis in multi-focal HCC, discordant degree of stemness markers expression among tumor nodules was commonly

  8. Expression of Tight Junction Components in Hepatocyte-Like Cells Differentiated from Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdélyi-Belle, Boglárka; Török, György; Apáti, Ágota; Sarkadi, Balázs; Schaff, Zsuzsa; Kiss, András; Homolya, László

    2015-09-01

    Human embryonic stem cells can be differentiated in vitro into a wide variety of progeny cells by addition of different morphogens and growth factors. Our aim was to monitor the expression pattern of tight junction (TJ) components and various cellular markers during differentiation of stem cell lines toward the hepatic lineage. Human embryonic stem cell lines (HUES1, HUES9) were differentiated into endoderm-like cells, and further differentiated to hepatocyte-like cells. Gene expressions of Oct3/4, Nanog, alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, cytokeratins (CK-7, CK-8, CK-18, CK-19), ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (ABCC2, ABCC7, ABCG2), and various TJ components, including claudin-1, claudin-4, claudin-5, claudin-7, and tricellulin, as well as an extracellular matrix component, agrin were monitored during hepatic differentiation by real-time quantitative PCR. The differentiated cells exhibit epithelial morphology and functional assessments similar to that of hepatocytes. The expression level of stem cell marker genes (Oct3/4 and Nanog) significantly and gradually decreased, while liver-associated genes (alpha-fetoprotein, albumin) reached their highest expression at the end of the differentiation. The endoderm-like cells expressed claudin-1, which declined eventually. The expression levels of cholangiocyte markers including claudin-4, CK-7, CK-19, and agrin gradually increased and reached their highest level at the final stage of differentiation. In contrast, these cells did not express notable level of claudin-7, CK-8 and tricellulin. The marker set used for monitoring differentiation revealed both hepatocyte and cholangiocyte characteristics of the differentiated cells at the final stage. This is the first report describing the expression level changes of various TJ components, and underlining their importance in hepatic differentiation.

  9. Up-modulation of the expression of functional keratinocyte growth factor receptors induced by high cell density in the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, A; Visco, V; Belleudi, F; Marchese, C; Cardinali, G; Bellocci, M; Picardo, M; Frati, L; Torrisi, M R

    2000-11-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is involved in the control of proliferation and differentiation of human keratinocytes. It binds to, and activates, the tyrosine kinase KGF receptor (KGFR), a splicing transcript variant of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2. We have previously shown (C. Marchese et al., Cell Growth Differ., 8: 989-997, 1997) that differentiation of primary cultured keratinocytes triggered by high Ca2+ concentrations in the growing medium induced up-regulation of KGFR expression, which suggested that KGFR may play a crucial role in the control of the proliferative/differentiative program during transition from basal to suprabasal cells. Here we analyzed the process of modulation of the expression of KGFRs in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT, widely used as a model to study keratinocyte differentiation. Western blot and double immunofluorescence for KGFR and the K1 differentiation marker showed that cell differentiation and stratification induced by confluence and high cell density correlated with an increase in KGFR expression. KGFRs, present on suprabasal differentiated cells, appeared to be efficiently tyrosine-phosphorylated by KGF, which indicated that the receptors up-regulated by differentiation can be functionally activated by ligand binding. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay revealed that a significant portion of suprabasal differentiated cells expressing KGFR seemed to be still able to synthesize DNA and to proliferate in response to KGF, which suggested that increased KGFR expression may be required for retention of the proliferative activity.

  10. Expression of contactin associated protein-like 2 in a subset of hepatic progenitor cell compartment identified by gene expression profiling in hepatitis B virus-positive cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huafeng; Gao, Yabo; Jin, Xiaolong; Xiao, Jiacheng

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic progenitor cells (HPC), a cell compartment capable of differentiating into hepatocytic and biliary lineages, may give rise to the formation of intermediate hepatobiliary cells (IHBC) or ductular reactions (DR). The aim of this study was to analyse the gene expression profiles of DR in cirrhosis and further investigate novel proteins expressed by HPC and their intermediate progeny. DR in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive cirrhotic liver tissues adjacent to hepatocellular carcinoma and interlobular bile ducts (ILBDs) in normal liver tissues were isolated by laser capture microdissection and then subjected to microarray analysis. Differential gene expression patterns were verified by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry on serial sections. HPC and their intermediate progeny were recognized by immunostaining with hepatocytic and biliary markers [HepPar1, cytokeratin (CK)7, CK19, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)]. A total of 88 genes showed upregulation in DR compared with ILBDs. Gene ontology analyses revealed that these upregulated genes were mostly associated with cell adhesion, immune response and the metabolic process. Contactin associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2) was first confirmed to be a novel protein expressed in a subpopulation of DR that was positive for CK7, NCAM or EpCAM. In addition, immunoreactivity for CNTNAP2 was also noted in a subset of isolated CK7-positive HPC as well as some ductular IHBC positive for CK19 and HepPar1 in DR. CNTNAP2 is specifically associated with the emergence of ductular populations and may be identified as a novel protein for defining a subset of HPC and their intermediate progeny in cirrhosis.

  11. Differential expression of integrins and laminin-5 in normal oral epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, A K; Dabelsteen, Erik; Schou, S

    1997-01-01

    of different integrins and laminin-5 was studied in oral epithelium to characterize regional variations in these adhesion molecules. Monoclonal antibodies directed against alpha 2-alpha 6 beta 1/alpha 6 beta 4 and laminin-5 were examined in cryopreserved biopsies of normal mucosa by immunohistochemistry...... epithelia, whereas there was increased suprabasal expression in nonkeratinized mucosa. These results indicate inhomogeneity in the basal cell population of oral squamous epithelia and differential expression of integrins, which may reflect differences in the underlying stroma. Laminin-5 deposits...... in the stroma underneath the junctional epithelium may indicate subclinical gingival inflammation....

  12. Peripheral blood c-erbB-2 expression by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Fernando L A; Soares, Heloisa P; Manhani, Ana Rita; Bendit, Israel; Novaes, Mafalda; Zatta, Simone M; Arias, Vitor; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida S; Weinschenker, Patrícia; del Giglio, Auro

    2002-08-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) evaluation in breast cancer patients is a promising tool to improve current staging procedures. In a previous work employing a CK-19-based reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique for MRD detection, we identified a group of women who exhibited persistent negativity for this assay and for whom this technique was considered noninformative. In order to improve the yield of MRD detection in these patients, we evaluated the usefulness of RT-PCR detection of c-erbB-2 expression. We were able to detect up to 1 MCF-7 cell (positive for c-erbB-2 expression) in a mixture of 1,000,000 CCRF-CEM cells (negative for c-erbB-2 expression). We evaluated the specificity of this technique in the peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 20 healthy women and found that 2 of these women were positive for c-erbB-2 expression. In the PBMCs of a group of 16 women with breast cancer, 25% of the samples were positive for c-erbB-2 expression before chemotherapy. Except for race (P = 0.017), no other significant correlations were found, including c-erbB-2 expression in the primary tumor by immunoperoxidase. Interestingly, in the subgroup of 6 patients for whom this technique was informative, we found that 80% of the samples obtained while on chemotherapy were negative compared to only 10% obtained off treatment (P = 0.017). Additionally, 2 patients for whom CK-19 expression was noninformative had at least 1 c-erbB-2-positive sample. We conclude that this technique might be useful for MRD detection in breast cancer patients, but further studies are necessary to confirm our findings.

  13. Altered expression of the urokinase receptor homologue, C4.4A, in invasive areas of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line V.; Laerum, Ole D; Illemann, Martin

    2008-01-01

    . In the present study, we have therefore analyzed the expression of C4.4A in 14 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC). Normal squamous esophageal epithelium shows a strong cell surface associated C4.4A expression in the suprabasal layers, whereas basal cells are negative. Upon transition to dysplasia...... to the proliferation marker Ki-67. A prominent, but frequently intracellular, C4.4A expression reappeared in tumor cells located at the invasive front and local lymph node metastases. Because C4.4A was reported previously to be a putative laminin-5 (LN5) ligand, and both proteins are expressed by invasive tumor cells...

  14. Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  15. The clinical utility of circulating tumor cells in breast cancer patients: detection by a quantitative assay of h-MAM gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Min; Chen, Yongyan; Zou, Dehong; Shen, Guodong; Bian, Geng; Shen, Gan; Hu, Shilian

    2014-09-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tumor markers of molecular abnormalities that display tissue specificity, as to detect circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in breast cancer patients. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to determine h-MAM, BCSG1, CK19, and c-erbB2 mRNA levels in peripheral blood (PB) of breast cancer patients. Results were compared with other epithelial cancers (lung or esophagus cancer), benign breast disease, and healthy individuals. We found that h-MAM mRNA was only detectable in the PB of patients with breast cancer (49 of 65, 75.4%), but not in patients with other epithelial cancers, benign breast disease, or healthy individuals. No significant differences in the expression level and positive detection rate of BCSG1, CK19, and c-erbB2 mRNA were observed between breast cancer and other epithelial cancers. Furthermore, the expression level and positive detection rate of h-MAM mRNA in PB were significantly correlated to the breast cancer pathologic stage (p=0.012 and p=0.015, respectively). Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or total tumor resection (after 7 days of treatment) resulted in a significant decrease in the expression level of h-MAM mRNA in PB compared to the levels prior to the treatment (pMAM mRNA expression was detected in patients immediately after surgery, as well as 3 days post-surgery. These results indicate that the quantitative analysis of h-MAM mRNA is a useful tool for detecting CTCs in breast cancer patients, and can have a potential diagnostic utility in early micrometastasis, clinical evaluation of cancer treatment efficacy, and post-treatment monitoring of breast cancer patients.

  16. Immunohistochemical expression of Bcl-2 and Ki-67 in oral lichen planus and leukoplakia with different degrees of dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigatti, Fernanda Mombrini; Taveira, Luís Antônio de Assis; Soares, Cléverson Teixeira

    2015-02-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown cause. Malignant transformation in OLP lesions may be favored by changes in the expression of proteins that regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate these issues by immunohistochemical staining for Bcl-2 and Ki-67 and by correlating histopathological findings in samples from lesions of OLP and leukoplakia with epithelial dysplasia. Data for patients with OLP or leukoplakia with moderate or severe epithelial dysplasia recorded during 2006-2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The study samples represented 37 subjects with OLP (n = 14), leukoplakia with moderate (n = 8) or severe (n = 6) epithelial dysplasia, and normal buccal mucosa (controls, n = 9). New sections were subjected to histological examination and immunohistochemistry for Bcl-2 and Ki-67 in the basal layer, suprabasal layer, and inflammatory infiltrate, respectively. All basal layer sections stained either negative or positive in leukoplakia, 85.7% of sections indicated positivity in leukoplakia (64.3%) sections stained positive for Ki-67 in >50% of cells. All suprabasal sections stained either negative or positive in leukoplakia (42.9% and 57.1%, respectively), and control (88.9% and 11.1%, respectively) samples. Suprabasal staining for Ki-67 was negative or positive in leukoplakia (7.1% and 92.9%, respectively), and controls (88.9% and 11.1%, respectively). Staining for Bcl-2 in inflammatory infiltrate in OLP was positive in 92.9% of sections. Expression of Bcl-2 may play a dual role in tumor development and progression. Increased cell proliferation in the epithelium may present a predisposition to cancer in OLP. The expression of Ki-67 can be considered as an adjunct marker for proliferative activity in lesions with malignant potential. The prognostic value of these immunomarkers in the evaluation of precancerous oral lesions requires further investigation. © 2014 The International Society

  17. Expression of C4.4A, a structural uPAR homolog, reflects squamous epithelial differentiation in the adult mouse and during embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Mette Camilla; Jacobsen, Benedikte; Hald, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    by a comprehensive immunohistochemical mapping. This task was accomplished by staining paraffin-embedded tissues with a specific rabbit polyclonal anti-C4.4A antibody. In the adult mouse, C4.4A was predominantly expressed in the suprabasal layers of the squamous epithelia of the oral cavity, esophagus, non......-glandular portion of the rodent stomach, anus, vagina, cornea, and skin. This epithelial confinement was particularly evident from the abrupt termination of C4.4A expression at the squamo-columnar transition zones found at the ano-rectal and utero-vaginal junctions, for example. During mouse embryogenesis, C4.4A...

  18. Can alterations in integrin and laminin-5 expression be used as markers of malignancy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, A K; Reibel, J; Schiødt, M

    1998-01-01

    and laminin-5 in biopsies from SCCs (n=18), premalignant lesions (leukoplakias, n=21) and non-premalignant tissue with chronic inflammation (n=11). In poorly differentiated SCCs, patchy loss of alpha3beta1, alpha6beta4 and laminin-5 expression was pronounced at the invasion front, whereas there was a tendency...... to increased expression of alpha2beta1. Analogous to the SCCs, biopsies from the leukoplakias and the non-premalignant inflammatory tissue showed alterations of the expression of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta4 in the basal cell layers and of laminin-5. However, a characteristic finding in biopsies from...... leukoplakias was loss of alpha2beta1 and alpha3beta1 in the suprabasal cells. There was no unequivocal expression of the adhesion molecules distinguishing between inflammatory tissue, premalignant, and malignant lesions....

  19. Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Subclassification into Basal, Ductal, and Mixed Subtypes Based on Comparison of Clinico-pathologic Features and Expression of p53, Cyclin D1, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, p16, and Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Ja Cho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma with distinct pathologic characteristics. The histogenesis of BSCC is not fully understood, and the cancer has been suggested to originate from a totipotent primitive cell in the basal cell layer of the surface epithelium or in the proximal duct of secretory glands. Methods Twenty-six cases of head and neck BSCC from Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, reported during a 14-year-period were subclassified into basal, ductal, and mixed subtypes according to the expression of basal (cytokeratin [CK] 5/6, p63 or ductal markers (CK7, CK8/18. The cases were also subject to immunohistochemical study for CK19, p53, cyclin D1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, and p16 and to in situ hybridization for human papillomavirus (HPV, and the results were clinico-pathologically compared. Results Mixed subtype (12 cases was the most common, and these cases showed hypopharyngeal predilection, older age, and higher expression of CK19, p53, and EGFR than other subtypes. The basal subtype (nine cases showed frequent comedo-necrosis and high expression of cyclin D1. The ductal subtype (five cases showed the lowest expression of p53, cyclin D1, and EGFR. A small number of p16- and/or HPV-positive cases were not restricted to one subtype. BSCC was the cause of death in 19 patients, and the average follow-up period for all patients was 79.5 months. Overall survival among the three subtypes was not significantly different. Conclusions The results of this study suggest a heterogeneous pathogenesis of head and neck BSCC. Each subtype showed variable histology and immunoprofiles, although the clinical implication of heterogeneity was not determined in this study.

  20. Clinicopathological characteristics and liver stem cell marker expression in hepatocellular carcinoma involving bile duct tumor thrombi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ye-Bin; Zhong, Jian-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Ling; Ou, Chao; Guo, Zhe; Xiang, Bang-De; Peng, Ning-Fu; Li, Le-Qun

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the clinicopathological characteristics and expression of liver stem cell markers of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) involving bile duct tumor thrombi (BDTT). A total of 35 patients with HCC and BDTT in a consecutive series of HCC patients who underwent surgical treatment were studied retrospectively and compared with 916 patients without BDTT from the same series. Clinicopathological characteristics, overall survival (OS), and tumor expression of liver stem cell markers CD133, CD90, EpCAM, CK19, VEGF, and C-kit were compared between the two patient groups. Analysis was performed for the entire patient groups as well as for 35 pairs of patients with or without BDTT matched by propensity score. HCC patients with BDTT tended to have smaller tumors than those without BDTT, as well as a higher probability of having poorly differentiated tumor, Child-Pugh class B, liver cirrhosis, and microvascular invasion. Tumor tissue in patients with BDTT showed significantly higher expression rates of all liver stem cell markers examined. OS was significantly lower for patients with BDTT at 1 year (69 vs 84 %), 3 years (37 vs 64 %), and 5 years (20 vs 55 %) (P marker expression in the presence of BDTT suggests that such stem cells may play a role in the pathogenesis of this form of HCC.

  1. Expression of Molecular Differentiation Markers Does Not Correlate with Histological Differentiation Grade in Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma.

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    Céline Demarez

    Full Text Available The differentiation status of tumor cells, defined by histomorphological criteria, is a prognostic factor for survival of patients affected with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC. To strengthen the value of morphological differentiation criteria, we wished to correlate histopathological differentiation grade with expression of molecular biliary differentiation markers and of microRNAs previously shown to be dysregulated in ICC. We analysed a series of tumors that were histologically classified as well, moderately or poorly differentiated, and investigated the expression of cytokeratin 7, 19 and 903 (CK7, CK19, CK903, SRY-related HMG box transcription factors 4 and 9 (SOX4, SOX9, osteopontin (OPN, Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-1 beta (HNF1β, Yes-associated protein (YAP, Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM, Mucin 1 (MUC1 and N-cadherin (NCAD by qRT-PCR and immunostaining, and of miR-31, miR-135b, miR-132, miR-200c, miR-221 and miR-222. Unexpectedly, except for subcellular location of SOX9 and OPN, no correlation was found between the expression levels of these molecular markers and histopathological differentiation grade. Therefore, our data point toward necessary caution when investigating the evolution and prognosis of ICC on the basis of cell differentiation criteria.

  2. Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A New Source for Hepatocyte-Like Cells and Induction of CFTR Expression by Coculture with Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelial Cells

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    Valentina Paracchini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is a monogenic disease caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene, with lung and liver manifestations. Because of pitfalls of gene therapy, novel approaches for reconstitution of the airway epithelium and CFTR expression should be explored. In the present study, human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs were isolated from term placentas and characterized for expression of phenotypic and pluripotency markers, and for differentiation potential towards mesoderm (osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. Moreover, hAMSCs were induced to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells, as demonstrated by mixed function oxidase activity and expression of albumin, alpha1-antitrypsin, and CK19. We also investigated the CFTR expression in hAMSCs upon isolation and in coculture with CF airway epithelial cells. Freshly isolated hAMSCs displayed low levels of CFTR mRNA, which even decreased with culture passages. Following staining with the vital dye CM-DiI, hAMSCs were mixed with CFBE41o- respiratory epithelial cells and seeded onto permeable filters. Flow cytometry demonstrated that 33–50% of hAMSCs acquired a detectable CFTR expression on the apical membrane, a result confirmed by confocal microscopy. Our data show that amniotic MSCs have the potential to differentiate into epithelial cells of organs relevant in CF pathogenesis and may contribute to partial correction of the CF phenotype.

  3. Serum CYFRA 21-1 in Egyptian women with breast cancer | Ebied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Cytokeratin fragment 21.1 (CYFRA 21.1) assay detects a serum fragment of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and is employed in the diagnosis and management of lung cancer, particularly of squamous cell histotype. Breast carcinoma has been demonstrated to express CK19 fragments in the primary and metastatic ...

  4. Psoriasiform skin disease in transgenic pigs with high-copy ectopic expression of human integrins α2 and β1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Nicklas Heine; Stenderup, Karin; Mortensen, Sidsel

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a complex human-specific disease characterized by perturbed keratinocyte proliferation and a pro-inflammatory environment in the skin. Porcine skin architecture and immunity are very similar to that in humans, rendering the pig a suitable animal model for studying the biology...... and treatment of psoriasis. Expression of integrins, which is normally confined to the basal layer of the epidermis, is maintained in suprabasal keratinocytes in psoriatic skin, modulating proliferation and differentiation as well as leukocyte infiltration. Here, we generated minipigs co-expressing integrins α2......-lymphocyte infiltration. These findings mark the first creation of minipigs with a psoriasiform phenotype resembling human psoriasis and demonstrate that integrin signaling plays a key role in psoriasis pathology....

  5. Different Serotonergic Expression in Nevomelanocytic Tumors

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    Naimi-Akbar, Clara; Ritter, Markus; Demel, Sasika; El-Nour, Husameldin; Hedblad, Mari-Anne [Dermatology and Venereology Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna (Sweden); Azmitia, Efrain C. [Department of Biology and Psychiatry, New York University, NY (United States); Nordlind, Klas, E-mail: klas.nordlind@karolinska.se [Dermatology and Venereology Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna (Sweden)

    2010-06-07

    The neuromediator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) has been proposed to play a role in tumor progression. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to determine whether alterations in the serotonergic system occur in nevomelanocytic tumors. For this purpose, paraffin-embedded biopsies of superficial spreading malignant melanoma (SSM), dysplastic compound nevi (DN) and benign compound nevi (BCN) were characterized with regard to their expression of 5-HT, the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors, and the serotonin transporter protein (SERT), by immunohistochemical analysis. Melanocytes in the region surrounding the tumor were found to express both the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. Tumor cells that immunostained positively for the different serotonergic markers were observed in the suprabasal epidermis of DN tissue and, to an even greater extent, in the case of SSM. Furthermore, some of these latter cells expressed both 5-HT1AR and 5-HT2AR. The level of expression of 5-HT1AR at the junctional area was lower for SSM than for DN or BCN. As the degree of atypia increased, the intensity of tumor cell staining in the dermis for 5-HT1AR and SERT declined. Vessel immunoreactivity for 5-HT2A was more intense in SSM than in BCN tissue. Round-to-dendritic cells that expressed both SERT and 5-HT1AR were seen to infiltrate into the dermal region of the tumor, this infiltration being more evident in the case of DN and SSM. These latter cells were also tryptase-positive, indicating that they are mast cells. Thus, alterations in serotonergic system may be involved in nevomelanocytic tumors and mast cells may play an important role in this connection.

  6. Different Serotonergic Expression in Nevomelanocytic Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Naimi-Akbar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The neuromediator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT has been proposed to play a role in tumor progression. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to determine whether alterations in the serotonergic system occur in nevomelanocytic tumors. For this purpose, paraffin-embedded biopsies of superficial spreading malignant melanoma (SSM, dysplastic compound nevi (DN and benign compound nevi (BCN were characterized with regard to their expression of 5-HT, the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors, and the serotonin transporter protein (SERT, by immunohistochemical analysis. Melanocytes in the region surrounding the tumor were found to express both the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. Tumor cells that immunostained positively for the different serotonergic markers were observed in the suprabasal epidermis of DN tissue and, to an even greater extent, in the case of SSM. Furthermore, some of these latter cells expressed both 5-HT1AR and 5-HT2AR. The level of expression of 5-HT1AR at the junctional area was lower for SSM than for DN or BCN. As the degree of atypia increased, the intensity of tumor cell staining in the dermis for 5-HT1AR and SERT declined. Vessel immunoreactivity for 5-HT2A was more intense in SSM than in BCN tissue. Round-to-dendritic cells that expressed both SERT and 5-HT1AR were seen to infiltrate into the dermal region of the tumor, this infiltration being more evident in the case of DN and SSM. These latter cells were also tryptase-positive, indicating that they are mast cells. Thus, alterations in serotonergic system may be involved in nevomelanocytic tumors and mast cells may play an important role in this connection.

  7. Altered expression of keratinocyte growth factor and its receptor in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, P W; Murphy, F; Cardinale, I; Krueger, J G

    1997-12-01

    One of the biological characteristics of psoriasis is excessive flaking of the skin. This is directly related to the marked hyperplasia of epidermal keratinocytes and to incomplete epidermal differentiation. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), a potent mitogen for human keratinocytes, is expressed by stromal cells. Alterations in the KGF signaling pathway might account for the epidermal hyperplasia associated with psoriasis. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the expression of KGF and its receptor (KGFR) in psoriasis tissue. KGF and KGFR mRNA levels were found to be frequently elevated in psoriatic skin specimens as compared with normal skin. Increased KGF transcript expression was localized to the dermal layer of the involved skin specimen using in situ hybridization. In contrast, KGFR transcript and protein expression was localized to the basal layer of keratinocytes in normal skin and to the basal and suprabasal layers of the psoriatic epidermis, coincident with the expanded proliferative keratinocyte pool. To identify molecules that might regulate KGFR expression we investigated the effects of various pharmacological agents and cytokines on KGFR synthesis by keratinocytes. Phorbol ester, interleukin-6, interferon-gamma, and ultraviolet B (UVB) treatment all led to substantial down-regulation of KGFR expression. The down-regulation of KGFR synthesis by UVB suggests a possible mechanism for the antiproliferative action of this agent in the treatment of psoriasis. Taken together, these results suggest that increased KGFR-mediated signaling in keratinocytes in the lesional epidermis might account in part for the epidermal hyperplasia in psoriasis.

  8. Differential expression of A-type and B-type lamins during hair cycling.

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    Mubashir Hanif

    Full Text Available Multiple genetic disorders caused by mutations that affect the proteins lamin A and C show strong skin phenotypes. These disorders include the premature aging disorders Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and mandibuloacral dysplasia, as well as restrictive dermopathy. Prior studies have shown that the lamin A/C and B proteins are expressed in skin, but little is known about their normal expression in the different skin cell-types and during the hair cycle. Our immunohistochemical staining for lamins A/C and B in wild-type mice revealed strong expression in the basal cell layer of the epidermis, the outer root sheath, and the dermal papilla during all stages of the hair cycle. Lower expression of both lamins A/C and B was seen in suprabasal cells of the epidermis, in the hypodermis, and in the bulb of catagen follicles. In addition, we have utilized a previously described mouse model of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and show here that the expression of progerin does not result in pronounced effects on hair cycling or the expression of lamin B.

  9. Expression of SOCS1 and CXCL12 Proteins in Primary Breast Cancer Are Associated with Presence of Circulating Tumor Cells in Peripheral Blood

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    Bozena Smolkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are independent prognostic factors in the primary and metastatic breast cancer patients and play crucial role in hematogenous tumor dissemination. The aim of this study was to correlate the presence of CTCs in peripheral blood with the expression of proteins in tumor tissue that have a putative role in regulation of cell growth and metastatic potential. This prospective study included 203 primary breast cancer patients treated by definitive surgery. CTCs were detected by quantitative real-time PCR for the expression of epithelial (CK19 or epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition–inducing transcription factor genes (TWIST1, SNAIL1, SLUG, and ZEB1. Expression of APC, ADAM23, CXCL12, E-cadherin, RASSF1, SYK, TIMP3, BRMS1, and SOCS1 proteins in primary breast tumor tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. CTCs with epithelial markers were found in 17 (9.2% patients. Their occurrence was associated with inhibition of SOCS1 expression (odds ratio [OR] = 0.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03-0.13; P < .001. CTCs with positive epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers were detected in 30 (15.8% patients; however, no association with analyzed protein expressions was found. Overall, CTCs were detected in 44 (22.9% patients. Presence of any CTC marker was significantly associated with positive CXCL12 expression (OR = 3.08; 95% CI, 1.15-8.26; P = .025 and lack of SOCS1 expression (OR = 0.10; 95% CI, 0.04-0.25; P < .001 in patient’s tumor tissues. As both CXCL12 and SOCS1 proteins are involved in cytokine signaling, our results provide support for the hypothesis that aberrant signaling cross talk between cytokine and chemokine responses could have an important role in hematogenous dissemination of tumor cells in breast cancer.

  10. Podoplanin expression in the development and progression of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Podoplanin expression is attracting interest as a marker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. We therefore investigated the expression pattern and clinical significance of podoplanin during the development and progression of laryngeal carcinomas. Results Podoplanin expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 84 patients with laryngeal premalignancies and 53 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. We found podoplanin expression extending from the basal to the suprabasal layer of the epithelium in 37 (44%) of 84 dysplastic lesions, whereas normal epithelium showed negligible expression. Patients carrying podoplanin-positive lesions had a higher laryngeal cancer incidence than those with negative expression reaching borderline statistical significance (51% versus 30%, P = 0.071). Podoplanin expression in laryngeal carcinomas exhibited two distinct patterns. 20 (38%) cases showed diffuse expression in most tumour cells and 33 (62%) focal expression at the proliferating periphery of tumour nests. High podoplanin expression was inversely correlated with T classification (P = 0.033), disease stage (P = 0.006), and pathological grade (P = 0.04). There was a trend, although not significant, towards reduced disease-specific survival for patients with low podoplanin levels (P = 0.31) and diffuse expression pattern (P = 0.08). Conclusions Podoplanin expression increases in the early stages of laryngeal tumourigenesis and it seems to be associated with a higher laryngeal cancer risk. Podoplanin expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas, however, diminishes during tumour progression. Taken together, these data support a role for podoplanin expression in the initiation but not in the progression of laryngeal cancers. PMID:20196862

  11. Podoplanin expression in the development and progression of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas

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    Fresno Manuel F

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Podoplanin expression is attracting interest as a marker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. We therefore investigated the expression pattern and clinical significance of podoplanin during the development and progression of laryngeal carcinomas. Results Podoplanin expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 84 patients with laryngeal premalignancies and 53 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. We found podoplanin expression extending from the basal to the suprabasal layer of the epithelium in 37 (44% of 84 dysplastic lesions, whereas normal epithelium showed negligible expression. Patients carrying podoplanin-positive lesions had a higher laryngeal cancer incidence than those with negative expression reaching borderline statistical significance (51% versus 30%, P = 0.071. Podoplanin expression in laryngeal carcinomas exhibited two distinct patterns. 20 (38% cases showed diffuse expression in most tumour cells and 33 (62% focal expression at the proliferating periphery of tumour nests. High podoplanin expression was inversely correlated with T classification (P = 0.033, disease stage (P = 0.006, and pathological grade (P = 0.04. There was a trend, although not significant, towards reduced disease-specific survival for patients with low podoplanin levels (P = 0.31 and diffuse expression pattern (P = 0.08. Conclusions Podoplanin expression increases in the early stages of laryngeal tumourigenesis and it seems to be associated with a higher laryngeal cancer risk. Podoplanin expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas, however, diminishes during tumour progression. Taken together, these data support a role for podoplanin expression in the initiation but not in the progression of laryngeal cancers.

  12. HB-EGF expression as a potential biomarker of acquired middle ear cholesteatoma.

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    Xie, Shumin; Wang, Xiaoli; Ren, Hongmiao; Liu, Xiaoyu; Ren, Jihao; Liu, Wei

    2017-08-01

    The heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) plays an essential role in the development and invasiveness of cholesteatoma. This study may help to realize the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma and make HB-EGF a promising target for drug intervention of cholesteatoma. To detect HB-EGF expression in human surgical specimens of acquired middle ear cholesteatoma and analyze its functional role as a regulator of epithelial keratinocytes hyperproliferation. A total of 34 patients who underwent surgical treatment for middle ear cholesteatoma were recruited in the study. The mRNA and protein expression of HB-EGF in middle ear cholesteatoma tissues and normal postauricular skin tissues was investigated by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), immunohistochemical staining, and western blot. The correlation between bone resorption degree and HB-EGF expression was also analyzed. On average, compared with normal postauricular skin, expression of HB-EGF mRNA in the cholesteatoma epithelium was significantly elevated 2.41-fold by RT-qPCR, and HB-EGF protein significantly upregulated 2.32-fold by western blot. Positive HB-EGF immunostaining observed in the basal and suprabasal layers of cholesteatoma epithelium was significantly stronger than in normal postauricular skin. Meanwhile, an obviously positive correlation between HB-EGF protein expression and bone resorption degree was discovered.

  13. Expression of p21/waf1 in oral squamous cell carcinomas--correlation with p53 and mdm2 and cellular proliferation index.

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    Ng, I O; Lam, K Y; Ng, M; Regezi, J A

    1999-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21/waf1 is regulated by p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways. In addition, mdm2 is an oncogene which forms an auto-regulatory loop with the normal p53 protein and its role has been implicated in oncogenesis. To determine whether a correlation exists between the expression of these gene products, tumor differentiation, tumor staging and radiation therapy, we investigated the expression of p21, p53 and mdm2, and cellular proliferation by Ki-67 (MIB1) labeling index using immunohistochemistry in 88 human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) samples from 56 patients. Tumor expression of all nuclear proteins was scored according to the percentage of positive cancer nuclei, both with the cancer tissue as a whole as well as in different epithelial compartments of differentiation. Positive p21, p53, mdm2 and MIB1 staining was present in 82.4, 67.8, 25.9 and 98.8% of the SCC samples. The staining in different epithelial compartments of differentiation varied: those of p21 and mdm2 present predominantly in suprabasal and upper regions of the tumors: those of p53 and MIB1 in basal and suprabasal regions. Higher levels of p21 expression were seen in actively proliferating tumors (P = 0.025). p21 expression positively correlated with mdm2 expression but not with p53 expression. Moreover, the level of p21 expression was higher in older patients (P = 0.024) and female patients (P = 0.008). There was no significant association among p53, mdm2 and MIB1. Expression of p53 was higher in tumors with poorer cellular differentiation and in younger patients (P = 0.038 and 0.028). There was no association between tumor stage by TNM classification and the expression of any of these gene products or proliferation index. Radiation therapy did not alter the expression of any of these. To conclude, p21 protein was overexpressed in oral SCCs, and this overexpression was related to cell proliferation index and mdm2 expression but independent of p53

  14. Assessment of p63 expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas and dysplasias.

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    Bortoluzzi, Marcelo C; Yurgel, Liliane S; Dekker, Nusi P; Jordan, Richard C K; Regezi, Joseph A

    2004-12-01

    p63, a p53 homologue, may be associated with tumorigenesis in epithelial tissues through its inhibition of p53 transactivation functions. We sought to determine the pattern and levels of p63 expression in oral dysplasias and carcinomas using standard immunohistochemical staining. We also assessed and compared expression of p53 and a cell proliferation marker in these lesions. This retrospective cross-sectional survey (n=67) included hyperkeratosis (10), mild dysplasia (9), moderate dysplasia (11), severe dysplasia/in situ carcinoma (10), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (22 [9 well differentiated, 7 moderately differentiated, 6 poor differentiated]), and normal mucosa (5). Serial sections were stained immunohistochemically with antibodies to p63 (4A4 recognizing all p63 isotypes), p53 (DO-7), and Ki-67 (MIB-1) proteins. In preinvasive lesions, both the percentage of positive cells and staining patterns (negative, basal, suprabasal) were assessed. In oral SCCs, the percentage of positive cells was assessed. Statistical analysis was done using the Tukey-Kramer multiple comparisons test. A suprabasal p63 staining pattern was evident in keratinocyte nuclei in the entire range of noninvasive lesions studied, including normal mucosa. Most nuclei in invasive SCCs stained positive. When all grades of dysplasia were combined, the percent of p63 positive cells was significantly greater than hyperkeratosis (P < .01), and well-differentiated SCC (P < .001). Moderately differentiated SCC had statistically significant more positive cells than well-differentiated SSC (P < .01). Comparison of serial sections showed different p63 staining patterns compared to p53 or Ki-67 staining patterns. We conclude that p63 is expressed in oral carcinomas and dysplasias, as determined by immunohistochemical staining with a primary antibody to all isotypes. Neither staining pattern nor percentage of stained cells could be used to differentiate the lesions studied. The statistically significant

  15. ZNF750 is expressed in differentiated keratinocytes and regulates epidermal late differentiation genes.

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    Idan Cohen

    Full Text Available Disrupted skin barrier due to altered keratinocyte differentiation is common in pathologic conditions such as atopic dermatitis, ichthyosis and psoriasis. However, the molecular cascades governing keratinocyte terminal differentiation are poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that a dominant mutation in ZNF750 leads to a clinical phenotype reminiscent of psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis. Here we show that ZNF750 is a nuclear protein bearing a functional C-terminal nuclear localization signal. ZNF750 was specifically expressed in the epidermal suprabasal layers and its expression was augmented during differentiation, both in human skin and in-vitro, peaking in the granular layer. Silencing of ZNF750 in Ca2+-induced HaCaT keratinocytes led to morphologically apparent arrest in the progression of late differentiation, as well as diminished apoptosis and sustained proliferation. ZNF750 knockdown cells presented with markedly reduced expression of epidermal late differentiation markers, including gene subsets of epidermal differentiation complex and skin barrier formation such as FLG, LOR, SPINK5, ALOX12B and DSG1, known to be mutated in various human skin diseases. Furthermore, overexpression of ZNF750 in undifferentiated cells induced terminal differentiation genes. Thus, ZNF750 is a regulator of keratinocyte terminal differentiation and with its downstream targets can serve in future elucidation of therapeutics for common diseases of skin barrier.

  16. Papillomavirus infection of the cervix. III: Relationship of the presence of viral structural proteins to the expression of involucrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhol, M J; Pinkus, G S; Rice, R H; El-Tawil, G H; Lancaster, W D; Jenson, A B; Kurman, R J

    1984-01-01

    Forty-two cervical biopsies with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia were compared with respect to the expression of human papillomavirus (HPV) structural proteins and the expression of the cellular structural protein involucrin, a marker of suprabasal squamous differentiation. HPV structural protein and involucrin expression displayed an inverse correlation with the severity of dysplasia. Both of these proteins were detected in 11 of 28 cases (39%) of mild and moderate dysplasia, but in only two of 14 (14%) cases of severe dysplasia. This difference was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). The presence of HPV was also associated with expression of involucrin in the full thickness of the epithelium, including the basal layer, and an altered staining pattern in the more superficial cells, particularly the koilocytotic cells. These findings support the hypothesis that squamous differentiation is required for the expression of viral structural proteins and that HPV infection begins in the basal epithelium. The study also demonstrates the utility of involucrin staining in differentiating virus-induced cytologic atypia from true neoplasia.

  17. SPINK5 and Netherton syndrome: novel mutations, demonstration of missing LEKTI, and differential expression of transglutaminases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Michael; Tontsidou, Lambrini; Oji, Vinzenz; Aufenvenne, Karin; Schürmeyer-Horst, Funda; Jayakumar, Arumugam; Ständer, Hartmut; Smolle, Josef; Clayman, Gary L; Traupe, Heiko

    2004-09-01

    Netherton syndrome (NTS) is an autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis featuring chronic inflammation of the skin, hair anomalies, epidermal hyperplasia with an impaired epidermal barrier function, failure to thrive and atopic manifestations. The disease is caused by mutations in the SPINK5 gene encoding the serine proteinase inhibitor lympho-epithelial Kazal-type inhibitor (LEKTI). Sequence analyses of SPINK5 in seven NTS patients from five different families allowed us to identify two known and three novel mutations all creating premature termination codons. We developed a monoclonal antibody giving a strong signal for LEKTI in the stratum granulosum of normal skin and demonstrated absence of the protein in NTS epidermis. Immunoblot analysis revealed presence of full length LEKTI and of LEKTI cleavage fragments in normal hair roots, whereas in NTS hair roots LEKTI and its cleavage products were completely missing. Transglutaminase1 activity was present throughout almost the entire suprabasal epidermis in NTS, whereas in normal skin it is restricted to the stratum granulosum. In contrast, immunostaining for transglutaminase3 was absent or faint. Moreover, comparable with the altered pattern in psoriatic skin the epidermis in NTS strongly expressed the serine proteinase inhibitor SKALP/elafin and the anti-microbial protein human beta-defensin 2. These studies demonstrate LEKTI deficiency in the epidermis and in hair roots at the protein level and an aberrant expression of other proteins, especially transglutaminase1 and 3, which may account for the impaired epidermal barrier in NTS.

  18. Altered expression of epithelial integrins and extracellular matrix receptors in oral erythema multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirowsk, G W; Lozada-Nur, F; Dekker, N P; MacPhail, L A; Regezi, J A

    1996-10-01

    Inflammation and ulceration at the epithelium-connective tissue interface, a characteristic of erythema multiforme (EM), may be associated with altered molecular attachment of basal keratinocytes. To determine the expression of basal keratinocyte-associated integrins and their basement membrane ligands in oral EM, specimens of clinically and microscopically confirmed EM (n = 12) and mucosal controls (n = 7) were stained immunohistochemically for the integrins alpha 3, beta 6, beta 1, and beta 4 and for extracellular matrix proteins laminin 1, laminin 5, collagen IV, and collagen VII using a standard avidin-biotin-peroxidase technique. In EM, results showed increased staining intensity for all integrins studied in basal and suprabasal keratinocytes. Basement membrane-associated staining of a6 and b4 was intense, but disrupted and fragmented. In EM, integrin staining was most marked at the summit of the connective tissue papillae. Laminin 5 staining was more intense than in controls, was frequently fragmented, and extended into the lamina propria. Laminin 1 staining was discontinuous and was frequently less intense than in controls. Collagen IV staining in EM was interrupted along the basement membrane. Collagen VII staining was fragmented but unchanged in intensity. These alterations in interface adhesion molecules suggest that hemidesmosome-associated molecules are important in the pathogenesis of EM. The staining intensities and patterns of expression of these adhesion molecules suggest that oral EM is initially focused in the connective tissue papillae.

  19. Leptin receptor is expressed by epidermis and skin appendages in dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercati, Francesca; Maranesi, Margherita; Dall'Aglio, Cecilia; Scocco, Paola; Pascucci, Luisa; Boiti, Cristiano; Ceccarelli, Piero

    2014-10-01

    Leptin is a polypeptide secreted by adipocytes which binds to a specific receptor (Ob-R) that is expressed in various tissues. The wide distribution of the Ob-R suggests that leptin might exert diverse biological functions, not only by regulating energy metabolism and appetite, but also by acting as a mitogen in many cell types, including keratinocytes. In this study, the presence and localization of Ob-R was investigated in the skin of the dog using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical techniques. RT-PCR revealed the presence of Ob-R m-RNA in the skin specimens collected from the dorsal region of two smooth coat breed dogs. Through immunohistochemistry performed on the skin of five dogs, the expression of the receptor was observed in the basal layer of the epidermis, in the hair follicles as well as in the apocrine sweat and sebaceous glands. No staining for Ob-R was detected in the suprabasal epidermis layers. Strong positive signals were observed in many cells of the outer root sheath of hair follicles in growing and in regressive phases. The identification of Ob-R in the above targets suggests that leptin may play a role in the regulation of cyclic renewal of the epidermis and skin appendages in dog. This study represents an important contribution to understand the complex mechanisms that are involved in the skin biology in this species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Prognostic implications of carboxyl-terminus of Hsc70 interacting protein and lysyl-oxidase expression in human breast cancer

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    Patani Neill

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ubiquitin modification of proteins influences cellular processes relevant to carcinogenesis. CHIP (carboxyl-terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein is a chaperone-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase, regulating the stability of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 interacting proteins. CHIP is implicated in the modulation of estrogen receptor (ESR1 and Her-2/neu (ERBB2 stability. LOX (lysyl-oxidase serves intracellular roles and catalyses the cross-linking of extracellular matrix (ECM collagens and elastin. LOX expression is altered in human malignancies and their peri-tumoral stroma. However, paradoxical roles are reported. In this study, the level of mRNA expression of CHIP and LOX were assessed in normal and malignant breast tissue and correlated with clinico-pathological parameters. Materials and Methods: Breast cancer (BC tissues (n = 127 and normal tissues (n = 33 underwent RNA extraction and reverse transcription; transcript levels were determined using real-time quantitative PCR and normalized against CK-19. Transcript levels were analyzed against TNM stage, nodal involvement, tumor grade and clinical outcome over a ten-year follow-up period. Results: CHIP expression decreased with increasing Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI: NPI-1 vs. NPI-3 (12.2 vs. 0.2, P = 0.0264, NPI-2 vs. NPI-3 (3 vs. 0.2, P = 0.0275. CHIP expression decreased with increasing TNM stage: TNM-1 vs. TNM-2 (12 vs. 0, P = 0.0639, TNM-1 vs. TNM-2-4 (12 vs. 0, P = 0.0434. Lower transcript levels were associated with increasing tumor grade: grade 1 vs. grade 3 (17.7 vs. 0.3, P = 0.0266, grade 2 vs. grade 3 (5 vs. 0.3, P = 0.0454. The overall survival (OS for tumors classified as ′low-level expression′, was poorer than those with ′high-level expression′ (118.1 vs. 152.3 months, P = 0.039. LOX expression decreased with increasing NPI: NPI-1 vs. NPI-2 (3 vs. 0, P = 0.0301 and TNM stage: TNM-1 = 3854639, TNM-2 = 908900, TNM-3 = 329, TNM-4 = 1.232 (P = NS. Conclusion: CHIP

  1. C-Jun expression in lichen planus, psoriasis, and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Marae, Alaa Hassan; Shoeib, Mohammed; Dawood, Ghada; Abouelfath, Enas

    2018-01-01

    The AP-1 transcription factor complex is a key player in regulating inflammatory processes, cell proliferation, differentiation, and cell transformation. The aim of the present study is to investigate C-Jun (one of AP-1complex) expression and its proliferative role in skin samples of lichen planus, psoriasis as common inflammatory skin diseases and squamous cell carcinoma using immunohistochemical method. The present study was carried out on skin biopsies of 15 psoriatic patients, 15 lichen planus patients, 15 SCC, and 15 normal skin biopsies. Nuclear expression of C-Jun was detected in basal and few suprabasal layers of epidermis of normal skin. C-Jun was expressed in the whole epidermal layers of both psoriasis (14/15) and lichen planus (15/15) in addition to its expression in lymphocytic infiltrate in the latter in about half of cases (8/15). C-Jun was also expressed in 93.3% (14/15) of SCC in a percentage lower than that of psoriasis, lichen planus, and normal skin. The percentage of C-Jun expression in SCC was significantly associated with an early stage (p = 0.000), free surgical margins (p = 0.022), and small tumour size (p = 0.003). The marked reduction of C-Jun in SCC in comparison to normal skin and inflammatory skin dermatoses may refer to its tumour suppressor activity. C-Jun expression in SCC carries favourable prognosis. Absence of significant association between C-Jun and Ki-67 either in SCC or inflammatory skin diseases indicates that it does not affect proliferative capacity of cells.

  2. Invagination of Ectodermal Placodes Is Driven by Cell Intercalation-Mediated Contraction of the Suprabasal Tissue Canopy.

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    Eleni Panousopoulou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ectodermal organs such as teeth, hair follicles, and mammary glands begin their development as placodes. These are local epithelial thickenings that invaginate into mesenchymal space. There is currently little mechanistic understanding of the cellular processes driving the early morphogenesis of these organs and of why they lead to invagination rather than simple tissue thickening. Here, we show that placode invagination depends on horizontal contraction of superficial layers of cells that form a shrinking and thickening canopy over underlying epithelial cells. This contraction occurs by cell intercalation and is mechanically coupled to the basal layer by peripheral basal cells that extend apically and centripetally while remaining attached to the basal lamina. This process is topologically analogous to well-studied apical constriction mechanisms, but very different from them both in scale and molecular mechanism. Mechanical cell-cell coupling is propagated through the tissue via E-cadherin junctions, which in turn depend on tissue-wide tension. We further present evidence that this mechanism is conserved among different ectodermal organs and is, therefore, a novel and fundamental morphogenetic motif widespread in embryonic development.

  3. The expression of E-cadherin and cathepsin-D in normal oral mucosa, oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: A comparative analysis between immunohistochemistry and routine histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogesh, Tl; Narayan, Tv; Shreedhar, Balasundari; Shashidara, R; Leekymohanty

    2011-09-01

    E-cadherin is known to be an invasion suppressor gene and cathepsin-D, a protease, which is an invasion promoter and plays a central role in solid tumors including oral cancer. To look for the expression pattern in normal buccal mucosa, dysplastic oral epithelium and oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) along with their correlation to individual atypical features, thereby providing an objective to the grading system in predicting the fate of affected epithelium. To elucidate the expression patterns of these markers, we examined immunohistochemically on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded sections 22 dysplastic epithelia, eight SCC and ten normal buccal mucosa. In dysplastic epithelium slight loss of expression of E-cadherin was noted as grade of dysplasia increased. Two cases of carcinoma clearance showed only basal and suprabasal staining. The staining varied in SCC with patchy to complete absence of expression. With cathepsin-D fine to moderate granular cytoplasmic staining was noted in most of the dysplastic epithelium. Similar staining was noted in SCC. The atypical features which strongly correlated to loss of expression of E-cadherin and intense cathepsin-D expression are basilar hyperplasia, loss of cohesion, mitosis, loss of polarity and drop shaped rete ridges. The result of the study shows that the above atypical features should be given more weightage in addition to traditional grading system, in predicting the fate of affected epithelium. Additional studies with larger sample size and using monoclonal antibody against cathepsin-D may further strengthen our findings.

  4. Expression of p75NGFR, a Proliferative and Basal Cell Marker, in the Buccal Mucosa Epithelium during Re-epithelialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Akihiro; Muramatsu, Takashi; Lee, Jong-Min; Higa, Kazunari; Shinozaki, Naoshi; Jung, Han-Sung; Shibahara, Takahiko

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the expression of p75 NGFR , a proliferative and basal cell marker, in the mouse buccal mucosa epithelium during wound healing in order to elucidate the role of epithelial stem cells. Epithelial defects were generated in the epithelium of the buccal mucosa of 6-week-old mice using CO 2 laser irradiation. BrdU was immediately administered to mice following laser irradiation. They were then sacrificed after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Paraffin sections were prepared and the irradiated areas were analyzed using immunohistochemistry with anti-p75 NGFR , BrdU, PCNA, and CK14 antibodies. During re-epithelialization, PCNA (–)/p75 NGFR (+) cells extended to the wound, which then closed, whereas PCNA (+)/p75 NGFR (+) cells were not observed at the edge of the wound. In addition, p75 NGFR (–)/CK14 (+), which reflected the presence of post-mitotic differentiating cells, was observed in the supra-basal layers of the extended epithelium. BrdU (+)/p75 NGFR (+), which reflected the presence of epithelial stem cells, was detected sparsely in buccal basal epithelial cells after healing, and disappeared after 7 days. These results suggest that p75 NGFR (+) keratinocytes are localized in the basal layer, which contains oral epithelial stem cells, and retain the ability to proliferate in order to regenerate the buccal mucosal epithelium

  5. Immunohistochemical analysis of cytokeratin expression in reactive eccrine syringofibroadenoma-like lesion: a comparative study with eccrine syringofibroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, T; Watanabe, S; Nomura, K

    2000-04-01

    In addition to solitary eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA), there is another type of ESFA which is associated with underlying dermatoses (reactive ESFA-like lesion). Five lesions in 4 patients of reactive ESFA-like lesion were analyzed by an immunohistochemical method using 13 kinds of anti-cytokeratin (CK) antibodies. Two cases of solitary ESFA were also studied by the same procedure for comparison. Suprabasal staining pattern of AE1 and MNF116, which stain CKs 6, 16 and 17, markers of hyperproliferative state, was observed diffusely in 5 lesions of reactive ESFA-like lesions except for focal negative staining in one case, and was observed focally in one case of solitary ESFA. Furthermore, differentiation-specific cytokeratin expression was reduced in 3 of 5 lesions of reactive ESFA-like lesions. Both ESFA and reactive ESFA showed basically similar immunoreactivity suggesting differentiation toward the dermal duct. The above slight difference in immunoreactivity between both lesions may be explained due to inflammatory infiltrates associated with underlying dermatoses.

  6. Immunohistochemical expression of p53, p16 and hTERT in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahao, Aline Correa; Bonelli, Beatriz Venturi; Nunes, Fábio Daumas; Dias, Eliane Pedra; Cabral, Márcia Grillo

    2011-01-01

    Oral carcinogenesis is a multi-step process. One possible step is the development of potentially malignant disorders known as leukoplakia and erytroplakia. The objective of this study was to use immunohistochemistry to analyze the patterns of expression of the cell-cycle regulatory proteins p53 and p16(INK4a) in potentially malignant disorders (PMD) of the oral mucosa (with varying degrees of dysplasia) and in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to correlate them with the expression of telomerase (hTERT). Fifteen PMD and 30 OSCC tissue samples were analyzed. Additionally, 5 cases of oral epithelial hyperplasia (OEH) were added to analyze clinically altered mucosa presenting as histological hyperplasia without dysplasia. p53 positivity was observed in 93.3% of PMD, in 63.3% of OSCC and in 80% of OEH. Although there was no correlation between p53 expression and the grade of dysplasia, all cases with severe dysplasia presented p53 suprabasal immunoexpression. p16(INK4a) expression was observed in 26.7% of PMD, in 43.3% of OSCC and in 2 cases of OEH. The p16(INK4a) expression in OEH, PMD and OSCC was unable to differentiate non-dysplastic from dysplastic oral epithelium. hTERT positivity was observed in all samples of OEH and PMD and in 90% of OSCC. The high hTERT immunoexpression in all three lesions indicates that telomerase is present in clinically altered oral mucosa but does not differentiate hyperplastic from dysplastic oral epithelium. In PMD of the oral mucosa, the p53 immunoexpression changes according to the degree of dysplasia by mechanisms independent of p16(INK4a) and hTERT.

  7. Protein and mRNA expression of simple epithelial keratins in normal, dysplastic, and malignant oral epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, L.; Morgan, P. R.; Lane, E. B.

    1994-01-01

    Simple epithelial keratins K7, K8, and K18 are present in no more than trace amounts in normal stratified squamous epithelial but have been reported in squamous cell carcinomas. With the aim of determining the level at which keratin synthesis is regulated in vivo, we have compared the expression of mRNA by in situ hybridization and protein by immunohistochemistry for K7, K8, and K18 in a series of normal, dysplastic, and malignant oral epithelia. In normal epithelia mRNAs for K7, K8, and K18 were present in basal and lower spinous cells but adjacent sections were generally negative for the respective proteins. In severe dysplasia there was irregular suprabasal extension of K8 and K18 mRNAs in all cases and their proteins were expressed in more than half of the cases. The carcinomas expressed K8 and K18 mRNAs homogeneously and were strongly reactive for these keratin proteins but K7 expression appeared reduced in malignancy. These results are consistent with the post-transcriptional regulation of K7, K8, and K18 expression in normal epithelia and the presence of their proteins in dysplastic and malignant epithelia suggests the release of these epithelial cells from a post-transcriptional block on K8 and K18 translation. Alternatively, rapid degradation of K8 and K18 protein might be occurring in normal epithelia but be suppressed in dysplasia and malignancy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7527618

  8. Immunohistochemical expression of p53, p16 and hTERT in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Correa Abrahao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral carcinogenesis is a multi-step process. One possible step is the development of potentially malignant disorders known as leukoplakia and erytroplakia. The objective of this study was to use immunohistochemistry to analyze the patterns of expression of the cell-cycle regulatory proteins p53 and p16INK4a in potentially malignant disorders (PMD of the oral mucosa (with varying degrees of dysplasia and in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC to correlate them with the expression of telomerase (hTERT. Fifteen PMD and 30 OSCC tissue samples were analyzed. Additionally, 5 cases of oral epithelial hyperplasia (OEH were added to analyze clinically altered mucosa presenting as histological hyperplasia without dysplasia. p53 positivity was observed in 93.3% of PMD, in 63.3% of OSCC and in 80% of OEH. Although there was no correlation between p53 expression and the grade of dysplasia, all cases with severe dysplasia presented p53 suprabasal immunoexpression. p16INK4a expression was observed in 26.7% of PMD, in 43.3% of OSCC and in 2 cases of OEH. The p16INK4a expression in OEH, PMD and OSCC was unable to differentiate non-dysplastic from dysplastic oral epithelium. hTERT positivity was observed in all samples of OEH and PMD and in 90% of OSCC. The high hTERT immunoexpression in all three lesions indicates that telomerase is present in clinically altered oral mucosa but does not differentiate hyperplastic from dysplastic oral epithelium. In PMD of the oral mucosa, the p53 immunoexpression changes according to the degree of dysplasia by mechanisms independent of p16INK4a and hTERT.

  9. Toll-like receptor 4 expression in the epithelium of inflammatory periapical lesions. An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Leonardi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLR are essential for the innate immune response against invading pathogens and have been described in immunocompetent cells of areas affected by periapical disease. Besides initiating the inflammatory response, they also directly regulate epithelial cell proliferation and survival in a variety of settings. This study evaluates the in situ expression of TLR4 in periapical granulomas (PG and radicular cysts, focusing on the epithelial compartment. Twenty-one periapical cysts (PC and 10 PG were analyzed; 7 dentigerous non-inflamed follicular cyst (DC served as control. TLR4 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. TLR4 immunoreaction products were detected in the epithelium of all specimens, with a higher percentage of immunostained cells in PG. Although TLR4 overexpression was detected in both PG and PC, there were differences that seemed to be related to the nature of the lesion, since in PG all epithelial cells of strands, islands and trabeculae were strongly immunoreactive for TLR4, whereas in PC only some areas of the basal and suprabasal epithelial layers were immunostained. This staining pattern is consistent with the action of TLR4: in PG it could promote formation of epithelial cell rests of Malassez and in epithelial strands and islands the enhancement of cell survival, proliferation and migration, whereas in PC TLR4 could protect the lining epithelium from extensive apoptosis. These findings go some way towards answering the intriguing question of why many epithelial strands or islands in PG and the lining epithelium of apical cysts regress after non-surgical endodontic therapy, and suggest that TLR4 plays a key role in the pathobiology of the inflammatory process related to periapical disease.

  10. Imunoexpressão da citoqueratina 16 e do antígeno nuclear Ki-67 no colesteatoma adquirido da orelha média Expression patterns of cytokeratin 16 and the nuclear antigen Ki-67 in acquired middle ear cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina S. B. Pereira

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Ocolesteatoma da orelha média é caracterizado pela presença de epitélio escamoso estratificado queratinizado nesta cavidade, causando destruição óssea e podendo levar a complicações. Algumas substâncias como a citoqueratina 16 e o Ki-67, marcadores de proliferação celular, vêm sendo utilizadas para estudar essa doença. A CK 16 é um filamento protéico, situado no citoplasma das células epiteliais, característico de epitélios hiperproliferativos. O Ki-67 é um antígeno nuclear que aparece nas células em estágio de proliferação. Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a imunoexpressão da CK 16 e do Ki-67 no colesteatoma adquirido. Forma de estudo: Clínico prospectivo. Material e Método: Foram colhidas amostras de colesteatoma de 31 pacientes submetidos à cirurgia otológica, sendo 20 adultos e 11 crianças, no período de 1998 e 2000. Essas amostras foram submetidas à análise histológica e imuno-histoquímica para estudo da expressão da CK 16 e do Ki-67 na matriz do colesteatoma. Resultado: A análise dos resultados mostrou a presença da CK 16 nas camadas suprabasais da matriz do colesteatoma e, do Ki-67, na camada basal, estendendo-se para as camadas suprabasais e, inclusive, para a camada apical da matriz. A reação aos anticorpos anti-CK 16 e Ki-67 foi heterogênea. A correlação entre a CK 16 e o Ki-67 suprabasal com variáveis morfológicas, como acantose do epitélio e hiperplasia da camada basal formando cones epiteliais em direção à perimatriz, foi positiva e significativa. Também houve relação positiva e significativa entre a CK 16 e o Ki-67 suprabasal e apical. Conclusão: Esses resultados permitem concluir que o colesteatoma tem características hiperproliferativas, expressando a CK 16 e o Ki-67 na sua matriz.Introduction: Cholesteatomas of the middle ear are characterized by the presence of stratified squamous epithelium in this cavity presenting with highly invasive

  11. Intraoperative Sentinel Lymph Node Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Richard; Christensen, Anders; Java, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    % of tumours. Discordance between different techniques indicated that OSNA was more sensitive than qRT-PCR or RNA-ISH, which in turn were more sensitive than IHC. OSNA results showed CK19 expression in 80% of primary cases, so if used for diagnosis of lymph node metastasis would lead to a false-negative result...... in 20% of patients with cervical lymph node metastases. CONCLUSIONS: OSNA in its current form is not suitable for use in OSCC SLNB due to inadequate expression of the CK19 target in all case. However, the same assay technology would likely be very promising if applied using a more ubiquitous squamous...

  12. Loss of epidermal AP1 transcription factor function reduces filaggrin level, alters chemokine expression and produces an ichthyosis-related phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christina A; Rorke, Ellen A; Adhikary, Gautam; Xu, Wen; Eckert, Richard L

    2017-06-01

    AP1 transcription factors are important controllers of epidermal differentiation. Multiple family members are expressed in the epidermis in a differentiation-dependent manner, where they function to regulate gene expression. To study the role of AP1 factor signaling, TAM67 (dominant-negative c-jun) was inducibly expressed in the suprabasal epidermis. The TAM67-positive epidermis displays keratinocyte hyperproliferation, hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis, delayed differentiation, extensive subdermal vasodilation, nuclear loricrin localization, tail and digit pseudoainhum and reduced filaggrin level. These changes are associated with increased levels of IFNγ, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 (Th1-associated chemokines), and CCL1, CCL2, CCL5 and CCL11 (Th2-associated chemokines) in the epidermis and serum. S100A8 and S100A9 protein levels are also markedly elevated. These changes in epidermal chemokine level are associated with increased levels of the corresponding chemokine mRNA. The largest increases were observed for CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and S100A8 and S100A9. To assess the role of CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, which bind to CXCR3, on phenotype development, we expressed TAM67 in CXCR3 knockout mice. Using a similar strategy, we examine the role of S100A8 and S100A9. Surprisingly, loss of CXCR3 or S100A8/A9 did not attenuate phenotype development. These studies suggest that interfering with epidermal AP1 factor signaling initiates a loss of barrier function leading to enhanced epidermal chemokine production, but that CXCR3 and S100A8/A9 do not mediate the phenotypic response.

  13. Regulation of Hsp27 and Hsp70 expression in human and mouse skin construct models by caveolae following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, Adrienne T.; Hayden, Patrick J.; Casillas, Robert P.; Heck, Diane E.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Dermal exposure to the vesicant sulfur mustard causes marked inflammation and tissue damage. Basal keratinocytes appear to be a major target of sulfur mustard. In the present studies, mechanisms mediating skin toxicity were examined using a mouse skin construct model and a full-thickness human skin equivalent (EpiDerm-FT TM ). In both systems, administration of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES, 100-1000 μM) at the air surface induced mRNA and protein expression of heat shock proteins 27 and 70 (Hsp27 and Hsp70). CEES treatment also resulted in increased expression of caveolin-1, the major structural component of caveolae. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Hsp27, Hsp70 and caveolin-1 were localized in basal and suprabasal layers of the epidermis. Caveolin-1 was also detected in fibroblasts in the dermal component of the full thickness human skin equivalent. Western blot analysis of caveolar membrane fractions isolated by sucrose density centrifugation demonstrated that Hsp27 and Hsp70 were localized in caveolae. Treatment of mouse keratinocytes with filipin III or methyl-β-cyclodextrin, which disrupt caveolar structure, markedly suppressed CEES-induced Hsp27 and Hsp70 mRNA and protein expression. CEES treatment is known to activate JNK and p38 MAP kinases; in mouse keratinocytes, inhibition of these enzymes suppressed CEES-induced expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70. These data suggest that MAP kinases regulate Hsp 27 and Hsp70; moreover, caveolae-mediated regulation of heat shock protein expression may be important in the pathophysiology of vesicant-induced skin toxicity.

  14. Gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, C.E.; Crawford, B.D.; Walters, R.A.; Enger, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    We prepared probes for isolating functional pieces of the metallothionein locus. The probes enabled a variety of experiments, eventually revealing two mechanisms for metallothionein gene expression, the order of the DNA coding units at the locus, and the location of the gene site in its chromosome. Once the switch regulating metallothionein synthesis was located, it could be joined by recombinant DNA methods to other, unrelated genes, then reintroduced into cells by gene-transfer techniques. The expression of these recombinant genes could then be induced by exposing the cells to Zn 2+ or Cd 2+ . We would thus take advantage of the clearly defined switching properties of the metallothionein gene to manipulate the expression of other, perhaps normally constitutive, genes. Already, despite an incomplete understanding of how the regulatory switch of the metallothionein locus operates, such experiments have been performed successfully

  15. Apoptolysis: a novel mechanism of skin blistering in pemphigus vulgaris linking the apoptotic pathways to basal cell shrinkage and suprabasal acantholysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grando, S.A.; Bystryn, J.C.; Chernyavsky, A.I.

    2009-01-01

    of EGF receptor, Src, mTOR, p38 MAPK and other signalling elements downstream of ligated antigens, elevation of intracellular calcium and launching of the cell death cascades. (3) Basal cell shrinkage due to: (i) collapse and retraction of the tonofilaments cleaved by executioner caspases; and (ii...

  16. Immunohistochemical expression of protein 53, murine double minute 2, B-cell lymphoma 2, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in odontogenic cysts and keratocystic odontogenic tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hébel Cavalcanti Galvão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Even though odontogenic cysts share a similar histogenesis, they show different growth and differentiation profile due to differences in the proliferative cellular activity. Aims: We perform an immunohistochemical assessment of protein 53 (p53, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2, and murine double minute 2 (MDM2 expression in odontogenic cysts and keratocystic odontogenic tumor analyzing their correlation with the biological behavior of these lesions. Materials and Methods: By the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method with antibodies against p53, PCNA, bcl-2, and MDM2 proteins, 11 radicular cysts, 11 dentigerous cysts, and 11 keratocystic odontogenic tumor were analyzed. The non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskall-Wallis test (P ≤ 0.05 were used to analyze the data. Results: Immunopositivity for PCNA was observed in all cases appraised, predominantly in the suprabasal layer of keratocystic odontogenic tumor epithelial lining (SD ± 19.44, but no significant differences were found among the groups of lesions. Bcl-2 immunoexpression was observed especially in the basal layer of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. PCNA LI was significantly higher than bcl-2 LI in keratocystic odontogenic tumor. MDM2 and p53 immunoexpression were not detected in the lesions studied. Among the evaluated lesions, the keratocystic odontogenic tumor showed different immunoexpression of the proliferation and apoptosis markers. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the keratocystic odontogenic tumor presents distinct biological behavior of the odontogenic cysts, as for the processes of proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation, reinforcing the information in favor of the neoplastic nature of this lesion.

  17. Immunohistochemical characterization of mammary squamous cell carcinoma of the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Francesco; Sarli, Giuseppe; Brunetti, Barbara; Morandi, Federico; Benazzi, Cinzia

    2008-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the mammary gland is rare in both veterinary and human medicine. Whereas human metaplastic and squamous variants are known, the objectives of the current study were to ascertain the presence of such entities in canine mammary tumors and to distinguish them from other (epidermal, sweat gland) squamous tumors that may develop in the same area. A panel of antibodies (anti-cytokeratin [CK] 19, CK 14, CK 5/6, pancytokeratin, and vimentin) was used on 18 mammary gland malignancies with squamous features and 16 malignant skin tumors (11 squamous cell carcinomas of the skin and 5 sweat glands). Fifteen of the 18 mammary carcinomas were classified as metaplastic carcinomas, and the remaining 3 were classified as squamous cell carcinomas. The 2 most useful markers to establish the histogenesis of mammary tumors were pancytokeratin and CK 19. All other antibodies were equally expressed (CK 14 and 5/6) in all histotypes. The antibody panel discriminated primary epidermal squamous tumors (pancytokeratin positive and CK 19 negative) from gland-derived squamous neoplasms (pancytokeratin positive and CK 19 positive) but failed to distinguish primary mammary tumors from other squamous tumors of glandular origin.

  18. Immunohistochemicai study of Ki- 67 expression in unicystic Ameloblastoma and Dentigerous cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslami M.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Differentiation of dentigerous cyst from unicystic ameloblastoma, discovering any initial ameloblastic changes in lining epithelium of dentigerous cyst at early stage, and differentiation between hyperplastic odontogenic epithelium in fibrous capsule of dentigerous cyst from ameloblastic proliferation, need to an accurate and reliable technique."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to determine and compare Ki-67 immunoreactivity in various locations of the epithelium of Dentigerous cyst and Unicystic Ameloblastoma."nMaterials and Methods: In this historical Cohort study, 15 cases of dentigerous cyst and 9 cases of unicystic ameloblastoma were selected. Immunohistochemistry staining was performed by M1B-1 (murine monoclonal antibody against Ki-67. The stained nucleous were counted in basal and suprabasal layer of lining epithelium of both lesions in 3000 epithelial cells. Finally, the percentage of positive cells (presented as labeling index was calculated, t- student test was used to analyze the related data."nResults: Ki-67 (LI in basal layer of Dentigerous cyst (2.59±1.66 and Unicystic Ameloblastoma (3.76±79 had no significant differences, but Ki-67 (LI in suprabasal layer of unicystic ameloblastoma (2.15±0.69 was significantly higher than dentigerous cyst (0.77±0.55 P=0.003."nThe difference between the average numbers of positive cells for Ki-67 (LI in these two lesions was statistically significant (P<0.05 and it was higher in Unicystic Ameloblastoma than Dentigerous cyst."nConclusion: Based on the findings of this study, it is suggested that Ki-67 (LI in suprabasal layer or throughout the epithelium can be considered as a useful marker for differential diagnosis between dentigerous cyst and unicystic ameloblastoma.

  19. Express web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Yaapa, Hage

    2013-01-01

    Express Web Application Development is a practical introduction to learning about Express. Each chapter introduces you to a different area of Express, using screenshots and examples to get you up and running as quickly as possible.If you are looking to use Express to build your next web application, ""Express Web Application Development"" will help you get started and take you right through to Express' advanced features. You will need to have an intermediate knowledge of JavaScript to get the most out of this book.

  20. Expressão das citoceratinas em dermatoses infecto- parasitárias associadas à hiperplasia epidérmica Expression of the cytokeratins in infectious and parasitic skin diseases associated with epidermal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina Marques Nogueira-Castañon

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: As citoceratinas(C são as proteínas estruturais mais importantes das células epiteliais e exibem a maior heterogeneidade dentre todas as proteínas dos filamentos intermediários. Seu estudo através de imunomarcação possibilita a análise estrutural do citoesqueleto em vários afecções neoplásicas e inflamatórias. OBJETIVOS: Verificar o padrão imuno-histoquímico da expressão das citoceratinas na epiderme de doenças infecto-parasitárias associadas à hiperplasia escamosa. MÉTODOS: Cortes histológicos obtidos de tecidos pré-fixados e incluidos em parafina à partir de lesões de cromomicose, paracoccidioidomicose, leishmaniose e condiloma acuminado foram marcados com os anticorpos DEK10, LL025, LL002 e AE1 pela técnica de imunoperoxidase (avidina-biotina. RESULTADOS: A análise de áreas com intensidade variável de hiperplasia epidérmica presentes nos fragmentos mostrou exclusivamente e/ou predominantemente nas quatro doenças: ausência de expressão da C10 nas áreas de hiperplasia intensa e retardo da expressão nas áreas de hiperplasia moderada e/ou ausente; padrão suprabasal de marcação para a C16 independentemente do grau de hiperplasia como também, liberação de epítopos suprabasais para os marcadores LL002 (C14 e AE1 (C10,14,16,19. CONCLUSÕES: As modificações indicam que, independentemente da natureza do agente etiológico e do grau de hiperplasia presente, ocorrem alterações na diferenciação e proliferação do ceratinócito.BACKGROUND: Cytokeratins (K are the major structural proteins of epithelial cells and they display the greatest heterogeneity of all intermediate filament proteins. The study of many isolated cytokeratins by immunomarcation enables the structural verification of the cytoskeleton in many neoplastic and inflammatory diseases. OBJECTIVE: To verify the immunohistochemical pattern of cytokeratin expression in infectious and parasitic diseases associated with squamous

  1. Recombinant gene expression protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tuan, Rocky S

    1997-01-01

    .... A fundamental requirement for successful recombinant gene expression is the design of the cloning vector and the choice of the host organism for expression. Recombinant Gene Expression Protocols grows out of the need for a laboratory manual that provides the reader the background and rationale, as well as the practical protocols for the preparation of...

  2. Neuroglobin over expressing mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Zindy; Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Nyengaard, Jens R

    2013-01-01

    showed over expression to be confined to primarily the cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and only in neurons. The level and expression pattern of endogenous Neuroglobin was unaffected by insertion of the over expressing Ngb transgene. Neuroglobin over expression resulted in a significant reduction...... previous reports, Neuroglobin over expression is not global but confined to a few well-defined brain regions, and only in neurons. This study confirms previous reports showing a correlation between reduced infarct volume and elevated Neuroglobin levels, but underlines the need to study the likely...

  3. Expressiveness in musical emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Roy, Mathieu; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate how emotion category, characterized by distinct musical structures (happiness, sadness, threat) and expressiveness (mechanical, expressive) may influence overt and covert behavioral judgments and physiological responses in musically trained and untrained listeners. Mechanical and expressive versions of happy, sad and scary excerpts were presented while physiological measures were recorded. Participants rated the intensity of the emotion they felt. In addition, they monitored excerpts for the presence of brief breaths. Results showed that the emotion categories were rated higher in the expressive than in the mechanical versions and that this effect was larger in musicians. Moreover, expressive excerpts were found to increase skin conductance level more than the mechanical ones, independently of their arousal value, and to slow down response times in the breath detection task relative to the mechanical versions, suggesting enhanced capture of attention by expressiveness. Altogether, the results support the key role of the performer's expression in the listener's emotional response to music.

  4. Characterization of two distinct liver progenitor cell subpopulations of hematopoietic and hepatic origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcelle, V.; Stieger, B.; Gjinovci, A.; Wollheim, C.B.; Gauthier, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    Despite extensive studies, the hematopoietic versus hepatic origin of liver progenitor oval cells remains controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the origin of such cells after liver injury and to establish an oval cell line. Rat liver injury was induced by subcutaneous insertion of 2-AAF pellets for 7 days with subsequent injection of CCl 4 . Livers were removed 9 to 13 days post-CCl 4 treatment. Immunohistochemistry was performed using anti-c-kit, OV6, Thy1, CK19, AFP, vWF and Rab3b. Isolated non-parenchymal cells were grown on mouse embryonic fibroblast, and their gene expression profile was characterized by RT-PCR. We identified a subpopulation of OV6/CK19/Rab3b-expressing cells that was activated in the periportal region of traumatized livers. We also characterized a second subpopulation that expressed the HSCs marker c-kit but not Thy1. Although we successfully isolated both cell types, OV6/CK19/Rab3b + cells fail to propagate while c-kit + -HSCs appeared to proliferate for up to 7 weeks. Cells formed clusters which expressed c-kit, Thy1 and albumin. Our results indicate that a bona fide oval progenitor cell population resides within the liver and is distinct from c-kit + -HSCs. Oval cells require the hepatic niche to proliferate, while cells mobilized from the circulation proliferate and transdifferentiate into hepatocytes without evidence of cell fusion

  5. Relative microvessel area of the primary tumour, and not lymph node status, predicts the presence of bone marrow micrometastases detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in patients with clinically non-metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoy, Ina H; Salgado, Roberto; Elst, Hilde; Van Dam, Peter; Weyler, Joost; Van Marck, Eric; Scharpé, Simon; Vermeulen, Peter B; Dirix, Luc Y

    2005-01-01

    About 50% of patients with breast cancer have no involvement of axillary lymph nodes at diagnosis and can be considered cured after primary locoregional treatment. However, about 20–30% will experience distant relapse. The group of patients at risk is not well characterised: recurrence is probably due to the establishment of micrometastases before treatment. Given the early steps of metastasis in which tumour cells interact with endothelial cells of blood vessels, and, given the independent prognostic value in breast cancer of both the quantification of tumour vascularisation and the detection of micrometastases in the bone marrow, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between vascularisation, measured by Chalkley morphometry, and the bone marrow content of cytokeratin-19 (CK-19) mRNA, quantified by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, in a series of 68 patients with localised untreated breast cancer. The blood concentration of factors involved in angiogenesis (interleukin-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor) and of factors involved in coagulation (D-dimer, fibrinogen, platelets) was also measured. When bone marrow CK-19 relative gene expression (RGE) was categorised according to the cut-off value of 0.77 (95th centile of control patients), 53% of the patients had an elevated CK-19 RGE. Patients with bone marrow micrometastases, on the basis of an elevated CK-19 RGE, had a mean Chalkley count of 7.5 ± 1.7 (median 7, standard error [SE] 0.30) compared with a mean Chalkley count of 6.5 ± 1.7 in other patients (median 6, SE 0.3) (Mann–Whitney U-test; P = 0.04). Multiple regression analysis revealed that Chalkley count, not lymph node status, independently predicted CK-19 RGE status (P = 0.04; odds ratio 1.38; 95% confidence interval 1.009–1.882). Blood parameters reflecting angiogenesis and coagulation were positively correlated with Chalkley count and/or CK-19 RGE. Our data are in support of an association between

  6. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into epidermal-like cells using a novel co-culture technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongjie; Chai, Jiake; Shen, Chuanan; Han, Yanfu; Sun, Tianjun

    2014-08-01

    Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) isolated from human umbilical Wharton's Jelly are a population of primitive and pluripotent cells. In specific conditions, hUCMSCs can differentiate into various cells, including adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, neurocytes, and endothelial cells. However, few studies have assessed their differentiation into epidermal cells in vitro. To assess the potential of hUCMSCs to differentiate into epidermal cells, a microporous membrane-based indirect co-culture system was developed in this study. Epidermal stem cells (ESCs) were seeded on the bottom of the microporous membrane, and hUCMSCs were seeded on the top of the microporous membrane. Cell morphology was assessed by phase contrast microscopy, and the expression of early markers of epidermal cell lineage, P63, cytokeratin19 (CK19), and β1-integrin, was determined by immunofluorescence, Western blot, and quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) analyses. hUCMSC morphology changed from spindle-like to oblate or irregular with indirect co-culture with ESCs; they also expressed greater levels P63, CK19, and β1-integrin mRNA and protein compared to the controls (p cultures, indirect co-culture expressed significantly greater CK19 protein (p culture model.

  7. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  8. Apocrine Sweat Gland Ductal Adenoma with Sebaceous Differentiation in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Michishita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old male, Border Collie, developed a firm mass, measuring approximately 1 cm in diameter, in the left buccal skin. Histologically, the mass was composed of ductal structures lined by bilayered luminal epithelial and basaloid tumor cells along with a few nests of sebaceous cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the luminal epithelial tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK, CAM5.2 and CK19 but not for CK14 or p63. In contrast, the basaloid tumor cells were positive for CK14, p63, and αSMA but not for CK19 or CAM5.2. CK8 expression was observed in both luminal epithelial and basaloid tumor cells. The tumor cells with sebaceous differentiation were positive for CK14 but not for the other markers. This is the first case of an apocrine sweat gland ductal adenoma with sebaceous differentiation occurring in the buccal skin of a dog.

  9. Darwin and Emotion Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Ursula; Thibault, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    In his book "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals," Charles Darwin (1872/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of…

  10. Designing Emotionally Expressive Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsiourti, Christiana; Weiss, Astrid; Wac, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Socially assistive agents, be it virtual avatars or robots, need to engage in social interactions with humans and express their internal emotional states, goals, and desires. In this work, we conducted a comparative study to investigate how humans perceive emotional cues expressed by humanoid...... with abstract humanlike features. A qualitative and quantitative data analysis confirmed the expressive power of the face, but also demonstrated that body expressions or even simple head and locomotion movements could convey emotional information. These findings suggest that emotion recognition accuracy varies...... robots through five communication modalities (face, head, body, voice, locomotion) and examined whether the degree of a robot's human-like embodiment affects this perception. In an online survey, we asked people to identify emotions communicated by Pepper -a highly human-like robot and Hobbit – a robot...

  11. The expressions of emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishnivetz, Berta

    Abstract On the broadness of the vast field called “Expressions of Emotions” this study focuses on the whole bodily emotional expression. The main question posed is: Whether there are movement patterns specific to each emotion?. I carried out a thorough review of the theories of emotion...... and of expressions of emotions and movement notation that provided the sources for a careful research plan for the empirical process of this study. On this basis I chose to record onto video the four previously choreographed movements that I considered to correspond each of the following emotions: joy, fear, sadness...... emotional display. The observers closely matched the investigator’s own parameters of what was expressed in the video. Other conditions which this observing system was designed to fulfil: to use simple and “objective” terms, only a short training period, and not use any special symbols. The results obtained...

  12. Materiality for Musical Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Rikard; Tahiroğlu, Koray; Riis, Morten S.

    2016-01-01

    Nordic universities. Electronic music instrument makers participated in providing the course. In eleven days the students designed and built interfaces for musical expressions , composed a piece, and performed at the Norberg electronic music festival. The students explored the relationship between......We organised an elven day intense course in materiality for musical expressions to explore underlying principles of New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME) in higher education. We grounded the course in different aspects of ma-teriality and gathered interdisciplinary student teams from three...... technology and possible musical expression with a strong connection to culture and place. The emphasis on performance provided closure and motivated teams to move forward in their design and artistic processes. On the basis of the course we discuss an interdisciplinary NIME course syllabus, and we infer...

  13. Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene Expression Omnibus is a public functional genomics data repository supporting MIAME-compliant submissions of array- and sequence-based data. Tools are provided...

  14. Express.js blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Augarten, Ben; Lin, Eric; Shaikh, Aidha; Soriani, Fabiano Pereira; Tisserand, Geoffrey; Zhang, Chiqing; Zhang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    This book is for beginners to Node.js and also for those who are technically advanced. By the end of this book, every competent developer will have achieved expertise in building web applications with Express.js.

  15. In Silico Expression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolívar, Julio; Hehl, Reinhard; Bülow, Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Information on the specificity of cis-sequences enables the design of functional synthetic plant promoters that are responsive to specific stresses. Potential cis-sequences may be experimentally tested, however, correlation of genomic sequence with gene expression data enables an in silico expression analysis approach to bioinformatically assess the stress specificity of candidate cis-sequences prior to experimental verification. The present chapter demonstrates an example for the in silico validation of a potential cis-regulatory sequence responsive to cold stress. The described online tool can be applied for the bioinformatic assessment of cis-sequences responsive to most abiotic and biotic stresses of plants. Furthermore, a method is presented based on a reverted in silico expression analysis approach that predicts highly specific potentially functional cis-regulatory elements for a given stress.

  16. Freedom of Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Canela

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The freedoms of expression and of the press are basic pillars of the western democracies. The contemporary theoretical framework which gives support to these rights was generated in the wake of the liberal revolutions which took place in Western Europe and in North America starting from the second half of the 1600s. Our purpose in this text is to present the current scene regarding this topic, focusing whenever pertinent on the Brazilian case, and seeking to question the unconditional defense of the freedoms of expression and of the press made by the thinkers who founded these principles vis-á-vis contemporary issues of the communicational universe. Going beyond theoretical-conceptual refl ections, we present and analyze the results of a content analysis showing how 53 Brazilian newspapers and 4 magazines with nationwide circulation report (or not topics relating to freedom of expression and of the press.

  17. Regular expression containment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    We present a new sound and complete axiomatization of regular expression containment. It consists of the conventional axiomatiza- tion of concatenation, alternation, empty set and (the singleton set containing) the empty string as an idempotent semiring, the fixed- point rule E* = 1 + E × E......* for Kleene-star, and a general coin- duction rule as the only additional rule. Our axiomatization gives rise to a natural computational inter- pretation of regular expressions as simple types that represent parse trees, and of containment proofs as coercions. This gives the axiom- atization a Curry......-Howard-style constructive interpretation: Con- tainment proofs do not only certify a language-theoretic contain- ment, but, under our computational interpretation, constructively transform a membership proof of a string in one regular expres- sion into a membership proof of the same string in another regular expression. We...

  18. The Expressive Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    branding on organizational structures and processes? How do organizations discover their identities? These are some of the vexing problems addressed in this book by a diverse international team of contributors. According to the authors, the future lies with "the expressive organization". Such organizations......This text challenges beliefs about organizational identity, reputation, and branding. It contains a wealth of new ideas for finding the elusive answers to questions troubling contemporary organizations. How does an organization create a strong reputation? What are the implications of corporate...... not only understand their distinct identity and their brands, but are also able to express these externally and internally. In order to thrive in an era of transparency and customer choice, the authors argue, organizations will have to be expressive. This book is intended for undergraduate and postgraduate...

  19. The Expressive Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    branding on organizational structures and processes? How do organizations discover their identities? These are some of the vexing problems addressed in this book by a diverse international team of contributors. According to the authors, the future lies with "the expressive organization". Such organizations...... not only understand their distinct identity and their brands, but are also able to express these externally and internally. In order to thrive in an era of transparency and customer choice, the authors argue, organizations will have to be expressive. This book is intended for undergraduate and postgraduate......This text challenges beliefs about organizational identity, reputation, and branding. It contains a wealth of new ideas for finding the elusive answers to questions troubling contemporary organizations. How does an organization create a strong reputation? What are the implications of corporate...

  20. The Expressive Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    not only understand their distinct identity and their brands, but are also able to express these externally and internally. In order to thrive in an era of transparency and customer choice, the authors argue, organizations will have to be expressive. This book is intended for undergraduate and postgraduate......This text challenges beliefs about organizational identity, reputation, and branding. It contains a wealth of new ideas for finding the elusive answers to questions troubling contemporary organizations. How does an organization create a strong reputation? What are the implications of corporate...... branding on organizational structures and processes? How do organizations discover their identities? These are some of the vexing problems addressed in this book by a diverse international team of contributors. According to the authors, the future lies with "the expressive organization". Such organizations...

  1. Cholecystokinin expression in tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2016-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a classic gut hormone. CCK is also a complex system of peptides expressed in several molecular forms in enteroendocrine I cells, in cerebral and peripheral neurons, in cardiac myocytes and spermatozoa. CCK gene expression has now been found at protein or peptide level...... in different neuroendocrine tumors; cerebral gliomas and astrocytomas and specific pediatric tumors. Tumor hypersecretion of CCK was recently reported in a patient with a metastatic islet cell tumor and hypercholecystokininemia resulting in a novel tumor syndrome, the cholecystokininoma syndrome. This review...

  2. gene structure, gene expression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and seedling leaves were sampled at 6 h after the treatment. For cold stress, the seedlings were transferred to 4◦C growth chamber for 30 min. Control seedlings were exposed to none of these treatments. To examine the expression patterns of these predicted genes in Poplar and to further confirm their stress responsive-.

  3. Facial Expression Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Li, S.; Jain, A.

    2009-01-01

    Facial expression recognition is a process performed by humans or computers, which consists of: 1. Locating faces in the scene (e.g., in an image; this step is also referred to as face detection), 2. Extracting facial features from the detected face region (e.g., detecting the shape of facial

  4. Facial expressions recognition with an emotion expressive robotic head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroftei, I.; Adascalitei, F.; Lefeber, D.; Vanderborght, B.; Doroftei, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to present the preliminary steps in facial expressions recognition with a new version of an expressive social robotic head. So, in a first phase, our main goal was to reach a minimum level of emotional expressiveness in order to obtain nonverbal communication between the robot and human by building six basic facial expressions. To evaluate the facial expressions, the robot was used in some preliminary user studies, among children and adults.

  5. New Mammalian Expression Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Hatton, Diane

    2017-06-06

    There are an increasing number of recombinant antibodies and proteins in preclinical and clinical development for therapeutic applications. Mammalian expression systems are key to enabling the production of these molecules, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell platforms continue to be central to delivery of the stable cell lines required for large-scale production. Increasing pressure on timelines and efficiency, further innovation of molecular formats and the shift to new production systems are driving developments of these CHO cell line platforms. The availability of genome and transcriptome data coupled with advancing gene editing tools are increasing the ability to design and engineer CHO cell lines to meet these challenges. This chapter aims to give an overview of the developments in CHO expression systems and some of the associated technologies over the past few years.

  6. Metaphorical everyday expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pereira Bernardo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on conceptual metaphor theory (LAKOFF, (2002 [1980]; KÖVECSES, 2010b, metaphorical or potentially metaphorical expressions found in the Banco de Dados Interacionais (RONCARATI, 1996 a volume that contains transcripts of conversations recorded between November 1989 and January 1991 totaling about 270 minutes, are analyzed. Lasting between 5 and 30 minutes, the 13 conversations that make up this volume were segmented in 9927 intonational units (CHAFE, 1988; Du Bois et alii, 1992. Of these units, 82 metaphorical expressions were found that reveal source and target domains widely reported in the literature: PERSON, EMOTION, OBJECT, HUMAN BODY, ECONOMY and ANIMAL. This study confirms assumptions about the theory of conceptual metaphor, in their original linguistic manifestations (or not, with respect to the specifics of their conceptualization contexts in real talk.

  7. Data Mining for Expressivity of Recombinant Protein Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Satoshi; Isoai, Atsushi; Yamamura, Masayuki

    We analyzed the expressivity of recombinant proteins by using data mining methods. The expression technique of recombinant protein is a key step towards elucidating the functions of genes discovered through genomic sequence projects. We have studied the productive efficiency of recombinant proteins in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S.pombe), by mining the expression results. We gathered 57 proteins whose expression levels were known roughly in the host. Correlation analysis, principal component analysis and decision tree analysis were applied to these expression data. Analysis featuring codon usage and amino acid composition clarified that the amino acid composition affected to the expression levels of a recombinant protein strongly than the effect of codon usage. Furthermore, analysis of amino acid composition showed that protein solubility and the metabolism cost of amino acids correlated with a protein expressivity. Codon usage was often interesting in the field of recombinant expressions. However, our analysis found the weak correlation codon features with expressivities. These results indicated that ready-made indices of codon bias were irrelevant ones for modeling the expressivities of recombinant proteins. Our data driven approach was an easy and powerful method to improve recombinant protein expression, and this approach should be concentrated attention with the huge amount of expression data accumulating through the post-genome era.

  8. Expressing emotions in blogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Carmina Rodriguez-Hidalgo; Tan, Ed S.; Verlegh, Peeter

    2017-01-01

    of emotion (SSE, Rimé, 2009). This study content-analyzed Live Journal blogposts for the occurrence of TPC in three phases of online SSE: initiation, feedback and repost. We compared these to TPC on a second type of emotional expression, emotional venting. Based on Social Information processing theory (SIP......Textual paralanguage cues (TPC) have been signaled as effective emotion transmitters online. Though several studies have investigated their properties and occurrence, there remains a gap concerning their communicative impact within specific psychological processes, such as the social sharing......, Walther, 1992), and on the Emotional Mimicry in Context (EMC, Hess & Fischer, 2013) framework, we study predictive relationships in TPC usage in our phased model of online SSE. Results showed that TPC prevailed in SSE blogposts and strongly dominated in emotional venting posts. TPC was more common...

  9. Natural Art, False Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Hernando Nossa García

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the documentary My Kid Could Paint That, directed by Bar-Lev, which deals with Marla Olmstead, the child prodigy of painting, several interviews with persons in the art world are conducted, among them an artist who uses a magnifying glass and the thinnest brushes to do his work. This man, although happy for the success of the child’s abstract paintings, saw in the whole spectacle a mockery of art, and stood firmly by her work. The girl’s father, also an artist, was accused of plagiarism. Cameras entered the child’s studio in order to prove that Marla was the real artist. Why should such relevance be given to authorship? What is the cause of the dispute between the expressive and the rational?

  10. Visual expression in architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfirević Đorđe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Relaying on standpoints of the renowned art critic Herbert Read, according to which realism, idealism and expressionism are not separate art movements, but represent permanent basic factors in all arts, this paper considers the possibility of existence of elementary creative orientation in architecture as well. Starting from basic aspects of perception and representation of the world around us, and through a comparative analysis and examples from other fields, a thesis is presented according to which notions of mimesis (mimicry, associativity and expression in architecture are adequate counterparts to Read's basic factors of art - realism, idealism and expressionism. Depending on sociopolitical, cultural and historical, as well as other circumstances, from time to time some of these factors come to the surface, wrapped up in time, and emerge in some new or old form which we can recognize as an art movement or style.

  11. Gene Expression in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrogio, A.

    Skeletal system has two main functions, to provide mechanical integrity for both locomotion and protection and to play an important role in mineral homeostasis. There is extensive evidence showing loss of bone mass during long-term Space-Flights. The loss is due to a break in the equilibrium between the activity of osteoblasts (the cells that forms bone) and the activity of osteoclasts (the cells that resorbs bone). Surprisingly, there is scanty information about the possible altered gene expression occurring in cells that form bone in microgravity.(Just 69 articles result from a "gene expression in microgravity" MedLine query.) Gene-chip or microarray technology allows to screen thousands of genes at the same time: the use of this technology on samples coming from cells exposed to microgravity could provide us with many important informations. For example, the identification of the molecules or structures which are the first sensors of the mechanical stress derived from lack of gravity, could help in understanding which is the first event leading to bone loss due to long-term exposure to microgravity. Consequently, this structure could become a target for a custom-designed drug. It is evident that bone mass loss, observed during long-time stay in Space, represents an accelerated model of what happens in aging osteoporosis. Therefore, the discovery and design of drugs able to interfere with the bone-loss process, could help also in preventing negative physiological processes normally observed on Earth. Considering the aims stated above, my research is designed to:

  12. What emotion does the "facial expression of disgust" express?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochedly, Joseph T; Widen, Sherri C; Russell, James A

    2012-12-01

    The emotion attributed to the prototypical "facial expression of disgust" (a nose scrunch) depended on what facial expressions preceded it. In two studies, the majority of 120 children (5-14 years) and 135 adults (16-58 years) judged the nose scrunch as expressing disgust when the preceding set included an anger scowl, but as angry when the anger scowl was omitted. An even greater proportion of observers judged the nose scrunch as angry when the preceding set also included a facial expression of someone about to be sick. The emotion attributed to the nose scrunch therefore varies with experimental context. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Facial Expressivity at 4 Months: A Context by Expression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David S; Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The specificity predicted by differential emotions theory (DET) for early facial expressions in response to 5 different eliciting situations was studied in a sample of 4-month-old infants (n = 150). Infants were videotaped during tickle, sour taste, jack-in-the-box, arm restraint, and masked-stranger situations and their expressions were coded second by second. Infants showed a variety of facial expressions in each situation; however, more infants exhibited positive (joy and surprise) than negative expressions (anger, disgust, fear, and sadness) across all situations except sour taste. Consistent with DET-predicted specificity, joy expressions were the most common in response to tickling, and were less common in response to other situations. Surprise expressions were the most common in response to the jack-in-the-box, as predicted, but also were the most common in response to the arm restraint and masked-stranger situations, indicating a lack of specificity. No evidence of predicted specificity was found for anger, disgust, fear, and sadness expressions. Evidence of individual differences in expressivity within situations, as well as stability in the pattern across situations, underscores the need to examine both child and contextual factors in studying emotional development. The results provide little support for the DET postulate of situational specificity and suggest that a synthesis of differential emotions and dynamic systems theories of emotional expression should be considered.

  14. Animal Cell Expression Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, M; Reichl, U

    2017-10-03

    The glycan profile of therapeutic recombinant proteins such as monoclonal antibodies is a critical quality attribute, which affects the efficacy of the final product. The cellular glycosylation process during protein expression is dependent upon a number of factors such as the availability of substrates in the media, the intracellular content of nucleotide sugars, and the enzyme repertoire of the host cells. In order to control the variability of glycosylation it is important to understand the critical process parameters and their acceptable range of values to enable reproducible production of proteins with a predetermined glycan profile providing the desired biological function or therapeutic effect. The depletion of critical nutrients such as glucose or galactose, which may occur toward the end of a culture process, can lead to truncated glycans. Terminal galactosylation and sialyation are particularly variable but may be controlled by the presence of some key media components. Ammonia accumulation, pH, and dissolved oxygen levels are also known to be key bioprocess parameters that affect the glycosylation of recombinant proteins. Specific enzyme inhibitors can be added to the media to drive the formation of selected and predetermined glycan profiles. Various attempts have been made to predict the glycan profiles of cellular expressed proteins and have led to metabolic models based upon knowledge of metabolic flux and the kinetics of individual glycosylation reactions.In contrast to single recombinant proteins, the glycan profiles of viral vaccines are far more complex and difficult to predict. The example of influenza A virus shows that hemagglutinin, the major antigenic determinant, has three to nine N-glycans, which may influence the antigenicity and efficacy of the vaccine. Glycosylation of the influenza A virus has been largely unmonitored in the past as production has been from eggs, where glycan profiles of antigens are difficult if not impossible to

  15. Emotional Expression in Reality TV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tove Arendt

    are being treated as ordinary people. My article will discuss different presentations of selves and especially the emotional verbal and nonverbal expressions in reality TV communication. Aspects of the intimate self and its emotional expressions seem to be strategically managed in reality TV and even......, that information ‘given off’ in lying behavior will must often be found in non-verbal mikro expressions and mikro gestures. I will end by discussing the strategic emotional expressions as production of floating identities in a broader framework on the basis of among others Gergen, Lipovetsky and Baumann...

  16. Oracle Application Express 4 Recipes

    CERN Document Server

    Zehoo, Edmund

    2011-01-01

    Oracle Application Express 4 Recipes provides an example-based approach to learning Application Express - the ground-breaking, rapid application development platform included with every Oracle Database license. The recipes format is ideal for the quick-study who just wants a good example or two to kick start their thinking and get pointed in the right direction. The recipes cover the gamut of Application Express development. Author and Application Express expert Edmund Zehoo shows how to create data entry screens, visualize data in the form of reports and charts, implement validation and back-

  17. Expression modeling for expression-invariant face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, F.B. Ter; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Morphable face models have proven to be an effective tool for 3D face modeling and face recognition, but the extension to 3D face scans with expressions is still a challenge. The two main difficulties are (1) how to build a new morphable face model that deals with expressions, and (2) how to fit

  18. Expressing the Way the World Is: Expression as Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jenefer M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper analyzes a specific form of artistic expression: revelation by a work of art of some quality of the world, not of the artist. After discussing the aesthetic theories of Guy Sircello, Monroe Beardsley, and Nelson Goodman, the author presents her own model of "expression of the world." (SJL)

  19. Human papillomavirus gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, L.T.; Hirochika, H.; Nasseri, M.; Stoler, M.H.; Wolinsky, S.M.; Chin, M.T.; Hirochika, R.; Arvan, D.S.; Broker, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the role of tissue differentiation on expression of each of the papillomavirus mRNA species identified by electron microscopy, the authors prepared exon-specific RNA probes that could distinguish the alternatively spliced mRNA species. Radioactively labeled single-stranded RNA probes were generated from a dual promoter vector system and individually hybridized to adjacent serial sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsies of condylomata. Autoradiography showed that each of the message species had a characteristic tissue distribution and relative abundance. The authors have characterized a portion of the regulatory network of the HPVs by showing that the E2 ORF encodes a trans-acting enhancer-stimulating protein, as it does in BPV-1 (Spalholz et al. 1985). The HPV-11 enhancer was mapped to a 150-bp tract near the 3' end of the URR. Portions of this region are duplicated in some aggressive strains of HPV-6 (Boshart and zur Hausen 1986; Rando et al. 1986). To test the possible biological relevance of these duplications, they cloned tandem arrays of the enhancer and demonstrated, using a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) assay, that they led to dramatically increased transcription proportional to copy number. Using the CAT assays, the authors found that the E2 proteins of several papillomavirus types can cross-stimulate the enhancers of most other types. This suggests that prior infection of a tissue with one papillomavirus type may provide a helper effect for superinfection and might account fo the HPV-6/HPV-16 coinfections in condylomata that they have observed

  20. Pain expression as a biometric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Mohammad A.; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2017-01-01

    Developing a vision-based efficient and automatic pain intensity measurement system requires the understanding of the relationship between self-reported pain intensity and pain expression in the facial videos. In this paper, we first demonstrate how pain expression in facial video frames may not ...

  1. Creating an Expressive Performance Mindset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomhead, Paul; Skidmore, Jon B.

    2014-01-01

    Students in performance situations sometimes experience physiological symptoms that inhibit their ability to perform as expressively as they otherwise might possess the understanding and ability to do. As students set out to perform with an expressive mindset, the brain's limbic system may detect some perceived danger in the situation and…

  2. Measuring facial expression of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Karsten

    2015-12-01

    Research into emotions has increased in recent decades, especially on the subject of recognition of emotions. However, studies of the facial expressions of emotion were compromised by technical problems with visible video analysis and electromyography in experimental settings. These have only recently been overcome. There have been new developments in the field of automated computerized facial recognition; allowing real-time identification of facial expression in social environments. This review addresses three approaches to measuring facial expression of emotion and describes their specific contributions to understanding emotion in the healthy population and in persons with mental illness. Despite recent progress, studies on human emotions have been hindered by the lack of consensus on an emotion theory suited to examining the dynamic aspects of emotion and its expression. Studying expression of emotion in patients with mental health conditions for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes will profit from theoretical and methodological progress.

  3. Differential Gene Expression and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Seroude

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that an intricate program of gene expression controls progression through the different stages in development. The equally complex biological phenomenon known as aging is genetically determined and environmentally modulated. This review focuses on the genetic component of aging, with a special emphasis on differential gene expression. At least two genetic pathways regulating organism longevity act by modifying gene expression. Many genes are also subjected to age-dependent transcriptional regulation. Some age-related gene expression changes are prevented by caloric restriction, the most robust intervention that slows down the aging process. Manipulating the expression of some age-regulated genes can extend an organism's life span. Remarkably, the activity of many transcription regulatory elements is linked to physiological age as opposed to chronological age, indicating that orderly and tightly controlled regulatory pathways are active during aging.

  4.  Prokaryotic expression systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Porowińska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available For overproduction of recombinant proteins both eukaryotic and prokaryotic expression systems are used. Choosing the right system depends, among other things, on the growth rate and culture of host cells, level of the target gene expression and posttranslational processing of the synthesized protein. Regardless of the type of expression system, its basic elements are the vector and the expression host.The most widely used system for protein overproduction, both on a laboratory and industrial scale, is the prokaryotic system. This system is based primarily on the bacteria E. coli, although increasingly often Bacillus species are used. The prokaryotic system allows one to obtain large quantities of recombinant proteins in a short time. A simple and inexpensive bacterial cell culture and well-known mechanisms of transcription and translation facilitate the use of these microorganisms. The simplicity of genetic modifications and the availability of many bacterial mutants are additional advantages of the prokaryotic system. In this article we characterize the structural elements of prokaryotic expression vectors. Also strategies for preparation of the target protein gene that increase productivity, facilitate detection and purification of recombinant protein and provide its activity are discussed. Bacterial strains often used as host cells in expression systems as well as the potential location of heterologous proteins are characterized.Knowledge of the basic elements of the prokaryotic expression system allows for production of biologically active proteins in a short time and in satisfactory quantities. 

  5. Expression in E. coli systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsdam, Anne-M; Kristiansen, Karsten; Nøhr, Jane

    2003-01-01

    intracellularly in soluble form. In E. coli, proteins containing disulfide bonds are best produced by secretion because the disulfide forming foldases reside in the periplasm. Likewise, a correct N-terminus is more likely to be obtained upon secretion. Moreover, potentially toxic proteins are more likely......Owing to cost advantage, speed of production, and often high product yield (up to 50% of total cell protein), expression in Escherichia coli is generally the first choice when attempting to express a recombinant protein. Expression systems exist to produce recombinant protein intracellularly...

  6. Analysis of Facial Expression by Taste Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobitani, Kensuke; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    In this study, we focused on the basic taste stimulation for the analysis of real facial expressions. We considered that the expressions caused by taste stimulation were unaffected by individuality or emotion, that is, such expressions were involuntary. We analyzed the movement of facial muscles by taste stimulation and compared real expressions with artificial expressions. From the result, we identified an obvious difference between real and artificial expressions. Thus, our method would be a new approach for facial expression recognition.

  7. A Tattoo Is Expression, Too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    1997-01-01

    In "Stephenson v. Davenport Community School District," the U.S. Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that schools cannot adopt unduly vague policies to regulate student expression, in this case, a cross-shaped tattoo. (LMI)

  8. Emerald Express '95: Analysis Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newett, Sandra

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of Emerald Express was to bring together senior representatives from military, relief, political, and diplomatic communities to address issues that arise during Humanitarian Assistance and Peace Operations (HA/POs...

  9. Precise Analysis of String Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2003-01-01

    , including statically checking the syntax of dynamically generated expressions, such as SQL queries. Our analysis constructs flow graphs from class files and generates a context-free grammar with a nonterminal for each string expression. The language of this grammar is then widened into a regular language......We perform static analysis of Java programs to answer a simple question: which values may occur as results of string expressions? The answers are summarized for each expression by a regular language that is guaranteed to contain all possible values. We present several applications of this analysis...... are automatically produced. We present extensive benchmarks demonstrating that the analysis is efficient and produces results of useful precision....

  10. Regulation of eucaryotic gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent, R.; Ptashne, M.S

    1989-05-23

    This patent describes a method of regulating the expression of a gene in a eucaryotic cell. The method consists of: providing in the eucaryotic cell, a peptide, derived from or substantially similar to a peptide of a procaryotic cell able to bind to DNA upstream from or within the gene, the amount of the peptide being sufficient to bind to the gene and thereby control expression of the gene.

  11. Human Lacrimal Gland Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar Aakalu

    Full Text Available The study of human lacrimal gland biology and development is limited. Lacrimal gland tissue is damaged or poorly functional in a number of disease states including dry eye disease. Development of cell based therapies for lacrimal gland diseases requires a better understanding of the gene expression and signaling pathways in lacrimal gland. Differential gene expression analysis between lacrimal gland and other embryologically similar tissues may be helpful in furthering our understanding of lacrimal gland development.We performed global gene expression analysis of human lacrimal gland tissue using Affymetrix ® gene expression arrays. Primary data from our laboratory was compared with datasets available in the NLM GEO database for other surface ectodermal tissues including salivary gland, skin, conjunctiva and corneal epithelium.The analysis revealed statistically significant difference in the gene expression of lacrimal gland tissue compared to other ectodermal tissues. The lacrimal gland specific, cell surface secretory protein encoding genes and critical signaling pathways which distinguish lacrimal gland from other ectodermal tissues are described.Differential gene expression in human lacrimal gland compared with other ectodermal tissue types revealed interesting patterns which may serve as the basis for future studies in directed differentiation among other areas.

  12. The motivation to express prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forscher, Patrick S.; Cox, William T. L.; Graetz, Nicholas; Devine, Patricia G.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary prejudice research focuses primarily on people who are motivated to respond without prejudice and the ways in which unintentional bias can cause these people to act inconsistent with this motivation. However, some real-world phenomena (e.g., hate speech, hate crimes) and experimental findings (e.g., Plant & Devine, 2001; 2009) suggest that some expressions of prejudice are intentional. These phenomena and findings are difficult to explain solely from the motivations to respond without prejudice. We argue that some people are motivated to express prejudice, and we develop the motivation to express prejudice (MP) scale to measure this motivation. In seven studies involving more than 6,000 participants, we demonstrate that, across scale versions targeted at Black people and gay men, the MP scale has good reliability and convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. In normative climates that prohibit prejudice, the internal and external motivations to express prejudice are functionally non-independent, but they become more independent when normative climates permit more prejudice toward a target group. People high in the motivation to express prejudice are relatively likely to resist pressure to support programs promoting intergroup contact and vote for political candidates who support oppressive policies. The motivation to express prejudice predicted these outcomes even when controlling for attitudes and the motivations to respond without prejudice. This work encourages contemporary prejudice researchers to broaden the range of samples, target groups, and phenomena that they study, and more generally to consider the intentional aspects of negative intergroup behavior. PMID:26479365

  13. Epimorphin expression in interstitial pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suga Moritaka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epimorphin modulates epithelial morphogenesis in embryonic mouse organs. We previously suggested that epimorphin contributes to repair of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice via epithelium-mesenchyme interactions. To clarify the role of epimorphin in human lungs, we evaluated epimorphin expression and localization in normal lungs, lungs with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, and lungs with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP; we also studied the effect of recombinant epimorphin on cultured human alveolar epithelial cells in vitro. Northern and Western blotting analyses revealed that epimorphin expression in NSIP samples were significantly higher than those in control lungs and lungs with UIP. Immunohistochemistry showed strong epimorphin expression in mesenchymal cells of early fibrotic lesions and localization of epimorphin protein on mesenchymal cells and extracellular matrix of early fibrotic lesions in the nonspecific interstitial pneumonia group. Double-labeled fluorescent images revealed expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 in re-epithelialized cells overlying epimorphin-positive early fibrotic lesions. Immunohistochemistry and metalloproteinase activity assay demonstrated augmented expression of metalloproteinase induced by recombinant epimorphin in human alveolar epithelial cells. These findings suggest that epimorphin contributes to repair of pulmonary fibrosis in nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, perhaps partly by inducing expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2, which is an important proteolytic factor in lung remodeling.

  14. Cloning and expression of a widely expressed receptor tyrosine phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sap, J; D'Eustachio, P; Givol, D

    1990-01-01

    and Bmp-2a loci. The corresponding mRNA (3.0 kilobases) is expressed in most murine tissues and most abundantly expressed in brain and kidney. Antibodies against a synthetic peptide of R-PTP-alpha identified a 130-kDa protein in cells transfected with the R-PTP-alpha cDNA.......We describe the identification of a widely expressed receptor-type (transmembrane) protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase; EC 3.1.3.48). Screening of a mouse brain cDNA library under low-stringency conditions with a probe encompassing the intracellular (phosphatase) domain of the CD45 lymphocyte...... antigen yielded cDNA clones coding for a 794-amino acid transmembrane protein [hereafter referred to as receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (R-PTP-alpha)] with an intracellular domain displaying clear homology to the catalytic domains of CD45 and LAR (45% and 53%, respectively). The 142-amino acid...

  15. Studying Emotional Expression in Music Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsson, Alf

    1999-01-01

    Explores the importance of emotional expression in music performance. Performers played music to express different emotions and then listening tests were conducted in order to determine whether the intended expressions were perceived. Presents and discusses the results. (CMK)

  16. Pericentrin expression in Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, Michele; Barone, Concetta; Romano, Carmelo; Salluzzo, Roberto; Caraci, Filippo; Cantarella, Rita Anna; Salluzzo, Maria Grazia; Drago, Filippo; Romano, Corrado; Bosco, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Down's syndrome (DS) is the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disability and is a chromosomal abnormality of chromosome 21 trisomy. The pericentrin gene (PCNT) has sequenced in 21q22.3 inside of the minimal critical region for Down's syndrome. Alterations of PCNT gene are associated with dwarfism, cardiomyopathy and other pathologies. In this study, we have evaluated the possible differential expression of PCNT mRNA, by qRT-PCR, in peripheral blood leukocytes of DS subjects compared with the normal population. In the present case-control study, PCNT gene expression was increased by 72.72% in 16 out 22 DS samples compared with normal subjects. Our data suggest that changes in the expression levels of PCNT in DS subjects may be involved into the molecular mechanism of Down's syndrome.

  17. An Expressive Extension of TLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jesper Gulmann

    2002-01-01

    A temporal logic of causality (TLC) was introduced by Alur, Penczek and Peled in [1]. It is basically a linear time temporal logic interpreted over Mazurkiewicz traces which allows quantification over causal chains. Through this device one can directly formulate causality properties of distributed...... systems. In this paper we consider an extension of TLC by strengthening the chain quantification operators. We show that our logic TLC* adds to the expressive power of TLC. We do so by defining an Ehrenfeucht-Fraïssé game to capture the expressive power of TLC. We then exhibit a property and by means...... of this game prove that the chosen property is not definable in TLC. We then show that the same property is definable in TLC*. We prove in fact the stronger result that TLC* is expressively stronger than TLC exactly when the dependency relation associated with the underlying trace alphabet is not transitive....

  18. Construction of PVX virus-expression vector to express enterotoxin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... systems for transient production of recombinant tallergens in. Nicotiana benthamiana. Methods, 32: 227-234. Xu CG. Wang WZ (1999). High level expression of fusion gene of. Heat-stable enterotoxin(ST1) and Heat-Labile enterotoxin B subunit(LTB). Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinic, 30: 249-253.

  19. EXPRESS Service to the International Space Station: EXPRESS Pallet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primm, Lowell; Bergmann, Alan

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will be the ultimate scientific accomplishment in the history of NASA, with its primary objective of providing unique scientific investigation opportunities. This objective is the basis for the creation of the EXPRESS Pallet System (ExPs). The EXPRESS Pallet will provide extremal/unpressurized accommodations for a wide variety of external users. The payload developers represent many science disciplines, including earth observation, communications, solar and deep space viewing, long-term exposure, and many others. The EXPRESS Pallet will provide a mechanism to maximum utilization of the limited ISS unpressurized payload volume, standard physical payload interfaces for users, a standard integration template for users and the capability to changeout payloads on-orbit. The EXPRESS Pallet provides access to Ram, Wake, Starboard, Port, Nadir, Zenith and Earth Limb for exposure and viewing. 'Me ExPs consists of the Pallet structure, payload Adapters, and a subsystem assembly which includes data controller, power distribution and conversion, and Extra Vehicular Robotics/Extra-Vehicular Activity systems.

  20. Construction of PVX virus-expression vector to express enterotoxin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato X potyvirus (PVX)-based vector has been comprehensively applied in transient expression system. In order to produce the heterologous proteins more quickly and stably, the ClaI and NotI enzyme sites were introduced into the Enterotoxin fusion gene LTB-ST by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the LTB-ST ...

  1. Developmental expression of paraoxonase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Jacqueline M; Dao, Khoi; de Laat, Rian; Elsworth, John; Cole, Toby B; Marsillach, Judit; Furlong, Clement E; Costa, Lucio G

    2016-11-25

    Paraoxonase 2 (PON2) is a member of the paraoxonase gene family also comprising PON1 and PON3. PON2 functions as a lactonase and exhibits anti-bacterial as well as antioxidant properties. At the cellular level, PON2 localizes to the mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum membranes where it scavenges reactive oxygen species. PON2 is of particular interest as it is the only paraoxonase expressed in brain tissue and appears to play a critical role in mitigating oxidative stress in the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of PON2 at the protein and mRNA level in the brain and liver of mice through development to identify potential age windows of susceptibility to oxidative stress, as well as to compare expression of hepatic PON2 to expression of PON1 and PON3. Overall, PON2 expression in the brain was lower in neonatal mice and increased with age up to postnatal day (PND) 21, with a significant decrease observed at PND 30 and 60. In contrast, the liver showed continuously increasing levels of PON2 with age, similar to the patterns of PON1 and PON3. PON2 protein levels were also investigated in brain samples from non-human primates, with PON2 increasing with age up to the infant stage and decreasing at the juvenile stage, mirroring the results observed in the mouse brain. These variable expression levels of PON2 suggest that neonatal and young adult animals may be more susceptible to neurological insult by oxidants due to lower levels of PON2 in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gene expression in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Christensen, Lise Lotte; Olesen, Sanne Harder

    2002-01-01

    Understanding molecular alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed to define new biomarkers and treatment targets. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to monitor gene expression of about 6,800 known genes and 35,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) on five pools (four to six samples in each...... pool) of total RNA from left-sided sporadic colorectal carcinomas. We compared normal tissue to carcinoma tissue from Dukes' stages A-D (noninvasive to distant metastasis) and identified 908 known genes and 4,155 ESTs that changed remarkably from normal to tumor tissue. Based on intensive filtering 226...

  3. Expressions of emotions in blogs

    OpenAIRE

    Zajančkovskaja, Viktorija

    2016-01-01

    Emotions – a part of person life. We always feel something and express in different ways: body language, mime, or words (our language). In my research are analyzed emotions language in weblogs, because weblogs like public notebooks, which shows a really language usage. It can to see in weblogs, how do people perceive emotions, what criteria assigns them. The aim of research: to determine, what kind of words and how do people express own emotions in weblogs. There was reviewed 15 weblogs and g...

  4. Gene expression in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Christensen, Lise Lotte; Olesen, Sanne Harder

    2002-01-01

    Understanding molecular alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed to define new biomarkers and treatment targets. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to monitor gene expression of about 6,800 known genes and 35,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) on five pools (four to six samples in each......' C, and clustered Dukes' D separately. Real-time PCR of 10 known genes and 5 ESTs demonstrated excellent reproducibility of the array-based findings. The most frequently altered genes belonged to functional categories of metabolism (22%), transcription and translation (11%), and cellular processes (9...

  5. Microsoft Expression Web for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hefferman, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Expression Web is Microsoft's newest tool for creating and maintaining dynamic Web sites. This FrontPage replacement offers all the simple ""what-you-see-is-what-you-get"" tools for creating a Web site along with some pumped up new features for working with Cascading Style Sheets and other design options. Microsoft Expression Web For Dummies arrives in time for early adopters to get a feel for how to build an attractive Web site. Author Linda Hefferman teams up with longtime FrontPage For Dummies author Asha Dornfest to show the easy way for first-time Web designers, FrontPage ve

  6. Advanced express web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Keig, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A practical book, guiding the reader through the development of a single page application using a feature-driven approach.If you are an experienced JavaScript developer who wants to build highly scalable, real-world applications using Express, this book is ideal for you. This book is an advanced title and assumes that the reader has some experience with node, Javascript MVC web development frameworks, and has heard of Express before, or is familiar with it. You should also have a basic understanding of Redis and MongoDB. This book is not a tutorial on Node, but aims to explore some of the more

  7. The Change of Expression Configuration Affects Identity-Dependent Expression Aftereffect but Not Identity-Independent Expression Aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Miao; Shinomori, Keizo; Qian, Qian; Yin, Jun; Zeng, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of expression configuration on cross-identity expression aftereffect. The expression configuration refers to the spatial arrangement of facial features in a face for conveying an emotion, e.g., an open-mouth smile vs. a closed-mouth smile. In the first of two experiments, the expression aftereffect is measured using a cross-identity/cross-expression configuration factorial design. The facial identities of test faces were the same or different from the adaptor, while orthogonally, the expression configurations of those facial identities were also the same or different. The results show that the change of expression configuration impaired the expression aftereffect when the facial identities of adaptor and tests were the same; however, the impairment effect disappears when facial identities were different, indicating the identity-independent expression representation is more robust to the change of the expression configuration in comparison with the identity-dependent expression representation. In the second experiment, we used schematic line faces as adaptors and real faces as tests to minimize the similarity between the adaptor and tests, which is expected to exclude the contribution from the identity-dependent expression representation to expression aftereffect. The second experiment yields a similar result as the identity-independent expression aftereffect observed in Experiment 1. The findings indicate the different neural sensitivities to expression configuration for identity-dependent and identity-independent expression systems.

  8. Homeobox gene expression in Brachiopoda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Martinez, Pedro; Wanninger, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The molecular control that underlies brachiopod ontogeny is largely unknown. In order to contribute to this issue we analyzed the expression pattern of two homeobox containing genes, Not and Cdx, during development of the rhynchonelliform (i.e., articulate) brachiopod Terebratalia transversa. Not...

  9. The SSETI-express Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alminde, Lars; Bisgaard, Morten; Melville, N.

    In January 2004 a group of students met at the European Space Technology and Research Centre (ESTEC) in Holland to discuss the feasibility of building a micro-satellite, dubbed SSETI-Express, from parts derived from other student satellite projects and launch it within one and a half year...

  10. The SSETI-Express Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alminde, Lars; Bisgaard, Morten; Melville, Neil

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004 a group of students met at the European Space Technology and Research Centre (ESTEC) in Holland to discuss the feasibility of building a micro-satellite, dubbed SSETI-Express, from parts derived from other student satellite projects and launch it within one and a half year...

  11. Expressions that talk about themselves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkinga, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we explain, independent of any formalism, how to construct an expression in a formal system that ‘does something with itself’. As an application of this procedure we show how to construct a program that writes its own text, lay-out included. The emphases is on the systematic

  12. Remote control of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xiaochun; Miano, Joseph M

    2007-06-01

    The elucidation of a growing number of species' genomes heralds an unprecedented opportunity to ascertain functional attributes of non-coding sequences. In particular, cis regulatory modules (CRMs) controlling gene expression constitute a rich treasure trove of data to be defined and experimentally validated. Such information will provide insight into cell lineage determination and differentiation and the genetic basis of heritable diseases as well as the development of novel tools for restricting the inactivation of genes to specific cell types or conditions. Historically, the study of CRMs and their individual transcription factor binding sites has been limited to proximal regions around gene loci. Two important by-products of the genomics revolution, artificial chromosome vectors and comparative genomics, have fueled efforts to define an increasing number of CRMs acting remotely to control gene expression. Such regulation from a distance has challenged our perspectives of gene expression control and perhaps the very definition of a gene. This review summarizes current approaches to characterize remote control of gene expression in transgenic mice and inherent limitations for accurately interpreting the essential nature of CRM activity.

  13. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial…

  14. ADAMTS Expression in Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filou, Serafula; Korpetinou, Aggeliki; Kyriakopoulou, Dora; Bounias, Dimitrios; Stavropoulos, Michael; Ravazoula, Panagiota; Papachristou, Dionysios J.; Theocharis, Achilleas D.; Vynios, Demitrios H.

    2015-01-01

    ADAMTSs are a family of secreted proteinases that share the metalloproteinase domain with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). By acting on a large panel of extracellular substrates, they control several cell functions such as fusion, adhesion, proliferation and migration. Through their thrombospondin motifs they also possess anti-angiogenic properties. We investigated whether ADAMTSs participate in colorectal cancer progression and invasion. Their expression was investigated at both mRNA and protein levels. Using RT-PCR, the expression of ADAMTS-1, -4, -5 and ADAMTS-20 was estimated in colorectal tumors of different cancer stage and anatomic site and 3 cell lines of different aggressiveness. An overexpression of ADAMTS-4 and -5 was observed, especially in tissue samples, whereas ADAMTS-1 and -20 were found to be down-regulated. Western blot analysis further supported the RT-PCR findings, revealing in addition the degradation of ADAMTS-1 and -20 in cancer. In situ expression and localization of ADAMTS-1, -4, -5 and -20 was also investigated by immunohistochemical analysis. Our data suggest a positive correlation between ADAMTS-4 and -5 expression and cancer progression, in contrast with the anti-angiogenic members of the family, ADAMTS-1 and -20, which were found to be down-regulated. Our findings support the notion that overexpression of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 in colorectal cancer might be a possible invasive mechanism of cancer cells in order to degrade proteoglycans of ECM. PMID:25786261

  15. ADAMTS expression in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafula Filou

    Full Text Available ADAMTSs are a family of secreted proteinases that share the metalloproteinase domain with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. By acting on a large panel of extracellular substrates, they control several cell functions such as fusion, adhesion, proliferation and migration. Through their thrombospondin motifs they also possess anti-angiogenic properties. We investigated whether ADAMTSs participate in colorectal cancer progression and invasion. Their expression was investigated at both mRNA and protein levels. Using RT-PCR, the expression of ADAMTS-1, -4, -5 and ADAMTS-20 was estimated in colorectal tumors of different cancer stage and anatomic site and 3 cell lines of different aggressiveness. An overexpression of ADAMTS-4 and -5 was observed, especially in tissue samples, whereas ADAMTS-1 and -20 were found to be down-regulated. Western blot analysis further supported the RT-PCR findings, revealing in addition the degradation of ADAMTS-1 and -20 in cancer. In situ expression and localization of ADAMTS-1, -4, -5 and -20 was also investigated by immunohistochemical analysis. Our data suggest a positive correlation between ADAMTS-4 and -5 expression and cancer progression, in contrast with the anti-angiogenic members of the family, ADAMTS-1 and -20, which were found to be down-regulated. Our findings support the notion that overexpression of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 in colorectal cancer might be a possible invasive mechanism of cancer cells in order to degrade proteoglycans of ECM.

  16. Spirit Boxes: Expressions of Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuro, Ted

    1984-01-01

    After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)

  17. 'Endurance' Courtesy of Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its panoramic camera to capture this false-color image of the interior of 'Endurance Crater' on the rover's 188th martian day (Aug. 4, 2004). The image data were relayed to Earth by the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter. The image was generated from separate frames using the cameras 750-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters.

  18. One Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA Study in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J Haryono

    2017-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN is defined as the first of a few selected lymphatic nodes, into which lymphatic fluid from a primary tumor drains. Streamlined processing of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN for detection of lymph node metastasis involves the able command over methodical blocks of SLN identification, surgical removal of SLN and SLN analysis. One Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA method, which relies on CK19 mRNA expression to detect intraoperatively  lymph node metastases in breast cancer cases, emerged as a plausible alternative to the current gold standard that uses histopathological node analysis. Sixty selected axillary sentinel lymph nodes from thirty breast cancer patients. Sentinel lymph nodes were directly bi-halved after collection using customized lymph node cutting device (Sysmex, or scalpel. The first halves were subjected to histopathological examination and were stored in specimen containers containing fresh formaldehyde prior to processing. The adjacent halves were weighed to comply with the required mass by OSNA detection in the range of 50 – 600 mg and wrapped in clean foils for storage in -80°C prior to OSNA analysis. 60 SLNs were same diagnosis using both methods. 25 SLNs were negative and 25 SLNs were positive using both methods. 3 SLNs were positive on OSNA but negative on histology. Other 7 SLNs were negative on OSNA but positive on histology, and these 1 nodes contained only micrometastasis lesion. These results suggest that OSNA is a useful for detecting SLNs metastasis, but a copy number of CK19 might be an indepedent factor from prediction and prognosis of breast cancer.   Keyword: OSNA, Sentinel Nodes, Breast Cancer, CK19

  19. Vascular Gene Expression: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Concepción eMartínez-Navarro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular tissues. This tissue-specific expression in Arabidopsis is predicted by the overrepresentation of GA/CT-rich motifs in gene promoters. In this work we have searched for common motifs in upstream regions of the homologous genes from plants considered to possess a primitive vascular tissue (a lycophyte, as well as from others that lack a true vascular tissue (a bryophyte, and finally from chlorophytes. Both lycophyte and bryophyte display motifs similar to those found in Arabidopsis with a significantly low E-value, while the chlorophytes showed either a different conserved motif or no conserved motif at all. These results suggest that these same genes are expressed coordinately in non- vascular plants; this coordinate expression may have been one of the prerequisites for the development of conducting tissues in plants. We have also analyzed the phylogeny of conserved proteins that may be involved in phloem function and development. The presence of CmPP16, APL, FT and YDA in chlorophytes suggests the recruitment of ancient regulatory networks for the development of the vascular tissue during evolution while OPS is a novel protein specific to vascular plants.

  20. The motivation to express prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forscher, Patrick S; Cox, William T L; Graetz, Nicholas; Devine, Patricia G

    2015-11-01

    Contemporary prejudice research focuses primarily on people who are motivated to respond without prejudice and the ways in which unintentional bias can cause these people to act in a manner inconsistent with this motivation. However, some real-world phenomena (e.g., hate speech, hate crimes) and experimental findings (e.g., Plant & Devine, 2001, 2009) suggest that some prejudice is intentional. These phenomena and findings are difficult to explain solely from the motivations to respond without prejudice. We argue that some people are motivated to express prejudice, and we develop the Motivation to Express Prejudice Scale (MP) to measure this motivation. In 7 studies involving more than 6,000 participants, we demonstrate that, across scale versions targeted at Black people and gay men, the MP has good reliability and convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. In normative climates that prohibit prejudice, the internal and external motivations to express prejudice are functionally nonindependent, but they become more independent when normative climates permit more prejudice toward a target group. People high in the motivation to express prejudice are relatively likely to resist pressure to support programs promoting intergroup contact and to vote for political candidates who support oppressive policies. The motivation to express prejudice predicted these outcomes even when controlling for attitudes and the motivations to respond without prejudice. This work encourages contemporary prejudice researchers to give greater consideration to the intentional aspects of negative intergroup behavior and to broaden the range of phenomena, target groups, and samples that they study. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. DNA expressions - A formal notation for DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, Rudy van

    2015-01-01

    We describe a formal notation for DNA molecules that may contain nicks and gaps. The resulting DNA expressions denote formal DNA molecules. Different DNA expressions may denote the same molecule. Such DNA expressions are called equivalent. We examine which DNA expressions are minimal, which

  2. Architecture between construction and expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lanini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available I think that the problem is basically the same as always: to redefine the relationship between Construction and Expression. On one hand, construction is considered an endeavor, on the other hand, a tendency to contest architecture only with expression. The relationship between architecture and control of urban phenomena is a relationship that has been gradually lost in the past three decades and has been replaced by the relationship between finance and planning. A useful object is very different from a building: for its time and costs of construction. Buildings are expected to last many years and are paid with everybody’s taxes, a design object’s lifespan is perhaps fifty years, then it’s ready to be modernized or for the landfill ... I believe that the main tool that a designer must have, beyond necessary technical skills, is the capacity of his/her own critical thought.

  3. Expression in E. coli systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsdam, Anne-M; Kristiansen, Karsten; Nøhr, Jane

    2003-01-01

    (soluble or in inclusion bodies), secreted to the periplasm, or to the surrounding medium. When deciding on a genetic design strategy, it is important to consider the nature of the recombinant protein. The mildest and thus the obvious first-choice expression strategy is to attempt to express the protein...... intracellularly in soluble form. In E. coli, proteins containing disulfide bonds are best produced by secretion because the disulfide forming foldases reside in the periplasm. Likewise, a correct N-terminus is more likely to be obtained upon secretion. Moreover, potentially toxic proteins are more likely...... secretion (1). As another strategy to avoid toxicity to the host or if the recombinant protein is very susceptible to cellular proteases, some protection is obtained by targeting the protein to light-refractile aggregates known as inclusion bodies (2,3). Several different strategies exist for subsequent...

  4. Correction of gene expression data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darbani Shirvanehdeh, Behrooz; Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.; Noeparvar, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    an analytical approach to examine the suitability of correction methods by considering the inter-treatment bias as well as the inter-replicate variance, which allows use of the best correction method with minimum residual bias. Analyses of RNA sequencing and microarray data showed that the efficiencies......This report investigates for the first time the potential inter-treatment bias source of cell number for gene expression studies. Cell-number bias can affect gene expression analysis when comparing samples with unequal total cellular RNA content or with different RNA extraction efficiencies....... For maximal reliability of analysis, therefore, comparisons should be performed at the cellular level. This could be accomplished using an appropriate correction method that can detect and remove the inter-treatment bias for cell-number. Based on inter-treatment variations of reference genes, we introduce...

  5. On the Expressiveness of Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Given-Wilson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The expressiveness of communication primitives has been explored in a common framework based on the pi-calculus by considering four features: synchronism (asynchronous vs synchronous, arity (monadic vs polyadic data, communication medium (shared dataspaces vs channel-based, and pattern-matching (binding to a name vs testing name equality vs intensionality. Here another dimension coordination is considered that accounts for the number of processes required for an interaction to occur. Coordination generalises binary languages such as pi-calculus to joining languages that combine inputs such as the Join Calculus and general rendezvous calculus. By means of possibility/impossibility of encodings, this paper shows coordination is unrelated to the other features. That is, joining languages are more expressive than binary languages, and no combination of the other features can encode a joining language into a binary language. Further, joining is not able to encode any of the other features unless they could be encoded otherwise.

  6. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K.; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-01-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistr...

  7. Expressing Individuality via Food Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Amanda S.; Lusk, Jayson

    2014-01-01

    A new means to the end of expressing one’s identity or individuality has grown in popularity in recent years; food is much more to consumers than the basic physiological needs of food. Consumers have diversified into a wide range of food personality types with different perceptions of the role food should play in their lives. This paper uses factor analysis and compares these food personality factors with food attributes factors consisting of non-price features of food products. Results show ...

  8. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  9. The motivation to express prejudice

    OpenAIRE

    Forscher, Patrick S.; Cox, William T. L.; Graetz, Nicholas; Devine, Patricia G.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary prejudice research focuses primarily on people who are motivated to respond without prejudice and the ways in which unintentional bias can cause these people to act inconsistent with this motivation. However, some real-world phenomena (e.g., hate speech, hate crimes) and experimental findings (e.g., Plant & Devine, 2001; 2009) suggest that some expressions of prejudice are intentional. These phenomena and findings are difficult to explain solely from the motivat...

  10. PCBS AND TIGHT JUNCTION EXPRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Eum, Sung Yong; András, Ibolya E.; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners exhibit a broad range of adverse biological effects including neurotoxicity. The mechanisms by which PCBs cause neurotoxic effects are still not completely understood. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a physical and metabolic barrier separating brain microenvironment from the peripheral circulation and is mainly composed of endothelial cells connected by tight junctions. We examined the effects of several highly-chlorinated PCB congeners on expression ...

  11. Summer Oral Expression English Course

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place between 15 August and 30 September 2011. Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enrol here. Or contact: Kerstin FUHRMEISTER (70896) Tessa OSBORNE (72957)  

  12. Gene expression profile of pulpitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicia, Johnah C.; Henson, Brett R.; Parker, Joel S.; Khan, Asma A.

    2016-01-01

    The cost, prevalence and pain associated with endodontic disease necessitate an understanding of the fundamental molecular aspects of its pathogenesis. This study was aimed to identify the genetic contributors to pulpal pain and inflammation. Inflamed pulps were collected from patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis (n=20). Normal pulps from teeth extracted for various reasons served as controls (n=20). Pain level was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Genome-wide microarray analysis was performed using Affymetrix GeneTitan Multichannel Instrument. The difference in gene expression levels were determined by the Significance Analysis of Microarray program using a false discovery rate (q-value) of 5%. Genes involved in immune response, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and signaling, integrin cell surface interactions, and others were expressed at relatively higher levels in the in the pulpitis group. Moreover, several genes known to modulate pain and inflammation showed differential expression in asymptomatic and mild pain patients (≥30mm on VAS) compared to those with moderate to severe pain. This exploratory study provides a molecular basis for the clinical diagnosis of pulpitis. With an enhanced understanding of pulpal inflammation, future studies on treatment and management of pulpitis and on pain associated with it can have a biological reference to bridge treatment strategies with pulpal biology. PMID:27052691

  13. Gene expression profile of pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicia, J C; Henson, B R; Parker, J S; Khan, A A

    2016-06-01

    The cost, prevalence and pain associated with endodontic disease necessitate an understanding of the fundamental molecular aspects of its pathogenesis. This study was aimed to identify the genetic contributors to pulpal pain and inflammation. Inflamed pulps were collected from patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis (n=20). Normal pulps from teeth extracted for various reasons served as controls (n=20). Pain level was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Genome-wide microarray analysis was performed using Affymetrix GeneTitan Multichannel Instrument. The difference in gene expression levels were determined by the significance analysis of microarray program using a false discovery rate (q-value) of 5%. Genes involved in immune response, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and signaling, integrin cell surface interactions, and others were expressed at relatively higher levels in the pulpitis group. Moreover, several genes known to modulate pain and inflammation showed differential expression in asymptomatic and mild pain patients (⩾30 mm on VAS) compared with those with moderate to severe pain. This exploratory study provides a molecular basis for the clinical diagnosis of pulpitis. With an enhanced understanding of pulpal inflammation, future studies on treatment and management of pulpitis and on pain associated with it can have a biological reference to bridge treatment strategies with pulpal biology.

  14. Children's expression through play therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomirović Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Play as a child's expression, is a skill through which children speaks to adults. Play therapy is a broad field of therapeutic intervention based on the play in order to help the child to cope with problems. Through play, children learn to communicate with others, to express their feelings. Through play they learn and can improve their cognitive, emotional and social capabilities. Play therapy is a nondirective technique focused on the child. It is not focused on the problem, at present even the past, but focused on the expression of the child feelings, accepting the child, rather than correction. The focus has been on the wisdom of a child, not on expertise therapists, guiding the child through play rather than instructing. The aim of play therapy is to encourage healthy growth and development, developing skills in problem solving, reduction of undesirable behavior, confidence building and the development of self-control. This method is effective for a wide range of children's problems, such as the state of stress, anxiety, problem behavior, hyperkinetic syndrome, depression, loss, trauma, the problem of bonding situations parents divorced, somatic disorders, autism spectrum disorders, social problems.

  15. Gene Expression in Trypanosomatid Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Martínez-Calvillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The parasites Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma brucei, and Trypanosoma cruzi are the trypanosomatid protozoa that cause the deadly human diseases leishmaniasis, African sleeping sickness, and Chagas disease, respectively. These organisms possess unique mechanisms for gene expression such as constitutive polycistronic transcription of protein-coding genes and trans-splicing. Little is known about either the DNA sequences or the proteins that are involved in the initiation and termination of transcription in trypanosomatids. In silico analyses of the genome databases of these parasites led to the identification of a small number of proteins involved in gene expression. However, functional studies have revealed that trypanosomatids have more general transcription factors than originally estimated. Many posttranslational histone modifications, histone variants, and chromatin modifying enzymes have been identified in trypanosomatids, and recent genome-wide studies showed that epigenetic regulation might play a very important role in gene expression in this group of parasites. Here, we review and comment on the most recent findings related to transcription initiation and termination in trypanosomatid protozoa.

  16. Summer Oral Expression English course

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place this summer from 20 August to 29 September.   Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enroll through this link. Please be sure to indicate your planned absences in the comments field so we can schedule the course. If you need more information please send a message to English.training@cern.ch

  17. Summer Oral Expression English course

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place this summer at some time between 25 June and 28 September. The exact dates will be decided according to the preferences of the students.   Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enroll through this link. Please be sure to indicate your planned absences in the comments field so we can schedule the course. If you need more information please send a message to English.training@cern.ch

  18. Visualizing structures of speech expressiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Graugaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    vowels and consonants, and which converts the speech energy into visual particles that form complex visual structures, provides us with a mean to present the expressiveness of speech into a visual mode. This system is presented in an artwork whose scenario is inspired from the reasons of language......Speech is both beautiful and informative. In this work, a conceptual study of the speech, through investigation of the tower of Babel, the archetypal phonemes, and a study of the reasons of uses of language is undertaken in order to create an artistic work investigating the nature of speech...

  19. Summer Oral Expression English course

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place this summer at some time between August 19 and October 4.   Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enroll through this link. Please be sure to indicate your planned absences in the comments field so we can schedule the course. If you need more information please send a message to English.training@cern.ch.

  20. Summer Oral Expression English Course

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place between 15 August and 30 September 2011. Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enrol through the following link https://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9:1576796470009589::::X_STATUS,XS_COURSE_NAME,XS_PROGRAMME,XS_SUBCATEGORY,X_COURSE_ID,XS_LANGUAGE,XS_SESSION:D,,1,,4368,B, Or contact: Kerstin FUHRMEISTER (70896) Tessa OSBORNE (72957)  

  1. Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Horiuchi, Youko

    2015-12-23

    Background Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences. However, different types of gene expression alteration should have different effects on an organism, the evolutionary forces that act on them might be different, and different types of genes might show different types of differential expression between species. To confirm this, we studied differentially expressed (DE) genes among closely related groups that have extensive gene expression atlases, and clarified characteristics of different types of DE genes including the identification of regulating loci for differential expression using expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis data. Results We detected differentially expressed (DE) genes between rice subspecies in five homologous tissues that were verified using japonica and indica transcriptome atlases in public databases. Using the transcriptome atlases, we classified DE genes into two types, global DE genes and changed-tissues DE genes. Global type DE genes were not expressed in any tissues in the atlas of one subspecies, however changed-tissues type DE genes were expressed in both subspecies with different tissue specificity. For the five tissues in the two japonica-indica combinations, 4.6 ± 0.8 and 5.9 ± 1.5 % of highly expressed genes were global and changed-tissues DE genes, respectively. Changed-tissues DE genes varied in number between tissues, increasing linearly with the abundance of tissue specifically expressed genes in the tissue. Molecular evolution of global DE genes was rapid, unlike that of changed-tissues DE genes. Based on gene ontology, global and changed-tissues DE genes were different, having no common GO terms. Expression differences of most global DE genes were regulated by cis-eQTLs. Expression

  2. Immunohistochemical study for the origin of ductular reaction in chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Jae; Park, Jae-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Lee, Woo-Ram; Kim, Jung-Yeon; An, Hyun-Jin; Park, Kwan-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    The appearance of proliferating bile ductular structures, which is called the "atypical ductular reaction" is frequently observed in various chronic liver diseases associated. However, the origin of these increased bile ductules has been a matter of controversy. In this study, we investigated the origin of ductular cells as an aspect of relation between epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and epithelial members of liver parenchyme, such as hepatocyte and cholangiocyte by immunohistochemical staining of human liver. Thirteen specimens of surgically resected liver with biliary cirrhosis were selected. Three sets of double immunohistochemical stains were done; Hep-Par 1 - cytokeratin 19 (CK19), Hep-Par 1 - α-sm ooth mus cle actin (α-SMA) and CK19 - α-SMA. As a result, we investigated the dual expression of the markers of hepatocyte and cholangiocyte in the same cell; in ductular cell and surrounding hepatocyte. However, there seems to be no dual expression of markers for EMT with epithelial markers. This study suggests a possibility of phenotypic change of mature hepatocyte into cholangiocyte. Future studies will be necessary to determine the role that proliferating cholangiocytes play in the pathogenesis of biliary fibrosis and how cholangiocytes interact with other cell types of the liver such as hepatic stellate cells or Kupffer cells.

  3. [Investigation of mesenchymal-epithelial transdifferentiation in the morphogenesis mechanism of embryonic epidermic cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Du-yin; Fu, Xiao-bing; Zhang, Yu-hua; Sheng, Zhi-yong; Chen, Wei; Sun, Tong-zhu

    2005-06-01

    To study the relationship between the morphologic mechanism of human embryonic epidermic cells and mesenchymal-epithelial transformation (MET) and its modulation factor. Morphological occurrence of epidermis was detected with histologic methods in earlier period [estimated gestational age (EGA) 6-14 weeks] human embryonic skin samples. At the same time, the characteristic expression and their distribution markers of mesenchymal cells [vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA)], embryonic specific epidermic protein CK8&18, specific protein of epidermic stem cell CK19, transforming growth factor-beta1) (TGF-beta1) and its receptor (TGFbetaRI) in embryonic epidermis were examined with immunohistochemistry and indirect-immunofluorescent doble-labelling method. During EAG 6-8 weeks, ectodermal cells containing Vim+/alpha-SMA(-) were found to transform into epidermal stem cells with CK8&18+/CK19+. In ectodermal cells, protein expression density of TGFbetaRI was moderate (+ +), while positive signal of TGFbeta1 was weak (+/-). After EGA10 weeks, epidermal cells showed typical morphological characteristics. At EGA 6-8 weeks, human embryonic skin epidermal cells began to form through MET, in which the signal pathway mediated by TGFbetaRI might play important roles, but the role of TGFbeta1 need to be further studied.

  4. Glypican-3 Expression in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hua Tsai

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Immunohistochemical staining with TMA was convenient and feasible for analyzing Glypican-3 expression status in breast cancer. However, our preliminary results show that Glypican-3 expression had no significant prognostic value in breast cancer.

  5. Mediated Interactions and Musical Expression - A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Radha, Mustafa; Nijholt, Antinus; Lee, Newton

    2014-01-01

    This chapter surveys the field of technologically mediated musical interaction and technologically enhanced musical expression. We look at several new technologies that enable new ways of musical expression and interaction, explore the micro-coordination that occurs in collaborative musical

  6. The College Student's Freedom of Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Annette

    1974-01-01

    Discussion of means to ensure freedom of expression by college students. Areas of expression noted are student newspapers, lectures by off-campus speakers, freedom to assemble peaceably and freedom to associate. (EK)

  7. Kivy and Langer on expressiveness in music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Schoot Albert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1980 onwards, Peter Kivy has put forward that music does not so much express emotions but rather is expressive of emotions. The character of the music does not represent the character or mood of the composer, but reflects his knowledge of emotional life. Unfortunately, Kivy fails to give credit to Susanne Langer, who brought these views to the fore as early as 1942, claiming that the vitality of music lies in expressiveness, not in expression.

  8. Promoter Sequences for Defining Transgene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Huw D.; Sparks, Caroline A.

    The design of reverse genetic experiments that utilize transgenic approaches often requires transgenes to be expressed in a predefined pattern and there is limited information regarding the gene expression profile for specific promoters. It is important that expression patterns are predetermined in the specific genotype targeted for transformation because the same promoter-transgene construct can produce different expression patterns in different host species. This chapter compares constitutive, targeted, or inducible promoters that have been characterized in specific cereal species.

  9. Vocal Emotion Expressions Effects on Cooperation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Meneses, Jonathan Azael; Menez Díaz, Judith Marina

    2017-01-01

    Emotional expressions have been proposed to be important for regulating social interaction as they can serve as cues for behavioral intentions. The issue has been mainly addressed analyzing the effects of facial emotional expressions in cooperation behavior, but there are contradictory results regarding the impact of emotional expressions on that…

  10. Expression, purification and characterization of the interferon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Earlier, we had reported that expression of recombinant human RNase L caused RNA-degradation and cell-growth inhibition in E. coli without the need for exogenous 2-5A. Expression of human RNase L in E. coli usually leads to problems of leaky expression, low yield and degradation of the recombinant protein, which ...

  11. Manipulation of expressions in a relational algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroet, J.W.M.; Engmann, R.G.R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a syntax for expressions based on the relational algebra. A tree representation is generated when an expression is analyzed. Transformations on the tree representations of expressions are applied in order to obtain improvements with respect to the speed of evaluation in a data

  12. 7 CFR 27.99 - Values; expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Values; expression. 27.99 Section 27.99 Agriculture... CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Price Quotations and Differences § 27.99 Values; expression. For the purpose of this subpart values shall be expressed in terms of cents and hundredths of a...

  13. Generating Expressive Speech for Storytelling Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailly, G.; Theune, Mariet; Meijs, Koen; Campbell, N.; Hamza, W.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Hoge, H.; Jianhua, T.

    Work on expressive speech synthesis has long focused on the expression of basic emotions. In recent years, however, interest in other expressive styles has been increasing. The research presented in this paper aims at the generation of a storytelling speaking style, which is suitable for

  14. Learning to Be Creatively Expressive Performers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Katherine; Brenner, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Research conducted on the development of expressive performance capabilities suggests that children can learn to demonstrate expressiveness in their music-making. Expressivity includes musical interpretation, performance technique, and musical and personal creativity. This article examines creativity as an important component of musical…

  15. 75 FR 80561 - Community Express Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... Community Express Lenders have increased program risk. Based on the issues identified above, the central... Express Pilot Program was established in 1999 and was based on the Agency's SBA Express Program. Lenders..., participating lenders must arrange and, when necessary, pay for appropriate management and technical assistance...

  16. Development of gene expression assays measuring immune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using qPCR, the relative expression stability of the reference genes ACTB, GAPDH, YWHAZ and TBP in these samples was determined as well as the mean fold change in the expression of IFNG, CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 in M. bovis-antigen stimulated blood. The expression of YWHAZ and TBP showed ...

  17. Expressing Model Constraints Visually with VMQL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2011-01-01

    ) for specifying constraints on UML models. We examine VMQL's usability by controlled experiments and its expressiveness by a representative sample. We conclude that VMQL is less expressive than OCL, although expressive enough for most of the constraints in the sample. In terms of usability, however, VMQL......OCL is the de facto standard language for expressing constraints and queries on UML models. However, OCL expressions are very difficult to create, understand, and maintain, even with the sophisticated tool support now available. In this paper, we propose to use the Visual Model Query Language (VMQL...

  18. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-12-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues. PMab-38 could be useful for uncovering the function of PDPN in canine melanomas.

  19. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  20. E-mail: Outlook Express

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainul Bakri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu layanan Internet yang sangat penting adalah electronic mail atau sering hanya disebut sebagai e-mail. Untuk menggunakan e-mail, diperlukan piranti lunak khusus supaya pengguna dapat mengirim dan menerima e-mail. Jenis piranti lunak e-mail diantaranya adalah Outlook Express yang merupakan satu paket yang didistribusikan bersama Internet Explorer versi 4. Piranti lunak ini dijalankan pada PC yang mempunyai sistem operasi Windows 95 atau 98. Jenis piranti lunak e-mail yang lain adalah Eudora, Pegasus dan sebagainya. Bahkan ada yang diintegrasikan dengan Web Browser (alat untuk menelusuri situs Web misalnya IE,dan Netscape.Sebagai layaknya pelayanan pos, maka setiap pengguna e-mail mempunyai alamat tertentu yang tidak mungkin dipunyai oleh pengguna lainnya diseluruh dunia. Untuk keperluan pendistribusian, maka e-mail mempunyai semacam kantor pos yang ditempatkan dalam sebuah komputer server (mail server atau sering disebut sebagai host. 

  1. Definition, Detection and Generation of Iyashi Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Tetsuko; Diago, Luis A.; Hagiwara, Ichiro; Kitazaki, Satoshi; Yamane, Shigeru

    This paper concerns the engineering analysis of “Iyashi”, a peculiar concept to the Japanese, which affect person's heart and may change their expression and behavior. We have integrated the advocator's view of “Iyashi”, analyzed the social background of “Iyashi” and have defined Iyashi and also the Iyashi expression. As the facial expression is the special and important stimulus for both observers and people who show expressions, we want to prove the existence of expressions that change the observer's emotion with Iyashi. We have developed the system to clarify the combination of facial features important for Iyashi through the psychological experiments and the analysis by Holographic Neural Networks (HNN). HNN analysis gave the structure of the Iyashi expression, that is the important combination of the physical facial parameters contributing to the high degree of Iyashi. Based on the structure of Iyashi we are able to generate the Iyashi expression appropriate for each person.

  2. Adaptive Evolution of Gene Expression in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armita Nourmohammad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression levels are important quantitative traits that link genotypes to molecular functions and fitness. In Drosophila, population-genetic studies have revealed substantial adaptive evolution at the genomic level, but the evolutionary modes of gene expression remain controversial. Here, we present evidence that adaptation dominates the evolution of gene expression levels in flies. We show that 64% of the observed expression divergence across seven Drosophila species are adaptive changes driven by directional selection. Our results are derived from time-resolved data of gene expression divergence across a family of related species, using a probabilistic inference method for gene-specific selection. Adaptive gene expression is stronger in specific functional classes, including regulation, sensory perception, sexual behavior, and morphology. Moreover, we identify a large group of genes with sex-specific adaptation of expression, which predominantly occurs in males. Our analysis opens an avenue to map system-wide selection on molecular quantitative traits independently of their genetic basis.

  3. Adolescents' misinterpretation of health risk probability expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, L D; Schydlower, M; Foley, J; Copeland, R L

    1995-05-01

    To determine if differences exist between adolescents and physicians in their numerical translation of 13 commonly used probability expressions (eg, possibly, might). Cross-sectional. Adolescent medicine and pediatric orthopedic outpatient units. 150 adolescents and 51 pediatricians, pediatric orthopedic surgeons, and nurses. Numerical ratings of the degree of certainty implied by 13 probability expressions (eg, possibly, probably). Adolescents were significantly more likely than physicians to display comprehension errors, reversing or equating the meaning of terms such as probably/possibly and likely/possibly. Numerical expressions of uncertainty (eg, 30% chance) elicited less variability in ratings than lexical expressions of uncertainty (eg, possibly). Physicians should avoid using probability expressions such as probably, possibly, and likely when communicating health risks to children and adolescents. Numerical expressions of uncertainty may be more effective for conveying the likelihood of an illness than lexical expressions of uncertainty (eg, probably).

  4. Suprabasin, a Novel Epidermal Differentiation Marker and Potential Cornified Envelope Precursor

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Geon Tae; Lim, Susan E.; Jang, Shyh-Ing; Morasso, Maria I.

    2002-01-01

    The suprabasin gene is a novel gene expressed in mouse and human differentiating keratinocytes. We identified a partial cDNA encoding suprabasin using a suppression subtractive hybridization method between the proliferative basal and differentiating suprabasal populations of the mouse epidermis. A 3′ gene-specific probe hybridized to transcripts of 0.7- and 2.2-kb pairs on Northern blots with specific detection in differentiated keratinocytes of stratified epithelia. The mouse gene was mapped...

  5. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in the normal human eye and its expression pattern in selected eye tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jinmei; Wu, Yazhen; Heegaard, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    and retina. The COX-2 expression was less in tumours deriving from the ciliary epithelium and also in retinoblastoma. Conclusion: Cyclooxygenase-2 is constitutively expressed in normal human eyes. The expression of COX-2 is much lower in selected eye tumours involving COX-2 expressing cells....

  6. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in the normal human eye and its expression pattern in selected eye tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jinmei; Wu, Yazhen; Heegaard, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    and retina. The COX-2 expression was less in tumours deriving from the ciliary epithelium and also in retinoblastoma. Conclusion: Cyclooxygenase-2 is constitutively expressed in normal human eyes. The expression of COX-2 is much lower in selected eye tumours involving COX-2 expressing cells.......Purpose: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an enzyme involved in neoplastic processes. The purpose of the present study is to investigate COX-2 expression in the normal human eye and the expression pattern in selected eye tumours involving COX-2 expressing cells. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining...... using antibodies against COX-2 was performed on paraffin sections of normal human eyes and selected eye tumours arising from cells expressing COX-2. Results: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression was found in various structures of the normal eye. Abundant expression was seen in the cornea, iris, ciliary body...

  7. Spiradenoma and cylindroma originate from the hair follicle bulge and not from the eccrine sweat gland: an immunohistochemical study with CD200 and other stem cell markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellheyer, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Spiradenoma and cylindroma have historically been described as sweat gland tumors and have often been considered to be of eccrine lineage. However, (a) associations with trichoepitheliomas in Brooke-Spiegler syndrome or with trichoepitheliomas and milia in Rasmussen syndrome, (b) neoplastic combinations with hair follicle tumors in solitary cases, and (c) anatomical considerations support a folliculosebaceous-apocrine lineage. Follicular stem cell markers may allow for further characterization of these neoplasms. A total of 97 tumors were examined for the expression pattern of follicular stem cell markers cytokeratin 15 (CK15), cytokeratin 19 (CK19), pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 1 (PHLDA1), and CD200. The tumors were comprised of 27 spiradenomas, 30 cylindromas, 16 hidradenomas, 19 poromas, 4 dermal duct tumors and 1 hidroacanthoma simplex. All spiradenomas and cylindromas were CD200-positive whereas the other tumors classified as eccrine in lineage were all CD200-negative. CK15 also discriminated between spiradenomas and cylindromas and the remaining neoplasms but not to the degree of CD200. PHLDA1 and CK19 were noncontributory. It is concluded that both spiradenoma and cylindroma are not eccrine but follicular tumors. More specifically, it is proposed that both adnexal neoplasms are derived from the hair follicle bulge and as such represent one of the least differentiated follicular tumors. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [An experimental study of coculture of esophageal mucosa epithelial cells with SIS and their biological characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bo; Wei, Renqian; Yang, Zhiming; Li, Xiuqun; Han, Ping; Zhi, Wei; Xie, Huiqi

    2008-06-01

    To explore an effective method to cultivate esophageal mucosa epithelial cells (EMECs) of canine in vitro, and to observe the biological characteristics of EMECs growing on SIS in order to provide an experimental basis for esophagus tissue engineering. Esophageal tissues were obtained from five healthy dogs aged 2 to 5 weeks under sterile conditions. The primary EMECs were cultivated with defined keratinocyte serum free medium (DKSFM) containing 6% FBS. The morphological characteristics and the growth curve of EMECs of the 2nd generation were observed for 1 to 5 days. The expressions of the EMECs marker (cytokeratin 19, CK-19) were examined by immunocytochemistry. The 2nd generation of EMECs was seeded on SIS and observed by HE staining, immunohistochemical staining, and SEM for 4 and 8 days. The primary culture of canine EMECs arranged like slabstone. Immunohistochemical staining of CK-19 of the 2nd generation EMECs showed positive broadly. The cells growth reached the peak level at 2 days by MTT method. EMECs were polygon in shape and arranged like slabstone, and formed a single layer on the surface of SIS. The cells were contacted closely with each other for 4 days. Eight days later, 2 to 3 layers stratified structure was formed. Lots of EMECs were grown on SIS, and showed laminate arrangement. With mixed enzymatic digestion, the culture of EMECs in DKSFM containing 6% FBS is a simple and feasible method. SIS shows good biocompatibility and can be used as a good scaffold material in the tissue engineered esophagus.

  9. Can widely used cell type markers predict the suitability of immortalized or primary mammary epithelial cell models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Corneille Ontsouka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammary cell cultures are convenient tools for in vitro studies of mammary gland biology. However, the heterogeneity of mammary cell types, e.g., glandular milk secretory epithelial or myoepithelial cells, often complicates the interpretation of cell-based data. The present study was undertaken to determine the relevance of bovine primary mammary epithelial cells isolated from American Holstein (bMEC US or Swiss Holstein-Friesian (bMEC CH cows, and of primary bovine mammary alveolar epithelial cells stably transfected with simian virus-40 (SV-40 large T-antigen (MAC-T for in vitro analyses. This was evaluated by testing their expression pattern of cytokeratin (CK 7, 18, 19, vimentin, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA. RESULTS: The expression of the listed markers was assessed using real-time quantitative PCR, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. Characteristic markers of the mesenchymal (vimentin, myoepithelial (α-SMA and glandular secretory cells (CKs showed differential expression among the studied cell cultures, partly depending on the analytical method used. The relative mRNA expression of vimentin, CK7 and CK19, respectively, was lower (P < 0.05 in immortalized than in primary mammary cell cultures. The stain index (based on flow cytometry of CK7 and CK19 protein was lower (P < 0.05 in MAC-T than in bMECs, while the expression of α-SMA and CK18 showed an inverse pattern. Immunofluorescence microscopy analysis mostly confirmed the mRNA data, while partly disagreed with flow cytometry data (e.g., vimentin level in MAC-T. The differential expression of CK7 and CK19 allowed discriminating between immortal and primary mammary cultures. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of the selected widely used cell type markers in primary and immortalized MEC cells did not allow a clear preference between these two cell models for in vitro analyses studying aspects of milk composition. All tested cell models exhibited to a variable

  10. Hyper-inducible expression system for streptomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herai, Sachio; Hashimoto, Yoshiteru; Higashibata, Hiroki; Maseda, Hideaki; Ikeda, Haruo; Ōmura, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Michihiko

    2004-01-01

    Streptomycetes produce useful enzymes and a wide variety of secondary metabolites with potent biological activities (e.g., antibiotics, immunosuppressors, pesticides, etc.). Despite their importance in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical fields, there have been no reports for practical expression systems in streptomycetes. Here, we developed a “PnitA-NitR” system for regulatory gene expression in streptomycetes based on the expression mechanism of Rhodococcus rhodochrous J1 nitrilase, which is highly induced by an inexpensive and safe inducer, ε-caprolactam. Heterologous protein expression experiments demonstrated that the system allowed suppressed basal expression and hyper-inducible expression, yielding target protein levels of as high as ≈40% of all soluble protein. Furthermore, the system functioned in important streptomycete strains. Thus, the PnitA-NitR system should be a powerful tool for improving the productivity of various useful products in streptomycetes. PMID:15377796

  11. Recognizing Facial Expressions Automatically from Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Caifeng; Braspenning, Ralph

    Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial expressions. Darwin [22] was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in animals and humans, who argued that all mammals show emotions reliably in their faces. Since that, facial expression analysis has been a area of great research interest for behavioral scientists [27]. Psychological studies [48, 3] suggest that facial expressions, as the main mode for nonverbal communication, play a vital role in human face-to-face communication. For illustration, we show some examples of facial expressions in Fig. 1.

  12. "Express yourself": culture and the effect of self-expression on choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejung S; Sherman, David K

    2007-01-01

    Whereas self-expression is valued in the United States, it is not privileged with such a cultural emphasis in East Asia. Four studies demonstrate the psychological implications of this cultural difference. Studies 1 and 2 found that European Americans value self-expression more than East Asians/East Asian Americans. Studies 3 and 4 examined the roles of expression in preference judgments. In Study 3, the expression of choice led European Americans but not East Asian Americans to be more invested in what they chose. Study 4 examined the connection between the value of expression and the effect of choice expression and showed that European Americans place greater emphasis on self-expression than East Asian Americans, and this difference explained the cultural difference in Study 3. This research highlights the importance of the cultural meanings of self-expression and the moderating role of cultural beliefs on the psychological effect of self-expression. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Willingness to Express Emotions to Caregiving Spouses

    OpenAIRE

    Monin, Joan K.; Martire, Lynn M.; Schulz, Richard; Clark, Margaret S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between care-recipients’ willingness to express emotions to spousal caregivers and caregiver’s well-being and support behaviors. Using self-report measures in the context of a larger study, 262 care-recipients with osteoarthritis reported on their willingness to express emotions to caregivers, and caregivers reported on their stress and insensitive responding to care-recipients. Results revealed that care-recipients’ willingness to express happiness was ass...

  14. PLANEX: the plant co-expression database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Won Cheol; Yu, Yongbin; Song, Kitae; Jang, Cheol Seong; Lee, Byung-Moo

    2013-05-20

    The PLAnt co-EXpression database (PLANEX) is a new internet-based database for plant gene analysis. PLANEX (http://planex.plantbioinformatics.org) contains publicly available GeneChip data obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). PLANEX is a genome-wide co-expression database, which allows for the functional identification of genes from a wide variety of experimental designs. It can be used for the characterization of genes for functional identification and analysis of a gene's dependency among other genes. Gene co-expression databases have been developed for other species, but gene co-expression information for plants is currently limited. We constructed PLANEX as a list of co-expressed genes and functional annotations for Arabidopsis thaliana, Glycine max, Hordeum vulgare, Oryza sativa, Solanum lycopersicum, Triticum aestivum, Vitis vinifera and Zea mays. PLANEX reports Pearson's correlation coefficients (PCCs; r-values) that distribute from a gene of interest for a given microarray platform set corresponding to a particular organism. To support PCCs, PLANEX performs an enrichment test of Gene Ontology terms and Cohen's Kappa value to compare functional similarity for all genes in the co-expression database. PLANEX draws a cluster network with co-expressed genes, which is estimated using the k-mean method. To construct PLANEX, a variety of datasets were interpreted by the IBM supercomputer Advanced Interactive eXecutive (AIX) in a supercomputing center. PLANEX provides a correlation database, a cluster network and an interpretation of enrichment test results for eight plant species. A typical co-expressed gene generates lists of co-expression data that contain hundreds of genes of interest for enrichment analysis. Also, co-expressed genes can be identified and cataloged in terms of comparative genomics by using the 'Co-expression gene compare' feature. This type of analysis will help interpret

  15. Identification of Emotional Facial Expressions: Effects of Expression, Intensity, and Sex on Eye Gaze.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jean Wells

    Full Text Available The identification of emotional expressions is vital for social interaction, and can be affected by various factors, including the expressed emotion, the intensity of the expression, the sex of the face, and the gender of the observer. This study investigates how these factors affect the speed and accuracy of expression recognition, as well as dwell time on the two most significant areas of the face: the eyes and the mouth. Participants were asked to identify expressions from female and male faces displaying six expressions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise, each with three levels of intensity (low, moderate, and normal. Overall, responses were fastest and most accurate for happy expressions, but slowest and least accurate for fearful expressions. More intense expressions were also classified most accurately. Reaction time showed a different pattern, with slowest response times recorded for expressions of moderate intensity. Overall, responses were slowest, but also most accurate, for female faces. Relative to male observers, women showed greater accuracy and speed when recognizing female expressions. Dwell time analyses revealed that attention to the eyes was about three times greater than on the mouth, with fearful eyes in particular attracting longer dwell times. The mouth region was attended to the most for fearful, angry, and disgusted expressions and least for surprise. These results extend upon previous findings to show important effects of expression, emotion intensity, and sex on expression recognition and gaze behaviour, and may have implications for understanding the ways in which emotion recognition abilities break down.

  16. Profiling Gene Expression in Germinating Brassica Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Wang, Yi-Hong; Hasenstein, Karl H

    2014-01-01

    Based on previously developed solid-phase gene extraction (SPGE) we examined the mRNA profile in primary roots of Brassica rapa seedlings for highly expressed genes like ACT7 (actin7), TUB (tubulin1), UBQ (ubiquitin), and low expressed GLK (glucokinase) during the first day post-germination. The assessment was based on the mRNA load of the SPGE probe of about 2.1 ng. The number of copies of the investigated genes changed spatially along the length of primary roots. The expression level of all genes differed significantly at each sample position. Among the examined genes ACT7 expression was most even along the root. UBQ was highest at the tip and root-shoot junction (RS). TUB and GLK showed a basipetal gradient. The temporal expression of UBQ was highest in the MZ 9 h after primary root emergence and higher than at any other sample position. Expressions of GLK in EZ and RS increased gradually over time. SPGE extraction is the result of oligo-dT and oligo-dA hybridization and the results illustrate that SPGE can be used for gene expression profiling at high spatial and temporal resolution. SPGE needles can be used within two weeks when stored at 4 °C. Our data indicate that gene expression studies that are based on the entire root miss important differences in gene expression that SPGE is able to resolve for example growth adjustments during gravitropism.

  17. Examining emotional expressions in discourse: methodological considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, Elizabeth; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2017-10-01

    This methodological paper presents an approach for examining emotional expressions through discourse analysis and ethnographic methods. Drawing on trends in the current literature in science education, we briefly explain the importance of emotions in science education and examine the current research methodologies used in interactional emotion studies. We put forth and substantiate a methodological approach that attends to the interactional, contextual, intertextual, and consequential aspects of emotional expressions. By examining emotional expressions in the discourse in which they are constructed, emotional expressions are identified through semantics, contextualization, and linguistic features. These features make salient four dimensions of emotional expressions: aboutness, frequency, type, and ownership. Drawing on data from a large empirical study of pre-service elementary teachers' emotional expressions about climate change in a science course, we provide illustrative examples to describe what counts as emotional expressions in situ. In doing so we explain how our approach makes salient the nuanced nature of such expressions as well as the broader discourse in which they are constructed and the implications for researching emotional expressions in science education discourse. We suggest reasons why this discourse orientated research methodology can contribute to the interactional study of emotions in science education contexts.

  18. Judgments of subtle facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Hwang, Hyisung C

    2014-04-01

    Most studies on judgments of facial expressions of emotion have primarily utilized prototypical, high-intensity expressions. This paper examines judgments of subtle facial expressions of emotion, including not only low-intensity versions of full-face prototypes but also variants of those prototypes. A dynamic paradigm was used in which observers were shown a neutral expression followed by the target expression to judge, and then the neutral expression again, allowing for a simulation of the emergence of the expression from and then return to a baseline. We also examined how signal and intensity clarities of the expressions (explained more fully in the Introduction) were associated with judgment agreement levels. Low-intensity, full-face prototypical expressions of emotion were judged as the intended emotion at rates significantly greater than chance. A number of the proposed variants were also judged as the intended emotions. Both signal and intensity clarities were individually associated with agreement rates; when their interrelationships were taken into account, signal clarity independently predicted agreement rates but intensity clarity did not. The presence or absence of specific muscles appeared to be more important to agreement rates than their intensity levels, with the exception of the intensity of zygomatic major, which was positively correlated with agreement rates for judgments of joy.

  19. Automatic emotional expression analysis from eye area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoç, Betül; Arslan, Ahmet

    2015-02-01

    Eyes play an important role in expressing emotions in nonverbal communication. In the present study, emotional expression classification was performed based on the features that were automatically extracted from the eye area. Fırst, the face area and the eye area were automatically extracted from the captured image. Afterwards, the parameters to be used for the analysis through discrete wavelet transformation were obtained from the eye area. Using these parameters, emotional expression analysis was performed through artificial intelligence techniques. As the result of the experimental studies, 6 universal emotions consisting of expressions of happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, anger and fear were classified at a success rate of 84% using artificial neural networks.

  20. 5-PGDH expression in breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Taipov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes 15-PGDH gene expression in the human breast cancer (BC cell liness and describes the molecular principles through which the expression of the enzyme 15-PGDH is controlled in the tumor cells with a varying metastatic potential. There is an inverse correla- tion of 15-PGDH gene expression with COX-2 expression and the metastatic potential of tumor cells. Investigation of mechanisms for 15-PGDH regulation opens up new vistas and possibilities for the design of effective drugs for the targeted therapy of metastatic forms of BC.

  1. Modulation of gene expression made easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2002-01-01

    A new approach for modulating gene expression, based on randomization of promoter (spacer) sequences, was developed. The method was applied to chromosomal genes in Lactococcus lactis and shown to generate libraries of clones with broad ranges of expression levels of target genes. In one example...... that the method can be applied to modulating the expression of native genes on the chromosome. We constructed a series of strains in which the expression of the las operon, containing the genes pfk, pyk, and ldh, was modulated by integrating a truncated copy of the pfk gene. Importantly, the modulation affected...

  2. Cerebrovascular gene expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, Anne-Sofie; Frederiksen, Simona Denise; Edvinsson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    in the middle cerebral arteries from hypertensive compared to normotensive rats. The gene expression of 72 genes was decreased and the gene expression of 97 genes was increased. The following genes with a fold difference ≥1.40 were verified by quantitative PCR; Postn, Olr1, Fas, Vldlr, Mmp2, Timp1, Serpine1......, Mmp11, Cd34, Ptgs1 and Ptgs2. The gene expression of Postn, Olr1, Fas, Vldlr, Mmp2, Timp1 and Serpine1 and the protein expression of LOX1 (also known as OLR1) were significantly increased in the middle cerebral arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats compared to Wistar-Kyoto rats. In conclusion...

  3. TRPM4 protein expression in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Soldini, Davide; Jung, Maria

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 4 (TRPM4) messenger RNA (mRNA) has been shown to be upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa) and might be a new promising tissue biomarker. We evaluated TRPM4 protein expression and correlated the expression level.......79-2.62; p = 0.01-0.03 for the two observers) when compared to patients with a lower staining intensity. CONCLUSIONS: TRPM4 protein expression is widely expressed in benign and cancerous prostate tissue, with highest staining intensities found in PCa. Overexpression of TRPM4 in PCa (combination of high...

  4. GLUT-1 Expression in Pancreatic Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basturk, Olca; Singh, Rajendra; Kaygusuz, Ecmel; Balci, Serdar; Dursun, Nevra; Culhaci, Nil; Adsay, N. Volkan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives GLUT-1 has been found to have an important role in the upregulation of various cellular pathways and implicated in neoplastic transformation correlating with biological behavior in malignancies. However, literature regarding the significance of GLUT-1 expression in pancreatic neoplasia has been limited and controversial. Methods Immunohistochemical expression of GLUT-1 was tested in a variety of pancreatic neoplasia including ductal adenocarcinomas (DAs), pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanINs), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), and serous cystadenomas. Results There was a progressive increase in the expression of GLUT-1 from low- to higher-grade dysplastic lesions: All higher-grade PanINs/IPMNs (the ones with moderate/high-grade dysplasia) revealed noticeable GLUT-1 expression. Among the 94 DAs analyzed, there were minimal/moderate expression in 46 and significant expression in 24 DAs. However, all 4 clear-cell variants of DAs revealed significant GLUT-1 immunolabeling, as did areas of clear-cell change seen in other DAs. Moreover, all 12 serous cystadenomas expressed significant GLUT-1. GLUT-1 expression was also directly correlated with DA histological grade (P = 0.016) and tumor size (P = 0.03). Conclusions GLUT-1 may give rise to the distinctive clear-cell appearance of these tumors by inducing the accumulation of glycogen in the cytoplasm. Additionally, because GLUT-1 expression was related to histological grade and tumor size of DA, further studies are warranted to investigate the association of GLUT-1 with prognosis and tumor progression. PMID:21206329

  5. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer correlates with high histological grade and triple-negative phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hoiseon; Ryu, Young-joon; An, Jungsuk; Lee, Youngseok; Kim, Aeree

    2012-05-01

      Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is characterized by a loss of epithelial nature and the acquisition of a mesenchymal form. The aim of this study was to assess the role of EMT in human mammary carcinogenesis, by performing immunohistochemical studies of EMT markers with tissue microarrays.   A total of 492 cases were evaluated and classified as hormone receptor (HR)-positive type, HER2 type and triple-negative (TN) type by the use of immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization. We compared these groups in terms of epithelial and mesenchymal marker expression patterns. Of the 102 cases of TN-type breast cancer, 24.5% expressed vimentin, 13.7% expressed N-cadherin, and 9.8% expressed smooth muscle actin (SMA). Of the 221 cases of HR-type breast cancer, 4.1% expressed vimentin, 5.9% expressed N-cadherin, and 0.4% expressed SMA. Regarding epithelial markers, decreased expression was seen in 16.7% of cases for E-cadherin, in 45.1% for cytokeratin (CK)19 and in 60.8% for CK8 and CK18 (CAM5.2) in TN-type breast cancer cases. Decreased expression was seen in 11.8% of cases for E-cadherin, in 6.8% for CK19 and in 3.2% for CAM5.2 in HR-type cases.   EMT features were particularly seen in TN-type breast cancer (P grade (P < 0.001). © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Rac1 is crucial for Ras-dependent skin tumor formation by controlling Pak1-Mek-Erk hyperactivation and hyperproliferation in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Z; Pedersen, Esben Ditlev Kølle; Basse, A

    2010-01-01

    Rac1 has a role in proliferation and survival of tumor cells in vitro. The exact effects of Rac1 on growth, apoptosis and corresponding signaling pathways during tumorigenesis in vivo, however, have not been explored yet. Using mice with a keratinocyte-restricted deletion of the Rac1 gene, we found...... that Rac1 is essential for DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumor formation. This corresponded to a decreased keratinocyte hyperproliferation, although apoptosis was not detectably altered. Activated Rac1 promoted Erk-dependent hyperproliferation by Pak1-mediated Mek activation independent of Mek1 phosporylation...... at serine 298. Rac1 was furthermore required for Pak2-dependent hyperactivation of Akt, which under in vivo condition was restricted to the suprabasal cell layers corresponding to a suprabasal-specific expression of Pak2. It is surprising that none of these signaling pathways was altered in untreated Rac1...

  7. Ectodermal Dysplasia Skin Fragility Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayça Alan Atalay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia-skin fragility syndrome (EDSFS is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis first described in 1997 by Mc Grath. EDSFS results from loss of function mutations in plakophilin-1 (PKP1. PKP1 is a structural component of desmosomes, cellcell adhesion complexes. It is also found as a nuclear protein in several cell types that are lack of desmosomes. In skin, however, PKP1 expression is confined mainly to suprabasal keratinocytes and the outer root sheath of hair follicules. Loss of function mutation in PKP1 leads to extensive skin fragility, bullae and erosions following minor trauma, focal keratoderma with painful fissures, alopecia, and nail dystrophy. In some patients hypohidrosis may also be seen. EDSFS is now considered as a specific suprabasal form of epidermolysis bullosa simplex. In this report we describe a 20 year old EDSFS case.

  8. Expression of CD133 in acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, Fetnat M; Foda, Mona E; Kamal, Howyda M; Elshabrawy, Deena A

    2013-06-01

    There have been conflicting results regarding a correlation between CD133 expression and disease outcome. To assess CD133 expression in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and to evaluate its correlation with the different clinical and laboratory data as well as its relation to disease outcome, the present study included 60 newly diagnosed acute leukemic patients; 30 ALL patients with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1 and their ages ranged from 9 months to 48 years, and 30 AML patients with a male to female ratio of 1:1 and their ages ranged from 17 to 66 years. Flow cytometric assessment of CD133 expression was performed on blast cells. In ALL, no correlations were elicited between CD133 expression and some monoclonal antibodies, but in AML group, there was a significant positive correlation between CD133 and HLA-DR, CD3, CD7 and TDT, CD13 and CD34. In ALL group, patients with negative CD133 expression achieved complete remission more than patients with positive CD133 expression. In AML group, there was no statistically significant association found between positive CD133 expression and treatment outcome. The Kaplan-Meier curve illustrated a high significant negative correlation between CD133 expression and the overall survival of the AML patients. CD133 expression is an independent prognostic factor in acute leukemia, especially ALL patients and its expression could characterize a group of acute leukemic patients with higher resistance to standard chemotherapy and relapse. CD133 expression was highly associated with poor prognosis in acute leukemic patients.

  9. Expression of periostin in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak-Wielgomas, Katarzyna; Grzegrzolka, Jedrzej; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Matkowski, Rafal; Wojnar, Andrzej; Rys, Janusz; Ugorski, Maciej; Dziegiel, Piotr

    2017-10-01

    Periostin (POSTN) is a protein involved in multiple processes important for cancer development, both at the stage of cancer initiation and progression, as well as metastasis. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of POSTN in the cells of non-invasive ductal breast carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and to correlate it with clinicopathological data. Immunohistochemical studies (IHC) were conducted on 21 cases of fibrocystic breast change (FC), 44 cases of DCIS and 92 cases of IDC. POSTN expression at mRNA (real-time PCR) and protein level (western blot analysis) was also confirmed in selected breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231 and BO2). Statistically significant higher level of POSTN expression in IDC and DCIS cancer cells compared to FC was noted. Also, the level of POSTN expression in the cytoplasm of IDC cells was shown to increase with the increasing degree of tumour malignancy (G) and significantly higher expression of POSTN was observed in each degree of tumour malignancy (G) relative to FC. Statistically significant higher POSTN expression was observed in tumours with estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) and progesterone receptor-negative (PR-) phenotypes in comparison to estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and progesterone receptor-positive (PR+) cases, as well as significant negative correlation between POSTN expression in cancer cells and expression of ER and PR (p<0.05). Additionally, statistically significant differences in POSTN expression were shown between particular breast cancer cell lines, both at mRNA and protein level. Observed POSTN expression was the lowest in the case of MCF-7, and the highest in MDA-MB-231 and BO2 of the most aggressive potential clinically corresponding to G3 tumours. POSTN expression in the cytoplasm of IDC cancer cells may play an important role in cancer transformation mechanism.

  10. Prediction of the gene expression in normal lung tissue by the gene expression in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Justin W; Zhu, Dakai; Qian, David C; Byun, Jinyoung; Gorlova, Olga Y; Amos, Christopher I; Gorlov, Ivan P

    2015-11-17

    Comparative analysis of gene expression in human tissues is important for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying tissue-specific control of gene expression. It can also open an avenue for using gene expression in blood (which is the most easily accessible human tissue) to predict gene expression in other (less accessible) tissues, which would facilitate the development of novel gene expression based models for assessing disease risk and progression. Until recently, direct comparative analysis across different tissues was not possible due to the scarcity of paired tissue samples from the same individuals. In this study we used paired whole blood/lung gene expression data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We built a generalized linear regression model for each gene using gene expression in lung as the outcome and gene expression in blood, age and gender as predictors. For ~18 % of the genes, gene expression in blood was a significant predictor of gene expression in lung. We found that the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influencing expression of a given gene in either blood or lung, also known as the number of quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), was positively associated with efficacy of blood-based prediction of that gene's expression in lung. This association was strongest for shared eQTLs: those influencing gene expression in both blood and lung. In conclusion, for a considerable number of human genes, their expression levels in lung can be predicted using observable gene expression in blood. An abundance of shared eQTLs may explain the strong blood/lung correlations in the gene expression.

  11. Sad Facial Expressions Increase Choice Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajie Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have discovered a fascinating phenomenon known as choice blindness—individuals fail to detect mismatches between the face they choose and the face replaced by the experimenter. Although previous studies have reported a couple of factors that can modulate the magnitude of choice blindness, the potential effect of facial expression on choice blindness has not yet been explored. Using faces with sad and neutral expressions (Experiment 1 and faces with happy and neutral expressions (Experiment 2 in the classic choice blindness paradigm, the present study investigated the effects of facial expressions on choice blindness. The results showed that the detection rate was significantly lower on sad faces than neutral faces, whereas no significant difference was observed between happy faces and neutral faces. The exploratory analysis of verbal reports found that participants who reported less facial features for sad (as compared to neutral expressions also tended to show a lower detection rate of sad (as compared to neutral faces. These findings indicated that sad facial expressions increased choice blindness, which might have resulted from inhibition of further processing of the detailed facial features by the less attractive sad expressions (as compared to neutral expressions.

  12. Artistic Expression: Another Challenge for Rural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Álvarez-Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the parameters required to create opportunities that would strengthen the social fabric and would promote a comprehensive development through the artistic expression as a method for expressing feelings and constructing –cultural and social– identities as individuals, which, in our global context have been eroded by the homogenization of experiences.

  13. Intrahepatic expression of interferon alpha & interferon alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    Alpha m-RNA while 30% only expressed Interferon Alpha Receptor m-RNA. Responders and non-responders to Interferon therapy ... expression of IFN Alpha Receptor mRNA. Regardless of the response to interferon, histological .... generation reverse hybridisation, line probe assay. (Inno-LiPA HCV II; Innogenetics, Ghent,.

  14. Expressions Shared by Vietnamese in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Carole

    This document is a collection of a list of expressions shared by Vietnamese immigrants who have entered the United States. The expressions concern the following topics: names, formality, cultural influences, touching, tact and diplomacy, shared life, open houses, social standards, manual labor, fatalism, and adaptability. (Author/AM)

  15. Predictable tuning of protein expression in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Mads; Pedersen, Margit; Klausen, Michael Schantz

    2016-01-01

    We comprehensively assessed the contribution of the Shine-Dalgarno sequence to protein expression and used the data to develop EMOPEC (Empirical Model and Oligos for Protein Expression Changes; http://emopec.biosustain.dtu.dk). EMOPEC is a free tool that makes it possible to modulate the expressi...

  16. Behavior, Experience and Expression: Some Research Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyshyn, Robert D.

    Utilizing research conducted on nostalgia, this paper shows how a phenomenological approach assists in understanding behavior, experience and expression. Moreover, a clearer understanding of them aids one's research with and comprehension of nostalgia. Human action can be studied from the experiential, behavioral and expressive perspectives. These…

  17. Gene Expression and Microarray Investigation of Dendrobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result: Between the diabetic rat group and the wild-type group, 1339 functional genes showed differences in expression levels (p < 0.05). ... Genes whose expression normalized were mainly those affected by the disease state and associated with glucose and lipid metabolism, cell growth, apoptosis, biosynthesis, olfactory ...

  18. Original article Semiquantitative Smoothelin Expression in Detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn

    and Sohag Universities from January. 2009 to June 2009. Fig. 1: Immunostaining of smoothelin in MM of cystectomy specimen showing weak positivity. (IHC, original magnification x100). Fig. 2: Smoothelin expression in MP invaded by nests of tumor cells showing strong smoothelin expression. (IHC, original magnification ...

  19. Automating InDesign with Regular Expressions

    CERN Document Server

    Kahrel, Peter

    2006-01-01

    If you need to make automated changes to InDesign documents beyond what basic search and replace can handle, you need regular expressions, and a bit of scripting to make them work. This Short Cut explains both how to write regular expressions, so you can find and replace the right things, and how to use them in InDesign specifically.

  20. Kivy and Langer on expressiveness in music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoot, A.

    2013-01-01

    From 1980 onwards, Peter Kivy has put forward that music does not so much express emotions but rather is expressive of emotions. The character of the music does not represent the character or mood of the composer, but reflects his knowledge of emotional life. Unfortunately, Kivy fails to give credit

  1. Processing Idiomatic Expressions: Effects of Semantic Compositionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabossi, Patrizia; Fanari, Rachele; Wolf, Kinou

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments tested the main claims of the idiom decomposition hypothesis: People have clear intuitions on the semantic compositionality of idiomatic expressions, which determines the syntactic behavior of these expressions and how they are recognized. Experiment 1 showed that intuitions are clear only for a very restricted number of…

  2. Dihydrotestostenone increase the gene expression of androgen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HNTEP cells were grown in basal medium and treated with DHT in different conditions. HNTEP cells under treatment with DHT (10-13 M) induced an increase in FHL-2 expression. In turn, high DHT concentrations (10-8 M) induced an increase in the expression SHP-1. The present data suggest that the SHP-1 and FHL-2 ...

  3. A Robot with Complex Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Takeno

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors believe that the consciousness of humans basically originates from languages and their association-like flow of consciousness, and that feelings are generated accompanying respective languages. We incorporated artificial consciousness into a robot; achieved an association flow of language like flow of consciousness; and developed a robot called Kansei that expresses its feelings according to the associations occurring in the robot. To be able to fully communicate with humans, robots must be able to display complex expressions, such as a sense of being thrilled. We therefore added to the Kansei robot a device to express complex feelings through its facial expressions. The Kansei robot is actually an artificial skull made of aluminum, with servomotors built into it. The face is made of relatively soft polyethylene, which is formed to appear like a human face. Facial expressions are generated using 19 servomotors built into the skull, which pull metal wires attached to the facial “skin” to create expressions. The robot at present is capable of making six basic expressions as well as complex expressions, such as happiness and fear combined.

  4. Construction of expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to construct expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal protein gene (PEP-cDNA) in prokaryotic and mammalian expression vectors in ... pGEX6p2-PEP and pUcD3-FLAG-PEP constructed vectors were transformed into the one shot TOP10 and JM105 bacterial competent cells, respectively.

  5. Expression and Purification of Soluble, Biologically Active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression and Purification of Soluble, Biologically Active Recombinant Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP4/CD26/ADAbp) Comprising the Extracellular Domain in the Yeast, Pichia ... Purpose: To investigate Pichia pastoris expression system for producing clinically usable, high-quality dipeptidyl peptidase 4 recombinant protein.

  6. Advanced Stellar Compass - Alenia Mars Express

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilsgaard, Søren; Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif

    1998-01-01

    This document, submitted in reply to an Alenia R.f.P., is a proposal to implement the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC) in the Mars Express mission.The Mars Express is an ESA dedicated mission to Mars scientific investigation.The ASC is a very advanced instrument designed by the Space Instrumentation...

  7. Foxp3 expression in human cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgoulianis Konstantinos I

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Transcription factor forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3 specifically characterizes the thymically derived naturally occurring regulatory T cells (Tregs. Limited evidence indicates that it is also expressed, albeit to a lesser extent, in tissues other than thymus and spleen, while, very recently, it was shown that Foxp3 is expressed by pancreatic carcinoma. This study was scheduled to investigate whether expression of Foxp3 transcripts and mature protein occurs constitutively in various tumor types. Materials and methods Twenty five tumor cell lines of different tissue origins (lung cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, erythroid leukemia, acute T-cell leukemia were studied. Detection of Foxp3 mRNA was performed using both conventional RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR while protein expression was assessed by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, using different antibody clones. Results Foxp3 mRNA as well as Foxp3 protein was detected in all tumor cell lines, albeit in variable levels, not related to the tissue of origin. This expression correlated with the expression levels of IL-10 and TGFb1. Conclusion We offer evidence that Foxp3 expression, characterizes tumor cells of various tissue origins. The biological significance of these findings warrants further investigation in the context of tumor immune escape, and especially under the light of current anti-cancer efforts interfering with Foxp3 expression.

  8. Transiently expressed pattern during myogenesis and candidate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KE HE

    be the potential binding sites of muscle regulatory factors (MRFs)), and the dN/dS ratio indicated purifying selection acting on this gene, facilitating conservatism in vertebrates. Q-PCR indicated Tmem8C had a peak expression pattern, reaching its highest expression levels in stage E15 in LM and E19 in BM, and then ...

  9. Expression of conserved signalling pathway genes during

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hence, we analysed the expression of Notch, Wnt and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathway genes during differentiation of R1 cells into early vascular lineages. Notch-, Wnt-and Shh-mediated signalling is important during embryonic development. Regulation of gene expression through these signalling molecules is a frequently ...

  10. Varicose veins show enhanced chemokine expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solá, L del Rio; Aceves, M; Dueñas, A I; González-Fajardo, J A; Vaquero, C; Crespo, M Sanchez; García-Rodríguez, C

    2009-11-01

    Leucocyte infiltration in the wall of varicose veins has been reported previously. This study was designed to investigate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in control and in patients with varicose veins and to test the effect of treating varicose vein patients with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on cytokine expression prior to removal of varices. Sections of vein were removed during operation from both patient groups, and ribonuclease protection assays (RPAs) were performed to assess the expression of chemokines. Group I included non-varicose saphenous veins from healthy patients undergoing amputation for trauma. Varicose veins were obtained from patients with primary varicose undergoing surgical treatment who received no drug (group II) or treatment with 300 mg day(-1) of ASA for 15 days before surgery (group III). Non-varicose veins constitutively expressed low levels of monocyte-chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) and interleukin (IL)-8 mRNA. Varicose veins had a distinct chemokine expression pattern, since significant up-regulation of MCP-1 and IL-8 and a marked expression of IP-10, RANTES, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta mRNA were detected. Removal of the endothelium did not alter this pattern. Varicose veins obtained from patients treated with ASA showed a consistent decrease in chemokine expression, although it did not reach statistical significance. Varicose veins showed increased expression of several chemokines compared to control veins. A non-significant reduction of activation was observed following treatment with ASA for 15 days.

  11. Role of facial expressions in social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Chris

    2009-12-12

    The expressions we see in the faces of others engage a number of different cognitive processes. Emotional expressions elicit rapid responses, which often imitate the emotion in the observed face. These effects can even occur for faces presented in such a way that the observer is not aware of them. We are also very good at explicitly recognizing and describing the emotion being expressed. A recent study, contrasting human and humanoid robot facial expressions, suggests that people can recognize the expressions made by the robot explicitly, but may not show the automatic, implicit response. The emotional expressions presented by faces are not simply reflexive, but also have a communicative component. For example, empathic expressions of pain are not simply a reflexive response to the sight of pain in another, since they are exaggerated when the empathizer knows he or she is being observed. It seems that we want people to know that we are empathic. Of especial importance among facial expressions are ostensive gestures such as the eyebrow flash, which indicate the intention to communicate. These gestures indicate, first, that the sender is to be trusted and, second, that any following signals are of importance to the receiver.

  12. An expression analysis package for REDUCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulzen, J.A.; Hulshof, B.J.A.

    1982-01-01

    An expression analysis package for REDUCE 2 is presented. This package, completely written in Standard LISP, can be considered as an extension of the algebraic mode. It allows to interactively dismantled and/or modify the last output expression as it is desplayed or printed. An interface with the

  13. Positron emission tomography : measurement of transgene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, EFJ; Vaalburg, W

    Noninvasive and repetitive imaging of transgene expression can play a pivotal role in the development of gene therapy strategies, as it offers investigators a means to determine the effectiveness of their gene transfection protocols. In the last decade, imaging of transgene expression using positron

  14. Dirichlet expression for L(1, χ )

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We show that this expression with obvious modification is valid for the general primitive Dirichlet character χ. Keywords. Hurwitz zeta function; Dirichlet character; Dirichlet L-series; primitive character. 1. Introduction. In Dirichlet's famous work dealing with class number formula, the value of L(1,χ) is expressed in terms of finite ...

  15. Characterization and expression analyses of the H ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conversely, plants subjected to P and K deprivation and drought stress,ScHP1 expression was higher in the roots than leaves. Under all the investigated stress conditions, expression of ScHP1 was lower in the stem than in the leaves and roots. Our results imply that ScHP1 functions under abiotic stress response.

  16. Recombinant E. coli expressing Vitreoscilla haemoglobin prefers ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Overexpression of proteins involved in aerobic metabolic pathways and suppression of proteins involved in non-oxidative metabolic pathways shown in this study indicates that the cells expressing VHb prefer aerobic metabolic pathways even under oxygen limitation. Under these conditions, the expression levels of ...

  17. Recombinant E. coli expressing Vitreoscilla haemoglobin prefers ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary section 2. KEGG pathway analysis of proteins that were differentially expressed under aerobic and micro- aerobic conditions in VHb expressing E. coli. Pathway. Aerobiosis. Up. Down. Up. Microaerobiosis. Down. Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (ecx01110). sdhB, pckA, gnd, icdA. purC, glyA. pckA ...

  18. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in pig with genetic propensity for higher growth rate were identified by sequence analysis of 12 differentially expressed clones selected by differential screening following the generation of the subtracted cDNA population. Real-time PCR analysis con- firmed difference in expression profiles of the identified genes in ...

  19. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruissen, Fred; Baas, Frank

    2007-01-01

    In 1995, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was developed as a versatile tool for gene expression studies. SAGE technology does not require pre-existing knowledge of the genome that is being examined and therefore SAGE can be applied to many different model systems. In this chapter, the SAGE

  20. Recognition of 3D facial expression dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandbach, G.; Zafeiriou, S.; Pantic, Maja; Rueckert, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method that exploits 3D motion-based features between frames of 3D facial geometry sequences for dynamic facial expression recognition. An expressive sequence is modelled to contain an onset followed by an apex and an offset. Feature selection methods are applied in order

  1. Equilibrium-constant expressions for aqueous plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2010-01-01

    Equilibrium-constant expressions for Pu disproportionation reactions traditionally contain three or four terms representing the concentrations or fractions of the oxidation states. The expressions can be rewritten so that one of the oxidation states is replaced by a term containing the oxidation number of the plutonium. Experimental estimations of the numerical values of the constants can then be checked in several ways. (author)

  2. Abstraction of Invariant Face Expressions in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Rose F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    To determine whether infants can form face expression categories, groups of infants 18 to 24 weeks old, along with those 30 weeks old, were habituated by the infant control procedure to photographs of four different female faces, each with an identical expression (happiness or surprise). Results are discussed in terms of age and sex differences.…

  3. Explanations for Contempt Expressed Towards Old People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Eleanor Krassen; Maxwell, Robert J.

    The issue of contempt expressed towards the aged was examined from a cross-cultural perspective. Eight reasons for expressions of contempt emerged from a study of 95 societies drawn from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample, and were treated as independent variables, with the overall level of contempt as the dependent variable, in a application of…

  4. Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R; Godballe, Christian

    2011-01-01

    :  Osteopontin was expressed in all salivary gland carcinomas. Adenoid cystic carcinomas had the highest mean sum score (7.3) and a significantly higher proportion of carcinomas with high OPN sum score than both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. Correlation of OPN expression with known...

  5. Fermionic expressions for minimal model virasoro characters

    CERN Document Server

    Welsh, Trevor A

    2005-01-01

    Fermionic expressions for all minimal model Virasoro characters $\\chi^{p, p'}_{r, s}$ are stated and proved. Each such expression is a sum of terms of {\\em fundamental fermionic form} type. In most cases, all these terms are written down using certain trees which are constructed for $s$ and $r$ from the Takahashi lengths and truncated Takahashi lengths associated with the continued fraction of $p'/p$. In the remaining cases, in addition to such terms, the fermionic expression for $\\chi^{p, p'}_{r, s}$ contains a different character $\\chi^{\\hat p, \\hat p'}_{\\hat r,\\hat s}$, and is thus recursive in nature. Bosonic-fermionic $q$-series identities for all characters $\\chi^{p, p'}_{r, s}$ result from equating these fermionic expressions with known bosonic expressions. In the cases for which $p=2r$, $p=3r$, $p'=2s$ or $p'=3s$, Rogers-Ramanujan type identities result from equating these fermionic expressions with known product expressions for $\\chi^{p, p'}_{r, s}$. The fermionic expressions are proved by first obta...

  6. Characterization of differentially expressed genes using high-dimensional co-expression networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coelho Goncalves de Abreu, Gabriel; Labouriau, Rodrigo S.

    2010-01-01

    We present a technique to characterize differentially expressed genes in terms of their position in a high-dimensional co-expression network. The set-up of Gaussian graphical models is used to construct representations of the co-expression network in such a way that redundancy and the propagation...... that allow to make effective inference in problems with high degree of complexity (e.g. several thousands of genes) and small number of observations (e.g. 10-100) as typically occurs in high throughput gene expression studies. Taking advantage of the internal structure of decomposable graphical models, we...... construct a compact representation of the co-expression network that allows to identify the regions with high concentration of differentially expressed genes. It is argued that differentially expressed genes located in highly interconnected regions of the co-expression network are less informative than...

  7. Polycistronic gene expression in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, Tabea; Meyer, Vera

    2017-09-25

    Genome mining approaches predict dozens of biosynthetic gene clusters in each of the filamentous fungal genomes sequenced so far. However, the majority of these gene clusters still remain cryptic because they are not expressed in their natural host. Simultaneous expression of all genes belonging to a biosynthetic pathway in a heterologous host is one approach to activate biosynthetic gene clusters and to screen the metabolites produced for bioactivities. Polycistronic expression of all pathway genes under control of a single and tunable promoter would be the method of choice, as this does not only simplify cloning procedures, but also offers control on timing and strength of expression. However, polycistronic gene expression is a feature not commonly found in eukaryotic host systems, such as Aspergillus niger. In this study, we tested the suitability of the viral P2A peptide for co-expression of three genes in A. niger. Two genes descend from Fusarium oxysporum and are essential to produce the secondary metabolite enniatin (esyn1, ekivR). The third gene (luc) encodes the reporter luciferase which was included to study position effects. Expression of the polycistronic gene cassette was put under control of the Tet-On system to ensure tunable gene expression in A. niger. In total, three polycistronic expression cassettes which differed in the position of luc were constructed and targeted to the pyrG locus in A. niger. This allowed direct comparison of the luciferase activity based on the position of the luciferase gene. Doxycycline-mediated induction of the Tet-On expression cassettes resulted in the production of one long polycistronic mRNA as proven by Northern analyses, and ensured comparable production of enniatin in all three strains. Notably, gene position within the polycistronic expression cassette matters, as, luciferase activity was lowest at position one and had a comparable activity at positions two and three. The P2A peptide can be used to express at

  8. HTEL: a HyperText Expression Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    a discussion about the structure of hypertext expression languages. The operations have been chosen in agreement with what is strongly suggested, but not defined, by the HTML-standard. The HTEL-interpreter can be used for cgi-programs, i.e. to describe reactions when data from a `form' in an HTML-document has...... been submitted.A special tool has been used to build the HTEL-interpreter, as an example belonging a family of interpreters for domain specific languages. Members of that family have characteristics that are closely related to structural patterns found in the mark-ups of HTML. HTEL should also be seen......In general, an expression language provides a means to indicate non-constant values in expressions. It includes operations to combine values, but these will normally disappear when the expression is evaluated.HTEL is an expression language to produce HTML-documents. It is presented to stimulate...

  9. HTEL: a HyperText Expression Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    In general, an expression language provides a means to indicate non-constant values in expressions. It includes operations to combine values, but these will normally disappear when the expression is evaluated.HTEL is an expression language to produce HTML-documents. It is presented to stimulate...... a discussion about the structure of hypertext expression languages. The operations have been chosen in agreement with what is strongly suggested, but not defined, by the HTML-standard. The HTEL-interpreter can be used for cgi-programs, i.e. to describe reactions when data from a `form' in an HTML-document has...... been submitted.A special tool has been used to build the HTEL-interpreter, as an example belonging a family of interpreters for domain specific languages. Members of that family have characteristics that are closely related to structural patterns found in the mark-ups of HTML. HTEL should also be seen...

  10. Willingness to express emotions to caregiving spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monin, Joan K; Martire, Lynn M; Schulz, Richard; Clark, Margaret S

    2009-02-01

    This study examined the association between care-recipients' willingness to express emotions to spousal caregivers and caregiver's well-being and support behaviors. Using self-report measures in the context of a larger study, 262 care-recipients with osteoarthritis reported on their willingness to express emotions to caregivers, and caregivers reported on their stress and insensitive responding to care-recipients. Results revealed that care-recipients' willingness to express happiness was associated with less insensitive caregiver responding, and willingness to express interpersonal emotions (e.g., compassion, guilt) was associated with less caregiving stress. There were also gender differences, such that caregiving wives, in particular, benefited from their husband's willingness to express vulnerable (e.g., anxiety, sadness) and interpersonal emotions. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Expression of Sox genes in tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Katsushige; Kawasaki, Maiko; Watanabe, Momoko; Idrus, Erik; Nagai, Takahiro; Oommen, Shelly; Maeda, Takeyasu; Hagiwara, Nobuko; Que, Jianwen; Sharpe, Paul T; Ohazama, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Sox gene family play roles in many biological processes including organogenesis. We carried out comparative in situ hybridization analysis of seventeen sox genes (Sox1-14, 17, 18, 21) during murine odontogenesis from the epithelial thickening to the cytodifferentiation stages. Localized expression of five Sox genes (Sox6, 9, 13, 14 and 21) was observed in tooth bud epithelium. Sox13 showed restricted expression in the primary enamel knots. At the early bell stage, three Sox genes (Sox8, 11, 17 and 21) were expressed in pre-ameloblasts, whereas two others (Sox5 and 18) showed expression in odontoblasts. Sox genes thus showed a dynamic spatio-temporal expression during tooth development.

  12. Emotion Expression of Robot with Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A robot emotional expression model based on Hidden Markov Model (HMM is built to enable robots which have different personalities to response in a more satisfactory emotional level. Gross emotion regulation theory and Five Factors Model (FFM which are the theoretical basis are firstly described. And then the importance of the personality effect on the emotion expression process is proposed, and how to make the effect quantization is discussed. After that, the algorithm of HMM is used to describe the process of emotional state transition and expression, and the performance transferring probability affected by personality is calculated. At last, the algorithm model is simulated and applied in a robot platform. The results prove that the emotional expression model can acquire humanlike expressions and improve the human-computer interaction.

  13. Determinants of human adipose tissue gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viguerie, Nathalie; Montastier, Emilie; Maoret, Jean-José

    2012-01-01

    of environmental and individual factors controlling AT adaptation is therefore essential. Here, expression of 271 transcripts, selected for regulation according to obesity and weight changes, was determined in 515 individuals before, after 8-week low-calorie diet-induced weight loss, and after 26-week ad libitum...... interconnection between expression of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis and components of the metabolic syndrome. Sex had a marked influence on AT expression of 88 transcripts, which persisted during the entire dietary intervention and after control for fat mass. In women, the influence of body mass index...... on expression of a subset of genes persisted during the dietary intervention. Twenty-two genes revealed a metabolic syndrome signature common to men and women. Genetic control of AT gene expression by cis signals was observed for 46 genes. Dietary intervention, sex, and cis genetic variants independently...

  14. Personality expression in Chinese language use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lin; Lu, Jiahui; Ramsay, Jonathan; Yang, Shanshan; Qu, Weina; Zhu, Tingshao

    2017-12-01

    To date, little research has investigated personality expressions in languages other than English. Given that the Chinese language has the largest number of native speakers in the world, it is vitally important to examine the associations between personality and Chinese language use. In this research, we analysed Chinese microblogs and identified word categories and factorial structures associated with personality traits. We also compared our results with previous findings in English and showed that linguistic expression of personality has both universal- and language-specific aspects. Expression of personality via content words is more likely to be consistent across languages than expression via function words. This makes an important step towards uncovering universal patterns of personality expression in language. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. Physiological and cognitive effects of expressive dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jennifer L; Demaree, Heath A

    2007-02-01

    Emotional well-being depends in part on affect modulation. The present study extends research on emotion regulation by assessing the physiological and cognitive effects of a novel response-focused regulation strategy, termed 'expressive dissonance.' Expressive dissonance refers to the incongruence between an emotional state (e.g., sadness) and a behavioral expression (e.g., a smile). Fifty-five participants watched a series of sad film clips in which they were asked to either naturally watch or express the opposite of what they were feeling. Results suggest that persons using the expressive dissonant strategies evidenced greater sympathetic arousal and performed worse on subsequent memory tasks than persons in the natural-watch conditions.

  16. Detection of aggressive periodontitis by calprotectin expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Sandra Sari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calprotectin is a calcium-binding protein expressed by neutrophil, monocytes, gingival keratinocytes, and oral epithelial cells. The concentrations of calprotectin increase in plasma, urine and synovial fluid of patients with inflammatory diseases. This protein is known as a marker for periodontal diseases and is detected in gingival crevicular fluids. Purpose: This study was aimed to investigate the detection of inflammation on the aggressive periodontitis by calprotectin expression. Method: The gingival crevicular fluids were taken from five aggressive periodontitis patients and five healthy subjects by using sterile paper points. Calprotectin expression was analyzed by ELISA technique. Result: The results showed the significant difference in calprotectin expression between subject with aggressive periodontitis and healthy subjects p = 0.002 (p < 0.05. Conclusion: It was concluded that the calprotectin expression on the aggressive periodontitis patients may be useful for evaluation the progression of inflammation in periodontitis.

  17. Voice Quality Modelling for Expressive Speech Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Monzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the perceptual experiments that were carried out in order to validate the methodology of transforming expressive speech styles using voice quality (VoQ parameters modelling, along with the well-known prosody (F0, duration, and energy, from a neutral style into a number of expressive ones. The main goal was to validate the usefulness of VoQ in the enhancement of expressive synthetic speech in terms of speech quality and style identification. A harmonic plus noise model (HNM was used to modify VoQ and prosodic parameters that were extracted from an expressive speech corpus. Perception test results indicated the improvement of obtained expressive speech styles using VoQ modelling along with prosodic characteristics.

  18. PRAME gene expression profile in medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria Vulcani-Freitas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant tumors of central nervous system in the childhood. The treatment is severe, harmful and, thus, has a dismal prognosis. As PRAME is present in various cancers, including meduloblastoma, and has limited expression in normal tissues, this antigen can be an ideal vaccine target for tumor immunotherapy. In order to find a potential molecular target, we investigated PRAME expression in medulloblastoma fragments and we compare the results with the clinical features of each patient. Analysis of gene expression was performed by real-time quantitative PCR from 37 tumor samples. The Mann-Whitney test was used to analysis the relationship between gene expression and clinical characteristics. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to evaluate survival. PRAME was overexpressed in 84% samples. But no statistical association was found between clinical features and PRAME overexpression. Despite that PRAME gene could be a strong candidate for immunotherapy since it is highly expressed in medulloblastomas.

  19. Expression transmission using exaggerated animation for Elfoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Maiya; Tsuruda, Yu; Yoshimura, Hiroki; Iwai, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    We propose an expression transmission system using a cellular-phone-type teleoperated robot called Elfoid. Elfoid has a soft exterior that provides the look and feel of human skin, and is designed to transmit the speaker's presence to their communication partner using a camera and microphone. To transmit the speaker's presence, Elfoid sends not only the voice of the speaker but also the facial expression captured by the camera. In this research, facial expressions are recognized using a machine learning technique. Elfoid cannot, however, display facial expressions because of its compactness and a lack of sufficiently small actuator motors. To overcome this problem, facial expressions are displayed using Elfoid's head-mounted mobile projector. In an experiment, we built a prototype system and experimentally evaluated it's subjective usability.

  20. Insert sequence length determines transfection efficiency and gene expression levels in bicistronic mammalian expression vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Andrew J; Gerdes, Bryan C; Kaja, Simon; Koulen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Bicistronic expression vectors have been widely used for co-expression studies since the initial discovery of the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) about 25 years ago. IRES sequences allow the 5’ cap-independent initiation of translation of multiple genes on a single messenger RNA strand. Using a commercially available mammalian expression vector containing an IRES sequence with a 3’ green fluorescent protein fluorescent marker, we found that sequence length of the gene of interest expresse...

  1. The MPI facial expression database--a validated database of emotional and conversational facial expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Kaulard

    Full Text Available The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused on the emotional aspect. Consequently, most databases of facial expressions available to the research community also include only emotional expressions, neglecting the largely unexplored aspect of conversational expressions. To fill this gap, we present the MPI facial expression database, which contains a large variety of natural emotional and conversational expressions. The database contains 55 different facial expressions performed by 19 German participants. Expressions were elicited with the help of a method-acting protocol, which guarantees both well-defined and natural facial expressions. The method-acting protocol was based on every-day scenarios, which are used to define the necessary context information for each expression. All facial expressions are available in three repetitions, in two intensities, as well as from three different camera angles. A detailed frame annotation is provided, from which a dynamic and a static version of the database have been created. In addition to describing the database in detail, we also present the results of an experiment with two conditions that serve to validate the context scenarios as well as the naturalness and recognizability of the video sequences. Our results provide clear evidence that conversational expressions can be recognized surprisingly well from visual information alone. The MPI facial expression database will enable researchers from different research fields (including the perceptual and cognitive sciences, but also affective computing, as well as computer vision to investigate the processing of a wider range of natural

  2. Metallothionein isoform expression by breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, N L; Ackland, M L; Cornish, E J

    2000-08-01

    Expression of metallothionein (MT) isoforms by a human breast cancer cell line, PMC42, which retains many characteristics of normal breast epithelial cells and expresses functional estrogen receptors, was examined because it has been proposed that human breast cancer cells which are estrogen receptor positive can be differentiated from those which are estrogen receptor negative, by failure to express MT-1E [J.A. Friedline, S.H. Garrett, S. Somji, J.H. Todd, D. A. Sens, Differential expression of the MT-1E gene in estrogen-receptor positive and -negative breast cancer cell lines, Am. J. Pathol. 152 (1998) 23-27]. Using RT-PCR, PMC42 cells were found to transcribe genes for the MT isoforms IE, IX and 2A but not 1A or 1H. In order to examine which of the expressed isoforms might protect against metal toxicity, the cells were challenged with high concentrations of zinc and copper. Using competitive RT-PCR, cells resistant to 500 microM zinc showed 7+/-2 fold (SD, n=3) increases in expression of MT-1X and 6+/-3 fold increases in expression of MT-2A compared to control cells in normal media. For cells resistant to 250 microM copper the corresponding increases were 37+/-13 and 60+/-20 fold, whilst for control cells treated with 250 microM copper for only 6 h, increases were 10+/-3 and 6+/-3 fold. There was only a low level of expression of MT-1E in untreated cells and but a >120 fold increase in copper- resistant cells. Thus estrogen receptor positive cells cannot, in general, be differentiated from estrogen receptor negative cells by failure to express MT-1E, as suggested by Friedline et al. (1998). Increased expression of MT-1E, as well as MT-1X and MT-2A, protects against metal toxicity in PMC42 breast cancer cells.

  3. Recognition, Expression, and Understanding Facial Expressions of Emotion in Adolescents with Nonverbal and General Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Elana; Heath, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) have been found to be worse at recognizing facial expressions than children with verbal learning disabilities (LD) and without LD. However, little research has been done with adolescents. In addition, expressing and understanding facial expressions is yet to be studied among adolescents with LD…

  4. ["Les Impatients": expression through art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Céline; Palardy, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    The organization called "Les Impatients" was founded in 1992. Using a unique model, Les Impatients welcomes those with mental health issues who would like to express themselves through art. Les Impatients offers free creative workshops and encourages exchanges with the community through the sharing of its participants' creations. The name Les Impatients reinforces the idea that the organization does not consider those attending its workshops as patients, but rather creators who are eager to heal, develop their craft and find their place in society. The participants contribute to the collective objective of breaking down the stigma that surrounds mental illness.Les Impatients collaborates with various mental health organizations in Quebec, such as the Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal (IUSMM) affiliated to the Université de Montréal, Douglas Mental Health University Institute (DMHUI), the Centre de santé et services sociaux Drummond (CSSS Drummond) and the Centre de santé et services sociaux Pierre-Boucher (CSSS Pierre-Boucher). Les Impatients offers more than 48 workshops in eight different locations to around 450 participants each week.Dissemination activities, remarkable events, original projects: Les Impatients stands out through its realizations. Examples are exhibitions, collections of love letters, comic books, CD, concerts, and reading nights. The organization's originality resides in the exploration of the links between the work of the participants and that of professional artists. An illustration of this interest is the annual Parle-moi d'amour auction-exhibition, which has been one of Les Impatients' major events since 1999.As part of its mission, Les Impatients conserves the works of art created by the participants during the workshops. Its collection includes more than 15,000 works of art from Les Impatients as well as pieces donated by collectors of unconventional art, commonly known as "art brut" or "outsider art". The

  5. The Communicative Function of Sad Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ian Reed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available What are the communicative functions of sad facial expressions? Research shows that people feel sadness in response to losses but it’s unclear whether sad expressions function to communicate losses to others and if so, what makes these signals credible. Here we use economic games to test the hypothesis that sad expressions lend credibility to claims of loss. Participants play the role of either a proposer or recipient in a game with a fictional backstory and real monetary payoffs. The proposers view a (fictional video of the recipient’s character displaying either a neutral or sad expression paired with a claim of loss. The proposer then decided how much money to give to the recipient. In three experiments, we test alternative theories by using situations in which the recipient’s losses were uncertain (Experiment 1, the recipient’s losses were certain (Experiment 2, or the recipient claims failed gains rather than losses (Experiment 3. Overall, we find that participants gave more money to recipients who displayed sad expressions compared to neutral expressions, but only under conditions of uncertain loss. This finding supports the hypothesis that sad expressions function to increase the credibility of claims of loss.

  6. Expression and Function of NUMB in Odontogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NUMB is a multifunctional protein implicated to function in self-renewal and differentiation of progenitors in several tissues. To characterize the transcripts and to analyze the expression pattern of NUMB in odontogenesis, we isolated 2 full-length clones for NUMB from mouse dental pulp mRNA. One novel sequence contained 200 bp insertion in the phosphotyrosine binding domain (PTB. Confocal microscopy analysis showed strong NUMB expression in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSC and preameloblasts. Western blot analysis indicated that NUMB isoforms were differentially expressed in various dental tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that in postnatal mouse tooth germs, NUMB was differentially expressed in the preameloblasts, odontoblasts, cervical loop region, and in the dental pulp stem cells during development. Interestingly, overexpression of NUMB in HAT-7, a preameloblast cell line, had dramatic antagonizing effects on the protein expression level of activated Notch 1. Further analysis of the Notch signaling pathway showed that NUMB significantly downregulates sonic hedgehog (Shh expression in preameloblasts. Therefore, we propose that NUMB maintains ameloblast progenitor phenotype at the cervical loop by downregulating the activated Notch1 protein and thereby inhibiting the mRNA expression of Shh.

  7. Glucose transporters: expression, regulation and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODOLFO A. MEDINA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian cells depend on glucose as a major substrate for energy production. Glucose is transported into the cell via facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT present in all cell types. Many GLUT isoforms have been described and their expression is cell-specific and subject to hormonal and environmental control. The kinetic properties and substrate specificities of the different isoforms are specifically suited to the energy requirements of the particular cell types. Due to the ubiquitousness of these transporters, their differential expression is involved in various disease states such as diabetes, ischemia and cancer. The majority of cancers and isolated cancer cell lines over-express the GLUT family members which are present in the respective tissue of origin under non-cancerous conditions. Moreover, due to the requirement of energy to feed uncontrolled proliferation, cancer cells often express GLUTs which under normal conditions would not be present in these tissues. This over-expression is predominantly associated with the likelihood of metastasis and hence poor patient prognosis. This article presents a review of the current literature on the regulation and expression of GLUT family members and has compiled clinical and research data on GLUT expression in human cancers and in isolated human cancer cell lines.

  8. The Communicative Function of Sad Facial Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Lawrence Ian; DeScioli, Peter

    2017-01-01

    What are the communicative functions of sad facial expressions? Research shows that people feel sadness in response to losses but it's unclear whether sad expressions function to communicate losses to others and if so, what makes these signals credible. Here we use economic games to test the hypothesis that sad expressions lend credibility to claims of loss. Participants play the role of either a proposer or recipient in a game with a fictional backstory and real monetary payoffs. The proposers view a (fictional) video of the recipient's character displaying either a neutral or sad expression paired with a claim of loss. The proposer then decided how much money to give to the recipient. In three experiments, we test alternative theories by using situations in which the recipient's losses were uncertain (Experiment 1), the recipient's losses were certain (Experiment 2), or the recipient claims failed gains rather than losses (Experiment 3). Overall, we find that participants gave more money to recipients who displayed sad expressions compared to neutral expressions, but only under conditions of uncertain loss. This finding supports the hypothesis that sad expressions function to increase the credibility of claims of loss.

  9. CNPase Expression in Olfactory Ensheathing Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Radtke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A large body of work supports the proposal that transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs into nerve or spinal cord injuries can promote axonal regeneration and remyelination. Yet, some investigators have questioned whether the transplanted OECs associate with axons and form peripheral myelin, or if they recruit endogenous Schwann cells that form myelin. Olfactory bulbs from transgenic mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP under the control of the 2-3-cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNPase promoter were studied. CNPase is expressed in myelin-forming cells throughout their lineage. We examined CNPase expression in both in situ in the olfactory bulb and in vitro to determine if OECs express CNPase commensurate with their myelination potential. eGFP was observed in the outer nerve layer of the olfactory bulb. Dissociated OECs maintained in culture had both intense eGFP expression and CNPase immunostaining. Transplantation of OECs into transected peripheral nerve longitudinally associated with the regenerated axons. These data indicate that OECs in the outer nerve layer of the olfactory bulb of CNPase transgenic mice express CNPase. Thus, while OECs do not normally form myelin on olfactory nerve axons, their expression of CNPase is commensurate with their potential to form myelin when transplanted into injured peripheral nerve.

  10. Evolution of gene expression after gene amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Nelson; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Yongrui; Messing, Joachim

    2015-04-24

    We took a rather unique approach to investigate the conservation of gene expression of prolamin storage protein genes across two different subfamilies of the Poaceae. We took advantage of oat plants carrying single maize chromosomes in different cultivars, called oat-maize addition (OMA) lines, which permitted us to determine whether regulation of gene expression was conserved between the two species. We found that γ-zeins are expressed in OMA7.06, which carries maize chromosome 7 even in the absence of the trans-acting maize prolamin-box-binding factor (PBF), which regulates their expression. This is likely because oat PBF can substitute for the function of maize PBF as shown in our transient expression data, using a γ-zein promoter fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). Despite this conservation, the younger, recently amplified prolamin genes in maize, absent in oat, are not expressed in the corresponding OMAs. However, maize can express the oldest prolamin gene, the wheat high-molecular weight glutenin Dx5 gene, even when maize Pbf is knocked down (through PbfRNAi), and/or another maize transcription factor, Opaque-2 (O2) is knocked out (in maize o2 mutant). Therefore, older genes are conserved in their regulation, whereas younger ones diverged during evolution and eventually acquired a new repertoire of suitable transcriptional activators. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Shukla

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. METHODS: Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. RESULTS: Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1 expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy.

  12. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Swati; Srivastava, Arpna; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Usha; Goswami, Sandeep; Chawla, Bhavna; Bajaj, Mandeep Singh; Kashyap, Seema; Kaur, Jasbir

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC) were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin) were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1) expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp) was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy.

  13. Characterization of recombinantly expressed matrilin VWA domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Ann-Kathrin A; Mikolajek, Halina; Werner, Jörn M; Paulsson, Mats; Wagener, Raimund

    2015-03-01

    VWA domains are the predominant independent folding units within matrilins and mediate protein-protein interactions. Mutations in the matrilin-3 VWA domain cause various skeletal diseases. The analysis of the pathological mechanisms is hampered by the lack of detailed structural information on matrilin VWA domains. Attempts to resolve their structures were hindered by low solubility and a tendency to aggregation. We therefore took a comprehensive approach to improve the recombinant expression of functional matrilin VWA domains to enable X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies. The focus was on expression in Escherichia coli, as this allows incorporation of isotope-labeled amino acids, and on finding conditions that enhance solubility. Indeed, circular dichroism (CD) and NMR measurements indicated a proper folding of the bacterially expressed domains and, interestingly, expression of zebrafish matrilin VWA domains and addition of N-ethylmaleimide yielded the most stable proteins. However, such proteins did still not crystallize and allowed only partial peak assignment in NMR. Moreover, bacterially expressed matrilin VWA domains differ in their solubility and functional properties from the same domains expressed in eukaryotic cells. Structural studies of matrilin VWA domains will depend on the use of eukaryotic expression systems. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Gene expression and gene therapy imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, Claire; Couillaud, Franck; Moonen, Chrit T.W.

    2007-01-01

    The fast growing field of molecular imaging has achieved major advances in imaging gene expression, an important element of gene therapy. Gene expression imaging is based on specific probes or contrast agents that allow either direct or indirect spatio-temporal evaluation of gene expression. Direct evaluation is possible with, for example, contrast agents that bind directly to a specific target (e.g., receptor). Indirect evaluation may be achieved by using specific substrate probes for a target enzyme. The use of marker genes, also called reporter genes, is an essential element of MI approaches for gene expression in gene therapy. The marker gene may not have a therapeutic role itself, but by coupling the marker gene to a therapeutic gene, expression of the marker gene reports on the expression of the therapeutic gene. Nuclear medicine and optical approaches are highly sensitive (detection of probes in the picomolar range), whereas MRI and ultrasound imaging are less sensitive and require amplification techniques and/or accumulation of contrast agents in enlarged contrast particles. Recently developed MI techniques are particularly relevant for gene therapy. Amongst these are the possibility to track gene therapy vectors such as stem cells, and the techniques that allow spatiotemporal control of gene expression by non-invasive heating (with MRI guided focused ultrasound) and the use of temperature sensitive promoters. (orig.)

  15. Photosynthetic gene expression in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, James O; Yerramsetty, Pradeep; Zielinski, Amy M; Mure, Christopher M

    2013-11-01

    Within the chloroplasts of higher plants and algae, photosynthesis converts light into biological energy, fueling the assimilation of atmospheric carbon dioxide into biologically useful molecules. Two major steps, photosynthetic electron transport and the Calvin-Benson cycle, require many gene products encoded from chloroplast as well as nuclear genomes. The expression of genes in both cellular compartments is highly dynamic and influenced by a diverse range of factors. Light is the primary environmental determinant of photosynthetic gene expression. Working through photoreceptors such as phytochrome, light regulates photosynthetic genes at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Other processes that affect photosynthetic gene expression include photosynthetic activity, development, and biotic and abiotic stress. Anterograde (from nucleus to chloroplast) and retrograde (from chloroplast to nucleus) signaling insures the highly coordinated expression of the many photosynthetic genes between these different compartments. Anterograde signaling incorporates nuclear-encoded transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulators, such as sigma factors and RNA-binding proteins, respectively. Retrograde signaling utilizes photosynthetic processes such as photosynthetic electron transport and redox signaling to influence the expression of photosynthetic genes in the nucleus. The basic C3 photosynthetic pathway serves as the default form used by most of the plant species on earth. High temperature and water stress associated with arid environments have led to the development of specialized C4 and CAM photosynthesis, which evolved as modifications of the basic default expression program. The goal of this article is to explain and summarize the many gene expression and regulatory processes that work together to support photosynthetic function in plants.

  16. DBATE: database of alternative transcripts expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Valerio; Colantoni, Alessio; Calderone, Alberto; Ausiello, Gabriele; Ferrè, Fabrizio; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    The use of high-throughput RNA sequencing technology (RNA-seq) allows whole transcriptome analysis, providing an unbiased and unabridged view of alternative transcript expression. Coupling splicing variant-specific expression with its functional inference is still an open and difficult issue for which we created the DataBase of Alternative Transcripts Expression (DBATE), a web-based repository storing expression values and functional annotation of alternative splicing variants. We processed 13 large RNA-seq panels from human healthy tissues and in disease conditions, reporting expression levels and functional annotations gathered and integrated from different sources for each splicing variant, using a variant-specific annotation transfer pipeline. The possibility to perform complex queries by cross-referencing different functional annotations permits the retrieval of desired subsets of splicing variant expression values that can be visualized in several ways, from simple to more informative. DBATE is intended as a novel tool to help appreciate how, and possibly why, the transcriptome expression is shaped. DATABASE URL: http://bioinformatica.uniroma2.it/DBATE/.

  17. Family emotional expressiveness and family structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čotar-Konrad Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper scrutinizes the relationship between family emotional expressiveness (i.e., the tendency to express dominant and/or submissive positive and negative emotions and components of family structure as proposed in Olson’s Circumplex model (i.e., cohesion and flexibility, family communication, and satisfaction in families with adolescents. The study was conducted on a sample of 514 Slovenian adolescents, who filled out two questionnaires: the Slovenian version of Family Emotional Expressiveness - FEQ and FACES IV. The results revealed that all four basic dimensions of family functioning were significantly associated with higher/more frequent expressions of positive submissive emotions, as well as with lower/less frequent expressions of negative dominant emotions. Moreover, expressions of negative submissive emotions explained a small, but significant amount of variance in three out of four family functioning variables (satisfaction, flexibility, and communication. The importance of particular aspects of emotional expressiveness for family cohesion, flexibility, communication, and satisfaction is discussed, and the relevance of present findings for family counselling is outlined.

  18. Adaptive Evolution of Gene Expression in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmohammad, Armita; Rambeau, Joachim; Held, Torsten; Kovacova, Viera; Berg, Johannes; Lässig, Michael

    2017-08-08

    Gene expression levels are important quantitative traits that link genotypes to molecular functions and fitness. In Drosophila, population-genetic studies have revealed substantial adaptive evolution at the genomic level, but the evolutionary modes of gene expression remain controversial. Here, we present evidence that adaptation dominates the evolution of gene expression levels in flies. We show that 64% of the observed expression divergence across seven Drosophila species are adaptive changes driven by directional selection. Our results are derived from time-resolved data of gene expression divergence across a family of related species, using a probabilistic inference method for gene-specific selection. Adaptive gene expression is stronger in specific functional classes, including regulation, sensory perception, sexual behavior, and morphology. Moreover, we identify a large group of genes with sex-specific adaptation of expression, which predominantly occurs in males. Our analysis opens an avenue to map system-wide selection on molecular quantitative traits independently of their genetic basis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cyclin D1 expression in prostate carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.A.; Ravinal, R.C.; Costa, R.S.; Lima, M.S.; Tucci, S.; Muglia, V.F.; Reis, R.B. Dos; Silva, G.E.B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cyclin D1 expression and clinicopathological parameters in patients with prostate carcinoma. We assessed cyclin D1 expression by conventional immunohistochemistry in 85 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma and 10 normal prostate tissue samples retrieved from autopsies. We measured nuclear immunostaining in the entire tumor area and based the results on the percentage of positive tumor cells. The preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 8.68±5.16 ng/mL (mean±SD). Cyclin D1 staining was positive (cyclin D1 expression in >5% of tumor cells) in 64 cases (75.4%) and negative (cyclin D1 expression in ≤5% of tumor cells) in 21 cases (including 15 cases with no immunostaining). Normal prostate tissues were negative for cyclin D1. Among patients with a high-grade Gleason score (≥7), 86% of patients demonstrated cyclin D1 immunostaining of >5% (P<0.05). In the crude analysis of cyclin D1 expression, the high-grade Gleason score group showed a mean expression of 39.6%, compared to 26.9% in the low-grade Gleason score group (P<0.05). Perineural invasion tended to be associated with cyclin D1 expression (P=0.07), whereas cyclin D1 expression was not associated with PSA levels or other parameters. Our results suggest that high cyclin D1 expression could be a potential marker for tumor aggressiveness

  20. C-myc expression in adrenocortical tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennanen, Mirkka; Hagström, Jaana; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Sane, Timo; Mustonen, Harri; Arola, Johanna; Haglund, Caj

    2018-02-01

    Widespread use of high-resolution imaging techniques and thus increased prevalence of adrenal lesions has made diagnostics of adrenocortical tumours an increasingly important clinical issue. In non-metastatic tumours, diagnosis is based on histology. New or enhanced information for clinicopathological diagnosis, revealing the malignant potential of the tumour, could emerge by means of biomarkers. The connection of proto-oncogene c-myc to adrenocortical neoplasias is poorly known, although the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, one of the signalling pathways leading to induction of c-myc expression, has been connected to development of adrenocortical neoplasias. We studied c-myc expression in adrenocortical tumours and investigated molecules associated with the signalling pathway of c-myc, including cell cycle-related proteins p27, cyclin E and cyclin D1. We studied 195 consecutive adult patients with 197 primary adrenocortical tumours. Histopathological diagnosis was determined by Weiss score and the novel Helsinki score. C-myc, cyclin D1, cyclin E and p27 expressions were determined by immunohistochemistry. Benign adenomas showed prominent nuclear c-myc expression comparable to that of normal adrenocortical cells, whereas carcinomas showed increased cytoplasmic expression. Strong cytoplasmic and weak nuclear c-myc expressions associated with malignancy and adverse outcome. C-myc staining did not correlate with cyclin E. Cyclin D1 correlated with cytoplasmic c-myc expression and to a lesser extent with nuclear c-myc. P27 correlated with cytoplasmic c-myc, but not with nuclear c-myc. P27 correlated with cyclin E. Strong cytoplasmic c-myc expression and weak nuclear expression in adrenocortical tumours associated with malignancy and shorter survival. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Cyclin D1 expression in prostate carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, R.A.; Ravinal, R.C.; Costa, R.S.; Lima, M.S. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Patologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Tucci, S. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Divisão de Urologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Divisão de Urologia, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Muglia, V.F. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Medicina Interna (Centro de Ciência da Imagem), Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Medicina Interna (Centro de Ciência da Imagem), Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Reis, R.B. Dos [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Divisão de Urologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Divisão de Urologia, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Silva, G.E.B. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Patologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-05-09

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cyclin D1 expression and clinicopathological parameters in patients with prostate carcinoma. We assessed cyclin D1 expression by conventional immunohistochemistry in 85 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma and 10 normal prostate tissue samples retrieved from autopsies. We measured nuclear immunostaining in the entire tumor area and based the results on the percentage of positive tumor cells. The preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 8.68±5.16 ng/mL (mean±SD). Cyclin D1 staining was positive (cyclin D1 expression in >5% of tumor cells) in 64 cases (75.4%) and negative (cyclin D1 expression in ≤5% of tumor cells) in 21 cases (including 15 cases with no immunostaining). Normal prostate tissues were negative for cyclin D1. Among patients with a high-grade Gleason score (≥7), 86% of patients demonstrated cyclin D1 immunostaining of >5% (P<0.05). In the crude analysis of cyclin D1 expression, the high-grade Gleason score group showed a mean expression of 39.6%, compared to 26.9% in the low-grade Gleason score group (P<0.05). Perineural invasion tended to be associated with cyclin D1 expression (P=0.07), whereas cyclin D1 expression was not associated with PSA levels or other parameters. Our results suggest that high cyclin D1 expression could be a potential marker for tumor aggressiveness.

  2. Effects of Expressive Writing on Psychological and Physical Health: The Moderating Role of Emotional Expressivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltom, Kate E.; Mulvenna, Catherine M.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Stanton, Annette L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study assessed main effects and moderators (including emotional expressiveness, emotional processing and ambivalence over emotional expression) of the effects of expressive writing in a sample of healthy adults. Young adult participants (N = 116) were randomly assigned to write for 20 minutes on four occasions about deepest thoughts and feelings regarding their most stressful/traumatic event in the past five years (expressive writing) or about a control topic (control). Dependent variables were indicators of anxiety, depression, and physical symptoms. No significant effects of writing condition were evident on anxiety, depressive symptoms, or physical symptoms. Emotional expressiveness emerged as a significant moderator of anxiety outcomes, however. Within the expressive writing group, participants high in expressiveness evidenced a significant reduction in anxiety at three-month follow-up, and participants low in expressiveness showed a significant increase in anxiety. Expressiveness did not predict change in anxiety in the control group. These findings on anxiety are consistent with the matching hypothesis, which suggests that matching a person’s naturally elected coping approach with an assigned intervention is beneficial. These findings also suggest that expressive writing about a stressful event may be contraindicated for individuals who do not typically express emotions. PMID:23742666

  3. New explicit expressions for Dirac bilinears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorcé, Cédric

    2018-01-01

    We derive new explicit expressions for the Dirac bilinears based on a generic representation of the massive Dirac spinors with canonical polarization. These bilinears depend on a direction n in Minkowski space which specifies the form of dynamics. We argue that such a dependence is unavoidable in a relativistic theory with spin, since it originates from Wigner rotation effects. Contrary to most of the expressions found in the literature, ours are valid for all momenta and canonical polarizations of the spinors. As a byproduct, we also obtain a generic explicit expression for the covariant spin vector.

  4. Expression of eukaryotic polypeptides in chloroplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayfield, Stephen P

    2013-06-04

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  5. EXPRESSION OF BACTERIOOPSIN GENES IN ESCHERICHIA COLI

    OpenAIRE

    TSUJIUCHI, Yutaka; IWASA, Tatsuo; TOKUNAGA, Fumio

    1994-01-01

    An inducible expression vector pUBO was constructed with native codons in order to express the gene of Bacteriorhodopsin (BOP) in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Vector pUBO contains lac-promoter followed by the partial structural gene of lacZ and the structural gene of BOP. The expression of this fusion protein was detected by ELISA with anti-BOP antiserum. The fusion protein obtained from E. coli trnsformed with pUBO formed approximately 0.1% of the total protein of the E. coli membrane fraction.

  6. Synthetic promoter libraries- tuning of gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Karin; Mijakovic, Ivan; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2006-01-01

    The study of gene function often requires changing the expression of a gene and evaluating the consequences. In principle, the expression of any given gene can be modulated in a quasi-continuum of discrete expression levels but the traditional approaches are usually limited to two extremes: gene...... be met by using promoter libraries. This approach generally consists of inserting a library of promoters in front of the gene to be studied, whereby the individual promoters might deviate either in their spacer sequences or bear slight deviations from the consensus sequence of a vegetative promoter. Here......, we describe the two different methods for obtaining promoter libraries and compare their applicability....

  7. Differential expression of cell adhesion genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Wilfred D; Litman, Thomas; Fojo, Tito

    2005-01-01

    that compare cells grown in suspension to similar cells grown attached to one another as aggregates have suggested that it is adhesion to the extracellular matrix of the basal membrane that confers resistance to apoptosis and, hence, resistance to cytotoxins. The genes whose expression correlates with poor...... survival might, therefore, act through such a matrix-to-cell suppression of apoptosis. Indeed, correlative mining of gene expression and patient survival databases suggests that poor survival in patients with metastatic cancer correlates highly with tumor expression of a common theme: the genes involved...

  8. Predicting the emotions expressed in music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens

    fundamental reason. (Mis)matching peoples mood with the emotions expressed in music was found to be an essential underlying mechanism, people use to regulate their emotions. This formed the basis and overall goal of the thesis, to investigate how to create a predictive model of emotions expressed in music....... To use in the next generation of music systems. The thesis was divided into three main topics involved in creating a predictive model 1) Elicitation of emotion, 2) Audio representation and 3) Modelling framework, associating the emotion and audio representation, allowing to predict the emotions expressed...... in the form of pairwise comparisons. One issue with pairwise comparisons is the scaling, this was solved using an active learning approach through a Gaussian Process model. Traditional audio representation disregards all temporal information in audio features used for modelling the emotions expressed in music...

  9. Drosophila melanogaster gene expression changes after spaceflight.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gene expression levels were determined in 3rd instar and adult Drosophila melanogaster reared during spaceflight to elucidate the genetic and molecular mechanisms...

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Bacterial Expression Profiles Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were performed to determine the phytochemicals in the active fraction. Results: Five differentially expressed bacterial proteins (four from Escherichia coli and one from Staphylococcus aureus), were identified via ...

  11. Caleydo: connecting pathways and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Marc; Lex, Alexander; Kalkusch, Michael; Zatloukal, Kurt; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2009-10-15

    Understanding the relationships between pathways and the altered expression of their components in disease conditions can be addressed in a visual data analysis process. Caleydo uses novel visualization techniques to support life science experts in their analysis of gene expression data in the context of pathways and functions of individual genes. Pathways and gene expression visualizations are placed in a 3D scene where selected entities (i.e. genes) are visually connected. This allows Caleydo to seamlessly integrate interactive gene expression visualization with cross-database pathway exploration. The Caleydo visualization framework is freely available on www.caleydo.org for non-commercial use. It runs on Windows and Linux and requires a 3D capable graphics card.

  12. Regulation of gene expression in human tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archambault Joanne M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic tendon injuries, also known as tendinopathies, are common among professional and recreational athletes. These injuries result in a significant amount of morbidity and health care expenditure, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms leading to tendinopathy. Methods We have used histological evaluation and molecular profiling to determine gene expression changes in 23 human patients undergoing surgical procedures for the treatment of chronic tendinopathy. Results Diseased tendons exhibit altered extracellular matrix, fiber disorientation, increased cellular content and vasculature, and the absence of inflammatory cells. Global gene expression profiling identified 983 transcripts with significantly different expression patterns in the diseased tendons. Global pathway analysis further suggested altered expression of extracellular matrix proteins and the lack of an appreciable inflammatory response. Conclusions Identification of the pathways and genes that are differentially regulated in tendinopathy samples will contribute to our understanding of the disease and the development of novel therapeutics.

  13. Expression of maize prolamins in Escherichia Coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Szu-zhen; Esen, Asim

    1985-01-01

    We have constructed a cDNA expression library of developing corn (Zea manys L.) endosperm using plasmid pUC8 as vector and Escherichia coli strain DH1 as host. The expression library was screened with non-radioactive immunological probes to detect the expression of gamma-zein and alpha-zein. When anti-gamma-zein antibody was used as the probe, 23 colonies gave positive reactions. The lengths of cDNA inserts of the 23 colonies were found to be 250-900 base pairs. When anti-alpha zein antibody was used, however, fewer colonies gave positive reactions. The library was also screened by colony-hybridization with 32 P-labeled DNA probes. Based on immunological and hybridization screening of the library and other evidence, we conclude that alpha-zein was either toxic to E. coli cells or rapidly degraded whereas gamma-zein and its fragments were readily expressed. (author)

  14. Heterologous expression and characterization of purified partial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ech-42) isolated from Trichoderma harzianum. P Sharma, M Sharma, M Srivastava. Abstract. Chitinase gene from Trichoderma harzianum was cloned and hetrologously over expressed in M15 Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein of 42 ...

  15. SOX4 expression in bladder carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Mads; Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Wiuf, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    The human transcription factor SOX4 was 5-fold up-regulated in bladder tumors compared with normal tissue based on whole-genome expression profiling of 166 clinical bladder tumor samples and 27 normal urothelium samples. Using a SOX4-specific antibody, we found that the cancer cells expressed...... in the clinical bladder material and a small subset of the genes showed a high correlation to SOX4 expression. The present data suggest a role of SOX4 in the bladder cancer disease....... the SOX4 protein and, thus, did an evaluation of SOX4 protein expression in 2,360 bladder tumors using a tissue microarray with clinical annotation. We found a correlation (P bladder cell line HU609, SOX4...

  16. Expression systems for cloned xenobiotic transporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, John B.; Miller, David S.

    2005-01-01

    One challenge of modern biology is to be able to match genes and their encoded proteins with events at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organism levels, and thus, provide a multi-level understanding of gene function and dysfunction. How well this can be done for xenobiotic transporters depends on a knowledge of the genes expressed in the tissue, the cellular locations of the gene products (do they function for uptake or efflux?), and our ability to match substrates with transporters using information obtained from cloned transporters functioning in heterologous expression systems. Clearly, making a rational choice of expression system to use for the characterization and study of cloned xenobiotic transporters is a critical part of study design. This choice requires well-defined goals, as well as an understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of candidate expression systems

  17. Manipulating galectin expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Feng, C.; Nita-Lazar, M.; Gonzalez-Montalban, N.; Wang, J.; Mancini, J.; Ravindran, C.; Ahmed, H.; Vasta, G.R.

    , autoimmunity and cancer, thus making them potential molecular targets for innovative drug discovery. Here, we provide a review of the current methods available for the manipulation of gene expression in the zebrafish, with a focus on gene knockdown [morpholino...

  18. Lunar Plants Prototype for Moon Express

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of our project is to bring the first full life cycle to the moon: to demonstrate germination of plants in lunar gravity and radiation.The Moon Express...

  19. An atlas of Caenorhabditis elegans chemoreceptor expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Berta; Aghayeva, Ulkar; Sun, Haosheng; Wang, Chen; Glenwinkel, Lori; Bayer, Emily A.

    2018-01-01

    One goal of modern day neuroscience is the establishment of molecular maps that assign unique features to individual neuron types. Such maps provide important starting points for neuron classification, for functional analysis, and for developmental studies aimed at defining the molecular mechanisms of neuron identity acquisition and neuron identity diversification. In this resource paper, we describe a nervous system-wide map of the potential expression sites of 244 members of the largest gene family in the C. elegans genome, rhodopsin-like (class A) G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) chemoreceptors, using classic gfp reporter gene technology. We cover representatives of all sequence families of chemoreceptor GPCRs, some of which were previously entirely uncharacterized. Most reporters are expressed in a very restricted number of cells, often just in single cells. We assign GPCR reporter expression to all but two of the 37 sensory neuron classes of the sex-shared, core nervous system. Some sensory neurons express a very small number of receptors, while others, particularly nociceptive neurons, coexpress several dozen GPCR reporter genes. GPCR reporters are also expressed in a wide range of inter- and motorneurons, as well as non-neuronal cells, suggesting that GPCRs may constitute receptors not just for environmental signals, but also for internal cues. We observe only one notable, frequent association of coexpression patterns, namely in one nociceptive amphid (ASH) and two nociceptive phasmid sensory neurons (PHA, PHB). We identified GPCRs with sexually dimorphic expression and several GPCR reporters that are expressed in a left/right asymmetric manner. We identified a substantial degree of GPCR expression plasticity; particularly in the context of the environmentally-induced dauer diapause stage when one third of all tested GPCRs alter the cellular specificity of their expression within and outside the nervous system. Intriguingly, in a number of cases, the dauer

  20. An atlas of Caenorhabditis elegans chemoreceptor expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Vidal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One goal of modern day neuroscience is the establishment of molecular maps that assign unique features to individual neuron types. Such maps provide important starting points for neuron classification, for functional analysis, and for developmental studies aimed at defining the molecular mechanisms of neuron identity acquisition and neuron identity diversification. In this resource paper, we describe a nervous system-wide map of the potential expression sites of 244 members of the largest gene family in the C. elegans genome, rhodopsin-like (class A G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR chemoreceptors, using classic gfp reporter gene technology. We cover representatives of all sequence families of chemoreceptor GPCRs, some of which were previously entirely uncharacterized. Most reporters are expressed in a very restricted number of cells, often just in single cells. We assign GPCR reporter expression to all but two of the 37 sensory neuron classes of the sex-shared, core nervous system. Some sensory neurons express a very small number of receptors, while others, particularly nociceptive neurons, coexpress several dozen GPCR reporter genes. GPCR reporters are also expressed in a wide range of inter- and motorneurons, as well as non-neuronal cells, suggesting that GPCRs may constitute receptors not just for environmental signals, but also for internal cues. We observe only one notable, frequent association of coexpression patterns, namely in one nociceptive amphid (ASH and two nociceptive phasmid sensory neurons (PHA, PHB. We identified GPCRs with sexually dimorphic expression and several GPCR reporters that are expressed in a left/right asymmetric manner. We identified a substantial degree of GPCR expression plasticity; particularly in the context of the environmentally-induced dauer diapause stage when one third of all tested GPCRs alter the cellular specificity of their expression within and outside the nervous system. Intriguingly, in a number of

  1. Gauge choice in Witten's energy expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    Witten's equation Dpsi=0 can be interpreted as a gauge fixing condition for classical supergravity. We rigorously prove the existence of asymptotically constant solutions of the more general gauge condition Dpsi=Apsi for almost all endomorphisms A of the spin bundle. Each gives an expression for the gravitational energy similar to Witten's. These include the choice A=√R, which yields the particularly elegant energy expression first noticed by Deser. (orig.)

  2. Sad Facial Expressions Increase Choice Blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yajie; Zhao, Song; Zhang, Zhijie; Feng, Wenfeng

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have discovered a fascinating phenomenon known as choice blindness—individuals fail to detect mismatches between the face they choose and the face replaced by the experimenter. Although previous studies have reported a couple of factors that can modulate the magnitude of choice blindness, the potential effect of facial expression on choice blindness has not yet been explored. Using faces with sad and neutral expressions (Experiment 1) and faces with happy and neutral expressi...

  3. Expressions of space deixis in travel telecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Vėbraitė, Žadvydė

    2016-01-01

    In this paper work there is presented space deixis, it's history and the usage specifically in travel shows. Space deixis is usually expressed in adverbs that indicates place, such as "here" and "there". Although in conversations of different people space deixis may mark indicating pronouns and other deictic morphemes. According to the German and English-American counterparts, Youtube video material will be analyzed with the aim to show how space deixis is expressed in travel shows.

  4. Japanese onomatopoeic expressions with quantitative meaning:

    OpenAIRE

    Kutafeva, Nataliia Vitalievna

    2015-01-01

    Grammatical category of quantity is absent in the Japanese language but there are many different grammatical, lexical, derivational and morphological modes of expression of quantity. This paper provides an analysis of the lexical mode of expression of quantitative meanings and their semantics with the help of onomatopoeic (giongo) and mimetic (gitaigo) words in the Japanese language. Based on the analysis, we have distinguished the following semantic groups: mimetic words A) existence of some...

  5. Analytical expressions for the electron backscattering coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    August, H.J.; Wernisch, J.

    1989-01-01

    Several analytical expressions for the electron backscattering coefficient for massive homogeneous samples are compared with experimental data, directing special attention to the dependence of this quantity on the electron acceleration energy. It is shown that this dependence generally cannot be neglected. The expression proposed by Hunger and Kuechler turns out to be better than that of Love and Scott, although even the better formula can be slightly improved by a small modification. (author)

  6. TOX expression and role in CTCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGirt, LY; Degesys, CA; Johnson, VE; Zic, JA; Zwerner, JP; Eischen, CM

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are skin malignancies including mycosis fungoides (MF) and CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD). In early disease, CTCL can be difficult to diagnose, especially in MF for which there is no reliable diagnostic marker. MF/CTCL have increased expression of thymocyte selection-associated HMG box protein (TOX). Although TOX has been proposed to be a diagnostic marker for MF, further validation studies are needed. Moreover, it is unclear what drives TOX expression or its role in MF/CTCL. We hypothesize evaluation of TOX levels across a spectrum of CTCL, including MF precursor (large plaque parapsoriasis, LPP), will help elucidate the implications of altered TOX expression. TOX staining was performed in MF, CD30+ LPD, LPP as well as benign inflammatory dermatoses (BID) and normal skin (NS). Positive TOX expression was identified in 73.6% of MF cases and in 31.6% of BID/NS. TOX had a positive predictive value (PPV) for MF of 86.7% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 48.1%. TOX expression in MF was detected more commonly in Black patients (p=0.015) and less commonly in transformed MF (p=0.045). LPP had positive TOX staining in 70.0%. In CTCL cells, GATA3 knockdown decreased TOX mRNA and protein expression. TOX expression also decreased in the presence of CTCL therapeutics. Our data indicate that TOX is useful as a diagnostic marker in MF. Moreover, TOX expression was evident in LPP, indicating it may have a previously unappreciated role in the development of MF. Finally, our data suggest that GATA3 regulates TOX, revealing insight into TOX regulation. PMID:27345620

  7. Colour Perception on Facial Expression towards Emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Rubita Sudirman; Ching Yee Yong; Kim Mey Chew

    2012-01-01

    This study is to investigate human perceptions on pairing of facial expressions of emotion with colours. A group of 27 subjects consisting mainly of younger and Malaysian had participated in this study. For each of the seven faces, which expresses the basic emotions neutral, happiness, surprise, anger, disgust, fear and sadness, a single colour is chosen from the eight basic colours for the “match” of best visual look to the face accordingly. The different emotions appear well characterized b...

  8. Nonlinear dimensionality reduction of gene expression data

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Using microarray measurements techniques, it is possible to measure the activity of genes simultaneously across the whole genome. Since genes influence each others activity levels through complex regulatory networks, such gene expression measurements are state samples of a dynamical system. Gene expression data has proven useful for diagnosis and definition of disease subgroups, for inference of the functional role of a given gene or for the deciphering of complex disease mechanisms. However,...

  9. Le tappe italiane del Trimble Express 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Leonardi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Trimble Express stopped over Italy Trimble Express stopped in Italy, in 6 cities. The european road show has been set up to promote the latest news regarding Trimble technologies such as Trimble Access, the software that offers to survey teams a new approach in surveying; Trimble Access expedites data collection, processing, analysis, and delivery through improved workflows, collaboration and control.

  10. Le tappe italiane del Trimble Express 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Leonardi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Trimble Express stopped over ItalyTrimble Express stopped in Italy, in 6 cities. The european road show has been set up to promote the latest news regarding Trimble technologies such as Trimble Access, the software that offers to survey teams a new approach in surveying; Trimble Access expedites data collection, processing, analysis, and delivery through improved workflows, collaboration and control.

  11. Oxygen tension affects lubricin expression in chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, Taku; Kishimoto, Koshi N; Okuno, Hiroshi; Itoi, Eiji

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the effects of oxygen tension on lubricin expression in bovine chondrocytes and cartilage explants and a role for hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-1α in regulating lubricin expression was investigated using a murine chondroprogenitor cell line, ATDC5, and bovine chondrocytes isolated from superficial and middle/deep zones of femoral cartilage. ATDC5 cells and bovine chondrocytes were cultured in micromass under different oxygen tensions (21%, 5%, and 1%). ATDC5 cells and middle/deep zone chondrocytes that initially had low lubricin expression levels were also cultured with or without transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used to determine lubricin and chondrogenic marker gene mRNA levels and immunohistochemistry was used to assess lubricin protein expression. Explant cartilage plugs cultured under different oxygen tensions were also subjected to immunohistological analysis for lubricin. HIF-1α gene silencing was achieved by electroporatic transfer into ATDC5 cells. A low oxygen tension reduced lubricin gene expression levels in bovine superficial chondrocytes, TGF-β1-treated middle/deep zone chondrocytes, and TGF-β1-treated ATDC5 cells. Lubricin expression in explant cartilage was also suppressed under hypoxia. HIF-1α gene silencing in ATDC5 cells attenuated the lubricin expression response to the oxygen tension. These results corroborate with previous studies that the oxygen tension regulates lubricin gene expression and suggest that HIF-1α plays an important role in this regulation. The normal distribution of lubricin in articular cartilage may be due to the hypoxic oxygen environment of cartilage as it is an avascular tissue. An oxygen tension gradient may be a key factor for engineering cartilage tissue with a layered morphology.

  12. Claudins-4 and -7 might be valuable markers to distinguish hepatocellular carcinoma from cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yusuke; Hiratsuka, Yutaro; Murata, Masaki; Takasawa, Akira; Fukuda, Rieko; Nojima, Masanori; Tanaka, Satoshi; Osanai, Makoto; Hirata, Koichi; Sawada, Norimasa

    2016-10-01

    The claudin family members are the functional components of tight junctions. Expression and localization of claudins vary among organs and tumor types. In this study, we examined expression and localization of tight junction proteins (TJP) in human liver tumors, to estimate their usefulness as differential diagnostic markers. The materials used for immunohistochemical analysis were 47 liver tumor specimens including 29 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 15 cases of cholangiocarcinoma (CC), 3 cases of combined HCC and CC (CHC), and 3 cases of cholangiolocellular carcinoma (CoCC). Samples were examined using semiquantitative and statistical analysis of immunoreactivity. In HCC, claudin-1, occludin, tricellulin, and JAM-A were expressed on the cell membrane as well as in hepatocytes. In CC, claudins-1, -4, and -7, tricellulin, and JAM-A were expressed on the cell membrane and occludin was predominantly expressed in the apicalmost areas of the cell membrane. Significant differences in the immunohistochemical scores of claudin-4 and claudin-7 were observed when comparing HCC and CC. CHC was positive for all of the TJPs examined in this study. The expression pattern of CoCC was found to be similar to that of CC. There were differences in the distribution of intensity scores of claudins-4 and -7 and occludin between CoCC and HCC. In addition, CHC was positive for Glypican-3 and CK-19. CoCC was positive for only CK-19. The results suggest that claudins-4 and -7 might be valuable markers for distinguishing HCC and CC and that CoCC might arise from hepatic ductal cells.

  13. Expressive facial animation synthesis by learning speech coarticulation and expression spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhigang; Neumann, Ulrich; Lewis, J P; Kim, Tae-Yong; Bulut, Murtaza; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2006-01-01

    Synthesizing expressive facial animation is a very challenging topic within the graphics community. In this paper, we present an expressive facial animation synthesis system enabled by automated learning from facial motion capture data. Accurate 3D motions of the markers on the face of a human subject are captured while he/she recites a predesigned corpus, with specific spoken and visual expressions. We present a novel motion capture mining technique that "learns" speech coarticulation models for diphones and triphones from the recorded data. A Phoneme-Independent Expression Eigenspace (PIEES) that encloses the dynamic expression signals is constructed by motion signal processing (phoneme-based time-warping and subtraction) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) reduction. New expressive facial animations are synthesized as follows: First, the learned coarticulation models are concatenated to synthesize neutral visual speech according to novel speech input, then a texture-synthesis-based approach is used to generate a novel dynamic expression signal from the PIEES model, and finally the synthesized expression signal is blended with the synthesized neutral visual speech to create the final expressive facial animation. Our experiments demonstrate that the system can effectively synthesize realistic expressive facial animation.

  14. Rho GTPase expression in human myeloid cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne F G van Helden

    Full Text Available Myeloid cells are critical for innate immunity and the initiation of adaptive immunity. Strict regulation of the adhesive and migratory behavior is essential for proper functioning of these cells. Rho GTPases are important regulators of adhesion and migration; however, it is unknown which Rho GTPases are expressed in different myeloid cells. Here, we use a qPCR-based approach to investigate Rho GTPase expression in myeloid cells.We found that the mRNAs encoding Cdc42, RhoQ, Rac1, Rac2, RhoA and RhoC are the most abundant. In addition, RhoG, RhoB, RhoF and RhoV are expressed at low levels or only in specific cell types. More differentiated cells along the monocyte-lineage display lower levels of Cdc42 and RhoV, while RhoC mRNA is more abundant. In addition, the Rho GTPase expression profile changes during dendritic cell maturation with Rac1 being upregulated and Rac2 downregulated. Finally, GM-CSF stimulation, during macrophage and osteoclast differentiation, leads to high expression of Rac2, while M-CSF induces high levels of RhoA, showing that these cytokines induce a distinct pattern. Our data uncover cell type specific modulation of the Rho GTPase expression profile in hematopoietic stem cells and in more differentiated cells of the myeloid lineage.

  15. Facial Expression Recognition Using SVM Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanth P.C.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Facial feature tracking and facial actions recognition from image sequence attracted great attention in computer vision field. Computational facial expression analysis is a challenging research topic in computer vision. It is required by many applications such as human-computer interaction, computer graphic animation and automatic facial expression recognition. In recent years, plenty of computer vision techniques have been developed to track or recognize the facial activities in three levels. First, in the bottom level, facial feature tracking, which usually detects and tracks prominent landmarks surrounding facial components (i.e., mouth, eyebrow, etc, captures the detailed face shape information; Second, facial actions recognition, i.e., recognize facial action units (AUs defined in FACS, try to recognize some meaningful facial activities (i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc; In the top level, facial  expression analysis attempts to recognize some meaningful facial activities (i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc; In the top level, facial expression analysis attempts to recognize facial expressions that represent the human emotion states. In this proposed algorithm initially detecting eye and mouth, features of eye and mouth are extracted using Gabor filter, (Local Binary Pattern LBP and PCA is used to reduce the dimensions of the features. Finally SVM is used to classification of expression and facial action units.

  16. Coevolution of gene expression among interacting proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Hunter B.; Hirsh, Aaron E.; Wall, Dennis P.; Eisen,Michael B.

    2004-03-01

    Physically interacting proteins or parts of proteins are expected to evolve in a coordinated manner that preserves proper interactions. Such coevolution at the amino acid-sequence level is well documented and has been used to predict interacting proteins, domains, and amino acids. Interacting proteins are also often precisely coexpressed with one another, presumably to maintain proper stoichiometry among interacting components. Here, we show that the expression levels of physically interacting proteins coevolve. We estimate average expression levels of genes from four closely related fungi of the genus Saccharomyces using the codon adaptation index and show that expression levels of interacting proteins exhibit coordinated changes in these different species. We find that this coevolution of expression is a more powerful predictor of physical interaction than is coevolution of amino acid sequence. These results demonstrate previously uncharacterized coevolution of gene expression, adding a different dimension to the study of the coevolution of interacting proteins and underscoring the importance of maintaining coexpression of interacting proteins over evolutionary time. Our results also suggest that expression coevolution can be used for computational prediction of protein protein interactions.

  17. Arabidopsis gene expression patterns during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, A.-L.; Ferl, R. J.

    The exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) plants to spaceflight environments resulted in the differential expression of hundreds of genes. A 5 day mission on orbiter Columbia in 1999 (STS-93) carried transgenic Arabidopsis plants engineered with a transgene composed of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter linked to the β -Glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The plants were used to evaluate the effects of spaceflight on two fronts. First, expression patterns visualized with the Adh/GUS transgene were used to address specifically the possibility that spaceflight induces a hypoxic stress response, and to assess whether any spaceflight response was similar to control terrestrial hypoxia-induced gene expression patterns. (Paul et al., Plant Physiol. 2001, 126:613). Second, genome-wide patterns of native gene expression were evaluated utilizing the Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChip? array of 8,000 Arabidopsis genes. As a control for the veracity of the array analyses, a selection of genes identified with the arrays was further characterized with quantitative Real-Time RT PCR (ABI - TaqmanTM). Comparison of the patterns of expression for arrays of hybridized with RNA isolated from plants exposed to spaceflight compared to the control arrays revealed hundreds of genes that were differentially expressed in response to spaceflight, yet most genes that are hallmarks of hypoxic stress were unaffected. These results will be discussed in light of current models for plant responses to the spaceflight environment, and with regard to potential future flight opportunities.

  18. Fluoxetin Upregulates Connexin 43 Expression in Astrocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mostafavi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent studies have shown that astrocytes play major roles in normal and disease condition of the central nervous system including multiple sclerosis (MS. Molecular target therapy studies in MS have revealed that connexin-43 (Cx43 and Aquaporin-4 (AQP4 contents of astrocytes undergo expression alteration. Fluoxetine had some effects in MS patients unrelated to its known antidepressant effects. Some of fluoxetine effects were attributed to its capability of cAMP signaling pathway stimulation. This study aimed to investigate possible acute effects of fluoxetine on Cx43 and AQP4 expression in astrocyte.  Methods: Astrocytoma cells were treated for 24 hours with fluoxetine (10 and 20 &mug/ml with or without adenyl cyclase (AC and protein kinase A (PKA inhibition. Cx43 expression at both mRNA and protein levels and AQP4 expression at mRNA level were evaluated.  Results: Acquired results showed that fluoxetine with and without AC and PKA inhibition resulted in Cx43 up-regulation both in mRNA and protein levels, whereas AQP4 expression have not changed.  Discussion: In conclusion, data showed that fluoxetine alone and in the absence of serotonin acutely up-regulated Cx43 expression in astrocytes that can be assumed in molecular target therapy of MS patients. It seems that cAMP involvement in fluoxetine effects need more researches.

  19. Shadows alter facial expressions of Noh masks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kawai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers' recognition of the emotional expressions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa's smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art "yugen (profound grace and subtlety", which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness.

  20. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression correlates with membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase expression in colorectal cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongfei; Tatsuguchi, Atsushi; Shinji, Seiichi; Fujimori, Shunji; Tanaka, Shu; Gudis, Katya; Sugisaki, Yuichi; Furukawa, Kiyonori; Tajiri, Takashi; Fukuda, Yuh; Kishida, Teruyuki; Sakamoto, Choitsu

    2006-08-01

    Elevated expression of cyclooxygenase-2 has been found in colorectal cancer. One of the mechanisms through which cyclooxygenase-2 affects tumorigenesis is through its overexpression, which leads to increased invasiveness of cancer cells. A crucial step in this pathway is thought to be the induction of membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase, which activates matrix metalloproteinase-2. However, to date there have been few clinicopathologic studies concerning cyclooxygenase-2-mediated invasiveness in human colorectal cancer tissues. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of the respective antigens on colorectal cancer specimens obtained by surgical resections from 96 patients with colorectal cancer. Cyclooxygenase-2 and membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase expression was positive exclusively in cancer cells in 88 cases (92 percent) and 23 cases (24 percent), respectively. All 23 cases expressing membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase also expressed cyclooxygenase-2. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression was positive in cancer cells in 20 cases (21 percent) and stromal cells in 52 cases (54 percent). Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in cancer cells correlated with lymphatic invasion and local recurrence. Statistically, a significant correlation was found between cyclooxygenase-2 and membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase expression, and membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression in cancer cells. There was no association between cyclooxygenase-2 expression and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression. However, immunostaining of serial sections revealed that in the majority of cases examined, nearly 100 percent of cancer cells expressing matrix metalloproteinase-2 also coexpressed cyclooxygenase-2. This study indicates strong association between both cyclooxygenase-2 and membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase expression, and membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in colorectal

  1. Cloning, sequencing and expression of cDNA encoding growth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    cell embryo and the expression was monitored continuously. The expression shown here is in developing embryo and freshly hatched fish. The intensity of green colour indicate the strong expression of EGFP in all the tissues of the embryo/fry. The expression of EGPF indicates the co-expression of catfish GH cDNA and the ...

  2. In plants, expression breadth and expression level distinctly and non-linearly correlate with gene structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hangxing

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compactness of highly/broadly expressed genes in human has been explained as selection for efficiency, regional mutation biases or genomic design. However, highly expressed genes in flowering plants were shown to be less compact than lowly expressed ones. On the other hand, opposite facts have also been documented that pollen-expressed Arabidopsis genes tend to contain shorter introns and highly expressed moss genes are compact. This issue is important because it provides a chance to compare the selectionism and the neutralism views about genome evolution. Furthermore, this issue also helps to understand the fates of introns, from the angle of gene expression. Results In this study, I used expression data covering more tissues and employ new analytical methods to reexamine the correlations between gene expression and gene structure for two flowering plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. It is shown that, different aspects of expression pattern correlate with different parts of gene sequences in distinct ways. In detail, expression level is significantly negatively correlated with gene size, especially the size of non-coding regions, whereas expression breadth correlates with non-coding structural parameters positively and with coding region parameters negatively. Furthermore, the relationships between expression level and structural parameters seem to be non-linear, with the extremes of structural parameters possibly scale as power-laws or logrithmic functions of expression levels. Conclusion In plants, highly expressed genes are compact, especially in the non-coding regions. Broadly expressed genes tend to contain longer non-coding sequences, which may be necessary for complex regulations. In combination with previous studies about other plants and about animals, some common scenarios about the correlation between gene expression and gene structure begin to emerge. Based on the functional relationships between

  3. Enhanced gene expression from retroviral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micklem David R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retroviruses are widely used to transfer genes to mammalian cells efficiently and stably. However, genetic elements required for high-level gene expression are incompatible with standard systems. The retroviral RNA genome is produced by cellular transcription and post-transcriptional processing within packaging cells: Introns present in the retroviral genomic transcript are removed by splicing, while polyadenylation signals lead to the production of ineffective truncated genomes. Furthermore strong enhancer/promoters within the retroviral payload lead to detrimental competition with the retroviral enhancer/promoter. Results By exploiting a new method of producing the retroviral genome in vitro it is possible to produce infectious retroviral particles carrying a high-level expression cassette that completely prohibits production of infectious retroviral particles by conventional methods. We produced an expression cassette comprising a strong enhancer/promoter, an optimised intron, the GFP open reading frame and a strong polyadenylation signal. This cassette was cloned into both a conventional MMLV retroviral vector and a vector designed to allow in vitro transcription of the retroviral genome by T7 RNA polymerase. When the conventional retroviral vector was transfected into packaging cells, the expression cassette drove strong GFP expression, but no infectious retrovirus was produced. Introduction of the in vitro produced uncapped retroviral genomic transcript into the packaging cells did not lead to any detectable GFP expression. However, infectious retrovirus was easily recovered, and when used to infect target primary human cells led to very high GFP expression – up to 3.5 times greater than conventional retroviral LTR-driven expression. Conclusion Retroviral vectors carrying an optimized high-level expression cassette do not produce infectious virions when introduced into packaging cells by transfection of DNA

  4. Channel properties of Nax expressed in neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Nax is a sodium-concentration ([Na+]-sensitive Na channel with a gating threshold of ~150 mM for extracellular [Na+] ([Na+]o in vitro. We previously reported that Nax was preferentially expressed in the glial cells of sensory circumventricular organs including the subfornical organ, and was involved in [Na+] sensing for the control of salt-intake behavior. Although Nax was also suggested to be expressed in the neurons of some brain regions including the amygdala and cerebral cortex, the channel properties of Nax have not yet been adequately characterized in neurons. We herein verified that Nax was expressed in neurons in the lateral amygdala of mice using an antibody that was newly generated against mouse Nax. To investigate the channel properties of Nax expressed in neurons, we established an inducible cell line of Nax using the mouse neuroblastoma cell line, Neuro-2a, which is endogenously devoid of the expression of Nax. Functional analyses of this cell line revealed that the [Na+]-sensitivity of Nax in neuronal cells was similar to that expressed in glial cells. The cation selectivity sequence of the Nax channel in cations was revealed to be Na+ ≈ Li+ > Rb+ > Cs+ for the first time. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Nax bound to postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95 through its PSD95/Disc-large/ZO-1 (PDZ-binding motif at the C-terminus in neurons. The interaction between Nax and PSD95 may be involved in promoting the surface expression of Nax channels because the depletion of endogenous PSD95 resulted in a decrease in Nax at the plasma membrane. These results indicated, for the first time, that Nax functions as a [Na+]-sensitive Na channel in neurons as well as in glial cells.

  5. Expression of Na,K-ATPase and H,K-ATPase Isoforms with the Baculovirus Expression System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, J.B.; Swarts, H.G.

    2016-01-01

    P-type ATPases can be expressed in several cell systems. The baculovirus expressions system uses an insect virus to enter and express proteins in Sf9 insect cells. This expression system is a lytic system in which the cells will die a few days after viral infection. Subsequently, the expressed

  6. Pitx2 expression promotes p21 expression and cell cycle exit in neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldring, Nina; Joseph, Bertrand; Hermanson, Ola; Kioussi, Chrissa

    2012-11-01

    Cortical development is a complex process that involves many events including proliferation, cell cycle exit and differentiation that need to be appropriately synchronized. Neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from embryonic cortex are characterized by their ability of self-renewal under continued maintenance of multipotency. Cell cycle progression and arrest during development is regulated by numerous factors, including cyclins, cyclin dependent kinases and their inhibitors. In this study, we exogenously expressed the homeodomain transcription factor Pitx2, usually expressed in postmitotic progenitors and neurons of the embryonic cortex, in NSCs with low expression of endogenous Pitx2. We found that Pitx2 expression induced a rapid decrease in proliferation associated with an accumulation of NSCs in G1 phase. A search for potential cell cycle inhibitors responsible for such cell cycle exit of NSCs revealed that Pitx2 expression caused a rapid and dramatic (≉20-fold) increase in expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 (WAF1/Cip1). In addition, Pitx2 bound directly to the p21 promoter as assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in NSCs. Surprisingly, Pitx2 expression was not associated with an increase in differentiation markers, but instead the expression of nestin, associated with undifferentiated NSCs, was maintained. Our results suggest that Pitx2 promotes p21 expression and induces cell cycle exit in neural progenitors.

  7. Morphing between expressions dissociates continuous from categorical representations of facial expression in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Richard J.; Young, Andrew W.; Andrews, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Whether the brain represents facial expressions as perceptual continua or as emotion categories remains controversial. Here, we measured the neural response to morphed images to directly address how facial expressions of emotion are represented in the brain. We found that face-selective regions in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and the amygdala responded selectively to changes in facial expression, independent of changes in identity. We then asked whether the responses in these regions reflected categorical or continuous neural representations of facial expression. Participants viewed images from continua generated by morphing between faces posing different expressions such that the expression could be the same, could involve a physical change but convey the same emotion, or could differ by the same physical amount but be perceived as two different emotions. We found that the posterior superior temporal sulcus was equally sensitive to all changes in facial expression, consistent with a continuous representation. In contrast, the amygdala was only sensitive to changes in expression that altered the perceived emotion, demonstrating a more categorical representation. These results offer a resolution to the controversy about how facial expression is processed in the brain by showing that both continuous and categorical representations underlie our ability to extract this important social cue. PMID:23213218

  8. LocExpress: a web server for efficiently estimating expression of novel transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Mei; Tian, Feng; Jiang, Shuai; Kong, Lei; Yang, Dechang; Gao, Ge

    2016-12-22

    The temporal and spatial-specific expression pattern of a transcript in multiple tissues and cell types can indicate key clues about its function. While several gene atlas available online as pre-computed databases for known gene models, it's still challenging to get expression profile for previously uncharacterized (i.e. novel) transcripts efficiently. Here we developed LocExpress, a web server for efficiently estimating expression of novel transcripts across multiple tissues and cell types in human (20 normal tissues/cells types and 14 cell lines) as well as in mouse (24 normal tissues/cell types and nine cell lines). As a wrapper to RNA-Seq quantification algorithm, LocExpress efficiently reduces the time cost by making abundance estimation calls increasingly within the minimum spanning bundle region of input transcripts. For a given novel gene model, such local context-oriented strategy allows LocExpress to estimate its FPKMs in hundreds of samples within minutes on a standard Linux box, making an online web server possible. To the best of our knowledge, LocExpress is the only web server to provide nearly real-time expression estimation for novel transcripts in common tissues and cell types. The server is publicly available at http://loc-express.cbi.pku.edu.cn .

  9. Three new shuttle vectors for heterologous expression in Zymomonas mobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Cao

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: These results indicated that these expression vectors are useful tools for gene expression in Z. mobilis and this could provide a solid foundation for further studies of heterologous gene expression in Z. mobilis.

  10. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharpe Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. Results We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages seed coats (globular and torpedo stages and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011 were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152 had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. Conclusions We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid

  11. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Qiu, Shuqing; Stone, Sandra L; Tibiche, Chabane; Cram, Dustin; Alting-Mees, Michelle; Nowak, Jacek; Cloutier, Sylvie; Deyholos, Michael; Bekkaoui, Faouzi; Sharpe, Andrew; Wang, Edwin; Rowland, Gordon; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Datla, Raju

    2011-04-29

    Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages) seed coats (globular and torpedo stages) and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages) and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST) (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011) were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152) had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid clones that comprise even low-expressed genes such as

  12. The perception of emotion in body expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gelder, B; de Borst, A W; Watson, R

    2015-01-01

    During communication, we perceive and express emotional information through many different channels, including facial expressions, prosody, body motion, and posture. Although historically the human body has been perceived primarily as a tool for actions, there is now increased understanding that the body is also an important medium for emotional expression. Indeed, research on emotional body language is rapidly emerging as a new field in cognitive and affective neuroscience. This article reviews how whole-body signals are processed and understood, at the behavioral and neural levels, with specific reference to their role in emotional communication. The first part of this review outlines brain regions and spectrotemporal dynamics underlying perception of isolated neutral and affective bodies, the second part details the contextual effects on body emotion recognition, and final part discusses body processing on a subconscious level. More specifically, research has shown that body expressions as compared with neutral bodies draw upon a larger network of regions responsible for action observation and preparation, emotion processing, body processing, and integrative processes. Results from neurotypical populations and masking paradigms suggest that subconscious processing of affective bodies relies on a specific subset of these regions. Moreover, recent evidence has shown that emotional information from the face, voice, and body all interact, with body motion and posture often highlighting and intensifying the emotion expressed in the face and voice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. A promoter-level mammalian expression atlas

    KAUST Repository

    Forest, Alistair R R

    2014-03-26

    Regulated transcription controls the diversity, developmental pathways and spatial organization of the hundreds of cell types that make up a mammal. Using single-molecule cDNA sequencing, we mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene expression across the human body. We find that few genes are truly ‘housekeeping’, whereas many mammalian promoters are composite entities composed of several closely separated TSSs, with independent cell-type-specific expression profiles. TSSs specific to different cell types evolve at different rates, whereas promoters of broadly expressed genes are the most conserved. Promoter-based expression analysis reveals key transcription factors defining cell states and links them to binding-site motifs. The functions of identified novel transcripts can be predicted by coexpression and sample ontology enrichment analyses. The functional annotation of the mammalian genome 5 (FANTOM5) project provides comprehensive expression profiles and functional annotation of mammalian cell-type-specific transcriptomes with wide applications in biomedical research.

  14. Pragmatic expressions in cross-linguistic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryann Overstreet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on some pragmatic expressions that are characteristic of informal spoken English, their possible equivalents in some other languages, and their use by EFL learners from different backgrounds. These expressions, called general extenders (e.g. and stuff, or something, are shown to be different from discourse markers and to exhibit variation in form, function and distribution across varieties of English, as well as in other languages. In EFL contexts, students are reported to use fewer pragmatic expressions and a smaller range of possible forms. They also tend to favor expressions more often associated with writing and formal speaking (e.g. and so on, include literal translation equivalents from their first language that are not used in English (e.g. and, and, and, or used only in restricted contexts (e.g. or so, and often seem not to realize that some forms may carry negative connotations (e.g. and blah, blah, blah. The possibility of fostering better pragmatic awareness among EFL students is discussed in terms of an explicit cross-linguistic focus on the forms and functions of pragmatic expressions.

  15. IL-21 Receptor Expression in Human Tendinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Abigail L.; Smith, Nicola C.; Reilly, James H.; Kerr, Shauna C.; Leach, William J.; Fazzi, Umberto G.; Rooney, Brian P.; Murrell, George A. C.; Millar, Neal L.

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying tendinopathy remain unclear, with much debate as to whether inflammation or degradation has the prominent role. Increasing evidence points toward an early inflammatory infiltrate and associated inflammatory cytokine production in human and animal models of tendon disease. The IL-21/IL-21R axis is a proinflammatory cytokine complex that has been associated with chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. This project aimed to investigate the role and expression of the cytokine/receptor pair IL-21/IL-21R in human tendinopathy. We found significantly elevated expression of IL-21 receptor message and protein in human tendon samples but found no convincing evidence of the presence of IL-21 at message or protein level. The level of expression of IL-21R message/protein in human tenocytes was significantly upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα/IL-1β) in vitro. These findings demonstrate that IL-21R is present in early human tendinopathy mainly expressed by tenocytes and macrophages. Despite a lack of IL-21 expression, these data again suggest that early tendinopathy has an inflammatory/cytokine phenotype, which may provide novel translational targets in the treatment of tendinopathy. PMID:24757284

  16. Functional Expression of Dental Plaque Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Norman Peterson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries remains a significant public health problem and is considered pandemic worldwide. The prediction of dental caries based on profiling of microbial species involved in disease and equally important, the identification of species conferring dental health has proven more difficult than anticipated due to high interpersonal and geographical variability of dental plaque microbiota. We have used RNA-Seq to perform global gene expression analysis of dental plaque microbiota derived from 19 twin pairs that were either concordant (caries-active or caries-free or discordant for dental caries. The transcription profiling allowed us to define a functional core microbiota consisting of nearly 60 species. Similarities in gene expression patterns allowed a preliminary assessment of the relative contribution of human genetics, environmental factors and caries phenotype on the microbiota’s transcriptome. Correlation analysis of transcription allowed the identification of numerous functional networks, suggesting that inter-personal environmental variables may co-select for groups of genera and species. Analysis of functional role categories allowed the identification of dominant functions expressed by dental plaque biofilm communities, that highlight the biochemical priorities of dental plaque microbes to metabolize diverse sugars and cope with the acid and oxidative stress resulting from sugar fermentation. The wealth of data generated by deep sequencing of expressed transcripts enables a greatly expanded perspective concerning the functional expression of dental plaque microbiota.

  17. Functional expression of dental plaque microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott N; Meissner, Tobias; Su, Andrew I; Snesrud, Erik; Ong, Ana C; Schork, Nicholas J; Bretz, Walter A

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries remains a significant public health problem and is considered pandemic worldwide. The prediction of dental caries based on profiling of microbial species involved in disease and equally important, the identification of species conferring dental health has proven more difficult than anticipated due to high interpersonal and geographical variability of dental plaque microbiota. We have used RNA-Seq to perform global gene expression analysis of dental plaque microbiota derived from 19 twin pairs that were either concordant (caries-active or caries-free) or discordant for dental caries. The transcription profiling allowed us to define a functional core microbiota consisting of nearly 60 species. Similarities in gene expression patterns allowed a preliminary assessment of the relative contribution of human genetics, environmental factors and caries phenotype on the microbiota's transcriptome. Correlation analysis of transcription allowed the identification of numerous functional networks, suggesting that inter-personal environmental variables may co-select for groups of genera and species. Analysis of functional role categories allowed the identification of dominant functions expressed by dental plaque biofilm communities, that highlight the biochemical priorities of dental plaque microbes to metabolize diverse sugars and cope with the acid and oxidative stress resulting from sugar fermentation. The wealth of data generated by deep sequencing of expressed transcripts enables a greatly expanded perspective concerning the functional expression of dental plaque microbiota.

  18. IL-21 Receptor Expression in Human Tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail L. Campbell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying tendinopathy remain unclear, with much debate as to whether inflammation or degradation has the prominent role. Increasing evidence points toward an early inflammatory infiltrate and associated inflammatory cytokine production in human and animal models of tendon disease. The IL-21/IL-21R axis is a proinflammatory cytokine complex that has been associated with chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. This project aimed to investigate the role and expression of the cytokine/receptor pair IL-21/IL-21R in human tendinopathy. We found significantly elevated expression of IL-21 receptor message and protein in human tendon samples but found no convincing evidence of the presence of IL-21 at message or protein level. The level of expression of IL-21R message/protein in human tenocytes was significantly upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα/IL-1β in vitro. These findings demonstrate that IL-21R is present in early human tendinopathy mainly expressed by tenocytes and macrophages. Despite a lack of IL-21 expression, these data again suggest that early tendinopathy has an inflammatory/cytokine phenotype, which may provide novel translational targets in the treatment of tendinopathy.

  19. Differential gene expression during Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio Krieger

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of epimastigotes into metacyclic trypomastigotes involves changes in the pattern of expressed genes, resulting in important morphological and functional differences between these developmental forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. In order to identify and characterize genes involved in triggering the metacyclogenesis process and in conferring to metacyclic trypomastigotes their stage specific biological properties, we have developed a method allowing the isolation of genes specifically expressed when comparing two close related cell populations (representation of differential expression or RDE. The method is based on the PCR amplification of gene sequences selected by hybridizing and subtracting the populations in such a way that after some cycles of hybridization-amplification genes specific to a given population are highly enriched. The use of this method in the analysis of differential gene expression during T. cruzi metacyclogenesis (6 hr and 24 hr of differentiation and metacyclic trypomastigotes resulted in the isolation of several clones from each time point. Northern blot analysis showed that some genes are transiently expressed (6 hr and 24 hr differentiating cells, while others are present in differentiating cells and in metacyclic trypomastigotes. Nucleotide sequencing of six clones characterized so far showed that they do not display any homology to gene sequences available in the GeneBank.

  20. Developmental Hypothyroidism Reduces the Expression of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disruption of thyroid hormone (TH) is a known effect of environmental contaminants. Neurotrophins including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) have been implicated in brain dysfunction resulting from severe developmental TH insufficiency. Neurotrophins are also implicated in activity-dependent plasticity, a process critical for appropriate use-dependent connectivity in the developing brain and for memory formation in the adult. This study examined activity-induced expression of neurotrophin gene products in the hippocampus using the long-term potentiation (LTP) after developmental hypothyroidism induced by propylthiouracil (PTU). Pregnant rats were exposed to PTU (0 or I0ppm) via the drinking water from early gestation to weaning. Adult male offspring were anesthetized with urethane and implanted with electrodes in the dentate gyrus (00) and perforant path (PP). LTP was induced by PP stimulation and responses from 00 were monitored at 15m intervals until sacrifice of the animals 5 h later. The 00 was dissected from the stimulated and nonstimulated hemispheres for rtPCR analysis of the neurotrophins Bdnf, Ngf, Ntf3 and related genes Egrl, Arc, Klf9. We found no PTU-induced difference in basal levels of expression of any of these genes in the nonstimulated 00. LTP increased expression of Bdnf, Ngf, Arc and Klj9 in the control DG, and reduced expression of Ntf3. LTP in DG from PTU animals failed to increase expression of Bdnf,

  1. Loss of HSulf-1 expression enhances tumorigenicity by inhibiting Bim expression in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoping; Khurana, Ashwani; Roy, Debarshi; Kaufmann, Scott; Shridhar, Viji

    2014-10-15

    The expression of human Sulfatase1 (HSulf-1) is downregulated in the majority of primary ovarian cancer tumors, but the functional consequence of this downregulation remains unclear. Using two different shRNAs (Sh1 and Sh2), HSulf-1 expression was stably downregulated in ovarian cancer OV202 cells. We found that HSulf-1-deficient OV202 Sh1 and Sh2 cells formed colonies in soft agar. In contrast, nontargeting control (NTC) shRNA-transduced OV202 cells did not form any colonies. Moreover, subcutaneous injection of OV202 HSulf-1-deficient cells resulted in tumor formation in nude mice, whereas OV202 NTC cells did not. Also, ectopic expression of HSulf-1 in ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells significantly suppressed tumor growth in nude mice. Here, we show that HSulf-1-deficient OV202 cells have markedly decreased expression of proapoptotic Bim protein, which can be rescued by restoring HSulf-1 expression in OV202 Sh1 cells. Enhanced expression of HSulf-1 in HSulf-1-deficient SKOV3 cells resulted in increased Bim expression. Decreased Bim levels after loss of HSulf-1 were due to increased p-ERK, because inhibition of ERK activity with PD98059 resulted in increased Bim expression. However, treatment with a PI3 kinase/AKT inhibitor, LY294002, failed to show any change in Bim protein level. Importantly, rescuing Bim expression in HSulf-1 knockdown cells significantly retarded tumor growth in nude mice. Collectively, these results suggest that loss of HSulf-1 expression promotes tumorigenicity in ovarian cancer through regulating Bim expression. © 2014 UICC.

  2. Podocalyxin expression in malignant astrocytic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayatsu, Norihito; Kaneko, Mika Kato; Mishima, Kazuhiko; Nishikawa, Ryo; Matsutani, Masao; Price, Janet E.; Kato, Yukinari

    2008-01-01

    Podocalyxin is an anti-adhesive mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein that has been implicated in the development of aggressive forms of cancer. Podocalyxin is also known as keratan sulfate (KS) proteoglycan. Recently, we revealed that highly sulfated KS or another mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein podoplanin/aggrus is upregulated in malignant astrocytic tumors. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between podocalyxin expression and malignant progression of astrocytic tumors. In this study, 51 astrocytic tumors were investigated for podocalyxin expression using immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry detected podocalyxin on the surface of tumor cells in six of 14 anaplastic astrocytomas (42.9%) and in 17 of 31 glioblastomas (54.8%), especially around proliferating endothelial cells. In diffuse astrocytoma, podocalyxin expression was observed only in vascular endothelial cells. Podocalyxin might be associated with the malignant progression of astrocytic tumors, and be a useful prognostic marker for astrocytic tumors

  3. EXPRESSING DISTRESS IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Gabriela FELEA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Negative emotions (distress are recognized as part of the psychological profile of patients diagnosed with advanced stage cancer. However, most patients are not accustomed to verbalize feelings towards their physician, and generally towards family and medical care personnel. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the expression of emotions by patients in advanced stages of cancer, respectively the means by which they get to express emotions. To this respect, we identified the most common types of emotions expressed, or metaphors used by patients to describe their emotions and topics that trigger emotions. Words and phrases most commonly used are in relation to: fear, anxiety, depression, guilt, negligence, concern. They are uttered in order to depict the network created between disclosed emotions and topics on health status, symptoms, adverse effects and therapeutic choice, patient privacy, and social and family issues.

  4. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy, and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh

    The strongest versions of the democracy argument for freedom of expression rely on the deliberative conception of democracy. Deliberative democracy entails both an ideal of political autonomy and of autonomous preference formation. This paper elaborates the deliberative democracy argument...... for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. In response to the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy, it is argued that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural...... is good for oneself and what is equally good for all. While freedom of expression is indispensable for deliberation and autonomy, this does not mean that citizens have no obligations with regard to how they speak to each other. The moral insights that deliberation delivers depends on that the participants...

  5. Snail1 Expression Is Required for Sarcomagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Alba-Castellón

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Snail1 transcriptional repressor is a major inducer of epithelial-to mesenchymal transition but is very limitedly expressed in adult animals. We have previously demonstrated that Snail1 is required for the maintenance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, preventing their premature differentiation. Now, we show that Snail1 controls the tumorigenic properties of mesenchymal cells. Increased Snail1 expression provides tumorigenic capabilities to fibroblastic cells; on the contrary, Snail1 depletion decreases tumor growth. Genetic depletion of Snail1 in MSCs that are deficient in p53 tumor suppressor downregulates MSC markers and prevents the capability of these cells to originate sarcomas in immunodeficient SCID mice. Notably, an analysis of human sarcomas shows that, contrarily to epithelial tumors, these neoplasms display high Snail1 expression. This is particularly clear for undifferentiated tumors, which are associated with poor outcome. Together, our results indicate a role for Snail1 in the generation of sarcomas.

  6. The human endolymphatic sac expresses natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Kirkeby, Svend; Vikeså, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The function of the human endolymphatic sac (ES) has been enigmatic for decades. Hypotheses include controlling endolymphatic fluid homeostasis and inner ear immunological defense. Additionally, several studies indicate a possible endocrine capacity and a yet undefined role......: Several natriuretic peptides were found expressed significantly in the ES, including uroguanylin and brain natriuretic peptide, but also peptides regulating vascular tone, including adrenomedullin 2. In addition, both neurophysin and oxytocin (OXT) were found significantly expressed. All peptides were...... vasopressin receptors and aquaporin-2 channels in the inner ear via OXT expression. We hypothesize that the ES is likely to regulate inner ear endolymphatic homeostasis, possibly through secretion of several peptides, but it may also influence systemic and/or intracranial blood pressure through direct...

  7. Mental Health and Emotional Expression in Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglee Duran Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reports the results of the project “Mental health and emotional expression in Facebook”. The research was approached from the qualitative paradigm under virtual ethnographic approach, interpreting the findings through their own players and triangulated with the views of researchers and experts in the area of mental health, emotions and information technology and communication. We concluded that a good part of users vented their secrets on Facebook, where they are able to confide and express a range of emotions and intimacies that in the real context is unlikely to give. Along these findings show that the use of Facebook serves as a space for emotional expression impacting the mental and emotional health.

  8. Evaluating Haskell expressions in a tutoring environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Olmer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of introductory textbooks for Haskell use calculations right from the start to give the reader insight into the evaluation of expressions and the behavior of functional programs. Many programming concepts that are important in the functional programming paradigm, such as recursion, higher-order functions, pattern-matching, and lazy evaluation, can be partially explained by showing a stepwise computation. A student gets a better understanding of these concepts if she performs these evaluation steps herself. Tool support for experimenting with the evaluation of Haskell expressions is currently lacking. In this paper we present a prototype implementation of a stepwise evaluator for Haskell expressions that supports multiple evaluation strategies, specifically targeted at education. Besides performing evaluation steps the tool also diagnoses steps that are submitted by a student, and provides feedback. Instructors can add or change function definitions without knowledge of the tool's internal implementation. We discuss some preliminary results of a small survey about the tool.

  9. Plant Virus Expression Vector Development: New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hefferon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant made biologics have elicited much attention over recent years for their potential in assisting those in developing countries who have poor access to modern medicine. Additional applications such as the stockpiling of vaccines against pandemic infectious diseases or potential biological warfare agents are also under investigation. Plant virus expression vectors represent a technology that enables high levels of pharmaceutical proteins to be produced in a very short period of time. Recent advances in research and development have brought about the generation of superior virus expression systems which can be readily delivered to the host plant in a manner that is both efficient and cost effective. This review presents recent innovations in plant virus expression systems and their uses for producing biologics from plants.

  10. Actin expression in trypanosomatids (Euglenozoa: Kinetoplastea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Ligia Cristina Kalb; Pinho, Rosana Elisa Gonçalves Gonçalves; Lima, Carla Vanessa de Paula; Fragoso, Stênio Perdigão; Soares, Maurilio José

    2013-01-01

    Heteroxenic and monoxenic trypanosomatids were screened for the presence of actin using a mouse polyclonal antibody produced against the entire sequence of the Trypanosoma cruzi actin gene, encoding a 41.9 kDa protein. Western blot analysis showed that this antibody reacted with a polypeptide of approximately 42 kDa in the whole-cell lysates of parasites targeting mammals (T. cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania major), insects (Angomonas deanei, Crithidia fasciculata, Herpetomonas samuelpessoai and Strigomonas culicis) and plants (Phytomonas serpens). A single polypeptide of approximately 42 kDa was detected in the whole-cell lysates of T. cruzi cultured epimastigotes, metacyclic trypomastigotes and amastigotes at similar protein expression levels. Confocal microscopy showed that actin was expressed throughout the cytoplasm of all the tested trypanosomatids. These data demonstrate that actin expression is widespread in trypanosomatids. PMID:23903980

  11. Actin expression in trypanosomatids (Euglenozoa: Kinetoplastea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Cristina Kalb Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Heteroxenic and monoxenic trypanosomatids were screened for the presence of actin using a mouse polyclonal antibody produced against the entire sequence of the Trypanosoma cruzi actin gene, encoding a 41.9 kDa protein. Western blot analysis showed that this antibody reacted with a polypeptide of approximately 42 kDa in the whole-cell lysates of parasites targeting mammals (T. cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania major, insects (Angomonas deanei, Crithidia fasciculata, Herpetomonas samuelpessoai and Strigomonas culicis and plants (Phytomonas serpens. A single polypeptide of approximately 42 kDa was detected in the whole-cell lysates of T. cruzi cultured epimastigotes, metacyclic trypomastigotes and amastigotes at similar protein expression levels. Confocal microscopy showed that actin was expressed throughout the cytoplasm of all the tested trypanosomatids. These data demonstrate that actin expression is widespread in trypanosomatids.

  12. IER3 Expression in Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Andrica; Zwaan, Christian M.; Danen van Ooschot, Astrid

    Background: Childhood myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a rare disease accounting for less than 5% of all hematological malignancies. In about 50% of the MDS cases an abnormal karyotype is found by conventional karyotyping, of which chromosome 6 is involved in 10%. The immediate-early-response 3...... (IER3) gene, which is located on chromosome 6p21, encodes for a glycoprotein that plays a role in the regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle progression. Recently, it was shown that IER3 gene aberrations frequently occur in adult MDS patients, which are not restricted to patients with chromosome 6...... aberrations and that low IER3 expression was associated with a worse outcome. Therefore, we investigated the frequency and prognostic impact of IER3 expression in childhood MDS. Methods: IER3 mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR in 58 childhood MDS patients of which 17 carried...

  13. BeadArray expression analysis using bioconductor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Ritchie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Illumina whole-genome expression BeadArrays are a popular choice in gene profiling studies. Aside from the vendor-provided software tools for analyzing BeadArray expression data (GenomeStudio/BeadStudio, there exists a comprehensive set of open-source analysis tools in the Bioconductor project, many of which have been tailored to exploit the unique properties of this platform. In this article, we explore a number of these software packages and demonstrate how to perform a complete analysis of BeadArray data in various formats. The key steps of importing data, performing quality assessments, preprocessing, and annotation in the common setting of assessing differential expression in designed experiments will be covered.

  14. Capsular Polysaccharide Expression in Commensal Streptococcus Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Sørensen, Uffe B; Yao, Kaihu; Yang, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Expression of a capsular polysaccharide is considered a hallmark of most invasive species of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, in which the capsule is among the principal virulence factors and is the basis for successful vaccines. Consequently, it was previously assumed that capsule....... pneumoniae evolved by import of cps fragments from commensal Streptococcus species, resulting in a mosaic of genes of different origins. The demonstrated antigenic identity of at least eight of the numerous capsular polysaccharide structures expressed by commensal streptococci with recognized serotypes of S...... of Streptococcus pneumoniae and is the basis for successful vaccines against infections caused by this important pathogen. Contrasting with previous assumptions, this study showed that expression of capsular polysaccharides by the same genetic mechanisms is a general property of closely related species...

  15. Gene expression during normal and FSHD myogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowden Janet

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is a dominant disease linked to contraction of an array of tandem 3.3-kb repeats (D4Z4 at 4q35. Within each repeat unit is a gene, DUX4, that can encode a protein containing two homeodomains. A DUX4 transcript derived from the last repeat unit in a contracted array is associated with pathogenesis but it is unclear how. Methods Using exon-based microarrays, the expression profiles of myogenic precursor cells were determined. Both undifferentiated myoblasts and myoblasts differentiated to myotubes derived from FSHD patients and controls were studied after immunocytochemical verification of the quality of the cultures. To further our understanding of FSHD and normal myogenesis, the expression profiles obtained were compared to those of 19 non-muscle cell types analyzed by identical methods. Results Many of the ~17,000 examined genes were differentially expressed (> 2-fold, p DUX4 RNA isoform was detected by RT-PCR in FSHD myoblast and myotube preparations only at extremely low levels. Unique insights into myogenesis-specific gene expression were also obtained. For example, all four Argonaute genes involved in RNA-silencing were significantly upregulated during normal (but not FSHD myogenesis relative to non-muscle cell types. Conclusions DUX4's pathogenic effect in FSHD may occur transiently at or before the stage of myoblast formation to establish a cascade of gene dysregulation. This contrasts with the current emphasis on toxic effects of experimentally upregulated DUX4 expression at the myoblast or myotube stages. Our model could explain why DUX4's inappropriate expression was barely detectable in myoblasts and myotubes but nonetheless linked to FSHD.

  16. Transcriptome study of differential expression in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Alan R.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Duan, Jubao; Drigalenko, Eugene I.; Moy, Winton; Freda, Jessica; He, Deli; Shi, Jianxin; Gejman, Pablo V.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common SNPs, rare copy number variants (CNVs) and a large polygenic contribution to illness risk, but biological mechanisms remain unclear. Bioinformatic analyses of significantly associated genetic variants point to a large role for regulatory variants. To identify gene expression abnormalities in schizophrenia, we generated whole-genome gene expression profiles using microarrays on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from 413 cases and 446 controls. Regression analysis identified 95 transcripts differentially expressed by affection status at a genome-wide false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.05, while simultaneously controlling for confounding effects. These transcripts represented 89 genes with functions such as neurotransmission, gene regulation, cell cycle progression, differentiation, apoptosis, microRNA (miRNA) processing and immunity. This functional diversity is consistent with schizophrenia's likely significant pathophysiological heterogeneity. The overall enrichment of immune-related genes among those differentially expressed by affection status is consistent with hypothesized immune contributions to schizophrenia risk. The observed differential expression of extended major histocompatibility complex (xMHC) region histones (HIST1H2BD, HIST1H2BC, HIST1H2BH, HIST1H2BG and HIST1H4K) converges with the genetic evidence from GWAS, which find the xMHC to be the most significant susceptibility locus. Among the differentially expressed immune-related genes, B3GNT2 is implicated in autoimmune disorders previously tied to schizophrenia risk (rheumatoid arthritis and Graves’ disease), and DICER1 is pivotal in miRNA processing potentially linking to miRNA alterations in schizophrenia (e.g. MIR137, the second strongest GWAS finding). Our analysis provides novel candidate genes for further study to assess their potential contribution to schizophrenia. PMID:23904455

  17. Differential expression of cysteine desulfurases in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heis Marta D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron-sulfur [Fe-S] clusters are prosthetic groups required to sustain fundamental life processes including electron transfer, metabolic reactions, sensing, signaling, gene regulation and stabilization of protein structures. In plants, the biogenesis of Fe-S protein is compartmentalized and adapted to specific needs of the cell. Many environmental factors affect plant development and limit productivity and geographical distribution. The impact of these limiting factors is particularly relevant for major crops, such as soybean, which has worldwide economic importance. Results Here we analyze the transcriptional profile of the soybean cysteine desulfurases NFS1, NFS2 and ISD11 genes, involved in the biogenesis of [Fe-S] clusters, by quantitative RT-PCR. NFS1, ISD11 and NFS2 encoding two mitochondrial and one plastid located proteins, respectively, are duplicated and showed distinct transcript levels considering tissue and stress response. NFS1 and ISD11 are highly expressed in roots, whereas NFS2 showed no differential expression in tissues. Cold-treated plants showed a decrease in NFS2 and ISD11 transcript levels in roots, and an increased expression of NFS1 and ISD11 genes in leaves. Plants treated with salicylic acid exhibited increased NFS1 transcript levels in roots but lower levels in leaves. In silico analysis of promoter regions indicated the presence of different cis-elements in cysteine desulfurase genes, in good agreement with differential expression of each locus. Our data also showed that increasing of transcript levels of mitochondrial genes, NFS1/ISD11, are associated with higher activities of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase, two cytosolic Fe-S proteins. Conclusions Our results suggest a relationship between gene expression pattern, biochemical effects, and transcription factor binding sites in promoter regions of cysteine desulfurase genes. Moreover, data show proportionality between NFS1 and ISD11

  18. Population-expression models of immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromberg, Sean P; Antia, Rustom; Nemenman, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    The immune response to a pathogen has two basic features. The first is the expansion of a few pathogen-specific cells to form a population large enough to control the pathogen. The second is the process of differentiation of cells from an initial naive phenotype to an effector phenotype which controls the pathogen, and subsequently to a memory phenotype that is maintained and responsible for long-term protection. The expansion and the differentiation have been considered largely independently. Changes in cell populations are typically described using ecologically based ordinary differential equation models. In contrast, differentiation of single cells is studied within systems biology and is frequently modeled by considering changes in gene and protein expression in individual cells. Recent advances in experimental systems biology make available for the first time data to allow the coupling of population and high dimensional expression data of immune cells during infections. Here we describe and develop population-expression models which integrate these two processes into systems biology on the multicellular level. When translated into mathematical equations, these models result in non-conservative, non-local advection-diffusion equations. We describe situations where the population-expression approach can make correct inference from data while previous modeling approaches based on common simplifying assumptions would fail. We also explore how model reduction techniques can be used to build population-expression models, minimizing the complexity of the model while keeping the essential features of the system. While we consider problems in immunology in this paper, we expect population-expression models to be more broadly applicable. (paper)

  19. Trpm5 expression in the olfactory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrski, Martina; Eckstein, Eugenia; Schmid, Andreas; Bufe, Bernd; Weiss, Jan; Chubanov, Vladimir; Boehm, Ulrich; Zufall, Frank

    2017-04-01

    The Ca 2+ -activated monovalent cation channel Trpm5 is a key element in chemotransduction of taste receptor cells of the tongue, but the extent to which Trpm5 channels are expressed in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of adult mice as part of a specific pheromonal detection system is debated. Here, we used a novel Trpm5-IRES-Cre knockin strain to drive Cre recombinase expression, employed previously validated Trpm5 antibodies, performed in situ hybridization experiments to localize Trpm5 RNA, and searched extensively for Trpm5 splice variants in genetically-labeled, Trpm5-expressing MOE cells. In contrast to previous reports, we find no evidence for the existence in adult mouse OSNs of the classical Trpm5 channel known from taste cells. We show that Trpm5-expressing adult OSNs express a novel Trpm5 splice variant, Trpm5-9, that is unlikely to form a functional cation channel by itself. We also demonstrate that Trpm5 is transiently expressed in a subpopulation of mature OSNs in the embryonic olfactory epithelium, indicating that Trpm5 channels could play a specific role in utero during a narrow developmental time window. Ca 2+ imaging with GCaMP3 under the control of the Trpm5-IRES-Cre allele using a newly developed MOE wholemount preparation of the adult olfactory epithelium reveals that Trpm5-GCaMP3 OSNs comprise a heterogeneous group of sensory neurons many of which can detect general odorants. Together, these studies are essential for understanding the role of transient receptor potential channels in mammalian olfaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Population-expression models of immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Sean P.; Antia, Rustom; Nemenman, Ilya

    2013-06-01

    The immune response to a pathogen has two basic features. The first is the expansion of a few pathogen-specific cells to form a population large enough to control the pathogen. The second is the process of differentiation of cells from an initial naive phenotype to an effector phenotype which controls the pathogen, and subsequently to a memory phenotype that is maintained and responsible for long-term protection. The expansion and the differentiation have been considered largely independently. Changes in cell populations are typically described using ecologically based ordinary differential equation models. In contrast, differentiation of single cells is studied within systems biology and is frequently modeled by considering changes in gene and protein expression in individual cells. Recent advances in experimental systems biology make available for the first time data to allow the coupling of population and high dimensional expression data of immune cells during infections. Here we describe and develop population-expression models which integrate these two processes into systems biology on the multicellular level. When translated into mathematical equations, these models result in non-conservative, non-local advection-diffusion equations. We describe situations where the population-expression approach can make correct inference from data while previous modeling approaches based on common simplifying assumptions would fail. We also explore how model reduction techniques can be used to build population-expression models, minimizing the complexity of the model while keeping the essential features of the system. While we consider problems in immunology in this paper, we expect population-expression models to be more broadly applicable.

  1. MHC class II expression in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yayi; Rozeboom, Leslie; Rivard, Christopher J; Ellison, Kim; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Caicun; Hirsch, Fred R

    2017-10-01

    Immunotherapy is an exciting development in lung cancer research. In this study we described major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II protein expression in lung cancer cell lines and patient tissues. We studied MHC Class II (DP, DQ, DR) (CR3/43, Abcam) protein expression in 55 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, 42 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and 278 lung cancer patient tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Seven (12.7%) NSCLC cell lines were positive for MHC Class II. No SCLC cell lines were found to be MHC Class II positive. We assessed 139 lung cancer samples available in the Hirsch Lab for MHC Class II. There was no positive MHC Class II staining on SCLC tumor cells. MHC Class II expression on TILs in SCLC was significantly lower than that on TILs in NSCLC (P<0.001). MHC Class II was also assessed in an additional 139 NSCLC tumor tissues from Medical University of Gdansk, Poland. Patients with positive staining of MHC Class II on TILs had longer regression-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than those whose TILs were MHC Class II negative (2.980 years, 95% CI 1.628-4.332 vs. 1.050 years, 95% CI 0.556-1.554, P=0.028) (3.230 years, 95% CI 2.617-3.843 vs. 1.390 years, 95% CI 0.629-2.151, P=0.014). MHC Class II was expressed both in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. However, MHC Class II was not detected in SCLC cell lines or tissue tumor cells. MHC Class II expression was lower on SCLC TILs than on NSCLC TILs. Loss of expression of MHC Class II on SCLC tumor cells and reduced expression on SCLC TILs may be a means of escaping anti-cancer immunity. Higher MHC Class II expression on TILs was correlated with better prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Expert Oracle Application Express Plug-Ins

    CERN Document Server

    D'Souza, Martin Giffy

    2011-01-01

    Expert Oracle Application Express Plugins is your "go to" book on the groundbreaking plugin architecture introduced in Oracle Application Express 4.0. Using the new APEX functionality, you can create well-packaged, documented, reusable components and reliably leverage your coding investments across many applications. Components you create can define new item and region types, specify validation processes, and present dynamic actions to client applications. You can design innovative and colorful ways to display information, such as displaying the temperature using an image of a thermometer, or

  3. Japanese Onomatopoeic Expressions with Quantitative Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Vitalievna KUTAFEVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Grammatical category of quantity is absent in the Japanese language but there are many different grammatical, lexical, derivational and morphological modes of expression of quantity. This paper provides an analysis of the lexical mode of expression of quantitative meanings and their semantics with the help of onomatopoeic (giongo and mimetic (gitaigo words in the Japanese language. Based on the analysis, we have distinguished the following semantic groups: mimetic words A existence of some (large or small quantity (things, phenomena and people, B degree of change of quantity; and onomatopoeic words A single sound, B repetitive sounds.

  4. Artistic expression in teaching-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Barbara Backer

    2009-10-01

    The use of art to enhance teaching-learning in nursing has proven beneficial in the past. While there are variety of methods to utilize art in education that exist, the author discusses artistic expression, as described by the humanbecoming school of thought, being used for the first time during the final term of the senior year for nursing students. This artistic expression was part of a variety of assignments connected to the students' preceptor experiences. The author in this column demonstrates a profound coming to know and personal enlightenment through a reflective process that accentuates the importance of not only allowing, but encouraging creativity throughout a nursing curriculum.

  5. Expression of human PTPN22 alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C; Barington, T; Husby, S

    2007-01-01

    Considering the female predominance in most of the autoimmune disorders that associate with the PTPN22 Trp620 variant and the complexity by which this variant influences immunologic tolerance, the objective of this study was to ascertain if the allele-specific expression of the disease...... and 72 h of activation, respectively, the expression of PTPN22 1858C- and T-alleles increased to the same extent (P=0.64). The present result essentially excludes such phenomena as a partial explanation for the female predominance in most of the autoimmune disorders that associate with the PTPN22 Trp620...

  6. Circadian Kisspeptin expression in human term placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pedro, M A; Morán, J; Díaz, I; Murias, L; Fernández-Plaza, C; González, C; Díaz, E

    2015-11-01

    Kisspeptin is an essential gatekeeper of reproductive function. During pregnancy high circulating levels of kisspeptin have been described, however the clear role of this neuropeptide in pregnancy remains unknown. We tested the existence of rhythmic kisspeptin expression in human full-term placenta from healthy pregnant women at six different time points during the day. The data obtained by Western blotting were fitted to a mathematical model (Fourier series), demonstrating, for the first time, the existence of a circadian rhythm in placental kisspeptin expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Positron emission tomography imaging of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Ganghua

    2001-01-01

    The merging of molecular biology and nuclear medicine is developed into molecular nuclear medicine. Positron emission tomography (PET) of gene expression in molecular nuclear medicine has become an attractive area. Positron emission tomography imaging gene expression includes the antisense PET imaging and the reporter gene PET imaging. It is likely that the antisense PET imaging will lag behind the reporter gene PET imaging because of the numerous issues that have not yet to be resolved with this approach. The reporter gene PET imaging has wide application into animal experimental research and human applications of this approach will likely be reported soon

  8. SQL Server Management Studio Express 02

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Cueto, Armando; Moreda Pozo, Paloma; Mingot Latorre, Iván

    2013-01-01

    Segunda parte de los primeros pasos en el uso de este programa cliente de acceso y administración de SQL Server. Este cliente, en su versión Express, es gratuito. El ejemplo del vídeo se conecta con un servidor remoto SQL Server 2008 R2. Modificar tablas. Exportar definiciones del esquema. Resultados a cuadrícula o texto. Guardar resultados. Captura: BB Flashback Express Recorder 4.1.0. Edición vídeo: Adobe Premiere Pro CS5.5. Edición audio: Adobe Audition CS5.5.

  9. A recombinant rabies virus expressing luciferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, H; Tan, Y; Dun, C; Guo, X

    2010-01-01

    A recombinant Rabies virus (RV) expressing firefly luciferase (rRV-luc) was generated by an improved reverse genetics system. Its biological properties were compared with those of the parental RV. The rRV-luc grew in BHK-21 cells similarly to RV, but its virulence for mice was weaker as shown by the lower infectious titers in brain. Rising infectious titers of rRV-luc during its passaging in BHK-21 cells indicated a virus adaptation, while the luciferase (luc) expression was stable. These results suggest that the recombinant RV carrying luc gene might prove a useful tool for further analysis of pathogenesis of RV in small animal models.

  10. Oncomirs Expression Profiling in Uterine Leiomyosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Cristine de Almeida

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that act as regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. They play a key role in several biological processes. Their abnormal expression may lead to malignant cell transformation. This study aimed to evaluate the expression profile of 84 miRNAs involved in tumorigenesis in immortalized cells of myometrium (MM, uterine leiomyoma (ULM, and uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS. Specific cell lines were cultured and qRT-PCR was performed. Thirteen miRNAs presented different expression profiles in ULM and the same thirteen in ULMS compared to MM. Eight miRNAs were overexpressed, and five were underexpressed in ULM. In ULMS cells, five miRNAs exhibited an overexpression and eight were down-regulated. Six miRNAs (miR-1-3p, miR-130b-3p, miR-140-5p, miR-202-3p, miR-205-5p, and miR-7-5p presented a similar expression pattern in cell lines compared to patient samples. Of these, only three miRNAs showed significant expression in ULM (miR-1-3p, miR-140-5p, and miR-7-5p and ULMS (miR-1-3p, miR-202-3p, and miR-7-5p. Our preliminary approach identified 24 oncomirs with an altered expression profile in ULM and ULMS cells. We identified four differentially expressed miRNAs with the same profile when compared with patients’ samples, which strongly interacted with relevant genes, including apoptosis regulator (BCL2, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA, insulin like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R,serine/threonine kinase (RAF1, receptor tyrosine kinase (MET, and bHLH transcription factor (MYCN. This led to alterations in their mRNA-target.

  11. Transitional cell carcinoma express vitamin D receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Andersen, C B

    1997-01-01

    Recently, vitamin D analogues have shown antineoplastic effect in several diseases. Vitamin D analogues exert its effect by interacting with the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Studies of VDR in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) have not been reported. The purpose of the present study was therefore.......05). Similarly, also tumor grade appeared to be related to the number of cells expressing the receptor. Normal urothlium also expressed VDR but only with low intensity. Our study shows that TCC cells possess the VDR receptor which may make them capable to respond to stimulation with vitamin D, but functional...

  12. MEMBRANE LEc EXPRESSION IN BREAST CANCER CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. A. Udalova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Affine chromatography was used to isolate Lec antibodies from the sera of a healthy female donor with the high titers of these anti- bodies, which were labeled with biotin. The study enrolled 51 patients with primary breast cancer (BC. Antigen expression was found by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. With these two techniques being used, the detection rate of Lec expression in BC cells was 65% (33/51; the antigen was most frequently found by flow cytometry as compared with immunohistochemistry: 72 and 58% of cases, respectively.

  13. Comparative gene expression of intestinal metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ho-Chul; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Cho, Hee-Jung; Yi, Hee; Cho, Soo-Min; Lee, Dong-Goo; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kim, Jin-Suk; Sun, Duxin; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the expression profiles of drug-metabolizing enzymes in the intestine of mouse, rat and human. Total RNA was isolated from the duodenum and the mRNA expression was measured using Affymetrix GeneChip oligonucleotide arrays. Detected genes from the intestine of mouse, rat and human were ca. 60% of 22690 sequences, 40% of 8739 and 47% of 12559, respectively. Total genes of metabolizing enzymes subjected in this study were 95, 33 and 68 genes in mouse, rat and human, respectively. Of phase I enzymes, the mouse exhibited abundant gene expressions for Cyp3a25, Cyp4v3, Cyp2d26, followed by Cyp2b20, Cyp2c65 and Cyp4f14, whereas, the rat showed higher expression profiles of Cyp3a9, Cyp2b19, Cyp4f1, Cyp17a1, Cyp2d18, Cyp27a1 and Cyp4f6. However, the highly expressed P450 enzymes were CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP4F3, CYP2C18, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A7, CYP11B1 and CYP2B6 in the human. For phase II enzymes, glucuronosyltransferase Ugt1a6, glutathione S-transferases Gstp1, Gstm3 and Gsta2, sulfotransferase Sult1b1 and acyltransferase Dgat1 were highly expressed in the mouse. The rat revealed predominant expression of glucuronosyltransferases Ugt1a1 and Ugt1a7, sulfotransferase Sult1b1, acetyltransferase Dlat and acyltransferase Dgat1. On the other hand, in human, glucuronosyltransferases UGT2B15 and UGT2B17, glutathione S-transferases MGST3, GSTP1, GSTA2 and GSTM4, sulfotransferases ST1A3 and SULT1A2, acetyltransferases SAT1 and CRAT, and acyltransferase AGPAT2 were dominantly detected. Therefore, current data indicated substantial interspecies differences in the pattern of intestinal gene expression both for P450 enzymes and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes. This genomic database is expected to improve our understanding of interspecies variations in estimating intestinal prehepatic clearance of oral drugs.

  14. Gen-Struktur und Gen-Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Günther

    1981-04-01

    In the chicken oviduct the synthesis of the egg-white proteins ovalbumin, conalbumin, ovomucoid and lysozyme is controlled by the female sex steroids. The steroid-controlled rate of synthesis of these proteins is closely correlated to the cellular concentration of the egg-white protein mRNAs. The accumulation of these mRNAs is achieved by a drecreased rate of degradation and an increased rate of synthesis. To understand the molecular mechanism that regulates the expression of this group of genes we have isolated the lysozyme and ovomucoid gene by gene-cloning. The structure and expression of the lysozyme gene has been studied.

  15. Assigning Numerical Scores to Linguistic Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Campión

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study different methods of scoring linguistic expressions defined on a finite set, in the search for a linear order that ranks all those possible expressions. Among them, particular attention is paid to the canonical extension, and its representability through distances in a graph plus some suitable penalization of imprecision. The relationship between this setting and the classical problems of numerical representability of orderings, as well as extension of orderings from a set to a superset is also explored. Finally, aggregation procedures of qualitative rankings and scorings are also analyzed.

  16. Decidability and Expressiveness of Recursive Weighted Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2014-01-01

    Labelled weighted transition systems (LWSs) are transition systems labelled with actions and real numbers. The numbers represent the costs of the corresponding actions in terms of resources. RecursiveWeighted Logic (RWL) is a multimodal logic that expresses qualitative and quantitative properties...... of LWSs. It is endowed with simultaneous recursive equations, which specify the weakest properties satisfied by the recursive variables. We demonstrate that RWL is sufficiently expressive to characterize weighted-bisimilarity of LWSs. In addition, we prove that the logic is decidable, i...

  17. Metallothionein expression and roles in the CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena

    2002-01-01

    -I+II) are regulated and expressed coordinately and are currently the best characterized MT isoforms. This review will focus on the expression and roles of MT-I+II in the CNS. MT-I+II are implicated in diverse physiological and pathophysiological functions, such as metal ion metabolism, regulation of the CNS...... inflammatory response, protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress, reduction of apoptotic cell death, and stimulation of neuroregeneration and brain tissue repair in vivo. Accordingly, brain tissue damage and neurodegeneration during pathological conditions and the accompanying...

  18. "Expression" and Verbal Expression: On Communication in an Upper Secondary Dance Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Boel; Sandstrom, Birgitta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine how dance teachers express themselves verbally in teaching situations where movement training is combined with "expression". The empirical material consists of films and tapes from a 130 min long dance class at upper secondary school, and a taped conversation with the teacher about episodes from the…

  19. Perceiving and producing facial expressions of emotion : The role of dynamic expressions and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, X.

    2018-01-01

    We spend much of our waking lives interacting with other people, reading their facial expressions to figure out what they might be feeling, thinking, or intending to do next (Ekman 1994; Fridlund 1994). At the same time, we also express our own feelings, thoughts, and intentions through facial

  20. Gene Expression Commons: an open platform for absolute gene expression profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Seita

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling using microarrays has been limited to comparisons of gene expression between small numbers of samples within individual experiments. However, the unknown and variable sensitivities of each probeset have rendered the absolute expression of any given gene nearly impossible to estimate. We have overcome this limitation by using a very large number (>10,000 of varied microarray data as a common reference, so that statistical attributes of each probeset, such as the dynamic range and threshold between low and high expression, can be reliably discovered through meta-analysis. This strategy is implemented in a web-based platform named "Gene Expression Commons" (https://gexc.stanford.edu/ which contains data of 39 distinct highly purified mouse hematopoietic stem/progenitor/differentiated cell populations covering almost the entire hematopoietic system. Since the Gene Expression Commons is designed as an open platform, investigators can explore the expression level of any gene, search by expression patterns of interest, submit their own microarray data, and design their own working models representing biological relationship among samples.

  1. Athero Express : ATHERO-sclerotic plaque EXPRESSion in relation to vascular events and patient characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, B.A.N.

    2006-01-01

    Athero-Express is a tissue bank study, designed to investigate the expression of atherosclerotic derived biological variables in relation to the long-term outcome of patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. Its design includes both cross-sectional and follow-up studies, the results from which

  2. Elevated TATA-binding protein expression drives vascular endothelial growth factor expression in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sandra A S; Lin, Justin J; Walkey, Christopher J; Leathers, Michael P; Coarfa, Cristian; Johnson, Deborah L

    2017-07-25

    The TATA-binding protein (TBP) plays a central role in eukaryotic gene transcription. Given its key function in transcription initiation, TBP was initially thought to be an invariant protein. However, studies showed that TBP expression is upregulated by oncogenic signaling pathways. Furthermore, depending on the cell type, small increases in cellular TBP amounts can induce changes in cellular growth properties towards a transformed phenotype. Here we sought to identify the specific TBP-regulated gene targets that drive its ability to induce tumorigenesis. Using microarray analysis, our results reveal that increases in cellular TBP concentrations produce selective alterations in gene expression that include an enrichment for genes involved in angiogenesis. Accordingly, we find that TBP levels modulate VEGFA expression, the master regulator of angiogenesis. Increases in cellular TBP amounts induce VEGFA expression and secretion to enhance cell migration and tumor vascularization. TBP mediates changes in VEGFA transcription requiring its recruitment at a hypoxia-insensitive proximal TSS, revealing a mechanism for VEGF regulation under non-stress conditions. The results are clinically relevant as TBP expression is significantly increased in both colon adenocarcinomas as well as adenomas relative to normal tissue. Furthermore, TBP expression is positively correlated with VEGFA expression. Collectively, these studies support the idea that increases in TBP expression contribute to enhanced VEGFA transcription early in colorectal cancer development to drive tumorigenesis.

  3. Expression of MHC Class I on breast cancer cells correlates inversely with HER2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Masayuki; Mimura, Kousaku; Izawa, Shinichiro; Shiraishi, Kensuke; Inoue, Ayako; Shiba, Shugo; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Maruyama, Takanori; Kawaguchi, Yoshihiko; Inoue, Shingo; Kawasaki, Tomonori; Choudhury, Aniruddha; Katoh, Ryohei; Fujii, Hideki; Kiessling, Rolf; Kono, Koji

    2012-10-01

    HER2 is a promising target for immunotherapeutic interventions with T cell-based approaches since it is amplified and overexpressed in 20-30% of breast cancers. However, several previous studies including ours showed that HER2-overexpressing tumors may escape cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated lysis by downregulating MHC Class I and components of the antigen-processing machinery. The aims of the present study were to analyze the relationship between HER2 and MHC Class I expression and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying MHC Class I downregulation in breast cancer. We explored expression of HER2, MHC Class I, PTEN, Ki67, estrogen and progesterone expression in 70 breast cancer patients by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and analyzed their correlation. We also explored the components of the signal transduction pathway that are involved in the regulation of MHC Class I expression using small-interfering RNAs targeting HER2 as well as an inhibitor of HER2 signaling. HER2 expression in breast cancers correlated inversely with MHC Class I expression analyzed by IHC. HER2 depletion by small-interfering RNAs resulted in MHC Class I upregulation. Moreover, MHC Class I expression on breast cancer cell lines was upregulated by PD98059, an inhibitor of mitogen-associated protein kinases, in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, agents that target the MAPK signaling pathway may increase MHC Class I expression in breast cancer cells.

  4. Listener Perception of Expressivity in Collaborative Performances Containing Expressive and Unexpressive Playing by the Pianist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringer, John M.; Sasanfar, Justine K.

    2013-01-01

    Listener perception of musical expression in collaborative performance was explored in this study. Performances of two duos (a violinist and pianist, and a vocalist and pianist) were recorded. The level of expressivity of the violinist and vocalist remained stylistically appropriate during pieces; however, the pianist alternated between very…

  5. The production of viral vectors designed to express large and difficult to express transgenes within neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holehonnur, Roopashri; Lella, Srihari K; Ho, Anthony; Luong, Jonathan A; Ploski, Jonathan E

    2015-02-24

    Viral vectors are frequently used to deliver and direct expression of transgenes in a spatially and temporally restricted manner within the nervous system of numerous model organisms. Despite the common use of viral vectors to direct ectopic expression of transgenes within the nervous system, creating high titer viral vectors that are capable of expressing very large transgenes or difficult to express transgenes imposes unique challenges. Here we describe the development of adeno-associated viruses (AAV) and lentiviruses designed to express the large and difficult to express GluN2A or GluN2B subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA) receptor, specifically within neurons. We created a number of custom designed AAV and lentiviral vectors that were optimized for large transgenes, by minimizing DNA sequences that were not essential, utilizing short promoter sequences of 8 widely used promoters (RSV, EFS, TRE3G, 0.4αCaMKII, 1.3αCaMKII, 0.5Synapsin, 1.1Synapsin and CMV) and utilizing a very short (~75 bps) 3' untranslated sequence. Not surprisingly these promoters differed in their ability to express the GluN2 subunits, however surprisingly we found that the neuron specific synapsin and αCaMKII, promoters were incapable of conferring detectable expression of full length GluN2 subunits and detectable expression could only be achieved from these promoters if the transgene included an intron or if the GluN2 subunit transgenes were truncated to only include the coding regions of the GluN2 transmembrane domains. We determined that viral packaging limit, transgene promoter and the presence of an intron within the transgene were all important factors that contributed to being able to successfully develop viral vectors designed to deliver and express GluN2 transgenes in a neuron specific manner. Because these vectors have been optimized to accommodate large open reading frames and in some cases contain an intron to facilitate expression of difficult to express

  6. Loss of RNA expression and allele-specific expression associated with congenital heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, David M.; Homsy, Jason; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Patel, Neil; Gorham, Joshua; DePalma, Steven R.; Ware, James S.; Zaidi, Samir; Ma, Wenji; Patel, Nihir; Lifton, Richard P.; Chung, Wendy K.; Kim, Richard; Shen, Yufeng; Brueckner, Martina; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Sharp, Andrew J.; Seidman, Christine E.; Gelb, Bruce D.; Seidman, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD), a prevalent birth defect occurring in 1% of newborns, likely results from aberrant expression of cardiac developmental genes. Mutations in a variety of cardiac transcription factors, developmental signalling molecules and molecules that modify chromatin cause at least 20% of disease, but most CHD remains unexplained. We employ RNAseq analyses to assess allele-specific expression (ASE) and biallelic loss-of-expression (LOE) in 172 tissue samples from 144 surgically repaired CHD subjects. Here we show that only 5% of known imprinted genes with paternal allele silencing are monoallelic versus 56% with paternal allele expression—this cardiac-specific phenomenon seems unrelated to CHD. Further, compared with control subjects, CHD subjects have a significant burden of both LOE genes and ASE events associated with altered gene expression. These studies identify FGFBP2, LBH, RBFOX2, SGSM1 and ZBTB16 as candidate CHD genes because of significantly altered transcriptional expression. PMID:27670201

  7. Serial Expression Analysis: a web tool for the analysis of serial gene expression data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nueda, Maria José; Carbonell, José; Medina, Ignacio; Dopazo, Joaquín; Conesa, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Serial transcriptomics experiments investigate the dynamics of gene expression changes associated with a quantitative variable such as time or dosage. The statistical analysis of these data implies the study of global and gene-specific expression trends, the identification of significant serial changes, the comparison of expression profiles and the assessment of transcriptional changes in terms of cellular processes. We have created the SEA (Serial Expression Analysis) suite to provide a complete web-based resource for the analysis of serial transcriptomics data. SEA offers five different algorithms based on univariate, multivariate and functional profiling strategies framed within a user-friendly interface and a project-oriented architecture to facilitate the analysis of serial gene expression data sets from different perspectives. SEA is available at sea.bioinfo.cipf.es. PMID:20525784

  8. Effect of carotenoids on in vitro proliferation and differentiation of oval cells during neoplastic and non-neoplastic liver injuries in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, M; Bobowiec, R; Martelli, F

    2008-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of beta-carotene and astaxanthin (ASX) - carotenoid without provitamin A activity on the proliferation and differentiation of rat oval cells (OC) in vitro. Oval cells were isolated from two groups of animals: I - partial hepatectomised (PH) and II- diethylnitrosamine (DEN) treated rats. At various time points cell lysates were separated by PAGE. For immunodetection primary antibodies against CD-34, Ck19 and albumin were used. Medium concentration of fibrinogen and haptoglobin was measured. Mitochondrial competence of cells was expressed as the proliferation index. In comparison to HP- and DEN-obtained oval cells cultured without carotenoids, the addition of beta-carotene and ASX increased albumin expression during the experimental period. The same condition didn't reveal CK19 expression. CD34 expressed by oval cells was detected up to the 5(th) week of beta-carotene and ASX absence in the medium. beta-carotene addition resulted in a decrease of the proliferative activity of OC, with significant changes in 48 h, the 5(th) and 15(th) week of incubation. ASX (p < or = 0.05) inhibited the proliferation, especially in 24h and 5(th) week of cell culture. In respect to haptoglobin concentration, its maximum value after the 10(th) week was observed. The fibrinogen level obtained from DEN-oval cells incubated with beta-carotene elevated from 480+/-6.87 microg/ml after 24h to 5520+/-34,56 microg/ml after the 15(th) week. In a condition without carotenoids fibrinogen concentration did not exceed 2280+/-31.5 microg/ml after the 15(th) week of cell culture.

  9. Histogenesis of primary liver carcinomas: strengths and weaknesses of cytokeratin profile and albumin mRNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, A; Baccarini, P; Fiorentino, M; Ceccarelli, C; Bonazzi, C; Ponzetto, A; Scoazec, J Y; Mancini, A M; Grigioni, W F

    1996-06-01

    To assess the utility of cytokeratin (CK) profile and albumin mRNA detection (as revealed by in situ hybridization) in the differential diagnosis of primary liver carcinomas (PLCs) we evaluated a series of surgically resected PLCs, comprising 20 "pure" hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) (10 well-differentiated, 10 poorly differentiated), 15 cholangiocarcinomas (CCs) (6 peripheral, 5 hilar, and 4 major duct ones) and 10 hepatocholangio-carcinomas (HCC-CCs). 11 of 20 (55%) of the pure HCCs expressed CKs of pure hepatocytic lineage (CK 8 and CK 18); 2 of 10 (20%) of the HCC-CCs displayed only hepatocytic profile, whereas 12 of 15 (80%) of the CCs evidenced mature bile duct cell phenotype (CK 8, CK 18, CK 7, CK 19). All HCCs expressed varying distributions of albumin mRNA, whereas 4 of 6 (67%) peripheral CCs showed cells with focal positivity for albumin mRNA. This suggests that the phenotypic expression of PLC cells are often not fixed, and in particular: (1) peripheral CCs have a different phenotype from hilar and large duct ones; (2) the CK profile and albumin mRNA expression in peripheral CCs show many similarities with those of some HCCs. Furthermore, the results show that a mixed biological phenotype (ie, CK 8, CK 18 and CK 7 and/or CK 19) can be found both among morphologically pure HCCs and peripheral CCs, suggesting that these two forms could share a common histogenesis. We think that special attention should be given to cases in which CK profile and albumin mRNA reveal mixed phenotype, as these tumors could have different biological behavior and respond differently to therapy.

  10. FTO is expressed in neurones throughout the brain and its expression is unaltered by fasting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S McTaggart

    Full Text Available Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the first intron of the ubiquitously expressed FTO gene are associated with obesity. Although the physiological functions of FTO remain unclear, food intake is often altered when Fto expression levels are manipulated. Furthermore, deletion of FTO from neurones alone has a similar effect on food intake to deletion of FTO in all tissues. These results indicate that FTO expression in the brain is particularly important. Considerable focus has been placed on the dynamic regulation of Fto mRNA expression in the hypothalamus after short-term (16-48 hour fasting, but results have been controversial. There are no studies that quantify FTO protein levels across the brain, and assess its alteration following short-term fasting. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that FTO protein is widely expressed in mouse brain, and present in the majority of neurones. Using quantitative Western blotting and RT-qPCR we show that FTO protein and mRNA levels in the hypothalamus, cerebellum and rostral brain are relatively uniform, and levels in the brain are higher than in skeletal muscles of the lower limbs. Fasting for 18 hours does not alter the expression pattern, or levels, of FTO protein and mRNA. We further show that the majority of POMC neurones, which are critically involved in food intake regulation, also express FTO, but that the percentage of FTO-positive POMC neurones is not altered by fasting. In summary, we find no evidence that Fto/FTO expression is regulated by short-term (18-hour fasting. Thus, it is unlikely that the hunger and increased post-fasting food intake caused by such food deprivation is driven by alterations in Fto/FTO expression. The widespread expression of FTO in neurones also suggests that physiological studies of this protein should not be limited to the hypothalamus.

  11. Actin expression is induced and three isoforms are differentially expressed during germination in Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Camino, Claudia; Conde, Renaud; Ovsenek, Nick; Villanueva, Marco A

    2005-02-01

    Previous analysis of actin in a dicotyledonous plant, Phaseolus vulgaris (or common bean), showed very low actin levels in cotyledons but they were concentrated in the embryo axis. Upon imbibition, actin expression increased 5-fold and a maximum of four actin isoforms were observed, two of them transient and two major ones were steadily expressed. In this work, analysis of the actin expression in a monocotyledonous plant, Zea mays (or maize), and over a longer period of germination/growth, showed that striking similarities exist. Actin is present in all the seed components, but it is mainly concentrated in the embryo axis. The expression of maize actin was induced during post-imbibition at both the protein and mRNA levels. Sharp increases in actin appeared from 24-48 h and again from 72-96 h. A more modest and steady actin mRNA increase in expression was observed; however, it did not appear as dramatic as in the case of common bean due to the presence of readily detectable amounts of message in the dry maize seed. The isoform distribution in the dry seed showed a pattern of at least three isovariants of pIs approximately 5.0, 5.1, and 5.2, which were differentially expressed at the various post-imbibition times analysed. Two of the actin isoforms at 48 h post-imbibition cross-reacted with a phosphotyrosine-specific antibody and they are the product of three expressed genes as shown by in vitro translation assays. These data indicate that maize actin protein and mRNA expression is induced upon the trigger of germination, and the isoform expression kinetics and patterns resemble those from bean, suggesting that, in both species, actin expression at these early germination/growth stages is a highly regulated event.

  12. FTO is expressed in neurones throughout the brain and its expression is unaltered by fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTaggart, James S; Lee, Sheena; Iberl, Michaela; Church, Chris; Cox, Roger D; Ashcroft, Frances M

    2011-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the first intron of the ubiquitously expressed FTO gene are associated with obesity. Although the physiological functions of FTO remain unclear, food intake is often altered when Fto expression levels are manipulated. Furthermore, deletion of FTO from neurones alone has a similar effect on food intake to deletion of FTO in all tissues. These results indicate that FTO expression in the brain is particularly important. Considerable focus has been placed on the dynamic regulation of Fto mRNA expression in the hypothalamus after short-term (16-48 hour) fasting, but results have been controversial. There are no studies that quantify FTO protein levels across the brain, and assess its alteration following short-term fasting. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that FTO protein is widely expressed in mouse brain, and present in the majority of neurones. Using quantitative Western blotting and RT-qPCR we show that FTO protein and mRNA levels in the hypothalamus, cerebellum and rostral brain are relatively uniform, and levels in the brain are higher than in skeletal muscles of the lower limbs. Fasting for 18 hours does not alter the expression pattern, or levels, of FTO protein and mRNA. We further show that the majority of POMC neurones, which are critically involved in food intake regulation, also express FTO, but that the percentage of FTO-positive POMC neurones is not altered by fasting. In summary, we find no evidence that Fto/FTO expression is regulated by short-term (18-hour) fasting. Thus, it is unlikely that the hunger and increased post-fasting food intake caused by such food deprivation is driven by alterations in Fto/FTO expression. The widespread expression of FTO in neurones also suggests that physiological studies of this protein should not be limited to the hypothalamus.

  13. Automatically predicting mood from expressed emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsimerou, C.

    2016-01-01

    Affect-adaptive systems have the potential to assist users that experience systematically negative moods. This thesis aims at building a platform for predicting automatically a person’s mood from his/her visual expressions. The key word is mood, namely a relatively long-term, stable and diffused

  14. Emotion expression in body action and posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dael, Nele; Mortillaro, Marcello; Scherer, Klaus R

    2012-10-01

    Emotion communication research strongly focuses on the face and voice as expressive modalities, leaving the rest of the body relatively understudied. Contrary to the early assumption that body movement only indicates emotional intensity, recent studies have shown that body movement and posture also conveys emotion specific information. However, a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms is hampered by a lack of production studies informed by a theoretical framework. In this research we adopted the Body Action and Posture (BAP) coding system to examine the types and patterns of body movement that are employed by 10 professional actors to portray a set of 12 emotions. We investigated to what extent these expression patterns support explicit or implicit predictions from basic emotion theory, bidimensional theory, and componential appraisal theory. The overall results showed partial support for the different theoretical approaches. They revealed that several patterns of body movement systematically occur in portrayals of specific emotions, allowing emotion differentiation. Although a few emotions were prototypically expressed by one particular pattern, most emotions were variably expressed by multiple patterns, many of which can be explained as reflecting functional components of emotion such as modes of appraisal and action readiness. It is concluded that further work in this largely underdeveloped area should be guided by an appropriate theoretical framework to allow a more systematic design of experiments and clear hypothesis testing.

  15. Expressions of Emotion as Mediated by Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarriba, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    In her thoughtful work regarding various aspects of emotion and emotion related words, Pavlenko explores a variety of perspectives on how we might characterize and conceptualize expressions of emotion. It is a work that is quite rich in breadth--one that leads to a variety of different thoughts on this topic, many of which are amenable to…

  16. Improving Expressive Writing in EFL through Blogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namouz, Rana; Misher-Tal, Hagit; Sela, Orly

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of integrating blogging into the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) curriculum on students' performance in expressive writing. Previous studies have shown that integrating blogging into EFL learning raises students' motivation and develops their linguistic and social skills as a result of…

  17. Expressive Single Scattering for Light Shaft Stylization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kol, T.R.; Klehm, O.; Seidel, Hans-Peter; Eisemann, E.

    2017-01-01

    Light scattering in participating media is a natural phenomenon that is increasingly featured in movies and games, as it is visually pleasing and lends realism to a scene. In art, it may further be used to express a certain mood or emphasize objects. Here, artists often rely on stylization when

  18. Molecular characterization and differential expression of two ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here, we identified a pair of duplicated Or genes, AcerOr1 and AcerOr3, from the antennae of the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana cerana, and reported their molecular characterization and temporal expression profiles. The results showed that these two genes shared high similarity both in sequence and the gene structure.

  19. Cytokine gene expression of peripheral blood lymphocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... Key words: Lipopolysaccharide, lymphocytes, TLRs, cytokines. INTRODUCTION. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a predominant glycolipid in the outer membranes of Gam-negative bacteria, stimulates monocyte, macrophages, and neutrophils and increase expression of cell adhesion molecules (Trent et al., ...

  20. Gene expression analysis of zebrafish heart regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ling Lien

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian hearts cannot regenerate. In contrast, zebrafish hearts regenerate even when up to 20% of the ventricle is amputated. The mechanism of zebrafish heart regeneration is not understood. To systematically characterize this process at the molecular level, we generated transcriptional profiles of zebrafish cardiac regeneration by microarray analyses. Distinct gene clusters were identified based on temporal expression patterns. Genes coding for wound response/inflammatory factors, secreted molecules, and matrix metalloproteinases are expressed in regenerating heart in sequential patterns. Comparisons of gene expression profiles between heart and fin regeneration revealed a set of regeneration core molecules as well as tissue-specific factors. The expression patterns of several secreted molecules around the wound suggest that they play important roles in heart regeneration. We found that both platelet-derived growth factor-a and -b (pdgf-a and pdgf-b are upregulated in regenerating zebrafish hearts. PDGF-B homodimers induce DNA synthesis in adult zebrafish cardiomyocytes. In addition, we demonstrate that a chemical inhibitor of PDGF receptor decreases DNA synthesis of cardiomyocytes both in vitro and in vivo during regeneration. Our data indicate that zebrafish heart regeneration is associated with sequentially upregulated wound healing genes and growth factors and suggest that PDGF signaling is required.

  1. Gene expression in early stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, Petra; Buist, Marrije R.; Moerland, Perry D.; van Thernaat, Emiel Ver Loren; van Kampen, Antoine H. C.; ten Kate, Fiebo J. W.; Baas, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Pelvic lymph node metastases are the main prognostic factor for survival in early stage cervical cancer, yet accurate detection methods before surgery are lacking. In this study, we examined whether gene expression profiling can predict the presence of lymph node metastasis in early stage

  2. Freedom of Expression in Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2003-01-01

    Uses question and answer format to discuss scope of elementary students' First Amendment freedom of expression rights. For example, does the First Amendment prevent the disciplining of a sixth grader for writing a sexually inappropriate remark in another student's notebook? Answer: No. (Contains 13 references.) (PKP)

  3. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify genes showing differential expression profile associated withgrowth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig. Two subtracted cDNA populations were generated from mus-culus longissimus muscle tissues of selected pigs with extreme expected ...

  4. Transiently expressed pattern during myogenesis and candidate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, we obtained the coding sequence (CDS) of Tmem8Cin goose, predicted miRNAs that can act on the 3' UTR, analysed expression profiles of this gene in breast and leg muscles (BM and LM) during the embryonic period and neonatal stages, and identified miRNAs that might affect the targeted gene. The results ...

  5. endogenous retrovirus sequences expressed in male mammalian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-01-02

    Jan 2, 2002 ... the human genome. Because of such hypotheses, in this communication, we discuss the findings of various studies that have demonstrated expression of endogenous retrovirus-like particles in male mammalian reproductive tissues. In addition, we discuss the biological implications of the presence of these ...

  6. Express consent and full membership in Locke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartogh, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    It seems mysterious why Locke required express consent as a condition of full membership of civil society. It is suggested this requirement be interpreted as a political programme. In a draft of a pamphlet of 1690 Locke criticizes the oath of allegiance required after the Glorious Revolution for not

  7. RESEARCH ARTICLE Molecular characterization and expression of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    reported that the GDF9 gene was detected in adult alpaca testis by western blotting (Guo et al. 2013) and adult rat testis by GDF9 expression and localization (Nicholls et al. 2009). The. GDF9 gene can also be detected in oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits (Desislava et al. 2016) and calves (Hosoe et al. 2011). Hosoe et ...

  8. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify genes showing differential expression profile associated with growth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig. Two subtracted cDNA populations were generated from mus- culus longissimus muscle tissues of selected pigs with extreme ...

  9. Heterologous expression of biologically active chicken granulocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After being screened by yeast peptone dextrose (YPD) containing high concentrations of Zeocin and direct PCR, the positive clone was cultured in flask with buffered minimal methanol (BMMY) and expression induced by methanol. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot ...

  10. Person-Centred (Deictic) Expressions and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, R. Peter; Garcia-Perez, Rosa M.; Lee, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We employed semi-structured tests to determine whether children with autism produce and comprehend deictic (person-centred) expressions such as "this"/"tilde" "here"/"there" and "come"/"go", and whether they understand atypical non-verbal gestural deixis in the form of directed head-nods to indicate location. In Study 1, most participants…

  11. Learners' right to freedom of written expression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Learners' right to freedom of written expression. W.J. van Vollenhoven. Department of Education Management and Policy Studies, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 South Africa wvvollen@postino.up.ac.za. Charles I. Glenn. Training and Policy Studies of the University Professors' Program, University of Boston. Although ...

  12. Electroacupuncture at the Wangu acupoint suppresses expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: The 54 healthy, male, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, 9 months old, and of clean grade (300-450) g, were randomly divided into three groups: sham surgery group, VD group and electro-acupuncture group. The ethology scores of VD rats were evaluated and the mRNA expressions of inflammatory ...

  13. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  14. Gene Expression and Microarray Investigation of Dendrobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diet. The rats were continuously fed for 16 months, and blood glucose monitored by a glucose meter. One wild-type rat and 4 high- fat/high-glucose rats died during ..... therapy not only changed gene expression patterns in type 2 diabetes but also improved immune activity and reduced the likelihood of cancer development.

  15. Inferring gene networks from discrete expression data

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, L.

    2013-07-18

    The modeling of gene networks from transcriptional expression data is an important tool in biomedical research to reveal signaling pathways and to identify treatment targets. Current gene network modeling is primarily based on the use of Gaussian graphical models applied to continuous data, which give a closedformmarginal likelihood. In this paper,we extend network modeling to discrete data, specifically data from serial analysis of gene expression, and RNA-sequencing experiments, both of which generate counts of mRNAtranscripts in cell samples.We propose a generalized linear model to fit the discrete gene expression data and assume that the log ratios of the mean expression levels follow a Gaussian distribution.We restrict the gene network structures to decomposable graphs and derive the graphs by selecting the covariance matrix of the Gaussian distribution with the hyper-inverse Wishart priors. Furthermore, we incorporate prior network models based on gene ontology information, which avails existing biological information on the genes of interest. We conduct simulation studies to examine the performance of our discrete graphical model and apply the method to two real datasets for gene network inference. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  16. Variation in Conversational Discourse: Spanish "Pragmatic Expressions."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Isolda

    This study reports on preliminary findings of two research projects conducted during the 1988-89 and 1990-91 in Cordoba, Argentina, that examined fixed, idiomatic, Spanish-language expressions that are very common, but often ignored, in oral Spanish discourse. Study 1 subjects were 13 university-educated, adults, born in the city; study 2 subjects…

  17. Genomics analysis of genes expressed reveals differential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genomics analysis of genes expressed reveals differential responses to low chronic nitrogen stress in maize. ... Most induced clones were largely involved in various metabolism processes including physiological process, organelle regulation of biological process, nutrient reservoir activity, transcription regulator activity and ...

  18. Eukaryotic expression : developments for structural proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aricescu, A. R.; Assenberg, R.; Bill, R. M.; Busso, D.; Chang, V. T.; Davis, S. J.; Dubrovsky, A.; Gustafsson, L.L.; Hedfalk, K.; Heinemann, U.; Jones, I. M.; Ksiazek, D.; Lang, Chim C; Maskos, K.; Messerschmidt, A.; Macieira, S.; Peleg, Y.; Perrakis, A.; Poterszman, A.; Schneider, G.; Sixma, Titia K; Sussman, Joel L.; Sutton, G.; Tarboureich, N.; Zeev-Ben-Mordehai, T.; Jones, E. Yvonne

    2006-01-01

    The production of sufficient quantities of protein is an essential prelude to a structure determination, but for many viral and human proteins this cannot be achieved using prokaryotic expression systems. Groups in the Structural Proteomics In Europe (SPINE) consortium have developed and implemented

  19. Artistic Expressions as Primary Modes of Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNiff, Shaun

    2011-01-01

    "Art-Based Research" (McNiff, 1998a) introduced the idea of using artistic expressions by researchers as ways of knowing and methods of inquiry as distinguished from approaching art made by subjects as data which are interpreted by discursive methods, a practice that has been widely used in various disciplines studying human behaviour.…

  20. Expression of recombinant Streptokinase from local Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We reported for the first time the expression of a recombinant SK from a local Streptococcus strain. When produced on industrial scale this r-SK may substantially contribute to reducing the costs of thrombolytic therapy in developing countries. In this study, a highly purified r-SK from Streptococcus sp. isolated from Egyptian ...

  1. Perspectives: Gene Expression in Fisheries Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Pavey, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Functional genes and gene expression have been connected to physiological traits linked to effective production and broodstock selection in aquaculture, selective implications of commercial fish harvest, and adaptive changes reflected in non-commercial fish populations subject to human disturbance and climate change. Gene mapping using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to identify functional genes, gene expression (analogue microarrays and real-time PCR), and digital sequencing technologies looking at RNA transcripts present new concepts and opportunities in support of effective and sustainable fisheries. Genomic tools have been rapidly growing in aquaculture research addressing aspects of fish health, toxicology, and early development. Genomic technologies linking effects in functional genes involved in growth, maturation and life history development have been tied to selection resulting from harvest practices. Incorporating new and ever-increasing knowledge of fish genomes is opening a different perspective on local adaptation that will prove invaluable in wild fish conservation and management. Conservation of fish stocks is rapidly incorporating research on critical adaptive responses directed at the effects of human disturbance and climate change through gene expression studies. Genomic studies of fish populations can be generally grouped into three broad categories: 1) evolutionary genomics and biodiversity; 2) adaptive physiological responses to a changing environment; and 3) adaptive behavioral genomics and life history diversity. We review current genomic research in fisheries focusing on those that use microarrays to explore differences in gene expression among phenotypes and within or across populations, information that is critically important to the conservation of fish and their relationship to humans.

  2. Global gene expression in Escherichia coli biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Kjærgaard, K.; Klemm, Per

    2003-01-01

    to antimicrobial treatments and host immune defence responses. Escherichia coli has been used as a model organism to study the mechanisms of growth within adhered communities. In this study, we use DNA microarray technology to examine the global gene expression profile of E. coli during sessile growth compared...

  3. Parts Characterization for Tunable Protein Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Michael Schantz; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander

    2018-01-01

    . Constructing targeted genomic variation around genomically integrated fluorescent marker genes enables rapid elucidation of the contribution of specific sequence variants to protein expression. Such an approach can be used to characterize the impact of modifications to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence...

  4. Molecular characterization and differential expression of two ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cloning. Pooled samples were collected respectively from larvae, pupae, and antennae of adults at different devel- opmental stages in both workers and drones for mRNA expression pattern analysis. RNA isolation and full-length cDNA cloning. Antennae were dissected from 50 workers and immedi- ately frozen in liquid ...

  5. Expression and sequence characterization of growth hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... growth hormone (bGH) which demonstrated active conformation of BbGHBP. These results demonstrate high expression and sequence characterization of BbGHBP in Nili-Ravi buffaloes and provide the basis for the assessment of BbGHBP in other breeds of buffalo. Keywords: Liver, Nili-Ravi buffalo, GHBP, MALDI-TOF ...

  6. Vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF ) receptor expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the seventh-most common malignancy and is the main cause of death in Iraq. The incidence of this cancer has increased sharply after the invasion of Iraq in 2003. Aim: To estimate immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in CRC in relation ...

  7. Theorising creative expression in children's participation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper suggests that phenomenology, the anthropology of the senses and of embodiment, performance theory and multi-modal pedagogies offer a rich set of theoretical ideas with which to consider children's expressive repertoires as overlooked forms of social participation and critique. Four case studies in relation to ...

  8. literacy.ca EXPRESS. April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movement for Canadian Literacy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This issue of "literacy.ca EXPRESS" focuses on poverty. The articles included in this issue are: (1) Poverty Overview; (2) Tony's Story; (3) LAN (Learner Advisory Network) Member's Story (Dianne Smith); (4) Linking Adult Literacy to Poverty Reduction; (5) MCL (Movement for Canadian Literacy) Update; (6) Highlights from the LAN; (7) Good…

  9. Transiently expressed pattern during myogenesis and candidate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KE HE

    a SMARTer RACE 5 and 3 kit, using BM from four-week- old geese as a template. Since gene expression was not abun- dant in adults, we used nested PCR to obtain a distinct product (table 1). Purification and infusion cloning of RACE products were processed with the appending kits in the SMARTer RACE 5 and 3 kit.

  10. On written expression of primary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Normative rules of standard Serbian language are acquired during primary and secondary education through curriculum demands of Serbian language instruction, which takes place in three fields: grammar, orthography and culture of expression. Topic of interest in this paper is the quality of written expression of 6th and 7th grade pupils, in the context of all three fields specified to be mastered by the curriculum of Serbian language. Research comprised 148 primary school pupils from Belgrade. Linguistic analysis of spontaneously created written text was performed, in the conditions where it was not explicitly demanded form the pupil to write correctly. The results indicate that the majority of pupils make spelling and grammatical errors, meeting the condition for the basic level of mastering the knowledge in Serbian language according to the standards specified for the end of compulsory education. In addition to this, a considerable majority of pupils has a satisfactory level of culture of written expression. Pupils more often make spelling than grammatical errors. Seventh grade pupils are better than sixth grade pupils with respect to adhering to grammar rules and according to culture of written expression, while the mark in Serbian language and general school achievement of pupils correlate only with the degree of adhering to the orthographic rules. It was concluded that not only individual programs of support for pupils who make more errors are necessary, but also launching national projects for the development of linguistic competence of the young in Serbia.

  11. Expression and characterization of recombinant human serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... Key words: C-peptide, human serum albumin, recombinant fusion protein, Pichia pastoris, bioactivity, biological half-time. ... lines were purchased from Cell bank of Chinese academy of sciences (Shanghai, China). .... agarose electrophoresis and DNA sequencing (data was not shown). Expression and ...

  12. Identification of differentially expressed sequences in bud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The developmental process of lily flower bud differentiation has been studied in morphology thoroughly, but the mechanism in molecular biology is still ambiguous and few studies on genetic expression have been carried out. Little is known about the physiological responses of flower bud differentiation in Oriental hybrid lily ...

  13. Characterization and expression of Xiphophorus maculatus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    End User

    Real-time RT-PCR was used to quantify Msb069 expression and was conducted in at least in triplicate using Rotor-Gene Q (RGQ Qiagen, Germany). NTCs were included ... sequence against NCBI online database revealed no significant similarities. The other two primer pairs were unable to amplify even after optimization.

  14. Generation of chickens expressing Cre recombinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Philip A; Pedersen, Darlene; Ching, Kathryn; Collarini, Ellen J; Izquierdo, Shelley; Jacob, Roy; van de Lavoir, Marie-Cecile

    2016-10-01

    Cre recombinase has been extensively used for genome engineering in transgenic mice yet its use in other species has been more limited. Here we describe the generation of transgenic chickens expressing Cre recombinase. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive chicken primordial germ cells were stably transfected with β-actin-Cre-recombinase using phiC31 integrase and transgenic chickens were generated. Cre recombinase activity was verified by mating Cre birds to birds carrying a floxed transgene. Floxed sequences were only excised in offspring from roosters that inherited the Cre recombinase but were excised in all offspring from hens carrying the Cre recombinase irrespective of the presence of the Cre transgene. The Cre recombinase transgenic birds were healthy and reproductively normal. The Cre and GFP genes in two of the lines were closely linked whereas the genes segregated independently in a third line. These founders allowed development of GFP-expressing and non-GFP-expressing Cre recombinase lines. These lines of birds create a myriad of opportunities to study developmentally-regulated and tissue-specific expression of transgenes in chickens.

  15. Vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF ) receptor expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avidin-biotin complex method was employed for immunohistochemical detection of VEGF. Results: VEGF immuno-expression was positive in 51.9% of CRC, while it was 18.2% in the normal colonic tissue (p<0.05). VEGF immunostaining was positively correlated with grade of colonic malignancy (p<0.05). Conclusion: ...

  16. Cloning, expression, purification and antigenic evaluation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Streptococcus pyogenes produce an extracellular hyaluronidase which is associated with the spread of the organism during infection. Enzyme hyaluronidase is capable of degrading hyaluronic acid. The aim of the present study was to clone and express antigenic regions of the hylA of S.pyogenes in Escherichia coli.

  17. Nobiletin Inhibits Expression of Inflammatory Mediators and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chondrocytes thereby enhancing the expression and release of NO and PGE2 via up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) [7]. Studies have shown that NO up-regulates the production of MMPs and inflammatory cytokines in OA [8]. Moreover, studies have suggested activated.

  18. Makin' Music: Songs, Rhythm, and Creative Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberstein, Terry

    1996-01-01

    The power of music to create a coherent group is amazing. Music can be used to help focus attention, encourage group unity, involve everyone, and allow creative self-expression. Discusses different song styles, simple rhythm instruments, and song writing. Song-leading tips include song choice, teaching techniques, motions, song sheets, and three…

  19. Expression and characterization of recombinant ecarin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonebring, A.; Lange, U.; Bucha, E.; Deinum, J.; Elg, M.; Lovgren, A.

    2012-01-01

    The snake venom protease ecarin from Echis carinatus was expressed in stable transfected CHO-S cells grown in animal component free cell culture medium. Recombinant ecarin (r-ecarin) was secreted from the suspension adapted Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO-S) host cells as a pro-protein and activation to

  20. Expression and characterization of recombinant human serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C-peptide (CP), connecting the A and B chains in proinsulin, has been considered to possess physiological effects in diabetes. In order to prolong the half-life of CP in vivo, a long acting CP analog [human serum albumin (HSA-CP)] was obtained by direct gene fusion of a single-chain CP to HSA and expressed in host ...

  1. Immunohistochemical expression of latent membrane protein 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded NPC biopsies were evaluated in 23 Moroccan patients for the presence of LMP1 and p53 using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: No LMP1 expression was observed whereas 8 of 23 cases (34. 7%) had detectable p53 protein in the nuclei of tumor cells.

  2. Recognising and Interpreting Named Temporal Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brucato, Matteo; Derczynski, Leon; Llorens, Hectjor

    2013-01-01

    in conventional temporally-annotated corpora – for example Michaelmas or Vasant Panchami. UsingWikipedia and linked data, we automatically construct a resource of English named temporal expressions, and use it to extract training examples from a large corpus. These examples are then used to train and evaluate...

  3. Expression of cocoa butter from cocoa nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Schouten, N.; Hink, R.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of temperature (40–110 °C), applied mechanical pressure (20–80 MPa), applied pressure profile (constant/linearly increasing) and moisture content (0–8 wt.%, wet basis) on the expression of cocoa nibs were investigated. The maximum cocoa butter yield is achieved at 100 °C. The optimum

  4. Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression of Cocoa Nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to investigate the expression of cocoa nibs and a way to optimise the cocoa butter yield (defined as the mass of cocoa butter recovered as a percentage of the total cocoa butter content) obtainable from cocoa nibs without modifying the composition of the cocoa

  5. Robust Feature Detection for Facial Expression Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiros Ioannou

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a robust and adaptable facial feature extraction system used for facial expression recognition in human-computer interaction (HCI environments. Such environments are usually uncontrolled in terms of lighting and color quality, as well as human expressivity and movement; as a result, using a single feature extraction technique may fail in some parts of a video sequence, while performing well in others. The proposed system is based on a multicue feature extraction and fusion technique, which provides MPEG-4-compatible features assorted with a confidence measure. This confidence measure is used to pinpoint cases where detection of individual features may be wrong and reduce their contribution to the training phase or their importance in deducing the observed facial expression, while the fusion process ensures that the final result regarding the features will be based on the extraction technique that performed better given the particular lighting or color conditions. Real data and results are presented, involving both extreme and intermediate expression/emotional states, obtained within the sensitive artificial listener HCI environment that was generated in the framework of related European projects.

  6. Robust Feature Detection for Facial Expression Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannou Spiros

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a robust and adaptable facial feature extraction system used for facial expression recognition in human-computer interaction (HCI environments. Such environments are usually uncontrolled in terms of lighting and color quality, as well as human expressivity and movement; as a result, using a single feature extraction technique may fail in some parts of a video sequence, while performing well in others. The proposed system is based on a multicue feature extraction and fusion technique, which provides MPEG-4-compatible features assorted with a confidence measure. This confidence measure is used to pinpoint cases where detection of individual features may be wrong and reduce their contribution to the training phase or their importance in deducing the observed facial expression, while the fusion process ensures that the final result regarding the features will be based on the extraction technique that performed better given the particular lighting or color conditions. Real data and results are presented, involving both extreme and intermediate expression/emotional states, obtained within the sensitive artificial listener HCI environment that was generated in the framework of related European projects.

  7. Gene Expression in the Human Endolymphatic Sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Kirkeby, Svend; Vikeså, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    a1 sodium-bicarbonate transporter, SLC9a2 sodium-hydrogen transporter, SLC12a3 thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl transporter, and SLC34a2 sodium-phosphate transporter. CONCLUSIONS: Several important ion transporters of the SLC family are expressed in the human endolymphatic sac, including Pendrin...

  8. Endogenous retrovirus sequences expressed in male mammalian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To review the research findings on the expression of endogenous retroviruses and retroviral-related particles in male mammalian reproductive tissues, and to discuss their possible role in normal cellular events and association with disease conditions in male reproductive tissues. Data sources: Published ...

  9. EXPRESSING PROPERTY CONCEPTS IN LETEH (LARTEH)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Your User Name

    The study contributes to the ongoing debate on the typology of ... off debate in the literature include its universality, nature and size (see Backhouse ..... house DEM NEG-big. 'This house is not big.' 4.4 Using the 'have' Verb bò to Express Property Concepts. The second strategy of using verbs to indicate property concepts is ...

  10. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify genes showing differential expression profile associated withgrowth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig. Two subtracted cDNA populations were generated from mus-culus longissimus muscle tissues of selected pigs with extreme expected ...

  11. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and single nucleotide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are providing in depth knowledge in plant biology, breeding and biotechnology. The emergence of many novel molecular marker techniques are changing and accelerating the process of producing mutations in plant molecular biology ...

  12. Expression of Deinococcus geothermalis trehalose synthase gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel trehalose synthase gene from Deinococcus geothermalis (DSMZ 11300) containing 1692 bp reading-frame encoding 564 amino acids was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The gene was ligated into pET30Ek/LIC vector and expressed after isopropyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside induction in ...

  13. Transiently expressed pattern during myogenesis and candidate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    phylogenetic trees), some conservative characteristics (e.g., six transmembrane domains and two E-boxes in the 5 UTR might be the potential ... highest expression levels in stage E15 in LM and E19 in BM, and then dropping transiently in E23 (P < 0.05). ..... maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum par-.

  14. Analysis of musical expression in audio signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Simon

    2003-01-01

    In western art music, composers communicate their work to performers via a standard notation which specificies the musical pitches and relative timings of notes. This notation may also include some higher level information such as variations in the dynamics, tempo and timing. Famous performers are characterised by their expressive interpretation, the ability to convey structural and emotive information within the given framework. The majority of work on audio content analysis focusses on retrieving score-level information; this paper reports on the extraction of parameters describing the performance, a task which requires a much higher degree of accuracy. Two systems are presented: BeatRoot, an off-line beat tracking system which finds the times of musical beats and tracks changes in tempo throughout a performance, and the Performance Worm, a system which provides a real-time visualisation of the two most important expressive dimensions, tempo and dynamics. Both of these systems are being used to process data for a large-scale study of musical expression in classical and romantic piano performance, which uses artificial intelligence (machine learning) techniques to discover fundamental patterns or principles governing expressive performance.

  15. Endogenous retrovirus sequences expressed in male mammalian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data sources: Published findings on endogenous retrovirus (ERV) expression in vertebrate reproductive tissues. Study selection: Relevant citations on ERVs and male reproduction by research groups worldwide. Data extraction: Literature search on Medline and Pubmed upto the year 2000, and retrieval of relevant articles ...

  16. Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression of Cocoa Nibs

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to investigate the expression of cocoa nibs and a way to optimise the cocoa butter yield (defined as the mass of cocoa butter recovered as a percentage of the total cocoa butter content) obtainable from cocoa nibs without modifying the composition of the cocoa butter.

  17. Real-time PCR gene expression profiling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubista, Mikael; Sjögreen, B.; Forootan, A.; Šindelka, Radek; Jonák, Jiří; Andrade, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2007), s. 56-60 ISSN 1360-8606 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500520601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : real - time PCR, * expression profiling * statistical analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  18. Caricature freedom of expression in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renán Vega Cantor

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will present a sample of the way in France, the acclaimed birthplace and home of freedom of expression, censored, persecuted, and even imprisons those who dare to criticize the Israel lobby or their positions are not in tune with the thought “warm” right, the academic and cultural world

  19. Design of lentivirally expressed siRNAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Ying Poi; Berkhout, Ben

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been widely used as a tool for gene knockdown in fundamental research and for the development of new RNA-based therapeutics. The RNAi pathway is typically induced by expression of ∼22 base pair (bp) small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which can be transfected into cells. For

  20. Cytokine gene expression of peripheral blood lymphocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a predominant glycolipid in the outer membranes of gam-negative bacteria that stimulates monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils to produce cytokines. The aim was to study the expression profile of TLRs and cytokines and determine the role of LPS in the peripheral blood lymphocytes.

  1. 4 gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gamalat El Gedawy

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... showed that overexpression of miRNA-21 was associated with advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis in breast cancer, colorectal cancer, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and HCC respectively. Furthermore, they indicated that patients with high miRNA-21 expression had poor prognosis.

  2. Theorising Creative Expression in Children's Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Patricia C.

    2011-01-01

    The paper suggests that phenomenology, the anthropology of the senses and of embodiment, performance theory and multi-modal pedagogies offer a rich set of theoretical ideas with which to consider children's expressive repertoires as overlooked forms of social participation and critique. Four case studies in relation to children's photography,…

  3. Expression and subcellular localization of antiporter regulating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined the expression and subcellular localization of antiporter regulating protein OsARP in a submergence tolerant rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar FR13A. In the public databases, this protein was designated as putative Os02g0465900 protein. The cDNA containing the full-length sequence of OsARP gene was ...

  4. Expression of Malic Enzymes in Sebaceous Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ting-Fu; Gao, Hong-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Malic enzymes (MEs) are involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and lipid accumulation, and their expression in sebocytes and sebaceous lesions has not been investigated. The aims of this study were to examine ME1 and ME2 expression in normal skin and sebaceous lesions. A total of 68 cases including 5 specimens of normal skin, 12 facial lesions showing sebaceous hyperplasia, 18 sebaceous adenomas, 10 sebaceomas, 13 steatocystomas, and 10 sebaceous carcinomas were examined for the expression of ME1 and ME2. All benign and malignant sebaceous lesions showed ME1 in clear cells and ME2 in nonclear cells, respectively. ME1/ME2 phenotype is seen in basal sebocytes, basal keratinocytes, sweat glands, and outer root sheath cells and hence not specific. This study demonstrates that ME1/ME2 expression phenotype may have a potential to be a valuable marker for sebaceous differentiation. It is necessary to perform large-scale studies including skin tumors with a clear cell morphology that may mimic sebaceous differentiation.

  5. Expression of lipogenic enzymes in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebrough, R W; Russell, B A; Poch, S M; Richards, M P

    2007-05-01

    Hubbard x Hubbard chickens (Gallus gallus) growing from 7 to 28 days of age were fed 12 or 30% protein diets and then switched to the diets containing the opposite level of protein. Birds were killed on days 28, 29, 30 and 31. Measurements taken included in vitro lipogenesis (IVL), malic enzyme (ME), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICD) and aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) activities and the expression of the genes for ME, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl coenzyme carboxylase (ACC). Gene expression was determined with a combined RT-PCR using SYBR green as a fluorescent probe monitored in a real time mode. IVL and ME activity were inversely related to dietary protein levels (12 to 30%) and to acute changes in either level. In contrast, both ICD and AAT activities were increased by any increase in dietary protein. Lipogenic gene expression was inversely related to protein level, whether fed on an acute or chronic basis. It appears that real time RT-PCR is an acceptable method of estimating gene expression in birds. In addition, further work will focus on primer sizes that might further optimize RT-PCR as an instrument for studying the regulation of avian lipid metabolism. Results of the present study demonstrate a continued role for protein in the regulation of broiler metabolism. However, it should be pointed out that metabolic regulation at the gene level only occurs when feeding very high levels of dietary protein.

  6. REQUEST FOR EXPRESSIONS OF INTEREST For Background ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    sbickram

    2012-07-10

    Jul 10, 2012 ... Attachment A – Statement of Work. Request for Expressions of Interest (RFEI). 2 the three background studies (one for each hot spot) will help the GARP team prepare for this ambitious undertaking by providing a preliminary assessment of cross-cutting issues affecting each hot spot in the various specified ...

  7. Giant omental lipoblastoma and CD56 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Miyano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of giant omental lipoblastoma in a 13-month-old boy, which was treated successfully by total excision. Tumor cells were positive for S100, CD34 and CD56. This is the first report of lipoblastoma expressing CD56, a fact that could be used to differentiate lipoblastoma from liposarcoma.

  8. FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION IN ETHIOPIA: THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    reasonably be read into these clauses in light of the experience of other jurisdictions and the Ethiopian reality. However, limiting only, speech that could cause ethnic and religious violence does not seem to be reasonable. After all, there are other possible effects of speech that would justify limiting freedom of expression ...

  9. Temporal protein expression pattern in intracellular signalling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-28

    Sep 28, 2015 ... [Ganguli P, Chowdhury S, Bhowmick R and Sarkar RR 2015 Temporal protein expression pattern in intracellular signalling cascade during T-cell activation: A ... cells and tissues by studying different signalling pathways, such as Hedgehog ...... Murray JD 2003 On the mechanochemical theory of biological.

  10. Mastering web application development with Express

    CERN Document Server

    Vlăduțu, Alexandru

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Node.js developer who wants to take your Express skills to the next level and develop high performing, reliable web applications using best practices, this book is ideal for you. The only prerequisite is knowledge of Node.js.

  11. MYC expression correlates with PD-L1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Arum; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Yoon Soo

    2017-08-01

    Objectives Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a widely used biomarker for predicting immune checkpoint inhibitors, but is of limited usefulness in the prediction of drug response. MYC, a transcription factor that is overexpressed in cancers, is involved in preventing immune cells from attacking tumor cells through inducing PD-L1 expression. This study evaluated the relationship between MYC and PD-L1 expression in 84 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who underwent curative surgical resection. Materials and Methods The relationship between MYC and PD-L1 was investigated by introducing pcDNA3-cMYC into A549 and H1299 cells with low PD-L1 expression and siRNA against MYC into H60 and H2009 cells with high PD-L1 expression. Expression of PD-L1 in NSCLC tissues was analyzed by immunostaining using a PD-L1 (22C3) PharmDx protocol using the Dako Automated Link 48 platform and expression of MYC was determined using anti-c-MYC (Y69) (ab320720). Results Of 84 patients, PD-L1 was expressed in 14 (16.7%) and MYC was overexpressed in 30 (35.7%). We investigated the relationship between PD-L1 and MYC expression. There were 49 (58.3%) double-negative patients and 9 (10.7%) double-positive patients. Significant positive correlation was observed between PD-L1 and MYC expression (γ=0.210, P=0.029). Double-negative patients showed better disease free (31.1 vs. 7.1 months, P=0.011) and overall survival (56.1 vs. 14.4 months, P=0.032) than double-positive patients. Conclusion Taken together, MYC expression significantly correlated with PD-L1 expression in NSCLC. The usefulness of MYC expression as a surrogate marker of treatment response assessment is worth evaluating for immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy and special interest are required for the subgroup of NSCLC patients, whose tumor expresses PD-L1 and MYC double positive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Glucose transporter expression in the human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merigo, Flavia; Brandolese, Alessandro; Facchin, Sonia; Missaggia, Silvia; Bernardi, Paolo; Boschi, Federico; D'Incà, Renata; Savarino, Edoardo Vincenzo; Sbarbati, Andrea; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo

    2018-02-21

    To investigate by immunostaining glucose transporter expression in human colorectal mucosa in controls and patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Colorectal samples were obtained from patients undergoing lower endoscopic colonoscopy or recto-sigmoidoscopy. Patients diagnosed with ulcerative colitis ( n = 18) or Crohn's disease ( n = 10) and scheduled for diagnostic colonoscopy were enrolled. Patients who underwent colonoscopy for prevention screening of colorectal cancer or were followed-up after polypectomy or had a history of lower gastrointestinal symptoms were designated as the control group (CTRL, n = 16). Inflammatory status of the mucosa at the sampling site was evaluated histologically and/or endoscopically. A total of 147 biopsies of colorectal mucosa were collected and processed for immunohistochemistry analysis. The expression of GLUT2, SGLT1, and GLUT5 glucose transporters was investigated using immunoperoxidase labeling. To compare immunoreactivity of GLUT5 and LYVE-1, which is a marker for lymphatic vessel endothelium, double-labeled confocal microscopy was used. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that GLUT2, SGLT1, and GLUT5 were expressed only in short epithelial portions of the large intestinal mucosa. No important differences were observed in glucose transporter expression between the samples obtained from the different portions of the colorectal tract and between the different patient groups. Unexpectedly, GLUT5 expression was also identified in vessels, mainly concentrated in specific areas where the vessels were clustered. Immunostaining with LYVE-1 and GLUT5 antibodies revealed that GLUT5-immunoreactive (-IR) clusters of vessels were concentrated in areas internal to those that were LYVE-1 positive. GLUT5 and LYVE-1 did not appear to be colocalized but rather showed a close topographical relationship on the endothelium. Based on their LYVE-1 expression, GLUT5-IR vessels were identified as lymphatic. Both inflamed and non

  13. TrkAIII expression in the thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconelli, Antonella; Farina, Antonietta R; Cappabianca, Lucia; Cea, Gesilia; Panella, Sonia; Chioda, Antonella; Gallo, Rita; Cinque, Benedetta; Sferra, Roberta; Vetuschi, Antonella; Campese, Antonio Francesco; Screpanti, Isabella; Gulino, Alberto; Mackay, Andrew R

    2007-02-01

    The alternative TrkAIII splice variant is expressed by murine and human thymus. Alternative TrkAIII splicing predominates in postembryonic day E13 (E17 and E18), postnatal murine (3 week and 3 month) and human thymuses, with TrkAIII mRNA expressed by selected thymocyte subsets and thymic epithelial cells (TECs) and a 100 kDa immunoprecipitable TrkAIII-like protein detected in purified thymocyte and whole thymus extracts. FACS and immunohistochemical analysis indicate a non-cell surface localisation for the TrkAIII-like protein in cortical CD4+/CD8+ double positive and, to a lesser extent, single positive thymocyte subsets at the cortex/medulla boundary and in Hassle's corpuscles, reticular epithelial and dendritic cells of the thymic medulla. TrkA(I/II) expression, on the other hand, predominates in sub-capsular regions of the thymus. TrkAIII-like immunoreactivity at the cortex/medulla boundary associates with regions of thymocyte proliferation and not apoptosis. A potential role for thymic hypoxia in thymocyte alternative TrkAIII splicing is supported by reversal to TrkAI splicing by normoxic but not hypoxic culture and induction of Jurkat T cell alternative TrkAIII splicing by the hypoxia mimic CoCl2. In contrast, TEC expression of TrkAIII predominates in both normoxic and hypoxic culture conditions. The data support a potential role for TrkAIII in thymic development and function, of particular relevance to intermediate stage CD4+/CD8+ thymocyte subsets and TECs, which potentially reflects a reversible thymocyte and more permanent TEC adaptation to thymic environment. Since intracellular TrkAIII neither binds nor responds to NGF and can impede regular NGF/TrkA signalling (Tacconelli et al., Cancer Cell, 2004), its expression would be expected to provide an alternative and/or impediment to regular NGF/TrkA signalling within the developing and developed thymus of potential functional importance.

  14. Nuclear AXIN2 represses MYC gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennoll, Sherri A.; Konsavage, Wesley M.; Yochum, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •AXIN2 localizes to cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments in colorectal cancer cells. •Nuclear AXIN2 represses the activity of Wnt-responsive luciferase reporters. •β-Catenin bridges AXIN2 to TCF transcription factors. •AXIN2 binds the MYC promoter and represses MYC gene expression. -- Abstract: The β-catenin transcriptional coactivator is the key mediator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt, β-catenin associates with a cytosolic and multi-protein destruction complex where it is phosphorylated and targeted for proteasomal degradation. In the presence of Wnt, the destruction complex is inactivated and β-catenin translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, β-catenin binds T-cell factor (TCF) transcription factors to activate expression of c-MYC (MYC) and Axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2). AXIN2 is a member of the destruction complex and, thus, serves in a negative feedback loop to control Wnt/β-catenin signaling. AXIN2 is also present in the nucleus, but its function within this compartment is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that AXIN2 localizes to the nuclei of epithelial cells within normal and colonic tumor tissues as well as colorectal cancer cell lines. In the nucleus, AXIN2 represses expression of Wnt/β-catenin-responsive luciferase reporters and forms a complex with β-catenin and TCF. We demonstrate that AXIN2 co-occupies β-catenin/TCF complexes at the MYC promoter region. When constitutively localized to the nucleus, AXIN2 alters the chromatin structure at the MYC promoter and directly represses MYC gene expression. These findings suggest that nuclear AXIN2 functions as a rheostat to control MYC expression in response to Wnt/β-catenin signaling

  15. Imaging gene expression in gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, Leonard I.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Gene therapy can be used to introduce new genes, or to supplement the function of indigenous genes. At the present time, however, there is non-invasive test to demonstrate efficacy of the gene transfer and expression processes. It has been postulated that scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the site at which the transferred gene is expressed, and the degree of expression, both of which are critical issue for safety and clinical efficacy. Many current studies are based on 'suicide gene therapy' of cancer. Cells modified to express these genes commit metabolic suicide in the presence of an enzyme encoded by the transferred gene and a specifically-convertible pro drug. Pro drug metabolism can lead to selective metabolic trapping, required for scintigraphy. Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (H S V-1 t k + ) has been use for 'suicide' in vivo tumor gene therapy. It has been proposed that radiolabelled nucleosides can be used as radiopharmaceuticals to detect H S V-1 t k + gene expression where the H S V-1 t k + gene serves a reporter or therapeutic function. Animal gene therapy models have been studied using purine-([ 18 F]F H P G; [ 18 F]-A C V), and pyrimidine- ([ 123 / 131 I]I V R F U; [ 124 / 131I ]) antiviral nucleosides. Principles of gene therapy and gene therapy imaging will be reviewed and experimental data for [ 123 / 131I ]I V R F U imaging with the H S V-1 t k + reporter gene will be presented

  16. Nuclear AXIN2 represses MYC gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennoll, Sherri A.; Konsavage, Wesley M.; Yochum, Gregory S., E-mail: gsy3@psu.edu

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •AXIN2 localizes to cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments in colorectal cancer cells. •Nuclear AXIN2 represses the activity of Wnt-responsive luciferase reporters. •β-Catenin bridges AXIN2 to TCF transcription factors. •AXIN2 binds the MYC promoter and represses MYC gene expression. -- Abstract: The β-catenin transcriptional coactivator is the key mediator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt, β-catenin associates with a cytosolic and multi-protein destruction complex where it is phosphorylated and targeted for proteasomal degradation. In the presence of Wnt, the destruction complex is inactivated and β-catenin translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, β-catenin binds T-cell factor (TCF) transcription factors to activate expression of c-MYC (MYC) and Axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2). AXIN2 is a member of the destruction complex and, thus, serves in a negative feedback loop to control Wnt/β-catenin signaling. AXIN2 is also present in the nucleus, but its function within this compartment is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that AXIN2 localizes to the nuclei of epithelial cells within normal and colonic tumor tissues as well as colorectal cancer cell lines. In the nucleus, AXIN2 represses expression of Wnt/β-catenin-responsive luciferase reporters and forms a complex with β-catenin and TCF. We demonstrate that AXIN2 co-occupies β-catenin/TCF complexes at the MYC promoter region. When constitutively localized to the nucleus, AXIN2 alters the chromatin structure at the MYC promoter and directly represses MYC gene expression. These findings suggest that nuclear AXIN2 functions as a rheostat to control MYC expression in response to Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  17. Rice Expression Database (RED): An integrated RNA-Seq-derived gene expression database for rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lin; Zou, Dong; Sang, Jian; Xu, Xingjian; Yin, Hongyan; Li, Mengwei; Wu, Shuangyang; Hu, Songnian; Hao, Lili; Zhang, Zhang

    2017-05-20

    Rice is one of the most important stable food as well as a monocotyledonous model organism for the plant research community. Here, we present RED (Rice Expression Database; http://expression.ic4r.org), an integrated database of rice gene expression profiles derived entirely from RNA-Seq data. RED features a comprehensive collection of 284 high-quality RNA-Seq experiments, integrates a large number of gene expression profiles and covers a wide range of rice growth stages as well as various treatments. Based on massive expression profiles, RED provides a list of housekeeping and tissue-specific genes and dynamically constructs co-expression networks for gene(s) of interest. Besides, it provides user-friendly web interfaces for querying, browsing and visualizing expression profiles of concerned genes. Together, as a core resource in BIG Data Center, RED bears great utility for characterizing the function of rice genes and better understanding important biological processes and mechanisms underlying complex agronomic traits in rice. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Smac/DIABLO expression in human gastrointestinal carcinoma: Association with clinicopathological parameters and survivin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Michiko; Sangawa, Akiko; Yamao, Naoki; Kamoshida, Shingo

    2014-12-01

    Lack of apoptosis is a key factor in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family. Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases/direct inhibitor of apoptosis-binding protein with low pI (Smac/DIABLO) is an antagonist of IAPs. Recently, Smac/DIABLO was identified as a potent therapeutic target. However, the clinical significance of Smac/DIABLO in gastrointestinal carcinomas remains unclear. In the present study, Smac/DIABLO expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 72 gastric adenocarcinomas and 78 colorectal adenocarcinomas. The expression of Smac/DIABLO was significantly higher in colorectal carcinoma than in gastric carcinoma. Additionally, a correlation was found between the expression of Smac/DIABLO and nuclear survivin in well- to moderately-differentiated colorectal adenocarcinomas (r=0.245; PSmac/DIABLO expression. Our previous studies revealed that the expression of cleaved caspase-9 was significantly lower in colorectal carcinoma than in gastric carcinoma (PSmac/DIABLO expression, are significantly higher in colorectal carcinoma than in gastric carcinoma. We hypothesize that the analysis of Smac/DIABLO, survivin and LC3 expression in colorectal carcinoma is likely to aid cancer therapy due to the involvement of these markers in apoptosis and/or autophagy.

  19. Expression of MIF and CD74 in leukemic cell lines: correlation to DR expression destiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgouli, Mirella; Papadimitriou, Lina; Glymenaki, Maria; Patsaki, Valia; Athanassakis, Irene

    2016-06-01

    Invariant chain (Ii) or CD74 is a non-polymorphic glycoprotein, which apart from its role as a chaperone dedicated to MHCII molecules, is known to be a high-affinity receptor for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). The present study aimed to define the roles of CD74 and MIF in the immune surveillance escape process. Towards this direction, the cell lines HL-60, Raji, K562 and primary pre-B leukemic cells were examined for expression and secretion of MIF. Flow cytometry analysis detected high levels of MIF and intracellular/membrane CD74 expression in all leukemic cells tested, while MIF secretion was shown to be inversely proportional to intracellular HLA-DR (DR) expression. In the MHCII-negative cells, IFN-γ increased MIF expression and induced its secretion in HL-60 and K562 cells, respectively. In K562 cells, CD74 (Iip33Iip35) was shown to co-precipitate with HLA-DOβ (DOβ), inhibiting thus MIF or DR binding. Induced expression of DOα in K562 (DOα-DOβ+) cells in different transfection combinations decreased MIF expression and secretion, while increasing surface DR expression. Thus, MIF could indeed be part of the antigen presentation process.

  20. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu of...