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Sample records for suppression test dst

  1. The dexametazone suppression test (DST) for diagnosing of depression syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejopachi P, L.A.

    1984-09-01

    The dexametazone suppression test (DST) is a very valuable neuroendocrin assay as auxiliar method for diagnosing the depression. The serum cortisol levels of 20 patients of the Hospital de Salud Mental and of a control group were determined by radio-immunoassay technique. Normal concentration was defined as 5 micrograms per deciliter. Among depressed patients the average value was 9.8865 micro-grams per deciliter; having the test a 85% of positiveness. Among the control group the average value found was 1.167 micro-grams per deciliter, with a 20% of positiveness for the test. (author)

  2. Dexamethasone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medicine. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  3. CSF 5-HIAA and DST non-suppression--orthogonal biologic risk factors for suicide in male mood disorder inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Jussi; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Nordström, Peter

    2009-01-30

    Two biomarkers of suicide risk; non-suppression in the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and low 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been reported to be predictors of suicide in mood disorders. The interrelation of the two systems seems to be different in suicide attempters compared with depressed inpatients who have not made a suicide attempt, indicating that the two biomarkers may be seen as independent. This investigation examined the interrelation of low CSF 5-HIAA and DST non-suppression in suicide victims with mood disorder. Fifty-eight mood disorder inpatients not receiving any treatment with antidepressants underwent lumbar puncture and the DST. Plasma cortisol levels at 8:00 a.m., 4:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m. were analysed in relation to CSF 5-HIAA. All patients were followed up for causes of death and suicides were verified with death certificates. During follow-up (mean 21 years), 11 (19%) patients had committed suicide. In male suicide victims (n=6), the serum cortisol level at 4:00 p.m. showed a significant positive correlation with CSF 5-HIAA. Low CSF 5-HIAA predicted all early suicides (within 1 year), whereas all males who committed suicide after 1 year were DST non-suppressors. In female suicide victims (n=5), the post-DST serum cortisol did not correlate with CSF 5-HIAA. Low CSF 5-HIAA and DST non-suppression are orthogonal biologic risk factors for suicide in male mood disorder inpatients. CSF 5-HIAA is associated with short-term suicide risk; dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis seems to be a long-term suicide predictor.

  4. EXPLORATION WELL TEST CASE HISTORY CONFIRMS IMPORTANCE OF DST

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    Dario Damjanić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Drill stem testing of the exploration well consisted of two flow and two pressure build-up periods. Gas was obtained. Modified isochronal test was used during testing the well after completion. Except gas, small quantity of condensate and traces of oil and water were obtained. Both pressure build-up analyses showed that formation permeability is low. DST pressure build-up analysis showed that wellbore damage is present. This was proved later, when acid treatment was performed, by which skin was removed and production increased significantly. Data obtained by well testing are very important for future productivity prediction and determination of optimal well completion and surface facility construction (the paper is published in Croatian.

  5. Overnight Dexamethasone Suppression Test in the Diagnosis of Cushing's Disease

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    Fatemeh Esfahanian

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizing the cause of Cushing's Syndrome (CS is one of the most challenging processes in clinical endocrinology. The long high dose dexamethasone suppression test (standard test is costly and need an extended inpatient stay. In this study we want to show the clinical utility of the overnight 8 mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST for differential diagnosis of CS in a referral center. Retrospectively from 2002-2005 we selected the patients of endocrinology ward in Imam hospital who were admitted with the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome and had 8 mg DST (modified test along with classic DST. In modified test a decrease in an 8 AM serum cortisol level of 50% or more is thought to indicate suppression and we compared the results of modified test with standard test. This test had been done on 42 patients: 10 male (23% and 32 female (76%. The mean age of patients was 31.39 (15-63, 32 with proven pituitary Cushing's disease, 7 with primary adrnal tumors and 3 with ectopic ACTH syndrome. The standard test according to 50% suppression of UFC had 90.62% sensitivity, and according to 90% suppression had 43.75% sensitivity. The sensitivity of this test was 71.85% for serum cortisol suppression. The modified test (8 mg overnight DST had 78% sensitivity. All of these tests had 100% specificity for the diagnosis of Cushing's disease. The positive predictive vale (PPV of all of these tests was 100%. The negative predictive value (NPV of modified test for the diagnosis of Cushing's disease was 58.82%. In standard test the NPV of serum cortisol was 52.6%, UFC 50% had 76.9% NPV and UFC 90% had 35.7% NPV. The results of serum cortisol suppression in modified test is better than standard test. Although 50% suppression of UFC in standard test had greater sensitivity than modified test, collecting of urine is difficult, time consuming and needing hospitalization, so we advice modified test that is much simpler and more convenient instead of standard test in the first

  6. Cortisol responses on the dexamethasone suppression test among women with Bulimia-spectrum eating disorders: associations with clinical symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kenneth R; Steiger, Howard; Israël, Mimi; Groleau, Patricia; Ng Ying Kin, N M K; Ouellette, Anne-Sophie; Sycz, Lindsay; Badawi, Ghislaine

    2012-08-07

    Evidence associates Bulimia Nervosa (BN) with altered functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but the clinical implications of such alterations need to be better understood. We contrasted cortisol responses to the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in bulimic and non-eating disordered women and examined relationships among DST cortisol responses, eating symptoms and co-morbid disturbances. Sixty women with Bulimia Spectrum (BS) Disorders (either BN or normal weight Eating Disorder NOS with regular binge eating or purging) and 54 non-eating disordered women of similar age and body mass index participated in a 0.5 mg DST, and completed interviews and questionnaires assessing eating symptoms and co-morbid psychopathology. Compared with the normal-eater group, the BS women demonstrated significantly less DST suppression. Among BS women, DST non-suppression was associated with more severe depression, anxiety and eating preoccupations. Our findings show BS women to show less DST suppression compared to normal eater women, and results link extent of non-suppression, in BS individuals, to severity of depression, anxiety and eating preoccupations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Heavy oil reservoir evaluation : performing an injection test using DST tools in the marine region of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaiza, J.; Ruiz, P. [Halliburton, Mexico City (Mexico); Barrera, D.; Gutierrez, F. [Pemex, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    This paper described an injection test conducted to evaluate heavy oil reserves in an offshore area of Mexico. The drill-stem testing (DST) evaluation used a fluid injection technique in order to eliminate the need for artificial lift and coiled tubing. A pressure transient analysis method was used to determine the static pressure of the reservoir, effective hydrocarbon permeability, and formation damage. Boundary effects were also characterized. The total volume of the fluid injection was determined by analyzing various reservoir parameters. The timing of the shut-in procedure was determined by characterizing rock characteristics and fluids within the reservoir. The mobility and diffusivity relationships between the zones with the injection fluids and reservoir fluids were used to defined sweep fluids. A productivity analysis was used to predict various production scenarios. DST tools were then used to conduct a pressure-production assessment. Case histories were used to demonstrate the method. The studies showed that the method provides a cost-effective means of providing high quality data for productivity analyses. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  8. Revisiting the Dexamethasone Suppression Test in unipolar major depression: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihmer Zoltan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Important methodological questions still exist concerning the Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST, including the possibility of a better way of interpreting it. The aim of the present study was to explore the feasibility of an alternative way of interpreting DST results. Methods A total of 50 patients with major depression aged 41.0 ± 11.4 years old participated in the study. Past and present suicide attempts were recorded. Psychometric assessment included the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS, the Newcastle Depression Diagnostic Scale (NDDS, the Diagnostic Melancholia Scale (DMS and the General Assessment of Functioning (GAF scale. The 1 mg DST protocol was used. Analysis methods included the chi square test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA with Fisher least significant difference (LSD as post hoc tests. Results In all, 34 patients (68% were suppressors, 16 (32% were non-suppressors and 14 patients had cortisol values above 5 μg/dl at baseline. Baseline cortisol level did not influence the classical DST interpretation. A total of 18 patients (36% showed an increase of their cortisol levels after dexamethasone administration and 32 patients (64% showed a decrease. Reducers had less melancholic features, similar levels of depression, better sleep and less suicidal thoughts in comparison to increasers. No relationship of DST to suicidality was found. Discussion The present study explored the pattern of cortisol response to dexamethasone suppression and suggested an alternative way of coding and interpreting the DST on the basis of whether the cortisol levels remain stable or increase vs decrease after the administration of cortisol. The results put forward a complex way of understanding the relationship of the DST results with clinical symptoms.

  9. Evaluation of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST Kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl Test for Detecting Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Kemal; Albay, Ali; Simsek, Hulya; Sig, Ali Korhan; Guney, Mustafa

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the performances of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test for detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance in Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases. Forty-six MDR-TB strains were studied. Second-line antituberculosis drug resistances were detected using the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test. The Middlebrook 7H10 agar proportion method was used as the reference test. The sensitivity and specificity values for the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit were both 100% for amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin (4 µg/mL), and ofloxacin; 100% and 95.3%, respectively, for capreomycin (10 µg/mL); and 85.7% and 100%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The sensitivity and specificity values for the GenoType MTBDRsl test to detect fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside/cyclic peptide resistance were 88.9% and 100%, respectively, for ofloxacin and 85.7% and 94.9%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The accuracy of the GenoType MTBDRsl assay for kanamycin, capreomycin, ofloxacin, and moxifloxacin was lower than that of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST. The BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl were successful in detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance. Preliminary results of the GenoType MTBDRsl are very valuable for early treatment decisions, but we still recommend additional BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit usage in the routine evaluation of drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  10. Evaluation of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST Kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl Test for Detecting Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Kemal; Albay, Ali; Simsek, Hulya; Sig, Ali Korhan; Guney, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the performances of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test for detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance in Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases. Materials and Methods: Forty-six MDR-TB strains were studied. Second-line antituberculosis drug resistances were detected using the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test. The Middlebrook 7H10 agar proportion method was used as the reference test. Results: The sensitivity and specificity values for the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit were both 100% for amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin (4 µg/mL), and ofloxacin; 100% and 95.3%, respectively, for capreomycin (10 µg/mL); and 85.7% and 100%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The sensitivity and specificity values for the GenoType MTBDRsl test to detect fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside/cyclic peptide resistance were 88.9% and 100%, respectively, for ofloxacin and 85.7% and 94.9%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The accuracy of the GenoType MTBDRsl assay for kanamycin, capreomycin, ofloxacin, and moxifloxacin was lower than that of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST. Conclusion: The BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl were successful in detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance. Preliminary results of the GenoType MTBDRsl are very valuable for early treatment decisions, but we still recommend additional BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit usage in the routine evaluation of drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:29123441

  11. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acromegaly - blood test; Gigantism - blood test Images Blood test References Kaiser U, Ho KKY. Pituitary physiology and diagnostic evaluation. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  12. System Description for the Double Shell Tank (DST) Confinement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROSSI, H.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides a description of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Confinement System. This description will provide a basis for developing functional, performance and test requirements (i.e., subsystem specification), as necessary, for the DST Confinement System

  13. Thyroid suppression test with dextrothyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, D.; Fridman, J.; Ribeiro, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    The classic thyroid suppression test with triiodothyronine (l-T 3 ) has been shown to be efficient as an auxiliary method in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, but should not be performed on elderly patients or on those with heart disease or a tendency to tachycardia. Since these subjects seem able to support a short period of dextro-thyronine (d-T 4 ) feeding, we compared the effect of d-T 4 and l-T 3 on the 24 hours thyroid uptake in euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects. After basal radio-iodine uptake determination, 99 patients without hyperthyroidism and 27 with Graves' disease were randomly divided in 2 groups; one received 100μg of l-T 3 per day and the other 4 mg of d-T 4 per day, both groups being treated for a period of 10 days. At the end of this suppression period the 24 hours radio-iodine uptake was measured again and the percentual suppression index (S.I.) calculated. Since the comparison of the two groups showed no difference between the suppressive effect of l-T 3 and d-T 4 in euthyroid subjects, while dextro-thyronine, as levo-triiodothyronine, did not suppress the 24 hours uptake of hyperthyroid patients, l-T 3 or d-T 4 can be used interchangeably to test thyroid suppressibility. In the euthyroid subjects the normal range for the post-suppression uptake was 0-17.1% and for the suppression index 54,7.100% [pt

  14. Season of birth, clinical manifestations and Dexamethasone Suppression Test in unipolar major depression

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    Kaprinis George S

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports in the literature suggest that the season of birth might constitute a risk factor for the development of a major psychiatric disorder, possibly because of the effect environmental factors have during the second trimester of gestation. The aim of the current paper was to study the possible relationship of the season of birth and current clinical symptoms in unipolar major depression. Methods The study sample included 45 DSM-IV major depressive patients and 90 matched controls. The SCAN v. 2.0, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS were used to assess symptomatology, and the 1 mg Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST was used to subcategorize patients. Results Depressed patients as a whole did not show differences in birth season from controls. However, those patients born during the spring manifested higher HDRS while those born during the summer manifested the lowest HAS scores. DST non-suppressors were almost exclusively (90% likely to be born during autumn and winter. No effect from the season of birth was found concerning the current severity of suicidal ideation or attempts. Discussion The current study is the first in this area of research using modern and rigid diagnostic methodology and a biological marker (DST to categorize patients. Its disadvantages are the lack of data concerning DST in controls and a relatively small size of patient sample. The results confirm the effect of seasonality of birth on patients suffering from specific types of depression.

  15. Screening for suppression in young children: the Polaroid Suppression test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, J.W.R.; Oosterveen, DK; Van Hof-van Duin, J

    1998-01-01

    Background: Assessment of monocular visual impairment during screening of young children is often hampered by lack of cooperation. Because strabismus, amblyopia, or anisometropia may lead to monocular suppression during binocular viewing conditions, a test was developed to screen far suppression in

  16. Perturbing the Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis:A Mathematical Model for Interpreting PTSDAssessment Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Suppression Test (DST) The dexamethasone suppression test (DST) is a pharmacological challenge test typically used to identify the cause of abnormal ...suppres- sion is in effect. One way to further probe the system is to combine a nonpharmacological, psychological stressor with the DST. The ensuing...second stage of our proposed test, we assume Iext(t) to be a positive constant when the external ( psychological ) stressor is on, and zero while off. In

  17. Benchmark enclosure fire suppression experiments - phase 1 test report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Nichols, Robert Thomas; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-06-01

    A series of fire benchmark water suppression tests were performed that may provide guidance for dispersal systems for the protection of high value assets. The test results provide boundary and temporal data necessary for water spray suppression model development and validation. A review of fire suppression in presented for both gaseous suppression and water mist fire suppression. The experimental setup and procedure for gathering water suppression performance data are shown. Characteristics of the nozzles used in the testing are presented. Results of the experiments are discussed.

  18. ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDIES OF CARBON STEEL CORROSION IN HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN, J.B.; WINDISCH, C.F.

    2006-10-13

    This paper reports on the electrochemical scans for the supernatant of Hanford double-shell tank (DST) 241-SY-102 and the electrochemical scans for the bottom saltcake layer for Hanford DST 241-AZ-102. It further reports on the development of electrochemical test cells adapted to both sample volume and hot cell constraints.

  19. Performance of the 4-mg intravenous dexamethasone suppression test in differentiating Cushing disease from pseudo-Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvel, Migueline; Rabilloud, Muriel; Raverot, Véronique; Subtil, Fabien; Vouillarmet, Julien; Thivolet, Charles; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Pugeat, Michel; Raverot, Gérald

    2016-02-01

    Discriminating Cushing disease (CD) from pseudo-Cushing syndrome (PCS) is a challenging task that may be overcome with the 4-mg intravenous (IV) dexamethasone suppression test (DST). Assess the performance of the 4-mg IV DST in the differential diagnosis between CD and PCS in well-characterized patients. Retrospective comparative study of subjects seen in a tertiary care unit (November 2008 to July 2011). Thirty-six patients with PCS and 32 patients with CD underwent 4-mg IV dexamethasone infusions from 11 am to 3 pm. Areas Under ROC Curves (AUCs) were estimated and compared for ACTH and cortisol measured at 4 pm the same day (day 1) and 8 am the next day (day 2). The ROC curve of the marker with the highest AUC was used to determine the threshold with the highest specificity for 100% sensitivity. The AUC of ACTH at 8 am on day 2 was estimated at 98.4% (95% CI: [92.1-100]), which is significantly greater than that of ACTH at 4 pm on day 1 (P=0.04) and that of cortisol at 8 am on day 2 (P=0.05). For ACTH at 8 am on day 2, the threshold with the highest specificity for 100% sensitivity was estimated at 14.8 ng/L. At this threshold, the sensitivity was estimated at 100% [89-100] and the specificity at 83.3% [67-94]. The 4-mg IV DST is an easy and accurate tool in distinguishing CD from PCS. It deserves thus a better place in establishing the diagnosis of CD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Large Eddy Simulations using oodlesDST

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Research Agency DST-Group-TR-3205 ABSTRACT The oodlesDST code is based on OpenFOAM software and performs Large Eddy Simulations of......maritime platforms using a variety of simulation techniques. He is currently using OpenFOAM software to perform both Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes

  1. Dst Prediction Based on Solar Wind Parameters

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    Yoon-Kyung Park

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We reevaluate the Burton equation (Burton et al. 1975 of predicting Dst index using high quality hourly solar wind data supplied by the ACE satellite for the period from 1998 to 2006. Sixty magnetic storms with monotonously decreasing main phase are selected. In order to determine the injection term (Q and the decay time (tau of the equation, we examine the relationships between Dst* and VB_s, Delta Dst* and VB_s, and Delta Dst* and Dst* during the magnetic storms. For this analysis, we take into account one hour of the propagation time from the ACE satellite to the magnetopause, and a half hour of the response time of the magnetosphere/ring current to the solar wind forcing. The injection term is found to be Q({nT}/h=-3.56VB_s for VB_s>0.5mV/m and Q({nT}/h=0 for VB_s leq0.5mV/m. The tau (hour is estimated as 0.060 Dst* + 16.65 for Dst*>-175nT and 6.15 hours for Dst* leq -175nT. Based on these empirical relationships, we predict the 60 magnetic storms and find that the correlation coefficient between the observed and predicted Dst* is 0.88. To evaluate the performance of our prediction scheme, the 60 magnetic storms are predicted again using the models by Burton et al. (1975 and O'Brien & McPherron (2000a. The correlation coefficients thus obtained are 0.85, the same value for both of the two models. In this respect, our model is slightly improved over the other two models as far as the correlation coefficients is concerned. Particularly our model does a better job than the other two models in predicting intense magnetic storms (Dst* lesssim -200nT.

  2. Double-Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SUSIENE, W.T.

    2000-01-01

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides the references to the requisite codes and standards to he applied during the design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Subsystems that support the first phase of waste feed delivery (WFD). The DST Utilities Subsystems provide electrical power, raw/potable water, and service/instrument air to the equipment and structures used to transfer low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) to designated DST staging tanks. The DST Utilities Subsystems also support the equipment and structures used to deliver blended LAW and HLW feed from these staging tanks to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor facility where the waste will be immobilized. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations. This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program

  3. Double Shell Tank (DST) Process Waste Sampling Subsystem Definition Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RASMUSSEN, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report defines the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Process Waste Sampling Subsystem (PWSS). This subsystem definition report fully describes and identifies the system boundaries of the PWSS. This definition provides a basis for developing functional, performance, and test requirements (i.e., subsystem specification), as necessary, for the PWSS. The resultant PWSS specification will include the sampling requirements to support the transfer of waste from the DSTs to the Privatization Contractor during Phase 1 of Waste Feed Delivery

  4. Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and THC Seepage) Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, P.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this Model Report (REV02) is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) models used to evaluate the potential effects of coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes on UZ flow and transport. This Model Report has been developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) 2002 [160819]). The technical work plan (TWP) describes planning information pertaining to the technical scope, content, and management of this Model Report in Section 1.12, Work Package AUZM08, ''Coupled Effects on Flow and Seepage''. The plan for validation of the models documented in this Model Report is given in Attachment I, Model Validation Plans, Section I-3-4, of the TWP. Except for variations in acceptance criteria (Section 4.2), there were no deviations from this TWP. This report was developed in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models''. This Model Report documents the THC Seepage Model and the Drift Scale Test (DST) THC Model. The THC Seepage Model is a drift-scale process model for predicting the composition of gas and water that could enter waste emplacement drifts and the effects of mineral alteration on flow in rocks surrounding drifts. The DST THC model is a drift-scale process model relying on the same conceptual model and much of the same input data (i.e., physical, hydrological, thermodynamic, and kinetic) as the THC Seepage Model. The DST THC Model is the primary method for validating the THC Seepage Model. The DST THC Model compares predicted water and gas compositions, as well as mineral alteration patterns, with observed data from the DST. These models provide the framework to evaluate THC coupled processes at the drift scale, predict flow and transport behavior for specified thermal-loading conditions, and predict the evolution of mineral alteration and fluid chemistry around potential waste emplacement drifts. The DST THC Model is used solely for the validation of the THC

  5. Diurnal Cortisol Patterns and Dexamethasone Suppression Test Responses in Healthy Young Adults Born Preterm at Very Low Birth Weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kaseva

    Full Text Available Early life stress, such as painful and stressful procedures during neonatal intensive care after preterm birth, can permanently affect physiological, hormonal and neurobiological systems. This may contribute to altered programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA and provoke changes in HPAA function with long-term health impacts. Previous studies suggest a lower HPAA response to stress in young adults born preterm compared with controls born at term. We assessed whether these differences in HPAA stress responsiveness are reflected in everyday life HPAA functioning, i.e. in diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, and reactivity to a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST, in unimpaired young adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g.The participants were recruited from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults cohort study. At mean age 23.3 years (2.1 SD, 49 VLBW and 36 controls born at term participated in the study. For cortisol analyzes, saliva samples were collected on two consecutive days at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min after wake-up, at 12:00 h, 17:00 h and 22:00 h. After the last salivary sample of the first study day the participants were instructed to take a 0.5 mg dexamethasone tablet.With mixed-effects model no difference was seen in overall diurnal salivary cortisol between VLBW and control groups [13.9% (95% CI: -11.6, 47.0, P = 0.31]. Salivary cortisol increased similarly after awakening in both VLBW and control participants [mean difference -2.9% (29.2, 33.0, P = 0.85]. Also reactivity to the low-dose DST (awakening cortisol ratio day2/day1 was similar between VLBW and control groups [-1.1% (-53.5, 103.8, P = 0.97].Diurnal cortisol patterns and reactivity to a low-dose DST in young adulthood were not associated with preterm birth.

  6. Multiple-vent programme to test the pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.; Schwan, H.; Vollbrandt, I.

    1979-01-01

    Three pre-tests with a multiple vent configuration have been performed at the GKSS pressure suppression test facility. First test results indicate significant chugging events with occur periodically with 0.4 to 0.2 Hz. These events appear simultaneously in less than 10 ms at the exit of the three vent pipes and cause pressure pulses in the range of 3 bar. This report gives a short description of the test facility and presents the boundary conditions of the test facility and presents the boundary conditions of the three pre-tests, test results and a first valuation of the experimental informations. (orig.) [de

  7. Materials Science Research Rack-1 Fire Suppressant Distribution Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, P. O.

    2002-01-01

    Fire suppressant distribution testing was performed on the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1), a furnace facility payload that will be installed in the U.S. Lab module of the International Space Station. Unlike racks that were tested previously, the MSRR-1 uses the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) to reduce vibration on experiments, so the effects of ARIS on fire suppressant distribution were unknown. Two tests were performed to map the distribution of CO2 fire suppressant throughout a mockup of the MSRR-1 designed to have the same component volumes and flowpath restrictions as the flight rack. For the first test, the average maximum CO2 concentration for the rack was 60 percent, achieved within 45 s of discharge initiation, meeting the requirement to reach 50 percent throughout the rack within 1 min. For the second test, one of the experiment mockups was removed to provide a worst-case configuration, and the average maximum CO2 concentration for the rack was 58 percent. Comparing the results of this testing with results from previous testing leads to several general conclusions that can be used to evaluate future racks. The MSRR-1 will meet the requirements for fire suppressant distribution. Primary factors that affect the ability to meet the CO2 distribution requirements are the free air volume in the rack and the total area and distribution of openings in the rack shell. The length of the suppressant flowpath and degree of tortuousness has little correlation with CO2 concentration. The total area of holes in the rack shell could be significantly increased. The free air volume could be significantly increased. To ensure the highest maximum CO2 concentration, the PFE nozzle should be inserted to the stop on the nozzle.

  8. Recurrent Patterns in Dst Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jeong Kim

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reports one approach for the classification of magnetic storms into recurrent patterns. A storm event is defined as a local minimum of Dst index. The analysis of Dst index for the period of year 1957 through year 2000 has demonstrated that a large portion of the storm events can be classified into a set of recurrent patterns. In our approach, the classification is performed by seeking a categorization that minimizes thermodynamic free energy which is defined as the sum of classification errors and entropy. The error is calculated as the squared sum of the value differences between events. The classification depends on the noise parameter T that represents the strength of the intrinsic error in the observation and classification process. The classification results would be applicable in space weather forecasting.

  9. A practical dexamethasone suppression test to evaluate hirsute women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    Fifty-five hirsute women were subjected to a 2-week dexamethasone (DXM) suppression test. The pre- and post-DXM plasma dehydroepiandrosteronesulfate (DS) and testosterone (T) were measured by radioimmunoassay to define the source of androgen excess in hirsute women. Four patients (7%) failed to have adequate adrenal suppression due to failure in medication. Among the 51 patients with adequate adrenal suppression, the source of androgen excess was clearly defined in 48 patients (94%). Seventeen patients (33%) showed ovarian source, 13 patients (26%) had adrenal source, while 18 patients (35%) revealed a mixed adrenal and ovarian source. Normal baseline DS and T levels were noted in 22% of hirsute women and more than half (55%) of them had ovarian androgen excess. Even in 17 patients with normal DS and elevated T, 6 patients (36%) suggested adrenal androgen excess. The source of androgen excess in hirsute women seems evenly distributed among the ovarian, the adrenal, and the mixed group. (author)

  10. Technical Information to Support Double Shell Tank (DST) Emergency Annulus Pumping [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REBERGER, D.W.

    2000-09-14

    This document provides the design calculations for the DST Annulus Emergency Pumping Project. This document also contains essential information relative to DST annulus emergency pumping that may not be found in other documents. This information consists of the following: Index drawing for annulus pumping; References to the Acceptance Test Report, DST Emergency Pumping Guide, Time Deployment study, etc.; Statements of work; and Reference CEIS and RMIS numbers. A Vendor Information document, VI-50121, is not included in this document, but a copy can be obtained by contacting Document Control Services. This document contains various information regarding the Hydrostar pumps, such as the air motor, cylinder size, pump installation and operation manual. It also contains information regarding the Flygt BS2060 submersible pump, such as parts list, pump handling, preventative maintenance, overhaul and repair. In addition, this document also has information on 3-way PM ball valves, electrical skid components and the alternate Gurman-Rupp stainless steel submersible pump.

  11. Geomagnetic Dst index forecast based on IMF data only

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pallocchia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past years several operational Dst forecasting algorithms, based on both IMF and solar wind plasma parameters, have been developed and used. We describe an Artificial Neural Network (ANN algorithm which calculates the Dst index on the basis of IMF data only and discuss its performance for several individual storms. Moreover, we briefly comment on the physical grounds which allow the Dst forecasting based on IMF only.

  12. Double Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem Definition Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAFUS, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    The system description of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem establishes the system boundaries and describes the interface of the DST Monitor and Control Subsystem with new and existing systems that are required to accomplish the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) mission

  13. Double-Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAFUS, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem that supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery. This subsystem specification establishes the interface and performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during the design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem. The DST Monitor and Control Subsystem consists of the new and existing equipment that will be used to provide tank farm operators with integrated local monitoring and control of the DST systems to support Waste Feed Delivery (WFD). New equipment will provide automatic control and safety interlocks where required and provide operators with visibility into the status of DST subsystem operations (e.g., DST mixer pump operation and DST waste transfers) and the ability to manually control specified DST functions as necessary. This specification is intended to be the basis for new project/installations (W-521, etc.). This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program

  14. Performance Requirements for the Double Shell Tank (DST) System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, D.F.

    2001-01-01

    This document identifies the upper-level Double-Shell Tank (DST) System functions and bounds the associated performance requirements. The functions and requirements are provided along with supporting bases. These functions and requirements, in turn, will be incorporated into specifications for the DST System

  15. Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and THC Seepage) Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenthale, E.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Near-Field Environment (NFE) and Unsaturated Zone (UZ) models used to evaluate the potential effects of coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) processes on unsaturated zone flow and transport. This is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'', Addendum D, Attachment D-4 (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) 2000 [1534471]) and ''Technical Work Plan for Nearfield Environment Thermal Analyses and Testing'' (CRWMS M and O 2000 [153309]). These models include the Drift Scale Test (DST) THC Model and several THC seepage models. These models provide the framework to evaluate THC coupled processes at the drift scale, predict flow and transport behavior for specified thermal loading conditions, and predict the chemistry of waters and gases entering potential waste-emplacement drifts. The intended use of this AMR is to provide input for the following: Performance Assessment (PA); Near-Field Environment (NFE) PMR; Abstraction of Drift-Scale Coupled Processes AMR (ANL-NBS-HS-000029); and UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). The work scope for this activity is presented in the TWPs cited above, and summarized as follows: Continue development of the repository drift-scale THC seepage model used in support of the TSPA in-drift geochemical model; incorporate heterogeneous fracture property realizations; study sensitivity of results to changes in input data and mineral assemblage; validate the DST model by comparison with field data; perform simulations to predict mineral dissolution and precipitation and their effects on fracture properties and chemistry of water (but not flow rates) that may seep into drifts; submit modeling results to the TDMS and document the models. The model development, input data, sensitivity and validation studies described in this AMR are

  16. 21 March 2011 - South African Ministry of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Technology (DST) Director General P. Mjwara signing the guest with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Adviser J. Ellis and ALICE Collaboration Spokesperson P. Giubellino and J. Cleymans; in the CERN control centre with R. Steerenberg; visiting ALICE surface exhibition with P. Giubellino and LHC superconducting magnet test hall with L. Bottura.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    21 March 2011 - South African Ministry of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Technology (DST) Director General P. Mjwara signing the guest with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Adviser J. Ellis and ALICE Collaboration Spokesperson P. Giubellino and J. Cleymans; in the CERN control centre with R. Steerenberg; visiting ALICE surface exhibition with P. Giubellino and LHC superconducting magnet test hall with L. Bottura.

  17. Forecasting the Dst index using a swarm-optimized neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzús, J. A.; Vega, P.; Rojas, P.; Salfate, I.

    2017-08-01

    A hybrid technique that combines an artificial neural network with a particle swarm optimization (ANN+PSO) was used to forecast the disturbance storm time (Dst) index from 1 to 6 h ahead. Our ANN was optimized by PSO to update ANN weights and to predict the short-term Dst index using past values as input parameters. The database used contains 233,760 hourly data from 1 January 1990 to 31 August 2016, considering storms and quiet period, grouped into three data sets: learning set (with 116,880 hourly data points), validation set (with 58,440 data points), and testing set (with 58,440 data points). Several ANN topologies were studied, and the best architecture was determined by systematically adding neurons and evaluating the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and the correlation coefficient (R) during the training process. These results show that the hybrid algorithm is a powerful technique for forecasting the Dst index a short time in advance like t + 1 to t + 3, with RMSE from 3.5 nT to 7.5 nT, and R from 0.98 to 0.90. However, t + 4 to t + 6 predictions become slightly more uncertain, with RMSE from 8.8 nT to 10.9 nT, and R from 0.86 to 0.79. Additionally, an exhaustive analysis according to geomagnetic storm magnitude was conducted. In general, the results show that our hybrid algorithm can be correctly trained to forecast the Dst index with appropriate precision and that Dst past behavior significantly affects adequate training and predicting capabilities of the implemented ANN.

  18. Effects of substorms on the stormtime ring current index Dst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rostoker

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been some discussion in recent times regarding whether or not substorm expansive phase activity plays any role of importance in the formation of the stormtime ring current. I explore this question using the Kp index as a proxy for substorm expansive phase activity and the Dst index as a proxy for symmetric ring current strength. I find that increases in Dst are mildly related to the strength of substorm expansive phase activity during the development of the storm main phase. More surprisingly, I find that the strength of Dst during the storm recovery phase is positively correlated with the strength of substorm expansive phase activity. This result has an important bearing on the question of how much the Dst index reflects activity other than that of the stormtime symmetric ring current strength for which it is supposed to be a proxy.Key words: Ionosphere (electric fields and currents - Magnetospheric physics (current systems; storms and substorms

  19. Effects of substorms on the stormtime ring current index Dst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rostoker

    Full Text Available There has been some discussion in recent times regarding whether or not substorm expansive phase activity plays any role of importance in the formation of the stormtime ring current. I explore this question using the Kp index as a proxy for substorm expansive phase activity and the Dst index as a proxy for symmetric ring current strength. I find that increases in Dst are mildly related to the strength of substorm expansive phase activity during the development of the storm main phase. More surprisingly, I find that the strength of Dst during the storm recovery phase is positively correlated with the strength of substorm expansive phase activity. This result has an important bearing on the question of how much the Dst index reflects activity other than that of the stormtime symmetric ring current strength for which it is supposed to be a proxy.Key words: Ionosphere (electric fields and currents - Magnetospheric physics (current systems; storms and substorms

  20. The polaroid suppression test in a pediatric population with ophthalmologic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, JWR; Kingma, C; Verhoeff, K; Grootendorst, RJ; de Faber, JTHN

    Purpose: The Polaroid suppression test (PST) is a new method for early detection of amblyogenic factors by screening for suppression. The apparatus can elicit suppression with the use of Polaroid filters. The aim of the present study was to examine a population of children with known ophthalmologic

  1. Vibration phenomena in large scale pressure suppression tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.; Boettcher, G.; Kolb, M.; Sattler, P.; Vollbrandt, J.

    1982-01-01

    Structure und fluid vibration phenomena (acceleration, strain; pressure, level) were observed during blow-down experiments simulating a LOCA in the GKSS full scale multivent pressure suppression test facility. The paper describes first the source related excitations during the two regimes of condensation oscillation and of chugging, and deals then with the response vibrations of the facility's wetwell. Modal analyses of the wetwell were run using excitation by hammer and by shaker in order to separate phenomena that are particular to the GKSS facility from more general ones, i.e. phenomena specific to the fluid related parameters of blowdown and to the geometry of the vent pipes only. The lowest periodicities at about 12 and 16 Hz stem from the vent acoustics. A frequency of about 36 to 38 Hz prominent during chugging seems to result from the lowest local models of two of the wetwell's walls when coupled by the wetwell pool. Further peaks found during blowdown in the spectra of signals at higher frequencies correspond to global vibration modes of the wetwell. (orig.)

  2. Non-storm irregular variation of the Dst index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nakano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dst index has a long-term variation that is not associated with magnetic storms. We estimated the long-term non-storm component of the Dst variation by removing the short-term variation related to magnetic storms. The results indicate that the variation of the non-storm component includes not only a seasonal variation but also an irregular variation. The irregular long-term variation is likely to be due to an anti-correlation with the long-term variation of solar-wind activity. In particular, a clear anti-correlation is observed between the non-storm component of Dst and the long-term variation of the solar-wind dynamic pressure. This means that in the long term, the Dst index tends to increase when the solar-wind dynamic pressure decreases. We interpret this anti-correlation as an indication that the long-term non-storm variation of Dst is influenced by the tail current variation. The long-term variation of the solar-wind dynamic pressure controls the plasma sheet thermal pressure, and the change of the plasma sheet thermal pressure would cause the non-storm tail current variation, resulting in the non-storm variation of Dst.

  3. Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and THC Seepage) Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Gonnenthal; N. Spyoher

    2001-02-05

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Near-Field Environment (NFE) and Unsaturated Zone (UZ) models used to evaluate the potential effects of coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) processes on unsaturated zone flow and transport. This is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'', Addendum D, Attachment D-4 (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) 2000 [153447]) and ''Technical Work Plan for Nearfield Environment Thermal Analyses and Testing'' (CRWMS M and O 2000 [153309]). These models include the Drift Scale Test (DST) THC Model and several THC seepage models. These models provide the framework to evaluate THC coupled processes at the drift scale, predict flow and transport behavior for specified thermal loading conditions, and predict the chemistry of waters and gases entering potential waste-emplacement drifts. The intended use of this AMR is to provide input for the following: (1) Performance Assessment (PA); (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Coupled Processes AMR (ANL-NBS-HS-000029); (3) UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR); and (4) Near-Field Environment (NFE) PMR. The work scope for this activity is presented in the TWPs cited above, and summarized as follows: continue development of the repository drift-scale THC seepage model used in support of the TSPA in-drift geochemical model; incorporate heterogeneous fracture property realizations; study sensitivity of results to changes in input data and mineral assemblage; validate the DST model by comparison with field data; perform simulations to predict mineral dissolution and precipitation and their effects on fracture properties and chemistry of water (but not flow rates) that may seep into drifts; submit modeling results to the TDMS and document the models. The model development, input data

  4. Rapid tests for diagnosing syphilis: validation in an STD clinic in the Amazon Region, Brazil Testes rápidos para diagnóstico de sífilis: validação em clínica de DST na Região Amazônica, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Schwartz Benzaken

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Correct, early diagnosis and treatment of syphilis are essential for its control. Traditional diagnostic tests depend on specialized equipment, installations, and human resources. In the search for quick, simple tests, a project was conducted on the validation and reproducibility of four different tests, previously assessed by WHO reference laboratories. The study also verified the operational characteristics and acceptance by patients and health professionals. Samples obtained at an STD clinic were from 541 and 248 patients with 51 and 52 positive results according to FTA-Abs (gold standard in studies 1 and 2, respectively. The sensitivity varied from 84 to 96%, specificity was greater than 98%, and PPV was > 90%. Reproducibility was > 97% and kappa index 0.94, comparing the results obtained by different health workers. The tests took less than 20 minutes to perform, and more than 90% of patients agreed to wait up to two hours for the results. The tests presented the necessary requirements for use in diagnosis of syphilis, thus providing an additional option for controlling this disease.O diagnóstico e o tratamento corretos e precoces da sífilis são essenciais para o seu controle. Os testes diagnósticos tradicionais dependem de equipamentos, instalações e recursos humanos especializados. Na busca de testes de execução simplificada e rápida, realizou-se projeto de validação e da reprodutibilidade de quatro diferentes testes anteriormente avaliados pelos laboratórios de referência da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Verificaram-se também as características operacionais e aceitabilidade dos pacientes e dos profissionais de saúde. As amostras obtidas numa clínica de DST constaram de 541 e 248 pacientes com 51 e 52 positivos no FTA-Abs (padrão ouro nos estudos 1 e 2, respectivamente. A sensibilidade variou entre 84 e 96%, especificidade superior a 98% e valor preditivo positivo > 90%. A reprodutibilidade foi superior a 97% e 0

  5. Double Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Pump Subsystem Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRAVES, C.E.

    2001-01-01

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides the references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during the design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Pump Subsystem that supports the first phase of waste feed delivery (WFD). The DST Transfer Pump Subsystem consists of a pump for supernatant and/or slurry transfer for the DSTs that will be retrieved during the Phase 1 WFD operations. This system is used to transfer low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) to designated DST staging tanks. It also will deliver blended LAW and HLW feed from these staging tanks to the River Protection Project (RPP) Waste Treatment Plant where it will be processed into an immobilized waste form. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations (W-521, etc.). This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program

  6. Poppers: large cancer increase and immune suppression in animal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1999-04-16

    A study on mice injected with cancer cells and then exposed to isobutyl nitrite (poppers) revealed that inhalant-treated mice developed tumors more readily and rapidly than control mice. The control mice were also injected with cancer cells, but only breathed air. Related studies found that poppers suppress certain immune functions involved in killing tumor cells. These studies suggest that further research of persons with HIV/AIDS who use poppers is needed to determine if they are at a high risk for developing malignancies.

  7. Efficacy of dexamethasone suppression test during the diagnosis of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease in Chinese adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi; Li, Ran; Lu, Lin; Duan, Lian; Zhang, Xuebin; Tong, Anli; Pan, Hui; Zhu, Huijuan; Lu, Zhaolin

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the cut-off value of the ratio of 24 h urinary free cortisol (24 h UFC) levels post-dexamethasone to prior-dexamethasone in dexamethasone suppression test (DST) during the diagnosis of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease in Chinese adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing syndrome. Retrospective study. The patients diagnosed with primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD, n = 25), bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH, n = 27), and adrenocortical adenoma (ADA, n = 84) were admitted to the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2001 to 2016. Serum cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and 24 h UFC were measured before and after low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST) and high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST). After LDDST and HDDST, 24 h UFC elevated in patients with PPNAD (paired t-test, P = 0.007 and P = 0.001), while it remained unchanged in the BMAH group (paired t-test, P = 0.471 and P = 0.414) and decreased in the ADA group (paired t-test, P = 0.002 and P = 0.004). The 24 h UFC level after LDDST was higher in PPNAD and BMAH as compared to ADA (P < 0.017), while no significant difference was observed between PPNAD and BMAH. After HDDST, 24 h UFC was higher in patients with PPNAD as compared to that of ADA and BMAH (P < 0.017). The cut-off value of 24 h UFC (Post-L-Dex)/(Pre-L-Dex) was 1.16 with 64.0% sensitivity and 77.9% specificity, and the cut-off value of 24 h UFC (Post-H-Dex)/(Pre-H-Dex) was 1.08 with 84.0% sensitivity and 75.6% specificity. The ratio of post-dexamethasone to prior-dexamethasone had a unique advantage in distinguishing PPNAD from BMAH and ADA.

  8. Double-Shell Tank (DST) Diluent and Flush Subsystem Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRAVES, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Double-Shell Tank (DST) Diluent and Flush Subsystem is intended to support Waste Feed Delivery. The DST Diluent and Flush Subsystem specification describes the relationship of this system with the DST System, describes the functions that must be performed by the system, and establishes the performance requirements to be applied to the design of the system. It also provides references for the requisite codes and standards. The DST Diluent and Flush Subsystem will treat the waste for a more favorable waste transfer. This will be accomplished by diluting the waste, dissolving the soluble portion of the waste, and flushing waste residuals from the transfer line. The Diluent and Flush Subsystem will consist of the following: The Diluent and Flush Station(s) where chemicals will be off-loaded, temporarily stored, mixed as necessary, heated, and metered to the delivery system; and A piping delivery system to deliver the chemicals to the appropriate valve or pump pit Associated support structures. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations. This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program

  9. Double Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Pump Subsystem Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LESHIKAR, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied to the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Pump Subsystem which supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery (WFD). This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides the references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during the design of the DST Transfer Pump Subsystem that supports the first phase of (WFD). The DST Transfer Pump Subsystem consists of a pump for supernatant and or slurry transfer for the DSTs that will be retrieved during the Phase 1 WFD operations. This system is used to transfer low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) to designated DST staging tanks. It also will deliver blended LAW and HLW feed from these staging tanks to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor facility where it will be processed into an immobilized waste form. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations (W-521, etc.). This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program

  10. Double Shell Tanks (DST) and Waste Feed Delivery Project Management Quality Affecting Procedures Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUND, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the Double Shell Tanks (DST) and Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Management Assessment Plan is to define how management assessments within DST h WFD will be conducted. The plan as written currently includes only WFD Project assessment topics. Other DST and WFD group assessment topics will be added in future revisions

  11. Development of the Military Women's Attitudes Toward Menstrual Suppression Scale: from construct definition to pilot testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trego, Lori L

    2009-01-01

    The Military Women's Attitudes Toward Menstrual Suppression scale (MWATMS) was created to measure attitudes toward menstrual suppression during deployment. The human health and social ecology theories were integrated to conceptualize an instrument that accounts for military-unique aspects of the environment on attitudes toward suppression. A three-step instrument development process was followed to develop the MWATMS. The instrument was pilot tested on a convenience sample of 206 military women with deployment experience. Reliability was tested with measures of internal consistency (alpha = .97); validity was tested with principal components analysis with varimax rotation. Four components accounted for 65% of variance: Benefits/Interest, Hygiene, Convenience, and Soldier/Stress. The pilot test of the MWATMS supported its reliability and validity. Further testing is warranted for validation of this instrument.

  12. Double Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Piping Subsystem Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRAVES, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Piping Subsystem that supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery. This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Piping Subsystem that supports the first phase of waste feed delivery. This subsystem transfers waste between transfer-associated structures (pits) and to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor Facility where it will be processed into an immobilized waste form. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations (W-521, etc.). This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program

  13. Aconselhamento em DST/Aids às gestantes que realizaram o teste anti-HIV na admissão para o parto: os sentidos de uma prática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Lima Fonseca

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas as práticas e os sentidos do aconselhamento para gestantes submetidas ao teste anti-HIV na admissão para o parto, e para profissionais de saúde que atuam na assistência à maternidade em Salvador, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo em uma maternidade, com observação participante e entrevistas semiestruturadas com 13 puérperas sem diagnóstico prévio para o HIV e sete profissionais de saúde. Observou-se que o exame anti-HIV é realizado de forma compulsória, sem considerar a autonomia da gestante, e que o aconselhamento se limita a informar o diagnóstico e dar orientações no pós-teste somente àquelas cujos resultados foram positivos. Os sentidos que permeiam o exame, assim como o entendimento da experiência e os significados construídos pelas puérperas, sobretudo quando se descobrem positivas para o HIV, não são abordados pelos profissionais, que não se sentem capacitados para acolherem a subjetividade das pacientes.

  14. Aconselhamento em DST/Aids às gestantes que realizaram o teste anti-HIV na admissão para o parto: os sentidos de uma prática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Lima Fonseca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas as práticas e os sentidos do aconselhamento para gestantes submetidas ao teste anti-HIV na admissão para o parto, e para profissionais de saúde que atuam na assistência à maternidade em Salvador, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo em uma maternidade, com observação participante e entrevistas semiestruturadas com 13 puérperas sem diagnóstico prévio para o HIV e sete profissionais de saúde. Observou-se que o exame anti-HIV é realizado de forma compulsória, sem considerar a autonomia da gestante, e que o aconselhamento se limita a informar o diagnóstico e dar orientações no pós-teste somente àquelas cujos resultados foram positivos. Os sentidos que permeiam o exame, assim como o entendimento da experiência e os significados construídos pelas puérperas, sobretudo quando se descobrem positivas para o HIV, não são abordados pelos profissionais, que não se sentem capacitados para acolherem a subjetividade das pacientes.

  15. Functional Analysis for Double Shell Tank (DST) Subsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    This functional analysis identifies the hierarchy and describes the subsystem functions that support the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System described in HNF-SD-WM-TRD-007, System Specification for the Double-Shell Tank System. Because of the uncertainty associated with the need for upgrades of the existing catch tanks supporting the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) mission, catch tank functions are not addressed in this document. The functions identified herein are applicable to the Phase 1 WFD mission only

  16. The polaroid suppression test in a pediatric population with ophthalmologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Jan Willem R; Kingma, C; Verhoeff, K; Grootendorst, R J; de Faber, J T H N

    2003-04-01

    The Polaroid suppression test (PST) is a new method for early detection of amblyogenic factors by screening for suppression. The apparatus can elicit suppression with the use of Polaroid filters. The aim of the present study was to examine a population of children with known ophthalmologic disorders using the PST to determine the rate of false-negative results of the PST. Six hundred four children, varying in age between 3 and 15 years (mean, 7.9) were examined using the PST. Ophthalmologic disorders ranged from strabismus and amblyopia to refractive disorders. Mean testing time for the PST was 43 seconds. The PST could not be administered to 34 children (5.6%); 443 children (73.3%) had abnormal results; and 127 children (22.2%) showed no suppression. The suppression in constant strabismus was detected in almost all cases. The sensitivity for accommodative forms of strabismus was lower, but amblyopia was never missed in these cases. In children with normal eye alignment, only 2.7% with an interocular acuity difference of more than 0.1 logMAR had no suppression. Of all 119 children with clinical defined amblyopia, only 1 (0.8%) did not have suppression. Overall sensitivity of the PST for strabismus and/or abnormal interocular acuity difference was 96.2% and specificity was 41.1%. The PST has great potential as a visual screening tool in young children. Only few children with amblyogenic factors were missed. Thus, the test can differentiate those children at risk for amblyopia from normally sighted children. Because specificity is lower, all children showing suppression with the PST in a screening situation should have further examination by the health care worker before being referred to the ophthalmologist.

  17. [Contributions of cortisol suppression tests to understanding of psychiatric disorders: a narrative review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Montes-Montero, Ana; Güemes, Itziar; González-Vives, Sara; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Carrasco, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis had been studied for the past half century, when some researchers noted that some patients with Cushing's syndrome and severe mood disorders had high baseline cortisol levels, which resulted in an inhibited response in the 1mg dexamethasone suppression test. Altered dexamethasone suppression test results were subsequently found in many psychiatric diseases, including anorexia nervosa, obsessive-compulsive disorder, degenerative dementia, bipolar disorders, and schizophrenia. The relationship between high baseline cortisol levels and stress has also been studied. Some researches on the genesis of borderline personality disorder focused on traumatic childhood backgrounds. Other investigations aimed at elucidating the relationship between traumatic backgrounds and some psychiatric disorders noted that patients with post-traumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder showed an enhanced cortisol suppression with low cortisol doses (0.5 mg). Recent studies showed that use of an ultra-low dose of cortisol during the dexamethasone suppression test may be helpful for detecting disorders with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Recent advances in neuroimaging support the existence of hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with borderline personality disorder, relating a decreased pituitary gland volume to major traumatic backgrounds and suicidal attempts. The purpose of this paper is to make a narrative review of research using dexamethasone suppression test in psychiatric disorders, in order to ascertain its value as a supplemental diagnostic test or as a prognostic marker. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Mark II containment 1/6-scale pressure suppression test program: data report no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukita, Yutaka; Okazaki, Motoaki; Namatame, Ken; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1979-08-01

    This report documents experimental data from the first test phase of the Mark II Containment 1/6-Scale Pressure Suppression Test. The 1/6-Scale Test was initiated in December, 1976, to investigate the thermohydraulic responses of a BWR Mark II pressure suppression system to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), by means of scale model experiments. From January to June, 1977, a series of tests were performed for the Japanese BWR Owners' Group. These tests consisted of eight air-blowdown pool swell tests, three steam-blowdown pool swell tests, and twelve steam condensation tests. The dynamic responses of pressure and pool water level during the blowdown, pressure oscillation and chugging phenomena associated with unsteady condensation of steam were measured. (author)

  19. Test facility of the VVER-440 condensation-type pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, H.; Arndt, S.

    2004-01-01

    Since the early nineties, GRS has supported regulatory authorities in Central and Eastern Europe in performing safety assessments of nuclear power plants. Especially studies of the condensation-type pressure suppression system of VVER-440/V-213-type plants have been important in this respect. Major steps in demonstrating complete functioning of the condensation-type pressure suppression system under accident conditions by experiments run in the Russian large scale test facility, BC V-213, have been completed in the past two years within the framework of various international experimental programs. The test results were used to validate specifically for power plants with VVER-400/V-213 reactors the COCOSYS GRS computer code, which is used in the safety assessments. The results of recalculations of the C02 EREC test, which simulates a break of a main steam pipe, demonstrate the present state of validation of COCOSYS for VVER condensation-type pressure suppression systems. (orig.) [de

  20. TRH and T3 suppression tests after 131I therapy of thyrotoxicosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Hajime; Tsushimi, Takashi; Shizume, Kazuo; Kuma, Kanji; Suematsu, Hiroyuki.

    1976-01-01

    TRH and T 3 suppression tests were performed on patients (124 cases) with Graves' disease who underwent radiotherapy. TRH test was performed at 4 - 6 months (Group I), 6 - 12 months (Group II), 12 - 24 months (Group III) and 24 - 50 months (Group IV) after final radiotherapy, and T 3 suppression test was performed just after each TRH test. Among 124 patients in Group I to IV who were clinically euthyroid and whose T 3 -RU and T 4 values were normal, compared with other groups, Group IV (2 - 4.2 Y) showed a significantly higher percentage of positive responses to both TRH and T 3 suppression tests. However, among 49 of 124 patients whose T 3 was also normal, there were no significant differences between the groups. The value of triiodothyronine was above the normal range in many cases up to 2 years after radiotherapy (in Group I, II, III). There were no significant differences in the percentage of hyperresponses between any of the four groups. Half of the patients who showed positive responses to TRH test showed exaggerated responses. In all cases when the responses to TRH and T 3 suppression tests changed from negative to positive, thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations must be within the normal range. In particular, the major determinant seems to be the value of triiodothyronine. As in more than 30% of cases TRH and T 3 suppression tests remained negative even though their T 3 -RU, T 4 , T 3 , values became normal after radiotherapy, the regulation of hypothalamo-hypophyseal thyroid axis do not always return to normal even though circulating thyroidal hormone level return to an euthyroid state. (J.P.N.)

  1. Geospace environment modeling 2008--2009 challenge: Dst index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastätter, L.; Kuznetsova, M.M.; Glocer, A.; Welling, D.; Meng, X.; Raeder, J.; Wittberger, M.; Jordanova, V.K.; Yu, Y.; Zaharia, S.; Weigel, R.S.; Sazykin, S.; Boynton, R.; Wei, H.; Eccles, V.; Horton, W.; Mays, M.L.; Gannon, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the metrics-based results of the Dst index part of the 2008–2009 GEM Metrics Challenge. The 2008–2009 GEM Metrics Challenge asked modelers to submit results for four geomagnetic storm events and five different types of observations that can be modeled by statistical, climatological or physics-based models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. We present the results of 30 model settings that were run at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center and at the institutions of various modelers for these events. To measure the performance of each of the models against the observations, we use comparisons of 1 hour averaged model data with the Dst index issued by the World Data Center for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, Japan, and direct comparison of 1 minute model data with the 1 minute Dst index calculated by the United States Geological Survey. The latter index can be used to calculate spectral variability of model outputs in comparison to the index. We find that model rankings vary widely by skill score used. None of the models consistently perform best for all events. We find that empirical models perform well in general. Magnetohydrodynamics-based models of the global magnetosphere with inner magnetosphere physics (ring current model) included and stand-alone ring current models with properly defined boundary conditions perform well and are able to match or surpass results from empirical models. Unlike in similar studies, the statistical models used in this study found their challenge in the weakest events rather than the strongest events.

  2. A Study on the Optimal Duration of Daylight Saving Time (DST in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Hee Mihn

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Daylight saving time aims at spending effective daylight in summer season. Korea had enforced daylight saving time twelve times from 1948 to 1988. Since 1988, it is not executed, but it is recently discussed the resumption of DST. In this paper, we investigate the trend of DST in other countries, review the history of DST in Korea, and suggest the optimal DST duration in terms of astronomical aspects (times of sunrise and sunset. We find that the starting day of DST in Korea is apt for the second Sunday in Mayor the second Sunday in April according to the time of sunrise or to the difference between Korean standard meridian and observer`s, respectively. We also discuss time friction that might be caused by time difference between DST and Korea Standard Time (KST.

  3. STRONTIUM & TRANSURANIC (TRU) SEPARATION PROCESS IN THE DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON; SWANSON; BOECHLER

    2005-06-10

    The supernatants stored in tanks 241-AN-102 (AN-102) and 241-AN-107 (AN-107) contain soluble strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr) and transuranic (TRU) elements that require removal prior to vitrification to comply with the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) specification and with the 1997 agreement with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on incidental waste. A precipitation process has been developed and tested with tank waste samples and simulants using strontium nitrate (Sr(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and sodium permanganate (NaMnO{sub 4}) to separate {sup 90}Sr and TRU from these wastes. This report evaluates removing Sr/TRU from AN-102 and AN-107 supernates in the DST system before delivery to the WTP. The in-tank precipitation is a direct alternative to the baseline WTP process, using the same chemical separations. Implementing the Sr/TRU separation in the DST system beginning in 2012 provides {approx}6 month schedule advantage to the overall mission, without impacting the mission end date or planned SST retrievals.

  4. Double-Shell Tank (DST) Maintenance and Recovery Subsystem Definition Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    The description of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Maintenance and Recovery Subsystem presented in this document was developed to establish its boundaries. The DST Maintenance and Recovery Subsystem consists of new and existing equipment and facilities used to provide tank farm operators logistic support and problem resolution for the DST System during operations. This support will include evaluating equipment status, performing preventive and corrective maintenance, developing work packages, managing spares and consumables, supplying tooling, and training maintenance and operations personnel

  5. Comparison of analysis and flight test data for a drone aircraft with active flutter suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, J. R.; Pototzky, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    A drone aircraft equipped with an active flutter suppression system is considered with emphasis on the comparison of modal dampings and frequencies as a function of Mach number. Results are presented for both symmetric and antisymmetric motion with flutter suppression off. Only symmetric results are given for flutter suppression on. Frequency response functions of the vehicle are presented from both flight test data and analysis. The analysis correlation is improved by using an empirical aerodynamic correction factor which is proportional to the ratio of experimental to analytical steady-state lift curve slope. The mathematical models are included and existing analytical techniques are described as well as an alternative analytical technique for obtaining closed-loop results.

  6. Suppression pool testing at the SIET laboratory. Experimental investigation of critical phenomena expected in the Fukushima Daiichi suppression chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, Marco; Naitoh, Masanori; Araneo, Lucio; Ninokata, Hisashi; Ricotti, Marco; Achilli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In the unlikely event of a nuclear power plant long duration station black-out, as in the Fukushima Daiichi (1F) severe accident (SA), it was recognized that the suppression chamber (S/C) functions of heat sink and fission product (FP) scrubbing will degrade, resulting in the S/C pressure increase, reduction of the scrubbing efficiency and subsequent necessity of venting operations. Consequently, a relatively large amount of FPs, in particular highly volatile elements (e.g. CH_3I), is likely to be dispersed into the environment. As a method to evaluate the degradation of the pool characteristics under discharge of steam and non-condensable gases through vent pipes and steam through different quencher geometries of make-up systems, an experimental campaign was recently started at the SIET research laboratory in Italy. Two different quencher geometries, representing vent pipes and the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) exhaust pipes in 1F2 and 1F3, were adopted. Several combinations of steam and air mass flow rates were tested to scale down the main conditions occurred during the 1F SA. Measurements of pool water temperature in different locations and visualization with high-speed camera represent the main outcome of the experimental activity. The preliminary results have demonstrated that a relatively small concentration of air in the steam flow is able to suppress the occurrence of chugging of the steam, with reduced mixing in the pool. Both RCIC quenchers adopted induced large chugging at the bottom of the pool which are effective to avoid temperature stratification, thanks to the large water recirculation and vertical mixing within the pool. At decreased subcooling, mixing in the pool ceases and the quenchers with holes disposed in the vertical direction, as in the RCIC exhaust pipe of the 1F unit 3, introduce intense stratification that drastically reduces the condensation efficiency of the S/C pool. Quencher of 1F2 RCIC does not present stratification

  7. Pressure suppression experiments in the PSS test rig of the GKSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.

    1975-01-01

    A pressure suppression system has been developed for the advanced pressurized water reactor. Due to its compact layout, this system enables the reactor plant to be installed in the ship in a volume and weight saving manner. Because of significant differences in design and construction of this system as compared to similar systems for land based nuclear power plants, a test facility was built to experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness and the functioning of this system. The test facility will be described and a program of the major experimental tests will be given. Finally, some preliminary results of tests with air carry over in the wet well will be presented. (orig.) [de

  8. Effects of carbamazepine on dexamethasone suppression and sleep electroencephalography in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Fuente, José M; Bobes, Julio; Vizuete, Coro; Mendlewicz, Julien

    2002-01-01

    The pathophysiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) remains obscure, but there is mounting evidence of brain dysfunction without focal abnormality. The dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and sleep electroencephalography (sleep EEG) have been studied in BPD, but the findings seem to be related to a concomitant axis I diagnosis of major depression (MD) rather than to BPD itself. There is no effective treatment for BPD. Carbamazepine (CBZ) has shown contradictory results and in a previous study, our results were negative. In this study, we investigated the effects of CBZ versus placebo on the DST and sleep EEG in a sample of 20 BPD patients without concomitant MD. CBZ given at doses that are therapeutic for epilepsy and affective disorders may have an effect on the DST and sleep EEG in BPD. CBZ significantly increased the postdexamethasone plasma cortisol values. This did not parallel MD or an increase in the Hamilton depression rating scores. CBZ also increased slow wave sleep (SWS). The mechanisms by which CBZ increased postdexamethasone plasma cortisol levels and SWS in BPD are discussed. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Comparison of 1 mg and 2 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression tests for the screening of Cushing's syndrome in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mustafa; Kebapcilar, Levent; Taslipinar, Abdullah; Azal, Omer; Ozgurtas, Taner; Corakci, Ahmet; Akgul, Emin Ozgur; Taslipinar, Mine Yavuz; Yazici, Mahmut; Kutlu, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is currently a major public health problem and one of the potential underlying causes of obesity in a minority of patients is Cushing's syndrome (CS). Traditionally, the gold standard screening test for CS is 1 mg dexamethasone overnight suppression test. However, it is known that obese subjects have high false positive results with this test. We have therefore compared the 1 mg and 2 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression tests in obese subjects. Patients whose serum cortisol after ODST was >50 nM underwent and a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST); 24-hour urine cortisol was collected for basal urinary free cortisol (UFC). For positive results after overnight 1-mg dexamethasone suppression test we also performed the overnight 2-mg dexamethasone suppression test. We prospectively evaluated 100 patients (22 men and 78 women, ranging in age from 17 to 73 years with a body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2 who had been referred to our hospital-affiliated endocrine clinic because of simple obesity. Suppression of serum cortisol to suppression. Thyroid function tests, lipid profiles, homocysteine, antithyroglobulin, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody levels, vitamin B12, folate levels, insulin resistance [by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)] and 1.0 mg postdexamethasone (postdex) suppression cortisol levels were measured. We found an 8% false-positive rate in 1 mg overnight test and 2% in 2 mg overnight test (p=0.001). There was no correlation between the cortisol levels after ODST and other parameters. Our results indicate that the 2 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test (ODST) is more convenient and accurate than 1-mg ODST as a screening test for excluding CS in subjects with simple obesity.

  10. DST Indices - Reflection Variations in the Magnetospheric Tail Current and Field-aligned Currents in the Magnetosphere

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The file is comprised of monthly DST indices. These indices are derived from a network of eight stations in the equatorial latitudes. Hourly DST indices provide an...

  11. Suppression of background noise in a transonic wind-tunnel test section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutzenhofer, L. A.; Howard, P. W.

    1975-01-01

    Some exploratory tests were recently performed in the transonic test section of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center 14-in. wind tunnel to suppress the background noise. In these tests, the perforated walls of the test section were covered with fine wire screens. The screens eliminated the edge tones generated by the holes in the perforated walls and significantly reduced the tunnel background noise. The tunnel noise levels were reduced to such a degree by this simple modification at Mach numbers 0.75, 0.9, 1.1, 1.2, and 1.46 that the fluctuating pressure levels of a turbulent boundary layer could be measured on a 5-deg half-angle cone.

  12. Experimental test of a new technique of background suppression in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisogni, M.G.; Bottari, S.; Ciocci, M.A.; Fantacci, M.E.; Maestro, P.; Malakhov, N.; Marrocchesi, P.S. E-mail: marrocchesi@pi.infn.it; Novelli, M.; Quattrocchi, M.; Pilo, F.; Rosso, V.; Turini, N.; Zucca, S

    2002-02-01

    A multiple-exposure technique in digital mammography has been developed to suppress the physical background in the image due to Compton scattering in the body. A pair of X-ray masks, shaped in a projective geometry and positioned upstream and downstream the patient, are coupled mechanically and moved in four steps along a square pattern in order to irradiate the full area in four consecutive short exposures. A proof-of-principle apparatus is under test with a breast phantom and a standard mammographic X-ray unit. Results are reported.

  13. Experimental test of a new technique of background suppression in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisogni, M.G.; Bottari, S.; Ciocci, M.A.; Fantacci, M.E.; Maestro, P.; Malakhov, N.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Novelli, M.; Quattrocchi, M.; Pilo, F.; Rosso, V.; Turini, N.; Zucca, S.

    2002-01-01

    A multiple-exposure technique in digital mammography has been developed to suppress the physical background in the image due to Compton scattering in the body. A pair of X-ray masks, shaped in a projective geometry and positioned upstream and downstream the patient, are coupled mechanically and moved in four steps along a square pattern in order to irradiate the full area in four consecutive short exposures. A proof-of-principle apparatus is under test with a breast phantom and a standard mammographic X-ray unit. Results are reported

  14. Restoration of Secondary Containment in Double Shell Tank (DST) Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHEN, E.J.

    2000-10-05

    Cracks found in many of the double-shell tank (DST) pump and valve pits bring into question the ability of the pits to provide secondary containment and remain in compliance with State and Federal regulations. This study was commissioned to identify viable options for maintain/restoring secondary containment capability in these pits. The basis for this study is the decision analysis process which identifies the requirements to be met and the desired goals (decision criteria) that each option will be weighed against. A facilitated workshop was convened with individuals knowledgeable of Tank Farms Operations, engineering practices, and safety/environmental requirements. The outcome of this workshop was the validation or identification of the critical requirements, definition of the current problem, identification and weighting of the desired goals, baselining of the current repair methods, and identification of potential alternate solutions. The workshop was followed up with further investigations into the potential solutions that were identified in the workshop and through other efforts. These solutions are identified in the body of this report. Each of the potential solutions were screened against the list of requirements and only those meeting the requirements were considered viable options. To expand the field of viable options, hybrid concepts that combine the strongest features of different individual approaches were also examined. Several were identified. The decision analysis process then ranked each of the viable options against the weighted decision criteria, which resulted in a recommended solution. The recommended approach is based upon installing a sprayed on coating system.

  15. Restoration of Secondary Containment in Double Shell Tank (DST) Pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHEN, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    Cracks found in many of the double-shell tank (DST) pump and valve pits bring into question the ability of the pits to provide secondary containment and remain in compliance with State and Federal regulations. This study was commissioned to identify viable options for maintain/restoring secondary containment capability in these pits. The basis for this study is the decision analysis process which identifies the requirements to be met and the desired goals (decision criteria) that each option will be weighed against. A facilitated workshop was convened with individuals knowledgeable of Tank Farms Operations, engineering practices, and safety/environmental requirements. The outcome of this workshop was the validation or identification of the critical requirements, definition of the current problem, identification and weighting of the desired goals, baselining of the current repair methods, and identification of potential alternate solutions. The workshop was followed up with further investigations into the potential solutions that were identified in the workshop and through other efforts. These solutions are identified in the body of this report. Each of the potential solutions were screened against the list of requirements and only those meeting the requirements were considered viable options. To expand the field of viable options, hybrid concepts that combine the strongest features of different individual approaches were also examined. Several were identified. The decision analysis process then ranked each of the viable options against the weighted decision criteria, which resulted in a recommended solution. The recommended approach is based upon installing a sprayed on coating system

  16. Revised Dst and the epicycles of magnetic disturbance: 1958–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Gannon

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A revised version of the storm-time disturbance index Dst is calculated using hourly-mean magnetic-observatory data from four standard observatories and collected over the years 1958–2007. The calculation algorithm is a revision of that established by Sugiura et al., and which is now used by the Kyoto World Data Center for routine production of Dst. The most important new development is for the removal of solar-quiet variation. This is done through time and frequency-domain band-stop filtering – selectively removing specific Fourier terms approximating stationary periodic variation driven by the Earth's rotation, the Moon's orbit, the Earth's orbit around the Sun, and their mutual coupling. The resulting non-stationary disturbance time series are weighted by observatory-site geomagnetic latitude and then averaged together across longitudes to give what we call Dst5807-4SH. Comparisons are made with the standard Kyoto Dst. Various biases, especially for residual solar-quiet variation, are identified in the Kyoto Dst, and occasional storm-time errors in the Kyoto Dst are noted. Using Dst5807-4SH, storms are ranked for maximum storm-time intensity, and we show that storm-occurrence frequency follows a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff. The epicycles of magnetic disturbance are explored: we (1 map low-latitude local-time disturbance asymmetry, (2 confirm the 27-day storm-recurrence phenomenon using autocorrelation, (3 investigate the coupled semi-annual-diurnal variation of magnetic activity and the proposed explanatory equinoctial and Russell-McPherron hypotheses, and (4 illustrate the well-known solar-cycle modulation of storm-occurrence likelihood. Since Dst5807-4SH is useful for a variety of space physics and solid-Earth applications, it is made freely available to the scientific community.

  17. Ontogeny and Evolution Through the Lens of the Developmental Systems Theory (DST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Dressino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Developmental Systems Theory (DST intends to make a conceptual summary that links ontogenic development to evolution. This theory’s background may be found in the works of Waddington and Bertalanffy, who provided the foundations for the canalization of development and the biological systems theory, respectively. The aim of this work is to make a preliminary conceptual analysis of DST as a theoretical framework for developmental biology in particular and for evolutionary biology in general. For that purpose, we will take into account some of the concepts and proposals that constitute this framework, and we will work with secondary data obtained from the bibliography. We conclude that: 1. DST is able to argue against the gene centrist vision about the explanations that try to justify biological and evolutionary development; 2. DST argues coherently in favor of the role of Epigenetics in ontogeny and evolution; 3. In connection to that, the role of natural selection is restricted to a secondary plane; 4. DST proposes that the nature/nurture dichotomy must be overcome; and 5. DST constitutes a possible methodological research program composed of a series of not necessarily related hypothesis, theories, and methods that may be confirmed in a relatively independent manner from the rest of the theoretical network.

  18. Suppressing Unwanted Autobiographical Memories Reduces Their Automatic Influences: Evidence From Electrophysiology and an Implicit Autobiographical Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Bergström, Zara M; Bodenhausen, Galen V; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which people can suppress unwanted autobiographical memories in a memory-detection context involving a mock crime. Participants encoded sensorimotor-rich memories by enacting a lab-based crime (stealing a ring) and received instructions to suppress memory of the crime in order to evade guilt detection in a brain-wave-based concealed-information test. Aftereffects of suppression on automatic memory processes were measured in an autobiographical Implicit Association Test. Results showed that suppression attenuated brain-wave activity (the P300) associated with crime-relevant memory retrieval, which rendered waveforms from innocent and guilty participants indistinguishable. However, the two groups could nevertheless be discriminated via the late-posterior-negative slow wave, which may reflect the need to monitor response conflict arising between voluntary suppression and automatic recognition processes. Finally, extending recent findings that suppression can impair implicit memory processes, we provide novel evidence that suppression reduces automatic cognitive biases often associated with actual autobiographical memories. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Extended low-dose dexamethasone suppression test for diagnosis of atypical Cushing's syndrome in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, K M; Frank, L A; Morandi, F; Whittemore, J C

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate extension of the low-dose dexamethasone suppression (LDDS) test from 8 h to 12 h to detect possible hypercortisolemia associated with atypical hyperadrenocorticism (AHAC). Twelve client-owned dogs were enrolled in the study: 6 healthy dogs (group 1) and 6 dogs with suspected AHAC (group 2). Baseline EDTA plasma samples were collected for endogenous ACTH determination using an immunoradiometric assay. Serum samples were collected before and at 4, 8, 10, and 12 h post-administration of 0.01 mg/kg dexamethasone IV for cortisol concentration determination via chemiluminescent assay. Mean endogenous ACTH concentration did not differ between groups (group 1: 22.4 pg/mL, group 2: 20.0 pg/mL; P > 0.2). Mean baseline cortisol concentration also did not differ significantly between groups (group 1: 3.03 μg/dL, group 2: 4.95 μg/dL; P > 0.2) nor was there any difference in mean cortisol concentration between the groups at any other time point (P > 0.2). The cortisol concentration from 1 dog in group 2 suppressed to 0.7 μg/dL at 8 h but increased to 1.5 μg/dL at 10 h and 3.7 μg/dL at 12 h post-dexamethasone. Based on results of this study, use of an extended LDDS test could not differentiate between healthy dogs and dogs with AHAC. Diagnosis of AHAC should continue to be based on prior established criteria until new testing has been identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Test and performance of a BGO Compton-suppression shield for GAMMASPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Khoo, T.L.; Ahmad, I.

    1994-01-01

    Bismuth germanate (BGO) compton-suppression shields have been constructed to surround the Ge detectors of the GAMMASPHERE array. A shield consists of six hexagonal tapered BGO elements, each coupled to two 1-inch x 1-inch photomultiplier tubes. In addition, a cylindrical BGO detector is placed behind the Ge detector to intercept the forward scattered gamma rays. One hundred ten such shields are planned for the GAMMASPHERE array. Procedures for measuring the performance of these shields have been developed. Large (70 %) Ge detectors when used with these shields give a peak-to-total ratio of better tan 0.60. To date more than 85 shield have been tested and approved for use in GAMMASPHERE

  1. An Experimental Test of a Biodynamic Method of Weed Suppression: The Biodynamic Seed Peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Kenneth Kirchoff

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental test of a biodynamic agriculture method of weed suppression was carried out in growth chambers to establish the feasibility of the method as a preliminary to field trials. Four generations of Brassica rapa plants were used in a randomized block design. Treated flats received ashed seeds prepared according to biodynamic indications. Seed weight and counts were measured at the end of each generation, and germination of the control and experimental seed was investigated at the end of generation four. The biodynamic seed peppers, created and applied as described here, had no effect on seed production or viability, and did not effectively inhibit reproduction of the targeted species over the course of four consecutive treatments.

  2. Geomagnetic storms, the Dst ring-current myth and lognormal distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    The definition of geomagnetic storms dates back to the turn of the century when researchers recognized the unique shape of the H-component field change upon averaging storms recorded at low latitude observatories. A generally accepted modeling of the storm field sources as a magnetospheric ring current was settled about 30 years ago at the start of space exploration and the discovery of the Van Allen belt of particles encircling the Earth. The Dst global 'ring-current' index of geomagnetic disturbances, formulated in that period, is still taken to be the definitive representation for geomagnetic storms. Dst indices, or data from many world observatories processed in a fashion paralleling the index, are used widely by researchers relying on the assumption of such a magnetospheric current-ring depiction. Recent in situ measurements by satellites passing through the ring-current region and computations with disturbed magnetosphere models show that the Dst storm is not solely a main-phase to decay-phase, growth to disintegration, of a massive current encircling the Earth. Although a ring current certainly exists during a storm, there are many other field contributions at the middle-and low-latitude observatories that are summed to show the 'storm' characteristic behavior in Dst at these observatories. One characteristic of the storm field form at middle and low latitudes is that Dst exhibits a lognormal distribution shape when plotted as the hourly value amplitude in each time range. Such distributions, common in nature, arise when there are many contributors to a measurement or when the measurement is a result of a connected series of statistical processes. The amplitude-time displays of Dst are thought to occur because the many time-series processes that are added to form Dst all have their own characteristic distribution in time. By transforming the Dst time display into the equivalent normal distribution, it is shown that a storm recovery can be predicted with

  3. Revised Dst and the epicycles of magnetic disturbance: 1958-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J.J.; Gannon, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    A revised version of the storm-time disturbance index Dst is calculated using hourly-mean magnetic-observatory data from four standard observatories and collected over the years 1958-2007. The calculation algorithm is a revision of that established by Sugiura et al., and which is now used by the Kyoto World Data Center for routine production of Dst. The most important new development is for the removal of solar-quiet variation. This is done through time and frequency-domain band-stop filtering - selectively removing specific Fourier terms approximating stationary periodic variation driven by the Earth's rotation, the Moon's orbit, the Earth's orbit around the Sun, and their mutual coupling. The resulting non-stationary disturbance time series are weighted by observatory-site geomagnetic latitude and then averaged together across longitudes to give what we call Dst5807-4SH. Comparisons are made with the standard Kyoto D st. Various biases, especially for residual solar-quiet variation, are identified in the Kyoto Dst, and occasional storm-time errors in the Kyoto Dst are noted. Using Dst5807-4SH, storms are ranked for maximum storm-time intensity, and we show that storm-occurrence frequency follows a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff. The epicycles of magnetic disturbance are explored: we (1) map low-latitude local-time disturbance asymmetry, (2) confirm the 27-day storm-recurrence phenomenon using autocorrelation, (3) investigate the coupled semi-annual-diurnal variation of magnetic activity and the proposed explanatory equinoctial and Russell-McPherron hypotheses, and (4) illustrate the well-known solar-cycle modulation of storm-occurrence likelihood. Since Dst5807-4SH is useful for a variety of space physics and solid-Earth applications, it is made freely available to the scientific community.

  4. Pressure suppression system (PSS) for nuclear ships. Experimental results obtained at the GKSS PSS-test-facillity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.; Niemann, H.R.; Schwan, H.; Vollbrandt, J.

    1978-01-01

    The PSS-test facility is shortly presented which was designed to show experimentally the operation of the pressure suppression containment for the NCS 80 concept. The results of the experimental LOCA-simulation tests in the PSS-test facility are illustrated by diagrams. The observed phenomena as chugging and pessure oscillations immediately after vent clearing are reported as well as the thermohydraulic loadings of the total system. Finally a short view is given on the future test program

  5. Vestibulo-ocular reflex gain values in the suppression head impulse test of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Martinez, Jorge; Thomas-Arrizabalaga, Izaskun; Espinosa-Sanchez, Juan Manuel; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Trinidad-Ruiz, Gabriel; Matiño-Soler, Eusebi; Perez-Fernandez, Nicolas

    2018-02-15

    To assess whether there are differences in vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain for suppression head impulse (SHIMP) and head impulse (HIMP) video head impulse test paradigms, and if so, what are their causes. Prospective multicenter observational double-blind nonrandomized clinical study was performed by collecting 80 healthy subjects from four reference hospitals. SHIMP data was postprocessed to eliminate impulses in which early SHIMP saccades were detected. Differences between HIMP and SHIMP VOR gain values were statistically evaluated. Head impulse maximum velocity, gender, age, direction of impulse, and hospital center were considered as possible influential factors. A small significant statistical difference between HIMP and SHIMP VOR gain values was found on repeated measures analysis of variance (-0.05 ± 0.006, P gain values and did not find influence between gain values differences and maximum head impulse velocity. Both HIMP and SHIMP VOR gain values were significant lower (-0.09, P gain values not adequately explained by known gain modification factors. The persistence of this slight but significant difference indicates that there are more factors causing lower SHIMP VOR gain values. This difference must to be considered in further studies as well as in the clinical SHIMP testing protocols. We hypothesized that VOR phasic response inhibition could be the underlying cause of this difference. IIb. Laryngoscope, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Correlation Between Monthly Cumulative Auroral Electrojet Indices, DST Index and Interplanetary Electric Field During Magnetic Storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Kyung Park

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetospheric substorms occur frequently during magnetic storms, suggesting that the two phenomena are closely associated. We can investigate the relation between magnetospheric substorms and magnetic storms by examining the correlation between AE and Dst indices. For this purpose, we calculated the monthly cumulative AU, |AL| and |Dst| indices. The correlation coefficient between the monthly cumulative |AL| and |Dst| index is found to be 0.60, while that between monthly cumulative AU and |Dst| index is 0.28. This result indicates that substorms seem to contribute to the development of magnetic storms. On the other hand, it has been reported that the interplanetary electric field associated with southward IMF intensifies the magnetospheric convection, which injects charged particles into the inner magnetosphere, thus developing the ring current. To evaluate the contribution of the interplanetary electric field to the development of the storm time ring current belt, we compared the monthly cumulative interplanetary electric field and the monthly cumulative Dst index. The correlation coefficient between the two cumulative indices is 0.83 for southward IMF and 0.39 for northward IMF. It indicates that magnetospheric convection induced by southward IMF is also important in developing magnetic storms. Therefore, both magnetospheric substorm and enhanced magnetospheric convection seem to contribute to the buildup of magnetic storm.

  7. Interface Control Document Between the Double Shell Tanks (DST) System and the Plutonium Finishing Plan (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAY, T.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies the requirements and responsibilities for all parties to support waste transfer from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) facility to the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System of the River Protection Project (RPP). This Interface Control Document (ICD) will not attempt to control the physical portion of this interface because the physical equipment making up this interface, and any associated interface requirements, are already in place, operational and governed by existing operating specifications and other documentation. The PFP and DST Systems have a direct physical interface (the waste transfer pipeline) that travels between the 241-2 Building (TK-D5) and DST SY-102 via 244-TX double-contained receiver tank (DCRT). The purpose of the ICD process is to formalize working agreements between the RPP DST System and organization/companies internal and external to RPP. This ICD has been developed as part of the requirements basis for design of the DST System to support the Phase I Privatization effort

  8. Time Delay Between Dst Index and Magnetic Storm Related Structure in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osherovich, Vladimir A.; Fainberg, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Benson et al. (2015, this volume) selected 10 large magnetic storms, with associated Dst minimum values less than or equal to -100 nT, for which high-latitude topside ionospheric electron density profiles are available from topside-sounder satellites. For these 10 storms, we performed a superposition of Dst and interplanetary parameters B, v, N(sub p) and T(sub p). We have found that two interplanetary parameters, namely B and v, are sufficient to reproduce Dst with correlation coefficient cc approximately 0.96 provided that the interplanetary parameter times are taken 0.15 days earlier than the associated Dst times. Thus we have found which part of the solar wind is responsible for each phase of the magnetic storm. This result is also verified for individual storms as well. The total duration of SRS (storm related structure in the solar wind) is 4 - 5 days which is the same as the associated Dst interval of the magnetic storm.

  9. Instructions to suppress semantic memory enhances or has no effect on P300 in a concealed information test (CIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, J Peter; Ward, Anne; Drapekin, Jesse; Labkovsky, Elena; Tullman, Samuel

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which people can suppress semantic memory as indexed with the P300 ERP and the autobiographical implicit association test (aIAT). In EXP 1, participants (22) were run in a counterbalanced repeated measures study in both simply knowledgeable (SK) and knowledgeable with suppression (SP) conditions. A P300-based, concealed information test ("Complex Trial Protocol"; CTP) with a 50/50 Target/Nontarget (T/NT) ratio was given both with and without instructions to suppress semantic memories. The results showed increased P300s to probe name stimuli, reduced (but still high positive) aIAT d-scores, and increased simple reaction times to all stimuli used in ERP tests in the SP condition. EXP 2 was similar, but with SP and SK in two separate groups, and a 20/80 T/NT ratio. Again, ERP and aIAT results failed to show a suppression effect for semantic memory. The behavioral data suggest some task demand effects under suppression instructions, and that EXP 1 was more demanding than EXP 2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Work Plan for Updating Double Shell Tank (DST) Sub-System Specifications ICDS (TBR-120.005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LEONARD, M.W.

    1999-01-01

    The DST System stores waste from the processing of nuclear material at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. The program to dispose of this waste has been divided into several phases with Phase 1 being the demonstration of the waste disposal technology by a private contractor. A DST System specification is being prepared providing the top-level requirements for the continued safe storage of waste in the DST System and the removal of selected waste for processing by the privatized facility during Phase 1. This document provides the detailed plans for finalizing and issuing Rev. 0 of the DST System specification in FY-2000 and for the release of several interface control documents

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Wwww... - Test Method for Determining Vapor Suppressant Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... premise of this method is to compare laminate samples made with vapor suppressant additive and made... additives. The effectiveness of a specific vapor suppressant and resin mixture is determined by comparing... ±.01g with digital output, such as an RS-232 bi-directional interface 13 for use with automatic data...

  12. [Value of desmopressin stimulation test and high dose dexamethasone suppression testin the etiologic diagnosis of ACTH dependent Cushing's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Yu, Yerong; Tan, Huiwen; Wang, Chun; Li, Jianwei; An, Zhenmei; Liu, Yuping

    2016-03-22

    To investigate the value of desmopressin (DDAVP) stimulation test and high dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST) in establishing the cause of ACTH dependent Cushing's syndrome. The clinical data of patients with ACTH dependent Cushing's syndrome at West China Hospital from January 1, 2010 to September 30, 2015 was analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of DDAVP stimulation test, HDDST, and the diagnostic accordance rate when the two tests were combined, were evaluated based on the diagnostic gold standard. A total of 85 patients with Cushing's disease and 10 patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome were included. The sensitivity and specificity of DDAVP stimulation test were 87% and 5/5, respectively, whereas those of HDDST were 79% and 8/10, respectively. The standard high dose dexamethasone suppression test showed a higher sensitivity than overnight 8 mg dexamethasone suppression test. When the two tests had consistent results, the diagnostic accordance rate was 100%. DDAVP stimulation test and HDDST are both efficient modalities for the diagnosis of Cushing's Disease and ectopic ACTH syndrome. The accuracy of diagnosis can be further improved by combining the two tests.

  13. BWR Mark I pressure suppression study: characterization of the vertical load function utilizing bench top model tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.W.; Lai, W.

    1977-02-01

    A study was conducted to characterize the mechanisms which give rise to observed oscillations in the vertical load function (VLF) of bench top pool dynamics tests. This is part of a continuing investigation at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the General Electric Mark I Nuclear Reactor pressure suppression system

  14. Work Plan for Updating Double Shell Tank (DST) Sub-System Specifications (TBR 120.020)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRENARD, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    The DST System stores waste from the processing of nuclear material at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. The program to dispose of this waste has been divided into several phases with Phase 1 being the demonstration of the waste disposal technology by a private contractor. Subsystem specifications are being prepared providing requirements for the subsystems that are necessary for the continued safe storage of waste in the DST System and the removal of selected waste for processing by the privatized facility during Phase 1. This document provides the detailed plans for updating subsystem specifications developed during EY99

  15. Studies on the T3 suppression test with reference to the thyrodial 123I uptake in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Takahiko; Kobayashi, Isao; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Iwashita, Akira; Inukai, Toshihiko; Ohshima, Kihachi; Shimomura, Yohnosuke; Kobayashi, Setsuo

    1990-01-01

    Eighty-three patients with Graves' disease had been treated with methylmercaptoimidazole (MMI). They were prescribed a maintenance dose of antithyroid drug (MMI, 5 mg/day) at the time of a T 3 suppression test. The 3-hour and 24-hour thyroidal 123 I uptake after T 3 administration (75 μg/day, 2 weeks) were measured (post T 3 uptake). In 38 patients whose post T 3 uptake was below 35% in post T 3 24-hour uptake, treatment was stopped. The T 3 suppression test was then repeated 1 and 3 months later. During a one-year follow up, 26 remained well, while 12 relapsed within 6 to 12 months. We have observed a good correlation between 3-hour uptake and 24-hour uptake of 123 I after T 3 administration (r=0.847, p 3 suppression, most patients with MMI withdrawal produced a marked overshoot of post T 3 3-hour and 24-hour uptake at one month. Retrospective analysis indicated that there was no significant difference in circulating thyroid hormone levels between remission and relapse groups. The present study provides evidence that 3-hour uptake values are able to be substituted for 24-hour uptake values during a T 3 suppression test. In addition, overshoot of thyroidal uptake after antithyroid drug withdrawal was observed in 3-hour values, similar to 24-hour values. (author)

  16. 76 FR 32227 - DST Systems, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Comsys Information Technology Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ..., Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Comsys Information Technology Services, Megaforce, and Kelly Services Kansas City, MO; DST Technologies, a Wholly Owned Subsidiary of DST Systems, Inc., Boston... Information Technology Services, Megaforce, and Kelly Services, Kansas City, Missouri (subject firm). The...

  17. Dst and a map of average equivalent ring current: 1958-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    A new Dst index construction is made using the original hourly magnetic-observatory data collected over the years 1958-2007; stations: Hermanus South Africa, Kakioka Japan, Honolulu Hawaii, and San Juan Puerto Rico. The construction method we use is generally consistent with the algorithm defined by Sugiura (1964), and which forms the basis for the standard Kyoto Dst index. This involves corrections for observatory baseline shifts, subtraction of the main-field secular variation, and subtraction of specific harmonics that approximate the solar-quiet (Sq) variation. Fourier analysis of the observatory data reveals the nature of Sq: it consists primarily of periodic variation driven by the Earth's rotation, the Moon's orbit, the Earth's orbit, and, to some extent, the solar cycle. Cross coupling of the harmonics associated with each of the external periodic driving forces results in a seemingly complicated Sq time series that is sometimes considered to be relatively random and unpredictable, but which is, in fact, well described in terms of Fourier series. Working in the frequency domain, Sq can be filtered out, and, upon return to the time domain, the local disturbance time series (Dist) for each observatory can be recovered. After averaging the local disturbance time series from each observatory, the global magnetic disturbance time series Dst is obtained. Analysis of this new Dst index is compared with that produced by Kyoto, and various biases and differences are discussed. The combination of the Dist and Dst time series can be used to explore the local-time/universal-time symmetry of an equivalent ring current. Individual magnetic storms can have a complicated disturbance field that is asymmetrical in longitude, presumably due to partial ring currents. Using 50 years of data we map the average local-time magnetic disturbance, finding that it is very nearly proportional to Dst. To our surprise, the primary asymmetry in mean magnetic disturbance is not between

  18. Compton suppression tests on Ge and BGO prototype detectors for GAMMASPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, A M [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); Khoo, T L; Bleich, M E; Carpenter, M P; Ahmad, I; Janssens, R V.F.; Moore, E F [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bearden, I G [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States); Beene, J R; Lee, I Y [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    In this paper, we report on measurements of the Compton suppression and overall P/T ratio of two Ge detectors in a BGO shield of the honeycomb pattern. These were the first prototype CSG detector assemblies for GAMMASPHERE. A more detailed description of these results will be published later. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs.

  19. The Design, Construction and Test of stray light suppression baffles for the CHAMP satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Stellar Compass, to be delivered from IAU to the CHAMP project, requires some kind of stray-light suppressing shade to be mounted in front of the lens, in order to minimize the thermal impact and to maximize the performance envelope when subjected to non-stellar external light sources...

  20. Impact of maternal melatonin suppression on forced swim and tail suspension behavioral despair tests in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiculescu, S E; Rosca, A E; Zeca, V; Zagrean, L; Zagrean, A M

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin is an essential hormone, which regulates circadian rhythms and has antioxidative and anticarcinogenic effects. As melatonin secretion is suppressed by light, this effect was examined on the offspring of the Wistar rat females exposed to continuous light (500 lux) during the second half of the pregnancy (day 12 to 21). Control rats were kept under a 12:12 light-dark cycle. The resulted male offspring have been behaviorally assessed for depression after postnatal day 60 by using Forced Swim Test (FST) and Tail Suspension Test (TST). Animals resulted from the melatonin deprived pregnancies have developed an abnormal response in the TST, but a normal FST behavior. Also, TST active movement was different in the melatonin suppression group compared to the control group. These findings suggest that intrauterine melatonin deprivation might be linked to the depressive like behavior in adult male offspring.

  1. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS IN SUPPORT OF INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL IN 241-AP TANK FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; ABBOTT FG; CARPENTER BG; RINKER MW

    2007-02-16

    The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford. The "Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Project" is in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14.

  2. Verification of short lead time forecast models: applied to Kp and Dst forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintoft, Peter; Wik, Magnus

    2016-04-01

    In the ongoing EU/H2020 project PROGRESS models that predicts Kp, Dst, and AE from L1 solar wind data will be used as inputs to radiation belt models. The possible lead times from L1 measurements are shorter (10s of minutes to hours) than the typical duration of the physical phenomena that should be forecast. Under these circumstances several metrics fail to single out trivial cases, such as persistence. In this work we explore metrics and approaches for short lead time forecasts. We apply these to current Kp and Dst forecast models. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637302.

  3. Analysis Bounding Double Shell Tank (DST) Performance for the Hanford Tank Waste Operation Simulator Case 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, D.F.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to compare the latest Tank Farm Contractor Operation and Utilization Plan (HNF-SD-WM-SP-012, Rev. 3) ''Case 2'' operating scenarios with a previous bounding analysis for the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System in order to provide a technical assessment against the current set of DST System performance requirements. A later update to HNF-SD-WM-SP-012 (i.e., Rev. 3A), released in late December 2001, did not impact the results of this analysis. This analysis provides technical support for revising the Performance Requirements for the Double-Shell Tank System, HNF-2168, Rev. 3, used as the basis for defining performance requirements noted in System Specification for the Double-Shell Tank System, HNF-SD-WM-TRD-007. Rev. 1

  4. Relacionamento violento na adolescência e risco de DST/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taquette Stella R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar se o relacionamento afetivo com violência está associado a um maior risco de DST/AIDS, foi realizada uma pesquisa com jovens entre 14 e 22 anos, moradores de comunidades carentes de dois bairros da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Utilizou-se método qualitativo por meio de grupos focais de gênero e entrevistas individuais. Na análise do material coletado observou-se que a violência faz parte do cotidiano desses jovens nas comunidades em que vivem e dentro de suas próprias famílias. Os fatores identificados como geradores de violência no relacionamento interpessoal foram: falta de dinheiro e de emprego, uso de drogas e álcool, ciúme e infidelidade. Os adolescentes afirmaram que não há negociação quanto ao uso de preservativo quando o parceiro é violento, o que pode ter como conseqüência um maior risco de DST/AIDS. Os resultados indicam que o problema da violência é multifatorial e quando está presente nos relacionamentos interpessoais pode dificultar a proteção em relação às DST/AIDS.

  5. Risk factors for anastomotic leakage after laparoscopic low anterior resection with DST anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Kenji; Hasegawa, Suguru; Hida, Koya; Hirai, Kenjiro; Okoshi, Kae; Nomura, Akinari; Kawamura, Junichiro; Nagayama, Satoshi; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2014-10-01

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery involving rectal transection and anastomosis with stapling devices is technically difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for anastomotic leakage (AL) after laparoscopic low anterior resection (LAR) with double-stapling technique (DST) anastomosis. This was a retrospective single-institution study of 154 rectal cancer patients who underwent laparoscopic LAR with DST anastomosis between June 2005 and August 2013. Patient-, tumor-, and surgery-related variables were examined by univariate and multivariate analyses. The outcome of interest was clinical AL. The overall AL rate was 12.3% (19/154). In univariate analysis, tumor size (P = 0.001), operative time (P = 0.049), intraoperative bleeding (P = 0.037), lateral lymph node dissection (P = 0.009), multiple firings of the linear stapler (P = 0.041), and precompression before stapler firings (P = 0.008) were significantly associated with AL. Multivariate analysis identified tumor size (odds ratio [OR] 4.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-12.89; P = 0.02) and precompression before stapler firings (OR 4.58; CI 1.22-17.20; P = 0.024) as independent risk factors for AL. In particular, precompression before stapler firing tended to reduce the AL occurring in early postoperative period. Using appropriate techniques, laparoscopic LAR with DST anastomosis can be performed safely without increasing the risk of AL. Important risk factors for AL were tumor size and precompression before stapler firings.

  6. Structural test and analysis of a model of a BWR suppression chamber support in the plastic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, U.R.; Klaeui, E.; Bosshard, E.P.

    1991-01-01

    A BWR Mark I suppression pool support has been analysed and tested in the laboratory. The aim was the demonstration of the acceptability of hypothetical dynamic loadings resulting from simultaneous steam blowdown through all safety relief valves. The analysis has shown that plastic deformation will locally occur, which is difficult to assess purely theoretical. Therefore tests in reduced scale were performed that show the amount and distribution of plastic flow in the supports. The paper describes the elastic analysis, the theory of the scaling laws for the reduced scale test, the test and its results. It also shows the thermographical method that has been used to determine the plastic material flow in the support structure. (author)

  7. Interface Control Document Between the Double-Shell Tank (DST) system and the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOFFERBER, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    This Interface Control Document (ICD) describes interfaces between the Double-Shell Tanks (DST) System and Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) (figure 1). WESF is currently operational as a storage facility for cesium and strontium capsules. This ICD covers current operational interfaces and those envisioned during Terminal Clean Out (TCO) activities in the future. WESF and the DST System do not have a direct physical interface. The waste will be moved by tank trailer to the 204-AR waste unloading facility. The purpose of the ICD process is to formalize working agreements between the River Protection Project (RPP) DST System and systems/facilities operated by organizations or companies internal and external to RPP. This ICD has been developed as part of the requirements basis for design of the DST System to support the Phase I Privatization effort

  8. Year-round daylight saving time will save more energy in India than corresponding DST or time zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, Dilip R.; SenGupta, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    Many countries have experimented with daylight saving time (DST) to save energy and to align human activities more closely to the daily cycle of light and darkness. Using a novel methodology, we estimate the year-round energy savings to be obtained from advancing Indian Standard Time (IST), from the introduction of DST, and from dividing the country into two time zones. We find that the option of advancing IST consistently saves more energy than the corresponding DST option, which in turn saves more energy than the corresponding time zones option. This is because the energy benefits of advancing IST accrue for the entire year throughout the country, whereas the benefits of DST are confined to summer months and the benefits of two time zones are largely in the lower energy consuming eastern region. We recommend advancing IST by half-hour to being six hours ahead of UTC. This confers the advantages of DST and time zones without their disadvantages and is forecast to save more than 2 billion kWh of electricity every year during evening peaks that are difficult to supply. While these results are India-specific, similar exercises would be useful to many other countries. - Highlights: ► Advancing IST (YRDST) consistently saves more energy than the corresponding DST. ► DST consistently saves more energy than dividing India into two time zones. ► There are also many non-energy benefits of advancing IST. ► Results are for India; countries with DST may find it useful to consider YRDST.

  9. Analysis of the geomagnetic activity of the Dst index and self-affine fractals using wavelet transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Wei

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic activity of the Dst index is analyzed using wavelet transforms and it is shown that the Dst index possesses properties associated with self-affine fractals. For example, the power spectral density obeys a power-law dependence on frequency, and therefore the Dst index can be viewed as a self-affine fractal dynamic process. In fact, the behaviour of the Dst index, with a Hurst exponent H≈0.5 (power-law exponent β≈2 at high frequency, is similar to that of Brownian motion. Therefore, the dynamical invariants of the Dst index may be described by a potential Brownian motion model. Characterization of the geomagnetic activity has been studied by analysing the geomagnetic field using a wavelet covariance technique. The wavelet covariance exponent provides a direct effective measure of the strength of persistence of the Dst index. One of the advantages of wavelet analysis is that many inherent problems encountered in Fourier transform methods, such as windowing and detrending, are not necessary.

  10. Application of a New Integrated Decision Support Tool (i-DST) for Urban Water Infrastructure: Analyzing Water Quality Compliance Pathways for Three Los Angeles Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, E. M.; Hogue, T. S.; Bell, C. D.; Spahr, K.; McCray, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    The water quality of receiving streams and waterbodies in urban watersheds are increasingly polluted from stormwater runoff. The implementation of Green Infrastructure (GI), which includes Low Impact Developments (LIDs) and Best Management Practices (BMPs), within a watershed aim to mitigate the effects of urbanization by reducing pollutant loads, runoff volume, and storm peak flow. Stormwater modeling is generally used to assess the impact of GIs implemented within a watershed. These modeling tools are useful for determining the optimal suite of GIs to maximize pollutant load reduction and minimize cost. However, stormwater management for most resource managers and communities also includes the implementation of grey and hybrid stormwater infrastructure. An integrated decision support tool, called i-DST, that allows for the optimization and comprehensive life-cycle cost assessment of grey, green, and hybrid stormwater infrastructure, is currently being developed. The i-DST tool will evaluate optimal stormwater runoff management by taking into account the diverse economic, environmental, and societal needs associated with watersheds across the United States. Three watersheds from southern California will act as a test site and assist in the development and initial application of the i-DST tool. The Ballona Creek, Dominguez Channel, and Los Angeles River Watersheds are located in highly urbanized Los Angeles County. The water quality of the river channels flowing through each are impaired by heavy metals, including copper, lead, and zinc. However, despite being adjacent to one another within the same county, modeling results, using EPA System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN), found that the optimal path to compliance in each watershed differs significantly. The differences include varied costs, suites of BMPs, and ancillary benefits. This research analyzes how the economic, physical, and hydrological differences between the three

  11. Ionospheric and boundary contributions to the Dessler-Parker-Sckopke formula for Dst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Vasyliūnas

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The Dessler-Parker-Sckopke formula for the disturbance magnetic field averaged over the Earth's surface, universally used to interpret the geomagnetic Dst index, can be generalized, by using the well known method of deriving it from the virial theorem, to include the effects of ionospheric currents. There is an added term proportional to the global integral of the vertical mechanical force that balances the vertical component of the Lorentz force J×B/c in the ionosphere; a downward mechanical force reduces, and an upward increases, the depression of the magnetic field. If the vertical component of the ionospheric Ohm's law holds exactly, the relevant force on the plasma is the collisional friction between the neutral atmosphere and the vertically flowing plasma. An equal and opposite force is exerted on the neutral atmosphere and thus appears in its virial theorem. The ionospheric effect on Dst can then be related to the changes of kinetic and gravitational energy contents of the neutral atmosphere; since these changes are brought about by energy input from the magnetosphere, there is an implied upper limit to the effect on Dst which in general is relatively small in comparison to the contribution of the plasma energy content in the magnetosphere. Hence the Dessler-Parker-Sckopke formula can be applied without major modification, even in the case of strong partial ring currents; the ionospheric closure currents implied by the local time asymmetry have only a relatively small effect on the globally averaged disturbance field, comparable to other sources of uncertainty. When derived from the virial theorem applied to a bounded volume (e.g. the magnetosphere bounded by the magnetopause and a cross-section of the magnetotail, the Dessler-Parker-Sckopke formula contains also several boundary surface terms which can be identified as contributions of the magnetopause (Chapman-Ferraro and of the magnetotail currents.

  12. Pilot testing and protocol development of giant applesnail suppression at Mandalay National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana—July–October 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jacoby; Merino, Sergio

    2018-03-19

    This report provides an overview of the pilot study and description of the techniques developed for a future mitigation study of Pomacea maculata (giant applesnail) at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Mandalay National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana (MNWR). Egg mass suppression is a potential strategy for the mitigation of the invasive giant applesnail. In previous studies at Langan Municipal Park in Mobile, Alabama (LMP), and National Park Service Jean Lafitte National Park-Barataria Unit, Louisiana (JLNP), we determined that spraying food-grade oil (coconut oil or Pam™ spray) on egg masses significantly reduced egg hatching. At JLNP we also developed methods to estimate snail population size. The purpose of this pilot study was to adapt techniques developed for previous studies to the circumstances of MNWR in preparation for a larger experiment whereby we will test the effectiveness of egg mass suppression as an applesnail mitigation tool. We selected four canals that will be used as treatment and control sites for the experiment (two each). We established that an efficient way to destroy egg masses is to knock them down with a high-velocity stream of water pumped directly from the canal. The traps used at JLNP had to be modified to accommodate the greater range of water-level fluctuation at MNWR. One of the three marking methods used at JLNP was selected for use at MNWR.

  13. Acquisition of Turbulence Data Using the DST Group Constant-Temperature Hot-Wire Anemometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Turbulence intensities. uv , uw Reynolds stresses. xP, yP, zP Probe body coordinate system (right-handed). For a single-wire probe, the xP axis...Figure 8), i.e. UNCLASSIFIED DST-Group-TN-1467 UNCLASSIFIED 2 vVV += (2) and wWW += (3) Turbulence terms such as 2u , 2v , 2w , uv and uw...traverse. A very small amount of phosphoric acid can be placed on the tips of the prongs and the Wollaston wire is soldered to the prongs using a

  14. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT ESTABLISHMENT OF METHODOLOGY FOR TIME DOMAIN SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-14

    M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank DSV Integrity Project-DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work statement provided to M&D (PNNL 2003) required that the seismic analysis of the DST assess the impacts of potentially non-conservative assumptions in previous analyses and account for the additional soil mass due to the as-found soil density increase, the effects of material degradation, additional thermal profiles applied to the full structure including the soil-structure response with the footings, the non-rigid (low frequency) response of the tank roof, the asymmetric seismic-induced soil loading, the structural discontinuity between the concrete tank wall and the support footing and the sloshing of the tank waste. The seismic analysis considers the interaction of the tank with the surrounding soil, and the effects of the primary tank contents. The DST and the surrounding soil are modeled as a system of finite elements. The depth and width of the soil incorporated into the analysis model are sufficient to obtain appropriately accurate analytical results. The analyses required to support the work statement differ from previous analysis of the DSTs in that the soil-structure interaction (SSI) model includes several (nonlinear) contact surfaces in the tank structure, and the contained waste must be modeled explicitly in order to capture the fluid-structure interaction behavior between the primary tank and contained waste. Soil-structure interaction analyses are traditionally solved in

  15. Development of a testing system for the documentation and evaluation of the weed-suppressing ability of blue lupins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böhm, Herwart

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of a joint research project for breeding advancement of blue and yellow lupins, which is being conducted in cooperation with the Julius Kühn-Institute, Institute for Breeding Research on Agricultural Crops (coordinator, Saatzucht Steinach and the IPK Gatersleben, in a sub-project at the Thünen-Institute of Organic Farming 1. a test system for detection and assessment of weed-suppressing effect of blue lupins will be developed, and 2. this test system will be tested to pre-breeding lines of blue lupin. In the first year of the project, plot trials were conducted in 3-fold field repetition with two phenological widely differing varieties (cv. Boruta [terminated type], cv. Boregine [branched type] in combination with selected partners with four different seed rates. As partners, monocotyledonous species (e.g., cereals and dicotyledonous species (false flax or resp., a mixture of oil seed rape, phacelia and buckwheat, are used. Twice during the growing season and at harvest, the aboveground biomass, separated by lupin, partners and weeds, were recorded. The results of the first project year show that all the partner plants which should serve as artificial weeds were successfully established. False flax leads to the strongest effect on the development of lupins, which showed the lowest biomass production in these variants. In comparison to the sown partners, the false flax variants also showed the highest biomass production, while the lowest biomass production was recorded for the natural weeds occurring at the site. The species mixture of oil seed rape, phacelia and buckwheat, however, led to the lowest biomass production; contemporaneously the biomass production of lupins in these variants was only affected slightly. Comparing the two cultivated lupin varieties, Boruta showed a better weed suppressive effect.

  16. Development and applications of Bacillus subtilis test systems for mutagens, involving DNA-repair deficiency and suppressible auxotrophic mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanooka, H.

    1977-01-01

    A mutagen-tester of Bacillus subtilis was constructed and tested with known carcinogens. The parental strain HA101 of Okubo and Yanagida carrying suppressible nonsense mutations in his and met genes was transformed to carry an excision-repair deficiency mutation. The constructed strain TKJ5211 showed a 20-30-fold higher sensitivity for His + reversion than the parental strain when treated with UV and UV-mimetic chemicals but unchanged mutation frequency with X-rays and methyl methanesulfonate. The tester strain was used in a spot test of 30 selected chemicals and also for testing with liver homogenate activation. The results showed an almost equivalent but somewhat broader detection spectrum than the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 system. Another test method used a pair of B. subtilis strains differing in their DNA-repair capacity, i.e. the most UV-sensitive mutant HJ-15 and a wild-type strain, to detect repair-dependent DNA damage produced by chemicals. Spores could be used in either test

  17. Experimental determination of the drywell volume: 1/5 scale pressure suppression test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    The BWR Mk 1 1/5 scale drywell volume, including space in all ports up to the first flange, was experimentally determined to be 10.01 m 3 with an uncertainty of +- 0.03 m 3 . The method of measurement used a 0.040879 m 3 calibrated volume that was initially filled with helium to 36.5 MPa. The calibrated volume was then connected to the drywell and the pressures equalized. The volumes of the vent pipes, instrumentation ports, and either the steam inlet or nitrogen inlet were subtracted from the measured drywell volume to obtain the net active drywell volume. The net active drywell volume is 9.87 m 3 for air tests and 9.85 m 3 for steam tests

  18. Evaluation of Flygt Propeller Xixers for Double Shell Tank (DST) High Level Waste Auxiliary Solids Mobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PACQUET, E.A.

    2000-07-20

    The River Protection Project (RPP) is planning to retrieve radioactive waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST) underground at the Hanford Site. This waste will then be transferred to a waste treatment plant to be immobilized (vitrified) in a stable glass form. Over the years, the waste solids in many of the tanks have settled to form a layer of sludge at the bottom. The thickness of the sludge layer varies from tank to tank, from no sludge or a few inches of sludge to about 15 ft of sludge. The purpose of this technology and engineering case study is to evaluate the Flygt{trademark} submersible propeller mixer as a potential technology for auxiliary mobilization of DST HLW solids. Considering the usage and development to date by other sites in the development of this technology, this study also has the objective of expanding the knowledge base of the Flygt{trademark} mixer concept with the broader perspective of Hanford Site tank waste retrieval. More specifically, the objectives of this study delineated from the work plan are described.

  19. Testing tic suppression: comparing the effects of dexmethylphenidate to no medication in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Tourette's disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Gholson J; Samar, Stephanie M; Conelea, Christine; Trujillo, Marcel R; Lipinski, Christina M; Bauer, Christopher C; Brandt, Bryan C; Kemp, Joshua J; Lawrence, Zoe E; Howard, Jonathan; Castellanos, F Xavier; Woods, Douglas; Coffey, Barbara J

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a pilot study testing whether single-dose, immediate-release dexmethylphenidate (dMPH) can facilitate tic suppression in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Tourette's disorder (TD) or chronic tic disorders. The primary hypothesis is that dMPH will improve behaviorally reinforced tic suppression in a standard tic suppression paradigm (TSP). Ten children with ADHD and TD were given dMPH on one visit and no medication on another, using a random crossover design. On both days, following a baseline period, subjects were reinforced for suppressing tics using a standard TSP. Thirteen subjects were enrolled; 10 subjects (mean age 12.7 +/- 2.6; 90% male) completed all study procedures. Relative to the no-medication condition, tics were reduced when children were given a single dose of dMPH. Behavioral reinforcement of tic suppression resulted in lower rates of tics compared to baseline, but dMPH did not enhance this suppression. Preliminary results indicate replication of prior studies of behavioral tic suppression in youths with TD and without ADHD. In addition, our findings indicate tic reduction (and not tic exacerbation) with acute dMPH challenge in children and adolescents with ADHD and TD.

  20. Determination of the source of androgen excess in functionally atypical polycystic ovary syndrome by a short dexamethasone androgen-suppression test and a low-dose ACTH test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert L; Mortensen, Monica; Wroblewski, Kristen; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Ehrmann, David A

    2011-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients typically have 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) hyperresponsiveness to GnRH agonist (GnRHa) (PCOS-T). The objective of this study was to determine the source of androgen excess in the one-third of PCOS patients who atypically lack this type of ovarian dysfunction (PCOS-A). Aged-matched PCOS-T (n= 40), PCOS-A (n= 20) and controls (n= 39) were studied prospectively in a General Clinical Research Center. Short (4 h) and long (4-7 day) dexamethasone androgen-suppression tests (SDAST and LDAST, respectively) were compared in subsets of subjects. Responses to SDAST and low-dose adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were then evaluated in all. Testosterone post-SDAST correlated significantly with testosterone post-LDAST and 17OHP post-GnRHa (r = 0.671-0.672), indicating that all detect related aspects of ovarian dysfunction. An elevated dehydroepiandrosterone peak in response to ACTH, which defined functional adrenal hyperandrogenism, was similarly prevalent in PCOS-T (27.5%) and PCOS-A (30%) and correlated significantly with baseline dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) (r = 0.708). Functional ovarian hyperandrogenism was detected by subnormal testosterone suppression by SDAST in most (92.5%) PCOS-T, but significantly fewer PCOS-A (60%, PPCOS-A, but present in 30% of PCOS-T (P PCOS-A cases with normal testosterone suppression in response to SDAST (5/8) lacked evidence of adrenal hyperandrogenism and were obese. Functional ovarian hyperandrogenism was not demonstrable by SDAST in 40% of PCOS-A. Most of these cases had no evidence of adrenal hyperandrogenism. Obesity may account for most hyperandrogenemic anovulation that lacks a glandular source of excess androgen, and the SDAST seems useful in making this distinction.

  1. The predictive value of an acute octreotide suppression test in patients with acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Strinović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acromegaly is a rare chronic disorder that is in 95% of cases caused by growth hormone (GH secreting pituitary tumors. Endonasal transphenoidal surgery is usually considered the first line of treatment, followed by medical therapy for residual disease. The long-acting somatostatin (SA analogues have an important role in the medical treatment of these patients. SA exert their biological effects by activating somatostatin receptors (SSTR. The predominant types of SSTR receptors in GH-secreting pituitary tumors are subtypes 2 (SSTR2 and 5 (SSTR5. The efficacy of somatostatin analog therapy (SAT is determined by its effect on tumor shrinkage which is reported to be between 20 and 50%. Approximately 10-30% of GH-secreting pituitary tumors are resistant to SA because of variable or reduced tumoral expression of SSTR2 or SSTR5. In many centres a test dose (TD of octreotide is administered before commencing SAT in order to predict the long term response to treatment. There has been a great interest in identifying factors that predict a good response to SAT. To date, several studies that have examined the relationship between the TD of octreotide and SAT. It is crucial how we define response during the OST. Nadir of GH to 5mU/l or less during the OST has an excelent predictive value for evaluation of long-term response to SAT. On the other hand, if we define response as percentage of change of GH from it’s baseline values, then the OST is not usefull diagnostic test.

  2. Lorentz-Symmetry Test at Planck-Scale Suppression With a Spin-Polarized 133Cs Cold Atom Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihan-Le Bars, H; Guerlin, C; Lasseri, R-D; Ebran, J-P; Bailey, Q G; Bize, S; Khan, E; Wolf, P

    2018-06-01

    We present the results of a local Lorentz invariance (LLI) test performed with the 133 Cs cold atom clock FO2, hosted at SYRTE. Such a test, relating the frequency shift between 133 Cs hyperfine Zeeman substates with the Lorentz violating coefficients of the standard model extension (SME), has already been realized by Wolf et al. and led to state-of-the-art constraints on several SME proton coefficients. In this second analysis, we used an improved model, based on a second-order Lorentz transformation and a self-consistent relativistic mean field nuclear model, which enables us to extend the scope of the analysis from purely proton to both proton and neutron coefficients. We have also become sensitive to the isotropic coefficient , another SME coefficient that was not constrained by Wolf et al. The resulting limits on SME coefficients improve by up to 13 orders of magnitude the present maximal sensitivities for laboratory tests and reach the generally expected suppression scales at which signatures of Lorentz violation could appear.

  3. Optimal Control Allocation with Load Sensor Feedback for Active Load Suppression, Flight-Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher J.; Goodrick, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The problem of control command and maneuver induced structural loads is an important aspect of any control system design. The aircraft structure and the control architecture must be designed to achieve desired piloted control responses while limiting the imparted structural loads. The classical approach is to utilize high structural margins, restrict control surface commands to a limited set of analyzed combinations, and train pilots to follow procedural maneuvering limitations. With recent advances in structural sensing and the continued desire to improve safety and vehicle fuel efficiency, it is both possible and desirable to develop control architectures that enable lighter vehicle weights while maintaining and improving protection against structural damage. An optimal control technique has been explored and shown to achieve desirable vehicle control performance while limiting sensed structural loads to specified values. This technique has been implemented and flown on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Full-scale Advanced Systems Testbed aircraft. The flight tests illustrate that the approach achieves the desired performance and show promising potential benefits. The flights also uncovered some important issues that will need to be addressed for production application.

  4. Decision Simulation Technique (DST) as a scanning tool for exploring and explicating sustainability issues in transport decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Sara Lise

    2009-01-01

    This paper places focus on explicit consideration of sustainability issues in transport decision making by presenting and using a developed “Decision Simulation Technique” (DST). This technique can be used by an analyst to ‘scan’ a transport planning problem with regard to what in DST terms...... is called a sustainability strategy. This scanning can serve the purpose of informing a group of decision makers before they actually have to deal with, for example, the choice among a number of alternatives that have all been formulated as being relevant. The main focus of the paper is to illustrate how...

  5. Final air test results for the 1/5-scale Mark I boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.K.; Lai, W.

    1977-01-01

    A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a boiling-water reactor (BWR) power plant has never occurred. However, because this type of accident is particularly severe, it is used as a principal basis for design. During a hypothetical LOCA in a Mark I BWR, air followed by steam is injected from a drywell into a toroidal wetwell about half-filled with water. A series of consistent, versatile, and accurate air-water tests simulating LOCA conditions was completed in the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory 1/5-Scale Mark I BWR Pressure Suppression Experimental Facility. Results from this test series were used to quantify the vertical loading function and to study the associated fluid dynamic phenomena. Detailed histories of vertical loads on the wetwell are shown. In particular, variations of hydrodynamic-generated vertical loads with changes in drywell pressurization rate, downcomer submergence, and the vent-line loss coefficient are established. Initial drywell overpressure, which partially preclears the downcomers of water, substantially reduces the peak vertical loads. Scaling relationships, developed from dimensional analysis and verified by bench-top experiments, allow the 1/5-scale results to be applied to a full-scale BWR power plant. This analysis leads to dimensionless groupings which are invariant. These groupongs show that if water is used as the working fluid, the magnitude of the forces in a scaled facility is reduced by the cube of the scale factor; the time when these forces occur is reduced by the square root of the scale factor

  6. Calibration of the Flow in the Test Section of the Research Wind Tunnel at DST Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    of research projects, including the prediction of the performance of gas - turbine engines under conditions of pulsating flow , parametric studies of...the tunnel. The calibration data are presented and analysed and explanations of flow behaviour are given. 2. Mean-Velocity Measurements 2.1...

  7. Conhecimento sobre DST/AIDS por estudantes adolescentes Conocimiento sobre DST/SIDA por estudiantes adolecentes Knowledge of STD/AIDS among adolescent students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto da Silva Brêtas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo verificar o conhecimento de adolescentes sobre prevenção, transmissão, sinais e sintomas de DST/Aids, e colaborar na elaboração de ações educativas do Projeto de Extensão Universitária Corporalidade e Promoção da Saúde. Foi realizado em três instituições de ensino fundamental e médio do município de Embu, com 1087 adolescentes (40% do sexo feminino e 60% do sexo masculino. Utilizou-se um questionário estruturado de múltipla escolha. Os resultados mostraram que, quanto à forma de prevenção, 92% do grupo feminino e 78% do grupo masculino referiram utilizar preservativo, enquanto 42% do grupo feminino e 43% do grupo masculino responderam lavar os genitais após relação sexual; 75% do grupo feminino e 52% do grupo masculino citaram a televisão como fonte para obtenção de informações; quanto ao conhecimento sobre DST, garotas e rapazes demonstraram ter pouca informação; em relação à cura das DST, 57% do grupo feminino e 71% do grupo masculino referiram não ter conhecimento, sendo que 5% do grupo feminino e 6% do grupo masculino achavam que a AIDS tem cura. De forma geral, pudemos concluir que as garotas estavam mais esclarecidas em relação à temática que os rapazes.El estudio tuvo como objetivo verificar el conocimiento de adolecentes sobre prevención, transmisión, señales y síntomas EST/SIDA; colaborar en la elaboración de acciones educativas del Proyecto de Extensión Universitaria Corporalidad y Promoción de la Salud. Fue realizado en tres instituciones de enseñanza fundamental y media, en el municipio de Embu, con 1.087 adolecentes (40% del sexo femenino y 60% del sexo masculino. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado de múltiple elección. Los resultados mostraron que: en cuanto a la forma de prevención 92% femenino y 78% masculino refirieron utilizar preservativo, en cuanto 42% femenino y 43% masculino respondieron lavar los genitales después de la relación sexual

  8. Development and Exploration of a Regional Stormwater BMP Performance Database to Parameterize an Integrated Decision Support Tool (i-DST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, C.; Li, Y.; Lopez, E.; Hogue, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    Decision support tools that quantitatively estimate the cost and performance of infrastructure alternatives are valuable for urban planners. Such a tool is needed to aid in planning stormwater projects to meet diverse goals such as the regulation of stormwater runoff and its pollutants, minimization of economic costs, and maximization of environmental and social benefits in the communities served by the infrastructure. This work gives a brief overview of an integrated decision support tool, called i-DST, that is currently being developed to serve this need. This presentation focuses on the development of a default database for the i-DST that parameterizes water quality treatment efficiency of stormwater best management practices (BMPs) by region. Parameterizing the i-DST by region will allow the tool to perform accurate simulations in all parts of the United States. A national dataset of BMP performance is analyzed to determine which of a series of candidate regionalizations explains the most variance in the national dataset. The data used in the regionalization analysis comes from the International Stormwater BMP Database and data gleaned from an ongoing systematic review of peer-reviewed and gray literature. In addition to identifying a regionalization scheme for water quality performance parameters in the i-DST, our review process will also provide example methods and protocols for systematic reviews in the field of Earth Science.

  9. A neural network Dst index model driven by input time histories of the solar wind–magnetosphere interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Revallo, M.; Valach, F.; Hejda, Pavel; Bochníček, Josef

    110-111, April (2014), s. 9-14 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09070 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : solar wind * magnetosphere * geomagnetic storm * Dst index * artificial neural network Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.474, year: 2014

  10. Nonradioactive Environmental Emissions Chemical Source Term for the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Vapor Space During Waste Retrieval Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAY, T.H.

    2000-01-01

    A nonradioactive chemical vapor space source term for tanks on the Phase 1 and the extended Phase 1 delivery, storage, and disposal mission was determined. Operations modeled included mixer pump operation and DST waste transfers. Concentrations of ammonia, specific volatile organic compounds, and quantitative volumes of aerosols were estimated

  11. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-17

    M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site double-shell tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DSV Integrity Project--DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses)''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST system at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14, The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work statement provided to M&D (PNNL 2003) required that the seismic analysis of the DSTs assess the impacts of potentially non-conservative assumptions in previous analyses and account for the additional soil mass due to the as-found soil density increase, the effects of material degradation, additional thermal profiles applied to the full structure including the soil-structure response with the footings, the non-rigid (low frequency) response of the tank roof, the asymmetric seismic-induced soil loading, the structural discontinuity between the concrete tank wall and the support footing and the sloshing of the tank waste. The seismic analysis considers the interaction of the tank with the surrounding soil and the effects of the primary tank contents. The DSTs and the surrounding soil are modeled as a system of finite elements. The depth and width of the soil incorporated into the analysis model are sufficient to obtain appropriately accurate analytical results. The analyses required to support the work statement differ from previous analysis of the DSTs in that the soil-structure interaction (SSI) model includes several (nonlinear) contact surfaces in the tank structure, and the contained waste must be modeled explicitly in order to capture the fluid-structure interaction behavior between the primary

  12. Diagnostic value of ACTH stimulation test in determining the subtypes of primary aldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yiran; Zhang, Cui; Wang, Weiqing; Su, Tingwei; Zhou, Weiwei; Jiang, Lei; Zhu, Wei; Xie, Jing; Ning, Guang

    2015-05-01

    Adrenal venous sampling is recommended as the golden standard for subtyping primary aldosteronism (PA). However, it is invasive and inconvenient, and seeking a better way to make differential diagnosis of PA is necessary. The objective of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of ACTH stimulation test under 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in determining the subtypes of PA. Ninety-five patients with PA confirmed by saline infusion test were included in this study. According to adrenal venous sampling and histopathology, 39 patients were diagnosed as bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH), 37 as aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), and 19 as unilateral adrenal hyperplasia (UAH). An ACTH stimulation test under 1 mg DST was performed in all patients. Plasma aldosterone and cortisol levels were measured every 30 minutes until 120 minutes after the iv injection of 50 IU ACTH. During the ACTH stimulation test, aldosterone levels in APA and UAH were similar (P > .05) but higher than those in BAH (P APA and UAH) were significantly higher than bilateral PA (BAH) (P guide further treatment in PA patients.

  13. The Identification and Assessment of Dyslexia: Class Teachers' Perceptions of the Usefulness of the Dyslexia Screening Test for Seven to Eight Year-Old Pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Brenda; Carter, Jenny

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of the Dyslexia Screening Test (DST) in six primary schools in England with 44 children from 12 classes. Teachers perceived the DST to be useful and necessary. The great majority of teachers indicated that the test's findings were consistent with their expectations from pupils' classroom performance and that they…

  14. Mulher e negra: dupla vulnerabilidade às DST/HIV/aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Janilde Seabra Santos

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho é discutir os fatores determinantes da vulnerabilidade das mulheres negras a HIV/aids. Pela descrição e análise de dados socioeconômicos, de incidência e mortalidade de aids e da mortalidade de outras patologias, desenha-se o quadro epidemiológico que ressalta as iniquidades em saúde da população negra e, em particular, das mulheres desse segmento populacional. Quando comparadas às mulheres brancas, as negras apresentam, repetidamente, maior risco de adoecimento e morte. A discussão sobre violência sexual e doméstica reitera as disparidades e a maior vulnerabilidade social da mulher negra. As desigualdades socioeconômicas e o racismo institucional são as hipóteses explicativas para a alta vulnerabilidade às DST/aids das mulheres negras. Apenas com uma ampla gama de ações multissetoriais, incisivo enfrentamento do racismo institucional pelo Estado e fortalecimento do movimento social será possível iniciar a longa jornada para se alcançar o propalado princípio de equidade na saúde.

  15. Prediction of AL and Dst Indices from ACE Measurements Using Hybrid Physics/Black-Box Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, E.; Rao, A.; Horton, W.; Mays, L.

    2008-12-01

    ACE measurements of the solar wind velocity, IMF and proton density is used to drive a hybrid Physics/Black- Box model of the nightside magnetosphere. The core physics is contained in a low order nonlinear dynamical model of the nightside magnetosphere called WINDMI. The model is augmented by wavelet based nonlinear mappings between the solar wind quantities and the input into the physics model, followed by further wavelet based mappings of the model output field aligned currents onto the ground based magnetometer measurements of the AL index and Dst index. The black box mappings are introduced at the input stage to account for uncertainties in the way the solar wind quantities are transported from the ACE spacecraft at L1 to the magnetopause. Similar mappings are introduced at the output stage to account for a spatially and temporally varying westward auroral electrojet geometry. The parameters of the model are tuned using a genetic algorithm, and trained using the large geomagnetic storm dataset of October 3-7 2000. It's predictive performance is then evaluated on subsequent storm datasets, in particular the April 15-24 2002 storm. This work is supported by grant NSF 7020201

  16. Redox regulation of stress signals: possible roles of dendritic stellate TRX producer cells (DST cell types).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodoi, Junji; Nakamura, Hajime; Masutani, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    Thioredoxin (TRX) is a 12 kDa protein with redox-active dithiol (Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys) in the active site. TRX is induced by a variety of stresses including viral infection and inflammation. The promoter sequences of the TRX gene contain a series of stress-responsive elements including ORE, ARE, XRE, CRE and SP-1. TRX promotes DNA binding of transcription factors such as NF-kappaB, AP-1 and p53. TRX interacts with target proteins modulating the activity of those proteins. We have identified TRX binding protein-2 (TBP-2), which was identical to vitamin D3 up-regulated protein 1 (VDUP1). Potential action of TBP-2/VDUP1 as a redox-sensitive tumor suppressor will be discussed. There is accumulating evidence for the involvement of TRX in the protection against infectious and inflammatory disorders. We will discuss the role of TRX-dependent redox regulation of the host defense mechanism, in particular its relation to the emerging concept of constitutive and/or inducible TRX on special cell types with dendritic and stellate morphology in the immune, endocrine and nervous systems, which we provisionally designate as dendritic stellate TRX producer cells (DST cell types).

  17. Vulnerabilidade de adolescentes escolares às DST/HIV, em Imperatriz - Maranhão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Pereira de Jesus Costa

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a vulnerabilidade de adolescentes escolares em relação às Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis (DST e ao Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana (HIV, identificando os principais comportamentos de risco e de prevenção. Estudo transversal, quantitativo, realizado em três escolas públicas estaduais de Imperatriz, MA, com 295 adolescentes, por meio da aplicação de questionário estruturado. Os resultados apontam que: a maioria dos jovens (86,3% que usaram preservativo na última relação sexual habitualmente mantém essa prática; 82,8% dos adolescentes que compreendem o conceito de HIV se protegem contra essa infecção e acreditam que a principal forma de contaminação é por via sexual, por via sanguínea ou através da barreira placentária. Conclui-se que a maioria dos adolescentes participantes apresentou conhecimento coerente sobre práticas sexuais e comportamentos de risco, que os tornam vulneráveis às DSTs e ao HIV, apresentando aspecto positivo para a prevenção destas doenças.

  18. 18 June 2012 - DST Global Founder Y. Milner signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting the AD facility in building 193 with AEGIS Collaboration Spokesperson M. Doser and Adviser for the Russian Federation T. Kurtyka. Managing Director I. Osborne also present with Mrs J. Milner and DST Global A. Lebedkina.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    18 June 2012 - DST Global Founder Y. Milner signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting the AD facility in building 193 with AEGIS Collaboration Spokesperson M. Doser and Adviser for the Russian Federation T. Kurtyka. Managing Director I. Osborne also present with Mrs J. Milner and DST Global A. Lebedkina.

  19. EVALUATION OF FROST HEAVE ON WASTE TRANSFER LINES WITH SHALLOW DEPTHS IN DST (DOUBLE SHELL TANK) FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAQ MA

    2009-05-12

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate the effect of frost heave on waste transfer lines with shallow depths in DST farms. Because of the insulation, well compacted sandy material around waste transfer lines, the type of sandy and gravel soil, and relatively low precipitation at Hanford site, it is concluded that waste transfer lines with one foot of soil covers (sandy cushion material and insulation) are not expected to undergo frost heave damaging effects.

  20. Association of Implementation of a Universal Testing and Treatment Intervention With HIV Diagnosis, Receipt of Antiretroviral Therapy, and Viral Suppression in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Maya; Balzer, Laura; Kwarsiima, Dalsone; Sang, Norton; Chamie, Gabriel; Ayieko, James; Kabami, Jane; Owaraganise, Asiphas; Liegler, Teri; Mwangwa, Florence; Kadede, Kevin; Jain, Vivek; Plenty, Albert; Brown, Lillian; Lavoy, Geoff; Schwab, Joshua; Black, Douglas; van der Laan, Mark; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R; Clark, Tamara D; Charlebois, Edwin; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane

    2017-06-06

    Antiretroviral treatment (ART) is now recommended for all HIV-positive persons. UNAIDS has set global targets to diagnose 90% of HIV-positive individuals, treat 90% of diagnosed individuals with ART, and suppress viral replication among 90% of treated individuals, for a population-level target of 73% of all HIV-positive persons with HIV viral suppression. To describe changes in the proportions of HIV-positive individuals with HIV viral suppression, HIV-positive individuals who had received a diagnosis, diagnosed individuals treated with ART, and treated individuals with HIV viral suppression, following implementation of a community-based testing and treatment program in rural East Africa. Observational analysis based on interim data from 16 rural Kenyan (n = 6) and Ugandan (n = 10) intervention communities in the SEARCH Study, an ongoing cluster randomized trial. Community residents who were 15 years or older (N = 77 774) were followed up for 2 years (2013-2014 to 2015-2016). HIV serostatus and plasma HIV RNA level were measured annually at multidisease health campaigns followed by home-based testing for nonattendees. All HIV-positive individuals were offered ART using a streamlined delivery model designed to reduce structural barriers, improve patient-clinician relationships, and enhance patient knowledge and attitudes about HIV. Primary outcome was viral suppression (plasma HIV RNAHIV-positive individuals, assessed at baseline and after 1 and 2 years. Secondary outcomes included HIV diagnosis, ART among previously diagnosed individuals, and viral suppression among those who had initiated ART. Among 77 774 residents (male, 45.3%; age 15-24 years, 35.1%), baseline HIV prevalence was 10.3% (7108 of 69 283 residents). The proportion of HIV-positive individuals with HIV viral suppression at baseline was 44.7% (95% CI, 43.5%-45.9%; 3464 of 7745 residents) and after 2 years of intervention was 80.2% (95% CI, 79.1%-81.2%; 5666 of 7068 residents), an

  1. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  2. Culture and drug susceptibility testing among previously treated tuberculosis patients in the Dominican Republic, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia J. Romero Mercado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is a major public health concern that threatens global progress toward effective TB control. The risk of MDR-TB is increased in patients who have received previous TB treatment. This article describes the performance of culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST in patients registered as previously treated TB patients in the Dominican Republic in 2014, based on operational research that followed a retrospective cohort design and used routine program data. Under the current system of TB culturing and DST, the majority of patients with previously treated TB do not undergo DST, and those who do often experience considerable delay in obtaining their results. The lack of DST and delay in receiving DST results leads to underestimation of the number of MDR-TB cases and hinders the timely initiation of MDR-TB treatment.

  3. Drift scale test status report (Chapters 1-9)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, W., LLNL

    1998-07-01

    The Drift-Scale Test (DST) is one of the thermal tests being conducted in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of the potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. One of the DST`s major objectives is to study the coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) processes at the potential repository`s horizon. The objectives, test design, and test layouts of the DST are included in a previous test design report. this report present results and analysis of several difference measurements made in the DST by researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory through the second quarter of the heating phase. Sections 1.1 and 1.2 describe the layout of the DST and the boreholes and instrumentation used to monitor the THCM processes in the rock of associated drifts. Section 2 presents an analysis of temperature data for the test through the end of May 1998. Sections 3 and 4 present results of electrical resistance tomography and neutron logging measurements, respectively. These two sets of measurements are designed to determine the movement of moisture in the test. Results of a series of geochemical measurements made on gas and water samples are presented in Section 5. The purpose of these measurements is to monitor the chemical processes occurring in the DST. Section 6 presents results of thermohydrologic modeling analysis of the test, and Section 7 presents data collected via the laboratory testing for characterization of the hydrologic properties of the rock forming the DST. A brief analysis of barometric pressure and humidity data collected through the end of May 1998 is discussed in Section 8, along with temperature data for the bulkhead. Finally, Section 9 presented an evaluation of sensors used in the DST.

  4. DAYCENT Simulations to Test the Influence of Fire Regime and Fire Suppression on Trace Gas Fluxes and Nitrogen Biogeochemistry of Colorado Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Gathany

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological activity and the physical environment regulate greenhouse gas fluxes (CH4, N2O and NO from upland soils. Wildfires are known to alter these factors such that we collected daily weather records, fire return intervals, or specific fire years, and soil data of four specific sites along the Colorado Front Range. These data were used as primary inputs into DAYCENT. In this paper we test the ability of DAYCENT to simulate four forested sites in this area and to address two objectives: (1 to evaluate the short-term influence of fire on trace gas fluxes from burned landscapes; and (2 to compare trace gas fluxes among locations and between pre-/post- fire suppression. The model simulations indicate that CH4 oxidation is relatively unaffected by wildfire. In contrast, gross nitrification rates were reduced by 13.5–37.1% during the fire suppression period. At two of the sites, we calculated increases in gross nitrification rates (>100%, and N2O and NO fluxes during the year of fire relative to the year before a fire. Simulated fire suppression exhibited decreased gross nitrification rates presumably as nitrogen is immobilized. This finding concurs with other studies that highlight the importance of forest fires to maintain soil nitrogen availability.

  5. Simple, direct drug susceptibility testing technique for diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis in resource-poor settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C-K; Joo, Y-T; Lee, E P; Park, Y K; Kim, H-J; Kim, S J

    2013-09-01

    The Korean Institute of Tuberculosis, Seoul, Republic of Korea. To develop a simple, direct drug susceptibility testing (DST) technique using Kudoh-modified Ogawa (KMO) medium. The critical concentrations of isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), kanamycin (KM) and ofloxacin (OFX) for KMO medium were calibrated by comparing the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on KMO with those on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ). The performance of the direct KMO DST technique was evaluated on 186 smear-positive sputum specimens and compared with indirect LJ DST. Agreement of MICs on direct vs. indirect DST was high for INH, RMP and OFX. KM MICs on KMO were ∼10 g/ml higher than those on LJ. The critical concentrations of INH, RMP, OFX and KM for KMO were therefore set at 0.2, 40.0, 2.0, and 40.0 g/ml. The evaluation of direct DST of smear-positive sputum specimens showed 100% agreement with indirect LJ DST for INH and RMP. However, the respective susceptible and resistant predictive values were 98.8% and 100% for OFX, and 100% and 80% for KM. Direct DST using KMO is useful, with clear advantages of a shorter turnaround time, procedural simplicity and low cost compared to indirect DST. It may be most indicated in resource-poor settings for programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  6. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS & RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; JOHNSON KI; DEIBLER JE; PILLI SP; RINKER MW; KARRI NK

    2007-02-14

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive I-bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads, based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the I-bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive I-bolt failure leading to global

  7. Non-reactive HIV-1 Rapid Tests after Sustained Viral Suppression Following Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation During Primary Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefic, Karl; Novelli, Sophie; Mahjoub, Nadia; Seng, Remonie; Molina, Jean-Michel; Cheneau, Christine; Barin, Francis; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Meyer, Laurence; Delaugerre, Constance

    2018-03-02

    We assessed the impact of early antiretroviral treatment (ART) on HIV antibody detection by rapid tests in 44 individuals after several years of successful ART. HIV self-tests and point-of-care tests were negative in respectively 30% and 7-9% of cases. These data reinforce the message that patients should never be retested after entering HIV care.

  8. Interocular suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, Ana Rita; Almeida Neves Carrega, Filipa; Nunes, Amélia Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this work is to quantify the suppressive imbalance, based on the manipulation of ocular luminance, between a group of subjects with normal binocular vision and a group of subjects with amblyopia. The result reveals that there are statistically significant differences in interocular dominance between two groups, evidencing a greater suppressive imbalance in amblyopic subjects. The technique used, proved to be a simple, easy to apply and economic method, for quantified ocular dominance. It is presented as a technique with the potential to accompany subjects with a marked dominance in one of the eyes that makes fusion difficult.

  9. Yucca Mountain drift scale test progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Peterson,J.E.; Sonnenthal, E.; Spycher, N.; Tsang, Y.W.; Williams, K.H.

    1999-01-01

    The Drift Scale Test (DST) is part of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Thermal Test being conducted underground at the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The purpose of the ESF Thermal Test is to acquire a more in-depth understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes likely to be encountered in the rock mass surrounding the potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain. These processes are monitored by a multitude of sensors to measure the temperature, humidity, gas pressure, and mechanical displacement, of the rock formation in response to the heat generated by the heaters. In addition to collecting passive monitoring data, active hydrological and geophysical testing is also being carried out periodically in the DST. These active tests are intended to monitor changes in the moisture redistribution in the rock mass, to collect water and gas samples for chemical and isotopic analysis, and to detect microfiacturing due to heating. On December 3, 1998, the heaters in the DST were activated. The planned heating phase of the DST is 4 years, and the cooling phase following the power shutoff will be of similar duration. The present report summarizes interpretation and analysis of thermal, hydrological, chemical, and geophysical data for the first 6 months; it is the first of many progress reports to be prepared during the DST.

  10. Evaluation of Flygt Propeller Mixers for Double-Shell Tank (DST) High Level Waste Auxiliary Solids Mobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PACQUET, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    The River Protection Project (RPP) is planning to retrieve radioactive waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST) underground at the Hanford Site. This waste will then be transferred to a waste treatment plant to be immobilized (vitrified) in a stable glass form. Over the years, the waste solids in many of the tanks have settled to form a layer of sludge at the bottom. The thickness of the sludge layer varies from tank to tank, from no sludge or a few inches of sludge to about 15 ft of sludge. The purpose of this technology and engineering case study is to evaluate the Flygt(trademark) submersible propeller mixer as a potential technology for auxiliary mobilization of DST HLW solids. Considering the usage and development to date by other sites in the development of this technology, this study also has the objective of expanding the knowledge base of the Flygt(trademark) mixer concept with the broader perspective of Hanford Site tank waste retrieval. More specifically, the objectives of this study delineated from the work plan are described

  11. 2008 GEM Modeling Challenge: Metrics Study of the Dst Index in Physics-Based Magnetosphere and Ring Current Models and in Statistical and Analytic Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastaetter, L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Hesse, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Glocer, A.; Yu, Y.; Meng, X.; Raeder, J.; Wiltberger, M.; Welling, D.; hide

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the metrics-based results of the Dst part of the 2008-2009 GEM Metrics Challenge are reported. The Metrics Challenge asked modelers to submit results for 4 geomagnetic storm events and 5 different types of observations that can be modeled by statistical or climatological or physics-based (e.g. MHD) models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. We present the results of over 25 model settings that were run at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) and at the institutions of various modelers for these events. To measure the performance of each of the models against the observations we use comparisons of one-hour averaged model data with the Dst index issued by the World Data Center for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, Japan, and direct comparison of one-minute model data with the one-minute Dst index calculated by the United States Geologic Survey (USGS).

  12. Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montelius, Caroline; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Kardas, Marek

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary chloroplast thylakoids have previously been found to reduce food intake and body weight in animal models, and to change metabolic profiles in humans in mixed-food meal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effects of thylakoids on glucose...... metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones during an oral glucose tolerance test in pigs fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Six pigs were fed a high fat diet (36 energy% fat) for one month before oral glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg d-glucose) was performed. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study......, either with or without addition of 0.5 g/kg body weight of thylakoid powder. RESULTS: The supplementation of thylakoids to the oral glucose tolerance test resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations during the first hour, increased plasma cholecystokinin concentrations during the first two hours...

  13. Thyroxin hormone suppression treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the important modalities of treatment of thyroid cancer (TC) after surgery is the administration of thyroxin as an adjuvant treatment. The analysis supports the theory that thyroid suppression plays an important role in patient management. 300 μg of thyroxin, as this is an adequate dose for suppression is given. Ideally the dose should be tailored by testing s-TSH levels. However, since a large number of the patients come from out station cities and villages this is impractical. We therefore depend on clinical criteria of hyperthyroid symptoms and adjust the dose. Very few patients need such adjustment

  14. NASA JPL Distributed Systems Technology (DST) Object-Oriented Component Approach for Software Inter-Operability and Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Laverne; Hung, Chaw-Kwei; Lin, Imin

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of NASA JPL Distributed Systems Technology (DST) Section's object-oriented component approach to open inter-operable systems software development and software reuse. It will address what is meant by the terminology object component software, give an overview of the component-based development approach and how it relates to infrastructure support of software architectures and promotes reuse, enumerate on the benefits of this approach, and give examples of application prototypes demonstrating its usage and advantages. Utilization of the object-oriented component technology approach for system development and software reuse will apply to several areas within JPL, and possibly across other NASA Centers.

  15. Wind tunnel tests of biodegradable fugitive dust suppressants being considered to reduce soil erosion by wind at radioactive waste construction sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Dennis, G.W.; Bushaw, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    Wind tunnel tests were performed of three fugitive dust control agents derived from potato and sugar beet products. These materials are being considered for use as dust suppressants to reduce the potential for transport of radioactive materials by wind from radioactive waste construction and remediation sites. Soil and dust control agent type, solution concentrations, application quantities, aging (or drying) conditions, surface disturbance, and wind and saltating sand eolian erosive stresses were selected and controlled to simulate application and exposure of excavated soil surfaces in the field. A description of the tests, results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented in this report. The results of this study indicate that all three dust control agents can protect exposed soil surfaces from extreme eolian stresses. It is also clear that the interaction and performance of each agent with various soil types may differ dramatically. Thus, soils similar to that received from ML should be best protected by high concentration (∼2.5%) solutions of potato starch at low water application levels (∼1 to 2 L/m 2 ). Because the effectiveness of PS on this soil type is degraded after a moderate amount of simulated rainfall, other options or additives should be considered if surfaces are to be protected for long intervals or during periods of intermittent rainfall and hot, windy conditions. On the other hand, XDCA should be considered when excavating sandy soils. It should be noted, however, that because the Hanford soil test results are based on a small number of tests, it would be prudent to perform additional tests prior to selecting a fugitive dust control agent for use at the Hanford Site. While fermented potato waste was not the best fixative used on either soil, it did perform reasonably well on both soil types (better than XDCA on Idaho soil and better than PS on Hanford soil)

  16. Second line drug susceptibility testing to inform the treatment of rifampin-resistant tuberculosis: a quantitative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Kendall

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment failure and resistance amplification are common among patients with rifampin-resistant tuberculosis (TB. Drug susceptibility testing (DST for second-line drugs is recommended for these patients, but logistical difficulties have impeded widespread implementation of second-line DST in many settings. To provide a quantitative perspective on the decision to scale up second-line DST, we synthesize literature on the prevalence of second-line drug resistance, the expected clinical and epidemiologic benefits of using second-line DST to ensure that patients with rifampin-resistant TB receive effective regimens, and the costs of implementing (or not implementing second-line DST for all individuals diagnosed with rifampin-resistant TB. We conclude that, in most settings, second-line DST could substantially improve treatment outcomes for patients with rifampin-resistant TB, reduce transmission of drug-resistant TB, prevent amplification of drug resistance, and be affordable or even cost-saving. Given the large investment made in each patient treated for rifampin-resistant TB, these payoffs would come at relatively small incremental cost. These anticipated benefits likely justify addressing the real challenges faced in implementing second-line DST in most high-burden settings.

  17. Validating a Spanish Developmental Spelling Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroli, Lou; Krajenta, Marilyn

    The creation and validation of a Spanish version of an English developmental spelling test (DST) is described. An introductory section reviews related literature on the rationale for and construction of DSTs, spelling development in the early grades, and Spanish-English bilingual education. Differences between the English and Spanish test versions…

  18. Operational specification and forecasting advances for Dst, LEO thermospheric densities, and aviation radiation dose and dose rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent

    Space weather’s effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun’s photons, particles, and fields. Of the space environment domains that are affected by space weather, the magnetosphere, thermosphere, and even troposphere are key regions that are affected. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has developed and is producing innovative space weather applications. Key operational systems for providing timely information about the effects of space weather on these domains are SET’s Magnetosphere Alert and Prediction System (MAPS), LEO Alert and Prediction System (LAPS), and Automated Radiation Measurements for Aviation Safety (ARMAS) system. MAPS provides a forecast Dst index out to 6 days through the data-driven, redundant data stream Anemomilos algorithm. Anemomilos uses observational proxies for the magnitude, location, and velocity of solar ejecta events. This forecast index is used by satellite operations to characterize upcoming geomagnetic storms, for example. In addition, an ENLIL/Rice Dst prediction out to several days has also been developed and will be described. LAPS is the SET fully redundant operational system providing recent history, current epoch, and forecast solar and geomagnetic indices for use in operational versions of the JB2008 thermospheric density model. The thermospheric densities produced by that system, driven by the LAPS data, are forecast to 72-hours to provide the global mass densities for satellite operators. ARMAS is a project that has successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on aircraft to capture the real-time radiation environment due to Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The dose and dose-rates are captured on aircraft, downlinked in real-time via the Iridium satellites, processed on the ground, incorporated into the most recent NAIRAS global radiation climatology data runs, and made available to end users via the web and

  19. Distinguishing among potential mechanisms of singleton suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Luck, Steven J

    2018-04-01

    Previous research has revealed that people can suppress salient stimuli that might otherwise capture visual attention. The present study tests between 3 possible mechanisms of visual suppression. According to first-order feature suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of simple feature values. According to second-order feature suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of local discontinuities within a given feature dimension. According to global-salience suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of their dimension-independent salience levels. The current study distinguished among these models by varying the predictability of the singleton color value. If items are suppressed by virtue of salience alone, then it should not matter whether the singleton color is predictable. However, evidence from probe processing and eye movements indicated that suppression is possible only when the color values are predictable. Moreover, the ability to suppress salient items developed gradually as participants gained experience with the feature that defined the salient distractor. These results are consistent with first-order feature suppression models, and are inconsistent with the other models of suppression. In other words, people primarily suppress salient distractors on the basis of their simple features and not on the basis of salience per se. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Recommendations for the Development of a Dust Suppressant Test Operations Procedure (TOP) Performed at the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    variety of bedrock types including: igneous ( basalt , granite, and rhyolite), metamorphic (schist and gneiss), and sedimentary rocks of Quaternary...TerraLOC® Standard formulation was applied. Chemical dust suppressant formulations vary widely, to include salts, oils, fiber mixtures and synthetic

  1. Engineering Task Plan for the Ultrasonic Inspection of Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) FY2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    This document facilitates the ultrasonic examination of Hanford double-shell tanks. Included are a plan for engineering activities (individual responsibilities), plan for performance demonstration testing, and a plan for field activities (tank inspection). Also included are a Statement of Work for contractor performance of the work and a protocol to be followed should tank flaws that exceed the acceptance criteria be discovered

  2. Military women's attitudes toward menstruation and menstrual suppression in relation to the deployed environment: development and testing of the MWATMS-9 (short form).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trego, Lori L; Jordan, Patricia J

    2010-01-01

    To determine military women's attitudes toward menstruation and menstrual suppression with oral contraceptives in the deployed environment. A cross-sectional descriptive design with the administration of the Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ) and the 55-item Military Women's Attitudes Towards Menstrual Suppression Scale (MWATMS) to a convenience sample (n = 278) of women in the U.S. Army with deployment experience. The MAQ's five subscales' mean scores ranged from 3.4 (+/-1.11) to 5.1 (+/-1.06), indicating neutral to moderate attitudes toward menstruation. Measurement development on the MWATMS produced a nine-item scale with three components: stress effects, benefits to self, and environmental barriers. Menstrual attitudes were generally neutral in this sample; however, military women favor menstrual suppression during deployment owing to the effects of stress during deployment, benefits that suppression would provide, and the barriers to menstrual hygiene in the deployed environment. Women who perceived menstruation as bothersome and debilitating had positive attitudes toward menstrual suppression. These findings can contribute to appropriate predeployment women's health care and improve the readiness for deployment in female soldiers. Providers should educate women on the risks and benefits of menstrual suppression methods and provide guidance on impact that the deployed environment can have on their menstrual experiences.

  3. A Novel Model on DST-Induced Transplantation Tolerance by the Transfer of Self-Specific Donor tTregs to a Haplotype-Matched Organ Recipient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregoriussen, Angelica Maria Mohr; Bohr, Henrik Georg

    2017-01-01

    Donor-specific blood transfusion (DST) can lead to significant prolongation of allograft survival in experimental animal models and sometimes human recipients of solid organs. The mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effect on graft survival have been a topic of research and debate for decad...... that this biological process, here termed MHC-II recruitment, is a vital survival mechanism for organs (or the organism in general) when attacked by an immune system....

  4. An assessment study of the wavelet-based index of magnetic storm activity (WISA) and its comparison to the Dst index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhonghua; Zhu, Lie; Sojka, Jan; Kokoszka, Piotr; Jach, Agnieszka

    2008-08-01

    A wavelet-based index of storm activity (WISA) has been recently developed [Jach, A., Kokoszka, P., Sojka, L., Zhu, L., 2006. Wavelet-based index of magnetic storm activity. Journal of Geophysical Research 111, A09215, doi:10.1029/2006JA011635] to complement the traditional Dst index. The new index can be computed automatically by using the wavelet-based statistical procedure without human intervention on the selection of quiet days and the removal of secular variations. In addition, the WISA is flexible on data stretch and has a higher temporal resolution (1 min), which can provide a better description of the dynamical variations of magnetic storms. In this work, we perform a systematic assessment study on the WISA index. First, we statistically compare the WISA to the Dst for various quiet and disturbed periods and analyze the differences of their spectral features. Then we quantitatively assess the flexibility of the WISA on data stretch and study the effects of varying number of stations on the index. In addition, the ability of the WISA for handling the missing data is also quantitatively assessed. The assessment results show that the hourly averaged WISA index can describe storm activities equally well as the Dst index, but its full automation, high flexibility on data stretch, easiness of using the data from varying number of stations, high temporal resolution, and high tolerance to missing data from individual station can be very valuable and essential for real-time monitoring of the dynamical variations of magnetic storm activities and space weather applications, thus significantly complementing the existing Dst index.

  5. Defaulters from thyroid suppression tests - a study of non-compliers on the basis of statistical data collected over six years at the Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beushausen, M.

    1983-01-01

    A total of 267 patients suspected of having autonomous adenomas were scheduled for control scintigrams to confirm the diagnosis, as a general rule after a 14-day suppression test using thyroxine. The fact that 381 patients failed to reappear at the determined date (non-compliers) prompted us to investigate the possible links between patient compliance and relevant medical, organisational and sociodemographical factors. There was no significant correlation between compliance and the anamnestic data or local findings of the individual patients. Factors surrounding medical organisation, however, were found to have a greater influence on patient behaviour. Thus, patients referred to us by other policlinics generally displayed an increased tendency to non-compliance than patients sent to us by general practitioners. Moreover, compliance was seen to be closely related to the circumstances under which the patients were requested to reappear for control examinations. From among the patients, who were given thyroxine and instructed to come for a second examination directly at the Polyclinic of Nuclear Medicine, as much as 95% complied as compared to only 81% of those, where the physician originally consulted by the patient was informed about the necessity of a further examination. This behaviour seemed to be independent of the practitioner who had referred the patient to us or the physician performing the first examinations at the Policlinic. Former contacts with the Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine and the season of the first visit showed no influence on later compliance or non-compliance of the patients, nor was the social background or distance of the clinic from the patient's home observed to be of any particular relevance here. A higher rate of defaulters was, however, determined for men between 30 and 49 years and women over 60 years of age. There was no increased tendency to default among country dwellers as compared to city dwellers. (TRV) [de

  6. Dr Phil Mjwara Director General, Department of Science and Technology (DST) Ministry of Science and Technology Republic of South Africa visit the Alice experiment introduce by Prof. Jurgen Schukraft, spokeperson for Alice.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    Dr Phil Mjwara Director General, Department of Science and Technology (DST) Ministry of Science and Technology Republic of South Africa visit the Alice experiment introduce by Prof. Jurgen Schukraft, spokeperson for Alice.

  7. Fatores associados ao uso de preservativo masculino e ao conhecimento sobre DST/AIDS em adolescentes de escolas públicas e privadas do Município de São Paulo, Brasil Factors associated with condom use and knowledge about STD/AIDS among teenagers in public and private schools in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura B. Motta Martins

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Comparar o conhecimento sobre DST/AIDS e avaliar fatores associados ao conhecimento adequado e ao uso consistente do preservativo masculino, em adolescentes de escolas públicas e privadas do Município de São Paulo. Participaram 1.594 adolescentes entre 12 e 19 anos, de 13 escolas públicas e 5 privadas, que responderam um questionário sobre DST/AIDS e uso de preservativo. Calcularam-se as razões de prevalência com intervalo de confiança de 95%. O escore de conhecimento sobre DST teve o ponto de corte equivalendo a 50% de acerto. Os testes estatísticos foram qui-quadrado e Wilcoxon-Gehan. Realizou-se regressão múltipla de Poisson. O uso consistente de preservativo foi 60% nas escolas privadas e 57,1% nas públicas (p > 0,05 e esteve associado ao sexo masculino e menor nível sócio-econômico. O sexo feminino, maior escolaridade, escola privada, cor branca e estado marital solteiro associaram-se ao maior conhecimento sobre DST. Os adolescentes de escola pública e privada apresentam conhecimento adequado sobre prevenção de DST, entretanto esse conhecimento não determina adoção de atitudes efetivas de prevenção. Programas de conscientização sobre DST/AIDS devem ser ampliados visando minimizar as vulnerabilidades.This study aimed to compare knowledge about STD/AIDS and identify the factors associated with adequate knowledge and consistent use of male condoms in teenagers from public and private schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We selected 1,594 adolescents ranging 12 to 19 years of age in 13 public schools and 5 private schools to complete a questionnaire on knowledge of STD/AIDS and use of male condoms. Prevalence ratios were computed with a 95% confidence interval. The score on STD knowledge used a cutoff point corresponding to 50% of correct answers. Statistical tests were chi-square and Poisson multiple regression. Consistent use of male condoms was 60% in private and 57.1% in public schools (p > 0.05 and was

  8. A rapid non invasive L-DOPA-¹³C breath test for optimally suppressing extracerebral AADC enzyme activity - toward individualizing carbidopa therapy in Parkinson’s disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Anil; Durso, Raymon; Josephs, Ephraim; Rosen, David

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral carbidopa (CD) levels directly impact on central dopamine (DA) production in Parkinson disease (PD) through extracerebral inhibition of dopa decarboxylase (AADC) resulting in an increase in levodopa (LD) bioavailability. Recent data suggests that higher CD doses than those presently used in PD treatment may result in improved clinical response. Optimizing CD doses in individual patients may, therefore, result in ideal individualized treatment. A single center, randomized, double-blind study was carried out recruiting 5 Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients already on LD/CD and 1 treatment näve PD patient using stable isotope labeled LD-1-¹³C as a substrate for a noninvasive breath test to evaluate individual AADC enzyme activity. Each patient was studied five times, receiving 200 mg LD-¹³C at each visit along with one of five randomized CD doses (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg). The metabolite ¹³CO₂ in breath was measured for evaluating AADC enzyme activity and plasma metabolite levels for LD-¹³C and homovanillic acid (HVA) were measured for 4 hours. HVA in plasma and ¹³CO₂ in breath are metabolic products of LD. We found a significant positive correlation of ¹³CO₂ DOB AUC0-240 with serum HVA AUC0-240 following the oral dose of LD-1-¹³C for all 5 doses of CD (r² = 0.9378). With increasing inhibition of AADC enzyme activity with CD, we observed an increase in the plasma concentration of LD.We found an inverse correlation of the 13CO2 DOB AUC with serum LD-¹³C AUC. Our studies indicate the optimal dose of CD for maximal suppression of AADC enzyme activity can be determined for each individual from ¹³CO₂ generation in breath. The LD-breath test can be a useful noninvasive diagnostic tool for evaluation of AADC enzyme activity using the biomarker ¹³CO₂ in breath, a first step in personalizing CD doses for PD patients.

  9. Limites do trabalho multiprofissional: estudo de caso dos centros de referência para DST/Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Neide Emy Kurokawa e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Compreender as possibilidades e os limites da articulação dos processos de trabalho desenvolvidos por agentes com diferentes formações para otimizar a integração e melhorar a qualidade da assistência aos pacientes com HIV/Aids. MÉTODOS: Estudo qualitativo sobre o trabalho multiprofissional em cinco centros de referência para DST/Aids do Município de São Paulo. Foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas com 26 profissionais de diferentes formações, enfocando suas relações no modo de organização da assistência prestada nesses serviços. RESULTADOS: Houve diferenças significativas do alcance da integração multiprofissional e das possibilidades de enriquecimento da assistência prestada, de acordo com as circunstâncias em que o trabalho interdisciplinar é posto em ação. CONCLUSÕES: Quando a equipe consegue trabalhar com demandas antevistas, isto é, com a formulação, por um conjunto de profissionais, de projetos assistenciais, antecipando demandas a partir de situações concretas da prática, criam-se condições favoráveis a um trabalho mais efetivamente integrado da equipe multiprofissional. Essa integração favorece intervenções que permitem um diálogo mais rico entre a aplicação do tratamento medicamentoso e outras dimensões relevantes do cuidado referentes às vivências sociais, psicológicas e emocionais dos pacientes.

  10. A rapid culture system uninfluenced by an inoculum effect increases reliability and convenience for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong-Gyun; Kim, Hyejin; Lee, Sangyeop; Kim, Suyeoun; Jo, EunJi; Kim, Eun-Geun; Choi, Jungil; Kim, Hyun Jung; Yoo, Jungheon; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Haeun; Jung, Hyunju; Ryoo, Sungweon; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2018-06-05

    The Disc Agarose Channel (DAC) system utilizes microfluidics and imaging technologies and is fully automated and capable of tracking single cell growth to produce Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) drug susceptibility testing (DST) results within 3~7 days. In particular, this system can be easily used to perform DSTs without the fastidious preparation of the inoculum of MTB cells. Inoculum effect is one of the major problems that causes DST errors. The DAC system was not influenced by the inoculum effect and produced reliable DST results. In this system, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the first-line drugs were consistent regardless of inoculum sizes ranging from ~10 3 to ~10 8 CFU/mL. The consistent MIC results enabled us to determine the critical concentrations for 12 anti-tuberculosis drugs. Based on the determined critical concentrations, further DSTs were performed with 254 MTB clinical isolates without measuring an inoculum size. There were high agreement rates (96.3%) between the DAC system and the absolute concentration method using Löwenstein-Jensen medium. According to these results, the DAC system is the first DST system that is not affected by the inoculum effect. It can thus increase reliability and convenience for DST of MTB. We expect that this system will be a potential substitute for conventional DST systems.

  11. Studies on the T sub 3 suppression test with reference to the thyrodial sup 123 I uptake in Graves' disease; Comparison of 24-hour and 3-hour uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Takahiko; Kobayashi, Isao; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Iwashita, Akira; Inukai, Toshihiko; Ohshima, Kihachi; Shimomura, Yohnosuke; Kobayashi, Setsuo (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-06-01

    Eighty-three patients with Graves' disease had been treated with methylmercaptoimidazole (MMI). They were prescribed a maintenance dose of antithyroid drug (MMI, 5 mg/day) at the time of a T{sub 3} suppression test. The 3-hour and 24-hour thyroidal {sup 123}I uptake after T{sub 3} administration (75 {mu}g/day, 2 weeks) were measured (post T{sub 3} uptake). In 38 patients whose post T{sub 3} uptake was below 35% in post T{sub 3} 24-hour uptake, treatment was stopped. The T{sub 3} suppression test was then repeated 1 and 3 months later. During a one-year follow up, 26 remained well, while 12 relapsed within 6 to 12 months. We have observed a good correlation between 3-hour uptake and 24-hour uptake of {sup 123}I after T{sub 3} administration (r=0.847, p<0.001). In 38 patients who showed positive T{sub 3} suppression, most patients with MMI withdrawal produced a marked overshoot of post T{sub 3} 3-hour and 24-hour uptake at one month. Retrospective analysis indicated that there was no significant difference in circulating thyroid hormone levels between remission and relapse groups. The present study provides evidence that 3-hour uptake values are able to be substituted for 24-hour uptake values during a T{sub 3} suppression test. In addition, overshoot of thyroidal uptake after antithyroid drug withdrawal was observed in 3-hour values, similar to 24-hour values. (author).

  12. HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL and SEISMIC PROJECT-BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS and RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, T.C.; Johnson, K.I.; Deibler, J.E.; Pilli, S.P.; Rinker, M.W.; Karri, N.K.

    2007-01-01

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive I-bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads, based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the I-bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive I-bolt failure leading to

  13. Interseccionalidade de gênero, classe e raça e vulnerabilidade de adolescentes negras às DST/aids Intersectionality of gender, class and race, and vulnerability of black female adolescents to STD/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella R. Taquette

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a vulnerabilidade ao HIV/aids de adolescentes femininas moradoras de favelas da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODO: foi utilizada uma combinação de métodos, quantitativo e qualitativo. Na etapa quantitativa, realizou-se um estudo observacional de corte transversal por meio de entrevistas e exames clínico/laboratoriais para diagnóstico de DST, e, na qualitativa, desenvolveram-se grupos focais sobre os temas sexualidade, gênero e raça. RESULTADOS: foram entrevistadas 816 adolescentes de 10 diferentes comunidades, com um grupo focal em cada favela: 74% eram negras, 39% eram sexualmente ativas e destas 24,4% eram portadoras de DST. Houve uma relação estatisticamente significativa entre a variável raça/cor negra e a atividade sexual. Na fase qualitativa, evidenciou-se que a discriminação racial sofrida é cotidiana e contribui para a construção de autoimagem negativa que aliada a pobreza, violência de gênero e dificuldade de acesso aos serviços de saúde ampliam a vulnerabilidade às DST/aids. CONCLUSÃO: o estudo sugere a criação de políticas que proporcionem o aumento da oferta de serviços de atendimento ginecológico a esse público, com ações que favoreçam a utilização de preservativo feminino e contribuam para reduzir a desigualdade social, de gênero e de raça.OBJECTIVE: To verify the vulnerability to HIV/AIDS of female adolescents that live in poor communities of the city of Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: It was carried out with quantitative and qualitative analyses. The quantitative phase was a cross-sectional study, through interviews of 816 adolescents and clinical/laboratory tests in ten different slums, and the qualitative phase was done on one focus group about sexuality of gender and race in each community. RESULTS: 74% of the adolescents were black, 39% had sexual activity and 24.4% of those had STD. A statistical significant association occurred between the black color/race and sexual activity

  14. ALARACT Demonstration for Primary Ventilation Systems at the DST Tank Farms for the Interim Stabilization Project (Saltwell Pumping) [SEC 1 Thru 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAM, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    A demonstration of As Low As Reasonably Achievable Control Technology (ALARACT) was performed for the existing Double Shell Tank (DST) farm primary ventilation systems in support of the Single Shell Tanks (SSTs) Interim Stabilization Project. The primary ventilation systems evaluated in this ALARACT are located at the 241-AW, AN, AP, and SY tank farms. Of these farms, only the AP and SY farms are scheduled to receive SST waste prior to new ventilation systems being installed at the farms. As a result, full evaluations were performed for the 241-AP and SY systems, whereas only partial evaluations were performed for the 241-AN and AW systems. The full evaluation included the evaluation of the stack sampling system, whereas the partial evaluation did not. Also, 241-AY and AZ are not scheduled to receive SST waste so they were both excluded completely from the evaluation. This ALARACT demonstration evaluated the ability of the abatement and control technologies in the DST ventilation systems identified above to function during SST waste transfers as part of the SST Interim Stabilization Project. Where available, field data (waste temperatures) gathered during actual saltwell pumping activities, were used to support this demonstration. Also used were other process data and equipment capacities associated with the system evaluation. Where actual field data were not available, conservative assumptions, based upon process knowledge and standard engineering calculation methodologies, were used. The DST ventilation systems were also evaluated for compliance against the technology standards identified in Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radioactive Air Emissions, as well as other governing codes and standards

  15. The role of suppression in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingrong; Thompson, Benjamin; Lam, Carly S Y; Deng, Daming; Chan, Lily Y L; Maehara, Goro; Woo, George C; Yu, Minbin; Hess, Robert F

    2011-06-13

    This study had three main goals: to assess the degree of suppression in patients with strabismic, anisometropic, and mixed amblyopia; to establish the relationship between suppression and the degree of amblyopia; and to compare the degree of suppression across the clinical subgroups within the sample. Using both standard measures of suppression (Bagolini lenses and neutral density [ND] filters, Worth 4-Dot test) and a new approach involving the measurement of dichoptic motion thresholds under conditions of variable interocular contrast, the degree of suppression in 43 amblyopic patients with strabismus, anisometropia, or a combination of both was quantified. There was good agreement between the quantitative measures of suppression made with the new dichoptic motion threshold technique and measurements made with standard clinical techniques (Bagolini lenses and ND filters, Worth 4-Dot test). The degree of suppression was found to correlate directly with the degree of amblyopia within our clinical sample, whereby stronger suppression was associated with a greater difference in interocular acuity and poorer stereoacuity. Suppression was not related to the type or angle of strabismus when this was present or the previous treatment history. These results suggest that suppression may have a primary role in the amblyopia syndrome and therefore have implications for the treatment of amblyopia.

  16. Rationale for Selection of Pesticides, Herbicides, and Related Compounds from the Hanford SST/DST Waste Considered for Analysis in Support of the Regulatory DQO (Privatization)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemers, K.D.; Daling, P.; Meier, K.

    1999-01-04

    Regulated pesticides, herbicides, miticides, and fungicides were evaluated for their potential past and current use at the Hanford Site. The starting list of these compounds is based on regulatory analyte input lists discussed in the Regulatory DQO. Twelve pesticide, herbicide, miticide, and fungicide compounds are identified for analysis in the Hanford SST and DST waste in support of the Regulatory DQO. The compounds considered for additional analyses are non-detected, considered stable in the tank waste matrix, and of higher toxicity/carcinogenicity.

  17. Rationale for Selection of Pesticides, Herbicides, and Related Compounds from the Hanford SST/DST Waste Considered for Analysis in Support of the Regulatory DQO (Privatization)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiemers, K.D.; Daling, P.; Meier, K.

    1999-01-01

    Regulated pesticides, herbicides, miticides, and fungicides were evaluated for their potential past and current use at the Hanford Site. The starting list of these compounds is based on regulatory analyte input lists discussed in the Regulatory DQO. Twelve pesticide, herbicide, miticide, and fungicide compounds are identified for analysis in the Hanford SST and DST waste in support of the Regulatory DQO. The compounds considered for additional analyses are non-detected, considered stable in the tank waste matrix, and of higher toxicity/carcinogenicity

  18. Discurso e (trans)identidades: interação, intersubjetividade e acesso à prevenção de DST/AIDS entre travestis

    OpenAIRE

    Borba,Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Neste artigo, investigam-se as dinâmicas discursivo-identitárias emergentes de eventos de fala co-construídos entre travestis que se prostituem e mulheres ativistas na prevenção de DST/AIDS. Através de uma perspectiva socioconstrucionista do discurso e das identidades sociais (MOITA LOPES, 2003), o estudo analisa os processos de (re)construção, (re)negociação e administração de diferenças (percebidas ou construídas) entre as interagentes. Mais especificamente, analisam-se as táticas de inters...

  19. Percepções de enfermeiros acerca das vulnerabilidades para DST/Aids diante das conexões do processo de adolescer

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Ítalo Rodolfo; Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery; Valadares, Glaucia Valente; Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery; Gomes, Antonio Marcos Tosoli; Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro; Santos, Nereida Lucia Palko dos; Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery; Silva, Thiago Privado da; Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery; Leite, Joséte Luzia; Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery/UFRJ

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: conhecer a percepção de enfermeiros acerca das vulnerabilidades para as DST/Aids diante das conexões do processo de adolescer.Método: pesquisa qualitativa, com 15 enfermeiros, em um núcleo de estudos da saúde do adolescente de um hospital universitário do Rio de Janeiro/Brasil. Utilizou-se como referenciais teórico e metodológico, respectivamente, a Teoria da Complexidade e a Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados. Técnica de coleta de dados: entrevistas semiestruturadas, realizadas de janei...

  20. Collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity test for adjuvant chemotherapy after complete resection of non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Masayoshi; Maeda, Hajime; Takeuchi, Yukiyasu; Fukuhara, Kenjiro; Shintani, Yasushi; Funakoshi, Yasunobu; Funaki, Soichiro; Nojiri, Takashi; Kusu, Takashi; Kusumoto, Hidenori; Kimura, Toru; Okumura, Meinoshin

    2018-04-01

    We conducted a prospective clinical study to individualize adjuvant chemotherapy after complete resection of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), based on the drug sensitivity test. Patients with resectable c-stage IB-IIIA NSCLC were registered between 2005 and 2010. We performed the collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST) on a fresh surgical specimen to assess in vitro chemosensitivity and evaluated the prognostic outcome after adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin/paclitaxel based on the CD-DST. Among 92 registered patients, 87 were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The success rate of CD-DST was 86% and chemosensitivity to carboplatin and/or paclitaxel was evident in 57 (76%) of the 75 patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy was completed in 22 (73%) of 30 patients. The 5-year overall survival rates were 71, 73, and 75% for all, CD-DST success, and chemosensitive patients, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates of the chemosensitive patients who completed adjuvant chemotherapy using carboplatin/paclitaxel were 68 and 82%, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates of the patients with stage II-IIIA chemosensitive NSCLC were 58 and 75%, respectively. Comparative analyses of the chemosensitive and non-chemosensitive/CD-DST failure groups showed no significant survival difference. CD-DST can be used to evaluate chemosensitivity after lung cancer surgery; however, its clinical efficacy for assessing individualized treatment remains uncertain.

  1. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in co...

  2. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Católica1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20442806

  3. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hung Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression, the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression.

  4. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsin-Hung; Carrasco, Marisa; Heeger, David J

    2015-10-01

    In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression), the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature) and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression.

  5. Intervenção de base comunitária para a prevenção das DST/Aids na região amazônica, Brasil Community-based intervention to control STD/AIDS in the Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Schwartz Benzaken

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever estudo de caso de intervenção de base comunitária, desenvolvido na perspectiva construcionista-emancipatória, para o controle das DST/Aids. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo desenvolvido no município de Manacapuru, Amazonas, de 1997-2004, sobre a utilização de procedimentos desenhados em colaboração com agentes governamentais, profissionais de saúde e comunidade. Foram levantados dados sobre a dinâmica da prostituição e a venda de preservativos na cidade, características comportamentais, avaliação do processo e da assistência às DST/Aids. Sincronicamente, estabeleceram-se ações de prevenção e assistência na rede pública de saúde às DST, centro de testagem, sistema de vigilância epidemiológica, e capacitação de trabalhadoras do sexo. RESULTADOS: Observou-se o fortalecimento das trabalhadoras do sexo como multiplicadoras e sua legitimação como cidadãs e agentes de saúde em projetos com travestis, homossexuais e escolares. Houve incremento da venda de preservativos na cidade, da utilização de preservativos entre trabalhadoras do sexo, redução das DST bacterianas e estabilização da ocorrência de infecção pelo HIV/Aids e sífilis congênita. A sustentabilidade do programa de intervenção estudado, organizado no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saude, foi estimulada pela pactuação política garantindo sede e orçamento regulamentado em lei municipal, e pelo debate permanente dos resultados do processo e programa. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo fortaleceu a noção de que o controle efetivo das DST/Aids depende de uma abordagem sinérgica que combine intervenções no plano individual (biológica-comportamental, sociocultural e programático.OBJECTIVE: To describe a case study of community-based intervention, developed in a constructionist-emancipatory framework to control STD/AIDS. METHODS: Descriptive study developed in the town of Manacapuru, in the state of Amazonas, from 1997 to 2004, focusing on

  6. Effect of Offering Same-Day ART vs Usual Health Facility Referral During Home-Based HIV Testing on Linkage to Care and Viral Suppression Among Adults With HIV in Lesotho: The CASCADE Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhardt, Niklaus D; Ringera, Isaac; Lejone, Thabo I; Klimkait, Thomas; Muhairwe, Josephine; Amstutz, Alain; Glass, Tracy R

    2018-03-20

    Home-based HIV testing is a frequently used strategy to increase awareness of HIV status in sub-Saharan Africa. However, with referral to health facilities, less than half of those who test HIV positive link to care and initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART). To determine whether offering same-day home-based ART to patients with HIV improves linkage to care and viral suppression in a rural, high-prevalence setting in sub-Saharan Africa. Open-label, 2-group, randomized clinical trial (February 22, 2016-September 17, 2017), involving 6 health care facilities in northern Lesotho. During home-based HIV testing in 6655 households from 60 rural villages and 17 urban areas, 278 individuals aged 18 years or older who tested HIV positive and were ART naive from 268 households consented and enrolled. Individuals from the same household were randomized into the same group. Participants were randomly assigned to be offered same-day home-based ART initiation (n = 138) and subsequent follow-up intervals of 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after treatment initiation at the health facility or to receive usual care (n = 140) with referral to the nearest health facility for preparatory counseling followed by ART initiation and monthly follow-up visits thereafter. Primary end points were rates of linkage to care within 3 months (presenting at the health facility within 90 days after the home visit) and viral suppression at 12 months, defined as a viral load of less than 100 copies/mL from 11 through 14 months after enrollment. Among 278 randomized individuals (median age, 39 years [interquartile range, 28.0-52.0]; 180 women [65.7%]), 274 (98.6%) were included in the analysis (137 in the same-day group and 137 in the usual care group). In the same-day group, 134 (97.8%) indicated readiness to start ART that day and 2 (1.5%) within the next few days and were given a 1-month supply of ART. At 3 months, 68.6% (94) in same-day group vs 43.1% (59) in usual care group had linked to care

  7. TIME-DEPENDENT SUPPRESSION OF OSCILLATORY POWER IN EVOLVING SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, S. Krishna; Jess, D.B.; Keys, P.H. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Jain, R., E-mail: krishna.prasad@qub.ac.uk [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-20

    Oscillation amplitudes are generally smaller within magnetically active regions like sunspots and plage when compared to their surroundings. Such magnetic features, when viewed in spatially resolved power maps, appear as regions of suppressed power due to reductions in the oscillation amplitudes. Employing high spatial- and temporal-resolution observations from the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST) in New Mexico, we study the power suppression in a region of evolving magnetic fields adjacent to a pore. By utilizing wavelet analysis, we study for the first time how the oscillatory properties in this region change as the magnetic field evolves with time. Image sequences taken in the blue continuum, G-band, Ca ii K, and H α filters were used in this study. It is observed that the suppression found in the chromosphere occupies a relatively larger area, confirming previous findings. Also, the suppression is extended to structures directly connected to the magnetic region, and is found to get enhanced as the magnetic field strength increased with time. The dependence of the suppression on the magnetic field strength is greater at longer periods and higher formation heights. Furthermore, the dominant periodicity in the chromosphere was found to be anti-correlated with increases in the magnetic field strength.

  8. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-03-08

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in contrast detection thresholds) as a function of the visual features of the stimulus being suppressed and the stimulus evoking suppression, namely, the popular "Mondrian" CFS stimulus (N. Tsuchiya & C. Koch, 2005). First, we found that CFS differentially suppresses the spatial components of the suppressed stimulus: Observers' sensitivity for stimuli of relatively low spatial frequency or cardinally oriented features was more strongly impaired in comparison to high spatial frequency or obliquely oriented stimuli. Second, we discovered that this feature-selective bias primarily arises from the spatiotemporal structure of the CFS stimulus, particularly within information residing in the low spatial frequency range and within the smooth rather than abrupt luminance changes over time. These results imply that this CFS stimulus operates by selectively attenuating certain classes of low-level signals while leaving others to be potentially encoded during suppression. These findings underscore the importance of considering the contribution of low-level features in stimulus-driven effects that are reported under CFS.

  9. Atomic Beam Merging and Suppression of Alkali Contaminants in Multi Body High Power Targets: Design and Test of Target and Ion Source Prototypes at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Bouquerel, Elian J A; Lettry, J; Stora, T

    2009-01-01

    The next generation of high power ISOL-facilities will deliver intense and pure radioactive ion beams. Two key issues of developments mandatory for the forthcoming generation of ISOL target-ion source units are assessed and demonstrated in this thesis. The design and production of target and ion-source prototypes is described and dedicated measurements at ISOLDE-CERN of their radioisotope yields are analyzed. The purity of short lived or rare radioisotopes suffer from isobaric contaminants, notably alkalis which are highly volatile and easily ionized elements. Therefore, relying on their chemical nature, temperature controlled transfer lines were equipped with a tube of quartz that aimed at trapping these unwanted elements before they reached the ion source. The successful application yields high alkali-suppression factors for several elements (ie: 80, 82mRb, 126, 142Cs, 8Li, 46K, 25Na, 114In, 77Ga, 95, 96Sr) for quartz temperatures between 300ºC and 1100ºC. The enthalpies of adsorption on quartz were measu...

  10. In Vitro Drug Sensitivity Tests to Predict Molecular Target Drug Responses in Surgically Resected Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Miyazaki

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK inhibitors have dramatically changed the strategy of medical treatment of lung cancer. Patients should be screened for the presence of the EGFR mutation or echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4-ALK fusion gene prior to chemotherapy to predict their clinical response. The succinate dehydrogenase inhibition (SDI test and collagen gel droplet embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST are established in vitro drug sensitivity tests, which may predict the sensitivity of patients to cytotoxic anticancer drugs. We applied in vitro drug sensitivity tests for cyclopedic prediction of clinical responses to different molecular targeting drugs.The growth inhibitory effects of erlotinib and crizotinib were confirmed for lung cancer cell lines using SDI and CD-DST. The sensitivity of 35 cases of surgically resected lung cancer to erlotinib was examined using SDI or CD-DST, and compared with EGFR mutation status.HCC827 (Exon19: E746-A750 del and H3122 (EML4-ALK cells were inhibited by lower concentrations of erlotinib and crizotinib, respectively than A549, H460, and H1975 (L858R+T790M cells were. The viability of the surgically resected lung cancer was 60.0 ± 9.8 and 86.8 ± 13.9% in EGFR-mutants vs. wild types in the SDI (p = 0.0003. The cell viability was 33.5 ± 21.2 and 79.0 ± 18.6% in EGFR mutants vs. wild-type cases (p = 0.026 in CD-DST.In vitro drug sensitivity evaluated by either SDI or CD-DST correlated with EGFR gene status. Therefore, SDI and CD-DST may be useful predictors of potential clinical responses to the molecular anticancer drugs, cyclopedically.

  11. Suppression of pool fires with HRC-125 in a simulated engine nacelle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, David R. (INS, Inc., Lexington Park, MD); Hewson, John C.

    2007-06-01

    CFD simulations are conducted to predict the distribution of fire suppressant in an engine nacelle and to predict the suppression of pool fires by the application of this suppressant. In the baseline configuration, which is based on an installed system, suppressant is injected through four nozzles at a rate fast enough to suppress all simulated pool fires. Variations that reduce the mass of the suppression system (reducing the impact of the suppression system on meeting mission needs) are considered, including a reduction in the rate of suppressant injection, a reduction in the mass of suppressant and a reduction in the number of nozzles. In general, these variations should work to reduce the effectiveness of the suppression system, but the CFD results point out certain changes that have negligible impact, at least for the range of phenomena considered here. The results are compared with measurements where available. Comparisons with suppressant measurements are reasonable. A series of twenty-three fire suppression tests were conducted to check the predictions. The pre-test predictions were generally successful in identifying the range of successful suppression tests. In two separate cases, each where one nozzle of the suppression system was capped, the simulation results did indicate a failure to suppress for a condition where the tests indicated successful suppression. When the test-suppressant discharge rate was reduced by roughly 25%, the tests were in agreement with the predictions. That is, the simulations predict a failure to suppress slightly before observed in these cases.

  12. Saber e prática contraceptiva e prevenção de DST/HIV/AIDS em universitários da área da saúde Conocimiento y práctica contraceptiva y prevención de las DST/SIDA entre estudiantes de la universidad Knowledge, contraceptive practice and HIV/AIDS prevention among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Trindade Ferreira Leite

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, cujo objeto de estudo consiste na análise da prática dos universitários acerca da contracepção e controle das DSTS/HIV/AIDS. E teve como objetivo identificar o método contraceptivo de preferência no universo dos universitários, bem como descobrir os aspectos que pesam na hora dessa escolha e se há relação na escolha desse método contraceptivo com a prevenção das doenças. Os resultados alertam para a necessidade de mudanças na atitude dos futuros profissionais de saúde, seja na maneira atual de ensino, seja no modo de oferecer suporte para que estes realmente entendam a importância e necessidade das práticas sexuais seguras, associadas ao uso de métodos contraceptivos.Investigación descriptiva cualitativo sobre el conocimento de los estudiantes de infermage e medicina de la universidad y de cuidado referentes la opción anticonceptiva y al control de DST/SIDA. Identificando la opción anticonceptiva del método entre éstos que gradúan, y la evidencia si ellos métodos del associate a la prevención del DST's/SIDA o no. Los datos fueron recogidos por entrevistas semi structuralized en cassette de cinta. Los datos producidos foran reorganizados y analizados basado en referencial teórico. Los resultados alertan para cambio de las actitudes de los estudiantes, de la educación de modo que realmente entiendan la importancia y la necesidad de práctico sexual seguro, y a los métodos anticonceptivos asociados a enfermedades sexuales, control de HIV/SIDA y prevención del embarazo.Descriptive research of qualitative approach, with the study object about college medicine and nursing students concerning the contraceptive choice and DST/SIDA control. Identifying the contraceptive method choice between these graduating, and to evidence if they associate the methods to the prevention of the DST's/SIDA or not. The data were collected by semi-structured interviews in ribbon cassette. The produced

  13. A single CD4 test with 250 cells/mm3 threshold predicts viral suppression in HIV-infected adults failing first-line therapy by clinical criteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F Gilks

    Full Text Available In low-income countries, viral load (VL monitoring of antiretroviral therapy (ART is rarely available in the public sector for HIV-infected adults or children. Using clinical failure alone to identify first-line ART failure and trigger regimen switch may result in unnecessary use of costly second-line therapy. Our objective was to identify CD4 threshold values to confirm clinically-determined ART failure when VL is unavailable.3316 HIV-infected Ugandan/Zimbabwean adults were randomised to first-line ART with Clinically-Driven (CDM, CD4s measured but blinded or routine Laboratory and Clinical Monitoring (LCM, 12-weekly CD4s in the DART trial. CD4 at switch and ART failure criteria (new/recurrent WHO 4, single/multiple WHO 3 event; LCM: CD4<100 cells/mm(3 were reviewed in 361 LCM, 314 CDM participants who switched over median 5 years follow-up. Retrospective VLs were available in 368 (55% participants.Overall, 265/361 (73% LCM participants failed with CD4<100 cells/mm(3; only 7 (2% switched with CD4≥250 cells/mm(3, four switches triggered by WHO events. Without CD4 monitoring, 207/314 (66% CDM participants failed with WHO 4 events, and 77(25%/30(10% with single/multiple WHO 3 events. Failure/switching with single WHO 3 events was more likely with CD4≥250 cells/mm(3 (28/77; 36% (p = 0.0002. CD4 monitoring reduced switching with viral suppression: 23/187 (12% LCM versus 49/181 (27% CDM had VL<400 copies/ml at failure/switch (p<0.0001. Amongst CDM participants with CD4<250 cells/mm(3 only 11/133 (8% had VL<400 copies/ml, compared with 38/48 (79% with CD4≥250 cells/mm(3 (p<0.0001.Multiple, but not single, WHO 3 events predicted first-line ART failure. A CD4 threshold 'tiebreaker' of ≥250 cells/mm(3 for clinically-monitored patients failing first-line could identify ∼80% with VL<400 copies/ml, who are unlikely to benefit from second-line. Targeting CD4s to single WHO stage 3 'clinical failures' would particularly avoid premature, costly

  14. Microbial sensor for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z-T; Wang, D-B; Li, C-Y; Deng, J-Y; Zhang, J-B; Bi, L-J; Zhang, X-E

    2018-01-01

    Drug susceptibility testing (DST) of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is critical in treating tuberculosis. We demonstrate the possibility of using a microbial sensor to perform DST of M. tuberculosis and shorten the time required for DST. The sensor is made of an oxygen electrode with M. tuberculosis cells attached to its surface. This sensor monitors the residual oxygen consumption of M. tuberculosis cells after treatment with anti-TB drugs with glycerine as a carbon source. In principle, after drug pretreatment for 4-5 days, the response differences between the sensors made of drug-sensitive isolates are distinguishable from the sensors made of drug-resistant isolates. The susceptibility of the M. tuberculosis H37Ra strain, its mutants and 35 clinical isolates to six common anti-TB drugs: rifampicin, isoniazid, streptomycin, ethambutol, levofloxacin and para-aminosalicylic acid were tested using the proposed method. The results agreed well with the gold standard method (LJ) and were determined in significantly less time. The whole procedure takes approximately 11 days and therefore has the potential to inform clinical decisions. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates the possible application of a dissolved oxygen electrode-based microbial sensor in M. tuberculosis drug resistance testing. This study used the microbial sensor to perform DST of M. tuberculosis and shorten the time required for DST. The overall detection result of the microbial sensor agreed well with that of the conventional LJ proportion method and takes less time than the existing phenotypic methods. In future studies, we will build an O 2 electrode array microbial sensor reactor to enable a high-throughput drug resistance analysis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. High Velocity Jet Noise Source Location and Reduction. Task 3 - Experimental Investigation of Suppression Principles. Volume II - Parametric Testing and Source Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    tested at typical dual-flow cycle conditions. B. Models 9, 10, and 12 are similar in geometry to Modelo 6, 7, and 8; however, inner flow was regulated to...Stream I.- Mt. Stf 2., drl 1 I Tl Vý v N.. (T/PO) t (’k) (it;=ecl (PT/Po), (*R) (W.-/2 1 (tc’eeo) 1 1.119 45 1000 6 l.$& 100 100 . 6 1.221 1SO0 1000 Xot

  16. The Potential Impact of Up-Front Drug Sensitivity Testing on India's Epidemic of Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh Sachdeva

    Full Text Available In India as elsewhere, multi-drug resistance (MDR poses a serious challenge in the control of tuberculosis (TB. The End TB strategy, recently approved by the world health assembly, aims to reduce TB deaths by 95% and new cases by 90% between 2015 and 2035. A key pillar of this approach is early diagnosis of tuberculosis, including use of higher-sensitivity diagnostic testing and universal rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST. Despite limitations of current laboratory assays, universal access to rapid DST could become more feasible with the advent of new and emerging technologies. Here we use a mathematical model of TB transmission, calibrated to the TB epidemic in India, to explore the potential impact of a major national scale-up of rapid DST. To inform key parameters in a clinical setting, we take GeneXpert as an example of a technology that could enable such scale-up. We draw from a recent multi-centric demonstration study conducted in India that involved upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing of all TB suspects.We find that widespread, public-sector deployment of high-sensitivity diagnostic testing and universal DST appropriately linked with treatment could substantially impact MDR-TB in India. Achieving 75% access over 3 years amongst all cases being diagnosed for TB in the public sector alone could avert over 180,000 cases of MDR-TB (95% CI 44187 - 317077 cases between 2015 and 2025. Sufficiently wide deployment of Xpert could, moreover, turn an increasing MDR epidemic into a diminishing one. Synergistic effects were observed with assumptions of simultaneously improving MDR-TB treatment outcomes. Our results illustrate the potential impact of new and emerging technologies that enable widespread, timely DST, and the important effect that universal rapid DST in the public sector can have on the MDR-TB epidemic in India.

  17. Sodium fire suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  18. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  19. Why expressive suppression does not pay? Cognitive costs of negative emotion suppression: The mediating role of subjective tense-arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczygieł Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to contribute to a broader understanding of the cognitive consequences of expressive suppression. Specifically, we examined whether the deteriorating effect of expressive suppression on cognitive functioning is caused by tense arousal enhanced by suppression. Two experiments were performed in order to test this prediction. In both studies we tested the effect of expressive suppression on working memory, as measured with a backwards digit-span task (Study 1, N = 43 and anagram problem-solving task (Study 2, N = 60. In addition, in Study 2 we tested whether expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression. Both studies were conducted in a similar design: Participants watched a film clip which evoked negative emotions (i.e. disgust in Study 1 and a combination of sadness and anxiety in Study 2 under the instruction to suppress those negative emotions or (in the control condition to simply watch the film. The results of these experiments lead to three conclusions. First, the results reveal that expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression and leads to poorer performance on working memory tasks, as measured with a backwards digit-span task and anagram problem-solving task. Second, the results indicate that expressive suppression leads to a significant increase in subjective tense arousal. Third, the results support our prediction that expressive suppression decreases cognitive performance through its effects on subjective tense arousal. The results of the Study 1 show that tense arousal activated during expressive suppression of disgust fully mediates the negative effect of suppression on working memory as measured with a backwards digit-span task. The results of Study 2 reveal that subjective tense arousal elicited while suppressing sadness and anxiety mediates both the effect of suppression on

  20. Evaluation of a rapid screening test for rifampicin resistance in re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy of the phage test were determined compared with gold standard culture and DST. Discrepant results were resolved by molecular detection of mutations conferring rifampicin resistance. The proportion of rifampicin-resistant strains that were MDR was also determined. Results.

  1. Temporal suppression and augmentation of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhulst, Sarah; Harte, James; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates temporal suppression of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs), occurring when a suppressor-click is presented close in time to a test-click (e.g. 0-8ms). Various temporal suppression methods for examining temporal changes in cochlear compression were evaluated and me...... under test. Temporal suppression was shown to be comparable for CEOAEs and SSOAEs, indicating similar underlying cochlear nonlinear mechanisms. This study contributes to a better understanding of the temporal properties of cochlear dynamics....

  2. Implementation of the national tuberculosis guidelines on culture and drug sensitivity testing in Guatemala, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samayoa-Peláez, Maritza; Ayala, Nancy; Yadon, Zaida E; Heldal, Einar

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) guidelines for culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST) in Guatemala were successfully implemented, particularly in cases of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) or previously treated TB, by documenting notification rates by department (geographic area), disease type and category, and culture and DST results. Methods This was a cross-sectional, operational research study that merged and linked all patients registered by the NTP and the National Reference Laboratory in 2013, eliminating duplicates. The proportions with culture (for new smear negative pulmonary cases) and culture combined with DST (for previously treated patients) were estimated and analyzed by department. Data were analyzed using EpiData Analysis version 2.2. Results There were 3 074 patients registered with TB (all forms), for a case notification rate of 20/100 000 population. Of these, 2 842 had new TB, of which 2 167 (76%) were smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB), 385 (14%) were smear-negative PTB, and 290 (10%) were extrapulmonary TB. There were 232 (8%) previously treated cases. Case notification rates (all forms) varied by department from 2-68 per 100 000 population, with the highest rates seen in the southwest and northeast part of Guatemala. Of new TB patients, 136 had a culture performed and 55 had DST of which the results were 33 fully sensitive, 9 monoresistant, 3 polyresistant, and 10 multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB). Only 21 (5%) of new smear-negative PTB patients had cultures. Of 232 previously treated patients, 54 (23%) had a culture and 47 (20%) had DST, of which 29 were fully sensitive, 7 monoresistant, 2 polyresistant, and 9 MDR-TB. Of 22 departments (including the capital), culture and DST was performed in new smear-negative PTB in 7 departments (32%) and in previously treated TB in 13 departments (59%). Conclusions Despite national guidelines, only 5% of smear-negative PTB cases had a culture and only 20% of

  3. Implementation of the national tuberculosis guidelines on culture and drug sensitivity testing in Guatemala, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Samayoa-Peláez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess whether the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP guidelines for culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST in Guatemala were successfully implemented, particularly in cases of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB or previously treated TB, by documenting notification rates by department (geographic area, disease type and category, and culture and DST results. Methods This was a cross-sectional, operational research study that merged and linked all patients registered by the NTP and the National Reference Laboratory in 2013, eliminating duplicates. The proportions with culture (for new smear negative pulmonary cases and culture combined with DST (for previously treated patients were estimated and analyzed by department. Data were analyzed using EpiData Analysis version 2.2. Results There were 3 074 patients registered with TB (all forms, for a case notification rate of 20/100 000 population. Of these, 2 842 had new TB, of which 2 167 (76% were smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB, 385 (14% were smear-negative PTB, and 290 (10% were extrapulmonary TB. There were 232 (8% previously treated cases. Case notification rates (all forms varied by department from 2–68 per 100 000 population, with the highest rates seen in the southwest and northeast part of Guatemala. Of new TB patients, 136 had a culture performed and 55 had DST of which the results were 33 fully sensitive, 9 monoresistant, 3 polyresistant, and 10 multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB. Only 21 (5% of new smear-negative PTB patients had cultures. Of 232 previously treated patients, 54 (23% had a culture and 47 (20% had DST, of which 29 were fully sensitive, 7 monoresistant, 2 polyresistant, and 9 MDR-TB. Of 22 departments (including the capital, culture and DST was performed in new smear-negative PTB in 7 departments (32% and in previously treated TB in 13 departments (59%. Conclusions Despite national guidelines, only 5% of smear-negative PTB cases had a culture and

  4. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Fukuda, Akira; Kitaguchi, Hidemi; Shimizu, Toshiaki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To relieve and absorb impact wave vibrations caused by steam and non-condensed gases releasing into the pressure suppression chamber at the time of an accident. Structure: The reactor container is filled with inert gases. A safety valve attached main steam pipe is provided to permit the excessive steam to escape, the valve being communicated with the pressure suppression chamber through an exhaust pipe. In the pressure suppression chamber, a doughnut-like cylindrical outer wall is filled at its bottom with pool water to condense the high temperature vapor released through the exhaust pipe. A head portion of a vent tube which leads the exhaust pipe is positioned at the top, and a down comer and an exhaust vent tube are locked by means of steady rests. At the bottom is mounted a pressure adsorber device which adsorbs a pressure from the pool water. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Inclusão da pessoa com deficiência em um Centro de Referência em DST/AIDS de um município baiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Santos Sales

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo, de abordagem qualitativa, buscou conhecer a opinião dos profissionais de saúde sobre a inclusão das pessoas com deficiência nas atividades de acolhimento, prevenção e tratamento em um Centro de Referência em DST/AIDS. As falas foram submetidas à técnica de análise de conteúdo de Bardin. A análise mostra que os profissionais conduzem seu serviço no sentido da inclusão, buscando formas de comunicação que alcancem essas pessoas, como o uso das Libras, adequação da estrutura física, igualdade de atendimento e entendimento das vulnerabilidades dessa população. Apesar das estratégias adotadas terem grande importância na facilitação de um atendimento acolhedor às pessoas com deficiência, partem em sua maioria, de atividades pontuais e de forma individual. É preciso uma articulação eficaz do serviço com gestores e atores políticos na construção e adequação de matérias, programas e políticas publicas para alcance equitativo e inclusão dessa população.

  6. Inclusão da pessoa com deficiência em um Centro de Referência em DST/AIDS de um município baiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Santos Sales

    Full Text Available O presente estudo, de abordagem qualitativa, buscou conhecer a opinião dos profissionais de saúde sobre a inclusão das pessoas com deficiência nas atividades de acolhimento, prevenção e tratamento em um Centro de Referência em DST/AIDS. As falas foram submetidas à técnica de análise de conteúdo de Bardin. A análise mostra que os profissionais conduzem seu serviço no sentido da inclusão, buscando formas de comunicação que alcancem essas pessoas, como o uso das Libras, adequação da estrutura física, igualdade de atendimento e entendimento das vulnerabilidades dessa população. Apesar das estratégias adotadas terem grande importância na facilitação de um atendimento acolhedor às pessoas com deficiência, partem em sua maioria, de atividades pontuais e de forma individual. É preciso uma articulação eficaz do serviço com gestores e atores políticos na construção e adequação de matérias, programas e políticas publicas para alcance equitativo e inclusão dessa população.

  7. Mark I 1/5-scale boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment. Quick-look report for test numbers 1.0(a) and 1.0(b) performed on March 4 and 8, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.W.; Pitts, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    The experimental results obtained from pressure suppression experiment numbers 1.0(a) and 1.0(b) that were performed on the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's 1 / 5 -scale boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark I pressure suppression experimental facility are summarized

  8. Pressure suppressing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Makoto.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the pressure in the reactor container from excessively increasing even when vapor leaks from the dry well to a space of the suppression chamber, without passing though the suppression pool at the time of loss of coolant accident. Constitution: When vapor of a high temperature and a high pressure at the time of loss of coolant accident flows from the dry well to the suppression chamber without passing through suppression pool water, vapor dose not condense with pool water, and therefore the pressure within the chamber abnormally increases. For this reason, this abnormal pressure is detected by a pressure detector thereby to start the operations of a blower and a pump. By starting the blower, the pressure in the dry well becomes lower than the pressure in the chamber, and vapor entirely passes through the pool water and entirely condenses with the pool water. By starting the pump, the pool water is sprayed over the space of the chamber, and vapor in the space is condensed. (Yoshino, Y.)

  9. Suppression of oscillations in mean-field diffusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    space, analytically, we have carried out the linear stability analysis and computed the ..... The validation of the above statements is also confirmed by the bifurcation and phase .... Authors thank DST, Government of India for financial support.

  10. Hangar Fire Suppression Utilizing Novec 1230

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    fuel fires in aircraft hangars. A 30×30×8-ft concrete-and-steel test structure was constructed for this test series. Four discharge assemblies...that agent concentration in the test structure exceeded the required extinguishing concentration for at least 5 min after discharge. Two fire ...involved suppression of a 4.6-gal, approximately 5-ft diameter, Jet-A pool fire . Both fires were successfully extinguished by the Novec 1230 discharge

  11. qPCR-High resolution melt analysis for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium leprae directly from clinical specimens of leprosy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Sergio; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Truman, Richard W; Goulart, Isabela Maria B; Vissa, Varalakshmi; Li, Wei; Matsuoka, Masanori; Suffys, Philip; Fontes, Amanda B; Rosa, Patricia S; Scollard, David M; Williams, Diana L

    2017-06-01

    Real-Time PCR-High Resolution Melting (qPCR-HRM) analysis has been recently described for rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST) of Mycobacterium leprae. The purpose of the current study was to further evaluate the validity, reliability, and accuracy of this assay for M. leprae DST in clinical specimens. The specificity and sensitivity for determining the presence and susceptibility of M. leprae to dapsone based on the folP1 drug resistance determining region (DRDR), rifampin (rpoB DRDR) and ofloxacin (gyrA DRDR) was evaluated using 211 clinical specimens from leprosy patients, including 156 multibacillary (MB) and 55 paucibacillary (PB) cases. When comparing the results of qPCR-HRM DST and PCR/direct DNA sequencing, 100% concordance was obtained. The effects of in-house phenol/chloroform extraction versus column-based DNA purification protocols, and that of storage and fixation protocols of specimens for qPCR-HRM DST, were also evaluated. qPCR-HRM results for all DRDR gene assays (folP1, rpoB, and gyrA) were obtained from both MB (154/156; 98.7%) and PB (35/55; 63.3%) patients. All PCR negative specimens were from patients with low numbers of bacilli enumerated by an M. leprae-specific qPCR. We observed that frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues or archival Fite's stained slides were suitable for HRM analysis. Among 20 mycobacterial and other skin bacterial species tested, only M. lepromatosis, highly related to M. leprae, generated amplicons in the qPCR-HRM DST assay for folP1 and rpoB DRDR targets. Both DNA purification protocols tested were efficient in recovering DNA suitable for HRM analysis. However, 3% of clinical specimens purified using the phenol/chloroform DNA purification protocol gave false drug resistant data. DNA obtained from freshly frozen (n = 172), formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues (n = 36) or archival Fite's stained slides (n = 3) were suitable for qPCR-HRM DST analysis. The HRM-based assay was also able to

  12. Clinical implications of molecular drug resistance testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a TBNET/RESIST-TB consensus statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domínguez, J.; Boettger, E. C.; Cirillo, D.; Cobelens, F.; Eisenach, K. D.; Gagneux, S.; Hillemann, D.; Horsburgh, R.; Molina-Moya, B.; Niemann, S.; Tortoli, E.; Whitelaw, A.; Lange, C.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a challenge to global tuberculosis (TB) control. Although culture-based methods have been regarded as the gold standard for drug susceptibility testing (DST), molecular methods provide rapid information on mutations in the M.

  13. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT DYTRAN BENCHMARK ANALYSIS OF SEISMICALLY INDUCED FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN FLAT TOP TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2007-02-16

    The work reported in this document was performed in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work herein was motivated by review comments from a Project Review Meeting held on March 20-21, 2006. One of the recommendations from that meeting was that the effects of the interaction between the tank liquid and the roof be further studied (Rinker, Deibler, Johnson, Karri, Pilli, Abatt, Carpenter, and Hendrix - Appendix E of RPP-RPT-28968, Rev. 1). The reviewers recommended that solutions be obtained for seismic excitation of flat roof tanks containing liquid with varying headspace between the top of the liquid and the tank roof. It was recommended that the solutions be compared with simple, approximate procedures described in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005). This report documents the results of the requested studies and compares the predictions of Dytran simulations to the approximate procedures in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005) for flat roof tanks. The four cases analyzed all employed a rigid circular cylindrical flat top tank with a radius of 450 in. and a height of 500 in. The initial liquid levels in the tank were 460,480,490, and 500 in. For the given tank geometry and the selected seismic input, the maximum unconstrained slosh height of the liquid is slightly greater than 25 in. Thus, the initial liquid level of 460 in. represents an effectively roofless tank, the two intermediate liquid levels lead to intermittent interaction between the liquid and tank roof, and the 500 in. liquid level represents a completely full tank with no sloshing. Although this work was performed

  14. J/Ψ suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubellino, P.; Abreu, M.C.; Alessandro, B.; Alexa, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Astruc, J.; Atayan, M.; Baglin, C.; Baldit, A.; Bedjidian, M.; Bellaiche, F.; Beole, S.; Boldea, V.; Bordalo, P.; Bussiere, A.; Capony, V.; Casagrande, L.; Castor, J.; Chambon, T.; Chaurand, B.; Chevrot, I.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constantinescu, S.; Cruz, J.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Drapier, O.; Espagnon, B.; Fargeix, J.; Filippov, S.N.; Fleuret, F.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gavrilov, Y.K.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gonin, M.; Grigorian, A.A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkaninan, H.; Hakobyan, R.; Haroutunian, R.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavitcheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kurepin, A.B.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lourenco, C.; Mac Cormick, M.; Macciotta, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mourgues, S.; Musso, A.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prado da Silva, W.L.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Racca, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Rato-Mendes, P.; Riccati, L.; Romana, A.; Sartori, S.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Silva, S.; Soave, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Temnikov, P.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.; Vale, C.; Vercellin, E.; Willis, N.

    1999-01-01

    The cross section for J/Ψ production in Pb-Pb interactions at 158 GeV per nucleon is measured at the CERN SPS by the NA50 experiment. The final results from the 1995 run are presented here together with preliminary ones from the high-statistics 1996 run. An anomalous J/Ψ suppression is observed in Pb-Pb collisions as compared to extrapolations of the previous results obtained by the NA38 experiment with proton and lighter ion beams. The results of the two runs are in good agreement. The results from the 1996 run allow the study of the onset of the anomalous suppression within the same set of data, showing evidence of a sharp change of behaviour around a value of neutral transverse energy, as measured by our electromagnetic calorimeter, of about 50 GeV

  15. Physical performance evaluation of GE DST PET-CT and evaluation of characteristics in dynamic image acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B. I.; Kim, J. Y.; Min, J. J.; Song, H. C.; Bom, H. S.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, J. S.

    2005-01-01

    As a new standard for performance measurement, NEMA NU2-2001 was presented recently. In this study, we investigated the spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, and noise equivalent count ratio (NECR) in order to know the information of physical characteristics and system performance. Bismuth germinate crystals (6 X 6 array, 6.3mm X 6.3mm X 30mm) were used in discovery ST (energy window: 375-650 keV, coincidence window: 11.7 nsec). To measure the sensitivity, five aluminum sleeves (Data Spectrum Corp., Chapel Hill, NC., USA, thickness:1.25 mm) -NEMA sensitivity phantom- filled with F-18 solution were used. Spatial resolution was estimated using a point source (F-18, 0.1 mCi). Data were acquired while the count reaches at 100,000 and another experiment was performed at a distance of one-fourth the axial extent of the FOV. Scatter fraction and NECR was tested. Dynamic data were acquired for 7 half-lives. And true to background ratio was averaged at last three frames when the random rate was as small as ignorable for the calculation of scatter fraction. Sensitivity was 1.79 cps/kBq (2D) and 9.84 cps/kBq (3D) at the center and 1.78 cps/kBq (2D) and 9.60 cps/kBq (3D) at 10 cm off from the center. Spatial resolution at center was 6.15 mm (2D), 6.16 mm (3D) transverse direction and 5.77 mm (2D) and 5.93 mm (3D) at axial direction. At 10 cm radius, resolution of transverse radial was 7.19 mm (2D) and 7.16 mm (3D) and transverse tangential was 6.81 mm (2D) and 6.80mm (3D). Scatter fraction was 45.1% in 3D mode. Peak true rate and NECR were 325.1 kcps at 30.1 kBq/cc and 59.3 kcps at 13.7 kBq/cc. Dynamic image acquisition and gating image acquisition were acquired successfully. The physical characteristics of PET-CT were investigated. The sensitivity of installed system in 3D mode was better than the result of published study. We anticipate this overall evaluated results could be used for the quantification and optimized image acquisition for clinical research

  16. Measuring colour rivalry suppression in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofeldt, T S; Hofeldt, A J

    1999-11-01

    To determine if the colour rivalry suppression is an index of the visual impairment in amblyopia and if the stereopsis and fusion evaluator (SAFE) instrument is a reliable indicator of the difference in visual input from the two eyes. To test the accuracy of the SAFE instrument for measuring the visual input from the two eyes, colour rivalry suppression was measured in six normal subjects. A test neutral density filter (NDF) was placed before one eye to induce a temporary relative afferent defect and the subject selected the NDF before the fellow eye to neutralise the test NDF. In a non-paediatric private practice, 24 consecutive patients diagnosed with unilateral amblyopia were tested with the SAFE. Of the 24 amblyopes, 14 qualified for the study because they were able to fuse images and had no comorbid disease. The relation between depth of colour rivalry suppression, stereoacuity, and interocular difference in logMAR acuity was analysed. In normal subjects, the SAFE instrument reversed temporary defects of 0.3 to 1. 8 log units to within 0.6 log units. In amblyopes, the NDF to reverse colour rivalry suppression was positively related to interocular difference in logMAR acuity (beta=1.21, psuppression as measured with the SAFE was found to agree closely with the degree of visual acuity impairment in non-paediatric patients with amblyopia.

  17. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoek, Hella Leonie [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-06-02

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B0 → D*- a0+ decays and the non-resonant B0 → D*- ηπ+ decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → B$\\bar{B}$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B0 → D*- a{sub 0}+ decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10-6. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B0 → D*- a0+ decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly

  18. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  19. Temporal suppression and augmentation of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhulst, Sarah; Harte, James; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates and models temporal suppression of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs). This suppression-effect is created when a suppressor-click is presented close in time to a test-click. The analysis was carried out for short time-frames of short- and long-latency CEOAEs...... suppression is present in all CEOAEs for inter-click intervals (ICIs) less than 8 ms. The long-latency CEOAEs showed augmentation (i.e., negative suppression) for ICIs of 6-7 ms which was not reported for the short-latency CEOAE at these ICIs. A phenomenological approach is adopted here to explain both...

  20. Uncertainties in coupled thermal-hydrological processes associated with the drift scale test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumitra; Tsang, Y.W.

    2002-01-01

    Understanding thermally driven coupled hydrological, mechanical, and chemical processes in unsaturated fractured tuff is essential for evaluating the performance of the potential radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Drift Scale Test (DST), intended for acquiring such an understanding of these processes, has generated a huge volume of temperature and moisture redistribution data. Sophisticated thermal hydrological (TH) conceptual models have yielded a good fit between simulation results and those measured data. However, some uncertainties in understanding the TH processes associated with the DST still exist. This paper evaluates these uncertainties and provides quantitative estimates of the range of these uncertainties. Of particular interest for the DST are the uncertainties resulting from the unmonitored loss of vapor through an open bulkhead of the test. There was concern that the outcome from the test might have been significantly altered by these losses. Using alternative conceptual models, we illustrate that predicted mean temperatures from the DST are within 1 degree C of the measured mean temperatures through the first two years of heating. The simulated spatial and temporal evolution of drying and condensation fronts is found to be qualitatively consistent with measured saturation data. Energy and mass balance computation shows that no more than 13 percent of the input energy is lost because of vapor leaving the test domain through the bulkhead. The change in average saturation in fractures is also relatively small. For a hypothetical situation in which no vapor is allowed to exit through the bulkhead, the simulated average fracture saturation is not qualitatively different enough to be discerned by measured moisture redistribution data. This leads us to conclude that the DST, despite the uncertainties associated with open field testing, has provided an excellent understanding of the TH processes

  1. Effects of thought suppression on episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E; Merckelbach, H; Muris, P

    1997-11-01

    Subjects were shown a short film fragment. Following this, one group of subjects (n = 26) was instructed to suppress their thoughts about the film, while the other group (n = 24) received no instructions. After 5 hrs subjects returned to the laboratory and completed a questionnaire testing their memory about the film. Results showed that suppression subjects reported a higher frequency of thoughts about the film than control subjects. No evidence was obtained for Wegner, Quillian, and Houston's (1996; Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 680-691) claim that suppression has an undermining effect on memory for chronology. Possible causes for the differences between the results as obtained by Wegner et al., and those found in the present study are discussed. These causes may pertain to the experimental design, but also to differences in emotional impact of the stimulus material that was used in both studies.

  2. Wing rock suppression using forebody vortex control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T. T.; Ong, L. Y.; Suarez, C. J.; Malcolm, G. N.

    1991-01-01

    Static and free-to-roll tests were conducted in a water tunnel with a configuration that consisted of a highly-slender forebody and 78-deg sweep delta wings. Flow visualization was performed and the roll angle histories were obtained. The fluid mechanisms governing the wing rock of this configuration were identified. Different means of suppressing wing rock by controlling the forebody vortices using small blowing jets were also explored. Steady blowing was found to be capable of suppressing wing rock, but significant vortex asymmetries had to be induced at the same time. On the other hand, alternating pulsed blowing on the left and right sides of the forebody was demonstrated to be potentially an effective means of suppressing wing rock and eliminating large asymmetric moments at high angles of attack.

  3. The pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear plants with boiling water reactors have a safety containment with a pressure suppression system (PSS). Proceeding on significant self-developments, today the three PSS-lines of General Electric Co. (GE), Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) and ASEA-ATOM are predominant, which are currently represented by the MARK III type, the KWU type 72 and the BWR 75 containment. In addition, there are special developments for the nuclear ship propulsion and for the pressurized water reactors in the Soviet Union. Key design values of the PSS allow a first valuation of its loads during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. (orig.) [de

  4. Disease Suppressive Soils: New Insights from the Soil Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, Daniel; Kinkel, Linda; Thomashow, Linda; Weller, David; Paulitz, Timothy

    2017-11-01

    Soils suppressive to soilborne pathogens have been identified worldwide for almost 60 years and attributed mainly to suppressive or antagonistic microorganisms. Rather than identifying, testing and applying potential biocontrol agents in an inundative fashion, research into suppressive soils has attempted to understand how indigenous microbiomes can reduce disease, even in the presence of the pathogen, susceptible host, and favorable environment. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing of microbiomes have provided new tools to reexamine and further characterize the nature of these soils. Two general types of suppression have been described: specific and general suppression, and theories have been developed around these two models. In this review, we will present three examples of currently-studied model systems with features representative of specific and general suppressiveness: suppression to take-all (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici), Rhizoctonia bare patch of wheat (Rhizoctonia solani AG-8), and Streptomyces. To compare and contrast the two models of general versus specific suppression, we propose a number of hypotheses about the nature and ecology of microbial populations and communities of suppressive soils. We outline the potential and limitations of new molecular techniques that can provide novel ways of testing these hypotheses. Finally, we consider how this greater understanding of the phytobiome can facilitate sustainable disease management in agriculture by harnessing the potential of indigenous soil microbes.

  5. Dexamethasone-suppressed cortisol awakening response predicts treatment outcome in posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, M. J.; van Amsterdam, J. G. C.; Gersons, B. P. R.; Olff, M.

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with several alterations in the neuroendocrine system, including enhanced cortisol suppression in response to the dexamethasone suppression test. The aim of this study was to examine whether specific biomarkers of PTSD predict treatment

  6. Dipyridamole thallium imaging may not be a reliable screening test for coronary artery disease in patients undergoing vascular surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwick, T.H.; Underwood, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Dipyridamole thallium imaging has been proposed for cardiac risk stratification in patients undergoing peripheral vascular surgery. The purpose of this study was to define the benefit of this investigation in routine preoperative evaluation of these patients. The outcome of 86 patients undergoing vascular surgery procedures was examined in light of preoperative clinical assessment and dipyridamole SPECT thallium imaging (DST). Fifty-one patients (59%) were considered at high risk on clinical grounds, and 22 patients (26%) had perfusion defects. Ten patients suffered a perioperative coronary event, including unstable angina, myocardial infarction, or cardiac death. Seven of the patients with such events were among the 51 clinically high-risk subjects (14%). Three perioperative events occurred in the group of 19 patients with positive DST images who underwent surgery (16%), but the DST test failed to identify 7 patients who suffered coronary events. The frequency of abnormal thallium imaging was similar to the prevalence of angiographically significant coronary disease reported previously at this center, but considerably less than the rate of abnormal thallium imaging in past studies of vascular surgery patients. The application of the test to a low to moderate risk population is probably responsible for its lower predictive accuracy for coronary events. DST is not an ideal routine noninvasive technique for risk stratification in patients undergoing vascular surgery

  7. Radiation effluent suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Atsushi.

    1992-01-01

    In a radiation release suppression system upon accident, an electromotive valve, a pneumatic operation valve or a manual operation valve is disposed to gas ventilation pipelines which are extended from both of a dry well and a wet well of a reactor container to a stuck. In addition, a combination filter of a metal fiber filter made of stainless steel etc. and an activated carbon fiber filter is disposed in the midway of pipelines in a reactor building. With such a constitution, the inside of the container can be depressurized (prevention of ruptures) and the amount of radioactive substances released to circumstances is remarkably suppressed by the effect of radioactive substance capturing effect of the metal fiber filter made of stainless steel etc. disposed in the vent pipe in the container and a radioactive substance capturing effect by the combination filter of the metal fiber filter made of stainless steel, etc. and the activated carbon fiber filter disposed in the gas ventilation pipelines even upon occurrence of an accident exceeding design basis. Systems can be simplified and minimized, and cost down can also be attained. (N.H.)

  8. Planck-suppressed operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel; Green, Daniel; McAllister, Liam

    2014-01-01

    We show that the recent Planck limits on primordial non-Gaussianity impose strong constraints on light hidden sector fields coupled to the inflaton via operators suppressed by a high mass scale Λ. We study a simple effective field theory in which a hidden sector field is coupled to a shift-symmetric inflaton via arbitrary operators up to dimension five. Self-interactions in the hidden sector lead to non-Gaussianity in the curvature perturbations. To be consistent with the Planck limit on local non-Gaussianity, the coupling to any hidden sector with light fields and natural cubic couplings must be suppressed by a very high scale Λ > 10 5 H. Even if the hidden sector has Gaussian correlations, nonlinearities in the mixing with the inflaton still lead to non-Gaussian curvature perturbations. In this case, the non-Gaussianity is of the equilateral or orthogonal type, and the Planck data requires Λ > 10 2 H

  9. Conhecimento, atitude e prática do uso de preservativos por presidiárias: prevenção das DST/HIV no cenário prisional

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Ribeiro, Samila Gomes; Lessa, Paula Renata Amorim; Monte, Alana Santos; Bernardo, Elizian Braga Rodrigues; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2012-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar o conhecimento, a atitude e a prática de presidiárias quanto ao uso do preservativo masculino e feminino como medida preventiva às DST/HIV. Pesquisa quantitativa e avaliativa do tipo Conhecimento, Atitude e Prática (CAP), envolvendo 155 presidiárias. A coleta de dados realizou-se de janeiro a março de 2010 na penitenciária feminina do estado do Ceará. Embora tivessem ouvido falar e/ou soubessem as finalidades do uso, apenas 35 mulheres (22,6%) tinham conhecimento adequado...

  10. Proton density-weighted MR imaging of the knee: fat suppression versus without fat suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun Ki; Jee, Won-Hee; Kim, Jung-Man

    2011-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression for detecting meniscal tears. The study involved 48 patients who underwent arthroscopy less than 3 months after proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression. Sagittal images were independently reviewed by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Medial and lateral menisci were separately analyzed in terms of anterior horn, body, and posterior horn. Interobserver agreement was assessed using κ coefficients. The McNemar test was used to determine any differences between the two methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Arthroscopy findings were used as the diagnostic reference standard. Arthroscopy revealed 71 tears involving 85 meniscal segments: 34 medial meniscal segments and 51 lateral meniscal segments. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each radiologist were 95% (81/85), 92% (186/203), and 93% (267/288), and 93% (79/85), 93% (189/203), and 93% (268/288) when using fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging, and 91% (77/85), 93% (189/203), and 92% (266/288), and 91% (77/85), 93% (188/203), and 92% (265/288) when using proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression, respectively. Interobserver agreement for meniscal tears was very high with proton-weighted imaging with (κ = 0.87) or without (κ = 0.86) fat suppression. There were no significant differences for detection of medial meniscal tears when using proton density-weighted imaging with or without fat suppression for both readers (p > 0.05). Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging can replace proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression for the detection of meniscal tears. (orig.)

  11. Proton density-weighted MR imaging of the knee: fat suppression versus without fat suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun Ki [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jee, Won-Hee [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Catholic University of Korea, Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Man [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression for detecting meniscal tears. The study involved 48 patients who underwent arthroscopy less than 3 months after proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression. Sagittal images were independently reviewed by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Medial and lateral menisci were separately analyzed in terms of anterior horn, body, and posterior horn. Interobserver agreement was assessed using {kappa} coefficients. The McNemar test was used to determine any differences between the two methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Arthroscopy findings were used as the diagnostic reference standard. Arthroscopy revealed 71 tears involving 85 meniscal segments: 34 medial meniscal segments and 51 lateral meniscal segments. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each radiologist were 95% (81/85), 92% (186/203), and 93% (267/288), and 93% (79/85), 93% (189/203), and 93% (268/288) when using fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging, and 91% (77/85), 93% (189/203), and 92% (266/288), and 91% (77/85), 93% (188/203), and 92% (265/288) when using proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression, respectively. Interobserver agreement for meniscal tears was very high with proton-weighted imaging with ({kappa} = 0.87) or without ({kappa} = 0.86) fat suppression. There were no significant differences for detection of medial meniscal tears when using proton density-weighted imaging with or without fat suppression for both readers (p > 0.05). Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging can replace proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression for the detection of meniscal tears. (orig.)

  12. A pilot study examining density of suppression measurement in strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Marianne; Newsham, David

    2015-01-01

    Establish whether the Sbisa bar, Bagolini filter (BF) bar, and neutral density filter (NDF) bar, used to measure density of suppression, are equivalent and possess test-retest reliability. Determine whether density of suppression is altered when measurement equipment/testing conditions are changed. Our pilot study had 10 subjects aged ≥18 years with childhood-onset strabismus, no ocular pathologies, and no binocular vision when manifest. Density of suppression upon repeated testing, with clinic lights on/off, and using a full/reduced intensity light source, was investigated. Results were analysed for test-retest reliability, equivalence, and changes with alteration of testing conditions. Test-retest reliability issues were present for the BF bar (median 6 filter change from first to final test, p = 0.021) and NDF bar (median 5 filter change from first to final test, p = 0.002). Density of suppression was unaffected by environmental illumination or fixation light intensity variations. Density of suppression measurements were higher when measured with the NDF bar (e.g. NDF bar = 1.5, medium suppression, vs BF bar = 6.5, light suppression). Test-retest reliability issues may be present for the two filter bars currently still under manufacture. Changes in testing conditions do not significantly affect test results, provided the same filter bar is used consistently for testing. Further studies in children with strabismus having active amblyopia treatment would be of benefit. Despite extensive use of these tests in the UK, this is to our knowledge the first study evaluating filter bar equivalence/reliability.

  13. Viscoelastic properties of soft gels: comparison of magnetic resonance elastography and dynamic shear testing in the shear wave regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, R. J.; Clayton, E. H.; Bayly, P. V.

    2011-10-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is used to quantify the viscoelastic shear modulus, G*, of human and animal tissues. Previously, values of G* determined by MRE have been compared to values from mechanical tests performed at lower frequencies. In this study, a novel dynamic shear test (DST) was used to measure G* of a tissue-mimicking material at higher frequencies for direct comparison to MRE. A closed-form solution, including inertial effects, was used to extract G* values from DST data obtained between 20 and 200 Hz. MRE was performed using cylindrical 'phantoms' of the same material in an overlapping frequency range of 100-400 Hz. Axial vibrations of a central rod caused radially propagating shear waves in the phantom. Displacement fields were fit to a viscoelastic form of Navier's equation using a total least-squares approach to obtain local estimates of G*. DST estimates of the storage G' (Re[G*]) and loss modulus G'' (Im[G*]) for the tissue-mimicking material increased with frequency from 0.86 to 0.97 kPa (20-200 Hz, n = 16), while MRE estimates of G' increased from 1.06 to 1.15 kPa (100-400 Hz, n = 6). The loss factor (Im[G*]/Re[G*]) also increased with frequency for both test methods: 0.06-0.14 (20-200 Hz, DST) and 0.11-0.23 (100-400 Hz, MRE). Close agreement between MRE and DST results at overlapping frequencies indicates that G* can be locally estimated with MRE over a wide frequency range. Low signal-to-noise ratio, long shear wavelengths and boundary effects were found to increase residual fitting error, reinforcing the use of an error metric to assess confidence in local parameter estimates obtained by MRE.

  14. Patterns and Predictors of Tic Suppressibility in Youth With Tic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conelea, Christine A; Wellen, Brianna; Woods, Douglas W; Greene, Deanna J; Black, Kevin J; Specht, Matthew; Himle, Michael B; Lee, Han-Joo; Capriotti, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Tic suppression is the primary target of tic disorder treatment, but factors that influence voluntary tic inhibition are not well understood. Several studies using the Tic Suppression Task have demonstrated significant inter-individual variability in tic suppressibility but have individually been underpowered to address correlates of tic suppression. The present study explored patterns and clinical correlates of reward-enhanced tic suppression in youth with tic disorders using a large, pooled dataset. Individual-level data from nine studies using the Tic Suppression Task were pooled, yielding a sample of 99 youth with tic disorders. Analyses examined patterns of tic suppressibility and the relationship between tic suppressibility and demographic and clinical characteristics. A large majority of youth demonstrated a high degree of tic suppression, but heterogeneous patterns of tic suppressibility were also observed. Better tic suppressibility was related to older age and more frequent tics but unrelated to other clinical variables, including presence of psychiatric comorbidity, psychotropic medication status, tic and premonitory urge severity, and self-rated tic suppressibility. The mechanisms underlying the observed heterogeneity in reward-enhanced tic suppressibility warrant further investigation. The Tic Suppression Task is a promising method for testing mechanistic hypotheses related to tic suppression.

  15. Suppress to feel and remember less: Neural correlates of explicit and implicit emotional suppression on perception and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumi, Yuta; Dolcos, Sanda

    2018-02-09

    Available evidence suggests that emotion regulation can modulate both immediate (emotional experience) and long-term (episodic memory) effects of emotion, and that both explicit and implicit forms may be effective. However, neural mechanisms by which explicit and implicit emotional suppression affect these phenomena remain unclear, particularly regarding their effects on memory. In this study, participants rated the emotional content of negative and neutral images, following explicit (verbal instructions) or implicit (priming) induction of emotional suppression goals, during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants' memory for the images was tested one week later. Behaviorally, explicit suppression reduced emotional ratings of negative images, whereas both explicit and implicit suppression reduced subsequent memory. At the neural level, the engagement of explicit suppression was uniquely associated with decreased activity in the amygdala (AMY), during emotional ratings, and in the AMY and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), during successful encoding. Although both explicit and implicit suppression diminished functional connectivity between these regions and the hippocampus (HC) linked to successful encoding, explicit suppression was uniquely associated with interference with AMY-HC interactions, which no longer predicted subsequent memory for the explicitly-suppressed items. Overall, these findings advance our understanding of the common and dissociable mechanisms of explicit and implicit emotional suppression on perception and memory, and suggest their impact on both bottom-up and top-down mechanisms involved in emotion-cognition interactions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Overcoming fixation with repeated memory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angello, Genna; Storm, Benjamin C; Smith, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Fixation (blocks to memories or ideas) can be alleviated not only by encouraging productive work towards a solution, but, as the present experiments show, by reducing counterproductive work. Two experiments examined relief from fixation in a word-fragment completion task. Blockers, orthographically similar negative primes (e.g., ANALOGY), blocked solutions to word fragments (e.g., A_L_ _GY) in both experiments. After priming, but before the fragment completion test, participants repeatedly suppressed half of the blockers using the Think/No-Think paradigm, which results in memory inhibition. Inhibiting blockers did not alleviate fixation in Experiment 1 when conscious recollection of negative primes was not encouraged on the fragment completion test. In Experiment 2, however, when participants were encouraged to remember negative primes at fragment completion, relief from fixation was observed. Repeated suppression may nullify fixation effects, and promote creative thinking, particularly when fixation is caused by conscious recollection of counterproductive information.

  17. Thermal Testing Measurements Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wagner

    2002-09-26

    , including graphical displays and comprehensive spreadsheets. In some cases, there was no need to reformat or restructure Input-DTNs so they remained unchanged. Thermal testing measurement data come from the characterization (pre-heating/baseline and post-cooling) and testing (heating and cooling) phases of the Large Block Test (LBT), the Single Heater Test (SHT), and the Drift Scale Test (DST). Since the LBT and SHT are completed, all phases of those two tests are addressed. DST measurements addressed in this report include preheating and the entire four-year heating phase, which ended January 14, 2002. Discussion of measurements from the ongoing cooling phase will be included in future revision(s) of this report.

  18. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Toyokazu.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a pressure suppression device for a gas cooled reactor wherein the coolant is discharged in a reactor building by a loss-of-coolant accident or the like, the increase in the pressure and temperature is controlled and thermal energy of the discharged coolant of high temperature and high pressure can be absorbed. Constitution: A low heat source unit is provided at the upper part in an inner space of a reactor building provided around the reactor, and at the upper part of the low heat source unit a stirring fan for mixing gas within the building, and a low heat source circulating the low heat source through a pipe is connected to the low heat source unit. The low heat source unit is provided with the pipe arranged in a spiral shape at the upper part of the space of the unit, and a large number of fins are provided at the outer surface of the pipe for increasing the transmission area and improve the heat exchange. When the coolant of high temperature and high pressure has been lost in the building, the thermal energy of the coolant is absorbed by the low heat source unit. (Aizawa, K.)

  19. Prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men attending STD clinics in Brazil Prevalência de Neisseria gonorrhoeae e infecção pela Chlamydia trachomatis em homens atendidos em clínicas de DST no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Joaquim Barbosa

    2010-10-01

    conduzido em homens que procuraram atendimento em clínicas de DST. O estudo incluiu clínicas de DST em seis cidades distribuídas nas cinco regiões geográficas do Brasil em 2005. Pacientes coletaram 20ml do primeiro jato de urina para testar NG e CT por DNA-PCR. RESULTADOS: Um total de 767 (92,9% homens foi incluído no estudo. A média de idade foi 26,5 (DP 8,3 anos. A prevalência de infecção por CT foi 13,1% (IC95% 10,7%-15,5% e NG de 18,4% (IC95% 15,7%-21,1%. A prevalência de co-infecção foi 4,4% (IC95% 2,95%-5,85%. Os fatores identificados como sendo associados com a infecção pela CT foram ser jovem (15-24 [OR=1,4 (IC95% 1,01-1,91], apresentar corrimento uretral ao exame [OR=4.8 (IC95% 1,52-15,05], verrugas genitais [OR=3,0 (IC95% 1,49-5,92] e história prévia de corrimento uretral [OR=2,4 (IC95% 1,11-5,18]. As variáveis associadas com a gonorréia foram ser jovem (15 to 24 [OR=1,5 (IC95% 1,09-2,05], apresentar corrimento uretral [OR=9,9 (IC95% 5,53-17,79], verrugas genitais [OR=18,3 (IC95% 8,03-41,60] e úlcera ao exame clínico [OR=4,9 (IC95% 1,06-22,73]. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados têm implicações importantes para medidas de educação e prevenção direcionadas aos homens com risco acrescido de HIV/DST. A abordagem no serviço para oferecer testes de rotina para homens jovens atendidos em clínica de DST deve ser estimulada.

  20. Design and testing of a unique active Compton-suppressed LaBr3(Ce) detector system for improved sensitivity assays of TRU in remote-handled TRU wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Hartwell; M. E. McIlwain; J. A. Kulisek

    2007-10-01

    The US Department of Energy’s transuranic (TRU) waste inventory includes about 4,500 m3 of remote-handled TRU (RH-TRU) wastes composed of a variety of containerized waste forms having a contact surface dose rate that exceeds 2 mSv/hr (200 mrem/hr) containing waste materials with a total TRU concentration greater than 3700 Bq/g (100 nCi/g). As part of a research project to investigate the use of active Compton-suppressed room-temperature gamma-ray detectors for direct non-destructive quantification of the TRU content of these RH-TRU wastes, we have designed and purchased a unique detector system using a LaBr3(Ce) primary detector and a NaI(Tl) suppression mantle. The LaBr3(Ce) primary detector is a cylindrical unit ~25 mm in diameter by 76 mm long viewed by a 38 mm diameter photomultiplier. The NaI(Tl) suppression mantle (secondary detector) is 175 mm by 175 mm with a center well that accommodates the primary detector. An important feature of this arrangement is the lack of any “can” between the primary and secondary detectors. These primary and secondary detectors are optically isolated by a thin layer (.003") of aluminized kapton, but the hermetic seal and thus the aluminum can surrounds the outer boundary of the detector system envelope. The hermetic seal at the primary detector PMT is at the PMT wall. This arrangement virtually eliminates the “dead” material between the primary and secondary detectors, a feature that preliminary modeling indicated would substantially improve the Compton suppression capability of this device. This paper presents both the expected performance of this unit determined from modeling with MCNPX, and the performance measured in our laboratory with radioactive sources.

  1. Ship Systems Survivability Test Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Area for testing survivability of shipboard systems to include electrical, communications, and fire suppression. Multipurpose test range for supporting gun firing,...

  2. Evaluation of STD/AIDS prevention programs: a review of approaches and methodologies Avaliação de programas de prevenção de DST/AIDS: revendo abordagens e metodologias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly Marques da Cruz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review of approaches and methodologies in the evaluation of STD/AIDS prevention programs, searching for theoretical and methodological support for the institutionalization of evaluation and decision-making. The review included the MEDLINE, SciELO, and ISI Web of Science databases and other sources like textbooks and congress abstracts from 1990 to 2005, with the key words: "evaluation", "programs", "prevention", "STD/AIDS", and similar terms. The papers showed a predominance of quantitative outcome or impact evaluative studies with an experimental or quasi-experimental design. The main use of evaluation is accountability, although knowledge output and program improvement were also identified in the studies. Only a few evaluative studies contemplate process evaluation and its relationship to the contexts. The review aimed to contribute to the debate on STD/AIDS, which requires more effective, consistent, and sustainable decisions in the field of prevention.O artigo apresenta uma revisão de abordagens e metodologias sobre avaliação de programas de prevenção de DST/AIDS, buscando um aporte teórico-metodológico que subsidie a institucionalização da avaliação e a tomada de decisão. A revisão foi realizada nas bases de dados do MEDLINE, SciELO, ISI Web of Science e outras fontes, tais como livros, textos e resumos apresentados em congressos, no período de 1990 a 2005, das palavras-chave: "avaliação", "programas", "prevenção", "DST/AIDS" e termos similares. Nos artigos levantados há uma predominância de estudos avaliativos quantitativos de resultado ou de impacto, do tipo experimental ou quase-experimental. O principal uso da avaliação é o da prestação de contas, embora a produção do conhecimento e a melhoria do programa possam ser identificados nos estudos examinados. Poucos são os estudos avaliativos que contemplam a avaliação de processo e discutem a sua relação com os contextos. Pretendeu

  3. Managing for soil health can suppress pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hodson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A “healthy” soil can be thought of as one that functions well, both agronomically and ecologically, and one in which soil biodiversity and crop management work in synergy to suppress pests and diseases. UC researchers have pioneered many ways of managing soil biology for pest management, including strategies such as soil solarization, steam treatment and anaerobic soil disinfestation, as well as improvements on traditional methods, such as reducing tillage, amending soil with organic materials, and cover cropping. As managing for soil health becomes more of an explicit focus due to restrictions on the use of soil fumigants, integrated soil health tests will be needed that are validated for use in California. Other research needs include breeding crops for disease resistance and pest suppressive microbial communities as well as knowledge of how beneficial organisms influence plant health.

  4. Myc suppression of Nfkb2 accelerates lymphomagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Ulrich; Huber, Jürgen; Nilsson, Jonas A; Fallahi, Mohammad; Hall, Mark A; Peschel, Christian; Cleveland, John L

    2010-01-01

    Deregulated c-Myc expression is a hallmark of several human cancers where it promotes proliferation and an aggressive tumour phenotype. Myc overexpression is associated with reduced activity of Rel/NF-κB, transcription factors that control the immune response, cell survival, and transformation, and that are frequently altered in cancer. The Rel/NF-κB family member NFKB2 is altered by chromosomal translocations or deletions in lymphoid malignancies and deletion of the C-terminal ankyrin domain of NF-κB2 augments lymphocyte proliferation. Precancerous Eμ-Myc-transgenic B cells, Eμ-Myc lymphomas and human Burkitt lymphoma samples were assessed for Nfkb2 expression. The contribution of Nfkb2 to Myc-driven apoptosis, proliferation, and lymphomagenesis was tested genetically in vivo. Here we report that the Myc oncoprotein suppresses Nfkb2 expression in vitro in primary mouse fibroblasts and B cells, and in vivo in the Eμ-Myc transgenic mouse model of human Burkitt lymphoma (BL). NFKB2 suppression by Myc was also confirmed in primary human BL. Promoter-reporter assays indicate that Myc-mediated suppression of Nfkb2 occurs at the level of transcription. The contribution of Nfkb2 to Myc-driven lymphomagenesis was tested in vivo, where Nfkb2 loss was shown to accelerate lymphoma development in Eμ-Myc transgenic mice, by impairing Myc's apoptotic response. Nfkb2 is suppressed by c-Myc and harnesses Myc-driven lymphomagenesis. These data thus link Myc-driven lymphomagenesis to the non-canonical NF-κB pathway

  5. Compton suppression gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Iskander, F.Y.; Niset, M.; Heydorn, K.

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade there have been many studies to use Compton suppression methods in routine neutron activation analysis as well as in the traditional role of low level gamma ray counting of environmental samples. On a separate path there have been many new PC based software packages that have been developed to enhance photopeak fitting. Although the newer PC based algorithms have had significant improvements, they still suffer from being effectively used in weak gamma ray lines in natural samples or in neutron activated samples that have very high Compton backgrounds. We have completed a series of experiments to show the usefulness of Compton suppression. As well we have shown the pitfalls when using Compton suppression methods for high counting deadtimes as in the case of neutron activated samples. We have also investigated if counting statistics are the same both suppressed and normal modes. Results are presented in four separate experiments. (author)

  6. Hearing aid noise suppression and working memory function

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Rosa-Linde; Neher, Tobias; Wagener, Kirsten C.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research findings concerning the relation between benefit from hearing aid (HA) noise suppression and working memory function are inconsistent. The current study thus investigated the effects of three noise suppression algorithms on auditory working memory and the relation with reading span.DESIGN: Using a computer simulation of bilaterally fitted HAs, four settings were tested: (1) unprocessed, (2) directional microphones, (3) single-channel noise reduction and (4) binaural cohere...

  7. Has introduction of rapid drug susceptibility testing at diagnosis impacted treatment outcomes among previously treated tuberculosis patients in Gujarat, India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paresh Dave

    Full Text Available Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP in India recommends that all previously-treated TB (PT patients are offered drug susceptibility testing (DST at diagnosis, using rapid diagnostics and screened out for rifampicin resistance before being treated with standardized, eight-month, retreatment regimen. This is intended to improve the early diagnosis of rifampicin resistance and its appropriate management and improve the treatment outcomes among the rest of the patients. In this state-wide study from Gujarat, India, we assess proportion of PT patients underwent rapid DST at diagnosis and the impact of this intervention on their treatment outcomes.This is a retrospective cohort study involving review of electronic patient-records maintained routinely under RNTCP. All PT patients registered for treatment in Gujarat during January-June 2013 were included. Information on DST and treatment outcomes were extracted from 'presumptive DR-TB patient register' and TB treatment register respectively. We performed a multivariate analysis to assess if getting tested is independently associated with unfavourable outcomes (death, loss-to-follow-up, failure, transfer out.Of 5,829 PT patients, 5306(91% were tested for drug susceptibility with rapid diagnostics. Overall, 71% (4,113 TB patients were successfully treated - 72% among tested versus 60% among non-tested. Patients who did not get tested at diagnosis had a 34% higher risk of unsuccessful outcomes as compared to those who got tested (aRR - 1.34; 95% CI 1.20-1.50 after adjusting for age, sex, HIV status and type of TB. Unfavourable outcomes (particularly failure and switched to category IV were higher among INH-resistant patients (39% as compared to INH-sensitive (29%.Offering DST at diagnosis improved the treatment outcomes among PT patients. However, even among tested, treatment outcomes remained suboptimal and were related to INH resistance and high loss-to-follow-up. These need to be addressed

  8. Physical model of lean suppression pressure oscillation phenomena: steam condensation in the light water reactor pressure suppression system (PSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.W.; Holman, G.S.; Aust, E.; Schwan, H.; Vollbrandt, J.

    1980-01-01

    Using the results of large scale multivent tests conducted by GKSS, a physical model of chugging is developed. The unique combination of accurate digital data and cinematic data has provided the derivation of a detailed, quantified correlation between the dynamic physical variables and the associated two-phase thermo-hydraulic phenomena occurring during lean suppression (chugging) phases of the loss-of-coolant accident in a boiling water reactor pressure suppression system

  9. Sexualidade e prevenção de DST/AIDS: representações sociais de homens rurais de um município da zona da mata pernambucana, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Paz Alves

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho analisamos as concepções de homens rurais residentes na zona da mata pernambucana sobre suas práticas sexuais e a prevenção de DST/AIDS. Ele baseia-se numa metodologia de natureza qualitativa, tendo sido entrevistados 22 homens. Os resultados indicam que a primeira relação sexual destes apresenta um caráter de aprendizado, sendo marcada, por vezes, pela violência. Que eles fazem distinção entre mulheres "de casa e da rua", reconhecem o desejo feminino e valorizam a reciprocidade nas relações sexuais, diferenciando o sexo que se faz com distintas categorias de mulheres. Sete homens relatam experiências homoeróticas na adolescência, atribuídas à imaturidade, que não afetam a identidade heterossexual. O uso do preservativo, percebido negativamente, é inconstante e irregular, concorrendo com o conhecimento da parceira. As DSTs são pouco temidas ao passo que a AIDS é associada à morte, não vendo-se os entrevistados sob risco de contraí-la. Ambigüidades presentes no discurso, aliadas a uma atuação pouco eficaz dos serviços de saúde e campanhas de prevenção, evidenciam um elevado nível de exposição ao risco de contrair DST/AIDS por parte dos entrevistados e suas/seus parceiras/os.

  10. Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regeneration From Hanford Tank Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation Summary Of Prior Lab-Scale Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.L.; Guillot, S.

    2011-01-01

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  11. Memory suppression is an active process that improves over childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M Paz-Alonso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We all have memories that we prefer not to think about. The ability to suppress retrieval of unwanted memories has been documented in behavioral and neuroimaging research using the Think/No-Think (TNT paradigm with adults. Attempts to stop memory retrieval are associated with increased activation of lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC and concomitant reduced activation in medial temporal lobe (MTL structures. However, the extent to which children have the ability to actively suppress their memories is unknown. This study investigated memory suppression in middle childhood using the TNT paradigm. Forty children aged 8 to 12 and 30 young adults were instructed either to remember (Think or suppress (No-Think the memory of the second word of previously studied word-pairs, when presented with the first member as a reminder. They then performed two different cued recall tasks, testing their memory for the second word in each pair after the Think/No-Think phase using the same first studied word within the pair as a cue (intra-list cue and also an independent cue (extra-list cue. Children exhibited age-related improvements in memory suppression from age 8 to 12 in both memory tests, against a backdrop of overall improvements in declarative memory over this age range. These findings suggest that memory suppression is an active process that develops during late childhood, likely due to an age-related refinement in the ability to engage PFC to down-regulate activity in areas involved in episodic retrieval.

  12. Beyond viral suppression of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Barton, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016-2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the '90-90-90' target calling on health systems to reduce under-diagnosis of HIV, treat a greater number of those diagnosed......, and ensure that those being treated achieve viral suppression. DISCUSSION: The WHO strategy calls for person-centered chronic care for people living with HIV (PLHIV), implicitly acknowledging that viral suppression is not the ultimate goal of treatment. However, it stops short of providing an explicit target...... for health-related quality of life. It thus fails to take into account the needs of PLHIV who have achieved viral suppression but still must contend with other intense challenges such as serious non-communicable diseases, depression, anxiety, financial stress, and experiences of or apprehension about HIV...

  13. Noise suppression in duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.; Barfeh, M.A.G.

    2001-01-01

    In air-conditioning system the noise generated by supply fan is carried by conditioned air through the ductwork. The noise created in ductwork run may be transmission, regenerative and ductborne. Transmission noise is fan noise, regenerative noise is due to turbulence in flow and ductborne noise is the noise radiating from duct to surroundings. Some noise is attenuated in ducts also but if noise level is high then it needs to be attenuated. A simple mitre bend can attenuate-noise. This principle is extended to V and M-shape ducts with inside lining of fibreglass, which gave maximum attenuation of 77 dB and 62 dB respectively corresponding to 8 kHz frequency as compared to mitre, bend giving maximum 18 dB attenuation. Sound level meter measured sound levels with octave band filter and tests were conducted in anechoic room. A V-shape attenuator can be used at fan outlet and high frequency noise can be minimized greatly. (author)

  14. Aging and repeated thought suppression success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E Lambert

    Full Text Available Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differences in reactions to thought suppression attempts across four thought suppression sequences in 40 older and 42 younger adults. As expected, age differences were more prevalent during suppression than during free monitoring periods, with younger adults indicating longer, more frequent thought recurrences and greater suppression difficulty. Further, younger adults' thought suppression outcomes changed over time, while trajectories for older adults' were relatively stable. Results are discussed in terms of older adults' reduced thought recurrence, which was potentially afforded by age-related changes in reactive control and distractibility.

  15. Study on the petroleum recovery technology: well testing analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Dae Gee; Kim, Se Joon; Kim, Hyun Tae [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Well testing is one of the most widely used tools to characterize reservoirs throughout the entire life of petroleum exploration and production. In this study, we first try to set up a procedure of computer aided well test analysis and then attempt to characterize potential reservoirs by performing well test analysis for some of the exploratory wells in the Korean continental shelf. A couple of gas well testing data already published in the literature were also analyzed and compared. First task was to analyze the drill stem test(DST) in KCS-1 gas well. The second analysis was also DST data on multi-rate gas wells. The third case is a Devonian shale reservoir. The final problem is a multi-rate drawdown test without early time pressure data. It is now possible to analyze insufficient well test data with less accuracy. One remark should be pointed out on multi-rate gas well testing. It is recommended to have variable skins rather than a constant skin because rate dependent skins due to turbulence of gas flow must be considered in addition to the mechanical skin. (author). 14 refs.

  16. Accentuation-suppression and scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The limitations of the visual short-term memory (VSTM) system have become an increasingly popular field of study. One line of inquiry has focused on the way attention selects objects for encoding into VSTM. Using the framework of the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990 Psychological...... a scaling mechanism modulating the decision bias of the observer and also through an accentuation-suppression mechanism that modulates the degree of subjective relevance of objects, contracting attention around fewer, highly relevant objects while suppressing less relevant objects. These mechanisms may...

  17. Enhancement of soil suppressiveness against Rhizoctonia solani in sugar beet by organic amendments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Schilder, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of different organic soil amendments on disease suppression to Rhizoctoniasolani AG 2-2IIIB was tested in a bio-assay with sugar beet as a test plant. Lysobacter populations in soil were quantified as a possible mechanism for disease suppression. Disease spread through the bio-assay

  18. Improved attractants for enhancing tsetse fly suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    At the initiation of this co-ordinated research project (CRP), the available visually attractant devices and odours for entomological monitoring and for suppression of tsetse fly populations were not equally effective against all economically important tsetse fly species. For species like G. austeni, G. brevipalpis, G. swynnertoni and some species of the PALPALIS-group of tsetse flies no sufficiently effective combinations of visual or odour attractants were available for efficient suppression and standardized monitoring as part of an operational integrated intervention campaign against the tsetse and trypanosomosis (T and T) problem. The Co-ordinated Research Project on Improved Attractants for Enhancing the Efficiency of Tsetse Fly Suppression Operations and Barrier Systems used in Tsetse Control/Eradication Campaigns involved (a) the identification, synthesis and provision of candidate kairomones, their analogues and of dispensers; (b) laboratory screening of synthesised candidate kairomones through electrophysiological studies and wind tunnel experiments; (c) field tests of candidate kairomones alone or as part of odour blends, in combination with available and or new trap designs; and (d) analysis of hydrocarbons that influence tsetse sexual behaviour. The CRP accomplished several main objectives, namely: - The screening of new structurally related compounds, including specific stereoisomers, of known tsetse attractants resulted in the identification of several new candidate odour attractants with promising potential. - An efficient two-step synthetic method was developed for the pilot plant scale production of 3-n-propyphenol, synergistic tsetse kairomone component. - Electrophysiological experiments complemented with wind tunnel studies provided an efficient basis for the laboratory screening of candidate attractants prior to the initiation of laborious field tests. - New traps were identified and modifications of existing traps were tested for some species

  19. Validation of a Paper and Pencil Test Battery for the Diagnosis of Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Yoon; Jun, Dae Won; Bai, Daiseg; Kim, Ji Yean; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Ahn, Sang Bong; Kim, Sang Gyune; Kim, Tae Yeob; Kim, Hyoung Su; Jeong, Soung Won; Cho, Yong Kyun; Song, Do Seon; Kim, Hee Yeon; Jung, Young Kul; Yoon, Eileen L

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a new paper and pencil test battery to diagnose minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) in Korea. A new paper and pencil test battery was composed of number connection test-A (NCT-A), number connection test-B (NCT-B), digit span test (DST), and symbol digit modality test (SDMT). The norm of the new test was based on 315 healthy individuals between the ages of 20 and 70 years old. Another 63 healthy subjects (n = 31) and cirrhosis patients (n = 32) were included as a validation cohort. All participants completed the new paper and pencil test, a critical flicker frequency (CFF) test and computerized cognitive function test (visual continuous performance test [CPT]). The scores on the NCT-A and NCT-B increased but those of DST and SDMT decreased according to age. Twelve of the cirrhotic patients (37.5%) were diagnosed with MHE based on the new paper and pencil test battery. The total score of the paper and pencil test battery showed good positive correlation with the CFF (r = 0.551, P cognitive function test. Also, this score was lower in patients with MHE compared to those without MHE (P cognitive test decreased significantly in patients with MHE compared to those without MHE. Test-retest reliability was comparable. In conclusion, the new paper and pencil test battery including NCT-A, NCT-B, DST, and SDMT showed good correlation with neuropsychological tests. This new paper and pencil test battery could help to discriminate patients with impaired cognitive function in cirrhosis (registered at Clinical Research Information Service [CRIS], https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris, KCT0000955). © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  20. Double-shell tank integrity assessments ultrasonic test equipment performance test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfluger, D.C.

    1996-09-26

    A double-shell tank (DST) inspection (DSTI) system was performance tested over three months until August 1995 at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, completing a contract initiated in February 1993 to design, fabricate, and test an ultrasonic inspection system intended to provide ultrasonic test (UT) and visual data to determine the integrity of 28 DSTs at Hanford. The DSTs are approximately one-million-gallon underground radioactive-waste storage tanks. The test was performed in accordance with a procedure (Jensen 1995) that included requirements described in the contract specification (Pfluger 1995). This report documents the results of tests conducted to evaluate the performance of the DSTI system against the requirements of the contract specification. The test of the DSTI system also reflects the performance of qualified personnel and operating procedures.

  1. Consequences of stereotype suppression and internal suppression motivation : A self-regulation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, Ernestine H; Hindriks, Inge; Koomen, W; Dijksterhuis, Ap; van Knipppenberg, A.

    The present research studied the effects of suppression of stereotypes on subsequent stereotyping. Moreover, the moderating influence of motivation to suppress stereotypes was examined. The first three experiments showed that suppression of stereotypes leads to the experience of engaging in

  2. Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus Lung Disease: Drug Susceptibility Testing in Sputum Culture Negative Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Kobayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among Mycobacterium abscessus complex infections, patients with M. abscessus subsp. abscessus (MAA lung disease are difficult to treat and no standard therapy has been established. Few reports have investigated the drug susceptibility of these strains. We retrospectively investigated how in vitro drug susceptibility testing (DST of MAA affects the induction of sputum conversion using pharmacotherapy. Methods: Patients with MAA lung disease diagnosed and treated between 2010 and 2014 at our hospital were enrolled and divided into Group A (sputum conversion without relapse within 1 year and Group B (persistent positive cultured or negative conversion with relapse. MAA was identified in M. abscessus using sequence with genotyping, and DST of MAA was performed. Results: We assessed 23 patients (9 males and 14 females. There were 8 patients in Group A and 15 in Group B. Higher prevalence of susceptible isolates for clarithromycin (CAM susceptibility on day 14 was noted in Group A than in Group B (P = 0.03 and no significant difference observed in the two groups for other drugs. Conclusions: In vitro DST of MAA, especially CAM susceptibility on day 14, affected the results of negative conversion. No other drugs were found to affect sputum culture negative conversion.

  3. Persistence and Suppressiveness of Pasteuria penetrans to Meloidogyne arenaria Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetintas, R; Dickson, D W

    2004-12-01

    The long-term persistence and suppressiveness of Pasteuria penetrans against Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 were investigated in a formerly root-knot nematode suppressive site following 9 years of continuous cultivation of three treatments and 4 years of continuous peanut. The three treatments were two M. arenaria race 1 nonhost crops, bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum cv. Pensacola var. Tifton 9), rhizomal peanut (Arachis glabrata cv. Florigraze), and weed fallow. Two root-knot nematode susceptible weeds commonly observed in weed fallow plots were hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta) and alyce clover (Alysicarpus vaginalis). The percentage of J2 with endospores attached reached the highest level of 87% in 2000 in weed fallow, and 63% and 53% in 2002 in bahiagrass and rhizomal peanut, respectively. The percentage of endospore-filled females extracted from peanut roots grown in weed fallow plots increased from nondetectable in 1999 to 56% in 2002, whereas the percentages in bahiagrass and rhizomal peanut plots were 41% and 16%, respectively. Over 4 years, however, there was no strong evidence that endospores densities reached suppressive levels because peanut roots, pods, and pegs were heavily galled, and yields were suppressed. This might be attributed to the discovery of M. javanica infecting peanut in this field in early autumn 2001. A laboratory test confirmed that although the P. penetrans isolate specific to M. arenaria attached to M. javanica J2, no development occurred. In summary, P. penetrans increased on M. arenaria over a 4-year period, but apparently because of infection of M. javanica on peanut at the field site root-knot disease was not suppressed. This was confirmed by a suppressive soil test that showed a higher level of soil suppressiveness than occurred in the field (P

  4. Depth of suppression in anisometropic amblyopia (with or without microtropia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Alison Y; Stevenson, Clare

    2012-01-01

    There are conflicting reports concerning the relationship between depth of suppression and level of amblyopia in strabismics. Little attention has been given to anisometropes. This study examines the density of suppression in anisometropic amblyopes, with or without microtropia, and investigates whether there is a relationship with level of amblyopia. Patients with anisometropia (defined as a difference of 1D or 0.5 D cyl), binocular single vision and a difference in corrected visual acuity of at least 0.1 logMAR between eyes were recalled. The degree of amblyopia was expressed as the interocular difference using the Bailey-Lovie logMAR chart. Stereoacuity (Titmus test), binocular alignment and fixation were recorded. The depth of suppression was measured using the neutral density filter bar together with the Worth four dot test at 4.5m (subtending an angle of 0.5 degrees). Best spherical equivalent (BSE) was calculated to represent anisometropia. Thirteen participants aged 8.3 years to 12.1 years (mean 9.7 years) completed the study. No significant correlation was present (r=0.10, p=0.74) between the depth of suppression and degree of amblyopia. However, there was a correlation between depth of suppression and level of stereoacuity (r=0.59, p=0.03). Six participants had microtropia and showed stronger suppression (p=0.03) and worse stereoacuity (p=0.001) than the pure anisometropes. No evidence was found of a relationship between density of suppression and amblyopia in this cohort of anisometropic amblyopes.

  5. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1998-01-01

    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  6. Strangeness Suppression and Color Deconfinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satz, Helmut

    2018-02-01

    The relative multiplicities for hadron production in different high energy collisions are in general well described by an ideal gas of all hadronic resonances, except that under certain conditions, strange particle rates are systematically reduced. We show that the suppression factor γs, accounting for reduced strange particle rates in pp, pA and AA collisions at different collision energies, becomes a universal function when expressed in terms of the initial entropy density s0 or the initial temperature T of the produced thermal medium. It is found that γs increases from about 0.5 to 1.0 in a narrow temperature range around the quark-hadron transition temperature Tc ≃ 160 MeV. Strangeness suppression thus disappears with the onset of color deconfinement; subsequently, full equilibrium resonance gas behavior is attained.

  7. Chk1 suppressed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meuth Mark

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of Chk1 in the cellular response to DNA replication stress is well established. However recent work indicates a novel role for Chk1 in the suppression of apoptosis following the disruption of DNA replication or DNA damage. This review will consider these findings in the context of known pathways of Chk1 signalling and potential applications of therapies that target Chk1.

  8. In-Flight Suppressant Deployment Temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bein, Donald

    2006-01-01

    .... An assessment is made of the model output versus some aircraft measurement data, fire suppressant boiling point criterion, as well as the history of altitude/temperature at which fire suppressants have been deployed...

  9. HIV Care Saves Lives: Viral Suppression is Key PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the December 2014 Vital Signs. For people living with HIV, Viral suppression is critical. By getting tested and taking HIV medicines, individuals living with HIV can achieve very low levels of HIV in the body.

  10. Conhecimento, atitude e prática do uso de preservativos por presidiárias: prevenção das DST/HIV no cenário prisional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Izabel Oliveira Nicolau

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o conhecimento, a atitude e a prática de presidiárias quanto ao uso do preservativo masculino e feminino como medida preventiva às DST/HIV. Pesquisa quantitativa e avaliativa do tipo Conhecimento, Atitude e Prática (CAP, envolvendo 155 presidiárias. A coleta de dados realizou-se de janeiro a março de 2010 na penitenciária feminina do estado do Ceará. Embora tivessem ouvido falar e/ou soubessem as finalidades do uso, apenas 35 mulheres (22,6% tinham conhecimento adequado sobre o preservativo masculino e 11 (7,1% a respeito do feminino. As atitudes foram menos favoráveis quanto ao uso no sexo oral. A prática adequada apresentou pouca representatividade, em especial, do feminino. A homo/bissexualidade, as questões de gênero, a falta de conhecimento e o difícil acesso aos preservativos representaram obstáculos a serem considerados na promoção da saúde sexual do grupo estudado.

  11. Quantitative measurement of interocular suppression in anisometropic amblyopia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinrong; Hess, Robert F; Chan, Lily Y L; Deng, Daming; Yang, Xiao; Chen, Xiang; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2013-08-01

    The aims of this study were to assess (1) the relationship between interocular suppression and visual function in patients with anisometropic amblyopia, (2) whether suppression can be simulated in matched controls using monocular defocus or neutral density filters, (3) the effects of spectacle or rigid gas-permeable contact lens correction on suppression in patients with anisometropic amblyopia, and (4) the relationship between interocular suppression and outcomes of occlusion therapy. Case-control study (aims 1-3) and cohort study (aim 4). Forty-five participants with anisometropic amblyopia and 45 matched controls (mean age, 8.8 years for both groups). Interocular suppression was assessed using Bagolini striated lenses, neutral density filters, and an objective psychophysical technique that measures the amount of contrast imbalance between the 2 eyes that is required to overcome suppression (dichoptic motion coherence thresholds). Visual acuity was assessed using a logarithm minimum angle of resolution tumbling E chart and stereopsis using the Randot preschool test. Interocular suppression assessed using dichoptic motion coherence thresholds. Patients exhibited significantly stronger suppression than controls, and stronger suppression was correlated significantly with poorer visual acuity in amblyopic eyes. Reducing monocular acuity in controls to match that of cases using neutral density filters (luminance reduction) resulted in levels of interocular suppression comparable with that in patients. This was not the case for monocular defocus (optical blur). Rigid gas-permeable contact lens correction resulted in less suppression than spectacle correction, and stronger suppression was associated with poorer outcomes after occlusion therapy. Interocular suppression plays a key role in the visual deficits associated with anisometropic amblyopia and can be simulated in controls by inducing a luminance difference between the eyes. Accurate quantification of suppression

  12. In the suppression of regge cut contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, S.P.

    1975-07-01

    It is shown that contributions of reggeon-pomeron cuts are suppressed in amplitudes with opposite natural to the reggeon. This suppression grows logarithmically with energy. The suppression in the πP cut is, however, found to be weak. Consequence on conspiracy is discussed

  13. The measurement and treatment of suppression in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Joanna M; Hess, Robert F; Cooperstock, Jeremy R; To, Long; Thompson, Benjamin

    2012-12-14

    Amblyopia, a developmental disorder of the visual cortex, is one of the leading causes of visual dysfunction in the working age population. Current estimates put the prevalence of amblyopia at approximately 1-3%(1-3), the majority of cases being monocular(2). Amblyopia is most frequently caused by ocular misalignment (strabismus), blur induced by unequal refractive error (anisometropia), and in some cases by form deprivation. Although amblyopia is initially caused by abnormal visual input in infancy, once established, the visual deficit often remains when normal visual input has been restored using surgery and/or refractive correction. This is because amblyopia is the result of abnormal visual cortex development rather than a problem with the amblyopic eye itself(4,5) . Amblyopia is characterized by both monocular and binocular deficits(6,7) which include impaired visual acuity and poor or absent stereopsis respectively. The visual dysfunction in amblyopia is often associated with a strong suppression of the inputs from the amblyopic eye under binocular viewing conditions(8). Recent work has indicated that suppression may play a central role in both the monocular and binocular deficits associated with amblyopia(9,10) . Current clinical tests for suppression tend to verify the presence or absence of suppression rather than giving a quantitative measurement of the degree of suppression. Here we describe a technique for measuring amblyopic suppression with a compact, portable device(11,12) . The device consists of a laptop computer connected to a pair of virtual reality goggles. The novelty of the technique lies in the way we present visual stimuli to measure suppression. Stimuli are shown to the amblyopic eye at high contrast while the contrast of the stimuli shown to the non-amblyopic eye are varied. Patients perform a simple signal/noise task that allows for a precise measurement of the strength of excitatory binocular interactions. The contrast offset at which

  14. Test report for the run-in acceptance testing of the hydrogen mitigation retrieval Pump-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglin, B.G.; Nash, Ch.R.

    1997-01-01

    This report will provide the findings of the demonstration test conducted on the Double-Shell Tank (DST) 241-SY-101 HMR Pump-3 in accordance with WHC-SDWM-TP-434 ''Test plan for run-in acceptance testing of hydrogen mitigation/retrieval pump-3'' at the 400 Area Maintenance and Storage Facility (MASF) building from 7 June 1996 through 30 July 1996 per work package 4A-96-92/W. The DST 241-SY-101 hydrogen mitigation retrieval Pump-3 is a 200-HP submersible electric driven pump that has been modified for use in the DST 241-SY-101 containing mixed waste located in the 200W area. The pump has a motor driven rotation mechanism that allows the pump column to rotate through 355 degree. Prior to operation, pre-operational checks were performed which included loop calibration grooming and alignment of instruments, learning how plumb HMR-3 assembly hung in a vertical position and bump test of the motor to determine rotation direction. The pump was tested in the MASF Large Diameter Cleaning Vessel (LDCV) with process water at controlled temperatures and levels. In addition, the water temperature of the cooling water to the motor oil heat exchanger was recorded during testing. A 480-volt source powered a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD). The VFD powered the pump at various frequencies and voltages to control speed and power output of the pump. A second VFD powered the oil cooling pump. A third VFD was not available to operate the rotational drive motor during the 72 hour test, so it was demonstrated as operational before and after the test. A Mini Acquisition and Control System (Mini-DACS) controls pump functions and monitoring of the pump parameters. The Mini-DACS consists of three computers, software and some Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC). Startup and shutdown of either the pump motor or the oil cooling pump can be accomplished by the Mini-DACS. When the pump was in operation, the Mini-DACS monitors automatically collects data electronically. However, some required data

  15. Chromatic induction from surrounding stimuli under perceptual suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Koji; Kuriki, Ichiro; Tokunaga, Rumi; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    The appearance of colors can be affected by their spatiotemporal context. The shift in color appearance according to the surrounding colors is called color induction or chromatic induction; in particular, the shift in opponent color of the surround is called chromatic contrast. To investigate whether chromatic induction occurs even when the chromatic surround is imperceptible, we measured chromatic induction during interocular suppression. A multicolor or uniform color field was presented as the surround stimulus, and a colored continuous flash suppression (CFS) stimulus was presented to the dominant eye of each subject. The subjects were asked to report the appearance of the test field only when the stationary surround stimulus is invisible by interocular suppression with CFS. The resulting shifts in color appearance due to chromatic induction were significant even under the conditions of interocular suppression for all surround stimuli. The magnitude of chromatic induction differed with the surround conditions, and this difference was preserved regardless of the viewing conditions. The chromatic induction effect was reduced by CFS, in proportion to the magnitude of chromatic induction under natural (i.e., no-CFS) viewing conditions. According to an analysis with linear model fitting, we revealed the presence of at least two kinds of subprocesses for chromatic induction that reside at higher and lower levels than the site of interocular suppression. One mechanism yields different degrees of chromatic induction based on the complexity of the surround, which is unaffected by interocular suppression, while the other mechanism changes its output with interocular suppression acting as a gain control. Our results imply that the total chromatic induction effect is achieved via a linear summation of outputs from mechanisms that reside at different levels of visual processing.

  16. Testing Testing Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Craig; O'Neill, Thomas; Wright, Benjamin D.; Woodcock, Richard W.; Munoz-Sandoval, Ana; Gershon, Richard C.; Bergstrom, Betty

    1998-01-01

    Articles in this special section consider (1) flow in test taking (Craig Deville); (2) testwiseness (Thomas O'Neill); (3) test length (Benjamin Wright); (4) cross-language test equating (Richard W. Woodcock and Ana Munoz-Sandoval); (5) computer-assisted testing and testwiseness (Richard Gershon and Betty Bergstrom); and (6) Web-enhanced testing…

  17. Overgeneral memory and suppression of trauma memories in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Sabine; Ehlers, Anke; Böllinghaus, Inga; Rief, Winfried

    2007-04-01

    The study investigated the relationship between the suppression of trauma memories and overgeneral memory in 42 assault survivors with and without PTSD. Overgeneral memory (OGM) was assessed with a standard autobiographical memory test (AMT). Participants completed two further AMTs under the instructions to either suppress or not suppress assault memories, in counterbalanced order. Participants with PTSD retrieved fewer and more general memories when following the suppression instruction than participants without PTSD, but not under the control instruction. OGM correlated with PTSD symptom severity, and measures of cognitive avoidance. The results are discussed with reference to current theories of overgeneral memory and its possible relationship with PTSD.

  18. Effect of mixed and single crops on disease suppressiveness of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddink, G.A.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of mixed cropping on disease suppressiveness of soils was tested for two cropping systems, Brussels sprouts¿barley and triticale¿white clover. Disease suppressiveness of field soils was evaluated in bioassays for the soilborne pathogens Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini,

  19. Cord blood mesenchymal stem cells suppress DC-T Cell proliferation via prostaglandin B2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk, L.C.J. van den; Jansen, B.J.H.; Snowden, S.; Siebers-Vermeulen, K.G.C.; Gilissen, C.; Kogler, G.; Figdor, C.G.; Wheelock, C.E.; Torensma, R.

    2014-01-01

    Immune suppression is a very stable property of multipotent stromal cells also known as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). All cell lines tested showed robust immune suppression not affected by a long culture history. Several mechanisms were described to account for this capability. Since several of the

  20. Instrumenting a pressure suppression experiment for a MK I boiling water reactor: another measurements engineering challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, W.M.; Brough, W.G.; Miller, T.B.

    1977-01-01

    A scale test facility of a pressure suppression system from a boiling water reactor was instrumented with seven types of transducers to obtain high-accuracy experimental data during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. The instrumentation verified the analysis of the dynamic loading of the pressure suppression system

  1. Suppressing a Sea of Starlight : enabling technology for the direct imaging of exoplanets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, G.P.P.L.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we present multiple techniques to suppress starlight in order to better directly image planets around other stars. We propose a laboratory setup to test a new focal-plane wavefront sensing technique. We also show an optical device that suppresses starlight using liquid crystals (the

  2. Suppression induction in vivo by a T helper clone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crispe, I N; Owens, T

    1985-01-01

    We have previously described a helper T cell clone which augments in vivo cytotoxic T cell responses when injected at 10(4) cells per mouse, but not at 10(5) per mouse (Crispe, I. N. et al., Immunology 1984. 52:55). To test whether this dose-response relationship was due to the induction...... of suppression, naive syngeneic mice were injected with 10(5) cloned T helper cells, and their spleen cells were subsequently assayed for suppressive activity in adoptive transfer experiments. Lymphocytes from such mice indeed suppressed an antigen-specific cytotoxic response, but only in the presence...... of the same T helper cell clone freshly added at the time of adoptive transfer. On this basis we argue that the distinction between T helper cell activity and T suppressor-inducer activity corresponds to differences in cell numbers, rather than to two separate cell lineages....

  3. Experience with IBS-suppression lattice in RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Luo, Y.; Ptitsyn, V.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Bai, M.; Bruno, D.; Cameron, P.; Connolly, R.; Della Penna, A.; Drees, A.; Fedotov, A.; Ganetis, G.; Hoff, L.; Louie, W.; Malitsky, N.; Marr, G.; Marusic, A.; Montag, C.; Pilat, F.; Roser, T.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.

    2008-01-01

    An intra-beam scattering (IBS) is the limiting factor of the luminosity lifetime for RHIC operating with heavy ions. In order to suppress the IBS we designed and implemented new lattice with higher betatron tunes. This lattice had been developed during last three years and had been used for gold ions in yellow ring of the RHIC during d-Au part of the RHIC Run-8. The use of this lattice allowed both significant increases in the luminosity lifetime and the luminosity levels via reduction of beta-stars in the IPS. In this paper we report on the development, the tests and the performance of IBS-suppression lattice in RHIC, including the resulting increases in the peak and the average luminosity. We also report on our plans for future steps with the IBS suppression

  4. Habitat Management to Suppress Pest Populations: Progress and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurr, Geoff M; Wratten, Steve D; Landis, Douglas A; You, Minsheng

    2017-01-31

    Habitat management involving manipulation of farmland vegetation can exert direct suppressive effects on pests and promote natural enemies. Advances in theory and practical techniques have allowed habitat management to become an important subdiscipline of pest management. Improved understanding of biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships means that researchers now have a firmer theoretical foundation on which to design habitat management strategies for pest suppression in agricultural systems, including landscape-scale effects. Supporting natural enemies with shelter, nectar, alternative prey/hosts, and pollen (SNAP) has emerged as a major research topic and applied tactic with field tests and adoption often preceded by rigorous laboratory experimentation. As a result, the promise of habitat management is increasingly being realized in the form of practical worldwide implementation. Uptake is facilitated by farmer participation in research and is made more likely by the simultaneous delivery of ecosystem services other than pest suppression.

  5. HPA axis hyperactivity as suicide predictor in elderly mood disorder inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Jussi; Nordström, Peter

    2008-11-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function is associated with suicidal behaviour and age-associated alterations in HPA axis functioning may render elderly individuals more susceptible to HPA dysregulation related to mood disorders. Research on HPA axis function in suicide prediction in elderly mood disorder patients is sparse. The study sample consisted of 99 depressed elderly inpatients 65 years of age or older admitted to the department of Psychiatry at the Karolinska University Hospital between 1980 and 2000. The hypothesis was that elderly mood disorder inpatients who fail to suppress cortisol in the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) are at higher risk of suicide. The DST non-suppression distinguished between suicides and survivors in elderly depressed inpatients and the suicide attempt at the index episode was a strong predictor for suicide. Additionally, the DST non-suppression showed higher specificity and predictive value in the suicide attempter group. Due to age-associated alterations in HPA axis functioning, the optimal cut-off for DST non-suppression in suicide prediction may be higher in elderly mood disorder inpatients. These data demonstrate the importance of attempted suicide and DST non-suppression as predictors of suicide risk in late-life depression and suggest the use for neuroendocrine testing of HPA axis functioning as a complementary tool in suicide prevention.

  6. Smiling on the Inside: The Social Benefits of Suppressing Positive Emotions in Outperformance Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Marina; Martiny, Sarah E; Goetz, Thomas; Hall, Nathan C

    2016-05-01

    Although expressing positive emotions is typically socially rewarded, in the present work, we predicted that people suppress positive emotions and thereby experience social benefits when outperformed others are present. We tested our predictions in three experimental studies with high school students. In Studies 1 and 2, we manipulated the type of social situation (outperformance vs. non-outperformance) and assessed suppression of positive emotions. In both studies, individuals reported suppressing positive emotions more in outperformance situations than in non-outperformance situations. In Study 3, we manipulated the social situation (outperformance vs. non-outperformance) as well as the videotaped person's expression of positive emotions (suppression vs. expression). The findings showed that when outperforming others, individuals were indeed evaluated more positively when they suppressed rather than expressed their positive emotions, and demonstrate the importance of the specific social situation with respect to the effects of suppression. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  7. Emotional suppression explains the link between early life stress and plasma oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Opacka-Juffry, Jolanta; Gross, James J

    2014-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) has been found to be associated with lower concentrations of plasma oxytocin (OT) in adulthood. It is not yet clear, however, what mechanisms underlie this association. The goal of the present study was to test the role of emotional suppression as an intervening variable between ELS in childhood and plasma OT. In a nonclinical sample of 90 men, ELS, emotional suppression, and plasma OT were assessed. Emotional suppression was positively associated with ELS (r = 0.37, p emotion regulation strategy - was not correlated with ELS or plasma OT concentrations. Cross-sectional regression analyses revealed that the ELS explained variance in plasma OT via emotional suppression. Moderation analyses revealed that the combination of high ELS and high emotional suppression was associated with the lowest concentrations of plasma oxytocin. These findings are consistent with the view that emotional suppression may be one pathway linking ELS and OT.

  8. Polypyrrole Actuators for Tremor Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen; Mogensen, Naja; Bay, Lasse

    2003-01-01

    Neurological tremor affecting limbs can be divided into at least 6 different types with frequencies ranging from 2 to about 20 Hz. In order to alleviate the symptoms by suppressing the tremor, sensing and actuation systems able to perform at these frequencies are needed. Electroactive polymers...... exemplify 'soft actuator' technology that may be especially suitable for use in conjunction with human limbs. The electrochemical and mechanical properties of polypyrrole dodecyl benzene sulphonate actuator films have been studied with this application in mind. The results show that the time constants...

  9. Suppression effects on musical and verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Zachary A; Palmer, Caroline

    2007-06-01

    Three experiments contrasted the effects of articulatory suppression on recognition memory for musical and verbal sequences. In Experiment 1, a standard/comparison task was employed, with digit or note sequences presented visually or auditorily while participants remained silent or produced intermittent verbal suppression (saying "the") or musical suppression (singing "la"). Both suppression types decreased performance by equivalent amounts, as compared with no suppression. Recognition accuracy was lower during suppression for visually presented digits than during that for auditorily presented digits (consistent with phonological loop predictions), whereas accuracy was equivalent for visually presented notes and auditory tones. When visual interference filled the retention interval in Experiment 2, performance with visually presented notes but not digits was impaired. Experiment 3 forced participants to translate visually presented music sequences by presenting comparison sequences auditorily. Suppression effects for visually presented music resembled those for digits only when the recognition task required sensory translation of cues.

  10. Quality Control Of Compton Suppression System As An Environmental Sample Counting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siswohartoyo, Sudarti; Soepardi, Dewita

    1996-01-01

    Quality control on Compton Suppression System has been done, i.e : 1) testing of HPGe as the main detector (FWHM, P/C d c level /n oise ) , 2) the Nal(Tl) detector shielding characteristic, 3) timing spectrum (FWHM), and 4) suppression factor. From the collected data, the characteristic of HPGe were found to be in the same range as shown in the manual. From the Nal(Tl) testing, it was found that the resolution was about 9%. From the time spectrum testing, the resolution was about 12-13 ns, while the suppression factor measurement was found to be about 4 - 4.6

  11. Pressure suppression pool thermal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    A model is developed and verified to describe the thermal mixing that occurs in the pressure suppression pool (PSP) of a commercial BWR. The model is designed specifically for a Mark-I containment and is intended for use in severe accident sequence analyses. The model produces space and time dependent temperature results throughout the PSP and is useful for evaluating the bulk PSP thermal mixing, the condensation effectiveness of the PSP, and the long-term containment integrity. The model is designed to accommodate single or multiple discharging T-quenchers, a PSP circumferential circulation induced by the residual heat removal system discharge, and the thermal stratification of the pool that occurs immediately after the relief valves close. The PSP thermal mixing model is verified by comparing the model predicted temperatures to experimental temperatures that were measured in an operating BWR suppression pool. The model is then used to investigate several PSP thermal mixing problems that include the time to saturate at full relief valve flow, the temperature response to a typical stuck open relief valve scenario, and the effect of operator rotation of the relief valve discharge point

  12. A violência nas relações afetivas dificulta a prevenção de DST/AIDS? Does violence in the emotional relationships make STD/AIDS prevention more difficult?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Ruzany

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar a ocorrência de situações de violência no cotidiano de adolescentes e jovens de comunidades de baixa renda; pesquisar a relação entre uso de drogas e comportamentos de risco de DST/AIDS; e verificar se a violência nas relações afetivas entre adolescentes e jovens dificulta a prevenção de DST/AIDS. MÉTODOS: estudo epidemiológico com adolescentes e jovens de dois bairros da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, a partir dos dados obtidos de um questionário estruturado que versava sobre perfil da clientela, informações sobre a família, uso de drogas, situações de violência do cotidiano, experiência sexual, entre outras. Para o presente artigo, somente as variáveis que particularizavam agressividade, uso de drogas, comportamentos sexuais de risco e violência nas relações afetivas foram analisadas. Em particular, destacou-se a associação da variável "eu usei camisinha na última relação sexual" com as questões que indicavam ou não atitudes violentas nas relações afetivas. RESULTADOS: participaram 1.041 indivíduos na faixa etária entre 14 e 22 anos, sendo 53,6% do sexo feminino. Entre os resultados mais relevantes, observou-se uma relação estatisticamente significativa entre o não uso de preservativo (pOBJECTIVES: to identify violent situations in the daily life of adolescents and young people of low-income communities; to establish a relation between the use of drugs and STD/AIDS risk behavior; and to verify if violence in the emotional relationships between adolescents and young people make the STD/AIDS prevention more difficult. METHOD: epidemiological study with adolescents and young people of two neighborhoods in the city of Rio de Janeiro, based on the results obtained from a structured questionnaire that dealt with subjects' profile, information about the family, use of drugs, daily violent situations, sexual experience, among others. For the present article, only the variables that dealt with

  13. Discriminação racial e vulnerabilidade às DST/Aids: um estudo com adolescentes negras Racial discrimination and vulnerability to STD/AIDS: a study of black teenage girls in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella R. Taquette

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo verificar a discriminação racial vivenciada por adolescentes negras moradoras em favelas da cidade do Rio de Janeiro e sua possível influência no processo de vulnerabilização ao HIV/Aids. Utilizou-se uma combinação de métodos, quantitativo e qualitativo. Este artigo se refere a um recorte da etapa qualitativa desenvolvida por meio de dez grupos focais com a participação de 139 adolescentes. Seguiu-se um roteiro para o debate contendo dois grupos temáticos: sexualidade/DST/Aids/gênero e raça/cor/discriminação. Os relatos foram gravados e o material transcrito organizado conforme os temas tratados e analisados criticamente por equipe multidisciplinar. Os dados coletados foram classificados em categorias específicas articuladas aos pressupostos teóricos, a fim de responder às questões formuladas, tendo por base os objetivos da pesquisa. Os resultados revelaram que as adolescentes negras sofrem discriminação racial no seu cotidiano, que é manifestada nas expressões de suas falas, referindo-se ao aspecto físico, ao caráter e à capacidade intelectual. Tais condutas discriminatórias dificultam o acesso aos serviços de saúde e induzem um atendimento de baixa qualidade. Concluiu-se que a discriminação racial vivida por estas adolescentes negras, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, influencia o desenvolvimento da autoestima e contribui para a construção de uma identidade negativa que, aliada ao racismo e à pobreza, se configura num contexto de vulnerabilidade às DST/Aids. Sugere-se que estes dados sejam levados em consideração na elaboração de políticas públicas para que ofereçam atenção diferenciada àqueles que estão inseridos de forma desigual na sociedade.This study aimed to verify the racial discrimination experienced by black teenage girls living in shantytowns in Rio de Janeiro city and its possible influence on their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. We used a combination of quantitative

  14. Mastication suppresses initial gastric emptying by modulating gastric activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmure, H; Takada, H; Nagayama, K; Sakiyama, T; Tsubouchi, H; Miyawaki, S

    2012-03-01

    Because various mastication-related factors influence gastric activity, the functional relationship between mastication and gastric function has not been fully elucidated. To investigate the influence of mastication on gastric emptying and motility, we conducted a randomized trial to compare the effects of mastication on gastric emptying and gastric myoelectrical activity under conditions that excluded the influences of food comminution, taste, and olfaction. A (13)C-acetate breath test with electrogastrography and electrocardiography was performed in 14 healthy men who ingested a test meal with or without chewing gum. Autonomic nerve activity was evaluated by fluctuation analysis of heart rate. Gastric emptying was significantly delayed in the 'ingestion with mastication' group. Gastric myoelectrical activity was significantly suppressed during mastication and increased gradually in the post-mastication phase. A decrease in the high-frequency power of heart rate variability was observed coincidentally with gastric myoelectrical activity suppression. These findings suggest that initial gastric emptying is suppressed by mastication, and that the suppression is caused by mastication-induced inhibition of gastric activity (UMIN Clinical Trial Registration no. UMIN000005351).

  15. Safety system for pressure suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, L.E.; Ludwig, G.J.; Tulsa, O.

    1975-01-01

    The rupture disk with rated breaking points is constrained by two supporting elements and has a convex-concave shape. For pressure suppression, it is reversable inversely to its bulging. Its surface has notches which are the rated breaking points and respond to higher pressures. The centre of the rupture disk contains an area of relatively smaller thickness that will burst at lower pressure and thus makes it applicable for lower pressures. For the response of the rupture disk centre, a thrust ring with a central opening may also be used. Its edge is formed into a convex-concave section supported on the edge of the rupture disk on the exit side. The free centre of the rupture disk is then the area of relative weakness. (RW/AK) [de

  16. MEK5 suppresses osteoblastic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneshiro, Shoichi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Japan Community Health Care Organization Osaka Hospital, 4-2-78 Fukushima, Fukushima Ward, Osaka City, Osaka 553-0003 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Otsuki, Dai; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Higuchi, Chikahisa, E-mail: c-higuchi@umin.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-07-31

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and is activated by its upstream kinase, MAPK kinase 5 (MEK5), which is a member of the MEK family. Although the role of MEK5 has been investigated in several fields, little is known about its role in osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we have demonstrated the role of MEK5 in osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. We found that treatment with BIX02189, an inhibitor of MEK5, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and osterix, as well as it enhanced the calcification of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, osteoblastic cell proliferation decreased at a concentration of greater than 0.5 μM. In addition, knockdown of MEK5 using siRNA induced an increase in ALP activity and in the gene expression of ALP, OCN, and osterix. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type MEK5 decreased ALP activity and attenuated osteoblastic differentiation markers including ALP, OCN and osterix, but promoted cell proliferation. In summary, our results indicated that MEK5 suppressed the osteoblastic differentiation, but promoted osteoblastic cell proliferation. These results implied that MEK5 may play a pivotal role in cell signaling to modulate the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. Thus, inhibition of MEK5 signaling in osteoblasts may be of potential use in the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • MEK5 inhibitor BIX02189 suppresses proliferation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 knockdown and MEK5 inhibitor promote differentiation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 overexpression inhibits differentiation of osteoblasts.

  17. Regorafenib suppresses sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Masayuki; Hatano, Etsuro; Nakamura, Kojiro; Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Kasai, Yosuke; Nishio, Takahiro; Seo, Satoru; Taura, Kojiro; Uemoto, Shinji

    2015-02-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), a form of drug-induced liver injury related to oxaliplatin treatment, is associated with postoperative morbidity after hepatectomy. This study aimed to examine the impact of regorafenib, the first small-molecule kinase inhibitor to show efficacy against metastatic colorectal cancer, on a rat model of SOS. Rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced SOS were divided into two groups according to treatment with either regorafenib (6 mg/kg) or vehicle alone, which were administered at 12 and 36 h, respectively, before MCT administration. Histopathologic examination and serum biochemistry tests were performed 48 h after MCT administration. Sinusoidal endothelial cells were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. To examine whether regorafenib preserved remnant liver function, a 30% hepatectomy was performed in each group. The rats in the vehicle group displayed typical SOS features, whereas these features were suppressed in the regorafenib group. The total SOS scores were significantly lower in the regorafenib group than in the vehicle group. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy showed that regorafenib had a protective effect on sinusoidal endothelial cells. The postoperative survival rate after 7 d was significantly better in the regorafenib group than that in the vehicle group (26.7% versus 6.7%, P Regorafenib reduced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, which induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activation and decreased the activity of MMP-9, one of the crucial mediators of SOS development. Regorafenib suppressed MCT-induced SOS, concomitant with attenuating extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, and MMP-9 activation, suggesting that regorafenib may be a favorable agent for use in combination with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Charmonium formation and suppression in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiajun; Wang Jia; Zhuang Chao; Zhuang Pengfei

    2005-01-01

    The coupling Schroedinger equations describing the evolution of cc-bar states in nuclear matter are analytically and systematically solved via perturbation method, and the correlation between charmonium formation and nuclear absorption is investigated. After calculating J/Ψ and Ψ' suppression in nucleon-nucleus collisions and comparing with experiment data, it is found that the formation time effect plays an important rule in charmonium suppression, especially in Ψ' suppression. (authors)

  19. Poppers: more evidence of suppressed immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1999-08-20

    Evidence from studies in mice shows that exposure to isobutyl nitrite suppresses the immune system. This immune suppression allows for bacterial growth in the lungs and livers of infected mice and can inhibit the ability of mediastinal lymph nodes to respond to antigen-specific stimulation. The mechanism for immune suppression may be a reduction in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations in the mediastinal lymph nodes following pulmonary infection with Listeria monocytogenes.

  20. Estudo comparativo entre o aproveitamento escolar de alunos de escola de 1º grau e teste de inibição de emissões otoacústicas transientes Comparative study between school performance on first grade children and suppression of otoacoustic transient emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Luiz de Sant’Ana Angeli

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O processamento auditivo é fundamental para a cognição e pode ocasionar deficiência no aprendizado. Os portadores de sua deficiência podem ser habilitados, melhorando o desempenho escolar. É fundamental identificá-los. Dentre os que apresentam baixo custo e facilidade operacional está o exame de emissões otoacústicas. TIPO DE ESTUDO: Clínico e experimental. OBJETIVO: Estudar a relação do aproveitamento escolar com a inibição da emissão otoacústica transiente por estímulo auditivo contralateral. Material e Métodos: Foram avaliados 39 alunos, de sete a doze anos, sendo 19 (48,7% com bom aproveitamento escolar e 20 (51,3% com aproveitamento inadequado. Os exames emissão otoacústica com inibição contralateral foram comparados aos resultados de aproveitamento escolar. RESULTADOS: A falha da supressão da otoemissão transiente por estímulo acústico contralateral foi mais encontrada no grupo de crianças com mau aproveitamento escolar. Foi estabelecido um valor de corte de 1.6 dB SPL de redução da otoemissão que caracteriza a criança como pertencente ao grupo com mau aproveitamento com sensibilidade de 65,0%, especificidade de 72,2%, acurácia de 68,4% e valor preditivo positivo de 72,2%. CONCLUSÃO: O teste da falha da inibição contralateral da emissão otoacústica por estímulo auditivo contralateral é preditivo de transtorno do aproveitamento escolar em indivíduos de seis a doze anos de idade.School learning can be hampered if there are defects on the central auditory process. Since those with auditory deficiency can be rehabilitated, it is fundamental that we identify them. Otoacoustic emissions test has low cost and operational ease. Study design: clinical and experimental. AIM: to study the relationship between school learning and transient otoacoustic emission suppression by contralateral stimuli. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 39 individuals, from 7 to 12 years of age were evaluated, 19 (48.7% with good school

  1. Spatial and Global Sensory Suppression Mapping Encompassing the Central 10° Field in Anisometropic Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Li, Jinrong; Chen, Zidong; Liu, Jing; Yuan, Junpeng; Cai, Xiaoxiao; Deng, Daming; Yu, Minbin

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the efficacy of a novel dichoptic mapping paradigm in evaluating visual function of anisometropic amblyopes. Using standard clinical measures of visual function (visual acuity, stereo acuity, Bagolini lenses, and neutral density filters) and a novel quantitative mapping technique, 26 patients with anisometropic amblyopia (mean age = 19.15 ± 4.42 years) were assessed. Two additional psychophysical interocular suppression measurements were tested with dichoptic global motion coherence and binocular phase combination tasks. Luminance reduction was achieved by placing neutral density filters in front of the normal eye. Our study revealed that suppression changes across the central 10° visual field by mean luminance modulation in amblyopes as well as normal controls. Using simulation and an elimination of interocular suppression, we identified a novel method to effectively reflect the distribution of suppression in anisometropic amblyopia. Additionally, the new quantitative mapping technique was in good agreement with conventional clinical measures, such as interocular acuity difference (P suppression with dichoptic mapping paradigm and the results of the other two psychophysical methods (suppression mapping versus binocular phase combination, P suppression mapping versus global motion coherence, P = 0.005). The dichoptic suppression mapping technique is an effective method to represent impaired visual function in patients with anisometropic amblyopia. It offers a potential in "micro-"antisuppression mapping tests and therapies for amblyopia.

  2. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels in patients with suppressed pituitary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasavada, P.; Chen, I.; Maxon, H.; Barnes, E.; Sperling, M.

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis of borderline hyperthyroidism is difficult. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting subnormal levels of serum TSH may be of value in confirming this diagnosis because of the suppressed pituitary function in this disease state. This sensitive assay may also be useful in monitoring the suppression of pituitary function in thyroid cancer patients receiving thyroid hormone therapy. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting serum TSH levels as low as 0.25 μU/m1 with coefficients of variation less than 17.2% was used to measure serum TSH levels in 80 healthy subjects, 44 hyperthyroid patients, and 25 athyrotic thyroid cancer patients on daily suppressive doses of thyroxine. All healthy subjects had detectable TSH levels with a mean value of 1.17 and two standard deviation ranges of 0.41 - 2.70 μU/m1 (lognormal distribution). Although the mean +-1 SEM value of 0.63 +- 0.003 μUm1 for hyperthyroid patients and 0.76 +- 0.08 μU/ml for thyroid cancer patients were significantly lower than that of healthy subjects (t-test, p<0.05), subnormal levels of serum TSH were found in only 28.6% (12/42) and 24% (6/25) of hyperthyroid and thyroid cancer patients, respectively. TSH stimulation tests performed in 6 of the cancer patients all gave suppressed responses. Because of considerable overlap, serum TSH levels alone cannot distinguish hyperthyroidsm from euthyroidism. However, a sensitive TSH radioimmunoassay such as the one described here may be of value in evaluating the extent of pituitary suppression in thyroid cancer therapy

  3. Adaptive Active Noise Suppression Using Multiple Model Switching Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanzhen Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Active noise suppression for applications where the system response varies with time is a difficult problem. The computation burden for the existing control algorithms with online identification is heavy and easy to cause control system instability. A new active noise control algorithm is proposed in this paper by employing multiple model switching strategy for secondary path varying. The computation is significantly reduced. Firstly, a noise control system modeling method is proposed for duct-like applications. Then a multiple model adaptive control algorithm is proposed with a new multiple model switching strategy based on filter-u least mean square (FULMS algorithm. Finally, the proposed algorithm was implemented on Texas Instruments digital signal processor (DSP TMS320F28335 and real time experiments were done to test the proposed algorithm and FULMS algorithm with online identification. Experimental verification tests show that the proposed algorithm is effective with good noise suppression performance.

  4. Development of Active Flutter Suppression Wind Tunnel Testing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    inch stainless steel precision haft ng out to the aileron surfaces. Torque was then transmitted aft through another crank-pushrod linkage...NMMltetiM Clllir llllisi Sl> ptT »I»" CmrN StiiiH tli!ii<ti> »ir|wu ŗK kUfej •*! AFFDL-TR-74-126 o 00 DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVE FLUTTER...Installations . . 28 14. Outboard Aileron Installation 30 15. Airplane FMCS Block Diagram 35 16. Model FMCS Block Diagram 36 17. Model FMCS

  5. Double Shell Tank (DST) Human Factors Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHAFFEE, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the data collection and analyses that were performed in development of material to be used in the Human Factors chapter for the upgrade to the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the Double-Shell Tank Farms (DSTF). This study was conducted to collect the data that is necessary to prepare the Human Factors chapter for the upgrade of the SAR for the DSTF. Requirements for the HF chapter of the SAR generally dictate that the facility management describe how the consideration of operator capabilities and limitations and operating experience are used in ensuring the safe and effective operation of the facility. Additionally, analysis to indicate the contribution of human error to the safety basis accidents or events must be reported. Since the DSTF is a mature operating facility and the requirement to prepare a HF chapter is new, it was not expected that the consideration of HF principles would be an explicit part of DSTF operations. It can be expected, however, that the programs that guide the daily operations at the DSTF contain provisions for the consideration of the needs of their operating personnel and lessons learned from prior experience. Consideration of both the SAR requirements and the nature of the DSTF operations led to the following objectives being defined for the study: (1) to identify the programs at the OSTF where human performance may be considered; (2) to describe how HF principles and operating experience are used to ensure safe and reliable human performance at the DSTF; (3) to describe how HF principles and operating experience are considered as modifications or improvements are made at the DSTF; and (4) to perform task analysis sufficient to understand the potential for human error in OSTF operations

  6. Suppression of developmental anomalies by maternal macrophages in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, T.; Hata, S.; Kusafuka, T.

    1990-01-01

    We tested whether nonspecific tumoricidal immune cells can suppress congenital malformations by killing precursor cells destined to cause such defects. Pretreatment of pregnant ICR mice with synthetic (Pyran copolymer) and biological (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) agents significantly suppressed radiation- and chemical-induced congenital malformations (cleft palate, digit anomalies, tail anomalies, etc.). Such suppressive effects were associated with the activation of maternal macrophages by these agents, but were lost either after the disruption of activated macrophages by supersonic waves or by inhibition of their lysosomal enzyme activity with trypan blue. These results indicate that a live activated macrophage with active lysosomal enzymes can be an effector cell to suppress maldevelopment. A similar reduction by activated macrophages was observed in strain CL/Fr, which has a high spontaneous frequency of cleft lips and palates. Furthermore, Pyran-activated maternal macrophages could pass through the placenta, and enhanced urethane-induced cell killing (but not somatic mutation) in the embryo. It is likely that a maternal immunosurveillance system eliminating preteratogenic cells allows for the replacement with normal totipotent blast cells during the pregnancy to protect abnormal development

  7. Regulatory Eosinophils Suppress T Cells Partly through Galectin-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingblom, Christine; Andersson, Jennie; Andersson, Kerstin; Wennerås, Christine

    2017-06-15

    Eosinophils have the capacity to regulate the function of T cell subsets. Our aim was to test the hypothesis of the existence of a regulatory subset of eosinophils. Human eosinophils were incubated with T cells that were stimulated with allogeneic leukocytes or CD3/CD28 cross-linking. After 2 d of coculture, 11% of the eosinophils gained CD16 expression. A CD16 hi subset of eosinophils, encompassing 1-5% of all eosinophils, was also identified in the blood of healthy subjects. FACS sorting showed that these CD16 hi eosinophils were significantly stronger suppressors of T cell proliferation than were conventional CD16 neg eosinophils. Human eosinophils contain stores of the immunoregulatory protein galectin-10. We found that Ab-mediated neutralization of galectin-10 partially abrogated the suppressive function of the eosinophils. Moreover, recombinant galectin-10 by itself was able to suppress T cell proliferation. Finally, we detected galectin-10-containing immune synapses between eosinophils and lymphocytes. To conclude, we describe a subset of suppressive eosinophils expressing CD16 that may escape detection because CD16-based negative selection is the standard procedure for the isolation of human eosinophils. Moreover, we show that galectin-10 functions as a T cell-suppressive molecule in eosinophils. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. HIV Care Saves Lives: Viral Suppression is Key PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-25

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the December 2014 Vital Signs. For people living with HIV, Viral suppression is critical. By getting tested and taking HIV medicines, individuals living with HIV can achieve very low levels of HIV in the body.  Created: 11/25/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/25/2014.

  9. Testosterone Suppression of CRH-stimulated Cortisol in Men

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinow, David R.; Roca, Catherine A.; Schmidt, Peter J.; Danaceau, Merry A.; Putnam, Karen; Cizza, Giovanni; Chrousos, George; Nieman, Lynnette

    2005-01-01

    Despite observations of age-dependent sexual dimorphisms in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, the role of androgens in the regulation of HPA axis activity in men has not been examined. We assessed this role by performing CRH stimulation tests in ten men (ages 18–45) during gonadal suppression with leuprolide acetate and during testosterone addition to leuprolide. CRH-stimulated cortisol levels as well as peak cortisol and greatest cortisol excursion were significantly lower ...

  10. Boiling Suppression in Convective Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aounallah, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The development of convective boiling heat transfer correlations and analytical models has almost exclusively been based on measurements of the total heat flux, and therefore on the overall two-phase heat transfer coefficient, when the well-known heat transfer correlations have often assumed additive mechanisms, one for each mode of heat transfer, convection and boiling. While the global performance of such correlations can readily be assessed, the predictive capability of the individual components of the correlation has usually remained elusive. This becomes important when, for example, developing mechanistic models for subcooled void formation based on the partitioning of the wall heat flux into a boiling and a convective component, or when extending a correlation beyond its original range of applications where the preponderance of the heat transfer mechanisms involved can be significantly different. A new examination of existing experimental heat transfer data obtained under fixed hydrodynamic conditions, whereby the local flow conditions are decoupled from the local heat flux, has allowed the unequivocal isolation of the boiling contribution over a broad range of thermodynamic qualities (0 to 0.8) for water at 7 MPa. Boiling suppression, as the quality increases, has consequently been quantified, thus providing valuable new insights on the functionality and contribution of boiling in convective flows. (author)

  11. Suppress flashover of GRP fire with water mist inside ISO 9705 Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Water mist suppression tests for glass-reinforced polyester (GRP panels were conducted in ISO 9705 room. GRP panels covered part of the room and a wood crib fire was used as fire source to ignite GRP fire. A four-nozzle water mist suppression equipment was used inside test room on the time of flashover. Heat release rate of the combustion inside the room, room temperature, surface temperature of GRP panels, total heat flux to wall, ceiling and floor in specific positions were measured. Gas concentration of O2, CO, and CO2 was also measured in the corner of the room at two different levels. A thermal image video was used to record the suppression procedure inside room. Test results show that the water mist system is efficient in suppressing the flashover of GRP fire and cooling the room within short time.

  12. Emotion regulation and culture: are the social consequences of emotion suppression culture-specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Emily A; Lee, Tiane L; Gross, James J

    2007-02-01

    Emotional suppression has been associated with generally negative social consequences (Butler et al., 2003; Gross & John, 2003). A cultural perspective suggests, however, that these consequences may be moderated by cultural values. We tested this hypothesis in a two-part study, and found that, for Americans holding Western-European values, habitual suppression was associated with self-protective goals and negative emotion. In addition, experimentally elicited suppression resulted in reduced interpersonal responsiveness during face-to-face interaction, along with negative partner-perceptions and hostile behavior. These deleterious effects were reduced when individuals with more Asian values suppressed, and these reductions were mediated by cultural differences in the responsiveness of the suppressors. These findings suggest that many of suppression's negative social impacts may be moderated by cultural values. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Thermal-Mechanical Modeling of the Yucca Mountain Project Drift Scale Test. Task 2B/2C Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Robin N.

    2005-02-01

    Tasks 2B and 2C deal with the mechanical process in the DST during the heating and cooling phases of the test. To model mechanical processes in the test it is necessary to have the time-evolution of temperature distributions in the test block which are inputs in the calculation of the mechanical effects. The difference between task 2B and 2C is that in 2B the mechanical effects are simulated using modeled temperature distributions as inputs, while in 2C the mechanical effects are calculated using measured temperature distributions as inputs. The given data include the results of geologic, thermal, mechanical, hydrologic, and mineralogic/petrologic characterization of the test block of the DST, the as-built configuration of the test block, including locations of various sensors and measuring instruments and the plans of heating and cooling, including expected heater powers at various times, respectively. The teams were required to predict the time-evolution of the displacements in the test block measured in the MPBX holes and the changes in the (fracture) permeability of the rock due to thermal mechanical processes, to be compared at certain time intervals. The research teams of ENRESA/UPC (Spain), DOE/LBNL (USA), CEA (France) and NRC/CNWRA (USA) participated the task 2B/2C with different numerical approaches and their reports are enclosed in the Attachments A-D, respectively. The DOE and ENRESA teams performed coupled THM analyses that included modeling of two-phase fluid flow (air and water), heat transfer (conduction and convection), and mechanical stress and strain, with dual-permeability and equivalent continuum approaches, respectively. CEA and NRC teams performed TM analyses in which the measured temperature field was imported to the numerical models. For simulation of rock-mechanical behavior, the DOE and ENRESA teams used elastic models, whereas CEA and NRC teams applied various elasto-plastic models. TM-induced permeability changes were modeled by DOE

  14. Evaluation of GenoType® MTBDRplus assay for rapid detection of drug susceptibility testing of multi-drug resistance tuberculosis in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar Maurya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The problem of multi-drug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB is growing in several hotspots throughout the world. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of MDR-TB is crucial to facilitate early treatment and to reduce its spread in the community. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the new, novel GenoType® MTBDRplus assay for rapid detection of drug susceptibility testing (DST of MDR-TB cases in Northern India. Materials and Methods: A total of 550 specimens were collected from highly suspected drug resistant from pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB cases. All the specimens were processed by Ziehl- Neelsen staining, culture, differentiation by the GenoType® CM assay, first line DST using BacT/ALERT 3D system and GenoType® MTBDRplus assay. The concordance of the GenoType® MTBDRplus assay was calculated in comparison with conventional DST results. Results: Overall the sensitivity for detection of rifampicin, isoniazid and MDR-TB resistance by GenoType® MTBDRplus assay was 98.0%, 98.4% and 98.2% respectively. Out of 55 MDR-TB strains, 45 (81.8%, 52 (94.5% and 17 (30.9% strains showed mutation in rpoB, katG and inhA genes respectively (P < 0.05. The most prominent mutations in rpoB, katG and inhA genes were; 37 (67.3% in S531L, 52 (94.5% in S315T1 and 11 (20% in C15T regions respectively (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated a high concordance between the GenoType® MTBDRplus assay resistance patterns and those were observed by conventional DST with good sensitivity, specificity with short turnaround times and to control new cases of MDR-TB in countries with a high prevalence of MDR-TB.

  15. Implementation of non-condensable gases condensation suppression model into the WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 LOCA safety evaluation code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, J.; Cao, L.; Ohkawa, K.; Frepoli, C. [LOCA Integrated Services I, Westinghouse Electric Company, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The non-condensable gases condensation suppression model is important for a realistic LOCA safety analysis code. A condensation suppression model for direct contact condensation was previously developed by Westinghouse using first principles. The model is believed to be an accurate description of the direct contact condensation process in the presence of non-condensable gases. The Westinghouse condensation suppression model is further revised by applying a more physical model. The revised condensation suppression model is thus implemented into the WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 LOCA safety evaluation code for both 3-D module (COBRA-TF) and 1-D module (TRAC-PF1). Parametric study using the revised Westinghouse condensation suppression model is conducted. Additionally, the performance of non-condensable gases condensation suppression model is examined in the ACHILLES (ISP-25) separate effects test and LOFT L2-5 (ISP-13) integral effects test. (authors)

  16. Acid suppression therapy does not predispose to Clostridium difficile infection: the case of the potential bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Novack

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: An adverse effect of acid-suppression medications on the occurrence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI has been a common finding of many, but not all studies. We hypothesized that association between acid-suppression medications and CDI is due to the residual confounding in comparison between patients with infection to those without, predominantly from non-tested and less sick subjects. We aimed to evaluate the effect of acid suppression therapy on incidence of CDI by comparing patients with CDI to two control groups: not tested patients and patients suspected of having CDI, but with a negative test. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of adult patients hospitalized in internal medicine department of tertiary teaching hospital between 2005-2010 for at least three days. Controls from each of two groups (negative for CDI and non-tested were individually matched (1:1 to cases by primary diagnosis, Charlson comorbidity index, year of hospitalization and gender. Primary outcomes were diagnoses of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9-coded CDI occurring 72 hours or more after admission. RESULTS: Patients with CDI were similar to controls with a negative test, while controls without CDI testing had lower clinical severity. In multivariable analysis, treatment by acid suppression medications was associated with CDI compared to those who were not tested (OR = 1.88, p-value = 0.032. Conversely, use of acid suppression medications in those who tested negative for the infection was not associated with CDI risk as compared to the cases (OR = 0.66; p = 0.059. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the reported epidemiologic associations between use of acid suppression medications and CDI risk may be spurious. The control group choice has an important impact on the results. Clinical differences between the patients with CDI and those not tested and not suspected of having the infection may explain the different conclusions

  17. Burst suppression probability algorithms: state-space methods for tracking EEG burst suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemali, Jessica; Ching, ShiNung; Purdon, Patrick L.; Solt, Ken; Brown, Emery N.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Burst suppression is an electroencephalogram pattern in which bursts of electrical activity alternate with an isoelectric state. This pattern is commonly seen in states of severely reduced brain activity such as profound general anesthesia, anoxic brain injuries, hypothermia and certain developmental disorders. Devising accurate, reliable ways to quantify burst suppression is an important clinical and research problem. Although thresholding and segmentation algorithms readily identify burst suppression periods, analysis algorithms require long intervals of data to characterize burst suppression at a given time and provide no framework for statistical inference. Approach. We introduce the concept of the burst suppression probability (BSP) to define the brain's instantaneous propensity of being in the suppressed state. To conduct dynamic analyses of burst suppression we propose a state-space model in which the observation process is a binomial model and the state equation is a Gaussian random walk. We estimate the model using an approximate expectation maximization algorithm and illustrate its application in the analysis of rodent burst suppression recordings under general anesthesia and a patient during induction of controlled hypothermia. Main result. The BSP algorithms track burst suppression on a second-to-second time scale, and make possible formal statistical comparisons of burst suppression at different times. Significance. The state-space approach suggests a principled and informative way to analyze burst suppression that can be used to monitor, and eventually to control, the brain states of patients in the operating room and in the intensive care unit.

  18. Degree of thyrotropin suppression as a prognostic determinant in differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, P; Daures, J P; Nsakala, N; Baldet, L; Bringer, J; Jaffiol, C

    1996-12-01

    We investigate whether the prognosis of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is improved by maintaining a greater level of TSH suppression. One hundred and forty-one patients who underwent hormone therapy after thyroidectomy were followed up from 1970 to 1993 (mean, 95 months). Patients received levothyroxine (L-T4; mean dose, 2.6 micrograms/kg-day). TSH suppression was evaluated by TRH stimulation test until 1986 and thereafter by a second generation immunoradiometric assay. As TSH underwent fluctuation over time in most patients, we focused on subgroups of patients with relatively constant TSH levels during the follow-up. The relapse-free survival (RFS) was longer in the group with constantly suppressed TSH (all TSH values, or = 1 mU/L; n = 15; P 90% of undetectable TSH values; n = 19) had a trend toward a longer RFS than the remaining population (n = 102; P = 0.14). The patients with a lesser degree of TSH suppression (< 10% of undetectable TSH values; n = 27) had a shorter RFS than the remaining patients (n = 94; P < 0.01). In multivariate analysis that included TSH suppression, age, sex, histology, and tumor node metastasis stage, the degree of TSH suppression predicted RFS independently of other factors (P = 0.02). This study shows that a lesser degree of TSH suppression is associated with an increased incidence of relapse, supporting the hypothesis that a high level of TSH suppression is required for the endocrine management of thyroid cancer.

  19. STD/AIDS prevention in Portuguese-speaking Africa: a review of the recent literature in the social sciences and health Prevenção das DST/AIDS nos países africanos de língua oficial portuguesa: revisão da literatura recente em ciências sociais e da saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Monteiro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews academic literature in the social sciences and health on the problems and challenges of STD/AIDS prevention in Portuguese-speaking African countries. Based on a bibliographic survey of the SciELO, PubMed, and Sociological Abstracts databases between 1997 and 2007, the research under review was organized into two groups, according to content. The first group of studies sought to understand STD/AIDS vulnerability among social groups by examining local cultural and socioeconomic factors as related to gender dynamics, sexuality, color/race, religion and health care. The second group encompassed critical assessments of shortcomings in the STD/AIDS educational messages delivered by governments and international agencies. Attention is called to the way in which the presence of traditional medicine systems and the occurrence of civil wars in the post-colonial period impact the STD/AIDS epidemic in the African countries under study.O artigo analisa a produção acadêmica, no campo das ciências sociais e da saúde, sobre os problemas e desafios das ações de prevenção das DST/AIDS nos países africanos de língua oficial portuguesa. A partir do levantamento bibliográfico nas bases SciELO, PubMed e Sociological Abstracts, entre 1997 a 2007, o conteúdo dos trabalhos selecionados foi organizado em dois eixos. O primeiro centra-se na descrição dos estudos sobre a relevância dos fatores culturais e sócio-econômicos locais, relacionados às dinâmicas de gênero, à sexualidade, cor/raça, religião e cuidados em saúde, para o entendimento da vulnerabilidade às DST/AIDS dos diversos grupos sociais. O segundo eixo aborda as avaliações críticas acerca dos equívocos das mensagens educativas sobre DST/AIDS, promovidas pelos governos e agências internacionais, bem como as implicações da presença dos sistemas de medicinas tradicionais e da ocorrência de guerras civis no período pós-colonial para a dinâmica das DST

  20. Is neutrinoless double beta decay suppressed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomoda, T.

    1989-01-01

    Much effort has been devoted to the study of nuclear double beta decay, since the observation of a neutrinoless double beta (OνΒΒ) decay would be clear evidence that the electron neutrino is a Majorana particle. The OνΒΒ decay is caused by a finite Majorana neutrino mass and/or an admixture of right-handed leptonic currents. In order to relate these quantities to OνΒΒ decay rates, we need nuclear matrix elements, which are model dependent. One of the possibilities of testing nuclear models employed in such analysis is to calculate the experimentally known rates of ΒΒ decay with emission of two neutrinos (2νΒΒ decay) which occurs independently of the nature of the neutrino. There was a long-standing difficulty in such attempts that the calculated 2νΒΒ decay rates turned out to be always too large by one to two orders of magnitude. Trying to overcome such difficulty, Klapdor and Grotz as well as Vogel and Zirnbauer showed in their calculation using schematic effective interactions such that 2νΒΒ decay rates can get reduced considerably due to the nuclear ground state correlations. This paper reports that the suppression is ascribed to that of the virtual Gamow-Teller transitions from the excited 1 + states of the intermediate odd-odd -even nucleus

  1. Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C.; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  2. Volatile suppressing method for radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Atsushi; Haruguchi, Keiko.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of a suppression chamber disposed to a reactor container in order to reduce evaporation of radioactive iodine released from a suppression pool. A metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of the suppression chamber disposed to the reactor container. In addition, a metal plate is disposed around the space connecting a bent tube extending from a dry well to underwater of suppression pool water and a gas bent tube extending from the suppression chamber to an emergency gas processing system. Spray water is supplied for cooling the suppression chamber d as a means for cooling the metal plate. Then, among iodine released to the suppression chamber, elemental iodine liberated from the pool water is deposited on the surface of the metal plate, and the amount of iodine to be flown into and processed by an emergency gas processing system or a filter bent system can be reduced. (T.M.)

  3. Regional Extent of Peripheral Suppression in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Raiju J; Clavagnier, Simon; Bobier, William R; Thompson, Benjamin; Hess, Robert F

    2017-04-01

    Previously, we have mapped amblyopic eye suppression within the central 20° of the visual field and observed a gradient of suppression that is strongest in central vision and weakens with increasing eccentricity. In this study, using a large dichoptic display, we extend our novel suppression mapping approach further into the periphery (from 20°-60°) to assess whether suppression continues to decline with eccentricity or plateaus. Sixteen participants with amblyopia (10 with strabismus, 6 with anisometropia without strabismus; mean age: 37.9 ± 11 years) and six normal observers (mean age: 28.3 ± 5 years) took part. The visual stimulus (60° diameter), viewed from 57 cm, was composed of four concentric annuli (5° radius) with alternate contrast polarities starting from an eccentricity of 10°. Each annulus was divided into eight sectors subtending 45° of visual angle. Participants adjusted the contrast of a single sector presented to the fellow eye to match the perceived contrast of the remaining stimulus elements that were presented to the amblyopic eye. A matching contrast that was lower in the fellow eye than the amblyopic eye indicated suppression. Patients with strabismus exhibited significantly stronger interocular suppression than controls across all eccentricities (P = 0.01). Patients with anisometropia did not differ from controls (P = 0.58). Suppression varied significantly with eccentricity (P = 0.005) but this effect did not differ between patient groups (P = 0.217). In amblyopia, suppression is present beyond the central 10° in patients with strabismus. Suppression becomes weaker at greater eccentricities and this may enable peripheral fusion that could be used by binocular treatment methods.

  4. Spironolactone induces apoptosis in human mononuclear cells. Association between apoptosis and cytokine suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Martin; Sønder, S U; Nersting, J

    2006-01-01

    preceding apoptosis. An association between the two effects was also seen when testing several SPIR analogues. Contrary to TNF-alpha, the levels of IL-1beta increased in SPIR-treated cultures. However, the amount of IL-1beta in the supernatants depended upon the order of SPIR and LPS addition, as IL-1beta....... In conclusion, suppression of cytokine production by SPIR may be associated with its apoptotic potential, either directly (apoptosis is a consequence of suppressed cytokine production, or vice-versa) or indirectly (suppressed cytokine production and apoptosis are parallel but otherwise unrelated phenomena)....

  5. Simplified slow anti-coincidence circuit for Compton suppression systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish

    2008-01-01

    Slow coincidence circuits for the anti-coincidence measurements have been considered for use in Compton suppression technique. The simplified version of the slow circuit has been found to be fast enough, satisfactory and allows an easy system setup, particularly with the advantage of the automatic threshold setting of the low-level discrimination. A well-type NaI detector as the main detector surrounded by plastic guard detector has been arranged to investigate the performance of the Compton suppression spectrometer using the simplified slow circuit. The system has been tested to observe the improvement in the energy spectra for medium to high-energy gamma-ray photons from terrestrial and environmental samples

  6. Hearing aid noise suppression and working memory function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neher, Tobias; Wagener, Kirsten C.; Fischer, Rosa-Linde

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research findings concerning the relation between benefit from hearing aid (HA) noise suppression and working memory function are inconsistent. The current study thus investigated the effects of three noise suppression algorithms on auditory working memory and the relation with reading......-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement. Auditory working memory was assessed at +6 dB SNR using listening span and N-back paradigms. STUDY SAMPLE: Twenty experienced HA users ages 55-80 with large differences in reading span. RESULTS: For the listening span measurements, there was an influence of HA setting...... on sentence-final word recognition and recall, with the directional microphones leading to ~6% better performance than the single-channel noise reduction. For the N-back measurements, there was substantial test-retest variability and no influence of HA setting. No interactions with reading span were found...

  7. Hearing aid noise suppression and working memory function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Rosa-Linde; Neher, Tobias; Wagener, Kirsten C.

    Research findings concerning the relation between outcome from hearing aid (HA) noise suppression and working memory function are unclear. The current study thus investigated the effects of three noise suppression algorithms on auditory working memory as well as the relation with reading span......) improvement. Auditory working memory was assessed at +6 dB SNR using a listening span and an N-back paradigm. Twenty experienced HA users aged 55-80 yr with large differences in reading span took part. For the listening span measurements, there was an influence of HA setting on final word recognition...... and recall, with the directional microphone setting leading to approx. 6% better performance than the single-channel noise reduction setting. For the N-back measurements, there was substantial test-retest variability and no influence of HA setting. No interactions with reading span were found. These results...

  8. Suppression of dust explosions and ignition spots in biomass-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C; Rautalin, A

    1996-12-31

    Dust explosion characteristics of forest residue dust both at normal pressure and at elevated initial pressure have been determined in previous studies. These indices give a good base for evaluating the usability of suppression systems to obtain a sufficient level of peritoneal safety in biomass fuel handling equipment. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the usability of suppression systems and to demonstrate dust explosion suppression at elevated initial pressure. Suppression tests at 1 - 20 bar pressure will be carried out in co-operation with CTDD of British Coal, Kiddy Fire Protection and Health and Safety Executive. The tests with coal and biomass dust are scheduled to be started in March 1996 in Great Britain. In the second task of the project, self-ignition properties of forest residue dust and straw dust have been measured in a flow-through system simulating slow drying of the fuel

  9. Suppression of dust explosions and ignition spots in biomass-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Rautalin, A.

    1995-12-31

    Dust explosion characteristics of forest residue dust both at normal pressure and at elevated initial pressure have been determined in previous studies. These indices give a good base for evaluating the usability of suppression systems to obtain a sufficient level of peritoneal safety in biomass fuel handling equipment. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the usability of suppression systems and to demonstrate dust explosion suppression at elevated initial pressure. Suppression tests at 1 - 20 bar pressure will be carried out in co-operation with CTDD of British Coal, Kiddy Fire Protection and Health and Safety Executive. The tests with coal and biomass dust are scheduled to be started in March 1996 in Great Britain. In the second task of the project, self-ignition properties of forest residue dust and straw dust have been measured in a flow-through system simulating slow drying of the fuel

  10. Suppression of dust explosions and ignition spots in biomass- fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C; Rautalin, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Dust explosion characteristics of forest residue dust both at normal pressure and at elevated initial pressure have been determined in previous studies. These indices give a good base for evaluating the usability of suppression systems to obtain a sufficient level of operational safety in biomass fuel handling equipment. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the usability of suppression systems and to demonstrate dust explosion suppression at elevated initial pressure. Suppression tests at 1 - 20 bar pressure will be carried out in co-operation with CTDD of British Coal, Kiddy Fire Protection and Health and Safety Executive. The tests with coal and biomass dust are scheduled to be started in March 1996 in Great Britain. In the second task of the project, self-ignition properties of forest residue dust and straw dust have been measured in a flow-through system simulating slow drying of the fuel

  11. Chondromalacia patellae: fat-suppressed MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P M; Demlow, T A; Szumowski, J; Quinn, S F

    1994-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of fat-suppressed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in diagnosing chondromalacia patellae. Seventy-one patients underwent fat-suppressed MR imaging and arthroscopy of the patellofemoral compartment. Findings were classified as early or advanced chondromalacia or as normal and were correlated with arthroscopic findings. Early and advanced stages of chondromalacia patellae were reliably detected, with positive predictive values of 85% and 92%, respectively. Specificity in early stages was 94% and in late stages was 98%. However, the overall accuracies did not differ substantially from those reported in studies that did not use fat-suppressed imaging. Axial, fat-suppressed MR imaging accurately depicts changes caused by chondromalacia patellae. Early stages can be seen as intrasubstance changes of increased signal intensity. Results of this study suggest a high degree of specificity in excluding both early and advanced changes.

  12. METHOD OF SUPPRESSING GASTROINTESTINAL UREASE ACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visek, W.J.

    1963-04-23

    This patent shows a method of increasing the growth rate of chicks. Certain diacyl substituted ureas such as alloxan, murexide, and barbituric acid are added to their feed, thereby suppressing gastrointestinal urease activity and thus promoting growth. (AEC)

  13. Suppression factors in diffractive photoproduction of dijets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasen, Michael; Kramer, Gustav

    2010-06-01

    After new publications of H1 data for the diffractive photoproduction of dijets, which overlap with the earlier published H1 data and the recently published data of the ZEUS collaboration, have appeared, we have recalculated the cross sections for this process in next-to-leading order (NLO) of perturbative QCD to see whether they can be interpreted consistently. The results of these calculations are compared to the data of both collaborations. We find that the NLO cross sections disagree with the data, showing that factorization breaking occurs at that order. If direct and resolved contributions are both suppressed by the same amount, the global suppression factor depends on the transverse-energy cut. However, by suppressing only the resolved contribution, also reasonably good agreement with all the data is found with a suppression factor independent of the transverse-energy cut. (orig.)

  14. Attention modulates sensory suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, Lore; Juravle, Georgiana; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2013-06-01

    Tactile perception is often impaired during movement. The present study investigated whether such sensory suppression also occurs during back movements, and whether this would be modulated by attention. In two tactile detection experiments, participants simultaneously engaged in a movement task, in which they executed a back-bending movement, and a perceptual task, consisting of the detection of subtle tactile stimuli administered to their upper or lower back. The focus of participants' attention was manipulated by raising the probability that one of the back locations would be stimulated. The results revealed that tactile detection was suppressed during the execution of the back movements. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 revealed that when the stimulus was always presented to the attended location, tactile suppression was substantially reduced, suggesting that sensory suppression can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. The potential of this paradigm for studying tactile information processing in clinical populations is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Suppression of instability in rotatory hydromagnetic convection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    first time by Lord Rayleigh [9] for the idealized case of two free boundaries. Rayleigh's theory shows that the gravity-dominated thermal instability in liquid layer ... suppressed for oscillatory perturbations by the simultaneous application of a ...

  16. Combustion suppressing device for leaked sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooto, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the atmospheric temperature to secure the building safety and shorten the recovery time after the leakage in a chamber for containing sodium leaked from coolant circuit equipments or pipeways of LMFBR type rector by suppressing the combustion of sodium contained in the chamber. Constitution: To the inner wall of a chamber for containing sodium handling equipments, are vertically disposed a panel having a coolant supply port at the upper portion and a coolant discharge port at the lower portion thereof and defined with a coolant flowing channel and a panel for sucking the coolant discharged from the abovementioned panel and exhausting the same externally. Further, a corrugated combustion suppressing plate having apertures for draining the condensated leaked sodium is disposed near the sodium handling equipments. If ruptures are resulted to the sodium handling equipments or pipeway, leaked sodium is passed through the drain apertures in the suppressing plate and stored at the bottom of the containing chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. Suppressing Tsetse Flies to Improve Lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potterton, Louise; Pavlicek, Petr; Parker, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the government-run Southern Tsetse Eradication Project (STEP) in Ethiopia, with the support of the IAEA, started to carry out intensive activities to suppress the fly population using insecticides. The fly population is now down by 90%. The benefits of tsetse suppression can be seen all over the region. Diary produce is now widely available at markets and healthy animals can be seen everywhere in farming and transport

  18. Gamma camera scatter suppression unit WAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Haruo; Shibahara, Noriyuki; Hirose, Yoshiharu; Shimonishi, Yoshihiro; Oumura, Masahiro; Ikeda, Hozumi; Hamada, Kunio; Ochi, Hironobu; Itagane, Hiroshi.

    1990-01-01

    In gamma camera imaging, scattered radiation is one of big factors to decrease image contrast. Simply, scatter suppression makes signal to noise ratio larger, but it makes statistics error because of radionuclide injection limit to the human body. EWA is a new method that suppresses scattered radiation and improves image contrast. In this article, WAM which is commercialized EWA method by Siemens Gammasonics Inc. is presented. (author)

  19. Suppression sours sacrifice: emotional and relational costs of suppressing emotions in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impett, Emily A; Kogan, Aleksandr; English, Tammy; John, Oliver; Oveis, Christopher; Gordon, Amie M; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-06-01

    What happens when people suppress their emotions when they sacrifice for a romantic partner? This multimethod study investigates how suppressing emotions during sacrifice shapes affective and relationship outcomes. In Part 1, dating couples came into the laboratory to discuss important romantic relationship sacrifices. Suppressing emotions was associated with emotional costs for the partner discussing his or her sacrifice. In Part 2, couples participated in a 14-day daily experience study. Within-person increases in emotional suppression during daily sacrifice were associated with decreases in emotional well-being and relationship quality as reported by both members of romantic dyads. In Part 3, suppression predicted decreases in relationship satisfaction and increases in thoughts about breaking up with a romantic partner 3 months later. In the first two parts of the study, authenticity mediated the costly effects of suppression. Implications for research on close relationships and emotion regulation are discussed.

  20. Conhecimento de estudantes adolescentes sobre transmissão, prevenção e comportamentos de risco em relação às DST/HIV/AIDS Adolescent students knowledge about transmition, prevention and risky behavior related to STD/HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raquel Cortês Nelson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar o conhecimento dos adolescentes sobre sexualidade, métodos contraceptivos e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, assim como analisar a vulnerabilidade e comportamentos de risco destes em relação as DST/aids. Métodos: Estudo descritivo-exploratório com abordagem quantitativa realizado de março a dezembro de 2013 com 222 estudantes da rede pública de ensino. Os dados foram coletados a partir de um questionário semiestruturado respondido em sala de aula. Resultados: O estudo apontou índices significativos de desconhecimento em relação a transmissão, prevenção e tratamento da aids, e elucidou  alguns comportamentos de risco que tornam a população jovem vulnerável as DST/aids. Conclusão:  Programas de orientação sexual nas escolas são necessários  para incentivar aos adolescentes  um comportamento sexual seguro, saudável e menos exposto a riscos. Descritores: Saúde do Adolescente, Saúde Escolar; Doenças Sexualmente Transmissívies.

  1. Intentional suppression can lead to a reduction of memory strength: Behavioral and electrophysiological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Thomas Waldhauser

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that the intentional suppression of unwanted memories can lead to forgetting in later memory tests. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. This study employed recognition memory testing and event-related potentials (ERPs to investigate whether intentional suppression leads to the inhibition of memory representations at an item level. In a think/no-think experiment, participants were cued to either suppress (no-think condition or retrieve (think condition previously learned words, 18 or 0 times. Performance in a final recognition test was significantly reduced for repeatedly suppressed no-think items when compared to the baseline, zero-repetition condition. ERPs recorded during the suppression of no-think items were significantly more negative-going in a time-window around 300 ms when compared to ERPs in the think condition. This reduction correlated with later recognition memory impairment. Furthermore, ERPs to no-think items from 225-450 ms were more negative-going in later phases of the experiment, suggesting a gradual reduction of memory strength with repeated suppression attempts. These effects were dissociable from correlates of recollection (500-600 ms and inhibitory control (450-500 ms that did not vary over the time-course of the experiment and appeared to be under strategic control. Our results give strong evidence that the no-think manipulation involves inhibition of memory representations at an item level.

  2. Clean-up system for pool water in pressure suppression chamber and operation method therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirabayashi, Kentaro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1996-09-17

    Pool water in a pressure suppression chamber of a BWR type reactor is sucked by a pump of an after-heat removing system. The pool water pressurized here is sent to the pressure suppression chamber by way of a heat exchanger and a test line backwarding pipeline to stir the pool water in the pressure suppression chamber. Further, the pool water pressurized by the pump is sent to the pressure suppression chamber by way of a filtration desalting device and an exit pipe to purify the pool water. Upon cleaning of pipelines before the start of a periodical test, the pool water sucked by the pump is sent to the filtration desalting device and recovered to the pressure suppression chamber. This can reduce the amount of impurities carried to the suppression chamber. After the cleaning of the pipelines, pool water is passed through the test line backwarding pipeline, so that the pool water can be stirred at the same time. (I.N.)

  3. "Tradition", person, gender, and STD/HIV/AIDS in southern Mozambique "Tradição", pessoa, gênero e DST/HIV/AIDS no Sul de Moçambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Passador

    2009-03-01

    disposição sócio-cultural que define as doenças como ações de sujeitos sociais que colocam em risco a pessoa, construindo uma situação de vulnerabilidade das mulheres ao estabelecê-las como promotoras de doenças. Tal cenário tem determinado as experiências que os sujeitos têm com a epidemia e com os discursos e políticas públicas de prevenção e tratamento das DST e HIV/AIDS.

  4. Limites do trabalho multiprofissional: estudo de caso dos centros de referência para DST/Aids Limitations of multiprofessional work: a case study of STD/AIDS reference centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Emy Kurokawa e Silva

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Compreender as possibilidades e os limites da articulação dos processos de trabalho desenvolvidos por agentes com diferentes formações para otimizar a integração e melhorar a qualidade da assistência aos pacientes com HIV/Aids. MÉTODOS: Estudo qualitativo sobre o trabalho multiprofissional em cinco centros de referência para DST/Aids do Município de São Paulo. Foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas com 26 profissionais de diferentes formações, enfocando suas relações no modo de organização da assistência prestada nesses serviços. RESULTADOS: Houve diferenças significativas do alcance da integração multiprofissional e das possibilidades de enriquecimento da assistência prestada, de acordo com as circunstâncias em que o trabalho interdisciplinar é posto em ação. CONCLUSÕES: Quando a equipe consegue trabalhar com demandas antevistas, isto é, com a formulação, por um conjunto de profissionais, de projetos assistenciais, antecipando demandas a partir de situações concretas da prática, criam-se condições favoráveis a um trabalho mais efetivamente integrado da equipe multiprofissional. Essa integração favorece intervenções que permitem um diálogo mais rico entre a aplicação do tratamento medicamentoso e outras dimensões relevantes do cuidado referentes às vivências sociais, psicológicas e emocionais dos pacientes.OBJECTIVE: To understand the possibilities and limitations of developing coordinated work among professionals of different background in order to promote work collaboration and improve the quality of care of HIV/AIDS patients. METHODS: A qualitative study on multiprofessional work was carried out in five STD/AIDS reference centers in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were applied to 26 professionals from different background, focusing on how they position their practices in a multiprofessional setting. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed as to

  5. Instrumenting a pressure suppression experiment for a Mark I boiling water reactor: another measurements engineering challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, W.M.; Brough, W.G.; Miller, T.B.

    1978-01-01

    A 1 / 5 -scale test facility of a pressure-suppression system from a Mark I boiling water reactor was instrumented with seven types of transducers to obtain high-accuracy, dynamic loading data during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. A total of 27 air tests have been completed with an average of 175 transducers recorded for each test. An end-to-end calibration of the total measurement system was run to establish accuracy of the data. The instrumentation verified the analysis of the dynamic loading of the pressure-suppression system

  6. Suppression of radiation-induced in vitro carcinogenesis by ascorbic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauchi, Hiroshi; Sawada, Shozo

    1993-01-01

    The effects of ascorbic acid on radiation-induced in vitro carcinogenesis have been reported using neoplastic transformation system of C3H 10T1/2 cells. In these reports, no suppressive effect on X-ray-induced transformation was observed with 6 weeks' administration of ascorbic acid (daily addition for 5 days per week) by Kennedy (1984), whereas apparent suppression was observed with daily addition for 7 days by Yasukawa et al (1989). We have tested the effects of ascorbic acid on 60 Co gamma-ray or 252 Cf fission neutron-induced transformation in Balb/c 3T3 cells. The transformation induced by both types of radiations was markedly suppressed when ascorbic acid was daily added to the medium during first 8 days of the post-irradiation period. If ascorbic acid was added for a total of 8 days but with a day's interruption in the middle, the suppression of transformation was decreased. These results suggest that continuous presence of ascorbic acid for a certain number of days is needed to suppress radiation-induced transformation. Since ascorbic acid also suppressed the promotion of radiation-induced transformation by TPA when both chemicals were added together into the medium, ascorbic acid might act on the promotion stage of transformation. Therefore, the effect of ascorbic acid on the distribution of protein kinase C activity was also investigated, and possible mechanisms of suppression of radiation-induced transformation by ascorbic acid will be discussed. (author)

  7. Cue-independent forgetting by intentional suppression - Evidence for inhibition as the mechanism of intentional forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Cao, Zhijun; Zhu, Zijian; Cai, Huaqian; Wu, Yanhong

    2015-10-01

    People are able to intentionally forget unwanted memories through voluntary suppression, as revealed by the Think/No-think (TNT) paradigm. However, the nature of intentional forgetting is controversial. Findings that forgetting is independent of retrieval cues suggest that inhibitory control underlies intentional forgetting, but this result is also in line with an interference account. To resolve this controversy, we have directly contrasted the cue-independent characteristic of suppression versus interference. A double-cue paradigm was used, in which two different cues were associated with the same target during initial memory formation. Only one cue-target association received further interference/suppression training. In the test phase, when both cues were used to retrieve the target, we found that interference caused memory impairment that was restricted to the trained cue-target association, while suppression induced forgetting that generalized to the independent cue-target association. Therefore, the effect of suppression differs from that of interference. The cue-independent forgetting by voluntary suppression indicates that the target memory itself is inhibited, providing evidence that the underlying mechanism of suppression-induced forgetting is inhibitory control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fire Source Accessibility of Water Mist Fire Suppression Improvement through Flow Method Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jun Ho; Kim, Hyeong Taek; Kim, Yun Jung; Park, Mun Hee [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Recently, nuclear power plants set CO{sub 2} fire suppression system. However it is hard to establish and to maintain and it also has difficulties performing function test. Therefore, it needs to develop a new fire suppression system to replace the existing CO{sub 2} fire suppression systems in nuclear power plant. In fact, already, there exist alternatives - gas fire suppression system or clean fire extinguishing agent, but it is hard to apply because it requires a highly complicated plan. However, water mist fire suppression system which has both water system and gas system uses small amount of water and droplet, so it is excellent at oxygen displacement and more suitable for nuclear power plant because it can avoid second damage caused by fire fighting water. This paper explains about enclosure effect of water mist fire suppression. And it suggests a study direction about water mist fire source approach improvement and enclosure effect improvement, using flow method control of ventilation system. Water mist fire suppression can be influenced by various variable. And flow and direction of ventilation system are important variable. Expectations of the plan for more fire source ventilation system is as in the following. It enhances enclosure effects of water mists, so it improves extinguish performance. Also the same effect as a inert gas injection causes can be achieved. Lastly, it is considered that combustible accessibility of water mists will increase because of descending air currents.

  9. Distracted by the Unthought – Suppression and Reappraisal of Mind Wandering under Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Carolin; Martiny, Sarah E.; Schmader, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found that subtle reminders of negative stereotypes about one’s group can lead individuals to underperform on stereotype-relevant tests (e.g., women in math, ethnic minorities on intelligence tests). This so called stereotype threat effect can contribute to systematic group differences in performance that can obscure the true abilities of certain social groups and thereby sustain social inequalities. In the present study, we examined processes underlying stereotype threat effects on women’s math performance, specifically focusing on the role of suppression of mind wandering (i.e., task-irrelevant thinking) in stereotype threat (ST) and no threat (NT) situations. Based on a process model of stereotype threat effects on performance, we hypothesized that women under stereotype threat spontaneously suppress mind wandering, and that this suppression impairs performance. An alternative regulation strategy that prevents suppression (i.e., reappraising task-irrelevant thoughts as normal) was predicted to prevent stereotype threat effects on performance. We manipulated stereotype threat (ST vs. NT) and cognitive regulation strategy (suppression, reappraisal, or no strategy) and measured women’s performance on a math and a concentration task (N = 113). We expected three groups to perform relatively more poorly: Those in ST with either no strategy or suppression and those in NT with a suppression strategy. We tested the performance of these groups against the remaining three groups hypothesized to perform relatively better: those in NT with no strategy or reappraisal and those in ST with reappraisal. The results showed the expected pattern for participants’ math performance, but not for concentration achievement. This pattern suggests that ineffective self-regulation by suppressing mind wandering can at least partly explain stereotype threat effects on performance, whereas a reappraisal strategy can prevent this impairment. We discuss

  10. Distracted by the Unthought - Suppression and Reappraisal of Mind Wandering under Stereotype Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Carolin; Martiny, Sarah E; Schmader, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found that subtle reminders of negative stereotypes about one's group can lead individuals to underperform on stereotype-relevant tests (e.g., women in math, ethnic minorities on intelligence tests). This so called stereotype threat effect can contribute to systematic group differences in performance that can obscure the true abilities of certain social groups and thereby sustain social inequalities. In the present study, we examined processes underlying stereotype threat effects on women's math performance, specifically focusing on the role of suppression of mind wandering (i.e., task-irrelevant thinking) in stereotype threat (ST) and no threat (NT) situations. Based on a process model of stereotype threat effects on performance, we hypothesized that women under stereotype threat spontaneously suppress mind wandering, and that this suppression impairs performance. An alternative regulation strategy that prevents suppression (i.e., reappraising task-irrelevant thoughts as normal) was predicted to prevent stereotype threat effects on performance. We manipulated stereotype threat (ST vs. NT) and cognitive regulation strategy (suppression, reappraisal, or no strategy) and measured women's performance on a math and a concentration task (N = 113). We expected three groups to perform relatively more poorly: Those in ST with either no strategy or suppression and those in NT with a suppression strategy. We tested the performance of these groups against the remaining three groups hypothesized to perform relatively better: those in NT with no strategy or reappraisal and those in ST with reappraisal. The results showed the expected pattern for participants' math performance, but not for concentration achievement. This pattern suggests that ineffective self-regulation by suppressing mind wandering can at least partly explain stereotype threat effects on performance, whereas a reappraisal strategy can prevent this impairment. We discuss implications for

  11. A compact clinical instrument for quantifying suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Joanne M; Thompson, Benjamin; Maehara, Goro; Hess, Robert F

    2011-02-01

    We describe a compact and convenient clinical apparatus for the measurement of suppression based on a previously reported laboratory-based approach. In addition, we report and validate a novel, rapid psychophysical method for measuring suppression using this apparatus, which makes the technique more applicable to clinical practice. By using a Z800 dual pro head-mounted display driven by a MAC laptop, we provide dichoptic stimulation. Global motion stimuli composed of arrays of moving dots are presented to each eye. One set of dots move in a coherent direction (termed signal) whereas another set of dots move in a random direction (termed noise). To quantify performance, we measure the signal/noise ratio corresponding to a direction-discrimination threshold. Suppression is quantified by assessing the extent to which it matters which eye sees the signal and which eye sees the noise. A space-saving, head-mounted display using current video technology offers an ideal solution for clinical practice. In addition, our optimized psychophysical method provided results that were in agreement with those produced using the original technique. We made measures of suppression on a group of nine adult amblyopic participants using this apparatus with both the original and new psychophysical paradigms. All participants had measurable suppression ranging from mild to severe. The two different psychophysical methods gave a strong correlation for the strength of suppression (rho = -0.83, p = 0.006). Combining the new apparatus and new psychophysical method creates a convenient and rapid technique for parametric measurement of interocular suppression. In addition, this apparatus constitutes the ideal platform for suppressors to combine information between their eyes in a similar way to binocularly normal people. This provides a convenient way for clinicians to implement the newly proposed binocular treatment of amblyopia that is based on antisuppression training.

  12. Functional imaging correlates of impaired distractor suppression following sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Danyang; Soon, Chun Siong; Chee, Michael W L

    2012-05-15

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has been shown to affect selective attention but it is not known how two of its component processes: target enhancement and distractor suppression, are affected. To investigate, young volunteers either attended to houses or were obliged to ignore them (when attending to faces) while viewing superimposed face-house pictures. MR signal enhancement and suppression in the parahippocampal place area (PPA) were determined relative to a passive viewing control condition. Sleep deprivation was associated with lower PPA activation across conditions. Critically SD specifically impaired distractor suppression in selective attention, leaving target enhancement relatively preserved. These findings parallel some observations in cognitive aging. Additionally, following SD, attended houses were not significantly better recognized than ignored houses in a post-experiment test of recognition memory contrasting with the finding of superior recognition of attended houses in the well-rested state. These results provide evidence for co-encoding of distracting information with targets into memory when one is sleep deprived. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Minoxidil may suppress androgen receptor-related functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Liu, Jai-Shin; Lin, An-Chi; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chung, Wen-Hung; Wu, Wen-Guey

    2014-04-30

    Although minoxidil has been used for more than two decades to treat androgenetic alopecia (AGA), an androgen-androgen receptor (AR) pathway-dominant disease, its precise mechanism of action remains elusive. We hypothesized that minoxidil may influence the AR or its downstream signaling. These tests revealed that minoxidil suppressed AR-related functions, decreasing AR transcriptional activity in reporter assays, reducing expression of AR targets at the protein level, and suppressing AR-positive LNCaP cell growth. Dissecting the underlying mechanisms, we found that minoxidil interfered with AR-peptide, AR-coregulator, and AR N/C-terminal interactions, as well as AR protein stability. Furthermore, a crystallographic analysis using the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD) revealed direct binding of minoxidil to the AR in a minoxidil-AR-LBD co-crystal model, and surface plasmon resonance assays demonstrated that minoxidil directly bound the AR with a K(d) value of 2.6 µM. Minoxidil also suppressed AR-responsive reporter activity and decreased AR protein stability in human hair dermal papilla cells. The current findings provide evidence that minoxidil could be used to treat both cancer and age-related disease, and open a new avenue for applications of minoxidil in treating androgen-AR pathway-related diseases.

  14. Application of Composite Materials in the Fire Explosion Suppression System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Shah

    2012-01-01

    In order to lighten the weight of the special vehicles and improve their mobility and flexibility, the weight of all subsystems of the whole vehicle must be reduced in the general planning. A fire explosion suppression system is an important subsystem for the self-protection of vehicle, protection of crews and safety of a vehicle. The performances of the special vehicles determine their survival ability and combat capability. The composite bottle is made of aluminum alloy with externally wrapped carbon fiber ; it has been proven by a large number of tests that the new type explosion suppression fire distinguisher made of such composite materials applied in the special vehicle has reliable performance, each of its technical indexes is higher or equal to that of a steel distinguisher, and the composites can also optimize the assembly structure of the bottle, and improve the reliability and corrosion resistance. Most important is that the composite materials can effectively lighten the weight of the fire explosion suppression system to reach the target of weight reduction of the subsystem in general planning.

  15. Fatal attraction? Intraguild facilitation and suppression among predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Pozzanghera, Casey B.; Grace, James B.; Prugh, Laura R.

    2017-01-01

    Competition and suppression are recognized as dominant forces that structure predator communities. Facilitation via carrion provisioning, however, is a ubiquitous interaction among predators that could offset the strength of suppression. Understanding the relative importance of these positive and negative interactions is necessary to anticipate community-wide responses to apex predator declines and recoveries worldwide. Using state-sponsored wolf (Canis lupus) control in Alaska as a quasi experiment, we conducted snow track surveys of apex, meso-, and small predators to test for evidence of carnivore cascades (e.g., mesopredator release). We analyzed survey data using an integrative occupancy and structural equation modeling framework to quantify the strengths of hypothesized interaction pathways, and we evaluated fine-scale spatiotemporal responses of nonapex predators to wolf activity clusters identified from radio-collar data. Contrary to the carnivore cascade hypothesis, both meso- and small predator occupancy patterns indicated guild-wide, negative responses of nonapex predators to wolf abundance variations at the landscape scale. At the local scale, however, we observed a near guild-wide, positive response of nonapex predators to localized wolf activity. Local-scale association with apex predators due to scavenging could lead to landscape patterns of mesopredator suppression, suggesting a key link between occupancy patterns and the structure of predator communities at different spatial scales.

  16. Fatal Attraction? Intraguild Facilitation and Suppression among Predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivy, Kelly J; Pozzanghera, Casey B; Grace, James B; Prugh, Laura R

    2017-11-01

    Competition and suppression are recognized as dominant forces that structure predator communities. Facilitation via carrion provisioning, however, is a ubiquitous interaction among predators that could offset the strength of suppression. Understanding the relative importance of these positive and negative interactions is necessary to anticipate community-wide responses to apex predator declines and recoveries worldwide. Using state-sponsored wolf (Canis lupus) control in Alaska as a quasi experiment, we conducted snow track surveys of apex, meso-, and small predators to test for evidence of carnivore cascades (e.g., mesopredator release). We analyzed survey data using an integrative occupancy and structural equation modeling framework to quantify the strengths of hypothesized interaction pathways, and we evaluated fine-scale spatiotemporal responses of nonapex predators to wolf activity clusters identified from radio-collar data. Contrary to the carnivore cascade hypothesis, both meso- and small predator occupancy patterns indicated guild-wide, negative responses of nonapex predators to wolf abundance variations at the landscape scale. At the local scale, however, we observed a near guild-wide, positive response of nonapex predators to localized wolf activity. Local-scale association with apex predators due to scavenging could lead to landscape patterns of mesopredator suppression, suggesting a key link between occupancy patterns and the structure of predator communities at different spatial scales.

  17. A novel automatic molecular test for detection of multidrug resistance tuberculosis in sputum specimen: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Ou, Xi C; Pang, Yu; Xia, Hui; Huang, Hai R; Zhao, Bing; Wang, Sheng F; Zhao, Yan L

    2017-07-01

    MiniLab tuberculosis (ML TB) assay is a new automatic diagnostic tool for diagnosis of multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB). This study was conducted with aims to know the performance of this assay. Sputum sample from 224 TB suspects was collected from tuberculosis suspects seeking medical care at Beijing Chest hospital. The sputum samples were directly used for smear and ML TB test. The left sputum sample was used to conduct Xpert MTB/RIF, Bactec MGIT culture and drug susceptibility test (DST). All discrepancies between the results from DST, molecular and phenotypic methods were confirmed by DNA Sequencing. The sensitivity and specificity of ML TB test for detecting MTBC from TB suspects were 95.1% and 88.9%, respectively. The sensitivity for smear negative TB suspects was 64.3%. For detection of RIF resistance, the sensitivity and specificity of ML TB test were 89.2% and 95.7%, respectively. For detection of INH resistance, the sensitivity and specificity of ML TB test were 78.3% and 98.1%, respectively. ML TB test showed similar performance to Xpert MTB/RIF for detection of MTBC and RIF resistance. In addition, ML TB also had good performance for INH resistance detection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Dim light adaptation attenuates acute melatonin suppression in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasser, Samar A; Hanifin, John P; Rollag, Mark D; Brainard, George C

    2006-10-01

    Abstract Studies in rodents with retinal degeneration indicated that neither the rod nor the cone photoreceptors obligatorily participate in circadian responses to light, including melatonin suppression and photoperiodic response. Yet there is a residual phase-shifting response in melanopsin knockout mice, which suggests an alternate or redundant means for light input to the SCN of the hypothalamus. The findings of Aggelopoulos and Meissl suggest a complex, dynamic interrelationship between the classic visual photoreceptors and SCN cell sensitivity to light stimuli, relative to various adaptive lighting conditions. These studies raised the possibility that the phototransductive physiology of the retinohypothalamic tract in humans might be modulated by the visual rod and cone photoreceptors. The aim of the following two-part study was to test the hypothesis that dim light adaptation will dampen the subsequent suppression of melatonin by monochromatic light in healthy human subjects. Each experiment included 5 female and 3 male human subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 years, with normal color vision. Dim white light and darkness adaptation exposures occurred between midnight and 0200 h, and a full-field 460-nm light exposure subsequently occurred between 0200 and 0330-h for each adaptation condition, at 2 different intensities. Plasma samples were drawn following the 2-h adaptation, as well as after the 460-nm monochromatic light exposure, and melatonin was measured by radioimmunoassay. Comparison of melatonin suppression responses to monochromatic light in both studies revealed a loss of significant suppression after dim white light adaptation compared with dark adaptation (p light exposure, varying with the conditions of light adaptation prior to exposure.

  19. Quantitative Compton suppression spectrometry at elevated counting rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.; Joestl, K.; Schroeder, P.; Lauster, R.; Hausch, E.

    1999-01-01

    For quantitative Compton suppression spectrometry the decrease of coincidence efficiency with counting rate should be made negligible to avoid a virtual increase of relative peak areas of coincident isomeric transitions with counting rate. To that aim, a separate amplifier and discriminator has been used for each of the eight segments of the active shield of a new well-type Compton suppression spectrometer, together with an optimized, minimum dead-time design of the anticoincidence logic circuitry. Chance coincidence losses in the Compton suppression spectrometer are corrected instrumentally by comparing the chance coincidence rate to the counting rate of the germanium detector in a pulse-counting Busy circuit (G.P. Westphal, J. Rad. Chem. 179 (1994) 55) which is combined with the spectrometer's LFC counting loss correction system. The normally not observable chance coincidence rate is reconstructed from the rates of germanium detector and scintillation detector in an auxiliary coincidence unit, after the destruction of true coincidence by delaying one of the coincidence partners. Quantitative system response has been tested in two-source measurements with a fixed reference source of 60 Co of 14 kc/s, and various samples of 137 Cs, up to aggregate counting rates of 180 kc/s for the well-type detector, and more than 1400 kc/s for the BGO shield. In these measurements, the net peak areas of the 1173.3 keV line of 60 Co remained constant at typical values of 37 000 with and 95 000 without Compton suppression, with maximum deviations from the average of less than 1.5%

  20. Towards Point-of-Care Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Drug Susceptibility Testing by Whole Genome Sequencing of DNA Isolated from Sputum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayzad S. Nilgiriwala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary screening of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB in India still relies on sputum microscopy, which has low sensitivity leading to high rate of false negatives. Moreover, conventional phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST is conducted over a period of weeks leading to delays in correct treatment. Next generation sequencing technologies (Illumina and Oxford Nanopore have made it possible to sequence miniscule amount of DNA and generate enough data within a day for detecting specific microbes and their DST profile. Sputum samples from two pulmonary TB patients were processed by decontamination and DNA was isolated from the decontaminated sputum sediments. The isolated DNA was used for sequencing by Illumina and by MinION (Oxford Nanopore Technologies. The sequence data was used to diagnose TB and to determine the DST profiles for the first- and second-line drugs by Mykrobe Predictor. Validation was conducted by sequencing DNA (by Illumina isolated from pure growth culture from both the samples individually. DNA sequencing data (for both, Ilumina and MinION from one of the sputum samples indicated the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb resistant to streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol and its lineage was predicted to be Beijing East Asia. The second sample indicated the presence of M. tb sensitive to the first- and second-line drugs by MinION and showed minor resistance call only to rifampicin by Illumina. Lineage of the second sample was predicted to be East Africa Indian Ocean, whereas Illumina data indicated it to be Delhi Central Asia. The two samples were correctly diagnosed for the presence of M. tb in the sputum DNA. Their DST profiles and lineage were also successfully determined from both the sequencing platforms (with minor discrepancies paving the way towards diagnosis and DST of TB from DNA isolated from sputum samples at point-of-care. Nanopore sequencing currently requires skilled personnel for DNA

  1. CONDITIONS FOR CSR MICROBUNCHING GAIN SUPPRESSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Cheng Ying [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Li, Rui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); di Mitri, Simone [Elettra–Sincrotrone Trieste, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste, Italy

    2016-05-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as transport arcs, may result in phase space degradation. On one hand, the CSR can perturb electron transverse motion in dispersive regions along the beamline, causing emittance growth. On the other hand, the CSR effect on the longitudinal beam dynamics could result in microbunching gain enhancement. For transport arcs, several schemes have been proposed* to suppress the CSR-induced emittance growth. Similarly, several scenarios have been introduced** to suppress CSR-induced microbunching gain, which however mostly aim for linac-based machines. In this paper we try to provide sufficient conditions for suppression of CSR-induced microbunching gain along a transport arc, analogous to*. Several example lattices are presented, with the relevant microbunching analyses carried out by our semi-analytical Vlasov solver***. The simulation results show that lattices satisfying the proposed conditions indeed have microbunching gain suppressed. We expect this analysis can shed light on lattice design approach that could suppress the CSR-induced microbunching gain.

  2. Interocular suppression in children with deprivation amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Lisa; Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Black, Joanna; Dai, Shuan; Yuan, Junpeng; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    In patients with anisometropic or strabismic amblyopia, interocular suppression can be minimized by presenting high contrast stimulus elements to the amblyopic eye and lower contrast elements to the fellow eye. This suggests a structurally intact binocular visual system that is functionally suppressed. We investigated whether suppression can also be overcome by contrast balancing in children with deprivation amblyopia due to childhood cataracts. To quantify interocular contrast balance, contrast interference thresholds were measured using an established dichoptic global motion technique for 21 children with deprivation amblyopia, 14 with anisometropic or mixed strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia and 10 visually normal children (mean age mean=9.9years, range 5-16years). We found that interocular suppression could be overcome by contrast balancing in most children with deprivation amblyopia, at least intermittently, and all children with anisometropic or mixed anisometropic/strabismic amblyopia. However, children with deprivation amblyopia due to early unilateral or bilateral cataracts could tolerate only very low contrast levels to the stronger eye indicating strong suppression. Our results suggest that treatment options reliant on contrast balanced dichoptic presentation could be attempted in a subset of children with deprivation amblyopia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Smoke suppression properties of ferrite yellow on flame retardant thermoplastic polyurethane based on ammonium polyphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xilei; Jiang, Yufeng; Jiao, Chuanmei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Smoke suppression of FeOOH on flame retardant TPU composites has been investigated. • FeOOH has excellent smoke suppression abilities for flame retardant TPU composites. • FeOOH has good ability of char formation, hence improved smoke suppression property. -- Abstract: This article mainly studies smoke suppression properties and synergistic flame retardant effect of ferrite yellow (FeOOH) on flame retardant thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composites using ammonium polyphosphate (APP) as a flame retardant agent. Smoke suppression properties and synergistic flame retardant effect of FeOOH on flame retardant TPU composites were intensively investigated by smoke density test (SDT), cone calorimeter test (CCT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermal-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Remarkably, the SDT results show that FeOOH can effectively decrease the amount of smoke production with or without flame. On the other hand, the CCT data reveal that the addition of FeOOH can apparently reduce heat release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR), and total smoke release (TSR), etc. Here, FeOOH is considered to be an effective smoke suppression agent and a good synergism with APP in flame retardant TPU composites, which can greatly improve the structure of char residue realized by TGA and SEM results

  4. Components of Streptococcus pneumoniae suppress allergic airways disease and NKT cells by inducing regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, Alison N; Foster, Paul S; Gibson, Peter G; Hansbro, Philip M

    2012-05-01

    Asthma is an allergic airways disease (AAD) caused by dysregulated immune responses and characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). NKT cells have been shown to contribute to AHR in some mouse models. Conversely, regulatory T cells (Tregs) control aberrant immune responses and maintain homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that Streptococcus pneumoniae induces Tregs that have potential to be harnessed therapeutically for asthma. In this study, mouse models of AAD were used to identify the S. pneumoniae components that have suppressive properties, and the mechanisms underlying suppression were investigated. We tested the suppressive capacity of type-3-polysaccharide (T3P), isolated cell walls, pneumolysoid (Ply) and CpG. When coadministered, T3P + Ply suppressed the development of: eosinophilic inflammation, Th2 cytokine release, mucus hypersecretion, and AHR. Importantly, T3P + Ply also attenuated features of AAD when administered during established disease. We show that NKT cells contributed to the development of AAD and also were suppressed by T3P + Ply treatment. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of NKT cells induced AHR, which also could be reversed by T3P + Ply. T3P + Ply-induced Tregs were essential for the suppression of NKT cells and AAD, which was demonstrated by Treg depletion. Collectively, our results show that the S. pneumoniae components T3P + Ply suppress AAD through the induction of Tregs that blocked the activity of NKT cells. These data suggest that S. pneumoniae components may have potential as a therapeutic strategy for the suppression of allergic asthma through the induction of Tregs and suppression of NKT cells.

  5. Platelet activating factor receptor binding plays a critical role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Gerardo; Kazimi, Nasser; Nghiem, Dat X.; Walterscheid, Jeffrey P.; Ullrich, Stephen E.

    2004-01-01

    Applying military jet fuel (JP-8) or commercial jet fuel (Jet-A) to the skin of mice suppresses the immune response in a dose-dependant manner. The release of biological response modifiers, particularly prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), is a critical step in activating immune suppression. Previous studies have shown that injecting selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors into jet fuel-treated mice blocks immune suppression. Because the inflammatory phospholipid mediator, platelet-activating factor (PAF), up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 production and PGE 2 synthesis by keratinocytes, we tested the hypothesis that PAF-receptor binding plays a role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression. Treating keratinocyte cultures with PAF and/or jet fuel (JP-8 and Jet-A) stimulates PGE 2 secretion. Jet fuel-induced PGE 2 production was suppressed by treating the keratinocytes with specific PAF-receptor antagonists. Injecting mice with PAF, or treating the skin of the mice with JP-8, or Jet-A, induced immune suppression. Jet fuel-induced immune suppression was blocked when the jet fuel-treated mice were injected with PAF-receptor antagonists before treatment. Jet fuel treatment has been reported to activate oxidative stress and treating the mice with anti-oxidants (Vitamins C, or E or beta-hydroxy toluene), before jet fuel application, interfered with immune suppression. These findings confirm previous studies showing that PAF-receptor binding can modulate immune function. Furthermore, they suggest that PAF-receptor binding may be an early event in the induction of immune suppression by immunotoxic environmental agents that target the skin

  6. Purulent pericarditis in a dog administered immune-suppressing drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohri, T.; Takashima, K.; Yamane, T.; Sato, H.; Yamane, Y.

    2009-01-01

    A 5-year-old castrated mongrel dog was brought to our hospital with anorexia and vomiting. Laboratory testing revealed immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), and so treatment was initiated with multiple immune-suppressing drugs, achieving partial remission from IMHA. However, cardiac tamponade due to purulent pericarditis was identified as a secondary disease. Culture of pericardial fluid yielded numerous Candida albicans and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter sp. Pericardiocentesis was performed, and the condition of the dog improved. However, the dog died the next day

  7. Quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker-Szendy, R.; Keller, L.; Niemi, G.; Perl, M.; Rochester, L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Anthony, P. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bosted, P. [American Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Kelley, L.; Klein, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-01

    The authors have studied quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung of low-energy 1-500 MeV photons from high-energy 25 GeV electrons. They have measured the LPM effect, where multiple scattering of the radiating electron destroys coherence required for the emission of low-energy photons, and the dielectric effect, where the emitted photon traveling in the radiator medium interferes with itself. For the experiment, the collaboration developed a novel method of extracting a parasitic low-intensity high-energy electron beam into the fixed target area during normal SLC operation of the accelerator. The results agree quantitatively with Migdal`s calculation of the LPM effect. Surface effects, for which there is no satisfactory theoretical prediction, are visible at low photon energies. For very thin targets, the suppression disappears, as expected. Preliminary results on dielectric suppression of bremsstrahlung are in qualitative agreement with the expectation.

  8. Shielding design of ITER pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Michinori; Sato, Satoshi; Nishitani, Takeo; Kawasaki, Hiromitsu

    2006-01-01

    The duct shield from streaming D-T neutrons has been designed for the ITER pressure suppression system. Streaming calculations are performed with the DUCT-III code for the region from the inlet of the pressure relief line to the rupture disk. Next, the neutron permeation through the shield is studied by Monte Carlo calculations with the MCNP code. It is found that 0.15 m thick iron shield is enough to suppress the permeating component from the outside. In addition, it is suggested that the volume of the shield can be reduced by about 30% if the optimized iron shield structure having localized thickness across intense permeation paths is employed to shield the pressure suppression line. (T.I.)

  9. Pressure suppression pool mixing in passive advanced BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, Robert E.; Nguyen, Thuy T.; Shiralkar, Bharat S.; Peterson, Per F.; Greif, Ralph; Tabata, H.

    2001-01-01

    In the SBWR passive boiling water reactor, the long-term post-accident containment pressure is determined by the combination of noncondensible gas pressure and steam pressure in the wetwell gas space. The suppression pool (SP) surface temperature, which determines the vapor partial pressure, is very important to overall containment performance. Therefore, the thermal stratification of the SP due to blowdown is of primary importance. This work looks at the various phases and phenomena present during the blowdown event and identifies those that are important to thermal stratification, and the scaling necessary to model them in reduced size tests. This is important in determining which of the large body of blowdown to SP data is adequate for application to the stratification problem. The mixing by jets from the main vents is identified as the key phenomena influencing the thermal response of the suppression pool and analytical models are developed to predict the jet influence on thermal stratification. The analytical models are implemented into a system simulation code, TRACG, and used to model thermal stratification behavior in a scaled test facility. The results show good general agreement with the test data

  10. Suppression of charmonium production in hadron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faustov, R.N.; Vasilevskaya, I.G.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of J/ψ charmonium production suppression under heavy ion collisions is investigated. The processes of charmonium disintegration in hadron gas are considered: π+J/ψ → π+c+c-bar and ρ+J/ψ → D+D. Based on the results obtained one can assume that charmonium disintegration contribution to J/ψ production suppression under collisions with gas hadrons and the contribution conditioned by the production of quark-gluon plasma, appear to be the effects of similar order of magnitude

  11. Jet suppression measurement with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00443411; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Jets are produced at the early stages of this collision and are known to become attenuated as they propagate through the hot matter. One manifestation of this energy loss is a lower yield of jets emerging from the medium than expected in the absence of medium effects. Another manifestation of the energy loss is the modification of the dijet balance and the modification of fragmentation functions. In these proceedings, the latest ATLAS results on single jet suppression, dijet suppression, and modification of the jet internal structure in \\PbPb~collisions are presented.

  12. Star formation suppression in compact group galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.

    2015-01-01

    , bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and earlytype galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies, when plotted on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, shows star formation (SF) suppression...... color space. This supports the idea that at least some galaxies in HCGs are transitioning objects, where a disruption of the existing molecular gas in the system suppresses SF by inhibiting the molecular gas from collapsing and forming stars efficiently. These observations, combined with recent work...

  13. Suppression of the initial transient in Monte Carlo criticality simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richet, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Criticality Monte Carlo calculations aim at estimating the effective multiplication factor (k-effective) for a fissile system through iterations simulating neutrons propagation (making a Markov chain). Arbitrary initialization of the neutron population can deeply bias the k-effective estimation, defined as the mean of the k-effective computed at each iteration. A simplified model of this cycle k-effective sequence is built, based on characteristics of industrial criticality Monte Carlo calculations. Statistical tests, inspired by Brownian bridge properties, are designed to discriminate stationarity of the cycle k-effective sequence. The initial detected transient is, then, suppressed in order to improve the estimation of the system k-effective. The different versions of this methodology are detailed and compared, firstly on a plan of numerical tests fitted on criticality Monte Carlo calculations, and, secondly on real criticality calculations. Eventually, the best methodologies observed in these tests are selected and allow to improve industrial Monte Carlo criticality calculations. (author)

  14. Physician-initiated courtesy MODS testing for TB and MDR-TB diagnosis and patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nic Fhogartaigh, C J; Vargas-Prada, S; Huancaré, V; Lopez, S; Rodríguez, J; Moore, D A J

    2008-05-01

    Laboratorio de Investigación de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia (UPCH) and government health centres, Lima, Peru. To evaluate the contribution of unselected (courtesy) microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) testing to the diagnosis and/or drug susceptibility testing (DST) of tuberculosis and their subsequent impact upon patient management. Retrospective database analysis and case note review of MODS culture-positive cases. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated in 28.9% of 225 samples (209 patients); 22.2% of 63 positive cases were multidrug-resistant. In 58 MODS culture-positive cases with follow-up data available, MODS provided culture confirmation of diagnosis, DST or both in 82.8%, before any standard method. In 41.4%, this result should have prompted a modification in patient management. Delays between laboratory result and initiation or change of treatment, where applicable, took on average 42 and 64 days, respectively, of which a delay of respectively 17 and 48 days occurred after the receipt of results by the health facility. MODS provides important data for clinical management within a meaningful timeframe and should contribute positively to patient outcomes due to earlier initiation of appropriate therapy. Although clinicians may successfully select patients likely to benefit from MODS, ongoing work is required to identify optimal implementation of the assay and to reduce logistical and health system derived delays.

  15. Evaluation of MGIT 960 System for the Second-Line Drugs Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyejin Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many laboratories validate DST of the second-line drugs by BACTEC MGIT 960 system. The objective of this study is to evaluate the critical concentration and perform DST for the 2nd line drugs. We evaluated 193 clinical strains of M. tuberculosis isolated from patients in South Korea. Testing the critical concentration of six second-line drugs was performed by MGIT 960 and compared with L-J proportion method. The critical concentration was determined to establish the most one that gave the difference between drug resistance and susceptibility in MGIT960 system. Good agreement of the following concentrations was found: Concordance was 95% for 0.5 μg/mL of moxifloxacin; 93.6%, 1.0 μg/mL of levofloxacin; 97.5%, 2.5 μg/mL of kanamycin; 90.6%, 2.5 μg/mL of capreomycin; 86.2%, 5.0 μg/mL of ethionamide; and 90.8%, 2.0 μg/mL of ρ-aminosalicylic acid. The critical concentrations of the four drugs, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, kanamycin, and capreomycin, were concordant and reliable for testing 2nd line drug resistance. Further study of ethionamide and ρ-aminosalicylic acid is required.

  16. Suppression Situations in Multiple Linear Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes alternative expressions for the two most prevailing definitions of suppression without resorting to the standardized regression modeling. The formulation provides a simple basis for the examination of their relationship. For the two-predictor regression, the author demonstrates that the previous results in the literature are…

  17. Cortisol suppresses radiation transformation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    It is reported that 10 -7 M cortisol has a significant suppressive effect on radiation-induced transformation in vitro in C3H10T 1/2 cells. Previously reported data showed a significant enhancing effect for similar experiments performed with cortisone. Thus, these two structurally similar glucocorticoid hormones have opposite effects on transformation induced by ionizing radiation. (author)

  18. Cooling device for reactor suppression pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togasaki, Susumu; Kato, Kiyoshi.

    1994-01-01

    In a cooling device of a reactor suppression pool, when a temperature of pool water is abnormally increased and a heat absorbing portion is heated by, for example, occurrence of an accident, coolants are sent to the outside of the reactor container to actuates a thermally operating portion by the heat energy of coolants and drive heat exchanging fluids of a secondary cooling system. If the heat exchanging fluids are sent to a cooling portion, the coolants are cooled and returned to the heat absorbing portion of the suppression pool water. If the heat absorbing portion is heat pipes, the coolants are evaporated by heat absorbed from the suppression pool water, steams are sent to the thermally operating portion, then coolants are liquefied and caused to return to the heat absorbing portion. If the thermal operation portion is a gas turbine, the gas turbine is operated by the coolants, and it is converted to a rotational force to drive heat exchanging fluids by pumps. By constituting the cooling portion with a condensator, the coolants are condensed and liquefied and returned to the heat absorbing portion of the suppression pool water. (N.H.)

  19. Efflux inhibitor suppresses Streptococcus mutans virulence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huihui; Liu, Jia; Ling, Junqi

    2017-04-01

    It is well established that efflux pumps play important roles in bacterial pathogenicity and efflux inhibitors (EIs) have been proved to be effective in suppressing bacterial virulence properties. However, little is known regarding the EI of Streptococcus mutans, a well-known caries-inducing bacterium. In this study, we identified the EI of S. mutans through ethidium bromide efflux assay and investigated how EI affected S. mutans virulence regarding the cariogenicity and stress response. Results indicated that reserpine, the identified EI, suppressed acid tolerance, mutacin production and transformation efficiency of S. mutans, and modified biofilm architecture and extracellular polysaccharide distribution. Suppressed glycosyltransferase activity was also noted after reserpine exposure. The data from quantitative real-time-PCR demonstrated that reserpine significantly altered the expression profile of quorum-sensing and virulence-associated genes. These findings suggest that reserpine represents a promising adjunct anticariogenic agent in that it suppresses virulence properties of S. mutans. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Suppressive competition: how sounds may cheat sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Christoph; Remedios, Ryan

    2012-02-23

    In this issue of Neuron, Iurilli et al. (2012) demonstrate that auditory cortex activation directly engages local GABAergic circuits in V1 to induce sound-driven hyperpolarizations in layer 2/3 and layer 6 pyramidal neurons. Thereby, sounds can directly suppress V1 activity and visual driven behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pressure suppression facility for reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashi; Fukui, Toru; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Tominaga, Kenji.

    1993-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor comprising heat transfer surfaces from a pressure suppression pool at the inside to the outer circumferential pool at the outside, a means for supplying water from a water supply source at the outside of the container to the pools is disposed. Then, a heat transfer means is disposed between the pressure suppression chamber and the water cooling pool. The water supply means comprises a pressurization means for applying pressure to water of the water supply source and a water supply channel. Water is supplied into the pressure suppression pool and the outer circumferential pool to elevate the water level and extend the region of heat contact with the water cooling heat transfer means. In addition, since dynamic pressure is applied to the feedwater, for example, by pressurizing the water surface of the water supply source, water can be supplied without using dynamic equipments such as pumps. Then, since water-cooling heat transfer surface can be extended after occurrence of accident, enlargement of a reactor container and worsening of earthquake proofness can be avoided as much as possible, to improve function for suppressing the pressure in the container. Further, since water-cooling heat transfer region can be extended, the arrangement of the water source and the place to which water is supplied is made optional without considering the relative height therebetween, to improve earthquake proofness. (N.H.)

  2. Quarkonium suppression: Gluonic dissociation vs. colour screening

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mechanism comes into play for the initial conditions taken from the self screened parton cascade model in these studies. Keywords. Quark gluon plasma; J ψ; suppression; dissociation; colour screening. PACS No. 12.38.M. 1. Introduction. The last two decades have seen hectic activity towards identifying unique signatures ...

  3. Aralia elata (Miquel) Seemann Suppresses Inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... The LPS-induced increase in the production of nitric oxide was concentration- dependently suppressed ... Aralia elata ethanol extract (AEE) exhibits protective ... temperature for 72 h and filtered. The filtered .... scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner showing a ...

  4. Is expressive suppression always associated with poorer psychological functioning? A cross-cultural comparison between European Americans and Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, José A; Perez, Christopher R; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Elizabeth A; Minnick, Mark R

    2011-12-01

    The habitual use of expressive suppression as an emotion regulation strategy has been consistently linked to adverse outcomes in a number of domains, including psychological functioning. The present study aimed to uncover whether the suppression-health relationship is dependent on cultural context, given differing cultural norms surrounding the value of suppressing emotional displays. We hypothesized that the negative associations between suppression and psychological functioning seen in European Americans would not be seen among members of East Asian cultures, in which emotional restraint is relatively encouraged over emotional expression. To test this hypothesis, we asked 71 European American students and 100 Chinese students from Hong Kong to report on their use of expressive suppression, life satisfaction, and depressed mood. A moderation analysis revealed that expressive suppression was associated with adverse psychological functioning for European Americans, but not for Chinese participants. These findings highlight the importance of context in understanding the suppression-health relationship. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Anger suppression, interdependent self-construal, and depression among Asian American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Rebecca Y M; Park, Irene J K

    2010-10-01

    The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression-depression relation was tested by race and interdependent self-construal. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit well across Asian American and European American students, as well as those with high versus low levels of interdependent self-construal. Anger suppression was a significant mediator of the hypothesized indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Moreover, race and interdependent self-construal moderated the suppression-depression link, such that Asian American status and a stronger interdependent self-construal attenuated the relation between anger suppression and depressive symptoms. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation in the development of depressive symptoms will be essential for sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts across diverse populations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Theoretical status of J/ψ suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, S.

    1993-03-01

    High energy heavy ion collisions are expected to produce hadron densities far beyond the density in nuclei, ρ 0 = 0.16 fm -3 . Remarkably, no single measurement from the AGS and SPS light ion programs with projectiles A ≤ 32 stands out as unambiguous evidence of these extreme densities. To separate the high density signals from the background effects that result, e.g. from scattering with primary nucleons, careful systematic studies of hadron-nucleus, hA, and nucleus-nucleus, AB, data are needed. In this talk the author surveys the ongoing systematic study of the most notorious case in point -- J/ψ suppression. In principle, measurements of J/ψ suppression provide a probe of the densities obtained in AB collisions that is also sensitive to quark gluon plasma production. The latest results from SPS experiment NA38 reported by A. Romana in these proceedings show that the ratio of cross sections in the dimuon channel B μμ σ ψ /σ cont is reduced by a factor 0.50 ± 0.05 in central S+U compared to minimum bias pU collisions at 200 AGeV. This is precisely the sort of suppression that one expects if high densities are obtained. On the other hand, a target-mass dependence suggestive of this suppression is found in hA collisions where high densities are not expected. At 200 GeV, NA38 finds that B μμ σ ψ /σ cont falls to 0.84 ± 0.08 in pU compared to pCu. The hA suppression in this kinematic regime is likely due to a combination of nuclear effects: nucleon absorption and shadowing

  7. Sexualidade do idoso: comportamento para a prevenção de DST/AIDS Sexualidad de los ancianos: comportamiento para la prevención de ETS/SIDA Sexuality of the elderly: behavior for the prevention of STD/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fonseca Laroque

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho trata do tema "idosos frente a doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DST" e tem como objetivo identificar o comportamento de idosos na prevenção das DST/AIDS. Estudo qualitativo, exploratório e descritivo, realizado por meio de um questionário semi-estruturado com questões abertas. Os sujeitos do estudo foram seis idosos que participavam de um grupo de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde. Os resultados mostraram que os idosos possuem informações sobre as DST, embora evidencie também pouca adesão ao uso do preservativo. Conclui-se com esse estudo que o processo de envelhecimento requer a conscientização dos profissionais de saúde de que os idosos são sexualmente ativos, portanto expostos às DST, e que se deve tornar a questão do uso do preservativo um assunto natural tanto durante as consultas, como nos grupos e eventos organizados que atinjam esta população.El presente trabajo trata sobre el tema "ancianos delante de enfermedades de transmisión sexual (ETS" y tiene como objetivo identificar el comportamiento de los ancianos en la prevención de las ETS/SIDA. Estudio cualitativo, exploratorio y descriptivo, realizado a través de un cuestionario semiestructurado con preguntas abiertas. Los sujetos del estudio fueron seis ancianos de un grupo de una Unidad Básica de Salud. Los resultados mostraron que los ancianos poseen informaciones sobre las ETS, aunque demuestren también que utilizan poco el preservativo. Se concluye con este estudio que el proceso de envejecimiento requiere la concienciación de los profesionales de la salud de que los ancianos son sexualmente activos y, por lo tanto, están expuestos a las ETS y que hay que tornar la cuestión del uso del preservativo un asunto natural en las consultas, así como en los grupos y eventos que alcancen a esta población.This study deals with the theme "elders facing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs" and it aims to identify the behavior of the elderly in the

  8. The effect of titrated fentanyl on suppressed cough reflex in healthy adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, H E; Shaw, G M; Brett, C N; Greenwood, F M; Huckabee, M L

    2016-05-01

    Cough suppression is part of the pharmacodynamic profile of opioids. We investigated the impact of clinical doses of fentanyl on suppressing the cough reflex. Thirteen volunteers received 2 μg.kg(-1) of fentanyl in a divided administration protocol. Three minutes after each administration and at 10 min intervals during washout, suppressed cough reflex testing with nebulised citric acid was performed and compared with fentanyl effect-site concentration. Mean (SD) citric acid concentration provoking cough increased from 0.5 (0.28) mol.l(-1) at baseline to 1.2 (0.50) mol.l(-1) after 2 μg.kg(-1) of fentanyl (p = 0.01). Mean (SD) fentanyl effect-site concentration after the final dose of fentanyl was 1.89 (0.05) ng.ml(-1) . A strong positive correlation was found between suppressed cough reflex thresholds and fentanyl effect-site concentrations during both fentanyl administration and washout phases of the study (r(2) = 0.79, p = 0.01). The mean (SD) length of time for return of suppressed cough response was 44.6 (18.8) min. Clinically relevant doses of fentanyl produced cough reflex suppression in healthy volunteers. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Access to Awareness for Faces during Continuous Flash Suppression Is Not Modulated by Affective Knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Rabovsky

    Full Text Available It is a controversially debated topic whether stimuli can be analyzed up to the semantic level when they are suppressed from visual awareness during continuous flash suppression (CFS. Here, we investigated whether affective knowledge, i.e., affective biographical information about faces, influences the time it takes for initially invisible faces with neutral expressions to overcome suppression and break into consciousness. To test this, we used negative, positive, and neutral famous faces as well as initially unfamiliar faces, which were associated with negative, positive or neutral biographical information. Affective knowledge influenced ratings of facial expressions, corroborating recent evidence and indicating the success of our affective learning paradigm. Furthermore, we replicated shorter suppression durations for upright than for inverted faces, demonstrating the suitability of our CFS paradigm. However, affective biographical information did not modulate suppression durations for newly learned faces, and even though suppression durations for famous faces were influenced by affective knowledge, these effects did not differ between upright and inverted faces, indicating that they might have been due to low-level visual differences. Thus, we did not obtain unequivocal evidence for genuine influences of affective biographical information on access to visual awareness for faces during CFS.

  10. On the Relationship Between Musicianship and Contralateral Suppression of Transient-Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Andrew; Daughtrey, Emma R

    2016-04-01

    The medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent reflex that modulates outer hair cell function has been shown to be more robust in musicians versus nonmusicians as evidenced in greater contralateral suppression of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs). All previous research comparing musical ability and MOC efferent strength has defined musicianship dichotomously (i.e., high-level music students or professional classical musicians versus nonmusicians). The objective of the study was to further explore contralateral suppression of TEOAEs among adults with a full spectrum of musicianship ranging from no history of musicianship to professional musicians. Musicianship was defined by both self-report and with an objective test to quantify individual differences in perceptual music skills. A single-factor between-subjects and correlational research designs were employed. Forty-five normal-hearing young adults participated. Participants completed a questionnaire concerning their music experience and completed the Brief Profile of Music Perception Skills (PROMS) to quantify perceptual musical skills across multiple musical domains (i.e., accent, melody, tempo, and tuning). TEOAEs were evaluated with 60 dB peak equivalent sound pressure level click stimuli with and without a contralateral 65 dB sound pressure level white noise suppressor. TEOAE suppression was expressed in two ways, absolute TEOAE suppression in dB and a normalized index of TEOAE suppression (i.e., percentage of suppression). Participants who considered themselves musicians scored significantly higher on all subscales and total Brief PROMS score (p 0.05). There were no statistically significant correlations or linear predictive relationships between subscale or total Brief PROMS scores with absolute and percentage of TEOAE suppression (p > 0.05). The findings do not support the notion of a graded enhancement of MOC efferent suppression among adults with varied degrees of musicianship from nonmusicians to

  11. How fire history, fire suppression practices and climate change affect wildfire regimes in Mediterranean landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Brotons

    Full Text Available Available data show that future changes in global change drivers may lead to an increasing impact of fires on terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Yet, fire regime changes in highly humanised fire-prone regions are difficult to predict because fire effects may be heavily mediated by human activities We investigated the role of fire suppression strategies in synergy with climate change on the resulting fire regimes in Catalonia (north-eastern Spain. We used a spatially-explicit fire-succession model at the landscape level to test whether the use of different firefighting opportunities related to observed reductions in fire spread rates and effective fire sizes, and hence changes in the fire regime. We calibrated this model with data from a period with weak firefighting and later assess the potential for suppression strategies to modify fire regimes expected under different levels of climate change. When comparing simulations with observed fire statistics from an eleven-year period with firefighting strategies in place, our results showed that, at least in two of the three sub-regions analysed, the observed fire regime could not be reproduced unless taking into account the effects of fire suppression. Fire regime descriptors were highly dependent on climate change scenarios, with a general trend, under baseline scenarios without fire suppression, to large-scale increases in area burnt. Fire suppression strategies had a strong capacity to compensate for climate change effects. However, strong active fire suppression was necessary to accomplish such compensation, while more opportunistic fire suppression strategies derived from recent fire history only had a variable, but generally weak, potential for compensation of enhanced fire impacts under climate change. The concept of fire regime in the Mediterranean is probably better interpreted as a highly dynamic process in which the main determinants of fire are rapidly modified by changes in landscape

  12. How fire history, fire suppression practices and climate change affect wildfire regimes in Mediterranean landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotons, Lluís; Aquilué, Núria; de Cáceres, Miquel; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Fall, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Available data show that future changes in global change drivers may lead to an increasing impact of fires on terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Yet, fire regime changes in highly humanised fire-prone regions are difficult to predict because fire effects may be heavily mediated by human activities We investigated the role of fire suppression strategies in synergy with climate change on the resulting fire regimes in Catalonia (north-eastern Spain). We used a spatially-explicit fire-succession model at the landscape level to test whether the use of different firefighting opportunities related to observed reductions in fire spread rates and effective fire sizes, and hence changes in the fire regime. We calibrated this model with data from a period with weak firefighting and later assess the potential for suppression strategies to modify fire regimes expected under different levels of climate change. When comparing simulations with observed fire statistics from an eleven-year period with firefighting strategies in place, our results showed that, at least in two of the three sub-regions analysed, the observed fire regime could not be reproduced unless taking into account the effects of fire suppression. Fire regime descriptors were highly dependent on climate change scenarios, with a general trend, under baseline scenarios without fire suppression, to large-scale increases in area burnt. Fire suppression strategies had a strong capacity to compensate for climate change effects. However, strong active fire suppression was necessary to accomplish such compensation, while more opportunistic fire suppression strategies derived from recent fire history only had a variable, but generally weak, potential for compensation of enhanced fire impacts under climate change. The concept of fire regime in the Mediterranean is probably better interpreted as a highly dynamic process in which the main determinants of fire are rapidly modified by changes in landscape, climate and

  13. How Fire History, Fire Suppression Practices and Climate Change Affect Wildfire Regimes in Mediterranean Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotons, Lluís; Aquilué, Núria; de Cáceres, Miquel; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Fall, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Available data show that future changes in global change drivers may lead to an increasing impact of fires on terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Yet, fire regime changes in highly humanised fire-prone regions are difficult to predict because fire effects may be heavily mediated by human activities We investigated the role of fire suppression strategies in synergy with climate change on the resulting fire regimes in Catalonia (north-eastern Spain). We used a spatially-explicit fire-succession model at the landscape level to test whether the use of different firefighting opportunities related to observed reductions in fire spread rates and effective fire sizes, and hence changes in the fire regime. We calibrated this model with data from a period with weak firefighting and later assess the potential for suppression strategies to modify fire regimes expected under different levels of climate change. When comparing simulations with observed fire statistics from an eleven-year period with firefighting strategies in place, our results showed that, at least in two of the three sub-regions analysed, the observed fire regime could not be reproduced unless taking into account the effects of fire suppression. Fire regime descriptors were highly dependent on climate change scenarios, with a general trend, under baseline scenarios without fire suppression, to large-scale increases in area burnt. Fire suppression strategies had a strong capacity to compensate for climate change effects. However, strong active fire suppression was necessary to accomplish such compensation, while more opportunistic fire suppression strategies derived from recent fire history only had a variable, but generally weak, potential for compensation of enhanced fire impacts under climate change. The concept of fire regime in the Mediterranean is probably better interpreted as a highly dynamic process in which the main determinants of fire are rapidly modified by changes in landscape, climate and

  14. Design and Testing of an EHR-Integrated, Busulfan Pharmacokinetic Decision Support Tool for the Point-of-Care Clinician.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Abdel-Rahman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Busulfan demonstrates a narrow therapeutic index for which clinicians routinely employ therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM. However, operationalizing TDM can be fraught with inefficiency. We developed and tested software encoding a clinical decision support tool (DST that is embedded into our electronic health record (EHR and designed to streamline the TDM process for our oncology partners. METHODS: Our development strategy was modeled based on the features associated with successful DSTs. An initial Requirements Analysis was performed to characterize tasks, information flow, user needs, and system requirements to enable push/pull from the EHR. Back-end development was coded based on the algorithm used when manually performing busulfan TDM. The code was independently validated in MATLAB using 10,000 simulated patient profiles. A 296-item heuristic checklist was used to guide design of the front-end user interface. Content experts and end-users (n=28 were recruited to participate in traditional usability testing under an IRB approved protocol. RESULTS: Decision support software was developed to systematically walk the point-of-care clinician through the TDM process. The system is accessed through the EHR which transparently imports all of the requisite patient data. Data are visually inspected and then curve fit using a model-dependent approach. Quantitative goodness-of-fit are converted to single tachometer where green alerts the user that the model is strong, yellow signals caution and red indicates that there may be a problem with the fitting. Override features are embedded to permit application of a model-independent approach where appropriate. Simulations are performed to target a desired exposure or dose as entered by the clinician and the DST pushes the user approved recommendation back into the EHR. Usability testers were highly satisfied with our DST and quickly became proficient with the software.CONCLUSIONS: With early and

  15. Suppressed visual looming stimuli are not integrated with auditory looming signals: Evidence from continuous flash suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Pieter; Huygelier, Hanne; Wagemans, Johan; de-Wit, Lee; van Ee, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies using binocular rivalry have shown that signals in a modality other than the visual can bias dominance durations depending on their congruency with the rivaling stimuli. More recently, studies using continuous flash suppression (CFS) have reported that multisensory integration influences how long visual stimuli remain suppressed. In this study, using CFS, we examined whether the contrast thresholds for detecting visual looming stimuli are influenced by a congruent auditory stimulus. In Experiment 1, we show that a looming visual stimulus can result in lower detection thresholds compared to a static concentric grating, but that auditory tone pips congruent with the looming stimulus did not lower suppression thresholds any further. In Experiments 2, 3, and 4, we again observed no advantage for congruent multisensory stimuli. These results add to our understanding of the conditions under which multisensory integration is possible, and suggest that certain forms of multisensory integration are not evident when the visual stimulus is suppressed from awareness using CFS.

  16. Vivências de mulheres com diagnóstico de doença sexualmente transmissível - DST Experiencias de Mujeres con Diagnóstico de Enfermedad Sexualmente Transmisible - ETS Women's Experiences with Sexually Transmitted Disease Diagnosis - STD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alix Leite Araújo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available As doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DSTs constituem problema de saúde pública em virtude da sua alta ocorrência. Nas mulheres, o controle é um desafio devido às implicações sociais e de gênero. Esse estudo objetiva conhecer como as mulheres vivenciam o diagnóstico de uma DST e as repercussões da revelação desse diagnóstico ao parceiro sexual. Estudo exploratório-descritivo desenvolvido em uma unidade de saúde de referência para DST de Fortaleza-Ceará. A coleta de dados foi realizada nos meses de fevereiro e março de 2006 e analisada em duas categorias: vivências das mulheres com o diagnóstico da DST e repercussões da revelação do diagnóstico da DST ao parceiro sexual. Constatou-se que a ocorrência de uma DST resulta em impacto negativo para as mulheres em relação ao convívio social e ao relacionamento com o parceiro sexual. O aconselhamento desempenha papel fundamental para redução do estresse. Os serviços de saúde devem valorizar os aspectos emocionais relacionados ao diagnóstico da DST, visando contribuir com a melhoria da qualidade de vida das mulheres e na abordagem do parceiro.Las enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles (ETS son un grave problema de salud pública, debido a alto prevalecimiento. En las mujeres, el control es un desafío, debido a las implicaciones sociales y de géneros. El objetivo de este estudio es saber como las mujeres viven la diagnosis de una ETS y las repercusiones de la revelación de esta diagnosis a su pareja sexual. Es un estudio exploratorio y descriptivo desarrollado en una unidad de salud de referencia para ETS de Fortaleza - Ceará (Brasil. La cosecha de datos fue realizada en los meses de febrero y marzo de 2006 y analizada en dos categorías: experiencias de mujeres con diagnóstico de ETS y las repercusiones de la revelación a la pareja sexual. Se constató que la ocurrencia de una ETS resulta en impacto negativo para las mujeres en relación al convivió social y al

  17. [The advances of suppression in research of amblyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Liu, H

    2016-04-11

    Suppression that is the result of interocular competition is an important machanism of amblyopia. The imbalance of suppression may lead the consequence to amblyopia. In the early study, researchers had raised the theory of II. Quadratic Summation which had revealed the relationship of interocular interaction and suppression. In some basic researches, other studies had showed the most possible anatomic location of suppression. Recently, researchers found a new method to quantify the interocular suppression named the noise model. Further studies found a novel disinhibition therapy to treat amblyopia. We summarized the research advances in suppression and disinhibition treatment in amblyopia. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 305-308).

  18. Genotyping and drug susceptibility testing of mycobacterial isolates from population-based tuberculosis prevalence survey in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; Addo, Samuel Ofori; Mensah, Gloria Ivy; Mosi, Lydia; Bonsu, Frank Adae

    2017-12-02

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and Non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium (NTM) infections differ clinically, making rapid identification and drug susceptibility testing (DST) very critical for infection control and drug therapy. This study aims to use World Health Organization (WHO) approved line probe assay (LPA) to differentiate mycobacterial isolates obtained from tuberculosis (TB) prevalence survey in Ghana and to determine their drug resistance patterns. A retrospective study was conducted whereby a total of 361 mycobacterial isolates were differentiated and their drug resistance patterns determined using GenoType Mycobacterium Assays: MTBC and CM/AS for differentiating MTBC and NTM as well MTBDRplus and NTM-DR for DST of MTBC and NTM respectively. Out of 361 isolates, 165 (45.7%) MTBC and 120 (33.2%) NTM (made up of 14 different species) were identified to the species levels whiles 76 (21.1%) could not be completely identified. The MTBC comprised 161 (97.6%) Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 4 (2.4%) Mycobacterium africanum. Isoniazid and rifampicin monoresistant MTBC isolates were 18/165 (10.9%) and 2/165(1.2%) respectively whiles 11/165 (6.7%) were resistant to both drugs. Majority 42/120 (35%) of NTM were M. fortuitum. DST of 28 M. avium complex and 8 M. abscessus complex species revealed that all were susceptible to macrolides (clarithromycin, azithromycin) and aminoglycosides (kanamycin, amikacin, and gentamicin). Our research signifies an important contribution to TB control in terms of knowledge of the types of mycobacterium species circulating and their drug resistance patterns in Ghana.

  19. Intact suppression of increased false recognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Anthony P; Dodson, Chad S; Goff, Donald C; Schacter, Daniel L; Heckers, Stephan

    2002-09-01

    Recognition memory is impaired in patients with schizophrenia, as they rely largely on item familiarity, rather than conscious recollection, to make mnemonic decisions. False recognition of novel items (foils) is increased in schizophrenia and may relate to this deficit in conscious recollection. By studying pictures of the target word during encoding, healthy adults can suppress false recognition. This study examined the effect of pictorial encoding on subsequent recognition of repeated foils in patients with schizophrenia. The study included 40 patients with schizophrenia and 32 healthy comparison subjects. After incidental encoding of 60 words or pictures, subjects were tested for recognition of target items intermixed with 60 new foils. These new foils were subsequently repeated following either a two- or 24-word delay. Subjects were instructed to label these repeated foils as new and not to mistake them for old target words. Schizophrenic patients showed greater overall false recognition of repeated foils. The rate of false recognition of repeated foils was lower after picture encoding than after word encoding. Despite higher levels of false recognition of repeated new items, patients and comparison subjects demonstrated a similar degree of false recognition suppression after picture, as compared to word, encoding. Patients with schizophrenia displayed greater false recognition of repeated foils than comparison subjects, suggesting both a decrement of item- (or source-) specific recollection and a consequent reliance on familiarity in schizophrenia. Despite these deficits, presenting pictorial information at encoding allowed schizophrenic subjects to suppress false recognition to a similar degree as the comparison group, implying the intact use of a high-level cognitive strategy in this population.

  20. Initialization bias suppression in iterative Monte Carlo calculations: benchmarks on criticality calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richet, Y.; Jacquet, O.; Bay, X.

    2005-01-01

    The accuracy of an Iterative Monte Carlo calculation requires the convergence of the simulation output process. The present paper deals with a post processing algorithm to suppress the transient due to initialization applied on criticality calculations. It should be noticed that this initial transient suppression aims only at obtaining a stationary output series, then the convergence of the calculation needs to be guaranteed independently. The transient suppression algorithm consists in a repeated truncation of the first observations of the output process. The truncation of the first observations is performed as long as a steadiness test based on Brownian bridge theory is negative. This transient suppression method was previously tuned for a simplified model of criticality calculations, although this paper focuses on the efficiency on real criticality calculations. The efficiency test is based on four benchmarks with strong source convergence problems: 1) a checkerboard storage of fuel assemblies, 2) a pin cell array with irradiated fuel, 3) 3 one-dimensional thick slabs, and 4) an array of interacting fuel spheres. It appears that the transient suppression method needs to be more widely validated on real criticality calculations before any blind using as a post processing in criticality codes

  1. Magnetic fusion development for global warming suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiangang; Zhang Jie; Duan Xuru

    2010-01-01

    Energy shortage and environmental pollution are two critical issues for human beings in the 21st century. There is an urgent need for new sustainable energy to meet the fast growing demand for clean energy. Fusion is one of the few options which may be able to satisfy the requirement for large scale sustainable energy generation and global warming suppression and therefore must be developed as quickly as possible. Fusion research has been carried out for the past 50 years. It is too long to wait for another 50 years to generate electricity by fusion. A much more aggressive approach should be taken with international collaboration towards the early use of fusion energy to meet the urgent needs for energy and global warming suppression.

  2. Suppression of Rabi oscillations for moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, B.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Muga, J. G.; Hegerfeldt, G. C.

    2003-01-01

    The well-known laser-induced Rabi oscillations of a two-level atom are shown to be suppressed under certain conditions when the atom is entering a laser-illuminated region. For temporal Rabi oscillations the effect has two regimes: a first classical-like one, taking place at intermediate atomic velocities, and a second purely quantum case at low velocities. The classical regime is associated with the formation of incoherent internal states of the atom in the laser region, whereas in the quantum, low velocity regime the laser projects the atom onto a pure internal state that can be controlled by detuning. Spatial Rabi oscillations are only suppressed in this low velocity, quantum regime

  3. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  4. Suppression of Poxvirus Replication by Resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuai; Realegeno, Susan; Pant, Anil; Satheshkumar, Panayampalli S; Yang, Zhilong

    2017-01-01

    Poxviruses continue to cause serious diseases even after eradication of the historically deadly infectious human disease, smallpox. Poxviruses are currently being developed as vaccine vectors and cancer therapeutic agents. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol stilbenoid found in plants that has been shown to inhibit or enhance replication of a number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. In the present study, we found that resveratrol dramatically suppressed the replication of vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototypic member of poxviruses, in various cell types. Resveratrol also significantly reduced the replication of monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus that is endemic in Western and Central Africa and causes human mortality. The inhibitory effect of resveratrol on poxviruses is independent of VACV N1 protein, a potential resveratrol binding target. Further experiments demonstrated that resveratrol had little effect on VACV early gene expression, while it suppressed VACV DNA synthesis, and subsequently post-replicative gene expression.

  5. Suppression of Poxvirus Replication by Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Poxviruses continue to cause serious diseases even after eradication of the historically deadly infectious human disease, smallpox. Poxviruses are currently being developed as vaccine vectors and cancer therapeutic agents. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol stilbenoid found in plants that has been shown to inhibit or enhance replication of a number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. In the present study, we found that resveratrol dramatically suppressed the replication of vaccinia virus (VACV, the prototypic member of poxviruses, in various cell types. Resveratrol also significantly reduced the replication of monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus that is endemic in Western and Central Africa and causes human mortality. The inhibitory effect of resveratrol on poxviruses is independent of VACV N1 protein, a potential resveratrol binding target. Further experiments demonstrated that resveratrol had little effect on VACV early gene expression, while it suppressed VACV DNA synthesis, and subsequently post-replicative gene expression.

  6. Prevention and suppression of metal packing fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mark; Rogers, William J; Sam Mannan, M; Ostrowski, Scott W

    2003-11-14

    Structured packing has been widely used because of large surface area that makes possible columns with high capacity and efficiency. The large surface area also contributes to fire hazards because of hydrocarbon deposits that can easily combust and promote combustion of the thin metal packing materials. Materials of high surface area that can fuel fires include reactive metals, such as titanium, and materials that are not considered combustible, such as stainless steel. Column design and material selection for packing construction is discussed together with employee training and practices for safe column maintenance and operations. Presented also are methods and agents for suppression of metal fires. Guidance for prevention and suppression of metal fires is related to incidents involving packing fires in columns.

  7. Compton suppression through rise-time analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.; Celiktas, C.

    2007-01-01

    We studied Compton suppression for 60 Co and 137 Cs radioisotopes using a signal selection criterion based on contrasting the fall time of the signals composing the photo peak with those composing the Compton continuum. The fall time criterion is employed by using the pulse shape analysis observing the change in the fall times of the gamma-ray pulses. This change is determined by measuring the changes in the rise times related to the fall time of the scintillator and the timing signals related to the fall time of the input signals. We showed that Compton continuum suppression is achieved best via the precise timing adjustment of an analog rise-time analyzer connected to a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer

  8. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  9. Pressure suppression device for a reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Toshiaki

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent damages in drain pipes or the likes upon the water level increase due to blowing of incompressible gases. Constitution: An exhaust pipe for guiding escaping steams is connected to a main steam releaf valve. The exhaust pipe is guided into pressure-suppression-chamber water through the inside of a dry-well and by way of a vent pipe, a vent header and a drain pipe or a downcomer. Since the exhaust pipe is not exposed to the water surface inside the pressure suppression chamber, even if steams blow out into the dry-well by the rapture of pipeways or the likes to rapidly increase the water level, the water surface does not hit on the exhaust pipe, whereby the damages for the exhaust pipe and support members can be prevented to improve the reliability. (Seki, T.)

  10. Thought Suppression in Patients With Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Miklowitz, David J.; Alatiq, Yousra; Geddes, John R.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Suppression of negative thoughts has been observed under experimental conditions among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) but has never been examined among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Patients with BD (n = 36), patients with MDD (n = 20), and healthy controls (n = 20) completed a task that required unscrambling 6-word strings into 5-word sentences, leaving out 1 word. The extra word allowed the sentences to be completed in a negative, neutral, or ?hyperpositive? (manic/goa...

  11. Mechanisms underlying UV-induced immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most prevalent form of human neoplasia. Estimates suggest that in excess of one million new cases of skin cancer will be diagnosed this year alone in the United States (www.cancer.org/statistics). Fortunately, because of their highly visible location, skin cancers are more rapidly diagnosed and more easily treated than other types of cancer. Be that as it may, approximately 10,000 Americans a year die from skin cancer. The cost of treating non-melanoma skin cancer is estimated to be in excess of US$ 650 million a year [J.G. Chen, A.B. Fleischer, E.D. Smith, C. Kancler, N.D. Goldman, P.M. Williford, S.R. Feldman, Cost of non-melanoma skin cancer treatment in the United States, Dermatol. Surg. 27 (2001) 1035-1038], and when melanoma is included, the estimated cost of treating skin cancer in the United States is estimated to rise to US$ 2.9 billion annually (www.cancer.org/statistics). Because the morbidity and mortality associated with skin cancer is a major public health problem, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying skin cancer development. The primary cause of skin cancer is the ultraviolet (UV) radiation found in sunlight. In addition to its carcinogenic potential, UV radiation is also immune suppressive. In fact, data from studies with both experimental animals and biopsy proven skin cancer patients suggest that there is an association between the immune suppressive effects of UV radiation and its carcinogenic potential. The focus of this manuscript will be to review the mechanisms underlying the induction of immune suppression following UV exposure. Particular attention will be directed to the role of soluble mediators in activating immune suppression

  12. Suppression of radiation excitation in focusing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.; Ruth, R.D.

    1996-12-01

    Radiation damping and quantum excitation in an electron damping ring and a straight focusing channel are reviewed. They are found to be the two limiting cases in the study of a general bending and focusing combined system. In the intermediate regime where the radiation formation length is comparable to the betatron wavelength, quantum excitation can be exponentially suppressed by focusing field. This new regime may have interesting applications in the generation of ultra-low emittance beams

  13. Suppressing bullfrog larvae with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jackson A.; Ray, Andrew; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Layhee, Megan J.; Mark Abbey-Lambert,; ,

    2014-01-01

    Current management strategies for the control and suppression of the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus = Rana catesbeiana Shaw) and other invasive amphibians have had minimal effect on their abundance and distribution. This study evaluates the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on pre- and prometamorphic Bullfrog larvae. Bullfrogs are a model organism for evaluating potential suppression agents because they are a successful invader worldwide. From experimental trials we estimated that the 24-h 50% and 99% lethal concentration (LC50 and LC99) values for Bullfrog larvae were 371 and 549 mg CO2/L, respectively. Overall, larvae that succumbed to experimental conditions had a lower body condition index than those that survived. We also documented sublethal changes in blood chemistry during prolonged exposure to elevated CO2. Specifically, blood pH decreased by more than 0.5 pH units after 9 h of exposure and both blood partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and blood glucose increased. These findings suggest that CO2 treatments can be lethal to Bullfrog larvae under controlled laboratory conditions. We believe this work represents the necessary foundation for further consideration of CO2 as a potential suppression agent for one of the most harmful invaders to freshwater ecosystems.

  14. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariyadath, Vani; Eagleman, David M

    2012-01-01

    Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression. Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli) followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus). We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials. Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  15. Variation in plant defense suppresses herbivore performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Ian; Paul, Ryan; Ode, Paul J.

    2018-01-01

    Defensive variability of crops and natural systems can alter herbivore communities and reduce herbivory. However, it is still unknown how defense variability translates into herbivore suppression. Nonlinear averaging and constraints in physiological tracking (also more generally called time-dependent effects) are the two mechanisms by which defense variability might impact herbivores. We conducted a set of experiments manipulating the mean and variability of a plant defense, showing that defense variability does suppress herbivore performance and that it does so through physiological tracking effects that cannot be explained by nonlinear averaging. While nonlinear averaging predicted higher or the same herbivore performance on a variable defense than on an invariable defense, we show that variability actually decreased herbivore performance and population growth rate. Defense variability reduces herbivore performance in a way that is more than the average of its parts. This is consistent with constraints in physiological matching of detoxification systems for herbivores experiencing variable toxin levels in their diet and represents a more generalizable way of understanding the impacts of variability on herbivory. Increasing defense variability in croplands at a scale encountered by individual herbivores can suppress herbivory, even if that is not anticipated by nonlinear averaging.

  16. Abscopal suppression of bone marrow erythropoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werts, E.D.; Johnson, M.J.; DeGowin, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Abscopal responses of hemopoietic tissue, which we noted in preliminary studies of mice receiving partial-body irradiation, led us to clarify these effects. In studies reported here, one hind leg of CF-1 female mice received 1000, 5000, or 10,000 rad of x radiation. We found a persistent shift from medullary to splenic erythropoiesis preventing anemia in mice receiving 5000 or 10,000 rad. Splenectomy prior to 5000-rad irradiation resulted in anemia, which was not ameliorated by exposure to intermittent hypoxia. Despite evidence for increased levels of erythropoietin in the animals, namely, a reticulocytosis and increased erythrocyte radioiron incorporation, both 59 Fe uptake and erythroblast counts in shielded marrow remained below normal. We found 50 to 90% suppression of the growth of marrow stromal colonies (MSC) from bone marrow aspirates of the shielded and irradiated femoral marrow at 1 month and at least 20% depression of MSC at 1 year, with each dose. We conclude that: (i) high doses of x radiation to one leg of mice caused prolonged suppression of medullary erythropoiesis with splenic compensation to prevent anemia; (ii) splenectomy, anemia, and hypoxia prevented the severe abscopal depression of medullary erythropoiesis; and (iii) suppressed medullary erythropoiesis with decreased growth of MSC suggested a change in the hemopoietic microenvironment of the bone marrow

  17. Adaptive Filtering for Aeroservoelastic Response Suppression, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CSA Engineering proposes the design of an adaptive aeroelastic mode suppression for advanced fly-by-wire aircraft, which will partition the modal suppression...

  18. The Suppression of Internal Unrest in South West Africa (Namibia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AM Fokkens

    suppression of the Bondelswarts and the actions against Chief Ipumbu. This article .... firepower was an appropriate response to suppress the uprising of local ..... Morris accompanied by Beukes and a commando of 50 men, moved east.

  19. Vital Signs-HIV Care Saves Lives: Viral Suppression is Key

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the December 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. For people living with HIV, Viral suppression is critical. By getting tested and taking HIV medicines, individuals living with HIV can achieve very low levels of HIV in the body.

  20. 30 CFR 75.1912 - Fire suppression systems for permanent underground diesel fuel storage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1912 Fire suppression systems for permanent underground diesel fuel storage... system by a nationally recognized independent testing laboratory and appropriate for installation at a... recommended inspection and maintenance program and as required by the nationally recognized independent...

  1. Exploring Genetic Suppression Interactions on a Global Scale

    OpenAIRE

    van Leeuwen, Jolanda; Pons, Carles; Mellor, Joseph C.; Yamaguchi, Takafumi N.; Friesen, Helena; Koschwanez, John; Ušaj, Mojca Mattiazzi; Pechlaner, Maria; Takar, Mehmet; Ušaj, Matej; VanderSluis, Benjamin; Andrusiak, Kerry; Bansal, Pritpal; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Boone, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Genetic suppression occurs when the phenotypic defects caused by a mutation in a particular gene are rescued by a mutation in a second gene. To explore the principles of genetic suppression, we examined both literature-curated and unbiased experimental data, involving systematic genetic mapping and whole-genome sequencing, to generate a large-scale suppression network among yeast genes. Most suppression pairs identified novel relationships among functionally related genes, providing new insig...

  2. Intervenção comunitária e redução da vulnerabilidade de mulheres às DST/ Aids em São Paulo, SP Community based intervention and reduction of women's vulnerability to STD/AIDS in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Figueiredo

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Com o aumento do número de casos notificados de Aids em mulheres, as intervenções comunitárias, que são fundamentais nesse contexto, são poucas e raramente avaliadas. Assim, objetivou-se realizar um estudo-intervenção de base comunitária, buscando desenvolver e avaliar um conjunto de ações de prevenção das DST e da Aids voltadas a atingir a vulnerabilidade da população feminina de baixa renda. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado na favela Monte Azul, na cidade de São Paulo, SP, no período de um ano (1998-1999. Foram desenvolvidas as seguintes ações: treinamento de profissionais de saúde do ambulatório local, disponibilidade de recursos preventivos (camisinha masculina e feminina, realização de grupos educativos, distribuição de materiais educativos e realização de programas na rádio comunitária. Para avaliar a intervenção, foram analisados dados provenientes de quatro diferentes instrumentos de investigação: pré e pós-teste sobre capacitação de profissionais de saúde para o trabalho preventivo, monitoramento de retirada de preservativos, observação participante das atividades comunitárias e registro de depoimentos espontâneos dos profissionais de saúde e população-alvo durante as atividades. RESULTADOS: Entre os achados do estudo, destacam-se o aumento da demanda pela camisinha masculina e o interesse pela camisinha feminina; diferenças relevantes relacionadas a gênero e idade e à adesão às atividades propostas; e bons resultados na sensibilização e capacitação dos profissionais de saúde, embora com limites na manutenção de seu envolvimento com as atividades preventivas. CONCLUSÕES: As estratégias que corresponderam aos códigos, às demandas e aos interesses específicos da cultura local, principalmente em relação a papéis de gênero, tiveram sucesso como ações preventivas. A sobrecarga dos profissionais de saúde do ambulatório local mostrou-se um limite importante para

  3. Suppression and control of leakage field in electromagnetic helical microwiggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohigashi, N. [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan); Tsunawaki, Y. [Osaka Sangyo Univ. (Japan); Imasaki, K. [Institute for Laser Technology, Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Shortening the period of electromagnetic wiggler introduces both the radical increase of the leakage field and the decrease of the field in the gap region. The leakage field is severer problem in planar electromagnetic wiggler than in helical wiggler. Hence, in order to develop a short period electromagnetic wiggler, we have adopted {open_quotes}three poles per period{close_quotes} type electromagnetic helical microwiggler. In this work, we inserted the permanent magnet (PM) blocks with specific magnetized directions in the space between magnetic poles, for suppressing the leakage field flowing out from a pole face to the neighboring pole face. These PM-blocks must have higher intrinsic coersive force than saturation field of pole material. The gap field due to each pole is adjustable by controlling the leakage fields, that is, controlling the position of each iron screw set in each retainer fixing the PM-blocks. At present time, a test wiggler with period 7.8mm, periodical number 10 and gap length 4.6mm has been manufactured. Because the ratio of PM-block aperture to gap length is important parameter to suppress the leakage field, the parameter has been surveyed experimentally for PM-blocks with several dimensions of aperture. The field strength of 3-5kG (K=0.2-0.4) would be expected in the wiggler.

  4. Nuclear EMP: key suppression device parameters for EMP hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgin, D.L.; Brown, R.M.

    1975-03-01

    The electrical transients induced by EMP exhibit unique characteristics which differ considerably from transients associated with other phenomena such as lightning, switching, and circuit malfunctions. The suppression techniques developed to handle more common transients, though not necessarily the same devices, can be used for EMP damage protection. The suppression devices used for circuit level EMP protection are referred to as Terminal Protection Devices (TPD). Little detailed data describing the response of TPD's to EMP-related transients have been published. While most vendors publish specifications for TPD performance, there is little standardization of parameters and TPD response models are not available. This lack of parameter standardization has resulted in a proliferation of test data that is sometimes conflicting and often not directly comparable. This paper derives and/or defines a consistent set of parameters based on EMP circuit hardening requirements and on measurable component parameters and is concerned only with use of TPD's to prevent permanent damage. Three sets of parameters pertaining to pertinent TPD functional characteristics were defined as follows: standby parameters, protection parameters, and failure parameters. These parameters are used to evaluate a representative sample of TPD's and the results are presented in matrix form to facilitate the selection of devices for specific hardening problems

  5. Suppression of Fatigue Crack Propagation of Duralumin by Cavitation Peening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Soyama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It was demonstrated in the present paper that cavitation peening which is one of the mechanical surface modification technique can suppress fatigue crack propagation in duralumin. The impacts produced when cavitation bubble collapses can be utilised for the mechanical surface modification technique in the same way as laser peening and shot peening, which is called “cavitation peening”. Cavitation peening employing a cavitating jet in water was used to treat the specimen made of duralumin Japanese Industrial Standards JIS A2017-T3. After introducing a notch, fatigue test was conducted by a load-controlled plate bending fatigue tester, which has been originally developed. The fatigue crack propagation behavior was evaluated and the relationship between the fatigue crack propagation rate versus stress intensity factor range was obtained. From the results, the fatigue crack propagation rate was drastically reduced by cavitation peening and the fatigue life of duralumin plate was extended 4.2 times by cavitation peening. In addition, the fatigue crack propagation can be suppressed by 88% in the stable crack propagation stage by cavitation peening.

  6. Testosterone suppression of CRH-stimulated cortisol in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinow, David R; Roca, Catherine A; Schmidt, Peter J; Danaceau, Merry A; Putnam, Karen; Cizza, Giovanni; Chrousos, George; Nieman, Lynnette

    2005-10-01

    Despite observations of age-dependent sexual dimorphisms in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, the role of androgens in the regulation of HPA axis activity in men has not been examined. We assessed this role by performing CRH stimulation tests in 10 men (ages 18-45 years) during gonadal suppression with leuprolide acetate and during testosterone addition to leuprolide. CRH-stimulated cortisol levels as well as peak cortisol and greatest cortisol excursion were significantly lower (pcortisol area under the curve was lower at a trend level (pcortisol : ACTH ratio, a measure of adrenal sensitivity, was lower during testosterone replacement (pcortisol. These data demonstrate that testosterone regulates CRH-stimulated HPA axis activity in men, with the divergent effects on ACTH and cortisol suggesting a peripheral (adrenal) locus for the suppressive effects on cortisol. Our results further demonstrate that the enhanced stimulated HPA axis activity previously described in young men compared with young women cannot be ascribed to an activational upregulation of the axis by testosterone.

  7. GPK heading machines with noise suppression means. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geshlin, L.A.; Anenberg, G.I.

    1981-11-01

    Chain conveyor is the main noise pollution source of the GPK heading machine. When the conveyor forms a straight line its noise level ranges from 100 to 106 dB and when bent at a 30 degree angle the noise level is from 102 to 107 dB. The mean noise level in the two positions is 103 and 105 dB respectively. The Donetsk Research Scientific Institute for Occupational Hygiene has developed a system for noise suppression using rubber elements which are particularly efficient when the conveyor is bent. Rubber elements also reduce mechanical vibrations of the chain. Design of the modernized conveyors is shown in three schemes. Operational tests show that use of rubber suppresses noise by 5 to 10 dB, and on the average by 8 dB. Noise level measured at the operator's working place amounts to 89 dB. The noise pollution control measures developed by the Institute are economical and do not exceed 1% of the conveyor price.

  8. When remembering the past suppresses memory for future actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Kenta; Saito, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Remembering planned actions at the correct time in the future is an integral component of prospective cognition. Recent studies on future remembering have led to suggestions that prospective cognition might be based on past experience. To test this hypothesis, we focused on retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF), which usually indicates that remembering past events suppresses memory for related but different past events. The current study assessed RIF in two kinds of event-based prospective memory (PM) tasks using either focal or non-focal cues for ongoing tasks. Participants studied six members from each of eight taxonomic categories and then practiced recalling three of the six members from four of the eight categories using category-stem cues. This retrieval practice suppressed the detection of non-practiced members of the practiced categories during the PM task with non-focal cues (Experiment 1) but not with focal cues (Experiment 2). The results suggest that recall of certain items inhibits the function of the others as PM cues, but only if the PM task does not largely share its processing with the ongoing task.

  9. Tagging and suppression of pileup jets with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The suppression of pileup jets has been a crucial component of many physics analyses using 2012 LHC proton-proton collisions. In ATLAS, tracking information has been used to calculate a variable called the jet-vertex-fraction, which is the fraction of the total momentum of tracks in the jet which is associated with the primary vertex. Imposing a lower limit on this variable rejects the majority of pileup jets, but leads to hard-scatter jet efficiencies that depend on the number of reconstructed primary vertices in the event (NVtx). In this note, new track-based variables to suppress pileup jets are developed in such a way that the resulting hard-scatter jet efficiency is stable as a function of NVtx. A multivariate combination of two such variables called the jet-vertex-tagger (JVT) is constructed. The modeling of JVT is tested in Z(→ μμ)+jets as well as in semileptonic ttbar events. The efficiencies of different JVT criteria are measured in data and compared to simulation. In addition, it is shown that j...

  10. Compost made of organic wastes suppresses fusariosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryntseva, Polina; Galitskaya, Polina; Biktasheva, Liliya; Selivanovkaya, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    Fungal plant diseases cause dramatic yield losses worldwide. Usually, pesticides are used for soil sanitation, and it results in practically pest-free soils, although pesticides cause a biological vacuum, which present many horticultural disadvantages. Suppressive composts, which possess both fertilizing properties for plants and inhibiting properties for plant pathogens, represent an effective and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional pesticides. In this study, composts obtained from agricultural organic wastes were applied to suppress Fusarium oxysporum of tomato plants in model experiments. Composts were made of mixtures of the widespread organic wastes sampled in Tatarstan (Russia): straw (SW), corn wastes (CW), chicken manure (ChM), cattle manure (CM) and swine manure (SM). 11 two- and three-component mixtures were prepared to obtain the optimal carbon-nitrogen, moisture and pH balances, and composted for 210 days. It was found that the thermophilic phase of composting in all the mixtures lasted from 2 to 35 days, and was characterized by significant fluctuations in temperature, i.e. from 27°C to 59°C. In the initial mixtures, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was between 10 and 62 mg kg-1; it fell significantly on day 13, and then continuously decreased up to day 102, and subsequently remained low. For all the mixtures, maximal respiration activity was observed in the beginning of composting (231.9 mg CO2-C g-1 day-1). After 23 days, this parameter decreased significantly, and fluctuations subsided. The phytotoxicity of the initial compost mixtures varied from 18% (SW+SM) to 100% (CW+ChM+SM, CW+ChM); however, the trends in the dynamics were similar. After 120 days of composting, 5 of 11 samples were not phytotoxic. After 120 days of composting, each mixture was divided into two parts; one was inoculated with a biopreparation consisting of four microbial strains (Trichoderma asperellum, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens and

  11. One-tone suppression in the frog auditory nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    Sixty-seven fibers of a sample of 401 in the auditory nerve of grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) showed one-tone suppression, i.e., their spontaneous activity was suppressed by tones. All fibers were afferents from the amphibian papilla with best frequencies between 100 and 400 Hz. Best suppression...

  12. Venture capital: States suffer as suppression expenses climb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krista Gebert

    2008-01-01

    The high cost of suppressing wildfires is taking a toll on federal and state agencies alike. Large wildland fires are complex, costly events influenced by a vast array of physical, climatic, and social factors. During five of the last eight years, the Forest Services' wildfire suppression expenditures have topped $1 billion, and total federal wildland suppression...

  13. Microbial enrichment to enhance the disease suppressive activity of compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Montenari, M.; Boogert, van den P.H.J.F.

    2003-01-01

    Compost amended soil has been found to be suppressive against plant diseases in various cropping systems. The level and reproducibility of disease suppressive properties of compost might be increased by the addition of antagonists. In the present study, the establishment and suppressive activity of

  14. Observation of the Cabibbo-suppressed charmed baryon decay Λc+→pφ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.P.; Bebek, C.; Berger, B.E.; Berkelman, K.; Bloom, K.; Browder, T.E.; Cassel, D.G.; Cho, H.A.; Coffman, D.M.; Crowcroft, D.S.; Dickson, M.; Drell, P.S.; Dumas, D.J.; Ehrlich, R.; Elia, R.; Gaidarev, P.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Henderson, S.; Jones, C.D.; Jones, S.L.; Kandaswamy, J.; Katayama, N.; Kim, P.C.; Kreinick, D.L.; Lee, T.; Liu, Y.; Ludwig, G.S.; Masui, J.; Mevissen, J.; Mistry, N.B.; Ng, C.R.; Nordberg, E.; Patterson, J.R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Soffer, A.; Avery, P.; Freyberger, A.; Lingel, K.; Prescott, C.; Rodriguez, J.; Yang, S.; Yelton, J.; Brandenburg, G.; Cinabro, D.; Liu, T.; Saulnier, M.; Wilson, R.; Yamamoto, H.; Bergfeld, T.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Ernst, J.; Gladding, G.E.; Gollin, G.D.; Palmer, M.; Selen, M.; Thaler, J.J.; Edwards, K.W.; McLean, K.W.; Ogg, M.; Bellerive, A.; Britton, D.I.; Hyatt, E.R.; Janicek, R.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Patel, P.M.; Spaan, B.; Sadoff, A.J.; Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Besson, D.; Coppage, D.; Copty, N.; Davis, R.; Hancock, N.; Kotov, S.; Kravchenko, I.; Kwak, N.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Momayezi, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Patton, S.; Poling, R.; Savinov, V.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Ling, Z.; Mahmood, A.H.; ONeill, J.J.; Severini, H.; Sun, C.R.; Wappler, F.; Crawford, G.; Fulton, R.; Fujino, D.; Gan, K.K.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Sung, M.; White, C.; Wolf, A.; Zoeller, M.M.; Fu, X.; Nemati, B.; Ross, W.R.; Skubic, P.; Wood, M.; Bishai, M.; Fast, J.; Gerndt, E.; Hinson, J.W.; Miao, T.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.; Wang, P.N.; Gibbons, L.; Johnson, S.D.; Kwon, Y.; Roberts, S.; Thorndike, E.H.; Coan, T.E.; Dominick, J.; Fadeyev, V.; Korolkov, I.; Lambrecht, M.; Sanghera, S.; Shelkov, V.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stroynowski, R.; Volobouev, I.; Wei, G.; Artuso, M.; Gao, M.; Goldberg, M.; He, D.; Horwitz, N.; Kopp, S.; Moneti, G.C.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mukhin, Y.; Playfer, S.

    1996-01-01

    We report the observation of the Cabibbo-suppressed decays Λ c + →pK - K + and Λ c + →pφ using data collected with the CLEO II detector at CESR. The latter mode, observed for the first time with significant statistics, is of interest as a test of color suppression in charm decays. We have determined the branching ratios for these modes relative to Λ c + →pK - π + and compared our results with theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. Time from HIV infection to virological suppression: dramatic fall from 2007 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medland, Nicholas A; Nicholson, Suellen; Chow, Eric P F; Read, Timothy R H; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Denham, Ian; Fairley, Christopher K

    2017-11-13

    Time from HIV infection to virological suppression: dramatic fall from 2007 to 2016. We examined the time from HIV infection to virological suppression in MSM who were first diagnosed at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between 2007 and 2016. Retrospective cohort. Date of infection was imputed from the testing history or serological evidence of recent infection (negative or indeterminate western blot) or baseline CD4 cell count. Date of virological suppression was determined using clinical viral load data. We analysed predictors of diagnosis with serological evidence of recent infection (logistic regression) and time from diagnosis to suppression and from infection to suppression (Cox regression) using demographic, clinical, and behavioral covariates. Between 2007 and 2016, the median time from HIV infection to diagnosis fell from 6.8 to 4.3 months (P = 0.001), from diagnosis to suppression fell from 22.7 to 3.2 months (P < 0.0001), and from infection to suppression fell from 49.0 to 9.6 months (P < 0.0001). Serological evidence of recent infection increased from 15.6 to 34.3% (P < 0.0001) of diagnoses. In the multivariate analyses, age, being recently arrived from a non-English speaking country, history of IDU, other sexually transmitted infections, and sexual risk were not associated with any of these measures. The duration of infectiousness in MSM diagnosed with HIV infection at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in Victoria has fallen dramatically between 2007 and 2016 and the proportion diagnosed with serological evidence of recent infection has increased. This effect is observed across all population subgroups and marks a positive milestone for the treatment as prevention paradigm.

  16. HPA axis hyperactivity and attempted suicide in young adult mood disorder inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Jussi; Nordström, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Hyperactivity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis is a consistent finding in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and most prospective studies of HPA-axis function have found that non-suppressors in the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) are more likely to commit suicide during follow-up. The results of studies on HPA-axis function and attempted suicide are less consistent. Suicide attempts are more common among young people than the elderly, whereas suicide is more common among the elderly. The impact of age related changes in HPA-axis system activity in relation to suicidal behaviour across the lifecycle may be of importance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the DST results in 36 young adult (30 years or younger) inpatients with mood disorder, with (n=18) and without suicide attempt at the index episode. The DST non-suppressor rate was 25% among young mood disorder inpatients. DST non-suppression was associated with suicide attempt and post-dexamethasone serum cortisol at 11:00 p.m. was significantly higher in suicide attempters compared to non-attempters. The DST non-suppressor rate was 39% in young adult suicide attempters compared with 11% in non-attempters. The results add to previous evidence in support of the role of HPA axis hyperactivity and suicidal behaviour. The present findings motivate to include HPA axis measures in the assessment of depression in young adults.

  17. GNOSIS: THE FIRST INSTRUMENT TO USE FIBER BRAGG GRATINGS FOR OH SUPPRESSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinh, Christopher Q.; Ellis, Simon C.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bryant, Julia; O' Byrne, John [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lawrence, Jon S.; Horton, Anthony J.; Shortridge, Keith; Case, Scott; Colless, Matthew; Gers, Luke; Lee, Steve; Miziarski, Stan [Australian Astronomical Observatory, 105 Delhi Road, North Ryde, P.O. Box 915, NSW 1670 (Australia); Leon-Saval, Sergio G. [Institute of Photonics and Optical Science, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Couch, Warrick; Glazebrook, Karl [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Freeman, Kenneth [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Loehmannsroeben, Hans-Gerd [innoFSPEC-Institut fuer Chemie/Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Haynes, Roger; Roth, Martin M., E-mail: c.trinh@physics.usyd.edu.au [innoFSPEC-Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); and others

    2013-02-01

    The near-infrared is an important part of the spectrum in astronomy, especially in cosmology because the light from objects in the early universe is redshifted to these wavelengths. However, deep near-infrared observations are extremely difficult to make from ground-based telescopes due to the bright background from the atmosphere. Nearly all of this background comes from the bright and narrow emission lines of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) molecules. The atmospheric background cannot be easily removed from data because the brightness fluctuates unpredictably on short timescales. The sensitivity of ground-based optical astronomy far exceeds that of near-infrared astronomy because of this long-standing problem. GNOSIS is a prototype astrophotonic instrument that utilizes 'OH suppression fibers' consisting of fiber Bragg gratings and photonic lanterns to suppress the 103 brightest atmospheric emission doublets between 1.47 and 1.7 {mu}m. GNOSIS was commissioned at the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian Telescope with the IRIS2 spectrograph to demonstrate the potential of OH suppression fibers, but may be potentially used with any telescope and spectrograph combination. Unlike previous atmospheric suppression techniques GNOSIS suppresses the lines before dispersion and in a manner that depends purely on wavelength. We present the instrument design and report the results of laboratory and on-sky tests from commissioning. While these tests demonstrated high throughput ( Almost-Equal-To 60%) and excellent suppression of the skylines by the OH suppression fibers, surprisingly GNOSIS produced no significant reduction in the interline background and the sensitivity of GNOSIS+IRIS2 is about the same as IRIS2. It is unclear whether the lack of reduction in the interline background is due to physical sources or systematic errors as the observations are detector noise dominated. OH suppression fibers could potentially impact ground-based astronomy at the level of adaptive optics or

  18. GNOSIS: THE FIRST INSTRUMENT TO USE FIBER BRAGG GRATINGS FOR OH SUPPRESSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh, Christopher Q.; Ellis, Simon C.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bryant, Julia; O'Byrne, John; Lawrence, Jon S.; Horton, Anthony J.; Shortridge, Keith; Case, Scott; Colless, Matthew; Gers, Luke; Lee, Steve; Miziarski, Stan; Leon-Saval, Sergio G.; Couch, Warrick; Glazebrook, Karl; Freeman, Kenneth; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd; Haynes, Roger; Roth, Martin M.

    2013-01-01

    The near-infrared is an important part of the spectrum in astronomy, especially in cosmology because the light from objects in the early universe is redshifted to these wavelengths. However, deep near-infrared observations are extremely difficult to make from ground-based telescopes due to the bright background from the atmosphere. Nearly all of this background comes from the bright and narrow emission lines of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) molecules. The atmospheric background cannot be easily removed from data because the brightness fluctuates unpredictably on short timescales. The sensitivity of ground-based optical astronomy far exceeds that of near-infrared astronomy because of this long-standing problem. GNOSIS is a prototype astrophotonic instrument that utilizes 'OH suppression fibers' consisting of fiber Bragg gratings and photonic lanterns to suppress the 103 brightest atmospheric emission doublets between 1.47 and 1.7 μm. GNOSIS was commissioned at the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian Telescope with the IRIS2 spectrograph to demonstrate the potential of OH suppression fibers, but may be potentially used with any telescope and spectrograph combination. Unlike previous atmospheric suppression techniques GNOSIS suppresses the lines before dispersion and in a manner that depends purely on wavelength. We present the instrument design and report the results of laboratory and on-sky tests from commissioning. While these tests demonstrated high throughput (≈60%) and excellent suppression of the skylines by the OH suppression fibers, surprisingly GNOSIS produced no significant reduction in the interline background and the sensitivity of GNOSIS+IRIS2 is about the same as IRIS2. It is unclear whether the lack of reduction in the interline background is due to physical sources or systematic errors as the observations are detector noise dominated. OH suppression fibers could potentially impact ground-based astronomy at the level of adaptive optics or greater. However, until a

  19. Psychophysical research progress of interocular suppression in amblyopic visual system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Jing Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Some recent animal experiments and psychophysical studies indicate that patients with amblyopia have a structurally intact binocular visual system that is rendered functionally monocular due to suppression, and interocular suppression is a key mechanism in visual deficits experienced by patients with amblyopia. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of recent psychophysical findings that have investigated the important role of interocular suppression in amblyopia, the measurement and modulation of suppression, and new dichoptic treatment intervention that directly target suppression.

  20. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C

    2015-05-01

    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect.

  1. Spironolactone induces apoptosis in human mononuclear cells. Association between apoptosis and cytokine suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Martin; Sønder, S U; Nersting, J

    2006-01-01

    Spironolactone (SPIR) has been described to suppress accumulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, the suppression of TNF-alpha in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mononuclear cell cultures was confirmed. However, SPIR was also found to induce apoptosis, prompting the investigations...... of a possible association between the two effects: The apoptosis-inducing and the cytokine-suppressive effects of SPIR correlated with regard to the effective concentration range. Also, pre-incubation experiments demonstrated a temporal separation of the two effects of ... preceding apoptosis. An association between the two effects was also seen when testing several SPIR analogues. Contrary to TNF-alpha, the levels of IL-1beta increased in SPIR-treated cultures. However, the amount of IL-1beta in the supernatants depended upon the order of SPIR and LPS addition, as IL-1beta...

  2. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C.

    2015-01-01

    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect. PMID:26190905

  3. Suppression of SOS-inducing activity of chemical mutagens by metabolites from microbial transformation of (-)-isolongifolene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Kazuki; Oda, Yoshimitsu; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2010-02-24

    In this study, biotransformation of (-)-isolongifolene (1) by Glomerella cingulata and suppressive effect on umuC gene expression by chemical mutagens 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide (furylfuramide) and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) of the SOS response in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 were investigated. Initially, 1 was carried out the microbial transformation by G. cingulata. The result found that 1 was converted into (-)-isolongifolen-9-one (2), (-)-(2S)-13-hydroxy-isolongifolen-9-one (3), and (-)-(4R)-4-hydroxy-isolongifolen-9-one (4) by G. cingulata, and their conversion rates were 60, 25, and 15%, respectively. The metabolites suppressed the SOS-inducing activity of furylfuramid and AFB(1) in the umu test. Comound 2 showed gene expression by chemical mutagens furylfuramide and AFB(1) was suppressed 54 and 50% at <0.5 mM, respectively. Compound 2 is the most effective compound in this experiment.

  4. The flavonol epicatechin reverses the suppressive effects of a stressor on long-term memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Bogdan; Lukowiak, Ken

    2014-11-15

    Learning and subsequent memory formation are influenced by both environmental and lifestyle factors, such as stress and diet. Epicatechin, a plant flavonol found in cocoa, red wine and green tea enhances long-term memory (LTM) formation in Lymnaea. By contrast, an ecologically relevant stressor, low-calcium pond water, suppresses LTM formation. We tested the hypothesis that epicatechin overcomes the suppressive effects of the stressor on LTM formation in the continued presence of the stressor. Snails trained in low-calcium pond water exhibit learning but not LTM. Epicatechin (15 mg l(-1)) in control pond water enhances LTM formation. When epicatechin was added to the low-calcium pond water an enhanced LTM similar to that seen in control pond water was observed. Thus, a naturally occurring bioactive plant compound was able to overcome the suppressive effects of an ecologically relevant stressor on LTM formation. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic implosion symmetry and suppression of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in an octahedrally symmetric field

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.; Pullin, D. I.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics showing suppression of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in spherical implosions in the presence of an octahedrally symmetric magnetic field. This field configuration is of interest owing to its high degree of spherical symmetry in comparison with previously considered dihedrally symmetric fields. The simulations indicate that the octahedral field suppresses the instability comparably to the other previously considered candidate fields for light-heavy interface accelerations while retaining a highly symmetric underlying flow even at high field strengths. With this field, there is a reduction in the root-mean-square perturbation amplitude of up to approximately 50% at representative time under the strongest field tested while maintaining a homogeneous suppression pattern compared to the other candidate fields.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic implosion symmetry and suppression of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in an octahedrally symmetric field

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.

    2017-01-27

    We present numerical simulations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics showing suppression of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in spherical implosions in the presence of an octahedrally symmetric magnetic field. This field configuration is of interest owing to its high degree of spherical symmetry in comparison with previously considered dihedrally symmetric fields. The simulations indicate that the octahedral field suppresses the instability comparably to the other previously considered candidate fields for light-heavy interface accelerations while retaining a highly symmetric underlying flow even at high field strengths. With this field, there is a reduction in the root-mean-square perturbation amplitude of up to approximately 50% at representative time under the strongest field tested while maintaining a homogeneous suppression pattern compared to the other candidate fields.

  7. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Pariyadath

    Full Text Available Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression.Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus. We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials.Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  8. Bone-suppressed radiography using machine learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Beom; Kim, Dae Cheon; Kim, Ho Kyung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The single-shot dual-energy imaging suffers from reduced contrast-to-noise ratio performance due to poor spectral separation. Tomosynthesis requires more complex motion equipment and may require higher patient dose. An alternative tissue-specific imaging technique was introduced. This alternative technique usually possesses a filter to generate bone-only images for given digital radiographs. Therefore, it provides soft-tissue-enhanced images from the subtraction of given radiographs and filtered bone-only images. Only bone-suppressed imaging capability is a limitation of the method. The filter can be obtained from a machine-learning algorithm, e.g. artificial neural network (ANN), with the dual-energy bone-only images (called 'teaching' images). We suspect the robustness of the filter may be dependent upon the number of teaching images and the number of patients from whose radiographs we obtain the teaching images. In this study, we design an ANN to obtain a bone-extracting filter from a radiograph, and investigate the filter properties with respect to various ANN parameters. Preliminary results are summarized in Fig. 3. We extracted 5,000 subregions in a 21x21 pixel format from the lung region in the bone-enhanced dual-energy image and we used them for teaching images during training the ANN. The resultant bone-enhanced image from the ANN nonlinear filter is shown in Fig. 3 (a). From the weighted logarithmic subtraction between Fig. 2 (a) and Fig. 3 (a), we could obtain the bone-suppressed image as shown in Fig. 3 (b). The quality of the bone-suppressed image is comparable to the ground truth Fig. 2 (c).

  9. Glechoma hederacea Suppresses RANKL-mediated Osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J K; Erkhembaatar, M; Gu, D R; Lee, S H; Lee, C H; Shin, D M; Lee, Y R; Kim, M S

    2014-07-01

    Glechoma hederacea (GH), commonly known as ground-ivy or gill-over-the-ground, has been extensively used in folk remedies for relieving symptoms of inflammatory disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic action of GH are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that GH constituents inhibit osteoclastogenesis by abrogating receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand (RANKL)-induced free cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) oscillations. To evaluate the effect of GH on osteoclastogenesis, we assessed the formation of multi-nucleated cells (MNCs), enzymatic activity of tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase (TRAP), expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), and [Ca(2+)]i alterations in response to treatment with GH ethanol extract (GHE) in primarily cultured bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). Treatment of RANKL-stimulated or non-stimulated BMMs with GHE markedly suppressed MNC formation, TRAP activity, and NFATc1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, GHE treatment induced a large transient elevation in [Ca(2+)]i while suppressing RANKL-induced [Ca(2+)]i oscillations, which are essential for NFATc1 activation. GHE-evoked increase in [Ca(2+)]i was dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) and was inhibited by 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP), inhibitor of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs), but was independent of store-operated Ca(2+) channels. Notably, after transient [Ca(2+)] elevation, treatment with GHE desensitized the VGCCs, resulting in an abrogation of RANKL-induced [Ca(2+)]i oscillations and MNC formation. These findings demonstrate that treatment of BMMs with GHE suppresses RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis by activating and then desensitizing DHP-sensitive VGCCs, suggesting potential applications of GH in the treatment of bone disorders, such as periodontitis, osteoporosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  10. Bone-suppressed radiography using machine learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Beom; Kim, Dae Cheon; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The single-shot dual-energy imaging suffers from reduced contrast-to-noise ratio performance due to poor spectral separation. Tomosynthesis requires more complex motion equipment and may require higher patient dose. An alternative tissue-specific imaging technique was introduced. This alternative technique usually possesses a filter to generate bone-only images for given digital radiographs. Therefore, it provides soft-tissue-enhanced images from the subtraction of given radiographs and filtered bone-only images. Only bone-suppressed imaging capability is a limitation of the method. The filter can be obtained from a machine-learning algorithm, e.g. artificial neural network (ANN), with the dual-energy bone-only images (called 'teaching' images). We suspect the robustness of the filter may be dependent upon the number of teaching images and the number of patients from whose radiographs we obtain the teaching images. In this study, we design an ANN to obtain a bone-extracting filter from a radiograph, and investigate the filter properties with respect to various ANN parameters. Preliminary results are summarized in Fig. 3. We extracted 5,000 subregions in a 21x21 pixel format from the lung region in the bone-enhanced dual-energy image and we used them for teaching images during training the ANN. The resultant bone-enhanced image from the ANN nonlinear filter is shown in Fig. 3 (a). From the weighted logarithmic subtraction between Fig. 2 (a) and Fig. 3 (a), we could obtain the bone-suppressed image as shown in Fig. 3 (b). The quality of the bone-suppressed image is comparable to the ground truth Fig. 2 (c).

  11. Highly porous nanoberyllium for X-ray beam speckle suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goikhman, Alexander, E-mail: agoikhman@ymail.com; Lyatun, Ivan; Ershov, Petr [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Snigireva, Irina [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Wojda, Pawel [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza, Gdańsk 80-233 (Poland); Gorlevsky, Vladimir; Semenov, Alexander; Sheverdyaev, Maksim; Koletskiy, Viktor [A. A. Bochvar High-Technology Scientific Research Institute for Inorganic Materials, Rogova str. 5a, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Snigirev, Anatoly [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France)

    2015-04-09

    A speckle suppression device containing highly porous nanoberyllium is proposed for manipulating the spatial coherence length and removing undesirable speckle structure during imaging experiments. This paper reports a special device called a ‘speckle suppressor’, which contains a highly porous nanoberyllium plate squeezed between two beryllium windows. The insertion of the speckle suppressor in an X-ray beam allows manipulation of the spatial coherence length, thus changing the effective source size and removing the undesirable speckle structure in X-ray imaging experiments almost without beam attenuation. The absorption of the nanoberyllium plate is below 1% for 1 mm thickness at 12 keV. The speckle suppressor was tested on the ID06 ESRF beamline with X-rays in the energy range from 9 to 15 keV. It was applied for the transformation of the phase–amplitude contrast to the pure amplitude contrast in full-field microscopy.

  12. Computer calculations of air and steam blowdown suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, D.M. Jr.; McMaster, W.H.; Landram, C.S.; Quinones, D.F.; Gong, E.Y.; Macken, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    We describe a computer code that combines an Eulerian incompressible-fluid algorithm (SOLA) with a Lagrangian finite-element shell algorithm. The former models the fluid and the latter models the containing structure in an analysis of pressure suppression in boiling-water reactors. The code (PELE-IC) calculates loads and structural response from air blow-down and from the oscillatory condensation of steam bubbles in a water pool. The fluid, structure, and coupling algorithms are tested by recalculating problems that have known analytical solutions, including tank drainage, spherical bubble growth, coupling for circular plates, and submerged cylinder vibration. Code calculations are also compared with the results of small-scale blowdown experiments. (orig.)

  13. Highly porous nanoberyllium for X-ray beam speckle suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goikhman, Alexander; Lyatun, Ivan; Ershov, Petr; Snigireva, Irina; Wojda, Pawel; Gorlevsky, Vladimir; Semenov, Alexander; Sheverdyaev, Maksim; Koletskiy, Viktor; Snigirev, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    A speckle suppression device containing highly porous nanoberyllium is proposed for manipulating the spatial coherence length and removing undesirable speckle structure during imaging experiments. This paper reports a special device called a ‘speckle suppressor’, which contains a highly porous nanoberyllium plate squeezed between two beryllium windows. The insertion of the speckle suppressor in an X-ray beam allows manipulation of the spatial coherence length, thus changing the effective source size and removing the undesirable speckle structure in X-ray imaging experiments almost without beam attenuation. The absorption of the nanoberyllium plate is below 1% for 1 mm thickness at 12 keV. The speckle suppressor was tested on the ID06 ESRF beamline with X-rays in the energy range from 9 to 15 keV. It was applied for the transformation of the phase–amplitude contrast to the pure amplitude contrast in full-field microscopy

  14. New hybrid technique for impulsive noise suppression in OFDM systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, A.; Zeb, A.; Sheikh, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new hybrid technique employing RS (Reed Solomon) coding and adaptive filter for impulsive noise suppression in OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) systems is presented. Adaptive filter creates a more accurate estimate of the original OFDM signal after impulsive noise cancellation. The residual impulsive noise is further mitigated by RS decoder in the second stage of proposed technique. Three members of adaptive filters family i.e. NLMS (Normalized Least Mean Square) algorithm, RLS (Recursive Least Square) algorithm and Bhagyashri algorithm are tested with RS decoder in the proposed hybrid technique. Furthermore, the results in terms of steady state MSE (Mean Square Error) reduction, BER (Bit Error Rate) improvement and SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) enhancement confirm the effectiveness of the proposed dual faceted technique when compared with the recently reported techniques in literature. (author)

  15. Short wavelength limits of current shot noise suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nause, Ariel; Dyunin, Egor; Gover, Avraham

    2014-01-01

    Shot noise in electron beam was assumed to be one of the features beyond control of accelerator physics. Current results attained in experiments at Accelerator Test Facility in Brookhaven and Linac Coherent Light Source in Stanford suggest that the control of the shot noise in electron beam (and therefore of spontaneous radiation and Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Free Electron Lasers) is feasible at least in the visible range of the spectrum. Here, we present a general linear formulation for collective micro-dynamics of e-beam noise and its control. Specifically, we compare two schemes for current noise suppression: a quarter plasma wavelength drift section and a combined drift/dispersive (transverse magnetic field) section. We examine and compare their limits of applicability at short wavelengths via considerations of electron phase-spread and the related Landau damping effect

  16. Short wavelength limits of current shot noise suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nause, Ariel, E-mail: arielnau@post.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Exact Sciences, Department of Physics, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Dyunin, Egor; Gover, Avraham [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Physical Electronics, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2014-08-15

    Shot noise in electron beam was assumed to be one of the features beyond control of accelerator physics. Current results attained in experiments at Accelerator Test Facility in Brookhaven and Linac Coherent Light Source in Stanford suggest that the control of the shot noise in electron beam (and therefore of spontaneous radiation and Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Free Electron Lasers) is feasible at least in the visible range of the spectrum. Here, we present a general linear formulation for collective micro-dynamics of e-beam noise and its control. Specifically, we compare two schemes for current noise suppression: a quarter plasma wavelength drift section and a combined drift/dispersive (transverse magnetic field) section. We examine and compare their limits of applicability at short wavelengths via considerations of electron phase-spread and the related Landau damping effect.

  17. Experimental study on parasitic mode suppression using FeSiAl in relativistic klystron amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zehai [College of Basic Education, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410072 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Experimental study of parasitic mode suppression using electromagnetic attenuate material FeSiAl in an S-band Relativistic Klystron Amplifier (RKA) is presented in this paper. The FeSiAl powder is coated and sintered onto the inner surface of a drift tube which locates between the input and the middle cavity of the RKA. Cold tests show that the attenuate rate of the tube against parasitic mode TE{sub 11} is about 50%. Experiments carried out on the Torch-01 accelerator present that the tube is effective in suppressing the parasitic mode. Two typical outputs are obtained. When the diode voltage is on a moderate level, the RKA operates well and the parasitic mode is totally suppressed. The pulse length of the High Power Microwave (HPM) almost equals the electron beam pulse length and the HPM average output power is about 300 MW, with a power efficiency of 10%. When the diode voltage is on a higher level, the output power and efficiency rise but the parasitic mode oscillation occurred and the pulse length is shortened. By contrast, the parasitic mode oscillation is too strong for the RKA to operate normally with un-sintered drift tube. The experimental study implies that FeSiAl is effective in suppressing the parasitic mode oscillation in a certain extent. However, total suppression needs a deeper attenuate rate and further investigation.

  18. Experimental study on parasitic mode suppression using FeSiAl in relativistic klystron amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zehai

    2015-03-01

    Experimental study of parasitic mode suppression using electromagnetic attenuate material FeSiAl in an S-band Relativistic Klystron Amplifier (RKA) is presented in this paper. The FeSiAl powder is coated and sintered onto the inner surface of a drift tube which locates between the input and the middle cavity of the RKA. Cold tests show that the attenuate rate of the tube against parasitic mode TE11 is about 50%. Experiments carried out on the Torch-01 accelerator present that the tube is effective in suppressing the parasitic mode. Two typical outputs are obtained. When the diode voltage is on a moderate level, the RKA operates well and the parasitic mode is totally suppressed. The pulse length of the High Power Microwave (HPM) almost equals the electron beam pulse length and the HPM average output power is about 300 MW, with a power efficiency of 10%. When the diode voltage is on a higher level, the output power and efficiency rise but the parasitic mode oscillation occurred and the pulse length is shortened. By contrast, the parasitic mode oscillation is too strong for the RKA to operate normally with un-sintered drift tube. The experimental study implies that FeSiAl is effective in suppressing the parasitic mode oscillation in a certain extent. However, total suppression needs a deeper attenuate rate and further investigation.

  19. Suppression of the cutaneous immune response following topical application of the prostaglandin PGE2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rheins, L.A.; Barnes, L.; Amornsiripanitch, S.; Collins, C.E.; Nordlund, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    UVB irradiation (290-320 nm) and topical applications of arachidonic acid (AA) in mice decrease the number of identifiable Langerhans cells and alter the cutaneous immune response. Application of contact allergens such as dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) to irradiated or AA-treated skin induces antigen-specific tolerance. Indomethacin (IM), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, administered orally to mice prior to UVB irradiation or prior to the topical application of arachidonic acid, abrogates suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) to DNFB. This suggests a byproduct of arachidonic acid generated through the cyclooxygenase pathway may be involved in the immune suppression. Topical application of various prostaglandins (PGE2, PGD2, PGF2 alpha, and CTXA2) did not cause alterations in the population density of the identifiable Ia+ dendritic Langerhans cells. PGE2, but no other tested agent, produced a suppression of the CHS response to DNFB. These observations suggests that of the various prostaglandins, PGE2 might be one of several biochemical signals which mediate the suppression of contact hypersensitivity reactions following ultraviolet radiation exposure. However, the mechanisms by which PGE2 produces its suppressive effects have not been identified

  20. Experimental study on parasitic mode suppression using FeSiAl in relativistic klystron amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zehai

    2015-01-01

    Experimental study of parasitic mode suppression using electromagnetic attenuate material FeSiAl in an S-band Relativistic Klystron Amplifier (RKA) is presented in this paper. The FeSiAl powder is coated and sintered onto the inner surface of a drift tube which locates between the input and the middle cavity of the RKA. Cold tests show that the attenuate rate of the tube against parasitic mode TE 11 is about 50%. Experiments carried out on the Torch-01 accelerator present that the tube is effective in suppressing the parasitic mode. Two typical outputs are obtained. When the diode voltage is on a moderate level, the RKA operates well and the parasitic mode is totally suppressed. The pulse length of the High Power Microwave (HPM) almost equals the electron beam pulse length and the HPM average output power is about 300 MW, with a power efficiency of 10%. When the diode voltage is on a higher level, the output power and efficiency rise but the parasitic mode oscillation occurred and the pulse length is shortened. By contrast, the parasitic mode oscillation is too strong for the RKA to operate normally with un-sintered drift tube. The experimental study implies that FeSiAl is effective in suppressing the parasitic mode oscillation in a certain extent. However, total suppression needs a deeper attenuate rate and further investigation

  1. Prediction suppression in monkey inferotemporal cortex depends on the conditional probability between images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Suchitra; Meyer, Travis; Olson, Carl R

    2016-01-01

    When monkeys view two images in fixed sequence repeatedly over days and weeks, neurons in area TE of the inferotemporal cortex come to exhibit prediction suppression. The trailing image elicits only a weak response when presented following the leading image that preceded it during training. Induction of prediction suppression might depend either on the contiguity of the images, as determined by their co-occurrence and captured in the measure of joint probability P(A,B), or on their contingency, as determined by their correlation and as captured in the measures of conditional probability P(A|B) and P(B|A). To distinguish between these possibilities, we measured prediction suppression after imposing training regimens that held P(A,B) constant but varied P(A|B) and P(B|A). We found that reducing either P(A|B) or P(B|A) during training attenuated prediction suppression as measured during subsequent testing. We conclude that prediction suppression depends on contingency, as embodied in the predictive relations between the images, and not just on contiguity, as embodied in their co-occurrence. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Suppression of Plant Defenses by Herbivorous Mites Is Not Associated with Adaptation to Host Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica T. Paulo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Some herbivores suppress plant defenses, which may be viewed as a result of the coevolutionary arms race between plants and herbivores. However, this ability is usually studied in a one-herbivore-one-plant system, which hampers comparative studies that could corroborate this hypothesis. Here, we extend this paradigm and ask whether the herbivorous spider-mite Tetranychus evansi, which suppresses the jasmonic-acid pathway in tomato plants, is also able to suppress defenses in other host plants at different phylogenetic distances from tomatoes. We test this using different plants from the Solanales order, namely tomato, jimsonweed, tobacco, and morning glory (three Solanaceae and one Convolvulaceae, and bean plants (Fabales. First, we compare the performance of T. evansi to that of the other two most-commonly found species of the same genus, T. urticae and T. ludeni, on several plants. We found that the performance of T. evansi is higher than that of the other species only on tomato plants. We then showed, by measuring trypsin inhibitor activity and life history traits of conspecific mites on either clean or pre-infested plants, that T. evansi can suppress plant defenses on all plants except tobacco. This study suggests that the suppression of plant defenses may occur on host plants other than those to which herbivores are adapted.

  3. Anger Suppression, Interdependent Self-Construal, and Depression among Asian American and European American College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Park, Irene J. K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression—depressio...

  4. Fire suppression as a thermal implosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilov, Vasily

    2017-01-01

    The present paper discusses the possibility of the thermal implosion scenario. This process would be a reverse of the well known thermal explosion (autoignition) phenomenon. The mechanism for thermal implosion scenario is proposed which involves quick suppression of the turbulent diffusion flame. Classical concept of the thermal explosion is discussed first. Then a possible scenario for the reverse process (thermal implosion) is discussed and illustrated by a relevant mathematical model. Based on the arguments presented in the paper, thermal implosion may be observed as an unstable equilibrium point on the generalized Semenov diagram for turbulent flame, however this hypothesis requires ultimate experimental confirmation.

  5. Applications of zero-suppressed decision diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Sasao, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    A zero-suppressed decision diagram (ZDD) is a data structure to represent objects that typically contain many zeros. Applications include combinatorial problems, such as graphs, circuits, faults, and data mining. This book consists of four chapters on the applications of ZDDs. The first chapter by Alan Mishchenko introduces the ZDD. It compares ZDDs to BDDs, showing why a more compact representation is usually achieved in a ZDD. The focus is on sets of subsets and on sum-of-products (SOP) expressions. Methods to generate all the prime implicants (PIs), and to generate irredundant SOPs are show

  6. Experimental Status Of $J/\\psi$ Suppression

    CERN Document Server

    Kluberg, L; Alessandro, B; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Astruc, J; Atayan, M; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, M; Bellaiche, F; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Bussière, A; Capelli,L; Capony, V; Casagrande, L; Castor, J; Chambon, T; Chaurand, B; Chevrot, I; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Comets, M P; Constans, N; Constantinescu, S; Cruz, J; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Ducroux, L; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Filippov, S N; Fleuret, F; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Y K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanyan, H; Hakobyan, R; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenrço, C; Macciotta, P; Mac Cormick, M; Marzari- Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Mehrabyan, S; Monteno, M; Mourgues, S; Musso, A; Ohlsson-Malek, F; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Racca, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Ropotar, I; Saturnini, P; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Silva, S; Sitta, M; Soave, C; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, E; Villatte, L; Willis, N

    2001-01-01

    The most recent results obtained by experiment NA50 show that the $J /\\psi$ cross-section per nucleon-nucleon collision in semi-peripheral Pb-Pb reactions is "normally" suppressed in the sense that it follows the trend already observed from p-p and up to the most central S-U reactions. A clear change of behaviour is observed for more central Pb-Pb collisions which could be due to the transition of normal nuclear matter to its predicted Quark-Gluon Plasma state

  7. Pressure suppression system for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jost, N.

    1977-01-01

    The invention pertains to a pressure suppression system for PWR reactors where the parts enclosing the primary coolant are contained in two pressure-tight separate chambers. According to the invention, these chambers are partly filled with water and are connected with each other below the water surface. This way, gases cannot escape from the containment, not even if a valve and a line are damaged at the same time, as the vapours released condensate in the water of at least one of the other chambers. (HP) [de

  8. Fractional order absolute vibration suppression (AVS) controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevi, Yoram

    2017-04-01

    Absolute vibration suppression (AVS) is a control method for flexible structures. The first step is an accurate, infinite dimension, transfer function (TF), from actuation to measurement. This leads to the collocated, rate feedback AVS controller that in some cases completely eliminates the vibration. In case of the 1D wave equation, the TF consists of pure time delays and low order rational terms, and the AVS controller is rational. In all other cases, the TF and consequently the controller are fractional order in both the delays and the "rational parts". The paper considers stability, performance and actual implementation in such cases.

  9. The relation of weight suppression and BMI to bulimic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butryn, Meghan L; Juarascio, Adrienne; Lowe, Michael R

    2011-11-01

    High levels of weight suppression have been associated with greater binge eating and weight gain as well as poorer treatment outcome in bulimia nervosa. This study examined the relationship between weight suppression and bulimia nervosa symptoms and explored how weight suppression might interact with body mass index (BMI) in accounting for level of symptomatology at presentation for treatment. Participants were 64 women with threshold or sub-threshold bulimia nervosa. A clinical interview assessed binge eating and purging. Weight suppression and the interaction between BMI and weight suppression predicted frequency of binge eating such that participants with low BMI and high weight suppression engaged in the most binge eating. High levels of weight suppression also predicted more frequent purging. Additional research is warranted to examine mediators of these relationships. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Dysfunction of the Human Mirror Neuron System in Ideomotor Apraxia: Evidence from Mu Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel-Toledo, Silvi; Liebermann, Dario G; Bentin, Shlomo; Soroker, Nachum

    2016-06-01

    Stroke patients with ideomotor apraxia (IMA) have difficulties controlling voluntary motor actions, as clearly seen when asked to imitate simple gestures performed by the examiner. Despite extensive research, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying failure to imitate gestures in IMA remain controversial. The aim of the current study was to explore the relationship between imitation failure in IMA and mirror neuron system (MNS) functioning. Mirror neurons were found to play a crucial role in movement imitation and in imitation-based motor learning. Their recruitment during movement observation and execution is signaled in EEG recordings by suppression of the lower (8-10 Hz) mu range. We examined the modulation of EEG in this range in stroke patients with left (n = 21) and right (n = 15) hemisphere damage during observation of video clips showing different manual movements. IMA severity was assessed by the DeRenzi standardized diagnostic test. Results showed that failure to imitate observed manual movements correlated with diminished mu suppression in patients with damage to the right inferior parietal lobule and in patients with damage to the right inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis-areas where major components of the human MNS are assumed to reside. Voxel-based lesion symptom mapping revealed a significant impact on imitation capacity for the left inferior and superior parietal lobules and the left post central gyrus. Both left and right hemisphere damages were associated with imitation failure typical of IMA, yet a clear demonstration of relationship to the MNS was obtained only in the right hemisphere damage group. Suppression of the 8-10 Hz range was stronger in central compared with occipital sites, pointing to a dominant implication of mu rather than alpha rhythms. However, the suppression correlated with De Renzi's apraxia test scores not only in central but also in occipital sites, suggesting a multifactorial mechanism for IMA, with a possible

  11. Experimental investigation on the behaviour of pressure suppression containment systems by the SOPRE-1 facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerullo, N.; Delli Gatti, A.; Marinelli, M.; Mazzini, M.; Mazzoni, A.; Sbrana, A.; Todisco, P.

    1977-01-01

    The SOPRE-1 test facility is an integral model (scale 1:13) of a MARK II pressure suppression containment system. It was set up at the University of Pisa in order to study the pressure-temperature transient in pressure suppression containment systems during LOCAs. Knowledge of this transient is necessary to perform a correct structural analysis of reactor containment. The containment system behaviour is studied by changing the principal parameters which affect the transient (blow-down mass and energy release, suppression pool water temperature, vent pipe number and submergence heat transfer coefficients). The first series of tests involved: A) 13 tests with break area of 1.8 cm 2 , B) 8 tests with break area of 20.0 cm 2 . The following experimental conditions were changed: - position of the simulated break (from liquid or steam zone), - water pressure (20-85 Kgsub(p)/cm 2 ) and mass (45-70Kg) in the vessel model. Tests A): the CONTEMPT codes correctly forecast the pressure-temperature history, both in dry- and in wet-well. Tests B): the experimental runs have shown that increasing of blow-down flowrate produces dry-well pressure spatial differences and anomalous vent pipe behaviour. This results in damped oscillations of dry- and wet-well pressure, probably due to alterbating air bubble over-expansion and collapse, and in vent pipe opening and reclosing. (Auth.)

  12. 'Isn't it ironic?' Beliefs about the unacceptability of emotions and emotional suppression relate to worse outcomes in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Hannah; Wroe, Abigail L; Pincus, Tamar

    2017-05-01

    Beliefs about the unacceptability of experiencing and expressing emotions have been found to be related to worse outcomes in people with persistent physical symptoms. The current study tested mediation models regarding emotional suppression, beliefs about emotions, support-seeking and global impact in fibromyalgia. One hundred eighty-two participants took part in an online questionnaire testing potential mechanisms of this relationship using mediation analysis. The model tested emotional suppression and affective distress as serial mediators of the relationship between beliefs about emotions and global impact. In parallel paths, two forms of support-seeking were tested (personal/emotional and symptom-related support-seeking) as mediators. Emotional suppression and affective distress significantly serially mediated the relationship between beliefs about emotions and global impact. Neither support-seeking variable significantly mediated this relationship. Results indicate a potential mechanism through which beliefs about emotions and global impact might relate which might provide a theoretical basis for future research on treatments for fibromyalgia.

  13. Objective assessment of subjective tinnitus through contralateral suppression of otoacoustic emissions by white noise; suggested cut-off points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, M; Komis, A; Maragkoudakis, P; Korres, G; Danielides, V

    2016-12-01

    Normative otoacoustic emission (OAE) suppression values are currently lacking and the role of cochlear efferent innervation in tinnitus is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between tinnitus and medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB) malfunction. Potential suppression amplitude cut-off criteria that could differentiate participants with tinnitus from those without were sought. Mean suppression amplitudes of transient evoked OAEs and distortion product OAEs by contralateral white noise (50 dBSL) were recorded. Six mean suppression amplitudes criteria were validated as possible cut-off points. The population consisted of normal hearing (n = 78) or presbycusic adults (n = 19) with tinnitus or without (n = 28 and 13, respectively) chronic tinnitus (in total, n = 138 78 females/60males, aged 49 ± 14 years). Participants with mean suppression values lower than 0.5-1 dBSPL seem to present a high probability to report tinnitus (specificity 88-97%). On the other hand, participants with mean suppression values larger than 2-2.5dBSPL seem to present a high probability of the absence of tinnitus (sensitivity 87-99%). Correlations were stronger among participants with bilateral presence or absence of tinnitus. This study seem to confirm an association between tinnitus and low suppression amplitudes (<1 dBSPL), which might evolve into an objective examination tool, supplementary to conventional audiological testing.

  14. Reinstatement of Conditioned Suppression in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinette Dirikx

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Return of fear after successful exposure therapy calls for a better understanding of the mechanisms of relapse. Classical conditioning research provides a useful framework for conceptualising the acquisition, extinction and reappearance of fear. The present paper focuses on reinstatement, the return of extinguished conditioned responses due to the experience of one or more unconditioned stimuli (USs after extinction. This phenomenon illustrates that unpredictable USs can lead to a return of fear after successful exposure. The data we present is one of the first demonstrations that conditioned suppression of instrumental behaviour can be used as an index of classical conditioning in laboratory mice. The procedure proves to be a promising instrument for assessing fear in mice, both in the context of research aimed at unravelling the functional characteristics of learning and memory in healthy mice and in the context of research aimed at unravelling the neurobiological substrate of psychiatric disorders, e.g., in studies with transgenic and knockout mice. Using this procedure, we report the first observation of reinstatement of conditioned suppression in this species.

  15. Suppressive and immunoprotective functions of Tregs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa ePandiyan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T lymphocytes, known as regulatory T cells or Tregs, have been proposed to be a lineage of professional immune suppressive cells that exclusively counteract the effects of the immunoprotective "helper" and "cytotoxic" lineages of T lymphocytes. Here we discuss new concepts on the mechanisms and functions of Tregs. There are several key points we emphasize: 1. Tregs exert suppressive effects both directly on effector T cells and indirectly through antigen-presenting cells (APCs; 2. Regulation can occur through a novel mechanism of cytokine consumption to regulate as opposed to the usual mechanism of cytokine/chemokine production; 3. In cases where CD4+ effector T cells are directly inhibited by Tregs, it is chiefly through a mechanism of lymphokine withdrawal apoptosis leading to polyclonal deletion (PCD; and 4. Contrary to the current view, we discuss new evidence that Tregs, similar to other T cells lineages, can promote protective immune responses in certain infectious contexts (Pandiyan et al. 2011; Chen et al 2011. Although these points are at variance to varying degrees with the standard model of Treg behavior, we will recount developing findings that support these new concepts.

  16. Suppression of Coronavirus Replication by Cyclophilin Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sasaki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses infect a variety of mammalian and avian species and cause serious diseases in humans, cats, mice, and birds in the form of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP, mouse hepatitis, and avian infectious bronchitis, respectively. No effective vaccine or treatment has been developed for SARS-coronavirus or FIP virus, both of which cause lethal diseases. It has been reported that a cyclophilin inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA, could inhibit the replication of coronaviruses. CsA is a well-known immunosuppressive drug that binds to cellular cyclophilins to inhibit calcineurin, a calcium-calmodulin-activated serine/threonine-specific phosphatase. The inhibition of calcineurin blocks the translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells from the cytosol into the nucleus, thus preventing the transcription of genes encoding cytokines such as interleukin-2. Cyclophilins are peptidyl-prolyl isomerases with physiological functions that have been described for many years to include chaperone and foldase activities. Also, many viruses require cyclophilins for replication; these include human immunodeficiency virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and hepatitis C virus. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the suppression of viral replication differ for different viruses. This review describes the suppressive effects of CsA on coronavirus replication.

  17. Optimal digital filtering for tremor suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J G; Heredia, E A; Rahman, T; Barner, K E; Arce, G R

    2000-05-01

    Remote manually operated tasks such as those found in teleoperation, virtual reality, or joystick-based computer access, require the generation of an intermediate electrical signal which is transmitted to the controlled subsystem (robot arm, virtual environment, or a cursor in a computer screen). When human movements are distorted, for instance, by tremor, performance can be improved by digitally filtering the intermediate signal before it reaches the controlled device. This paper introduces a novel tremor filtering framework in which digital equalizers are optimally designed through pursuit tracking task experiments. Due to inherent properties of the man-machine system, the design of tremor suppression equalizers presents two serious problems: 1) performance criteria leading to optimizations that minimize mean-squared error are not efficient for tremor elimination and 2) movement signals show ill-conditioned autocorrelation matrices, which often result in useless or unstable solutions. To address these problems, a new performance indicator in the context of tremor is introduced, and the optimal equalizer according to this new criterion is developed. Ill-conditioning of the autocorrelation matrix is overcome using a novel method which we call pulled-optimization. Experiments performed with artificially induced vibrations and a subject with Parkinson's disease show significant improvement in performance. Additional results, along with MATLAB source code of the algorithms, and a customizable demo for PC joysticks, are available on the Internet at http:¿tremor-suppression.com.

  18. Tagging and suppression of pileup jets

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The suppression of pileup jets has been a crucial component of many physics analyses using 2012 LHC proton-proton collisions. In ATLAS, tracking information has been used to calculate a variable called the jet-vertex-fraction, which is the fraction of the total mo- mentum of tracks in the jet which is associated to the primary vertex. Imposing a minimum on this variable rejects the majority of pileup jets, but leads to hard-scatter jet efficiencies that depend on the number of reconstructed primary vertices in the event ($N_{Vtx}$). In this note, new track-based variables to suppress pileup jets are developed in such a way that the resulting hard-scatter jet efficiency is stable as a function of $N_{Vtx}$. A multivariate combina- tion of two such variables called the jet-vertex-tagger is constructed. In addition, it is shown that jet-vertex association can be applied to large-R jets, providing a track-based grooming technique that is as powerful as calorimeter-based trimming but based on complementary trackin...

  19. Wireless Inductive Power Device Suppresses Blade Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Bakhle, Milind A.; Min, James B.; Stefko, George L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Fougers, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    Vibration in turbomachinery can cause blade failures and leads to the use of heavier, thicker blades that result in lower aerodynamic efficiency and increased noise. Metal and/or composite fatigue in the blades of jet engines has resulted in blade destruction and loss of lives. Techniques for suppressing low-frequency blade vibration, such as gtuned circuit resistive dissipation of vibratory energy, h or simply "passive damping," can require electronics incorporating coils of unwieldy dimensions and adding unwanted weight to the rotor. Other approaches, using vibration-dampening devices or damping material, could add undesirable weight to the blades or hub, making them less efficient. A wireless inductive power device (WIPD) was designed, fabricated, and developed for use in the NASA Glenn's "Dynamic Spin Rig" (DSR) facility. The DSR is used to simulate the functionality of turbomachinery. The relatively small and lightweight device [10 lb (approx.=4.5 kg)] replaces the existing venerable and bulky slip-ring. The goal is the eventual integration of this technology into actual turbomachinery such as jet engines or electric power generators, wherein the device will facilitate the suppression of potentially destructive vibrations in fan blades. This technology obviates slip rings, which require cooling and can prove unreliable or be problematic over time. The WIPD consists of two parts: a remote element, which is positioned on the rotor and provides up to 100 W of electrical power to thin, lightweight piezoelectric patches strategically placed on/in fan blades; and a stationary base unit that wirelessly communicates with the remote unit. The base unit supplies inductive power, and also acts as an input and output corridor for wireless measurement, and active control command to the remote unit. Efficient engine operation necessitates minimal disturbance to the gas flow across the turbine blades in any effort to moderate blade vibration. This innovation makes it

  20. Experimental investigation on the behavior of pressure suppression containment systems by the SOPRE-1 facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerullo, N.; Delli Gatti, A.; Marinelli, M.; Mazzini, M.; Mazzoni, A.; Sbrana, A.; Todisco, P.

    1977-01-01

    The SOPRE-1 test facility is an integral model (scale 1:13) of a MARK II pressure suppression containment system. It was set up at the University of Pisa in order to study the pressure-temperature transient in pressure suppression containment systems during LOCAs. Knowledge of this transient is necessary to perform a correct structural analysis of reactor containment. The containment system behavior is studied by changing the principal parameters which affect the transient (blow-down mass and energy release, suppression pool water temperature, vent pipe number and submergence, heat transfer coefficients). The first series of tests involved: A) 13 tests with break area of 1.8 cm 2 , B) 8 tests with break area of 20.0 cm 2 . The following experimental conditions were changed: position of the simulated break (from liquid or steam zone), water pressure (20-85 Kg/cm 2 ) and mass (45-70 Kg) in the vessel model. Tests A): the CONTEMPT codes correctly forecast the pressure-temperature history, both in dry- and in wet-well. Tests B): the experimental runs have shown that increasing of blow-down flowrate produces dry-well pressure spatial differences and anomalous vent pipe behavior. This results in damped oscillations of dry- and wet-well pressure, probably due to alternating air bubble over-expansion and collapse, and in vent pipe opening and reclosing. Dry-well pressure maxima at the end of blow-down are greater than those forecasted by currently applied codes: these codes use an homogeneous model, and do not take into account the above mentioned dynamic phenomena. In some tests other interesting phenomena were observed, such as some local pressure peaks in the suppression pool greater than dry-well pessure maxima at the end of blow-down. At present, all these phenomena are under study; they could be important for the structural analysis of containment systems

  1. Contribution of suppression difficulty and lessons learned in forecasting fire suppression operations productivity: A methodological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Rodríguez y Silva; Armando González-Cabán

    2016-01-01

    We propose an economic analysis using utility and productivity, and efficiency theories to provide fire managers a decision support tool to determine the most efficient fire management programs levels. By incorporating managers’ accumulated fire suppression experiences (capitalized experience) in the analysis we help fire managers...

  2. Eddy current testing device using unbalance bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshikawa, H.; Koido, J.; Ishibashi, Y.

    1976-01-01

    An easily readjustable unbalance bridge has been invented and in utilizing the same, an eddy current testing equipment excellent in suppression of the lift-off effect and high in the detection sensitivity has been developed

  3. NDE Technology Development Program for Non-Visual Volumetric Inspection Technology; Sensor Effectiveness Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Traci L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Larche, Michael R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Denslow, Kayte M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Glass, Samuel W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-08-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) located in Richland, Washington, hosted and administered Sensor Effectiveness Testing that allowed four different participants to demonstrate the NDE volumetric inspection technologies that were previously demonstrated during the Technology Screening session. This document provides a Sensor Effectiveness Testing report for the final part of Phase I of a three-phase NDE Technology Development Program designed to identify and mature a system or set of non-visual volumetric NDE technologies for Hanford DST primary liner bottom inspection. Phase I of the program will baseline the performance of current or emerging non-visual volumetric NDE technologies for their ability to detect and characterize primary liner bottom flaws, and identify candidate technologies for adaptation and maturation for Phase II of the program.

  4. Suppression pool dynamics. Annual report, 1 July 1976--30 June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.K.; Chiou, H.H.; Lee, B.K.C.; Dhir, V.K.; Liu, C.Y.; Catton, I.

    1978-02-01

    The work performed at UCLA to study the transient thermal-hydraulic phenomena induced by the motion of submerged air and steam bubbles in a boiling water reactor (BWR) pressure suppression pool, following a loss-of-coolant accident is described. The air transients, which include vent clearing, bubble growth, and pool swelling, were investigated by a series of air-water tests. These tests were performed in a cylindrical plexiglas test chamber. Gas was injected downward through different-diameter pipes, placed in the middle of the test chamber, which was filled with water at room temperature

  5. Boiling characteristics of dilute polymer solutions and implications for the suppression of vapor explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K.H.; Kim, M.H. [Univ. of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-01

    Quenching experiments of hot solid spheres in dilute aqueous solutions of polyethylene oxide polymer have been conducted for the purpose of investigating the physical mechanisms of the suppression of vapor explosions in this polymer solutions. Two spheres of 22.2mm and 9.5mm-diameter were tested in the polymer solutions of various concentrations at 30{degrees}C. Minimum film boiling temperature ({Delta}T{sub MFB}) in this highly-subcooled liquid rapidly decreased from over 700{degrees}c for pure water to about 150{degrees}C as the polymer concentration was increased up to 300ppm for 22.2mm sphere, and it decreased to 350{degrees}C for 9.5mm sphere. This rapid reduction of minimum film boiling temperature in the PEO aqueous solutions can explain its ability of the suppression of spontaneous vapor explosions. The ability of suppression of vapor explosions by dilute polyethylene oxide solutions against an external trigger pressure was tested by dropping molten tin into the polymer solutions at 25{degrees}C. It was observed that in 50ppm solutions more mass fragmented than in pure water, but produced weaker explosion pressures. The explosion was completely suppressed in 300ppm solutions with the external trigger. The debris size distributions of fine fragments smaller than 0.7mm were shown almost identical regardless of the polymer concentrations.

  6. Orientation-specific surround suppression in the primary visual cortex varies as a function of autistic tendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V Flevaris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD exhibit superior performance on tasks that rely on local details in an image, and they exhibit deficits in tasks that require integration of local elements into a unified whole. These perceptual abnormalities have been proposed to underlie many of the characteristic features of ASD, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the degree to which orientation-specific surround suppression, a well-known form of contextual modulation in visual cortex, is associated with autistic tendency in neurotypical individuals. Surround suppression refers to the phenomenon that the response to a stimulus in the receptive field of a neuron is suppressed when it is surrounded by stimuli just outside the receptive field. The suppression is greatest when the center and surrounding stimuli share perceptual features such as orientation. Surround suppression underlies a number of fundamental perceptual processes that are known to be atypical in individuals with ASD, including perceptual grouping and perceptual pop-out. However, whether surround suppression in the primary visual cortex (V1 is related to autistic traits has not been directly tested before. We used fMRI to measure the neural response to a center Gabor when it was surrounded by Gabors having the same or orthogonal orientation, and calculated a suppression index (SI for each participant that denoted the magnitude of suppression in the same versus orthogonal conditions. SI was positively correlated with degree of autistic tendency in each individual, as measured by the Autism Quotient (AQ scale, a questionnaire designed to assess autistic traits in the general population. Age also correlated with SI and with autistic tendency in our sample, but did not account for the correlation between SI and autistic tendency. These results suggest a reduction in orientation-specific surround suppression in V1 with increasing autistic

  7. Noise suppressed partial volume correction for cardiac SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Chung; Liu, Chi, E-mail: chi.liu@yale.edu [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Liu, Hui [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 and Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Grobshtein, Yariv [GE Healthcare, Haifa 3910101 (Israel); Stacy, Mitchel R. [Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Sinusas, Albert J. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 and Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    tested on low-count data. AMAP effectively suppressed noise and reduced the spill-in effect in the low activity regions. However it was unable to reduce the spill-out effect in high activity regions. NS-PVC yielded superior performance in terms of both quantitative assessment and visual image quality while improving reproducibility. Conclusions: The results suggest that NS-PVC may be a promising PVC algorithm for application in low-dose protocols, and in gated and dynamic cardiac studies with low counts.

  8. Area-wide population suppression of codling moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calkins, C.O.; Knight, A.L.; Richardson, G.; Bloem, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    The area-wide pest population control concept began with E.F. Knipling (1979) in the 1970s. Control of a pest population on individual fields does little to control the overall pest population because only a portion of the population is being affected. Expanding control tactics beyond individual farms tends to suppress the population on a wider scale and frequently results in suppression of the population for more than one year. The Agriculture Research Service (ARS) believes that this concept has not been addressed with the focus and support that it deserves. The ARS Administration made a conscious decision in 1994 to create a series of area-wide programmes funded out of ARS-based funds that had previously been used for pilot tests. These programmes involve a coordinated effort among ARS and university scientists, growers, and fieldmen for agriculture supply centres and fruit packing houses. The first area-wide programme supported by ARS was the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) suppression programme. The codling moth is the key pest of pome fruit throughout the western United States (Beers et al. 1993). About half of the insecticides applied on these crops are directed toward this pest. A non-insecticidal control technique, mating disruption (MD), is available to replace the organophosphates. Removal of the hard pesticides directed against this pest would do the most to allow natural enemies to survive and reproduce in the orchards, which in turn would have the effect of reducing secondary pests. Elimination of the pesticides would also remove much of the health risks to workers and would minimise buildup of pesticide resistance. The objectives of the Codling Moth Area-wide Program are to enhance the efficacy of the non-pesticide approach, to demonstrate that mating disruption will work if conducted properly, to develop biological technology to lower costs of control that complement mating disruption, to implement effective

  9. Experimental verification of integrated pressure suppression systems in fusion reactors at in-vessel loss-of-coolant events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, K.; Akimoto, H.

    2001-01-01

    An integrated ICE (Ingress-of-Coolant Event) test facility was constructed to demonstrate that the ITER safety design approach and design parameters for the ICE events are adequate. Major objectives of the integrated ICE test facility are: to estimate the performance of an integrated pressure suppression system; to obtain the validation data for safety analysis codes; and to clarify the effects of two-phase pressure drop at a divertor and the direct-contact condensation in a suppression tank. A scaling factor between the test facility and ITER-FEAT is around 1/1600. The integrated ICE test facility simulates the ITER pressure suppression system and mainly consists of a plasma chamber, vacuum vessel, simulated divertor, relief pipe and suppression tank. From the experimental results it was found quantitatively that the ITER pressure suppression system is very effective to reduce the pressurization due to the ICE event. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the analytical results of the TRAC-PF1 code can simulate the experimental results with high accuracy. (author)

  10. The generation and suppression of synchrotron sidebands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.W.; Goldstein, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Computer simulations of FEL lasing differ in the degree to which they approximate real experiments. One of the FEL codes used extensively at Los Alamos takes account of the features of each electron micropulse and follows the growth and saturation of the optical micropulse. With no additional adjustments, this code displays the development of sidebands and demonstrates their control when optical filters of various kinds are used. Other codes that do not include a description of the micropulse do not automatically display sidebands but need to have artificial noise of some kind added. This is not unexpected because sidebands are generated by an FEL instability; instabilities, in general, need some kind of initiating disturbance. In this paper we: identify the disturbance that triggers the instability in the pulse code; discuss a practical way to suppress the instability without using filters; compare these results with experiments; and discuss these findings. 22 refs., 9 figs

  11. Probe suppression in conformal phased array

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Neethu, P S

    2017-01-01

    This book considers a cylindrical phased array with microstrip patch antenna elements and half-wavelength dipole antenna elements. The effect of platform and mutual coupling effect is included in the analysis. The non-planar geometry is tackled by using Euler's transformation towards the calculation of array manifold. Results are presented for both conducting and dielectric cylinder. The optimal weights obtained are used to generate adapted pattern according to a given signal scenario. It is shown that array along with adaptive algorithm is able to cater to an arbitrary signal environment even when the platform effect and mutual coupling is taken into account. This book provides a step-by-step approach for analyzing the probe suppression in non-planar geometry. Its detailed illustrations and analysis will be a useful text for graduate and research students, scientists and engineers working in the area of phased arrays, low-observables and stealth technology.

  12. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng; Choi, Yi King; Wang, Wen Ping; Yan, Dongming; Liu, Yang; Lé vy, Bruno L.

    2011-01-01

    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Void growth suppression by dislocation impurity atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weertman, J.; Green, W.V.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed calculation is given of the effect of an impurity atmosphere on void growth under irradiation damage conditions. Norris has proposed that such an atmosphere can suppress void growth. The hydrostatic stress field of a dislocation that is surrounded by an impurity atmosphere was found and used to calculate the change in the effective radius of a dislocation line as a sink for interstitials and vacancies. The calculation of the impurity concentration in a Cottrell cloud takes into account the change in hydrostatic pressure produced by the presence of the cloud itself. It is found that void growth is eliminated whenever dislocations are surrounded by a condensed atmosphere of either oversized substitutional impurity atoms or interstitial impurity atoms. A condensed atmosphere will form whenever the average impurity concentration is larger than a critical concentration

  14. In-beam background suppression shield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, V.; Cai, Xiao Xiao; DiJulio, D. D.

    2015-01-01

    The long (3 ms) proton pulse of the European Spallation Source (ESS) gives rise to unique and potentially high backgrounds for the instrument suite. In such a source an instrument's capabilities will be limited by its Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio. The instruments with a direct view of the moderator......, which do not use a bender to help mitigate the fast neutron background, are the most challenging. For these beam lines we propose the innovative shielding of placing blocks of material directly into the guide system, which allow a minimum attenuation of the cold and thermal fluxes relative...... to the background suppression. This shielding configuration has been worked into a beam line model using Geant4. We study particularly the advantages of single crystal sapphire and silicon blocks....

  15. Suppression of fertility in adult cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin; Wehrend, A.; Georgiev, P.

    2014-01-01

    /needed? (iii) sex of the animal? New effective and available methods for hormonal contraception include melatonin implants for short-term post ponement of oestrus in adult queens and slow-release GnRH-agonist implants containing deslorelin (Suprelorin®) for short- and long-term contraception in male and female......Contents: Cats are animals with highly efficient reproduction, clearly pointing to a need for suppression of fertility. Although surgical contraception is highly effective, it is not always the method of choice. This is predominantly because it is cost-intensive, time-consuming and irreversible......, with the latter being of major importance for cat breeders. This article reviews the use of progestins, scleroting agents, immunocontraception, melatonin, GnRH antagonists and finally, GnRH agonists, in adult male and female cats in detail, according to the present state of the art. By now, various scientific...

  16. Suppression of coffee ring: (Particle) size matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Lalit; Seth, Pranjal; Murugappan, Bhubesh; Basu, Saptarshi

    2018-05-01

    Coffee ring patterns in drying sessile droplets are undesirable in various practical applications. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that on hydrophobic substrates, the coffee ring can be suppressed just by increasing the particle diameter. Particles with larger size flocculate within the evaporation timescale, leading to a significant gravimetric settling (for Pe > 1) triggering a uniform deposit. Interestingly, the transition to a uniform deposit is found to be independent of the internal flow field and substrate properties. Flocculation of particles also alters the particle packing at the nanoscale resulting in order to disorder transitions. In this letter, we exhibit a physical exposition on how particle size affects morphodynamics of the droplet drying at macro-nano length scales.

  17. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng

    2011-12-01

    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Are Patents used to Suppress Useful Technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2006-01-01

    of innovation, other than in the trivial sense of excluding third parties from the right to develop the technology covered by the patent? There are many references to this possibility in the management, economic and legal literatures, but two highly-cited papers stand out for grounding their claims of corporate......This article examines the evidence behind claims that innovation is hindered or blocked (termed technology suppression) by corporations' use of patents. In other words, are there ways in which the exploitation of the exclusive development right of the patent can be shown to retard the process...... and the difference between economic monopoly and an exclusive right. It is argued here that what is at issue in this work is the proper function of the patent institution. It is shown early in this paper that the understanding of the patent institution as a system of development prospects makes better sense...

  19. Active vibration suppression of helicopter horizontal stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquemani, Simone; Cazzulani, Gabriele; Resta, Ferruccio

    2017-04-01

    Helicopters are among the most complex machines ever made. While ensuring high performance from the aeronautical point of view, they are not very comfortable due to vibration mainly created by the main rotor and by the interaction with the surrounding air. One of the most solicited structural elements of the vehicle are the horizontal stabilizers. These elements are particularly stressed because of their composite structure which, while guaranteeing lightness and strength, is characterized by a low damping. This work makes a preliminary analysis on the dynamics of the structure and proposes different solutions to actively suppress vibrations. Among them, the best in terms of the relationship between performance and weight / complexity of the system is that based on inertial actuators mounted on the inside of the horizontal stabilizers. The work addresses the issue of the design of the device and its use in the stabilizer from both the numerical and the experimental points of view.

  20. Ion suppression from blood collection devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselstrøm, Jørgen Bo; Sejr Gothelf, Aase

    The aim of the study was to examine the variation in ion suppression in ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) methods when using different blood collection devices. Three different methods measuring 18 antidepressants and antipsychotics in total were...... Terumo, S-monovette from Sarstedt, Vacuette from Greiner Bio-One and three BD Vacutainer serum tubes from BD. These seven different blood collection devices were used to withdraw blood from five healthy drug free donors (n=35) in random order. The samples were centrifuged and serum from each sample...... by UHPLC-MS-MS using three different gradients (Group I, II and III). The analytes in group I was measured on an Agilent 6460 mass spectrometer and group II and III were measured on an Agilent 6410 mass spectrometer both utilizing positive electrospray ionization. The experiments demonstrated significant...