Sample records for supra-subduction zone ophiolites

  1. Fault and fluid systems in supra-subduction zones: The Troodos ophiolite (United States)

    Quandt, Dennis; Micheuz, Peter; Kurz, Walter; Krenn, Kurt


    The Troodos massif on the island of Cyprus represents a well-preserved and complete supra-subduction zone (SSZ) ophiolite. It includes an extrusive sequence that is subdivided into Upper (UPL) and Lower Pillow Lavas (LPL). These volcanic rocks contain mineralized fractures (veins) and vesicles that record fluid availability probably related to slab dehydration and deformation subsequent to a period of subduction initiation in the framework of a SSZ setting. Here, we present electron microprobe element mappings and cathodoluminescence studies of vein minerals as well as analyses of fluid inclusions entrapped in zeolite, calcite and quartz from veins and vesicles of the Pillow Lavas of the Troodos ophiolite. Two different zeolite type assemblages, interpreted as alteration products of compositional varying volcanic glasses, occur: (1) Na-zeolites analcime and natrolite from the UPL that require lower formation temperatures, higher Na/Ca ratios and pH values than (2) Ca-zeolites heulandite and mordenite from the LPL which indicate temporal or spatial varying fluid compositions and conditions. Calcite represents a late stage phase in incompletely sealed blocky type (1) assemblage and in syntaxial quartz veins. Additionally, calcite occurs as major phase in syntaxial and blocky veins of UPL and LPL. These syntaxial quartz and calcite veins are assumed to be related to tectonic extension. Chalcedony is associated with quartz and occurs in typical veins and vesicles of the LPL. In addition, the presence of neptunian dykes in veins suggests that seawater penetrated fractures throughout the extrusive sequence. Thus, circulation in an open system via advective transport is favored while diffusion in a closed system is a subordinate, local and late stage phenomenon. Calcite veins and quartz vesicles contain primary, partly re-equilibrated two phase (liquid, vapor) fluid inclusions. The chemical system of all studied inclusions in both host minerals is restricted to aqueous

  2. Evidence of melting, melt percolation and deformation in a supra-subduction zone (Marum ophiolite complex - Papua New Guinea) (United States)

    Kaczmarek, M. A.; Jonda, L.; Davies, H. L.


    New geochemical and microstructural data from the Marum ophiolite in Papua New Guinea describe a piece of most depleted mantle made essentially of dunite and harzburgite showing compositions of supra-subduction zone (SSZ) peridotite. Strong olivine crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) in dunite and harzburgite inferred the activation of both (001)[100] and (010)[100] slip systems. Clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene CPOs inferred the activation of (100)[001] and (010)[001] slip systems. This plastic deformation is interpreted to have developed at high temperature during the formation of the Marum ophiolite, prior to melt percolation. The orientation of the foliation and olivine [100] slip directions sub-parallel to the subduction zone indicates that mantle flow was parallel to the trench pointing a fast polarization direction parallel to the arc. Marum depleted mantle has been fertilised by diffuse crystallisation of a low proportion of clinopyroxene (1-2%) in the dunite and formation of cm-scale ol-clinopyroxenite and ol-websterite veins cross-cutting the foliation. This percolating melt shows silica-rich magnesian affinities (boninite-like) related to supra-subduction zone in a young fore-arc environment. The peridotite has also been percolated by a melt with more tholeiite affinities precipitating plagioclase-rich wehrlite and thin gabbroic veins; these are interpreted to form after the boninitic event. The small proportion of newly crystallized pyroxene distributed in the dunite shows similar orientation of crystallographic axes to the host dunite (ol parallel to cpx-opx). In contrast, the pyroxenes in ol-clinopyroxenite, ol-websterite and the thin gabbroic veins in the wehrlite, record their own orientation with axes at 45 to 60˚ to olivine axes. For low melt proportion, such as crystallization of pyroxenes in the dunite, the crystallization is governed by epitaxial growth, and when the proportion of melt is higher the newly formed minerals record syn

  3. Post-magmatic structural evolution of the Troodos Ophiolite Pillow Lavas revealed by microthermometry within vein precipitates, with application to Alpine-Mediterranean supra-subduction zone settings (United States)

    Kurz, W.; Quandt, D.; Micheuz, P.; Krenn, K.


    The Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus, is one of the best preserved ophiolites. Based on geochemical data a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) setting was proposed. Microtextures and fluid inclusions of veins and vesicles within the Pillow Lavas record the post-magmatic structural and geochemical evolution of this SSZ beginning at 75 Ma. Three different vein types from the Upper and Lower Pillow Lavas are distinguished and imply vein precipitation under a dominant extensional regime: (1) syntaxial calcite-, quartz- and zeolite-bearing veins are interpreted as mineralized extension fractures that were pervaded by seawater. This advective fluid flow in an open system changed later into a closed system characterized by geochemical self-organization. (2) Blocky and (3) antitaxial fibrous calcite veins are associated with brecciation due to hydrofracturing and diffusion-crystallization processes, respectively. Based on aqueous fluid inclusion chemistry with seawater salinities in all studied vein types, representative fluid inclusion isochores crossed with calculated litho- and hydrostatic pressure conditions yield mineral precipitation temperatures between 180 and 210 °C, for veins and vesicles hosted in the Upper and Lower Pillow Lavas. This points to a heat source for the circulating seawater and implies that vein and vesicle minerals precipitated shortly after pillow lava crystallization under dominant isobaric cooling conditions. Compared to previous suggestions derived from secondary mineralization a less steep geothermal gradient of 200 °C from the Sheeted Dyke Complex to the Pillow Lavas of the Troodos SSZ is proposed. Further fossil and recent SSZ like the Mirdita ophiolite, Albania, the South-Anatolian ophiolites, Turkey, and the Izu-Bonin fore arc, respectively, reveal similar volcanic sequences. Vein samples recovered during International Ocean Discovery Program expedition 351 and 352 in the Izu-Bonin back and fore arc, respectively, indicate also seawater infiltration

  4. Multi-stage origin of the Coast Range ophiolite, California: Implications for the life cycle of supra-subduction zone ophiolites (United States)

    Shervais, J.W.; Kimbrough, D.L.; Renne, P.; Hanan, B.B.; Murchey, B.; Snow, C.A.; Zoglman, Schuman M.M.; Beaman, J.


    The Coast Range ophiolite of California is one of the most extensive ophiolite terranes in North America, extending over 700 km from the northernmost Sacramento Valley to the southern Transverse Ranges in central California. This ophiolite, and other ophiolite remnants with similar mid-Jurassic ages, represent a major but short-lived episode of oceanic crust formation that affected much of western North America. The history of this ophiolite is important for models of the tectonic evolution of western North America during the Mesozoic, and a range of conflicting interpretations have arisen. Current petrologic, geochemical, stratigraphic, and radiometric age data all favor the interpretation that the Coast Range ophiolite formed to a large extent by rapid extension in the forearc region of a nascent subduction zone. Closer inspection of these data, however, along with detailed studies of field relationships at several locales, show that formation of the ophiolite was more complex, and requires several stages of formation. Our work shows that exposures of the Coast Range ophiolite preserve evidence for four stages of magmatic development. The first three stages represent formation of the ophiolite above a nascent subduction zone. Rocks associated with the first stage include ophiolite layered gabbros, a sheeted complex, and volcanic rocks vith arc tholeiitic or (roore rarely) low-K calc-alkaline affinities. The second stage is characterized by intrusive wehrlite-clinopyroxenite complexes, intrusive gabbros, Cr-rich diorites, and volcanic rocks with high-Ca boninitic or tholeiitic ankaramite affinities. The third stage includes diorite and quartz diorite plutons, felsic dike and sill complexes, and calc-alkaline volcanic rocks. The first three stages of ophiolite formation were terminated by the intrusion of mid-ocean ridge basalt dikes, and the eruption of mid-ocean ridge basalt or ocean-island basalt volcanic suites. We interpret this final magmatic event (MORB

  5. Dynamics of intraoceanic subduction initiation : 1. Oceanic detachment fault inversion and the formation of supra-subduction zone ophiolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maffione, Marco; Thieulot, Cedric; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.; Morris, Antony; Plümper, Oliver; Spakman, Wim

    Subduction initiation is a critical link in the plate tectonic cycle. Intraoceanic subduction zones can form along transform faults and fracture zones, but how subduction nucleates parallel to mid-ocean ridges, as in e.g., the Neotethys Ocean during the Jurassic, remains a matter of debate. In

  6. MORB to supra-subduction geochemical transition in the extrusive sequences of major upper Cretaceous ophiolites of Iran (United States)

    Babaie, H. A.; Khalatbari Jafari, M.; Moslempour, M. E.


    We discuss the geochemical patterns and tectonomagmatic setting of the extrusive sequences in the Khoy, Kermanshah, Fannuj, Nosratabad, Dehshir, south and north Fariman, and Sabzevar ophiolite massifs of Iran. These sequences include pillow lava, sheet flow, hyaloclastite, hyaloclastic breccia, and interbeds of chert and pelagic limestone with Late Cretaceous micro fauna. The Khoy, north Fariman, and Sabzevar massifs also include Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene supra-ophiolitic volcanic and volcano-sedimentary rocks that formed in a trough near the extrusive sequence. The Khoy pillow lava displays T-MORB characteristics but no chemical contribution from the components released from the subducted slab. On the other hand, the diabase dikes that cut the Khoy extrusive sequence show signatures of subduction zone magmatism and contribution from the melt released through the partial melting of the subducted slab. While lava in the Harsin (Kermanshah) extrusive sequence in west Iran displays E-MORB and P-MORB characteristics, the pillows in the Fannuj, north Fariman, Dehshir, and Sabzevar extrusive sequences indicate the contribution of both fluids and melt from the subducted slab. The Nosratabad and south Fariman ophiolites also show evidence for either melt or fluids, respectively. Partial melting of the subducted slab sedimentary cover may have formed the acidic pillow lava and sheet flow in the Fannuj and Nosratabad extrusive sequence, respectively. Some pillows in the Nosratabad, Sabzevar, north Fariman, and to a lesser extent, Dehshir extrusive sequence display the OIB geochemical characteristics. Mantle plumes or asthenospheric flow that probably moved up through weak zones of the subducted slab may have affected the partial melting of the mantle wedge above the slab. The combined OIB and supra-subduction characteristics suggest the role of the roll-back of the subducted slab in the magmatism of the northeast Iranian ophiolites. The clear MORB-like geochemical

  7. Timing of pyroxenite formation in supra-subduction Josephine Ophiolite, Oregon. (United States)

    Hough, T.; Le Roux, V.; Kurz, M. D.


    The Josephine ophiolite is a partly dismembered ophiolite located in southern Oregon and northwestern California (USA). It displays a large ( 640 km2) mantle section that is mostly composed of depleted spinel harzburgite and lherzolite re-equilibrated at temperatures of 900 °C. In addition, the peridotite section of the ophiolite contains minor dunites and pyroxenite veins ranging from orthopyroxenites to clinopyroxenites. Using field, petrological and geochemical data, previous studies have shown that the peridotite experienced 10-20% of hydrous flux melting. In addition, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene in harzburgites show variable degrees of light rare-earth element (LREE) enrichment, which suggests percolation and re-equilibration with small fractions of boninite melt. Overall, the trace element concentrations of pyroxenes indicate that the harzburgites experienced particularly high degrees of melting in the mantle wedge. We collected a number of orthopyroxenite and clinopyroxenite veins in the mantle section of the Josephine Ophiolite. Here we present the major and rare-earth element (REE) contents of pyroxene in 4 orthopyroxenites and 2 clinopyroxenites and calculate the major element and REE closure temperatures for individual veins. We show that individual pyroxenites record drastic variations in their degree of REE depletion, indicating that multiple generations of melts percolated the peridotite. The pyroxenite veins also record higher REE closure temperatures (>1200 ºC) compared to the surrounding peridotite, potentially indicating rapid cooling after emplacement. REE closure temperatures are also higher than major element closure temperatures. In parallel, we analyzed Sr isotopes by MC-ICPMS in pyroxene separates from 4 veins. Results indicate that the maximum age of emplacement of orthopyroxenite veins corresponds to the age of exhumation. Some clinopyroxenites may have formed during earlier melt percolation events. This study supports the idea that

  8. Field and geochemical characterisitics of the Mesoarchean (~3075 ma) Ivisaartoq greenstone belt, southern West Greenland: Evidence for seafloor hydrothermal alteration in a supra-subduction oceanic crust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polat, A.; Appel, P.W.U.; Frei, Robert


    The Mesoarchean (ca. 3075 Ma) Ivisaartoq greenstone belt in southern West Greenland includes variably deformed and metamorphosed pillow basalts, ultramafic flows (picrites), serpentinized ultramafic rocks, gabbros, sulphide-rich siliceous layers, and minor siliciclastic sedimentary rocks. Primary...... similarities between the Ivisaartoq greenstone belt and Phanerozoic forearc ophiolites, we suggest that the Ivisaartoq greenstone belt represents Mesoarchean supra-subduction zone oceanic crust....

  9. Supra-subduction zone extensional magmatism in Vermont and adjacent Quebec: Implications for early Paleozoic Appalachian tectonics (United States)

    Kim, J.; Coish, R.; Evans, M.; Dick, G.


    Metadiabasic intrusions of the Mount Norris Intrusive Suite occur in fault-bounded lithotectonic packages containing Stowe, Moretown, and Cram Hill Formation lithologies in the northern Vermont Rowe-Hawley belt, a proposed Ordovician arc-trench gap above an east-dipping subduction zone. Rocks of the Mount Norris Intrusive Suite are characteristically massive and weakly foliated, have chilled margins, contain xenoliths, and have sharp contacts that both crosscut and are parallel to early structural fabrics in the host metasedimentary rocks. Although the mineral assemblage of the Mount Norris Intrusive Suite is albite + actinolite + epidote + chlorite + calcite + quartz, intergrowths of albite + actinolite are probably pseudomorphs after plagioclase + clinopyroxene. The metadiabases are subalkaline, tholeiitic, hypabyssal basalts with preserved ophitic texture. A backarc-basin tectonic setting for the intrusive suite is suggested by its LREE (light rare earth element) enrichment, negative Nb-Ta anomalies, and Ta/Yb vs. Th/Yb trends. Although no direct isotopic age data are available, the intrusions are broadly Ordovician because their contacts are clearly folded by the earliest Acadian (Silurian-Devonian) folds. Field evidence and geochemical data suggest compelling along-strike correlations with the Coburn Hill Volcanics of northern Vermont and the Bolton Igneous Group of southern Quebec. Isotopic and stratigraphic age constraints for the Bolton Igneous Group bracket these backarc magmas to the 477-458 Ma interval. A tectonic model that begins with east-dipping subduction and progresses to outboard west-dipping subduction after a syncollisional polarity reversal best explains the intrusion of deformed metamorphosed metasedimentary rocks by backarc magmas.

  10. Masirah – the other Oman ophiolite: A better analogue for mid-ocean ridge processes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Rollinson


    Full Text Available Oman has two ophiolites – the better known late Cretaceous northern Oman (or Semail ophiolite and the lesser known and smaller, Jurassic Masirah ophiolite located on the eastern coast of the country adjacent to the Indian Ocean. A number of geological, geochronological and geochemical lines of evidence strongly suggest that the northern Oman ophiolite did not form at a mid-ocean ridge but rather in a supra-subduction zone setting by fast spreading during subduction initiation. In contrast the Masirah ophiolite is structurally part of a series of ophiolite nappes which are rooted in the Indian Ocean floor. There are significant geochemical differences between the Masirah and northern Oman ophiolites and none of the supra-subduction features typical of the northern Oman ophiolite are found at Masirah. Geochemically Masirah is MORB, although in detail it contains both enriched and depleted MORB reflecting a complex source for the lavas and dykes. The enrichment of this source predates the formation of the ophiolite. The condensed crustal section on Masirah (ca. 2 km contains a very thin gabbro sequence and is thought to reflect its genesis from a cool mantle source associated with the early stages of sea-floor spreading during the early separation of eastern and western Gondwana. These data suggest that the Masirah ophiolite is a suitable analogue for an ophiolite created at a mid-ocean ridge, whereas the northern Oman ophiolite is not. The stratigraphic history of the Masirah ophiolite shows that it remained a part of the oceanic crust for ca. 80 Ma. The chemical variability and enrichment of the Masirah lavas is similar to that found elsewhere in Indian Ocean basalts and may simply reflect a similar provenance rather than a feature fundamental to the formation of the ophiolite.

  11. Ophiolites of Iran: Keys to understanding the tectonic evolution of SW Asia: (II) Mesozoic ophiolites (United States)

    Moghadam, Hadi Shafaii; Stern, Robert J.


    Iran is a mosaic of continental terranes of Cadomian (520-600 Ma) age, stitched together along sutures decorated by Paleozoic and Mesozoic ophiolites. Here we present the current understanding of the Mesozoic (and rare Cenozoic) ophiolites of Iran for the international geoscientific audience. We summarize field, chemical and geochronological data from the literature and our own unpublished data. Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran are mostly Cretaceous in age and are related to the Neotethys and associated backarc basins on the S flank of Eurasia. These ophiolites can be subdivided into five belts: 1. Late Cretaceous Zagros outer belt ophiolites (ZOB) along the Main Zagros Thrust including Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Maku-Khoy-Salmas ophiolites in NW Iran as well as Kermanshah-Kurdistan, Neyriz and Esfandagheh (Haji Abad) ophiolites, also Late Cretaceous-Eocene ophiolites along the Iraq-Iran border; 2. Late Cretaceous Zagros inner belt ophiolites (ZIB) including Nain, Dehshir, Shahr-e-Babak and Balvard-Baft ophiolites along the southern periphery of the Central Iranian block and bending north into it; 3. Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Sabzevar-Torbat-e-Heydarieh ophiolites of NE Iran; 4. Early to Late Cretaceous Birjand-Nehbandan-Tchehel-Kureh ophiolites in eastern Iran between the Lut and Afghan blocks; and 5. Late Jurassic-Cretaceous Makran ophiolites of SE Iran including Kahnuj ophiolites. Most Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran show supra-subduction zone (SSZ) geochemical signatures, indicating that SW Asia was a site of plate convergence during Late Mesozoic time, but also include a significant proportion showing ocean-island basalt affinities, perhaps indicating the involvement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle.

  12. Strongly foliated garnetiferous amphibolite clasts in ophiolitic melanges, Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone, Tibet; Early Cretaceous disruption of a back-arc basin? (United States)

    Guilmette, C.; Hebert, R.; Wang, C.; Indares, A. D.; Ullrich, T. D.; Dostal, J.; Bedard, E.


    Metre to decameter-size clasts of amphibolite are found embedded in ophiolitic melanges underlying the Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone Ophiolites, South Tibet, China. These ophiolites and melanges occur at the limit between Indian and Tibetan-derived rocks and represent remnants of an Early Cretaceous intraoceanic supra-subduction zone domain, the Neo-Tethys. In the Saga-Dazuka segment (500 km along-strike), we discovered new occurrences of strongly foliated amphibolites found as clasts in the ophiolitic melange. In garnet-free samples, hornblende is green-blue magnesio-hornblende and cpx is low-Al diopside. In garnet- bearing samples, garnet is almandine with a strong pyrope component (up to 30 mol%) whereas coexisting hornblende is brown Ti-rich tschermakite and clinopyroxene is Al-diopside. Plagioclase composition was ubiquitously shifted to albite during a late metasomatic event. Geochemistry of these rocks indicates that their igneous protoliths crystallized from a slightly differentiated tholeiitic basaltic liquid that did not undergo major fractionation. Trace element patterns reveal geochemical characteristics identical to those of the overlying ophiolitic crust. These are 1) trace element abundances similar to that of N-MORBs or BABBs, 2) a slight depletion of LREE and 3) a moderate to strong Ta-Nb negative anomaly and a slight Ti anomaly. Such characteristics suggest genesis over a spreading center close to a subduction zone, possibly a back-arc basin. Step-heating Ar/Ar plateau ages were obtained from hornblende separates. All ages fall in the range of 123-128 Ma, overlapping the crystallization ages from the overlying ophiolite (126-131 Ma). Pseudosections were built with the THERMOCALC software in the system NCFMASH. Results indicate that the observed assemblage Hb+Pl+Gt+Cpx is stable over a wide range of P-T conditions, between 10-18 kbars and at more than 800°C. Measured mineral modes and solid solution compositions were successfully modeled, indicating

  13. Petrology of plagiogranite from Sjenica, Dinaridic Ophiolite Belt (southwestern Serbia) (United States)

    Milovanović, Dragan; Srećković-Batoćanin, Danica; Savić, Marija; Popovic, Dana


    The Sjenica plagiogranite occurs in the southern part of the Dinaridic Ophiolite Belt, 5 km northwest of Sjenica. The main minerals are albite with strongly altered biotite (replaced with chlorite), with occasional amphibole (magnesio hornblende to tschermakite) and quartz. An enclave of fine-grained granitic rocks with garnet grains was noted too. Secondary minerals are calcite and chlorite (daphnite). Major, trace and REE geochemistry coupled with field observations support a model by which the Sjenica plagiogranite could be formed by fractional crystallization of mantle origin mafic magma in a supra-subduction zone setting. Occurrences of calcite and chlorite nests in the Sjenica plagiogranites revealed that these rocks underwent hydrothermal alteration due to intensive sea water circulation in a sub-sea-floor environment.

  14. Strain localization and fluid infiltration in the mantle wedge during subduction initiation: Evidence from the base of the New Caledonia ophiolite (United States)

    Soret, M.; Agard, P.; Dubacq, B.; Vitale-Brovarone, A.; Monié, P.; Chauvet, A.; Whitechurch, H.; Villemant, B.


    Despite decades of petrological and geochemical studies, the nature and setting of obducted ophiolites remain controversial: the influence of supra-subduction zone environments on pre-existing oceanic lithosphere is yet to assess, and the processes leading to subduction/obduction initiation are still poorly constrained. Our study documents successive influx of slab-derived fluids and progressive strain localization within the upper mantle in a supra-subduction environment during the first few My of the subduction history. We focus on strongly sheared mafic amphibolites intruding peridotites near the mantle-crust transition of the New Caledonia obducted ophiolite and 50 to 100 m above the basal thrust contact of the ophiolite. These m- to hm-long and several m-thick shear bands are interpreted as inherited small-scale intrusions of mafic melts, probably dikes or sills, which were derived from a moderately refractory mantle source refertilized by supra-subduction zone fluids. 40Ar/39Ar age constraints on pargasite at ca. 90 Ma suggest that they could be inherited from the former Pacific west-dipping subduction. Secondary deformation of these mafic intrusions is intimately associated to three major stages of fluid infiltration: (1) the first stage of deformation and metasomatism is marked by syn-kinematic growth of Ca-amphibole (at 700-800 °C and 3-5 kbar) with a distinctive supra-subduction zone signature, and controlled later channelization of aqueous fluids. 40Ar/39Ar dating on magnesio-hornblende indicates that this deformation episode occurred at ca. 55 Ma, coincident with east-dipping subduction initiation; (2) the main metasomatic stage, characterized by the development of a phlogopite-rich matrix wrapping peridotites and amphibolite boudins, points to the percolation of alkali-rich aqueous fluids at still high temperature (650-750 °C); (3) the last, low temperature (< 600 °C) metasomatic stage results in the formation of deformed veinlets containing talc

  15. Cambrian ophiolite complexes in the Beishan area, China, southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Shi, Yuruo; Zhang, Wei; Kröner, Alfred; Li, Linlin; Jian, Ping


    We present zircon ages and geochemical data for Cambrian ophiolite complexes exposed in the Beishan area at the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The complexes consist of the Xichangjing-Xiaohuangshan and Hongliuhe-Yushishan ophiolites, which both exhibit complete ophiolite stratigraphy: chert, basalt, sheeted dikes, gabbro, mafic and ultramafic cumulates and serpentinized mantle peridotites. Zircon grains of gabbro samples yielded 206Pb/238U ages of 516 ± 8, 521 ± 4, 528 ± 3 and 535 ± 6 Ma that reflect the timing of gabbro emplacement. The geochemical data of the basaltic rocks show enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements and depletion in the high field strength elements relative to normal mid-oceanic ridge basalt (NMORB) in response to aqueous fluids or melts expelled from the subducting slab. The gabbro samples have higher whole-rock initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios and lower positive εNd(t) values than NMORB. These geochemical signatures resulted from processes or conditions that are unique to subduction zones, and the ophiolites are therefore likely to have formed within a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) environment. We suggest that the Cambrian ophiolite complexes in the Beishan area formed within a SSZ setting, reflecting an early Paleozoic subduction of components of the Paleo-Central Asian Ocean and recording an early Paleozoic southward subduction event in the southern CAOB along the northern margin of the Tarim and North China Cratons.

  16. Geodynamic evolution of the Sabzevar zone, northern central Iranian micro-continent (United States)

    Omrani, Hadi; Moazzen, Mohssen; Oberhänsli, Roland


    The Northern Central Iranian Micro-continent (CIM) represents Neotethys-related oceanic crust remnants, emplaced due to convergence between CIM and Eurasia plates during Eocene. Mafic and ultramafic units are exposed along the northern part of the CIM in the Sabzevar area. The geology and field relation of Sabzevar ophiolite indicate northward subduction of the Sabzevar basin. The average whole rock chemistry of mafic (gabbros) and ultramafic samples (lherzolite, harzburgite and dunite) is characterized by a range of MgO of 11.16-31.88, CaO 5.22-11.53 and Al2O3 2.77-14.57, respectively. Low LREE/HREE ratio of ultramafic samples is accompanied by enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) such as Sr, Pb and K. Mafic samples show two distinct groups with low and high LREE/HREE ratios. The spider diagram of mafic samples indicates enrichment in Sr, Pb and K and depletion in REE. Petrological and geochemical evidence and field relations show that the mafic rocks formed in a supra-subduction zone setting. Petrological studies reveal the role of fractional crystallization and assimilation effect by released fluids during subduction related generation of the Sabzevar mafic rocks. We suggest that the studied mafic rocks likely represent the basement of an initial island arc, which was generated in a supra-subduction zone setting within the Neotethys branch of the Sabzevar Ocean at the north of CIM. Copper, gold and chromite mineralizations are studied in relation to island arc setting and supra-subduction environment. Similarities in lithology, ophiolite age and mineralization between Sabzevar ophiolite and Bardaskan-Torbat Heydariyeh ophiolites testify for their separation due to rotation (or faulting) of the Central Iranian Micro-continent.

  17. High-silica Rocks from Oceans, Arcs and Ophiolites: What Can They Tell Us About Ophiolite Origins? (United States)

    Perfit, M. R.; Lundstrom, C.; Wanless, V. D.


    Although the volumes of high-silica rocks in submarine oceanic and supra-subduction zone environments are not well constrained, their common occurrence, field relations and compositions have led to various hypotheses suggesting that silicic intrusions (plagiogranites) in ophiolites formed by similar processes to high-silica volcanic rocks at mid-ocean ridge (MOR) or island arc environments. Geochemical attributes of andesite-rhyolite suites from MOR (East Pacific Rise, Juan de Fuca Ridge, Galapagos Spreading Center, Pacific-Antarctic Rise) and back-arc basins (Manus Basin, Lau Basin, East Scotia Ridge) show both similarities and differences to plagiogranitic suites (qtz. diorite-tonalite-trondhjemite) from ophiolites (Troodos and Semail). Both suites are commonly attributed to: extreme (>90%) fractional crystallization of basaltic melts; fractional crystallization coupled with assimilation of hydrated oceanic crust (AFC); or partial melting of preexisting crust. Normalized incompatible trace element patterns show either highly elevated, relatively flat patterns with negative Eu and Sr anomalies similar to high silica volcanics or have complimentary patterns with low abundance, more depleted patterns with positive Eu and Sr anomalies. None of the mechanisms, however, provide a consistent explanation for the compositional and isotopic variations that are observed among plagiogranites. In fact, ophiolitic plagiogranites can have at least two petrogenetic signatures - one indicative of a MORB parent and another that has been related to later, off-axis formation associated with supra-subduction zone magmatism. Based on thermal gradient experiments, the systematic changes in Fe and Si stable isotope ratios with differentiation observed in ophiolite and MOR high-silica suites may result from melt-mineral reactions within a temperature gradient near the boundaries of MOR magma lenses. Comparative major element, trace element and isotopic data will be presented from MOR

  18. The recycling of chromitites in ophiolites from southwestern North America (United States)

    González-Jiménez, José M.; Camprubí, Antoni; Colás, Vanessa; Griffin, William L.; Proenza, Joaquín A.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Centeno-García, Elena; García-Casco, Antonio; Belousova, Elena; Talavera, Cristina; Farré-de-Pablo, Júlia; Satsukawa, Takako


    Podiform chromitites occur in mantle peridotites of the Late Triassic Puerto Nuevo Ophiolite, Baja California Sur State, Mexico. These are high-Cr chromitites [Cr# (Cr/Cr + Al atomic ratio = 0.61-0.69)] that contain a range of minor- and trace-elements and show whole-rock enrichment in IPGE (Os, Ir, Ru). That are similar to those of high-Cr ophiolitic chromitites crystallised from melts similar to high-Mg island-arc tholeiites (IAT) and boninites in supra-subduction-zone mantle wedges. Crystallisation of these chromitites from S-undersaturated melts is consistent with the presence of abundant inclusions of platinum-group minerals (PGM) such as laurite (RuS2)-erlichmanite (OsS2), osmium and irarsite (IrAsS) in chromite, that yield TMA ≈ TRD model ages peaking at 325 Ma. Thirty-three xenocrystic zircons recovered from mineral concentrates of these chromitites yield ages (2263 ± 44 Ma to 278 ± 4 Ma) and Hf-O compositions [ɛHf(t) = - 18.7 to + 9.1 and 18O values sea) generated during an extensional stage of the Vizcaino intra-oceanic arc ca. 221 Ma ago. The TRD ages at 325 Ma record a partial melting event in the mantle prior to the construction of the Vizcaino intra-oceanic arc, which is probably related to the Permian continental subduction, dated at 311 Ma.

  19. Chemistry of chromites from Arroio Grande Ophiolite (Dom Feliciano Belt, Brazil) and their possible connection with the Nama Group (Namibia) (United States)

    Ramos, Rodrigo Chaves; Koester, Edinei; Porcher, Carla Cristine


    The present paper shows a mineral chemistry study in chromites found in serpentine-talc schists of the Arroio Grande Ophiolite, located in the southeastern Dom Feliciano Belt, near the Brazil/Uruguay border. Using electron microscope scanning and electron microprobe techniques, this study found a supra-subduction zone signature in the chromites, together with evidence of metasomatism. It corroborates previous hypothesis that suggested a supra-subduction zone origin for the protoliths of the Arroio Grande meta-igneous rocks and a metasomatic origin for the chromite-bearing magnesian schists. The studied chromites present high Cr# (0.65-0.77) and Fe2+# (0.88-0.95), low MgO (0.85-2.47 wt%) and TiO2 (0.01-0.19 wt%) and anomalous high concentration of ZnO (up to 1.97 wt%). The results were compared with chemical data from detrital chromites from the Schwarzrand and Fish River Subgroups of the Nama Group (Namibia), demonstrating that they are compositionally similar with those found in the latter. These chromites, in turn, are believed to have been derived from the oceanic Marmora Terrane (Gariep Belt) in the west (present-day coordinates). Taking into consideration that oceanic metamafites from both the latter and the Arroio Grande Ophiolite share common bulk-rock geochemical features (in this paper interpreted as fragments of the same paleo-ocean floor - the Marmora back-arc basin), it is possible to raise the hypothesis that detrital material derived from the studied ophiolite might also be found in Nama Group. It is reinforced by the fact that sediments (related to the Pelotas-Aiguá Batholith granitoids) derived from the easternmost Dom Feliciano Belt, i.e. the region where Arroio Grande Ophiolite is located, is found in both Schwarzrand and Fish River Subgroups. Thus, we suggest that Arroio Grande Ophiolite detrital sediments might also have contributed to the Nama Basin infilling during Late Ediacaran-Lower Cambrian.

  20. Circum-Pacific accretion of oceanic terranes to continental blocks: accretion of the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite to the E Gondwana continental margin, South Island, New Zealand (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair


    Accretionary orogens, in part, grow as a result of the accretion of oceanic terranes to pre-existing continental blocks, as in the circum-Pacific and central Asian regions. However, the accretionary processes involved remain poorly understood. Here, we consider settings in which oceanic crust formed in a supra-subduction zone setting and later accreted to continental terranes (some, themselves of accretionary origin). Good examples include some Late Cretaceous ophiolites in SE Turkey, the Jurassic Coast Range ophiolite, W USA and the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite of South Island, New Zealand. In the last two cases, the ophiolites are depositionally overlain by coarse clastic sedimentary rocks (e.g. Permian Upukerora Formation of South Island, NZ) that then pass upwards into very thick continental margin fore-arc basin sequences (Great Valley sequence, California; Matai sequence, South Island, NZ). Field observations, together with petrographical and geochemical studies in South Island, NZ, summarised here, provide evidence of terrane accretion processes. In a proposed tectonic model, the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite was created by supra-subduction zone spreading above a W-dipping subduction zone (comparable to the present-day Izu-Bonin arc and fore arc, W Pacific). The SSZ oceanic crust in the New Zealand example is inferred to have included an intra-oceanic magmatic arc, which is no longer exposed (other than within a melange unit in Southland), but which is documented by petrographic and geochemical evidence. An additional subduction zone is likely to have dipped westwards beneath the E Gondwana margin during the Permian. As a result, relatively buoyant Early Permian supra-subduction zone oceanic crust was able to dock with the E Gondwana continental margin, terminating intra-oceanic subduction (although the exact timing is debatable). The amalgamation ('soft collision') was accompanied by crustal extension of the newly accreted oceanic slab, and

  1. Petrogenetic Implications for Ophiolite Ultramafic Bodies from Lokris and Beotia (Central Greece Based on Chemistry of Their Cr-spinels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Pomonis


    Full Text Available Cr-spinels from ultramafic rocks from Lokris (Megaplatanos and Tragana, and Beotia (Ypato and Alyki ophiolitic occurrences were studied. These rocks comprise principally harzburgite with minor dunite. Small amounts of clinopyroxene-rich harzburgite and lherzolite have been observed along with the harzburgite in Alyki. The Cr# in the studied spinels displays a wide variability. The spinels hosted in harzburgite and cpx-rich harzburgite display low Cr# (<0.6, typical for oceanic (including back-arc basins ophiolites, whereas the spinels hosted in dunite with Cr# (>0.6 characterize arc-related ophiolitic sequences. Cr-spinels from Alyki indicate a moderate fertile character and are analogous to those from abyssal peridotites. The dunitic and harzburgitic spinel–olivine pairs are consistent with a Supra-Subduction Zone origin. The relatively large range in spinel Cr# and Mg# may have been resulted from a wide range of degrees of mantle melting during the evolution of the host peridotites.

  2. The Nidar Ophiolite and its surrounding units in the Indus Suture Zone (NW Himalaya, India): new field data and interpretations


    Buchs, N.; Epard, J.-L.; Müntener, O.


    The Nidar Ophiolite is located between the North Himalayan nappes and the Indus Suture Zone in NW Himalaya in eastern Ladakh (India). Based mainly on geochemical argument, this ophiolite is classically interpreted as a relic of an intra-oceanic arc (Mahéo et al. 2000; Mahéo et al. 2004), which developed at around 140 Ma, prior to the collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates (Ahmad et al. 2008). From top to bottom, this ophiolite is composed of various sedimentary rocks (radiolarites, ...

  3. Mineral chemistry and geochemistry of ophiolitic metaultramafics from Um Halham and Fawakhir, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Abdel-Karim, Abdel-Aal M.; Ali, Shehata; El-Shafei, Shaimaa A.


    This study is focused on ophiolitic metaultramafics from Um Halham and Fawakhir, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. The rocks include serpentinized peridotites, serpentinites together with talc- and quartz-carbonates. The primary spinel relict is Al-chromite [Cr# > 60], which is replaced by Cr-magnetite during metamorphism. The high Cr# of Al-chromites resembles supra-subduction zone (SSZ) peridotites and suggests derivation from the deeper portion of the mantle section with boninitic affinity. These mantle rocks equilibrated with boninitic melt have been generated by high melting degrees. The estimated melting degrees ( 19-24%) lie within the range of SSZ peridotites. The high Cr# of spinel and Fo content of olivine together with the narrow compositional range suggest a mantle residual origin. Serpentinized peridotite and serpentinites have low Al2O3/SiO2 ratios (mostly < 0.03) like fore-arc mantle wedge serpentinites and further indicate that their mantle protolith had experienced partial melting before serpentinization process. Moreover, they have very low Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf concentrations along with sub-chondritic Nb/Ta (0.3-16) and Zr/Hf (mostly 1-20) ratios further confirming that their mantle source was depleted by earlier melting extraction event. The high chondrite normalized (La/Sm)N ratios (average 10) reflect input of subduction-related slab melts/fluids into their mantle source.

  4. Length-scales of chemical and isotopic heterogeneity in the mantle section of the Shetland Ophiolite Complex, Scotland (United States)

    O'Driscoll, B.; Walker, R. J.; Clay, P. L.; Day, J. M. D.; Ash, R. D.; Daly, J. S.


    Kilometre to sub-metre scale heterogeneities have been inferred in the oceanic mantle based on sampling of both ophiolites and abyssal peridotites. The ∼492 Ma Shetland Ophiolite Complex (SOC) contains a well-preserved mantle section that is dominated by harzburgite (∼70 vol.%) previously reported to have variable major and trace element compositions, yet dominantly chondritic initial 187Os/188Os compositions. To assess the preservation of compositional heterogeneities at sub-metre length-scales in the oceanic mantle, a ∼45 m2 area of the SOC mantle section was mapped and sampled in detail. Harzburgites, dunites and a pyroxenite from this area were analysed for lithophile and highly-siderophile element (HSE) abundances, as well as for 187Os/188Os ratios. Lithophile element data for most rocks are characteristic of supra-subduction zone (SSZ) metasomatic processes. Two dunites have moderately fractionated HSE patterns and suprachondritic γOs(492 Ma) values (+5.1 and +7.5) that are also typical of ophiolitic dunites generated by SSZ melt-rock interactions. By contrast, six harzburgites and four dunites have approximately chondritic-relative abundances of Os, Ir and Ru, and γOs(492 Ma) values ranging only from -0.6 to +2.7; characteristics that imply no significant influence during SSZ processes. Two harzburgites are also characterised by significantly less radiogenic γOs(492 Ma) values (-3.5 and -4), and yield Mesoproterozoic time of Re depletion (TRD) model ages. The range of Os isotope compositions in the studied area is comparable to the range reported for a suite of samples representative of the entire SOC mantle section, and approaches the total isotopic variation of the oceanic mantle, as observed in abyssal peridotites. Mechanisms by which this heterogeneity can be formed and preserved involve inefficient and temporally distinct melt extraction events and strong localised channelling of these melts.

  5. Implications of Late Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages of granitic intrusions cutting ophiolitic and volcanogenic rocks for the assembly of the Tauride allochthon in SE Anatolia (Helete area, Kahramanmaraş Region, SE Turkey) (United States)

    Nurlu, Nusret; Parlak, Osman; Robertson, Alastair; von Quadt, Albrecht


    An assemblage of NE-SW-trending, imbricate thrust slices (c. 26 km E-W long × 6.3 km N-S) of granitic rocks, basic-felsic volcanogenic rocks (Helete volcanics), ophiolitic rocks (Meydan ophiolite) and melange (Meydan melange) is exposed near the Tauride thrust front in SE Anatolia. The volcanogenic rocks were previously assumed to be Eocene because of associated Nummulitic limestones. However, ion probe U-Pb dating of zircons extracted from the intrusive granitic rocks yielded ages of 92.9 ± 2.2-83.1 ± 1.5 Ma (Cenomanian-Campanian). The Helete volcanic unit and the overlying Meydan ophiolitic rocks both are intruded by granitic rocks of similar age and composition. Structurally underlying ophiolite-related melange includes similar-aged, but fragmented granitic intrusions. Major, trace element and rare earth element analyses coupled with electron microprobe analysis of the granitic rocks show that they are metaluminus to peraluminus and calc-alkaline in composition. A magmatic arc setting is inferred from a combination of tectonomagmatic discrimination, ocean ridge granite-normalized multi-element patterns and biotite geochemistry. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data further suggest that the granitoid rocks were derived from variably mixed mantle and crustal sources. Granitic rocks cutting the intrusive rocks are inferred to have crystallized at ~5-16 km depth. The volcanogenic rocks and granitic rocks originated in a supra-subduction zone setting that was widely developed throughout SE Anatolia. Initial tectonic assembly took place during the Late Cretaceous probably related to northward subduction and accretion beneath the Tauride continent (Keban and Malatya platforms). Initial tectonic assembly was followed by exhumation and then transgression by shelf-depth Nummulitic limestones during Mid-Eocene, as documented in several key outcrops. Final emplacement onto the Arabian continental margin took place during the Early Miocene.

  6. Sub-seafloor epidosite alteration: Timing, depth and stratigraphic distribution in the Semail ophiolite, Oman (United States)

    Gilgen, Samuel A.; Diamond, Larryn W.; Mercolli, Ivan


    Pervasive epidotization of igneous rocks is a common feature in the ophiolite record of hydrothermally altered oceanic crust. Current genetic models view epidosites as markers of focussed upflow of hydrothermal fluid beneath oceanic spreading ridges. The epidosites are envisaged to form at the base of the sheeted dike complex (SDC) during active plate spreading. Our mapping of the Semail ophiolite in Oman has revealed abundant epidosites in the volcanic sequence, some exceeding 1 km2 in extent. They are more frequent and far larger than the mineralogically identical epidosites in the SDC. We have also found epidosites that traverse the entire SDC from bottom to top. Thus, rather than being restricted to the base of the SDC, as implied by current models, epidosites in fact occur throughout the SDC and dominantly within the overlying volcanic pile. We report the occurrence of 19 epidosite bodies and their crosscutting relations with respect to host lava units, dikes, intrusive stocks and also seafloor umbers. The volcanostratigraphic affiliation of the dikes is identified by their whole-rock and clinopyroxene compositions. The relations set constraints on the timing of epidotization with respect to igneous activity in the ophiolite. At least one of the epidosites in the SDC formed during Lasail off-axis volcanism. Another epidosite in the SDC and many in the volcanic units formed later during post-spreading, Alley and Boninitic Alley supra-subduction zone volcanism. Only permissive, not compelling, evidence allows just two of the epidosites to have formed within the main-stage SDC during or shortly after its emplacement. We conclude that epidotization of the oceanic crust is not necessarily coupled to spreading ridges and that it can occur during fore-arc volcanism. This finding is consistent with evidence from the modern seafloor and it requires a different hydrothermal environment to that traditionally associated with alteration beneath spreading axes. The timing

  7. Orogenic, Ophiolitic, and Abyssal Peridotites (United States)

    Bodinier, J.-L.; Godard, M.


    of ophiolites (mid-ocean ridges versus supra-subduction settings - e.g., Nicolas, 1989). In addition, the mantle structures and mineralogical compositions of tectonically emplaced mantle rocks may be obscured by deformation and metamorphic recrystallization during shallow upwelling, exhumation, and tectonic emplacement. Metamorphic processes range from high-temperature recrystallization in the stability field of plagioclase peridotites ( Rampone et al., 1993) to complete serpentinization (e.g., Burkhard and O'Neill, 1988). Some garnet peridotites record even more complex evolutions. They were first buried to, at least, the stability field of garnet peridotites, and, in some cases to greater than 150 km depths ( Dobrzhinetskaya et al., 1996; Green et al., 1997; Liou, 1999). Then, they were exhumed to the surface, dragged by buoyant crustal rocks ( Brueckner and Medaris, 2000).Alternatively, several peridotite massifs are sufficiently well preserved to allow the observation of structural relationships between mantle lithologies that are larger than the sampling scale of mantle xenoliths. It is possible in these massifs to evaluate the scale of mantle heterogeneities and the relative timing of mantle processes such as vein injection, melt-rock reaction, deformation, etc… Detailed studies of orogenic and ophiolitic peridotites on centimeter- to kilometer-scale provide invaluable insights into melt transfer mechanisms, such as melt flow in lithospheric vein conduits and wall-rock reactions (Bodinier et al., 1990), melt extraction from mantle sources via channeled porous flow ( Kelemen et al., 1995) or propagation of kilometer-scale melting fronts associated with thermalerosion of lithospheric mantle ( Lenoir et al., 2001). In contrast, mantle xenoliths may be used to infer either much smaller- or much larger-scale mantle heterogeneities, such as micro-inclusions in minerals ( Schiano and Clocchiatti, 1994) or lateral variations between lithospheric provinces ( O

  8. Ophiolitic Remnants from the Upper and Intermediate Structural Unit of the Attic-Cycladic Crystalline Belt (Aegean, Greece: Fingerprinting Geochemical Affinities of Magmatic Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Stouraiti


    affinities of ocean floor peridotites formed in a supra-subduction zone. The characteristics of harzburgite relicts in Cycladic serpentinites and Skyros indicate a highly residual nature of the mantle source. Geochemical data from this study shed further light on the complex structure of the oceanic lithosphere from which the Cycladic ophiolites originated.

  9. Petrography and mineral chemistry of wehrlites in contact zone of gabbro intrusions and mantle peridotites of the Naein ophiolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ghaseminejad


    , banded meta-chert, and succession of schist and marble (Davoudzadeh, 1972; Jabbari, 1997; Pirnia Naeini, 2006; Torabi, 2012; Shirdashtzadeh, 2006. In this ophiolite, the leucogabbro intrusions crosscut all other rock units. Materials and Methods Mineralogical analyses were conducted by wavelength-dispersive EPMA (JEOL JXA-8800R at the Cooperative Centre of Kanazawa University (Japan. The analyses were performed under an accelerating voltage of 15 kV and a beam current of 15 nA. JEOL software using ZAF corrections was employed for data reduction. Natural and synthetic minerals of known composition are used as standards. The Fe3+ content in minerals was estimated by assuming mineral stoichiometry. Results In the contact zone of leucogabbros and mantle peridotites of the Naein ophiolite, wehrlite and olivine clinopyroxenite are formed. Rock-forming minerals of these wehrlites are olivine (chrysolite, clinopyroxene (diopside, Cr-spinel, serpentine, amphibole (tremolite and tremolitic hornblende, epidote and magnetite. Comparison of mineral chemistry of olivine, clinopyroxene and chromian spinel in wehrlites and mantle peridotites indicate that chemical composition of clinopyroxene and olivine in these rocks are different, but chemistry of Cr-spinels in harzburgite and wehrlite are nearly same. Discussion According to the resistance of Cr-spinel against the metamorphism and alteration, it can be concluded that the wehrlites in contact zone of gabbros and mantle peridotites are formed at the expense of harzburgite. Olivine and clinopyroxene of wehrlites are formed by serpentine metamorphism and interaction of serpentine and calcium of gabbro, respectively. Field study of the research area shows that the leucogabbro intrudes the harzburgite. This research shows that after the serpentinization of mantle harzburgite, the gabbro intrusions crosscut the serpentinized peridotites, and wehrlite and olivine clinopyroxenite formed in the contact zone. Acknowledgements The authors thank

  10. A new method of discriminating different types of post-Archean ophiolitic basalts and their tectonic significance using Th-Nb and Ce-Dy-Yb systematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Saccani


    Full Text Available In this paper, a new discrimination diagram using absolute measures of Th and Nb is applied to post-Archean ophiolites to best discriminate a large number of different ophiolitic basalts. This diagram was obtained using >2000 known ophiolitic basalts and was tested using ∼560 modern rocks from known tectonic settings. Ten different basaltic varieties from worldwide ophiolitic complexes have been examined. They include two basaltic types that have never been considered before, which are: (1 medium-Ti basalts (MTB generated at nascent forearc settings; (2 a type of mid-ocean ridge basalts showing garnet signature (G-MORB that characterizes Alpine-type (i.e., non volcanic rifted margins and ocean-continent transition zones (OCTZ. In the Th-Nb diagram, basalts generated in oceanic subduction-unrelated settings, rifted margins, and OCTZ can be distinguished from subduction-related basalts with a misclassification rate <1%. This diagram highlights the chemical variation of oceanic, rifted margin, and OCTZ basalts from depleted compositions to progressively more enriched compositions reflecting, in turn, the variance of source composition and degree of melting within the MORB-OIB array. It also highlights the chemical contributions of enriched (OIB-type components to mantle sources. Enrichment of Th relative to Nb is particularly effective for highlighting crustal input via subduction or crustal contamination. Basalts formed at continental margin arcs and island arc with a complex polygenetic crust can be distinguished from those generated in intra-oceanic arcs in supra-subduction zones (SSZ with a misclassification rate <1%. Within the SSZ group, two sub-settings can be recognized with a misclassification rate <0.5%. They are: (1 SSZ influenced by chemical contribution from subduction-derived components (forearc and intra-arc sub-settings characterized by island arc tholeiitic (IAT and boninitic basalts; (2 SSZ with no contribution from subduction

  11. Sulfide mineralization in ultramafic rocks of the Faryab ophiolite complex, southern Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Rajabzadeh


    melting of the upper mantle. Sulfide mineralization in the complex is confined to cumulate rocks in northern part of ophiolite column. The mineralization is olivine-rich clinopyroxene and wehrlite. Petrographic investigation of sulfides in host ultramafics indicated two sulfide generations. In the first generation, primary magmatic sulfides occurred as interstitial disseminations, generally as anhedral grains. In the second generation, sulfides formed as veinlets along host rock fractures. The primary sulfides include pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and secondary digenite and pyrite. The primary sulfide content increases with increasing size and amount of clinopyroxene in host rocks. Associated chromian spinels in host ultramafics display disseminated and massive textures. Discussion Generally, mineralization in ophiolites is controlled by two major steps: a partial melting of upper mantle rocks and b crystal fractionation in a magma chamber (Rajabzadeh and Moosavinasab, 2013. The chemical compositions of the analyzed minerals were then used in estimating the conditions in these two steps. The composition of chromian spinel corresponds to chromite of boninitic melts formed in supra-subduction zone environments. Boninitic melts are produced at high degrees of partial melting of mantle peridotites in the presence of water (Edwards et al., 2002. Silicates of the host rocks are mainly clinopyroxene (diopside and augite of the composition Wo47.50 En45.48 Fs3.4, olivine Fo92 and orthopyroxene (enstatite - bronzite of En85 to En88. The main host ultramafic rocks of sulfides are wehrlite and clinopyroxenite, indicating that the sulfide saturation occurred during magmatic evolution of these rocks. This suggests that sulfide mineralization will occur in the northern part the ophiolite. The sulfide grains are anhedral, amoeboidal in shape, and appeared as disseminated interstitial phases, indicating that they were trapped as liquid phases during increase in sulfur fugacity and decrease in

  12. A middle Permian ophiolite fragment in Late Triassic greenschist- to blueschist-facies rocks in NW Turkey: An earlier pulse of suprasubduction-zone ophiolite formation in the Tethyan belt (United States)

    Topuz, Gültekin; Okay, Aral I.; Schwarz, Winfried H.; Sunal, Gürsel; Altherr, Rainer; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.


    The Eastern Mediterranean region within the Tethyan belt is characterised by two main pulses of suprasubduction-zone ophiolite formation during the Early-Middle Jurassic and Late Cretaceous. Despite vast exposures of the Permo-Triassic accretionary complexes, related suprasubduction-zone ophiolites and the timing of subduction initiation leading to the formation of Permo-Triassic accretionary complexes are unknown so far. Here we report on a 40 km long and 0.3 to 1.8 km wide metaophiolite fragment within transitional greenschist- to blueschist-facies oceanic rocks from NW Turkey. The metaophiolite fragment is made up mainly of serpentinite and minor dykes or stocks of strongly sheared metagabbro with mineral assemblages involving actinolite/winchite, chlorite, epidote, albite, titanite and phengite. The metagabbro displays (i) variable CaO and MgO contents, (ii) anomalously high Mg# (= 100 ∗ molar MgO/(MgO + FeOtot)) of 75-88, and (iii) positive Eu anomalies, together with low contents of incompatible elements such as Ti, P and Zr, suggesting derivation from former plagioclase cumulates. The serpentinites comprise serpentine, ± chlorite, ± talc, ± calcite and relict Cr-Al spinel surrounded by ferrichromite to magnetite. Relict Cr-Al spinels are characterised by (i) Cr/(Cr + Al) ratios of 0.45-0.56 and Mg/(Mg + Fe2 +) ratio of 0.76-0.22, (ii) variable contents of ZnO and MnO, and (iii) extremely low TiO2 contents. Zn and Mn contents are probably introduced into Cr-Al spinels during greenschist- to blueschist metamorphism. Compositional features of the serpentinite such as (i) Ca- and Al-depleted bulk compositions, (ii) concave U-shaped, chondrite-normalised rare earth element patterns (REE) with enrichment of light and heavy REEs, imply that serpentinites were probably derived from depleted peridotites which were refertilised by light rare earth element enriched melts in a suprasubduction-zone mantle wedge. U-Pb dating on igneous zircons from three metagabbro

  13. Geotectonic significance of Neoproterozoic amphibolites from the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt: A possible dismembered sub-ophiolitic metamorphic sole (United States)

    Farahat, E. S.


    Supra-subduction zone ophiolites in the Egyptian Central Eastern Desert (CED) occur as clusters in its northern (NCEDO) and southern (SCEDO) parts, displaying abundant island arc-boninitic and MORB/island-arc geochemical affinities, respectively. An amphibolite belt, including the investigated massive to slightly foliated Wadi Um Gheig (WUG) amphibolites, is exposed in the southeast most of the NCEDO thrusting over the El Sibai gneissic association and intruded by late- to post-orogenic granitoids and gabbros. The WUG rocks are metamorphosed under epidote amphibolite to common amphibolite facies. The amphiboles are calcic and represented by actinolitic hornblende to magnesio-hornblende in the epidote amphibolites and magnesio- to ferro-hornblende in the amphibolites. Plagioclase composition varies from pure albite (An3-8) in the epidote amphibolites to andesine and labradorite (An36-65) in the amphibolites. The estimated P-T conditions are in favor of their metamorphism under epidote amphibolite (c. 550-600 °C and 2-3 ± 1.5 kbar) and amphibolite (c. 618-720 °C and 3-6 ± 1.5 kbar) facies. The peak metamorphic conditions point to a burial depth of c.15-20 km. Geochemically, the WUG amphibolites show basaltic to andesitic compositions of tholeiitic affinity. They display LILE-enriched MORB-normalized patterns with negative Nb anomalies characteristic of the subduction-related rocks. However, their chondrite-normalized rare-earth element (REE) patterns vary from LREE-depleted (LaN/YbN = 0.29 to 0.49) to LREE-enriched (LaN/YbN = 2.97 to 3.74). Few samples show major and trace element contents typical of boninitic rocks, including U-shaped REE pattern. On the standard tectonic discrimination diagrams the WUG amphibolites plot mostly in the island-arc fields with some samples of MORB and boninitic affinities. Greenschist facies metamorphosed NCEDO obviously share these geochemical characteristics, implying formation in the same tectonic environment, i.e. forearc basin

  14. Ultramafic lavas and pyroxene-spinifex high-Mg basaltic dykes from the Othris ophiolite complex, Greece (United States)

    Baziotis, Ioannis; Economou-Eliopoulos, Maria; Asimow, Paul


    This study aims to constrain the physico-chemical conditions and processes associated with the origin of ultramafic lavas of the Agrilia formation and high-Mg basaltic dykes in the Pournari area within the Othris ophiolite complex, a supra-subduction zone ophiolite of Mesozoic age (Paraskevopoulos & Economou, 1986; Barth et al., 2008). Hand-sample-scale spinifex texture is lacking from the ultramafic lavas and, despite whole-rock MgO contents greater than 31 wt.%, we infer an upper bound of 17 wt.% MgO for the erupted liquid, and thus identify these lavas as picrites containing accumulated olivine. We use textural and compositional criteria to divide the crystals within the Agrilia lavas between pre-eruptive and post-eruptive growth phases. The high-Mg basaltic dyke margins display a distinctive thin-section-scale micro-spinifex texture of skeletal and plumose Al- and Fe-rich clinopyroxene surrounded by large crystals of orthopyroxene. Normally zoned clinopyroxene in the Agrilia lavas and clinopyroxene of various textures (skeletal, needle- and dendritic-like) and sizes in the Pournari dykes display anomalous enrichment in Al2O3 and FeO* with decreasing MgO that require rapid, disequilibrium growth. Quantitative characteristics of the micro-spinifex pyroxene textures (Elements and related metals are Pd/Ir=11.5-13.0, Cu/Pd=6000-7210, Ti/Pd=22.78-31.97×103 for Agrilia lavas and Pd/Ir=4.5-14.0, Cu/Pd=3140-5550, Ti/Pd=4.66-17.32×103 for Pournari dykes; all are very close to those reported for typical komatiites (Barnes et al., 1988). Despite the absence of true komatiite lavas, a number of geochemical features of the Othris suite, including the PGE contents and ratios and the micro-spinifex, disequilibrium cpx growth, are similar to Mesozoic and Archaean komatiites. References Barnes et al., 1988. Journal of Petrology 29, 305-331. Barth et al., 2008. Lithos, 100(1), 234-254. Faure et al., 2006. Journal of Petrology 47, 1591- 1610. Paraskevopoulos, G., Economou, M

  15. Platinum-Group Minerals and Other Accessory Phases in Chromite Deposits of the Alapaevsk Ophiolite, Central Urals, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Zaccarini


    Full Text Available An electron microprobe study has been carried out on platinum-group minerals, accessory phases, and chromite in several chromite deposits of the Alapaevsk ophiolite (Central Urals, Russia namely the Bakanov Kluch, Kurmanovskoe, Lesnoe, 3-d Podyony Rudnik, Bol’shaya Kruglyshka, and Krest deposits. These deposits occur in partially to totally serpentinized peridotites. The microprobe data shows that the chromite composition varies from Cr-rich to Al-rich. Tiny platinum-group minerals (PGM, 1–10 µm in size, have been found in the chromitites. The most abundant PGM is laurite, accompanied by minor cuproiridsite and alloys in the system Os–Ir–Ru. A small grain (about 20 μm was found in the interstitial serpentine of the Bakanov Kluch chromitite, and its calculated stoichiometry corresponds to (Ni,Fe5P. Olivine, occurring in the silicate matrix or included in fresh chromite, has a mantle-compatible composition in terms of major and minor elements. Several inclusions of amphibole, Na-rich phlogopite, and clinopyroxene have been identified. The bimodal Cr–Al composition of chromite probably corresponds to a vertical distribution in the ophiolite sequence, implying formation of Cr-rich chromitites in the deep mantle, and Al-rich chromitites close to the Moho-transition zone, in a supra-subduction setting. The presence of abundant hydrous silicate inclusions, such as amphibole and phlogopite, suggests that the Alapaevsk chromitites crystallized as a result of the interaction between a melt enriched in fluids and peridotites. Laurite and cuproiridsite are considered to be magmatic in origin, i.e., entrapped as solid phases during the crystallization of chromite at high temperatures. The sulfur fugacity was relatively high to allow the precipitation of Ir-bearing sulfides, but below the Os–OsS2 buffer. The alloys in the system Os–Ir–Ru are classified as secondary PGM, i.e., formed at low temperature during the serpentinization process. The

  16. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of gabbro and plagiogranite intrusions in mantle peridotites of the Myitkyina ophiolite, Myanmar (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Liu, Chuan-Zhou; Chen, Yi; Guo, Shun; Wang, Jian-Gang; Sein, Kyaing


    Centimeter-size intrusions of gabbros and plagiogranites occur in mantle peridotites of the Myitkyina ophiolite, Myanmar. The gabbros mainly consist of plagioclase and clinopyroxene, whereas orthopyroxene occasionally occurs. The plagiogranites are mainly composed of plagioclase, quartz and amphibole, with small amount of accessory minerals, such as zircon, apatite and rutile. Plagioclase in the gabbros varies from andesine to anorthite (An37-91), whereas plagioclase in the plagiogranites is less calcic (An1-40). Clinopyroxene in the gabbros is pervasively altered to hornblende. The gabbros contain 42.97-52.88 wt% SiO2, which show negative correlations with Al2O3, CaO and MgO, but positive correlations with Na2O, P2O5 and TiO2. Microtextural relations reveal the crystallization of clinopyroxene prior to plagioclase in the Myitkyina gabbros. This suggests that the gabbros were crystallized from hydrous melts, which is also supported by the occurrence of orthopyroxene and anorthitic plagioclase in some gabbros. The gabbros have slightly enriched Sr-Nd isotopes, with initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.703938-0.706609 and εNd(t) values of + 2.4-+7.2, and relatively variable Hf isotopes, with εHf(t) values of + 13.4-+24.9. A subduction component is required to explain the decoupled Nd-Hf isotopes of the gabbros. Binary mixing suggests that addition of ca 2% subducted sediments to a depleted mantle can account for the Nd-Hf decoupling. Therefore, both petrological and geochemical data of the gabbros support that the Myitkyina ophiolite was originated in a supra-subduction zone setting. The plagiogranites have compositions of tonalites and trondhjemites, containing 56.93-77.93 wt% SiO2, 1.27-10.79 wt% Na2O and 0.05-0.71 wt% K2O. They are slightly enriched in LREE over HREE and display positive anomalies in Eu, Zr, Hf but negative Nb anomalies. Very low TiO2 contents (0.03-0.2 wt%) of the plagiogranites suggest that they were not products of fractional crystallization of MORB

  17. Compositional Variation of Chrome Spinels in the Ore-bearing Zones of the Kraka Ophiolite and the Chromitite Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Saveliev


    Full Text Available The article considers a chemical variation of accessory and ore-forming chrome spinels from the Kraka ultramafic massif at the different scales, from the deposit to the thin section. A correlation analysis of compositional and structural features of ultramafic rocks and ores was performed. The ultramafic rocks and chromitites in the studied massif show the distinct deformation structures and tectonite olivine fabric. A typical chemical gap (i.e. Cr#=Cr/(Cr+Al was observed between peridotite, on the one hand, and dunite and chromitite, on the other hand, on the scale of deposits and ore-bearing zones. The location and size of this gap depend on the type of deposit. The gap becomes wider from the disseminated tabular bodies to the typical podiform ones. It has been found that in the thin initial dunite veinlets in peridotite the chrome spinels chemistry changes gradually and there is no Cr# gap between peridotite and dunite. The dunite venlets show a strong olivine fabric, which is an evidence of their high-temperature plastic flow origin. It has been revealed that new chrome spinel grains previously formed as rods or needles and then coarsened. We explained this observation as the result of impurity segregation, coalescence and spheroidization induced by the plastic deformation of olivine. It is inferred that a solid crystal flow is the main requirement for the dunite and chromitite body formation in the Kraka ophiolite massif. In the solid stream, the mineral phase separation takes place. For example, olivine and orthopyroxene grains of parental peridotite separate from one another, and weaker (more mobile olivine grains form dunite bodies in which chromitite appears as a result of impurity segregation.

  18. The Eldivan ophiolite and volcanic rocks in the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone, Northern Turkey: Geochronology, whole-rock geochemical and Nd-Sr-Pb isotope characteristics (United States)

    Çelik, Ömer Faruk; Chiaradia, Massimo; Marzoli, Andrea; Billor, Zeki; Marschik, Robert


    Gabbros and dolerite dikes of the Eldivan ophiolite and basaltic volcanic rocks of the ophiolitic mélange in the central part of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan (IAE) suture zone were investigated for their 40Ar/39Ar age and whole-rock-major-trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions. Based on geological and geochemical characteristics basaltic volcanic rocks in the ophiolitic mélange are subdivided into two groups (Groups I and II) with ocean island basalts or enriched mid-ocean ridge basalt characteristics, respectively. Gabbros and dolerite dikes of the Eldivan ophiolite (Groups III and IV) have instead geochemical compositions indicative of a subduction-related environment. The volcanic rocks of Group I have 87Sr/86Sr(i) between 0.7037 and 0.7044, ƐNd(i)-DM of - 4.5 to - 5.6, and 206Pb/204Pb(i) ranging between 18.35 and 18.75. Group II volcanic rocks have higher 87Sr/86Sr(i) values (0.7049-0.7055), ƐNd(i)-DM ranging between - 5.4 and - 6.0, and 206Pb/204Pb(i) between 18.14 and 18.62. The Nd isotopic signatures and 207Pb/204Pb(i) values of the volcanic rocks of both groups point to a different source with respect to those of the Eldivan ophiolite. The low 206Pb/204Pb(i) values relative to the ophiolitic rocks seem to exclude a significant contribution from a HIMU reservoir, whereas the 207Pb/204Pb(i) values slightly above the NHRL might indicate some contribution from an EM2-type reservoir. Gabbros (Group III) of the Eldivan ophiolite and dolerite dikes (Group IV) cross-cutting the ultramafic part of the ophiolite show 87Sr/86Sr(i) between 0.7038 and 0.7053, ƐNd(i)-DM from - 2 to - 3.6 and 206Pb/204Pb(i) between 18.10 and 18.80. The gabbros yield ca. 150 Ma 40Ar/39Ar amphibole-plateau ages, which, together with the geochemical data, indicate that they were produced above subducted oceanic lithosphere in the IAE ocean domain in Late Jurassic times. Therefore, the Eldivan ophiolite in the IAE suture zone constitutes a link between the Hellenide

  19. Geochemistry of subalkaline and alkaline extrusives from the Kermanshah ophiolite, Zagros Suture Zone, Western Iran: implications for Tethyan plate tectonics (United States)

    Ghazi, A. Mohamad; Hassanipak, A. A.


    The Kermanshah ophiolite is a highly dismembered ophiolite complex that is located in western Iran and belongs to the Zagros orogenic system. The igneous rocks of this complex consist of both mantle and crustal suites and include peridotites (dunite and harzburgite), cumulate gabbros, diorites, and a volcanic sequence that exhibits a wide range in composition from subalkaline basalts to alkaline basalts to trachytes. The associated sedimentary rocks include a variety of Upper Triassic to Lower Cretaceous deep- and shallow-water sedimentary rocks (e.g., dolomite, limestone, and pelagic sediments, including umber). Also present are extensive units of radiolarian chert. The geochemical data clearly identifies some of the volcanic rocks to have formed from two distinct types of basaltic melts: (i) those of the subalkaline suite, which formed from an initial melt with a light rare earth elements (LREE) enriched signature and incompatible trace element patterns that suggest an island arc affinity; and (ii) those of the alkaline suite with LREE-enriched signature and incompatible trace element patterns that are virtually identical to typical oceanic island basalt (OIB) pattern. The data also suggests that the trachytes were derived from the alkaline source, with fractionation controlled by extensive removal of plagioclase and to a lesser extent clinopyroxene. The presence of compositionally diverse volcanics together with the occurrence of a variety of Triassic-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks and radiolarian chert indicate that the studied volcanic rocks from the Kermanshah ophiolite represent off-axis volcanic units that were formed in intraplate oceanic island and island arc environments in an oceanic basin. They were located on the eastern and northern flanks of one of the spreading centers of a ridge-transform fault system that connected Troodos to Oman prior to its subduction under the Eurasian plate.

  20. Compositional diversity in peridotites as result of a multi-process history: The Pacific-derived Santa Elena ophiolite, northwest Costa Rica (United States)

    Escuder-Viruete, Javier; Baumgartner, Peter O.; Castillo-Carrión, Mercedes


    The Santa Elena ophiolite (SEO) is an ultramafic nappe of more than 270 km2 overlying a tectonic serpentinite-matrix mélange in northwest Costa Rica. It is mainly composed of Cpx-rich and Cpx-poor harzburgites (~ 2.5 km-thick), with minor lherzolite, dunite and chromitite, as well as intrusive mafic sills and subvertical dikes, which coalesce into an upper Isla Negritos gabbroic sill complex. Minerals and whole-rock features of the Cpx-rich and Cpx-poor harzburgites share features of the abyssal and supra-subduction zone (SSZ) peridotites, respectively. To explain these characteristics two-stages of melting and refertilization processes are required. By means of trace element modeling, the composition of Cpx-rich harzburgites may be reproduced by up to ~ 5-10% melting of a primitive mantle source, and the composition of Cpx-poor harzburgites and dunites by ~ 15-18% melting of an already depleted mantle. Therefore, the Cpx-rich harzburgites can be interpreted as product of first-stage melting and low-degrees of melt-rock interaction in a mid-ocean ridge environment, and the Cpx-poor harzburgites and dunites as the product of second-stage melting and refertilization in a SSZ setting. The mafic sills and the Isla Negrito gabbros are genetically related and can be explained as crystallization from the liquids that were extracted from the lower SSZ mantle levels and emplaced at shallow conditions. The Murciélagos Island basalts are not directly related to the ultramafic and mafic rocks of the SEO. Their E-MORB-like composition is similar to most of the CLIP mafic lavas and suggests a common Caribbean plume-related source. The SEO represents a fragment of Pacific-derived, SSZ oceanic lithosphere emplaced onto the southern North America margin during the late Cretaceous. Because of the predominance of rollback-induced extension during its history, only a limited amount of crustal rocks were formed and preserved in the SEO.

  1. High-Cr and high-Al chromitites from the Sagua de Tánamo district, Mayarí-Cristal ophiolitic massif (eastern Cuba): Constraints on their origin from mineralogy and geochemistry of chromian spinel and platinum-group elements (United States)

    González-Jiménez, J. M.; Proenza, J. A.; Gervilla, F.; Melgarejo, J. C.; Blanco-Moreno, J. A.; Ruiz-Sánchez, R.; Griffin, W. L.


    mining district reflects the temporal and/or spatial variations of separate melt intrusions emplaced in different subarc mantle domains during the opening of a back-arc basin in a supra-subduction zone environment.

  2. Lower Cretaceous Xigaze ophiolites formed in the Gangdese forearc : Evidence from paleomagnetism, sediment provenance, and stratigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Wentao; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Maffione, Marco; Orme, Devon A.; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Guilmette, Carl; Ding, Lin; Guo, Zhaojie; Kapp, Paul


    The India-Asia suture zone of southern Tibet exposes Lower Cretaceous Xigaze ophiolites and radiolarian cherts, and time-equivalent Asian-derived clastic forearc sedimentary rocks (Xigaze Group). These ophiolites have been interpreted to have formed in the forearc of the north-dipping subduction

  3. Complete preservation of ophiolite suite from south Andaman, India ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to the latitude of the Andaman Basin. Keywords. South Andaman; serpentinite; geothermobarometry; zoned plagioclase; idealized ophiolite. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 119, No. 3, June 2010 ... Tectonic elements of Indonesian Arc system and their relation with ... islands form an arcuate chain extending for about. 850km bounded by ...

  4. Tholeitic basalts and ophiolitic complexes of the Mesorif Zone (External Rif, Morocco) at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary and the importance of the Ouerrha Accident in the palaeogeographic and geodynamic evolution of the Rif Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzaggagh, M.


    The stratigraphical series around the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary of the External Rif Mountains, in particular those in the Mesorif Zone, exhibits many outcrops with volcanic materials spread westwards over 200 km. These materials show diverse aspects: basalt lithoclasts reworked into calcareous breccia beds or in marly matrix breccia, interstratified lava flows and volcanoclastic complexes incorporated within the Berriasian marls. In the Central Rif, several magmatic blocks outcrop, usually regarded as granite scales from the Paleozoic basement or as intrusive gabbros of Barremian age. Actually these magmatic massifs display typical ophiolitic sequences and they are overlaid by mega-olistoliths of Jurassic materials and locally by radiolarite layers. Geochemical analysis of several basalt and gabbro samples belonging to the Mesorif Zone evidenced that both display a typical E-MORB magma indicating at least partial oceanization of the Mesorif basement. Concerning geodynamics, the Mesorif Zone had undergone, at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary interval, two successive palaeogeographic phases: an uplift, close to emersion during the Kimmeridgian-Early Tithonian interval, stressed by important submarine volcanic activities and intense brecciation of the carbonate formations, followed by a general collapse at the Late Tithonian, underlined by lava flows, slumping as mega-olistoliths and the formation of an oceanic crust, at least in the Central Rif. These magmatic materials, distributed on both sides of the Ouerrha Valley, evidence that this westwards extending valley (the Nekor Accident), may correspond in the Central Rif, to two palaeo-subduction planes which become two major overlapping thrusts in the western part of the Rif Mountains. (Author)

  5. Testing alternative models of continental collision in Central Turkey by a study of the sedimentology, provenance and tectonic setting of Late Cretaceous–Early Cenozoic syn-tectonic sedimentary basins.


    Nairn, Steven Peter


    In central Anatolia, Turkey, a strand of the former northern Neotethys Ocean subducted northwards under the Eurasian (Pontide) active margin during Late Cretaceous–Early Cenozoic time. Subduction and regional plate convergence were associated with the generation and emplacement of accretionary complexes and supra-subduction zone-type ophiolites onto former passive margins of microcontinents. The resultant suture zones contain Late Cretaceous to Middle Eocene basins (“The Centra...

  6. Remnants of the Rheic SSZ Oceanic Lithosphere (320 Ma) Within the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone in NE Turkey: New Geochemical and Re-Os Isotope Data From the Rehafiye-Erzincan Ophiolite (United States)

    Uysal, Ibrahim; Dilek, Yildirim; Sarifakioglu, Ender; Meisel, Thomas


    We report on new major-trace-REE and Re-Os isotope compositions and mineral chemistry data from upper mantle peridotites and ultramafic-mafic cumulate rocks in the Rehafiye-Erzincan ophiolite (REO) in NE Turkey, and discuss their siginificance for the tectonic evolution of various oceanic tracts in the eastern Mediterranean region. The REO is part of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone (IAESZ) between the Gondwana-derived Tauride-South Armenian ribbon continent to the south and the Rhodope-Pontide micro-continent to the north. It shows bidivergent thrusting along its southern and northern boundaries, resting tectonically on the margins of these continental masses. The IAESZ includes fragments of oceanic lithosphere with WPB, MORB, IAT-Boninite, OIB and LIP affinities that range in age from the Permo-Triassic to the latest Crecateous, although it is commonly interpreted as Neotethyan in origin. The REO consists of upper mantle peridotites including harzburgite with dunite bands/lenses and crosscutting dolerite dikes, ultramafic-mafic cumulate rocks making up a transitional Moho, isotropic gabbro, plagiogranites, and sheeted dikes. Extrusive rocks are missing in the ophiolite sequence but occur as blocks of pillow basalts in an ophiolitic mélange structurally beneath the REO. We have identified two types of upper mantle peridotites, abyssal and SSZ, in the REO. Less depleted, clinopyroxene-rich mantle harzburgites have higher concentrations of Al (1.75-2.12 wt.% Al2O3) and Ca (0.43-1.53 wt.% CaO) and contain spinel phases with Cr# ranging between 33.2 and 37.8. These abyssal peridotites represent a mantle residue of low degrees of partial melting of primitive upper mantle during MOR-type oceanic crust formation. Some peridotite samples, on the other hand, are highly depleted in clinopyroxene and display extremely low contents of Al (0.16-0.89 wt.% Al2O3) and Ca (0.07-0.77 wt.% CaO), characteristic of SSZ peridotites. Spinel phases in these samples have Cr# ranging

  7. Cretaceous radiolarians from Baliojong ophiolite sequence, Sabah, Malaysia (United States)

    Jasin, Basir; Tongkul, Felix


    The Baliojong ophiolite sequence exposed along the Baliojong River in Northern Sabah consists of volcanic rocks, mostly basalts, overlain by sedimentary layers consisting of well-bedded cherts, mudstones and sandstones. The ophiolite sequence occurs as steeply-dipping overturned thrust slices oriented approximately north-south. A total of 42 chert samples were collected from the sedimentary layers. However, most of the samples contain poorly preserved radiolarians. Only nine samples yielded moderately well-preserved radiolarians from three selected thrust slices. A total of 32 taxa were identified. Based on the stratigraphic distribution of selected taxa, the radiolarians can be divided into two assemblage zones. The first assemblage zone is Dictyomitra communis Zone characterized by the occurrence of Dictyomitra communis, Archaeodictyomitra (?) lacrimula, Sethocapsa (?) orca, Dictyomitra pseudoscalaris, and Pantanellium squinaboli. The assemblage indicates Barremian to Aptian in age. The second assemblage zone Pseudodictyomitra pseudomacrocephala Zone contains Pseudodictyomitra pseudomacrocephala, Dictyomitra gracilis, Dictyomitra montesserei, Xitus mclaughlini, and Dictyomitra obesa. This assemblage indicates an age of Albian and the presence of Pseudodictyomitra tiara suggests the age may extend up to Cenomanian. Each thrust slice yielded more or less similar radiolarian assemblages indicating that they all came from the same sedimentary layers.

  8. The Jocotán Ophiolite: A new ophiolite along the Jocotán fault, eastern Guatemala (United States)

    Harlow, G. E.; Flores-Reyes, K.; Sisson, V. B.; Nelson, C.; Cacao, A.


    The North American - Caribbean plate boundary traverses central Guatemala and northern Honduras, dispersed along three left lateral faults systems, which from north to south are the Chixoy-Polochic, the Motagua, and the Jocotán-Camelecón faults, with the Motagua as the present active strand. The Motagua Suture Zone (MSZ), which encompasses this area, consists of multiple paleo-convergent boundaries. It includes slices of ultramafic-mafic complexes including both antigorite (Atg) serpentinite mélanges containing high-pressure / low-temperature (HP/LT) blocks, and lizardite-chrysotile (Lzd-Ctl) serpentinites with associated pillow lavas, radiolarian chert, and marine sediments, typically labeled as ophiolites. Guatemala Suture Zone would be a preferable term to MSZ because the area extends over all three faults, not just the Motagua. The MSZ includes the Sierra de Santa Cruz ophiolite north of the east end of the Polochic fault, the Baja Verapaz ultramafic complex (considered an ophiolite in most of the literature) lies just south of the western portion of the Polochic fault and a series of Atg-serpentinite-dominant mélanges (with HP/LT blocks) that decorate both sides of the Motagua fault. In addition, there is the El Tambor Formation, south of the Motagua fault (but west of the known limit of the Jocotán fault), which contains mafic & sedimentary units and has been called an ophiolite. However, no mafic-ultramafic bodies appear on maps that cover the Jocotán fault in eastern Guatemala. Geologic mapping by one of the co-authors located a small suite of ultramafic rocks sandwiched between the Jocotán and Camotán faults in eastern Guatemala, a short distance from the town of Camotán. Outcrops exposed for 3 km along a road and in a small river consist of sheared Lzd-Ctl serpentinite, metagabbro, overturned altered pillow lavas, listwaenite and rodingite dikes, cherts and pelagic metasediments. These units represent fault slivers subparallel to the steeply

  9. Structural evolution of the Semail Ophiolite metamorphic sole, Wadi Hawasina and Northern Jebel Nakhl Culmination, Oman (United States)

    Hurtado, C.; Bailey, C.; Visokay, L.; Scharf, A.


    The Semail ophiolite is the world's largest and best-exposed ophiolite sequence, however the processes associated with both oceanic detachment and later emplacement onto the Arabian continental margin remain enigmatic. This study examines the upper mantle section of the ophiolite, its associated metamorphic sole, and the autochthonous strata beneath the ophiolite at two locations in northern Oman. Our purpose is to understand the structural history of ophiolite emplacement and evaluate the deformation kinematics of faulted and sheared rocks in the metamorphic sole. At Wadi Hawasina, the base of the ophiolite is defined by a 5- to 15-m thick zone of penetratively-serpentinized mylonitic peridotite. Kinematic indicators record top-to-the SW (reverse) sense-of-shear with a triclinic deformation asymmetry. An inverted metamorphic grade is preserved in the 300- to 500-m thick metamorphic sole that is thrust over deep-water sedimentary rocks of the Hawasina Group. The study site near Buwah, in the northern Jebel Nakhl culmination, contains a N-to-S progression of mantle peridotite, metamorphic sole, and underlying Jurassic carbonates. Liswanite crops out in NW-SE trending linear ridges in the peridotite. The metamorphic sole includes well-foliated quartzite, metachert, and amphibolite. Kinematic evidence indicates that the liswanite and a serpentinized mélange experienced top to-the north (normal) sense-of-shear. Two generations of E-W striking, N-dipping normal faults separate the autochthonous sequence from the metamorphic sole, and also cut out significant sections of the metamorphic sole. Fabric analysis reveals that the metamorphic sole experienced flattening strain (K<0.2) that accumulated during pure shear-dominated general shear (Wk<0.4). Normal faulting and extension at the Buwah site indicates that post-ophiolite deformation is significant in the Jebel Akhdar and Jebel Nakhl culminations.

  10. Geochronological and geochemical constraints on the origin of the Yunzhug ophiolite in the Shiquanhe-Yunzhug-Namu Tso ophiolite belt, Lhasa Terrane, Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Zeng, Yun-Chuan; Xu, Ji-Feng; Chen, Jian-Lin; Wang, Bao-Di; Kang, Zhi-Qiang; Huang, Feng


    The formation of the Shiquanhe-Yunzhug-Namu Tso ophiolite mélange zone (SNMZ) within the Lhasa Terrane, Tibetan Plateau, is key to understanding the Mesozoic tectonic evolution of this terrane, which remains controversial. We show that the Yunzhug ophiolite in the central segment of the SNMZ formed at 150 Ma, based on U-Pb dating of zircons from a gabbroic sample in a well-developed sheeted dike complex. Geochemically, these mafic rocks are dominated by E-MORB-type compositions, along with minor amounts of rocks with P-MORB-type compositions. The samples also exhibit high εNd(t) values and lack negative Nb and Ta anomalies. Data for all the samples plot within the MORB array on a Th/Yb-Nb/Yb diagram. Therefore, these mafic rocks most likely formed in either a slow spreading oceanic setting or an embryonic ocean, and not in a back-arc basin as has been previously assumed. Taking into account the regional geology, we propose that the Yunzhug ophiolite is part of a distinct ophiolitic belt and represents material formed in an embryonic ocean within the Lhasa Terrane, which provides new insights into the Jurassic tectonic evolution of the Lhasa Terrane.

  11. The Tectonic Evolution of Caribbean Ophiolites (United States)

    Draper, G.


    Ophiolitic rocks (associated basalts, gabbros and ultramafic rocks) occur in many areas in the circum-Caribbean and Central America. These ophiolites are derived principally from two oceanic provinces: (1) the Atlantic realm, proto-Caribbean sea that formed when North America separated from South America during the opening of the North Atlantic during Jurassic and Early Cretaceous time. These ophiolites were emplaced during a series of late Cretaceous to early Tertiary arc-continent collisions as the east facing Antilles arc migrated into the Caribbean realm. These occurrences include Guatamala, northern Cuba, northern Hispaniola, and northern Venezuela. (2) the Pacific realm, late Cretaceous Caribbean-Colombian plateau that now occupies the central Caribbean, but outcrops on land in Costa Rica, SW Hispaniola, the Netherlands Antilles and western Colombia. Accretion, emplacement and uplift was aided by their buoyancy and took place at various times during the Caribbean plateau's insertion into the middle American continental gap. A third set of occurrences are more uncertain in origin. The central Hispaniola and SE Puerto Rico ophiolites seem to be Jurassic age oceanic plateau rocks that were emplaced in mid-Cretaceous time during an, subduction polarity reversal episode. The emplacement of the metamorphosed ophiolitic rocks of eastern Jamaica may also be associated with this event, but the adjacent, upper Cretaceous, Bath-Dunrobin complex seems to be more related to the Campanian Yucatan-Antillean arc collision. The ultramafic rocks of Tobago are not oceanic, but represent Alaksan-type, assemblages.

  12. Contact metamorphism by an ophiolite peridotite from neyriz, iran. (United States)

    Hall, R


    Ophiolites are conventionally regarded as fragments of former oceanic lithosphere. Mineralogical and field evidence indicates that peridotite of the Neyriz ophiolite was intruded at high temperature into folded crystalline limestones, forming skarns. This excludes the formation of the ophiolite at a mid-ocean ridge but is consistent with its origin by intrusion during continental rifting.

  13. Kinematics of Late Cretaceous subduction initiation in the Neo-Tethys Ocean reconstructed from ophiolites of Turkey, Cyprus, and Syria (United States)

    Maffione, Marco; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; de Gelder, Giovanni I. N. O.; van der Goes, Freek C.; Morris, Antony


    Formation of new subduction zones represents one of the cornerstones of plate tectonics, yet both the kinematics and geodynamics governing this process remain enigmatic. A major subduction initiation event occurred in the Late Cretaceous, within the Neo-Tethys Ocean between Gondwana and Eurasia. Suprasubduction zone ophiolites (i.e., emerged fragments of ancient oceanic lithosphere formed at suprasubduction spreading centers) were generated during this subduction event and are today distributed in the eastern Mediterranean region along three E-W trending ophiolitic belts. Several models have been proposed to explain the formation of these ophiolites and the evolution of the associated intra-Neo-Tethyan subduction zone. Here we present new paleospreading directions from six Upper Cretaceous ophiolites of Turkey, Cyprus, and Syria, calculated by using new and published paleomagnetic data from sheeted dyke complexes. Our results show that NNE-SSW subduction zones were formed within the Neo-Tethys during the Late Cretaceous, which we propose were part of a major step-shaped subduction system composed of NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE segments. We infer that this subduction system developed within old (Triassic?) lithosphere, along fracture zones and perpendicular weakness zones, since the Neo-Tethyan spreading ridge formed during Gondwana fragmentation would have already been subducted at the Pontides subduction zone by the Late Cretaceous. Our new results provide an alternative kinematic model of Cretaceous Neo-Tethyan subduction initiation and call for future research on the mechanisms of subduction inception within old (and cold) lithosphere and the formation of metamorphic soles below suprasubduction zone ophiolites in the absence of nearby spreading ridges.

  14. Tectonochemistry of the Brooks Range Ophiolite, Alaska (United States)

    Biasi, J.; Asimow, P. D.; Harris, R. A.


    The Brooks Range Ophiolite (BRO), recently estimated to be 1800km2 in area, is the largest ophiolite in the Western Hemisphere. However, due to its remote location, it remains one of the least studied. Mineral exploration and reconnaissance-level mapping of the ophiolite were done in the 1970s and 1980s. Some chemical analyses were also performed, but since that time the BRO has received little attention. Over the subsequent 25+ years, the study of ophiolites has advanced greatly. These early studies found that the BRO lies in the structurally highest position in the Brooks Range, and its obduction probably coincided with the collision between the Koyukuk Arc and the Arctic-Alaska continental margin. It is therefore important to determine the tectonic setting in which the BRO formed if one wants to understand the tectonic history of the Northern Cordillera during the Jurassic/Cretaceous. Here we present new tectonochemistry data from the BRO. This includes whole-rock data (via XRF), trace element data (via XRF and ICP-MS), and mineral chemistries (via Electron Microprobe). Using immobile element fingerprinting, we constrain the tectonic setting in which the BRO formed and how this information ties in with other events in the Northern Cordillera's history. The fingerprinting results are supplemented by Cr-in-spinel data and Al-in-olivine thermometry.

  15. Boron contents and isotope compositions of oceanic crusts from the Oman and Troodos ophiolites (United States)

    Yamaoka, K.; Matsukura, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Kawahata, H.


    Boron is excellent tracer for elucidating crustal recycling in subduction zones because of the high concentration of boron in the upper part of the slab and the high mobility of boron during dehydration of the slab. However, fundamental data for vertical distribution of boron in hydrothermally altered oceanic crust are still limited. In this study, boron contents and isotopic compositions were determined for complete section of the oceanic crusts in the Oman and Troodos ophiolite. Although the boron contents of rocks decreased with depth in both the oceanic crusts, altered rocks from deep section showed obvious boron enrichment relative to fresh rocks. The pillow lavas in the Troodos ophiolite, which have been weathered on the seafloor for ~80 Myrs, was highly enriched in boron (>100 ppm), supporting that boron inventory of pillow lava section strongly depends on the crustal age. The δ11B of rocks in the Oman ophiolite systematically increased with depth and negatively correlate with the δ18O values, suggesting that the δ11B values are essentially controlled by alteration temperature. On the other hand, the δ11B profile in the Troodos ophiolite didn't show clear increase trend. The boron contents for the bulk oceanic crusts of the Oman and Troodos ophiolites are estimated to be 3.6 ppm and 12 ppm, respectively. About 8% of δ11B was estimated for both the bulk oceanic crusts. In contrast to previous views, hydrothermally altered gabbro section can be a large sink of boron. This boron-enriched, high-δ11B lower oceanic crust may impact on the estimate of the δ11B value for fluids librated from the subducted oceanic slab, which is believed to largely control the δ11B values of arc magmas generated in the mantle wedge.

  16. Deformation of the Songshugou ophiolite in the Qinling orogen (United States)

    Sun, Shengsi; Dong, Yunpeng


    The Qinling orogen, middle part of the China Central Orogenic Belt, is well documented that was constructed by multiple convergences and subsequent collisions between the North China and South China Blocks mainly based on geochemistry and geochronology of ophiolites, magmatic rocks as well as sedimentary reconstruction. However, this model is lack of constraints from deformation of subduction/collision. The Songshugou ophiolite outcropped to the north of the Shangdan suture zone represents fragments of oceanic crust and upper mantle. Previous works have revealed that the ophiolite was formed at an ocean ridge and then emplaced in the northern Qinling belt. Hence, deformation of the ophiolite would provide constraints for the rifting and subduction processes. The ophiolite consists chiefly of metamorphosed mafic and ultramafic rocks. The ultramafic rocks contain coarse dunite, dunitic mylonite and harzburgite, with minor diopsidite veins. The mafic rocks are mainly amphibolite, garnet amphibolite and amphibole schist, which are considered to be eclogite facies and retrograde metamorphosed oceanic crust. Amphibole grains in the mafic rocks exhibit a strong shape-preferred orientation parallel to the foliation, which is also parallel to the lithologic contacts between mafic and ultramafic rocks. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analyses show strong olivine crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) in dunite including A-, B-, and C-types formed by (010)[100], (010)[001] and (100)[001] dislocation slip systems, respectively. A-type CPO suggests high temperature plastic deformation in the upper mantle. In comparison, B-type may be restricted to regions with significantly high water content and high differential stress, and C-type may also be formed in wet condition with lower differential stress. Additionally, the dunite evolved into amphibolite facies metamorphism with mineral assemblages of olivine + talc + anthophyllite. Assuming a pressure of 1.5 GPa

  17. Hydrothermally opalized serpentinites in tethyan ophiolite sequence in central Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kureshevicj, Lidija; Vushovicj, Olivera


    Intensely fractured serpentinite protrusions in Vardar tectonic zone of central Serbia are a part of accreted Jurassic Tethys ophiolite sequence. Primary ultramafic rocks presenting remnants of oceanic crust were regionally metamorphosed into serpentinites after middle Jurassic. Tertiary magmatic activity of calc-alkaline character occurred along deep faults marking the zone of closure of Tethys ocean trench. Hydrothermal activity driven by magmatic heat, through fracture and fault zones, has caused opalization of ultramafic host and vein deposition. Results of various examinations of these opalized serpentinite are presented: field examinations, chemical, microscopic, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (X RF) analyses. Opalized serpentinite has been identified as predominating tridimite-cristobalite type opal-CT. Practical significance of these opal-CT occurrences lies in possibility for its use as a gemstone and in prospection of genetically and spatially related hydrothermal deposits (cryptocrystalline magnesite veins and other siliceous gemstone types). Occurrences of opalized serpentinite of this type have been discovered on many locations along Tethys suture zone. (Author)

  18. Mineral chemistry and petrology of highly magnesian ultramafic cumulates from the Sarve-Abad (Sawlava) ophiolites (Kurdistan, NW Iran): New evidence for boninitic magmatism in intra-oceanic fore-arc setting in the Neo-Tethys between Arabia and Iran (United States)

    Allahyari, Khalil; Saccani, Emilio; Rahimzadeh, Bahman; Zeda, Ottavia


    The Sarve-Abad (Sawlava) ophiolitic complex consists of several tectonically dismembered ophiolitic sequences. They are located along the Main Zagros Thrust Zone, which marks the ophiolitic suture between the Arabian and Sanandaj-Sirjan continental blocks. They represent a portion of the southern Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere, which originally existed between the Arabian (to the south) and Eurasian (to the north) continental margins. The Sarve-Abad ophiolites include cumulitic lherzolites bearing minor dunite and chromitite lenses in places. The main rock-forming minerals in ultramafic cumulates are cumulus olivine and inter-cumulus clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. Minor (<5%) chromian spinel occurs as both cumulus and inter-cumulus phases.

  19. Microbial Community Diversity in Fault-Associated and Ophiolite-Hosted Springs (United States)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Cardace, D.; Uzunlar, N.; Gulecal, Y.; Yargicoglu, E. N.; Carbone, J. N.


    Deep biosphere habitats and hydrothermal systems are ideal candidates for analog ecosystems to life on Early Earth and Astrobiological targets. They also likely harbor vast repositories of novel biological and genetic diversity. This study compares the biological and genetic diversity of microbial communities in terrestrial hydrothermal and cool fluid seeps and springs, occuring in both ophiolite-hosted and non-ophiolite sequences. Fluids and solids (biofilms and sediment) with variable fractions of ultramafic-sourced and serpentinizing reaction fluids and mineral fragments were collected from surface seeps and deeply-sourced springs associated with the Northern Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ, Turkey) and the Anita Shear Zone (ASZ, New Zealand). Comparisons are drawn between three regimes: 1) cool fluid systems in ophiolite-hosted sequences in NAFZ vs. ASZ, 2) cool fluid vs. hydrothermal fluid systems in the NAFZ, and 3) hydrothermal systems in NAFZ ophiolite-hosted vs. non-ophiolite sequences. These comparisons help differentiate microbial community structure and metabolic strategies between hydrothermal and serpentinizing input to these ecosystems. The integration of geobiological data from these sites clarifies how microbial systems respond to even subtle shifts in geochemistry of the water-rock system, and our consideration of mafic/ultramafic rocks as habitable formations brings new astrobiological relevance to this work. Microbial communities were examined using a suite of culture-dependant and independent methods, co-registered with a network of geochemical contextual samples. Geochemical datasets allow prediction of available sources of energy in these nutrient-limited ecosystems. Sample locations varied in temperature 30-90C and pH 6.5-9.0 Potential sources of energy and carbon include dissolved organic carbon, CO2, sulfide, sulfate, and ferrous iron, depending on the sample location. Enrichments were obtained using a variety of carbon and energy sources, in

  20. Geophysical Hunt for Chromite in Ophiolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubarik Ali


    Full Text Available Ophiolite of Oman are famous world over, and are favorite for exploring chromite, which is a source of chromium that is used widely in steel, nichrome, and plating and painting industries. The best known chromite deposits are found in the Bushveld complex of South africa, however countries like Pakistan and Oman are also contributing but less than 2% of the world production. Chromite is found in the mantle rocks such as peridotite and its altered products. Large economic deposits are generally found in stratiform structure and the smaller ones in pod-like or tabular lenses. In Oman the chromite deposits occur in Oman ophiolite (Semile, mainly in the mantle sequence comprising harzburgite and dunite. The mining efforts for chromite in Oman are in progress but not on scientific grounds. On a site called Izki (670 m asl the chromite was expected on the top of a hill in a small area (150x50 m of ophiolite, and mining through pitting procedure was tried over there but remained unsuccessful. Geophysical methods were applied in the same area to search out the possibility of the existence of the ore. Since chromite is denser, more conductive and magnetically less susceptible deposit as compared to the host rocks harzburgite and serpentinite, it is expected that the existence of a shallow sizable ore body would generate favorable gravity, magnetic, and resistivity signals. The integrated geophysical study (gravity, magnetic and resistivity reveals the probability of chromite within 30 m depth. For confirmation the drilling was recommended on a point upto a depth of 35 meters. The drilling could not be continued beyond 12 meters depth due to reasons known to the lease owner. The drilling showed harzburgite up to 8 meters depth, then a chromite layer of 0.7 meter thickness, after that harzburgite started for the next 3 meters depth. This state of affairs confirms not only the presence of chromite but also the revealing power of geophysics.

  1. Spatial and temporal relations of the ophiolites and the metamorphic soles along the Tauride belt, Turkey (United States)

    Parlak, Osman; Simsek, Emrah; Ezgi Ozturk, Selena; Simsek, Gokce; Simsek, Tugce; Robertson, Alastair; von Quadt, Albrecht; Köpke, Jürgen; Karaoglan, Fatih


    The Tauride belt ophiolites were generated above an intra-oceanic subduction zone and emplaced in the Late Cretaceous over the Tauride carbonate platform. The Tauride ophiolites are underlain by well-preserved metamorphic soles that have a constant structural position between the ophiolitic mélange, below and harzburgitic mantle tec- tonites, above. The dynamothermal metamorphic soles display a typical inverted metamorphic sequence, grading from amphibolite facies directly beneath the highly sheared harzburgitic tectonite to greenschist facies close to the melange contact. They display variable structural thickness (up to 500 m). The metamorphic soles beneath the Tauride ophiolites are interpreted to relate to the initiation of subduction and emplacement processes. The metamorphic soles are intruded by isolated post-metamorphic diabase dikes, derived from island arc tholeiitic magmas. In some places along the Tauride belt (Koycegiz and Pozanti-Karsanti regions), the contact between the metamorphic sole and the overlying serpentinized harzburgites is characterized by a 1.5-2 m thick zone of sheared serpentinized harzburgitic mantle tectonites, intercalated with amphibolites. These lithologies are cut by thick mafic dikes (7-8 m thick, individually) which postdate intraoceanic metamorphism and high-temperature ductile deformation. This contact is interpreted as an intra-oceanic decoupling surface along which volcanics in the upper levels of the down-going plate were metamorphosed to amphibolite facies and accreted to the base of the hanging wall plate. The geochemistry of the metamorphic sole amphibolites suggests their derivation from different geochemical environments; i.e. seamount-type alkaline basalts, mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) and island arc basalts. Zircon and rutile separates from the crustal rocks (gabbro and diabase) and from the metamorphic soles of the Tauride ophiolites have been dated by U-Pb SIMS (Edinburgh University) and LA-MC-ICP-MS (ETH Zurich

  2. Reduced gas seepages in ophiolitic complexes: Evidences for multiple origins of the H2-CH4-N2 gas mixtures (United States)

    Vacquand, Christèle; Deville, Eric; Beaumont, Valérie; Guyot, François; Sissmann, Olivier; Pillot, Daniel; Arcilla, Carlo; Prinzhofer, Alain


    This paper proposes a comparative study of reduced gas seepages occurring in ultrabasic to basic rocks outcropping in ophiolitic complexes based on the study of seepages from Oman, the Philippines, Turkey and New Caledonia. This study is based on analyses of the gas chemical composition, noble gases contents, stable isotopes of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen. These seepages are mostly made of mixtures of three main components which are H2, CH4 and N2 in various proportions. The relative contents of the three main gas components show 4 distinct types of gas mixtures (H2-rich, N2-rich, N2-H2-CH4 and H2-CH4). These types are interpreted as reflecting different zones of gas generation within or below the ophiolitic complexes. In the H2-rich type, associated noble gases display signatures close to the value of air. In addition to the atmospheric component, mantle and crustal contributions are present in the N2-rich, N2-H2-CH4 and H2-CH4 types. H2-bearing gases are either associated with ultra-basic (pH 10-12) spring waters or they seep directly in fracture systems from the ophiolitic rocks. In ophiolitic contexts, ultrabasic rocks provide an adequate environment with available Fe2+ and alkaline conditions that favor H2 production. CH4 is produced either directly by reaction of dissolved CO2 with basic-ultrabasic rocks during the serpentinization process or in a second step by H2-CO2 interaction. H2 is present in the gas when no more carbon is available in the system to generate CH4. The N2-rich type is notably associated with relatively high contents of crustal 4He and in this gas type N2 is interpreted as issued mainly from sediments located below the ophiolitic units.

  3. Origin of Manipur Ophiolite Complex, Indo-Myanmar Range ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    r b

    Origin of Manipur Ophiolite Complex,. Indo-Myanmar Range, Northeastern. India. 11/20/2017. 1. Rajneesh Bhutani Department of Earth Sciences Pondicherry University,. Puducherry 605014 ...

  4. Mid amphibolite facies metamorphism of harzburgites in the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite, southernmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Valuable information is retrieved from the integrated investigation of the field relationships, microstructure and mineral compositions of harzburgites from the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite. This important tectonic marker of the geological evolution of southernmost Brazilian Shield was thoroughly serpentinized during progressive metamorphism, because the oldest mineral assemblage is: olivine + orthopyroxene + tremolite + chlorite + chromite. This M1 was stabilized in mid amphibolite facies - 550-600ºC as calculated from mineral equilibria. No microstructural (e.g. ductile deformation of olivine or chromite or compositional (e.g. mantle spinel remnant of mantle history was identified. A metamorphic event M2 occurred in the low amphibolite facies along 100 m-wide shear zones, followed by intense serpentinization (M3 and narrow 1-3 m-wide shear zones (M4 containing asbestos.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesnica Garašić


    Full Text Available Mineral relationships and their chemistry were studied in some basic magmatic rocks of Banija ophiolite complex. On the basis of mineral and structural characteristics three kind of rocks are distinguished: metadiabase I (being characterized by secondary amphibole, metadiabase II (being characterized by secondary albite and spilite. Detailed chemistry of all mineral phases, specially of zoned clinopyroxenes and zoned amphiboles is given. The black opaque phases consist of different Fe-Ti-Mn oxides (ilmenite, Mn-ilmenite, magnetite, Ti-magnetite, ferropseudobrookite being often at the rims replaced by Al- and Fe-rich titanite. All rocks are hydrothermally metamorphosed whereby amphibole replaced partly or completely clinopyroxene and plagioclase was altered in albite, prehnite, pumpellyite and/or sericite. Secondary chlorite occurs too. The whole rock chemistry of each studied rock corresponds to tholeiitic basalts.

  6. A Review of Palaeomagnetic Constraints On Tectonic Reconstructions of Neotethys In Eastern Turkey (United States)

    Morris, A.

    Intense debate continues concerning the Mesozoic and Tertiary configuration of con- tinental fragments and intervening ocean basins in the eastern Mediterranean. Key to this debate is the interpretation of several discontinuous lineaments of Late Cre- taceous ophiolites within the Turkish region, which geochemical evidence suggests formed in supra-subduction zone environments. Two types of model exist: Model 1 - each ophiolitic lineament was rooted in a separate Neotethyan ocean basin, with ophiolites being emplaced relatively short distances (10's km) on to the adjacent pas- sive continental margins during progressive African-Eurasian convergence; Model 2 - the ophiolites are remnants of a once continuous thrust sheet which was emplaced for over 400 km southwards from a root zone between the Pontides and the Sakarya microcontinent. A number of geological arguments favour Model 1 over the palaeo- geographically simpler but kinematically more problematic Model 2. An additional, related debate concerns the evolution of the microcontinental fragments which form the footwalls to the ophiolite thrust sheets. These rifted from the Gondwanan margin during the early Mesozoic and were later re-amalgamated as a result of subduction- accretion and collisional processes during convergence. Palaeomagnetism offers an attractive approach to resolving this debate. This prob- lem is, however, at the limit of the palaeolatitudinal resolution of the palaeomagnetic method because of the overall narrowness of the Tethys in this region. Useful data, therefore, must be subject to strict quality control in terms of assessment of palaeo- magnetic stability (e.g. through the application of detailed demagnetisation experi- ments and fold tests), structural corrections and assessment of inherent errors. With these provisos, a number of high-quality, robust palaeomagnetic constraints exist for the Late Cretaceous in this region. In particular, three points can be located with con- fidence at

  7. Suture Dynamics of the Banda Arc Collision Zone: Geochemical and Age Analysis of Ultramafic and Mafic Bodies in Timor, Indonesia (United States)

    Valenza, J. M.; Harris, R. A.; Spencer, C. J.; Hoiland, C. W.; Flores, J. A.


    New age and geochemical data confirm that most ultramafic bodies on the north coast of Timor are derived from the distal reaches of the Australian continental margin lower plate that was exhumed by extension during Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic rifting. The ultramafic bodies were accreted to Timor during Late Miocene to present arc-continent collision. One of the lherzolitic ultramafic bodies near Caicua was previously unknown, but yields clear isotopic indicators that it is kin to the Hili Manu mafic and ultramafic complex further to the west. Zircon grains from metagabbro of the Hili Manu complex have cores with mostly Early Permian ages and rims of Latest Miocene ages. Isotopic analysis indicates abyssal plain, or passive margin affinity of the Caicua ultramafic body. One important exception to this pattern are mafic and ultramafic bodies associated with the Ocussi volcanics, which yield Miocene and Pliocene ages and supra-subduction zone chemical signatures. The Ocussi body is clearly part of the upper plate of the collision and formed after collision initiated further to the east. It is also structurally higher than the Hili Manu complex and has no affinities with the Australian plate. This study documents that both the upper and lower plates of the active arc-continent collision contribute mafic and ultramafic rocks to the evolving suture zone between the Indo-Australian and Asian plates in the Banda Arc region.

  8. Petrography and mineral chemistry of metamorphosed mantle peridotites of Nain Ophiolite (Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargess Shirdashtzadeh


    Full Text Available Introduction Study of the petrology of the ophiolites as the relics of ancient oceanic lithosphere, is a powerful tool to reconstruct Earth’s history. Mantle peridotites have mostly undergone alteration and serpentinization to some extent. Thus, the relics of metamorphic signatures from the upper mantle and crustal processes from most of the peridotites have been ruined. Several recent papers deal with the mantle peridotites of Nain Ophiolite (e.g. Ghazi et al., 2010. However, no scientific work has been carried out on the metamorphosed mantle peridotites. The study area of the Darreh Deh that is located in the east of the Nain Ophiolite, is composed of huge massifs of metamorphosed mantle peridotites (i.e. lherzolite, clinopyroxene-bearing harzburgite, and harzburgite, and small volumes of dunite, characterized by darker color, higher topographic relief, smaller number of basic intrusives, lower serpentinization degree, and amphibolite-facies metamorphism. In this study, the petrography and mineralogy of metamorphosed peridotites in the Darreh Deh has been considered based on geochemical data. Geological Setting The Mesozoic ophiolitic mélange of Nain is located in the west of CEIM, along the Nain-Baft fault. As a part of a metamorphosed oceanic crust, it is mainly composed of harzburgite, lherzolite, dunite and their serpentinized varieties, chromitite, pyroxenite, gabbro, diabasic dike, spilitized pillow lava, plagiogranite, amphibolite, metaperidotites, schist, skarn, marble, rodingite, metachert and listwaenite (Shirdashtzadeh et al., 2010, 2014a, 2014b. Geochemical investigations indicate a suprasubduction zone in the eastern branch of the Neo-Tethys Ocean (Ghasemi and Talbot, 2006; Shirdashtzadeh et al., 2010, 2014a, 2014b. Materials and Methods Chemical analyses of mineral compositions were carried out using a JEOL JXA8800R wavelength-dispersive electron probe micro-analyzer (accelerating voltage of 15 kV and a beam current of 15 n

  9. Microstructural evolution of the mantle lithosphere in the Khoy ophiolites,North West of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahgoshay, M.; Monsef, I.; Shafaii Moghadam, H.; Mohajjel, M.


    Petrofabric, structural and geochemical study of the ultramafic tectonites in the Khoy ophiolitic complex suggest that these tectonites including low-temperature North West-South East shear zones cut the high-temperature to medium-temperature North East-South West mantle flow direction. Microstructures in these tectonites, record a fabric transition from oblate porphyroclastic and oblong porphyroclastic textures (related to the high- and medium-T deformations in mantle sections) to mylonitic textures (with low-T deformation in the shear zones). The study of olivine LPO patterns in high- and medium-T deformation samples of mantle shows slip on the (010) [100] high-temperature-low stress and (0 kl) [100] moderate-temperature systems (up to 1000 d eg ) while olivine LPO patterns in the low-T deformation samples within the shear zones indicate gliding along (001) [100] low-temperature slip system (800-900 d eg ) . Spinels in these peridotites show high variations in Cr number (10 to 90) and Mg number (50 to 90). Cpxs rich in Cr suggest a low degree of partial melting in these peridotites. The very variable composition of the spinels may be the result of partial melting process and recrystallization of these minerals in the mantle lithosphere during the detachment phase and the development of the shear zones

  10. Large scale obduction of preserved oceanic crust: linking the Lesser Caucasus and NE Anatolian ophiolites and implications for the formation of the Lesser Caucasus-Pontides Arc (United States)

    Hassig, Marc; Rolland, Yann; Sosson, Marc; Galoyan, Ghazar; Sahakyan, Lilit; Topuz, Gultelin; Farouk Çelik, Omer; Avagyan, Ara; Muller, Carla


    During the Mesozoic, the Southern margin of the Eurasian continent was involved in the closure of the Paleotethys and opening Neotethys Ocean. Later, from the Jurassic to the Eocene, subductions, obductions, micro-plate accretions, and finally continent-continent collision occurred between Eurasia and Arabia, and resulted in the closure of Neotethys. In the Lesser Caucasus and NE Anatolia three main domains are distinguished from South to North: (1) the South Armenian Block (SAB) and the Tauride-Anatolide Platform (TAP), Gondwanian-derived continental terranes; (2) scattered outcrops of ophiolite bodies, coming up against the Sevan-Akera and Ankara-Erzincan suture zones; and (3) the Eurasian plate, represented by the Eastern Pontides margin and the Somkheto-Karabagh Arc. The slivers of ophiolites are preserved non-metamorphic relics of the now disappeared Northern Neotethys oceanic domain overthrusting onto the continental South Armenian Block (SAB) as well as on the Tauride-Anatolide plateform from the north to the south. It is important to point out that the major part of this oceanic lithosphere disappeared by subduction under the Eurasian Margin to the north. In the Lesser Caucasus, works using geochemical whole-rock analyses, 40Ar/39Ar dating of basalts and gabbro amphiboles and paleontological dating have shown that the obducted oceanic domain originates from a back-arc setting formed throughout Middle Jurassic times. The comprehension of the geodynamic evolution of the Lesser Caucasus supports the presence of two north dipping subduction zones: (1) a subduction under the Eurasian margin and to the south by (2) an intra-oceanic subduction allowing the continental domain to subduct under the oceanic lithosphere, thus leading to ophiolite emplacement. To the West, the NE Anatolian ophiolites have been intensely studied with the aim to characterize the type of oceanic crust which they originated from. Geochemical analyses have shown similar rock types as in

  11. Geochemistry and origin of plagiogranites from the Eldivan Ophiolite, Çankırı (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Üner Tijen


    Full Text Available The Eldivan Ophiolite, exposed around Ankara and Çankırı cities, is located at the central part of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone (IAESZ. It represents fragments of the Neotethyan Oceanic Lithosphere emplaced towards the south over the Gondwanian continent during the Albian time. It forms nearly complete series by including tectonites (harzburgites and rare dunites, cumulates (dunites, wherlites, pyroxenites, gabbro and plagiogranites and sheeted dykes from bottom to top. Imbricated slices of volcanic-sedimentary series and discontinuous tectonic slices of ophiolitic metamorphic rocks are located at the base of tectonites. Plagiogranitic rocks of the Eldivan Ophiolite are mainly exposed at upper levels of cumulates. They are in the form of conformable layers within layered diorites and also dikes with variable thicknesses. Plagiogranites have granular texture and are mainly composed of quartz and plagioclases. The occurrences of chlorite and epidote revealed that these rocks underwent a low grade metamorphism. Eldivan plagiogranites have high SiO2 content (70-75 % and low K2O content (0.5-1 % and display flat patterns of REE with variable negative Eu anomalies. LREE/HREE ratio of these rocks varies between 0.2-0.99. All members of the Eldivan rocks have high LILE/HFSE ratios with depletion of Nb, Ti and P similar to subduction related tectonic settings. Geochemical modelling indicates that the Eldivan plagiogranites could have been generated by 50-90 % fractional crystallization and/or 5-25 % partial melting of a hydrous basaltic magma

  12. Uplifted ophiolitic rocks on Isla Gordon, southernmost Chile: implications for the closure history of the Rocas Verdes marginal basin and the tectonic evolution of the Beagle Channel region (United States)

    Cunningham, W. D.


    A succession of mafic rocks that includes gabbro, sheeted dikes and deformed pillow basalts has been mapped in detail on Isla Gordon, southernmost Chile and is identified as an upper ophiolitic complex representing the uplifted floor of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Rocas Verdes marginal basin. The complex was uplifted, deformed, and regionally metamorphosed prior to the intrusion of an undeformed 90 Ma granodiorite that cuts the complex. The complex appears para-autochthonous, is gently tilted to the northeast and is internally sheared by near-vertical foliation zones. No evidence for obduction was observed although the base of the complex is not exposed. The ophiolitic rocks have been regionally metamorphosed to mid-upper greenschist levels. Isla Gordon is bounded by the northwest and southwest arms of the Beagle Channel, two important structural boundaries in the southernmost Andes that are interpreted to have accommodated north-side-up and left-lateral displacements. Directly north of Isla Gordon is the Cordillera Darwin metamorphic complex that exposes the highest grade metamorphic rocks in the Andes south of Peru. On the north coast of Isla Gordon a volcaniclastic turbidite sequence that is interpreted to have been deposited above the mafic floor is metamorphosed to lower greenschist levels in strong metamorphic contrast to amphibolite-grade othogneisses exposed in Cordillera Darwin only 2 km away across the northwest arm of the Beagle Channel. The profound metamorphic break across the northwest arm of the Beagle Channel and the regional northeast tilt of the ophiolitic complex are consistent with the previously proposed hypothesis that Isla Gordon represents the upper plate to an extensional fault that accommodated tectonic unroofing of Cordillera Darwin. However, limited structural evidence for extension was identified in this study to support the model and further work is needed to determine the relative importance of contractional, extensional and

  13. Geochemistry and tectonic significance of the Gongzhu peridotites in the northern branch of the western Yarlung Zangbo ophiolitic belt, western Tibet (United States)

    Lian, Dongyang; Yang, Jingsui; Liu, Fei; Wu, Weiwei; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Hui; Huang, Jian


    The Gongzhu ophiolite is situated in the northern branch of the western Yarlung Zangbo ophiolitic belt. This massif consists of a strongly dismembered ophiolitic sequence dominated by mantle peridotites. The peridotites comprise lherzolite with low- to moderately-depleted mineral and bulk rock compositions. The degree of partial melting deduced from Cr# values of the Gongzhu peridotites varies between 7% and 10%. The mineral and whole rock compositions of the Gongzhu peridotites are comparable to those of abyssal peridotites. The chondrite normalized REE compositions of the peridotites typically display U-shaped or spoon-shaped patterns, and primitive mantle-normalized PGEs patterns show Ir depletion relative to Os and Ru, and Pt enrichment relative to Rh and Pd. On the basis of the petrological, mineralogical and geochemical data, we concluded that the Gongzhu peridotites either formed in the back-arc setting of an intra-oceanic subduction system or the Gongzhu and Dajiweng peridotites both formed in the in the same incipient forearc/proto-forearc environment of an intra-oceanic subduction zone.

  14. Spring and surface water quality of the Cyprus ophiolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal


    Full Text Available A survey of surface, spring and borehole waters associated with the ophiolite rocks of Cyprus shows five broad water types (1 Mg-HCO3, (2 Na-SO4-Cl-HCO3, (3 Na-Ca-Cl-SO4-OH-CO3, (4 Na-Cl-SO4 and (5 Ca-SO4. The waters represent a progression in chemical reactivity from surface waters that evolve within a groundwater setting due to hydrolysis of the basic/ultrabasic rock as modified by CO2-weathering. An increase in salinity is also observed which is due to mixing with a saline end-member (modified sea-water and dissolution of gypsum/anhydrite. In some cases, the waters have pH values greater than 11. Such high values are associated with low temperature serpentinisation reactions. The system is a net sink for CO2. This feature is related not only to the hydrolysis of the primary minerals in the rock, but also to CaCO3 or Ca-Mg-CO3 solubility controls. Under hyperalkaline conditions, virtually all the carbon dioxide is lost from the water due to the sufficiently high calcium levels and carbonate buffering is then insignificant. Calcium sulphate solubility controls may also be operative when calcium and sulphate concentrations are particularly high. Keywords: Cyprus, Troodos, ophiolite, serpentinisation, spring, stream, water quality, bromide, iodine, boron, trace elements, hyperalkaline.

  15. Mineral textures in Serpentine-hosted Alkaline Springs from the Oman ophiolite (United States)

    Giampouras, Manolis; Garcia-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Bach, Wolfgang; Garrido, Carlos J.; Los, Karin; Fussmann, Dario; Monien, Monien


    Meteoric water infiltration in ultramafic rocks leads to serpentinization and the formation of subaerial, low temperature, hydrothermal alkaline springs. Here, we present a detailed investigation of the mineral precipitation mechanisms and textural features of mineral precipitates, along as the geochemical and hydrological characterization, of two alkaline spring systems in the Semail ophiolite (Nasif and Khafifah sites, Wadi Tayin massif). The main aim of the study is to provide new insights into mineral and textural variations in active, on-land, alkaline vents of the Oman ophiolite. Discharge of circulating fluids forms small-scale, localized hydrological catchments consisting in unevenly interconnected ponds. Three different types of waters can be distinguished within the pond systems: i) Mg-type; alkaline (7.9 11.6), Ca-OH-rich waters; and iii) Mix-type waters arising from the mixing of Mg-type and Ca-type waters (9.6 ponds were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy coupled to dispersive energy spectroscopy (FE-SEM-EDS). Aragonite and calcite are the dominant minerals (95 vol.%) of the total mineralogical index in all sites. Mg-type waters host hydrated magnesium carbonates (nesquehonite) and magnesium hydroxycarbonate hydrates (artinite) due to evaporation. Brucite, hydromagnesite and dypingite presence in Mix-type waters is spatially controlled by the hydrology of the system and is localized around mixing zones between Ca-type with Mg-type waters. Residence time of discharging waters in the ponds before mixing has an impact on fluid chemistry as it influences the equilibration time with the atmosphere. Acicular aragonite is the main textural type in hyper-alkaline Ca-type waters, acting as a substratum for the growth of calcite and brucite crystals. Low crystallinity, dumbbell shaped and double pyramid aragonite dominates in Mix-type water precipitates. Rate of supersaturation is essential

  16. Protrusive intrusion, dehydration and polymorphism in minerals as possible reason of seismic activity, relation between ophiolite belts and seismic zonation of the territory of Armenia (United States)

    Harutyunyan, A. V.; Petrosyan, H. M.


    seismic zonation, location of the ophiolite belts and petrophisical section three-dimensional model of the Earth crust has been created. The full coincidence of both most seismic hazardous zones (M= 7.0-7,5) and both ophiolite belts with deep faults is noted. Comparing the results of research at high temperatures and pressures, and seismological data may somewhat highlight the formation of earthquake sources at deep horizons of the crust in the territory of Armenia. In ophiolite belts the earthquake sources up to depth of 35km (roof of serpentizied layer) may be caused by permanent protrusive intrusion of serpentized masses and their dehydration. In other regions of Armenia especially in the central flexur the earthquake sources located at the depth of 10-20km may be triggered by polymorphous transformations in minerals. Therefore, there is the possibility of earthquake source physics definition which understanding may allow to bring nearer the solution of earthquake prediction problem.

  17. Metamorphic evolution of metadolerites from the Frido Unit ophiolites (Southern Apennine-Italy) (United States)

    Cristi Sansone, Maria T.; Prosser, Giacomo; Rizzo, Giovanna; Tartarotti, Paola


    The Southern Apennines chain is a fold-and-thrust belt resulting from the convergence of the African and European plates and simultaneous roll-back of SE-directed Ionian subduction (Upper Oligocene-Quaternary). Ophiolites in the Southern Apennines are related to northwest subduction of the oceanic lithosphere pertaining to the Ligurian sector of the Jurassic western Tethys. The ophiolitic sequences are enclosed within remnants of the Liguride accretionary wedge now incorporated in the Southern Apennine chain and they crop out in the north-eastern slope of the Pollino Ridge (Calabria-Lucania border zone). Mafic and ultramafic rocks, with garnet-bearing felses, amphibolites, gneiss and granitoides occur as tectonic slices within a matrix mainly composed of calcschists and phyllites. Metadolerites occur as dikes cutting through serpentinized peridotites. Metadolerites have different kinds of texture reflecting various degree of crystallinity and strain: porphyritic or aphyric, intersertal/intergranular, blastophitic, cataclastic to mylonitic. In all metadolerites primary plagioclase and clinopyroxene can be observed. The metamorphic mineral assemblage consists of brown amphibole, green amphibole, chlorite, blue amphibole, pumpellyite, prehnite, quartz, epidote, white mica, lawsonite and plagioclase (Pl2 and Pl3). Accessory phases are opaque minerals, Fe-hydroxides and zircon. Metadolerites are cross- cut by veins filled with pumpellyite, chlorite, prehnite, tremolite, plagioclase, white, mica, quartz, lawsonite, epidote and zircon. The veins are straight, a few millimetres in thickness and occur isolated or in closely spaced sets. The vein morphology ranges from planar to sinuous and irregular. On the basis of metamorphic mineral phases three different types of metadolerite can be distinguished: i) rocks with a high content of prehnite crystals in cataclastic-mylonitic bands, exhibiting an intersertal or a blastophitic texture or a mylonitic fabric and in some cases a

  18. PGE mineralization and melt composition of chromitites in Proterozoic ophiolite complexes of Eastern Sayan, Southern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kiseleva


    Full Text Available The Ospino-Kitoi and Kharanur ultrabasic massifs represent the northern and southern ophiolite branches respectively of the Upper Onot ophiolitic nappe and they are located in the southeastern part of the Eastern Sayan (SEPES ophiolites. Podiform chromitites with PGE mineralization occur as lensoid pods within dunites and rarely in harzburgites or serpentinized peridotites. The chromitites are classified into type I and type II based on their Cr#. Type I (Cr# = 59–85 occurs in both northern and southern branches, whereas type II (Cr# = 76–90 occurs only in the northern branch. PGE contents range from ∑PGE 88–1189 ppb, Pt/Ir 0.04–0.42 to ∑PGE 250–1700 ppb, Pt/Ir 0.03–0.25 for type I chromitites of the northern and southern branches respectively. The type II chromitites of the northern branch have ∑PGE contents higher than that of type I (468–8617 ppb, Pt/Ir 0.1–0.33. Parental melt compositions, in equilibrium with podiform chromitites, are in the range of boninitic melts and vary in Al2O3, TiO2 and FeO/MgO contents from those of type I and type II chromitites. Calculated melt compositions for type I chromitites are (Al2O3melt = 10.6–13.5 wt.%, (TiO2melt = 0.01–0.44 wt.%, (Fe/Mgmelt = 0.42–1.81; those for type II chromitites are: (Al2O3melt = 7.8–10.5 wt.%, (TiO2melt = 0.01–0.25 wt.%, (Fe/Mgmelt = 0.5–2.4. Chromitites are further divided into Os-Ir-Ru (I and Pt-Pd (II based on their PGE patterns. The type I chromitites show only the Os-Ir-Ru pattern whereas type II shows both Os-Ir-Ru and Pt-Pd patterns. PGE mineralization in type I chromitites is represented by the Os-Ir-Ru system, whereas in type II it is represented by the Os-Ir-Ru-Rh-Pt system. These results indicate that chromitites and PGE mineralization in the northern branch formed in a suprasubduction setting from a fluid-rich boninitic melt during active subduction. However, the chromitites and PGE mineralization of the southern

  19. Carbon recycling in ophiolite-hosted carbonates, Oman-UAE (United States)

    Stephen, A.; Jenkin, G. R.; Smith, D. J.; Styles, M. T.; Naden, J.; Boyce, A. J.; Bryant, C. L.


    Large-scale surface and subsurface freshwater carbonate deposits of probable Quaternary age have formed on the Oman-UAE ophiolite. Here, serpentinisation reactions in ultramafic rocks have produced calcite and magnesite. These carbonates are frequently cited as examples of natural atmospheric CO2 sequestration, but the possibility of carbon recycling has not been addressed. The aim of this study is to assess the degree of atmospheric CO2 being incorporated into carbonates versus that which has been recycled from alternative sources such as soil CO2, or limestones that underlie the ophiolite. This has been determined through δ13C/δ18O, 87Sr/86Sr and 14C analysis of all major carbonate lithofacies identified. Our analyses of modern carbonate crusts forming on the surface of stagnant hyperalkaline (pH >11) waters show highly depleted δ13C and δ18O values (-25.5‰ ×0.5 PDB and -16.8‰ ×0.5 PDB respectively). This depletion has been attributed to a kinetic isotope effect occurring during atmospheric CO2 exchange with Ca(OH)2 hyperalkaline waters [1]. By comparison, inactive travertine deposits show a large range in δ13C (-10.5 to -21.8‰ PDB) which lies on a trajectory from the composition of modern crusts towards bicarbonate fluids in equilibrium with soil CO2. We interpret this trend as being produced by the mixing of different carbon sources, either at the time of formation or during later alteration. Modern carbonates and inactive travertines also have 87Sr/86Sr ratios and Sr concentrations similar to Cretaceous and Tertiary limestones which surround the ophiolite, whilst subsurface veins also display 87Sr/86Sr ratios similar to these Cretaceous limestones. Carbon recycling can also be determined with 14C. Modern atmospheric CO2 has a global average of 105-106% modern 14C (pMC), therefore freshwater carbonates forming solely from atmospheric CO2 would be expected to contain >100 pMC. However, modern carbonates display varied results from 94.5-101.4 p

  20. Geophysical Characterization of Serpentinite Hosted Hydrogeology at the McLaughlin Natural Reserve, Coast Range Ophiolite (United States)

    Ortiz, Estefania; Tominaga, Masako; Cardace, Dawn; Schrenk, Matthew O.; Hoehler, Tori M.; Kubo, Michael D.; Rucker, Dale F.


    Geophysical remote sensing both on land and at sea has emerged as a powerful approach to characterize in situ water-rock interaction processes in time and space. We conducted 2-D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) surveys to investigate in situ hydrogeological architecture within the Jurassic age tectonic mélange portion of the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO) during wet and dry seasons, where water-rock interactive processes are thought to facilitate a subsurface biosphere. Integrating survey tracks traversing two previously drilled wells, QV1,1 and CSW1,1 at the CROMO site with wireline and core data, and the Serpentine Valley site, we successfully documented changes in hydrogeologic properties in the CROMO formation, i.e., lateral and vertical distribution of conductive zones and their temporal behavior that are dependent upon seasonal hydrology. Based on the core-log-ERT integration, we propose a hydrogeological architectural model, in which the formation is composed of three distinct aquifer systems: perched serpentinite aquifer without seasonal dependency (shallow system), well-cemented serpentine confining beds with seasonal dependency (intermediate system), serpentinite aquifer (deep system), and the ultramafic basement that acts as a quasi-aquiclude (below the deep system). The stunning contrast between the seasonality in the surface water availability and groundwater storativity in the formation allowed us to locate zones where serpentinite weathering and possibly deeper serpentinization processes might have taken place. We based our findings primarily on lithological composition and the distribution of the conductive formation, our work highlights the link between serpentinite weathering processes and possible sources of water in time and space.

  1. Characteristics of ophiolite-related metamorphic rocks in the Beysehir ophiolitic mélange (Central Taurides, Turkey), deduced from whole rock and mineral chemistry (United States)

    Çelik, Ömer Faruk; Delaloye, Michel F.


    Small outcrops of the metamorphic rocks of the Beysehir ophiolite appear to the west of Gencek and to the south of Durak (South of Beysehir Lake) in the Central Tauride Belt in Turkey. Amphibolitic rocks in the ophiolitic mélange have an igneous origin. Protoliths of these rocks were probably alkali basalts, gabbros or some ultramafic cumulates, such as pyroxenite. The amphibolites of the Beysehir Ophiolite can be divided into four groups: (1) amphibole+garnet+plagioclase±epidote (as secondary minerals)±opaque such as ilmenite±accessory minerals such as sphene and apatite; (2) amphibole+pyroxene+plagioclase±epidote±accessory minerals such as sphene, apatite±chlorite, calcite (as secondary mineral); (3) amphibole±plagioclase±opaque±accessory minerals; (4) amphibole+plagioclase±epidote±biotite and muscovite±opaque±accessory minerals. These metamorphic rocks show mainly granoblastic, grano-nematoblastic, porphyroblastic and/or poikiloblastic textures. All amphiboles in the amphibolites are calcic and cluster in the range from magnesio-hastingsite, pargasite to actinolite. Amphibole compositions are characterized by SiO 2=(38.02-54.3%), Al 2O 3=(1.5-12.8), FeO=(10.03-14.67%), K 2O=(0.2-1.8%), MgO=(5.5-15.7), Mg*=(0.3-0.8). The amphibolites show an alkaline to subalkaline character. However, the primitive mantle normalized incompatible trace element diagram shows close similarity with the typical ocean island basalt (OIB) pattern. The Rock/Chondrite normalized REE diagram of the amphibolites also confirms their OIB signature. Tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams based on the immobile trace elements suggest a mostly within-plate alkali basalt (WPB) environment. Beysehir ophiolitic mélange contains amphibolites from ophiolite-related metamorphic rocks, but the matrix of the Beysehir ophiolitic mélange is not metamorphosed. Blocks of metamorphic rocks and the ophiolitic rocks may have been incorporated into the ophiolitic mélange in an oceanic

  2. Ophiolitic detritus in Kimmeridgian resedimented limestones and its provenance from an eroded obducted ophiolitic nappe stack south of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawlick Hans-Jürgen


    Full Text Available The causes for the Middle to Late Jurassic tectonic processes in the Northern Calcareous Alps are still controversially discussed. There are several contrasting models for these processes, formerly designated “Jurassic gravitational tectonics”. Whereas in the Dinarides or the Western Carpathians Jurassic ophiolite obduction and a Jurassic mountain building process with nappe thrusting is widely accepted, equivalent processes are still questioned for the Eastern Alps. For the Northern Calcareous Alps, an Early Cretaceous nappe thrusting process is widely favoured instead of a Jurassic one, obviously all other Jurassic features are nearly identical in the Northern Calcareous Alps, the Western Carpathians and the Dinarides. In contrast, the Jurassic basin evolutionary processes, as best documented in the Northern Calcareous Alps, were in recent times adopted to explain the Jurassic tectonic processes in the Carpathians and Dinarides. Whereas in the Western Carpathians Neotethys oceanic material is incorporated in the mélanges and in the Dinarides huge ophiolite nappes are preserved above the Jurassic basin fills and mélanges, Jurassic ophiolites or ophiolitic remains are not clearly documented in the Northern Calcareous Alps. Here we present chrome spinel analyses of ophiolitic detritic material from Kimmeridgian allodapic limestones in the central Northern Calcareous Alps. The Kimmeridgian age is proven by the occurrence of the benthic foraminifera Protopeneroplis striata and Labyrinthina mirabilis, the dasycladalean algae Salpingoporella pygmea, and the alga incertae sedis Pseudolithocodium carpathicum. From the geochemical composition the analysed spinels are pleonastes and show a dominance of Al-chromites (Fe3+–Cr3+–Al3+ diagram. In the Mg/(Mg+ Fe2+ vs. Cr/(Cr+ Al diagram they can be classified as type II ophiolites and in the TiO2 vs. Al2O3 diagram they plot into the SSZ peridotite field. All together this points to a harzburgite

  3. Four billion years of ophiolites reveal secular trends in oceanic crust formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Furnes


    Full Text Available We combine a geological, geochemical and tectonic dataset from 118 ophiolite complexes of the major global Phanerozoic orogenic belts with similar datasets of ophiolites from 111 Precambrian greenstone belts to construct an overview of oceanic crust generation over 4 billion years. Geochemical discrimination systematics built on immobile trace elements reveal that the basaltic units of the Phanerozoic ophiolites are dominantly subduction-related (75%, linked to backarc processes and characterized by a strong MORB component, similar to ophiolites in Precambrian greenstone sequences (85%. The remaining 25% Phanerozoic subduction-unrelated ophiolites are mainly (74% of Mid-Ocean-Ridge type (MORB type, in contrast to the equal proportion of Rift/Continental Margin, Plume, and MORB type ophiolites in the Precambrian greenstone belts. Throughout the Phanerozoic there are large geochemical variations in major and trace elements, but for average element values calculated in 5 bins of 100 million year intervals there are no obvious secular trends. By contrast, basaltic units in the ophiolites of the Precambrian greenstones (calculated in 12 bins of 250 million years intervals, starting in late Paleo- to early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 2.0–1.8 Ga, exhibit an apparent decrease in the average values of incompatible elements such as Ti, P, Zr, Y and Nb, and an increase in the compatible elements Ni and Cr with deeper time to the end of the Archean and into the Hadean. These changes can be attributed to decreasing degrees of partial melting of the upper mantle from Hadean/Archean to Present. The onset of geochemical changes coincide with the timing of detectible changes in the structural architecture of the ophiolites such as greater volumes of gabbro and more common sheeted dyke complexes, and lesser occurrences of ocelli (varioles in the pillow lavas in ophiolites younger than 2 Ga. The global data from the Precambrian ophiolites, representative of nearly 50

  4. Geophysical Characterization of in situ Serpentinization Processes at the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO) (United States)

    Ortiz, E.; Tominaga, M.; Cardace, D.; Schrenk, M. O.; Hoehler, T. M.; Kubo, M. D.


    Electrical and magnetic remote sensing both on land and at sea have emerged as a powerful approach to characterize in situ serpentinization and carbonation processes in time and space. We conducted 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) surveys to investigate in situ geological and hydrogeological architecture within the rock formation of the Jurassic age tectonic mélange portion of the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbiological Observatory (CROMO) where serpentinization processes are thought to facilitate an active deep biosphere. We acquired ERT imagery during both wet and dry seasons, along 9 survey tracks traversing two previously drilled wells, CSW1.1 and QV1.1, at different lateral and horizontal resolutions, yielding imagery with depth of 6.9 - 41m. Integrating ERT inversion models with wire-line and core data, we successfully documented temporal changes in the in situ hydrological properties at CROMO, i.e. the lateral and vertical water table boundaries (unconfined aquifer), non-permeable zones (confining bed), and possible confined aquifers that are juxtaposed within three dominant lithological units of serpentinite top soil, serpentinite gravel with clay, and serpentinite basement formation. We conducted rock magnetic experiments on core samples from drilled sites, including Magnetic Property Measurement System (MPMS) measurements, to better understand the connection between these hydrogeological properties and in situ serpentinization processes. Based on the observed downhole distribution of magnetite in correlation with ERT results and lithostratigraphy, we proposed that, at CROMO: (i) zones enriched in ferromagnetic minerals, correspond to in situ serpentinite formation with both high and low resistivity, suggesting that resistivity zones represent in situ architecture of consolidated serpentinite confining beds and possible fractured serpentinite aquifers, respectively; and (ii) zones (e.g. 14 - 31m at CSW site) enriched in superparamagnetic size

  5. The Juchatengo complex: an upper-level ophiolite assemblage of late Paleozoic age in Oaxaca, southern Mexico (United States)

    Grajales-Nishimura, José Manuel; Ramos-Arias, Mario Alfredo; Solari, Luigi; Murillo-Muñetón, Gustavo; Centeno-García, Elena; Schaaf, Peter; Torres-Vargas, Ricardo


    The Juchatengo complex (JC) suite is located between the Proterozoic Oaxacan complex to the north and the Xolapa complex to the south, and was amalgamated by late Paleozoic magmatism. It consists of mafic and sedimentary rocks that have oceanic affinities, with internal pseudostratigraphic, structural and metamorphic characteristics, which resemble a typical upper-level ophiolite assemblage. New U-Pb zircon and previous hornblende K-Ar analyses yield ages of ca. 291-313 Ma (U-Pb) for plagiogranites and ca. 282-277 Ma for tonalites intruding the entire sequence, including pelagic sediments at the top, with a maximum deposition age of ca. 278 Ma and noteworthy local provenance. These data constrain the age of the JC to the Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian period. Hf isotopic analyses obtained from zircons in the JC plagiogranite and tonalite show that they come from a similar primitive mantle source (176Hf/177Hf: 0.282539-0.283091; ƐHf(t): + 3.2 to + 15.0). ƐHf(t) values from near 0 to - 2.8 in the tonalites indicate a contribution from the continental crust. Trace elements and REE patterns in whole rock and zircons point to a primitive mantle source for differentiated mafic, plagiogranite dykes and tonalitic plutons. Geochronological and geochemical data address the generation of new oceanic crust above the subduction zone, probably in a backarc setting. In this tectonic scenario, the JC ophiolite originated due to the convergence of the paleo-Pacific plate below the already integrated Oaxacan and Acatlán complexes in western Pangea. The dextral displacement places the deformation in a transtensional regime during the late Paleozoic age.

  6. Original setting and emplacement history of the Zambales ophiolite, Luzon, Phillipines, from stratigraphic evidence (United States)

    Schweller, W. J.; Karig, D. E.; Bachman, S. B.

    A detailed study of sedimentary rocks associated with the Zambales ophiolite outlines its original setting and uplift history. The oldest sedimentary unit is upper Eocene pelagic limestone with thin ash layers that depositionally overlies the volcanic complex of the ophiolite. This limestone, the Aksitero Formation, was deposited at 1-4 km depth on newly formed ocean floor and has remained isolated from coarse volcanic and continental detritus for several million years. A comparison of this limestone to numerous DSDP sites from the western Pacific shows that the Aksitero Formation resembles pelagic sediments from marginal basins, but not those of island arcs. Sedimentation rates increase from 3-5 m/m.y. in the late Eocene to about 10 m/m.y. in the middle to late Oligocene, as volcaniclastic turbidites begin to dilute the pelagic limestone. Thick lower Miocene sandstones change from volcaniclastic to ophiolitic composition over a few million years, indicating rapid uplift and erosion of the ophiolite during this time. Seismic reflection profiles in the Central Valley, just east of the Zambales Mountains, show as much as 2 km of pre-Miocene strata onlapping the buried eastern flank of the ophiolite. This onlap apparently represents original bathymetric relief of the oceanic crust. The seismic reflection profiles also demonstrate that eastward tilting of the ophiolite began in the early Miocene and continued through the late Miocene. The uplift and eastward tilting is believed to be related to subduction of the Manila Trench, although the cause of the initial detachment of the ophiolite may be tied to transform faulting along the present western edge of the Zambales Mountains.

  7. Tectonic obliteration of magmatic fabrics in an Ordovician ophiolite (United States)

    Di Chiara, A.; Morris, A.; Anderson, M. W.; Menegon, L. M.


    The Thetford Mines Ophiolite (TMO) is part of the Canadian Appalachians (Quebec region) which experienced syn-emplacement and two post-emplacement deformations, the Taconian (Ordovician) and the (Devonian) Acadian orogenies. New results from an integrated rock magnetic, petrological and microstructural study on 12 paleomagnetic sites show a complete tectonic overprint of the original magnetic fabric. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) results show that on the southern layered gabbros the magnetic fabric is locally preserved, being parallel to observed magmatic foliations. The nine sites from the northwestern sector of the TMO share a remarkably similar magnetic fabric, despite formed by fundamentally different magmatic processes. They are all characterized by a minimum anisotropy axis (kmin) oriented NW-SE and the maximum axis (kmax) steeply plunging to the NE. Additional microstructural analyses show that the kmax of the magnetic fabric is subparallel to the crystal preferred orientation of the iron rich particles. We think that at low strain regime the AMS fabric reflect the magmatic foliation; whereas at higher strain regime the AMS fabric has a tectonic overprint consistent with a shortening direction perpendicular to the regional trend of fold axes, thus recording the last regional tectonic event during the Acadian orogeny.

  8. An alkaline spring system within the Del Puerto ophiolite (California USA): A Mars analog site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, J.G.; Green, S.; Blake, D.; Valley, J.; Kita, N.; Treiman, A.; Dobson, P.F.


    Mars appears to have experienced little compositional differentiation of primitive lithosphere, and thus much of the surface of Mars is covered by mafic lavas. On Earth, mafic and ultramafic rocks present in ophiolites, oceanic crust and upper mantle that have been obducted onto land, are therefore good analogs for Mars. The characteristic mineralogy, aqueous geochemistry, and microbial communities of cold-water alkaline springs associated with these mafic and ultramafic rocks represent a particularly compelling analog for potential life-bearing systems. Serpentinization, the reaction of water with mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxene, yields fluids with unusual chemistry (Mg-OH and Ca-OH waters with pH values up to {approx}12), as well as heat and hydrogen gas that can sustain subsurface, chemosynthetic ecosystems. The recent observation of seeps from pole-facing crater and canyon walls in the higher Martian latitudes supports the hypothesis that even present conditions might allow for a rockhosted chemosynthetic biosphere in near-surface regions of the Martian crust. The generation of methane within a zone of active serpentinization, through either abiogenic or biogenic processes, could account for the presence of methane detected in the Martian atmosphere. For all of these reasons, studies of terrestrial alkaline springs associated with mafic and ultramafic rocks are particularly timely. This study focuses on the alkaline Adobe Springs, emanating from mafic and ultramafic rocks of the California Coast Range, where a community of novel bacteria is associated with the precipitation of Mg-Ca carbonate cements. The carbonates may serve as a biosignature that could be used in the search for evidence of life on Mars.

  9. Reflectance Spectral Features and Significant Minerals in Kaishantun Ophiolite Suite, Jilin Province, NE China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglong Shi


    Full Text Available This study used spectrometry to determine the spectral absorption of five types of mafic-ultramafic rocks from the Kaishantun ophiolite suite in Northeast China. Absorption peak wavelengths were determined for peridotite, diabase, basalt, pyroxenite, and gabbro. Glaucophane, actinolite, zoisite, and epidote absorption peaks were also measured, and these were used to distinguish such minerals from other associated minerals in ophiolite suite samples. Combined with their chemical compositions, the blueschist facies (glaucophane + epidote + chlorite and greenschist facies (actinolite + epidote + chlorite mineral assemblage was distinct based on its spectral signature. Based on the regional tectonic setting, the Kaishantun ophiolite suite probably experienced the blueschist facies metamorphic peak during subduction and greenschist facies retrograde metamorphism during later slab rollback.

  10. Carbonation of Peridotite by CO2-rich Fluids: Insights from Listvenites in the Advocate Ophiolite (Newfoundland) (United States)

    Menzel, Manuel; Garrido, Carlos J.; Marchesi, Claudio; López Sánchez Vizcaíno, Vicente; Hidas, Károly; Escayola, Monica P.; Jamtveit, Bjørn


    Listvenites are the result of a sequence of reactions of CO2-rich hydrothermal fluids with serpentinite that forms magnesite-quartz rocks in the last reaction step. Listvenites are natural analogues for carbon sequestration by mineral carbonation, fixing large quantities of carbon in relatively small, confined zones of intense reactive fluid flux within serpentinite. The association of listvenite (magnesite-quartz), soapstone (talc-magnesite) and carbonated serpentinite in the mantle section of the Advocate ophiolite complex in Newfoundland (Canada) is an ideal natural example to study the carbonation of serpentinites because the reaction progress is recorded by the differently carbonated assemblages. The Advocate listvenites crop out in a 20-30 m wide zone that can be followed for about 1 km, surrounded by serpentinite and harzburgite. Quartz and magnesite veins are widespread in the central listvenite domain. This mobilization of silica into a vein network is reflected in a depletion of silica in the most carbonated lithologies, whereas most other major elements remain unchanged over a wide range of CO2-contents. Notably, there is a sharp decrease in bulk rock Fe3+/Fetotal from 0.65 - 0.8 in lizardite-chrysotile serpentinites to 0.1 - 0.3 in talc-magnesite rocks and listvenites. High Cr and Ni contents and preserved red-brown Cr-spinel in the carbonated lithologies demonstrate the mantle peridotites provenance of the listvenites. The presence of thin veins of Cr-mica (fuchsite) suggests that Cr was mobilized to some degree. Fine dispersed magnetite trails in magnesite trace serpentine pseudomorphs after olivine, indicating that no deformation occurred in some domains during the carbonation, while deformation was concentrated in talc-rich lithologies. The rheological contrasts of serpentinites, soapstones and listvenites and, in consequence, the formation of veins in response to shear- or extensional fractures may result in a re-opening of pathways for the influx

  11. Transfer of subduction fluids into the deforming mantle wedge during nascent subduction: Evidence from trace elements and boron isotopes (Semail ophiolite, Oman) (United States)

    Prigent, C.; Guillot, S.; Agard, P.; Lemarchand, D.; Soret, M.; Ulrich, M.


    The basal part of the Semail ophiolitic mantle was (de)formed at relatively low temperature (LT) directly above the plate interface during "nascent subduction" (the prelude to ophiolite obduction). This subduction-related LT deformation was associated with progressive strain localization and cooling, resulting in the formation of porphyroclastic to ultramylonitic shear zones prior to serpentinization. Using petrological and geochemical analyses (trace elements and B isotopes), we show that these basal peridotites interacted with hydrous fluids percolating by porous flow during mylonitic deformation (from ∼850 down to 650 °C). This process resulted in 1) high-T amphibole crystallization, 2) striking enrichments of minerals in fluid mobile elements (FME; particularly B, Li and Cs with concentrations up to 400 times those of the depleted mantle) and 3) peridotites with an elevated δ11B of up to +25‰. These features indicate that the metasomatic hydrous fluids are most likely derived from the dehydration of subducting crustal amphibolitic materials (i.e., the present-day high-T sole). The rapid decrease in metasomatized peridotite δ11B with increasing distance to the contact with the HT sole (to depleted mantle isotopic values in <1 km) suggests an intense interaction between peridotites and rapid migrating fluids (∼1-25 m.y-1), erasing the initial high-δ11B subduction fluid signature within a short distance. The increase of peridotite δ11B with increasing deformation furthermore indicates that the flow of subduction fluids was progressively channelized in actively deforming shear zones parallel to the contact. Taken together, these results also suggest that the migration of subduction fluids/melts by porous flow through the subsolidus mantle wedge (i.e., above the plate interface at sub-arc depths) is unlikely to be an effective mechanism to transport slab-derived elements to the locus of partial melting in subduction zones.

  12. Reappraisal of Peri-Arabic ophiolites and geodynamics: Why the Kermanshah ophiolite (SW Iran) is a Paleocene-Eocene magmatic arc at the foot of Eurasia (United States)

    Whitechurch, Hubert; Omrani, Jafar; Agard, Philippe; Humbert, Fabien; Montigny, Raymond; Jolivet, Laurent


    The nature and significance of the Kermanshah ophiolite (Zagros, Iran), classically identified as one of the few remnants of the Peri-Arabic ophiolite system obducted onto Arabia during the Late Cretaceous, are reinvestigated in this study. Systematic major and trace element geochemistry was performed, mainly on magmatic rocks, from two distinct areas: the Kamaryan Paleocene to Eocene arc and the so-called Harsin-Sahneh "ophiolites". Both domains display low to medium-K calc-alkaline signatures with variably negative anomalies in Nb, Ta, and Ti and positive ones in Sr, Ba, Th, and U. The magmatic activity of the Palaeocene-Eocene magmatic group shows an evolution through time, with a geochemical signature close to tholeiitic Back-Arc Basin-Basalts (BAB) for Palaeocene rocks and a clear calc-alkaline arc signature for Eocene volcanics. The presumably ophiolitic gabbros of the Harsin-Sahneh complex intruding harzburgites, as well as the associated dykes, also show a BAB geochemical signature. Overall, field relationships and geochemical patterns suggest that these rocks were emplaced on a mantle substratum close to the ocean-continent transition. This Palaeocene-Eocene magmatic activity in Kermanshah, which extended further to the north-west into Turkey, coincided with a marked slowing of the Arabia/Eurasia convergence. It furthermore occurred after the stopping of the Sanandaj-Sirjan magmatism (Mesozoic arc) but before the development of the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (Tertiary arc). We relate this transient magmatic activity to slab retreat and back-arc extension at the foot of the Eurasian margin and to lithospheric-scale reconstructions across the Neotethys between Turkey and Iran.

  13. Thermal and Transport Properties of Mafic and Ultramafic Rocks of Oman Ophiolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyadul Arafin


    Full Text Available Thermal and other physical properties of rocks and minerals are of considerable significance for deriving mineralogical and compositional models of the Earth's mantle. We have determined these properties for the mafic rock such as gabbro and ultramafic rock like harzburgite of the Oman ophiolite suite by utilizing the Debye characteristic property ,Θ-

  14. Paleomagnetism of the Oman Ophiolite: New Results from Oman Drilling Project Cores (United States)

    Horst, A. J.; Till, J. L.; Koornneef, L.; Usui, Y.; Kim, H.; Morris, A.


    The Oman Drilling Project drilled holes at four sites in a transect through the southern massifs of the Samail ophiolite, and recovered 1500 m of igneous and metamorphic rocks. We focus on three sites from the oceanic crustal section including lower layered gabbros (GT1A), the mid-crustal layered to foliated gabbro transition (GT2A), and the shallower transition from sheeted dikes to varitextured gabbros (GT3A). Detailed core descriptions, analyses, and paleomagnetic measurements, were made on D/V Chikyu from July to September 2017 to utilize the core laboratory facilities similar to IODP expeditions. Shipboard measurements included anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and alternating field and thermal demagnetization of 597 discrete samples. Sample demagnetization behavior is varied from each of the cores, with some revealing multiple components of magnetization, and others yielding nearly univectorial data. The interpretation of results from the lower crustal cores is complicated by the pervasive presence of secondary magnetite. In almost all samples, a stable component was resolved (interpreted as a characteristic remanent magnetization) after removal of a lower-coercivity or lower unblocking-temperature component. The inclinations of the stable components in the core reference frame are very consistent in Hole GT1A. However, a transition from negative to positive inclinations in GT2A suggests some structural complexity, possibly as a result of intense late faulting activity. Both abrupt and gradual transitions between multiple zones of negative and positive inclinations occur in Hole GT3A. Interpretation and direct comparison of remanence between drill sites is difficult as recovered core pieces currently remain azimuthally unoriented, and GT2A was drilled at a plunge of 60°, whereas GT1A and GT3A were both drilled vertically. Work is ongoing to use borehole imagery to reorient the core pieces and paleomagnetic data into a geographic in situ reference

  15. Overview of Hole GT2A: Drilling middle gabbro in Wadi Tayin massif, Oman ophiolite (United States)

    Takazawa, E.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Coggon, J. A.; Harris, M.; Matter, J. M.; Michibayashi, K.


    Hole GT2A (UTM: 40Q 655960.7E / 2529193.5N) was drilled by the Oman Drilling Project (OmDP) into Wadi Gideah of Wadi Tayin massif in the Samail ophiolite, Oman. OmDP is an international collaboration supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, the Deep Carbon Observatory, NSF, IODP, JAMSTEC, and the European, Japanese, German and Swiss Science Foundations, with in-kind support in Oman from the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, Public Authority of Mining, Sultan Qaboos University, and the German University of Technology. Hole GT2A was diamond cored in 25 Dec 2016 to 18 Jan 2017 to a total depth of 406.77 m. The outer surfaces of the cores were imaged and described on site before being curated, boxed and shipped to the IODP drill ship Chikyu, where they underwent comprehensive visual and instrumental analysis. 33 shipboard scientists were divided into six teams (Igneous, Alteration, Structural, Geochem, Physical Properties, Paleomag) to describe and analyze the cores. Hole GT2A drilled through the transition between foliated and layered gabbro. The transition zone occurs between 50 and 150 m curation corrected depth (CCD). The top 50 m of Hole GT2A is foliated gabbro whereas the bottom 250 m consists of layered gabbro. Brittle fracture is observed throughout the core. Intensity of alteration vein decreases from the top to the bottom of the hole. On the basis of changes in grain size and/or modal abundance and/or appearance/disappearance of igneous primary mineral(s) five lithological units are defined in Hole GT2A (Unit I to V). The uppermost part of Hole GT2A (Unit I) is dominated by fine-grained granular olivine gabbro intercalated with less dominant medium-grained granular olivine gabbro and rare coarse-grained varitextured gabbro. The lower part of the Hole (Units II, III and V) is dominated by medium-grained olivine gabbro, olivine melagabbro and olivine-bearing gabbro. Modally-graded rhythmic layering with

  16. Mineral chemistry and geothemobarometry of mantle harzburgites in the Eastern Metamorphic Complex of Khoy ophiolite -NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morovvat Faridazad


    Full Text Available Introduction Khoy ophiolite at the global scale is in the middle part of the Alp-Himalaya orogenic belt and it is extended over 3900 Km2 which indicates remnant Neotethys oceanic lithosphere in the Mesozoic era (Kananian et al., 2010. In this paper, in addition to a review of previous investigations about Khoy ophiolite, we will try to determine the nature and kind of minerals, origin and partial melting rate as well as the equilibrium pressure and temperature of harzburgites from the Eastern Metamorphic Complex of Khoy ophiolite. Materials and methods Thin sections microscopy studies were carried out following field investigations. EPMA analysis was carried out with using a Superprobe JEOL, JXA 8200 Microprobe unit at the state of WDS and under condition of 15kv accelerating voltage, 10nA current beam, 1µm beam diameter and collection of natural and synthetic standards for calibration. Results The study area is located at the NW of Iran and north of the Khoy city in the west Azarbaijan province. This area is part of the ophiolitic complex of NW Iran and belongs to its Eastern Metamorphic Complex. This metamorphic zone has large tectonically segments of the metamorphic ophiolites which mainly include serpentinized peridotites with associated metagabbros. There are three types of peridotitic rocks in this area which are: Lherzolites, harzburgites and dunites. Lherzolites are composed of olivine (60-70%, orthopyroxene (10-30% and clinopyroxene (~10-20% with minor amounts (~2% of Cr-spinel mineral. Harzburgites are composed of olivine (70-80%, orthopyroxene (10-20% and clinopyroxene (~5% with minor amounts (~2% of Cr-spinel mineral. Dunites are composed of olivine (90-95%, orthopyroxene (5-10% with minor amounts (~1-2% of Cr-spinel mineral. Composition range of olivines is between Fo89.46 Fa10.37 to Fo89.86 Fa10.0 as well as NiO content range is 018-046 (wt %. The calculated Mg# of olivines is 0.90 and the composition of olivines in Fo-Fa diagram

  17. Contrasting thermal and melting histories for segments of mantle lithosphere in the Nahlin ophiolite, British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    McGoldrick, Siobhan; Canil, Dante; Zagorevski, Alex


    The Permo-Triassic Nahlin ophiolite is the largest and best-preserved ophiolite in the Canadian Cordillera of British Columbia and Yukon, Canada. The ophiolite is well-exposed along its 150 km length with mantle segments divisible into the Hardluck and Menatatuline massifs. Both massifs comprise mostly depleted spinel harzburgite (exchange temperatures in the mantle of the ophiolite also change systematically along strike with the degree of partial melt depletion. The temperatures recorded by REE and Ca-Mg exchange between coexisting pyroxenes require markedly higher peak temperatures and cooling rates for the Menatatuline massif (1250 °C, 0.1-0.01 °C/year) compared to the Hardluck massif (rates controlled by presence or absence of a crustal section above the mantle lithosphere, or by rapid exhumation along a detachment.

  18. The Neoproterozoic Abu Dahr ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt: petrological characteristics and tectonomagmatic evolution (United States)

    Gahlan, Hisham A.; Azer, Mokhles K.; Khalil, Ahmed E. S.


    The Neoproterozoic Abu Dahr ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt, is one of the best preserved and least dismembered ophiolite successions in the Arabian-Nubian Shield. It contains a Penrose-type ophiolite sequence from mantle section below mafic crust upward to oceanic sedimentary cover overlying mafic volcanics, although the original magmatic (stratigraphic) contact between the mantle and crustal sections is disrupted by tectonism. The Abu Dahr ophiolite is metamorphosed under greenschist facies conditions, and low-temperature alteration is widespread. Petrography reveals that: (i) the mantle is homogenous, serpentinized, and dominated by harzburgite and less abundant dunite; (ii) the cumulate ultramafics are represented by wehrlite and pyroxenite; and (iii) the crustal section is represented by metagabbros, meta-anorthosites and metabasalts. The Abu Dahr serpentinized peridotites show high Mg# (0.92-0.93), with enrichment of Ni, Cr and Co, and depletion of Al2O3 and CaO, and nearly flat and unfractionated REE chondrite-normalized pattern. Major and trace element characteristics of the Abu Dahr metagabbro and metabasalt (crustal section) indicate a tholeiitic to calc-alkaline affinity. Units of the crustal section have low-Nb and Zr concentrations, low Dy/Yb and relatively elevated La/Yb ratios, high U/Yb and Th/Yb ratios, and LREE enriched chondrite-normalized pattern. All of the Abu Dahr ophiolite units have trace-element signatures characterized by enrichment of LILE over HFSE. Rare and trace element patterns indicate a genetic link between the Abu Dahr mantle, cumulate ultramafics, and crust. Chromian spinel has survived metamorphism and is used as a petrogenetic indicator in the Abu Dahr serpentinized peridotites. The spinel is homogeneous with a limited composition, and shows high-Cr# (>0.6) combined with low-TiO2 character (mostly <0.1 wt.%). The Abu Dahr ophiolite is interpreted as a fragment of depleted oceanic lithosphere that experienced high degrees

  19. Multi-scale Onland-Offshore Investigations of the New Caledonia Ophiolite, SW Pacific (United States)

    Clerc, C. N.; Collot, J.; Sevin, B.; Patriat, M.; Etienne, S.; Iseppi, M.; Lesimple, S.; Jeanpert, J.; Mortimer, N. N.; Poli, S.; Pattier, F.; Juan, C.; Robineau, B.; Godard, M.; Cluzel, D.


    The Peridotite Nappe of New Caledonia is one of the largest ultramafic ophiolite in the World: it represents about one quarter of the 500 x 80 km island of Grande Terre. This extensive upper mantle unit was tectonically emplaced during the Eocene onto the northeastern edge of Zealandia continent. It is weakly deformed because it was not involved in a collision belt after obduction. A dome-shaped Eocene HP/LT metamorphic complex was exhumed across the fore-arc mantle lithosphere in the northern tip of the island. Post-obduction Miocene to Present coral reefs developed in shallow waters around Grande Terre and surrounding islands. In the perspective of a possible onshore/offshore drilling project (IODP/ICDP), we present recent advances in our understanding of offshore extensions of this ophiolite. To the south of New Caledonia, the offshore continuation of the ultramafic allochthon has been identified by dredges and by its geophysical signature as a continuous linear body that extends over a distance of more than 400 km at about 2000m bsl. Such water depths allow an unprecedented seismic reflection imaging of a drowned and well-preserved ophiolite. Seismic profiles show that the nappe has a flat-top, and is capped by carbonate reefs and dissected by several major normal faults. To the east of this presumed ultramafic body, Felicité Ridge is a 30 km wide, 350 km long, dome-shaped ridge, which may be interpreted as the possible southern extension of the HP/LT metamorphic complex observed onshore. Onshore, several 150 to 200 m long cores were drilled in the ophiolite and airborne electromagnetic allowed high-resolution imaging down to 400 m depth. These recent results allow identification of internal thrusts within the peridotite body and more superficial landslides. The analysis of polyphase fracturation and associated serpentinization brings new constraints on the tectonic evolution of the ophiolite and its subsequent weathering pattern. We integrate these data and

  20. Subsurface geometry of the San Andreas-Calaveras fault junction: influence of serpentinite and the Coast Range Ophiolite (United States)

    Watt, Janet Tilden; Ponce, David A.; Graymer, Russell W.; Jachens, Robert C.; Simpson, Robert W.


    While an enormous amount of research has been focused on trying to understand the geologic history and neotectonics of the San Andreas-Calaveras fault (SAF-CF) junction, fundamental questions concerning fault geometry and mechanisms for slip transfer through the junction remain. We use potential-field, geologic, geodetic, and seismicity data to investigate the 3-D geologic framework of the SAF-CF junction and identify potential slip-transferring structures within the junction. Geophysical evidence suggests that the San Andreas and Calaveras fault zones dip away from each other within the northern portion of the junction, bounding a triangular-shaped wedge of crust in cross section. This wedge changes shape to the south as fault geometries change and fault activity shifts between fault strands, particularly along the Calaveras fault zone (CFZ). Potential-field modeling and relocated seismicity suggest that the Paicines and San Benito strands of the CFZ dip 65° to 70° NE and form the southwest boundary of a folded 1 to 3 km thick tabular body of Coast Range Ophiolite (CRO) within the Vallecitos syncline. We identify and characterize two steeply dipping, seismically active cross structures within the junction that are associated with serpentinite in the subsurface. The architecture of the SAF-CF junction presented in this study may help explain fault-normal motions currently observed in geodetic data and help constrain the seismic hazard. The abundance of serpentinite and related CRO in the subsurface is a significant discovery that not only helps constrain the geometry of structures but may also help explain fault behavior and the tectonic evolution of the SAF-CF junction.

  1. Paragenesis of multiple platinum-group mineral populations in Shetland ophiolite chromitite: 3D X-ray tomography and in situ Os isotopes (United States)

    Prichard, H. M.; Barnes, Stephen J.; Dale, C. W.; Godel, B.; Fisher, P. C.; Nowell, G. M.


    Chromitite from the Harold's Grave locality in the mantle section of the Shetland ophiolite complex is extremely enriched in Ru, Os and Ir, at μg/g concentrations. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography on micro-cores from these chromitites was used to determine the location, size, distribution and morphology of the platinum-group minerals (PGM). There are five generations of PGM in these chromitites. Small (average 5 μm in equivalent sphere diameter, ESD) euhedral laurites, often with Os-Ir alloys, are totally enclosed in the chromite and are likely to have formed first by direct crystallisation from the magma as the chromite crystallised. Also within the chromitite there are clusters of larger (50 μm ESD) aligned elongate crystals of Pt-, Rh-, Ir-, Os- and Ru-bearing PGM that have different orientations in different chromite crystals. These may have formed either by exsolution, or by preferential nucleation of PGMs in boundary layers around particular growing chromite grains. Thirdly there is a generation of large (100 μm ESD) composite Os-Ir-Ru-rich PGM that are all interstitial to the chromite grains and sometimes form in clusters. It is proposed that Os, Ir and Ru in this generation were concentrated in base metal sulfide droplets that were then re-dissolved into a later sulfide-undersaturated magma, leaving PGM interstitial to the chromite grains. Fourthly there is a group of almost spherical large (80 μm ESD) laurites, hosting minor Os-Ir-Ru-rich PGM that form on the edge or enclosed in chromite grains occurring in a sheet crosscutting a chromitite layer. These may be hosted in an annealed late syn- or post magmatic fracture. Finally a few of the PGM have been deformed in localised shear zones through the chromitites. The vast majority of the PGM - including small PGM enclosed within chromite, larger interstitial PGM and elongate aligned PGM - have Os isotope compositions that give Re-depletion model ages approximately equal to the age of the

  2. 87Sr enrichment of ophiolitic sulphide deposits in Cyprus confirms ore formation by circulating seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, H.J.; Spooner, E.T.C.


    The hypothesis that seawater was the source of the hydrothermal fluid which formed the Upper Cretaceous ophiolitic cupriferous pyrite ore deposits of the Troodos Massif (Cyprus) has been tested by analysing the strontium isotopic composition of thirteen mineralized samples from four mines. Initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios range from 0.7052+-0.0001 to 0.7075+-0.00002, the latter value being indistinguishable from that of Upper Cretaceous seawater at 0.7076+-0.0006 (2 sigma). Hence, the mineralized metabasalt samples have been contaminated with 87 Sr, relative to initial magmatic strontium isotope ratios of the Troodos ophiolitic complex (0.70338+-0.00010 to 0.70365+-0.00005). Since seawater was the only source of strontium available during formation of the Troodos Complex which was isotopically relatively enriched in 87 Sr, the data confirm that seawater was the source of the hydrothermal oreforming fluid. (Auth.)

  3. Whole rock and spinel compositions of serpentinized peridotites from the Divriği-Sivas region, eastern Turkey: Implications for their tectonic setting (United States)

    Ünlü, Taner; Akıska, Sinan; Varol, Ece; Öztürk, Ceyda; Mutlu, Halim


    In this study we investigate the spinel and whole rock chemistry of ultramafic rocks in the Divriği-Sivas region hosting one of the largest ophiolite suites in Turkey, which were emplaced following the convergence between the African and Eurasian plates in the Late Cretaceous. The ophiolitic mélange (Güneş Ophiolite) in Divriği is composed of ultramafic rocks, amphibolites, sub-ophiolitic metamorphic rocks and calc-silicates. The ultramafic rock section is made up of serpentinized wehrlites overlain by irregular segregations of pyroxenite levels. Whole rock chemistry of Divriği wehrlites resembles serpentinized peridotites in Himalayas. They have high MgO (average 31.27 wt%) and low Al2O3 (average 0.56 wt%) concentrations and Mg/Si and Al/Si ratios imply that peridotites formed in a supra-subduction zone environment. The U-shaped REE patterns of serpentinized wehrlites are formed by partial melting, coupled with interaction between peridotite and hydrous melts in the mantle wedge. The spinels collected from serpentinized wehrlites show compositions ranging from chromite in the core to ferritchromite and Cr-magnetite at the rims and have high Cr2O3 (46.5-56.2 wt%) and very low TiO2 contents (peridotites but their Mg# values (0.26-0.46) are significantly lower. Cr# values of Divriği spinels correspond to SSZ peridotites and indicate high-degree partial melting (>%35). Parental melt compositions computed (8.69-11.71 wt% for Al2O3 and 0.1 to 0.37 wt% for TiO2) from chromite-melt equilibrium conditions yield a boninitic affinity. Our data suggest that spinels from serpentinized wehrlites in the Divriği area are similar to peridotite xenoliths from the Kamchatka arc and West Bismarck.

  4. The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (western Makran, Southern Iran): new geological and geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kananian, A.; Juteau, Th.; Bellon, H.; Darvishzadeh, A.; Sabzehi, M.; Whitechurch, H.; Ricou, L.E.


    The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (600 km 2 ) consists, from bottom to top, of layered gabbros, isotropic gabbros and ouralite gabbros, agmatites of dioritic to plagio-granitic composition, a sheeted dyke complex and lastly a basaltic pillow lava unit. Amphiboles from gabbros were dated ( 40 K- 40 Ar ages) between 156 and 139 Ma and the agmatites are nearly contemporaneous. Potassic granitic veins dated at 93-88 Ma are related to the development of the Ganj arc complex. (authors)

  5. Vestiges of Submarine Serpentinization Recorded in the Microbiology of Continental Ophiolite Complexes (United States)

    Schrenk, M. O.; Sabuda, M.; Brazelton, W. J.; Twing, K. I.


    The study of serpentinization-influenced microbial ecosystems at and below the seafloor has accelerated in recent years with multidisciplinary drilling expeditions to the Atlantis Massif (X357), Southwest Indian Ridge (X360) and Mariana Forearc (X366). In parallel, a number of studies have surveyed serpentinizing systems in ophiolite complexes which host a range of geologic histories, geochemical characteristics, fluid pathways, and consequently microbiology. As ophiolite complexes originate as seafloor materials, it is likely that a microbiological record of seafloor serpentinization processes is maintained through the emplacement and weathering of continental serpentinites. This hypothesis was evaluated through a global comparison of continental serpentinite springs and groundwater, ranging from highly brackish (saline) to freshwater. One of the most saline sites, known as the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO), was used as a point-of-comparison to marine serpentinizing systems, such as the Lost City Hydrothermal Field. Although there was little taxonomic overlap between microbial populations in marine and terrestrial systems, both communities harbored an abundance of genes involved in sulfur metabolism, including sulfide oxidation, thiosulfate disproportionation, and sulfate reduction. The phylogeny of key genes involved in these metabolic processes was evaluated relative to published studies and compared between sites. Together, these data provide insights into both the functioning of microbial communities in modern-day serpentinizing systems, and the transport processes that disperse microorganisms between marine and terrestrial serpentinites.

  6. Syndeformation Chrome Spinels Inclusions in the Plastically Deformed Olivine Aggregates (Kraka Ophiolites, the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Saveliev


    Full Text Available This article presents the results of structural, petrographic, mineralogical and chemical studies of dunite veinlets in spinel peridotite from the Kraka ophiolites. It is demonstrated that plastic deformation of polycrystalline olivine, which form dunite, was accompanied by precipitation of impurities (aluminum and chrome as newly formed chrome spinels. The thinnest acicular inclusions of 0.3-0.5 micron thick are aligned in olivine grains along [010] axis. Bigger elongated irregular chrome spinel grains usually occur along grain and sub-grain olivine boundaries, and, occasionally, inside the grains along [100] axis. Alteration from the fine xenomorphic grains of chrome spinels to the bigger idiomorphic crystals was observed. Analogically to dynamic ageing (dispersion hardening in metals, the structural and chemical alterations in dunites are interpreted as deformation induced segregation of impurities. It is suggested that the euhedral chrome spinel grains typical for ophiolitic dunites were formed by coalescence and spheroidization. This process may be a key factor in the formation of ophiolitic chrome ore deposits.



    Hässig, Marc; Rolland, Yann; Topuz, G.; Çelik, Ö.; Sosson, Marc


    International audience; In order to better understand the tectonic evolution of the Sevan-Akera suture zone, particularly its connection westward into the Ankara-Erzincan suture, field observations and sampling were carried out on the Erzincan suture zone (near Erzincan). The goal of this study is to solve the problem of linking both odbucted ophiolitic domains. As in Armenia, the structures in Turkey are complex and have been reworked and reactivated because of post-obduction collision stage...

  8. Characterizing the nature of melt-rock reaction in peridotites from the Santa Elena Ophiolite, NW Costa Rica (United States)

    Carr, D.; Loocke, M. P.; Snow, J. E.; Gazel, E.


    The Santa Elena Ophiolite (SEO), located on the northwestern coast of Costa Rica, consists primarily of preserved oceanic mantle and crustal rocks thrust above an accretionary complex. The SEO is predominantly characterized by mantle peridotites (i.e., primarily spinel lherzolite with minor amounts of harzburgite and dunite) cut and intruded by minor pegmatitic gabbros, layered gabbros, plagiogranites, and doleritic and basaltic dykes. Previous studies have concluded that the complex formed in a suprasubduction zone (SSZ) setting based on the geochemical nature of the layered gabbros and plagiogranites (i.e., depleted LREE and HFSE and enriched LILE and Pb), as well, as the peridotites (i.e., low-TiO2, Zr, and V, and high MgO, Cr, and Ni)(Denyer and Gazel, 2009). Eighteen ultramafic samples collected during the winter 2010/2011 field season (SECR11) exhibit abundant evidence for melt-rock reaction (e.g., disseminated plagioclase and plagioclase-spinel, clinopyroxene-spinel, and plagioclase-clinopyroxene symplectites) and provide a unique opportunity to characterize the textural and chemical nature of melt-rock reaction in the SEO. We present the results of a petrologic investigation (i.e., petrography and electron probe microanalysis) of 28 thin sections (19 spinel lherzolites, of which 14 are plagioclase-bearing, 4 pyroxenite veins, and 5 harzburgites) derived from the SECR11 sample set. The results of this investigation have the potential to better our understanding of the nature of melt generation and migration and melt-rock interaction in the SEO mantle section and shed further light on the complex petrogenetic history of the SEO. Denyer, P., Gazel, E., 2009, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 28:429-442.

  9. Geological and Geochemical Controls on Subsurface Microbial Life in the Samail Ophiolite, Oman (United States)

    Rempfert, Kaitlin R.; Miller, Hannah M.; Bompard, Nicolas; Nothaft, Daniel; Matter, Juerg M.; Kelemen, Peter; Fierer, Noah; Templeton, Alexis S.


    Microbial abundance and diversity in deep subsurface environments is dependent upon the availability of energy and carbon. However, supplies of oxidants and reductants capable of sustaining life within mafic and ultramafic continental aquifers undergoing low-temperature water-rock reaction are relatively unknown. We conducted an extensive analysis of the geochemistry and microbial communities recovered from fluids sampled from boreholes hosted in peridotite and gabbro in the Tayin block of the Samail Ophiolite in the Sultanate of Oman. The geochemical compositions of subsurface fluids in the ophiolite are highly variable, reflecting differences in host rock composition and the extent of fluid-rock interaction. Principal component analysis of fluid geochemistry and geologic context indicate the presence of at least four fluid types in the Samail Ophiolite (“gabbro,” “alkaline peridotite,” “hyperalkaline peridotite,” and “gabbro/peridotite contact”) that vary strongly in pH and the concentrations of H2, CH4, Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3-, SO42-, trace metals, and DIC. Geochemistry of fluids is strongly correlated with microbial community composition; similar microbial assemblages group according to fluid type. Hyperalkaline fluids exhibit low diversity and are dominated by taxa related to the Deinococcus-Thermus genus Meiothermus, candidate phyla OP1, and the family Thermodesulfovibrionaceae. Gabbro- and alkaline peridotite- aquifers harbor more diverse communities and contain abundant microbial taxa affiliated with Nitrospira, Nitrosospharaceae, OP3, Parvarcheota, and OP1 order Acetothermales. Wells that sit at the contact between gabbro and peridotite host microbial communities distinct from all other fluid types, with an enrichment in betaproteobacterial taxa. Together the taxonomic information and geochemical data suggest that several metabolisms may be operative in subsurface fluids, including methanogenesis, acetogenesis, and fermentation, as well as the

  10. A new integrated tectonic model for the Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic subduction, spreading, accretion and collision history of Tethys adjacent to the southern margin of Eurasia (NE Turkey) (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair; Parlak, Osman; Ustaömer, Timur; Taslı, Kemal; İnan, Nurdan; Dumitrica, Paulian; Karaoǧlan, Fatih


    A major Tethyan suture zone (İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan-Kars Suture Zone) borders the southern margin of Eurasia throughout the Pontides. In eastern Turkey the suture zone includes a range of redeposited terrigenous and volcanogenic sedimentary rocks, pelagic sedimentary rocks and also igneous/metamorphic rocks. The igneous rocks are mostly basaltic blocks and thrust sheets within melange, plus relatively intact, to dismembered, ophiolitic rocks (oceanic crust). Two alternative hypotheses have been developed and tested during this work: 1. The suture zone preserves a single Andean-type active continental margin associated with northward subduction, accretion and arc magmatism during Mesozoic-early Cenozoic time; 2. The suture zone preserves the remnants of two different subduction zones, namely a continental margin subduction zone (as above) and an intra-ocean subduction zone (preferred model). To determine the age of the oceanic crust, relevant to both hypotheses, zircons were extracted from basic ophiolitic rocks (both intact and dismembered) and dated by the U/Pb method (U238/U236) using an ion probe at Edinburgh University. This yielded the following results for the intact ophiolites (Ma): plagiogranite cutting sheeted dykes of the Refahiye ophiolite (east of Erzincan), 183.6±1.7 (2σ); isotropic gabbro from the Karadaǧ ophiolite (northeast of Erzurum), 179.4±1.7 (2σ). In addition, dismembered ophiolites gave the following ages: gabbro cumulate (Bayburt area), 186.2±1.4 (2σ), gabbro cumulate (N of Horasan), 178.1±1.8 (2σ). Furthermore, two samples from a kilometre-sized (arc-related) tonalite body, mapped as cutting a thrust sheet of ophiolitic isotropic gabbro in the Kırdaǧ area, yielded ages of 182.1±3.2 (2σ) and 185.1±3.0 (2σ) Ma. We infer that the ophiolitic and related magmatic arc rocks formed by spreading in a supra-subduction zone setting during the late Early Jurassic (Pliensbachian-Toarcian). This amends former assumptions of a Late

  11. Quantification of Tremolite in Friable Material Coming from Calabrian Ophiolitic Deposits by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Campopiano


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the infrared absorption band suitable for quantifying tremolite in three powdered samples (fine, medium, and large size classes coming from a quarry of ophiolitic friable rocks in the western part of the Calabria region of Italy. Three IR bands were considered: OH stretching band between 3700 and 3650 cm−1, the stretching bands of the Si-O-Si linkage between 1200 and 900 cm−1, and the absorbance band at 756 cm−1 attributable to tremolite. The amount of tremolite in the test samples was quantified by using the curve parameters of the three analytical bands. The quantitative analysis of tremolite using the band due to OH stretchings (3700–3650 cm−1 and the bands attributed to the Si-O-Si stretchings (1200–900 cm−1 showed high values for all test samples. Their use overestimated the tremolite amount because both bands were affected at the interfering mineral silicates such as talc, kaolinite, chlorite, and serpentinites. The abundant presence of antigorite in studied samples mainly in medium size class sample had a key role in our findings. The band at 756 cm−1 was not affected at the interfering minerals and can be used for quantitative analysis of tremolite in sample coming from ophiolitic deposits.

  12. Geochronological constraints on the metamorphic sole of the Semail ophiolite in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick M.W. Roberts


    Full Text Available The Semail ophiolite of Oman and the United Arab Emirates (UAE provides the best preserved large slice of oceanic lithosphere exposed on the continental crust, and offers unique opportunities to study processes of ocean crust formation, subduction initiation and obduction. Metamorphic rocks exposed in the eastern UAE have traditionally been interpreted as a metamorphic sole to the Semail ophiolite. However, there has been some debate over the possibility that the exposures contain components of older Arabian continental crust. To help answer this question, presented here are new zircon and rutile U-Pb geochronological data from various units of the metamorphic rocks. Zircon was absent in most samples. Those that yielded zircon and rutile provide dominant single age populations that are 95–93 Ma, partially overlapping with the known age of oceanic crust formation (96.5–94.5 Ma, and partially overlapping with cooling ages of the metamorphic rocks (95–90 Ma. The data are interpreted as dating high-grade metamorphism during subduction burial of the sediments into hot mantle lithosphere, and rapid cooling during their subsequent exhumation. A few discordant zircon ages, interpreted as late Neoproterozoic and younger, represent minor detrital input from the continent. No evidence is found in favour of the existence of older Arabian continental crust within the metamorphic rocks of the UAE.

  13. Petrogenesis and geodynamics of plagiogranites from Central Turkey (Ekecikdağ/Aksaray): new geochemical and isotopic data for generation in an arc basin system within the northern branch of Neotethys (United States)

    Köksal, Serhat; Toksoy-Köksal, Fatma; Göncüoglu, M. Cemal


    In the Late Cretaceous, throughout the closure of the Neotethys Ocean, ophiolitic rocks from the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan ocean branch were overthrusted the northern margin of the Tauride-Anatolide Platform. The ophiolitic rocks in the Ekecikdağ (Aksaray/Central Turkey) region typify the oceanic crust of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan branch of Neotethys. The gabbros in the area are cut by copious plagiogranite dykes, and both rock units are intruded by mafic dykes. The plagiogranites are leucocratic, fine- to medium-grained calc-alkaline rocks characterized mainly by plagioclase and quartz, with minor amounts of biotite, hornblende and clinopyroxene, and accessory phases of zircon, titanite, apatite and opaque minerals. They are tonalite and trondhjemite in composition with high SiO2 (69.9-75.9 wt%) and exceptionally low K2O (<0.5 wt%) contents. The plagiogranites in common with gabbros and mafic dykes show high large-ion lithophile elements/high-field strength element ratios with depletion in Nb, Ti and light rare-earth elements with respect to N-MORB. The plagiogranites together with gabbros and mafic dykes show low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70419-0.70647), high ƐNd( T) (6.0-7.5) values with 206Pb/204Pb (18.199-18.581), 207Pb/204Pb (15.571-15.639) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.292-38.605) ratios indicating a depleted mantle source modified with a subduction component. They show similar isotopic characteristics to the other supra-subduction zone (SSZ) ophiolites in the Eastern Mediterranean to East Anatolian-Lesser Caucasus and Iran regions. It is suggested that the Ekecikdağ plagiogranite was generated in a short time interval from a depleted mantle source in a SSZ/fore-arc basin setting, and its nature was further modified by a subduction component during intra-oceanic subduction.

  14. Tectonic interactions between India and Arabia since the Jurassic reconstructed from marine geophysics, ophiolite geology, and seismic tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaina, Carmen; Van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Spakman, Wim


    Gondwana breakup since the Jurassic and the northward motion of India toward Eurasia were associated with formation of ocean basins and ophiolite obduction between and onto the Indian and Arabian margins. Here we reconcile marine geophysical data from preserved oceanic basins with the age and

  15. Types and Mechanisms of Alterations on the Mesozoic Ophiolites (Lake Van Region-Turkey): Petrographical and Geochemical Approach (United States)

    Yazıcı, Ömer; Üner, Tijen; Mutlu, Sacit; Depçi, Tolga


    Mesozoic ophiolites are widely located in the eastern part of Lake Van Basin. The ophiolitic rocks deformed during the rifting and/or closure period of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean are observed as tectonic slices in the region. These ophiolites are represented by volcano-sedimentary units, isolated dikes, and mafic-ultramafic rocks. The formation, emplacement and post-emplacement processes of these ophiolitic rocks can be understood owing to alterations as rodingitization, serpentinization, and listwaenitization. Three stages of sequent mineralization are detected in the ophiolitic rocks. First stage is pyrometasomatization, represented by metamorphic minerals (garnet, chlorite etc.), observed in intruded dikes. Second stage is hydrothermal alteration of mafic-ultramafic rocks namely serpentinization. Listwaenite alteration is the last stage of mineralization. According to petrographical investigations, garnet+chlorite+diopsite minerals are detected in rodengites. The conversion of the plagioclase minerals to the calcsilicatic minerals in rodengites suggests that these rocks are metasomatic rocks produced by Ca-rich fluids derived from serpentinization of the ultramafic rocks. The serpentine minerals (chrysotile-lizardite) can be distinguished from each other by their morphology as being platy or fibrous. Listwaenite alteration is followed by the formation of carbonate, silica, oxides and hydroxides. Chemical analysis of these rocks show that the listwaenites have an enrichment in Ni and Co contents while the rodingites have low SiO2 and high CaO and MgO values (SiO2 28,50 - 36,67%, CaO 11,99 - 20,88%, and MgO 7,99 - 17,73%). Alteration types observed on the ophiolitic rocks demonstrate that these rocks are metamorphised by low pressure and low to middle temperature conditions (greenshist facies). Serpentinization is pointing out an alteration which occurred during the emplacement of the ophiolites or the latter period. This study has been supported by Project number 2013

  16. In situ Re-Os isotopic analysis of platinum-group minerals from the Mayarí-Cristal ophiolitic massif (Mayarí-Baracoa Ophiolitic Belt, eastern Cuba): implications for the origin of Os-isotope heterogeneities in podiform chromitites (United States)

    Marchesi, Claudio; González-Jiménez, José María; Gervilla, Fernando; Garrido, Carlos J.; Griffin, William L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Pearson, Norman J.


    Chromitite pods in the Mayarí-Cristal ophiolitic massif (eastern Cuba) were formed in the Late Cretaceous when island arc tholeiites and MORB-like back-arc basin basalts reacted with residual mantle peridotites and generated chromite-rich bodies enclosed in dunite envelopes. Platinum-group minerals (PGM) in the podiform chromitites exhibit important Os-isotope heterogeneities at the kilometric, hand sample and thin section scales. 187Os/188Os calculated at the time of chromitite crystallization (~90 Ma) ranges between 0.1185 and 0.1295 (γOs = -7.1 to +1.6, relative to enstatite chondrite), and all but one PGM have subchondritic 187Os/188Os. Grains in a single hand sample have initial 187Os/188Os that spans from 0.1185 to 0.1274, and in one thin section it varies between 0.1185 and 0.1232 in two PGM included in chromite which are only several millimeters apart. As the Os budget of a single micrometric grain derives from a mantle region that was at least several m3 in size, the variable Os isotopic composition of PGM in the Mayarí-Cristal chromitites probably reflects the heterogeneity of their mantle sources on the 10-100 m scale. Our results show that this heterogeneity was not erased by pooling and mingling of individual melt batches during chromitite crystallization but was transferred to the ore deposits on mineral scale. The distribution of the Os model ages calculated for PGM shows four main peaks, at ~100, 500, 750 and 1,000 Ma. These variable Os model ages reflect the presence of different depleted domains in the oceanic (Pacific-related) upper mantle of the Greater Antilles paleo-subduction zone. The concordance between the age of crystallization of the Mayarí-Cristal chromitites and the most recent peak of the Os model age distribution in PGM supports that Os in several grains was derived from fertile domains of the upper mantle, whose bulk Os isotopic composition is best approximated by that of enstatite chondrites; on the other hand, most PGM are

  17. Genesis and transport of hexavalent chromium in the system ophiolitic rocks - groundwater (United States)

    Shchegolikhina, Anastasia; Guadagnini, Laura; Guadagnini, Alberto


    Our study aims at contributing to the quantification and characterization of chromium transport processes from host rocks and soil matrices to groundwater. We focus on dissolved hexavalent chromium detected in groundwaters of geological regions with ophiolitic rocks (ophiolites and serpentinites) inclusions due to its critical ecological impact. (Oze et al., 2004). Despite the large number of analyses on the occurrence of high concentrations of hazardous hexavalent chromium ions in natural waters, only few studies were performed with the objective of identifying and investigating the geochemical reactions which could occur in the natural system rock - groundwater - dissolved chromium (Fantoni et al., 2002, Stephen and James, 2004, Lelli et al., 2013). In this context, there is a need for integration of results obtained from diverse studies in various regions and settings to improve our knowledge repository. Our theoretical analyses are grounded and driven by practical scenarios detected in subsurface reservoirs exploited for civil and industrial use located in the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy). Available experimental datasets are complemented with data from other international regional-scale settings (Altay mountains region, Russia). Modeling of chromium transformation and migration particularly includes characterization of the multispecies geochemical system. A key aspect of our study is the analysis of the complex competitive sorption processes governing heavy metal evolution in groundwater. The results of the research allow assessing the critical qualitative features of the mechanisms of hexavalent chromium ion mobilization from host rocks and soils and the ensuing transformation and migration to groundwater under the influence of diverse environmental factors. The study is then complemented by the quantification of the main sources of uncertainty associated with prediction of heavy metal contamination levels in the groundwater system explored. Fantoni, D

  18. Incipient boninitic arc crust built on denudated mantle: the Khantaishir ophiolite (western Mongolia) (United States)

    Gianola, Omar; Schmidt, Max W.; Jagoutz, Oliver; Sambuu, Oyungerel


    The 570 Ma old Khantaishir ophiolite is built by up to 4 km harzburgitic mantle with abundant pyroxenites and dunites followed by 2 km of hornblende-gabbros and gabbronorites and by a 2.5 km thick volcanic unit composed of a dyke + sill complex capped by pillow lavas and some volcanoclastics. The volcanics are mainly basaltic andesites and andesites (or boninites) with an average of 58.2 ± 1.0 wt% SiO2, X Mg = 0.61 ± 0.03 ( X Mg = molar MgO/(MgO + FeOtot), TiO2 = 0.4 ± 0.1 wt% and CaO = 7.5 ± 0.6 wt% (errors as 2 σ). Normalized trace element patterns show positive anomalies for Pb and Sr, a negative Nb-anomaly, large ion lithophile elements (LILE) concentrations between N- and E-MORB and distinctly depleted HREE. These characteristics indicate that the Khantaishir volcanics were derived from a refractory mantle source modified by a moderate slab-component, similar to boninites erupted along the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system and to the Troodos and Betts Cove ophiolites. Most strikingly and despite almost complete outcrops over 260 km2, there is no remnant of any pre-existing MORB crust, suggesting that the magmatic suite of this ophiolite formed on completely denudated mantle, most likely upon subduction initiation. The architecture of this 4-5 km thick early arc crust resembles oceanic crust formed at mid ocean ridges, but lacks a sheeted dyke complex; volcanic edifices are not observed. Nevertheless, low melting pressures combined with moderate H2O-contents resulted in high-Si primitive melts, in abundant hornblende-gabbros and in a fast enrichment in bulk SiO2. Fractional crystallization modeling starting from the observed primitive melts (56.6 wt% SiO2) suggests that 25 wt% pyroxene + plagioclase fractionation is sufficient to form the average Khantaishir volcanic crust. Most of the fractionation happened in the mantle, the observed pyroxenite lenses and layers in and at the top of the harzburgites account for the required cumulate volumes. Finally

  19. Biomarker insights into microbial activity in the serpentinite-hosted ecosystem of the Semail Ophiolite, Oman (United States)

    Newman, S. A.; Lincoln, S. A.; Shock, E.; Kelemen, P. B.; Summons, R. E.


    Serpentinization is a process in which ultramafic and mafic rocks undergo exothermic reactions when exposed to water. The products of these reactions, including methane, hydrogen, and hydrogen sulfide, can sustain microbially dominated ecosystems [1,2,3]. Here, we report the lipid biomarker record of microbial activity in carbonate veins of the Semail Ophiolite, a site currently undergoing serpentinization [4]. The ophiolite, located in the Oman Mountains in the Sultanate of Oman, was obducted onto the Arabian continental margin during the closure of the southern Tethys Ocean (~70 Ma) [5]. We detected bacterial and archaeal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) lipids in Semail carbonates. In addition to archaeal isoprenoidal GDGTs with 0-3 cyclopentane moieties, we detected crenarchaeol, an iGDGT containing 4 cyclopentane and 1 cyclohexane moiety. Crenarchaeol biosynthesis is currently understood to be limited to thaumarchaea, representatives of which have been found to fix inorganic carbon in culture. We also analyzed isoprenoidal diether lipids, potentially derived from methanogenic euryarchaea, as well as non-isoprenoidal diether and monoether lipids that may be indicative of methane cycling bacteria. The stable carbon isotopic composition of these compounds is potentially useful in determining both their origin and the origin of methane detected in ophiolite fluids. We compare our results to those found at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field, a similar microbially-dominated ecosystem fueled by serpentinization processes [3]. Modern serpentinite-hosted ecosystems such as this can serve as analogs for environments in which ultramafic and mafic rocks were prevalent (e.g. early Earth and other early terrestrial planets). Additionally, an analysis of modern serpentinite systems can help assess conditions promoting active carbon sequestration in ultramafic rocks [6]. References [1] Russell et al. (2010). Geobiology 8: 355-371. [2] Kelley et al. (2005). Science

  20. The Galicia-Ossa-Morena Zone: Proposal for a new zone of the Iberian Massif. Variscan implications (United States)

    Arenas, Ricardo; Díez Fernández, Rubén; Rubio Pascual, Francisco J.; Sánchez Martínez, Sonia; Martín Parra, Luis Miguel; Matas, Jerónimo; González del Tánago, José; Jiménez-Díaz, Alberto; Fuenlabrada, Jose M.; Andonaegui, Pilar; Garcia-Casco, Antonio


    Correlation of a group of allochthonous terranes (referred to as basal, ophiolitic and upper units) exposed in the NW and SW of the Iberian Massif, is used to propose a new geotectonic zone in the southern branch of the Variscan Orogen: the Galicia-Ossa-Morena Zone. Recent advances in SW Iberia identify most of the former Ossa-Morena Zone as another allochthonous complex of the Iberian Massif, the Ossa-Morena Complex, equivalent to the Cabo Ortegal, Órdenes, Malpica-Tui, Bragança and Morais complexes described in NW Iberia. The new geotectonic zone and its counterparts along the rest of the Variscan Orogen constitute an Internal Variscan Zone with ophiolites and units affected by high-P metamorphism. The Galicia-Ossa-Morena Zone includes a Variscan suture and pieces of continental crust bearing the imprint of Ediacaran-Cambrian events related to the activity of peri-Gondwanan magmatic arcs (Cadomian orogenesis). In the Iberian Massif, the general structure of this geotectonic zone represents a duplication of the Gondwanan platform, the outboard sections being juxtaposed on top of domains located closer to the mainland before amalgamation. This interpretation offers an explanation that overcomes some issues regarding the differences between the stratigraphic and paleontological record of the central and southern sections of the Iberian Massif. Also, equivalent structural relationships between other major geotectonic domains of the rest of the Variscan Orogen are consistent with our interpretation and allow suspecting similar configurations along strike of the orogen. A number of issues may be put forward in this respect that potentially open new lines of thinking about the architecture of the Variscan Orogen.

  1. Making a report of a short trip in an ophiolitic complex with Google Earth (United States)

    Aubret, Marianne


    Plate tectonics is taught in French secondary school (lower and upper-sixth). According to the curriculum, the comprehension of plate-tectonic processes and concepts should be based on field data. For example, the Alpine's ocean history is studied to understand how mountain ranges are formed. In this context, Corsica is a great open-air laboratory, but unfortunately, the traffic conditions are very difficult in the island and despite the short distances, it's almost impossible for teachers to take their students to the remarkable geologic spots. The «défilé de l'Inzecca» is one of them: there you can see a part of the alpine's ophiolitic complex. The aim of this activity is to elaborate a « KMZ folder » in Google Earth as a report of a short trip thanks to the students' data field; it is also the occasion to enrich the Google Earth KMZ folder already available for our teaching.


    Page, Norman J; Talkington, Raymond W.


    Samples of spinel lherzolite, harzburgite, dunite, and chromitite from the Bay of Islands, Lewis Hills, Table Mountain, Advocate, North Arm Mountain, White Hills Periodite Point Rousse, Great Bend and Betts Cove ophiolite complexes in Newfoundland were analyzed for the platinum-group elements (PGE) Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru and Ir. The ranges of concentration (in ppb) observed for all rocks are: less than 0. 5 to 77 (Pd), less than 1 to 120 (Pt), less than 0. 5 to 20 (Rh), less than 100 to 250 (Ru) and less than 20 to 83 (Ir). Chondrite-normalized PGE ratios suggest differences between rock types and between complexes. Samples of chromitite and dunite show relative enrichment in Ru and Ir and relative depletion in Pt and Pd.

  3. Ophiolites and Gas Seeps as Terrestrial Analogs for Methane Origin and Degassing on Mars (United States)

    Schoell, M.; Etiope, G.


    If confirmed, the recently-discovered methane (CH4) plume on Mars, in the Northern Summer of 2003, would reflect an emission of ~ 19 x103 tonnes y-1 and possibly even ~ 57 x104 tonnes y-1. Serpentinization in ophiolitic rocks is one of the main processes that are inferred for the origin of methane on Mars. Ophiolites or, hydrated mineral-bearing rocks in general on Earth could serve as analogs. So far, however, most of these “analog” studies focused on mineralogical and microbiological processes associated to ophiolitic environments. Analog studies specifically dealing with methane emissions to the Earth’s surface are missing. One of the observations of Mars methane is the transient release of large amounts of methane in a relatively short period, probably a few months. This would imply the existence of a mechanism of gas accumulations in the subsurface and episodic release to the surface. Such release mechanisms may be similar to certain weak and intermittent gas seeps or small mud volcanoes on Earth, rather than to steady, continuous degassing of methane from mineral reactions. Currently, it is not clear whether low-temperature serpentinization can be an abiogenic methane “kitchen” where methane might be generated fast enough to sustain vigorous and long-lasting seeps. In cases of fluxes of the order of several tonnes per year, a pressurized accumulation must exist. In case of lower fluxes, probably gas accumulations are not necessary and low temperature serpentinization can be fast enough to charge episodic seeps. These concepts are fundamental to our understanding of potential sources for the martian methane, and they need to be studied with the support of analog seepage data on Earth. Two examples are presented: (1) a case of terrestrial abiogenic CH4 seepage from ophiolitic rocks at the “eternal fires of Chimaera” in Turkey. Estimated flux data from the abiogenic gas seep of Chimaera in Turkey (>20 tonnes of CH4 per year) suggest a great

  4. Lithosphere destabilization by melt percolation during pre-oceanic rifting: Evidence from Alpine-Apennine ophiolitic peridotites (United States)

    Piccardo, Giovanni; Ranalli, Giorgio


    Orogenic peridotites from Alpine-Apennine ophiolite Massifs (Lanzo, Voltri, External and Internal Ligurides, - NW Italy, and Mt. Maggiore - Corsica) derive from the mantle lithosphere of the Ligurian Tethys. Field/structural and petrologic/geochemical studies provide constraints on the evolution of the lithospheric mantle during pre-oceanic passive rifting of the late Jurassic Ligurian Tethys ocean. Continental rifting by far-field tectonic forces induced extension of the lithosphere by means of km-scale extensional shear zones that developed before infiltration of melts from the asthenosphere (Piccardo and Vissers, 2007). After significant thinning of the lithosphere, the passively upwelling asthenosphere underwent spinel-facies decompression melting along the axial zone of the extensional system. Silica-undersaturated melt fractions percolated through the lithospheric mantle via diffuse/focused porous flow and interacted with the host peridotite through pyroxenes-dissolving/olivine-precipitating melt/rock reactions. Pyroxene dissolution and olivine precipitation modified the composition of the primary silica-undersaturated melts into derivative silica-saturated melts, while the host lithospheric spinel lherzolites were transformed into pyroxene-depleted/olivine-enriched reactive spinel harzburgites and dunites. The derivative liquids interacted through olivine-dissolving/orthopyroxene+plagioclase-crystallizing reactions with the host peridotites that were impregnated and refertilized (Piccardo et al., 2015). The saturated melts stagnated and crystallized in the shallow mantle lithosphere (as testified by diffuse interstitial crystallization of euhedral orthopyroxene and anhedral plagioclase) and locally ponded, forming orthopyroxene-rich/olivine-free gabbro-norite pods (Piccardo and Guarnieri, 2011). Reactive and impregnated peridotites are characterized by high equilibration temperatures (up to 1250 °C) even at low pressure, plagioclase-peridotite facies

  5. Metabolic Potential and Activity in Fluids of the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory, California, USA (United States)

    Hoehler, T.; Som, S.; Schrenk, M.; McCollom, T.; Cardace, D.


    Metabolic potential and activity associated with hydrogen and carbon monoxide were characterized in fluids sampled from the the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO). CROMO consists of two clusters of science-dedicated wells drilled to varying depths up to 35m in the actively serpentinizing, Jurassic-age Coast Range Ophiolite of Northern California, along with a suite of pre-existing monitoring wells at the same site. Consistent with the fluid chemistry observed in other serpentinizing systems, CROMO fluids are highly alkaline, with pH up to 12.5, high in methane, with concentrations up 1600 micromolar, and low in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), with concentrations of 10's to 100's of micromolar. CROMO is conspicuous for fluid H2 concentrations that are consistently sub-micromolar, orders of magnitude lower than is typical of other systems. However, higher H2 concentrations (10's -100's of micromolar) at an earlier stage of fluid chemical evolution are predicted by, or consistent with: thermodynamic models for fluid chemistry based on parent rock composition equivalent to local peridotite and with water:rock ratio constrained by observed pH; the presence of magnetite at several wt% in CROMO drill cores; and concentrations of formate and carbon monoxide that would require elevated H2 if formed in equilibrium with H2 and DIC. Calculated Gibbs energy changes for reaction of H2 and CO in each of several metabolisms, across the range of fluid composition encompassed by the CROMO wells, range from bioenergetically feasible (capable of driving ATP synthesis) to thermodynamically unfavorable. Active consumption relative to killed controls was observed for both CO and H2 during incubation of fluids from the pre-existing monitoring wells; in incubations of freshly cored solids, consumption was only observed in one sample set (corresponding to the lowest pH) out of three. The specific metabolisms by which H2 and CO are consumed remain to be determined.

  6. Can Surface Seeps Elucidate Carbon Cycling in Terrestrial Subsurface Ecosystems in Ophiolite-hosted Serpentinizing Fluids? (United States)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Cardace, D.; Woycheese, K. M.; Vallalar, B.; Arcilla, C. A.


    Serpentinization in ophiolite-hosted regimes produces highly reduced, high pH fluids that are often characterized as having copious H2 and CH4 gas, little/no inorganic carbon, and limited electron acceptors. Subsurface microbial biomes shift as deeply-sourced fluids reach the oxygenated surface environment, where organisms capable of metabolizing O2 thrive (Woycheese et al., 2015). The relationship, connection, and communication between surface expressions (such as fluid seeps) and the subsurface biosphere is still largely unexplored. Our work in the Zambales and Palawan ophiolites (Philippines) defines surface habitats with geochemistry, targeted culturing efforts, and community analysis (Cardace et al., 2015; Woycheese et al., 2015). Fluids in the spring sources are largely `typical' and fall in the pH range of 9-11.5 with measurable gas escaping from the subsurface (H2 and CH4 > 10uM, CO2 > 1 mM; Cardace et al., 2015). Outflow channels extend from the source pools. These surface data encourage prediction of the subsurface metabolic landscape. To understand how carbon cycling in the subsurface and surface environments might be related, we focus on community analysis, culturing, and the geochemical context of the ecosystem. Shotgun metagenomic analyses indicate carbon cycling is reliant on methanogenesis, acetogenesis, sulfate reduction, and H2 and CH4 oxidation. Methyl coenzyme M reductase, and formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase were detected, and relative abundance increased near the near-anoxic spring source. In this tropical climate, cellulose is also a likely carbon source, possibly even in the subsurface. Enrichment cultures [pH 8-12] and strains [pH 8-10] from Zambales springs show degradation of cellulose and production of cellulase. DIC, DOC, and 13C of solid substrates show mixed autotrophic/heterotrophic activity. Results indicate a metabolically flexible surface community, and suggest details about carbon cycling in the subsurface.

  7. Tectonic evolution of the Cretaceous Ankara Ophiolitic Mélange during the Late Cretaceous to pre-Miocene interval in Central Anatolia, Turkey (United States)

    Rojay, Bora


    The chaotic tectonic belt, which is distinguished in northern Anatolia, is called the - Ankara Accretionary Complex - in the Ankara region, central Anatolia. The belt is differentiated into three imbricated tectonic subbelts, namely, pre-Triassic metamorphics, Mélange with calcareous blocks and Cretaceous mélange with ophiolitic blocks (Ankara Ophiolitic Mélange). The Ankara Ophiolitic Mélange (AOM) is a chaotic tectono-sedimentary mixture made up of detached blocks of Mesozoic ultramafic rocks, Cretaceous pillow basalts, Cretaceous radiolarites, Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous limestones and closely associated Upper Cretaceous basinal sequences. The detached and dismembered blocks lie within a highly sheared and brecciated ophiolitic detrital matrix or a block-on-block to sheared sedimentary matrix that varies along the mélange belt. Cenomanian-Turonian and Turonian-Santonian trench-linked basin deposits onlap the Cenomanian sedimentary and Cretaceous ophiolitic mélanges. The elements of the ophiolitic mélange were comixed as a result of tectonic recycling in the accretionary wedge. The belt is unconformably overlain by Campanian-Maastrichtian to Paleogene accretionary fore-arc basin deposits. The AOM developed in an accretionary wedge setting in which oceanic leading edge of the Anatolide-Tauride platform subducted toward north during the post-Barremian-pre-Campanian period. The AOM emplaced episodically and progressively as a result of in thrust tectonics with vergence ranging from SSW to SE during the post-Turonian to pre-Miocene in the Ankara terrain.

  8. Plagiogranites as late-stage immiscible liquids in ophiolite and mid-ocean ridge suites - An experimental study (United States)

    Dixon, S.; Rutherford, M. J.


    A study of relationships between basic and acidic rocks was made by fractionating primitive basalt at low pressure anhydrous conditions at various fugacities. Fractionally crystallized basalt became increasingly enriched in iron which became silicate liquid immiscible, producing Fe-enriched basaltic and granitic liquids. The latter is similar to plagiogranites found in mid-oceanic rift (MOR) regions, showing that silicate liquid immiscibility could be the petrogenic process which produces plagiogranites in some MOR regions and ophiolites. The major problem in considering plagiogranites as products of silicate liquid immiscibility is absence of any description of the Fe-enriched conjugate liquid in the ophiolite or MOR literature, and the identification of this magma is essential for a definite case of silicate liquid immiscibility.

  9. Compositional Variation of Chrome Spinels in the Ore-bearing Zones of the Kraka Ophiolite and the Chromitite Origin


    D. E. Saveliev; I. A. Blinov


    The article considers a chemical variation of accessory and ore-forming chrome spinels from the Kraka ultramafic massif at the different scales, from the deposit to the thin section. A correlation analysis of compositional and structural features of ultramafic rocks and ores was performed. The ultramafic rocks and chromitites in the studied massif show the distinct deformation structures and tectonite olivine fabric. A typical chemical gap (i.e. Cr#=Cr/(Cr+Al)) was observed between peridotite...

  10. Uranium-lead isotopic ages of the Samail ophiolite, Oman, with applicatons to Tethyan ocean ridge tectonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilton, G.R.; Hopson, C.A.; Wright, J.E.


    Plagiogranites are a minor but widespread component of the Samail ophiolite plutonic member. They crystallized from the most fractionated melts generated by magmatic crystallization and differentiation of a steady state magma chamber beneath the Tethyan spreading ocean ridge, and their ages are thought to mark the time of ocean crust formation. Isotopic U--Pb ages of zircons from 13 plagiogranites collected along a 270-km segment of the Samail ophiolite subparallel to the regional trend of the sheeted dike complex (the former spreading ridge axis direction) define a narrow time interval of 93.5--97.9 m.y., with a pronounced clustering about 95 m.y. The zircon ages of the plagiogranites agree remarkably well with the early Cenomanian to early Turonian biostratigraphic ages of sediments that are intercalated within the ophiolite pillow lavas and that lie just above them (Tippit et al., 1981). The agreement of radiometric and biostratigraphic ages provides strong support for the conclusion that the plagiogranite U--Pb ages closely date the time span of ocean crust formation. No step changes in age patterns are observed along the ridge axis (sheeted dike) direction, suggesting that there are no major internal offsets of the ophiolite by transform or other faults along most of the traverse. One possible exception occurs at the southeastern end of the sampled interval (Ibra area), where a 3 m.y. discontinuity might be caused by an unmapped fault. Assuming that the regional trend of the sheeted dikes (N10 0 --25 0 W) marks the direction of the former spreading ridge axis, the present array of sample localities spans a distance of 130 to 195 km normal to that axis (i.e., in the spreading direction). The data as a whole do not define a clear-cut age trend normal to the spreading axis, but by eliminating samples that may be aberrant due to faulting, the data array suggests a pattern of increasing ages from east to west

  11. Evidence from gabbro of the Troodos ophiolite for lateral magma transport along a slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge. (United States)

    Abelson, M; Baer, G; Agnon, A


    The lateral flow of magma and ductile deformation of the lower crust along oceanic spreading axes has been thought to play a significant role in suppressing both mid-ocean ridge segmentation and variations in crustal thickness. Direct investigation of such flow patterns is hampered by the kilometres of water that cover the oceanic crust, but such studies can be made on ophiolites (fragments of oceanic crust accreted to a continent). In the Oman ophiolite, small-scale radial patterns of flow have been mapped along what is thought to be the relict of a fast-spreading mid-ocean ridge. Here we present evidence for broad-scale along-axis flow that has been frozen into the gabbro of the Troodos ophiolite in Cyprus (thought to be representative of a slow-spreading ridge axis). The gabbro suite of Troodos spans nearly 20 km of a segment of a fossil spreading axis, near a ridge-transform intersection. We mapped the pattern of magma flow by analysing the rocks' magnetic fabric at 20 sites widely distributed in the gabbro suite, and by examining the petrographic fabric at 9 sites. We infer an along-axis magma flow for much of the gabbro suite, which indicates that redistribution of melt occurred towards the segment edge in a large depth range of the oceanic crust. Our results support the magma plumbing structure that has been inferred indirectly from a seismic tomography experiment on the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

  12. Ophiolite Emplacement and the Effects of the Subduction of the Active Chile Ridge System: Heterogeneous Paleostress Regimes Recorded in the Taitao Ophiolite (Southern Chile Emplazamiento de ofiolitas y los efectos de la subducción de la dorsal activa de Chile: Regímenes heterogéneos de paleostress registrados en la Oflolita Taitao (Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio E Veloso


    Full Text Available The repeated north and southward migration of the Chile Triple junction, offshore the Península de Taitao, is expected to have imposed contrasting stress fields in the forearc for the last 6 Ma because of changes in convergence direction and rate of subducting plates. NNW-SSE to E-W and minor NE-SW striking brittle faults developed in the plutonic units of the Mio-Pliocene Taitao Ophiolite, whereas NNE-SSW and minor NW-SE trending faults developed in its eastern border (Bahía Barrientes fault-zone. These brittle faults are studied to elucídate the style of ophiolite emplacement and the tectonic effects resulting from the alternated migration of the Chile Triple junction in the área. Analyses of heterogeneous fault-slip data on both áreas suggest that faults were activated by different stress fields. Two different compressional stress fields were identified in the plutomc units (A and B, whereas three different stress fields, ranging from compressional to strike-slip, were identified in the BahíaBarrientos fault-zone (C, D and E. Calculated directions of Oj axes for A, C, D and E solutions are mostly E-W trending, roughly similar to the convergence direction of subducting plates, whereas that for B solution is counterclockwise rotated ca. 60° with respect to the previous E-W trend. Brittle structures related to solution B were attributed to an early deformation of the ophiolite, most probably developed shortly after its emplacement {ca. 6 Ma. These structures were further counterclockwise rotated, while new structures (related to solution A developed in the plutomc units in order to absorb the continuous deformation. In the eastern margin of the ophiolite, the stress field divided inte compressional and strike-slip components. During periods of relatively strong compression (fast subduction of the Nazca píate, the fault-zone experienced well defined compressional and strike-slip movements (solutions C and D. In contrast, during periods of

  13. Petrology and geochemistry of mafic magmatic rocks from the Sarve-Abad ophiolites (Kurdistan region, Iran): Evidence for interaction between MORB-type asthenosphere and OIB-type components in the southern Neo-Tethys Ocean (United States)

    Saccani, Emilio; Allahyari, Khalil; Rahimzadeh, Bahman


    The Sarve-Abad (Sawlava) ophiolites crop out in the Main Zagros Thrust Zone and represent remnants of the Mesozoic southern Neo-Tethys Ocean that was located between the Arabian shield and Sanandaj-Sirjan continental block. They consist of several incomplete ophiolitic sequences including gabbroic bodies, a dyke complex, and pillow lava sequences. These rocks generally range from sub-alkaline to transitional character. Mineral chemistry and whole-rock geochemistry indicate that they have compositions akin to enriched-type mid-ocean ridge basalts (E-MORB) and plume-type MORB (P-MORB). Nonetheless, the different depletion degrees in heavy rare earth elements (HREE), which can be observed in both E-MORB like and P-MORB like rocks enable two main basic chemical types of rocks to be distinguished as Type-I and Type-II. Type-I rocks are strongly depleted in HREE (YbN 9.0). Petrogenetic modeling shows that Type-I rocks originated from 7 to 16% polybaric partial melting of a MORB-type mantle source, which was significantly enriched by plume-type components. These rocks resulted from the mixing of variable fractions of melts generated in garnet-facies and the spinel-facies mantle. In contrast, Type-II rocks originated from 5 to 8% partial melting in the spinel-facies of a MORB-type source, which was moderately enriched by plume-type components. A possible tectono-magmatic model for the generation of the southern Neo-Tethys oceanic crust implies that the continental rift and subsequent oceanic spreading were associated with uprising of MORB-type asthenospheric mantle featuring plume-type component influences decreasing from deep to shallow mantle levels. These deep plume-type components were most likely inherited from Carboniferous mantle plume activity that was associated with the opening of Paleo-Tethys in the same area.

  14. Seismic wave velocity of rocks in the Oman ophiolite: constraints for petrological structure of oceanic crust (United States)

    Saito, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Shibata, S.; Akizuki, R.; Arima, M.; Tatsumi, Y.; Arai, S.


    Evaluation of rock velocities and comparison with velocity profiles defined by seismic refraction experiments are a crucial approach for understanding the petrological structure of the crust. In this study, we calculated the seismic wave velocities of various types of rocks from the Oman ophiolite in order to constrain a petrological structure of the oceanic crust. Christensen & Smewing (1981, JGR) have reported experimental elastic velocities of rocks from the Oman ophiolite under oceanic crust-mantle conditions (6-430 MPa). However, in their relatively low-pressure experiments, internal pore-spaces might affect the velocity and resulted in lower values than the intrinsic velocity of sample. In this study we calculated the velocities of samples based on their modal proportions and chemical compositions of mineral constituents. Our calculated velocities represent the ‘pore-space-free’ intrinsic velocities of the sample. We calculated seismic velocities of rocks from the Oman ophiolite including pillow lavas, dolerites, plagiogranites, gabbros and peridotites at high-pressure-temperature conditions with an Excel macro (Hacker & Avers 2004, G-cubed). The minerals used for calculations for pillow lavas, dolerites and plagiogranites were Qtz, Pl, Prh, Pmp, Chl, Ep, Act, Hbl, Cpx and Mag. Pl, Hbl, Cpx, Opx and Ol were used for the calculations for gabbros and peridotites. Assuming thermal gradient of 20° C/km and pressure gradient of 25 MPa/km, the velocities were calculated in the ranges from the atmospheric pressure (0° C) to 200 MPa (160° C). The calculation yielded P-wave velocities (Vp) of 6.5-6.7 km/s for the pillow lavas, 6.6-6.8 km/s for the dolerites, 6.1-6.3 km/s for the plagiogranites, 6.9-7.5 km/s for the gabbros and 8.1-8.2 km/s for the peridotites. On the other hand, experimental results reported by Christensen & Smewing (1981, JGR) were 4.5-5.9 km/s for the pillow lavas, 5.5-6.3 km/s for the dolerites, 6.1-6.3 km/s for the plagiogranites, 6

  15. Iron transformations during low temperature alteration of variably serpentinized rocks from the Samail ophiolite, Oman (United States)

    Mayhew, Lisa E.; Ellison, Eric T.; Miller, Hannah M.; Kelemen, Peter B.; Templeton, Alexis S.


    Partially serpentinized peridotites in the Samail ophiolite in the Sultanate of Oman currently undergo low temperature alteration and hydration both at shallow levels, with water recently in contact with the atmosphere, and at depth, with anoxic, reducing fluids. However, it is unclear how changes in the distribution and oxidation state of Fe are driving the production of energy-rich gases such as hydrogen and methane detected in peridotite catchments. We track the Fe transformations in a suite of outcrop samples representing a subset of the spectrum of least to most altered end-members of the Oman peridotites. We use microscale mineralogical and geochemical analyses including QEMSCAN, Raman spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping, and electron microprobe wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. The less-altered peridotites possess a diversity of Fe-bearing phases including relict primary minerals (e.g. olivine, pyroxene, chromite) and secondary phases (e.g. serpentine and brucite). Raman spectroscopy and electron microprobe data (Si/(Mg + Fe)) indicate that much of the serpentine is significantly intergrown with brucite on the sub-micron scale. These data also indicate that the Fe content of the brucite ranges from 10 to 20 wt% FeO. The mineral assemblage of the highly reacted rocks is less diverse, dominated by serpentine and carbonate while olivine and brucite are absent. Magnetite is relatively rare and mainly associated with chromite. Goethite and hematite, both Fe(III)-hydroxides, were also identified in the highly altered rocks. Whole rock chemical analyses reflect these mineralogical differences and show that Fe in the partially serpentinized samples is on average more reduced (∼0.40-0.55 Fe3+/FeTotal) than Fe in the highly reacted rocks (∼0.85-0.90 Fe3+/FeTotal). We propose that olivine, brucite, chromite and, perhaps, serpentine in the less-altered peridotites act as reactive phases during low temperature alteration of the Oman

  16. One-carbon (bio ?) Geochemistry in Subsurface Waters of the Serpentinizing Coast Range Ophiolite (United States)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Mccollom, Tom; Schrenk, Matt; Cardace, Dawn


    Serpentinization - the aqueous alteration of ultramafic rocks - typically imparts a highly reducing and alkaline character to the reacting fluids. In turn, these can influence the speciation and potential for metabolism of one-carbon compounds in the system. We examined the aqueous geochemistry and assessed the biological potential of one-carbon compounds in the subsurface of the McLaughlin Natural Reserve (Coast Range Ophiolite, California, USA). Fluids from wells sunk at depths of 25-90 meters have pH values ranging from 9.7 to 11.5 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC concentrations) generally below 60 micromolar. Methane is present at concentrations up to 1.3 millimolar (approximately one-atmosphere saturation), and hydrogen concentrations are below 15 nanomolar, suggesting active consumption of H2 and production of CH4. However, methane production from CO2 is thermodynamically unfavorable under these conditions. Additionally, the speciation of DIC predominantly into carbonate at these high pH values creates a problem of carbon availability for any organisms that require CO2 (or bicarbonate) for catabolism or anabolism. A potential alternative is carbon monoxide, which is present in these waters at concentrations 2000-fold higher than equilibrium with atmospheric CO. CO is utilized in a variety of metabolisms, including methanogenesis, and bioavailability is not adversely affected by pH-dependent speciation (as for DIC). Methanogenesis from CO under in situ conditions is thermodynamically favorable and would satisfy biological energy requirements with respect to both Gibbs Energy yield and power.

  17. Differences in composition of shallow-water marine benthic communities associated with two ophiolitic rock substrata (United States)

    Bavestrello, Giorgio; Bo, Marzia; Betti, Federico; Canessa, Martina; Gaggero, Laura; Rindi, Fabio; Cattaneo-Vietti, Riccardo


    On marine rocky shores, several physical, chemical and biological processes operate to maintain the benthic assemblages' heterogeneity, but among the abiotic factors, the composition and texture of the rocky substrata have been only sporadically considered. However, biomineralogical studies have demonstrated an unsuspected ability of the benthic organisms to interact at different levels with rocky substrata. Therefore, the mineralogy of the substratum can affect the structure of benthic communities. To evaluate this hypothesis, the macrobenthic assemblages developed on two different ophiolitic rocks (serpentinites and metagabbros) in contact at a restricted stretch of the western Ligurian Riviera (western Mediterranean Sea), with identical environmental and climatic conditions, were analysed. Samplings were carried out at four bathymetric levels (+1m, 0m, -1m, and -3m respect to the mean sea level) and the analysis of the data evidenced differences in terms of species distribution and percent coverage. Algal communities growing on metagabbros were poorer in species richness and showed a much simpler structure when compared to the assemblages occurring on the serpentinites. The most widely distributed animal organism, the barnacle Chthamalus stellatus, was dominant on serpentinites, and virtually absent on metagabbros. Our results suggest a complex pattern of interactions between lithology and benthic organisms operating through processes of inhibition/facilitation related to the mineral properties of the substratum.

  18. Geochemistry and origin of the ophiolite hosted magnesite deposit at Derakht-Senjed, NE Iran (United States)

    Mirnejad, Hassan; Aminzadeh, Mahrokh; Ebner, Fritz; Unterweissacher, Thomas


    The Derakht-Senjed magnesite deposit, hosted by Torbat-e-Heydarieh ophiolite in NE Iran, is developed as veins, veinlets and stockwork type mineralization. While the veins and veinlets only contain magnesite, the stockwork mineralization in addition contains sparry dolomite interlayered with magnesite. Magnesite and dolomite are both poor in FeO and SiO2. The carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of magnesite (δ13CV-PDB = -3.9 ± 0.1 to -5.0 ± 0.1‰; δ18OV-SMOW = +25.2 ± 0.1 to +26.5 ± 0.1 ‰) can be explained by contribution of atmospheric CO2 and/or an involvement by organic carbon. Dolomite typically shows slightly lower values of δ13C V-PDB -5.2 ± 0.1 to -5.5 ± 0.1‰ and δ18OV-SMOW + 23.8 ± 0.1 to +24.8 ± 0.1‰ compared to the magnesite. The formation of magnesite at Derakht-Senjed was structurally controlled by a fracture network in the ultramafic host rocks, which provided suitable fluid pathways for leaching of Mg from the host rocks and subsequent precipitation of magnesite from carbonated solutions. It is likely that dolomite formed due to precipitation from a fluid having lower XCO2 and higher Ca2+/Mg2+ activity ratio, rather than by replacement of magnesite.

  19. Ophiolitic basement to the Great Valley forearc basin, California, from seismic and gravity data: Implications for crustal growth at the North American continental margin (United States)

    Godfrey, N.J.; Beaudoin, B.C.; Klemperer, S.L.; Levander, A.; Luetgert, J.; Meltzer, A.; Mooney, W.; Tréhu, A.


    The nature of the Great Valley basement, whether oceanic or continental, has long been a source of controversy. A velocity model (derived from a 200-km-long east-west reflection-refraction profile collected south of the Mendocino triple junction, northern California, in 1993), further constrained by density and magnetic models, reveals an ophiolite underlying the Great Valley (Great Valley ophiolite), which in turn is underlain by a westward extension of lower-density continental crust (Sierran affinity material). We used an integrated modeling philosophy, first modeling the seismic-refraction data to obtain a final velocity model, and then modeling the long-wavelength features of the gravity data to obtain a final density model that is constrained in the upper crust by our velocity model. The crustal section of Great Valley ophiolite is 7-8 km thick, and the Great Valley ophiolite relict oceanic Moho is at 11-16 km depth. The Great Valley ophiolite does not extend west beneath the Coast Ranges, but only as far as the western margin of the Great Valley, where the 5-7-km-thick Great Valley ophiolite mantle section dips west into the present-day mantle. There are 16-18 km of lower-density Sierran affinity material beneath the Great Valley ophiolite mantle section, such that a second, deeper, "present-day" continental Moho is at about 34 km depth. At mid-crustal depths, the boundary between the eastern extent of the Great Valley ophiolite and the western extent of Sierran affinity material is a near-vertical velocity and density discontinuity about 80 km east of the western margin of the Great Valley. Our model has important implications for crustal growth at the North American continental margin. We suggest that a thick ophiolite sequence was obducted onto continental material, probably during the Jurassic Nevadan orogeny, so that the Great Valley basement is oceanic crust above oceanic mantle vertically stacked above continental crust and continental mantle.

  20. Basalts and picrites from a plume-type ophiolite in the South Qilian Accretionary Belt, Qilian Orogen: Accretion of a Cambrian Oceanic Plateau? (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqi; Song, Shuguang; Yang, Liming; Su, Li; Niu, Yaoling; Allen, Mark B.; Xu, Xin


    Oceanic plateaus with high-Mg rocks in the present-day oceanic crust have attracted much attention for their proposed mantle-plume origins and abnormally high mantle potential temperatures (Tp). However, equivalent rocks in ancient oceanic environments are usually poorly preserved because of deformation and metamorphism. Here we present petrological, geochronological and geochemical data for pillow lavas from Cambrian ophiolites in the Lajishan and Yongjing regions of the South Qilian Accretionary Belt (SQAB), from the southern part of the Qilian Orogen, northern China. Three rock groups can be identified geochemically: (1) sub-alkaline basalts with enriched mid- ocean ridge basalt (E-MORB) affinity; (2) alkaline basalts with oceanic island basalt (OIB) features, probably derived from partial melting of an enriched mantle source; and (3) picrites with MgO (18-22 wt%). Cr-numbers [Cr# = Cr/(Cr + Al)] of spinels from the picrites suggest 18-21% degree of partial melting at the estimated mantle potential temperature (Tp) of 1489-1600 °C, equivalent to values of Cenozoic Hawaiian picrites (1500-1600 °C). Zircons from one gabbro sample yielded a U-Pb Concordia age of 525 ± 3 Ma, suggesting the oceanic crust formed in the Cambrian. Available evidence suggests that Cambrian mantle plume activity is preserved in the South Qilian Accretionary Belt, and influenced the regional tectonics: "jamming" of the trench by thick oceanic crust explains the emplacement and preservation of the oceanic plateau, and gave rise to the generation of concomitant Ordovician inner-oceanic island arc basalts via re-organisation of the subduction zones in the region.

  1. Lithological architecture and petrography of the Mako Birimian greenstone belt, Kédougou-Kéniéba Inlier, eastern Senegal (United States)

    Dabo, Moussa; Aïfa, Tahar; Gning, Ibrahima; Faye, Malick; Ba, Mamadou Fallou; Ngom, Papa Malick


    The new lithological and petrographic data obtained in the Mako sector are analyzed in the light of the geochemical data available in the literature. It consists of ultramaic, mafic rocks of tholeiitic affinities associated with intermediate and felsic rocks of calc-alkaline affinities and with intercalations of sedimentary rocks. The whole unit is intruded by Eburnean granitoids and affected by a greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphism related to a high grade hydrothermalism. It consists of: (i) ultramafic rocks composed of a fractional crystallization succession of lherzolites, wehrlites and pyroxenites with mafic rock inclusions; (ii) layered, isotropic and pegmatitic metagabbros which gradually pass to metabasalts occur at the top; (iii) massive and in pillow metabasalts with locally tapered vesicles, completely or partially filled with quartzo-feldspathic minerals; (iv) quarzites locally overlying the mafic rocks and thus forming the top of the lower unit. This ultramafic-mafic lower unit presents a tholeiitic affinity near to the OIB or N-MORB. It represents the Mako Ophiolitic Complex (MOC), a lithospheric fragment of Birimian lithospheric crust. The upper unit is a mixed volcanic complex arranged in the tectonic corridors. From bottom to top it comprises the following: (i) andesitic, and (ii) rhyodacitic and rhyolitic lava flows and tuffs, respectively. They present a calc-alkaline affinity of the active margins. Three generations of Eburnean granitoids are recognized: (i) early (2215-2160 Ma); (ii) syn-tectonics (2150-2100 Ma) and post-tectonics (2090-2040 Ma). The lithological succession, geochemical and metamorphic characteristics of these units point to an ophiolitic supra-subduction zone.

  2. Seismotectonic zoning of Azerbaijan territory (United States)

    Kangarli, Talat; Aliyev, Ali; Aliyev, Fuad; Rahimov, Fuad


    Studying of the space-time correlation and consequences effect between tectonic events and other geological processes that have created modern earth structure still remains as one of the most important problems in geology. This problem is especially important for the East Caucasus-South Caspian geodynamic zone. Being situated at the eastern part of the Caucasian strait, this zone refers to a center of Alpine-Himalayan active folded belt, and is known as a complex tectonic unit with jointing heterogeneous structural-substantial complexes arising from different branches of the belt (Doburja-Caucasus-Kopetdag from the north and Pyrenean-Alborz from the south with Kura and South Caspian zone). According to GPS and precise leveling data, activity of regional geodynamic processes shows intensive horizontal and vertical movements of the Earth's crust as conditioned by collision of the Arabian and Eurasian continental plates continuing since the end of Miocene. So far studies related to the regional of geology-geophysical data, periodically used for the geological and tectonic modeling of the environment mainly based on the fixing ideology. There still remains a number of uncertainties in solution of issues related to regional geology, tectonics and magmatism, structure and interrelation of different structural zones, space-time interrelations between onshore and offshore complexes, etc. At the same time large dataset produced by surface geological surveys, deep geological mapping of on- and offshore areas with the use of seismic and electrical reconnaissance and geophysical field zoning methods, deep well drilling and remote sensing activities. Conducted new studies produced results including differentiation of formerly unknown nappe complexes of the different ages and scales within the structure of mountain-fold zones, identification of new zones containing ophiolites in their section, outlining of currently active faulting areas, geophysical interpretation of the deep


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang


    Full Text Available The South Tianshan is located to the north of the Tarim block and defines the southern margin of the Paleozoic Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB. This study presents new structural data, geochronological and geochemical results for the Wuwamen ophiolite mélange in the Chinese segment of the South Tianshan. In the south, the Wuwamen ophiolite mélange shows typical block-in-matrix fabrics and occurs in the footwall of a south-dipping thrust fault, hanging wall of which is composed of weakly metamorphosed and deformed Lower Paleozoic marine to deep marine sequences from the South Tianshan. In the north, a southdipping thrust fault juxtaposes the Wuwamen ophiolite mélange in its hanging wall against the high-grade and strongly deformed metasedimentary rocks from the Central Tianshan in its footwall.

  4. Record of high-pressure overprint in metamorphic soles of the Tavşanli zone, Western Anatolia (United States)

    Plunder, Alexis; Agard, Philippe; Chopin, Christian; Okay, Aral


    Large obducted ophiolites correspond to the emplacement of dense oceanic lithosphere on top of a continent and thereby provide insights into rheological and thermal coupling between plates or fluid budgets. Obducted ophiolites thrust onto the continental margin of the Anatolide-Tauride block (Western Anatolia, south of the Izmir-Ankara suture zone) are dated through their metamorphic sole at ca. 90-95Ma and derive from the same intra-oceanic Neotethyan subduction. We herein focus on the metamorphic soles of the Tavşanlı zone, which show a variable high-pressure low-temperature (HP-LT) overprint of the initial amphibolitic metamorphic conditions (Önen & Hall, 1993; Dilek & Whitney, 1997; Okay et al, 1998). Systematic sampling was done in both the already studied areas as well as new locations. PT conditions were estimated at 8 kbar and 700°C for the amphibolitic stage with the assemblage hornblende + plagioclase ± garnet ± epidote. The HP-LT metamorphic overprint reached incipient blueschist to blueschist facies PT conditions. Development of the characteristic assemblage glaucophane + lawsonite yields PT estimates of >6-7 kbar and 300°C. The high-pressure stage is similar to the one observed for the underlying accretionary-complex unit of the Tavşanlı zone (Plunder et al, this meeting). This HP overprint was not observed in other obduction contexts such as Oman or New Caledonia but was documented in Fransciscan Complex amphibolites (Wakayabashi, 1990). The record of two metamorphic events can be understood as: (1) rapid cooling of the subduction zone after initiation and the exhumation of the metamorphic sole; (2) reburial after or during exhumation of the amphibolite initially welded at the base of the ophiolite. Several observations (i.e., lack of tectonic contact between the ophiolitic body and the metamorphic sole, PT estimates,...) point to cooling as the most likely hypothesis. Metamorphic soles allow to highlight: (1) the dynamics of obducted

  5. Lithological Classification Using Sentinel-2A Data in the Shibanjing Ophiolite Complex in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Ge


    Full Text Available As a source of data continuity between Landsat and SPOT, Sentinel-2 is an Earth observation mission developed by the European Space Agency (ESA, which acquires 13 bands in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR to shortwave infrared (SWIR range. In this study, a Sentinel-2A imager was utilized to assess its ability to perform lithological classification in the Shibanjing ophiolite complex in Inner Mongolia, China. Five conventional machine learning methods, including artificial neural network (ANN, k-nearest neighbor (k-NN, maximum likelihood classification (MLC, random forest classifier (RFC, and support vector machine (SVM, were compared in order to find an optimal classifier for lithological mapping. The experiment revealed that the MLC method offered the highest overall accuracy. After that, Sentinel-2A image was compared with common multispectral data ASTER and Landsat-8 OLI (operational land imager for lithological mapping using the MLC method. The comparison results showed that the Sentinel-2A imagery yielded a classification accuracy of 74.5%, which was 2.5% and 5.08% higher than those of the ASTER and OLI imagery, respectively, indicating that Sentinel-2A imagery is adequate for lithological discrimination, due to its high spectral resolution in the VNIR to SWIR range. Moreover, different data combinations of Sentinel-2A + ASTER + DEM (digital elevation model and OLI + ASTER + DEM data were tested on lithological mapping using the MLC method. The best mapping result was obtained from Sentinel-2A + ASTER + DEM dataset, demonstrating that OLI can be replaced by Sentinel-2A, which, when combined with ASTER, can achieve sufficient bandpasses for lithological classification.

  6. Characterizing Dissolved Organic Matter and Metabolites in an Actively Serpentinizing Ophiolite Using Global Metabolomics Techniques (United States)

    Seyler, L. M.; Rempfert, K. R.; Kraus, E. A.; Spear, J. R.; Templeton, A. S.; Schrenk, M. O.


    Environmental metabolomics is an emerging approach used to study ecosystem properties. Through bioinformatic comparisons to metagenomic data sets, metabolomics can be used to study microbial adaptations and responses to varying environmental conditions. Since the techniques are highly parallel to organic geochemistry approaches, metabolomics can also provide insight into biogeochemical processes. These analyses are a reflection of metabolic potential and intersection with other organisms and environmental components. Here, we used an untargeted metabolomics approach to characterize dissolved organic carbon and aqueous metabolites from groundwater obtained from an actively serpentinizing habitat. Serpentinites are known to support microbial communities that feed off of the products of serpentinization (such as methane and H2 gas), while adapted to harsh environmental conditions such as high pH and low DIC availability. However, the biochemistry of microbial populations that inhabit these environments are understudied and are complicated by overlapping biotic and abiotic processes. The aim of this study was to identify potential sources of carbon in an environment that is depleted of soluble inorganic carbon, and to characterize the flow of metabolites and describe overlapping biogenic and abiogenic processes impacting carbon cycling in serpentinizing rocks. We applied untargeted metabolomics techniques to groundwater taken from a series of wells drilled into the Semail Ophiolite in Oman.. Samples were analyzed via quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (QToF-LC/MS/MS). Metabolomes and metagenomic data were imported into Progenesis QI software for statistical analysis and correlation, and metabolic networks constructed using the Genome-Linked Application for Metabolic Maps (GLAMM), a web interface tool. Further multivariate statistical analyses and quality control was performed using EZinfo. Pools of dissolved organic carbon could

  7. The ophiolite of the Eohellenic nappe in the island of Skyros, Greece: Geotectonic environment of formation and metamorphic conditions inferred by mineralogical and geochemical data (United States)

    Karkalis, Christos; Magganas, Andreas; Koutsovitis, Petros


    The island of Skyros is located in the Sporades-Aegean region. It includes an ophiolitic mélange sequence consisting of serpentinites, gabbroic and doleritic rocks, and also lavas which mostly appear in massive form, but in rare cases as deformed pillows. The ophiolitic mélange sequence also includes rodingites, ophicalcites, as well as radiolarites. This formation belongs to the Eohellenic tectonic nappe, which encompasses marbles, sandstones and schists and was emplaced onto the Pelagonian Zone during Early Cretaceous [1, 2]. Serpentinites were most likely formed after serpentinization of harzburgitic protoliths and consist of serpentine, bastite, spinel and magnetite. The chemistry of spinels (TiO2=0.14-0.25 wt.%, Al2O3=35.1-35.21 wt.%, Cr#=37.38-38.87), shows that the harzburgitic protoliths plausibly resemble back-arc basin peridotites [3]. Gabbros and dolerites present mostly subophitic textures, between the hornblende/clinopyroxene and plagioclase grains. Based upon their petrography and on their mineral chemistry hornblendes have been distinguished into magmatic and metamorphic hornblendes, with the first occurring mostly in gabbroic rocks. Magmatic hornblendes exhibit relatively high TiO2 (1.42-1.62 wt.%), Al2O3 (5.11-5.86 wt.%) and Na2O (1.01-1.09 wt.%) contents, with their presence implying that the magma was at least to some degree hydrous. Lavas are tholeiitic basalts with relatively high FeOt≡12 wt.% and low K2O and Th contents, consisting mostly albite, altered clinopyroxene and devitrified glass. Tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams [4, 5] illustrate that the studied gabbros and lavas of Skyros are most likely associated with SSZ processes. Gabbroic rocks, subvolcanic dolerites and lavas have been subjected to greenschist/subgreenschist metamorphic processes, as confirmed by the presence of secondary amphiboles (metamorphic hornblende, actinolite/tremolite), epidote, pumpellyite and chlorite in all of the studied samples. On the other hand

  8. P-T evolution of slivers of garnet-bearing micaschist in the sole of the Western Vardar Ophiolite Unit at Brezovica, Kosovo (United States)

    Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Koller, Friedrich; Onuzi, Kujtim


    Rocks of the metamorphic sole of ophiolite complexes are regarded as an important factor to understand the process of obduction of former oceanic lithosphere on top of continental crust. The metamorphic evolution of these rocks can give, for instance, hints at the thickness of the obducted oceanic lithosphere. We have started to study the sole of the Western Vardar Ophiolitic Unit at the municipality of Bresovica, Kosovo. This unit is regarded as part of the former Vardar Ocean, a branch of the Neotethys, which was obducted onto the margin of the Adriatic microplate in Jurassic times. The sole in our study area, below strongly serpentinized ultramafic rocks, is characterized by a melange of various rock types, which are of medium metamorphic grade only in the vicinity of the ultramafic rocks. Our field work resulted in the recognition of several slivers of garnet-bearing micaschist among these medium-grade rocks which are dominated by amphibolite. In such a medium-grade rock from Bresovica the mineral assemblage talc + phengite was reported (Abraham and Schreyer, 1976, J. Petrol. 17, 421-439), which turned out by experiments in a piston-cylinder apparatus to be a high-pressure (HP: > 10 kbar) assemblage (Massonne and Schreyer, 1989, Eur. J. Mineral. 1, 391-410). We studied a garnet-bearing micaschist in detail. Elemental mapping and spot analyses of garnet obtained with an electron microprobe yielded core compositions of Alm0.695Gross(+Andr)0.11Pyr0.185Spes0.01. The composition of the garnet rim is Alm0.71Gross(+Andr)0.065Pyr0.21Spes0.015. On the basis of the bulk-rock composition of the micaschist, a P-T pseudosection was constructed with PERPLEX in the system K-Na-Ca-Mg-Mn-Fe-Al-Si-Ti-O-H. This pseudosection was contoured by isopleths for various parameters among them were the molar fractions of garnet components. According to such isopleths and the compositional variation of garnet, a more or less isobaric heating is likely. This heating to 650 °C has occurred

  9. Methane Dynamics in a Tropical Serpentinizing Environment: The Santa Elena Ophiolite, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melitza Crespo-Medina


    Full Text Available Uplifted ultramafic rocks represent an important vector for the transfer of carbon and reducing power from the deep subsurface into the biosphere and potentially support microbial life through serpentinization. This process has a strong influence upon the production of hydrogen and methane, which can be subsequently consumed by microbial communities. The Santa Elena Ophiolite (SEO on the northwestern Pacific coast of Costa Rica comprises ~250 km2 of ultramafic rocks and mafic associations. The climatic conditions, consisting of strongly contrasting wet and dry seasons, make the SEO a unique hydrogeological setting, where water-rock reactions are enhanced by large storm events (up to 200 mm in a single storm. Previous work on hyperalkaline spring fluids collected within the SEO has identified the presence of microorganisms potentially involved in hydrogen, methane, and methanol oxidation (such as Hydrogenophaga, Methylobacterium, and Methylibium spp., respectively, as well as the presence of methanogenic Archaea (such as Methanobacterium. Similar organisms have also been documented at other serpentinizing sites, however their functions have not been confirmed. SEO's hyperalkaline springs have elevated methane concentrations, ranging from 145 to 900 μM, in comparison to the background concentrations (<0.3 μM. The presence and potential activity of microorganisms involved in methane cycling in serpentinization-influenced fluids from different sites within the SEO were investigated using molecular, geochemical, and modeling approaches. These results were combined to elucidate the bioenergetically favorable methane production and/or oxidation reactions in this tropical serpentinizing environment. The hyperalkaline springs at SEO contain a greater proportion of Archaea and methanogens than has been detected in any terrestrial serpentinizing system. Archaea involved in methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation accounted from 40 to 90% of total

  10. Methane Dynamics in a Tropical Serpentinizing Environment: The Santa Elena Ophiolite, Costa Rica. (United States)

    Crespo-Medina, Melitza; Twing, Katrina I; Sánchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Brazelton, William J; McCollom, Thomas M; Schrenk, Matthew O


    Uplifted ultramafic rocks represent an important vector for the transfer of carbon and reducing power from the deep subsurface into the biosphere and potentially support microbial life through serpentinization. This process has a strong influence upon the production of hydrogen and methane, which can be subsequently consumed by microbial communities. The Santa Elena Ophiolite (SEO) on the northwestern Pacific coast of Costa Rica comprises ~250 km 2 of ultramafic rocks and mafic associations. The climatic conditions, consisting of strongly contrasting wet and dry seasons, make the SEO a unique hydrogeological setting, where water-rock reactions are enhanced by large storm events (up to 200 mm in a single storm). Previous work on hyperalkaline spring fluids collected within the SEO has identified the presence of microorganisms potentially involved in hydrogen, methane, and methanol oxidation (such as Hydrogenophaga, Methylobacterium , and Methylibium spp., respectively), as well as the presence of methanogenic Archaea (such as Methanobacterium ). Similar organisms have also been documented at other serpentinizing sites, however their functions have not been confirmed. SEO's hyperalkaline springs have elevated methane concentrations, ranging from 145 to 900 μM, in comparison to the background concentrations (<0.3 μM). The presence and potential activity of microorganisms involved in methane cycling in serpentinization-influenced fluids from different sites within the SEO were investigated using molecular, geochemical, and modeling approaches. These results were combined to elucidate the bioenergetically favorable methane production and/or oxidation reactions in this tropical serpentinizing environment. The hyperalkaline springs at SEO contain a greater proportion of Archaea and methanogens than has been detected in any terrestrial serpentinizing system. Archaea involved in methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation accounted from 40 to 90% of total archaeal

  11. Geochemical characteristics of mafic and ultramafic rocks from the Naga Hills Ophiolite, India: Implications for petrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajoy Dey


    Full Text Available The Naga Hills Ophiolite (NHO represents one of the fragments of Tethyan oceanic crust in the Himalayan Orogenic system which is exposed in the Phek and Kiphire districts of Nagaland, India. The NHO is composed of partially serpentinized dunite, peridotite, gabbro, basalt, minor plagiogranite, diorite dyke and marine sediments. The basalts are mainly composed of fine grained plagioclase feldspar, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene and show quenching and variolitic textures. The gabbros are characterized by medium to coarse grained plagioclase, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene with ophitic to sub-ophitic textures. The ultramafic cumulates are represented by olivine, Cpx and Opx. Geochemically, the basalts and gabbros are sub-alkaline to alkaline and show tholeiitic features. The basalts are characterized by 44.1–45.6 wt.% of SiO2 with 28–38 of Mg#, and the gabbros by 38.7–43.7 wt.% of SiO2, and 26–79 of Mg#. The ultramafic rocks are characterized by 37.4–52.2 wt.% of SiO2, and 80–88 of Mg#. In multi-element diagrams (spidergrams both basalts and gabbros show fractionated trends with strong negative anomalies of Zr, Nb, Sr and a gentle negative anomaly of P. However, the rare earth element (REE plots of the basalts and gabbros show two distinct patterns. The first pattern, represented by light REE (LREE depletion, suggests N-MORB features and can be interpreted as a signature of Paleo-Tethyan oceanic crust. The second pattern, represented by LREE enrichment with negligible negative Eu anomaly, conforms to E-MORB, and may be related to an arc tectonic setting. In V vs. Ti/1000, Cr vs. Y and AFM diagrams, the basalts and gabbros plot within Island Arc Tholeiite (IAT and MORB fields suggesting both ridge and arc related settings. The ultramafic rocks exhibit two distinct patterns both in spidergrams and in REE plots. In the spidergram, one group displays highly enriched pattern, whereas the other group shows near flat pattern compared

  12. New Paleomagnetic Data From Upper Gabbros Supports Limited Rotation of Central Semail Massif in Oman Ophiolite (United States)

    Horst, A. J.; Sarah, T.; Hartley, E.; Martin, J.


    Paleomagnetic data from northern massifs of the Oman ophiolite demonstrate substantial clockwise rotations prior to or during obduction, yet data from southern massifs are recently suggested to be remagnetized during obduction and show subsequent smaller counterclockwise rotations. To better understand paleomagnetic data from the southern massifs, we conducted a detailed paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study of 21 sites in upper gabbros and 5 sites in lower crustal gabbros within the central Semail massif. Samples treated with progressive thermal demagnetization yield interpretable magnetizations with dominant unblocking between 500-580°C that implies characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) components carried by low-titanium magnetite and nearly pure magnetite. Rock magnetic and scanning electron microscopy data provide additional support of the carriers of magnetization. ChRMs from sites with samples containing partially-serpentinized olivine are similar to sites with samples lacking olivine, where the carriers appear to be fine magnetite intergrowths in pyroxene. The overall in situ and tilt-corrected mean directions from upper gabbros are distinct from the lower gabbros, from previous data within the massif, and also directions from similar crustal units in adjacent Rustaq and Wadi Tayin massifs. After tilt correction for 10-15° SE dip of the crust-mantle boundary, the mean direction from upper gabbros is nearly coincident with in situ lower gabbros. The tilt-corrected direction from upper gabbros is also consistent with an expected direction from the Late Cretaceous apparent polar wander path for Arabia at the age of crustal accretion ( 95Ma). These results suggest the upper crustal section in Semail has likely only experienced minor tilting since formation and acquisition of magnetization. Due to slow cooling of middle to lower gabbros in fast-spread crust, the lower gabbro sites likely cooled later or after obduction, and thus yield a distinct

  13. A magmatic belt within the Neo-Tethyan suture zone and its role in the tectonic evolution of northern Turkey (United States)

    Tüysüz, Okan; Dellaloǧlu, A. Aziz; Terzioǧlu, Nuri


    The Sakarya and Kırşehir continental fragments of Northern Turkey were separated by the Ankara-Erzincan ophiolitic suture zone, which is the remnant of the northern branch of the Neo-Tethys, namely the Ankara-Erzincan Ocean. This ocean branch opened during the Lias between these two continental fragments and started to close at the beginning of the Late Cretaceous, by the consumption of its floor, along two north-dipping subduction zones. The northern one was along the southern margin of the Sakarya Continent. As a result of this subduction zone, an ensialic magmatic arc, some fore-arc basins and a mélange belt developed from north to south on the Sakarya Continent. The second subduction zone, located to the south, gave rise to a mélange belt and an island arc developed with and on it. Hot-spot magmatics (seamounts), which were scraped from the subducting oceanic crust, also accreted into this ophiolitic-volcanic belt. At the end of the late Cretaceous, the central part of the Ankara-Erzincan Ocean closed due to the collision of the Kırşehir and the Sakarya continents. As a result of this collision, mélange belts and ensimatic arc volcanics formed the Ankara-Yozgat suture between these continental fragments.

  14. Oxygen and sulfur isotope geochemistry revealing a significant crustal signature in the genesis of the post-collisional granitoids in central Anatolia, Turkey (United States)

    Boztuğ, Durmuş; Arehart, Greg B.


    Late Cretaceous granitoid rocks from central Anatolia comprise S-I-A-type plutons derived from the collisional stages of the Neo-Tethyan convergence system in central Turkey. These granitoids intrude the tectonic imbrication zone consisting of blocks of supra-subduction zone-type (SSZ-type) central Anatolian ophiolite and crustal metasediments which are present in the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone. The plutons are overlain by Late Palaeocene-Early Eocene or younger detrital sediments. Granitoid formation is thought to be related to magma generation processes occurring in a post-collisional lithospheric detachment-related geodynamic setting that resulted from slab break-off or lithospheric delamination. Whole-rock S and quartz/feldspar O isotope data from these plutons yields a broad range of values, and both parameters indicate a nearly exclusively supracrustal origin for the S-type granites, as well as a significant crustal contribution in the genesis of the hybrid I-type and A-type granitoids. The more mafic I-type and A-type granitoid rocks of any given suite have lower S and O values, indicative of their larger degree of mantle component. The combined stable isotope geochemical compositions, when coupled with major, trace and REE geochemistry and regional geology, provide evidence that the significant crustal contribution originated from a metasomatized mantle layer which was affected by earlier SSZ-derived fluids, and then accreted into the subcontinental lithosphere as collision occurred. The partial melting of such a metasomatized mantle layer in a post-collisional extensional geodynamic setting, supplied either by the slab break-off or lithospheric delamination mechanisms, provided the significant crustal signature in the hybrid magmas of the Late Cretaceous I-type and A-type granitoids in central Anatolia, Turkey.

  15. A Crystallization-Temperature Profile Through Paleo-Oceanic Crust (Wadi Gideah Transect, Oman Ophiolite): Application of the REE-in-Plagioclase-Clinopyroxene Partitioning Thermometer (United States)

    Mueller, S.; Hasenclever, J.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; Koepke, J.; Hoernle, K.


    The accretion mechanisms forming oceanic crust at fast spreading ridges are still under controversial discussion. Thermal, petrological, and geochemical observations predict different end-member models, i.e., the gabbro glacier and the sheeted sill model. They all bear implications for heat transport, temperature distribution, mode of crystallization and hydrothermal heat removal over crustal depth. In a typical MOR setting, temperature is the key factor driving partitioning of incompatible elements during crystallization. LA-ICP-MS data for co-genetic plagioclase and clinopyroxene in gabbros along a transect through the plutonic section of paleo-oceanic crust (Wadi Gideah Transect, Oman ophiolite) reveal that REE partitioning coefficients are relatively constant in the layered gabbro section but increase for the overlying foliated gabbros, with an enhanced offset towards HREEs. Along with a systematic enrichment of REE's with crustal height, these trends are consistent with a system dominated by in-situ crystallization for the lower gabbros and a change in crystallization mode for the upper gabbros. Sun and Liang (2017) used experimental REE partitioning data for calibrating a new REE-in-plagioclase-clinopyroxene thermometer that we used here for establishing the first crystallization-temperature depth profile through oceanic crust that facilitates a direct comparison with thermal models of crustal accretion. Our results indicate crystallization temperatures of about 1220±8°C for the layered gabbros and lower temperatures of 1175±8°C for the foliated gabbros and a thermal minimum above the layered-to-foliated gabbro transition. Our findings are consistent with a hybrid accretion model for the oceanic crust. The thermal minimum is assumed to represent a zone where the descending crystal mushes originating from the axial melt lens meet with mushes that have crystallized in situ. These results can be used to verify and test thermal models (e.g., Maclennan et al

  16. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin


    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  17. Modeling a CO2 mineralization experiment of fractured peridotite from the Semail ophiolite/ Oman (United States)

    Muller, Nadja; Zhang, Guoxiang; van Noort, Reinier; Spiers, Chris; Ten Grotenhuis, Saskia; Hoedeman, Gerco


    Most geologic CO2 sequestration technologies focus on sedimentary rocks, where the carbon dioxide is stored in a fluid phase. A possible alternative is to trap it as a mineral in the subsurface (in-situ) in basaltic or even (ultra)mafic rocks. Carbon dioxide in aqueous solution reacts with Mg-, Ca-, and Fe-bearing silicate minerals, precipitates as (MgCa,Fe)CO3 (carbonate), and can thus be permanently sequestered. The cation donors are silicate minerals such as olivine and pyroxene which are abundant in (ultra)mafic rocks, such as peridotite. Investigations are underway to evaluate the sequestration potential of the Semail Ophiolite in Oman, utilizing the large volumes of partially serpentinized peridotite that are present. Key factors are the rate of mineralization due to dissolution of the peridotite and precipitation of carbonate, the extent of the natural and hydraulic fracture network and the accessibility of the rock to reactive fluids. To quantify the influence of dissolution rates on the overall CO2 mineralization process, small, fractured peridotite samples were exposed to supercritical CO2 and water in laboratory experiments. The samples are cored from a large rock sample in the dimension of small cylinders with 1 cm in height and diameter, with a mass of ~2g. Several experimental conditions were tested with different equipment, from large volume autoclave to small volume cold seal vessel. The 650 ml autoclave contained 400-500g of water and a sample under 10 MPa of partial CO2 pressure up to 150. The small capsules in the cold seal vessel held 1-1.5g of water and the sample under CO2 partial pressure from 15MPa to 70 MPa and temperature from 60 to 200°C. The samples remained for two weeks in the reaction vessels. In addition, bench acid bath experiments in 150 ml vials were performed open to the atmosphere at 50-80°C and pH of ~3. The main observation was that the peridotite dissolved two orders of magnitude slower in the high pressure and temperature

  18. An oceanic core complex (OCC) in the Albanian Dinarides? Preliminary paleomagnetic and structural results from the Mirdita Ophiolite (northern Albania) (United States)

    Maffione, M.; Morris, A.; Anderson, M.


    Oceanic core complexes (OCCs) are dome-shaped massifs commonly associated with the inside corners of the intersection of transform faults and slow (and ultra-slow) spreading centres. They represent the uplifted footwalls of large-slip oceanic detachment faults (e.g. Cann et al., 1997; Blackman et al., 1998) and are composed of mantle and lower crustal rocks exhumed during fault displacement (Smith et al., 2006, 2008). Recent paleomagnetic studies of core samples from OCCs in the Atlantic Ocean (Morris et al., 2009; MacLeod et al., in prep) have confirmed that footwall sections undergo substantial rotation around (sub-) horizontal axes. These studies, therefore, support “rolling hinge” models for the evolution of OCCs, whereby oceanic detachment faults initiate at a steep angle at depth and then “roll-over” to their present day low angle orientations during unroofing (Buck, 1988; Wernicke & Axen, 1988; Lavier et al., 1999). However, a fully integrated paleomagnetic and structural analysis of this process is hampered by the one-dimensional sampling provided by ocean drilling of OCC footwalls. Therefore, ancient analogues for OCCs in ophiolites are of great interest, as these potentially provide 3-D exposures of these important structures and hence a more complete understanding of footwall strain and kinematics (providing that emplacement-related phases of deformation can be accounted for). Recently, the relationship between outcropping crustal and upper mantle rocks led Tremblay et al. (2009) to propose that an OCC is preserved within the Mirdita ophiolite of the Albanian Dinarides (northern Albania). This is a slice of Jurassic oceanic lithosphere exposed along a N-S corridor which escaped the main late Cenozoic Alpine deformation (Robertson, 2002, 2004; Dilek et al., 2007). Though in the eastern portion of the Mirdita ophiolite a Penrose-type sequence is present, in the western portion mantle rocks are in tectonic contact with upper crustal lithologies

  19. Influence of bela ophiolite on trace element composition of Jurassic and cretaceous carbonate rocks of phuari area Balochistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, S.; Naseem, S.; Sheikh, S.A.; Siddiqui, S.N.


    Major and selected trace element analysis of carbonate rocks of Loralai formation and Parth limestone from Phuari area of Balochistan province were carried out. These carbonates are melanged with rocks of Bela Ophiolite. The distribution of various trace elements (Ni, Cr, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb and Zn) in the carbonate rocks in the light of their plots was discussed with respect to primary dispersion, mobility and physicochemical environment. An attempt has also been made to evaluate the influence of magnetic bodies for impregnating trace elements into limestones. High Ni, Cr, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn assemblage show similarity with tholeitic Mid Oceanic Ridge Basalt (MORB) Petrographic studies were also made for description and classification of carbonates. Presence of dark glassy/amorphous igneous material in thin-sections emphasizes the influence of igneous bodies on carbonate rocks. (author)

  20. Geodynamics of the Tavşanlı zone, western Turkey: Insights into subduction/obduction processes (United States)

    Plunder, Alexis; Agard, Philippe; Chopin, Christian; Okay, Aral I.


    The tectono-metamorphic evolution of the high-pressure low-temperature (HP-LT) Tavşanlı zone (Western Anatolia, İzmir-Ankara suture zone) is herein reappraised to highlight processes occurring along a fossil subduction interface, from initial obduction stages to continental subduction. Structural and petrological data allow in particular to constrain the nature, internal structure and PT conditions of the oceanic accretionary complex sandwiched between the subducted continental margin of the Anatolide-Tauride Block (Orhaneli unit) and the non-metamorphic obducted ophiolite on top. Two distinct oceanic units (termed complexes 1 and 2) are recognised on top of one another, with metamorphic conditions ranging from incipient HP-LT imprint (complex 1) to blueschist facies conditions (complex 2). Based on the first occurrence of Fe-Mg carpholite and on pseudosection calculations, PT estimates of 250-350 °C and 11-13 kbar are inferred for complex 2. The internal structure of the accretionary complex points to the underplating of kilometre-scale units at different depths along the plate interface and to contrasting dynamics with respect to both the underlying continental unit and the ophiolite. Inter-plate mechanical coupling within the Tavşanlı zone is compared to the Oman case-study. The variable HP-LT overprint of the metamorphic sole places further constraints on regional scale tectonics, the accretionary dynamics and on the rapid thermal reequilibration of the subduction interface.

  1. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  2. Comparison of support vector machine and neutral network classification method in hyperspectral mapping of ophiolite mélanges–A case study of east of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Bahrambeygi


    Full Text Available Ophiolitic regions are one of the most complex geology settings. Mapping in these parts need broad and precise studies and tools because of the mixture rocks and confusion units. Hyperion hyperspectral sensor data are one of the advanced tools for earth surface mapping that containing rich information of shallow electromagnetic reflection in 242 continuous bands. Because of some contaminated noise in tens of these bands we removed 87 most noisy bands and focused our study on 155 low noisy bands. In present study, tow spectral based classification algorithms of support vector machine and neutral network are compared on hyperion image for classification of cluttered units in an ophiolite set. Study area is Mesina region in collision ophiolitic belt of south east of Iran. In this region for design processing results validation rate, lots of random locations and control points were studied in field scale and were sampled for laboratory surveys. Samples were investigated in microscopic section and by electron microprobe system. Based on laboratory-field studies, the lithology of this area can divided into five general groups: (Melange series, metamorphic units, Oligocene – Miocene to Quaternary volcanic units, lime and flysch units. Based on field-laboratory works, some standard points defined for validate processing results accuracy rate. Therefore, the Support Vector Machine and neutral network method as advanced hyperspectral image processing methods respectively have overall accuracies of 52% and 65%. Consequently the method based neutral network theory for hyperspectral classification have acceptable ratio in separation of blended complicated units.

  3. Crustal Evolution of a Paleozoic Intra-oceanic Island-Arc-Back-Arc Basin System Constrained by the Geochemistry and Geochronology of the Yakuno Ophiolite, Southwest Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimitsu Suda


    Full Text Available The Yakuno ophiolite in southwest Japan is considered to have been obducted by the collision between an intra-oceanic island-arc-back-arc basin (intra-OIA-BAB system and the East Asian continent during the late Paleozoic. New SIMS (SHRIMP zircon U-Pb determinations for amphibolite and metagabbro of BAB origin within the Yakuno ophiolite yield ages of 293.4 ± 9.5 Ma and 288 ± 13 Ma, respectively. These ages are slightly older (however, overlapping within analytical errors than the magmatic age of arc granitoids (ca. 285–282 Ma that intruded into the mafic rocks of BAB origin. Results from geochronological and geochemical data of the Yakuno ophiolite give rise to the following tentative geotectonic model for the Paleozoic intra-OIA-BAB system: the initial stage of BAB rifting (ca. 293–288 Ma formed the BAB crust with island-arc basalt (IAB signatures, which was brought to the OIA setting, and generated the arc granitoids (ca. 285–282 Ma by anatexis of the BAB crust. A later stage of BAB rifting (

  4. A Reference Section through the Lower Fast-spreading Oceanic Crust in the Wadi Gideah (Sumail ophiolite, Sultanate Oman): Drill Sites GT1A and GT2A within the ICDP Oman Drilling Project (United States)

    Mueller, S.; Koepke, J.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C. D.; Müller, T.; Mock, D.; Strauss, H.; Schuth, S.; Ildefonse, B.


    In the absence of a complete profile through fast-spreading oceanic crust in modern oceans, we established a reference profile through the whole paleocrust of the Sumail Ophiolite (Oman), which is regarded as the best analogue for fast-spreading oceanic crust on land. For establishing a coherent data set, we sampled the Wadi Gideah in the Wadi-Tayin massif from the mantle section up to the pillow basalts and performed different analytical and structural investigations on the same suite of samples (pool sample concept). The whole sample set contains about 400 samples focusing on both primary magmatic rocks and hydrothermal fault zones to characterize initial formation processes and cooling of the crust. The Wadi Gideah hosts the sites GT1A (lower crust) and GT2A (foliated / layered gabbro transition) where 400 m long cores have been drilled in the frame of the ICDP Oman Drilling Project (OmanDP). Thus, the Wadi Gideah crustal transect is well-suited for providing a reference frame for these two drill cores. Major and trace element data on minerals and rocks reveal in-situ crystallization in the deep crust, thus strongly supporting a hybrid accretion model that is characterized by sheeted sill intrusion in the lower part of the plutonic crust and gabbro glacier features in the upper section. This hybrid model is also supported by results on crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) of the minerals within the gabbros, which call for distinct formation mechanisms in the upper and lower gabbro sections. A requirement for our hybrid model is significant hydrothermal cooling in the lower crust for the consumption of the latent heat of crystallization. This was facilitated by channelled hydrothermal flow zones, preserved today in faulted zones of extensively altered gabbro cutting both layered and foliated gabbros. These gabbros show higher Sr87/Sr86 ratios if compared to the background gabbro, the presence of late stage minerals (amphibole, oxides, orthopyroxene

  5. Endeavor research into evolving paradigms around ophiolites: the case of the oceanic igneous complexes of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Denyer, Perci; Gazel, Esteban


    Studies on the radiolarite igneous (ophiolitic) complexes were done for more than one century in Costa Rica that range from Jurassic to Eocene. These studies can be grouped in four stages of knowledge: 1) from 1904 to 1957 were recognized the cherts, and the mafic and ultramafic igneous complexes, the first regional maps were done, and the first time were recognized ellipsoidal basalts, now widely known as pillow lavas. 2) From 1958 to 1978 the complexes were seen under the concept of the association of ophiolites (serpentine, gabbro, diabase, basalts, and related rocks) and interpreted the radiolarites as deep-sea sediments. The stage is characterized by the seminal work of Gabriel Dengo and by the first geochemical analyses in the framework of the plate tectonics. 3) A huge amount of geochemical data, paleontological and K/Ar ages were published from 1979 to 1994 and it was the stage of more controversial papers, their interpretation varied for the same locality (i.e. (Nicoya Peninsula) from relative simple stratigraphic model to a very complex nappe slices, and from a simple tectonic evolution (in situ and formed by a mid oceanic ridge volcanism) to a multistage evolution (terrains, and mid oceanic ridge, aseismic ridge, intraplate and island arc volcanism). The situation was similar in the other Costa Rican oceanic complexes. 4) The outlook for 1995 to the present it has been clarified and mutual agreement between the different groups. The stage is characterized by joint collaboration, the use of modern laboratory techniques as Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes, major, trace and complete rare earth elements. 40A r/ 39 Ar dating, and volcanological criteria, together with detailed field mapping. The main new result of these studies was that the radiolarites (164-84 Ma) in the Nicoya Peninsula were significatively older than the basic igneous rocks (140-84 Ma), indicating a complex magmatic event intruding and erupting into the thick sedimentary sequence. For other areas

  6. Lower crustal section of the Oman Ophiolite drilled in Hole GT1A, ICDP Oman Drilling Project (United States)

    Umino, S.; Kelemen, P. B.; Matter, J. M.; Coggon, J. A.; Takazawa, E.; Michibayashi, K.; Teagle, D. A. H.


    Hole GT1A (22° 53.535'N, 58° 30.904'E) was drilled by the Oman Drilling Project (OmDP) into GT1A of the Samail ophiolite, Oman. OmDP is an international collaboration supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, the Deep Carbon Observatory, NSF, IODP, JAMSTEC, and the European, Japanese, German and Swiss Science Foundations, with in-kind support in Oman from the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, Public Authority of Mining, Sultan Qaboos University, and the German University of Technology. Hole GT1A was diamond cored in 22 Jan to 08 Feb 2017 to a total depth of 403.05 m. The outer surfaces of the cores were imaged and described on site before being curated, boxed and shipped to the IODP drill ship Chikyu, where they underwent comprehensive visual and instrumental analysis. Hole GT1A drilled the lower crustal section in the southern Oman Ophiolite and recovered 401.52 m of total cores (99.6% recovery). The main lithology is dominated by olivine gabbro (65.9%), followed in abundance by olivine-bearing gabbro (21.5%) and olivine melagabbro (3.9%). Minor rock types are orthopyroxene-bearing olivine gabbro (2.4%), oxide-bearing olivine gabbro (1.5%), gabbro (1.1%), anorthositic gabbro (1%), troctolitic gabbro (0.8%); orthopyroxene-bearing gabbro (0.5%), gabbronorite (0.3%); and dunite (0.3%). These rocks are divided into Lithologic Unit I to VII at 26.62 m, 88.16 m, 104.72 m, 154.04 m, 215.22 m, 306.94 m in Chikyu Curated Depth in descending order; Unit I and II consist of medium-grained olivine gabbro with lower olivine abundance in Unit II. Unit III is medium-grained olivine melagabbros, marked by an increase in olivine. Unit IV is relatively homogenous medium-grained olivine gabbros with granular textures. Unit V is identified by the appearance of fine-grained gabbros, but the major rocktypes are medium grained olivine gabbros. Unit VI is medium-grained olivine gabbro, marked by appearance of orthopyroxene. Unit VII

  7. Clinopyroxenite dykes within a banded unit in the basal mantle section of the northern part of the Oman ophiolite: A record of the latest deep-seated magmatism (United States)

    Ishimaru, Satoko; Arai, Shoji; Tamura, Akihiro


    We found clinopyroxenite dykes in a banded harzburgite block within the Sumeini area in the uppermost part of the metamorphic sole of the northern part of the Oman ophiolite. The dykes clearly cut the deformational structure of the harzburgite and contain its fragments, indicating dyke formation during obduction of the ophiolite. The Mg# [= Mg / (Mg + total Fe)] of clinopyroxenes in the dykes ranges from 0.81 to 0.91, and increases up to 0.93 proximal to harzburgite fragments. Mantle minerals in the harzburgite fragments were modified chemically through interaction with the magma that formed the dyke, yielding lower clinopyroxene and spinel Mg#, and spinels with higher TiO2 contents than those in the unaltered harzburgite. These geochemical features indicate that the clinopyroxenite dykes are cumulates derived from a relatively deep-seated primitive magma enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE) with an ocean island basalt (OIB)-like affinity, geochemically similar to the V3 lavas of an off-ridge origin. Combining these data with geological observations suggests that the clinopyroxenite dykes represent root system of the V3 lavas. Our analyses of the clinopyroxenite dykes testify to the external nature of the V3 magmas, which was added to the sliced oceanic lithosphere from the outside. It is likely that the V3 magma underwent deep-seated crystallization of clinopyroxene and had limited interaction with mantle peridotite en route to the surface. The mode of occurrence of the Sumeini clinopyroxenites (i.e., emplaced into a banded harzburgite block surrounded by garnet amphibolite) is consistent with the generation of OIB-like magmas (V3 lava) beneath the Oman ophiolite resulting from the break-off of the "subducting slab" and subsequent infiltration of hot asthenospheric mantle. This view is consistent with the limited distribution of V3-related rocks in the Oman ophiolite. The production of such OIB-like magmas during ophiolite obduction is not a rare event

  8. The Campanian-Maastrichtian foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the basement sediments from the southern Pannonian Basin (Vojvodina, northern Serbia): implications for the continuation of the Eastern Vardar and Sava zones (United States)

    Dunčić, Milena; Dulić, Ivan; Popov, Olivera; Bogićević, Goran; Vranjković, Alan


    Micropalaeontological and biostratigraphical studies included Campanian-Maastrichtian complexes from five oil exploration wells drilled in northern Serbia (Vojvodina): the first is a carbonate-clastic complex and second is a complex containing ophiolites intercalated with hemipelagic and pelagic sediments. Within the studied complexes, rich associations of planktonic and benthic foraminifera, calcareous nannoplankton, palynomorphs, as well as shallow and deep-water fossil detritus were determined. The presence of relatively rich associations of planktonic foraminifera allowed recognition of two biozones: the Globotruncana ventricosa Zone, observed in the sediments of the carbonate-clastic complex and the Gansserina gansseri Zone, observed in both complexes. Except biozones, based on documented index species, for some units in both complexes, larger benthic foraminifera species had special biostratigraphical value, and in some of them, the calcareous nannoplankton zones were recognized. The studied complexes represent deep-water formations, generated in oceanic island arc and trough zones. The presence of limestones, which originate from destroyed rudist reefs, is explained by transfer by means of gravitational transport mechanisms of shallow-water sediments to deep-water depositional environments. In this paper, the results of more detailed biostratigraphical and palaeo-ecological studies of foraminifera associations in Campanian-Maastrichtian complexes in Vojvodina are presented. Combined with lithological studies, seven units were determined within the complexes. The obtained results are important as a part of multidisciplinary, regional exploration of both complexes, generated in specific geological conditions, that today constitute a part of the pre-Neogene basement complex in the southeastern part of the Pannonian Basin. The Campanian- Maastrichtian carbonate-clastic complex represents sedimentary cover of the Eastern Vardar Ophiolitic Unit, while the

  9. Weathering and transport of chromium and nickel from serpentinite in the Coast Range ophiolite to the Sacramento Valley, California, USA (United States)

    Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Mills, Christopher T.; Breit, George N.; Hooper, Robert L.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Ranville, James F.


    A soil geochemical study in northern California was done to investigate the role that weathering and transport play in the regional distribution and mobility of geogenic Cr and Ni, which are both potentially toxic and carcinogenic. These elements are enriched in ultramafic rocks (primarily serpentinite) and the soils derived from them (1700–10,000 mg Cr per kg soil and 1300–3900 mg Ni per kg soil) in the Coast Range ophiolite. Chromium and Ni have been transported eastward from the Coast Range into the western Sacramento Valley and as a result, valley soil is enriched in Cr (80–1420 mg kg−1) and Ni (65–224 mg kg−1) compared to median values of U.S. soils of 50 and 15 mg kg−1, respectively. Nickel in ultramafic source rocks and soils is present in serpentine minerals (lizardite, antigorite, and chrysotile) and is more easily weathered compared to Cr, which primarily resides in highly refractory chromite ([Mg,Fe2+][Cr3+,Al,Fe3+]2O4). Although the majority of Cr and Ni in soils are in refractory chromite and serpentine minerals, the etching and dissolution of these minerals, presence of Cr- and Ni-enriched clay minerals and development of nanocrystalline Fe (hydr)oxides is evidence that a significant fractions of these elements have been transferred to potentially more labile phases.

  10. The role and conditions of second-stage mantle melting in the generation of low-Ti tholeiites and boninites: the case of the Manihiki Plateau and the Troodos ophiolite (United States)

    Golowin, Roman; Portnyagin, Maxim; Hoernle, Kaj; Sobolev, Alexander; Kuzmin, Dimitry; Werner, Reinhard


    High-Mg, low-Ti volcanic rocks from the Manihiki Plateau in the Western Pacific share many geochemical characteristics with subduction-related boninites such as high-Ca boninites from the Troodos ophiolite on Cyprus, which are believed to originate by hydrous re-melting of previously depleted mantle. In this paper we compare the Manihiki rocks and Troodos boninites using a new dataset on the major and trace element composition of whole rocks and glasses from these locations, and new high-precision, electron microprobe analyses of olivine and Cr-spinel in these rocks. Our results show that both low-Ti Manihiki rocks and Troodos boninites could originate by re-melting of a previously depleted lherzolite mantle source (20-25% of total melting with 8-10% melting during the first stage), as indicated by strong depletion of magmas in more to less incompatible elements (Sm/Yb Y 0.5). In comparison with Troodos boninites, the low-Ti Manihiki magmas had distinctively lower H2O contents ( 2 wt% in boninites), 100 °C higher liquidus temperatures at a given olivine Fo-number, lower fO2 (ΔQFM + 0.2) and originated from deeper and hotter mantle (1.4-1.7 GPa, 1440 °C vs. 0.8-1.0 GPa, 1300 °C for Troodos boninites). The data provide new evidence that re-melting of residual upper mantle is not only restricted to subduction zones, where it occurs under hydrous conditions, but can also take place due to interaction of previously depleted upper mantle with mantle plumes from the deep and hotter Earth interior.

  11. Spatial evolution of Zagros collision zone in Kurdistan - NW Iran, constraints for Arabia-Eurasia oblique convergence (United States)

    Sadeghi, S.; Yassaghi, A.


    Stratigraphy, detailed structural mapping and crustal scale cross section of the NW Zagros collision zone evolved during convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates were conducted to constrain the spatial evolution of the belt oblique convergence since Late Cretaceous. Zagros orogeny in NW Iran consists of the Sanandaj-Sirjan, Gaveh Rud and ophiolite zones as internal, and Bisotoun, Radiolarite and High Zagros zones as external parts. The Main Zagros Thrust is known as major structures of the Zagros suture zone. Two stages of deformation are recognized in the external parts of Zagros. In the early stage, presence of dextrally deformed domains beside the reversely deformed domains in the Radiolarite zone as well as dextral-reverse faults in both Bisotoun and Radiolarite zones demonstrates partitioning of the dextral transpression. In the late stage, southeastward propagation of the Zagros orogeny towards its foreland resulted in synchronous development of orogen-parallel strike-slip and pure thrust faults. It is proposed that the first stage related to the late Cretaceous oblique obduction, and the second stage is resulted from Cenozoic collision. Cenozoic orogen-parallel strike-slip component of Zagros oblique faulting is not confined to the Zagros suture zone (Main Recent) but also occurred in the more external part (Marekhil-Ravansar fault system). Thus, it is proposed that oblique convergence of Arabia-Eurasia plates occurred in Zagros collision zone since the Late Cretaceous.

  12. Progressive Subduction-Accretion Growth of the Late Paleozoic-Cretaceous Izmir-Ankara Suture Zone Melange in Northern Anatolia, Turkey, and a New Tectonic Model for the Evolution of Northern Neotethys (United States)

    Dilek, Y.; Sarifakioglu, E.; Sevin, M.


    Seamount-oceanic plateau remnants and ophiolite fragments with MORB-like and island arc tholeiite (IAT) affinities occur as blocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone in north-central Turkey, and provide temporal and geochemical evidence for magmatism associated with subduction initiation-evolution and convergent margin growth in the Northern Neotethys. Ophiolitic blocks and the serpentinite and/or greywacke matrix of the mélange are deformed and imbricated along generally south-directed thrust sheets as a result of the north-dipping subduction polarity and the continental collision tectonics in the early Paleogene. Plagiogranite dikes intruding the SSZ gabbros have revealed U/Pb zircon ages of 179 Ma; epi-ophiolitic pelitic rocks resting directly on various ophiolitic units, on the other hand, contain zircons with ages around 130 Ma. Upper Cretaceous flyschal deposits unconformably cover imbricate thrust sheets of the SSZ-type ophiolite and the ophiolitic mélange containing MORB-like ophiolitic slabs and seamount fragments. SSZ-type ophiolite blocks include upper mantle peridotites, cumulate to massive gabbros, sheeted diabase dykes, plagiogranite veins and stocks, and basalt-chert-radiolarite. MORB-like ophiolitic blocks mainly contain upper mantle peridotites, massive gabbros, basaltic lavas, and chert-radiolarite. TiO2 contents of the SSZ-type, diabasic dykes and basaltic lavas are between 0.2 - 0.93 wt.%, whereas those of the MORB-like basalts range between 0.85 - 5.05 wt.%. Nb contents of the SSZ-type diabasic dykes and basaltic lavas range between 0.1-2.5 ppm and of the MORB-like lavas between 3.7-5.4 ppm. SSZ-type basic rocks have Th/Yb ratios of 0.1-1 whereas the MORB-like basic rocks show Th/Yb values ranging from 0.01 to 0.3, suggesting enrichment by slab-derived fluids. The low TiO2 and Nb values, combined with higher Th/Yb ratios, indicate an IAT affinity of the SSZ rock suites in comparison to the tholeiitic features

  13. Subduction/obduction processes prior to collision: records from the Tavsanli zone (western Turkey) (United States)

    Plunder, A.; Agard, P.; Chopin, C.; Okay, A. I.


    The tectono-metamorphic evolution of the ~80Ma high-pressure low-temperature (HP-LT) Tavsanli zone (Western Anatolia, Izmir-Ankara suture zone) is herein reappraised to highlight processes occurring along a fossil subduction interface, from initial intra-oceanic subduction to continental subduction and soft collision. Structural and petrological data allow in particular (i) to constrain the nature, internal structure and PT conditions of the oceanic accreted oceanic unit sandwiched between the continental Orhaneli unit and the non-metamorphic obducted ophiolite on top; (ii) to revaluate the peak-pressure conditions for the subducted northern margin of the Anatolide-Tauride Block (the Orhaneli unit). In the ocean slices, two distinct, extensive oceanic complexes (OC1 and OC2) are recognised on top of one another, incipient HP-LT imprint (OC1) to blueschist facies conditions (OC2). Based on the first occurrence of Fe-Mg carpholite and on pseudosection calculations, PT estimates of 250-350°C and 11-13 kbar are inferred for OC2. The internal structure of the accretionary complex points to the underplating of kilometre-scale units at different depths along the plate interface and to contrasting dynamics with respect to both the underlying continental unit and the ophiolite. PT conditions for the continental Orhaneli unit are reappraised at 22 kbar and 500°C using both Raman spectroscopy on carbonaceous matter and pseudosection modelling and are similar to PT conditions known for the leading edge of the continental Arabian margin in Oman. Inter-plate mechanical coupling within the Tavsanli zone is finally compared to the Oman case to shed light on regional scale tectonics, accretionary dynamics and (rapid) thermal reequilibration of the subduction interface.

  14. Petrography, mineral chemistry and geochemistry of post-ophiolitic volcanic rocks in the Ratouk area (south of Gazik, east of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Vahedi Tabas


    basic (Quaternary compositions outcropped above ophiolitic units. Electron probe micro analyzer (EMPA data indicated that clinopyroxene in basalt is diopside and olivine from chrysolite type with Mg# around 81-82 percent. The whole rocks geochemical data prove calc-alkaline and alkaline nature for andesites and basalts, respectively. Trace element patterns, especially for andesites show enrichment in Ba, K, Cs, Sr and Th, depletion in P, Nb, Ti and enrichment in LREE relative to HREE. Electron probe micro analyses of clinopyroxene in olivine basalt support alkaline nature and within plate tectonic setting for this rock. Thermobarometry of clinopyroxene in olivine basalt record crystallization conditions about 1200 oC and 6-10kbars. Discussion The origin of intraplate volcanism is diverse and not always well understood. Most intraplate volcanos have been attributed to (i mantle plumes and hot spots, (ii continental rift, (iii back-arc extension and (iv lithosphere delamination and thinning (Chen et al., 2007. Although volcanism at intraplate settings is less common than along mid-ocean ridges and subduction zones, it is of significant importance for both preventing geological hazards and understanding mantle geochemistry. It is believed that alkaline oceanic island basalts (OIB are only derived from the asthenospheric mantle (Alici et al., 2002. However, the intracontinental alkaline magmas can be produced by partial melting of metasomatized mantle enriched in LREE and LILE (Upadhyay et al., 2006. On the basis of trace element diagrams, Ratouk basaltic rocks placed within plate volcanic zone (WPVZ and andesitic samples have been located within the active continental margin (ACM. The studies that took place about young basaltic volcanism (Alishahi, 2012; Mollashahi et al., 2011; Ghasempour et al., 2011; Pang et al., 2012; Walker et al., 2009 have shown that the mechanisms of their occurrence are similar such that all of them have been formed in intraplate extensional

  15. Age and duration of intra-oceanic arc volcanism built on a suprasubduction zone type oceanic crust in southern Neotethys, SE Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Karaoğlan


    Full Text Available The southeastern Anatolia comprises numbers of tectono-magmatic/stratigraphic units such as the metamorphic massifs, the ophiolites, the volcanic arc units and the granitoid rocks. All of them play important role for the late Cretaceous evolution of the southern Neotethys. The spatial and temporal relations of these units suggest the progressive development of coeval magmatism and thrusting during the late Cretaceous northward subduction/accretion. Our new U-Pb zircon data from the rhyolitic rocks of the wide-spread volcanic arc unit show ages of (83.1 ± 2.2–(74.6 ± 4.4 Ma. Comparison of the ophiolites, the volcanic arc units and the granitoids suggest following late Cretaceous geological evolution. The ophiolites formed in a suprasubduction zone (SSZ setting as a result of northward intra-oceanic subduction. A wide-spread island-arc tholeiitic volcanic unit developed on the top of the SSZ-type crust during 83–75 Ma. Related to regional plate convergence, northward under-thrusting of SSZ-type ophiolites and volcanic arc units was initiated beneath the Tauride platform (Malatya-Keban and followed by the intrusion of I-type calc-alkaline volcanic arc granitoids during 84–82 Ma. New U-Pb ages from the arc-related volcanic-sedimentary unit and granitoids indicate that under-thrusting of ophiolites together with the arc-related units beneath the Malatya-Keban platform took place soon after the initiation of the volcanic arc on the top of the SSZ-type crust. Then the arc-related volcanic-sedimentary unit continued its development and lasted at ∼75 Ma until the deposition of the late Campanian–Maastrichtian shallow marine limestone. The subduction trench eventually collided with the Bitlis-Pütürge massif giving rise to HP-LT metamorphism of the Bitlis massif. Although the development of the volcanic arc units and the granitoids were coeval at the initial stage of the subduction/accretion both tectono-magmatic units were

  16. Natural flows of H2-rich fluids in the ophiolites of Oman and the Philippines: Tectonic control of migration pathways and associated diagenetic processes (United States)

    Deville, E. P.; Prinzhofer, A.; Vacquand, C.; Chavagnac, V.; Monnin, C.; Ceuleneer, G.; Arcilla, C. A.


    We compare the geological environments of sites of emission of natural hydrogen in the Oman ophiolite and the Zambales ophiolite (Luzon, Philippines). The genesis of natural H2 results from the interaction between ultrabasic rocks and aqueous solutions circulating in deep fracture networks, by oxidation of metals (Fe2+, Mn2+) and reduction of water, probably under high temperature conditions. This process generates very reducing conditions capable of destabilizing other molecules (notably reduction of deep CO2 being transformed into CH4 by Fisher-Tropsch type reactions). Nitrogen is also commonly associated to the H2-rich fluids. H2 flows are associated with the expulsion of hyperalkaline waters rich in ions OH- and Ca2+ and characterized by high pH (between 11 and 12). Most alkaline springs are found in the vicinity of major faults and/or lithological discontinuities like the basal thrust plane of the ophiolites and the peridotite-gabbro contact (Moho). Within the fracture networks, gas and water separate probably at shallow depth, i.e. close to the top of the upper aquifer level. Locally high flows of gas migrate vertically through fracture pathways and they are able to inflame spontaneously on the surface. Aqueous fluids tends to migrate laterally in the fracture network toward the creeks where most of the hyperalkaline springs are found. This water circulation induces a chain of diagenetic reactions starting in the fracture systems and continuing at the surface where it leads to the precipitation of calcite, aragonite, brucite and more rarely portlandite. This chain of diagenetic reactions is associated with the capture of the atmospheric CO2 during the precipitation of carbonates.

  17. Geochemical evidence for active tropical serpentinization in the Santa Elena Ophiolite, Costa Rica: An analog of a humid early Earth? (United States)

    Sánchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Gazel, Esteban; Schwarzenbach, Esther M.; Crespo-Medina, Melitza; Schrenk, Matthew O.; Boll, Jan; Gill, Ben C.


    Serpentinization is a planetary process that has important consequences on geochemical cycles, supporting microbial activity through the formation of H2 and CH4 and having the potential to sequester atmospheric CO2. We present geochemical evidence of active serpentinization in the Santa Elena Ophiolite, Costa Rica which is sustained by peridotites with a degree of serpentinization less than 50% with no evidence of an internal heat source. Average spring water temperatures are 29.1°C. Two hyperalkaline spring systems were discovered, with a spring fluid pH up to 11.18. The fluids are characterized by low Mg (1.0-5.9 mg/L) and K (1.0-5.5 mg/L) and relative high Ca (29-167 mg/L), Na (16-27 mg/L), Cl (26-29 mg/L), hydroxide (41-63 mg/L), and carbonate (31-49 mg/L). Active CH4 (24.3% v/v) vents coupled with carbonate deposits (δ13CCO2 =-27 to -14‰; δ18OCO2 =-17 to - 6‰) also provide evidence for active serpentinization and carbonation. Isotope ratios of the alkaline fluids (δ18O = -7.9‰, δ2H = -51.4‰) and groundwater (δ18O = -7.6‰; δ2H = -48.0‰) suggests that, during base flow recession, springs are fed by groundwater circulation. Methanogenic Archaea, which comprises a relatively high percentage of the 16S rRNA gene tag sequences, suggests that biological methanogenesis may play a significant role in the system. Santa Elena's extreme varying weather results in a scenario that could be of significant importance for (a) improving the knowledge of conditions on a humid early Earth or Mars that had periodic changes in water supply, (b) revealing new insights on serpentinizing solute transport, and (c) modeling hydrogeochemical responses as a function of recharge.

  18. Evaluation of Cr in ophiolite and groundwater and its potential to contaminate the environment in SE of Birjand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Khaledi


    Full Text Available The presence of Cr(VI in groundwater resources is governed by pH and Eh of water and its compounds are generally soluble and have more toxicicity and mobility in oxidizing environments. In this article, the Cr concentration in ophiolite units, in sediments, and in groundwater resources, and also its potential to contaminate the environment have been investigated in southeast of Birjand. During sampling, 17 water samples (2 rain water samples and 15 groundwater samples, and 8 sediment samples were collected. The concentrations of cations (major cations and Cr and anions in water samples were measured at Ottawa University, Canada using IC and ICP-AES methods, respectively. Cr concentrations of sediments were measured using XRF, and concentrations of Cr in collected Selective Sequential Extraction (SSE fractions were measured using Atomic Absorption (AA at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. The average Cr concentrations in sediments and water resources are 627 and 0.026 ppm, respectively. According to the pH of sediments and Eh-pH of water samples, the Cr in water resources is as Cr(VI. Furthermore, the results of SSE show that the majority of Cr was found with residual matter, attached to the iron and manganese oxides, bound to carbonates, organic matter, and the soluble fractions, respectively. The hydrogeochemical properties of water resources show that the average values of EC, TDS and pH are 509 mg/l, 1045 µs/cm and 8.1, respectively, and the concentrations of Cl-, Na+, Mg2+ and SO42- ions are higher than the levels of WHO and Iran National Standard (1053. According to the WQI classification, while 20 percent of the water resources have excellent quality, 53 percent show good quality and 20 percent of water resources are poor in quality.

  19. Characterization of Serpentine Samples from the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory with μ-FTIR and XRD. ­­ (United States)

    Sousa, A.; Cardace, D.


    Serpentinizing systems hold much promise as potentially habitable environments in diverse planetary settings. They involve abundant and simple ingredients (i.e., the mineral olivine, liquid water), support subsurface microbial communities on Earth (Crespo-Medina et al. 2014; Suzuki et al. 2014; Kelley et al. 2005) and are thought to occur elsewhere in our solar system such as Mars (Schulte et al. 2006; Ehlmann et al. 2010)and possibly ocean worlds (Waite et al. 2017; Vance 2009). Although geochemical and microbial data collection continues in serpentinizing systems, the identification and resolution of potential biosignatures in serpentinites are not yet clear. Specifically, the micro-scale mineralogical contexts in which cell fragments or biofilm residues may be formed and preserved is lacking. Here we report preliminary transmission and reflection mode μ-FTIR spectral maps and XRD diffractograms, obtained with instruments relevant to robotic exploration missions (Blake et al. 2012; Igisu et al. 2009; Leroi et al. 2009). Samples analyzed include ultramafic rock and constituent mineral standards (e.g., olivine) and rocks collected from near surface sites associated with the NASA Astrobiology Institute-funded initiative, the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO), in Lower Lake, CA (Cardace et al. 2013). These new results provide co-registered, complementary data on astrobiologically important rock and mineral phases related to serpentinization (Crespo-Medina et al. 2014; Twing et al. 2017). Future work will leverage this data set in microbial colonization experiments aimed at parsing background organic loads in serpentinites from surficial/fracture-localized modern biofilm signatures.

  20. The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (western Makran, Southern Iran): new geological and geochronological data; Le massif ophiolitique de Kahnuj (Makran occidental, Iran meridional): nouvelles donnees geologiques et geochronologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kananian, A. [University of Tarbiat Modarress, Geological Dept., Faculty of Science, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Juteau, Th.; Bellon, H. [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, IUEM, 29 - Brest (France); Darvishzadeh, A. [University of Teheran, Geological Dept., Faculty of Science, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sabzehi, M. [Geological Survey of Iran, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Whitechurch, H. [Universite Louis Pasteur, EOST, Institut de Physique du Globe, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Ricou, L.E. [Institut de Physique du Globe, 75 - Paris (France)


    The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (600 km{sup 2}) consists, from bottom to top, of layered gabbros, isotropic gabbros and ouralite gabbros, agmatites of dioritic to plagio-granitic composition, a sheeted dyke complex and lastly a basaltic pillow lava unit. Amphiboles from gabbros were dated ({sup 40}K-{sup 40}Ar ages) between 156 and 139 Ma and the agmatites are nearly contemporaneous. Potassic granitic veins dated at 93-88 Ma are related to the development of the Ganj arc complex. (authors)

  1. Listwaenite in the Sartohay ophiolitic mélange (Xinjiang, China): A genetic model based on petrology, U-Pb chronology and trace element geochemistry (United States)

    Qiu, Tian; Zhu, Yongfeng


    Listwaenite lenses in the Sartohay ophiolitic mélange (Xinjiang, China) were formed via reactions between serpentinite and metasomatic fluids. First, serpentinite changed into talc schist via the reaction of serpentine + CO2 → talc + magnesite + H2O. Second, talc schist changed into listwaenite via the reaction of talc + CO2 → magnesite + quartz + H2O. Magnetite was progressively destroyed during transformation from serpentinite to talc schist, and completely consumed in listwaenite. Zircon crystals 30-100 μm long, disseminating in talc schist, undeformed listwaenite and mylonitized listwaenite, coexist with talc, quartz and magnesite, while micron-sized zircon grains (ages (302.9 ± 6.8 Ma, 299.7 ± 5.5 Ma and 296.5 ± 3.5 Ma), and are thought to represent the age of formation of the talc schist and listwaenite. These ages are indistinguishable within errors and suggest a rapid transformation from talc schist to listwaenite. Some zircon rims in samples of the undeformed listwaenite and mylonitized listwaenite give much younger apparent U-Pb ages (280-277 Ma), which could be interpreted as a recrystallization age reflecting late-stage shearing in the Sartohay ophiolitic mélange.

  2. Clinopyroxenite dikes crosscutting banded peridotites just above the metamorphic sole in the Oman ophiolite: early cumulates from the primary V3 lava (United States)

    Ishimaru, Satoko; Arai, Shoji; Tamura, Akihiro


    Oman ophiolite is one of the well-known ophiolites for excellent exposures not only of the mantle section but also of the crustal section including effusive rocks and the underlying metamorphic rocks. In the Oman ophiolite, three types of effusive rocks (V1, V2 and V3 from the lower sequences) are recognized: i.e., V1, MORB-like magma, V2, island-arc type lava, and V3, intra-plate lava (Godard et al., 2003 and references there in). V1 and V2 lavas are dominant (> 95 %) as effusive rocks and have been observed in almost all the blocks of northern part of the Oman ophiolite (Godard et al., 2003), but V3 lava has been reported only from Salahi area (Alabaster et al., 1982). It is clear that there was a time gap of lava eruption between V1-2 and V3 based on the presence of pelagic sediments in between (Godard et al., 2003). In addition, V3 lavas are fed by a series of doleritic dikes crosscutting V2 lava (Alley unit) (Alabaster et al., 1982). We found clinopyroxenite (CPXITE) dikes crosscutting deformation structure of basal peridotites just above the metamorphic sole in Wadi Ash Shiyah. The sole metamorphic rock is garnet amphibolite, which overlies the banded and deformed harzburgite and dunite. The CPXITE is composed of coarse clinopyroxene (CPX) with minor amount of chlorite, garnet (hydrous/anhydrous grossular-andradite) with inclusions of titanite, and serpentine formed at a later low-temperature stage. The width of the CPXITE dikes is 2-5 cm (10 cm at maximum) and the dikes contain small blocks of wall harzburgite. Almost all the silicates are serpentinized in the harzburgite blocks except for some CPX. The Mg# (= Mg/(Mg + Fe) atomic ratio) of the CPX is almost constant (= 0.94-0.95) in the serpentinite blocks but varies within the dikes, highest at the contact with the block (0.94) and decreasing with the distance from the contact to 0.81 (0.85 on average). The contents of Al2O3, Cr2O3, and TiO2 in the CPX of the dikes are 0.5-2.0, 0.2-0.6, and 0

  3. Providing plastic zone extrusion (United States)

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Yu, Zhenzhen


    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  4. Identifying and Quantifying Carbonate and Serpentine Textures and Abundances at Multiple Scales with VSWIR Imaging Spectroscopy, Samail Ophiolite, Oman (United States)

    Leask, E.; Ehlmann, B. L.


    Visible-shortwave infrared (VSWIR) imaging reflectance spectroscopy is a technique that can be used to identify minerals, quantify abundances, and assess textural relationships at many scales, from microscopic(10m/pixel). Here, we assess microscopic-, outcrop-, and airborne-scale data of rocks from serpentine-hosted carbonate springs and veins within the Samail Ophiolite (Oman), a system of interest to terrestrial geologists and an analog for early Martian environments. Multi-scale VSWIR imaging spectroscopy enables study of the fracturing and mineralization processes of serpentinization at multiple spatial scales from sub-mm to meters, as it can be used to identify minerals (even if partially altered), trace veins and quantify their approximate volume, and directly compare active serpentine springs sites to their inactive equivalents. It also allows non-destructive estimation of carbonation. We tested the efficacy of microimaging spectroscopy to evaluate serpentinization textures while simultaneously quantifying abundances of different minerals, comparing values from linear spectral unmixing to traditional techniques (quantitative XRD, EDS/SEM). We find abundances derived typically agree to within 10%. At the microscopic scale, VSWIR imaging spectroscopy identifies spatially coherent rare phases missed by XRD as well as XRD `amorphous' component (partially serpentinized clasts) and can quickly differentiate between carbonates and different phyllosilicate minerals (e.g., serpentine vs. chlorite) through subtle wavelength shifts. While outcrop and landscape-scale data are noisier (and lack key wavelength regions around 1.4 and 1.9 μm due to atmospheric absorptions), for standoff distances 3-15 m it is possible to identify different types/generations of veining and track the specific wavelength of major absorptions as well as their depth/shape as a proxy for crystal size. Network scales of veining and fracturing are quantified and sites of biological activity in

  5. Microbially-influenced Fe-Cycling within high pH serpentinizing springs of the Zambales Ophiolite, Philippines (United States)

    Casar, C.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Simon, A.; Cardace, D.; Arcilla, C. A.


    The Zambales ophiolite region in the Philippines contains high pH springs associated with serpentinization. At the surface where calcium-saturated ­fluids mix with air, fluid becomes aerobic and diffusion of CO2 occurs. At depth, there are low concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon and O2, and high concentrations of CH4 and H2. Redox potential of iron in the fluids is largely dependent on pH. Fe2+ is unstable at a high pH, and spontaneously reacts with atmospheric O2 to form Fe3+, which is then hydrolysed to ferrihydrite. The reaction kinetics may be too rapid for microbes to harness energy for growth, however cells have been documented to act as nucleation sites for ferrihydrite precipitation in natural environments. Precipitates that sink to the subsurface act as substrates for microbes where they may carry out Fe3+ reduction in the presence of H2. Predictions made about Gibbs energy of reaction for iron metabolisms in serpentinizing systems show that Fe3+ reduction in the subsurface is energetically favorable (Fig. 1A) (Cardace, et al., 2013). Spring fluid and rock samples from the Zambales region were collected in September 2013. Time series microcosms including sample rock, spring fluid, and gas simulating the spring surface and subsurface (Fig. 1B) will investigate microbial growth rates and microbial reaction products over one year. Microcosms will undergo cell counts via fluorescence microscopy, SEM, and XRD to examine cell growth rates, microbial action on mineral surfaces, minerals forming around cells, and changes in mineralogy. After one year, microbial community structure and iron metabolizers will be identified via DNA sequencing.­­ Surface microcosms are expected to show abiotic oxidation of Fe2+ and formation of Fe3+ precipitates preferentially around cells acting as nucleation sites (except in abiotic control microcosms). Subsurface microcosms are expected to show biotic reduction of Fe3+ and signs of microbial action on mineral surfaces

  6. Petrology, geochemistry and Sm-Nd analyses on the Balkan-Carpathian Ophiolite (BCO - Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria): Remnants of a Devonian back-arc basin in the easternmost part of the Variscan domain (United States)

    Plissart, Gaëlle; Monnier, Christophe; Diot, Hervé; Mărunţiu, Marcel; Berger, Julien; Triantafyllou, Antoine


    The pre-Alpine basement of the Southern Carpathians/Western Balkans contains four ophiolitic massifs dismembered by Alpine tectonics, which define the ;Balkan-Carpathian Ophiolite; (BCO) for which the tectonic setting and age of formation are still debated (Precambrian or Early Devonian). In this contribution, we demonstrate that, in light of a Pre-Alpine restoration, the four massifs belonged to a unique slice of very complete, obducted oceanic lithosphere and we re-evaluate its tectonic setting. Large chromitite volumes with Al-rich spinel compositions (Cr# = 0.39-0.48), as well as major and trace geochemical results on basalts (slightly enriched N-MORBs with low negative Nb anomaly associated with calk-alkaline BABBs), point to a formation in a back-arc basin. Mantle spinel composition (Cr# = 0.49-0.51) and melting modeling indicate mean melting extents of 8.5-11% favouring intermediate spreading rate. New Sm-Nd dating on lower gabbroic rocks give a whole rock isochron, interpreted as the age of formation of the BCO crust at 409 ± 38 Ma, thus confirming an Early Devonian oceanic crust. The previous ∼563 Ma U-Pb zircon age can be interpreted as casual inheritance indicating the proximity of an old continental lithosphere. Taking into account the lithological evidences and paleocontinental affinities of the two recognized terranes separated by the BC oceanic basin (Balkans and Sredna Gora) and by analogy with other Variscan ophiolites in Western/Central Europe, we suggest that the BC ophiolite belong to the ∼400 Ma ophiolites group obducted between West and East Galatia and belonging to the southern Variscan suture. However, the BC ophiolite is the only one of this group obducted to the north and not involved in the Lower Allochthon/ophiolite/Upper Allochthon thrust pile, likely explaining its exceptional preservation. Finally, we tentatively propose a new unifying tectonic model where different terrane drift rates and highly oblique displacements create two

  7. Key role of Upper Mantle rocks in Alpine type orogens: some speculations derived from extensional settings for subduction zone processes and mountain roots (United States)

    Müntener, Othmar


    Orogenic architecture and mountain roots are intrinsically related. Understanding mountain roots largely depends on geophysical methods and exhumed high pressure and high temperature rocks that might record snapshots of the temporal evolution at elevated pressure, temperatures and/or fluid pulses. If such high pressure rocks represent ophiolitic material they are commonly interpreted as exhumed remnants of some sort of 'mid-ocean ridge' processes. Mantle peridotites and their serpentinized counterparts thus play a key role in understanding orogenic architecture as they are often considered to track suture zones or ancient plate boundaries. The recognition that some mantle peridotites and their serpentinized counterparts are derived from ocean-continent transition zones (OCT's) or non-steady state (ultra-)slow plate separation systems question a series of 'common beliefs' that have been applied to understand Alpine-type collisional orogens in the framework of the ophiolite concept. Among these are: (i) the commonly held assumption of a simple genetic link between mantle melting and mafic (MORB-type) magmatism, (ii) the commonly held assumption that mélange zones represent deep subduction zone processes at the plate interface, (iii) that pre-collisional continental crust and oceanic crust can easily be reconstructed to their original thickness and used for reconstructions of the size of small subducted oceanic basins as geophysical data from rifted margins increasingly indicate that continental crust is thinned to much less than the average 30-35 kilometers over a large area that might be called the 'zone of hyperextension', and (iv) the lack of a continuous sheet of mafic oceanic crust and the extremely short time interval of formation results in a lack of 'eclogitization potential' during convergence and hence a lack of potential for subsequent slab pull and, perhaps, a lack of potential for 'slab-breakoff'. Here we provide a synopsis of mantle rocks from the

  8. A new geodynamic interpretation for the South Portuguese Zone (SW Iberia) and the Iberian Pyrite Belt genesis (United States)

    Onézime, Jérôme; Charvet, Jacques; Faure, Michel; Bourdier, Jean-Louis; Chauvet, Alain


    The South Portuguese Zone (SPZ) constitutes the southernmost segment of the Variscan Iberian Massif. It is bounded to the north by the Beja-Acebuches Ophiolitic Complex and related accretionary wedge. To the south lie the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) and flysch deposits forming the southern extent of the zone. Structural analysis within the Spanish side of the SPZ supports continuous south propagating deformation, evolving from early synmetamorphic thrusting in the internal zone to thin-skinned tectonics in the southern external domain. The accretion of the SPZ to the Ossa Morena Zone is also witnessed by the presence of various mélanges, observed throughout the investigated area. Part of the mélanges observed in the IPB are related to the volcanics and mineralizations setting. A key point to understand the IPB mineralizations genesis is to constrain the volcanogenic model. One underestimated feature is the large amount of submarine calc-alkaline ignimbritic facies, implying the presence of caldera structures within the province. Such correlation between caldera environment and ore deposits strongly suggests that the IPB developed in a continental arc. Our geodynamic model proposes an early north directed subduction associated with the obduction of the oceanic crust toward the south. Southward, this episode is immediately followed by the development of the accretionary prism, while farther south, a second subduction zone responsible for the arc setting of the IPB initiates. Subsequent Visean continental collision is associated with the deposit of the south propagating flysch and the present geometry of the SPZ.

  9. The Cretaceous and Cenozoic tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia (United States)

    Zahirovic, S.; Seton, M.; Müller, R. D.


    Tectonic reconstructions of Southeast Asia have given rise to numerous controversies that include the accretionary history of Sundaland and the enigmatic tectonic origin of the proto-South China Sea. We assimilate a diversity of geological and geophysical observations into a new regional plate model, coupled to a global model, to address these debates. Our approach takes into account terrane suturing and accretion histories, the location of subducted slabs imaged in mantle tomography in order to constrain the evolution of regional subduction zones, as well as plausible absolute and relative plate velocities and tectonic driving mechanisms. We propose a scenario of rifting from northern Gondwana in the latest Jurassic, driven by northward slab pull from north-dipping subduction of Tethyan crust beneath Eurasia, to detach East Java, Mangkalihat, southeast Borneo and West Sulawesi blocks that collided with a Tethyan intra-oceanic subduction zone in the mid-Cretaceous and subsequently accreted to the Sunda margin (i.e., southwest Borneo core) in the Late Cretaceous. In accounting for the evolution of plate boundaries, we propose that the Philippine Sea plate originated on the periphery of Tethyan crust forming this northward conveyor. We implement a revised model for the Tethyan intra-oceanic subduction zones to reconcile convergence rates, changes in volcanism and the obduction of ophiolites. In our model the northward margin of Greater India collides with the Kohistan-Ladakh intra-oceanic arc at ∼53 Ma, followed by continent-continent collision closing the Shyok and Indus-Tsangpo suture zones between ∼42 and 34 Ma. We also account for the back-arc opening of the proto-South China Sea from ∼65 Ma, consistent with extension along east Asia and the formation of supra-subduction zone ophiolites presently found on the island of Mindoro. The related rifting likely detached the Semitau continental fragment from South China, which accreted to northern Borneo in the mid

  10. Geochemistry and jasper beds from the Ordovician Løkken ophiolite, Norway: origin of proximal and distal siliceous exhalites (United States)

    Grenne, Tor; Slack, John F.


    Stratiform beds of jasper (hematitic chert), composed essentially of SiO2 (69-95 wt %) and Fe2O3 (3-25 wt %), can be traced several kilometers along strike in the Ordovician L??kken ophiolite, Norway. These siliceous beds are closely associated with volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits and are interpreted as sea-floor gels that were deposited by fallout from hydrothermal plumes in silica-rich seawater, in which plume-derived Fe oxyhydroxide particles promoted flocculation and rapid settling of large (???200 ??m) colloidal particles of silica-iron oxyhydroxide. Concentrations of chalcophile elements in the jasper beds are at the parts per million level implying that sulfide particle fallout was insignificant and that the Si-Fe gel-forming plumes were mainly derived from intermediate- (100??-250??C) to high-temperature (>250??) white smoker-type vents with high Fe/S ratios. The interpreted setting is similar to that of the Lau basin, where high-temperature (280??-334??C) white smoker venting alternates or overlaps with sulfide mound-forming black smoker venting. Ratios of Al, Sc, Th, Hf, and REE to iron are very low and show that the detrital input was <0.1 percent of the bulk jasper. Most jasper beds are enriched in U, V, P, and Mo relative to the North American Shale Composite, reflecting a predominantly seawater source, whereas REE distribution patterns (positive Eu and negative Ce anomalies) reflect variable mixing of hydrothermal solutions with oxic seawater at dilution ratios of ???102 to 104. Trace element variations in the gel precursor to the jasper are thought to have been controlled by coprecipitation and/or adsorption by Fe oxyhydroxide particles that formed by the oxidation of hydrothermal Fe2+ within the variably seawater-diluted hydrothermal plume(s). Thick jasper layers near the H??ydal VMS orebody show distinct positive As/Fe and Sb/Fe anomalies that are attributed to near-vent rapid settling of Si-Fe particles derived from As- and Sb

  11. Effect of Hydrochemistry on Mineral Precipitation and Textural Diversity in Serpentinization-driven Alkaline Environments; Insights from Thermal Springs in the Oman Ophiolite. (United States)

    Bach, W.; Giampouras, M.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.; Garrido, C. J.; Los, C.; Fussmann, D.; Monien, P.


    Interactions between meteoric water and ultramafic rocks within Oman ophiolite give rise to the formation of thermal spring waters of variable composition and temperature. Discharge of two different types of water forms complex hydrological networks of streams and ponds, in which the waters mix, undergo evaporation, and take up atmospheric CO2. We conducted a pond-by-pond sampling of waters and precipitates in two spring sites within the Wadi Tayin massif, Nasif and Khafifah, and examined how hydrochemistry and associated mineral saturation states affect the variations in mineral phases and textures. Three distinctive types of waters were identified in the system: a) Mg-type (7.9 11.6); Ca-OH-rich waters, and c) Mix-type (9.6 evaporation are the main drivers of precipitation and textural differentiation of minerals occurring in serpentinization-driven alkaline environments.

  12. Spatial evolution of Zagros collision zone in Kurdistan, NW Iran: constraints on Arabia-Eurasia oblique convergence (United States)

    Sadeghi, Shahriar; Yassaghi, Ali


    Stratigraphy, detailed structural mapping and a crustal-scale cross section across the NW Zagros collision zone provide constraints on the spatial evolution of oblique convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates since the Late Cretaceous. The Zagros collision zone in NW Iran consists of the internal Sanandaj-Sirjan, Gaveh Rud and Ophiolite zones and the external Bisotoun, Radiolarite and High Zagros zones. The Main Zagros Thrust is the major structure of the Zagros suture zone. Two stages of oblique deformation are recognized in the external part of the NW Zagros in Iran. In the early stage, coexisting dextral strike-slip and reverse dominated domains in the Radiolarite zone developed in response to deformation partitioning due to oblique convergence. Dextral-reverse faults in the Bisotoun zone are also compatible with oblique convergence. In the late stage, deformation partitioning occurred during southeastward propagation of the Zagros orogeny towards its foreland resulting in synchronous development of orogen-parallel strike-slip and thrust faults. It is proposed that the first stage was related to Late Cretaceous oblique obduction, while the second stage resulted from Cenozoic collision. The Cenozoic orogen-parallel strike-slip component of Zagros oblique convergence is not confined to the Zagros suture zone (Main Recent Fault) but also occurred in the external part (Marekhil-Ravansar fault system). Thus, it is proposed that oblique convergence of Arabian and Eurasian plates in Zagros collision zone initiated with oblique obduction in the Late Cretaceous followed by oblique collision in the late Tertiary, consistent with global plate reconstructions.

  13. Petrogenesis of ultramafic rocks and olivine-rich troctolites from the East Taiwan Ophiolite in the Lichi mélange (United States)

    Morishita, Tomoaki; Ghosh, Biswajit; Soda, Yusuke; Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Tani, Ken-ichiro; Ishizuka, Osamu; Tamura, Akihiro; Komaru, Chihiro; Aari, Shoji; Yang, Hsiao-Chin; Chen, Wen-Shan


    We examine ultramafic and olivine-rich troctolite blocks of the East Taiwan Ophiolite (ETO) in the Lichi Mélange. Although ultramafic rocks are extensively serpentinized, the primary minerals, such as olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, spinel and plagioclase can be identified. The ultramafic rocks are classified into harzburgite (± clinopyroxene), dunite, and olivine websterite. Major and trace element compositions of the primary minerals in harzburgites, such as the Cr# [= Cr/(Cr + Al) atomic ratio] of chromian spinel (0.3-0.58) and incompatible elements-depleted trace element patterns of clinopyroxenes, indicate their residue origin after partial melting with less flux components. These compositions are similar to those from mid-ocean ridge peridotites as well as back-arc peridotites from the Philippine Sea Plate. The olivine websterite contains discrete as well as occasional locally concentrated plagioclase grains. Petrological characteristics coupled with similarity in trace element patterns of clinopyroxenes in the harzburgite and olivine websterite samples indicate that the olivine websterite is likely formed by clinopyroxene addition to a lherzolitic/harzburgitic peridotite from a pyroxene-saturated mafic melt. Dunite with medium Cr# spinels indicates cumulus or replacement by melt-peridotite reaction origins. Mineral composition of olivine-rich troctolite cannot be explained by simple crystallization from basaltic magmas, but shows a chemical trend expected for products after melt-peridotite interactions. Mineral compositions of the dunite and olivine-rich troctolite are also within chemical ranges of mid-ocean ridge samples, and are slightly different from back-arc samples from the Philippine Sea Plate. We conclude that peridotites in the ETO are not derived from the northern extension of the Luzon volcanic arc mantle. Further geochronological study is, however, required to constrain the origin of the ETO ophiolite, because peridotites are probably

  14. High- and low-Cr chromitite and dunite in a Tibetan ophiolite: evolution from mature subduction system to incipient forearc in the Neo-Tethyan Ocean (United States)

    Xiong, Qing; Henry, Hadrien; Griffin, William L.; Zheng, Jian-Ping; Satsukawa, Takako; Pearson, Norman J.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.


    The microstructures, major- and trace-element compositions of minerals and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) maps of high- and low-Cr# [spinel Cr# = Cr3+/(Cr3+ + Al3+)] chromitites and dunites from the Zedang ophiolite in the Yarlung Zangbo Suture (South Tibet) have been used to reveal their genesis and the related geodynamic processes in the Neo-Tethyan Ocean. The high-Cr# (0.77-0.80) chromitites (with or without diopside exsolution) have chromite compositions consistent with initial crystallization by interaction between boninitic magmas, harzburgite and reaction-produced magmas in a shallow, mature mantle wedge. Some high-Cr# chromitites show crystal-plastic deformation and grain growth on previous chromite relics that have exsolved needles of diopside. These features are similar to those of the Luobusa high-Cr# chromitites, possibly recycled from the deep upper mantle in a mature subduction system. In contrast, mineralogical, chemical and EBSD features of the Zedang low-Cr# (0.49-0.67) chromitites and dunites and the silicate inclusions in chromite indicate that they formed by rapid interaction between forearc basaltic magmas (MORB-like but with rare subduction input) and the Zedang harzburgites in a dynamically extended, incipient forearc lithosphere. The evidence implies that the high-Cr# chromitites were produced or emplaced in an earlier mature arc (possibly Jurassic), while the low-Cr# associations formed in an incipient forearc during the initiation of a new episode of Neo-Tethyan subduction at 130-120 Ma. This two-episode subduction model can provide a new explanation for the coexistence of high- and low-Cr# chromitites in the same volume of ophiolitic mantle.

  15. Boron Isotopes as Tracers of the Tectonic Origin and Geological History of Serpentinites in Subduction and Suture Zones. (United States)

    Martin, C.; Harlow, G. E.; Flores, K. E.; Angiboust, S.


    Serpentinites are known to play a key role in subduction, because they contain significant water content and can be enriched in elements such as As, B, Li, Sb, and U. They originate by hydration of peridotite by two different processes: (i) by a seawater source reacting with peridotite beneath the ocean crust and (ii) by reaction of peridotite at the base of the mantle-wedge with fluids released from the slab during subduction. In suture zones, it is relatively common to find serpentinite from both exhumed subduction channel mélange (from the mantle wedge) and ophiolite (from the oceanic crust), but recognizing them and their tectonic origin can be difficult. A recent study based on samples from the Guatemala Suture Zone demonstrated that boron (B) isotopes can be used as a probe of the fluid from which serpentinites form. Serpentinites from an ophiolite complex have positive δ11B, as expected for peridotites hydrated by seawater-derived fluid, whereas serpentinite samples from the matrix of the mélange (coming from the roof of the subducting channel) have negative δ11B, in agreement with hydration of mantellic peridotites by fluids released at 30-70 km depth from metamorphic rocks. Serpentinites from tectonically well-constrained locations were selected to extend our knowledge of metasomatism in subduction-related areas. The trace-element contents and B isotopes were measured in situ, respectively by LA-ICP-MS and LA-MC-ICP-MS on samples from the oceanic crust (ophiolite = Guatemala, Iran, Cuba), the subduction forearc (Nicaragua), and the mantle wedge (Guatemala, Iran, Japan, Myanmar). The spider diagrams and REE patterns, as well as a B/La vs. As/La diagram do not show any reliable difference to distinguish the tectonic origin of the serpentinite. However, in a δ11B vs. B content diagram, the serpentinites seem to plot in a triangle with fluid endmembers representing (i) seawater (δ11B = 40‰, [B] = 5ppm), (ii) metabasite-issued metamorphic fluids, and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet BOZKUŞ


    Full Text Available The rock units formed in Late Cretaceous to recent, outcrop in the investigated area. The oldest rock unit of the suture zone is a flysch (Alıcık formatıon of Upper Cretaceous (Santonıan-Maastrichtıan age containing volcanic intercalations. Ophiolitic melange tectonically set on the flysch. The initial emplacement of the ophioli- tic melange sheets in this area occur between Late Cretaceous and pre early Eocene. Lower-Midlle Eocene aged, fine grained continental to shallow marine sediments (Dağdibi formatıon cover all the units with an angular unconformity. On these sediments, Upper Eocene basic (basalt, basaltic andesite, tuff volcanics (Karataş formatıon are observed. Oligocene aged continental molasse sediments (Narman group which lie on the older units with an angular unconformity are; continental clastics, volcanic products and gypsum at the top displaying a thinning and fining upward motif of sequence. Pliocene-Pleistocene aged conglomerates represent river environments, cover all the units with an angular unconformity. Recent deposits are slope debris and alluvium. All the rocks exposed in the investigated area which take place Pontid /Anatolid suture zone and developed under the control of collisional tectonic processes of these two continents. In Upper Cretaceous age, the flysch is formed in a trench developed along a nortward dipping subductıon zone.. Ophiolitic melange which limits the suture zone at the south, is formed by slicing of oceanic crust and mixing of these slices with trench sediments by means of a tectono-sedimentary system.The collosion of Pontid/Anatolid continents (happened after Late Cretaceous and before Early Eocene. Lower-Mıddle Eocene (Ipresian-Lutetian aged continental, to shallow marine deposits were formed in an asimetric forearc molassic basin which developed along the suture zone. Oligocene aged continental deposits were developed together with volcanics in continental intermountain molassic

  17. Genesis and Multi-Episodic Alteration of Zircon-Bearing Chromitites from the Ayios Stefanos Mine, Othris Massif, Greece: Assessment of an Unconventional Hypothesis on the Origin of Zircon in Ophiolitic Chromitites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyrios Kapsiotis


    Full Text Available Several small chromium (Cr ore bodies are hosted within a unit of tectonically thinned dunite in the retired Ayios Stefanos mine of the western Othris ophiolite complex in Greece. Chromium ores consist of tectonically imprinted bodies of semi-massive to massive, podiform and lenticular chromitites composed of chromian spinel [Cr-spinel] with high Cr# [Cr/(Cr + Al = 0.51–0.66] and Mg# [Mg/(Mg + Fe2+ = 0.58–0.76], low Fe3+# [Fe3+/(Fe3+ + Fe2+ ≤ 0.43] and low TiO2 (≤0.21 wt % content. This composition is characteristic of Cr-spinels in equilibrium with melts of intermediate affinity between island-arc tholeiites (IATs and mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs. Several Cr-spinel crystals in these ores exhibit imperfect zones made up of spinel hosting oriented lamellae of Mg-silicates (mostly chlorite locally overgrown by porous domains along grain boundaries and fractures. From the Cr-spinel core to the lamellae-rich rim Cr#, Mg# and Fe3+# generally increase (0.68–0.87, 0.78–0.88 and 0.55–0.80, respectively, whereas from the core or the spinel zones with oriented lamellae to the porous domains Mg# and Fe3+# generally decrease (0.45–0.74 and ≤0.51, correspondingly. The lamellae-rich rims formed at oxidizing conditions, whereas the porous rims resulted from a later reducing event. Several tiny (≤30 μm, subhedral to anhedral and elongated Zr-bearing silicate mineral grains were discovered mainly along open and healed fractures cutting Cr-spinel. Most of the Zr-bearing silicate minerals (30 out of 35 grains were found in a chromitite boulder vastly intruded by a complex network of gabbroic dykes. The dominant Zr-bearing silicate phase is by far zircon displaying a homogeneous internal texture in cathodoluminescence (CL images. Raman spectroscopy data indicate that zircons have experienced structural damage due to self-irradiation. Their trace-element contents suggest derivation from a plagioclase-bearing, low-SiO2 intermediate to mafic

  18. Evidence for Paleocene-Eocene evolution of the foot of the Eurasian margin (Kermanshah ophiolite, SW Iran) from back-arc to arc: Implications for regional geodynamics and obduction (United States)

    Whitechurch, H.; Omrani, J.; Agard, P.; Humbert, F.; Montigny, R.; Jolivet, L.


    The nature and significance of the Kermanshah ophiolite (Zagros Mountains, Iran), traditionally identified as one of the remnants of the Peri-Arabic ophiolite system obducted onto Arabia in the Late Cretaceous, is reinvestigated in this study. We assess the geochemistry of magmatic rocks from two distinct areas: the Kamyaran Paleocene-Eocene arc and the so-called Harsin-Sahneh ophiolite complex. Volcanic rocks associated with Triassic to Liassic sediments display a clear alkali signature, whereas the Paleocene volcanic rocks show a geochemical signature similar to that of tholeiitic back-arc basin basalts. The presumed ophiolitic gabbros of the Harsin-Sahneh complex and some of the associated dykes that intrude harzburgites or gabbros also have a back-arc basin signature. Eocene volcanics, gabbros and dykes intruding the harzburgites display clear low to medium-K calc-alkaline signatures with variable negative Nb, Ta, and Ti and positive Sr, Ba, Th, and U anomalies. Field relationships and geochemical evidence indicate that the Eocene magmatic rocks were intruded into a mantle substratum close to the ocean-continent transition. The geochemistry of magmatic rocks from Paleocene to Eocene suggests that an Eocene arc was constructed in a Paleocene back-arc basin along the Eurasian continental margin. In the Kermanshah region this magmatic activity, which extended further to the northwest into Turkey, coincided with a marked slowing down of the convergence of Arabia with Eurasia. Furthermore, it occurred after the Mesozoic Sanandaj-Sirjan magmatism had ceased but before the development of the Tertiary Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc. We tentatively relate this transient magmatic activity to a slab retreat and a back-arc extension at the Eurasian continental margin.

  19. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones (United States)

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael


    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  20. Work zone safety analysis. (United States)


    This report presents research performed analyzing crashes in work zones in the state of New Jersey so as to : identify critical areas in work zones susceptible to crashes and key factors that contribute to these crashes. A field : data collection on ...

  1. Iowa Work Zone Fatalities (United States)


    From March through November, the Iowa DOT may have up to 500 road construction work zones, and each of the department's maintenance garages may establish one or more short-term work zones per day. Couple that with the work of cities and counties, and...

  2. A new classification of the Turkish terranes and sutures and its implication for the paleotectonic history of the region (United States)

    Moix, Patrice; Beccaletto, Laurent; Kozur, Heinz W.; Hochard, Cyril; Rosselet, François; Stampfli, Gérard M.


    phase (Late Triassic), thus suturing the Paleotethys. At that time, the Taurus plate developed foreland-type basins, filled with flysch-molasse deposits that locally overstepped the lower plate Taurus terrane and were deposited in the opening Neotethys to the south. These olistostromal deposits are characterized by pelagic Carboniferous and Permian material from the Paleotethys suture zone found in the Mersin mélange. The latter, as well as the Antalya and Mamonia domains are represented by a series of exotic units now found south of the main Taurus range. Part of the Mersin exotic material was clearly derived from the former north Anatolian passive margin (Huğlu-type series) and re-displaced during the Paleogene. This led us to propose a plate tectonic model where the Anatolian ophiolitic front is linked up with the Samail/Baër-Bassit obduction front found along the Arabian margin. The obduction front was indented by the Anatolian promontory whose eastern end was partially subducted. Continued slab roll-back of the Neotethys allowed Anatolian exotics to continue their course southwestward until their emplacement along the Taurus southern margin (Mersin) and up to the Beydağları promontory (Antaya-Mamonia) in the latest Cretaceous-Paleocene. The supra-subduction ocean opening at the back of the obduction front (Troodos-type Ocean) was finally closed by Eocene north-south shortening between Africa and Eurasia. This brought close to each other Cretaceous ophiolites derived from the north of Anatolia and those obducted on the Arabian promontory. The latter were sealed by a Maastrichtian platform, and locally never affected by Alpine tectonism, whereas those located on the eastern Anatolian plate are strongly deformed and metamorphosed, and affected by Eocene arc magmatism. These observations help to reconstruct the larger frame of the central Tethyan realm geodynamic evolution.

  3. Restoring the Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex to its late Cretaceous configuration (United States)

    Lefebvre, C.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Kaymakci, N.; Vissers, R. L. M.


    antiform, while shallower levels were synchronously affected by a WNW-ESE directed exhumation. Post-tectonic magmatism affected the western side of the antiform in three successive magmatic events showing a chemical evolution from calc-alkaline in the west to alkaline in the east (i.e. from an external to a more internal position in the antiform). This magmatic trend together with published geochemical data from the central Anatolian plutonic rocks, has been recognized as a typical evolution of a magmatic arc in a supra-subduction environment. Therefore, the contemporaneous L/MP-HT metamorphic CACC and the subduction-related HP-LT Tavşanlı Zone most likely formed a paired metamorphic belt. Moreover, at the plate tectonic scale, the contemporaneous northward subduction below the Pontides along an EW-trending suture together with the newly established eastward subduction of a NNE-SSW trending subduction system below the CACC suggests the presence of a Trench-Trench-Trench (TTT) type triple junction at the intersection of these two subduction zones. Finally, during the Paleogene, the collision of the NNE-SSW-oriented antiformal structure with the central Pontides led to the break-up of the CACC into three distinctive domains as exposed today.

  4. VT Data - Zoning 20081203, Norwich (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — BASE DISTRICTS. Models a municipality’s zoning zones and related information. Final boundary determinations must be obtained from the town Zoning Administrator. All...

  5. VT Data - Zoning 20170710, Woodstock (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — BASE DISTRICTS. Models a municipality’s zoning zones and related information. Final boundary determinations must be obtained from the town Zoning Administrator. All...

  6. VT Data - Zoning 20170227, Fairlee (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — BASE DISTRICTS. Models a municipality’s zoning zones and related information. Final boundary determinations must be obtained from the town Zoning Administrator. All...

  7. VT Data - Zoning 20120709, Huntington (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning district data for the Town of Huntington, Vermont. For details regarding each zoning district refer to the current zoning regulations on town of Huntington's...

  8. VT Data - Zoning 20170727, Westford (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning District data for Westford, Vermont. Data corresponds to the zoning regulations adopted by the Town of Westford. For details and descriptions of all zoning...

  9. The discovery and significance of the northeastern Jiangxi Province ophiolite (NEJXO), its metamorphic peridotite and associated high temperature-high pressure metamorphic rocks (United States)

    Guoqing, Zhou

    The NEJXO with a N.E.-S.W. elongation occurs in the mid-Lower Qigong Group, under which lies the Jiuling Group (1401 Ma) and above which lies the Shangshu Group (817 ± 87 Ma), so that the age of NEJXO is defined to be Proterozoic between 1401 Ma and 817 ± 87 Ma. The sediments of the Jiuling Group show evidence of continental derivation, but the Qigong Group and Shangshu Group are characterised by CA volcanic rocks and probably represent a gradually growing island-arc. Thus, we regard the NEJXO as occurring in a back-island-arc basin between the ancient continent and the island-arc. On the whole, the main members of dismembered ophiolite are all present. The metamorphic periodotite present in them, is considered to be especially important, because it may be the sole representative of the older mantle present and it differs from those younger. The high-T metamorphic rocks associated with the NEJXO are various hornstones and melilite marble, whereas the high-P metamorphic rocks are aragonite-jadeite-glaucophane schist and schistose lawsonite marble. From the fact that high-P metamorphism was superimposed on the high-T metamorphic rocks, it may be suggested that early tension (at opening stage) and late compression (at closing stage) occurred during the development of the basin.

  10. Strontium isotopes and water-rock interaction of the Agrokipia 'B' stockwork deposit in the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus: a fossil subseafloor ore body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahata, H. (Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)); Scott, S. (University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada). Marine Geology Laboratory)


    This report discusses the formation of the Agrokipia B' stock work deposit in the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus. Sulfide precipitation took place within pillow lavas in this deposit, and such a deposit has been considered to be originated on the sea floor by the emergence of warm fluids ln a situation comparable to that described at the Galapagos Spreading Center. On the core samples of Holes CY2A (694m) and CY4 (2263m) drilled in the deposit, water-rock interaction in pillow lavas and the sheeted dike complex below the ancient sea floor was studied. From Sr-Rb isotope analysis, it was found that the age of the formation of the deposit is about 90 Ma, and the hydrothermal alteration occurred on or close to a spreading axis was required. Local, secondary circulation systems are required to explain the strontium isotopes and water/rock data and probably are necessary for the formation of the subseafloor ore deposit. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Speeds in school zones. (United States)


    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  12. Promise Zones for Applicants (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  13. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  14. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh


    Full Text Available This research describes a quantitative methodology for deriving optimal exploration target zones based on a probabilistic mineral prospectivity map. In order to arrive at out objective, we provide a plausible answer to the following question: "Which...

  15. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Tavşanli zone, Western Anatolia: implications for mechanical coupling during subduction/obduction processes (United States)

    Plunder, Alexis; Agard, Philippe; Chopin, Christian; Okay, Aral


    Obduction (i.e., emplacement of a dense oceanic lithosphere on top of a continent) and associated continental subduction provide insights into the rheology of the lithosphere and inter-plate mechanical coupling that usefully complements those inferred from normal oceanic subduction beneath continents. Structural and petrological data from the Tavşanlı zone are herein used to highlight processes occurring along the subduction interface from initial obduction stages (i.e., initiation of intra-oceanic subduction witnessed by metamorphic soles) to continental subduction (represented by high-pressure low-temperature, HP-LT rocks). The Tavşanlı zone (Western Anatolia) belongs to the İzmir-Ankara suture zone, which separates the Pontides and Anatolide-Tauride block. It represents a very well preserved late Cretaceous subduction interface, thanks to only mild, later collision. The Tavşanlı zone is divided in three main tectonic units related to (either continental or oceanic) subduction and obduction, respectively, which are from bottom to top: (i) the distal cover of the subducted north facing continental margin of the Anatolide-Tauride block (Orhaneli unit), which yields one of the lowest thermal gradients on earth (i.e., 5°C/km, with peak T and P of 430°C/22-24 kbar); (ii) an accretionary complex made of low-grade, subducted ocean-derived metamorphic rocks; (iii) the non-metamorphic obducted ophiolite, underlain by a thin metamorphic sole, which is found as klippen south of the İzmir-Ankara suture zone. Systematic sampling and structural work allow us to reappraise the nature, internal structure and P-T conditions of the accretionary complex sandwiched between the lower continental and upper oceanic plates. Two major tectonic units (termed complex 1 and 2) are recognised based on metamorphic grade and structural position with respect to the continental margin. Metamorphic conditions range from incipient HP-LT metamorphism (complex 1) to blueschist facies

  16. Pan African Collisional Tectonics Along the Moroccan West African Craton Continued to Ediacaran-Cambrian Boundary (United States)

    Hefferan, K. P.; Samson, S. D.; Rice, K.; Soulaimani, A.


    Precision geochronologic dating and field mapping in the Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco document a Neoproterozoic Pan African orogenic cycle consisting of three distinct orogenic events: Iriri-Tichibanine orogeny (760-700 Ma), Bou Azzer orogeny (680-640 Ma) and the WACadomian orogeny (620 Ma to either 555 or 544 Ma). The Iriri-Tichibanine and Bou Azzer orogenies involved northward directed subduction beneath island arc volcanic terranes. These orogenic events generated calc-alkaline magmatism and supra-subduction zone ophiolites exposed in the Bou Azzer and Siroua erosional inliers. The WACadomian orogeny involved subduction and collision of the Cadomia arc complex with the West African Craton and generation of clastic sedimentary basins. The termination of the WACadomian orogeny has been the subject of debate as calc-alkaline to high K magmatism and folding continued to 544 Ma: Was 620-544 Ma calc-alkaline to high K magmatism and clastic basin development due to a) continental rift basin tectonics or b) southward directed subduction and collisional tectonics with associated back arc basin tectonism? We present field and geochemical data supporting the continuation of subduction-collisional tectonics to the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary 544 Ma. Field mapping in the Central Anti-Atlas (Agadir Melloul) clearly documents an angular unconformity between Ouarzazate Group and Adoudounian limestones (N 30°31'28.91", W07°48'29.12"). Volcaniclastic rocks of Ouarzazate Group (615-545 Ma) are clearly folded and unconformably overlain by Adoudou Formation (541-529 Ma) limestones to the north. Geochemical discrimination diagrams on Latest Neoproterozoic calc-alkaline to high K igneous rocks throughout the Anti-Atlas plot in subduction and collisional arc magma domains. Back arc basin tectonism is likely responsible for localized extensional basins but continental rift tectonics and passive margin sedimentation did not begin in the Anti-Atlas Mountains until Early

  17. The zone of tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titaeva, N.A.; Taskaev, A.I.


    Peculiarities of radionuclide migration in the zone of tundra are considered. High 232 Th content, high 232 Th/ 238 U values at low 238 U and 226 Ra concentrations in rocks are shown to be characteristic for the chosen zone. Data on methods of 238 U and 232 Th determination in natural waters, as well as content of radionuclides in water and bottom sediments are presented. Formation of soils under the conditions of mountain tundra is shown to result in noticeable redistribution of radioactive elements as well as all their isotopes. Data on U, Th, Ra isotope content in different plants and certain organs of plants are presented. Principal statistical parameters both of content of certain U, Th, Ra isotopes and their isotope relations on the whole by soil and vegetation of the investigated region are presented. When characterizing storage of isotopes of different elements in vegetation of the zone of tundra it is necessary to note that the dependence 226 Ra( 228 Ra)> 228 Th> 227 Th> 230 Th> 232 Th> 238 U> 234 U is typical for it. Intensity of radionuclide inclusion in the biogenic migration cycle in the zone of tundra is higher than in the zone of taiga

  18. Freeway work zone lane capacity. (United States)


    The focus of this report is a capacity analysis of two long-term urban freeway Work Zones. Work Zone #1 : tapered four mainline lanes to two, using two separate tapers; Work Zone #2 tapered two mainline lanes to one. : Work Zone throughput was analyz...

  19. Zones of emotional labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig


    is put forth among 25 Danish public family law caseworkers. The study points to personal, professional, and social zones of emotional labour through which the caseworkers carry out their work. Emotional labour zones mark emotion structures that may be challenging due to complex emotional intersections......The paper suggests that due to the difficult nature of their work public family law caseworkers are to be included in the definition of emotional labour even though they are omitted by Hochschild. Based upon a review of the structures involved in emotional labour an explorative qualitative study...

  20. Nuclear free zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoffel, T.


    Health professionals have played a leading role in alerting and educating the public regarding the danger of nuclear war which has been described as the last epidemic our civilization will know. Having convinced most people that the use of nuclear weapons would mean intolerable consequences, groups such as Physicians for Social Responsibility have focused on the second critical question how likely is it that these weapons will be used? The oultlook is grim. This article describes the nuclear free zone movement, explores relevant legal questions, and shows how the political potential of nuclear free zones threatens to open a deep rift in the American constitutional system

  1. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik


    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... for the ventilation equipment. To   overcome a shortcoming in Simulink to solve algebraic equations and matrix inversions, we have developed the library inspired by the so called dynamic node technique. We present simulation results using the presented library, and concludes with visions for further...

  2. Genesis and Multi-Episodic Alteration of Zircon-Bearing Chromitites from the Ayios Stefanos Mine, Othris Massif, Greece: Assessment of an Unconventional Hypothesis on the Origin of Zircon in Ophiolitic Chromitites


    Argyrios Kapsiotis; Annie Ewing Rassios; Aspasia Antonelou; Evangelos Tzamos


    Several small chromium (Cr) ore bodies are hosted within a unit of tectonically thinned dunite in the retired Ayios Stefanos mine of the western Othris ophiolite complex in Greece. Chromium ores consist of tectonically imprinted bodies of semi-massive to massive, podiform and lenticular chromitites composed of chromian spinel [Cr-spinel] with high Cr# [Cr/(Cr + Al) = 0.51–0.66] and Mg# [Mg/(Mg + Fe2+) = 0.58–0.76], low Fe3+# [Fe3+/(Fe3+ + Fe2+) ≤ 0.43] and low TiO2 (≤0.21 wt %) content. This ...

  3. Nuclear weapons free zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, K.


    The article analyses the concept and problems of the two nuclear weapons free zones in Latin America and in the South Pacific established by the Treaty of Tlatelolco and the Treaty of Rarotonga. So far the nuclear weapons states except China have refused to sign the additional protocols of the Treaties or have signed them only with considerable provisos. Therefore they don't fully recognize the nuclear weapons free status of those zones, or they don't recognize it at all. Both Treaties contain no provisions to regulate the transit of nuclear weapons through the zones. This allows de facto the stationing of nuclear weapons in the military bases of the US which are located within the nuclear weapons free zone of Latin America. The Treaty of Tlatelolco contains also the right of the states, party to the Treaty, to explode nuclear devices for peaceful purposes. Since peaceful and military nuclear explosions cannot be distinguished technically, this right could also undermine the nuclear weapons free status of the region. Important nuclear threshold countries like Argentina and Brazil have furthermore refrained from putting the Treaty into force. (orig.) [de

  4. Arid Zone Hydrology (United States)

    Arid zone hydrology encompasses a wide range of topics and hydro-meteorological and ecological characteristics. Although arid and semi-arid watersheds perform the same functions as those in humid environments, their hydrology and sediment transport characteristics cannot be readily predicted by inf...

  5. Buffer Zone Sign Template (United States)

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  6. Buffer Zone, Nicosia


    Sorensen, Marie Louise


    Images of the United Nations Buffer Zone or Green Line which has partitioned Cyprus since 1974 The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement n° 217411.

  7. 76 FR 44803 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation... (United States)


    ...] Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation... published in the Federal Register. This notice lists temporary safety zones, security zones, special local... safety zones, security zones, special local regulations, regulated navigation areas or drawbridge...

  8. 76 FR 7107 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation... (United States)


    ...] Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation... published in the Federal Register. This document lists temporary safety zones, security zones, special local... safety zones, security zones, special local regulations, regulated navigation areas or drawbridge...

  9. Evaluation of Ohio work zone speed zones process. (United States)


    This report describes the methodology and results of analyses performed to determine the effectiveness of Ohio Department of Transportation processes for establishing work zone speed zones. Researchers observed motorists speed choice upstream of a...

  10. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_EnterpriseZone (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class of Miami Dade County Enterprise Zones. Enterprise Zones are special areas in the county where certain incentives from the State are available...

  11. Processes Governing Alkaline Groundwater Chemistry within a Fractured Rock (Ophiolitic Mélange Aquifer Underlying a Seasonally Inhabited Headwater Area in the Aladağlar Range (Adana, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt Güler


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate natural and anthropogenic processes governing the chemical composition of alkaline groundwater within a fractured rock (ophiolitic mélange aquifer underlying a seasonally inhabited headwater area in the Aladağlar Range (Adana, Turkey. In this aquifer, spatiotemporal patterns of groundwater flow and chemistry were investigated during dry (October 2011 and wet (May 2012 seasons utilizing 25 shallow hand-dug wells. In addition, representative samples of snow, rock, and soil were collected and analyzed to constrain the PHREEQC inverse geochemical models used for simulating water-rock interaction (WRI processes. Hydrochemistry of the aquifer shows a strong interseasonal variability where Mg–HCO3 and Mg–Ca–HCO3 water types are prevalent, reflecting the influence of ophiolitic and carbonate rocks on local groundwater chemistry. R-mode factor analysis of hydrochemical data hints at geochemical processes taking place in the groundwater system, that is, WRI involving Ca- and Si-bearing phases; WRI involving amorphous oxyhydroxides and clay minerals; WRI involving Mg-bearing phases; and atmospheric/anthropogenic inputs. Results from the PHREEQC modeling suggested that hydrogeochemical evolution is governed by weathering of primary minerals (calcite, chrysotile, forsterite, and chromite, precipitation of secondary minerals (dolomite, quartz, clinochlore, and Fe/Cr oxides, atmospheric/anthropogenic inputs (halite, and seasonal dilution from recharge.

  12. Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System (United States)

    This page provides an overview Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System water quality modeling and decision support system designed for environmental impact assessment of mixing zones resulting from wastewater discharge from point sources

  13. Work zone intrusion alarm effectiveness. (United States)


    16. Abstract : The New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) commissioned a study to evaluate how : effective a work zone safety device known as the SonoBlaster! Work Zone Intrusion Alarm would be : in protecting maintenance workers fro...

  14. VT Data - Zoning 20070306, Marlboro (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning districts, Marlboro, Vermont. Surface water buffer overlay is in a separate shapefile. Data were originally created by WRC in 2005. Marlboro's zoning bylaw...

  15. Drilling the leading edge of the mantle wedge and the underlying metamorphic sole of the Samail Ophiolite: Hole BT1B, Oman Drilling Project (United States)

    Morishita, T.; Kelemen, P. B.; Coggon, J. A.; Harris, M.; Matter, J. M.; Michibayashi, K.; Takazawa, E.; Teagle, D. A. H.


    Hole BT1B (23°21.861' N, 58°10.957' E) was drilled by the Oman Drilling Project (OmDP) on the north side of Wadi Mansah in the Samail ophiolite, Oman. OmDP is an international collaboration supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, Deep Carbon Observatory, NSF, IODP, JAMSTEC, and the European, Japanese, German and Swiss Science Foundations, with in-kind support in Oman from the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, Public Authority of Mining, Sultan Qaboos University, and the German University of Technology. Hole BT1B was cored from 6 to 23 March 2017, to a depth of 300.05 m. The outer surfaces of the cores were imaged and described onsite before being curated, boxed and shipped to the IODP drill ship Chikyu. Hole BT1B sampled carbonated peridotite (listvenite), 2 carbonate-veined serpentinite bands at 80-100 and 180-185 m depth, a few cm of ultracataclasite and 70 cm of fault gouge at 197 m depth, followed by 103 m metamorphic sole. Onboard Chikyu, BT1B underwent X-ray computed tomography (CT) and multi-sensor logging, imaging and spectroscopy, macroscopic and thin section observations, physical properties measurements, and XRF, XRD and ICP-MS analyses. 1st authors of abstracts reporting initial results are Beinlich (matrix characteristics), de Obeso (modeling mass transfer), Godard (XRF and ICP-MS whole rock data), Greenberger (infrared spectroscopy), Johnson (XRF core scanner), Kelemen (overall petrology), Manning (veins), and Michibayashi (X-ray CT). Listvenite is composed of carbonate + quartz + Fe-oxyhydroxides, + minor relict spinel ± chromian mica (fuchsite). The mineralogy suggests formation at < 150°C. The bulk rock density is similar to that of gabbro but the P-wave velocity is generally higher. Rock textures suggest viscous deformation, while additional brittle deformation is recorded by older veins and younger breccias and faults. The metamorphic sole consists of fine-grained to microcrystalline

  16. Exploring the Deep Biosphere in Ophiolite-hosted Systems: What Can Metabolic Processes in Surface Seeps Tell Us About Subsurface Ecosystems in Serpentinizing Fluids? (United States)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Cardace, D.; Woycheese, K. M.; Vallalar, B.; Casar, C.; Simon, A.; Arcilla, C. A.


    Serpentinization in the subsurface produces highly reduced, high pH fluids that provide microbial habitats. It is assumed that these deep subsurface fluids contain copious H2 and CH4 gas, little/no inorganic carbon, and limited electron acceptors. As serpentinized fluids reach the oxygenated surface environment, microbial biomes shift and organisms capable of metabolizing O2 thrive (Woycheese et al., 2015). However, the relationship of microbial communities found in surface expressions of serpentinizing fluids to the subsurface biosphere is still a target of exploration. Our work in the Zambales ophiolite (Philippines) defines surface microbial habitats with geochemistry, targeted culturing efforts, and community analysis (Cardace et al., 2015; Woycheese et al., 2015). Springs range from pH 9-11.5, and contain 0.06-2 ppm DO, 0-3.7 ppm sulfide, 30-800 ppm silica. Gases include H2 and CH4 > 10uM, CO2 > 1 mM, and trace amounts of CO. These surface data allow prediction of the subsurface metabolic landscape. For example, Cardace et al., (2015) predicted that metabolism of iron is important in both biospheres. Growth media were designed to target iron reduction yielding heterotrophic and autotrophic iron reducers at high pH. Reduced iron minerals were produced in several cultures (Casar et al., sub.), and isolation efforts are underway. Shotgun metagenomic analysis shows the metabolic capacity for methanogenesis, suggesting microbial origins for some CH4 present. The enzymes methyl coenzyme M reductase, and formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase were detected, and relative abundance increased near the near-anoxic spring source. The metagenomes indicate carbon cycling at these sites is reliant on methanogenesis, acetogenesis, sulfate reduction, and H2 and CH4 oxidation. In this tropical climate, cellulose is also a likely carbon source; cellulose degrading isolates have been obtained. These results indicate a metabolically flexible community at the surface where serpentinizing

  17. Geochronology and geochemistry of the Niujuanzi ophiolitic mélange, Gansu Province, NW China: implications for tectonic evolution of the Beishan Orogenic Collage (United States)

    Wang, Shengdong; Zhang, Kexin; Song, Bowen; Li, Shucai; Li, Ming; Zhou, Jie


    The Niujuanzi ophiolitic mélange (NOM), located in the Beishan Orogenic Collage, marks the termination between the Huaniushan arc and Mingshui-Hanshan Massifs. The NOM is mainly composed of gabbros, diabases, plagiogranites, basalts, and greywacke. Two gabbros have ages of 433.8 ± 3.1 and 354.0 ± 3.3 Ma, two plagiogranites have ages of 429.8 ± 2 and 448.7 ± 2.0 Ma, and a diabase has an age of 433.4 ± 3.2 Ma. The gabbros and diabases are calc-alkaline and tholeiitic, with high Al2O3, CaO, and TiO2 contents and low FeOT contents. The gabbros have high Mg# values (49-82), while the diabases have relatively low Mg# values (46-61). The plagiogranites are calc-alkaline and metaluminous, with high SiO2 and Na2O contents and low Al2O3 and K2O contents. The gabbros and diabases are enriched in large iron lithophile elements and slightly depleted in high field strength elements relative to N-MORB and their trace element characteristics are similar to E-MORB. With respect to rare earth element (REE), they have slightly enriched LREEs relative to HREEs. The majority of the plagiogranite trace elements approximate those of the volcanic arc granite. The plagiogranites have obviously enriched LREEs relative to HREEs, with a slightly to strongly negative Eu anomaly, which is similar to ORG but distinct from volcanic arc and within plate granite. The NOM was formed from the Ordovician to the Carboniferous, representing the expansion period of the Niujuanzi Ocean. The gabbros, diabases, and plagiogranites were formed in a mid-ocean ridge environment. The gabbros and diabases were generated by different degrees of partial melting of the mantle, and the plagiogranites derived from both the crystallization differentiation of basaltic magma and the partial melting of amphibolites in the crust.

  18. Development of Next-Generation Borehole Magnetometer and Its Potential Application in Constraining the Magnetic Declination of Oman Samail Ophiolite at ICDP Drill Sites (United States)

    Lee, S. M.; Parq, J. H.; Kim, H.; Moe, K.; Lee, C. S.; Kanamatsu, T.; Kim, K. J.; Bahk, K. S.


    Determining the azimuthal orientation of core samples obtained from deep drilling is extremely difficult because the core itself could have rotated during drilling operations. Several indirect methods have been devised to address this issue, but have certain limitations. Thus it is still a challenge to determine the azimuthal orientation consistently over the entire length of the hole. Provided that the recovery rate is high and thus all the other magnetic properties such as magnetization intensity and inclination are measured from the recovered cores, one possible method for ascertaining magnetic declination information is to measure the magnetic field inside the empty borehole and invert for the best fitting declination. However, there are two major problems: one is that present-day borehole magnetometers are not precise enough to resolve changes in direction of magnetization, and the other is that in most rock drilling experiments the rate of recovery is low. To overcome the first major problem which is technical, scientists from Korea and Japan jointly conducted the development for the next-generation borehole magnetometer, namely 3GBM (3rd Generation Borehole Magnetometer). The borehole magnetometer which uses fiber-optic laser gyro promises to provide accurate information on not only the magnetic field itself but also the orientation of the instrument inside the borehole. Our goal is to deploy this borehole magnetometer in the ICDP Oman Drilling Project Phase 2 drilling experiment early 2018. The site may be suitable for the investigation because, as recent Phase 1 of the Oman Samail Ophiolite drilling has demonstrated, the recovery rate was very high. Also the post-drilling measurements onboard DV Chikyu have shown that much of the recovered samples has moderate magnetization intensity on the order of 0.1 and 1 A/m. Here, we present the results of numerical simulation of magnetic field inside the borehole using finite element method to show that magnetic

  19. Molecular differences in transition zone and peripheral zone prostate tumors (United States)

    Sinnott, Jennifer A.; Rider, Jennifer R.; Carlsson, Jessica; Gerke, Travis; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Penney, Kathryn L.; Sesso, Howard D.; Loda, Massimo; Fall, Katja; Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Pawitan, Yudi; Andersson, Sven-Olof; Andrén, Ove


    Prostate tumors arise primarily in the peripheral zone (PZ) of the prostate, but 20–30% arise in the transition zone (TZ). Zone of origin may have prognostic value or reflect distinct molecular subtypes; however, it can be difficult to determine in practice. Using whole-genome gene expression, we built a signature of zone using normal tissue from five individuals and found that it successfully classified nine tumors of known zone. Hypothesizing that this signature captures tumor zone of origin, we assessed its relationship with clinical factors among 369 tumors of unknown zone from radical prostatectomies (RPs) and found that tumors that molecularly resembled TZ tumors showed lower mortality (P = 0.09) that was explained by lower Gleason scores (P = 0.009). We further applied the signature to an earlier study of 88 RP and 333 transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) tumor samples, also of unknown zone, with gene expression on ~6000 genes. We had observed previously substantial expression differences between RP and TURP specimens, and hypothesized that this might be because RPs capture primarily PZ tumors, whereas TURPs capture more TZ tumors. Our signature distinguished these two groups, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 87% (P zones. Zone of origin may be important to consider in prostate tumor biomarker research. PMID:25870172

  20. Parapapillary atrophy: histological gamma zone and delta zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine histomorphometrically the parapapillary region in human eyes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The histomorphometric study included 65 human globes (axial length:21-37 mm. On anterior-posterior histological sections, we measured the distance Bruch's membrane end (BME-optic nerve margin ("Gamma zone", BME-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE ("Beta zone", BME-beginning of non-occluded choriocapillaris, and BME-beginning of photoreceptor layer. "Delta zone" was defined as part of gamma zone in which blood vessels of at least 50 µm diameter were not present over a length of >300 µm. Beta zone (mean length:0.35±0.52 mm was significantly (P = 0.01 larger in the glaucoma group than in the non-glaucomatous group. It was not significantly (P = 0.28 associated with axial length. Beta zone was significantly (P = 0.004 larger than the region with occluded choriocapillaris. Gamma zone (mean length:0.63±1.25 mm was associated with axial length (P50 µm diameter within gamma zone was present only in highly axially elongated globes and was not related with glaucoma. Beta zone (Bruch's membrane without RPE was correlated with glaucoma but not with globe elongation. Since the region with occluded choriocapillaris was smaller than beta zone, complete loss of RPE may have occurred before complete choriocapillaris closure.

  1. Urban Terrain Zone Characteristics (United States)


    concern in this study centers largely on whether the site is restrictive to urban expansion or permits it. For example, • Tel Aviv’s growth has been... urban growth has been rapid and have high proportions of framed buildings. These are Tel Aviv, Beirut, Panama City, Caracas, Kuala Lumpur, Tunis, and...Sea) 3) Asia and 4) Latin America. 56 Open SpKO 9.42 dethed 21-.0 27.32 42.3 X Figure 22. Urban terrain zones, major groups: Area. 57 Table 3 Urban

  2. Mediastinal Gray Zone Lymphoma. (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Mukesh; Saha, Rajat; Misra, Deepti Shuklia; Malhotra, Veena


    A 50-year-old male presented with cough and breathlessness. A positron emissoin tomography scan revealed FDG (Fluorodeoxyglucose) avid mediastinal mass. Tru-cut biopsy showed fibrotic stromal tissue with cellular infiltrate consisting of abnormal lymphoid cells and few large cells with smudged nucleus. Immunohistochemistry revealed diffuse positivity with CD20, focal positivity for CD30 and rare CD15 positive cells. Histological picture and immune profile showed overlaping features of non-Hodgkin's as well as Hodgkin's lymphoma. A diagnosis of mediastinal gray zone lymphoma was made. The patient showed a complete metabolic response to six cycles of chemotherapy.

  3. Smartphones and Time Zones (United States)

    Baird, William; Secrest, Jeffery; Padgett, Clifford; Johnson, Wayne; Hagrelius, Claire


    Using the Sun to tell time is an ancient idea, but we can take advantage of modern technology to bring it into the 21st century for students in astronomy, physics, or physical science classes. We have employed smartphones, Google Earth, and 3D printing to find the moment of local noon at two widely separated locations. By reviewing GPS time-stamped photos from each place, we are able to illustrate that local noon is longitude-dependent and therefore explain the need for time zones.

  4. France's seismic zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.


    In order to assess the seismic hazard in France in relation to nuclear plant siting, the CEA, EDF and the BRGM (Mine and Geology Bureau) have carried out a collaboration which resulted in a seismic-tectonic map of France and a data base on seismic history (SIRENE). These studies were completed with a seismic-tectonic zoning, taking into account a very long period of time, that enabled a probabilistic evaluation of the seismic hazard in France, and that may be related to adjacent country hazard maps

  5. Metallogeny of subduction zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokhtin N. O.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the multistage mechanism of the Earth's crust enrichment in ore elements in underthrust zones. The processes of metamorphism and the formation of hydrothermal solutions at pulling of the watered oceanic lithospheric plate into the subduction zone have been described. Some physical and chemical transformation regularities of structural-material complexes in these areas and mechanisms of the formation of ore deposits have been discussed. Spatio-temporal patterns of the localization of a number of endogenetic and exogenetic deposits have been described using metallogeny of the Ural and the Verkhoyansk-Kolyma Fold Belts as an example. It has been shown that in nature there are several effective mechanisms of the enrichment of the crust in ore minerals. One of them is the process of pulling into subduction zone of metalliferous sediments and ferromanganese crusts as well as seabed nodules, their metamorphic transformation, partial melting and transition of ore components into magmatic melts and mineralized fluids. In the future this leads to the release of ore material by magmas and hydrothermal solutions into the folded formations of island-arc and Andean types and the formation of igneous, metasomatic and hydrothermal deposits. Another, yet no less powerful natural mechanism of a conveyor enrichment of the crust in ore elements is the process of destruction and sedimentation of mineral deposits formed in the folded areas as well as the formation of placers and their transfer to the marginal parts of the continent. Later, during the collision of active and passive margins of two lithospheric plates, such as the collision of the Kolyma Massif with the eastern part of the Siberian craton in the middle of the Mesozoic there was a thrusting of a younger lithospheric plate over a more ancient one. As a result, the sedimentary sequences of the passive margin of the Siberian plate were submerged and partially melted by the basic magmas

  6. Late Precambrian Balkan-Carpathian ophiolite — a slice of the Pan-African ocean crust?: geochemical and tectonic insights from the Tcherni Vrah and Deli Jovan massifs, Bulgaria and Serbia (United States)

    Savov, Ivan; Ryan, Jeff; Haydoutov, Ivan; Schijf, Johan


    The Balkan-Carpathian ophiolite (BCO), which outcrops in Bulgaria, Serbia and Romania, is a Late Precambrian (563 Ma) mafic/ultramafic complex unique in that it has not been strongly deformed or metamorphosed, as have most other basement sequences in Alpine Europe. Samples collected for study from the Tcherni Vrah and Deli Jovan segments of BCO include cumulate dunites, troctolites, wehrlites and plagioclase wehrlites; olivine and amphibole-bearing gabbros; anorthosites; diabases and microgabbros; and basalts representing massive flows, dikes, and pillow lavas, as well as hyaloclastites and umbers (preserved sedimentary cover). Relict Ol, Cpx and Hbl in cumulate peridotites indicate original orthocumulate textures. Plagioclase in troctolites and anorthosites range from An60 to An70. Cumulate gabbro textures range from ophitic to poikilitic, with an inferred crystallization order of Ol-(Plag+Cpx)-Hbl. The extrusive rocks exhibit poikilitic, ophitic and intersertal textures, with Cpx and/or Plag (Oligoclase-Andesine) phenocrysts. The major opaques are Ti-Magnetite and Ilmenite. The metamorphic paragenesis in the mafic samples is Chl-Trem-Ep, whereas the ultramafic rocks show variable degrees of serpentinization, with lizardite and antigorite as dominant phases. Our samples are compositionally and geochemically similar to modern oceanic crust. Major element, trace element and rare earth element (REE) signatures in BCO basalts are comparable to those of MORB. In terms of basalt and dike composition, the BCO is a 'high-Ti' or 'oceanic' ophiolite, based on the classification scheme of Serri [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 52 (1981) 203]. Our petrologic and geochemical results, combined with the tectonic position of the BCO massifs (overlain by and in contact with Late Cambrian island arc and back-arc sequences), suggest that the BCO may have formed in a mid-ocean ridge setting. If the BCO records the existence of a Precambrian ocean basin, then there may be a relationship

  7. The Near Zone to Far Zone Transformation (N2F)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackfield, Donald T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Poole, Brian R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    N2F is a C/C++ code used to calculate the far zone electromagnetic (EM) field, given E and H near zone field data. The method used by N2F can be found in Ref. 1 and 2. N2F determines the far field EΦ and Eθ in spherical coordinates for near zone data calculated in either Cartesian or Cylindrical geometry.

  8. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - Volusia County Enterprise Zones (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Florida's Enterprise Zone Program encourages economic growth and investment in distressed areas by offering tax advantages and incentives to businesses that are...

  9. The zone of alienation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagorski, A.


    Ten years after the nuclear disaster, people still live and die in Chernobyl. Thousands of people continue to live and work there. Roughly 500 have moved back into their old homes inside the alienation zone. Fewer than half still alive. Medical researchers in the area insist that immune systems are weakened by doses of radiation far lower than previously thought. However, an European Union sponsored study concluded that Chernobyl's toll has been exaggerated. Thus, while 760 children in the contaminated area have developed thyroid cancer, only three have died as a result. Yet in and around Chernobyl, people carry on their lives and the Ukrainian Government says it can't afford to close the plant without billions of dollars in Western aid. ills

  10. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan


    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  11. Work Zone Data Collection Trailer (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Work Zone Data Collection Trailer was designed and constructed to enhance data collection and analysis capabilities for the "Evaluating Roadway Construction Work...

  12. Environmental Zoning: Some methodological implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, Paul; Voogd, Henk


    The purpose of this article is to discuss some methodological problems of environmental zoning. The principle of environmental zoning will be elaborated. In addition an overview is given of a number of approaches that have been followed in practice to arrive at an integral judgement. Finally some

  13. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blau, M.S.


    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, δ-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal

  14. Deciduous Forest Zone of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The semi-deciduous forest Zone of Ghana contains some of the most productive soils of the country (Ahn, 1970; Adu, 1992). The. Zone, which covers some 48,000 km, has adequate rainfall for the cultivation of large. Scale plantation crops, such as cocoa Theo- broma cacao, oil palm (Elaeisguineensis) and lemon (Citrus ...

  15. Instrumentation for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  16. Management of coastal zone vegetation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    stream_size 14 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  17. The Supergalactic Habitable Zone (United States)

    Mason, Paul


    Habitability in the local universe is examined. Constrained by metal abundance and exposure to sterilizing events, life as we know it requires significantly long periods of stable environmental conditions. Planets within galaxies undergoing major mergers, active AGN, starburst episodes, and merging black holes pose serious threats to long-term habitability. Importantly, the development of several layers of protection from high-energy particles such as a thick atmosphere, a strong planetary magnetic field, an astrosphere, and a galactic magnetic field is of great benefit. Factors such as star type and activity, planet type and composition, the location of a planet within its host galaxy, and even the location within a supercluster of galaxies can affect the potential habitability of planets. We discuss the concept of the Supergalactic Habitable Zone introduced by Mason and Biermann in terms of habitability in the local universe and find that galaxies near the center of the Virgo cluster, for example, have a much lower probability for the development of life as we know it as compared to locations in the Milky Way.

  18. Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J. Weir


    Full Text Available A conceptual model of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ is developed, to a depth of 25 km, formed from three constant density layers. The upper layer is formed from eruption products. A constant rate of eruption is assumed, which eventually implies a constant rate of extension, and a constant rate of volumetric creation in the middle and bottom layers. Tectonic extension creates volume which can accomodate magmatic intrusions. Spreading models assume this volume is distributed throughout the whole region, perhaps in vertical dykes, whereas rifting models assume the upper crust is thinned and the volume created lies under this upper crust. Bounds on the heat flow from such magmatic intrusions are calculated. Heat flow calculations are performed and some examples are provided which match the present total heat output from the TVZ of about 4200 MW, but these either have extension rates greater than the low values of about 8 ± 4 mm/a being reported from GPS measurements, or else consider extension rates in the TVZ to have varied over time.

  19. 75 FR 50700 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, and Drawbridge... (United States)


    ...] Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, and Drawbridge Operation... notice lists temporary safety zones, security zones, special local regulations, and drawbridge operation... responsive to the safety and security needs within their jurisdiction; therefore, District Commanders and...

  20. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health labour conditions and incidence of the people involved

  1. VT Data - Zoning Well Head 20051127, Bradford (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — OVERLAY DISTRICT. Models a municipality’s zoning zones and related information. Final boundary determinations must be obtained from the town Zoning Administrator....

  2. VT Data - Zoning Stream Buffers 20081014, Hartford (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — OVERLAY DISTRICT. Models a municipality’s zoning zones and related information. Final boundary determinations must be obtained from the town Zoning Administrator....

  3. Improving work zone safety through speed management. (United States)


    Safety hazards are increased in highway work zones as the dynamics of a work zone introduce a constantly changing : environment with varying levels of risk. Excessive speeding through work and maintenance zones is a common occurrence : which elevates...

  4. Seamount subduction at seismogenic depths: structural and metamorphic evidence from the Zagros suture zone (United States)

    Bonnet, G.; Agard, P.; Angiboust, S.; Fournier, M.; Omrani, J.


    Large-scale seafloor topographic features, such as seamounts, are for the most part subducted with the downgoing oceanic plate. They are expected to critically impact the seismogenic and mechanic behavior of subduction zones, but their exact role is strongly debated (i.e., as to whether they represent barriers to propagation or asperities promoting nucleation). Rare natural examples of metamorphosed seamounts, which got sliced off the slab along the plate interface and escaped recycling into the mantle, are therefore precious witnesses to document processes operating at depths of 0-30 km. We herein report the existence of a large-scale oceanic topographic structure sandwiched in the Zagros suture zone (Siah Kuh - SK - unit), most probably a former seamount, along with other blueschist units (Angiboust et al., EPSL 2016). The main criteria for identifying this seamount are its: (1) shape: the SK unit is a 1.5-2 km thick, rounded-shaped body with a 15-20 km diameter, (2) lithologies: it is made mainly of a regular succession of massive basaltic flows, commonly as pillow basalts, minor ophiolite-type gabbros and serpentinite, together with subordinate more differenciated volcanic and plutonic rocks. (3) sedimentary cover: basalts are overlain by shallowly deposited reef limestone and deepening-up sediments with the occurrence of cherts and pelagic limestones (which points to possible subsidence). Basalts have been analyzed for trace elements and have usually a N-MORB to OIB signature, which might be explained by its potential origin as a mid-oceanic ridge seamount. HP-LT minerals (lawsonite, aragonite, blue amphiboles) found across the whole structure, particularly in zones of localized compressive deformation, indicate that this seamount was shallowly subducted at 20 km. This deformation, interpreted to be syn-subduction, is assisted by a décollement rooting in serpentinite and/or oceanic metasediments and is associated with rare cataclase in magmatic rocks. We

  5. 75 FR 16370 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety Zones, Security Zones; Deepwater Ports in Boston Captain of... (United States)


    ...] RIN 1625-AA00, RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety Zones, Security Zones; Deepwater Ports... (COTP) Zone, off the coast of Gloucester, Massachusetts. The proposed RNAs and safety and security zones..., 165.11, 165.20, 165.30. Current regulations establishing RNAs, safety zones, and security zones for...

  6. 75 FR 51374 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety Zones, Security Zones; Deepwater Ports in Boston Captain of... (United States)


    ...] RIN 1625-AA00, RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety Zones, Security Zones; Deepwater Ports... Coast Guard is establishing regulated navigation areas (RNAs) and safety and security zones around the... ``Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety Zones, Security Zones; Deepwater Ports in Boston Captain of the Port Zone...

  7. Work zone and operation enhancements. (United States)


    Oregon Department of Transportation contractors are required to implement Traffic Control Plans (TCPs) to protect and direct traffic through work zones. The design and implementation of TCPs have shown variation from project-to-project across the Sta...

  8. VT Data - Zoning 20150219, Newfane (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This shapefile contains the zoning district boundaries for the Town of Newfane, Vt., and is to be used in conjunction with other GIS data for mapping. Most of these...

  9. VT Data - Zoning 20130305, Dover (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This file, along with two others, was created to produce a new, official zoning map series for the Town of Dover, Vermont in 2007. This file represents the base...

  10. NEPR Geographic Zone Map 2015 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  11. VT Data - Zoning 20170407, Burlington (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — For a detailed description of the zoning districts referenced in this data, please refer to the City of Burlington, Vermont's webpage. Please be sure to review all...

  12. ShoreZone Survey Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a point file showing GPS trackline data collected during a ShoreZone aerial imaging survey. This flight trackline is recorded at 1-second intervals...

  13. Offshore Wind Technology Depth Zones (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coastal bathymetric depth, measured in meters at depth values of: -30, -60, -900 Shallow Zone (0-30m): Technology has been demonstrated on a commercial scale at...

  14. Embodied Archives as Contact Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Vidiella


    Full Text Available This article proposes a reflection about affective politics from locating some theoretical and conceptual genealogies like «emotion», «affection», «zones of contact»…, that understand them as action and force fields. These contributions allow us to rethink the relation of affects with politics and strategies of archive linked to performance, and understood as zones of friction, collision, circulation and contact: performative writing, repertoire, memes…

  15. Women in Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashevska, Y.; Kireev, S.; Navalikhin, V.


    Today, 29 years after the Chernobyl accident, the Exclusion Zone still remains an areal unsealed radiation source of around 2600 km 2 . It is not just a gigantic radioactive waste storage facility (the amount of radioactive waste accumulated within the Zone, except for the Shelter, is estimated at about 2.8 million m 3 ), but also a unique research and engineering platform for biologists, radiologists, chemists and physicists. Taking into account the amount of the radionuclides released during the accident, it becomes quite understood that the radiological environment in the Exclusion Zone is far from favorable. However, among the Exclusion Zone personnel who numbers 5000, there are female workers. The poster represents the results of the research performed among the female employees of the largest enterprise of the Exclusion Zone, “Chornobyl Spetskombinat”. The survey was performed with the view to knowing what makes women work in the most radioactively contaminated area in Europe, and what their role is, to revealing their fears and hopes, and to estimating the chances of the brave women of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone to succeed in their careers. (author)

  16. Climate change and dead zones. (United States)

    Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B


    Estuaries and coastal seas provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of climate change and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of climate change predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2 °C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how climate change will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous climate variables including temperature, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which climate change exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which climate is changing, we posit that climate change variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of climate variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The global aftershock zone (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Margaret Segou,; Warner Marzocchi,


    The aftershock zone of each large (M ≥ 7) earthquake extends throughout the shallows of planet Earth. Most aftershocks cluster near the mainshock rupture, but earthquakes send out shivers in the form of seismic waves, and these temporary distortions are large enough to trigger other earthquakes at global range. The aftershocks that happen at great distance from their mainshock are often superposed onto already seismically active regions, making them difficult to detect and understand. From a hazard perspective we are concerned that this dynamic process might encourage other high magnitude earthquakes, and wonder if a global alarm state is warranted after every large mainshock. From an earthquake process perspective we are curious about the physics of earthquake triggering across the magnitude spectrum. In this review we build upon past studies that examined the combined global response to mainshocks. Such compilations demonstrate significant rate increases during, and immediately after (~ 45 min) M > 7.0 mainshocks in all tectonic settings and ranges. However, it is difficult to find strong evidence for M > 5 rate increases during the passage of surface waves in combined global catalogs. On the other hand, recently published studies of individual large mainshocks associate M > 5 triggering at global range that is delayed by hours to days after surface wave arrivals. The longer the delay between mainshock and global aftershock, the more difficult it is to establish causation. To address these questions, we review the response to 260 M ≥ 7.0 shallow (Z ≤ 50 km) mainshocks in 21 global regions with local seismograph networks. In this way we can examine the detailed temporal and spatial response, or lack thereof, during passing seismic waves, and over the 24 h period after their passing. We see an array of responses that can involve immediate and widespread seismicity outbreaks, delayed and localized earthquake clusters, to no response at all. About 50% of the

  18. The Sorong Fault Zone, Indonesia: Mapping a Fault Zone Offshore (United States)

    Melia, S.; Hall, R.


    The Sorong Fault Zone is a left-lateral strike-slip fault zone in eastern Indonesia, extending westwards from the Bird's Head peninsula of West Papua towards Sulawesi. It is the result of interactions between the Pacific, Caroline, Philippine Sea, and Australian Plates and much of it is offshore. Previous research on the fault zone has been limited by the low resolution of available data offshore, leading to debates over the extent, location, and timing of movements, and the tectonic evolution of eastern Indonesia. Different studies have shown it north of the Sula Islands, truncated south of Halmahera, continuing to Sulawesi, or splaying into a horsetail fan of smaller faults. Recently acquired high resolution multibeam bathymetry of the seafloor (with a resolution of 15-25 meters), and 2D seismic lines, provide the opportunity to trace the fault offshore. The position of different strands can be identified. On land, SRTM topography shows that in the northern Bird's Head the fault zone is characterised by closely spaced E-W trending faults. NW of the Bird's Head offshore there is a fold and thrust belt which terminates some strands. To the west of the Bird's Head offshore the fault zone diverges into multiple strands trending ENE-WSW. Regions of Riedel shearing are evident west of the Bird's Head, indicating sinistral strike-slip motion. Further west, the ENE-WSW trending faults turn to an E-W trend and there are at least three fault zones situated immediately south of Halmahera, north of the Sula Islands, and between the islands of Sanana and Mangole where the fault system terminates in horsetail strands. South of the Sula islands some former normal faults at the continent-ocean boundary with the North Banda Sea are being reactivated as strike-slip faults. The fault zone does not currently reach Sulawesi. The new fault map differs from previous interpretations concerning the location, age and significance of different parts of the Sorong Fault Zone. Kinematic

  19. Root zone effects on tracer migration in arid zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, S.W.; Walker, G.R.


    The study of groundwater recharge and soil water movement in arid regions has received increased attention in the search for safe disposal sites for hazardous wastes. In passing through the upper 1 to 2 m of most soil profiles, tracers indicative of recharge such as Cl, 2 H, 18 O, Br, 3 H, and 56 Cl are subjected to a wide range of processes not encountered deeper in the profile. This transition zone, where water enters as precipitation and leaves as recharge, is often ignored when environmental tracers are used to estimate deep soil water flux and recharge, yet its effect may be profound. In this work, we reexamine the processes of root extraction and its effect on the velocity and distribution of tracers. Examples are presented for idealized conditions, which show clearly the relation between the root zone processes and the deep drainage or recharge. The results indicate that, when recharge is small and root zone processes are not accounted for, tracer techniques can significantly overestimate recharge until the tracer has moved well below the root zone. By incorporating simple models of root zone processes, a clearer understanding of tracer distributions and a more accurate estimate of recharge can then be made. 11 refs., 9 figs

  20. Compositional variations in the Mesoarchean chromites of the Nuggihalli schist belt, Western Dharwar Craton (India)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, Ria; Mondal, Sisir Kanti; Rosing, Minik Thorleif


    and the rim is ferritchromit. In general, ferritchromit occurs as irregular patches along the grain boundaries and fractures of the zoned grains. In this case, ferritchromit formation is not very extensive. This indicates a secondary low temperature hydrothermal origin of ferritchromit during serpentinization...... diagrams using the primary composition of chromites indicate a supra-subduction zone setting (SSZ) for the Archean chromitites of Nuggihalli and derivation from a boninitic magma. The composition of the komatiitic basalts resembles those of boninites thatoccur in subduction zones and back-arc rift settings....... Formation of the massive chromitites in Nuggihalli may be due to magma mixing process involving hydrous high-Mg magmas or may be related to intrusions of chromite crystal laden magma; however, there is little scope to test these models because the host rocks are highly altered, serpentinized and deformed...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzeddine Zagrouba


    Full Text Available This paper describes a robust method based on the cooperation of fuzzy classification and regions segmentation algorithms, in order to detect the tumoral zone in the brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. On one hand, the classification in fuzzy sets is done by the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm (FCM, where a study of its different parameters and its complexity has been previously realised, which led us to improve it. On the other hand, the segmentation in regions is obtained by an hierarchical method through adaptive thresholding. Then, an operator expert selects a germ in the tumoral zone, and the class containing the sick zone is localised in return for the FCM algorithm. Finally, the superposition of the two partitions of the image will determine the sick zone. The originality of our approach is the parallel exploitation of different types of information in the image by the cooperation of two complementary approaches. This allows us to carry out a pertinent approach for the detection of sick zone in MRI images.

  2. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or environmental...

  3. State Enterprise Zone Programs: Have They Worked? (United States)

    Peters, Alan H.; Fisher, Peter S.

    The effectiveness of state enterprise zone programs was examined by using a hypothetical-firm model called the Tax and Incentives Model-Enterprise Zones (TAIM-ez) model to analyze the value of enterprise zone incentives to businesses across the United States and especially in the 13 states that had substantial enterprise zone programs by 1990. The…

  4. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the people involved. The collection comprises the information for scientists, experts, postgraduates and students in gaged in ecology, radioecology, nuclear engineering, radiology, radiochemistry and radiobiology

  5. Methods for converting industrial zones (United States)

    Talipova, L.; Kosyakov, E.; Polyakova, Irina


    In this article, industrial zones of Saint Petersburg and Hong Kong were considered. Competitive projects aimed at developing the grey belt of Saint Petersburg were considered. The methodology of the survey of reconstruction of the industrial zone of Hong Kong is also analyzed. The potential of the city’s grey belt lies in its location on the border of the city’s historical centre. Rational use of this potential will make it possible to achieve numerous objectives, including development of the city’s transport infrastructure, positioning of business functions, and organization of housing and the city’s system of green public spaces.

  6. Earthquake Zoning Maps of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pampal, S.


    Earthquake Zoning Maps (1945, 1947, 1963, 1972 and 1996) and Specifications for Construction in Disaster Areas (1947, 1953, 1962, 1968, 1975, 1996, 1997 and 2006) have been changed many times following the developments in engineering seismology, tectonic and seismo-tectonic invention and improved earthquake data collection. The aim of this study is to give information about this maps, which come into force at different dates since the introduction of the firs official Earthquake Zoning Map published in 1945 and is to assist for better understanding of the development phases of these maps

  7. 78 FR 35801 - Safety and Security Zones, San Juan Captain of the Port Zone (United States)


    ... 1625-AA00, 1625-AA87 Safety and Security Zones, San Juan Captain of the Port Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard... modify several aspects of the safety and security zones within the Sector San Juan Captain of the Port Zone. This action is necessary to consolidate, clarify, and otherwise modify safety and security zone...

  8. 78 FR 26293 - Safety Zones; Annual Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone (United States)


    ... launch site located at position 41[deg]34'18'' N, 082[deg]51'18'' W (NAD 83). This safety zone will be...-AA00 Safety Zones; Annual Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zones for annual events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone. This proposed rule is intended to amend...

  9. 77 FR 30245 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone (United States)


    ...'' N, 082-51'-18.70'' W (NAD 83). This proposed zone would be enforced one evening during the last week...-AA00 Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard... by adding three permanent safety zones within the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone. This action is...

  10. 78 FR 75899 - Safety Zone; 2013 Holiday Boat Parades, Captain of the Port Miami Zone; FL (United States)


    .... The moving zone will include a buffer zone extending 50 yards ahead of the lead parade vessel, 50... include a buffer zone extending to 50 yards ahead of the lead vessel, 50 yards astern of the last... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2013 Holiday Boat Parades, Captain of the Port Miami Zone; FL AGENCY: Coast...

  11. Paleoseismologic data and seismic tomographic images of the 1992 Erzincan Earthquake along the North Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey (United States)

    Caglayan, A.; Kaypak, B.; Isik, V.; Saber, R.; Yasar, I.


    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ), spanning over 1200 km from Karliova in eastern Turkey to the Aegean Sea, defines complex active fault zone. The zone consists of network of subfaults, each of varying geometry, and associated failure properties. The Erzincan basin, one of a series basins along the NAFZ, is active basin surrounding bedrock which is Mesozoic and Tertiary units. Available geophysical data constrain the total thickness of Pliocene and Quaternary sediments in the Erzincan basin to more than 2 km. The basin was affected by the 1992 March 13 Erzincan earthquake (Ms=6.8) showing weakly developed surface ruptures. We excavated 6 paleoseismic trenches along the southeastern termination of the 1992 rupture in Üzümlü area. A total of trenches is 294 m long and trends N20°-30°E. Exposed lithology in trenches is made up of alluvial fan deposites and fluvial facies with rare flood-plain sediments, which are characterized by stratified and/or lens-shaped pebble gravel to coarse-grained sand, silt, and clay. Our preliminary interpretation of trenches reveals evidence of 1992 earthquake features. Trench logs showing structural elements including normal faults, which are parallel to the strike of the trace of the NAFZ and dipping 40°-75° to the northeast and the southwest, and network of almost vertical fractures with a few centimeters displacement. Some of trenches contain well-developed flame structures, suggesting liquefaction of water-saturated sediments during earthquake. Seismic velocity (VP and VP/VS) images obtained from the 3-D local earthquake tomography using the arrival time data of aftershocks of the 13 March 1992 Erzincan earthquake show several anomalies related to geological features of the Erzincan basin. The tomographic results indicate that (1) the major fault zones control the regional tectonics and the geometry of the Erzincan basin, (2) sediments of the basin show low seismic velocity, and (3) The high velocity units characterized by

  12. Work zone positive protection guidelines. (United States)


    The goal of this project was to develop implementation guidance that the Texas Department of : Transportation (TxDOT) can use to make better decisions regarding when and where to use positive : protection in work zones and when to consider exposure c...

  13. Street prostitution zones and crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, Paul; Kastoryano, Stephen; van der Klaauw, Bas


    This paper studies the effects of legal street prostitution zones on registered and perceived crime. We exploit a unique setting in the Netherlands where these tippelzones were opened in nine cities under different regulation systems. Our difference-in-difference analysis of 25 Dutch cities between

  14. ShoreZone Mapped Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is a polyline file of mapped ShoreZone units which correspond with data records found in the Unit, Xshr, BioUnit, and BioBand tables of this...

  15. Fifty years of shear zones (United States)

    Graham, Rodney


    We are here, of course, because 1967 saw the publication of John Ramsay's famous book. Two years later a memorable field trip from Imperial College to the Outer Hebrides saw John on a bleak headland on the coast of North Uist where a relatively undeformed metadolerite within Lewisian (Precambrian) gneisses contained ductile shear zones with metamorphic fabrics in amphibolite facies. One particular outcrop was very special - a shear zone cutting otherwise completely isotropic, undeformed metadolerite, with an incremental foliation starting to develop at 45° to the deformation zone, and increasing in intensity as it approached the shear direction. Here was proof of the process of simple shear under ductile metamorphic conditions - the principles of simple shear outlined in John Ramsay's 1967 book clearly visible in nature, and verified by Ramsay's mathematical proofs in the eventual paper (Ramsay and Graham, 1970). Later work on the Lewisian on the mainland of Scotland, in South Harris, in Africa, and elsewhere applied Ramsay's simple shear principles more liberally, more imprecisely and on larger scale than at Caisteal Odair, but in retrospect it documented what seems now to be the generality of mid and lower crustal deformation. Deep seismic reflection data show us that on passive margins hyper-stretched continental crust (whether or not cloaked by Seaward Dipping Reflectors) seems to have collapsed onto the mantle. Crustal faults mostly sole out at or above the mantle - so the Moho is a detachment- an 'outer marginal detachment', if you like, and, of course, it must be a ductile shear. On non-volcanic margins this shear zone forms the first formed ocean floor before true sea floor spreading gets going to create real oceanic crust. Gianreto Manatschal, Marcel Lemoine and others realised that the serpentinites described in parts of the Alps are exposed remnants of this ductile shear zone. Associated ophicalcite breccias tell of sea floor exposure, while high

  16. 77 FR 6007 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation... (United States)


    ...] Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation... they could be published in the Federal Register. This notice lists temporary safety zones, security... the safety and security needs within their jurisdiction; therefore, District Commanders and COTPs have...

  17. Subduction Zone Configuration of Central and Eastern Anatolia since the Late Cretaceous: Insights from Sedimentary Basins in the Neotethyan Suture Zone (United States)

    Gürer, D.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Matenco, L.; Corfu, F.; Langereis, C. G.; Ozkaptan, M.


    Subduction and accretion of continental and Neotethyan oceanic crustal fragments during Africa-Europe convergence since the Mesozoic formed the Anatolian fold-and-thrust belt. Sedimentary basins overlying key locations of the resulting fold-thrust belt that was metamorphosed to varying grades, may help to quantitatively kinematically restore the subduction evolution, and to identify timing, directions and amounts of post-accretionary extension, shortening and strike-slip faulting. The Upper Cretaceous - Oligocene Ulukışla basin straddles ophiolites, underlain by the HT-LP metamorphic Kırşehir Block (KB) to its north, and the HP-LT Bolkardağ/Afyon zone (BA) to its south. At its southern margin a series of small-offset faults consistent with latest Cretaceous-Paleocene N-S extension, was contemporaneous with (presumably extensional) exhumation of BA. Close to the contact with KB, a series of large-offset listric normal faults compatible with E-W extension offsets sediments and the base of newly dated Paleocene volcanics, showing E-W extension simultaneous with N-S extension in the south, prevailing until at least 56 Ma. Subsequently, N-S directed contraction led to E-W striking folds and thrusts and back-thrusting of the BA over the Ulukisla basin, probably in Oligocene time, and coeval left lateral strike-slip motion along the Ecemiş fault (EF) at the eastern basin margin. We explain the interplay between two Late Cretaceous-Paleocene extension directions to result from interplay between N-S and E-W striking subduction segments in central and eastern Anatolia, respectively. The latter can be followed farther east towards the Bitlis. In addition, absence of a Kirsehir block in eastern Anatolia led to a much longer duration of subduction below the Pontides, throughout the Paleogene and perhaps until as young as the Middle Miocene, with a suture below the Sivas basin that covers the contact between the KB, the Pontides and the Taurides. We restore an amount of

  18. Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Conca


    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion.

  19. Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conca, J.


    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion

  20. Geometric description and analysis of metamorphic tectonites (Pelagonian Zone, Internal Hellenides, Northern Greece) (United States)

    Diamantopoulos, A.


    An assortment of alpine and pre-Permian metamorphic tectonites, belonging to the Pelagonian Zone of the Internal Hellenides, are analyzed from Askion, Vernon and Vorras mountains. They in fact compose the Upper plate of the Western Macedonia core complex, overlying Late Tertiary high-P rocks through large-scale detachment fautls (Diamantopoulos et al. 2007). This work wants to determine the architecture and the kinematic path of rocks in a 3D assumption. Field analysis concludes: a) Meta-sedimentary lithologies and amphibolites, meta-igneous lithologies, granitoid mylonites composed of augen fieldspar gneisses, Permo-Triassic fossiliferous rocks, meta-carbonates of Triassic-Jurassic age, a Jurassic mélange including meta-sedimentary lithologies, serpentinites and carbonate tectonic blocks, Mesozoic Ophiolites, Cretaceous limestones and conglomerates as well as flysch sediments compose the architecture of the study area, b) Multiple high and low-angle cataclastic zones of intense non-coaxial strain separate distinct pre-Permian lithologies, alpine from pre-alpine rocks, Triassic-Jurassic rocks from Permo-Triassic rocks, Jurassic mélange from flysch sediments, Jurassic mélange from Triassic-Jurassic rocks, Cretaceous rocks from the Jurassic mélange, Cretaceous limestones from flysch lithologies and Cretaceous rocks from serpentinites, c) Geometric analysis and description of asymmetric structures found in fault cores, damage zones and in the footwall-related rocks showed a prominent kinematic direction towards WSW in low-T conditions affected all the rock lithologies, d) Multiple S- and L- shape fabric elements in the pre-Permian and Permo-Triassic rocks appear an intricate orientation, produced by intense non-coaxial syn-metamorphic deformation, e) Sheath and isoclinal folds oriented parallel to the L-shape fabric elements as well as a major S-shape fabric element, producing macroscopic fold-like structures compose the main syn-metamorphic fabric elements in the

  1. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones: New... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.169 Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone...

  2. Control of penetration zone GMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Петрович Iванов


    Full Text Available Thermal properties of the base metal, shielding medium and the nature of the electrode metal transfer to a great extent determine the penetration area formation in gas-arc welding. It is not always possible to take into account the influence of these factors on penetration front forming within the existing models. The aim of the work was to research the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding. The research of the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding of CrNi austenitic steels was made. The parameters of the regime as well as the kind of the gaseous medium influence on the formation of the penetration zone were studied. The article shows a linear proportional relationship between the electrode feed rate and the size of the base metal plate. The penetration area formation mode for welding in argon and carbon dioxide have been worked out. Diameter, feed rate and the speed of the electrode movement have been chosen as the main input parameters. Multiple regression analysis method was used to make up the modes. The relations of the third order that make it possible to take into account the electrode metal transfer and thermal properties change of the materials to be welded were used. These relationships show quite good agreement with the experimental measurements in the calculation of the fusion zone shape with consumable electrode in argon and carbon dioxide. It was determined that the shape of the melting front curve can be shown as a generalized function in which the front motion parameters depend on feed rate and the diameter of the electrode. Penetration zone growth time is determined by the welding speed and is calculated as a discrete function of the distance from the electrode with the spacing along the movement coordinate. The influence of the mode parameters on the formation of the fusion zone has been investigated and the ways to manage and stabilize the weld pool formation have been identified. The modes can be used to develop

  3. Demarcation of secondary hyperalgesia zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Thomas K; Enghuus, Casper; Petersen, Morten A


    of analgesic drug effects in humans. However, since the methods applied in demarcating the secondary hyperalgesia zone seem inconsistent across studies, we examined the effect of a standardized approach upon the measurement of SHA following a first degree burn injury (BI). NEW METHOD: The study was a two.......0001). No day-to-day or observer-to-observer differences in SHAs were observed. Intraclass correlation coefficients, in the range of 0.51 to 0.84, indicated a moderate to almost perfect reliability between observers. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: No standardized approach in SHA-assessment has hitherto been...... presented. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that demarcation of secondary hyperalgesia zones depends on the developed pressure of the punctate stimulator used....


    The vegetation in riparian zones provides valuable wildlife habitat while enhancing instream habitat and water quality. Forest fragmentation, sunlit edges, and nutrient additions from adjacent development may be sources of stress on riparian zones. Landscape plants may include no...

  5. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD27 (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1927) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1927 North American Datum within United States.

  6. Zoning, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the zoning boundaries of the East Baton Rouge Parish of the State of Louisiana. Zoning can be defined as the range of...

  7. Zone Denmark - gasell Taanist / Reet Krause

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krause, Reet, 1967-


    Taanis Viborgis asuva firma Zone Company Denmark, kaubamärgi Zone Denmark ja firma disainerite tutvustus. Ettevõte valmistab disainitooteid roostevabast terasest, klaasist, puidust, kummist jm. Disainer Naja Utzon Popov endast, oma loomingust

  8. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD83 (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1983) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1983 North American Datum within United States.

  9. Buffer Zone Requirements for Soil Fumigant Applications (United States)

    Updated pesticide product labels require fumigant users to establish a buffer zone around treated fields to reduce risks to bystanders. Useful information includes tarp testing guidance and a buffer zone calculator.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fusselman, Steve


    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. A key feature of the AR gasifier design is the transition from the gasifier outlet into the quench zone, where the raw syngas is cooled to ~ 400°C by injection and vaporization of atomized water. Earlier pilot plant testing revealed a propensity for the original gasifier outlet design to accumulate slag in the outlet, leading to erratic syngas flow from the outlet. Subsequent design modifications successfully resolved this issue in the pilot plant gasifier. In order to gain greater insight into the physical phenomena occurring within this zone, AR developed a cold flow simulation apparatus with Coanda Research & Development with a high degree of similitude to hot fire conditions with the pilot scale gasifier design, and capable of accommodating a scaled-down quench zone for a demonstration-scale gasifier. The objective of this task was to validate similitude of the cold flow simulation model by comparison of pilot-scale outlet design performance, and to assess demonstration scale gasifier design feasibility from testing of a scaled-down outlet design. Test results did exhibit a strong correspondence with the two pilot scale outlet designs, indicating credible similitude for the cold flow simulation device. Testing of the scaled-down outlet revealed important considerations in the design and operation of the demonstration scale gasifier, in particular pertaining to the relative momentum between the downcoming raw syngas and the sprayed quench water and associated impacts on flow patterns within the quench zone. This report describes key findings from the test program, including assessment of pilot plant configuration simulations relative to actual

  11. Experiential reflective learning and comfort zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Nehyba


    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of experiential reflective learning. Firstlyit aims to discuss the concept of comfort zone in this area. It goes beyond the usualdefinition of the domestic comfort zone and it reflects in terms of experiential reflectivelearning in the world. The conclusions point to possible parallels with the concept ofcomfort zones and K. Lewin theory. Overall, the article focuses on topics that help toexpand the view on the issue of comfort zone.

  12. 19 CFR 146.7 - Zone changes. (United States)


    ... common or contract carriers transporting goods to or from the zone. [T.D. 86-16, 51 FR 5049, Feb. 11... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zone changes. 146.7 Section 146.7 Customs Duties U... (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES General Provisions § 146.7 Zone changes. (a) Alteration of an activated area...

  13. Drug-Free School Zones: Taking Charge. (United States)

    Thomas, Carol F.

    Information for planning and implementing drug-free school zones within a broader school-community prevention and intervention program is provided in this guidebook. The first section provides background information on drug-free school zone legislation and common elements of drug-free school zones. The risk and protective factors for alcohol and…

  14. Recent findings relating to firefighter safety zones (United States)

    Bret Butler; Russ Parsons; William Mell


    Designation of safety zones is a primary duty of all wildland firefighters. Unfortunately, information regarding what constitutes an adequate safety zone is inadequately defined. Measurements of energy release from wildland fires have been used to develop an empirically based safety zone guideline. The basis for this work is described here.

  15. Do "Some" Enterprise Zones Create Jobs? (United States)

    Kolko, Jed; Neumark, David


    We study how the employment effects of enterprise zones vary with their location, implementation, and administration, based on evidence from California. We use new establishment-level data and geographic mapping methods, coupled with a survey of enterprise zone administrators. Overall, the evidence indicates that enterprise zones do not increase…

  16. 46 CFR 76.27-5 - Zoning. (United States)


    ... Detecting System, Details § 76.27-5 Zoning. (a) The fire detecting system shall be divided into separate zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) All spaces in a fire detecting... are connected. (3) Systems with indicators for individual spaces. (d) The fire detecting zone shall...

  17. Export Processing Zones and Global Class Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neveling, Patrick


    This chapter is concerned with one of the most striking developments in the global political economy of capitalism after the Second World War; the rise of export processing zones and special economic zones. Building on long-term ethnohistorical research on the zones’ global spread from one zone in

  18. Petrogenesis of ultramafic rocks from the eastern Orhaneli ophiolite, NW Turkey: Hints on the initiation and evolution of melt-peridotite interaction processes within a heterogeneously depleted mantle section (United States)

    Uysal, Ibrahim; Dokuz, Abdurrahman; Kapsiotis, Argyrios; Saka, Samet; Karslı, Orhan; Kaliwoda, Melanie; Müller, Dirk


    The eastern Orhaneli ophiolite in NW Anatolia (Turkey) consists of voluminous dunite and minor harzburgite intruded by clinopyroxenite veins. Harzburgite contains spinel of low Cr# [100 × Cr/(Cr + Al) = 40-45] and diopside of low Al2O3 and TiO2 contents, whereas dunite contains spinel of higher Cr# (62-82) and diopside (blebs) (even more) depleted in Al2O3 and TiO2 (than harzburgite). The concentrations of Heavy Rare Earth Elements (HREE) in harzburgite are consistent with derivation of this type of peridotite from 19% dry melting of a fertile mantle protolith at a MOR regime. Dunites have lower concentrations of HREE than harzburgite implying that dunites were generated by higher degrees (>30%) of (cumulative) melting of the same protolith. Furthermore, the characteristic U-shapes of the chondrite-normalized REE-patterns of dunites indicate the involvement of hydrous melt-peridotite interaction processes in their genesis. Nevertheless, a set of mosaic-in-texture dunite samples contain olivine that has lower Fo# [100 × Mg/(Mg + Fe2+)] and NiO contents than olivine in harzburgite. These dunites are probably of cumulate origin as it is also indicated by their enrichment in Pt and Pd (≤17.92 ppb). Micro-textural and Re-Os isotopic data support that clinopyroxenite intrusions do not have a pure magmatic origin and their formation was partly controlled by metasomatic processes. Overall data indicate that the eastern Orhaneli ultramafic rocks have a complex petrological history including various stages of partial melting, metasomatism and magmatism in an evolving from MOR to SSZ geotectonic setting.

  19. Syn- and Post-Accretionary Structures in the Neoproterozoic Central Allaqi-Heiani Suture Zone, Southeastern Egypt (United States)

    Abdeen, M. M.; Abdelghaffar, A. A.


    The Allaqi-Heiani suture (AHS) is the western part of the main Allaqi-Heiani-Gerf-Onib-Sol Hamed-Yanbu suture and represents one of the Neoproterozoic, arc-arc sutures in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). It separates the ca. 750 Ma South Eastern Desert terrane in the north from the ca. 830-720 Ma Gabgaba terrane in the south. The AHS is a deformed belt of ophiolitic rocks, syn-tectonic granitoids and metasediments. The central AHS zone is divided into three structural domains. The western domain (Ι) is characterized by NNE low thrusts and SSW-vergent folds. The central domain (ΙΙ) includes upright tight to isoclinal NNW-SSE oriented folds and transpressional faults. The eastern domain (ΙΙΙ) shows NNW-SSE oriented open folds. Structural analysis indicates that the area has a poly-phase deformation history involving at least two events. Event D1 was an N-S to NNE-SSW regional shortening generating the SSW-verging folds and the NNE dipping thrusts. Event D2 was an ENE-WSW shortening producing NNW-SSE oriented folds in the central and eastern parts of the study area and reactivating older thrusts with oblique-slip reverse fault movement. The tectonic evolution of the area involves two episodes of collision: an early collision between the South Eastern Desert terrane and the Gabgaba terrane along the AHS after the consumption of a basin floored by oceanic crust above a north-dipping subduction zone; and a later collision between East- and West-Gondwanas at ca. 750-650 Ma, leading to the closure of the Mozambique Ocean. This collision deformed the AHS along N-S trending shortening zones and produced NW-SE and NE-SW oriented sinistral and dextral transpressional faults, respectively. The early collision episode is related to the terrane accretion during the early Pan-African orogen, while the later phase is related to a late Pan-African or Najd orogen.

  20. Neoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the Jebel Saghro and Bou Azzer - El Graara inliers, eastern and central Anti-Atlas, Morocco (United States)

    Walsh, Gregory J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Harrison, Richard W.; Burton, William C.; Quick, James E.; Benziane, Foudad; Yazidi, Abdelaziz; Saadane, Abderrahim


    New mapping, geochemistry, and 17 U–Pb SHRIMP zircon ages from rocks of the Sirwa, Bou Azzer–El Graara, and Jebel Saghro inliers constrain the Neoproterozoic evolution of the eastern Anti-Atlas during Pan-African orogenesis. In the Sirwa inlier, Tonian quartzite from the pre Pan-African passive margin deposits of the Mimount Formation contains detrital zircon derived entirely from the West African Craton (WAC), with most grains yielding Eburnean Paleoproterozoic ages of about 2050 Ma. Cryogenian Pan-African orogenic activity (PA1) from about 760 to 660 Ma included northward-dipping subduction to produce a volcanic arc, followed by ophiolite obduction onto the WAC. In the Bou Azzer–El Graara inlier, calc-alkaline granodiorite and quartz diorite, dated at 650–646 Ma, are syn- to post-tectonic with respect to the second period of Pan-African orogenesis (PA2), arc-continent accretion, and related greenschist facies metamorphism. Slab break-off and lithospheric delimination may have provided the source for the supra-subduction calc-alkaline plutons. At about 646 Ma, quartz diorite intruded the Tiddiline formation placing an upper limit on molassic deposition. Widespread Ediacaran high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic plutonism and volcanism during the final stage of Pan-African orogenesis (PA3) occurred in a setting related to either modification of the margin of the WAC or formation of a continental volcanic arc above a short-lived southward-dipping subduction zone. In the Saghro inlier, eight plutonic rocks yield ages ranging from about 588 to 556 Ma. Sampled plutonic rocks previously considered to be Cryogenian yielded Ediacaran ages. Peraluminous rhyolitic volcanic rocks in the lower part of the Ouarzazate Supergroup, including ash-flow tuffs of the Oued Dar’a caldera, yield ages between about 574 and 571 Ma. The Oued Dar’a caldera developed in a pull-apart graben produced by a left-step in a northeast-trending, left-lateral strike-slip fault zone, and

  1. 33 CFR 165.814 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Houston-Galveston Zone. (United States)


    ... Port Houston-Galveston Zone. 165.814 Section 165.814 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.814 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Houston-Galveston Zone. (a) Location. The following areas are designated as security zones: (1) Houston, Texas. The Houston Ship Channel and all associated...

  2. WorkZoneQ user guide for two-lane freeway work zones. (United States)


    WorkZoneQ was developed in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) to implement the results of the previous study, : Queue and Users Costs in Highway Work Zones. This report contains the WorkZoneQ user guide. WorkZoneQ : consists of eight Excel ...

  3. 76 FR 70342 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation... (United States)


    ...] Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation... published in the Federal Register. This notice lists temporary safety zones, security zones, special local... Commanders and Captains of the Port (COTP) must be immediately responsive to the safety and security needs...

  4. 76 FR 48751 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone (United States)


    ...-AA87 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: Based on a review of safety and security zones around critical infrastructure... these security zones in our regulations. Specifically, the Coast Guard proposes to reduce the size of an...

  5. 78 FR 26508 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Event in Captain of the Port New York Zone (United States)


    ... Harbor located in approximate Safety Zone, 33 CFR 165.160(3.8). position 40[deg]51'58'' N, 073[deg]39'34... Zone; Fireworks Event in Captain of the Port New York Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce safety zones in the Captain of the Port New...

  6. 76 FR 34867 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone (United States)


    ....941(a)(51) Target Fireworks, Detroit, MI The first safety zone will be enforced from 7 a.m. on June 24... Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce various safety zones for...

  7. 76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY... Safety Unit Duluth, MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is... entering all navigable waters of the Red River in the State of Minnesota north of a line drawn across...

  8. 76 FR 61947 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone (United States)


    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard... displays within the Captain of the Port (COTP) Long Island Sound Zone. This action is necessary to provide... or anchoring within these zones is prohibited unless authorized by the COTP Sector Long Island Sound...

  9. 78 FR 24679 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone (United States)


    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard... zones for fireworks displays within the Captain of the Port (COTP) Long Island Sound (LIS) Zone. This... Sector Long Island Sound. DATES: This rule is effective from April 27, 2013, until June 22, 2013. This...

  10. New geometrical compactness measures for zones design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Alfredo Rincón-García


    Full Text Available The design of compact zones has been studied because of its influence in the creation of zones with regular forms, which are easier to analyze, to investigate or to administer. This paper propose a new method to measure compactness,by means of the transformation of the original geographical spaces, into figures formed with square cells, which are used to measure the similarity between the original zone and an ideal zone with straight forms. The proposed method was applied to design electoral zones, which must satisfy constraints of compactness, contiguity and population balance, in a topographical configuration that favors the creation of twisted and diffuse shapes. The results show that the new method favors the creation of zones with straight forms, without an important effect to the population balance, which are considered zones of high quality. Keywords: Redistricting, compactness, simulated annealing, GIS. Mathematics Subject Classification: 90C59, 90C29, 68T20.

  11. Land governance as grey zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette


    Weak state capacity has often been in focus when explaining why land reform in sub-Saharan Africa is not implemented. However, an analysis of the deeper politics of land reform brings our attention to a set of incentives which allow rules governing land to be open to interpretation. This article...... demonstrates that in Uganda, the need to maintain the ruling coalition in a clientelist political settlement to build electoral support, and the desire to attract economic investors, constitute political incentives to maintain land governance as a grey zone, even if there is apparent political...

  12. Boron cycling in subduction zones


    Palmer, Martin R.


    Subduction zones are geologically dramatic features, with much of the drama being driven by the movement of water. The “light and lively” nature of boron, coupled with its wide variations in isotopic composition shown by the different geo-players in this drama, make it an ideal tracer for the role and movement of water during subduction. The utility of boron ranges from monitoring how the fluids that are expelled from the accretionary prism influence seawater chemistry, to the subduction of c...

  13. Comment on ;Dehydration breakdown of antigorite and the formation of B-type olivine CPO; by Nagaya et al. (2014) (United States)

    Nozaka, Toshio


    Recently, Nagaya et al. (2014) have reported the B-type crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of olivine in thermally metamorphosed serpentinites from the Happo ultramafic complex, central Japan, and interpreted the CPO as a result of topotactic growth of olivine after antigorite. Their conclusions require the reconsideration of the genesis of B-type olivine CPO, which is generally believed to be formed by plastic deformation of hydrous peridotites, and could have an impact on structural models of supra-subduction zones. I appreciate the detailed observations by Nagaya et al. (2014) but have to point out that they committed significant misinterpretation of facts and failed to show robust evidence and rationale for their argument.

  14. Zoning and contamination rate of magnesium and heavy metals of iron, zinc and copper in the north and northwest aquifer of Khoy (Zourabad based on GIS and determining the contaminated source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Khodadadi


    Full Text Available Introduction Heavy metals are the most toxic pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. This contamination can result from the release of heavy metal elements during alteration and weathering of ultramafic and mafic rocks (ophiolite zones. Among the important metals and pollutants in the ophiolite; chromium, cobalt, nickel, iron, magnesium, manganese, zinc and copper could be noted. Basically, a mass of serpentine consists of serpentine, amphibole, talc, chlorite, magnetite, and the remainder of olivine, pyroxene and spinel (Kil et al., 2010. In such areas, the prevailing cold climate, during the serpentinization, chloritization and epidotiization, the activity of the solvent, such as chloride, fluoride, carbonates, sulfide, sulfosalt would be able to import the elements such as magnesium and iron, copper and zinc into the soil and groundwater. The study area is located in northwestern Iran. This area is located in the northwest of the city of Khoy. Because of the proximity to the north and northwest Khoy plains with ophiolite rocks, the soil of this region could possibly show the potential of contamination with heavy metals. Due to the toxicity and disease of unauthorized grades of these elements in groundwater in the study area, this study is focused on the more contaminated groundwater of the areas. Materials and methods In this study, over a period of 5 days, sampling from 42 water sources, including fountains, aqueducts, wells, piezometers and wells in operation, was performed. The container was washed with acid and then rinsed 3 times with the water sample. The pH and temperature of the water in the samples was measured in the field. Then to each of the samples was taken from 2 to 5 ml of concentrated nitric acid (This causes that the metal elements would not adsorbed or precipitated by these particles and pH of the samples was measured with litmus paper to reach level 2. This was done to ensure the consolidation of the water samples. Analysis of

  15. The fracture zone project - final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Peter


    This report summarizes the work and the experiences gained during the fracture zone project at the Finnsjoen study site. The project is probably the biggest effort, so far, to characterize a major fracture zone in crystalline bedrock. The project was running between 1984-1990 involving a large number of geological, geohydrological, geochemical, and geomechanical investigation. The methods used for identification and characterization are reviewed and discussed in terms of applicability and possible improvements for future investigations. The discussion is exemplified with results from the investigation within the project. Flow and transport properties of the zone determined from hydraulic tests and tracer tests are discussed. A large number of numerical modelling efforts performed within the fracture zone project, the INTRAVAL project, and the SKB91-study are summarized and reviewed. Finally, occurrence of similar zones and the relevance of major low angle fracture zones in connection to the siting of an underground repository is addressed

  16. Marginal Ice Zone: Biogeochemical Sampling with Gliders (United States)


    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marginal Ice Zone: Biogeochemical Sampling with Gliders...under the ice and in the marginal ice zone. The project specific goals are to develop biogeochemical and optical proxies for glider optics; to use the...water, in the marginal ice zone, and under the ice; to use glider optical measurements to compute fields of rates of photosynthetic carbon fixation

  17. Adaptation aux changements climatiques dans les zones ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adaptation aux changements climatiques dans les zones périurbaines de l'Asie du Sud-Est. La croissance rapide des zones périurbaines de l'Asie du Sud-Est est caractérisée par un manque de services de base, des milieux bâtis non planifiés et la relative faiblesse des gouvernements. Les habitants de ces zones sont ...

  18. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP, directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident aftereffects at Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident aftereffects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate state of people working in the exclusion area. For scientists, experts working in the field of ecology, radioecology, atom energetics, radiology, radiochemistry, radiobiology and related fields. It may be useful for postgraduates and students

  19. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident after effects at the Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of the Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident after effects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate of people working in the exclusion area

  20. Geoecological zoning of developed territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Gryaznov


    Full Text Available The article contains information on methods of geoecological zoning carried out based on the assessment of cartographic material using geoinformation technologies for the analysis of factographic cartographic material. The proposed methodology complements the existing methodological recommendations on geological and environmental research, developed by VSEGINGEO. The paper reflects the basic principles of obtaining the initial environmental information for creation of a map evaluation model of the Salekhard Area, and the rationale for selecting factors and numerical criteria for an integrated environmental assessment of the territory, taking into account the specifics of nature-technogenic conditions of the Severnoye Priobye region (West Siberia. The article briefly describes the main natural factors of the region of research, including landscape, geological, radiation, engineering-geological, geocryological, hydrogeological factors. Separate block describes the objects of technogenic load, including technogeneally-transformed landscapes in residential areas, corridors of transport communications, industrial and energy zones, and local ecologically significant objects. Ecological significance of natural and technogenic factors affected conducted ranking of their numerical parameters of the evaluation criteria. The article shows the application of a method of expert scoring for obtaining an integral assessment of the ecological state of the geological environment and creating a map of the regionalization of the Salekhard Area. Based on obtained cartographic model, a brief analysis of the existing ecological situation in the Salekhard Area shows the territories of favorable, satisfactory, tense, and crisis ecological states. The geoinformation-integrated model serves as the basis for determination of ecologically significant factors at the points of mapping the state of the geological environment, which allows for the further development of the

  1. Global zones of particle precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M.A.


    Magnetospheric particles are precipitated at low altitude all over the globe. The study of the physics of the equatorial global zone is important for geospace environment modeling, for knowing the loss processes of radiation belt particles and for the Space Station Project. The equatorial global zone was investigated by the Phoenix-1 experiment on board the S81-1 mission in May through November, 1982. The global profile of the peak flux of quasi-trapped protons follows the line of minimum magnetic field strength, with a FWHM of ∼13 degree in latitude. The pitch angle distribution anisotropy index is found to be 19± 2, and the protons show no statistically significant longitude dependence. Contrary to an earlier observation the author finds a strong altitude dependence. Within the altitude range of observation (∼160-285 km) the proton flux varies as the fifth power of altitude. This altitude gradient indicates a strong depletion of source neutrals, coupled with charge exchange loss and ionization loss of protons. A power law fit to the flux values of the previous observations, yields an energy spectral index of -2.55 ± 0.11, implying that the mean energy of the protons observed by Phoenix-1 is 1.3 MeV. For comparison of the observed proton population with the earlier observation, the response functions of both instruments - the monitor telescope on the S81-1 mission, and the EI-92 telescope on the Azur mission-have been calculated as a function of the satellite orbital parameters and instrument geometry, both in the dipole and real magnetic field models

  2. Identification of Cr-magnetite in Neoproterozoic serpentinites resulting of Cr-Spinel alteration in a past hydrothermal system: Aït Ahmane ultramafic unit (Bou Azzer ophiolite, Anti Atlas, Morocco) (United States)

    Hodel, Florent; Macouin, Mélina; Carlut, Julie; Triantafyllou, Antoine; Berger, Julien; Trindade, Ricardo; Ennih, Nasser; Rousse, Sonia


    If magnetite is a common serpentinization product, centimetric, massive and almost pure magnetite veins are rarely observed in serpentinites. Unique examples of these, in the Aït Ahmane ultramafic unit (Bou Azzer Neoproterozoic ophiolite, Anti-Atlas, Morocco), offer the opportunity to assess the hydrothermal processes that prevailed at the end of the Precambrian. Pseudomorphic lizardite/chrysotile texture of unaltered serpentinites suggests an oceanic-like first serpentinization stage, under static and low temperature conditions (T characterized by relatively small sized magnetite grains, mainly pseudo-single domain magnetites. Hysteresis parameters and first order reversal curves (FORC) diagram denote a magnetic grains size that increases with the alteration. This well-marked tendency is also reveals by a shift of the isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) components toward lower coercivities for altered serpentinites. This grain size increase is associated with the emergence of a new magnetic phase with the hydrothermal alteration, the Cr-magnetite, evidenced by thermomagnetic measurements with Tc around 540 °C. This ultimate Cr-spinel alteration product is associated with another Cr-spinel alteration mineral, the ferritchromite, also identifiable on thermomagnetic curves by a rapid increase of the magnetite susceptibility at 130 °C due to its transformation during heating. Thermomagnetic curves allow us to propose a proxy, the CrM/M ratio providing a quantification of the Cr-magnetite contribution to the magnetic susceptibility, relatively to the pure magnetite one. This CrM/M ratio increases drastically with the hydrothermal alteration of serpentinites and Cr-spinels, attesting of a change of the magnetic mineralogy. Combined with petrography, mineral and bulk chemistry, these magnetic data allow us to propose that a Cl-rich acidic hydrothermal event, involving temperatures below 350 °C, appears to have been responsible of an intense magnetite leaching in

  3. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone) (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  4. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone) (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  5. Personal audio with a planar bright zone. (United States)

    Coleman, Philip; Jackson, Philip J B; Olik, Marek; Pedersen, Jan Abildgaard


    Reproduction of multiple sound zones, in which personal audio programs may be consumed without the need for headphones, is an active topic in acoustical signal processing. Many approaches to sound zone reproduction do not consider control of the bright zone phase, which may lead to self-cancellation problems if the loudspeakers surround the zones. Conversely, control of the phase in a least-squares sense comes at a cost of decreased level difference between the zones and frequency range of cancellation. Single-zone approaches have considered plane wave reproduction by focusing the sound energy in to a point in the wavenumber domain. In this article, a planar bright zone is reproduced via planarity control, which constrains the bright zone energy to impinge from a narrow range of angles via projection in to a spatial domain. Simulation results using a circular array surrounding two zones show the method to produce superior contrast to the least-squares approach, and superior planarity to the contrast maximization approach. Practical performance measurements obtained in an acoustically treated room verify the conclusions drawn under free-field conditions.

  6. Evaluation of work zone speed limits : an objective and subjective analysis of work zones in Missouri. (United States)


    This study objectively and subjectively examined speed characteristics and driver compliance with the posted speed limit : in Missouri work zones. The objective evaluation collected vehicle speeds from four work zones with different : configurations ...

  7. 78 FR 40961 - Safety Zones; Annual Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone (United States)


    ... safety zone listed in 33 CFR 165.941(a)(51) will be enforced from 9:30 p.m. to 10:15 p.m. on June 24... Zones; Annual Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce various safety zones for annual marine events...

  8. 77 FR 42176 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone (United States)


    ... fireworks launch site located at position 41-34'-18.10'' N, 082-51'-18.70'' W (NAD 83). This zone will be... at position 41-34'-18.10'' N, 082- 51'-18.70'' W (NAD 83). (ii) Expected date. This safety zone will...-AA00 Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. A. Padula


    The objectives of this technical report are to: (1) Establish the criteria for Radiation Access Zone (RAZ) designation. (2) Establish the criteria for the Ventilation Confinement Zone (VCZ) designation. The scope will be to formulate the RAZ and VCZ zoning designation for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface facilities and to apply the zoning designations to the current Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), and Carrier Preparation Building (CPB) configurations

  10. The distinguishing characteristics of interlayer oxidation zone and burial ancient ground oxidation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhanshi; Zhou Wenbin


    The author discusses the main characteristics of interlayer oxidation zones and the burial ancient ground oxidation zones of Uranium deposit No. 512 in Xinjiang Uigur municipality. The epigenetic genesis, depending on some aquifer, the tongue-like in section, having the zonation along dip direction and having certain mineral assemblage are the typical features for interlayer oxidation zones

  11. 75 FR 21990 - Safety Zone; Extended Debris Removal in the Lake Champlain Bridge Construction Zone (Between... (United States)


    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Extended Debris Removal in the Lake Champlain Bridge Construction Zone (Between... surrounding the Lake Champlain Bridge construction zone between Chimney Point, VT and Crown Point, NY. This... north and south of the Lake Champlain Bridge construction site. The Captain of the Port may suspend part...

  12. 33 CFR 165.503 - Security Zone; Captain of the Port Hampton Roads Zone. (United States)


    ... Port Hampton Roads Zone. 165.503 Section 165.503 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.503 Security Zone; Captain of the Port Hampton Roads Zone. (a) Definitions. As used in this... been authorized by the Captain of the Port (COTP), Hampton Roads, Virginia to act on his or her behalf...

  13. 78 FR 57485 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound (United States)


    ... Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Sound and adjacent waters. Entry into this zone is prohibited unless otherwise exempted or excluded... INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this notice, call or email LTJG Johnny Zeng, Sector Puget Sound...

  14. 77 FR 36396 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone (United States)


    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast... for fireworks displays within the Captain of the Port (COTP) Long Island Sound Zone. This action is... Island Sound. DATES: This rule is effective from June 23, 2012 until July 21, 2012. This rule will be...

  15. Seed zones for maintaining adapted plant populations (United States)

    J. Bradley St. Clair; G. Randy Johnson; Vicky J. Erickson; Richard C. Johnson; Nancy L. Shaw


    Seed zones delineate areas within which plant materials can be transferred with little risk that they will be poorly adapted to their new location. They ensure successful restoration and revegetation, and help maintain the integrity of natural genetic structure. The value of seed zones is recognized in numerous policy statements from federal and state agencies. Results...

  16. Work zone performance measures pilot test. (United States)


    Currently, a well-defined and validated set of metrics to use in monitoring work zone performance do not : exist. This pilot test was conducted to assist state DOTs in identifying what work zone performance : measures can and should be targeted, what...

  17. Generalized provisional seed zones for native plants (United States)

    Andrew D. Bower; J. Bradley St.Clair; Vicky. Erickson


    Deploying well-adapted and ecologically appropriate plant materials is a core component of successful restoration projects. We have developed generalized provisional seed zones that can be applied to any plant species in the United States to help guide seed movement. These seed zones are based on the intersection of high-resolution climatic data for winter minimum...

  18. Subspace exclusion zones for damage localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal, Dionisio; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard


    , this is exploited in the context of structural damage localization to cast the Subspace Exclusion Zone (SEZ) scheme, which locates damage by reconstructing the captured field quantity shifts from analytical subspaces indexed by postulated boundaries, the so-called exclusion zones (EZs), in a model of the structure...

  19. 76 FR 23485 - Safety Zone; Red River (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red River AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Red River in the State of North Dakota, including those portions of the river bordered by Richland... across latitude 46 20'00'' N, extending the entire width of the river. This safety zone is needed to...

  20. unguiculata (L.) Walp) from Three Agroecological Zones

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zyme gene loci there was about 9% allelic substitution among the accessions. Aver- age genetic distance values of 0.068,0.048 and 0.128 within Deciduous forest, Guinea savanna and Sudan Savanna zones, respec- tively, also implied that within these agroecological zones there were about 7 %,. 5% and 13% allelic ...

  1. Zone edge effects with variable rate irrigation (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems may offer solutions to enhance water use efficiency by addressing variability within a field. However, the design of VRI systems should be considered to maximize application uniformity within sprinkler zones, while minimizing edge effects between such zones alo...

  2. Remote sensing applications for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, L.V.G.

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_5.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_5.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  3. 46 CFR 76.35-5 - Zoning. (United States)


    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Alarm System, Details § 76.35-5 Zoning. (a) The zoning of the manual alarm system shall meet the same requirements as for the electric fire detecting system, § 76.27-5. (b) [Reserved] ...

  4. 46 CFR 76.30-5 - Zoning. (United States)


    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Pneumatic Fire Detecting System, Details § 76.30-5 Zoning. (a) The fire detecting system shall be divided into separate zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) All spaces in a fire detecting...

  5. EPA Region 1 No Discharge Zones (United States)

    This dataset details No Discharge Zones (NDZ) for New England. Boaters may not discharge waste into these areas. Boundaries were determined mostly by Federal Register Environmental Documents in coordination with Massachusetts Coastal Zone Management (MA CZM) and EPA Region 1 Office of Ecosystem Protection (OEP) staff.

  6. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present the zone refining results of cadmium using horizontal resistive zone refiner under constant flow of moisture free hydrogen gas. The boron impurity in cadmium can be avoided using quartz (GE 214 grade) boat in lieu of high pure graphite boat. The analytical results using inductively coupled plasma optical ...

  7. Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision Special Economic Zones, UTM Zone 15N NAD83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_vision_special_economic_zones (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates special economic zones included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision. Special economic zones include existing national,...

  8. Trading Zones in Early Modern Europe. (United States)

    Long, Pamela O


    This essay adopts the concept of trading zones first developed for the history of science by Peter Galison and redefines it for the early modern period. The term "trading zones" is used to mean arenas in which substantive and reciprocal communication occurred between individuals who were artisanally trained and learned (university-trained) individuals. Such trading zones proliferated in the sixteenth century. They tended to arise in certain kinds of places and not in others, but their existence must be determined empirically. The author's work on trading zones differs from the ideas of Edgar Zilsel, who emphasized the influence of artisans on the scientific revolution. In contrast, in this essay, the mutual influence of artisans and the learned on each other is stressed, and translation is used as a modality that was important to communication within trading zones.

  9. Chaotic Zones around Rotating Small Bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lages, José; Shevchenko, Ivan I. [Institut UTINAM, Observatoire des Sciences de l’Univers THETA, CNRS, Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon F-25030 (France); Shepelyansky, Dima L., E-mail: [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique du CNRS, IRSAMC, Université de Toulouse, UPS, Toulouse F-31062 (France)


    Small bodies of the solar system, like asteroids, trans-Neptunian objects, cometary nuclei, and planetary satellites, with diameters smaller than 1000 km usually have irregular shapes, often resembling dumb-bells or contact binaries. The spinning of such a gravitating dumb-bell creates around it a zone of chaotic orbits. We determine its extent analytically and numerically. We find that the chaotic zone swells significantly if the rotation rate is decreased; in particular, the zone swells more than twice if the rotation rate is decreased 10 times with respect to the “centrifugal breakup” threshold. We illustrate the properties of the chaotic orbital zones in examples of the global orbital dynamics about asteroid 243 Ida (which has a moon, Dactyl, orbiting near the edge of the chaotic zone) and asteroid 25143 Itokawa.

  10. Terrestrial Zone Exoplanets and Life (United States)

    Matthews, Brenda


    One of the most exciting results from ALMA has been the detection of significant substructure within protoplanetary disks that can be linked to planet formation processes. For the first time, we are able to observe the process of assembly of material into larger bodies within such disks. It is not possible, however, for ALMA to probe the growth of planets in protoplanetary disks at small radii, i.e., in the terrestrial zone, where we expect rocky terrestrial planets to form. In this regime, the optical depths prohibit observation at the high frequencies observed by ALMA. To probe the effects of planet building processes and detect telltale gaps and signatures of planetary mass bodies at such small separations from the parent star, we require a facility of superior resolution and sensitivity at lower frequencies. The ngVLA is just such a facility. We will present the fundamental science that will be enabled by the ngVLA in protoplanetary disk structure and the formation of planets. In addition, we will discuss the potential for an ngVLA facility to detect the molecules that are the building blocks of life, reaching limits well beyond those reachable with the current generation of telescopes, and also to determine whether such planets will be habitable based on studies of the impact of stars on their nearest planetary neighbours.

  11. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa


    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N 2 –CO 2 –H 2 O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO 2 outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H 2 can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N 2 –CO 2 –H 2 O–H 2 ) can be sustained as long as volcanic H 2 output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H 2 warming is reduced in dense H 2 O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H 2 atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  12. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa, E-mail: [Carl Sagan Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)


    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N{sub 2}–CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO{sub 2} outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H{sub 2} can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N{sub 2}–CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O–H{sub 2}) can be sustained as long as volcanic H{sub 2} output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H{sub 2} warming is reduced in dense H{sub 2}O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H{sub 2} atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  13. Radiation danger of exclusion zone objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholosha, V.I.; Proskura, N.I.; Ivanov, Yu.A.; Kazakov, S.V.; Arkhipov, A.N.


    The analysis of radiation danger of the Exclusion Zone objects was made. Here, the Zone is defined as the territory from which the population has been evacuated in 1986 owing to the Chernobyl accident and possible outflow of the contaminated substances out of the borders is potentially dangerous to the Ukraine. In the present work were analyzed such problems as sources of radiation danger in the Zone, ways of radionuclide migration out of the borders of the Zone in normal and emergency situations, the non-radiation (ecological) danger factors of the Zone objects, doses (individual and collective) from various sources and on separate ways of their formation, and the characteristics of radiation danger of the Zone objects. The conclusions are: (1) Radionuclide flows both from technologic and natural sources exceed those from Shelter objects, (2) Under emergency conditions, radionuclide flows and doze loading remain comparable with those from emergency sources, (3) To solve some management tasks in radiation situation, the basic works on the Shelter objects should be oriented to decrease probability of emergency occurrence and to reduce radiation influence (prevention wash-outs during high waters, fire-prevention measures in forests and strengthening of the control behind non-authorized use of objects in the Zone). (S. Ohno)

  14. Free Trade Zones, Export Processing Zones, Special Economic Zones and Global Imperial Formations 200 BCE to 2015 CE


    Neveling, J.P.W.


    This encyclopedia entry positions various types of special economic zones in a broader world history. It the first authoritative and academically sound account offering an important alternative to pre-scientific SEZ histories offered in recent World Bank publications.

  15. Chromite alteration processes within Vourinos ophiolite (United States)

    Grieco, Giovanni; Merlini, Anna


    The renewed interest in chromite ore deposits is directly related to the increase in Cr price ruled by international market trends. Chromite, an accessory mineral in peridotites, is considered to be a petrogenetic indicator because its composition reflects the degree of partial melting that the mantle experienced while producing the chromium spinel-bearing rock (Burkhard in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:1297-1306, 1993). However, the understanding of chromite alteration and metamorphic modification is still controversial (e.g. Evans and Frost in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 39:959-972, 1975; Burkhard in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:1297-1306, 1993; Oze et al. in Am J Sci 304:67-101, 2004). Metamorphic alteration leads to major changes in chromite chemistry and to the growth of secondary phases such as ferritchromite and chlorite. In this study, we investigate the Vourinos complex chromitites (from the mines of Rizo, Aetoraches, Xerolivado and Potamia) with respect to textural and chemical analyses in order to highlight the most important trend of alteration related to chromite transformation. The present study has been partially funded by the Aliakmon project in collaboration between the Public Power Corporation of Greece and Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration of Kozani.

  16. Fracture zone analysis using the deep borehole in KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Su; Kim, Geon Young; Koh, Yong Kwon


    This technical report are focussed on the obtaining the fracture zone from the results of geophysical logging and borehole televiewer in DB-01 borehole drilled inside KURT. At result, total 7 fracture zones were obtained in DB-01 borehole. Based on the directional analysis, there are 2 NW trending fracture zones, 4 EW trending fracture zones and 2 NS trending fracture zone. Among the 7 fracture zones, DB-01-3 fracture zones has two different direction, which are NS and NW trend. The widths of fracture zones were also calculated using the dip angle data of fracture zones, which were estimated by stereonet plot. The range of fracture zone width is 5 ∼ 15 m. And, the widths of two fault zones, DB-1-4 and DB-1-6, are 1.8 m and 14 m respectively. Especially, DB-1-6 fault zone can be considered as hydrogeological barrier of upper and lower part of groundwater in KURT

  17. Global challenges in integrated coastal zone management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    place in Arendal, Norway between 3-7 July 2011. The main objective of the Symposium was to present current knowledge and to address issues on advice and management related to the coastal zone. The major themes of papers included in this book are: Coastal habitats and ecosystem services Adaptation......Growing pressure from increasingly diverse human activities coupled with climate change impacts threaten the functional integrity of coastal ecosystems around the globe. A multi-disciplinary approach towards understanding drivers, pressures and impacts in the coastal zone requires effective...... integration of data and information in policy and management, combining expertise from nature and social science, to reach a balanced and sustainable development of the coastal zone. This important book comprises the proceedings of The International Symposium on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, which took...

  18. Evaluation of mobile work zone alarm systems. (United States)


    Maintenance of highways often involves mobile work zones for various types of low speed moving operations such as : striping and sweeping. The speed differential between the moving operation and traffic, and the increasing problem of : distracted dri...

  19. Work zone positive protection guidelines for Idaho. (United States)


    The Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) Title 23 Part 630 Subpart K - Temporary Traffic Control (630.1102630.1110) rule states : that positive protection shall be considered where work zone conditions place workers at increased risk from motorized : ...

  20. Work Zone Design and Operations Enhancements (United States)


    Oregon Department of Transportation contractors are required to implement Traffic Control Plans (TCPs) to protect and direct traffic through work zones. The design and implementation of TCPs have shown variation from project-to-project across the Sta...

  1. Green zoning regulation under price discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Hamoudi


    Full Text Available This study aims to examine urban zoning within a linear city in a Bertrand duopolistic competition framework with price discrimination and linear transportation costs. It analyses the effects of introducing an environmental area where economic and residential activity are not allowed. The welfare function used to determine the optimal size of the green area allows for a possible regulator’s bias in favour of firms/consumers. It is shown that location-price competition can be either reduced or increased depending on the size of the green area. The results indicate when a regulator implements green zoning, under linear transportation costs, influences the optimal location of firms (because these locations depend on the size of the green zone. In consequence, zoning may be used as an effective industrial or urban policy tool.

  2. Calculating Buffer Zones: A Guide for Applicators (United States)

    Buffer zones provide distance between the application block (i.e., edge of the treated field) and bystanders, in order to control pesticide exposure risk from soil fumigants. Distance requirements may be reduced by credits such as tarps.

  3. Advanced Vadose Zone Simulations Using TOUGH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finsterle, S.; Doughty, C.; Kowalsky, M.B.; Moridis, G.J.; Pan,L.; Xu, T.; Zhang, Y.; Pruess, K.


    The vadose zone can be characterized as a complex subsurfacesystem in which intricate physical and biogeochemical processes occur inresponse to a variety of natural forcings and human activities. Thismakes it difficult to describe, understand, and predict the behavior ofthis specific subsurface system. The TOUGH nonisothermal multiphase flowsimulators are well-suited to perform advanced vadose zone studies. Theconceptual models underlying the TOUGH simulators are capable ofrepresenting features specific to the vadose zone, and of addressing avariety of coupled phenomena. Moreover, the simulators are integratedinto software tools that enable advanced data analysis, optimization, andsystem-level modeling. We discuss fundamental and computationalchallenges in simulating vadose zone processes, review recent advances inmodeling such systems, and demonstrate some capabilities of the TOUGHsuite of codes using illustrative examples.

  4. WVSAMB Color Digital Orthophotos North Zone (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital color orthophotography of the State of West Virginia (West Virginia State Plane Coordinate System North Zone). The W.V. state plane system has two...

  5. EPA Region 1 No Discharge Zones (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset details No Discharge Zones (NDZ) for New England. Boaters may not discharge waste into these areas. Boundaries were determined mostly by Federal...

  6. VT Data - Zoning Overlay 2007, Springfield (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Overlay districts for the town of Springfield VT. ‘Highway Corridor Zoning Overlay’ was adopted 9/10/2007. The remaining overlays were adopted in 2007 but a specific...

  7. Global challenges in integrated coastal zone management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    /mitigation to change in coastal systems Coastal governance Linking science and management Comprising a huge wealth of information, this timely and well-edited volume is essential reading for all those involved in coastal zone management around the globe. All libraries in research establishments and universities where...... integration of data and information in policy and management, combining expertise from nature and social science, to reach a balanced and sustainable development of the coastal zone. This important book comprises the proceedings of The International Symposium on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, which took...... place in Arendal, Norway between 3-7 July 2011. The main objective of the Symposium was to present current knowledge and to address issues on advice and management related to the coastal zone. The major themes of papers included in this book are: Coastal habitats and ecosystem services Adaptation...

  8. Subsurface Carbon Cycling Below the Root Zone (United States)

    Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Kim, Y.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Bill, M.; Conrad, M. E.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.; Hubbard, S. S.


    Carbon in the subsurface below the root zone is an important yet poorly understood link in the terrestrial C cycle, interfacing between overlying soil and downstream aquatic systems. Thus, the nature and behavior of C in the vadose zone and groundwater, particularly the dynamics of mobile dissolved and suspended aqueous species, need to be understood for predicting C cycling and responses to climate change. This study is designed to understand the C balance (influxes, effluxes, and sequestration) and mechanisms controlling subsurface organic and inorganic C transport and transformation. Our initial investigations are being conducted at the Rifle Site floodplain along the Colorado River, in Colorado (USA). Within this floodplain, sediment samples were collected and sampling/monitoring instruments were installed down to 7 m depth at three sites. Pore water and gas samplers at 0.5 m depth intervals within the ~3.5 m deep vadose zone, and multilevel aquifer samplers have yielded depth- and time-resolved profiles of dissolved and suspended organic and inorganic C, and CO2 for over 1.5 years. Analyses conducted to determine seasonally and vertically resolved geochemical profiles show that dissolved organic matter (DOM) characteristics vary among three distinct hydrobiogeochemical zones; the vadose zone, capillary fringe, and saturated zone. The concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are many times higher in the vadose zone and the capillary fringe than in groundwater, and vary seasonally. The DOM speciation, aqueous geochemistry, solid phase analyses, and d13C isotope data show the importance of both biotic and abiotic C transformations during transport through the vertical gradients of moisture and temperature. In addition to DOM, suspended organic C and bacteria have been collected from samplers within the capillary fringe. Based on the field-based findings, long-term laboratory column experiments are being conducted under simulated field moisture

  9. Lucas Heights buffer zone: plan of management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This plan is being used by the Commission as a guide for its management of the Lucas Heights buffer zone, which is essentially a circular area having a 1-6 km radius around the HIFAR reactor. Aspects covered by this plan include past uses, current use, objectives for buffer zone land management, emergency evacuation, resource conservation, archaeology, fire, access, rehabilitation of disturbed areas, resource management and plan implementation

  10. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability with mixing zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong-Techer, R.


    This thesis is part of the FATHER experiment and the analyze of the hydrodynamical instabilities which appear during the mixing of two liquids of same volume mass with shearing speed in the mixing zone. The aim is to understand the possible influence of a Kelvin-Helmholtz hydrodynamical instability with mixing zone, compared to classical Kelvin-Helmholtz instability with interface and with theoretical results of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. (A.L.B.)

  11. 77 FR 38484 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone (United States)


    ..., Detroit, MI. The first safety zone listed in 33 CFR 165.941(a)(51) will not be enforced. The second safety zone listed in 33 CFR 165.941(a)(51) will be enforced from 8:00 p.m. to 11:55 p.m. on June 25, 2012. In.... to 11:55 p.m. on June 26, 2012. The third safety zone listed in 33 CFR 165.941(a)(51) will be...

  12. Standardized precipitation index zones for Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giddings, L.; Soto, M. [Instituto de Ecologia, A.C., Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Rutherford, B.M.; Maarouf, A. [Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)


    Precipitation zone systems exists for Mexico based on seasonality, quantity of precipitation, climates and geographical divisions, but none are convenient for the study of the relation of precipitation with phenomena such as El nino. An empirical set of seven exclusively Mexican and six shared zones was derived from three series of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) images, from 1940 through 1989: a whole year series (SPI-12) of 582 monthly images, a six month series (SPI-6) of 50 images for winter months (November through April), and a six month series (SPI-6) of 50 images for summer months (May through October). By examination of principal component and unsupervised classification images, it was found that all three series had similar zones. A set of basic training fields chosen from the principal component images was used to classify all three series. The resulting thirteen zones, presented in this article, were found to be approximately similar, varying principally at zones edges. A set of simple zones defined by just a few vertices can be used for practical operations. In general the SPI zones are homogeneous, with almost no mixture of zones and few outliers of one zone in the area of others. They are compared with a previously published map of climatic regions. Potential applications for SPI zones are discussed. [Spanish] Existen varios sistemas de zonificacion de Mexico basados en la estacionalidad, cantidad de precipitacion, climas y divisiones geograficas, pero ninguno es conveniente para el estudio de la relacion de la precipitacion con fenomenos tales como El Nino. En este trabajo se presenta un conjunto de siete zonas empiricas exclusivamente mexicanas y seis compartidas, derivadas de tres series de imagenes de SPI (Indice Estandarizado de la Precipitacion), desde 1940 a 1989: una serie de 582 imagenes mensuales (SPI-12), una series de 50 imagenes (SPI-6) de meses de invierno (noviembre a abril), y otra de 50 imagenes (SPI-6) de meses de verano

  13. Incorporating Conservation Zone Effectiveness for Protecting Biodiversity in Marine Planning (United States)

    Makino, Azusa; Klein, Carissa J.; Beger, Maria; Jupiter, Stacy D.; Possingham, Hugh P.


    Establishing different types of conservation zones is becoming commonplace. However, spatial prioritization methods that can accommodate multiple zones are poorly understood in theory and application. It is typically assumed that management regulations across zones have differential levels of effectiveness (“zone effectiveness”) for biodiversity protection, but the influence of zone effectiveness on achieving conservation targets has not yet been explored. Here, we consider the zone effectiveness of three zones: permanent closure, partial protection, and open, for planning for the protection of five different marine habitats in the Vatu-i-Ra Seascape, Fiji. We explore the impact of differential zone effectiveness on the location and costs of conservation priorities. We assume that permanent closure zones are fully effective at protecting all habitats, open zones do not contribute towards the conservation targets and partial protection zones lie between these two extremes. We use four different estimates for zone effectiveness and three different estimates for zone cost of the partial protection zone. To enhance the practical utility of the approach, we also explore how much of each traditional fishing ground can remain open for fishing while still achieving conservation targets. Our results show that all of the high priority areas for permanent closure zones would not be a high priority when the zone effectiveness of the partial protection zone is equal to that of permanent closure zones. When differential zone effectiveness and costs are considered, the resulting marine protected area network consequently increases in size, with more area allocated to permanent closure zones to meet conservation targets. By distributing the loss of fishing opportunity equitably among local communities, we find that 84–88% of each traditional fishing ground can be left open while still meeting conservation targets. Finally, we summarize the steps for developing marine zoning

  14. Incorporating conservation zone effectiveness for protecting biodiversity in marine planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azusa Makino

    Full Text Available Establishing different types of conservation zones is becoming commonplace. However, spatial prioritization methods that can accommodate multiple zones are poorly understood in theory and application. It is typically assumed that management regulations across zones have differential levels of effectiveness ("zone effectiveness" for biodiversity protection, but the influence of zone effectiveness on achieving conservation targets has not yet been explored. Here, we consider the zone effectiveness of three zones: permanent closure, partial protection, and open, for planning for the protection of five different marine habitats in the Vatu-i-Ra Seascape, Fiji. We explore the impact of differential zone effectiveness on the location and costs of conservation priorities. We assume that permanent closure zones are fully effective at protecting all habitats, open zones do not contribute towards the conservation targets and partial protection zones lie between these two extremes. We use four different estimates for zone effectiveness and three different estimates for zone cost of the partial protection zone. To enhance the practical utility of the approach, we also explore how much of each traditional fishing ground can remain open for fishing while still achieving conservation targets. Our results show that all of the high priority areas for permanent closure zones would not be a high priority when the zone effectiveness of the partial protection zone is equal to that of permanent closure zones. When differential zone effectiveness and costs are considered, the resulting marine protected area network consequently increases in size, with more area allocated to permanent closure zones to meet conservation targets. By distributing the loss of fishing opportunity equitably among local communities, we find that 84-88% of each traditional fishing ground can be left open while still meeting conservation targets. Finally, we summarize the steps for developing

  15. Incorporating conservation zone effectiveness for protecting biodiversity in marine planning. (United States)

    Makino, Azusa; Klein, Carissa J; Beger, Maria; Jupiter, Stacy D; Possingham, Hugh P


    Establishing different types of conservation zones is becoming commonplace. However, spatial prioritization methods that can accommodate multiple zones are poorly understood in theory and application. It is typically assumed that management regulations across zones have differential levels of effectiveness ("zone effectiveness") for biodiversity protection, but the influence of zone effectiveness on achieving conservation targets has not yet been explored. Here, we consider the zone effectiveness of three zones: permanent closure, partial protection, and open, for planning for the protection of five different marine habitats in the Vatu-i-Ra Seascape, Fiji. We explore the impact of differential zone effectiveness on the location and costs of conservation priorities. We assume that permanent closure zones are fully effective at protecting all habitats, open zones do not contribute towards the conservation targets and partial protection zones lie between these two extremes. We use four different estimates for zone effectiveness and three different estimates for zone cost of the partial protection zone. To enhance the practical utility of the approach, we also explore how much of each traditional fishing ground can remain open for fishing while still achieving conservation targets. Our results show that all of the high priority areas for permanent closure zones would not be a high priority when the zone effectiveness of the partial protection zone is equal to that of permanent closure zones. When differential zone effectiveness and costs are considered, the resulting marine protected area network consequently increases in size, with more area allocated to permanent closure zones to meet conservation targets. By distributing the loss of fishing opportunity equitably among local communities, we find that 84-88% of each traditional fishing ground can be left open while still meeting conservation targets. Finally, we summarize the steps for developing marine zoning that

  16. Pollution concentration estimates in ecologically important zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, Y.N. [Mexico City Univ. (Mexico). Center for Atmospheric Sciences


    Method based on using the pollutant transport equation and the adjoint technique is described here for estimating the pollutant concentration level in ecologically important zones. The method directly relates the pollution level in such zones with the power of the pollution sources and the initial pollution field. Assuming that the wind or current velocities are known (from climatic data or dynamic model), the main and adjoint pollutant transport equations can be considered in a limited area to solve such theoretically and practically important problems as: (1) optimal location of new industries in a given region with the aim to minimize the pollution concentration in certain ecologically important zones, (2) optimization of emissions from operating industries, (3) detection of the plants violating sanitary regulations, (4) analysis of the emissions coming from the vehicle traffic (such emissions can be included in the model by means of the linear pollution sources located along the main roadways), (5) estimation of the oil pollution in various ecologically important oceanic (sea) zones in case of accident with the oil tanker, (6) evaluation of the sea water desalination level in estuary regions, and others. These equations considered in a spherical shell domain can also be applied to the problems of transporting the pollutants from a huge industrial complex, or from the zone of an ecological catastrophe similar to the Chernobyl one

  17. 27 CFR 28.290 - Receipt in foreign trade zone. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt in foreign trade zone. 28.290 Section 28.290 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... in Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.290 Receipt in foreign trade zone. On receipt at the zone, the shipment...

  18. 33 CFR 2.30 - Exclusive Economic Zone. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusive Economic Zone. 2.30... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.30 Exclusive Economic Zone. (a) With respect to the United States... States exercises sovereignty, exclusive economic zone means the zone seaward of and adjacent to the...

  19. 76 FR 9646 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100, 117, 147, and 165 [USCG-2010-0399] Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation Regulations and Regulated Navigation Areas AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of expired temporary rules...

  20. 76 FR 1362 - Safety Zone; Ice Conditions for the Baltimore Captain of Port Zone (United States)


    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Ice Conditions for the Baltimore Captain of Port Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... of these four methods. See the ``Public Participation and Request for Comments'' portion of the... shape in the ``Actions'' column. If you submit your comments by mail or hand delivery, submit them in an...

  1. Tracing the influence of the Trans-European Suture Zone into the mantle transition zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knapmeyer-Endrun, B.; Krüger, F.; Legendre, C. P.; Geissler, W.H.; Plomerová, Jaroslava; Babuška, Vladislav; Gaždová, Renata; Jedlička, Petr; Kolínský, Petr; Málek, Jiří; Novotný, Oldřich; Růžek, Bohuslav


    Roč. 363, FEB 1 (2013), s. 73-87 ISSN 0012-821X Institutional support: RVO:67985530 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : mantle transition zone * Trans-European Suture Zone * East European Craton Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 4.724, year: 2013

  2. 76 FR 41073 - Security Zones; Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port Zone (United States)


    ...) Within a 200-yard radius of any cruise ship that is underway and is under escort of U.S. Coast Guard law.... ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing security zones around cruise ships in the... zone encompassing all navigable waters around any cruise ship anchored or moored, and 200-yard radius...

  3. 76 FR 18674 - Security Zones; Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port Zone (United States)


    ... navigable waters around any cruise ship anchored or moored and 200-yard radius security zone encompassing all navigable waters around any cruise ship underway that is being escorted by Coast Guard or law... would create security zones around cruise ships in the Southeastern New England Captain of the Port...

  4. Zoned electrical heater arranged in spaced relationship from particulate filter (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI


    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  5. Characterising the Alpine Fault Damage Zone using Fault Zone Guided Waves, South Westland, New Zealand (United States)

    Eccles, J. D.; Gulley, A.; Boese, C. M.; Malin, P. E.; Townend, J.; Thurber, C. H.; Guo, B.; Sutherland, R.


    Fault Zone Guided Waves (FZGWs) are observed within New Zealand's transpressional continental plate boundary, the Alpine Fault, which is late in its typical seismic cycle. Distinctive dispersive seismic coda waves (~7-35 Hz), trapped within the low-velocity fault damage zone, have been recorded on three component 2 Hz borehole seismometers installed within 20 m of the principal slip zone in the shallow (SAMBA and WIZARD seismometer arrays allows spatio-temporal patterns of 2013 events to be analysed and the segmentation and low velocity zone depth extent further explored. Three layer, dispersion modeling of the low-velocity zone indicates a waveguide width of 60-200 m with a 10-40% reduction in S-wave velocity, similar to that inferred for the fault core of other mature plate boundary faults such as the San Andreas and North Anatolian Faults.

  6. Urban planning as a trading zone

    CERN Document Server

    Mäntysalo, Raine


    'Trading zone' is a concept introduced by Peter Galison in his social scientific research on how scientists representing different sub-cultures and paradigms have been able to coordinate their interaction locally. In this book, Italian and Finnish planning researchers extend the use of the concept to different contexts of urban planning and management, where there is a need for new ideas and tools in managing the interaction of different stakeholders. The trading zone concept is approached as a tool in organizing local platforms and support systems for planning participation, knowledge production, decision making and local conflict management. In relation to the former theses of communicative planning theory that stress the ideals of consensus, mutual understanding and universal reason, the 'trading zone approach', outlined in this book, offers a different perspective. It focuses on the potentiality to coordinate locally the interaction of different stakeholders without requiring the deeper sharing of underst...

  7. Dead Zone Accretion Flows in Protostellar Disks (United States)

    Turner, Neal; Sano, T.


    Planets form inside protostellar disks in a dead zone where the electrical resistivity of the gas is too high for magnetic forces to drive turbulence. We show that much of the dead zone nevertheless is active and flows toward the star while smooth, large-scale magnetic fields transfer the orbital angular momentum radially outward. Stellar X-ray and radionuclide ionization sustain a weak coupling of the dead zone gas to the magnetic fields, despite the rapid recombination of free charges on dust grains. Net radial magnetic fields are generated in the magnetorotational turbulence in the electrically conducting top and bottom surface layers of the disk, and reach the midplane by ohmic diffusion. A toroidal component to the fields is produced near the midplane by the orbital shear. The process is similar to the magnetization of the solar tachocline. The result is a laminar, magnetically driven accretion flow in the region where the planets form.

  8. Friction of Shear-Fracture Zones (United States)

    Riikilä, T. I.; Pylväinen, J. I.; Åström, J.


    A shear fracture of brittle solids under compression undergoes a substantial evolution from the initial microcracking to a fully formed powder-filled shear zone. Experiments covering the entire process are relatively easy to conduct, but they are very difficult to investigate in detail. Numerically, the large strain limit has remained a challenge. An efficient simulation model and a custom-made experimental device are employed to test to what extent a shear fracture alone is sufficient to drive material to spontaneous self-lubrication. A "weak shear zone" is an important concept in geology, and a large number of explanations, specific for tectonic conditions, have been proposed. We demonstrate here that weak shear zones are far more general, and that their emergence only demands that a microscopic, i.e., fragment-scale, stress relaxation mechanism develops during the fracture process.

  9. 75 FR 28202 - Security Zone; Escorted U.S. Navy Submarines in Sector Seattle Captain of the Port Zone (United States)


    ...-AA87 Security Zone; Escorted U.S. Navy Submarines in Sector Seattle Captain of the Port Zone AGENCY... around any U.S. Navy submarine that is operating in the Sector Seattle Captain of the Port Zone, which... Guard. The security zone is necessary to help ensure the security of the submarines, their Coast Guard...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1321 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound, WA. (United States)


    ... 1983]. (3) Budd Inlet Security Zone: The Security Zone in Budd Inlet, West Bay, Olympia WA includes all... shoreline to the point of origin. [Datum: NAD 1983]. (d) Obtaining permission to enter, move within, or exit... enter, move within, or exit the security zones established in this section when these security zones are...

  11. 33 CFR 3.25-10 - Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sector Hampton Roads Marine... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fifth Coast Guard District § 3.25-10 Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Hampton Roads' office is located in Portsmouth, VA. The...

  12. 77 FR 66072 - Designation of New Grantee; Foreign Trade Zone 66, Wilmington, NC, and Foreign-Trade Zone 67... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1861] Designation of New Grantee; Foreign Trade Zone 66, Wilmington, NC, and Foreign-Trade Zone 67, Morehead City, NC Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), and the...

  13. 76 FR 55566 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays and Surfing Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone (United States)


    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays and Surfing Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone... zones for marine events within the Captain of the Port (COTP) Long Island Sound Zone for a surfing event... unless authorized by the COTP Sector Long Island Sound. DATES: This rule is effective in the CFR on...

  14. 32 CFR 256.9 - Real estate interests to be considered for clear zones and accident potential zone. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real estate interests to be considered for clear zones and accident potential zone. 256.9 Section 256.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued....9 Real estate interests to be considered for clear zones and accident potential zone. (a) The right...

  15. Radioactive waste isolation in arid zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nativ, R.


    Arid zones are currently considered ideal sites for the isolation of radioactive and other hazardous wastes. Because arid zones have low precipitation, other hydrological features such as minimal surface water, low recharge rates, small hydraulic gradients, deep water table and lower water quality are also inferred. These premises have proved to be misleading in many circumstances, resulting in groundwater contamination by radionuclides. Case studies indicating surface water damages, occurrence of active recharge, groundwater flow and considerable discharge of potable water in arid and hyper-arid terrains, as well as the possibility of future climatic changes, require careful hydrological assessment of proposed sites in arid areas. (author)

  16. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    On 8 August 1986 the Protocols to the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty were adopted by the South Pacific Forum at its 17 th session, in Suva. The attached texts of the Protocols were formally communicated to the Director General by the Director of the South Pacific Bureau for Economic Co-operation (SPEC) and are herewith being circulated to all Member States for their information pursuant to a request made by the Director of SPEC. Following the deposit of the eighth instrument of ratification, the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty entered into force on 11 December 1986 [es

  17. Monitoring man's impact in the coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, A.R. Jr.; Snell, W.W.


    The paper examines the monitoring of man's impact in the coastal zone. Color infrared photography shows destroyed or degraded wetlands or beaches, and makes possible relevant linear or aerial measurements with aerial photography. It can also categorize the environmental impacts which have accrued as the result of completion of water development projects. Aerial photography of the Texas coastal zone illustrates the nature and degree of damage likely to occur as a result of construction or maintenance projects. It is concluded that the method of assigning realistic values to unit areas of wetlands and beaches will make it feasible to incorporate the cost of estuarine damages into the cost estimates of water development schemes

  18. Global challenges in integrated coastal zone management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Growing pressure from increasingly diverse human activities coupled with climate change impacts threaten the functional integrity of coastal ecosystems around the globe. A multi-disciplinary approach towards understanding drivers, pressures and impacts in the coastal zone requires effective....../mitigation to change in coastal systems Coastal governance Linking science and management Comprising a huge wealth of information, this timely and well-edited volume is essential reading for all those involved in coastal zone management around the globe. All libraries in research establishments and universities where...

  19. The concept of the Economic Exclusive Zone


    Dorina Patuzi


    The important and the new concept that brought the third UN Conference of the Law of the Sea was the Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ), requested by countries whose coasts are bordering on the oceans, seas, but also in harmony with the interests of countries which have extensive coastline or those with specific geographical features, which have a very narrow coastal zone. On December 10, 1982, nearly 120 countries signed the new United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, as one of the most ...

  20. Determination of Mineralization Zones Using Interpretation of IP and RS Data in The GarmabCopper Deposit (South Khorasan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Adelpour


    sulfidation of the upper zone of porphyry copper systems in Chah Shalghami area, South Khorasan. 13th Congress of Crystallography and Mineralogy, Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran. Karimpour, M.H., Malekzadeh shafarodi, A., Farmer, L. and Stern, S., 2012. petrogenesis of granitoids, age assessment method zircon U-Pb, Sr- Nd isotope geochemistry and mineralization Tertiary important event in the Lut Block, East Iran. Journal of Economic Geology, 1(4: 1-27 (in Persian with English abstract. Malekzadeh shafarodi, A., 2009. Geology, mineralization, alteration, geochemistry, interpretation of geophysical data, microthermometry, isotope studies and determination of the origin of the mineralization of Mahrabad and khonik, South Khorasan province. Ph.D. Thesis, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran, 600 pp. Mazlomi, A. R., Karimpour, M.H., Rassa, I., Rahimi, B. and Vosoughi Abedini, M., 2008. Kuh-E-Zar Gold Deposit in Torbat-e-Heydaryeh New Model of Gold Mineralization. Iranian Journal of Crystallography and Mineralogy, 3(16: 364-376 (in Persian with English abstract Zarrinkoub, M.H., Pang, K.N., Chung, S.L., Khatib, M.M., Mohammadi, S.S., Chiu, H.Y. and Lee, H.Y., 2012. Zircon U–Pb age and geochemical constraints on the origin of the Birjand ophiolite, Sistan suture zone, eastern Iran. Lithos. 154(1: 392–405.

  1. Climate zones on Pluto and Charon (United States)

    Binzel, Richard P.; Earle, Alissa M.; Buie, Marc W.; Young, Leslie A.; Stern, S. Alan; Olkin, Cathy B.; Ennico, Kimberly; Moore, Jeffrey M.; Grundy, Will; Weaver, Harold A.; Lisse, Carey M.; Lauer, Tod R.; New Horizons Geology; Geophysics Imaging Team


    We give an explanatory description of the unusual ;climate zones; on Pluto that arise from its high obliquity (mean 115°) and high amplitude (±12°) of obliquity oscillation over a 2.8 million year period. The zones we describe have astronomically defined boundaries and do not incorporate atmospheric circulation. For such a high mean obliquity, the lines of tropics (greatest latitudes where the Sun can be overhead) cycle closer to each pole than does each arctic circle, which in turn cycle nearly to the equator. As a consequence in an astronomical context, Pluto is more predominantly ;tropical; than ;arctic.; Up to 97% of Pluto's surface area can experience overhead Sun when the obliquity cycle is at its minimum of 103°. At this same obliquity phase (most recently occurring 0.8 Myr ago), 78% of Pluto's surface experienced prolonged intervals without sunlight or ;arctic winter; (and corresponding ;arctic summer;). The intersection of these climate zones implies that a very broad range of Pluto's latitudes (spanning 13-77° in each hemisphere; 75% of the total surface area) are both tropical and arctic. While some possible correlations to these climate zones are suggested by comparison with published maps of Pluto and Charon yielded by the New Horizons mission, in this work we present a non-physical descriptive analysis only. For example, the planet-wide dark equatorial band presented by Stern et al. (2015; Science, 350, 292-299) corresponds to Pluto's permanent ;diurnal zone.; In this zone spanning latitudes within ±13° of the equator, day-night cycles occur each Pluto rotation (6.4 days) such that neither ;arctic winter; nor ;arctic summer; has been experienced in this zone for at least 20 million years. The stability of this and other climate zones may extend over several Gyr. Temperature modeling shows that the continuity of diurnal cycles in this region may be the key factor enabling a long-term stability for the high albedo contrast between Tombaugh Regio

  2. Theoretical analysis of recirculation zone and buffer zone in the ADS windowless spallation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jie; Pan, Chang-zhao; Tong, Jian-fei; Lu, Wen-qiang


    Highlights: • Height of recirculation zone is very important in windowless target design. • A theoretical formula for the height is derived based on the Bernoulli equation. • Numerical simulation for the LBE is performed and the height of recirculation zone is also obtained. • The theoretically-derived simulation-predicted recirculation zone heights agree with each other very well and the theoretical derivation is proved to be correct. - Abstract: The thermo-hydraulic analysis including reduction of the height of recirculation zone and stability of the free surface is very important in the design and optimization of ADS windowless spallation targets. In the present study, the Bernoulli equation is used to analyze the entire flow process in the target. Formulae for the height of the recirculation zone and the buffer zone are both obtained explicitly. Furthermore, numerical simulation for the heavy metal lead–bismuth eutectic liquid and vapor with cavitation phase change is also performed, and a novel method to calculate the height of the recirculation zone is put forward. By comparison of the theoretical formulae and numerical results, it is clearly shown that they agree with each other very well, and the heights predicted by the two methods are both determined by their own upstream flow parameters

  3. 77 FR 25375 - Emergency Planning Zone (United States)


    ... evacuation. Transportation for elderly, prison and school populations shall be provided within this zone... licensee must make basic pre-arrangements for potential transport of disabled/hospital/prison populations... eating and drinking food and water that may be contaminated. Information shall be made available to the...

  4. Wood-framed houses for earthquake zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    Wood-framed houses with a sheathing are suitable for use in earthquake zones. The Direction describes a method of determining the earthquake forces in a house and shows how these forces can be resisted by diaphragm action in the walls, floors, and roof, of the house. An appendix explains how...

  5. Modeling of formation of precipitate free zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří; Maier, G.


    Roč. 101, č. 8 (2010), s. 997-1002 ISSN 1862-5282 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/1781 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Precipitate free zone * Diffusion * Coarsening Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamic s Impact factor: 0.860, year: 2010

  6. A zone theory of colour vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, P.L.


    Arguments are put forward to explain the basic facts about color vision in the frame work of a zone theory, a combination of the Young-Helmholtz and the Hering theory. Data on wavelength discrimination in particular as a function of luminance, necessitate to assume separate mechanisms for red-green

  7. Zone-tailed Hawk (Buteo albonotatus) (United States)

    Scott H. Stoleson; Giancarlo Sadoti


    The Zone-tailed Hawk (Buteo albonotatus) might well be dubbed "the Great Pretender" because it so closely resembles the ubiquitous Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) in appearance and behavior as to be frequently mistaken for it. In the border regions where it lives, it may be confused as well with another "Mexican" raptor, the Common Black-Hawk (...

  8. The Alpine loop of the tethys zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmelen, R.W. van

    The Alpine loop in Europe results from semi-autochthonous crustal movements which are restricted to the mobile Tethys zone. Its evolution cannot be explained by a uniform northward drift and push of the African continent; it has to be sought, in the first place, in geodynamic processes occurring in

  9. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The full text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty with its Annexes endorsed on 6 August 1985 by the South Pacific Forum (a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific, namely Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Nive, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa) is presented

  10. Book Review: Greening in the Red Zone (United States)

    Nancy. Falxa-Raymond


    In the aftermath of a crisis, local, often spontaneous stewardship of nature provides a source of social-ecological resilience to individuals, communities, and ecosystems. This is the concept behind Greening in the Red Zone, and one that may be intuitive to many working in urban forestry, community greening, or any of the local nonprofits or...

  11. Strong wind climatic zones in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, AC


    Full Text Available In this paper South Africa is divided into strong wind climate zones, which indicate the main sources of annual maximum wind gusts. By the analysis of wind gust data of 94 weather stations, which had continuous climate time series of 10 years...

  12. Work zone lane closure analysis model. (United States)


    At the Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT), the tool used by traffic engineers to predict whether a queue will form at a freeway work zone is the Excel-based "Lane Rental Model" developed at the Oklahoma Department of Transportation (OkDOT) ...

  13. Special Economic Zones, 20 years after

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Winiarczyk, Marcin

    technologies and reduced air pollution, the authors find only a small positively moderating effect of the policy on what are traditionally economically disadvantaged areas in Poland that used to be dependent on the socialist production model. Hence, despite high levels of FDI, the zones policy has not managed...... and activities they attract, including the behavioral models that those incentives promote....

  14. Modeling alternative zoning strategies in forest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krcmar, E.; Vertinsky, I.; Kooten, van G.C.


    To satisfy public demands for environmental values, forest companies are facing the prospect of a reduction in wood supply and increases in costs. Some Canadian provincial governments have proposed intensifying silviculture in special zones dedicated to timber production as the means for pushing out

  15. Safe delivery, Service utilization, Metekel Zone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    magnitude of safe delivery and influencing factors are not well assessed in Benishangul Gumuz region in general and in Metekel Zone ... Therefore providing information, education and communication on delivery service utilization with special emphasis to Gumuz .... encountered at least one abortion in their life time. One.

  16. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [es

  17. The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on steel grade, on the rolling direction as well as on the loading rate. Stretch zones ... This interaction is demonstrated at a fracture surface as a bounded transition between initiatory crack (e.g., fatigue) and either ... The materials examined in this study are three grades of thin automotive steel sheets: XSG,. HR 45 and DP.

  18. Cheatgrass Dead Zones in Northern Nevada (United States)

    Reports of areas of cheatgrass die-off are becoming more frequent. In 2009, we investigated cheatgrass die-off in north-central Nevada. Dead zones ranged from several to hundreds of acres in size and were largely unvegetated and covered by cheatgrass litter with a distinct gray cast. We collected re...

  19. Body Buffer Zone and Proxemics in Blocking. (United States)

    Stockwell, John C.; Bahs, Clarence W.

    This paper investigates the effect of personal body buffer zones on compositional arrangements staged by novice directors. Relationships between directors' concepts of personal space and their projection of its dimensions into staging are studied through the use of a variety of proximity measures--distance, area angles of approach, and physical…

  20. Methodology for deriving optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh


    Full Text Available This research describes a quantitive methodology for deriving optimal exploration target zones based on a probalistic mineral prospectivity map.The Rodalquilar mineral district is located in the Sierra del Cabo de Gata volcanic field, in the south...

  1. Analysis Links Zoning Policies and Disparities (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi


    Location, location, location. This mantra of real estate agents and their clients alike is now the target of a new report from the Brookings Institution linking housing prices and zoning practices to effectively depriving low-income students of high-quality schools. Using test scores from schools in the 100 largest metropolitan areas in the…

  2. Vocal communication in an avian hybrid zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Paula Maria den


    Avian vocalizations function in mate attraction and territorial defence. Vocalizations can act as behavioural barriers and play an important role in speciation processes. Hybrid zones illustrate behavioural barriers are not always impermeable and provide a natural laboratory to examine the role of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ENACHE


    Full Text Available The unprecedented expansion of free zones is considered one of the most significant economic innovations of the end of the twentieth century which covered the entire global economy. This phenomenon has also been registered in Romania, where there are six free zones. Motivation for their creation is supported by the need and opportunity for investments at regional and national level, by the valorization of the domestic natural resources and the available labor force as well as by the encouragement of the transit on the territory of our country as a source of revenue to the state budget. 20 years after the implementation of Law. no. 84/1992 concerning the free zones regime and after a series of events related to our accession to the European Union especially regarding the rise of the specific facilities, the global economic crisis and so on, we conclude that the free zones have not disappeared, as people believed, once benefits disappeared, but they have not displayed any outstanding performance either. They are still present today as any other economic agent seeking solutions to survive!

  4. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [ru

  5. Hydraulic tomography for detecting fracture zone connectivity. (United States)

    Hao, Yonghong; Yeh, Tian-Chyi J; Xiang, Jianwei; Illman, Walter A; Ando, Kenichi; Hsu, Kuo-Chin; Lee, Cheng-Haw


    Fracture zones and their connectivity in geologic media are of great importance to ground water resources management as well as ground water contamination prevention and remediation. In this paper, we applied a recently developed hydraulic tomography (HT) technique and an analysis algorithm (sequential successive linear estimator) to synthetic fractured media. The application aims to explore the potential utility of the technique and the algorithm for characterizing fracture zone distribution and their connectivity. Results of this investigation showed that using HT with a limited number of wells, the fracture zone distribution and its connectivity (general pattern) can be mapped satisfactorily although estimated hydraulic property fields are smooth. As the number of wells and monitoring ports increases, the fracture zone distribution and connectivity become vivid and the estimated hydraulic properties approach true values. We hope that the success of this application may promote the development and application of the new generations of technology (i.e., hydraulic, tracer, pneumatic tomographic surveys) for mapping fractures and other features in geologic media.

  6. The concept of the Economic Exclusive Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Patuzi


    Full Text Available The important and the new concept that brought the third UN Conference of the Law of the Sea was the Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ, requested by countries whose coasts are bordering on the oceans, seas, but also in harmony with the interests of countries which have extensive coastline or those with specific geographical features, which have a very narrow coastal zone. On December 10, 1982, nearly 120 countries signed the new United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, as one of the most significant international conferences. Part V of that Convention (more precisely Articles 55 to 75 provides for an “Exclusive Economic Zone” extending 200 nautical miles seaward from the coast. If all coastal states thus exercised their jurisdiction over their own EEZ, some 38 million square nautical miles would become their “economic patrimony”. It should be mentioned that the ocean represents 71% of the total surface of the earth and that 32% of that falls under the jurisdiction of coastal states. Consequently inside these economic zones would lie 90% of global fishing, 87% of oil deposits and 10 % of polymetallic nodules. The EEZ provisions have received widespread support and have become an integral part of international practice especially when the Convention of 1982 entered into force, also articles 55 and 86 of the Convention make it clear that the EEZ is not a part of the territorial sea, but it is a zone sui generis, with a statute of its own. Some countries had claimed 200-mile EEZ and other have established a 200- mile Exclusive Fishing Zone (EFZ. The countries benefiting the most from the EEZ concept are in order of the size of their zones: USA, Australia, Indonesia, New Zealand, Canada and Russia. If this concept was to be applied by all coastal Mediterranean States, the entire sea would be covered by EEZs of the littoral countries. The countries of the Mediterranean that would most benefit from the EEZ are Greece, Cyprus, Italy and Malta

  7. Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Zyvoloski


    The purpose of this model report is to document the components of the site-scale saturated-zone flow model at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in accordance with administrative procedure (AP)-SIII.lOQ, ''Models''. This report provides validation and confidence in the flow model that was developed for site recommendation (SR) and will be used to provide flow fields in support of the Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application. The output from this report provides the flow model used in the ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'', MDL-NBS-HS-000010 Rev 01 (BSC 2003 [162419]). The Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport model then provides output to the SZ Transport Abstraction Model (BSC 2003 [164870]). In particular, the output from the SZ site-scale flow model is used to simulate the groundwater flow pathways and radionuclide transport to the accessible environment for use in the TSPA calculations. Since the development and calibration of the saturated-zone flow model, more data have been gathered for use in model validation and confidence building, including new water-level data from Nye County wells, single- and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and new hydrochemistry data. In addition, a new hydrogeologic framework model (HFM), which incorporates Nye County wells lithology, also provides geologic data for corroboration and confidence in the flow model. The intended use of this work is to provide a flow model that generates flow fields to simulate radionuclide transport in saturated porous rock and alluvium under natural or forced gradient flow conditions. The flow model simulations are completed using the three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element, flow, heat, and transport computer code, FEHM Version (V) 2.20 (software tracking number (STN): 10086-2.20-00; LANL 2003 [161725]). Concurrently, process-level transport model and methodology for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone at Yucca

  8. Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfsberg, A.; Reimus, P.


    The purpose of the Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR), as outlined in its Work Direction and Planning Document (CRWMS MandO 1999a), is to provide retardation factors for colloids with irreversibly-attached radionuclides, such as plutonium, in the saturated zone (SZ) between their point of entrance from the unsaturated zone (UZ) and downgradient compliance points. Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this AMR especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and perhaps other radionuclides may be irreversibly attached to colloids. This report establishes the requirements and elements of the design of a methodology for calculating colloid transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In previous Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses, radionuclide-bearing colloids were assumed to be unretarded in their migration. Field experiments in fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain and in porous media at other sites indicate that colloids may, in fact, experience retardation relative to the mean pore-water velocity, suggesting that contaminants associated with colloids should also experience some retardation. Therefore, this analysis incorporates field data where available and a theoretical framework when site-specific data are not available for estimating plausible ranges of retardation factors in both saturated fractured tuff and saturated alluvium. The distribution of retardation factors for tuff and alluvium are developed in a form consistent with the Performance Assessment (PA) analysis framework for simulating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone. To improve on the work performed so far for the saturated-zone flow and transport modeling, concerted effort has been made in quantifying colloid retardation factors in both fractured tuff and alluvium. The fractured tuff analysis used recent data

  9. Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Zyvoloski


    The purpose of this model report is to document the components of the site-scale saturated-zone flow model at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in accordance with administrative procedure (AP)-SIII.lOQ, ''Models''. This report provides validation and confidence in the flow model that was developed for site recommendation (SR) and will be used to provide flow fields in support of the Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application. The output from this report provides the flow model used in the ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'', MDL-NBS-HS-000010 Rev 01 (BSC 2003 [162419]). The Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport model then provides output to the SZ Transport Abstraction Model (BSC 2003 [164870]). In particular, the output from the SZ site-scale flow model is used to simulate the groundwater flow pathways and radionuclide transport to the accessible environment for use in the TSPA calculations. Since the development and calibration of the saturated-zone flow model, more data have been gathered for use in model validation and confidence building, including new water-level data from Nye County wells, single- and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and new hydrochemistry data. In addition, a new hydrogeologic framework model (HFM), which incorporates Nye County wells lithology, also provides geologic data for corroboration and confidence in the flow model. The intended use of this work is to provide a flow model that generates flow fields to simulate radionuclide transport in saturated porous rock and alluvium under natural or forced gradient flow conditions. The flow model simulations are completed using the three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element, flow, heat, and transport computer code, FEHM Version (V) 2.20 (software tracking number (STN): 10086-2.20-00; LANL 2003 [161725]). Concurrently, process-level transport model and methodology for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain using FEHM V 2.20 are being

  10. Main principles of the Chernobyl' NPP zone development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatenko, E.I.; Komarov, V.I.; Zverkov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, A.G.


    It is suggested to divide the Chernobyl' NPP zone into two parts, which are the alienation and evacuation (buffer) zones. The alienation zone includes the areas with greatest contamination around the Chernobyl' NPP. The population residence in this zone is forbidden. The watching method of working with short-time personnel residence is suggested to be used in this zone. The buffer zone is the territory out of the alienation zone boundaries including all settlements, from which the population is evacuated. Constant residence is permitted in the buffer zone for persons 50 and more years old with introduction of restrictions for diet and residence organization. The production activity in this zone includes operation of three units of the Chernobyl' NPP, works with the Ukrytie object and researches. Operations connected with radioactive waste processing and redisposal from places of storage is not recommended to be done. It is suggested to develop methods for local radioactive waste processing

  11. Empowering the child and caregiver: yellow zone Asthma Action Plan. (United States)

    Dinakar, Chitra; Portnoy, Jay M


    Current guidelines, both national and international, elegantly describe evidence-based measures to attain and maintain long-term control of asthma. These strategies, typically discussed between the provider and patient, are provided in the form of written (or electronic) instructions as part of the green zone of the color-coded Asthma Action Plan. The red zone of the Asthma Action Plan has directives on when to use systemic corticosteroids and seek medical attention. The transition zone between the green zone of good control and the red zone of asthma exacerbation is the yellow zone. This zone guides the patient on self-management of exacerbations outside a medical setting. Unfortunately, the only recommendation currently available to patients per the current asthma guidelines is the repetitive use of reliever bronchodilators. This approach, while providing modest symptom relief, does not reliably prevent progression to the red zone. In this document, we present new, evidence-based, yellow zone intervention options.

  12. Integrated seismic interpretation of the Carlsberg Fault zone, Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Thybo, Hans; Jørgensen, Mette Iwanouw


    the fault zone. The fault zone is a shadow zone to shots detonated outside the fault zone. Finite-difference wavefield modelling supports the interpretations of the fan recordings. Our fan recording approach facilitates cost-efficient mapping of fault zones in densely urbanized areas where seismic normal......We locate the concealed Carlsberg Fault zone along a 12-km-long trace in the Copenhagen city centre by seismic refraction, reflection and fan profiling. The Carlsberg Fault is located in a NNW-SSE striking fault system in the border zone between the Danish Basin and the Baltic Shield. Recent...... earthquakes indicate that this area is tectonically active. A seismic refraction study across the Carlsberg Fault shows that the fault zone is a low-velocity zone and marks a change in seismic velocity structure. A normal incidence reflection seismic section shows a coincident flower-like structure. We have...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Kautzner Marques Junior


    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the fight zone with point during the female kumite of competition. This study used a quantitative research for identify the fight zone with point (ippon or waza-ari or not during the female kumite of competition. Were selected on the Internet several championship of kumite of the JKA and of the ITKF. The study detected a high probability of point in the zone 7 and in the zone 2. The study determined that the most points at the corner occurred when the karateka practiced the attack in fight zone. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA verified significant difference between the fight zone with points, H (10 = 29,49, p = 0,001. The Mann Whitney U test detected significant difference between the zone 5 with waza-ari versus all the zone. The greatest number of points in the fight zone was in agreement with the size of the fight zone. The central zone or zone 5 has 6x6 m, during the female kumite occurred more points, total of 68 waza-aris and 5 ippons. The study on the fight zone with points of the female kumite permits that the karateka has knowledge about the combat zones and guides the karateka before, during and after the female kumite. However, more studies should be done to confirm these findings.

  14. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict? (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey D.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Roberts, Elizabeth K.


    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation—often by non-motorized and motorized activity—is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists ( n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  15. Shear zones between rock units with no relative movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Schmeling, H.; Burchardt, S.


    Shear zones are normally viewed as relatively narrow deformation zones that accommodate relative displacement between two "blocks" that have moved past each other in opposite directions. This study reports localized zones of shear between adjacent blocks that have not moved past each other...... magma body (stoping). From the fluid dynamics point of view these shear zones can be regarded as the low Reynolds number deformation zones within the wake of a body moving through a viscous medium. While compact (aspect ratio 1:1:1) moving bodies generate axial symmetric (cone like) shear zones...

  16. Shear zones between rock units with no relative movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, Hemin; Schmeling, Harro; Burchardt, Steffi


    Shear zones are normally viewed as relatively narrow deformation zones that accommodate relative displacement between two "blocks" that have moved past each other in opposite directions. This study reports localized zones of shear between adjacent blocks that have not moved past each other...... a partially molten magma body (stoping). From the fluid dynamics perspective these shear zones can be regarded as low Reynolds number deformation zones within the wake of a body moving through a viscous medium. While compact moving bodies (aspect ratio 1:1:1) generate axial symmetric (cone like) shear zones...

  17. Louisiana Coastal Zone Boundary, Geographic NAD83, LDNR (1998)[coastal_zone_boundary_LDNR_1998 (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon dataset representing the extent of the LDNR regulatory area defined as the Louisiana Coastal Zone. This area comprises a band across the southern...

  18. System zones in capillary zone electrophoresis: Moving boundaries caused by freely migrating hydrogen ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beckers, J. L.; Boček, Petr


    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2005), s. 446-452 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0023; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4031401; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4031103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : capillary zone electrophoresis * system zone s Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.850, year: 2005

  19. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability with mixing zone; Instabilite de Kelvin-Helmholtz avec zone de melange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong-Techer, R. [CEA Saclay, Dept. Modelisation de Systemes et Structures (DEN/DANS/DM2S/DIR-SFME), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)


    This thesis is part of the FATHER experiment and the analyze of the hydrodynamical instabilities which appear during the mixing of two liquids of same volume mass with shearing speed in the mixing zone. The aim is to understand the possible influence of a Kelvin-Helmholtz hydrodynamical instability with mixing zone, compared to classical Kelvin-Helmholtz instability with interface and with theoretical results of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. (A.L.B.)

  20. Reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene DNAPL source zones: source zone architecture versus electron donor availability (United States)

    Krol, M.; Kokkinaki, A.; Sleep, B.


    The persistence of dense-non-aqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs) in the subsurface has led practitioners and regulatory agencies to turn towards low-maintenance, low-cost remediation methods. Biological degradation has been suggested as a possible solution, based on the well-proven ability of certain microbial species to break down dissolved chlorinated ethenes under favorable conditions. However, the biodegradation of pure phase chlorinated ethenes is subject to additional constraints: the continuous release of electron acceptor at a rate governed by mass transfer kinetics, and the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of DNAPL source zones which leads to spatially and temporally variable availability of the reactants for reductive dechlorination. In this work, we investigate the relationship between various DNAPL source zone characteristics and reaction kinetics using COMPSIM, a multiphase groundwater model that considers non-equilibrium mass transfer and Monod-type kinetics for reductive dechlorination. Numerical simulations are performed for simple, homogeneous trichloroethene DNAPL source zones to demonstrate the effect of single source zone characteristics, as well as for larger, more realistic heterogeneous source zones. It is shown that source zone size, and mass transfer kinetics may have a decisive effect on the predicted bio-enhancement. Finally, we evaluate the performance of DNAPL bioremediation for realistic, thermodynamically constrained, concentrations of electron donor. Our results indicate that the latter may be the most important limitation for the success of DNAPL bioremediation, leading to reduced bio-enhancement and, in many cases, comparable performance with water flooding.

  1. A systems approach framework for coastal zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Tom Sawyer; Bailly, Denis; Støttrup, Josianne


    This Special Feature Volume examines the potential value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF) as a methodological framework for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zones. This article provides insight on the Systems Approach, the theory behind it, and how its practical....... The SAF is an open research methodology that investigates the function of systems in order to simulate specific issues or questions concerning their function. The research articles that are included in this Volume demonstrate examples of coupled multidisciplinary methods integrated into SAF simulations...... application to coastal zone systems (CZSs) was developed. The SAF is about information for management through a focus on how to generate a higher, dynamic level of information about complex CZSs and how to render this information more useful to end users through a participatory suite of communication methods...

  2. Getting it right in the esthetic zone!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kiswani


    Full Text Available Introduction of osseointegration by Branemark and coworkers and replacement of missing teeth by implants has revolutionized oral rehabilitation. As a result, restoration of form and function has shown a paradigm shift. Implant-supported restorations in completely or partially edentulous patients have proven to be highly predictable in numerous studies. Patients increasingly demand prosthesis that are not only functional but are equally esthetic; hence, implants placed in the anterior esthetic zone, pose a huge challenge. At times thorough planning and diligent execution can spare the patient from elaborate procedures of grafting. One such case report of restoring the esthetic zone in a female patient has been reported here with a 5-year follow-up.

  3. The Biomantle-Critical Zone Model (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Lin, H.


    It is a fact that established fields, like geomorphology, soil science, and pedology, which treat near surface and surface processes, are undergoing conceptual changes. Disciplinary self examinations are rife. New practitioners are joining these fields, bringing novel and interdisciplinary ideas. Such new names as "Earth's critical zone," "near surface geophysics," and "weathering engine" are being coined for research groups. Their agendas reflect an effort to integrate and reenergize established fields and break new ground. The new discipline "hydropedology" integrates soil science with hydrologic principles, and recent biodynamic investigations have spawned "biomantle" concepts and principles. One force behind these sea shifts may be retrospectives whereby disciplines periodically re-invent themselves to meet new challenges. Such retrospectives may be manifest in the recent Science issue on "Soils, The Final Frontier" (11 June, 2004), and in recent National Research Council reports that have set challenges to science for the next three decades (Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Science, and Grand Challenges for the Environmental Sciences, both published in 2001). In keeping with such changes, we advocate the integration of biomantle and critical zone concepts into a general model of Earth's soil. (The scope of the model automatically includes the domain of hydropedology.) Our justification is that the integration makes for a more appealing holistic, and realistic, model for the domain of Earth's soil at any scale. The focus is on the biodynamics of the biomantle and water flow within the critical zone. In this general model the biomantle is the epidermis of the critical zone, which extends to the base of the aquifer. We define soil as the outer layer of landforms on planets and similar bodies altered by biological, chemical, and/or physical agents. Because Earth is the only planet with biological agents, as far as we know, it is the only one that has all

  4. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Andy L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Daily, William D.; Fink, James B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Hoversten, Gary M.; Keller, Jason M.; Majer, Ernest L.; Murray, Christopher J.; White, Mark D.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Zhang, Z. F.


    From FY 2000 through FY 2003, a series of vadose zone transport field experiments were conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Project, now known as the Remediation and Closure Science Project, and managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The series of experiments included two major field campaigns, one at a 299-E24-11 injection test site near PUREX and a second at a clastic dike site off Army Loop Road. The goals of these experiments were to improve our understanding of vadose zone transport processes; to develop data sets to validate and calibrate vadose zone flow and transport models; and to identify advanced monitoring techniques useful for evaluating flow-and-transport mechanisms and delineating contaminant plumes in the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. This report summarizes the key findings from the field studies and demonstrates how data collected from these studies are being used to improve conceptual models and develop numerical models of flow and transport in Hanford’s vadose zone. Results of these tests have led to a better understanding of the vadose zone. Fine-scale geologic heterogeneities, including grain fabric and lamination, were observed to have a strong effect on the large-scale behavior of contaminant plumes, primarily through increased lateral spreading resulting from anisotropy. Conceptual models have been updated to include lateral spreading and numerical models of unsaturated flow and transport have revised accordingly. A new robust model based on the concept of a connectivity tensor was developed to describe saturation-dependent anisotropy in strongly heterogeneous soils and has been incorporated into PNNL’s Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Application to field-scale transport problems have led to a better understanding plume behavior at a number of sites where lateral spreading may have dominated waste

  5. Subduction zones seen by GOCE gravity gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Švarc, Mario; Herceg, Matija; Cammarano, Fabio

    . Few pattern recognition methods were tested on all 6 gravity gradient tensor components represented as global scale maps with resolution of 100km (corresponds to the resolution of the GOCE satellite data). By adjusting pattern recognition methods’ features and optimizing various input patterns...... and used as starting point for analysis based on image processing. On obtained maps, locations of known subduction zones were represented with characteristic elongated patterns and cross-sections. Cross sections of well-known subduction zones were used as input patterns for pattern recognition method......, the best method was applied. That is a combination of methods based on SURF (Speeded Up Robust Features) and MSER (Maximally Stable Extremal Regions) algorithms provided in MATLAB’s Computer Vision System Toolbox. Based on 6 gravity gradient components, the global gradient anomaly maps were produced...

  6. Flow and transport in Riparian Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jannick Kolbjørn

    scenarios with changing conditions for flow (steady state with no flooding or transient with flooding), hydrogeology, denitrification rate, and extent of flooding it is demonstrated how flow paths, residence times, and nitrate removal are affected. With this previous conceptual models on the hydrology...... of riparian zones are extended by accounting for the effect of flooding and a key result is that flooding enhances nitrate removal given the right hydrogeological characteristics. Moreover the re-established riparian zones were characterized to understand the effects of flooding on subsurface hydrological...... flow paths by combining a number of field investigation methods and 2D modeling for the Brynemade site. Field investigations included: (1) hydrogeological characterization using wells, slug and infiltration tests, (2) geophysical imaging of the subsurface using Multi-Electrode-Profiling, (3...

  7. Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Donald E; DeLong, Edward F


    Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, contributing to major losses of fixed nitrogen as dinitrogen (N(2)) and nitrous...... dissolved oxygen in seawater, however, is much too high to distinguish low oxygen conditions from true anoxia. However, new analytical technologies are revealing vanishingly low oxygen concentrations in nitrite-rich OMZs, indicating that these OMZs are essentially anoxic marine zones (AMZs). Autonomous...... environmental genomics and geochemical studies show the presence of other relevant processes, particularly those associated with the sulfur and carbon cycles. AMZs correspond to an intermediate state between two "end points" represented by fully oxic systems and fully sulfidic systems. Modern and ancient AMZs...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петр Матвеевич Мазуркин


    Full Text Available According to the UN classification of 11 classes of soil cover, the first three are grass, trees and shrubs and forests. In the city they correspond to the three elements of vegetation: lawns, tree plantings (trees and shrubs. We have adopted zoning for city-building to identify statistical regularities. Map dimensions in GIS "Map 2011" Yoshkar-Ola was allocated to "residential zone" and "Area of construction of multi-storey residential buildings (cadastral 58 quart crystals". The parameters of the elements of the vegetation cover have been considered: the number of elements of different levels, area and perimeter, the absolute and relative form, and activity of vegetation. As the result, we have obtained equations of binomial rank distributions, conducted the ratings and selected the best of cadastral quarter on environmental conditions.

  9. Morphology of auroral zone radio wave scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rino, C.L.; Matthews, S.J.


    This paper describes the morphology of midnight sector and morning sector auroral zone scintillation observations made over a two-year period using the Wideband satelite, which is in a sun-synchronous, low-altitude orbit. No definitive seasonal variation was found. The nighttime data showed the highest scintillation ocurrence levels, but significant amounts of morning scintillation were observed. For the most part the scintillation activity followed the general pattern of local magnetic activity. The most prominent feature in the nightime data is a localized amplitude and phase scintillation enhancement at the point where the propagation vector lies within an L shell. A geometrical effect due to a dynamic slab of sheetlike structures in the F region is hypothesized as the source of his enhancement. The data have been sorted by magnetic activity, proximity to local midnight, and season. The general features of the data are in agreement with the accepted morphology of auroral zone scintillation

  10. Depletion zones and crystallography on pinched spheres (United States)

    Chen, Jingyuan; Xing, Xiangjun; Yao, Zhenwei


    Understanding the interplay between ordered structures and substrate curvature is an interesting problem with versatile applications, including functionalization of charged supramolecular surfaces and modern microfluidic technologies. In this work, we investigate the two-dimensional packing structures of charged particles confined on a pinched sphere. By continuously pinching the sphere, we observe cleavage of elongated scars into pleats, proliferation of disclinations, and subsequently, emergence of a depletion zone at the negatively curved waist that is completely void of particles. We systematically study the geometrics and energetics of the depletion zone, and reveal its physical origin as a finite size effect, due to the interplay between Coulomb repulsion and concave geometry of the pinched sphere. These results further our understanding of crystallography on curved surfaces, and have implications in design and manipulation of charged, deformable interfaces in various applications.

  11. Enterprise Zones: Restoring Economic Vitality to Inner-City Areas. (United States)

    Garcia, Robert


    Discusses how the proposed urban enterprise zones would solve problems of inner-city areas. The zones are designed to provide tax incentives which would attract new businesses to the inner city, create new jobs, and revitalize urban centers. (AM)

  12. 19 CFR 146.44 - Zone-restricted status. (United States)


    ... destruction of distilled spirits, wines, and fermented malt liquors), or storage will be given zone-restricted... show the merchandise has been deposited in a zone in lieu of actual exportation, and a copy of the...

  13. Active Work Zone Safety Using Emerging Technologies 2017. (United States)


    Highway construction work zones are hazardous environments characterized by a dynamic and limited work space. A host of interactions between workers, passing commuter vehicles, and moving construction equipment occurs in highway work zones fostering ...

  14. Monitoring work zone safety and mobility impacts in Texas. (United States)


    In this report, Texas Transportation Institute researchers identify key work zone safety and mobility : performance measures that the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) should target as part of a work : zone monitoring program within a distri...

  15. Oxisol (Ferralsol) Development In Two Agro-Ecological Zones of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -ecological zone of Ghana. There is no documented information about these soils in the Moist Semi-Deciduous Forest (MSDF) agro-ecological zone of Ghana where climatic conditions conducive for Oxisol formation have been identified in ...

  16. In-vehicle work zone messages : final report. (United States)


    Work zones present an increased risk to drivers and the work crew. To mitigate these risks, this study investigated the : potential effects of in-vehicle messages to communicate work zone events to the driver. The researchers conducted : literature r...

  17. Gulf of Mexico dead zone - the last 150 years (United States)

    Osterman, Lisa; Swarzenski, P.W.; Poore, R.Z.


    'Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone-The Last 150 Years' discusses the dead zone that forms seasonally in the northern Gulf of Mexico when subsurface waters become depleted in dissolved oxygen and cannot support most life.

  18. Evaluation of work zone split traffic symbol sign : final report. (United States)


    Effective signage that is easy to understand facilitates safe driving through a work zone. While the guidance for work zone signage in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) is suitable for many conditions, there may be instances where...

  19. Methyl Bromide Commodity Fumigation Buffer Zone Lookup Tables (United States)

    Product labels for methyl bromide used in commodity and structural fumigation include requirements for buffer zones around treated areas. The information on this page will allow you to find the appropriate buffer zone for your planned application.

  20. Traffic flow characteristic and capacity in intelligent work zones. (United States)


    Intellgent transportation system (ITS) technologies are utilized to manage traffic flow and safety in : highway work zones. Traffic management plans for work zones require queuing analyses to determine : the anticipated traffic backups, but the predi...

  1. 21 CFR 866.2850 - Automated zone reader. (United States)


    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2850 Automated zone reader. (a) Identification. An automated zone reader is a mechanical device intended for medical purposes to...

  2. Ventricular Zone Disruption in Human Neonates With Intraventricular Hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McAllister, James P.; Guerra, Maria Montserrat; Ruiz, Leandro Castaneyra; Jimenez, Antonio J.; Dominguez-Pinos, Dolores; Sival, Deborah; den Dunnen, Wilfred; Morales, Diego M.; Schmidt, Robert E.; Rodriguez, Esteban M.; Limbrick, David D.


    To determine if ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ) alterations are associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, we compared postmortem frontal and subcortical brain samples from 12 infants with IVH and 3 nonneurological disease controls

  3. Shipping Fairways, Lanes, and Zones for US waters (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  4. Evaluation of variable advisory speed limits in work zones. (United States)


    Variable advisory speed limit (VASL) systems could be effective at both urban and rural work zones, at both uncongested and congested sites. At uncongested urban work zones, the average speeds with VASL were lower than without VASL. But the standard ...

  5. Two-zone double phase conjugate mirror (United States)

    Belić, M. R.; Vujić, D.; Sandfuchs, O.; Kaiser, F.


    An analysis of photorefractive (PR) oscillators consisting of two facing four-wave mixing regions is carried out. The threshold and operation conditions of different phase conjugate mirrors are discussed with the help of the grating action method. In particular, the threshold and the operation of the two-zone double phase conjugate mirror (DPCM) is compared with other related PR oscillators, the interconnected ring, and different connected DPCM.

  6. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI


    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  7. LTZVisor: TrustZone is the Key


    Pinto, Sandro; Pereira, Jorge; Gomes, Tiago; Tavares, Adriano; Cabral, Jorge


    Virtualization technology starts becoming more and more widespread in the embedded systems arena, driven by the upward trend for integrating multiple environments into the same hardware platform. The penalties incurred by standard software-based virtualization, altogether with the strict timing requirements imposed by real-time virtualization are pushing research towards hardware-assisted solutions. Among existing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies, ARM TrustZone promises to be a ga...

  8. Radial zoning in large LMFBRs. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.J.; Barthold, W.P.


    The effect of radial zoning on optimization of the nuclear power peaking factor is considered for large LMFBRs of the 5000 MW(t) class. The dependence of the power peaking factor on the ratios of outer-to-inner core volumes and enrichments was investigated for static conditions and burn cycles corresponding to first core loadings and equilibrium cores. Carbide and nitride fuels were considered

  9. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface (United States)

    D`Silva, A.


    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conductors is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer. 1 fig.

  10. Multi-pollutant interactions in hyporheic zones (United States)

    Krause, S.; Weatherill, J.; Bonet, B.; Blaen, P.; Khamis, K.; Cassidy, N. J.; Hannah, D. M.; Rivett, M. O.; Lynch, I.; Ullah, S.


    Hyporheic zones represent hotspots of biogeochemical reactivity, with the potential to attenuate pollutants and ameliorate their impact on ecosystem functioning. Sources and types of pollutants in streambed environments are manifold, with legacy industry contaminants, agricultural pollution and emerging pollutants such as pharmaceuticals or engineered nanoparticles entering hyporheic zones along different flow paths where they mix and potentially react with each other. Current conceptualizations of drivers and controls of biogeochemical turnover in hyporheic zones highlight primarily the role of transport and reaction times but do not account for potential interactions between different pollutants. This study presents two case studies of multi-pollutant interactions to illustrate the need to consider interferences between different pollutants, their transport and reaction pathways for adequate impact assessment. We discuss in the first instance how the natural attenuation of a Trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume in an agricultural catchment is limited by high riparian and hyporheic nitrate concentrations. As nitrate outcompeted TCE in its reaction with organic carbon as electron donor, TCE attenuation was in this case limited to hyporheic denitrification hotspots. Hence any pollution control measures to reduce the impact of this TCE plume require a reduction of agricultural nitrate loads, highlighting the connectedness of legacy (TCE) and more recent (nitrate) pollution problems. In the second case, we investigate how the labile organic carbon content of streambed sediments as main control of hyporheic respiration is overridden by exposure to different silver nanoparticle concentrations, representing emerging pollutants in many of our rivers. Also in this case, the impacts of different stressors (nanoparticle exposure) and drivers (availability of organic matter, water temperature) are interacting in their impacts on hyporheic zone functioning. We argue that

  11. The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets. L' AMBRIŠKO1,∗ and L PEŠEK2. 1Institute of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering,. Technical University of Košice, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice, Slovak Republic. 2Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Metallurgy,. Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, ...

  12. A strategic zone for Total's future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, E.J.


    In 1997, the Total company investments in the Middle East reached 1.2 billions of French Francs. This region is considered as a major growth zone by the French group. This paper summarizes the Total's participations in oil and gas activities and partnerships of Middle East countries (Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Oman, Qatar, Yemen): exploration, production, development, contracts, permits, technical assistance etc.. (J.S.)

  13. Geophysical Limitations on the Habitable Zone (United States)

    Noack, L.; Van Hoolst, T.


    Planets are typically classified as potentially life-bearing planets (i.e. habitable planets) if they are rocky planets and if a liquid (e.g. water) could exist at the surface. The latter depends on several factors, like for example the amount of available solar energy, greenhouse effects in the atmosphere and an efficient CO2-cycle. However, the definition of the habitable zone should be updated to include possible geophy-sical constraints, that could potentially influence the CO2-cycle. Planets like Mars without plate tectonics and no or only limited volcanic events can only be considered to be habitable at the inner boundary of the habitable zone, since the greenhouse effect needed to ensure liquid surface water farther away from the sun is strongly reduced. We investigate how these geophysical processes depend on the mass and interior structure of terrestrial planets. We find that plate tectonics, if it occurs, always leads to sufficient volcanic outgassing and therefore greenhouse effect needed for the outer boundary of the habitable zone (several tens of bar CO2). One-plate planets, however, may suffer strong volcanic limitations if their mass and/or iron content exceeds a critical value, reducing their possible surface habitability.

  14. Persulfate injection into a gasoline source zone. (United States)

    Sra, Kanwartej S; Thomson, Neil R; Barker, Jim F


    One pore volume of unactivated sodium persulfate was delivered into an emplaced gasoline residual source zone at CFB Borden. Concentrations of inorganic species (S2O8(2-), SO4(2-), Na(+), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) and selected gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene) were monitored across a transect equipped with 90 multilevel sampling points for >10months post-injection. Mass loading (M˙) of compounds constructed from the transect data was used for assessment purposes. Breakthrough of inorganic species was observed when the injection slug crossed the monitoring transect. An increase in [Formula: see text] indicated persulfate consumption during oxidation of gasoline compounds or degradation due to the interaction with aquifer materials. M˙DIC increased by >100% suggesting some mineralization of gasoline compounds during treatment. Mass loading for all the monitored gasoline compounds reduced by 46 to 86% as the inorganic slug crossed the monitoring transect. The cumulative mass discharge across the monitoring transect was 19 to 58% lower than that expected without persulfate injection. After the inorganic injection slug was flushed from the source zone a partial rebound (40 to 80% of baseline levels) of mass discharge of the monitored gasoline compounds was observed. The ensemble of data collected provides insight into the fate and transport of the injected persulfate solution, and the accompanying treatment of a gasoline the source zone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ice films follow structure zone model morphologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, Julyan H.E.; Escribano, Bruno; Sainz-Diaz, C. Ignacio


    Ice films deposited at temperatures of 6-220 K and at low pressures in situ in a cryo-environmental scanning electron microscope show pronounced morphologies at the mesoscale consistent with the structure zone model of film growth. Water vapour was injected directly inside the chamber at ambient pressures ranging from 10 -4 Pa to 10 2 Pa. Several different substrates were used to exclude the influence of their morphology on the grown films. At the lowest temperatures the ice, which under these conditions is amorphous on the molecular scale, shows the mesoscale morphologies typical of the low-temperature zones of the structure zone model (SZM), including cauliflower, transition, spongelike and matchstick morphologies. Our experiments confirm that the SZM is independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbate, although the intermolecular interactions in water (hydrogen bonds) are different to those in ceramics or metals. At higher temperatures, on the other hand, where the ice is hexagonal crystalline on the molecular scale, it displays a complex palmlike morphology on the mesoscale.

  16. Ice films follow structure zone model morphologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, Julyan H.E. [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Escribano, Bruno, E-mail: [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Sainz-Diaz, C. Ignacio [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)


    Ice films deposited at temperatures of 6-220 K and at low pressures in situ in a cryo-environmental scanning electron microscope show pronounced morphologies at the mesoscale consistent with the structure zone model of film growth. Water vapour was injected directly inside the chamber at ambient pressures ranging from 10{sup -4} Pa to 10{sup 2} Pa. Several different substrates were used to exclude the influence of their morphology on the grown films. At the lowest temperatures the ice, which under these conditions is amorphous on the molecular scale, shows the mesoscale morphologies typical of the low-temperature zones of the structure zone model (SZM), including cauliflower, transition, spongelike and matchstick morphologies. Our experiments confirm that the SZM is independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbate, although the intermolecular interactions in water (hydrogen bonds) are different to those in ceramics or metals. At higher temperatures, on the other hand, where the ice is hexagonal crystalline on the molecular scale, it displays a complex palmlike morphology on the mesoscale.

  17. A Systems Approach Framework for Coastal Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom S. Hopkins


    Full Text Available This Special Feature Volume examines the potential value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF as a methodological framework for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zones. This article provides insight on the Systems Approach, the theory behind it, and how its practical application to coastal zone systems (CZSs was developed. The SAF is about information for management through a focus on how to generate a higher, dynamic level of information about complex CZSs and how to render this information more useful to end users through a participatory suite of communication methods. The SAF is an open research methodology that investigates the function of systems in order to simulate specific issues or questions concerning their function. The research articles that are included in this Volume demonstrate examples of coupled multidisciplinary methods integrated into SAF simulations appropriate to a selected policy issue and to the social-environmental conditions of each Study Site Application. Their findings are not the result of funded research projects; instead, they are by-products of pilot applications conducted to develop and improve the SAF methodology. The final article of this Volume synthesizes these results in the context of the SAF as a higher level instrument for integrated coastal zone management.

  18. Recent Advances in Hyporheic Zone Science (United States)

    Hester, E. T.


    The hyporheic zone exists beneath and adjacent to streams and rivers where surface water and groundwater interact. It provides unique habitat for aquatic organisms, can buffer surface water temperatures, and can be highly reactive, processing nutrients and improving water quality. The hyporheic zone is the subject of considerable research and the past year in WRR witnessed important conceptual advances. A key focus was rigorous evaluation of mixing between surface water and groundwater that occurs within hyporheic sediments. Field observations indicate that greater mixing occurs in the hyporheic zone than in deeper groundwater, and this distinction has been explored by recent numerical modeling studies, but more research is needed to fully understand the causes. A commentary this year in WRR proposed that hyporheic mixing is enhanced by a combination of fluctuating boundary conditions and multiscale physical and chemical spatial heterogeneity but confirmation is left to future research. This year also witnessed the boundaries of knowledge pushed back in a number of other key areas. Field quantification of hyporheic exchange and reactions benefited from advances including the use and interpretation of high frequency nutrient sensors, actively heater fiber optic sensors, isotope tracers, and geophysical methods such as electrical resistivity imaging. Conceptual advances were made in understanding the effects of unsteady environmental conditions (e.g., tides and storms) and preferential flow on hyporheic processes. Finally, hyporheic science is being brought increasingly to bear on applied issues such as informing nutrient removal crediting for stream restoration practices, for example in the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

  19. 19 CFR 146.14 - Retail trade within a zone. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail trade within a zone. 146.14 Section 146.14... TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES General Provisions § 146.14 Retail trade within a zone. Retail trade is prohibited within a zone except as provided in 19 U.S.C. 81o(d). See also the regulations of...



    Romeo Ionescu


    The paper deals with the importance and the influence of the free economic zones in world economy. For the beginning, we speak about the elements, the organisation and the characteristics of the free economic zones. Another aspect of this paper deals with the elements which determined the interest of the great companies in free economic zones. In order to realise a complete analyse of the free economic zones, we realised a comparative analysis of the advantages and economic efficiency of thes...