Sample records for suppressing speckle noise


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Samundeeswari


    Full Text Available Breast cancer, commonly found in women is a serious life threatening disease due to its invasive nature. Ultrasound (US imaging method plays an effective role in screening early detection and diagnosis of Breast cancer. Speckle noise generally affects medical ultrasound images and also causes a number of difficulties in identifying the Region of Interest. Suppressing speckle noise is a challenging task as it destroys fine edge details. No specific filter is designed yet to get a noise free BUS image that is contaminated by speckle noise. In this paper M2 filter, a novel hybrid of linear and nonlinear filter is proposed and compared to other spatial filters with 3×3 kernel size. The performance of the proposed M2 filter is measured by statistical quantity parameters like MSE, PSNR and SSI. The experimental analysis clearly shows that the proposed M2 filter outperforms better than other spatial filters by 2% high PSNR values with regards to speckle suppression.

  2. Speckle noise suppression using part of pixels in a single-exposure digital hologram (United States)

    Leng, Junmin; Zhou, Zhehai; Li, Fubing; Zheng, Qingyu; Liu, Gang


    A method is proposed to suppress speckle noise using only part of the pixels in a single-exposure digital hologram. Different holographic patterns are first generated from a single-exposure digital hologram using specially designed binary masks; then, these holographic patterns are reconstructed according to the Fresnel transform. The reconstructed images are superposed and averaged on the intensity to achieve the suppression of speckle noise. The entire denoising process does not need any additional digital holograms or specific requirements for recording a hologram. Theoretical simulation and experiment verification were carried out and confirm that the proposed method is a very convenient and effective way to suppress speckle noise in digital holography. The proposed method has wide applications in holographic imaging, holographic storage, and art display.

  3. Speckle noise suppression using a helix-free ferroelectric liquid crystal cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, A L; Andreeva, T B; Kompanets, I N [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zalyapin, N V [National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' (Russian Federation)


    We have studied the method for suppressing speckle noise in patterns produced by a laser based on a fast-response electro-optical cell with a ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) in which helicoid is absent, i.e., compensated for. The character of smectic layer deformation in an electric field is considered along with the mechanism of spatially inhomogeneous phase modulation of a laser beam passing through the cell which is accompanied by the destruction of phase relations in the beam. Advantages of a helix-free FLC cell are pointed out as compared to helical crystal cells studied previously. (liquid crystal devices)

  4. Single tracking location methods suppress speckle noise in shear wave velocity estimation. (United States)

    Elegbe, Etana C; McAleavey, Stephen A


    In ultrasound-based elastography methods, the estimation of shear wave velocity typically involves the tracking of speckle motion due to an applied force. The errors in the estimates of tissue displacement, and thus shear wave velocity, are generally attributed to electronic noise and decorrelation due to physical processes. We present our preliminary findings on another source of error, namely, speckle-induced bias in phase estimation. We find that methods that involve tracking in a single location, as opposed to multiple locations, are less sensitive to this source of error since the measurement is differential in nature and cancels out speckle-induced phase errors.

  5. Single Tracking Location Methods Suppress Speckle Noise in Shear Wave Velocity Estimation


    Elegbe, Etana C.; McAleavey, Stephen A.


    In ultrasound-based elastography methods, the estimation of shear wave velocity typically involves the tracking of speckle motion due to an applied force. The errors in the estimates of tissue displacement, and thus shear wave velocity, are generally attributed to electronic noise and decorrelation due to physical processes. We present our preliminary findings on another source of error, namely, speckle-induced bias in phase estimation. We find that methods that involve tracking in a single l...

  6. Speckle suppressing anisotropic diffusion filter for medical ultrasound images. (United States)

    Ovireddy, Saraniya; Muthusamy, Ezhilarasi


    Ultrasonography is often preferred over the other medical imaging modalities due to its noninvasive nature, cost-effectiveness, and portability. However, the resolution of the ultrasound image greatly depends upon the presence of speckle noise. Speckle noise generally tends to reduce the image resolution and contrast, thereby reducing the diagnostic resolution of this imaging modality. In this paper, we propose a speckle suppressing anisotropic diffusion (SSAD) filter, to remove the speckle noise from B-Mode Ultrasound images. The performance of the SSAD filter is compared with the existing diffusion filters. The evaluation is based on their application to images simulated by Field II (developed by Jensen et al.). The algorithms were also tested for clinical ultrasound images of polycystic ovaries obtained from HDI 5000 Ultrasound Scanner. Performance evaluation was done by both numerical and functional parameters. The proposed filter yields better results in terms of greatest structural similarity index map (SSIM) of 0.95 and accuracy of 99.5.

  7. Noise suppression by noise


    Vilar, J. M. G. (José M. G.), 1972-; Rubí Capaceti, José Miguel


    We have analyzed the interplay between an externally added noise and the intrinsic noise of systems that relax fast towards a stationary state, and found that increasing the intensity of the external noise can reduce the total noise of the system. We have established a general criterion for the appearance of this phenomenon and discussed two examples in detail.

  8. Integration of speckle de-noising and image segmentation using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aperture Radar (SAR) image because of its imperviousness to unfavourable weather conditions. However, they suffer from the speckle noise. Hence, the processing of SAR image is applied in two stages: speckle removal filters and image segmentation methods for flood mapping. The speckle noise has been reduced.

  9. Highly porous nanoberyllium for X-ray beam speckle suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goikhman, Alexander, E-mail:; Lyatun, Ivan; Ershov, Petr [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Snigireva, Irina [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Wojda, Pawel [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza, Gdańsk 80-233 (Poland); Gorlevsky, Vladimir; Semenov, Alexander; Sheverdyaev, Maksim; Koletskiy, Viktor [A. A. Bochvar High-Technology Scientific Research Institute for Inorganic Materials, Rogova str. 5a, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Snigirev, Anatoly [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France)


    A speckle suppression device containing highly porous nanoberyllium is proposed for manipulating the spatial coherence length and removing undesirable speckle structure during imaging experiments. This paper reports a special device called a ‘speckle suppressor’, which contains a highly porous nanoberyllium plate squeezed between two beryllium windows. The insertion of the speckle suppressor in an X-ray beam allows manipulation of the spatial coherence length, thus changing the effective source size and removing the undesirable speckle structure in X-ray imaging experiments almost without beam attenuation. The absorption of the nanoberyllium plate is below 1% for 1 mm thickness at 12 keV. The speckle suppressor was tested on the ID06 ESRF beamline with X-rays in the energy range from 9 to 15 keV. It was applied for the transformation of the phase–amplitude contrast to the pure amplitude contrast in full-field microscopy.

  10. Highly porous nanoberyllium for X-ray beam speckle suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goikhman, Alexander; Lyatun, Ivan; Ershov, Petr; Snigireva, Irina; Wojda, Pawel; Gorlevsky, Vladimir; Semenov, Alexander; Sheverdyaev, Maksim; Koletskiy, Viktor; Snigirev, Anatoly


    A speckle suppression device containing highly porous nanoberyllium is proposed for manipulating the spatial coherence length and removing undesirable speckle structure during imaging experiments. This paper reports a special device called a ‘speckle suppressor’, which contains a highly porous nanoberyllium plate squeezed between two beryllium windows. The insertion of the speckle suppressor in an X-ray beam allows manipulation of the spatial coherence length, thus changing the effective source size and removing the undesirable speckle structure in X-ray imaging experiments almost without beam attenuation. The absorption of the nanoberyllium plate is below 1% for 1 mm thickness at 12 keV. The speckle suppressor was tested on the ID06 ESRF beamline with X-rays in the energy range from 9 to 15 keV. It was applied for the transformation of the phase–amplitude contrast to the pure amplitude contrast in full-field microscopy

  11. Speckle Suppression in Ultrasonic Images Based on Undecimated Wavelets (United States)

    Argenti, Fabrizio; Torricelli, Gionatan


    An original method to denoise ultrasonic images affected by speckle is presented. Speckle is modeled as a signal-dependent noise corrupting the image. Noise reduction is approached as a Wiener-like filtering performed in a shift-invariant wavelet domain by means of an adaptive rescaling of the coefficients of an undecimated octave decomposition. The scaling factor of each coefficient is calculated from local statistics of the degraded image, the parameters of the noise model, and the wavelet filters. Experimental results demonstrate that excellent background smoothing as well as preservation of edge sharpness and fine details can be obtained.

  12. Reduction of speckle noise by multi-kinoforms in holographic three-dimensional display (United States)

    Zheng, Huadong; Yu, Yingjie; Qian, Haiyan; Asundi, Anand


    In order to avoid missing low-frequency information of three-dimensional (3D) object, pseudorandom phase is generally added to object planes in tomographic hologram calculation, but speckle noise is inevitably introduced. A novel method is proposed to improving the quality of image reconstructed from kinoform generated by computational tomographic holography. Multi-kinoforms of 3D object are calculated, and the images of these kinoforms are superposed to suppress the speckle noise of reconstructed image. An invariant pseudorandom phase is added to each object plane in calculating each kinoform, and the pseudorandom phase is generated randomly again in next kinoform calculating. Digital reconstruction results from single kinoform and multi-kinoforms are analyzed by considering the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and correlation coefficient (CC) between reconstructed images and original object, which verifies that the speckle noise in reconstructed image can be suppressed by superposing enough images reconstructed from the kinoforms. Electro-optical reconstruction results also confirm that the method is available.

  13. Reduction of the recorded speckle noise in holographic 3D printer. (United States)

    Utsugi, Takeru; Yamaguchi, Masahiro


    A holographic 3D printer produces a high-quality 3D image reproduced by a full-color, full-parallax holographic stereogram with high-density light-ray recording. In order to produce a high-resolution holographic stereogram, we have to solve the problem of speckle noise in this system. For equalizing an intensity distribution inside the elementary hologram, the object beam is modulated by a diffuser. However the diffuser typically generates speckles, which is recorded in the holographic stereogram. It is localized behind the reconstructed image as a granularity noise. First we show the problems of some conventional ways for suppressing the granularity noise using a band-limited diffuser, and then we analyze an approach using a moving diffuser for the reduction of this noise. In the result, it is found that recording with a moving diffuser is effective for reducing the granularity noise at infinity of reconstructed image, although an alternative noise occurs. Moreover we propose a new method introducing multiple exposures to suppress the noise effectively.

  14. Three-dimensional speckle-noise reduction by using computational integral imaging and statistical point estimator (United States)

    Moon, Inkyu


    In this paper we overview a method which can remove speckle noises to exist in coherent imaging systems. Integral imaging (II) system under coherent illumination records the elemental image set with speckle noise patterns of a threedimensional (3D) object. The computational geometrical ray propagation and statistical point estimation algorithms are applied to the elemental image set in order to reconstruct the speckle reduced 3D integral imaging. As performance metrics, the SNR and speckle index are calculated. The results are used to compare the speckle reduced 3D image reconstructed by the presented method with the coherent image having speckle patterns. It is shown in experiments that the presented method can three dimensionally reduce the speckle noise in the 3D object reconstruction.

  15. A Nonlinear Diffusion Equation-Based Model for Ultrasound Speckle Noise Removal (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenyu; Guo, Zhichang; Zhang, Dazhi; Wu, Boying


    Ultrasound images are contaminated by speckle noise, which brings difficulties in further image analysis and clinical diagnosis. In this paper, we address this problem in the view of nonlinear diffusion equation theories. We develop a nonlinear diffusion equation-based model by taking into account not only the gradient information of the image, but also the information of the gray levels of the image. By utilizing the region indicator as the variable exponent, we can adaptively control the diffusion type which alternates between the Perona-Malik diffusion and the Charbonnier diffusion according to the image gray levels. Furthermore, we analyze the proposed model with respect to the theoretical and numerical properties. Experiments show that the proposed method achieves much better speckle suppression and edge preservation when compared with the traditional despeckling methods, especially in the low gray level and low-contrast regions.

  16. Noise suppression in duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.; Barfeh, M.A.G.


    In air-conditioning system the noise generated by supply fan is carried by conditioned air through the ductwork. The noise created in ductwork run may be transmission, regenerative and ductborne. Transmission noise is fan noise, regenerative noise is due to turbulence in flow and ductborne noise is the noise radiating from duct to surroundings. Some noise is attenuated in ducts also but if noise level is high then it needs to be attenuated. A simple mitre bend can attenuate-noise. This principle is extended to V and M-shape ducts with inside lining of fibreglass, which gave maximum attenuation of 77 dB and 62 dB respectively corresponding to 8 kHz frequency as compared to mitre, bend giving maximum 18 dB attenuation. Sound level meter measured sound levels with octave band filter and tests were conducted in anechoic room. A V-shape attenuator can be used at fan outlet and high frequency noise can be minimized greatly. (author)

  17. Integration of speckle de-noising and image segmentation using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In addition to speckle suppres- sion, an ideal filter must preserve edges and texture information. In the literature, adaptive filters for speckle removal are preferred for this purpose, since most of the well-known speckle removal filters perform the calculation of the local observed mean along with normalized standard deviation.

  18. Speckle noise reduction for computer generated holograms of objects with diffuse surfaces (United States)

    Symeonidou, Athanasia; Blinder, David; Ahar, Ayyoub; Schretter, Colas; Munteanu, Adrian; Schelkens, Peter


    Digital holography is mainly used today for metrology and microscopic imaging and is emerging as an important potential technology for future holographic television. To generate the holographic content, computer-generated holography (CGH) techniques convert geometric descriptions of a 3D scene content. To model different surface types, an accurate model of light propagation has to be considered, including for example, specular and diffuse reflection. In previous work, we proposed a fast CGH method for point cloud data using multiple wavefront recording planes, look-up tables (LUTs) and occlusion processing. This work extends our method to account for diffuse reflections, enabling rendering of deep 3D scenes in high resolution with wide viewing angle support. This is achieved by modifying the spectral response of the light propagation kernels contained by the look-up tables. However, holograms encoding diffuse reflective surfaces depict significant amounts of speckle noise, a problem inherent to holography. Hence, techniques to improve the reduce speckle noise are evaluated in this paper. Moreover, we propose as well a technique to suppress the aperture diffraction during numerical, viewdependent rendering by apodizing the hologram. Results are compared visually and in terms of their respective computational efficiency. The experiments show that by modelling diffuse reflection in the LUTs, a more realistic yet computationally efficient framework for generating high-resolution CGH is achieved.

  19. Speckle suppression via sparse representation for wide-field imaging through turbid media. (United States)

    Jang, Hwanchol; Yoon, Changhyeong; Chung, Euiheon; Choi, Wonshik; Lee, Heung-No


    Speckle suppression is one of the most important tasks in the image transmission through turbid media. Insufficient speckle suppression requires an additional procedure such as temporal ensemble averaging over multiple exposures. In this paper, we consider the image recovery process based on the so-called transmission matrix (TM) of turbid media for the image transmission through the media. We show that the speckle left unremoved in the TM-based image recovery can be suppressed effectively via sparse representation (SR). SR is a relatively new signal reconstruction framework which works well even for ill-conditioned problems. This is the first study to show the benefit of using the SR as compared to the phase conjugation (PC) a de facto standard method to date for TM-based imaging through turbid media including a live cell through tissue slice.

  20. Speckle Noise Reduction for the Enhancement of Retinal Layers in Optical Coherence Tomography Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereydoon Nowshiravan Rahatabad


    Full Text Available Introduction One of the most important pre-processing steps in optical coherence tomography (OCT is reducing speckle noise, resulting from multiple scattering of tissues, which degrades the quality of OCT images. Materials and Methods The present study focused on speckle noise reduction and edge detection techniques. Statistical filters with different masks and noise variances were applied on OCT and test images. Objective evaluation of both types of images was performed, using various image metrics such as peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR, root mean square error, correlation coefficient and elapsed time. For the purpose of recovery, Kuan filter was used as an input for edge enhancement. Also, a spatial filter was applied to improve image quality. Results The obtained results were presented as statistical tables and images. Based on statistical measures and visual quality of OCT images, Enhanced Lee filter (3×3 with a PSNR value of 43.6735 in low noise variance and Kuan filter (3×3 with a PSNR value of 37.2850 in high noise variance showed superior performance over other filters. Conclusion Based on the obtained results, by using speckle reduction filters such as Enhanced Lee and Kuan filters on OCT images, the number of compounded images, required to achieve a given image quality, could be reduced. Moreover, use of Kuan filters for promoting the edges allowed smoothing of speckle regions, while preserving image tissue texture.

  1. Noise reduction in digital speckle pattern interferometry using bidimensional empirical mode decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernini, Maria Belen; Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H.


    We propose a bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) method to reduce speckle noise in digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) fringes. The BEMD method is based on a sifting process that decomposes the DSPI fringes in a finite set of subimages represented by high and low frequency oscillations, which are named modes. The sifting process assigns the high frequency information to the first modes, so that it is possible to discriminate speckle noise from fringe information, which is contained in the remaining modes. The proposed method is a fully data-driven technique, therefore neither fixed basis functions nor operator intervention are required. The performance of the BEMD method to denoise DSPI fringes is analyzed using computer-simulated data, and the results are also compared with those obtained by means of a previously developed one-dimensional empirical mode decomposition approach. An application of the proposed BEMD method to denoise experimental fringes is also presented

  2. Improving the sensitivity of velocity measurements in laser speckle contrast imaging using a noise correction method. (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Lv, Wenzhi; Chen, Xiao; Lu, Jinling; Li, Pengcheng


    We demonstrate that noise is an important factor contributing to the decline of sensitivity and linear response range of velocity measurements for laser speckle contrast imaging. We propose to use a noise correction method to improve the sensitivity of velocity measurements. For a kind of camera in which the mean values of the dark noise have been subtracted and negative counts have been set to zero, we propose a method to estimate the true dark noise based on the maximum likelihood estimation, which expands the application scope of the noise correction method.

  3. Speckle noise reduction in ultrasound images using a discrete wavelet transform-based image fusion technique. (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Ho; Lee, Ju Hwan; Kim, Sung Min; Park, Sung Yun


    Here, the speckle noise in ultrasonic images is removed using an image fusion-based denoising method. To optimize the denoising performance, each discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and filtering technique was analyzed and compared. In addition, the performances were compared in order to derive the optimal input conditions. To evaluate the speckle noise removal performance, an image fusion algorithm was applied to the ultrasound images, and comparatively analyzed with the original image without the algorithm. As a result, applying DWT and filtering techniques caused information loss and noise characteristics, and did not represent the most significant noise reduction performance. Conversely, an image fusion method applying SRAD-original conditions preserved the key information in the original image, and the speckle noise was removed. Based on such characteristics, the input conditions of SRAD-original had the best denoising performance with the ultrasound images. From this study, the best denoising technique proposed based on the results was confirmed to have a high potential for clinical application.

  4. Adaptive Suppression of Noise in Voice Communications (United States)

    Kozel, David; DeVault, James A.; Birr, Richard B.


    A subsystem for the adaptive suppression of noise in a voice communication system effects a high level of reduction of noise that enters the system through microphones. The subsystem includes a digital signal processor (DSP) plus circuitry that implements voice-recognition and spectral- manipulation techniques. The development of the adaptive noise-suppression subsystem was prompted by the following considerations: During processing of the space shuttle at Kennedy Space Center, voice communications among test team members have been significantly impaired in several instances because some test participants have had to communicate from locations with high ambient noise levels. Ear protection for the personnel involved is commercially available and is used in such situations. However, commercially available noise-canceling microphones do not provide sufficient reduction of noise that enters through microphones and thus becomes transmitted on outbound communication links.

  5. Noise Analysis of MAIA System and Possible Noise Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Svihlik


    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the noise analysis and noise suppression in a system for double station observation of the meteors now known as MAIA (Meteor Automatic Imager and Analyzer. The noise analysis is based on acquisition of testing video sequences in different light conditions and their further statistical evaluation. The main goal is to find a suitable noise model and subsequently determine if the noise is signal dependent or not. Noise and image model in the wavelet domain should be based on Gaussian mixture model (GMM or Generalized Laplacian Model (GLM and the model parameters should be estimated by moment method. Furthermore, noise should be modeled by GMM or GLM also in the space domain. GMM and GLM allow to model various types of probability density functions. Finally the advanced denoising algorithm using Bayesian estimator is applied and its performance is verified.

  6. Combination of Spatial Domain Filters for Speckle Noise Reduction in Ultrasound Medical Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Garg


    Full Text Available The occurrence of speckle noise in medical Ultrasound (US images poses a big challenge to medical practitioners over last several years. Speckle noise reduces the fine details present in the images and hence make it more difficult to diagnose. In this paper, a~novel method based on the combination of three spatial domain filters is presented. The output of these filters is combined on the basis of an Intensity Classifier Map (ICF formed using Coefficient of Dispersion (CoD parameter. Experiments were conducted on synthetic and real US images. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the proposed method is carried out in comparison to other six existing methods. It has been found from the obtained results that proposed method delivers observable improvement in all quantitative parameters undertaken for synthetic US image and in MVR value for real US images. Also, the effectiveness of the proposed method is found to be consistent with qualitative assessment of the denoised images.

  7. BL_Wiener Denoising Method for Removal of Speckle Noise in Ultrasound Image


    Suhaila Sari; Zuliana Azreen Zulkifeli; Hazli Roslan; Nabilah Ibrahim


    Medical imaging techniques are extremely important tools in medical diagnosis. One of these important imaging techniques is ultrasound imaging. However, during ultrasound image acquisition process, the quality of image can be degraded due to corruption by speckle noise. The enhancement of ultrasound images quality from the 2D ultrasound imaging machines is expected to provide medical practitioners more reliable medical images in their patients’ diagnosis. However, developing a denoising techn...

  8. Speckle noise reduction for optical coherence tomography based on adaptive 2D dictionary (United States)

    Lv, Hongli; Fu, Shujun; Zhang, Caiming; Zhai, Lin


    As a high-resolution biomedical imaging modality, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is widely used in medical sciences. However, OCT images often suffer from speckle noise, which can mask some important image information, and thus reduce the accuracy of clinical diagnosis. Taking full advantage of nonlocal self-similarity and adaptive 2D-dictionary-based sparse representation, in this work, a speckle noise reduction algorithm is proposed for despeckling OCT images. To reduce speckle noise while preserving local image features, similar nonlocal patches are first extracted from the noisy image and put into groups using a gamma- distribution-based block matching method. An adaptive 2D dictionary is then learned for each patch group. Unlike traditional vector-based sparse coding, we express each image patch by the linear combination of a few matrices. This image-to-matrix method can exploit the local correlation between pixels. Since each image patch might belong to several groups, the despeckled OCT image is finally obtained by aggregating all filtered image patches. The experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method over other state-of-the-art despeckling methods, in terms of objective metrics and visual inspection.

  9. Characterization of speckle noise in three dimensional ultrasound data ofmaterial components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Osman


    Full Text Available Ultrasound waves are preferably used as means to provide details about the inner structure of materials, thus providing a way to non-destructively evaluate the quality of produced components. Nevertheless, ultrasonic data are strongly a ected by a multiplicative type of noise referred to as speckle noise. Within this paper, the modeling of the intensity distribution within ultrasound imagesand volumetric data is addressed through parametric approach modeling. The proposed model was compared with the state of the art models through measuring the corresponding goodness of fit of eachmodel to the actual data distribution. The data were acquired on aluminum, ceramic and composite structures.

  10. Speckle Interferometry (United States)

    Chiang, F. P.; Jin, F.; Wang, Q.; Zhu, N.

    Before the milestone work of Leedertz in 1970 coherent speckles generated from a laser illuminated object are considered noise to be eliminated or minimized. Leedertz shows that coherent speckles are actually information carriers. Since then the speckle technique has found many applications to fields of mechanics, metrology, nondestructive evaluation and material sciences. Speckles need not be coherent. Artificially created socalled white light speckles can also be used as information carriers. In this paper we present two recent developments of speckle technique with applications to micromechanics problems using SIEM (Speckle Interferometry with Electron Microscopy), to nondestructive evaluation of crevice corrosion and composite disbond and vibration of large structures using TADS (Time-Average Digital Specklegraphy).

  11. Speckle noise reduction on a laser projection display via a broadband green light source. (United States)

    Yu, Nan Ei; Choi, Ju Won; Kang, Heejong; Ko, Do-Kyeong; Fu, Shih-Hao; Liou, Jiun-Wei; Kung, Andy H; Choi, Hee Joo; Kim, Byoung Joo; Cha, Myoungsik; Peng, Lung-Han


    A broadband green light source was demonstrated using a tandem-poled lithium niobate (TPLN) crystal. The measured wavelength and temperature bandwidth were 6.5 nm and 100 °C, respectively, spectral bandwidth was 36 times broader than the periodically poled case. Although the conversion efficiency was smaller than in the periodic case, the TPLN device had a good figure of merit owing to the extremely large bandwidth for wavelength and temperature. The developed broadband green light source exhibited speckle noise approximately one-seventh of that in the conventional approach for a laser projection display.

  12. Speckle noise reduction technique for Lidar echo signal based on self-adaptive pulse-matching independent component analysis (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Wang, Jiaxing; Zhu, Daiyin; Tu, Qi


    Speckle noise has always been a particularly tricky problem in improving the ranging capability and accuracy of Lidar system especially in harsh environment. Currently, effective speckle de-noising techniques are extremely scarce and should be further developed. In this study, a speckle noise reduction technique has been proposed based on independent component analysis (ICA). Since normally few changes happen in the shape of laser pulse itself, the authors employed the laser source as a reference pulse and executed the ICA decomposition to find the optimal matching position. In order to achieve the self-adaptability of algorithm, local Mean Square Error (MSE) has been defined as an appropriate criterion for investigating the iteration results. The obtained experimental results demonstrated that the self-adaptive pulse-matching ICA (PM-ICA) method could effectively decrease the speckle noise and recover the useful Lidar echo signal component with high quality. Especially, the proposed method achieves 4 dB more improvement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than a traditional homomorphic wavelet method.

  13. Speckle noise reduction in single-shot holographic two-wavelength contouring (United States)

    Agour, Mostafa; Klattenhoff, Reiner; Falldorf, Claas; Bergmann, Ralf B.


    We present an experimental configuration that enables form measurement from a single-shot camera exposure. It combines two-wavelength contouring with spatial multiplexing synthetic-aperture digital holography. The synthetic-aperture in this work is formed by simultaneously illuminating the test object from two different angles. The two illumination directions and the two-wavelength contouring result in four holograms which are spatially multiplexed on a single camera target avoiding unwanted cross-interference between them by means of coherence gating. In contrast to standard holographic contouring methods, the proposed technique reduces speckle decorrelation noise and enables single shot form measurement. To demonstrate this technique, the shape of a micro cold drawing part is determined.

  14. The Speckle Noise Reduction and the Boundary Enhancement on Medical Ultrasound Images using the Cellular Neural Networks (United States)

    Park, Hyunkyung; Miyazaki, Ryota; Nishimura, Toshihiro; Tamaki, Yasuhiro

    The purpose is to remove the speckle noise and to emphasize the boundary of a tumor by filtering based on the intensity difference in the medical ultrasound images. The proposed method is evaluated using numerical phantom simulating ultrasound B-mode images, and the effect is confirmed by applying to medical ultrasound images. Therefore, some important features such as tissue boundaries and small tumors may be overlooked. A CNN (cellular neural networks) for the speckle reduction and the edge enhancement are proposed in this paper. A CNN which is a kind of recurrent neural network can deal with images by the weight of neurons called a cell. It could be obtained more detail images recognition compared with the previous studies. A determination template parameters of the CNN for ultrasound image processing is discussed. The experimental results show effectiveness of applying the proposed method to boundary enhancement and the speckle reduction of medical ultrasound image.

  15. Speckle noise reduction in breast ultrasound images: SMU (srad median unsharp) approch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njeh, I.; Sassi, O. B.; Ben Hamida, A.; Chtourou, K.


    Image denoising has become a very essential for better information extraction from the image and mainly from so noised ones, such as ultrasound images. In certain cases, for instance in ultrasound images, the noise can restrain information which is valuable for the general practitioner. Consequently medical images are very inconsistent, and it is crucial to operate case to case. This paper presents a novel algorithm SMU (Srad Median Unsharp) for noise suppression in ultrasound breast images in order to realize a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) for breast cancer.

  16. Microarray analyzer based on wide field fluorescent microscopy with laser illumination and a device for speckle suppression (United States)

    Lysov, Yuri; Barsky, Victor; Urasov, Dmitriy; Urasov, Roman; Cherepanov, Alecksey; Mamaev, Dmitryi; Yegorov, Yegor; Chudinov, Alexander; Surzhikov, Sergey; Rubina, Alla; Smoldovskaya, Olga; Zasedatelev, Alexander


    A microarray analyzer was developed to obtain images and measure the fluorescence intensity of microarrays at three wavelengths from 380 nm to 850 nm. The analyzer contains lasers to excite fluorescence, barrier filters, optics to project images on an image detector, and a device for suppressing laser speckles on the microarray support. The speckle suppression device contains a fibre-optic bundle and a rotating mirror positioned in a way to change the distance between the bundle butt and mirror surface during each mirror revolution. The analyzer provides for measurements with accuracy within ± 5%. Obtaining images at several exposure times allowed a significant expansion in the range of measured fluorescence intensities. The analyzer is useful for high throughput analysis of the same type of microarrays. PMID:29188082

  17. Hearing aid noise suppression and working memory function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Rosa-Linde; Neher, Tobias; Wagener, Kirsten C.

    Research findings concerning the relation between outcome from hearing aid (HA) noise suppression and working memory function are unclear. The current study thus investigated the effects of three noise suppression algorithms on auditory working memory as well as the relation with reading span...

  18. Hearing aid noise suppression and working memory function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neher, Tobias; Wagener, Kirsten C.; Fischer, Rosa-Linde


    OBJECTIVE: Research findings concerning the relation between benefit from hearing aid (HA) noise suppression and working memory function are inconsistent. The current study thus investigated the effects of three noise suppression algorithms on auditory working memory and the relation with reading...

  19. A novel approach to speckle noise filtering based on Artificial Bee Colony algorithm: an ultrasound image application. (United States)

    Latifoğlu, Fatma


    In this study a novel approach based on 2D FIR filters is presented for denoising digital images. In this approach the filter coefficients of 2D FIR filters were optimized using the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm. To obtain the best filter design, the filter coefficients were tested with different numbers (3×3, 5×5, 7×7, 11×11) and connection types (cascade and parallel) during optimization. First, the speckle noise with variances of 1, 0.6, 0.8 and 0.2 respectively was added to the synthetic test image. Later, these noisy images were denoised with both the proposed approach and other well-known filter types such as Gaussian, mean and average filters. For image quality determination metrics such as mean square error (MSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were used. Even in the case of noise having maximum variance (the most noisy), the proposed approach performed better than other filtering methods did on the noisy test images. In addition to test images, speckle noise with a variance of 1 was added to a fetal ultrasound image, and this noisy image was denoised with very high PSNR and SNR values. The performance of the proposed approach was also tested on several clinical ultrasound images such as those obtained from ovarian, abdomen and liver tissues. The results of this study showed that the 2D FIR filters designed based on ABC optimization can eliminate speckle noise quite well on noise added test images and intrinsically noisy ultrasound images. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Setup for studying speckle noise of spectroradiometer diffusers in Earth observation applications (United States)

    Vaskuri, Anna; Greenwell, Claire; Woolliams, Emma


    Diffusers in in-orbit spectroradiometers cause speckle under partially coherent solar radiation. A speckle pattern entering a spectroradiometer through a small slit creates systematic spectral deviations in measured spectra. We have developed a setup to characterise the spatial speckle of diffusers and the related spectral features. The decorrelation angles measured at 532 nm for Spectralon, Diffusil, and Heraeus diffusers were 0.021°, 0.014°, and 0.005° respectively. This information can be used for compensating speckle-related spectral features from the radiometric satellite measurements by averaging over multiple decorrelated spectra.

  1. Hearing aid noise suppression and working memory function


    Fischer, Rosa-Linde; Neher, Tobias; Wagener, Kirsten C.


    OBJECTIVE: Research findings concerning the relation between benefit from hearing aid (HA) noise suppression and working memory function are inconsistent. The current study thus investigated the effects of three noise suppression algorithms on auditory working memory and the relation with reading span.DESIGN: Using a computer simulation of bilaterally fitted HAs, four settings were tested: (1) unprocessed, (2) directional microphones, (3) single-channel noise reduction and (4) binaural cohere...

  2. Adaptive Noise Suppression Using Digital Signal Processing (United States)

    Kozel, David; Nelson, Richard


    A signal to noise ratio dependent adaptive spectral subtraction algorithm is developed to eliminate noise from noise corrupted speech signals. The algorithm determines the signal to noise ratio and adjusts the spectral subtraction proportion appropriately. After spectra subtraction low amplitude signals are squelched. A single microphone is used to obtain both eh noise corrupted speech and the average noise estimate. This is done by determining if the frame of data being sampled is a voiced or unvoiced frame. During unvoice frames an estimate of the noise is obtained. A running average of the noise is used to approximate the expected value of the noise. Applications include the emergency egress vehicle and the crawler transporter.

  3. Communication system with adaptive noise suppression (United States)

    Kozel, David (Inventor); Devault, James A. (Inventor); Birr, Richard B. (Inventor)


    A signal-to-noise ratio dependent adaptive spectral subtraction process eliminates noise from noise-corrupted speech signals. The process first pre-emphasizes the frequency components of the input sound signal which contain the consonant information in human speech. Next, a signal-to-noise ratio is determined and a spectral subtraction proportion adjusted appropriately. After spectral subtraction, low amplitude signals can be squelched. A single microphone is used to obtain both the noise-corrupted speech and the average noise estimate. This is done by determining if the frame of data being sampled is a voiced or unvoiced frame. During unvoiced frames an estimate of the noise is obtained. A running average of the noise is used to approximate the expected value of the noise. Spectral subtraction may be performed on a composite noise-corrupted signal, or upon individual sub-bands of the noise-corrupted signal. Pre-averaging of the input signal's magnitude spectrum over multiple time frames may be performed to reduce musical noise.

  4. Comparing the performance of different ultrasonic images enhancement for speckle noise reduction in ultrasound images using techniques: a preference study (United States)

    Rana, Md. Shohel; Sarker, Kaushik; Bhuiyan, Touhid; Hassan, Md. Maruf


    Diagnostic ultrasound (US) is an important tool in today's sophisticated medical diagnostics. Nearly every medical discipline benefits itself from this relatively inexpensive method that provides a view of the inner organs of the human body without exposing the patient to any harmful radiations. Medical diagnostic images are usually corrupted by noise during their acquisition and most of the noise is speckle noise. To solve this problem, instead of using adaptive filters which are widely used, No-Local Means based filters have been used to de-noise the images. Ultrasound images of four organs such as Abdomen, Ortho, Liver, Kidney, Brest and Prostrate of a Human body have been used and applied comparative analysis study to find out the output. These images were taken from Siemens SONOLINE G60 S System and the output was compared by matrices like SNR, RMSE, PSNR IMGQ and SSIM. The significance and compared results were shown in a tabular format.

  5. Noise suppression via generalized-Markovian processes (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffrey; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Zanardi, Paolo


    It is by now well established that noise itself can be useful for performing quantum information processing tasks. We present results which show how one can effectively reduce the error rate associated with a noisy quantum channel by counteracting its detrimental effects with another form of noise. In particular, we consider the effect of adding on top of a purely Markovian (Lindblad) dynamics, a more general form of dissipation, which we refer to as generalized-Markovian noise. This noise has an associated memory kernel and the resulting dynamics are described by an integrodifferential equation. The overall dynamics are characterized by decay rates which depend not only on the original dissipative time scales but also on the new integral kernel. We find that one can engineer this kernel such that the overall rate of decay is lowered by the addition of this noise term. We illustrate this technique for the case where the bare noise is described by a dephasing Pauli channel. We analytically solve this model and show that one can effectively double (or even triple) the length of the channel, while achieving the same fidelity, entanglement, and error threshold. We numerically verify this scheme can also be used to protect against thermal Markovian noise (at nonzero temperature), which models spontaneous emission and excitation processes. A physical interpretation of this scheme is discussed, whereby the added generalized-Markovian noise causes the system to become periodically decoupled from the background Markovian noise.

  6. Noise Suppression for Dual-Energy CT Through Entropy Minimization. (United States)

    Petrongolo, Michael; Zhu, Lei


    In dual energy CT (DECT), noise amplification during signal decomposition significantly limits the utility of basis material images. Since clinically relevant objects typically contain a limited number of different materials, we propose an Image-domain Decomposition method through Entropy Minimization (IDEM) for noise suppression in DECT. Pixels of decomposed images are first linearly transformed into 2D clusters of data points, which are highly asymmetric due to strong signal correlation. An optimal axis is identified in the 2D space via numerical search such that the projection of data clusters onto the axis has minimum entropy. Noise suppression is performed on each image pixel by estimating the center-of-mass value of each data cluster along the direction perpendicular to the projection axis. The IDEM method is distinct from other noise suppression techniques in that it does not suppress pixel noise by reducing spatial variation between neighboring pixels. As supported by studies on Catphan©600 and anthropomorphic head phantoms, this feature endows our algorithm with a unique capability of reducing noise standard deviation on DECT decomposed images by approximately one order of magnitude while preserving spatial resolution and image noise power spectra (NPS). Compared with a filtering method and recently developed iterative method at the same level of noise suppression, the IDEM algorithm obtains high-resolution images with less artifacts. It also maintains accuracy of electron density measurements with less than 2% bias error. The IDEM method effectively suppresses noise of DECT for quantitative use, with appealing features on preservation of image spatial resolution and NPS.

  7. Analysis of Barber-Pole Color and Speckle Noises Recorded 6 and a Half Hours before the Kobe Earthquake (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Ikeya, Motoji; Yamanaka, Chihiro


    Barber-pole color shift and speckle noise in the images on the videotape of a TV program recorded six and a half hours before the Kobe earthquake havebeen analyzed and are considered to be due to electromagnetic (EM) noise of a few tens of mV/maround 217 MHz and pulsed noise with a width of about µs,respectively. Such images were reproduced by artificial means using amicrowave synthesizer and from air-gap discharges using a Van de Graaff generator. An EM model of a fault with piezo-compensating freecharges around quartz in granitic rocks gave pulsed EM waves having apulse width of 0.5 µs and height of 0.5 V/m at a point 50 kmfrom the fault.

  8. Speckle noise reduction for optical coherence tomography images via non-local weighted group low-rank representation (United States)

    Tang, Chang; Cao, Lijuan; Chen, Jiajia; Zheng, Xiao


    In this work, a non-local weighted group low-rank representation (WGLRR) model is proposed for speckle noise reduction in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. It is based on the observation that the similarity between patches within the noise-free OCT image leads to a high correlation between them, which means that the data matrix grouped by these similar patches is low-rank. Thus, the low-rank representation (LRR) is used to recover the noise-free group data matrix. In order to maintain the fidelity of the recovered image, the corrupted probability of each pixel is integrated into the LRR model as a weight to regularize the error term. Considering that each single patch might belong to several groups, and multiple estimates of this patch can be obtained, different estimates of each patch is aggregated to obtain its denoised result. The aggregating weights are exploited depending on the rank of each group data matrix, which can assign higher weights to those better estimates. Both qualitative and quantitative experimental results on real OCT images show the superior performance of the WGLRR model compared with other state-of-the-art speckle removal techniques.

  9. Noise suppression and crosstalk analysis of on-chip magnetic film-type noise suppressor (United States)

    Ma, Jingyan; Muroga, Sho; Endo, Yasushi; Hashi, Shuichiro; Naoe, Masayuki; Yokoyama, Hiroo; Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Ishiyama, Kazushi


    This paper discusses near field, conduction and crosstalk noise suppression of magnetic films with uniaxial anisotropy on transmission lines for a film-type noise suppressor in the GHz frequency range. The electromagnetic noise suppressions of magnetic films with different permeability and resistivity were measured and simulated with simple microstrip lines. The experimental and simulated results of Co-Zr-Nb and CoPd-CaF2 films agreed with each other. The results indicate that the higher permeability leads to a better near field shielding, and in the frequency range of 2-7 GHz, a higher conduction noise suppression. It also suggests that the higher resistivity results in a better crosstalk suppression in the frequency range below 2 GHz. These results can support the design guidelines of the magnetic film-type noise suppressor used in the next generation IC chip.

  10. Suppressed speckle contrast of blue light emission out of white lamp with phosphors excited by blue laser diodes for high-brightness lighting applications (United States)

    Kinoshita, Junichi; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Takeda, Yuji; Ueno, Misaki; Kawasaki, Yoji; Matsuba, Yoshiaki; Heike, Atsushi


    The speckle contrast of blue light emission out of high-brightness white lamps using phosphors excited by InGaN/GaN blue laser diodes is evaluated as a measure of coherence. As a result, speckle contrast of as low as 1.7%, the same level as a blue light emitting diode, is obtained. This implies that the original blue laser light can be converted into incoherent light through lamp structures without any dynamic mechanisms. This unique speckle-free performance is considered to be realized by multiple scattering inside the lamp structure, the multi-longitudinal mode operation of the blue laser diodes, and the use of multiple laser diodes. Such almost-incoherent white lamps can be applied for general lighting without any nuisance of speckle noise and should be categorized as lamps rather than lasers in terms of laser safety regulation.

  11. Exploration of Geometric Noise Suppression in Transition Edge Sensors (United States)

    Chervenak, J. A.; Allen, C. A.; Abrahams, J. A.; Miller, T. M.; Talley, D. J.; Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Mosely, S. H.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Brekosky, R. G.


    We present noise data on Mo/Au superconducting transition edge sensors featuring the noise suppression geometry using normal metal bars transverse to the bias current. The effectiveness of the bars in far-infrared bolometers and x-ray microcalorimeters is evaluated. We have examined the effect of the resistivity of the superconducting bilayer on excess noise in bolometer devices. We have also studied the effect of bar density on energy resolution in x-ray devices. We address the question of whether the reduction is noise is necessarily coupled to a reduction in the effective transition sharpness. We propose a fabrication technique experiment to examine the dependence of alpha and noise suppression in similar transverse bar densities.

  12. Noise Analysis of MAIA System and Possible Noise Suppression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švihlík, J.; Fliegel, K.; Koten, Pavel; Vítek, S.; Páta, P.


    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2011), s. 110-117 ISSN 1210-2512. [International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing /33./ - TSP 2010. Baden near Vienna, 17.08.2010-20.08.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : MAIA * meteor * noise analysis Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.739, year: 2011

  13. Camera-based speckle noise reduction for 3-D absolute shape measurements. (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Kuschmierz, Robert; Czarske, Jürgen; Fischer, Andreas


    Simultaneous position and velocity measurements enable absolute 3-D shape measurements of fast rotating objects for instance for monitoring the cutting process in a lathe. Laser Doppler distance sensors enable simultaneous position and velocity measurements with a single sensor head by evaluating the scattered light signals. The superposition of several speckles with equal Doppler frequency but random phase on the photo detector results in an increased velocity and shape uncertainty, however. In this paper, we present a novel image evaluation method that overcomes the uncertainty limitations due to the speckle effect. For this purpose, the scattered light is detected with a camera instead of single photo detectors. Thus, the Doppler frequency from each speckle can be evaluated separately and the velocity uncertainty decreases with the square root of the number of camera lines. A reduction of the velocity uncertainty by the order of one magnitude is verified by the numerical simulations and experimental results, respectively. As a result, the measurement uncertainty of the absolute shape is not limited by the speckle effect anymore.

  14. Speckle interferometry (United States)

    Sirohi, Rajpal S.


    Illumination of a rough surface by a coherent monochromatic wave creates a grainy structure in space termed a speckle pattern. It was considered a special kind of noise and was the bane of holographers. However, its information-carrying property was soon discovered and the phenomenon was used for metrological applications. The realization that a speckle pattern carried information led to a new measurement technique known as speckle interferometry (SI). Although the speckle phenomenon in itself is a consequence of interference among numerous randomly dephased waves, a reference wave is required in SI. Further, it employs an imaging geometry. Initially SI was performed mostly by using silver emulsions as the recording media. The double-exposure specklegram was filtered to extract the desired information. Since SI can be configured so as to be sensitive to the in-plane displacement component, the out-of-plane displacement component or their derivatives, the interferograms corresponding to these were extracted from the specklegram for further analysis. Since the speckle size can be controlled by the F number of the imaging lens, it was soon realized that SI could be performed with electronic detection, thereby increasing its accuracy and speed of measurement. Furthermore, a phase-shifting technique can also be incorporated. This technique came to be known as electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). It employed the same experimental configurations as SI. ESPI found many industrial applications as it supplements holographic interferometry. We present three examples covering diverse areas. In one application it has been used to measure residual stress in a blank recordable compact disk. In another application, microscopic ESPI has been used to study the influence of relative humidity on paint-coated figurines and also the effect of a conservation agent applied on top of this. The final application is to find the defects in pipes. These diverse applications

  15. Adaptive Active Noise Suppression Using Multiple Model Switching Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanzhen Huang


    Full Text Available Active noise suppression for applications where the system response varies with time is a difficult problem. The computation burden for the existing control algorithms with online identification is heavy and easy to cause control system instability. A new active noise control algorithm is proposed in this paper by employing multiple model switching strategy for secondary path varying. The computation is significantly reduced. Firstly, a noise control system modeling method is proposed for duct-like applications. Then a multiple model adaptive control algorithm is proposed with a new multiple model switching strategy based on filter-u least mean square (FULMS algorithm. Finally, the proposed algorithm was implemented on Texas Instruments digital signal processor (DSP TMS320F28335 and real time experiments were done to test the proposed algorithm and FULMS algorithm with online identification. Experimental verification tests show that the proposed algorithm is effective with good noise suppression performance.

  16. Noise Suppression and Enhanced Focusability in Plasma Raman Amplifier with Multi-frequency Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakin, A.A.; Fraiman, G.M.; Fisch, N.J.; Malkin, V.M.


    Laser pulse compression/amplification through Raman backscattering in plasmas can be facilitated by using multi-frequency pump laser beams. The efficiency of amplification is increased by suppressing the Raman instability of thermal fluctuations and seed precursors. Also the focusability of the amplified radiation is enhanced due to the suppression of large-scale longitudinal speckles in the pump wave structure

  17. A pilot study to image the vascular network of small melanocytic choroidal tumors with speckle noise-free 1050-nm swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT choroidal angiography). (United States)

    Maloca, Peter; Gyger, Cyrill; Hasler, Pascal W


    To visualize and measure the vascular network of melanocytic choroidal tumors with speckle noise-free swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT choroidal angiography). Melanocytic choroidal tumors from 24 eyes were imaged with 1050-nm optical coherence tomography (Topcon DRI OCT-1 Atlantis). A semi-automated algorithm was developed to remove speckle noise and to extract and measure the volume of the choroidal vessels from the obtained OCT data. In all cases, analysis of the choroidal vessels could be performed with SS-OCT without the need for pupillary dilation. The proposed method allows speckle noise-free, structure-guided visualization and measurement of the larger choroidal vessels in three dimensions. The obtained data suggest that speckle noise-free OCT may be more effective at identifying choroidal structures than traditional OCT methods. The measured volume of the extracted choroidal vessels of Haller's layer and Sattler's layer in the examined tumorous eyes was on average 0.982463955 mm(3) /982463956 μm(3) (range of 0.209764406 mm(3) /209764405.9 μm(3)to 1.78105544 mm(3) /1781055440 μm(3)). Full thickness obstruction of the choroidal vasculature by the tumor was found in 18 cases (72 %). In seven cases (18 %), choroidal vessel architecture did not show pronounced morphological abnormalities (18 %). Speckle noise-free OCT may serve as a new illustrative imaging technology and enhance visualization of the choroidal vessels without the need for dye injection. OCT can be used to identify and evaluate the choroidal vessels of melanocytic choroidal tumors, and may represent a potentially useful tool for imaging and monitoring of choroidal nevi and melanoma.

  18. Optimized suppression of coherent noise from seismic data using the Karhunen-Loeve transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagne, Raul; Vasconcelos, Giovani L.


    Signals obtained in land seismic surveys are usually contaminated with coherent noise, among which the ground roll (Rayleigh surface waves) is of major concern for it can severely degrade the quality of the information obtained from the seismic record. This paper presents an optimized filter based on the Karhunen-Loeve transform for processing seismic images contaminated with ground roll. In this method, the contaminated region of the seismic record, to be processed by the filter, is selected in such way as to correspond to the maximum of a properly defined coherence index. The main advantages of the method are that the ground roll is suppressed with negligible distortion of the remnant reflection signals and that the filtering procedure can be automated. The image processing technique described in this study should also be relevant for other applications where coherent structures embedded in a complex spatiotemporal pattern need to be identified in a more refined way. In particular, it is argued that the method is appropriate for processing optical coherence tomography images whose quality is often degraded by coherent noise (speckle)

  19. New hybrid technique for impulsive noise suppression in OFDM systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, A.; Zeb, A.; Sheikh, S.A.


    In this paper, a new hybrid technique employing RS (Reed Solomon) coding and adaptive filter for impulsive noise suppression in OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) systems is presented. Adaptive filter creates a more accurate estimate of the original OFDM signal after impulsive noise cancellation. The residual impulsive noise is further mitigated by RS decoder in the second stage of proposed technique. Three members of adaptive filters family i.e. NLMS (Normalized Least Mean Square) algorithm, RLS (Recursive Least Square) algorithm and Bhagyashri algorithm are tested with RS decoder in the proposed hybrid technique. Furthermore, the results in terms of steady state MSE (Mean Square Error) reduction, BER (Bit Error Rate) improvement and SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) enhancement confirm the effectiveness of the proposed dual faceted technique when compared with the recently reported techniques in literature. (author)

  20. Self-noise suppression schemes in blind image steganography (United States)

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam; Akansu, Ali N.


    Blind or oblivious data hiding, can be considered as a signaling method where the origin of the signal constellation is not known. The origin however, can be estimated, by means of self-noise suppression techniques. In this paper, we propose such a technique, and present both theoretical and numerical evaluations of its performance in an additive noise scenario. The problem of optimal choice of the parameters of the proposed technique is also explored, and solutions are presented. Though the cover object is assumed to be an image for purposes of illustration, the proposed method is equally applicable for other types of multimedia data, like video, speech or music.

  1. Speckle reduction using deformable mirrors with diffusers in a laser pico-projector. (United States)

    Chen, Hsuan-An; Pan, Jui-Wen; Yang, Zu-Po


    We propose a design for speckle reduction in a laser pico-projector adopting diffusers and deformable mirrors. This research focuses on speckle noise suppression by changing the angle of divergence of the diffuser. Moreover, the speckle contrast value can be further reduced by the addition of a deformable mirror. The speckle reduction ability obtained using diffusers with different divergence angles is compared. Three types of diffuser designs are compared in the experiments. For Type 1 which uses a circular symmetric diffuser the speckle contrast value can be decreased to 0.0264. For Type 2, the speckle contrast value can be reduced to 0.0267 because of the inclusion of an elliptical distribution diffuser. With Type 3 which includes a combination of the circular distribution diffuser and elliptical distribution diffuser, the speckle contrast value can be reduced to 0.0236. For all three types, the speckle contrast value is lower than 0.05. Under this speckle value, the speckle phenomenon is invisible to the human eye.

  2. Seismic noise suppression using weighted nuclear norm minimization method (United States)

    Li, Juan; Wang, Daixiang; Ji, Shuo; Li, Yue; Qian, Zhihong


    The weighted nuclear norm minimization method as an extension of nuclear-norm minimization was applied to image denoising originally. It is a kind of low rank matrix approximation method that can estimate the noiseless matrix from its noise version. The effective structures of image have a certain degree of repeatability and the weighted nuclear norm minimization method just utilizes this property to construct an approximate low rank matrix. Taking into account the spatial characteristics of seismic data and the redundancies of valid information, we propose to adopt the weighted nuclear norm minimization method to suppress seismic random noise. In this method the block matching algorithm is helpful for the recovery of seismic events because the texture blocks sharing the same reflection events are the most similar. Even when the signal to noise ratio is - 10 dB, this novel method still be able to clearly recover signals. Experiments on both synthetic and real seismic data show that the weighted nuclear norm minimization method can not only suppress the random noise but also better preserves the valid information of seismic signal when compared to the common seismic denoising methods such as the Wavelet and Time Frequency Peak Filter.

  3. Ultra–Short-Term Reproducibility of Speckle-Noise Freed Fluid and Tissue Compartmentalization of the Choroid Analyzed by Standard OCT (United States)

    Maloca, Peter; Gyger, Cyrill; Schoetzau, Andreas; Hasler, Pascal W.


    Purpose We measured reproducibility of speckle-noise freed fluid and tissue compartmentalization of the choroid (choroidal angiography and tissue characterization). Methods This study included 26 eyes of 13 healthy females: 13 were used for repeated measurements and 13 were used for side comparison. A semiautomated algorithm removed speckle-noise with structure preservation. Results Intraclass correlation (ICC), with respect to reproducibility of the method, showed an ICC for choroidal fluid inner space analysis (FISA) of 95.15% (90.01–98.24). The ICC of tissue inner space analysis (TISA) was 99.75% (99.47–99.91). The total choroid ratio (TCR), calculated from volumes of tissue to vessels, showed an ICC of 88.84% (78.28–95.82). Comparison of eyes (left to right) showed a difference for FISA of 0.033 (95% confidence interval [CI] −0.0018–0.0680, P = 0.063), TISA −0.118 (CI −0.2373–0.0023, P = 0.055), and TCR −0.590 (CI −0.9047 to −0.2754, P = 0.004). The ICC for FISA and TISA showed a trend in the difference comparing left and right eyes; however, TCR showed a significant difference between the eyes in the measured area (P OCT). Findings from basic science about speckle noise were translated into a novel, medical image postprocessing application that can separate signal from speckle noise with structure preservation with high reproducibility and enhance medical imaging. PMID:26629399

  4. Using phase information to enhance speckle noise reduction in the ultrasonic NDE of coarse grain materials (United States)

    Lardner, Timothy; Li, Minghui; Gachagan, Anthony


    Materials with a coarse grain structure are becoming increasingly prevalent in industry due to their resilience to stress and corrosion. These materials are difficult to inspect with ultrasound because reflections from the grains lead to high noise levels which hinder the echoes of interest. Spatially Averaged Sub-Aperture Correlation Imaging (SASACI) is an advanced array beamforming technique that uses the cross-correlation between images from array sub-apertures to generate an image weighting matrix, in order to reduce noise levels. This paper presents a method inspired by SASACI to further improve imaging using phase information to refine focusing and reduce noise. A-scans from adjacent array elements are cross-correlated using both signal amplitude and phase to refine delay laws and minimize phase aberration. The phase-based and amplitude-based corrected images are used as inputs to a two-dimensional cross-correlation algorithm that will output a weighting matrix that can be applied to any conventional image. This approach was validated experimentally using a 5MHz array a coarse grained Inconel 625 step wedge, and compared to the Total Focusing Method (TFM). Initial results have seen SNR improvements of over 20dB compared to TFM, and a resolution that is much higher.

  5. Active Suppression of Narrowband Noise by Multiple Secondary Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokhoon Ryu


    Full Text Available This study presents theoretical and experimental investigation on the active suppression of narrowband noise with C1, C1.5, and C2 components by using multichannel secondary sources in a duct. The quality manipulation in the duct was controlled by changing quality factors which were incorporated into a multichannel FxLMS algorithm. The algorithm is extensively investigated in both theory and real-time control experiment. After analysing the primary and secondary paths of the duct system, an acoustic narrowband signal was chosen as a primary noise and the impulse responses were implemented as the secondary path models. Control results show that the quality factors in the algorithm that was implemented in a dSPACE 1104 provide a stable and excellent response compared to before control. It is obvious that the lower quality factor cancels the more primary noise as defined in the theory although the attenuation levels are not exactly and inversely proportional to the quality factor. The results in this study can be used for practical active sound quality control systems.

  6. Material Design of Functionally Graded Plates with the Function of Electromagnetic Noise Suppression (United States)

    Sugano, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Satoshi

    The development of materials to suppress electromagnetic noise is in demand. In this paper, we present a method for the material design of functionally graded material (FGM) plates with the function of electromagnetic noise suppression. The FGM plates are considered to be multilayered plates in which the material properties are homogeneous inside each layer. Therefore, the approximate analytical solutions of electromagnetic fields in the FGM plates subject to electromagnetic noise are derived. The expressions for electromagnetic noise suppression are then obtained based on the above analytical solutions. Numerical calculations are carried out for epoxy resin/titanium oxide FGM plates with graded composition distribution expressed in the form of a power function. The effects of graded composition and plate thickness on the electromagnetic noise suppression are quantitatively evaluated, and the material design suitable for the suppression of electromagnetic noise is discussed.

  7. All-electronic suppression of mode hopping noise in diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, L.


    A simple all-electronic stabilization scheme is presented for suppression of external-cavity mode-hopping noise in diode lasers. This excess noise is generated when the laser is subjected to optical feedback and may degrade the overall performance of optical systems including sensors. Suppression...

  8. System for the suppression of noise and of noise fluctuations: extraction of a net signal from another one containing frequencies of noise and discontinuous signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambaut, M.


    A patent is claimed for an invention relating to a system for the suppression of noise and noise fluctuations. The aim of the system is the detection of the signal contained in noise-and-discontinuous signal mixed frequencies. The invention is to be applied in radiation detection. The results of the measurements are reliable for short counting rates, as compared with the time constant of the background noise fluctuations, and for measurements performed in regions having the same background noise average. The diagram, the characteristics and the operation of the invention are described [fr

  9. Amplitude Noise Suppression and Orthogonal Multiplexing Using Injection-Locked Single-Mode VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir; von Lerber, Tuomo; Lassas, Matti


    We experimentally demonstrate BER reduction and orthogonal modulation using an injection locked single-mode VCSEL. It allows us suppressing an amplitude noise of optical signal and/or double the capacity of an information channel....

  10. Understanding noise suppression in heterojunction field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, F.


    Full text: The enhanced transport properties displayed by quantum-well-confined, two-dimensional, electron systems underpin the success of heterojunction, field-effect transistors. At cryogenic temperatures, these devices exhibit impressive mobilities and, as a result, high signal gain and low noise. Conventional wisdom has it that the same favourable conditions also hold for normal room-temperature operation. In that case, however, high mobilities are precluded by abundant electron-phonon scattering. Our recent study of nonequilibrium current noise shows that quantum confinement, not high mobility, is the principal source of noise in these devices; this opens up new and exciting opportunities in low-noise transistor design. As trends in millimetre-wave technology push frequencies beyond 100 GHz, it is essential to develop a genuine understanding of noise processes in heterojunction devices

  11. Noise suppression in surface microseismic data by τ-p transform (United States)

    Forghani-Arani, Farnoush; Batzle, Mike; Behura, Jyoti; Willis, Mark; Haines, Seth; Davidson, Michael


    Surface passive seismic methods are receiving increased attention for monitoring changes in reservoirs during the production of unconventional oil and gas. However, in passive seismic data the strong cultural and ambient noise (mainly surface-waves) decreases the effectiveness of these techniques. Hence, suppression of surface-waves is a critical step in surface microseismic monitoring. We apply a noise suppression technique, based on the τ — p transform, to a surface passive seismic dataset recorded over a Barnett Shale reservoir undergoing a hydraulic fracturing process. This technique not only improves the signal-to-noise ratios of added synthetic microseismic events, but it also preserves the event waveforms.

  12. Multiresolution edge detection using enhanced fuzzy c-means clustering for ultrasound image speckle reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsantis, Stavros [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion, GR 26504 (Greece); Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Karnabatidis, Dimitrios [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion, GR 26504 (Greece); Skouroliakou, Aikaterini [Department of Energy Technology Engineering, Technological Education Institute of Athens, Athens 12210 (Greece); Hazle, John D. [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Kagadis, George C., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion, GR 26504, Greece and Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)


    Purpose: Speckle suppression in ultrasound (US) images of various anatomic structures via a novel speckle noise reduction algorithm. Methods: The proposed algorithm employs an enhanced fuzzy c-means (EFCM) clustering and multiresolution wavelet analysis to distinguish edges from speckle noise in US images. The edge detection procedure involves a coarse-to-fine strategy with spatial and interscale constraints so as to classify wavelet local maxima distribution at different frequency bands. As an outcome, an edge map across scales is derived whereas the wavelet coefficients that correspond to speckle are suppressed in the inverse wavelet transform acquiring the denoised US image. Results: A total of 34 thyroid, liver, and breast US examinations were performed on a Logiq 9 US system. Each of these images was subjected to the proposed EFCM algorithm and, for comparison, to commercial speckle reduction imaging (SRI) software and another well-known denoising approach, Pizurica's method. The quantification of the speckle suppression performance in the selected set of US images was carried out via Speckle Suppression Index (SSI) with results of 0.61, 0.71, and 0.73 for EFCM, SRI, and Pizurica's methods, respectively. Peak signal-to-noise ratios of 35.12, 33.95, and 29.78 and edge preservation indices of 0.94, 0.93, and 0.86 were found for the EFCM, SIR, and Pizurica's method, respectively, demonstrating that the proposed method achieves superior speckle reduction performance and edge preservation properties. Based on two independent radiologists’ qualitative evaluation the proposed method significantly improved image characteristics over standard baseline B mode images, and those processed with the Pizurica's method. Furthermore, it yielded results similar to those for SRI for breast and thyroid images significantly better results than SRI for liver imaging, thus improving diagnostic accuracy in both superficial and in-depth structures. Conclusions: A

  13. Multiresolution edge detection using enhanced fuzzy c-means clustering for ultrasound image speckle reduction. (United States)

    Tsantis, Stavros; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Skouroliakou, Aikaterini; Karnabatidis, Dimitrios; Hazle, John D; Kagadis, George C


    Speckle suppression in ultrasound (US) images of various anatomic structures via a novel speckle noise reduction algorithm. The proposed algorithm employs an enhanced fuzzy c-means (EFCM) clustering and multiresolution wavelet analysis to distinguish edges from speckle noise in US images. The edge detection procedure involves a coarse-to-fine strategy with spatial and interscale constraints so as to classify wavelet local maxima distribution at different frequency bands. As an outcome, an edge map across scales is derived whereas the wavelet coefficients that correspond to speckle are suppressed in the inverse wavelet transform acquiring the denoised US image. A total of 34 thyroid, liver, and breast US examinations were performed on a Logiq 9 US system. Each of these images was subjected to the proposed EFCM algorithm and, for comparison, to commercial speckle reduction imaging (SRI) software and another well-known denoising approach, Pizurica's method. The quantification of the speckle suppression performance in the selected set of US images was carried out via Speckle Suppression Index (SSI) with results of 0.61, 0.71, and 0.73 for EFCM, SRI, and Pizurica's methods, respectively. Peak signal-to-noise ratios of 35.12, 33.95, and 29.78 and edge preservation indices of 0.94, 0.93, and 0.86 were found for the EFCM, SIR, and Pizurica's method, respectively, demonstrating that the proposed method achieves superior speckle reduction performance and edge preservation properties. Based on two independent radiologists' qualitative evaluation the proposed method significantly improved image characteristics over standard baseline B mode images, and those processed with the Pizurica's method. Furthermore, it yielded results similar to those for SRI for breast and thyroid images significantly better results than SRI for liver imaging, thus improving diagnostic accuracy in both superficial and in-depth structures. A new wavelet-based EFCM clustering model was introduced toward

  14. Orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm and power line noise suppression of magnetotelluric signal (United States)

    Li, Guang; Tang, Jingtian


    Power-line noise is mainly comes from power systems and has become one of the most common noises during the acquisition of magnetotelluric (MT) signal, its components including a fundamental frequency signal and a lot of odd harmonics. There are trap circuits designed in most of the acquisition instruments to separate these noise, however, the fundamental frequency of the power line noise will fluctuate with the changing of load current, but the center frequency of the trap circuits are fixed, hence the MT data are still seriously disturbed by the power line noise. To mitigate the disturbance of power line noise, a novel denoising method was proposed based on orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm. Semisynthetic experiments and real data obtained from Lu-Zong ore-concentration district illustrate that the proposed method can effectively suppress the power line noise while remain the useful MT signal, the apparent resistivity and phase curves are greatly improved over previous.

  15. Suppression of excess noise in Transition-Edge Sensors using magnetic field and geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullom, J.N.; Doriese, W.B.; Hilton, G.C.; Beall, J.A.; Deiker, S.; Irwin, K.D.; Reintsema, C.D.; Vale, L.R.; Xu, Y.


    We report recent progress at NIST on Mo/Cu Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs). While the signal-band noise of our sensors agrees with theory, we observe excess high-frequency noise. We describe this noise and demonstrate that it can be strongly suppressed by a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the sensor. Both the excess noise and α=(T/R)(dR/dT) depend strongly on field so our results show that accurate comparisons between devices are only possible when the field is well known or constant. We also present results showing the noise performance of TES designs incorporating parallel and perpendicular normal metal bars, an array of normal metal islands, and in wedge-shaped devices. We demonstrate significant reduction of high-frequency noise with the perpendicular bar devices at the cost of reduced α. Both the bars and the magnetic field are useful noise reduction techniques for bolometers

  16. Suppression of enhanced physiological tremor via stochastic noise: initial observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Trenado

    Full Text Available Enhanced physiological tremor is a disabling condition that arises because of unstable interactions between central tremor generators and the biomechanics of the spinal stretch reflex. Previous work has shown that peripheral input may push the tremor-related spinal and cortical systems closer to anti-phase firing, potentially leading to a reduction in tremor through phase cancellation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether peripherally applied mechanical stochastic noise can attenuate enhanced physiological tremor and improve motor performance. Eight subjects with enhanced physiological tremor performed a visuomotor task requiring the right index finger to compensate a static force generated by a manipulandum to which Gaussian noise (3-35 Hz was applied. The finger position was displayed on-line on a monitor as a small white dot which the subjects had to maintain in the center of a larger green circle. Electromyogram (EMG from the active hand muscles and finger position were recorded. Performance was measured by the mean absolute deviation of the white dot from the zero position. Tremor was identified by the acceleration in the frequency range 7-12 Hz. Two different conditions were compared: with and without superimposed noise at optimal amplitude (determined at the beginning of the experiment. The application of optimum noise reduced tremor (accelerometric amplitude and EMG activity and improved the motor performance (reduced mean absolute deviation from zero. These data provide the first evidence of a significant reduction of enhanced physiological tremor in the human sensorimotor system due to application of external stochastic noise.

  17. Suppression of frequency locking noise in resonator fiber optic gyro by differential detection method (United States)

    Feng, Lishuang; Zhi, Yinzhou; Lei, Ming; Wang, Junjie


    The performance of the resonator fiber optic gyro (RFOG) is influenced by frequency locking noise. This paper proposes a differential detection method (DDM) to suppress the frequency locking noise. First, the frequency locking noise induced by the frequency locking error is described theoretically; the description indicates that it acts as the common-mode noise in the RFOG. In the traditional signal-path detection method (SDM), there is a trade-off between suppressing the frequency locking noise and improving the gyro sensitivity. Thus, a model of the DDM is set up and analyzed. The frequency locking noise can be suppressed using the DDM by adjusting the gains of two lock-in amplifiers. Finally, the experimental setup is established, and the SDM and DDM are compared. When the tested equivalent frequency locking noise is 10.6°/h, the bias stability of the RFOG is improved from 12.9°/h to 1.1°/h by the DDM.

  18. An open-loop RFOG based on harmonic division technique to suppress LD's intensity modulation noise (United States)

    Ying, Diqing; Wang, Zeyu; Mao, Jianmin; Jin, Zhonghe


    A harmonic division technique is proposed for an open-loop resonator fiber optic gyro (RFOG) to suppress semiconductor laser diode's (LD's) intensity modulation noise. The theoretical study indicates the RFOG with this technique is immune to the intensity noise. The simulation and experimental results show this technique would lead to a diminished linear region, which still could be acceptable for an RFOG applied to low rotation rate detection. The tests for the gyro output signal are carried out with/without noise suppressing methods, including the harmonic division technique and previously proposed signal compensation technique. With the harmonic division technique at the rotation rate of 10 deg/s, the stability of gyro output signal is improved from 1.07 deg/s to 0.0361 deg/s, whose noise suppressing ratio is more than 3 times as that of the signal compensation technique. And especially, a 3.12 deg/s signal jump is significantly removed with the harmonic division technique; in contrast, a residual 0.36 deg/s signal jump still exists with the signal compensation technique. It is concluded the harmonic division technique does work in intensity noise suppressing under dynamic condition, and it is superior to the signal compensation technique.

  19. Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images based on wave atoms (United States)

    Du, Yongzhao; Liu, Gangjun; Feng, Guoying; Chen, Zhongping


    Abstract. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging noninvasive imaging technique, which is based on low-coherence interferometry. OCT images suffer from speckle noise, which reduces image contrast. A shrinkage filter based on wave atoms transform is proposed for speckle reduction in OCT images. Wave atoms transform is a new multiscale geometric analysis tool that offers sparser expansion and better representation for images containing oscillatory patterns and textures than other traditional transforms, such as wavelet and curvelet transforms. Cycle spinning-based technology is introduced to avoid visual artifacts, such as Gibbs-like phenomenon, and to develop a translation invariant wave atoms denoising scheme. The speckle suppression degree in the denoised images is controlled by an adjustable parameter that determines the threshold in the wave atoms domain. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively remove the speckle noise and improve the OCT image quality. The signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio, average equivalent number of looks, and cross-correlation (XCOR) values are obtained, and the results are also compared with the wavelet and curvelet thresholding techniques. PMID:24825507

  20. Motion detection, noise reduction, texture suppression, and contour enhancement by spatiotemporal Gabor filters with surround inhibition


    Petkov, Nicolai; Subramanian, Easwar


    We study the orientation and speed tuning properties of spatiotemporal three-dimensional (3D) Gabor and motion energy filters as models of time-dependent receptive fields of simple and complex cells in the primary visual cortex (V1). We augment the motion energy operator with surround suppression to model the inhibitory effect of stimuli outside the classical receptive field. We show that spatiotemporal integration and surround suppression lead to substantial noise reduction. We propose an ef...

  1. The Analysis and Suppression of the spike noise in vibrator record (United States)

    Jia, H.; Jiang, T.; Xu, X.; Ge, L.; Lin, J.; Yang, Z.


    During the seismic exploration with vibrator, seismic recording systems have often been affected by random spike noise in the background, which leads to strong data distortions as a result of the cross-correlation processing of the vibrator method. Partial or total loss of the desired seismic information is possible if no automatic spike reduction is available in the field prior to correlation of the field record. Generally speaking, original record of vibrator is uncorrelated data, in which the signal is non-wavelet form. In order to obtain the seismic record similar to explosive source, the signal of uncorrelated data needs to use the correlation algorithm to compress into wavelet form. The correlation process results in that the interference of spike in correlated data is not only being suppressed, but also being expanded. So the spike noise suppression of vibrator is indispensable. According to numerical simulation results, the effect of spike in the vibrator record is mainly affected by the amplitude and proportional points in the uncorrelated record. When the spike noise ratio in uncorrelated record reaches 1.5% and the average amplitude exceeds 200, it will make the SNR(signal-to-noise ratio) of the correlated record lower than 0dB, so that it is difficult to separate the signal. While the amplitude and ratio is determined by the intensity of background noise. Therefore, when the noise level is strong, in order to improve SNR of the seismic data, the uncorrelated record of vibrator need to take necessary steps to suppress spike noise. For the sake of reducing the influence of the spike noise, we need to make the detection and suppression of spike noise process for the uncorrelated record. Because vibrator works by inputting sweep signal into the underground long time, ideally, the peak and valley values of each trace have little change. On the basis of the peak and valley values, we can get a reference amplitude value. Then the spike can be detected and

  2. Receptance based structural modification in a simple brake-clutch model for squeal noise suppression (United States)

    Zarraga, Ondiz; Ulacia, Ibai; Abete, José Manuel; Ouyang, Huajiang


    Unlike brake squeal, brake-clutch squeal has rarely been studied, even though the cause of squeal noise is identical - dry friction acting at the contact interface. In this paper, a combined theoretical and experimental study is reported on squeal noise of a brake-clutch. On the theoretical side, a receptance-based inverse dynamic method is adopted to identify the mass or stiffness required to split the coupled modes of a brake-clutch model to achieve noise suppression. On the experimental side, the theoretically identified stiffness is implemented on the brake-clutch test rig in the form of a grounded spring and it is thus shown that the actual structural modification has removed the squeal noise. This is the first time that a theoretically derived structural modification is made on a brake-clutch model and shown to be able of completely suppressing actual squeal noise. This study establishes a way of suppressing friction-induced high-frequency noise through structural modification.

  3. Shot Noise Suppression in a Quantum Point Contact with Short Channel Length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Heejun


    An experimental study on the current shot noise of a quantum point contact with short channel length is reported. The experimentally measured maximum energy level spacing between the ground and the first excited state of the device reached up to 7.5 meV, probably due to the hard wall confinement by using shallow electron gas and sharp point contact geometry. The two-dimensional non-equilibrium shot noise contour map shows noise suppression characteristics in a wide range of bias voltage. Fano factor analysis indicates spin-polarized transport through a short quantum point contact. (paper)

  4. Noise suppress or express exponential growth for hybrid Hopfield neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Song; Shen Yi; Chen Guici


    In this Letter, we will show that noise can make the given hybrid Hopfield neural networks whose solution may grows exponentially become the new stochastic hybrid Hopfield neural networks whose solution will grows at most polynomially. On the other hand, we will also show that noise can make the given hybrid Hopfield neural networks whose solution grows at most polynomially become the new stochastic hybrid Hopfield neural networks whose solution will grows at exponentially. In other words, we will reveal that the noise can suppress or express exponential growth for hybrid Hopfield neural networks.

  5. Noise suppression system of OCDMA with spectral/spatial 2D hybrid code (United States)

    Matem, Rima; Aljunid, S. A.; Junita, M. N.; Rashidi, C. B. M.; Shihab Aqrab, Israa


    In this paper, we propose a novel 2D spectral/spatial hybrid code based on 1D ZCC and 1D MD where the both present a zero cross correlation property analyzed and the influence of the noise of optical as Phase Induced Intensity Noise (PIIN), shot and thermal noise. This new code is shown effectively to mitigate the PIIN and suppresses MAI. Using 2D ZCC/MD code the performance of the system can be improved in term of as well as to support more simultaneous users compared of the 2D FCC/MDW and 2D DPDC codes.

  6. Noise suppression system of OCDMA with spectral/spatial 2D hybrid code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matem Rima


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel 2D spectral/spatial hybrid code based on 1D ZCC and 1D MD where the both present a zero cross correlation property analyzed and the influence of the noise of optical as Phase Induced Intensity Noise (PIIN, shot and thermal noise. This new code is shown effectively to mitigate the PIIN and suppresses MAI. Using 2D ZCC/MD code the performance of the system can be improved in term of as well as to support more simultaneous users compared of the 2D FCC/MDW and 2D DPDC codes.

  7. Suppression of low-frequency charge noise in gates-defined GaAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Jie; Li, Hai-Ou; Wang, Ke; Cao, Gang; Song, Xiang-Xiang; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guo-Ping


    To reduce the charge noise of a modulation-doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dot, we have fabricated shallow-etched GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots using the wet-etching method to study the effects of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) underneath the metallic gates. The low-frequency 1/f noise in the Coulomb blockade region of the shallow-etched quantum dot is compared with a non-etched quantum dot on the same wafer. The average values of the gate noise are approximately 0.5 μeV in the shallow-etched quantum dot and 3 μeV in the regular quantum dot. Our results show the quantum dot low-frequency charge noise can be suppressed by the removal of the 2DEG underneath the metallic gates, which provides an architecture for noise reduction

  8. Multiscale KF Algorithm for Strong Fractional Noise Interference Suppression in Discrete-Time UWB Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyun Su


    Full Text Available In order to suppress the interference of the strong fractional noise signal in discrete-time ultrawideband (UWB systems, this paper presents a new UWB multi-scale Kalman filter (KF algorithm for the interference suppression. This approach solves the problem of the narrowband interference (NBI as nonstationary fractional signal in UWB communication, which does not need to estimate any channel parameter. In this paper, the received sampled signal is transformed through multiscale wavelet to obtain a state transition equation and an observation equation based on the stationarity theory of wavelet coefficients in time domain. Then through the Kalman filter method, fractional signal of arbitrary scale is easily figured out. Finally, fractional noise interference is subtracted from the received signal. Performance analysis and computer simulations reveal that this algorithm is effective to reduce the strong fractional noise when the sampling rate is low.

  9. Suppression of contour perception by band-limited noise and its relation to nonclassical receptive field inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Westenberg, Michel A.

    Band-spectrum noise has been shown to suppress the visual perception of printed letters. The suppression exhibits a specific dependence on the spatial frequency of the noise, and the frequency domain of most effective inhibition has been related to the size of the letters. In this paper, we address

  10. A Robust Approach For Acoustic Noise Suppression In Speech Using ANFIS (United States)

    Martinek, Radek; Kelnar, Michal; Vanus, Jan; Bilik, Petr; Zidek, Jan


    The authors of this article deals with the implementation of a combination of techniques of the fuzzy system and artificial intelligence in the application area of non-linear noise and interference suppression. This structure used is called an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). This system finds practical use mainly in audio telephone (mobile) communication in a noisy environment (transport, production halls, sports matches, etc). Experimental methods based on the two-input adaptive noise cancellation concept was clearly outlined. Within the experiments carried out, the authors created, based on the ANFIS structure, a comprehensive system for adaptive suppression of unwanted background interference that occurs in audio communication and degrades the audio signal. The system designed has been tested on real voice signals. This article presents the investigation and comparison amongst three distinct approaches to noise cancellation in speech; they are LMS (least mean squares) and RLS (recursive least squares) adaptive filtering and ANFIS. A careful review of literatures indicated the importance of non-linear adaptive algorithms over linear ones in noise cancellation. It was concluded that the ANFIS approach had the overall best performance as it efficiently cancelled noise even in highly noise-degraded speech. Results were drawn from the successful experimentation, subjective-based tests were used to analyse their comparative performance while objective tests were used to validate them. Implementation of algorithms was experimentally carried out in Matlab to justify the claims and determine their relative performances.

  11. A Multi Directional Perfect Reconstruction Filter Bank Designed with 2-D Eigenfilter Approach: Application to Ultrasound Speckle Reduction. (United States)

    Nagare, Mukund B; Patil, Bhushan D; Holambe, Raghunath S


    B-Mode ultrasound images are degraded by inherent noise called Speckle, which creates a considerable impact on image quality. This noise reduces the accuracy of image analysis and interpretation. Therefore, reduction of speckle noise is an essential task which improves the accuracy of the clinical diagnostics. In this paper, a Multi-directional perfect-reconstruction (PR) filter bank is proposed based on 2-D eigenfilter approach. The proposed method used for the design of two-dimensional (2-D) two-channel linear-phase FIR perfect-reconstruction filter bank. In this method, the fan shaped, diamond shaped and checkerboard shaped filters are designed. The quadratic measure of the error function between the passband and stopband of the filter has been used an objective function. First, the low-pass analysis filter is designed and then the PR condition has been expressed as a set of linear constraints on the corresponding synthesis low-pass filter. Subsequently, the corresponding synthesis filter is designed using the eigenfilter design method with linear constraints. The newly designed 2-D filters are used in translation invariant pyramidal directional filter bank (TIPDFB) for reduction of speckle noise in ultrasound images. The proposed 2-D filters give better symmetry, regularity and frequency selectivity of the filters in comparison to existing design methods. The proposed method is validated on synthetic and real ultrasound data which ensures improvement in the quality of ultrasound images and efficiently suppresses the speckle noise compared to existing methods.

  12. Suppression of Growth by Multiplicative White Noise in a Parametric Resonant System (United States)

    Ishihara, Masamichi


    The growth of the amplitude in a Mathieu-like equation with multiplicative white noise is studied. To obtain an approximate analytical expression for the exponent at the extremum on parametric resonance regions, a time-interval width is introduced. To determine the exponents numerically, the stochastic differential equations are solved by a symplectic numerical method. The Mathieu-like equation contains a parameter α determined by the intensity of noise and the strength of the coupling between the variable and noise; without loss of generality, only non-negative α can be considered. The exponent is shown to decrease with α, reach a minimum and increase after that. The minimum exponent is obtained analytically and numerically. As a function of α, the minimum at α≠0, occurs on the parametric resonance regions of α=0. This minimum indicates suppression of growth by multiplicative white noise.

  13. Suppression of interference noise caused by Fresnel reflection in all-fiber white-light interferometer. (United States)

    Yuan, Yonggui; Cheng, Yongqing; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Haoliang; Lu, Dongchuan; Lv, Yan; Peng, Feng; Li, Hanyang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Jiang, Fuqiang; Yuan, Libo


    We propose methods to suppress the interference noise (IN) of an all-fiber white-light interferometer (WLI), which is caused by the residual Fresnel reflective beam. The methods are proposed to ensure a wide dynamic range and enhance the accuracy of measurement. IN can cause misjudgment of the realistic optical characteristic parameters, such as the fault diagnosis and polarization coupling of the optical devices under test. In addition, IN can reduce the dynamic range of the WLI. The optical path mismatch (OPM) method and the intensity suppression (IS) method by changing the positions and intensity of the IN are presented. The two suppression methods can successfully restrain IN caused by the Fresnel reflection beams. The experimental results show that IN is successfully suppressed by the OPM method or restrained by IS method in interferograms, and the dynamic range can achieve 85 dB without IN.

  14. A computer model of auditory efferent suppression: implications for the recognition of speech in noise. (United States)

    Brown, Guy J; Ferry, Robert T; Meddis, Ray


    The neural mechanisms underlying the ability of human listeners to recognize speech in the presence of background noise are still imperfectly understood. However, there is mounting evidence that the medial olivocochlear system plays an important role, via efferents that exert a suppressive effect on the response of the basilar membrane. The current paper presents a computer modeling study that investigates the possible role of this activity on speech intelligibility in noise. A model of auditory efferent processing [Ferry, R. T., and Meddis, R. (2007). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 3519-3526] is used to provide acoustic features for a statistical automatic speech recognition system, thus allowing the effects of efferent activity on speech intelligibility to be quantified. Performance of the "basic" model (without efferent activity) on a connected digit recognition task is good when the speech is uncorrupted by noise but falls when noise is present. However, recognition performance is much improved when efferent activity is applied. Furthermore, optimal performance is obtained when the amount of efferent activity is proportional to the noise level. The results obtained are consistent with the suggestion that efferent suppression causes a "release from adaptation" in the auditory-nerve response to noisy speech, which enhances its intelligibility.

  15. Post-processing enhancement of reverberation-noise suppression in dual-frequency SURF imaging. (United States)

    Näsholm, Sven Peter; Hansen, Rune; Angelsen, Bjørn A J


    A post-processing adjustment technique to enhance dual-frequency second-order ultrasound field (SURF) reverberation-noise suppression imaging in medical ultrasound is analyzed. Two variant methods are investigated through numerical simulations. They both solely involve post-processing of the propagated high-frequency (HF) imaging wave fields, which in real-time imaging corresponds to post-processing of the beamformed receive radio-frequency signals. Hence, the transmit pulse complexes are the same as for the previously published SURF reverberation-suppression imaging method. The adjustment technique is tested on simulated data from propagation of SURF pulse complexes consisting of a 3.5-MHz HF imaging pulse added to a 0.5-MHz low-frequency soundspeed manipulation pulse. Imaging transmit beams are constructed with and without adjustment. The post-processing involves filtering, e.g., by a time-shift, to equalize the two SURF HF pulses at a chosen depth. This depth is typically chosen to coincide with the depth where the first scattering or reflection occurs for the reverberation noise one intends to suppress. The beams realized with post-processing show energy decrease at the chosen depth, especially for shallow depths where, in a medical imaging situation, a body-wall is often located. This indicates that the post-processing may further enhance the reverberation- suppression abilities of SURF imaging. Moreover, it is shown that the methods might be utilized to reduce the accumulated near-field energy of the SURF transmit-beam relative to its imaging region energy. The adjustments presented may therefore potentially be utilized to attain a slightly better general suppression of multiple scattering and multiple reflection noise compared with non-adjusted SURF reverberation-suppression imaging.

  16. Noise suppression and long-range exchange coupling for gallium arsenide spin qubits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinowski, Filip

    This thesis presents the results of the experimental study performed on spin qubits realized in gate-defined gallium arsenide quantum dots, with the focus on noise suppression and long-distance coupling. First, we show that the susceptibility to charge noise can be reduced by reducing the gradient...... to put the highest, up to date, lower bound on the electron spin coherence time in gallium arsenide: 870 ms. Later, we study the perspectives of exploiting a multielectron quantum dot as a mediator of the exchange interaction. We investigate interaction between a single spin and the multelectron quantum...

  17. Suppression of thermal noise in a non-Markovian random velocity field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Masahiko


    We study the diffusion of Brownian particles in a Gaussian random velocity field with short memory. By extending the derivation of an effective Fokker–Planck equation for the Lanvegin equation with weakly colored noise to a random velocity-field problem, we find that the effect of thermal noise on particles is suppressed by the existence of memory. We also find that the renormalization effect for the relative diffusion of two particles is stronger than that for single-particle diffusion. The results are compared with those of molecular dynamics simulations. (paper: classical statistical mechanics, equilibrium and non-equilibrium)

  18. Cuckoo search based optimal mask generation for noise suppression and enhancement of speech signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Garg


    Full Text Available In this paper, an effective noise suppression technique for enhancement of speech signals using optimized mask is proposed. Initially, the noisy speech signal is broken down into various time–frequency (TF units and the features are extracted by finding out the Amplitude Magnitude Spectrogram (AMS. The signals are then classified based on quality ratio into different classes to generate the initial set of solutions. Subsequently, the optimal mask for each class is generated based on Cuckoo search algorithm. Subsequently, in the waveform synthesis stage, filtered waveforms are windowed and then multiplied by the optimal mask value and summed up to get the enhanced target signal. The experimentation of the proposed technique was carried out using various datasets and the performance is compared with the previous techniques using SNR. The results obtained proved the effectiveness of the proposed technique and its ability to suppress noise and enhance the speech signal.

  19. Suppression of interferometric crosstalk and ASE noise using a polarization multiplexing technique and an SOA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Xueyan; Liu, Fenghai; Wolfson, David


    Noise suppression at 10 Gbit/s and 20 Gbit/s is demonstrated using a gain saturated semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a polarization multiplexing technique, where no impairments like waveform distortion and extinction ratio degradation caused by the gain saturation of the SOA appear....... Moreover, the method is bit rate transparent and the input power dynamic range is very large. Furthermore, the SOA can provide a high gain....

  20. Characteristics Analysis of Joint Acoustic Echo and Noise Suppression in Periodic Drillstring Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cheng


    Full Text Available A new method of wireless data telemetry used by oil industry uses compressional acoustic waves to transmit downhole information from the bottom hole to the surface. Unfortunately, acoustic echoes and drilling vibration noises in periodic drillstring are a major issue in transmission performance. A combined acoustic echo and noise suppression method based on wave motion characteristic in drillstring is adopted to enhance an upward-going transmitted acoustic signal. The presented scheme consists of a primary acoustic echo canceller using an array of two accelerometers for dealing with the downward-going noises and a secondary acoustic insulation structure for restraining the upward-going vibration noises. Furthermore, the secondary acoustic insulation structure exhibits a banded and dispersive spectral structure because of periodic groove configuration. By using a finite-differential algorithm for the one-dimensional propagation of longitudinal waves, acoustic receiving characteristics of transmitted signals are simulated with additive Gaussian noise in a periodic pipe structure of limited length to investigate the effects on transmission performance optimization. The results reveal that the proposed scheme can achieve a much lower error bit ratio over a specified acoustic isolation frequency range with a 30–40 dB reduction in the average noise level compared to traditional single-receiver scheme.

  1. A Novel Method for Vertical Acceleration Noise Suppression of a Thrust-Vectored VTOL UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyu Li


    Full Text Available Acceleration is of great importance in motion control for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, especially during the takeoff and landing stages. However, the measured acceleration is inevitably polluted by severe noise. Therefore, a proper noise suppression procedure is required. This paper presents a novel method to reduce the noise in the measured vertical acceleration for a thrust-vectored tail-sitter vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL UAV. In the new procedure, a Kalman filter is first applied to estimate the UAV mass by using the information in the vertical thrust and measured acceleration. The UAV mass is then used to compute an estimate of UAV vertical acceleration. The estimated acceleration is finally fused with the measured acceleration to obtain the minimum variance estimate of vertical acceleration. By doing this, the new approach incorporates the thrust information into the acceleration estimate. The method is applied to the data measured in a VTOL UAV takeoff experiment. Two other denoising approaches developed by former researchers are also tested for comparison. The results demonstrate that the new method is able to suppress the acceleration noise substantially. It also maintains the real-time performance in the final estimated acceleration, which is not seen in the former denoising approaches. The acceleration treated with the new method can be readily used in the motion control applications for UAVs to achieve improved accuracy.

  2. A Novel Method for Vertical Acceleration Noise Suppression of a Thrust-Vectored VTOL UAV. (United States)

    Li, Huanyu; Wu, Linfeng; Li, Yingjie; Li, Chunwen; Li, Hangyu


    Acceleration is of great importance in motion control for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), especially during the takeoff and landing stages. However, the measured acceleration is inevitably polluted by severe noise. Therefore, a proper noise suppression procedure is required. This paper presents a novel method to reduce the noise in the measured vertical acceleration for a thrust-vectored tail-sitter vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) UAV. In the new procedure, a Kalman filter is first applied to estimate the UAV mass by using the information in the vertical thrust and measured acceleration. The UAV mass is then used to compute an estimate of UAV vertical acceleration. The estimated acceleration is finally fused with the measured acceleration to obtain the minimum variance estimate of vertical acceleration. By doing this, the new approach incorporates the thrust information into the acceleration estimate. The method is applied to the data measured in a VTOL UAV takeoff experiment. Two other denoising approaches developed by former researchers are also tested for comparison. The results demonstrate that the new method is able to suppress the acceleration noise substantially. It also maintains the real-time performance in the final estimated acceleration, which is not seen in the former denoising approaches. The acceleration treated with the new method can be readily used in the motion control applications for UAVs to achieve improved accuracy.

  3. Optimization of second-harmonic's quantization precision for intensity modulation noise suppressing in a digital RFOG (United States)

    Ying, Diqing; Ye, Kebin; Wang, Zeyu; Mao, Jianmin; Jin, Zhonghe


    Aiming at the demodulation signal compensation technique for intensity modulation noise suppressing in a digital RFOG, which is based on the detection of closed loop's second-harmonic, the quantization precision for second-harmonic is discussed and optimized. By analyzing second-harmonic's fluctuation under the intensity modulation noise equal to shot noise limited sensitivity, the expression for the required minimum quantization bits of second-harmonic signal is obtained. Based on this expression, numerical simulations are carried out to optimize the quantization bits in a digital RFOG in detail. Based on over-sampling technique, the stability of gyro output signal with different quantization bits and rotation rates is tested to verify the theoretically analyzed results. It is concluded that the minimum quantization bits of second-harmonic is related to the rotation rate and the ratio of second-harmonic's maximum to minimum, and it gets larger as these two parameters are increased. Especially, the required minimum quantization bits for second-harmonic would generally exceed that supported only by hardware circuits, which leads to the adoption of over-sampling technique. And it is proven that the quantization precision improvement for second-harmonic, realized by the over-sampling technique, does work in improving the effect of intensity modulation noise suppressing.

  4. Transmit beams adapted to reverberation noise suppression using dual-frequency SURF imaging. (United States)

    Näsholm, Sven Peter; Hansen, Rune; Måsøy, Svein-Erik; Johansen, Tonni F; Angelsen, Bjørn A J


    A method that uses dual-frequency pulse complexes of widely separated frequency bands to suppress noise caused by multiple scattering or multiple reflections in medical ultrasound imaging is presented. The excitation pulse complexes are transmitted to generate a second order ultrasound field (SURF) imaging synthetic transmit beam. This beam has reduced amplitude near the transducer, which illustrates the multiple scattering suppression ability of the imaging method. Field simulations solving a nonlinear wave equation are used to calculate SURF imaging beams, which are compared with beams for pulse inversion (PI) and fundamental imaging. In addition, a combined SURF and PI beam generation is described and compared with the beams mentioned above. A quality ratio, relating the energy within the near-field to that within the imaging region, is defined and used to score the multiple scattering and multiple reflection suppression abilities when imaging with the different beams. The realized combined SURF-PI beam scores highest, followed by SURF, PI (that score equally well), and the fundamental. The amplitude in the imaging region and therefore also the SNR is highest for the fundamental followed by SURF, PI, and SURF-PI. The work hence indicates that when substituting PI for SURF, one may trade increased SNR into use of increased imaging frequencies without loss of multiple scattering and multiple reflection noise suppression.

  5. A Comparison of Speckle Reduction Techniques in Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Speckle noise is a multiplicative noise that degrades the visual evaluation in ultrasound imaging. In addition, it limits the efficient application of intelligent image processing algorithms, such as segmentation techniques. Thus, speckle noise reduction is considered an essential pre-processing step. The objective of this paper is to carry out a comparative evaluation of speckle filtering techniques, based on two image quality evaluation metrics, the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR, and the Structural SIMilarity (SSIM index, and visual evaluation.

  6. A review on noise suppression and aberration compensation in holographic particle image velocimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.F. Tamrin


    Full Text Available Understanding three-dimensional (3D fluid flow behaviour is undeniably crucial in improving performance and efficiency in a wide range of applications in engineering and medical fields. Holographic particle image velocimetry (HPIV is a potential tool to probe and characterize complex flow dynamics since it is a truly three-dimensional three-component measurement technique. The technique relies on the coherent light scattered by small seeding particles that are assumed to faithfully follow the flow for subsequent reconstruction of the same the event afterward. However, extraction of useful 3D displacement data from these particle images is usually aggravated by noise and aberration which are inherent within the optical system. Noise and aberration have been considered as major hurdles in HPIV in obtaining accurate particle image identification and its corresponding 3D position. Major contributions to noise include zero-order diffraction, out-of-focus particles, virtual image and emulsion grain scattering. Noise suppression is crucial to ensure that particle image can be distinctly differentiated from background noise while aberration compensation forms particle image with high integrity. This paper reviews a number of HPIV configurations that have been proposed to address these issues, summarizes the key findings and outlines a basis for follow-on research.

  7. Suppression of phase-induced intensity noise in fibre optic delay line signal processors using an optical phase modulation technique. (United States)

    Chan, Erwin H W


    A technique that can suppress the dominant phase-induced intensity noise in fibre optic delay line signal processors is presented. It is based on phase modulation of the optical carrier to distribute the phase noise at the information band into a high frequency band which can be filtered out. This technique is suitable for suppressing the phase noise in various delay line structures and for integrating in the conventional fibre optic links. It can also suppress the coherent interference effect at the same time. A model for predicting the amount of phase noise reduction in various delay line structures using the optical phase modulation technique is presented for the first time and is experimentally verified. Experimental results demonstrate the technique can achieve a large phase noise reduction in various fibre optic delay line signal processors.

  8. Speckle-free digital holographic recording of a diffusely reflecting object. (United States)

    Kim, You Seok; Kim, Taegeun; Woo, Sung Soo; Kang, Hoonjong; Poon, Ting-Chung; Zhou, Changhe


    We demonstrate holographic recording without speckle noise using the digital holographic technique called optical scanning holography (OSH). First, we record a complex hologram of a diffusely reflecting (DR) object using OSH. The incoherent mode of OSH makes it possible to record the complex hologram without speckle noise. Second, we convert the complex hologram to an off-axis real hologram digitally and finally we reconstruct the real hologram using an amplitude-only spatial light modulator (SLM) without twin-image noise and speckle noise. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time demonstrating digital holographic recording of a DR object without speckle noise.

  9. Design and evaluation of noise suppression sheet for GHz band utilizing magneto-elastic effect (United States)

    Igarashi, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Koichi; Yoshida, Shigeyoshi


    Feasibility of realizing a noise suppression sheet (NSS) coping with the low SHF band such as the 5 GHz band was investigated, which was composed of soft magnetic metal flakes dispersed in a polymer. For suppressing noises, the higher frequency one of the bimodal frequency dispersion (lower frequency one: Dispersion DII, higher frequency one: Dispersion DIII) seen in the imaginary permeability (μ″; magnetic loss component) spectrum of the NSS was aimed to utilize. Referring to the previous finding that Dispersion DIII is originated from a magneto-elastic effect, several magnetic composite sheets were prepared using various alloy flakes with different saturation magnetostriction (λs), and their frequency (fr(DIII)) and magnitude (μ″(DIII)) of Dispersion DIII were investigated. It was found that the NSS containing flakes with higher λs exhibited higher fr(DIII) and higher μ″(DIII)/μ″(DII), which was ratio of μ″(DIII) to the magnitude of Dispersion DII (μ″(DII)). The fr(DIII) for the NSS having the highest λs containing Fe-Co alloy flake reached 7.45 GHz and μ″ in the 5 GHz band was approximately twice as high as the conventional NSS containing Fe-Si-Al alloy flake. For transmission attenuation power ratio (Rtp) when an NSS was placed on a microstrip line with characteristic impedance of 50 Ω, NSS with larger fr(DIII)2 · μ″(DIII) ∝ Ms2 (Ms: saturation magnetization), which theoretically gave the frequency limit of imaginary permeability for a thin film, exhibited larger Rtp in the low SHF band. These results suggested that an NSS containing a magnetic flake material with both large λs and Ms was suitable for suppressing low SHF band noises.

  10. Trade-off between responsiveness and noise suppression in biomolecular system responses to environmental cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V Ratushny


    Full Text Available When living systems detect changes in their external environment their response must be measured to balance the need to react appropriately with the need to remain stable, ignoring insignificant signals. Because this is a fundamental challenge of all biological systems that execute programs in response to stimuli, we developed a generalized time-frequency analysis (TFA framework to systematically explore the dynamical properties of biomolecular networks. Using TFA, we focused on two well-characterized yeast gene regulatory networks responsive to carbon-source shifts and a mammalian innate immune regulatory network responsive to lipopolysaccharides (LPS. The networks are comprised of two different basic architectures. Dual positive and negative feedback loops make up the yeast galactose network; whereas overlapping positive and negative feed-forward loops are common to the yeast fatty-acid response network and the LPS-induced network of macrophages. TFA revealed remarkably distinct network behaviors in terms of trade-offs in responsiveness and noise suppression that are appropriately tuned to each biological response. The wild type galactose network was found to be highly responsive while the oleate network has greater noise suppression ability. The LPS network appeared more balanced, exhibiting less bias toward noise suppression or responsiveness. Exploration of the network parameter space exposed dramatic differences in system behaviors for each network. These studies highlight fundamental structural and dynamical principles that underlie each network, reveal constrained parameters of positive and negative feedback and feed-forward strengths that tune the networks appropriately for their respective biological roles, and demonstrate the general utility of the TFA approach for systems and synthetic biology.

  11. Trade-off between responsiveness and noise suppression in biomolecular system responses to environmental cues. (United States)

    Ratushny, Alexander V; Shmulevich, Ilya; Aitchison, John D


    When living systems detect changes in their external environment their response must be measured to balance the need to react appropriately with the need to remain stable, ignoring insignificant signals. Because this is a fundamental challenge of all biological systems that execute programs in response to stimuli, we developed a generalized time-frequency analysis (TFA) framework to systematically explore the dynamical properties of biomolecular networks. Using TFA, we focused on two well-characterized yeast gene regulatory networks responsive to carbon-source shifts and a mammalian innate immune regulatory network responsive to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The networks are comprised of two different basic architectures. Dual positive and negative feedback loops make up the yeast galactose network; whereas overlapping positive and negative feed-forward loops are common to the yeast fatty-acid response network and the LPS-induced network of macrophages. TFA revealed remarkably distinct network behaviors in terms of trade-offs in responsiveness and noise suppression that are appropriately tuned to each biological response. The wild type galactose network was found to be highly responsive while the oleate network has greater noise suppression ability. The LPS network appeared more balanced, exhibiting less bias toward noise suppression or responsiveness. Exploration of the network parameter space exposed dramatic differences in system behaviors for each network. These studies highlight fundamental structural and dynamical principles that underlie each network, reveal constrained parameters of positive and negative feedback and feed-forward strengths that tune the networks appropriately for their respective biological roles, and demonstrate the general utility of the TFA approach for systems and synthetic biology.

  12. Random noise suppression of seismic data using non-local Bayes algorithm (United States)

    Chang, De-Kuan; Yang, Wu-Yang; Wang, Yi-Hui; Yang, Qing; Wei, Xin-Jian; Feng, Xiao-Ying


    For random noise suppression of seismic data, we present a non-local Bayes (NL-Bayes) filtering algorithm. The NL-Bayes algorithm uses the Gaussian model instead of the weighted average of all similar patches in the NL-means algorithm to reduce the fuzzy of structural details, thereby improving the denoising performance. In the denoising process of seismic data, the size and the number of patches in the Gaussian model are adaptively calculated according to the standard deviation of noise. The NL-Bayes algorithm requires two iterations to complete seismic data denoising, but the second iteration makes use of denoised seismic data from the first iteration to calculate the better mean and covariance of the patch Gaussian model for improving the similarity of patches and achieving the purpose of denoising. Tests with synthetic and real data sets demonstrate that the NL-Bayes algorithm can effectively improve the SNR and preserve the fidelity of seismic data.

  13. Development of noise-suppressed detector for single ion hit system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Takuro; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Suda, Tamotsu; Hirao, Toshio; Kamiya, Tomihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment


    A noise-suppressed detector for single ion detection has been developed, and combined with the heavy ion microbeam apparatus. This detector consists of a pair of micro channel plates (MCP`s) and a very thin carbon foil. The detection signal is formed by the coincidence of the signals from these MCP`s, so that this detector and the coincidence measurement unit can reduce miscounting in the circuit. The detection efficiency for 15 MeV heavy ions was evaluated to be comparable to that of a silicon surface-barrier detector (SSD) and the miscounting rate was 4 orders lower than the noise rate of a single MCP. The rise time of the detection signal was also estimated. (author)

  14. Mitigation of Rayleigh crosstalk using noise suppression technique in 10-Gb/s REAM-SOA. (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Sool; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Byung-Seok; Kim, Dong Churl; Kim, Ki-Soo; Park, Mi-Ran; Kwon, O-Kyun


    We demonstrate a mitigation of Rayleigh back-scattering (RBS) impact in 10-Gb/s reflective electroabsorption modulator monolithically integrated with semiconductor optical amplifier (REAM-SOA). The technique is based on the intensity-noise suppression of the centralized incoherent seed-light, which enables smooth evolution of deployed DWDM applications. We exhibit the power penalty of less than 1 dB at the large RBS crosstalk value of about 8 dB when the optical power of seed-light is lowered about -10 dBm.

  15. Theory of noise suppression in Λ -type quantum memories by means of a cavity (United States)

    Nunn, J.; Munns, J. H. D.; Thomas, S.; Kaczmarek, K. T.; Qiu, C.; Feizpour, A.; Poem, E.; Brecht, B.; Saunders, D. J.; Ledingham, P. M.; Reddy, Dileep V.; Raymer, M. G.; Walmsley, I. A.


    Quantum memories, capable of storing single photons or other quantum states of light, to be retrieved on demand, offer a route to large-scale quantum information processing with light. A promising class of memories is based on far-off-resonant Raman absorption in ensembles of Λ -type atoms. However, at room temperature these systems exhibit unwanted four-wave mixing, which is prohibitive for applications at the single-photon level. Here, we show how this noise can be suppressed by placing the storage medium inside a moderate-finesse optical cavity, thereby removing the main roadblock hindering this approach to quantum memory.

  16. Noise Suppression on the Tunable Laser for Precise Cavity Length Displacement Measurement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Radek; Čížek, Martin; Mikel, Břetislav; Hrabina, Jan; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej


    Roč. 16, č. 9 (2016), 1428:1-11 ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP102/12/P962; GA ČR GB14-36681G; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Fabry-Perot cavity * unbalance Michelson interferometer * noise suppression * heterodyne interferometry * displacement measurement Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2016

  17. FM jamming cancellation suppression based on noise floor estimation with dynamic threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Jie


    Full Text Available Technique of FM jamming time domain cancellation suppression based on noise floor estimation with dynamic threshold is researched, by using the colored noise NLR filter estimation algorithm instead of the narrowband filtering algorithm, the problem that the target echo signal is lost in the process of jamming amplitude estimation is solved. Through the phase analysis of the jamming signal, the problem of jamming signal amplitude estimation in the background of echo signal is transformed into the problem of useful signals spectral estimation in colored noise background. Combined with the characteristics of the low frequency components of the useful signal, the traditional NLR filtering algorithm is improved by adding the dynamic threshold, so as to achieve the purpose of colored noise’s non-invasive estimation, and then to obtain more accurate jamming signal amplitude estimation. The simulation results show that compared with the traditional jamming cancellation algorithm, this algorithm can improve the SJR of the echo signal better and the anti - jamming ability is stronger.

  18. Suppressing sampling noise in linear and two-dimensional spectral simulations (United States)

    Kruiger, Johannes F.; van der Vegte, Cornelis P.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.


    We examine the problem of sampling noise encountered in time-domain simulations of linear and two-dimensional spectroscopies. A new adaptive apodization scheme based on physical arguments is devised for suppressing the noise in order to allow reducing the number of used disorder realisations, but introducing only a minimum of spectral aberrations and thus allowing a potential speed-up of these types of simulations. First, the method is demonstrated on an artificial dimer system, where the effect on slope analysis, typically used to study spectral dynamics, is analysed. It is, furthermore, tested on the simulated two-dimensional infrared spectra in the amide I region of the protein lysozyme. The cross polarisation component is investigated, particularly sensitive to sampling noise, because it relies on cancelling of the dominant diagonal spectral contributions. In all these cases, the adaptive apodization scheme is found to give more accurate results than the commonly used lifetime apodization scheme and in most cases better than the gaussian apodization scheme.

  19. Suppression of 3D coherent noise by areal geophone array; Menteki jushinki array ni yoru sanjigen coherent noise no yokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, R.; Nakagami, K.; Tanaka, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center


    For improving the quality of data collected by reflection seismic exploration, a lattice was deployed at one point of a traverse line, and the data therefrom were used to study the 3D coherent noise suppression effect of the areal array. The test was conducted at a Japan National Oil Corporation test field in Kashiwazaki City, Niigata Prefecture. The deployed lattice had 144 vibration receiving points arrayed at intervals of 8m composing an areal array, and 187 vibration generating points arrayed at intervals of 20m extending over 6.5km. Data was collected at the vibration receiving points in the lattice, each point acting independently from the others, and processed for the composition of a large areal array, with the said data from plural vibration receiving points added up therein. As the result of analysis of the records covering the data collected at the receiving points in the lattice, it is noted that an enlarged areal array leads to a higher S/N ratio and that different reflection waves are emphasized when the array direction is changed. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  20. Overexpression of SK2 channels enhances efferent suppression of cochlear responses without enhancing noise resistance. (United States)

    Maison, Stéphane F; Parker, Lisan L; Young, Lucy; Adelman, John P; Zuo, Jian; Liberman, M Charles


    Cochlear hair cells express SK2, a small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel thought to act in concert with Ca(2+)-permeable nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) alpha9 and alpha10 in mediating suppressive effects of the olivocochlear efferent innervation. To probe the in vivo role of SK2 channels in hearing, we examined gene expression, cochlear function, efferent suppression, and noise vulnerability in mice overexpressing SK2 channels. Cochlear thresholds, as measured by auditory brain stem responses and otoacoustic emissions, were normal in overexpressers as was overall cochlear morphology and the size, number, and distribution of efferent terminals on outer hair cells. Cochlear expression levels of SK2 channels were elevated eightfold without striking changes in other SK channels or in the alpha9/alpha10 nAChRs. Shock-evoked efferent suppression of cochlear responses was significantly enhanced in overexpresser mice as seen previously in alpha9 overexpresser mice; however, in contrast to alpha9 overexpressers, SK2 overexpressers were not protected from acoustic injury. Results suggest that efferent-mediated cochlear protection is mediated by other downstream effects of ACh-mediated Ca(2+) entry different from those involving SK2-mediated hyperpolarization and the associated reduction in outer hair cell electromotility.

  1. Spiking cortical model-based nonlocal means method for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images (United States)

    Zhang, Xuming; Li, Liu; Zhu, Fei; Hou, Wenguang; Chen, Xinjian


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images are usually degraded by significant speckle noise, which will strongly hamper their quantitative analysis. However, speckle noise reduction in OCT images is particularly challenging because of the difficulty in differentiating between noise and the information components of the speckle pattern. To address this problem, the spiking cortical model (SCM)-based nonlocal means method is presented. The proposed method explores self-similarities of OCT images based on rotation-invariant features of image patches extracted by SCM and then restores the speckled images by averaging the similar patches. This method can provide sufficient speckle reduction while preserving image details very well due to its effectiveness in finding reliable similar patches under high speckle noise contamination. When applied to the retinal OCT image, this method provides signal-to-noise ratio improvements of >16 dB with a small 5.4% loss of similarity.

  2. Speckle reduction in digital holography with resampling ring masks (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhui; Cao, Liangcai; Jin, Guofan


    One-shot digital holographic imaging has the advantages of high stability and low temporal cost. However, the reconstruction is affected by the speckle noise. Resampling ring-mask method in spectrum domain is proposed for speckle reduction. The useful spectrum of one hologram is divided into several sub-spectra by ring masks. In the reconstruction, angular spectrum transform is applied to guarantee the calculation accuracy which has no approximation. N reconstructed amplitude images are calculated from the corresponding sub-spectra. Thanks to speckle's random distribution, superimposing these N uncorrelated amplitude images would lead to a final reconstructed image with lower speckle noise. Normalized relative standard deviation values of the reconstructed image are used to evaluate the reduction of speckle. Effect of the method on the spatial resolution of the reconstructed image is also quantitatively evaluated. Experimental and simulation results prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Rayleigh noise mitigation in DWDM LR-PONs using carrier suppressed subcarrier-amplitude modulated phase shift keying. (United States)

    Chow, C W; Talli, G; Ellis, A D; Townsend, P D


    We demonstrate a novel Rayleigh interferometric noise mitigation scheme for applications in carrier-distributed dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) passive optical networks at 10 Gbit/s using carrier suppressed subcarrier-amplitude modulated phase shift keying modulation. The required optical signal to Rayleigh noise ratio is reduced by 12 dB, while achieving excellent tolerance to dispersion, subcarrier frequency and drive amplitude variations.

  4. Suppression of the four-wave-mixing background noise in a quantum memory retrieval process by channel blocking (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Guo, Jinxian; Chen, L. Q.; Yuan, Chunhua; Ou, Z. Y.; Zhang, Weiping


    In a quantum memory scheme with the Raman process, the read process encounters noise from four-wave mixing (FWM), which can destroy the nonclassical properties of the generated quantum fields. Here we demonstrate experimentally that the noise from FWM can be greatly suppressed by simply reducing the FWM transition channels with a circularly polarized read beam while at the same time retaining relatively high retrieval efficiency.

  5. Linearly interpolated sub-symbol optical phase noise suppression in CO-OFDM system. (United States)

    Hong, Xuezhi; Hong, Xiaojian; He, Sailing


    An optical phase noise suppression algorithm, LI-SCPEC, based on phase linear interpolation and sub-symbol processing is proposed for CO-OFDM system. By increasing the temporal resolution of carrier phase tracking through dividing one symbol into several sub-blocks, i.e., sub-symbols, inter-carrier-interference (ICI) mitigation is achieved in the proposed algorithm. Linear interpolation is employed to obtain a reliable temporal reference for sub-symbol phase estimation. The new algorithm, with only a few number of sub-symbols (N(B) = 4), can provide a considerably larger laser linewidth tolerance than several other ICI mitigation algorithms as demonstrated by Monte-Carlo simulations. Numerical analysis verifies that the best performance is achieved with an optimal and moderate number of sub-symbols. Complexity analysis shows that the required number of complex-valued multiplications is independent of the number of sub-symbols used in the proposed algorithm.

  6. Strong suppression of shot noise in a feedback-controlled single-electron transistor (United States)

    Wagner, Timo; Strasberg, Philipp; Bayer, Johannes C.; Rugeramigabo, Eddy P.; Brandes, Tobias; Haug, Rolf J.


    Feedback control of quantum mechanical systems is rapidly attracting attention not only due to fundamental questions about quantum measurements, but also because of its novel applications in many fields in physics. Quantum control has been studied intensively in quantum optics but progress has recently been made in the control of solid-state qubits as well. In quantum transport only a few active and passive feedback experiments have been realized on the level of single electrons, although theoretical proposals exist. Here we demonstrate the suppression of shot noise in a single-electron transistor using an exclusively electronic closed-loop feedback to monitor and adjust the counting statistics. With increasing feedback response we observe a stronger suppression and faster freezing of charge current fluctuations. Our technique is analogous to the generation of squeezed light with in-loop photodetection as used in quantum optics. Sub-Poisson single-electron sources will pave the way for high-precision measurements in quantum transport similar to optical or optomechanical equivalents.

  7. Speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography in living mice and humans (United States)

    Liba, Orly; Lew, Matthew D.; Sorelle, Elliott D.; Dutta, Rebecca; Sen, Debasish; Moshfeghi, Darius M.; Chu, Steven; de La Zerda, Adam


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful biomedical imaging technology that relies on the coherent detection of backscattered light to image tissue morphology in vivo. As a consequence, OCT is susceptible to coherent noise (speckle noise), which imposes significant limitations on its diagnostic capabilities. Here we show speckle-modulating OCT (SM-OCT), a method based purely on light manipulation that virtually eliminates speckle noise originating from a sample. SM-OCT accomplishes this by creating and averaging an unlimited number of scans with uncorrelated speckle patterns without compromising spatial resolution. Using SM-OCT, we reveal small structures in the tissues of living animals, such as the inner stromal structure of a live mouse cornea, the fine structures inside the mouse pinna, and sweat ducts and Meissner's corpuscle in the human fingertip skin--features that are otherwise obscured by speckle noise when using conventional OCT or OCT with current state of the art speckle reduction methods.

  8. Intensity inhomogeneity compensation and tissue segmentation for magnetic resonance imaging with noise-suppressed multiplicative intrinsic component optimization (United States)

    Dong, Huaipeng; Zhang, Qi; Shi, Jun


    Magnetic resonance (MR) images suffer from intensity inhomogeneity. Segmentation-based approaches can simultaneously achieve both intensity inhomogeneity compensation (IIC) and tissue segmentation for MR images with little noise, but they often fail for images polluted by severe noise. Here, we propose a noise-robust algorithm named noise-suppressed multiplicative intrinsic component optimization (NSMICO) for simultaneous IIC and tissue segmentation. Considering the spatial characteristics in an image, an adaptive nonlocal means filtering term is incorporated into the objective function of NSMICO to decrease image deterioration due to noise. Then, a fuzzy local factor term utilizing the spatial and gray-level relationship among local pixels is embedded into the objective function to reach a balance between noise suppression and detail preservation. Experimental results on synthetic natural and MR images with various levels of intensity inhomogeneity and noise, as well as in vivo clinical MR images, have demonstrated the effectiveness of the NSMICO and its superiority to three competing approaches. The NSMICO could be potentially valuable for MR image IIC and tissue segmentation.

  9. Optical Processing of Speckle Images with Bacteriorhodopsin for Pattern Recognition (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Tucker, Deanne (Technical Monitor)


    Logarithmic processing of images with multiplicative noise characteristics can be utilized to transform the image into one with an additive noise distribution. This simplifies subsequent image processing steps for applications such as image restoration or correlation for pattern recognition. One particularly common form of multiplicative noise is speckle, for which the logarithmic operation not only produces additive noise, but also makes it of constant variance (signal-independent). We examine the optical transmission properties of some bacteriorhodopsin films here and find them well suited to implement such a pointwise logarithmic transformation optically in a parallel fashion. We present experimental results of the optical conversion of speckle images into transformed images with additive, signal-independent noise statistics using the real-time photochromic properties of bacteriorhodopsin. We provide an example of improved correlation performance in terms of correlation peak signal-to-noise for such a transformed speckle image.

  10. Suppression Efficiency of the Correlated Noise and Drift of Self-oscillating Pseudo-differential Eddy Current Displacement Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaturvedi, V.; Vogel, J.G.; Nihtianov, S.


    The suppression efficiency of the correlated noise and drift of self-oscillating front-end circuit in a pseudo-differential eddy-current displacement sensor (ECDS) is investigated using COMSOL and MATLAB. The transfer characteristic of the sensor coil, excited at 200 MHz, is obtained through a FE

  11. Experimental investigation at 10 Gb/s of the noise suppression capabilities in a pass-through configuration in SOA-based interferometric structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfson, David; Fjelde, Tina; Kloch, Allan


    We experimentally investigate a pass-through scheme for all-optical noise suppression in a SOA-based interferometric structure at 10 Gb/s. An input power dynamic range of ~8 dB as well as a noise suppression capability of ~4.5 dB has been demonstrated. Furthermore, the transmission properties have...

  12. Edge Probability and Pixel Relativity-Based Speckle Reducing Anisotropic Diffusion. (United States)

    Mishra, Deepak; Chaudhury, Santanu; Sarkar, Mukul; Soin, Arvinder Singh; Sharma, Vivek


    Anisotropic diffusion filters are one of the best choices for speckle reduction in the ultrasound images. These filters control the diffusion flux flow using local image statistics and provide the desired speckle suppression. However, inefficient use of edge characteristics results in either oversmooth image or an image containing misinterpreted spurious edges. As a result, the diagnostic quality of the images becomes a concern. To alleviate such problems, a novel anisotropic diffusion-based speckle reducing filter is proposed in this paper. A probability density function of the edges along with pixel relativity information is used to control the diffusion flux flow. The probability density function helps in removing the spurious edges and the pixel relativity reduces the oversmoothing effects. Furthermore, the filtering is performed in superpixel domain to reduce the execution time, wherein a minimum of 15% of the total number of image pixels can be used. For performance evaluation, 31 frames of three synthetic images and 40 real ultrasound images are used. In most of the experiments, the proposed filter shows a better performance as compared to the state-of-the-art filters in terms of the speckle region's signal-to-noise ratio and mean square error. It also shows a comparative performance for figure of merit and structural similarity measure index. Furthermore, in the subjective evaluation, performed by the expert radiologists, the proposed filter's outputs are preferred for the improved contrast and sharpness of the object boundaries. Hence, the proposed filtering framework is suitable to reduce the unwanted speckle and improve the quality of the ultrasound images.

  13. Understanding the exposure-time effect on speckle contrast measurements for laser displays (United States)

    Suzuki, Koji; Kubota, Shigeo


    To evaluate the influence of exposure time on speckle noise for laser displays, speckle contrast measurement method was developed observable at a human eye response time using a high-sensitivity camera which has a signal multiplying function. The nonlinearity of camera light sensitivity was calibrated to measure accurate speckle contrasts, and the measuring lower limit noise of speckle contrast was improved by applying spatial-frequency low pass filter to the captured images. Three commercially available laser displays were measured over a wide range of exposure times from tens of milliseconds to several seconds without adjusting the brightness of laser displays. The speckle contrast of raster-scanned mobile projector without any speckle-reduction device was nearly constant over various exposure times. On the contrary to this, in full-frame projection type laser displays equipped with a temporally-averaging speckle-reduction device, some of their speckle contrasts close to the lower limits noise were slightly increased at the shorter exposure time due to the noise. As a result, the exposure-time effect of speckle contrast could not be observed in our measurements, although it is more reasonable to think that the speckle contrasts of laser displays, which are equipped with the temporally-averaging speckle-reduction device, are dependent on the exposure time. This discrepancy may be attributed to the underestimation of temporal averaging factor. We expected that this method is useful for evaluating various laser displays and clarify the relationship between the speckle noise and the exposure time for a further verification of speckle reduction.

  14. Alternating minimization algorithm for speckle reduction with a shifting technique. (United States)

    Woo, Hyenkyun; Yun, Sangwoon


    Speckles (multiplicative noise) in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) make it difficult to interpret the observed image. Due to the edge-preserving feature of total variation (TV), variational models with TV regularization have attracted much interest in reducing speckles. Algorithms based on the augmented Lagrangian function have been proposed to efficiently solve speckle-reduction variational models with TV regularization. However, these algorithms require inner iterations or inverses involving the Laplacian operator at each iteration. In this paper, we adapt Tseng's alternating minimization algorithm with a shifting technique to efficiently remove the speckle without any inner iterations or inverses involving the Laplacian operator. The proposed method is very simple and highly parallelizable; therefore, it is very efficient to despeckle huge-size SAR images. Numerical results show that our proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms for speckle-reduction variational models with a TV regularizer in terms of central-processing-unit time.

  15. Digital mobile fronthaul employing differential pulse code modulation with suppressed quantization noise. (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Pang, Xiaodan; Ozolins, Oskars; Udalcovs, Aleksejs; Schatz, Richard; Westergren, Urban; Jacobsen, Gunnar; Popov, Sergei; Wosinska, Lena; Xiao, Shilin; Hu, Weisheng; Chen, Jiajia


    A differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) based digital mobile fronthaul architecture is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. By using a linear predictor in the DPCM encoding process, the quantization noise can be effectively suppressed and a prediction gain of 7~8 dB can be obtained. Experimental validation is carried out with a 20 km 15-Gbaud/λ 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) intensity modulation and direct detection system. The results verify the feasibility of supporting 163, 122, 98, 81 20-MHz 4, 16, 64, 256 QAM based antenna-carrier (AxC) containers with only 3, 4, 5, 6 quantization bits at a sampling rate of 30.72MSa/s in LTE-A environment. Further increasing the number of quantization bits to 8 and 9, 1024 quadrature amplitude modulation (1024 QAM) and 4096 QAM transmission can be realized with error vector magnitude (EVM) lower than 1% and 0.5%, respectively. The supported number of AxCs in the proposed DPCM-based fronthaul is increased and the EVM is greatly reduced compared to the common public radio interface (CPRI) based fronthaul that uses pulse code modulation. Besides, the DPCM-based fronthaul is also experimentally demonstrated to support universal filtered multicarrier signal that is one candidate waveform for the 5th generation mobile systems.

  16. Image noise removal using image inpainting (United States)

    Bakhtiari, Somayeh; Mohyedinbonab, Elmira; Agaian, Sos; Jamshidi, Mo


    In this paper, new methods are addressed for impulse and speckle noise removal in images. The approach is based on the fusion of noise detection and image inpainting techniques. To avoid destroying the real structures of the image, the noise areas are first recognized to be repaired by an inpainting algorithm, subsequently. To distinguish the impulse noise areas in the image, a Neuro-Fuzzy model is employed and, to extract the speckled regions an algorithm is proposed based on Frost filtering and image resizing. The advantage of inpainting technique over the regular filtering methods is that it will be easier to generalize to all types of noise. Once we detect the damaged pixels in the image, the inpainting algorithm will be able to repair them. Various types of images under three levels of noise are tested using PSNR and SSIM measures. The experimental results demonstrate the great ability of the new approaches to suppress the noise properly, while preserving critical details of the image.

  17. Speckle-based spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    A novel spectrometer concept is analyzed and experimentally verified. The method relies on probing the speckle displacement due to a change in the incident wavelength. A rough surface is illuminated at an oblique angle, and the peak position of the covariance between the speckle patterns observed...

  18. Broadband suppression of phase-noise with cascaded phase-locked-loops for the generation of frequency ramps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Musch


    Full Text Available The generation of analogue frequency ramps with non-fractional phase-locked-loops (PLL is a cost effective way of linearising varactor controlled oscillators (VCO. In case that the VCO shows a high phase-noise level, a single non-fractional PLL is not able to suppress the phase-noise of the VCO sufficiently. The reason for this is the limited loopbandwidth of the PLL. In the field of precise measurements a high phase-noise level is mostly not tolerable. Examples of VCO-types with an extremely high phase noise level are integrated millimetre wave oscillators based on GaAs-HEMT technology. Both, a low quality factor of the resonator and a high flicker-noise corner frequency of the transistors are the main reason for the poor phase-noise behaviour. On the other hand this oscillator type allows a cost effective implementation of a millimetre-wave VCO. Therefore, a cascaded two-loop structure is presented that is able to linearise a VCO and additionally to reduce its phase-noise significantly.

  19. Noise suppression in an atomic system under the action of a field in a squeezed coherent state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelman, A. I.; Mironov, V. A.


    The interaction of a quantized electromagnetic field in a squeezed coherent state with a three-level Λ-atom is studied numerically by the quantum Monte Carlo method and analytically by the Heisenberg-Langevin method in the regime of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The possibility of noise suppression in the atomic system through the quantum properties of squeezed light is considered in detail; the characteristics of the atomic system responsible for the relaxation processes and noise in the EIT band have been found. Further applications of the Monte Carlo method and the developed numerical code to the study of more complex systems are discussed.

  20. Objective assessment of subjective tinnitus through contralateral suppression of otoacoustic emissions by white noise; suggested cut-off points. (United States)

    Riga, M; Komis, A; Maragkoudakis, P; Korres, G; Danielides, V


    Normative otoacoustic emission (OAE) suppression values are currently lacking and the role of cochlear efferent innervation in tinnitus is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between tinnitus and medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB) malfunction. Potential suppression amplitude cut-off criteria that could differentiate participants with tinnitus from those without were sought. Mean suppression amplitudes of transient evoked OAEs and distortion product OAEs by contralateral white noise (50 dBSL) were recorded. Six mean suppression amplitudes criteria were validated as possible cut-off points. The population consisted of normal hearing (n = 78) or presbycusic adults (n = 19) with tinnitus or without (n = 28 and 13, respectively) chronic tinnitus (in total, n = 138 78 females/60males, aged 49 ± 14 years). Participants with mean suppression values lower than 0.5-1 dBSPL seem to present a high probability to report tinnitus (specificity 88-97%). On the other hand, participants with mean suppression values larger than 2-2.5dBSPL seem to present a high probability of the absence of tinnitus (sensitivity 87-99%). Correlations were stronger among participants with bilateral presence or absence of tinnitus. This study seem to confirm an association between tinnitus and low suppression amplitudes (<1 dBSPL), which might evolve into an objective examination tool, supplementary to conventional audiological testing.

  1. Speckle Reduction in Projection Systems


    Riechert, Falko


    A speckle pattern is a quasi-random interference pattern which typically emerges when lasers are used as illumination sources in projection applications and which severely degrades the image quality. Since in most projection applications high speckle disturbance is not tolerable, speckle reduction is a major issue. This work gives an introduction into the theoretical description of speckle and investigates different practical methods for speckle reduction in laser projection systems.

  2. Separated Component-Based Restoration of Speckled SAR Images (United States)


    systems such as SAR, holography , ultra- sound, and synthetic aperture sonar suffer from a multiplicative noise known as speckle [1]. Speckle appears when...Award from the Office of Technology Commercialization, and an Outstanding GEMSTONE Mentor Award from the Honors College. He received the Outstanding...and Technology (University of London), London, England, in 1980 and 1984, respectively. From October 1984 to December 1984 he worked for IBM (UK) as a

  3. Low-complexity linewidth-tolerant time domain sub-symbol optical phase noise suppression in CO-OFDM systems. (United States)

    Hong, Xuezhi; Hong, Xiaojian; Zhang, Junwei; He, Sailing


    Two linewidth-tolerant optical phase noise suppression algorithms, non-decision aided sub-symbol optical phase noise suppression (NDA-SPS) and partial-decision aided sub-symbol optical phase noise suppression (PDA-SPS), based on low-complexity time domain sub-symbol processing are proposed for coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) systems. High accuracy carrier phase estimation is achieved in the NDA-SPS algorithm without decision error propagation. Compared with NDA-SPS, partial-decision aided estimation is introduced in PDA-SPS to reduce the pilot-overhead by half, yet only a small performance degradation is induced. The principles and computational complexities of the proposed algorithms are theoretically analyzed. By adopting specially designed comb-type pilot subcarriers, multiplier-free observation-based matrix generation is realized in the proposed algorithms. Computationally intensive discrete Fourier transform (DFT) or inverse DFT (IDFT) operations, which are usually carried out in other high-performance inter-carrier-interference (ICI) mitigation algorithms multiple times, are completely avoided. Compared with several other sub-symbol algorithms, the proposed algorithms with lower complexities offer considerably larger laser linewidth tolerances as demonstrated by Monte-Carlo simulations. Numerical analysis verifies that the optimal performance of PDA-SPS can be achieved with moderate numbers of sub-symbols.

  4. Common mode noise modeling and its suppression in ultra-high efficiency full bridge boost converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makda, Ishtiyaq Ahmed; Nymand, Morten; Madawala, Udaya


    between input and output which is normally associated with high common mode noise generation. In this work, common mode noise sources in the converter are identified, and a common mode noise model is developed. Based on the established noise model, a practical CM filter is designed to comply......In this paper, common mode noise modeling of low-voltage high-current isolated full bridge boost dc-dc converters intended for fuel cell application is presented. Due to the tightly coupled primary and secondary windings of the transformer, such converter has inherently large capacitive coupling...

  5. A frequency-selective feedback model of auditory efferent suppression and its implications for the recognition of speech in noise. (United States)

    Clark, Nicholas R; Brown, Guy J; Jürgens, Tim; Meddis, Ray


    The potential contribution of the peripheral auditory efferent system to our understanding of speech in a background of competing noise was studied using a computer model of the auditory periphery and assessed using an automatic speech recognition system. A previous study had shown that a fixed efferent attenuation applied to all channels of a multi-channel model could improve the recognition of connected digit triplets in noise [G. J. Brown, R. T. Ferry, and R. Meddis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 127, 943-954 (2010)]. In the current study an anatomically justified feedback loop was used to automatically regulate separate attenuation values for each auditory channel. This arrangement resulted in a further enhancement of speech recognition over fixed-attenuation conditions. Comparisons between multi-talker babble and pink noise interference conditions suggest that the benefit originates from the model's ability to modify the amount of suppression in each channel separately according to the spectral shape of the interfering sounds.

  6. Measurement of eye aberrations in a speckle field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larichev, A V; Ivanov, P V; Iroshnikov, N G; Shmalgauzen, V I


    The influence of speckles on the performance of a Shark-Hartmann wavefront sensor is investigated in the eye aberration studies. The dependence of the phase distortion measurement error on the characteristic speckle size is determined experimentally. Scanning of the reference source was used to suppress the speckle structure of the laser beam scattered by the retina. The technique developed by us made it possible to study the time dependence of the human eye aberrations with a resolution of 30 ms. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  7. Suppression of laser phase noise in direct-detection optical OFDM transmission using phase-conjugated pilots (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Ming, Yi; Li, Jin


    Due to the unique phase noise (PN) characteristics in direct-detection optical OFDM (DDO-OFDM) systems, the design of PN compensator is considered as a difficult task. In this paper, a laser PN suppression scheme with low complexity for DDO-OFDM based on coherent superposition of data carrying subcarriers and their phase conjugates is proposed. Through theoretical derivation, the obvious PN suppression is observed. The effectiveness of this technique is demonstrated by simulation of a 4-QAM DDO-OFDM system over 1000 km transmission length at different laser line-width and subcarrier frequency spacing. The results show that the proposed scheme can significantly suppress both varied phase rotation term (PTR) and inter-carrier interference (ICI), and the laser line-width can be relaxed with up to 9 dB OSNR saving or even breakthrough of performance floor.

  8. Noise (United States)

    Noise is all around you, from televisions and radios to lawn mowers and washing machines. Normally, you ... sensitive structures of the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss. More than 30 million Americans ...

  9. Speckle phase near random surfaces (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyi; Cheng, Chuanfu; An, Guoqiang; Han, Yujing; Rong, Zhenyu; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Meina


    Based on Kirchhoff approximation theory, the speckle phase near random surfaces with different roughness is numerically simulated. As expected, the properties of the speckle phase near the random surfaces are different from that in far field. In addition, as scattering distances and roughness increase, the average fluctuations of the speckle phase become larger. Unusually, the speckle phase is somewhat similar to the corresponding surface topography. We have performed experiments to verify the theoretical simulation results. Studies in this paper contribute to understanding the evolution of speckle phase near a random surface and provide a possible way to identify a random surface structure based on its speckle phase.

  10. Effects of Noise Suppression on Intelligibility: Experts' Opinions and Naive Normal-Hearing Listeners' Performance (United States)

    Hilkhuysen, Gaston L. M.; Gaubitch, Nikolay; Huckvale, Mark


    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated how well experts can adjust the settings of a commercial noise-reduction system to optimize the intelligibility for naive normal-hearing listeners. Method: In Experiment 1, 5 experts adjusted parameters for a noise-reduction system while aiming to optimize intelligibility. The stimuli consisted of…

  11. Simultaneously suppressing frequency and intensity noise in a Nd:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator by means of the current-lock technique. (United States)

    Heurs, Michèle; Quetschke, Volker M; Willke, Benno; Danzmann, Karsten; Freitag, Ingo


    We show that frequency and intensity noise in a Nd:YAG laser are correlated to a high degree and can be traced to the same underlying cause, namely, power fluctuations of the pump source. Because of this correlation, simultaneous suppression of frequency and intensity noise by 30 dB is achieved by means of a single actuator, the pump power.

  12. Lagrangian speckle model and tissue-motion estimation--theory. (United States)

    Maurice, R L; Bertrand, M


    It is known that when a tissue is subjected to movements such as rotation, shearing, scaling, etc., changes in speckle patterns that result act as a noise source, often responsible for most of the displacement-estimate variance. From a modeling point of view, these changes can be thought of as resulting from two mechanisms: one is the motion of the speckles and the other, the alterations of their morphology. In this paper, we propose a new tissue-motion estimator to counteract these speckle decorrelation effects. The estimator is based on a Lagrangian description of the speckle motion. This description allows us to follow local characteristics of the speckle field as if they were a material property. This method leads to an analytical description of the decorrelation in a way which enables the derivation of an appropriate inverse filter for speckle restoration. The filter is appropriate for linear geometrical transformation of the scattering function (LT), i.e., a constant-strain region of interest (ROI). As the LT itself is a parameter of the filter, a tissue-motion estimator can be formulated as a nonlinear minimization problem, seeking the best match between the pre-tissue-motion image and a restored-speckle post-motion image. The method is tested, using simulated radio-frequency (RF) images of tissue undergoing axial shear.

  13. Laser speckle: theory and applications. January 1970-May 1988 (Citations from the Engineering Index data base). Report for January 1970-May 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This bibliography contains citations concerning applications and theoretical considerations pertaining to laser speckle interferometry. Topics include experimental and theoretical investigations, applications in stress and vibrational analysis, velocity and displacement measurement, and surface analysis. Speckle noise-reduction techniques and speckle photography are also treated. (This updated bibliography contains 247 citations, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  14. Tandem-pulsed acousto-optics: an analytical framework of modulated high-contrast speckle patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resink, Steffen; Steenbergen, Wiendelt


    Recently we presented acousto-optic (AO) probing of scattering media using addition or subtraction of speckle patterns due to tandem nanosecond pulses. Here we present a theoretical framework for ideal (polarized, noise-free) speckle patterns with unity contrast that links ultrasound-induced optical

  15. A novel transmitter IQ imbalance and phase noise suppression method utilizing pilots in PDM CO-OFDM system (United States)

    Zhang, Haoyuan; Ma, Xiurong; Li, Pengru


    In this paper, we develop a novel pilot structure to suppress transmitter in-phase and quadrature (Tx IQ) imbalance, phase noise and channel distortion for polarization division multiplexed (PDM) coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) systems. Compared with the conventional approach, our method not only significantly improves the system tolerance of IQ imbalance as well as phase noise, but also provides higher transmission speed. Numerical simulations of PDM CO-OFDM system is used to validate the theoretical analysis under the simulation conditions: the amplitude mismatch 3 dB, the phase mismatch 15°, the transmission bit rate 100 Gb/s and 560 km standard signal-mode fiber transmission. Moreover, the proposed method is 63% less complex than the compared method.

  16. Effective noise-suppressed and artifact-reduced reconstruction of SPECT data using a preconditioned alternating projection algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Si; Xu, Yuesheng, E-mail: [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Science, School of Mathematics and Computational Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhang, Jiahan; Lipson, Edward [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States); Krol, Andrzej; Feiglin, David [Department of Radiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York 13210 (United States); Schmidtlein, C. Ross [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Vogelsang, Levon [Carestream Health, Rochester, New York 14608 (United States); Shen, Lixin [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Science, School of Mathematics and Computational Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China and Department of Mathematics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States)


    square errors (MSEs), and report the convergence speed and computation time. Results: HOTV-PAPA yields the best signal-to-noise ratio, followed by TV-PAPA and TV-OSL/GPF-EM. The local spatial resolution of HOTV-PAPA is somewhat worse than that of TV-PAPA and TV-OSL. Images reconstructed using HOTV-PAPA have the lowest local noise power spectrum (LNPS) amplitudes, followed by TV-PAPA, TV-OSL, and GPF-EM. The LNPS peak of GPF-EM is shifted toward higher spatial frequencies than those for the three other methods. The PAPA-type methods exhibit much lower ensemble noise, ensemble voxel variance, and image roughness. HOTV-PAPA performs best in these categories. Whereas images reconstructed using both TV-PAPA and TV-OSL are degraded by severe staircase artifacts; HOTV-PAPA substantially reduces such artifacts. It also converges faster than the other three methods and exhibits the lowest overall reconstruction error level, as measured by MSE. Conclusions: For high-noise simulated SPECT data, HOTV-PAPA outperforms TV-PAPA, GPF-EM, and TV-OSL in terms of hot lesion detectability, noise suppression, MSE, and computational efficiency. Unlike TV-PAPA and TV-OSL, HOTV-PAPA does not create sizable staircase artifacts. Moreover, HOTV-PAPA effectively suppresses noise, with only limited loss of local spatial resolution. Of the four methods, HOTV-PAPA shows the best lesion detectability, thanks to its superior noise suppression. HOTV-PAPA shows promise for clinically useful reconstructions of low-dose SPECT data.

  17. Effective noise-suppressed and artifact-reduced reconstruction of SPECT data using a preconditioned alternating projection algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Si; Xu, Yuesheng; Zhang, Jiahan; Lipson, Edward; Krol, Andrzej; Feiglin, David; Schmidtlein, C. Ross; Vogelsang, Levon; Shen, Lixin


    square errors (MSEs), and report the convergence speed and computation time. Results: HOTV-PAPA yields the best signal-to-noise ratio, followed by TV-PAPA and TV-OSL/GPF-EM. The local spatial resolution of HOTV-PAPA is somewhat worse than that of TV-PAPA and TV-OSL. Images reconstructed using HOTV-PAPA have the lowest local noise power spectrum (LNPS) amplitudes, followed by TV-PAPA, TV-OSL, and GPF-EM. The LNPS peak of GPF-EM is shifted toward higher spatial frequencies than those for the three other methods. The PAPA-type methods exhibit much lower ensemble noise, ensemble voxel variance, and image roughness. HOTV-PAPA performs best in these categories. Whereas images reconstructed using both TV-PAPA and TV-OSL are degraded by severe staircase artifacts; HOTV-PAPA substantially reduces such artifacts. It also converges faster than the other three methods and exhibits the lowest overall reconstruction error level, as measured by MSE. Conclusions: For high-noise simulated SPECT data, HOTV-PAPA outperforms TV-PAPA, GPF-EM, and TV-OSL in terms of hot lesion detectability, noise suppression, MSE, and computational efficiency. Unlike TV-PAPA and TV-OSL, HOTV-PAPA does not create sizable staircase artifacts. Moreover, HOTV-PAPA effectively suppresses noise, with only limited loss of local spatial resolution. Of the four methods, HOTV-PAPA shows the best lesion detectability, thanks to its superior noise suppression. HOTV-PAPA shows promise for clinically useful reconstructions of low-dose SPECT data

  18. Differences in the suppression of distortion product otoacoustic emissions by contralateral white noise between patients with acute or chronic tinnitus. (United States)

    Riga, Maria; Komis, Agis; Marangoudakis, Pavlos; Naxakis, Stefanos; Ferekidis, Eleftherios; Kandiloros, Dimitrios; Danielides, Vasilios


    The mechanisms underlying the shift from acute tinnitus to chronic remain obscure. An association between tinnitus and medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB) reflex dysfunction has been hypothesised by several studies. The differences between participants with acute and chronic tinnitus have not yet been investigated. Participants were examined with distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) suppression elicited by contralateral white noise. They were compared in terms of frequency regions with non-recordable DPOAEs, suppression amplitudes and the presence of DPOAE enhancement. Eighteen participants with acute tinnitus, 40 age-matched adults with chronic tinnitus and 17 controls were included. All participants (aged 34.7 ± 9.6years; mean ± Standard deviation) had normal hearing. Tinnitus was bilateral in 22 participants and unilateral in 36. Ears with chronic tinnitus presented significantly lower DPOAE suppression amplitudes than ears with acute tinnitus (p tinnitus ears present a high prevalence of enhancement, significantly different from controls (p tinnitus and control groups (p tinnitus becomes chronic, DPOAEs suppression presents changes that might reveal corresponding steps in tinnitus pathophysiology. Treatment implications are discussed.

  19. Analysis of the speckle properties in a laser projection system based on a human eye model. (United States)

    Cui, Zhe; Wang, Anting; Ma, Qianli; Ming, Hai


    In this paper, the properties of the speckle that is observed by humans in laser projection systems are theoretically analyzed. The speckle pattern on the fovea of the human retina is numerically simulated by introducing a chromatic human eye model. The results show that the speckle contrast experienced by humans is affected by the light intensity of the projected images and the wavelength of the laser source when considering the paracentral vision. Furthermore, the image quality is also affected by these two parameters. We believe that these results are useful for evaluating the speckle noise in laser projection systems.

  20. Pulsed-ASE-seeded DWDM optical system with interferometric noise suppression. (United States)

    Yoo, Sang-Hwa; Moon, Sang-Rok; Kye, Myeonggyun; Lee, Chang-Hee


    We propose and demonstrate a 10-Gb/s dense wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) optical system based on a pulsed-seed-light source employing a fiber-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer (F-MZI) as an intensity noise suppressor. The transmission results show that the required injection power into a reflective modulator was as low as -18 dBm. The F-MZI can accommodate the polarized seed-light with superior noise characteristics so that the supported DWDM systems double using a single conventional unpolarized seed-light. In addition, an allowable length of the drop fiber is investigated to show the system flexibility.

  1. Suppressing the relaxation oscillation noise of injection-locked WRC-FPLD for directly modulated OFDM transmission. (United States)

    Cheng, Min-Chi; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Li, Yi-Cheng; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Lin, Gong-Ru


    By up-shifting the relaxation oscillation peak and suppressing its relative intensity noise in a weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode (WRC-FPLD) under intense injection-locking, the directly modulated transmission of optical 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) data-stream is demonstrated. The total bit rate of up to 20 Gbit/s within 5-GHz bandwidth is achieved by using the OFDM subcarrier pre-leveling technique. With increasing the injection-locking power from -12 to -3 dBm, the effective reduction on threshold current of the WRC-FPLD significantly shifts its relaxation oscillation frequency from 5 to 7.5 GHz. This concurrently induces an up-shift of the peak relative intensity noise (RIN) of the WRC-FPLD, and effectively suppresses the background RIN level to -104 dBc/Hz within the OFDM band between 3 and 6 GHz. The enhanced signal-to-noise ratio from 16 to 20 dB leads to a significant reduction of bit-error-rate (BER) of the back-to-back transmitted 16-QAM-OFDM data from 1.3 × 10(-3) to 5 × 10(-5), which slightly degrades to 1.1 × 10(-4) after 25-km single-mode fiber (SMF) transmission. However, the enlarged injection-locking power from -12 to -3 dBm inevitably declines the modulation throughput and increases its negative throughput slope from -0.8 to -1.9 dBm/GHz. After pre-leveling the peak amplitude of the OFDM subcarriers to compensate the throughput degradation of the directly modulated WRC-FPLD, the BER under 25-km SMF transmission can be further improved to 3 × 10(-5) under a receiving power of -3 dBm.

  2. The application of cost-effective lasers in coherent UDWDM-OFDM-PON aided by effective phase noise suppression methods. (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Yang, Chuanchuan; Yang, Feng; Li, Hongbin


    Digital coherent passive optical network (PON), especially the coherent orthogonal frequency division multiplexing PON (OFDM-PON), is a strong candidate for the 2nd-stage-next-generation PON (NG-PON2). As is known, OFDM is very sensitive to the laser phase noise which severely limits the application of the cost-effective distributed feedback (DFB) lasers and more energy-efficient vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) in the coherent OFDM-PON. The current long-reach coherent OFDM-PON experiments always choose the expensive external cavity laser (ECL) as the optical source for its narrow linewidth (usuallyOFDM-PON and study the possibility of the application of the DFB lasers and VCSEL in coherent OFDM-PON. A typical long-reach coherent ultra dense wavelength division multiplexing (UDWDM) OFDM-PON has been set up. The numerical results prove that the OBE method can stand severe phase noise of the lasers in this architecture and the DFB lasers as well as VCSEL can be used in coherent OFDM-PON. In this paper, we have also analyzed the performance of the RF-pilot-aided (RFP) phase noise suppression method in coherent OFDM-PON.

  3. Noise-Induced Cycle Suppression: a New Mechanism for the Late Quartenary Climate Response at 100 Kyr. (United States)

    L'Heureux, I.


    Climate proxies from the late quaternary exhibit a strong response at a period of about 100 kyr. It is commonly believed that this cycle reflects the variation of the Earth's orbital eccentricity, as a portion of the Milankovitch forcing. However, the direct effect of eccentricity variations is too small to account for such a strong climate response. Amplification mechanisms based on ice sheet dynamics or ocean circulation models have been proposed to explain this paradox. Recently, a non-linear biogeochemical model coupling sea-water alkalinity, dissolved phosphorus, dissolved inorganic carbon and atmospheric carbon dioxide without any orbital forcing has been proposed (K. S. Wallmann, Geochim. and Cosmochim. Acta 132 (2014) 413-439). This model exhibits self-organized periodic solutions with a period that has the correct order of magnitude while remaining larger than 100 kyr. In this contribution, I consider Wallmann's model with the addition of a weak periodic Milankovitch forcing and a stochastic term, in the spirit of stochastic resonance phenomena. It is seen that, as the noise intensity increases, a noise-induced transition occurs, whereby the limit cycle of the deterministic system is suppressed, resulting in a strong persistent signal at the forcing frequency. The phenomenon is distinct from similar noise-induced effects, such as stochastic resonance, stochastic coherence or stochastic synchronization. This approach thus proposes a new amplification mechanism of biogeochemical origin, leading to a strong climatic response under the influence of a weak orbital forcing.

  4. Motion detection, noise reduction, texture suppression, and contour enhancement by spatiotemporal Gabor filters with surround inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Subramanian, Easwar


    We study the orientation and speed tuning properties of spatiotemporal three-dimensional (3D) Gabor and motion energy filters as models of time-dependent receptive fields of simple and complex cells in the primary visual cortex (V1). We augment the motion energy operator with surround suppression to

  5. Model and observations of Schottky-noise suppression in a cold heavy-ion beam. (United States)

    Danared, H; Källberg, A; Rensfelt, K-G; Simonsson, A


    Some years ago it was found at GSI in Darmstadt that the momentum spread of electron-cooled beams of highly charged ions dropped abruptly to very low values when the particle number decreased to 10 000 or less. This has been interpreted as an ordering of the ions, such that they line up after one another in the ring. We report observations of similar transitions at CRYRING, including an accompanying drop in Schottky-noise power. We also introduce a model of the ordered beam from which the Schottky-noise power can be calculated numerically. The good agreement between the model calculation and the experimental data is seen as evidence for a spatial ordering of the ions.

  6. Circuit for echo and noise suppression of accoustic signals transmitted through a drill string (United States)

    Drumheller, Douglas S.; Scott, Douglas D.


    An electronic circuit for digitally processing analog electrical signals produced by at least one acoustic transducer is presented. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, a novel digital time delay circuit is utilized which employs an array of First-in-First-out (FiFo) microchips. Also, a bandpass filter is used at the input to this circuit for isolating drill string noise and eliminating high frequency output.

  7. Circuit for echo and noise suppression of acoustic signals transmitted through a drill string (United States)

    Drumheller, D.S.; Scott, D.D.


    An electronic circuit for digitally processing analog electrical signals produced by at least one acoustic transducer is presented. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, a novel digital time delay circuit is utilized which employs an array of First-in-First-out (FiFo) microchips. Also, a bandpass filter is used at the input to this circuit for isolating drill string noise and eliminating high frequency output. 20 figures.

  8. A Digital Signal Processing Method for Gene Prediction with Improved Noise Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreira Alex


    Full Text Available It has been observed that the protein-coding regions of DNA sequences exhibit period-three behaviour, which can be exploited to predict the location of coding regions within genes. Previously, discrete Fourier transform (DFT and digital filter-based methods have been used for the identification of coding regions. However, these methods do not significantly suppress the noncoding regions in the DNA spectrum at . Consequently, a noncoding region may inadvertently be identified as a coding region. This paper introduces a new technique (a single digital filter operation followed by a quadratic window operation that suppresses nearly all of the noncoding regions. The proposed method therefore improves the likelihood of correctly identifying coding regions in such genes.

  9. Speckle Imaging of Binary Stars with Large-Format CCDs (United States)

    Horch, E.; Ninkov, Z.; Slawson, R. W.; van Altena, W. F.; Meyer, R. D.; Girard, T. M.


    In the past, bare (unintensified) CCDs have not been widely used in speckle imaging for two main reasons: 1) the readout rate of most scientific-grade CCDs is too slow to be able to observe at the high frame rates necessary to capture speckle patterns efficiently, and 2) the read noise of CCDs limits the detectability of fainter objects where it becomes difficult to distinguish between speckles and noise peaks in the image. These facts have led to the current supremacy of intensified imaging systems (such as intensified-CCDs) in this field, which can typically be read out at video rates or faster. We have developed a new approach that uses a large format CCD not only to detect the incident photons but also to record many speckle patterns before the chip is read out. This approach effectively uses the large area of the CCD as a physical ``memory cache'' of previous speckle data frames. The method is described, and binary star observations from the University of Toronto Southern Observatory 60-cm telescope and the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO (WIYN) 3.5-m telescope are presented. Plans for future observing and instrumentation improvements are also outlined.

  10. Longitudinal space charge assisted echo seeding of a free-electron laser with laser-spoiler noise suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hacker


    Full Text Available Seed lasers are employed to improve the temporal coherence of free-electron laser (FEL light. However, when these seed pulses are short relative to the particle bunch, the noisy, temporally incoherent radiation from the unseeded electrons can overwhelm the coherent, seeded radiation. In this paper, a technique to seed a particle bunch with an external laser is presented in which a new mechanism to improve the contrast between coherent and incoherent free electron laser radiation is employed together with a novel, simplified echo-seeding method. The concept relies on a combination of longitudinal space charge wakes and an echo-seeding technique to make a short, coherent pulse of FEL light together with noise background suppression. Several different simulation codes are used to illustrate the concept with conditions at the soft x-ray free-electron laser in Hamburg, FLASH.

  11. Frequency Noise Suppression of a Single Mode Laser with an Unbalanced Fiber Interferometer for Subnanometer Interferometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Radek; Čížek, Martin; Mikel, Břetislav; Číp, Ondřej


    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2015), s. 1342-1355 ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP102/12/P962; GA ČR GAP102/10/1813; GA TA ČR TA01010995; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : unbalanced interferometer * fiber spool * PI control * frequency noise Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.033, year: 2015

  12. Speckle Image Reconstruction. (United States)


    the well-known close binary Capella and the resolved red supergiant Betelgeuse , (including a diffraction limited differential speckle image of the...current space object identification requirements, and the set of images of the red supergiant Betelgeuse . 2.1 Asteroid/Planetary Science Our work on... Betelgeuse with the measured point xource response superimposed for comparison. Figure 4 shows an example of a full two-dimensional reduction, this time

  13. Electrically Isolating Thermally Coupled Device for Noise Suppression of Circuits in Deep Space (United States)

    Mantooth, A.; McNutt, T.; Mojarradi, M.; Li, H.; Blalock, B.


    Mixed mode rad hard avionics Systems on a Chip (SoC) designed for deep space applications such as Europa orbiters and Europa Landers will require data isolation circuits to block noise. This paper presents the simulation performance for a novel rad hard SOI CMOS compatible thermal transducer used for on-chip data isolation in SoC. The research presented involves the use of commercially available computer aided design tools to model the transient electrothermal behavior of the transducer. Both one- and two-dimensional analyses of a prototype thermal transducer were performed. Results indicate that thermal-based data isolator technology can pass a data bit in under a microsecond and, as a measurement of feasibility, I(exp 2)C bus specifications can be met.

  14. Suppression of peak noise by reshaping coaxial flow circumferentially under static conditions (United States)

    Takeda, K.; Nishiwaki, H.

    The combination of a circular fan/elliptic core nozzle was tested and compared with the results of a conventional circular core/circular fan nozzle under static flow conditions. The results show that there occurred a change of the directiveness of jet noise around the nozzle when using the circular/elliptic nozzle combination. In a 30 to approximately 50 degree direction from the jet axis, a 3 to approximately 5 dB reduction was observed. Radial velocity distribution was measured by using LDV and axial sound source distribution by the polar correlation method in an anechoic room. Based on these measurements the relation between sound pressure generation and velocity distribution around the exhaust nozzle was discussed. A circular/elliptic nozzle combination for turbo-fan engine exhaust nozzle combination for turbo-fan engine exhaust nozzle was recommended.

  15. Theoretical and experimental study of fundamental differences in the noise suppression of high-speed SOA-based all-optical switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Mørk, Jesper; Suzuki, R.


    We identify a fundamental difference between the ASE noise filtering properties of different all-optical SOA-based switch configurations, and divide the switches into two classes. An in-band ASE suppression ratio quantifying the difference is derived theoretically and the impact of the ASE...

  16. Suppression of Rayleigh backscattering noise using cascaded-SOA and microwave photonic filter for 10 Gb/s loop-back WDM-PON. (United States)

    Feng, Hanlin; Ge, Jia; Xiao, Shilin; Fok, Mable P


    In this paper, we present a novel Rayleigh backscattering (RB) noise mitigation scheme based on central carrier suppression for 10 Gb/s loop-back wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON). Microwave modulated multi-subcarrier optical signal is used as downstream seeding light, while cascaded semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) are used in the optical network unit (ONU) for suppressing the central carrier of the multi-subcarrier upstream signal. With central carrier suppression, interference generated by carrier RB noise at low frequency region is eliminated successfully. Transmission performance over 45 km single mode fiber (SMF) is studied experimentally, and the optical-signal-to-Rayleigh-noise-ratio (OSRNR) can be reduced to 15 dB with central carrier suppression ratio (CCSR) of 21 dB. Receiver sensitivity is further improved by 6 dB with the use of microwave photonic filter (MPF) for suppressing residual upstream microwave signal and residual carrier RB at high frequency region.

  17. Application of the EEMD method for distinction and suppression of motion-induced noise in grounded electrical source airborne TEM system (United States)

    Liu, Fubo; Li, Jutao; Liu, Lihua; Huang, Ling; Fang, Guangyou


    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) detection is an important method for obtaining subsurface conductivity distribution. However, the response of observation system includes not only the underground media response but also a variety of noise components. The motion-induced noise is one of the main noise sources of the airborne electromagnetic data, which has a low frequency, large amplitude, non-periodic and other characteristics. In this paper, we will introduce the principle of the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) method and use it for decomposing electromagnetic signal of grounded electrical source airborne transient electromagnetic system. The EEMD method will decompose the electromagnetic signal into multi-stage intrinsic mode function (IMF) components and distinguish the IMF component containing the motion-induced noise. Then we can get the noise-free signal by reconstructing remaining IMF components and residual component. We use the EEMD method for the theoretical signal correction and compared with the cubic spline method, the correction result indicates that the EEMD method can fit the motion-induced noise more accurately with a higher signal-to-noise ratio. To verify the effect of the application of the EEMD method, we went to Weifang city, Shandong province, East China, for the concealed fault investigation. The correction result of the time series shows that the EEMD method can suppress the motion-induced noise more effectively than the cubic spline method. Compared with the uncorrected data and the corrected data using the cubic spline method, the result shows that the fake anomaly can be nearly avoided and a more clear geological structure can be obtained through the corrected data with EEMD method. The results also prove that the EEMD method is a practical as well as effective method for the motion-induced noise suppression.

  18. Speckle reduction methods in laser-based picture projectors (United States)

    Akram, M. Nadeem; Chen, Xuyuan


    Laser sources have been promised for many years to be better light sources as compared to traditional lamps or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for projectors, which enable projectors having wide colour gamut for vivid image, super brightness and high contrast for the best picture quality, long lifetime for maintain free operation, mercury free, and low power consumption for green environment. A major technology obstacle in using lasers for projection has been the speckle noise caused by to the coherent nature of the lasers. For speckle reduction, current state of the art solutions apply moving parts with large physical space demand. Solutions beyond the state of the art need to be developed such as integrated optical components, hybrid MOEMS devices, and active phase modulators for compact speckle reduction. In this article, major methods reported in the literature for the speckle reduction in laser projectors are presented and explained. With the advancement in semiconductor lasers with largely reduced cost for the red, green and the blue primary colours, and the developed methods for their speckle reduction, it is hoped that the lasers will be widely utilized in different projector applications in the near future.

  19. Speckle pattern processing by digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubarev Fedor


    Full Text Available Testing the method of speckle pattern processing based on the digital image correlation is carried out in the current work. Three the most widely used formulas of the correlation coefficient are tested. To determine the accuracy of the speckle pattern processing, test speckle patterns with known displacement are used. The optimal size of a speckle pattern template used for determination of correlation and corresponding the speckle pattern displacement is also considered in the work.

  20. Experimental evaluation of a spinning-mode acoustic-treatment design concept for aircraft inlets. [suppression of YF-102 engine fan noise (United States)

    Heidelberg, L. J.; Rice, E. J.; Homyak, L.


    An aircraft-inlet noise suppressor method based on mode cutoff ratio was qualitatively checked by testing a series of liners on a YF-102 turbofan engine. Far-field directivity of the blade passing frequency was used extensively to evaluate the results. The trends and observations of the test data lend much qualitative support to the design method. The best of the BPF liners attained a suppression at design frequency of 19 dB per unit length-diameter ratio. The best multiple-pure-tone linear attained a remarkable suppression of 65.6 bB per unit length-diameter ratio.

  1. Design of binary patterns for speckle reduction in holographic display with compressive sensing and direct-binary search algorithm (United States)

    Leportier, Thibault; Hwang, Do Kyung; Park, Min-Chul


    One problem common to imaging techniques based on coherent light is speckle noise. This phenomenon is caused mostly by random interference of light scattered by rough surfaces. Speckle noise can be avoided by using advanced holographic imaging techniques such as optical scanning holography. A more widely known method is to capture several holograms of the same object and to perform an averaging operation so that the signal to noise ratio can be improved. Several digital filters were also proposed to reduce noise in the numerical reconstruction plane of holograms, even though they usually require finding a compromise between noise reduction and edge preservation. In this study, we used a digital filter based on compressive sensing algorithm. This approach enables to obtain results equivalent to the average of multiple holograms, but only a single hologram is needed. Filters for speckle reduction are applied on numerical reconstructions of hologram, and not on the hologram itself. Then, optical reconstruction cannot be performed. We propose a method based on direct-binary search (DBS) algorithm to generate binary holograms that can be reconstructed optically after application of a speckle reduction filter. Since the optimization procedure of the DBS algorithm is performed in the image plane, speckle reduction techniques can be applied on the complex hologram and used as a reference to obtain a binary pattern where the speckle noise generated during the recording of the hologram has been filtered.

  2. A comparative study of three speckle reducing methods for intima-media thickness ultrasound images. (United States)

    Rafati, Mehravar; Arabfard, Masoud; Rafati Rahimzadeh, Mehrdad; Voshtani, Hasan; Moladoust, Hassan


    Ultrasonic evaluation of intima-media thickness (IMT) is an early marker of assessing the development of atherosclerosis and determining cardiovascular risk. To attain the best possible diagnosis, it is essential that medical images be clear, sharp and without noise and artifacts. Comparison of speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD), discrete (DTD) and continuum topological derivative (CTD) on B-mode ultrasound images of common carotid and brachial arteries throughout the cardiac cycle. In a cross-sectional design, an examination was performed on forty-two human subjects with a mean age of 44 ± 6 years from April 2013 to June 2013. This study was approved by the ethics committees of Kashan University of Medical Sciences and Beheshti Hospital. An ultrasonic examination of common carotid and brachial arteries of forty-two human subjects was performed. The program was designed in MATLAB software to extract consecutive B-mode images and apply region of interest (ROI) on the IMT of the common carotid and brachial arteries. Then, three different noise reduction filters with the Canny edge detection were used in ROI separately. Finally, the program measured the image quality metrics. According to values of eleven different image quality metrics (mentioned in the main text), there was a significant difference between CTD, DTD and SRAD filters with the Canny edge detection status in the common carotid and brachial arteries throughout the cardiac cycle (all P values quality metrics, this study showed that DTD and CTD filters with the Canny edge detection respectively, are better than SRAD filter with the Canny detection for speckle suppression and details preservation in both arteries in the ultrasound images.

  3. FIBER OPTICS, HOLOGRAPHY, AND OPTICAL DATA PROCESSING: Phase-conjugation suppression of the phase noise during propagation of giant laser pulses in an optical fiber (United States)

    Belous, A. I.; Grigoruk, V. I.; Pasechnyĭ, V. A.; Strizhevskiĭ, V. L.; Chernyshov, V. A.


    An experimental study was made of the suppression of phase noise during propagation of giant ruby laser pulses in short (up to 0.1 m) multimode fiber waveguides. A segment of a fiber waveguide, in which stimulated Brillouin scattering took place, acted as a mirror performing phase conjugation. The dependences of the parameters of the corrected signal on the lengths of both waveguide segments were determined.

  4. Speckle imaging of globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, B.J. III


    Speckle imaging is a powerful tool for high resolution astronomy. Its application to the core regions of globular clusters produces high resolution stellar maps of the bright stars, but is unable to image the faint stars which are most reliable dynamical indicators. The limits on resolving these faint, extended objects are physical, not algorithmic, and cannot be overcome using speckle. High resolution maps may be useful for resolving multicomponent stellar systems in the cluster centers. 30 refs

  5. Separated Component-Based Restoration of Speckled SAR Images (United States)


    TYPE New Reprint 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...radar. I. INTRODUCTION COHERENT imaging systems such as synthetic aper -ture radar (SAR), holography, ultrasound, and synthetic aperture sonar suffer...noise variance by a factor of L. However, this often results in the reduction of the spatial resolution. Other types of speckle reduction methods are

  6. Speckle filtering of medical ultrasonic images using wavelet and guided filter. (United States)

    Zhang, Ju; Lin, Guangkuo; Wu, Lili; Cheng, Yun


    Speckle noise is an inherent yet ineffectual residual artifact in medical ultrasound images, which significantly degrades quality and restricts accuracy in automatic diagnostic techniques. Speckle reduction is therefore an important step prior to the analysis and processing of the ultrasound images. A new de-noising method based on an improved wavelet filter and guided filter is proposed in this paper. According to the characteristics of medical ultrasound images in the wavelet domain, an improved threshold function based on the universal wavelet threshold function is developed. The wavelet coefficients of speckle noise and noise-free signal are modeled as Rayleigh distribution and generalized Gaussian distribution respectively. The Bayesian maximum a posteriori estimation is applied to obtain a new wavelet shrinkage algorithm. The coefficients of the low frequency sub-band in the wavelet domain are filtered by guided filter. The filtered image is then obtained by using the inverse wavelet transformation. Experiments with the comparison of the other seven de-speckling filters are conducted. The results show that the proposed method not only has a strong de-speckling ability, but also keeps the image details, such as the edge of a lesion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A New Approach for Speckle Reduction in Holographic 3D printer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsugi, Takeru; Yamaguchi, Masahiro


    A Holographic 3D printer produces a high quality 3D image reproduced by a full-color, full-parallax holographic stereogram with high-density light-ray recording. But speckle-pattern noise localized behind the reconstructed image is causing a loss of the display quality. This noise is originated from the speckle generated by a diffuser for equalizing the intensity distribution of the object light on the recording medium. We analyze some conventional ways for speckle reduction using a band-limited diffuser, and it is found that these ways cannot reduce the noise sufficiently. Then we propose two methods, one introduces a moving diffuser and the other introduces multiple exposures and a digital diffuser called as 4L-PRPS.

  8. Laser speckle reduction based on compressive sensing and edge detection (United States)

    Wen, Dong-hai; Jiang, Yue-song; Hua, Hou-qiang; Yu, Rong; Gao, Qian; Zhang, Yan-zhong


    Polarization active imager technology obtains images encoded by parameters different than just the reflectivity and therefore provides new information on the image. So polarization active imager systems represent a very powerful observation tool. However, automatic interpretation of the information contained in the reflected intensity of the polarization active image data is extremely difficult because of the speckle phenomenon. An approach for speckle reduction of polarization active image based on the concepts of compressive sensing (CS) theory and edge detection. First, A Canny operator is first utilized to detect and remove edges from the polarization active image. Then, a dictionary learning algorithm which is applied to sparse image representation. The dictionary learning problem is expressed as a box-constrained quadratic program and a fast projected gradient method is introduced to solve it. The Gradient Projection for Square Reconstruction (GPSR) algorithm for solving bound constrained quadratic programming to reduce the speckle noise in the polarization active images. The block-matching 3-D (BM3D) algorithm is used to reduce speckle nosie, it works in two steps: The first one uses hard thresholding to build a relatively clean image for estimating statistics, while the second one performs the actual denoising through empirical Wiener filtering in the transform domain. Finally, the removed edges are added to the reconstructed image. Experimental results show that the visual quality and evaluation indexes outperform the other methods with no edge preservation. The proposed algorithm effectively realizes both despeckling and edge preservation and reaches the state-of-the-art performance.

  9. Effects of Long-Term Speech-in-Noise Training in Air Traffic Controllers and High Frequency Suppression. A Control Group Study. (United States)

    Pérez Zaballos, María Teresa; Ramos de Miguel, Ángel; Pérez Plasencia, Daniel; Zaballos González, María Luisa; Ramos Macías, Ángel


    To evaluate 1) if air traffic controllers (ATC) perform better than non-air traffic controllers in an open-set speech-in-noise test because of their experience with radio communications, and 2) if high-frequency information (>8000 Hz) substantially improves speech-in-noise perception across populations. The control group comprised 28 normal-hearing subjects, and the target group comprised 48 ATCs aged between 19 and 55 years who were native Spanish speakers. The hearing -in-noise abilities of the two groups were characterized under two signal conditions: 1) speech tokens and white noise sampled at 44.1 kHz (unfiltered condition) and 2) speech tokens plus white noise, each passed through a 4th order Butterworth filter with 70 and 8000 Hz low and high cutoffs (filtered condition). These tests were performed at signal-to-noise ratios of +5, 0, and -5-dB SNR. The ATCs outperformed the control group in all conditions. The differences were statistically significant in all cases, and the largest difference was observed under the most difficult conditions (-5 dB SNR). Overall, scores were higher when high-frequency components were not suppressed for both groups, although statistically significant differences were not observed for the control group at 0 dB SNR. The results indicate that ATCs are more capable of identifying speech in noise. This may be due to the effect of their training. On the other hand, performance seems to decrease when the high frequency components of speech are removed, regardless of training.

  10. Software phantom with realistic speckle modeling for validation of image analysis methods in echocardiography (United States)

    Law, Yuen C.; Tenbrinck, Daniel; Jiang, Xiaoyi; Kuhlen, Torsten


    Computer-assisted processing and interpretation of medical ultrasound images is one of the most challenging tasks within image analysis. Physical phenomena in ultrasonographic images, e.g., the characteristic speckle noise and shadowing effects, make the majority of standard methods from image analysis non optimal. Furthermore, validation of adapted computer vision methods proves to be difficult due to missing ground truth information. There is no widely accepted software phantom in the community and existing software phantoms are not exible enough to support the use of specific speckle models for different tissue types, e.g., muscle and fat tissue. In this work we propose an anatomical software phantom with a realistic speckle pattern simulation to _ll this gap and provide a exible tool for validation purposes in medical ultrasound image analysis. We discuss the generation of speckle patterns and perform statistical analysis of the simulated textures to obtain quantitative measures of the realism and accuracy regarding the resulting textures.

  11. Laser speckle contrast imaging in biomedical optics. (United States)

    Boas, David A; Dunn, Andrew K


    First introduced in the 1980s, laser speckle contrast imaging is a powerful tool for full-field imaging of blood flow. Recently laser speckle contrast imaging has gained increased attention, in part due to its rapid adoption for blood flow studies in the brain. We review the underlying physics of speckle contrast imaging and discuss recent developments to improve the quantitative accuracy of blood flow measures. We also review applications of laser speckle contrast imaging in neuroscience, dermatology and ophthalmology.

  12. A soft magnetic underlayer with negative uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy for suppression of spike noise and wide adjacent track erasure in perpendicular recording media (United States)

    Hashimoto, Atsushi; Saito, Shin; Takahashi, Migaku


    The suppression of spike noise and wide adjacent track erasure (WATE) are important technical issues in the development of a perpendicular recording medium (PRM). As a solution to both of these problems, this paper presents a type of soft magnetic underlayer (SUL) with negative uniaxial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The magnetic anisotropy is achieved by employing a material with negative uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy (Kugrain). WATE is suppressed in the SUL by realizing wide distribution of magnetic flux below the edge of the return yoke, while spike noise is eliminated by ensuring the formation of a Néel wall instead of a Bloch wall in SUL domains. CoIr with the disordered hcp structure is selected as a negative Kugrain material, and c-plane-oriented CoIr films with various Ir contents are prepared for experimental evaluation. Among the films tested, the CoIr film with 22 at. % Ir is found to provide the minimum Kugrain value of -6×106 ergs/cm3. Under a field applied parallel to the film plane, this film exhibits soft magnetic properties, attributable to the high crystallographic symmetry of the c-plane sheet texture. A PRM fabricated using the CoIr SUL is confirmed to display substantially lower spike noise and WATE compared to conventional structures.

  13. Color digital holography using speckle illumination by means of a multi-mode fiber (United States)

    Funamizu, Hideki; Shimoma, Shohei; Aizu, Yoshihisa


    We present color digital holography using speckle illumination by means of a multi-mode fiber. In this technique, speckle fields emitted from the fiber are used as both a reference wave and a wavefront illuminating an object. For three wavelengths, the interference patterns of two coherent waves are recorded as digital holograms on a CCD camera. A speckle method is used for suppressing DC terms and reducing a twin image in an in-line color digital holography. The speckle fields are changed by vibrating the multi-mode fiber using a vibrator, and a number of holograms are acquired to average reconstructed images. The dependence of the averaged number of holograms on color quality of reconstructed images is evaluated by chromaticity coordinates and color differences in colorimetry.

  14. Microscopy using randomized speckle illumination (United States)

    Perinchery, Sandeep M.; Shinde, Anant; Murukeshan, V. M.


    It is well known for structured illumination microscopy (SIM) that the lateral resolution by a factor of two beyond the classical diffraction limit is achieved using spatially structured illumination in wide-field fluorescence microscope. In the state of art SIM systems, grating patterns are generally generated by physical gratings or by spatial light modulators such as digital micro mirrors (DMD), liquid crystal displays (LCD). In this study, using a combination of LCD and ground glasses, size controlled randomized speckle patterns are generated as an illumination source for the microscope. Proof of concept of using speckle illumination in SIM configuration is tested by imaging fixed BPAE cells.

  15. Tailoring speckles with Weibull intensity statistics (United States)

    Amaral, João P.; Fonseca, Eduardo J. S.; Jesus-Silva, Alcenisio J.


    We use a phase-only computer-generated hologram to encode both phase and amplitude of a power of Rayleigh speckles. This method allows us to generate speckles with enhanced and reduced contrast without any optimization process. We explore non-Rayleigh speckles and unveil, theoretically and experimentally, their first-order statistical properties. These speckles may find applications in syntheses of disordered optical potentials for cold atoms and colloidal particles, in speckle illumination imaging, and in wave interference studied through spatial intensity correlation.

  16. Optical design of the comet Shoemaker-Levy speckle camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissinger, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    An optical design is presented in which the Lick 3 meter telescope and a bare CCD speckle camera system was used to image the collision sites of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet with the Planet Jupiter. The brief overview includes of the optical constraints and system layout. The choice of a Risley prism combination to compensate for the time dependent atmospheric chromatic changes are described. Plate scale and signal-to-noise ratio curves resulting from imaging reference stars are compared with theory. Comparisons between un-corrected and reconstructed images of Jupiter`s impact sites. The results confirm that speckle imaging techniques can be used over an extended time period to provide a method to image large extended objects.

  17. Objective speckle velocimetry for autonomous vehicle odometry. (United States)

    Francis, D; Charrett, T O H; Waugh, L; Tatam, R P


    Speckle velocimetry is investigated as a means of determining odometry data with potential for application on autonomous robotic vehicles. The technique described here relies on the integration of translation measurements made by normalized cross-correlation of speckle patterns to determine the change in position over time. The use of objective (non-imaged) speckle offers a number of advantages over subjective (imaged) speckle, such as a reduction in the number of optical components, reduced modulation of speckles at the edges of the image, and improved light efficiency. The influence of the source/detector configuration on the speckle translation to vehicle translation scaling factor for objective speckle is investigated using a computer model and verified experimentally. Experimental measurements are presented at velocities up to 80  mm s(-1) which show accuracy better than 0.4%.

  18. Effects of high-frequency suppression for speech recognition in noise in Spanish normal-hearing subjects. (United States)

    Ramos de Miguel, Ángel; Pérez Zaballos, María Teresa; Ramos Macías, Ángel; Borkoski Barreiro, Silvia Andrea; Falcón González, Juan Carlos; Pérez Plasencia, Daniel


    Subjects with normal hearing (NH) experience lower performance in speech understanding in noise when frequency components of speech above 8 kHz are removed. Previous studies have explored speech perception in noise under various circumstances, but none have been specifically designed to explore the relevance of frequencies above 8 kHz and, more specifically, for the Spanish language. Twenty-nine subjects with NH, aged 19 to 55 years, and native speakers of the Spanish language listened to two sets of three disyllabic word lists with background noise. One set of words was unfiltered and included frequency components up to 22 kHz, and another set was band-pass filtered to include frequency components between 70 Hz and 8 kHz. Words were presented at 65 dB sound pressure level. Each set of words was presented with background noise with the same bandwidth limit as the accompanying list and adjusted to construct signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions of +5, 0, and -5 dB. Results demonstrate a higher performance for unfiltered words at +5 and -5 dB SNR, although not at 0 dB SNR. For SNR +5 dB and -5 dB, the average success rate in word recognition was 17% higher when words were not filtered. For the case SNR = 0, however, both conditions yield statistically similar results. This study suggests that high-frequency components above 8 kHz contribute to speech understanding in noise for subjects with NH of the Spanish language. Given these findings, it would be interesting to determine if bandwidth limitations in current hearing prostheses may contribute to known difficulties with perception of speech in noise in hearing-impaired subjects.

  19. Speckle dynamics under ergodicity breaking (United States)

    Sdobnov, Anton; Bykov, Alexander; Molodij, Guillaume; Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Jarvinen, Topias; Popov, Alexey; Kordas, Krisztian; Meglinski, Igor


    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is a well-known and versatile approach for the non-invasive visualization of flows and microcirculation localized in turbid scattering media, including biological tissues. In most conventional implementations of LSCI the ergodic regime is typically assumed valid. However, most composite turbid scattering media, especially biological tissues, are non-ergodic, containing a mixture of dynamic and static centers of light scattering. In the current study, we examined the speckle contrast in different dynamic conditions with the aim of assessing limitations in the quantitative interpretation of speckle contrast images. Based on a simple phenomenological approach, we introduced a coefficient of speckle dynamics to quantitatively assess the ratio of the dynamic part of a scattering medium to the static one. The introduced coefficient allows one to distinguish real changes in motion from the mere appearance of static components in the field of view. As examples of systems with static/dynamic transitions, thawing and heating of Intralipid samples were studied by the LSCI approach.

  20. Speckle fields in holographic interferometry (United States)

    Lockshin, Gennady R.; Kozel, Stanislav M.; Bielonuchkin, V. E.


    The objects which are investigated which are investigated with the help of the holographic interferometry methods as a rule scatter light diffusely, therefore the two-expositional hologram reconstructs the result of interference of the speckle-fields f ('4 and f() scattered by th object at the initial (1) and final (2) states.

  1. Three-dimensional speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography through structural guided filtering (United States)

    Gyger, Cyrill; Cattin, Roger; Hasler, Pascal W.; Maloca, Peter


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution noninvasive technology used in medical imaging for the spatial visualization of biological tissue. Due to its coherent nature, OCT suffers from speckle noise, which significantly degrades the information content of resulting scans. We introduce a new filtering method for three-dimensional OCT images, inspired by film grain removal techniques. By matching structural relatedness along all dimensions, the algorithm builds up vector paths for every voxel in the image volume representing its structural neighborhood. Then, by considering the information redundancy along these paths, our filter is able to reduce speckle noise significantly while simultaneously preserving structural information. This filter exceeds some common three-dimensional denoising algorithms used for OCT images, both in visual rendering quality and in measurable noise reduction. The noise-reduced results allow for improvement in subsequent processing steps, such as image segmentation.

  2. Speckle Interferometry. I. A Test on an Earth Orbital Satellite. (United States)


    16 3. Short Exposure Speckle Photos for Betelgeuse , Point Source, and Binary Star...another star, the supergiant star Betelgeuse . The resemblence of these photos to laser speckle photos has led to the process being called "speckle

  3. Speckle imaging with the SOAR and the very large telescopes (United States)

    Rengaswamy, Sridharan; Girard, Julien H.; Montagnier, Guillaume


    Astronomical speckle imaging is a well established technique for obtaining diffraction limited images of binary and multiple stars, low contrast solar features and nearby extended objects such as comets and solar system planets, with large ground-based telescopes. We have developed a speckle masking code to reconstruct images of such objects from the corresponding specklegrams. This code uses speckle interferometry for estimating the Fourier amplitudes and bispectrum for estimating the Fourier phases. In this paper, we discuss a few technical issues such as: What is the photometric and astrometric accuracy that can be achieved with this code? What is the closest separation between the components of a binary star that can be clearly resolved with sufficient signal to noise ratio with this code? What is the maximum dynamic range? What kind of calibration schemes can be used in the absence of a bright calibrator close to the object of interest? We address these questions based on computer simulations. We present a few sample reconstructions from the real data obtained from the SOAR telescope. We also present the details of a technical feasibility study carried out with NACO-cube mode at the VLT.

  4. Statistics of spatially integrated speckle intensity difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Yura, Harold


    We consider the statistics of the spatially integrated speckle intensity difference obtained from two separated finite collecting apertures. For fully developed speckle, closed-form analytic solutions for both the probability density function and the cumulative distribution function are derived h...... here for both arbitrary values of the mean number of speckles contained within an aperture and the degree of coherence of the optical field. Additionally, closed-form expressions are obtained for the corresponding nth statistical moments....

  5. Methods for determination of mean speckle size in simulated speckle pattern

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamarová, Ivana; Šmíd, Petr; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.


    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2014), 177-182 ISSN 1335-8871 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12301S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : simulation * speckle * speckle pattern * mean speckle size * autocorrelation function Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.989, year: 2014

  6. Permutation entropy based speckle analysis in metal cutting (United States)

    Nair, Usha; Krishna, Bindu M.; Namboothiri, V. N. N.; Nampoori, V. P. N.


    Machine tool chatter is an unfavorable phenomenon during metal cutting, which results in heavy vibration of cutting tool. With increase in depth of cut the cutting regime changes from chatter- free cutting to one with chatter. In this paper, we propose the use of permutation entropy (PE), a conceptually simple and computationally fast measure to detect the onset of chatter from the time series generated using laser speckle pattern recorded using Charge Couple Device (CCD) camera. Laser speckle is an interference pattern produced by light reflected or scattered from different parts of the illuminated surface. It is the superposition of many wave fronts with random phases, scattered from different parts of the rough surface. If a speckle pattern is produced by coherent light incident on a rough surface, then surely the speckle pattern, or at least the statistics of the speckle pattern, must depend upon the detailed surface properties. Therefore we propose PE as an ideal measure, which can efficiently distinguish regular and complex nature of any signal, to extract information about the roughness of the reflecting surface. In the present study two work pieces, one taper cut and one step cut are machined to form cylindrical pieces, by continuously varying the depth of cut. As the depth of cut increases the surface finish is expected to deteriorate, mainly due to the onset of chatter vibrations. To analyze the surface texture characteristics, the speckle pattern is obtained by illuminating this curved surface using a collimated laser beam (5mW Diode Laser at 676nm wavelength.). The laser beam is made to incident obliquely to the curved surface of the work piece, and the speckle pattern is recorded using a CCD camera. The beam is scanned along the axis of the work-piece and the speckle pattern is recorded at different regions at constant intervals. A time series is generated from the speckle data and analyzed using PE. Permutation entropy is a complexity measure suitable

  7. Optoelectronic imaging of speckle using image processing method (United States)

    Wang, Jinjiang; Wang, Pengfei


    A detailed image processing of laser speckle interferometry is proposed as an example for the course of postgraduate student. Several image processing methods were used together for dealing with optoelectronic imaging system, such as the partial differential equations (PDEs) are used to reduce the effect of noise, the thresholding segmentation also based on heat equation with PDEs, the central line is extracted based on image skeleton, and the branch is removed automatically, the phase level is calculated by spline interpolation method, and the fringe phase can be unwrapped. Finally, the imaging processing method was used to automatically measure the bubble in rubber with negative pressure which could be used in the tire detection.

  8. Integration of image exposure time into a modified laser speckle imaging method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RamIrez-San-Juan, J C; Salazar-Hermenegildo, N; Ramos-Garcia, R; Munoz-Lopez, J [Optics Department, INAOE, Puebla (Mexico); Huang, Y C [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Choi, B, E-mail: jcram@inaoep.m [Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)


    Speckle-based methods have been developed to characterize tissue blood flow and perfusion. One such method, called modified laser speckle imaging (mLSI), enables computation of blood flow maps with relatively high spatial resolution. Although it is known that the sensitivity and noise in LSI measurements depend on image exposure time, a fundamental disadvantage of mLSI is that it does not take into account this parameter. In this work, we integrate the exposure time into the mLSI method and provide experimental support of our approach with measurements from an in vitro flow phantom.

  9. Suppression of parasitic noise by strong Langmuir wave damping in quasitransient regimes of backward Raman amplification of intense laser pulses in plasmas. (United States)

    Malkin, Vladimir; Fisch, Nathaniel


    Currently built powerful soft x-ray sources may be able to access intensities needed for backward Raman amplification (BRA) of x-ray pulses in plasmas. However, high plasma densities, needed to provide enough coupling between the pump and seed x-ray pulsed, cause strong damping of the Langmuir wave that mediates energy transfer from the pump to the seed pulse. Such damping could reduce the coupling, thus making efficient BRA impossible. This work shows that efficient BRA can survive despite the Langmuir wave damping significantly exceeding the linear BRA growth rate. Moreover, the strong Langmuir wave damping can suppress deleterious instabilities of BRA seeded by the thermal noise. This shows that it may be feasible to observe x-ray BRA for the first time soon.

  10. Application of Piezoelectric Macro-Fiber-Composite Actuators to the Suppression of Noise Transmission Through Curved Glass Plates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Kateřina; Mokrý, P.; Václavík, Jan


    Roč. 59, č. 9 (2012), s. 2004-2014 ISSN 0885-3010. [International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics and 2011 International Symposium on Piezoresponse Force Microscopy and Nanoscale Phenomena in Polar Materials , ISAF/PFM /2011./. Vancouver, 24.07.2011-27.07.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Glass window * MFC piezoelectric actuator * Noise Transmission * FEM Simulation Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.822, year: 2012

  11. A miniaturized compact open-loop RFOG with demodulation signal compensation technique to suppress intensity modulation noise (United States)

    Ying, Diqing; Mao, Jianmin; Li, Qiang; Jin, Zhonghe


    A miniaturized compact open-loop resonator fiber optic gyro (RFOG) prototype with main body size of about 10.4 cm×10.4 cm×5.2 cm is reported, and a demodulation signal compensation technique is proposed, aiming to suppress the drift arising from accompanying intensity modulation induced by semiconductor laser diode (LD). The scheme of how to establish this miniaturized RFOG prototype is specifically stated. The linear relationship between the first-harmonic and second-harmonic demodulated signals respectively for the two counter propagating beams in the resonator is verified by theory and experiment, and based on this relationship, the demodulation signal compensation technique by monitoring the second-harmonic demodulated signal is described in detail. With this compensation technique, the gyro output stability under 1°/s rotation rate is effectively improved from 0.12°/s to 0.03°/s, and especially, an about 0.36°/s peak-to-peak fluctuation due to tuning current reset is significantly suppressed. A long term bias stability of about 4.5°/h in 1 h for such a small-sized RFOG prototype is demonstrated, which is of the same magnitude as that of currently reported large-sized RFOG systems utilizing LD as the laser source as well.

  12. Ectoparasites and intestinal helminths of speckled pigeon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectoparasites and intestinal helminths of speckled pigeon ( Columba guinea Hartlaub and Finsch 1870) in Zaria, Nigeria. ... Science World Journal ... A total of 30 (20 males and 10 females) Speckled Pigeons trapped from the wild in Zaria and its environs, Nigeria, were examined for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths, ...

  13. Optimized digital speckle patterns for digital image correlation by consideration of both accuracy and efficiency. (United States)

    Chen, Zhenning; Shao, Xinxing; Xu, Xiangyang; He, Xiaoyuan


    The technique of digital image correlation (DIC), which has been widely used for noncontact deformation measurements in both the scientific and engineering fields, is greatly affected by the quality of speckle patterns in terms of its performance. This study was concerned with the optimization of the digital speckle pattern (DSP) for DIC in consideration of both the accuracy and efficiency. The root-mean-square error of the inverse compositional Gauss-Newton algorithm and the average number of iterations were used as quality metrics. Moreover, the influence of subset sizes and the noise level of images, which are the basic parameters in the quality assessment formulations, were also considered. The simulated binary speckle patterns were first compared with the Gaussian speckle patterns and captured DSPs. Both the single-radius and multi-radius DSPs were optimized. Experimental tests and analyses were conducted to obtain the optimized and recommended DSP. The vector diagram of the optimized speckle pattern was also uploaded as reference.

  14. Active control of probability amplitudes in a mesoscale system via feedback-induced suppression of dissipation and noise (United States)

    Gupta, Chaitanya; Peña Perez, Aldo; Fischer, Sean R.; Weinreich, Stephen B.; Murmann, Boris; Howe, Roger T.


    We demonstrate that a three-terminal potentiostat circuit reduces the coupling between an electronic excitation transfer (EET) system and its environment, by applying a low-noise voltage to its electrical terminals. Inter-state interference is preserved in the EET system by attenuating the dissipation in the quantum system arising from coupling to the surrounding thermodynamic bath. A classical equivalent circuit is introduced to model the environment-coupled excitation transfer for a simplified, two-state system. This model provides a qualitative insight into how the electronic feedback affects the transition probabilities and selectively reduces dissipative coupling for one of the participant energy levels EET system. Furthermore, we show that the negative feedback also constrains r.m.s. fluctuations of the energy of environmental vibrational states, resulting in persistent spectral coherence between the decoupled state and vibronic levels of the complementary state. The decoupled vibronic channel therefore can serve as a probe for characterizing the vibronic structure of the complementary channel of the EET system.

  15. Speckle reduction via higher order total variation approach. (United States)

    Wensen Feng; Hong Lei; Yang Gao


    Multiplicative noise (also known as speckle) reduction is a prerequisite for many image-processing tasks in coherent imaging systems, such as the synthetic aperture radar. One approach extensively used in this area is based on total variation (TV) regularization, which can recover significantly sharp edges of an image, but suffers from the staircase-like artifacts. In order to overcome the undesirable deficiency, we propose two novel models for removing multiplicative noise based on total generalized variation (TGV) penalty. The TGV regularization has been mathematically proven to be able to eliminate the staircasing artifacts by being aware of higher order smoothness. Furthermore, an efficient algorithm is developed for solving the TGV-based optimization problems. Numerical experiments demonstrate that our proposed methods achieve state-of-the-art results, both visually and quantitatively. In particular, when the image has some higher order smoothness, our methods outperform the TV-based algorithms.

  16. Image Enhancement and Speckle Reduction of Full Polarimetric SAR Data by Gaussian Markov Random Field (United States)

    Mahdian, M.; Motagh, M.; Akbari, V.


    In recent years, the use of Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) data in different applications dramatically has been increased. In SAR imagery an interference phenomenon with random behavior exists which is called speckle noise. The interpretation of data encounters some troubles due to the presence of speckle which can be considered as a multiplicative noise affecting all coherent imaging systems. Indeed, speckle degrade radiometric resolution of PolSAR images, therefore it is needful to perform speckle filtering on the SAR data type. Markov Random Field (MRF) has proven to be a powerful method for drawing out eliciting contextual information from remotely sensed images. In the present paper, a probability density function (PDF), which is fitted well with the PolSAR data based on the goodness-of-fit test, is first obtained for the pixel-wise analysis. Then the contextual smoothing is achieved with the MRF method. This novel speckle reduction method combines an advanced statistical distribution with spatial contextual information for PolSAR data. These two parts of information are combined based on weighted summation of pixel-wise and contextual models. This approach not only preserves edge information in the images, but also improves signal-to-noise ratio of the results. The method maintains the mean value of original signal in the homogenous areas and preserves the edges of features in the heterogeneous regions. Experiments on real medium resolution ALOS data from Tehran, and also high resolution full polarimetric SAR data over the Oberpfaffenhofen test-site in Germany, demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm compared with well-known despeckling methods.

  17. Noise suppression in curved glass shells using macro-fiber-composite actuators studied by the means of digital holography and acoustic measurements (United States)

    Mokrý, P.; Psota, P.; Steiger, K.; Václavík, J.; Doleček, R.; Lédl, V.; Šulc, M.


    The paper presents methods and experimental results of the semi-active control of noise transmission in a curved glass shell with attached piezoelectric macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators. The semi-active noise control is achieved via active elasticity control of piezoelectric actuators by connecting them to an active electric shunt circuit that has a negative effective capacitance. Using this approach, it is possible to suppress the vibration of the glass shell in the normal direction with respect to its surface and to increase the acoustic transmission loss of the piezoelectric MFC-glass composite structure. The effect of the MFC actuators connected to the negative capacitance shunt circuit on the surface distribution of the normal vibration amplitude is studied using frequency-shifted digital holography (FSDH). The principle of the used FSDH method is described in the paper. The frequency dependence of the acoustic transmission loss through the piezoelectric MFC-glass composite structure is estimated using measurements of the specific acoustic impedance of the curved glass shell. The specific acoustic impedance is measured using two microphones and a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). The results from the LDV measurements are compared with the FSDH data. The results of the experiments show that using this approach, the acoustic transmission loss in a glass shell can be increased by 36 dB in the frequency range around 247 Hz and by 25 dB in the frequency range around 258 Hz. The experiments indicate that FSDH measurements provide an efficient tool that can be used for fast and accurate measurements of the acoustic transmission loss in large planar structures.

  18. Noise suppression in curved glass shells using macro-fiber-composite actuators studied by the means of digital holography and acoustic measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mokrý


    Full Text Available The paper presents methods and experimental results of the semi-active control of noise transmission in a curved glass shell with attached piezoelectric macro fiber composite (MFC actuators. The semi-active noise control is achieved via active elasticity control of piezoelectric actuators by connecting them to an active electric shunt circuit that has a negative effective capacitance. Using this approach, it is possible to suppress the vibration of the glass shell in the normal direction with respect to its surface and to increase the acoustic transmission loss of the piezoelectric MFC-glass composite structure. The effect of the MFC actuators connected to the negative capacitance shunt circuit on the surface distribution of the normal vibration amplitude is studied using frequency-shifted digital holography (FSDH. The principle of the used FSDH method is described in the paper. The frequency dependence of the acoustic transmission loss through the piezoelectric MFC-glass composite structure is estimated using measurements of the specific acoustic impedance of the curved glass shell. The specific acoustic impedance is measured using two microphones and a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV. The results from the LDV measurements are compared with the FSDH data. The results of the experiments show that using this approach, the acoustic transmission loss in a glass shell can be increased by 36 dB in the frequency range around 247 Hz and by 25 dB in the frequency range around 258 Hz. The experiments indicate that FSDH measurements provide an efficient tool that can be used for fast and accurate measurements of the acoustic transmission loss in large planar structures.

  19. X-ray speckle correlation interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, Rachel; Materlik, Gerhard


    Speckle Pattern Correlation Interferometry (SPCI) is a well-established technique in the visible-light regime for observing surface disturbances. Although not a direct imaging technique, SPCI gives full-field, high-resolution information about an object's motion. Since x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines with high coherent flux have allowed the observation of x-ray speckle, x-ray SPCI could provide a means to measure strains and other quasi-static motions in disordered systems. This paper therefore examines the feasibility of an x-ray speckle correlation interferometer

  20. White Light Optical Processing Of Speckle Interferograms (United States)

    Yu, F. T.; Ruterbusch, P. H.; Gerhart, G. R.


    A technique of white-light color encoding of misfocused speckle interferometric fringe patterns is presented. The encoding is performed in the spatial frequency plane with color filters. This technique allows the viewing of a multiset of encoded speckle interferograms simultaneously. Thus it may provide new informational interferometric aspects of the object under stress or vibration. The effect on the speckle fringe pattern due to the spatial filtering is briefly discussed and experimental demonstrations of color encoded fringe patterns are presented. Due to the simplicity and versatility of the processing technique, we feel that the technique may develop into a practical tool for strain, stress and vibrational measurement.

  1. Speckle imaging algorithms for planetary imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    I will discuss the speckle imaging algorithms used to process images of the impact sites of the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter. The algorithms use a phase retrieval process based on the average bispectrum of the speckle image data. High resolution images are produced by estimating the Fourier magnitude and Fourier phase of the image separately, then combining them and inverse transforming to achieve the final result. I will show raw speckle image data and high-resolution image reconstructions from our recent experiment at Lick Observatory.

  2. Advances in speckle metrology and related techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Guillermo H


    Speckle metrology includes various optical techniques that are based on the speckle fields generated by reflection from a rough surface or by transmission through a rough diffuser. These techniques have proven to be very useful in testing different materials in a non-destructive way. They have changed dramatically during the last years due to the development of modern optical components, with faster and more powerful digital computers, and novel data processing approaches. This most up-to-date overview of the topic describes new techniques developed in the field of speckle metrology over the l

  3. Poisson noise reduction from X-ray images by region classification ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Medical imaging is perturbed with inherent noise such as speckle noise in ultrasound, Poisson noise in X-ray and Rician noise in MRI imaging. This paper focuses on X-ray image denoising problem. X-ray image quality could be improved by increasing dose value; however, this may result in cell death or similar kinds of ...

  4. Speckle processing for OCT image based on Bayesian least mean square error criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Rong


    Full Text Available This paper presents a noise reduction algorithm for the speckle noise in optical coherence tomography images based on Bayesian criterion.First,the noisy imaging data is put into the logarithmic space and sample is extracted from the data with noise of Gaussian distribution.Then pixels within the sample are given relevant weights based on the correlation between adjacent pixels in the image.Finally,the posterior distribution is estimated by using a weighted histogram approach and the noise-free data is estimated using generic Bayesian least mean square error estimate.Compared with traditional wavelet transformation noise reduction and median filtering denoising,this method obviously improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and the equivalent apparent number (ENL of OCT image.Thus the image quality is enhanced to some extent.

  5. Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images of human skin by a spatial diversity method - art. no. 66270P

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Thrane, Lars; Mogensen, M.


    A range of compounding techniques have been suggested for dealing with the signal degrading speckle noise in optical coherence tomography (OCT). Recent implementations of angular compounding have shown great promise, but some of the implementations require substantial modifications of the OCT sys...

  6. Statistics of polarization speckle: theory versus experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Takeda, Mitsuo


    In this paper, we reviewed our recent work on the statistical properties of polarization speckle, described by stochastic Stokes parameters fluctuating in space. Based on the Gaussian assumption for the random electric field components and polar-interferometer, we investigated theoretically...... and experimentally the statistics of Stokes parameters of polarization speckle, including probability density function of Stokes parameters with the spatial degree of polarization, autocorrelation of Stokes vector and statistics of spatial derivatives for Stokes parameters....

  7. Dynamic speckle analysis using multivariate techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Alonso, José M; Alda, Javier; Rabal, Héctor; Grumel, Eduardo; Trivi, Marcelo


    In this work we use principal components analysis to characterize dynamic speckle patterns. This analysis quantitatively identifies different dynamics that could be associated to physical phenomena occurring in the sample. We also found the contribution explained by each principal component, or by a group of them. The method analyzes the paint drying process over a hidden topography. It can be used for fast screening and identification of different dynamics in biological or industrial samples by means of dynamic speckle interferometry. (paper)

  8. The SKED: speckle knife edge detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpies, S D; Light, R A; Achamfuo-Yeboah, S O; Clark, M; Somekh, M G


    The knife edge detector—also known as optical beam deflection—is a simple and robust method of detecting ultrasonic waves using a laser. It is particularly suitable for detection of high frequency surface acoustic waves as the response is proportional to variation of the local tilt of the surface. In the case of a specular reflection of the incident laser beam from a smooth surface, any lateral movement of the reflected beam caused by the ultrasonic waves is easily detected by a pair of photodiodes. The major disadvantage of the knife edge detector is that it does not cope well with optically rough surfaces, those that give a speckled reflection. The optical speckles from a rough surface adversely affect the efficiency of the knife edge detector, because 'dark' speckles move synchronously with 'bright' speckles, and their contributions to the ultrasonic signal cancel each other out. We have developed a new self-adapting sensor which can cope with the optical speckles reflected from a rough surface. It is inelegantly called the SKED—speckle knife edge detector—and like its smooth surface namesake it is simple, cheap, compact, and robust. We describe the theory of its operation, and present preliminary experimental results validating the overall concept and the operation of the prototype device

  9. Real time speckle monitoring to control retinal photocoagulation (United States)

    Bliedtner, Katharina; Seifert, Eric; Brinkmann, Ralf


    Photocoagulation is a treatment modality for several retinal diseases. Intra- and inter-individual variations of the retinal absorption as well as ocular transmission and light scattering makes it impossible to achieve a uniform effective exposure with one set of laser parameters. To guarantee a uniform damage throughout the therapy a real-time control is highly requested. Here, an approach to realize a real-time optical feedback using dynamic speckle analysis in-vivo is presented. A 532 nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser is used for coagulation. During coagulation, speckle dynamics are monitored by a coherent object illumination using a 633 nm diode laser and analyzed by a CMOS camera with a frame rate up to 1 kHz. An algorithm is presented that can discriminate between different categories of retinal pigment epithelial damage ex-vivo in enucleated porcine eyes and that seems to be robust to noise in-vivo. Tissue changes in rabbits during retinal coagulation could be observed for different lesion strengths. This algorithm can run on a FPGA and is able to calculate a feedback value which is correlated to the thermal and coagulation induced tissue motion and thus the achieved damage.

  10. Speckle Reduction and Structure Enhancement by Multichannel Median Boosted Anisotropic Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhi


    Full Text Available We propose a new approach to reduce speckle noise and enhance structures in speckle-corrupted images. It utilizes a median-anisotropic diffusion compound scheme. The median-filter-based reaction term acts as a guided energy source to boost the structures in the image being processed. In addition, it regularizes the diffusion equation to ensure the existence and uniqueness of a solution. We also introduce a decimation and back reconstruction scheme to further enhance the processing result. Before the iteration of the diffusion process, the image is decimated and a subpixel shifted image set is formed. This allows a multichannel parallel diffusion iteration, and more importantly, the speckle noise is broken into impulsive or salt-pepper noise, which is easy to remove by median filtering. The advantage of the proposed technique is clear when it is compared to other diffusion algorithms and the well-known adaptive weighted median filtering (AWMF scheme in both simulation and real medical ultrasound images.

  11. Speckle reduction process based on digital filtering and wavelet compounding in optical coherence tomography for dermatology (United States)

    Gómez Valverde, Juan J.; Ortuño, Juan E.; Guerra, Pedro; Hermann, Boris; Zabihian, Behrooz; Rubio-Guivernau, José L.; Santos, Andrés.; Drexler, Wolfgang; Ledesma-Carbayo, Maria J.


    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has shown a great potential as a complementary imaging tool in the diagnosis of skin diseases. Speckle noise is the most prominent artifact present in OCT images and could limit the interpretation and detection capabilities. In this work we propose a new speckle reduction process and compare it with various denoising filters with high edge-preserving potential, using several sets of dermatological OCT B-scans. To validate the performance we used a custom-designed spectral domain OCT and two different data set groups. The first group consisted in five datasets of a single B-scan captured N times (with N<20), the second were five 3D volumes of 25 Bscans. As quality metrics we used signal to noise (SNR), contrast to noise (CNR) and equivalent number of looks (ENL) ratios. Our results show that a process based on a combination of a 2D enhanced sigma digital filter and a wavelet compounding method achieves the best results in terms of the improvement of the quality metrics. In the first group of individual B-scans we achieved improvements in SNR, CNR and ENL of 16.87 dB, 2.19 and 328 respectively; for the 3D volume datasets the improvements were 15.65 dB, 3.44 and 1148. Our results suggest that the proposed enhancement process may significantly reduce speckle, increasing SNR, CNR and ENL and reducing the number of extra acquisitions of the same frame.

  12. General filtering method for electronic speckle pattern interferometry fringe images with various densities based on variational image decomposition. (United States)

    Li, Biyuan; Tang, Chen; Gao, Guannan; Chen, Mingming; Tang, Shuwei; Lei, Zhenkun


    Filtering off speckle noise from a fringe image is one of the key tasks in electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). In general, ESPI fringe images can be divided into three categories: low-density fringe images, high-density fringe images, and variable-density fringe images. In this paper, we first present a general filtering method based on variational image decomposition that can filter speckle noise for ESPI fringe images with various densities. In our method, a variable-density ESPI fringe image is decomposed into low-density fringes, high-density fringes, and noise. A low-density fringe image is decomposed into low-density fringes and noise. A high-density fringe image is decomposed into high-density fringes and noise. We give some suitable function spaces to describe low-density fringes, high-density fringes, and noise, respectively. Then we construct several models and numerical algorithms for ESPI fringe images with various densities. And we investigate the performance of these models via our extensive experiments. Finally, we compare our proposed models with the windowed Fourier transform method and coherence enhancing diffusion partial differential equation filter. These two methods may be the most effective filtering methods at present. Furthermore, we use the proposed method to filter a collection of the experimentally obtained ESPI fringe images with poor quality. The experimental results demonstrate the performance of our proposed method.

  13. Comparison of laboratory grating-based and speckle-tracking x-ray phase-contrast imaging (United States)

    Romell, J.; Zhou, T.; Zdora, M.; Sala, S.; Koch, F. J.; Hertz, H. M.; Burvall, A.


    Phase-contrast imaging with x-rays is a developing field for imaging weakly absorbing materials. In this work, two phase-contrast imaging methods, grating- and speckle-based imaging, that measure the derivative of the phase shift, have been implemented with a laboratory source and compared experimentally. It was found that for the same dose conditions, the speckle-tracking differential phase-contrast images have considerably higher contrast-to-noise ratio than the grating-based images, but at the cost of lower resolution. Grating-based imaging performs better in terms of resolution, but would require longer exposure times, mainly due to absorption in the grating interferometer.

  14. Twin suppression in digital holography by means of speckle reduction


    Monaghan, David S.; Kelly, Damien P.; Pandey, Nitesh; Hennelly, Bryan M.


    A method for numerically removing the twin image in on-axis digital holography, based on multiple digital holograms, is discussed. The digital holograms under examination are captured experimentally using an in-line modified Mach-Zehnder interferometric setup and subsequently reconstructed numerically. The technique is suitable for both transmission and reflection geometry. Each individual hologram is recorded with a statistically independent diffuse illumination field. This is achieved by sh...

  15. Noise Reduction Techniques (United States)

    Hallas, Tony

    There are two distinct kinds of noise - structural and color. Each requires a specific method of attack to minimize. The great challenge is to reduce the noise without reducing the faint and delicate detail in the image. My most-used and favorite noise suppression is found in Photoshop CS 5 Camera Raw. If I cannot get the desired results with the first choice, I will use Noise Ninja, which has certain advantages in some situations that we will cover.

  16. Wave optics simulation of atmospheric turbulence and reflective speckle effects in CO2 lidar. (United States)

    Nelson, D H; Walters, D L; Mackerrow, E P; Schmitt, M J; Quick, C R; Porch, W M; Petrin, R R


    Laser speckle can influence lidar measurements from a diffuse hard target. Atmospheric optical turbulence will also affect the lidar return signal. We present a numerical simulation that models the propagation of a lidar beam and accounts for both reflective speckle and atmospheric turbulence effects. Our simulation is based on implementing a Huygens-Fresnel approximation to laser propagation. A series of phase screens, with the appropriate atmospheric statistical characteristics, are used to simulate the effect of atmospheric turbulence. A single random phase screen is used to simulate scattering of the entire beam from a rough surface. We compare the output of our numerical model with separate CO(2) lidar measurements of atmospheric turbulence and reflective speckle. We also compare the output of our model with separate analytical predictions for atmospheric turbulence and reflective speckle. Good agreement was found between the model and the experimental data. Good agreement was also found with analytical predictions. Finally, we present results of a simulation of the combined effects on a finite-aperture lidar system that are qualitatively consistent with previous experimental observations of increasing rms noise with increasing turbulence level.

  17. High Sensitivity Pulsed Laser Vibrometer for Aircraft Interior Noise Monitoring Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an innovative pulsed laser vibrometer technology for the monitoring of interior noise inside an aircraft. The optical speckle-tolerant nature of the...

  18. Contrast-enhanced imaging of cerebral vasculature with laser speckle. (United States)

    Murari, K; Li, N; Rege, A; Jia, X; All, A; Thakor, N


    High-resolution cerebral vasculature imaging has applications ranging from intraoperative procedures to basic neuroscience research. Laser speckle, with spatial contrast processing, has recently been used to map cerebral blood flow. We present an application of the technique using temporal contrast processing to image cerebral vascular structures with a field of view a few millimeters across and approximately 20 microm resolution through a thinned skull. We validate the images using fluorescent imaging and demonstrate a factor of 2-4 enhancement in contrast-to-noise ratios over reflectance imaging using white or spectrally filtered green light. The contrast enhancement enables the perception of approximately 10%-30% more vascular structures without the introduction of any contrast agent.

  19. OCT Amplitude and Speckle Statistics of Discrete Random Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almasian, Mitra; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Faber, Dirk J.


    Speckle, amplitude fluctuations in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images, contains information on sub-resolution structural properties of the imaged sample. Speckle statistics could therefore be utilized in the characterization of biological tissues. However, a rigorous theoretical framework

  20. Quantization analysis of speckle intensity measurements for phase retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maallo, Anne Margarette S.; Almoro, Percival F.; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    Speckle intensity measurements utilized for phase retrieval (PR) are sequentially taken with a digital camera, which introduces quantization error that diminishes the signal quality. Influences of quantization on the speckle intensity distribution and PR are investigated numerically and experimen...

  1. Speckle perception and disturbance limit in laser based projectors (United States)

    Verschaffelt, Guy; Roelandt, Stijn; Meuret, Youri; Van den Broeck, Wendy; Kilpi, Katriina; Lievens, Bram; Jacobs, An; Janssens, Peter; Thienpont, Hugo


    We investigate the level of speckle that can be tolerated in a laser cinema projector. For this purpose, we equipped a movie theatre room with a prototype laser projector. A group of 186 participants was gathered to evaluate the speckle perception of several, short movie trailers in a subjective `Quality of Experience' experiment. This study is important as the introduction of lasers in projection systems has been hampered by the presence of speckle in projected images. We identify a speckle disturbance threshold by statistically analyzing the observers' responses for different values of the amount of speckle, which was monitored using a well-defined speckle measurement method. The analysis shows that the speckle perception of a human observer is not only dependent on the objectively measured amount of speckle, but it is also strongly influenced by the image content. As is also discussed in [Verschaffelt et al., Scientific Reports 5, art. nr. 14105, 2015] we find that, for moving images, the speckle becomes disturbing if the speckle contrast becomes larger than 6.9% for the red, 6.0% for the green, and 4.8% for the blue primary colors of the projector, whereas for still images the speckle detection threshold is about 3%. As we could not independently tune the speckle contrast of each of the primary colors, this speckle disturbance limit seems to be determined by the 6.9% speckle contrast of the red color as this primary color contains the largest amount of speckle. The speckle disturbance limit for movies thus turns out to be substantially larger than that for still images, and hence is easier to attain.

  2. Integration of speckle de-noising and image segmentation using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flood is one of the detrimental hydro-meteorological threats to mankind. This compels very efficient flood assessment models. In this paper, we propose remote sensing based flood assessment using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image because of its imperviousness to unfavourable weather conditions. However, they ...

  3. Restoration of Medical Images with Different Types of Noise; Restauracion de Imagenes Medicas con Diferentes Tipos de Ruido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, M. G.; Vidal, V.; Verdu, G.; Mayo, P.; Rodenas, F.


    In this paper, a method is proposed to reduce the Gaussian, speckle and impulsive noise. This filter, named PGMFDNL filter combines a nonlinear diffusion and fuzzy peer group. The proposed filter can effectively reduce image noise without any information about the noise present in the image. As a result, the proposed method obtains good performance in different types of noise.

  4. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection (United States)

    Tiszauer, Detlev H.; Hackel, Lloyd A.


    The viewers' perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts.

  5. Dynamic speckle study of microbial growth (United States)

    Vincitorio, F. M.; Mulone, C.; Marcuzzi, P. A.; Budini, N.; Freyre, C.; Lopez, A. J.; Ramil, A.


    In this work we present a characterization of yeast dynamic speckle activity during growth in an isolated agar culture medium. We found that it is possible to detect the growth of the microorganisms even before they turn out to be visible. By observing the time evolution of the speckle activity at different regions of the culture medium we could extract a map of the growth process, which served to analyze how the yeast develops and spreads over the agar's medium. An interesting point of this study concerns with the influence of the laser light on the yeast growth rate. We have found that yeast finds hard to develop at regions with higher laser light illumination, although we used a synchronous system to capture the speckle pattern. The results obtained in this work would serve us as a starting point to fabricate a detector of growing microorganism colonies, with obvious interesting applications in diverse areas.

  6. Cardiac functional analysis by laser speckle interferometry (United States)

    Ramachandran, G.; Singh, M.

    The laser speckle interference pattern during movement of a rough surface is employed to measure the respective displacements. The purpose of this work is to apply this technique in the form of laser speckle displacement cardiography to analyse the displacement patterns during the I and II heart sounds. The recording is performed by illuminating the chest over the cardiac region by collimated laser beam controlled by an ECG operated electric shutter. By analysis the 3-D displacement patterns are obtained. A comparison shows that the displacement at the apex, right ventricle, aortic and mitral valvular regions are significantly higher during I sound than that of II sound.

  7. Suppression of optical beat interference-noise in orthogonal frequency division multiple access-passive optical network link using self-homodyne balanced detection (United States)

    Won, Yong-Yuk; Jung, Sang-Min; Han, Sang-Kook


    A new technique, which reduces optical beat interference (OBI) noise in orthogonal frequency division multiple access-passive optical network (OFDMA-PON) links, is proposed. A self-homodyne balanced detection, which uses a single laser for the optical line terminal (OLT) as well as for the optical network unit (ONU), reduces OBI noise and also improves the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the discrete multi-tone (DMT) signal. The proposed scheme is verified by transmitting quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK)-modulated DMT signal over a 20-km single mode fiber. The optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR), that is required for BER of 10-5, is reduced by 2 dB in the balanced detection compared with a single channel due to the cancellation of OBI noise in conjunction with the local laser.

  8. Speckle photo-electromotive force in Bi12SiO20: Effect of the speckle size (United States)

    Salazar, Ángel


    A study of the speckle photo-electromotive force (PEMF) in a photorefractive sensor of amplitudes of micro-oscillations is presented. The experimental behavior of the first harmonic of the photocurrent generated as a function of the average speckle diameter and the oscillation amplitude of the speckle pattern is analyzed for a sensor implemented with a Bi12SiO20 (BSO) crystal. For a given light intensity, a nearly constant value of the maximum amplitude of the first harmonic was experimentally observed for the range of speckle sizes considered. This experimental result and the linear dependence of the vibration amplitude yielding the maximum of the photocurrent as a function of the speckle diameter were appropriately described by the mathematical model considered. Results show the possibility of adequately selecting the speckle size to optimize the output of speckle PEMF-based sensors depending on the oscillation amplitude to be measured.

  9. Influence of error sources in speckle interferometry using only two speckle patterns (United States)

    Arai, Yasuhiko


    Speckle interferometry is an important deformation measurement method for objects with rough surfaces. Recently, a fringe analysis method that uses only one speckle pattern before deformation and one after deformation was proposed. The measurement accuracy of this method is known to depend on experimental conditions. In this paper, the improvement of the measurement accuracy of this method is discussed in comparison with the advanced technologies of off-axis digital holography. It is highly effective to introduce the experiences of the advanced technologies of digital holography to speckle interferometry. However, it should also be considered that both technologies have different purposes. Because digital holography is basically a technology which records images, the influence of the quantity of deformation has never been discussed in digital holography in detail. In this study, the measurement accuracy of speckle interferometry is investigated through a precise comparison of the experimental results from both technologies. It was confirmed that the conditions for digital holography are not always suitable for improving the measurement accuracy of speckle interferometry.

  10. Speckle reduction in swept source optical coherence tomography images with slow-axis averaging (United States)

    Tan, Ou; Li, Yan; Wang, Yimin; Kraus, Martin F.; Liu, Jonathan J.; Potsaid, Benjamin; Baumann, Bernhard; Fujimoto, James G.; Huang, David


    The effectiveness of speckle reduction using traditional frame averaging technique was limited in ultrahigh speed optical coherence tomography (OCT). As the motion between repeated frames was very small, the speckle pattern of the frames might be identical. This problem could be solved by averaging frames acquired at slightly different locations. The optimized scan range depended on the spot size of the laser beam, the smoothness of the boundary, and the homogeneity of the tissue. In this study we presented a method to average frames obtained within a narrow range along the slow-axis. A swept-source OCT with 100,000 Hz axial scan rate was used to scan the retina in vivo. A series of narrow raster scans (0-50 micron along the slow axis) were evaluated. Each scan contained 20 image frames evenly distributed in the scan range. The imaging frame rate was 417 HZ. Only frames with high correlation after rigid registration were used in averaging. The result showed that the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) increased with the scan range. But the best edge reservation was obtained with 15 micron scan range. Thus, for ultrahigh speed OCT systems, averaging frames from a narrow band along the slow-axis could achieve better speckle reduction than traditional frame averaging techniques.

  11. Laser speckle imaging of rat retinal blood flow with hybrid temporal and spatial analysis method (United States)

    Cheng, Haiying; Yan, Yumei; Duong, Timothy Q.


    Noninvasive monitoring of blood flow in retinal circulation will reveal the progression and treatment of ocular disorders, such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. A non-invasive and direct BF measurement technique with high spatial-temporal resolution is needed for retinal imaging. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is such a method. Currently, there are two analysis methods for LSI: spatial statistics LSI (SS-LSI) and temporal statistical LSI (TS-LSI). Comparing these two analysis methods, SS-LSI has higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) and TSLSI is less susceptible to artifacts from stationary speckle. We proposed a hybrid temporal and spatial analysis method (HTS-LSI) to measure the retinal blood flow. Gas challenge experiment was performed and images were analyzed by HTS-LSI. Results showed that HTS-LSI can not only remove the stationary speckle but also increase the SNR. Under 100% O2, retinal BF decreased by 20-30%. This was consistent with the results observed with laser Doppler technique. As retinal blood flow is a critical physiological parameter and its perturbation has been implicated in the early stages of many retinal diseases, HTS-LSI will be an efficient method in early detection of retina diseases.

  12. Very low rate compression of speckled SAR imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichel, P.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ives, R.W. [Navy (United States)


    Synthetic aperture radars produce coherent, and speckled, high resolution images of the ground. Because modern systems can generate large amounts of imagery, there is substantial interest in applying image compression techniques to these products. In this paper, the authors examine the properties of speckled imagery relevant to the task of data compression. In particular, they demonstrate the advisability of compressing the speckle mean function rather than the literal image. The theory, methodology, and an example are presented.

  13. Superconductor ceramics behavior analyses during service by speckle metrology (United States)

    Recuero, S.; Andres, N.; Arroyo, M. P.; Lera, F.; Angurel, L. A.


    This paper shows the feasibility of applying speckle techniques as a non-destructive evaluation of the performance of ceramic high temperature superconducting materials. Firstly, Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry has been applied to test these materials during service, with the sample cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures, to detect where a hot spot will be generated. Surface degradation due to humidity has also been studied. Speckle Photography, whose optical setup is simpler, has been selected for this study.

  14. Speckle Tracking Imaging in Normal Stress Echocardiography. (United States)

    Leitman, Marina; Tyomkin, Vladimir; Peleg, Eli; Zyssman, Izhak; Rosenblatt, Simcha; Sucher, Edgar; Gercenshtein, Vered; Vered, Zvi


    Exercise stress echocardiography is a widely used modality for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with coronary artery disease. During the last decade, speckle tracking imaging has been used increasingly for accurate evaluation of cardiac function. This work aimed to assess speckle-tracking imaging parameters during nonischemic exercise stress echocardiography. During 2011 to 2014 we studied 46 patients without history of coronary artery disease, who completed exercise stress echocardiography protocol, had normal left ventricular function, a nonischemic response, and satisfactory image quality. These exams were analyzed with speckle-tracking imaging software at rest and at peak exercise. Peak strain and time-to-peak strain were measured at rest and after exercise. Clinical follow-up included a telephone contact 1 to 3 years after stress echo exam, confirming freedom from coronary events during this time. Global and regional peak strain increased following exercise. Time-to-peak global and regional strain and time-to-peak strain adjusted to the heart rate were significantly shorter in all segments after exercise. Rest-to-stress ratio of time-to-peak strain adjusted to the heart rate was 2.0 to 2.8. Global and regional peak strain rise during normal exercise echocardiography. Peak global and regional strain occur before or shortly after aortic valve closure at rest and after exercise, and the delay is more apparent at the basal segments. Time-to-peak strain normally shortens significantly during exercise; after adjustment to heart rate it shortens by a ratio of 2.0 to 2.8. These data may be useful for interpretation of future exercise stress speckle-tracking echocardiography studies. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  15. Speckle Shearing Interferometry And Its Application (United States)

    Jingtang, Ke; Hongqing, Zhang; Yeling, He; Yanfu, Chang


    The paper deals with experiments made to verify the theory of bending of plates and related problems by method of speckle shearing interferometry, which is proved to be highly sensitive. Tests carried out on rubber products: (such as tires)and thin-walled containers have demonstrated the prospects of using image-shearing camera in nondestructive in-situ testing of industrial products, suggesting a potentiality still wider than that of holographic interferometry.

  16. Twisted speckle entities inside wave-front reversal mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okulov, A. Yu


    The previously unknown property of the optical speckle pattern reported. The interference of a speckle with the counterpropagating phase-conjugated (PC) speckle wave produces a randomly distributed ensemble of a twisted entities (ropes) surrounding optical vortex lines. These entities appear in a wide range of a randomly chosen speckle parameters inside the phase-conjugating mirrors regardless to an internal physical mechanism of the wave-front reversal. These numerically generated interference patterns are relevant to the Brillouin PC mirrors and to a four-wave mixing PC mirrors based upon laser trapped ultracold atomic cloud.

  17. Early detection and treatment of Speckled leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selviana Tampoma


    Full Text Available Background: Leukoplakia is one of potentially malignant disorders that can be found on oral mucosa. Speckled leukoplakia is a rare type of leukoplakia with a very high risk of premalignant growth. Approximately 3 % of worldwide population has suffered from leukoplakia, 5-25% of which tend to be malignant leukoplakia. Purpose: This case report was aimed to discuss about early detection of speckled leukoplakia as one of potentially malignant disorders. Case: A 62 year old male patient came with chief complaint of bald and painful tongue since one month ago. The patient has a history of allergic reaction, hypertension, uric acid, and hepatitis B. He had been a heavy smoker since young until 10 years ago. Intra oral examination showed a firm, rough, non scrapable white plaque lesion with a size of 1 x 1.5 cm, surrounded by painful erosion with diffuse boundary. Case Management: Based on cytology examination, the patient was reffered to oncologist to get an excisional biopsy. Next, the patient succesfully underwent the excisional biopsy and came for control. The results showed the healing process of the lesion with a minimal complaint of bald tongue, especially when eating spicy or hot meal. To improve healing process, the patient then was given an antibacterial mouth rinse containing zinc and mulvitamin. Conclusion: Speckled leukoplakia could show high malignant transformation rate, therefore, early detection and treatment are necessary.

  18. Poisson noise reduction from X-ray images by region classification ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thakur Kirti

    Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, College of Engineering, Pune 411005, India e-mail: MS received 18 May 2015; revised 28 November 2016; accepted 7 January 2017. Abstract. Medical imaging is perturbed with inherent noise such as speckle noise in ultrasound, Poisson ...

  19. Noise-Reduction Circuit For Imaging Photodetectors (United States)

    Ramirez, Luis J.; Pain, Bedabrata; Staller, Craig; Hickok, Roger W.


    Developmental correlated-triple-sampling circuit suppresses capacitor reset noise and attenuates low frequency noise in integrated-and-sampled circuits of multiplexed photodiode arrays. Noise reduction circuit part of Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) instrument to fly aboard Cassini spacecraft to explore Saturn and its moons. Modified versions of circuit also useful for reducing noise in terrestrial photosensor instruments.

  20. Effect of focusing optics on X-ray speckle contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retsch, C. C.; Wang, Y.; Frigo, S. P.; McNulty, I.; Lurio, L. B.; Stephenson, G. B.


    The authors investigated the behavior of speckle contrast and size under various experimental conditions using 1.82 keV x-rays. In this paper, they report the comparison of two different setups for x-ray speckle experiments: one employing a focusing zone plate and one in which a pinhole selects the size of the coherent x-ray beam. They found a strong dependence of the speckle contrast and size on the type of setup. In general, the pinhole setup results in higher contrast but smaller speckle size. On the other hand the zone plate setup allows one to target much smaller areas of interest in the sample, down to submicron dimensions, and also to adjust the speckle size. The authors anticipate that these results will be useful in future time-correlation spectroscopy experiments

  1. Measurement of natural convection by speckle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernekinck, U.; Merzkirch, W.


    The principle of speckle photography can be applied to the measurement of density variations in fluids. A modification of existing experimental arrangements allows for the measurement of large values of the light deflection angles as they may occur in heat and mass transfer situations. The method is demonstrated for the case of a helium jet exhausting into still air and the natural convective flow along a heated plate. The obtained data are compared with results measured with classical optical interferometers, and good agreement is found. The advantages of the new technique over the classical optical methods are briefly discussed. 11 references

  2. Ten Years of Speckle Interferometry at SOAR (United States)

    Tokovinin, Andrei


    Since 2007, close binary and multiple stars are observed by speckle interferometry at the 4.1 m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope. The HRCam instrument, observing strategy and planning, data processing and calibration methods, developed and improved during ten years, are presented here in a concise way. Thousands of binary stars were measured with diffraction-limited resolution (29 mas at 540 nm wavelength) and a high accuracy reaching 1 mas; 200 new pairs or subsystems were discovered. To date, HRCam has performed over 11,000 observations with a high efficiency (up to 300 stars per night). An overview of the main results delivered by this instrument is given.

  3. Laser speckle analysis of retinal vascular dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neganova, Anastasiia Y.; Postnov, Dmitry D.; Jacobsen, Jens Christian B.


    -field laser speckle imaging to evaluate vascular responses of the retinal network. Image segmentation and vessel recognition algorithms together with response mapping allow us to analyze diameter changes and blood flow responses in the intact retinal network upon systemic administration of the vasoconstrictor......Studies of vascular responses are usually performed on isolated vessels or on single vessels in vivo. This allows for precise measurements of diameter or blood flow. However, dynamical responses of the whole microvascular network are difficult to access experimentally. We suggest to use full...

  4. Analysis of laser speckle patterns from fingertips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Theis Faber Quist; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    The trend in human-machine interface technology is heading towards optical solutions for tracking and movement detection. Especially, interactive touch screens and pads, in which the movement of the user’s fingertips is detected and tracked, are of great commercial interest. The applications range...... from mobile phones to laptops and PDA´s. However, the dynamics of scattered light from live tissue must be taken into account when designing optical sensor systems for tracking e.g. fingertips in touch-applications. Especially, when using coherent light sources, the statistics of the speckle...

  5. Speckle reduction in echocardiography by temporal compounding and anisotropic diffusion filtering (United States)

    Giraldo-Guzmán, Jader; Porto-Solano, Oscar; Cadena-Bonfanti, Alberto; Contreras-Ortiz, Sonia H.


    Echocardiography is a medical imaging technique based on ultrasound signals that is used to evaluate heart anatomy and physiology. Echocardiographic images are affected by speckle, a type of multiplicative noise that obscures details of the structures, and reduces the overall image quality. This paper shows an approach to enhance echocardiography using two processing techniques: temporal compounding and anisotropic diffusion filtering. We used twenty echocardiographic videos that include one or three cardiac cycles to test the algorithms. Two images from each cycle were aligned in space and averaged to obtain the compound images. These images were then processed using anisotropic diffusion filters to further improve their quality. Resultant images were evaluated using quality metrics and visual assessment by two medical doctors. The average total improvement on signal-to-noise ratio was up to 100.29% for videos with three cycles, and up to 32.57% for videos with one cycle.

  6. Active noise cancellation algorithms for impulsive noise. (United States)

    Li, Peng; Yu, Xun


    Impulsive noise is an important challenge for the practical implementation of active noise control (ANC) systems. The advantages and disadvantages of popular filtered- X least mean square (FXLMS) ANC algorithm and nonlinear filtered-X least mean M-estimate (FXLMM) algorithm are discussed in this paper. A new modified FXLMM algorithm is also proposed to achieve better performance in controlling impulsive noise. Computer simulations and experiments are carried out for all three algorithms and the results are presented and analyzed. The results show that the FXLMM and modified FXLMM algorithms are more robust in suppressing the adverse effect of sudden large amplitude impulses than FXLMS algorithm, and in particular, the proposed modified FXLMM algorithm can achieve better stability without sacrificing the performance of residual noise when encountering impulses.

  7. Observations of binary stars by speckle interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, B.L.; Beckmann, G.K.; Scaddan, R.J.


    This is the second paper in a series describing observations of binary stars using the technique of speckle interferometry. Observations were made using the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope and the 1-m telescope of the Royal Greenwich Observatory and the 1.9-m telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory. The classical Rayleigh diffraction limits are 0.050 arcsec for the 2.5-m telescope, 0.065 arcsec for the 1.9-m telescope and 0.125 arcsec for the 1-m telescope, at a wavelength of 500 nm. The results of 29 measurements of 26 objects are presented. The objects include long period spectroscopic binaries from the 6th Catalogue of Batten, close visual binary systems from the 3rd Catalogue of Finsen and Worley and variable stars. Nine of the objects have not been previously resolved by speckle interferometry. New members are detected in the systems β Cep, p Vel and iota UMa. (author)

  8. Characterization of Atherosclerotic Plaques by Laser Speckle Imaging (United States)

    Nadkarni, Seemantini K.; Bouma, Brett E.; Helg, Tina; Chan, Raymond; Halpern, Elkan; Chau, Alexandra; Minsky, Milan Singh; Motz, Jason T.; Houser, Stuart L.; Tearney, Guillermo J.


    Background A method capable of determining atherosclerotic plaque composition and measuring plaque viscoelasticity can provide valuable insight into intrinsic features associated with plaque rupture and can enable the identification of high-risk lesions. In this article, we describe a new optical technique, laser speckle imaging (LSI), that measures an index of plaque viscoelasticity. We evaluate the potential of LSI for characterizing atherosclerotic plaque. Methods and Results Time-varying helium-neon laser speckle images were acquired from 118 aortic plaque specimens from 14 human cadavers under static and deforming conditions (0 to 200 μm/s). Temporal fluctuations in the speckle patterns were quantified by exponential fitting of the normalized cross-correlation of sequential frames in each image series of speckle patterns to obtain the exponential decay time constant, τ. The decorrelation time constants of thin-cap fibroatheromas (TCFA) (τ=47.5±19.2 ms) were significantly lower than those of other atherosclerotic lesions (P90%. Speckle decorrelation time constants demonstrated strong correlation with histological measurements of plaque collagen (R=0.73, P0.05). Conclusions The measurement of speckle decorrelation time constant from laser speckle images provides an index of plaque viscoelasticity and facilitates the characterization of plaque type. Our results demonstrate that LSI is a highly sensitive technique for characterizing plaque and identifying thin-cap fibroatheromas. PMID:16061738

  9. Multiple speckle illumination for optical-resolution photoacoustic imaging (United States)

    Poisson, Florian; Stasio, Nicolino; Moser, Christophe; Psaltis, Demetri; Bossy, Emmanuel


    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy offers exquisite and specific contrast to optical absorption. Conventional approaches generally involves raster scanning a focused spot over the sample. Here, we demonstrate that a full-field illumination approach with multiple speckle illumination can also provide diffraction-limited optical-resolution photoacoustic images. Two different proof-of-concepts are demonstrated with micro-structured test samples. The first approach follows the principle of correlation/ghost imaging,1, 2 and is based on cross-correlating photoacoustic signals under multiple speckle illumination with known speckle patterns measured during a calibration step. The second approach is a speckle scanning microscopy technique, which adapts the technique proposed in fluorescence microscopy by Bertolotti and al.:3 in our work, spatially unresolved photoacoustic measurements are performed for various translations of unknown speckle patterns. A phase-retrieval algorithm is used to reconstruct the object from the knowledge of the modulus of its Fourier Transform yielded by the measurements. Because speckle patterns naturally appear in many various situations, including propagation through biological tissue or multi-mode fibers (for which focusing light is either very demanding if not impossible), speckle-illumination-based photoacoustic microscopy provides a powerful framework for the development of novel reconstruction approaches, well-suited to compressed sensing approaches.2

  10. White-Light Optical Processing Of Misfocused Speckle Interferograms (United States)

    Yu, F. T. S.; Ruterbusch, P. H.; Gheen, G.; Gerhard, Grant


    A technique of white-light color encoding of misfocused speckle interferometric fringe patterns is presented. The encoding is performed in the spatial frequency plane with color filters. This technique allows the viewing of a multiset of encoded speckle interferograms simultaneously. Thus, it may provide new informational interferometric aspects of the object under stress or vibration. The effect on the speckle fringe pattern due to the spatial filtering is briefly discussed, and experimental demonstrations of color encoded fringe patterns are presented. Due to the simplicity and versatility of the processing technique, we feel that the technique may develop into a practical tool for strain, stress, and vibrational measurement.

  11. Enhanced deterministic phase retrieval using a partially developed speckle field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival F.; Waller, Laura; Agour, Mostafa


    A technique for enhanced deterministic phase retrieval using a partially developed speckle field (PDSF) and a spatial light modulator (SLM) is demonstrated experimentally. A smooth test wavefront impinges on a phase diffuser, forming a PDSF that is directed to a 4f setup. Two defocused speckle...... intensity measurements are recorded at the output plane corresponding to axially-propagated representations of the PDSF in the input plane. The speckle intensity measurements are then used in a conventional transport of intensity equation (TIE) to reconstruct directly the test wavefront. The PDSF in our...

  12. Run-and-tumble particles in speckle fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoluzzi, M; Di Leonardo, R; Angelani, L


    The random energy landscapes developed by speckle fields can be used to confine and manipulate a large number of micro-particles with a single laser beam. By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the static and dynamic properties of an active suspension of swimming bacteria embedded into speckle patterns. Looking at the correlation of the density fluctuations and the equilibrium density profiles, we observe a crossover phenomenon when the forces exerted by the speckles are equal to the bacteria’s propulsion. (paper)

  13. Superresolution Imaging of Optical Vortices in a Speckle Pattern (United States)

    Pascucci, Marco; Tessier, Gilles; Emiliani, Valentina; Guillon, Marc


    We characterize, experimentally, the intensity minima of a polarized high numerical aperture optical speckle pattern and the topological charges of the associated optical vortices. The negative of a speckle pattern is imprinted in a uniform fluorescent sample by photobleaching. The remaining fluorescence is imaged with superresolution stimulated emission depletion microscopy, which reveals subdiffraction fluorescence confinement at the center of optical vortices. The intensity statistics of saturated negative speckle patterns are predicted and measured. The charge of optical vortices is determined by controlling the handedness of circular polarization, and the creation or annihilation of a vortex pair along propagation is shown.

  14. Laser speckle velocimetry for robot manufacturing (United States)

    Charrett, Thomas O. H.; Bandari, Yashwanth K.; Michel, Florent; Ding, Jialuo; Williams, Stewart W.; Tatam, Ralph P.


    A non-contact speckle correlation sensor for the measurement of robotic tool speed is presented for use in robotic manufacturing and is capable of measuring the in-plane relative velocities between a robot end-effector and the workpiece or other surface. The sensor performance was assessed in the laboratory with the sensor accuracies found to be better than 0:01 mm/s over a 70 mm/s velocity range. Finally an example of the sensors application to robotic manufacturing is presented where the sensor was applied to tool speed measurement for path planning in the wire and arc additive manufacturing process using a KUKA KR150 L110/2 industrial robot.

  15. Speckle interferometry of asteroids. I - 433 Eros (United States)

    Drummond, J. D.; Cocke, W. J.; Hege, E. K.; Strittmatter, P. A.; Lambert, J. V.


    Analytical expressions are derived for the semimajor and semiminor axes and orientation angle of the ellipse projected by a triaxial asteroid, and the results are applied speckle-interferometry observations of the 433 Eros asteroid. The expressions were calculated as functions of the dimensions and pole of the body and of the asterocentric position of the earth and the sun. On the basis of the analytical expressions, the dimensions of 433 Eros are obtained. The light curve from December 18, 1981 is compared to the dimensions to obtain a geometric albedo of 0.156 (+ or - 0.010). A series of two-dimensional power spectra and autocorrelation functions for 433 Eros show that it is spinning in space.

  16. Laser speckle imaging based on photothermally driven convection (United States)

    Regan, Caitlin; Choi, Bernard


    Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is an interferometric technique that provides information about the relative speed of moving scatterers in a sample. Photothermal LSI overcomes limitations in depth resolution faced by conventional LSI by incorporating an excitation pulse to target absorption by hemoglobin within the vascular network. Here we present results from experiments designed to determine the mechanism by which photothermal LSI decreases speckle contrast. We measured the impact of mechanical properties on speckle contrast, as well as the spatiotemporal temperature dynamics and bulk convective motion occurring during photothermal LSI. Our collective data strongly support the hypothesis that photothermal LSI achieves a transient reduction in speckle contrast due to bulk motion associated with thermally driven convection. The ability of photothermal LSI to image structures below a scattering medium may have important preclinical and clinical applications.

  17. Evaluating platelet aggregation dynamics from laser speckle fluctuations. (United States)

    Hajjarian, Zeinab; Tshikudi, Diane M; Nadkarni, Seemantini K


    Platelets are key to maintaining hemostasis and impaired platelet aggregation could lead to hemorrhage or thrombosis. We report a new approach that exploits laser speckle intensity fluctuations, emanated from a drop of platelet-rich-plasma (PRP), to profile aggregation. Speckle fluctuation rate is quantified by the speckle intensity autocorrelation, g 2 (t) , from which the aggregate size is deduced. We first apply this approach to evaluate polystyrene bead aggregation, triggered by salt. Next, we assess dose-dependent platelet aggregation and inhibition in human PRP spiked with adenosine diphosphate and clopidogrel. Additional spatio-temporal speckle analyses yield 2-dimensional maps of particle displacements to visualize platelet aggregate foci within minutes and quantify aggregation dynamics. These findings demonstrate the unique opportunity for assessing platelet health within minutes for diagnosing bleeding disorders and monitoring anti-platelet therapies.

  18. Assessment of Fevicol (adhesive Drying Process through Dynamic Speckle Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Z. Ansari


    Full Text Available Dynamic laser speckle (or biospeckle analysis is a useful measurement tool to analyze micro-motion on a sample surface via temporal statistics based on a sequence of speckle images. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of dynamic speckles as an alternative tool to monitoring Fevicol drying process. Experimental demonstration of intensity-based algorithm to monitor Fevicol drying process is reported. The experiment was explored with the technique called Inertia Moment of co-occurrence matrix. The results allowed verifying the drying process and it was possible to observe different activity stages during the drying process. Statistical Tukey test at 5% significance level allowed differentiating different stages of drying. In conclusion, speckle activity, measured by the Inertia Moment, can be used to monitor drying processes of the Fevicol.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Nikiforov


    Full Text Available Speckle-tracking echocardiography is promising modern technique for evaluation of structural and functional changes in the myocardium. It evaluates the indicator of global longitudinal myocardial deformation, which is more sensitive than ejection fraction to early changes of left ventricular contractility. The diagnostic capabilities of speckle tracking echocardiography are reflected in clinical recommendations and consensus statements of European Society of Cardiology (ESC, European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI and American Society of Echocardiography (ASE. The aim of this paper is describe basic principles of speckle tracking echocardiography and clinical applications of this new technology. Attention is paid to the use of speckle tracking echocardiography in such heart pathologies as heart failure, coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction, left ventricular hypertrophy in arterial hypertension, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and amyloidosis of the heart, valvular heart disease, constrictive pericarditis and cancer therapy-induced cardiotoxicity.

  20. Assessing blood coagulation status with laser speckle rheology (United States)

    Tripathi, Markandey M.; Hajjarian, Zeinab; Van Cott, Elizabeth M.; Nadkarni, Seemantini K.


    We have developed and investigated a novel optical approach, Laser Speckle Rheology (LSR), to evaluate a patient’s coagulation status by measuring the viscoelastic properties of blood during coagulation. In LSR, a blood sample is illuminated with laser light and temporal speckle intensity fluctuations are measured using a high-speed CMOS camera. During blood coagulation, changes in the viscoelastic properties of the clot restrict Brownian displacements of light scattering centers within the sample, altering the rate of speckle intensity fluctuations. As a result, blood coagulation status can be measured by relating the time scale of speckle intensity fluctuations with clinically relevant coagulation metrics including clotting time and fibrinogen content. Our results report a close correlation between coagulation metrics measured using LSR and conventional coagulation results of activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time and functional fibrinogen levels, creating the unique opportunity to evaluate a patient’s coagulation status in real-time at the point of care. PMID:24688816

  1. Optical encryption and QR codes: secure and noise-free information retrieval. (United States)

    Barrera, John Fredy; Mira, Alejandro; Torroba, Roberto


    We introduce for the first time the concept of an information "container" before a standard optical encrypting procedure. The "container" selected is a QR code which offers the main advantage of being tolerant to pollutant speckle noise. Besides, the QR code can be read by smartphones, a massively used device. Additionally, QR code includes another secure step to the encrypting benefits the optical methods provide. The QR is generated by means of worldwide free available software. The concept development probes that speckle noise polluting the outcomes of normal optical encrypting procedures can be avoided, then making more attractive the adoption of these techniques. Actual smartphone collected results are shown to validate our proposal.

  2. Neighborhood binary speckle pattern for deformation measurements insensitive to local illumination variation by digital image correlation. (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Yang, Ping; Zhao, Yue


    Speckle pattern-based characteristics of digital image correlation (DIC) restrict its application in engineering fields and nonlaboratory environments, since serious decorrelation effect occurs due to localized sudden illumination variation. A simple and efficient speckle pattern adjusting and optimizing approach presented in this paper is aimed at providing a novel speckle pattern robust enough to resist local illumination variation. The new speckle pattern, called neighborhood binary speckle pattern, derived from original speckle pattern, is obtained by means of thresholding the pixels of a neighborhood at its central pixel value and considering the result as a binary number. The efficiency of the proposed speckle pattern is evaluated in six experimental scenarios. Experiment results indicate that the DIC measurements based on neighborhood binary speckle pattern are able to provide reliable and accurate results, even though local brightness and contrast of the deformed images have been seriously changed. It is expected that the new speckle pattern will have more potential value in engineering applications.

  3. Noise Pollution (United States)

    ... Us Share Clean Air Act Title IV - Noise Pollution The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments added a ... abatement 7642 Authorization of appropriations What is Noise Pollution? The traditional definition of noise is “unwanted or ...

  4. Laser speckle imaging of atherosclerotic plaques through optical fiber bundles (United States)

    Nadkarni, Seemantini K.; Bouma, Brett E.; Yelin, Dvir; Gulati, Amneet; Tearney, Guillermo J.


    Laser speckle imaging (LSI), a new technique that measures an index of plaque viscoelasticity, has been investigated recently to characterize atherosclerotic plaques. These prior studies demonstrated the diagnostic potential of LSI for detecting high-risk plaques and were conducted ex vivo. To conduct intracoronary LSI in vivo, the laser speckle pattern must be transmitted from the coronary wall to the image detector in the presence of cardiac motion. Small-diameter, flexible optical fiber bundles, similar to those used in coronary angioscopy, may be incorporated into an intravascular catheter for this purpose. A key challenge is that laser speckle is influenced by inter-fiber leakage of light, which may be exacerbated during bundle motion. In this study, we tested the capability of optical fiber bundles to transmit laser speckle patterns obtained from atherosclerotic plaques and evaluated the influence of motion on the diagnostic accuracy of fiber bundle-based LSI. Time-varying helium-neon laser speckle images of aortic plaques were obtained while cyclically moving the flexible length of the bundle to mimic coronary motion. Our results show that leached fiber bundles may reliably transmit laser speckle images in the presence of cardiac motion, providing a viable option to conduct intracoronary LSI. PMID:19021396

  5. Aeroacoustics: Jet noise, combustion and core engine noise (United States)

    Schwartz, I. R.


    The papers in this volume deal essentially with the question whether the amplification of noise is due to the jet noise phenomenon or perhaps an interaction of airframe and core engine noise. In the area of jet noise suppression, various promising suppressor concepts are examined. The swirling flow jet noise suppressor is shown to provide significant noise reduction with minimal thrust losses. Progress in the aircraft engine core noise problem is reflected by seven research-type papers. Two possible mechanisms are seen to be responsible for core noise. One is the direct noise radiated from the turbulent combustion in the primary combuster and transmitted through the turbine, passing out the nozzle into the far field. The other mechanism is the noise that is emitted from hot spots being convected through the turbine. Which of these mechanisms (or perhaps both mechanisms) is responsible for core noise, and what are the coupling mechanisms of core engine noise and jet noise are the questions confronting researchers.

  6. Non-contact measurement of ocular microtremor using laser speckle (United States)

    Kenny, E.; Coakley, D.; Boyle, G.


    The human eye moves continuously even while it appears to be at rest. The involuntary eye movements causing this motion are called fixational eye movements. Ocular Microtremor (OMT) is the smallest (150 - 2500nm amplitude) and fastest (~ 80Hz) of these eye movements. OMT has been proven to provide useful clinical information regarding depth of consciousness and neurological disorders. Most quantitative clinical investigations of OMT have been carried out using an eye-contacting piezoelectric probe. However, this measurement procedure suffers from a number of disadvantages which limit the potential of the technique in the clinical environment. The need for eye contact requires the eye to be anaesthetised and not all subjects can tolerate the procedure. A promising alternative to the piezoelectric technique is speckle metrology. A speckle correlation instrument for measuring OMT was first described by Al-Kalbani et al. The approach presented in this paper is a non contact measurement technique implementing laser speckle correlation and using a highly light sensitive video camera operating at 500Hz. The OMT measurement technique in this paper was investigated using a human subject and an eye movement simulator. Using this system, measurement of speckle on the eye takes only a few minutes, no eye drops are necessary and no discomfort is caused to the subject. The paper describes the preliminary results of capturing speckle from the simulator and from the human eye in-vivo at eye safe laser powers. The effects of tear flow, biospeckle and speckle shifting by larger eye movements on the displacement information carried by the speckle are also discussed.

  7. Combustion noise (United States)

    Strahle, W. C.


    A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

  8. Speckle Interferometry at SOAR in 2014 (United States)

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Mendez, Rene A.; Horch, Elliott P.


    The results of speckle interferometric observations at the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) telescope in 2014 are given. A total of 1641 observations were taken, yielding 1636 measurements of 1218 resolved binary and multiple stars and 577 non-resolutions of 441 targets. We resolved for the first time 56 pairs, including some nearby astrometric or spectroscopic binaries and ten new subsystems in previously known visual binaries. The calibration of the data is checked by linear fits to the positions of 41 wide binaries observed at SOAR over several seasons. The typical calibration accuracy is 0.°1 in angle and 0.3% in pixel scale, while the measurement errors are on the order of 3 mas. The new data are used here to compute 194 binary star orbits, 148 of which are improvements on previous orbital solutions and 46 are first-time orbits. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  9. Laser speckle decorrelation for fingerprint acquisition (United States)

    Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Cozzella, Lorenzo


    Biometry is gaining popularity as a physical security approach in situations where a high level of security is necessary. Currently, biometric solutions are embedded in a very large and heterogeneous group of applications. One of the most sensible is for airport security access to boarding gates. More airports are introducing biometric solutions based on face, fingerprint or iris recognition for passenger identification. In particular, fingerprints are the most widely used biometric, and they are mandatorily included in electronic identification documents. One important issue, which is difficult to address in traditional fingerprint acquisition systems, is preventing contact between subsequent users; sebum, which can be a potential vector for contagious diseases. Currently, non-contact devices are used to overcome this problem. In this paper, a new contact device based on laser speckle decorrelation is presented. Our system has the advantage of being compact and low-cost compared with an actual contactless system, allowing enhancement of the sebum pattern imaging contrast in a simple and low-cost way. Furthermore, it avoids the spreading of contagious diseases.

  10. Laser speckle decorrelation for fingerprint acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Cozzella, Lorenzo


    Biometry is gaining popularity as a physical security approach in situations where a high level of security is necessary. Currently, biometric solutions are embedded in a very large and heterogeneous group of applications. One of the most sensible is for airport security access to boarding gates. More airports are introducing biometric solutions based on face, fingerprint or iris recognition for passenger identification. In particular, fingerprints are the most widely used biometric, and they are mandatorily included in electronic identification documents. One important issue, which is difficult to address in traditional fingerprint acquisition systems, is preventing contact between subsequent users; sebum, which can be a potential vector for contagious diseases. Currently, non-contact devices are used to overcome this problem. In this paper, a new contact device based on laser speckle decorrelation is presented. Our system has the advantage of being compact and low-cost compared with an actual contactless system, allowing enhancement of the sebum pattern imaging contrast in a simple and low-cost way. Furthermore, it avoids the spreading of contagious diseases. (paper)

  11. Deformation measurements of materials at low temperatures using laser speckle photography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumio Nakahara; Yukihide Maeda; Kazunori Matsumura; Shigeyoshi Hisada; Takeyoshi Fujita; Kiyoshi Sugihara


    The authors observed deformations of several materials during cooling down process from room temperature to liquid nitrogen temperature using the laser speckle photography method. The in-plane displacements were measured by the image plane speckle photography and the out-of-plane displacement gradients by the defocused speckle photography. The results of measurements of in-plane displacement are compared with those of FEM analysis. The applicability of laser speckle photography method to cryogenic engineering are also discussed

  12. Assessing White Wine Viscosity Variation Using Polarized Laser Speckle: A Promising Alternative to Wine Sensory Analysis


    Abou Nader, Christelle; Loutfi, Hadi; Pellen, Fabrice; Le Jeune, Bernard; Le Brun, Guy; Lteif, Roger; Abboud, Marie


    In this paper, we report measurements of wine viscosity, correlated to polarized laser speckle results. Experiments were performed on white wine samples produced with a single grape variety. Effects of the wine making cellar, the grape variety, and the vintage on wine Brix degree, alcohol content, viscosity, and speckle parameters are considered. We show that speckle parameters, namely, spatial contrast and speckle decorrelation time, as well as the inertia moment extracted from the temporal ...

  13. Drug packaging security by means of white-light speckle (United States)

    Cozzella, Lorenzo; Simonetti, Carla; Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe


    Protecting pharmaceutical products against counterfeiting or the fraudulent importation of donated and discounted drugs will remain a permanent challenge in light of the increased frequency of counterfeiting. The increasing complexity of the supply chain in today's global economy complicates certification of each individual supply source. This complexity is a key factor in the rapid increase of counterfeiting attacks, including those in countries where the supply chains are well established and trustworthy. In this article, an innovative solution based on the white-light speckle theory (visible speckle obtained as ultraviolet fluorescence) is applied to an ultraviolet source, which allows drug packages to be linked with a barcode. The basis of the proposed method is the biometric paradigm, applied to nonliving matter, which requires the identification of a unique distinctive matter characteristic for the unique identification of the related object. The identified characteristic is not an inherent characteristic of the object itself; instead, a white-light speckle pattern will be artificially added. This speckle pattern becomes a sort of fingerprint for the drug package. Starting from this pattern, drug packages can be authenticated by a biometric-like approach. This paper presents a concise review of pharmaceutical product anti-counterfeiting and introduces our white-light speckle method.

  14. Analysis of strawberry ripening by dynamic speckle measurements (United States)

    Mulone, C.; Budini, N.; Vincitorio, F. M.; Freyre, C.; López Díaz, A. J.; Ramil Rego, A.


    This work seeks to determine the age of a fruit from observation of its dynamic speckle pattern. A mobile speckle pattern originates on the fruit's surface due to the interference of the wavefronts reflected from moving scatterers. For this work we analyzed two series of photographs of a strawberry speckle pattern, at different stages of ripening, acquired with a CMOS camera. The first day, we took ten photographs at an interval of one second. The same procedure was repeated the next day. From each series of images we extracted several statistical descriptors of pixel-to-pixel gray level variation during the observation time. By comparing these values from the first to the second day we noticed a diminution of the speckle activity. This decay demonstrated that after only one day the ripening process of the strawberry can be detected by dynamic speckle pattern analysis. For this study we employed a simple new algorithm to process the data obtained from the photographs. This algorithm allows defining a global mobility index that indicates the evolution of the fruit's ripening.

  15. Identification of a chemical inhibitor for nuclear speckle formation: Implications for the function of nuclear speckles in regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurogi, Yutaro; Matsuo, Yota; Mihara, Yuki; Yagi, Hiroaki; Shigaki-Miyamoto, Kaya; Toyota, Syukichi; Azuma, Yuko [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Igarashi, Masayuki [Laboratory of Disease Biology, Institute of Microbial Chemistry, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0021 (Japan); Tani, Tokio, E-mail: [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)


    Highlights: • We identified tubercidin as a compound inducing aberrant formation of the speckles. • Tubercidin causes delocalization of poly (A){sup +}RNAs from nuclear speckles. • Tubercidin induces dispersion of splicing factors from nuclear speckles. • Tubercidin affects alternative pre-mRNA splicing. • Nuclear speckles play a role in regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing. - Abstract: Nuclear speckles are subnuclear structures enriched with RNA processing factors and poly (A){sup +} RNAs comprising mRNAs and poly (A){sup +} non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Nuclear speckles are thought to be involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, such as pre-mRNA splicing. By screening 3585 culture extracts of actinomycetes with in situ hybridization using an oligo dT probe, we identified tubercidin, an analogue of adenosine, as an inhibitor of speckle formation, which induces the delocalization of poly (A){sup +} RNA and dispersion of splicing factor SRSF1/SF2 from nuclear speckles in HeLa cells. Treatment with tubercidin also decreased steady-state MALAT1 long ncRNA, thought to be involved in the retention of SRSF1/SF2 in nuclear speckles. In addition, we found that tubercidin treatment promoted exon skipping in the alternative splicing of Clk1 pre-mRNA. These results suggest that nuclear speckles play a role in modulating the concentration of splicing factors in the nucleoplasm to regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing.

  16. DMD based digital speckle illumination for high resolution imaging (United States)

    Shinde, Anant; Mishra, Ayush; Perinchery, Sandeep M.; Murukeshan, V. M.


    Spatially non-uniform illumination patterns have shown significant potential to improve the imaging. Recent developments in the patterned illumination microscopy have demonstrated that the use of an optical speckle as an illumination pattern significantly improves the imaging resolution at the same time reducing the computational overheads. We present a DMD based method for generation of digital speckle pattern. The generated digital speckle and uniform white light illumination are used as two illuminations to acquire images. The image reconstruction algorithm for blind structured illumination microscopy is used to get the high resolution image. Our approach does not require any calibration step or stringent control of the illumination, and dramatically simplifies the experimental set-up.

  17. Color speckle measurement errors using system with XYZ filters (United States)

    Kinoshita, Junichi; Yamamoto, Kazuhisa; Kuroda, Kazuo


    Measurement errors of color speckle are analyzed for a measurement system equipped with revolving XYZ filters and a 2D sensor. One of the errors is caused by the filter characteristics unfitted to the ideal color matching functions. The other is caused by uncorrelations among the optical paths via the XYZ filters. The unfitted color speckle errors of all the pixel data can be easily calibrated by conversion between the measured BGR chromaticity triangle and the true triangle obtained by the BGR wavelength measurements. For the uncorrelated errors, the measured BGR chromaticity values spread over around the true values. As a result, it would be more complicated to calibrate the uncorrelated errors, repeating the triangular conversion pixel by pixel. Color speckle and its errors greatly affect also chromaticity measurements and image quality of displays using coherent light sources.

  18. Trapping induced nonlinear behavior of backward stimulated Raman scattering in multi-speckled laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Rose, H. A.; Bowers, K. J.; Bergen, B.; Montgomery, D. S.; Kline, J. L.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Hinkel, D. E.; Langdon, A. B.; Michel, P.


    In inertial confinement fusion experiments, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) occurs when electron density fluctuations are amplified resonantly by the incident laser beams and scattered light. These beams comprise several thousands of individual laser speckles. We have found in single-speckle studies that electron trapping lowers the threshold intensity for SRS onset to a value below that from linear theory and enhances scattering. The trapping-induced plasma-wave frequency shift leads to wave-front bowing and filamentation processes that saturate SRS and limit scattering within a speckle. With large-scale simulations, we have now examined how laser speckles interact with one another through three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of two interacting speckles and 2D PIC simulations of ensembles of laser speckles (hundreds of speckles). Our work shows that kinetic trapping physics also governs the onset and saturation of SRS in ensembles of speckles. Speckles interact in a manner that is nonlinear and nonlocal: An intense speckle can destabilize its neighbors through transport of hot electrons and SRS waves, resulting in enhanced emission of particles and waves that, in turn, act upon the original speckle. In this manner, speckles below threshold when in isolation can be above the threshold in multi-speckled beams under conditions for laser-driven fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and ensembles of speckles are thus found to collectively lower the SRS onset threshold. Simulations of the hohlraum interior where laser beams overlap show that multi-speckled laser beams at low average intensity (a few times 10 14 W/cm 2 ) have correspondingly lower thresholds for enhanced SRS and that the sub-ps bursts of SRS saturate through trapping induced nonlinearities. Because of electron trapping effects, SRS reflectivity grows slowly with average laser intensity. While SRS reflectivity saturates under NIF conditions, SRS hot electron

  19. Multiple rotation assessment through isothetic fringes in speckle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel, Luciano; Tebaldi, Myrian; Bolognini, Nestor


    The use of different pupils for storing each speckled image in speckle photography is employed to determine multiple in-plane rotations. The method consists of recording a four-exposure specklegram where the rotations are done between exposures. This specklegram is then optically processed in a whole field approach rendering isothetic fringes, which give detailed information about the multiple rotations. It is experimentally demonstrated that the proposed arrangement permits the depiction of six isothetics in order to measure either six different angles or three nonparallel components for two local general in-plane displacements

  20. Speckle Interferometry with the OCA Kuhn 22" Telescope (United States)

    Wasson, Rick


    Speckle interferometry measurements of double stars were made in 2015 and 2016, using the Kuhn 22-inch classical Cassegrain telescope of the Orange County Astronomers, a Point Grey Blackfly CMOS camera, and three interference filters. 272 observations are reported for 177 systems, with separations ranging from 0.29" to 2.9". Data reduction was by means of the REDUC and Speckle Tool Box programs. Equipment, observing procedures, calibration, data reduction, and analysis are described, and unusual results for 11 stars are discussed in detail.

  1. Mutual Information between Reflected and Transmitted Speckle Images (United States)

    Fayard, N.; Goetschy, A.; Pierrat, R.; Carminati, R.


    We study theoretically the mutual information between reflected and transmitted speckle patterns produced by wave scattering from disordered media. The mutual information between the two speckle images recorded on an array of N detection points (pixels) takes the form of long-range intensity correlation loops that we evaluate explicitly as a function of the disorder strength and the Thouless number g . Our analysis, supported by extensive numerical simulations, reveals a competing effect of cross-sample and surface spatial correlations. An optimal distance between pixels is proven to exist that enhances the mutual information by a factor N g compared to the single-pixel scenario.

  2. Study of photo activation reaction of experimental graphene dental nanocomposites through dynamic laser speckle (United States)

    Salas, Marianne; Yebra, Ana; Pozo, Antonio M.; Lucena, Cristina; Pérez, María. M.


    The objective of this study was to characterize the photo activation reaction of experimental graphene dental nanocomposites and to compare this reaction between commercial nanocomposite by dynamic laser speckle patterns. One commercial nanocomposite and two experimental graphene nanocomposites were used. LED curing unit was used to produce the photo activation reaction and the speckle patterns were generated by the incident light from the laser diode. These patterns were captured with the CMOS camera; later the speckle correlation was calculated. The photo activation process originates different speckle patterns between the commercial and the experimental graphene nanocomposites; having this less speckle activity.

  3. Assessing White Wine Viscosity Variation Using Polarized Laser Speckle: A Promising Alternative to Wine Sensory Analysis. (United States)

    Nader, Christelle Abou; Loutfi, Hadi; Pellen, Fabrice; Jeune, Bernard Le; Le Brun, Guy; Lteif, Roger; Abboud, Marie


    In this paper, we report measurements of wine viscosity, correlated to polarized laser speckle results. Experiments were performed on white wine samples produced with a single grape variety. Effects of the wine making cellar, the grape variety, and the vintage on wine Brix degree, alcohol content, viscosity, and speckle parameters are considered. We show that speckle parameters, namely, spatial contrast and speckle decorrelation time, as well as the inertia moment extracted from the temporal history speckle pattern, are mainly affected by the alcohol and sugar content and hence the wine viscosity. Principal component analysis revealed a high correlation between laser speckle results on the one hand and viscosity and Brix degree values on the other. As speckle analysis proved to be an efficient method of measuring the variation of the viscosity of white mono-variety wine, one can therefore consider it as an alternative method to wine sensory analysis.

  4. Development of speckle-free channel-cut crystal optics using plasma chemical vaporization machining for coherent x-ray applications (United States)

    Hirano, Takashi; Osaka, Taito; Sano, Yasuhisa; Inubushi, Yuichi; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Tono, Kensuke; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Yabashi, Makina; Yamauchi, Kazuto


    We have developed a method of fabricating speckle-free channel-cut crystal optics with plasma chemical vaporization machining, an etching method using atmospheric-pressure plasma, for coherent X-ray applications. We investigated the etching characteristics to silicon crystals and achieved a small surface roughness of less than 1 nm rms at a removal depth of >10 μm, which satisfies the requirements for eliminating subsurface damage while suppressing diffuse scattering from rough surfaces. We applied this method for fabricating channel-cut Si(220) crystals for a hard X-ray split-and-delay optical system and confirmed that the crystals provided speckle-free reflection profiles under coherent X-ray illumination.

  5. Thermoregulation under semi-natural conditions in speckled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We recorded body temperature (Tb) in speckled mousebirds (Colius striatus) under semi-natural conditions in outdoor aviaries, and examined interactions between behavioural and metabolic thermoregulation by experimentally manipulating food availability and communal roosting behaviour. When food was available ad ...

  6. Spatial blurring in laser speckle imaging in inhomogeneous turbid media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitomir, Luka; Sprakel, Joris; Gucht, Van Der Jasper


    Laser speckle imaging (LSI) has developed into a versatile tool to image dynamical processes in turbid media, such as subcutaneous blood perfusion and heterogeneous dynamics in soft materials. Spatially resolved information about local dynamics is obtained by measuring time-dependent correlation

  7. Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging: theory, instrumentation and applications. (United States)

    Senarathna, Janaka; Rege, Abhishek; Li, Nan; Thakor, Nitish V


    Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) is a wide field of view, non scanning optical technique for observing blood flow. Speckles are produced when coherent light scattered back from biological tissue is diffracted through the limiting aperture of focusing optics. Mobile scatterers cause the speckle pattern to blur; a model can be constructed by inversely relating the degree of blur, termed speckle contrast to the scatterer speed. In tissue, red blood cells are the main source of moving scatterers. Therefore, blood flow acts as a virtual contrast agent, outlining blood vessels. The spatial resolution (~10 μm) and temporal resolution (10 ms to 10 s) of LSCI can be tailored to the application. Restricted by the penetration depth of light, LSCI can only visualize superficial blood flow. Additionally, due to its non scanning nature, LSCI is unable to provide depth resolved images. The simple setup and non-dependence on exogenous contrast agents have made LSCI a popular tool for studying vascular structure and blood flow dynamics. We discuss the theory and practice of LSCI and critically analyze its merit in major areas of application such as retinal imaging, imaging of skin perfusion as well as imaging of neurophysiology.

  8. Pointwise intensity-based dynamic speckle analysis with binary patterns (United States)

    Stoykova, Elena; Mateev, Georgy; Nazarova, Dimana; Berberova, Nataliya; Ivanov, Branimir


    Non-destructive detection of physical or biological activity through statistical processing of speckle patterns on the surface of diffusely reflecting objects is an area of active research. A lot of pointwise intensity-based algorithms have been proposed over the recent years. Efficiency of these algorithms is deteriorated by the signal-dependent speckle data, non-uniform illumination or varying reflectivity across the object, especially when the number of the acquired speckle patterns is limited. Pointwise processing of a sequence of 2D images is also time-consuming. In this paper, we propose to transform the acquired speckle images into binary patterns by using for a sign threshold the mean intensity value estimated at each spatial point from the temporal sequence of intensities at this point. Activity is characterized by the 2D distribution of a temporal polar correlation function estimated at a given time lag from the binary patterns. Processing of synthetic and experimental data confirmed that the algorithm provided correct activity determination with the same accuracy as the temporal normalized correlation function. It is efficient without the necessity to apply normalization at non-uniform distribution of intensity in the illuminating laser beam and offers acceleration of computation.

  9. Spatial Behaviour of Singularities in Fractal- and Gaussian Speckle Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, Oleg V.; Maksimyak, Alexander P.; Maksimyak, Peter P.


    Peculiarities of the spatial behaviour of the dislocation lines resulting from scattering of coherent radiation from random and fractal rough surfaces are studied. The technique of optical correlation is proposed for diagnostics of phase singularities in a complex speckle field by comparing...

  10. A method to transfer speckle patterns for digital image correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhenning; He, Xiaoyuan; Quan, Chenggen; Zhu, Feipeng


    A simple and repeatable speckle creation method based on water transfer printing (WTP) is proposed to reduce artificial measurement error for digital image correlation (DIC). This technique requires water, brush, and a piece of transfer paper that is made of prefabricated decal paper, a protected sheet, and printed speckle patterns. The speckle patterns are generated and optimized via computer simulations, and then printed on the decal paper. During the experiments, operators can moisten the basement with water and the brush, so that digital patterns can be simply transferred to the carriers’ surfaces. Tensile experiments with an extended three-dimensional (3D) DIC system are performed to test and verify the validity of WTP patterns. It is shown that by comparing with a strain gage, the strain error is less than 50με in a uniform tensile test. From five carbon steel tensile experiments, Lüders bands in both WTP patterns and spray paint patterns are demonstrated to propagate symmetrically. In the necking part where the strain is up to 66%, WTP patterns are proved to adhere to the specimens well. Hence, WTP patterns are capable of maintaining coherence and adherence to the specimen surface. The transfer paper, working as the role of strain gage in the electrometric method, will contribute to speckle creation. (paper)

  11. Simultaneous laser speckle imaging and positron emission tomography (United States)

    Gramer, M.; Feuerstein, D.; Backes, H.; Takagaki, M.; Kumagai, T.; Graf, R.


    Complex biological systems often require measurements of multiple parameters with high temporal and spatial resolution. Multimodal approaches and the combination of methods are therefore a powerful tool to address such scientific questions. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is an optical method that monitors dynamic changes in cortical blood flow (CBF) with high temporal resolution. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows for quantitative imaging of physiological processes and is a gold standard method to determine absolute cerebral blood flow. We developed a setup that allows simultaneous measurement with both modalities. Here, we simultaneously measured CBF with PET and LSI in rats and analyzed how the correlation of PET and LSI is modified when (1) different methods are used for the calculation of speckle inverse correlation time (ICT), (2) speckle data is acquired through thinned or craniectomized skull, (3) influence of surface vessels is removed from the speckle data. For the latter, a method for automated vessel segmentation from LSI data was developed. We obtained the best correlation (R² = 0.890, pICT. Thus, LSI provides CBF in absolute units at high temporal resolution.

  12. Powertrain engineering using holographic/electronic speckle pattern interferometry (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Marchi, Mitchell M.; Allen, Thomas E.


    Novel applications of computer aided holographic interferometry and electronic speckle pattern interferometry in automotive powertrain engineering are presented. Four applications are described: engine manifold/cylinder head interface deformation measurement, engine camcover strain analysis, throttle bore deformation measurement, and alternator modal characterization.

  13. An Exchange of Views on "The Great Speckled Bird." (United States)

    Waugh, Dexter; Cornbleth, Catherine


    Responds to critical commentary about the authors' article, "The Great Speckled Bird" (1993), which addressed educational policymaking within a social context characterized by multicultural backlash. The authors point to their critics' attempts to deflect from the article's main focus, how these educational policies came to be, by…

  14. 3-color photometry of a sunspot using speckle masking techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiehr, E.; Sütterlin, P.


    A three-colour photometry is used to deduce the temperature of sunspot fine-structures. Using the Speckle-Masking method for image restoration, the resulting images (one per colour and burst) have a spatial resolution only limited by the telescope's aperture, i.e. 95km (blue), 145 km (red) and

  15. Scattering property based contextual PolSAR speckle filter (United States)

    Mullissa, Adugna G.; Tolpekin, Valentyn; Stein, Alfred


    Reliability of the scattering model based polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) speckle filter depends upon the accurate decomposition and classification of the scattering mechanisms. This paper presents an improved scattering property based contextual speckle filter based upon an iterative classification of the scattering mechanisms. It applies a Cloude-Pottier eigenvalue-eigenvector decomposition and a fuzzy H/α classification to determine the scattering mechanisms on a pre-estimate of the coherency matrix. The H/α classification identifies pixels with homogeneous scattering properties. A coarse pixel selection rule groups pixels that are either single bounce, double bounce or volume scatterers. A fine pixel selection rule is applied to pixels within each canonical scattering mechanism. We filter the PolSAR data and depending on the type of image scene (urban or rural) use either the coarse or fine pixel selection rule. Iterative refinement of the Wishart H/α classification reduces the speckle in the PolSAR data. Effectiveness of this new filter is demonstrated by using both simulated and real PolSAR data. It is compared with the refined Lee filter, the scattering model based filter and the non-local means filter. The study concludes that the proposed filter compares favorably with other polarimetric speckle filters in preserving polarimetric information, point scatterers and subtle features in PolSAR data.

  16. The POKEMON Speckle Survey of Nearby M-Dwarfs (United States)

    van Belle, Gerard; von Braun, Kaspar; Horch, Elliott; Clark, Catherine; DSSI Speckle Team


    The POKEMON (Pervasive Overview of Kompanions of Every M-dwarf in Our Neighborhood) survey of nearby M-dwarfs intends to inspect, at diffraction-limited resolution, every low-mass star out to 15pc, along with selected additional objects to 25pc. The primary emphasis of the survey is detection of low-mass companions to these M-dwarfs for refinement of the low-mass star multiplicity rate. The resultant catalog of M-dwarf companions will also guide immediate refinement of transit planet detection results from surveys such as TESS. POKEMON is using Lowell Observatory's 4.3-m Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) with the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument (DSSI) speckle camera, along with the NN-Explore Exoplanet Stellar Speckle Imager (NESSI) speckle imager on 3.5-m WIYN; the survey takes advantage of the extremely rapid observing cadence rates possible with WIYN and (especially) DCT. The current status and preliminary results from the first 20+ nights of observing will be presented. Gotta observe them all!

  17. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc


    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  18. Demonstration of a Speckle Nulling Algorithm and Kalman Filter Estimator with a Fiber Injection Unit for Observing Exoplanets with High-dispersion Coronagraphy (United States)

    Xin, Yeyuan; Klimovich, Nikita; Mawet, Dimitri; Ruane, Garreth; Delorme, Jacques; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Llop Sayson, Jorge


    High-dispersion coronagraphy (HDC) combines high contrast imaging techniques with high spectral resolution spectroscopy to observe exoplanets and determine characteristics such as chemical composition, temperature, and rotational velocities. It has been demonstrated in lab at the Caltech Exoplanet Technology Lab’s transmissive testbed that a fiber injection unit (FIU), in which a single mode optical fiber is used to couple to light from the exoplanet, could be used to direct exoplanet light to a high-resolution spectrograph, with robust performance and starlight suppression that exceeds conventional image-based starlight suppression by at least two orders of magnitude. We now demonstrate this technique in lab with a speckle nulling starlight suppression algorithm and corresponding Kalman filter estimator that achieves the same suppression as an exhaustive probing of the parameter space, but within a few probe cycles.

  19. Active Noise Control of Radiated Noise from Jets Originating NASA (United States)

    Doty, Michael J.; Fuller, Christopher R.; Schiller, Noah H.; Turner, Travis L.


    The reduction of jet noise using a closed-loop active noise control system with highbandwidth active chevrons was investigated. The high frequency energy introduced by piezoelectrically-driven chevrons was demonstrated to achieve a broadband reduction of jet noise, presumably due to the suppression of large-scale turbulence. For a nozzle with one active chevron, benefits of up to 0.8 dB overall sound pressure level (OASPL) were observed compared to a static chevron nozzle near the maximum noise emission angle, and benefits of up to 1.9 dB OASPL were observed compared to a baseline nozzle with no chevrons. The closed-loop actuation system was able to effectively reduce noise at select frequencies by 1-3 dB. However, integrated OASPL did not indicate further reduction beyond the open-loop benefits, most likely due to the preliminary controller design, which was focused on narrowband performance.

  20. Noise Protection (United States)


    Environmental Health Systems puts forth an increasing effort in the U.S. to develop ways of controlling noise, particularly in industrial environments due to Federal and State laws, labor union insistence and new findings relative to noise pollution impact on human health. NASA's Apollo guidance control system aided in the development of a noise protection product, SMART. The basis of all SMART products is SMART compound a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy/sound absorbing qualities. The basic compound was later refined for noise protection use.

  1. New developments in NDT through electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, S.; Murugesan, P; Mas, R.H.


    Full text: Optical holography and speckle interferometry are the emerging optical techniques that can be used for the measurements of microscopic parameters such as displacement, strain, stress and slope. These techniques are applied in various fields such as surface studies, non destructive testing, speckle metrology and steller interferometry. Even though many new NDT methods are available, the suitability for a specific application is based on the material property, nature of defects and sensitivity of detection. Difficulty in radiographic technique is that it fails in detecting tight cracks, planar defects and debonds. Microwave techniques has limited sensitivity for the defect detection and it is not suitable for the objects with metallic cases since the metals are perfect reflectors for the microwaves. Low modulus material attenuates the acoustic energy completely, making ultrasonic testing techniques not feasible. The recently evolved optoelectronic technique namely Electronic Speckle Pattern interferometry (ESPI) is a fast developing optical technique widely used for measuring displacement components, their derivatives, surface roughness, surface contours, shape and others. Due to non contact nature and high sensitivity, this technique has been used as a powerful on line inspection tool for non destructive pattern of materials in industrial environment. The salient feature of ESPI is its capability to display the correlation fringes in a real time on a monitor without the need of photographic processing or optical filtering. ESPI is an alternate non destructive technique suitable for propellant grains and other low modulus materials used in space vehicle systems. The optoelectronic technique can be used to detect cracks, voids and residual stresses etc.., in the components in the industrial environment. In the present investigation, speckle non destructive testing has been carried out on some selected low modulus materials used in space vehicles. The

  2. Impact of transducer frequency setting on speckle tracking measures. (United States)

    Olsen, Flemming Javier; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Køber, Lars; Højberg, Søren; Haugan, Ketil; Jensen, Jan Skov; Biering-Sørensen, Tor


    Speckle tracking echocardiography is an emerging technique, which is currently being included in clinical guidelines. We sought to investigate the impact of transducer frequency settings on speckle tracking derived measures. The study comprised of 22 subjects prospectively enrolled for a randomized controlled trial (LOOP-study, Patients were above 70 years of age with increased risk of stroke, and had an echocardiogram performed, which included focused images of the left ventricle. Focused images were obtained with the transducer frequency set at both 1.7/3.3 and 1.5/3.0 MHz. The images were obtained immediately after each other at the exact same position for the two settings. Speckle tracking was performed in three apical projections, allowing for acquisition of layered global longitudinal strain (GLS) and strain rate measures. Concordance between the frequency settings was tested for endo-, mid-, and epicardial GLS and strain rates by coefficients of variation, bias coefficients and visually displayed by Bland-Altman plots. Bland-Altman plots did not reveal any significant over- or underestimation of any speckle tracking measure. Bias coefficients showed that none of the measurements differed significantly between the two settings (bias for GLS endo  = - 0.07 ± 2.94, p = 0.91; GLS mid  = 0.02 ± 2.70, p = 0.98, GLS epi  = 0.07 ± 2.53, p = 0.90). Coefficients of variation were as follows: GLS endo  = 15.11%, GLS mid  = 15.28%, GLS epi  = 17.26%, systolic strain rate = 15.66%, early diastolic strain rate = 38.46%, late diastolic strain rate = 11%. Changing between transducer frequency settings does not systematically derange speckle tracking measures. One can safely reduce the transducer frequency without compromising the validity of speckle tracking derived measures.

  3. Environmental Noise (United States)

    Rumberg, Martin

    Environmental noise may be defined as unwanted sound that is caused by emissions from traffic (roads, air traffic corridors, and railways), industrial sites and recreational infrastructures, which may cause both annoyance and damage to health. Noise in the environment or community seriously affects people, interfering with daily activities at school, work and home and during leisure time.

  4. Position control of ECRH launcher mirrors by laser speckle sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelsen, Poul K.; Bindslev, Henrik; Hansen, Rene Skov; Hanson, Steen G.


    The planned ECRH system for JET included several fixed and steerable mirrors some of which should have been fixed to the building structure and some to the JET vessel structure. A similar system may be anticipated for ITER and for other fusion devices in the future. In order to have high reproducibility of the ECRH beam direction, it is necessary to know the exact positions of the mirrors. This is not a trivial problem because of thermal expansion of the vessel structures and of the launcher itself and of its support structure, the mechanical load on mirrors and support structures, and the accessibility to the various mirrors. We suggest to use a combination of infrared diagnostic of beam spot positions and a new technique published recently, which is based on a non-contact laser speckle sensor for measuring one- and two-dimensional angular displacement. The method is based on Fourier transforming the scattered field from a single laser beam that illuminates the target. The angular distribution of the light field at the target is linearly mapped onto an array image sensor placed in the Fourier plane. Measuring the displacement of this so-called speckle pattern facilitates the determination of the mirror orientation. Transverse target movement can be measured by observing the speckle movement in the image plane of the object. No special surface treatment is required for surfaces having irregularities of the order of or larger than the wavelength of the incident light. For the JET ECRH launcher it is mainly for the last mirror pointing towards the plasma where the technique may be useful. This mirror has to be steerable in order to reflect the microwave beam in the correct direction towards the plasma. Maximum performance of the microwave heating requires that the beam hits this mirror at its centre and that the mirror is turned in the correct angle. Inaccuracies in the positioning of the pull rods for controlling the mirror turning and thermal effects makes it

  5. A novel method for repeatedly generating speckle patterns used in digital image correlation (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Sweedy, Ahmed; Gitzhofer, François; Baroud, Gamal


    Speckle patterns play a key role in Digital Image Correlation (DIC) measurement, and generating an optimal speckle pattern has been the goal for decades now. The usual method of generating a speckle pattern is by manually spraying the paint on the specimen. However, this makes it difficult to reproduce the optimal pattern for maintaining identical testing conditions and achieving consistent DIC results. This study proposed and evaluated a novel method using an atomization system to repeatedly generate speckle patterns. To verify the repeatability of the speckle patterns generated by this system, simulation and experimental studies were systematically performed. The results from both studies showed that the speckle patterns and, accordingly, the DIC measurements become highly accurate and repeatable using the proposed atomization system.

  6. New Noise Subtraction Methods in Lattice QCD


    Baral, Suman; Wilcox, Walter; Morgan, Ronald B.


    Noise subtraction techniques can help reduce the statistical uncertainty in the extraction of hard to detect signals. We describe new noise subtraction methods in Lattice QCD which apply to disconnected diagram evaluations. Some of the noise suppression techniques include polynomial quark matrix methods, eigenspectrum deflation methods, and combination methods. Our most promising technique combines polynomial and Hermitian deflation subtraction methods. The overall goal is to improve the effi...

  7. Speckle Reduction for Ultrasonic Imaging Using Frequency Compounding and Despeckling Filters along with Coded Excitation and Pulse Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua S. Ullom


    Full Text Available A method for improving the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR while maintaining the −6 dB axial resolution of ultrasonic B-mode images is proposed. The technique proposed is known as eREC-FC, which enhances a recently developed REC-FC technique. REC-FC is a combination of the coded excitation technique known as resolution enhancement compression (REC and the speckle-reduction technique frequency compounding (FC. In REC-FC, image CNR is improved but at the expense of a reduction in axial resolution. However, by compounding various REC-FC images made from various subband widths, the tradeoff between axial resolution and CNR enhancement can be extended. Further improvements in CNR can be obtained by applying postprocessing despeckling filters to the eREC-FC B-mode images. The despeckling filters evaluated were the following: median, Lee, homogeneous mask area, geometric, and speckle-reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD. Simulations and experimental measurements were conducted with a single-element transducer (f/2.66 having a center frequency of 2.25 MHz and a −3 dB bandwidth of 50%. In simulations and experiments, the eREC-FC technique resulted in the same axial resolution that would be typically observed with conventional excitation with a pulse. Moreover, increases in CNR of 348% were obtained in experiments when comparing eREC-FC with a Lee filter to conventional pulsing methods.

  8. On the link between the speckle free nature of optoacoustics and visibility of structures in limited-view tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xosé Luís Deán-Ben


    Full Text Available Similar to pulse-echo ultrasound, optoacoustic imaging encodes the location of optical absorbers by the time-of-flight of ultrasound waves. Yet, signal generation mechanisms are fundamentally different for the two modalities, leading to significant distinction between the optimum image formation strategies. While interference of back-scattered ultrasound waves with random phases causes speckle noise in ultrasound images, speckle formation is hindered by the strong correlation between the optoacoustic responses corresponding to individual sources. However, visibility of structures is severely hampered when attempting to acquire optoacoustic images under limited-view tomographic geometries. In this tutorial article, we systematically describe the basic principles of optoacoustic signal generation and image formation for objects ranging from individual sub-resolution absorbers to a continuous absorption distribution. The results are of relevance for the proper interpretation of optoacoustic images acquired under limited-view scenarios and may also serve as a basis for optimal design of tomographic acquisition geometries and image formation strategies.

  9. Sensitivity evaluation of dynamic speckle activity measurements using clustering methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etchepareborda, Pablo; Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H.


    We evaluate and compare the use of competitive neural networks, self-organizing maps, the expectation-maximization algorithm, K-means, and fuzzy C-means techniques as partitional clustering methods, when the sensitivity of the activity measurement of dynamic speckle images needs to be improved. The temporal history of the acquired intensity generated by each pixel is analyzed in a wavelet decomposition framework, and it is shown that the mean energy of its corresponding wavelet coefficients provides a suited feature space for clustering purposes. The sensitivity obtained by using the evaluated clustering techniques is also compared with the well-known methods of Konishi-Fujii, weighted generalized differences, and wavelet entropy. The performance of the partitional clustering approach is evaluated using simulated dynamic speckle patterns and also experimental data.

  10. Dynamic speckle image segmentation using self-organizing maps (United States)

    Pra, Ana L. Dai; Meschino, Gustavo J.; Guzmán, Marcelo N.; Scandurra, Adriana G.; González, Mariela A.; Weber, Christian; Trivi, Marcelo; Rabal, Héctor; Passoni, Lucía I.


    The aim of this work is to build a computational model able to automatically identify, after training, dynamic speckle pattern regions with similar properties. The process is carried out using a set of descriptors applied to the intensity variations with time in every pixel of a speckle image sequence. An image obtained by projecting a self-organized map is converted into regions of similar activity that can be easily distinguished. We propose a general procedure that could be applied to numerous situations. As examples we show different situations: (a) an activity test in a simplified situation; (b) a non-biological example and (c) biological active specimens. The results obtained are encouraging; they significantly improve upon those obtained using a single descriptor and will eventually permit automatic quantitative assessment.

  11. Polarization speckles and generalized Stokes vector wave: a review [invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeda, Mitsuo; Wang, Wei; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    Stokes parameters proposed by Korotkova and Wolf, and introduce its time-domain representation to describe the space-time evolution of the correlation between random electric vector fields at two different space-time points. This time-domain generalized Stokes vector, with components similar to those......We review some of the statistical properties of polarization-related speckle phenomena, with an introduction of a less known concept of polarization speckles and their spatial degree of polarization. As a useful means to characterize twopoint vector field correlations, we review the generalized...... of the beam coherence polarization matrix proposed by Gori, is shown to obey the wave equation in exact analogy to a coherence function of scalar fields. Because of this wave nature, the time-domain generalized Stokes vector is referred to as generalized Stokes vector wave in this paper....

  12. Speckle photography applied to measure deformations of very large structures (United States)

    Conley, Edgar; Morgan, Chris K.


    Fundamental principles of mechanics have recently been brought to bear on problems concerning very large structures. Fields of study include tectonic plate motion, nuclear waste repository vault closure mechanisms, the flow of glacier and sea ice, and highway bridge damage assessment and residual life prediction. Quantitative observations, appropriate for formulating and verifying models, are still scarce however, so the need to adapt new methods of experimental mechanics is clear. Large dynamic systems often exist in environments subject to rapid change. Therefore, a simple field technique that incorporates short time scales and short gage lengths is required. Further, the measuring methods must yield displacements reliably, and under oft-times adverse field conditions. Fortunately, the advantages conferred by an experimental mechanics technique known as speckle photography nicely fulfill this rather stringent set of performance requirements. Speckle seemed to lend itself nicely to the application since it is robust and relatively inexpensive. Experiment requirements are minimal -- a camera, high resolution film, illumination, and an optically rough surface. Perhaps most important is speckle's distinct advantage over point-by-point methods: It maps the two dimensional displacement vectors of the whole field of interest. And finally, given the method's high spatial resolution, relatively short observation times are necessary. In this paper we discuss speckle, two variations of which were used to gage the deformation of a reinforced concrete bridge structure subjected to bending loads. The measurement technique proved to be easily applied, and yielded the location of the neutral axis self consistently. The research demonstrates the feasibility of using whole field techniques to detect and quantify surface strains of large structures under load.

  13. Speckle imaging with the PAPA detector. [Precision Analog Photon Address (United States)

    Papaliolios, C.; Nisenson, P.; Ebstein, S.


    A new 2-D photon-counting camera, the PAPA (precision analog photon address) detector has been built, tested, and used successfully for the acquisition of speckle imaging data. The camera has 512 x 512 pixels and operates at count rates of at least 200,000/sec. In this paper, technical details on the camera are presented and some of the laboratory and astronomical results are included which demonstrate the detector's capabilities.

  14. Laser speckle velocimetry applied to Rayleigh-Benard convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arroyo, M.P.; Yonte, T.; Quintanilla, M.; Saviron, J.M.


    An application of speckle velocimetry technique to Rayleigh-Benard convection is presented. A 5-mW He-Ne laser allows precise determination of the two-dimensional velocity flow field, up to several mm/sec. The digital techniques used to analyze automatically the multiexposed photographs and to generate velocity and vorticity fields are described. The obtained results are in good agreement with previously reported data. The ability of the technique to cover other experimental conditions is discussed. 14 references

  15. Speckle reduction of reconstructions of digital holograms using three dimensional filtering (United States)

    Maycock, Jonathan; McDonald, John B.; Hennelly, Bryan M.


    We report on a new digital signal processing technique that reduces speckle in reconstructions of digital holograms. This is achieved by convolving the three dimensional intensity pattern (the intensity of the propagated DH at a series of different distances) with a 3D point spread function in all three dimensions (x,y,z). It is based on the fact that the addition of different independent speckle images on an intensity basis reduces the speckle content. We provide quantitative results in terms of speckle index and resolution, and show that filtering in the z direction has the added benefit of an increase in the depth of focus of the digital hologram reconstruction.

  16. The implementation of laser speckle reduction based on MEMS two-dimensional scanning mirror (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Shen, Wenjiang; Wu, Shengli; Zhou, Peng; He, Jiahui; Yu, Huijun


    Laser speckle on the screen of laser display system is due to the strong coherence characteristic of laser. In order to eliminate the influence of the speckle on image quality, the method of laser speckle reduction based on MEMS two-dimensional scanning mirror is proposed in this paper. The experimental results show that the speckle contrast can be reduced to 3.7%, which meets the requirement of laser display. And this system could be used in laser display field and improve the display performance.

  17. The hatching results of indigenous Hungarian speckled hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Benk


    Full Text Available In the pilot farm of Szeged University Faculty of Agriculture we keep two varieties of the Hungarian speckled hen, the feathered-neck variant and the naked-neck type since 1977. The three colour variations of the domestic hen species were bred from the Hungarian lea-land bird by the middle of the 20th Century. Because of the spread of intensive poultry keeping the population of this species has become endangered. Programs supporting ecological-biological farming that began in the last two decades placed the domestically bred birds in the forefront both as purebreds and as candidates in projects for developing merchandisable bio-poultry. Beside the gene preservation, we endeavor to find the best way for the production-purpose utilisation of the speckled hen stock. On the basis of our experiments the laying hens can be used in small scale egg production. We examined the hatching results of both type of speckled hens, during more than 20 generations.

  18. Impact of transducer frequency setting on speckle tracking measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Javier; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Køber, Lars


    Speckle tracking echocardiography is an emerging technique, which is currently being included in clinical guidelines. We sought to investigate the impact of transducer frequency settings on speckle tracking derived measures. The study comprised of 22 subjects prospectively enrolled for a randomized.......5/3.0 MHz. The images were obtained immediately after each other at the exact same position for the two settings. Speckle tracking was performed in three apical projections, allowing for acquisition of layered global longitudinal strain (GLS) and strain rate measures. Concordance between the frequency...... that none of the measurements differed significantly between the two settings (bias for GLSendo = - 0.07 ± 2.94, p = 0.91; GLSmid = 0.02 ± 2.70, p = 0.98, GLSepi = 0.07 ± 2.53, p = 0.90). Coefficients of variation were as follows: GLSendo = 15.11%, GLSmid = 15.28%, GLSepi = 17.26%, systolic strain rate = 15...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Isaeva


    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of speckle correlometry method with the spatial ring filtration of back scattered field with the usage of localized radiation source for the study of dynamic thermally activated processes in gel-like structures containing submicron particles and nanoparticles. Speckle-modulated images contain information about the processes taking place inside the investigated medium; therefore, they are effectively used in biomedicine and materials science. The transformation process from lysol to gel was considered in media based on technical gelatin dissolved in water with weight fraction equal to 0.28% containing titanium dioxide nanoparticles TiO2 (volume fraction of particles is equal to 0.1% and 0.01% and media based on food gelatin dissolved in water with weight fraction equal to 0.3% containing titanium dioxide nanoparticles TiO2 (volume fraction of particles is equal to 0.01% and 0.01%. The temperature of the medium during the structural transformation of "sol-gel" system was changed from 50 to 25°C. To estimate the experimentally obtained distribution of space-time intensity fluctuations of backscattered speckle fields, the correlation analysis and the formalism of Kolmogorov structure functions were used. The estimations of activation temperatures for the “sol-gel” transition process for technical and food gelatin were obtained. This approach can be successfully applied for the study of dynamic systems, for example, the demonstration of Brownian particle movements.

  20. Gold-Speckled Multimodal Nanoparticles for Noninvasive Bioimaging (United States)


    In this report the synthesis, characterization, and functional evaluation of a multimodal nanoparticulate contrast agent for noninvasive imaging through both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is presented. The nanoparticles described herein enable high resolution and highly sensitive three-dimensional diagnostic imaging through the synergistic coupling of MRI and PAT capabilities. Gadolinium (Gd)-doped gold-speckled silica (GSS) nanoparticles, ranging from 50 to 200 nm, have been prepared in a simple one-pot synthesis using nonionic microemulsions. The photoacoustic signal is generated from a nonuniform, discontinuous gold nanodomains speckled across the silica surface, whereas the MR contrast is provided through Gd incorporated in the silica matrix. The presence of a discontinuous speckled surface, as opposed to a continuous gold shell, allows sufficient bulk water exchange with the Gd ions to generate a strong MR contrast. The dual imaging capabilities of the particles have been demonstrated through in silicio and in vitro methods. The described particles also have the capacity for therapeutic applications including the thermal ablation of tumors through the absorption of irradiated light. PMID:19466201

  1. Twinkle Twinkle Little Star - Speckle Imaging for Exoplanet Characterization (United States)

    Howell, Steve B.; Scott, Nic; Horch, Elliott


    The NASA K2 mission is finding many high-value exoplanets and world-wide follow-up is ensuing. The NASA TESS mission will soon be launched, requiring additional ground-based observations as well. As a part of the NASA-NSFNN-EXPLORE program to enable exoplanet research, our group is building two new speckle interferometry cameras for the Kitt Peak WIYN 3.5-m telescope and the Gemini-N 8-m telescope. Modeled after the successful DSSI visitor instrument that has been used at these telescopes for many years, speckle observations provide the highest resolution images available today from any ground- or space-based single telescope. They are the premier method through which small, rocky exoplanets can be validated. Available for public use in early 2017, WIYNSPKL and GEMSPKL will obtain simultaneous images in two filters with fast EMCCD readout, "speckle" and “wide-field” imaging modes, and user support for proposal writing, observing, and data reduction. We describe the new cameras, their design, and their benefits for exoplanet follow-up, characterization, and validation. Funding for this project comes from the NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program and NASA HQ.

  2. Measurement of simple shear strain with a uniaxial speckle strain meter; Laser speckle yugamikei wo mochiita sendan yugami no keisoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, H.; Sakai, M. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan)


    Elastic and viscoelastic shear strains induced in test specimens with double-shear geometry are measured by extending the conventional uniaxial speckle extensometry. The test results for soda-lime glass give excellent agreements with the shear modulus G at room temperature and the shear viscosity {eta} reported in the literature at temperatures from 530 to 555degC. The G and {eta} values are also in agreement with those measured by a strain-gage foil and by an electro-optical extensometer, respectively. This agreement confirms that the proposed technique and analysis for the measurement of shear strain with a uniaxial laser speckle strain meter are not only applicable for characterizing the mechanical properties of brittle materials in a small scale deformation, but also provide a powerful tool for studying the high-temperature deformation and flow of engineering materials in a large scale deformation. The issue of affine transformation of polycrystalline materials with local heterogeneity and anisotropy is also discussed by comparing the test results of speckle and electro-optical extensometries. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  3. In-situ measurement of the strain distribution in a tensile specimen by using a digital speckle pattern interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Cha, Hyung-Ki; Kim, Young-Suk; Cheong, Yong-Moo


    Less sensitivity to environmental vibrations is essential for industrial applications of a digital speckle pattern interferometer (DSPI) to measure micro deformations. In this paper, a robust DSPI using single fringe to mechanical vibrations is designed for measuring the strain distribution of a tensile specimen. This system adopts a noise-immune signal processing algorithm to acquire a 3D strain distribution image. To acquire an accurate strain distribution for a tensile-specimen, locally-averaged and directionally-oriented filters operating in the frequency domain are used. This system uses a path-independent least-squares phase-unwrapping algorithm to acquire the 3D shape of the strain distribution. As for the initial experiments to measure the strain distribution of a tensile specimen in a vibration field, this system demonstrated a feasibility for industrial applications by providing reliable strain data.

  4. Controlling the evolution of nondiffracting speckle by complex amplitude modulation on a phase-only spatial light modulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L


    Full Text Available amplitude modulation on a phase-only spatial light modulator to implement controlled ring-slit experiments for the generation of nondiffracting speckle fields. The structure of the nondiffracting speckle due to binary and continuous phase modulations...

  5. A noise variance estimation approach for CT (United States)

    Shen, Le; Jin, Xin; Xing, Yuxiang


    The Poisson-like noise model has been widely used for noise suppression and image reconstruction in low dose computed tomography. Various noise estimation and suppression approaches have been developed and studied to enhance the image quality. Among them, the recently proposed generalized Anscombe transform (GAT) has been utilized to stabilize the variance of Poisson-Gaussian noise. In this paper, we present a variance estimation approach using GAT. After the transform, the projection data is denoised conventionally with an assumption that the noise variance is uniformly equals to 1. The difference of the original and the denoised projection is treated as pure noise and the global variance σ2 can be estimated from the residual difference. Thus, the final denoising step with the estimated σ2 is performed. The proposed approach is verified on a cone-beam CT system and demonstrated to obtain a more accurate estimation of the actual parameter. We also examine FBP algorithm with the two-step noise suppression in the projection domain using the estimated noise variance. Reconstruction results with simulated and practical projection data suggest that the presented approach could be effective in practical imaging applications.

  6. Drone noise (United States)

    Tinney, Charles; Sirohi, Jayant; University of Texas at Austin Team


    A basic understanding of the noise produced by single and multirotor drones operating at static thrust conditions is presented. This work acts as an extension to previous efforts conducted at The University of Texas at Austin (Tinney et al. 2017, AHS Forum 73). Propeller diameters ranging from 8 inch to 12 inch are examined for configurations comprising an isolated rotor, a quadcopter configuration and a hexacopter configuration, and with a constant drone pitch of 2.25. An azimuthal array of half-inch microphones, placed between 2 and 3 hub-center diameters from the drone center, are used to assess the acoustic near-field. Thrust levels, acquired using a six degree-of-freedom load cell, are then used to correlate acoustic noise levels to aerodynamic performance for each drone configuration. The findings reveal a nearly logarithmic increase in noise with increasing thrust. However, for the same thrust condition, considerable noise reduction is achieved by increasing the number of propeller blades thereby reducing the blade passage frequency and both the thickness and loading noise sources that accompany it.

  7. Suppression chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Akio.


    Purpose: To miniaturize the storage tank of condensated water in BWR reactor. Constitution: A diaphragm is provided in a suppression chamber thereby to partition the same into an inner compartment and an outer compartment. In one of said compartments there is stored clean water to be used for feeding at the time of separating the reactor and for the core spray system, and in another compartment there is stored water necessary for accomplishing the depressurization effect at the time of coolant loss accident. To the compartment in which clean water is stored there is connected a water cleaning device for constantly maintaining water in clean state. As this cleaning device an already used fuel pool cleaning device can be utilized. Further, downcomers for accomplishing the depressurization function are provided in both inner compartment and outer compartment. The capacity of the storage tank can be reduced by the capacity of clean water within the suppression chamber. (Ikeda, J.)

  8. Speckle Interferometry with the McMath-Pierce East Auxiliary Telescope (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard; Ray, Jimmy; Douglass, David; Prause, Lori; Genet, Russell


    Engineering runs and tests on the McMath-Pierce 0.8 meter East Auxiliary telescope successfully configured the telescope for speckle interferometry observations of close visual double stars. This paper reports the procedure and results of the speckle analysis of four double stars.

  9. Visual based laser speckle pattern recognition method for structural health monitoring (United States)

    Park, Kyeongtaek; Torbol, Marco


    This study performed the system identification of a target structure by analyzing the laser speckle pattern taken by a camera. The laser speckle pattern is generated by the diffuse reflection of the laser beam on a rough surface of the target structure. The camera, equipped with a red filter, records the scattered speckle particles of the laser light in real time and the raw speckle image of the pixel data is fed to the graphic processing unit (GPU) in the system. The algorithm for laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) computes: the laser speckle contrast images and the laser speckle flow images. The k-mean clustering algorithm is used to classify the pixels in each frame and the clusters' centroids, which function as virtual sensors, track the displacement between different frames in time domain. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) and the frequency domain decomposition (FDD) compute the modal properties of the structure: natural frequencies and damping ratios. This study takes advantage of the large scale computational capability of GPU. The algorithm is written in Compute Unifies Device Architecture (CUDA C) that allows the processing of speckle images in real time.

  10. Spatial filtering velocimetry of objective speckles for measuring out-of-plane motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Yura, H. T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    This paper analyzes the dynamics of objective laser speckles as the distance between the object and the observation plane continuously changes. With the purpose of applying optical spatial filtering velocimetry to the speckle dynamics, in order to measure out-of-plane motion in real time...

  11. Predicting Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation in Cerebrovascular Ischemia Using Tissue Doppler Imaging and Speckle Tracking Echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Javier; Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Møgelvang, Rasmus


    , tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and speckle tracking. TDI was performed to acquire myocardial peak velocities during systole/ventricular contraction (global s'), early diastole/ventricular filling (global e'), and late diastole/atrial contraction (global a'). Speckle tracking was performed for myocardial...

  12. Joint aperture detection for speckle reduction and increased collection efficiency in ophthalmic MHz OCT (United States)

    Klein, Thomas; André, Raphael; Wieser, Wolfgang; Pfeiffer, Tom; Huber, Robert


    Joint-aperture optical coherence tomography (JA-OCT) is an angle-resolved OCT method, in which illumination from an active channel is simultaneously probed by several passive channels. JA-OCT increases the collection efficiency and effective sensitivity of the OCT system without increasing the power on the sample. Additionally, JA-OCT provides angular scattering information about the sample in a single acquisition, so the OCT imaging speed is not reduced. Thus, JA-OCT is especially suitable for ultra high speed in-vivo imaging. JA-OCT is compared to other angle-resolved techniques, and the relation between joint aperture imaging, adaptive optics, coherent and incoherent compounding is discussed. We present angle-resolved imaging of the human retina at an axial scan rate of 1.68 MHz, and demonstrate the benefits of JA-OCT: Speckle reduction, signal increase and suppression of specular and parasitic reflections. Moreover, in the future JA-OCT may allow for the reconstruction of the full Doppler vector and tissue discrimination by analysis of the angular scattering dependence. PMID:23577296

  13. Study of drying process of paint by dynamic speckle with B/D pixel counting technique (United States)

    Balamurugan, R.; Rajarajan, G.


    The aim of the work is the assessment of drying process of latex paint by dynamic Laser speckle method. The basic concept of dynamic speckle technique is described. Laser light scattering by water borne sample is a time dependent surface activity. The variation of laser speckle intensity is due to the change of refractive index and the particle movements of the latex paint. A novel method, B/D counting technique to measure the dynamic activity of drying paint using co-occurrence matrix of Time History of Speckle Pattern (THSP) is presented. The result of drying process of latex paint by dynamic laser speckle method is compared with the gravimetric method and agreed well.

  14. Body size evolution in insular speckled rattlesnakes (Viperidae: Crotalus mitchellii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Meik


    Full Text Available Speckled rattlesnakes (Crotalus mitchellii inhabit multiple islands off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Two of the 14 known insular populations have been recognized as subspecies based primarily on body size divergence from putative mainland ancestral populations; however, a survey of body size variation from other islands occupied by these snakes has not been previously reported. We examined body size variation between island and mainland speckled rattlesnakes, and the relationship between body size and various island physical variables among 12 island populations. We also examined relative head size among giant, dwarfed, and mainland speckled rattlesnakes to determine whether allometric differences conformed to predictions of gape size (and indirectly body size evolving in response to shifts in prey size.Insular speckled rattlesnakes show considerable variation in body size when compared to mainland source subspecies. In addition to previously known instances of gigantism on Angel de la Guarda and dwarfism on El Muerto, various degrees of body size decrease have occurred frequently in this taxon, with dwarfed rattlesnakes occurring mostly on small, recently isolated, land-bridge islands. Regression models using the Akaike information criterion (AIC showed that mean SVL of insular populations was most strongly correlated with island area, suggesting the influence of selection for different body size optima for islands of different size. Allometric differences in head size of giant and dwarf rattlesnakes revealed patterns consistent with shifts to larger and smaller prey, respectively.Our data provide the first example of a clear relationship between body size and island area in a squamate reptile species; among vertebrates this pattern has been previously documented in few insular mammals. This finding suggests that selection for body size is influenced by changes in community dynamics that are related to graded differences in area over

  15. Rat retinal vasomotion assessed by laser speckle imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neganova, Anastasiia Y; Postnov, Dmitry D; Sosnovtseva, Olga


    vasomotion occurs in anesthetized animals and (ii) vasomotion can be initiated by systemic administration of the thromboxane analogue U-46619 and the nitric-oxide donor S-nitroso-acetylDL-penicillamine (SNAP). Although these drugs activate different cellular pathways responsible for vasomotion, our approach...... that can address the role and dynamical properties of vasomotion in vivo. We apply laser speckle imaging to study spontaneous and drug induced vasomotion in retinal network of anesthetized rats. The results reveal a wide variety of dynamical patterns. Wavelet-based analysis shows that (i) spontaneous...

  16. Effect of low-frequency vibrations on speckle interferometry fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikram, C.S.; Pechersky, M.J.


    The effects of low-frequency vibrations on speckle correlation fringes have been investigated. The relatively short capture time of the camera in the low-frequency case may yield usable fringe contrast in spite of vibration. It has been shown that the fringes also shift due to the vibration. The study is in agreement with experimental observations of good-contrast correlation fringes even if the object is not on a vibration-isolated table. Some such experimental observations are also presented. copyright 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

  17. Speckle tracking echocardiography in mature Irish Wolfhound dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westrup, Ulrik; McEvoy, Fintan


    Two-dimensional strain measurements obtained by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) have been reported in both humans and dogs. Incorporation of this technique into canine clinical practice requires the availability of measurements from clinically normal dogs, ideally of the same breed, taken...... under normal clinical conditions.The aims of this prospective study were to assess if it is possible to obtain STE data during a routine echocardiographic examination in Irish Wolfhound dogs and that these data will provide reference values and an estimation of measurement error....

  18. Excitonic Coherence in Semiconductor Nanostructures Measured by Speckle Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    A new method to measure the time-dependent coherence of optical excitations in solids is presented, in which the coherence degree of light emission is deduced from its intensity fluctuations over the emission directions (speckles). With this method the decays of intensity and coherence...... are determined separately, thus distinguishing lifetime from pure dephasing. In particular, the secondary emission of excitons in semiconductor quantum wells is investigated. Here, the combination of static disorder and inelastic scattering leads to a partially coherent emission. The temperature dependence...

  19. Ocular microtremor measurement using laser-speckle metrology (United States)

    Kenny, Emer; Coakley, Davis; Boyle, Gerard


    We describe a novel, noninvasive measurement approach for recording a small involuntary tremor of the eye known as ocular microtremor. The method is based on measuring out-of-plane angular displacements of a target by using laser-speckle correlation of images recorded in the Fourier plane of a lens. The system has a dynamic range of 4 to 5000 μrad, resolution of 4 μrad, and a bandwidth of 250 Hz. The design and optimization of the system is presented with an in vitro validation of the system against its specification.

  20. Speckle photography applied to the density field of a flame (United States)

    Shu, J.-Z.; Li, J.-Y.


    An optical arrangement combining a set-up for taking speckle records with a shearing interferometer using a Wollaston prism is applied to the study of a fluctuating Bunsen burner flame. The simultaneous recording, in real time, of the interferogram facilitates the interpretation of the data field derived by the point-by-point analysis of the specklegram. The pattern of Young's fringes obtained by analysis of the specklegram at 16 different positions in the field of view is shown, displaying the random variation of the light deflection in the flame.

  1. Lensless Photoluminescence Hyperspectral Camera Employing Random Speckle Patterns.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žídek, Karel; Denk, Ondřej; Hlubuček, Jiří


    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 15309. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206; GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-26284Y Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : compressed sensing * photoluminescence imaging * laser speckles * single-pixel camera Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  2. Optical characterization of display screens by speckle patterns (United States)

    Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, José J.; Rubiño, Manuel


    In recent years, flat-panel display (FPD) technology has undergone great development, and now FPDs appear in many devices. A significant element in FPD manufacturing is the display front surface. Manufacturers sell FPDs with different types of front surfaces, which can be matte (also called anti-glare) or glossy screens. Users who prefer glossy screens consider these displays to show more vivid colors compared with matte-screen displays. However, on the glossy screens, external light sources may cause unpleasant reflections that can be reduced by a matte treatment in the front surface. In this work, we present a method to characterize FPD screens using laser-speckle patterns. We characterize three FPDs: a Samsung XL2370 LCD monitor of 23 in. with matte screen, a Toshiba Satellite A100 LCD laptop of 15.4 in. with glossy screen, and a Grammata Papyre 6.1 electronic book reader of 6 in. with ePaper screen (E-ink technology). The results show great differences in speckle-contrast values for the three screens characterized and, therefore, this work shows the feasibility of this method for characterizing and comparing FPDs that have different types of front surfaces.

  3. Intraoperative multi-exposure speckle imaging of cerebral blood flow. (United States)

    Richards, Lisa M; Kazmi, Sm Shams; Olin, Katherine E; Waldron, James S; Fox, Douglas J; Dunn, Andrew K


    Multiple studies have demonstrated that laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) has high potential to be a valuable cerebral blood flow monitoring technique during neurosurgery. However, the quantitative accuracy and sensitivity of LSCI is limited, and highly dependent on the exposure time. An extension to LSCI called multi-exposure speckle imaging (MESI) overcomes these limitations, and was evaluated intraoperatively in patients undergoing brain tumor resection. This clinical study ( n = 8) recorded multiple exposure times from the same cortical tissue area spanning 0.5-20 ms, and evaluated images individually as single-exposure LSCI and jointly using the MESI model. This study demonstrated that the MESI estimates provided the broadest flow sensitivity for sampling the flow magnitude in the human brain, closely followed by the shorter exposure times. Conservation of flow analysis on vascular bifurcations was used to validate physiological accuracy, with highly conserved flow estimates (flow changes after tissue cautery. Results from this study demonstrate that intraoperative MESI can be performed with high quantitative accuracy and sensitivity for cerebral blood flow monitoring.

  4. Calibration of a speckle-based compressive sensing receiver (United States)

    Sefler, George A.; Shaw, T. Justin; Stapleton, Andrew D.; Valley, George C.


    Optical speckle in a multimode waveguide has been proposed to perform the function of a compressive sensing (CS) measurement matrix (MM) in a receiver for GHz-band radio frequency (RF) signals. Unlike other devices used for the CS MM, e.g. the digital micromirror device (DMD) used in the single pixel camera, the elements of the speckle MM are not known before use and must be measured and calibrated. In our system, the RF signal is modulated on a repetitively pulsed chirped wavelength laser source, generated from mode-locked laser pulses that have been dispersed in time or from an electrically addressed distributed Bragg reflector laser. Next, the optical beam with RF propagates through a multimode fiber or waveguide, which applies different weights in wavelength (or equivalently time) and space and performs the function of the CS MM. The output of the guide is directed to or imaged on a bank of photodiodes with integration time set to the pulse length of the chirp waveform. The output of each photodiode is digitized by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and the data from these ADCs are used to form the CS measurement vector. Accurate recovery of the RF signal from CS measurements depends critically on knowledge of the weights in the MM. Here we present results using a stable wavelength laser source to probe the guide.

  5. Statistics on gene-based laser speckles with a small number of scatterers: implications for the detection of polymorphism in the Chlamydia trachomatis omp1 gene (United States)

    Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Ulianova, Onega V.; Zaytsev, Sergey S.; Saltykov, Yury V.; Feodorova, Valentina A.


    The transformation mechanism for a nucleotide sequence of the Chlamydia trachomatis gene into a speckle pattern has been considered. The first and second-order statistics of gene-based speckles have been analyzed. It has been demonstrated that gene-based speckles do not obey Gaussian statistics and belong to the class of speckles with a small number of scatterers. It has been shown that gene polymorphism can be easily detected through analysis of the statistical characteristics of gene-based speckles.

  6. The Magnetic Nanoparticle Movement in Magnetic Fluid Characterized by the Laser Dynamic Speckle Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijun Wang


    Full Text Available A dual scanning laser speckle interferometry experiment was designed to observe the dynamic behavior of the magnetic fluid actuated by a magnetic field. In order to improve the spatial resolution of the dynamic speckle measurement, the phase delay scanning was used to compensate the additional phase variation which was caused by the transverse scanning. The correlation coefficients corresponding to the temporal dynamic speckle patterns within the same time interval scattering from the nanoparticles were calculated in the experiment on nanoscale magnetic clusters. In the experiment, the speckle of the magnetic nanoparticle fluid movement has been recorded by the lens unmounted CCD within the interferometry strips, although the speckle led to the distinguished annihilation of the light coherence. The results have showed that the nanoparticle fluid dynamic properties appeared synergistically in the fringe speckles. The analyses of the nanoparticle's relative speed and the speckle pattern moving amount in the fringes have proved the nanoparticle’s movement in a laminar flow in the experiment.

  7. Multiplicative noise removal using variable splitting and constrained optimization. (United States)

    Bioucas-Dias, José M; Figueiredo, Mário A T


    Multiplicative noise (also known as speckle noise) models are central to the study of coherent imaging systems, such as synthetic aperture radar and sonar, and ultrasound and laser imaging. These models introduce two additional layers of difficulties with respect to the standard Gaussian additive noise scenario: (1) the noise is multiplied by (rather than added to) the original image; (2) the noise is not Gaussian, with Rayleigh and Gamma being commonly used densities. These two features of multiplicative noise models preclude the direct application of most state-of-the-art algorithms, which are designed for solving unconstrained optimization problems where the objective has two terms: a quadratic data term (log-likelihood), reflecting the additive and Gaussian nature of the noise, plus a convex (possibly nonsmooth) regularizer (e.g., a total variation or wavelet-based regularizer/prior). In this paper, we address these difficulties by: (1) converting the multiplicative model into an additive one by taking logarithms, as proposed by some other authors; (2) using variable splitting to obtain an equivalent constrained problem; and (3) dealing with this optimization problem using the augmented Lagrangian framework. A set of experiments shows that the proposed method, which we name MIDAL (multiplicative image denoising by augmented Lagrangian), yields state-of-the-art results both in terms of speed and denoising performance.

  8. Occupational Noise Exposure (United States)

    ... Safety and Health Topics / Occupational Noise Exposure Occupational Noise Exposure This page requires that javascript be enabled ... interprets the signal as sound. x What is noise? Noise and vibration are both fluctuations in the ...

  9. Detection of radiation deformation in crystalline polymers using the speckle photography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghandoor, H.; Hashem, A.A.; Sharaf, F.


    In order to measure the resulting deformation due to gamma irradiation of polymers, a new optical technique, namely speckle-photography, was established and used. Thin films of tetrafluoroethene, with constant thickness were irradiated by different doses of gamma rays and the diffraction patterns of a laser beam passing through these films were recorded using the speckle photography technique. This technique has been applied to detect the radiation deformation in (Teflon) TFE, which is a crystalline polymer. A diffraction pattern due to the TFE thin layer is obtained and superimposed on the interference pattern displaying the speckle pattern pairs recorded on the same emulsion. (author)

  10. 3D shape measurement using deterministic phase retrieval and a partially developed speckle field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival F.; Waller, Laura; Agour, Mostafa


    Fourier domain. The local variations of the recorded speckle patterns and the defocus distance approximate the axial intensity derivative which, in turn, is required to recover the wavefront phase via the transport of intensity equation (TIE). The SLM setup reduces the speckle recording time and the TIE...... allows direct (i.e., non-iterative) calculation of the phase. The pre-requisite partially-developed speckle field in our technique facilitates high image contrast and significant axial intensity variation. Wavefront reconstruction for the 3D refractive test object used demonstrates the effectiveness...... of the technique....

  11. Investigation of Portevin-Le Chatelier band with temporal phase analysis of speckle interferometry (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Qingchuan; Wu, Xiaoping


    A new method combining temporal phase analysis with dynamic digital speckle pattern interferometry is proposed to study Portevin-Le Chatelier effect quantitatively. The principle bases on that the phase difference of interference speckle patterns is a time-dependent function related to the object deformation. The interference speckle patterns of specimen are recorded with high sampling rate while PLC effect occurs, and the 2D displacement map of PLC band and its width are obtained by analyzing the displacement of specimen with proposed method.

  12. A new optical pressure sensor interrogated by speckles pattern for oil industry (United States)

    Sperandio, Vinicius M.; Pontes, Maria J.; Neto, Anselmo F.; Webster, Lucas G.


    A new optical pressure control concept in petroleum industry based on laser speckle analysis, with inherent safety light, is investigated in this work. A plastic optical fiber (POF) utilized to instrument a conventional manometer enabled pressure monitoring of a system that is interrogated by speckle photography technique. Specklegrams were imaged on a CCD camera and then analyzed, after Mathematical Morphology Filter, regarding its movement. Tests demonstrated that the speckle pattern movement is radial towards the center of pressure and accordingly reverse during depressurization within 5% maximum error.

  13. Synchronized renal blood flow dynamics mapped with wavelet analysis of laser speckle flowmetry data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Alexey R; Marsh, Donald J; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik


    Full-field laser speckle microscopy provides real-time imaging of superficial blood flow rate. Here we apply continuous wavelet transform to time series of speckle-estimated blood flow from each pixel of the images to map synchronous patterns in instantaneous frequency and phase on the surface...... of rat kidneys. The regulatory mechanism in the renal microcirculation generates oscillations in arterial blood flow at several characteristic frequencies. Our approach to laser speckle image processing allows detection of frequency and phase entrainments, visualization of their patterns, and estimation...

  14. Coherence and Polarization of Polarization Speckle Generated by Depolarizers and Their Changes through Complex ABCD Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Lee, Tim K.


    Recent research work on speckle patterns indicates a variation of the polarization state during propagation and its nonuniformly spatial distribution. The preliminary step for the investigation of this polarization speckle is the generation of the corresponding field. In this paper, a kind of spe...... of coherence (DoC). and degree of polarization (DoP) P. The changes of the coherence and polarization when the speckle field propagates through any optical system are analysed within the framework of the complex ABCD-matrix theory....

  15. Noise in Optical Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle


    Noise in optical amplifiers is discussed on the basis of photons and electromagntic fields. Formulas for quantum noise from spontaneous emission, signal-spontaneous beat noise and spontaneous-spontaneous beat noise are derived.......Noise in optical amplifiers is discussed on the basis of photons and electromagntic fields. Formulas for quantum noise from spontaneous emission, signal-spontaneous beat noise and spontaneous-spontaneous beat noise are derived....

  16. Yesterday's noise - today's signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serdula, K.J.


    Plant performance can be improved by noise analysis. This paper describes noise characteristics, imposed noise and response functions, a case history of cost benefits derived from application of noise analysis techniques, areas for application of noise analysis techniques with special reference to the Gentilly-1 nuclear generating station, and the validity of noise measurement results. (E.C.B.)

  17. Fast Noise Compensation and Adaptive Enhancement for Speech Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Rong


    Full Text Available We propose a novel approach to improve adaptive decorrelation filtering- (ADF- based speech source separation in diffuse noise. The effects of noise on system adaptation and separation outputs are handled separately. First, fast noise compensation (NC is developed for adaptation of separation filters, forcing ADF to focus on source separation; next, output noises are suppressed by speech enhancement. By tracking noise components in output cross-correlation functions, the bias effect of noise on the system adaptation objective function is compensated, and by adaptively estimating output noise autocorrelations, the speech separation output is enhanced. For fast noise compensation, a blockwise fast ADF (FADF is implemented. Experiments were conducted on real and simulated diffuse noises. Speech mixtures were generated by convolving TIMIT speech sources with acoustic path impulse responses measured in a real room with reverberation time  second. The proposed techniques significantly improved separation performance and phone recognition accuracy of ADF outputs.

  18. Noise Abatement (United States)


    SMART, Sound Modification and Regulated Temperature compound, is a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy and sound absorbing qualities. It is derived from a very elastic plastic which was an effective noise abatement material in the Apollo Guidance System. Discovered by a NASA employee, it is marketed by Environmental Health Systems, Inc. (EHS). The product has been successfully employed by a diaper company with noisy dryers and a sugar company with noisy blowers. The company also manufactures an audiometric test booth and acoustical office partitions.

  19. Laser phase noise rejection by two-wave mixing photorefractive interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, M.; Drake, T.E.


    Laser-ultrasound is a technique currently used for the ultrasonic inspection of composites during manufacturing of advanced jet fighters. This technique is based on a short-pulse laser to generate ultrasonic waves and a long-pulse laser coupled to an interferometer to detect the resulting displacements. In theory, the signal-to-noise ratio of the signal is proportional to the square root of the collected detection light power. In practice however, noise from the laser limits the signal-to-noise ratio above a certain collected power level. When using conventional Fabry-Perot interferometers to demodulate ultrasonic information, one type of noise, amplitude relaxation noise, can be rejected using a differential configuration based on two cavities stabilized on opposite sides of the resonance peak. Another type of laser noise, phase noise, cannot be rejected using Fabry-Perot interferometers and currently limits signal-to-noise ratio. A new type of interferometer based on a photorefractive crystal can be made almost completely insensitive by matching the optical path lengths of the pump and signal beams while still rejecting amplitude noise. In this paper, the phase noise rejection capability of a commercial two-wave mixing photorefractive interferometer is experimentally demonstrated. Results will be presented that demonstrate that speckle effect is not an issue for composite inspection using this interferometer and that it can operate in the photon statistics noise regime for higher collected light powers than conventional differential Fabry-Perot systems. (author)

  20. Uncloaking diffusive-light invisibility cloaks by speckle analysis. (United States)

    Niemeyer, Andreas; Mayer, Frederik; Naber, Andreas; Koirala, Milan; Yamilov, Alexey; Wegener, Martin


    Within the range of validity of the stationary diffusion equation, an ideal diffusive-light invisibility cloak can make an arbitrary macroscopic object hidden inside of the cloak indistinguishable from the surroundings for all colors, polarizations, and directions of incident visible light. However, the diffusion equation for light is an approximation which becomes exact only in the limit of small coherence length. Thus, one expects that the cloak can be revealed by illumination with coherent light. The experiments presented here show that the cloaks are robust in the limit of large coherence length but can be revealed by analysis of the speckle patterns under illumination with partially coherent light. Experiments on cylindrical core-shell cloaks and corresponding theory are in good agreement.

  1. Angular diameters of Magellanic Cloud plantary nebulae. I. Speckle interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, P.R.; Bessell, M.S.; Dopita, M.A.


    Speckle interferometric angular diameters of Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae are presented. The mass of ionized gas in each nebula has been derived from the angular diameter and published H-beta line fluxes; the derives masses range from less than 0.006 to more than 0.19 solar mass. The planetary nebulae observed were the brightest in the Magellanic Clouds; consequently, they are all relatively small, young, bright, and dense. They are almost certainly only partially ionized, so that the masses derived for the ionized parts of the nebula are lower limits to the total nebula mass. The properties of the Magellanic Cloud nebulae are compared with those of planetary nebulae at the galactic center. 27 references

  2. Surface Roughness Measurement on a Wing Aircraft by Speckle Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Barrientos


    Full Text Available The study of the damage of aeronautical materials is important because it may change the microscopic surface structure profiles. The modification of geometrical surface properties can cause small instabilities and then a displacement of the boundary layer. One of the irregularities we can often find is surface roughness. Due to an increase of roughness and other effects, there may be extra momentum losses in the boundary layer and a modification in the parasite drag. In this paper we present a speckle method for measuring the surface roughness on an actual unmanned aircraft wing. The results show an inhomogeneous roughness distribution on the wing, as expected according to the anisotropic influence of the winds over the entire wing geometry. A calculation of the uncertainty of the technique is given.

  3. Surface roughness measurement on a wing aircraft by speckle correlation. (United States)

    Salazar, Félix; Barrientos, Alberto


    The study of the damage of aeronautical materials is important because it may change the microscopic surface structure profiles. The modification of geometrical surface properties can cause small instabilities and then a displacement of the boundary layer. One of the irregularities we can often find is surface roughness. Due to an increase of roughness and other effects, there may be extra momentum losses in the boundary layer and a modification in the parasite drag. In this paper we present a speckle method for measuring the surface roughness on an actual unmanned aircraft wing. The results show an inhomogeneous roughness distribution on the wing, as expected according to the anisotropic influence of the winds over the entire wing geometry. A calculation of the uncertainty of the technique is given.

  4. Speckle correlation technique to determine roughness in the dermatologic interval. (United States)

    Dalmases, F; Cibrián, R; Buendía, M; Romero, C; Salvador, R; Montilla, J


    A non-invasive method is proposed to determine human skin roughness. The technique is based on measurement of the correlation between two field distributions scattered by a metallised triafol (cellulose acetate foil) replica of the epidermal area to be analysed. The two speckle patterns are produced from the same rough surface illuminated by two coherent plane waves (He-Ne laser) under two slightly different angles. The accuracy of the method is highlighted by measurements made on a set of standard samples with roughnesses previously determined by mechanical profilometry. Analysis of the results indicates a precision of around 10%, and an applicability within the interest range of very rough surfaces in excess of 4-5 microns.

  5. Nephron blood flow dynamics measured by laser speckle contrast imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Sosnovtseva, Olga V; Pavlov, Alexey N


    Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) has an important role in autoregulation of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Because of the characteristics of signal transmission in the feedback loop, the TGF undergoes self-sustained oscillations in single-nephron blood flow, GFR, and tubular...... simultaneously. The interacting nephron fields are likely to be more extensive. We have turned to laser speckle contrast imaging to measure the blood flow dynamics of 50-100 nephrons simultaneously on the renal surface of anesthetized rats. We report the application of this method and describe analytic...... techniques for extracting the desired data and for examining them for evidence of nephron synchronization. Synchronized TGF oscillations were detected in pairs or triplets of nephrons. The amplitude and the frequency of the oscillations changed with time, as did the patterns of synchronization...

  6. QR code based noise-free optical encryption and decryption of a gray scale image (United States)

    Jiao, Shuming; Zou, Wenbin; Li, Xia


    In optical encryption systems, speckle noise is one major challenge in obtaining high quality decrypted images. This problem can be addressed by employing a QR code based noise-free scheme. Previous works have been conducted for optically encrypting a few characters or a short expression employing QR codes. This paper proposes a practical scheme for optically encrypting and decrypting a gray-scale image based on QR codes for the first time. The proposed scheme is compatible with common QR code generators and readers. Numerical simulation results reveal the proposed method can encrypt and decrypt an input image correctly.

  7. Evaluation and Correction for Optical Scattering Variations in Laser Speckle Rheology of Biological Fluids (United States)

    Hajjarian, Zeinab; Nadkarni, Seemantini K.


    Biological fluids fulfill key functionalities such as hydrating, protecting, and nourishing cells and tissues in various organ systems. They are capable of these versatile tasks owing to their distinct structural and viscoelastic properties. Characterizing the viscoelastic properties of bio-fluids is of pivotal importance for monitoring the development of certain pathologies as well as engineering synthetic replacements. Laser Speckle Rheology (LSR) is a novel optical technology that enables mechanical evaluation of tissue. In LSR, a coherent laser beam illuminates the tissue and temporal speckle intensity fluctuations are analyzed to evaluate mechanical properties. The rate of temporal speckle fluctuations is, however, influenced by both optical and mechanical properties of tissue. Therefore, in this paper, we develop and validate an approach to estimate and compensate for the contributions of light scattering to speckle dynamics and demonstrate the capability of LSR for the accurate extraction of viscoelastic moduli in phantom samples and biological fluids of varying optical and mechanical properties. PMID:23705028

  8. Simulations of multi-contrast x-ray imaging using near-field speckles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdora, Marie-Christine [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE, United Kingdom and Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Thibault, Pierre [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Herzen, Julia; Pfeiffer, Franz [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Zanette, Irene [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany)


    X-ray dark-field and phase-contrast imaging using near-field speckles is a novel technique that overcomes limitations inherent in conventional absorption x-ray imaging, i.e. poor contrast for features with similar density. Speckle-based imaging yields a wealth of information with a simple setup tolerant to polychromatic and divergent beams, and simple data acquisition and analysis procedures. Here, we present a simulation software used to model the image formation with the speckle-based technique, and we compare simulated results on a phantom sample with experimental synchrotron data. Thorough simulation of a speckle-based imaging experiment will help for better understanding and optimising the technique itself.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horch, Elliott P.; Bahi, Lizzie Anne P.; Gaulin, Joseph R. [Department of Physics, Southern Connecticut State University, 501 Crescent Street, New Haven, CT 06515 (United States); Howell, Steve B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Sherry, William H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 87719 (United States); Baena Galle, Roberto [Observatori Fabra, Reial Academia de Ciencies i Arts de Barcelona, Cami de l' Observatori s/n, E-08002 Barcelona (Spain); Van Altena, William F., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)


    Five hundred thirty-one speckle measures of binary stars are reported. These data were taken mainly during the period 2008 June through 2009 October at the WIYN 3.5 m Telescope at Kitt Peak and represent the last data set of single-filter speckle observations taken in the WIYN speckle program prior to the use of the current two-channel speckle camera. The astrometric and photometric precision of these observations is consistent with previous papers in this series: we obtain a typical linear measurement uncertainty of approximately 2.5 mas, and the magnitude differences reported have typical uncertainties in the range of 0.1-0.14 mag. In combination with measures already in the literature, the data presented here permit the revision of the orbit of A 1634AB (= HIP 76041) and the first determination of visual orbital elements for HDS 1895 (= HIP 65982).

  10. Speckle-based three-dimensional velocity measurement using spatial filtering velocimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Theis Faber Quist; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    We present an optical method for measuring the real-time three-dimensional (3D) translational velocity of a diffusely scattering rigid object observed through an imaging system. The method is based on a combination of the motion of random speckle patterns and regular fringe patterns. The speckle ...... spatial filters designed to measure the three components of the object’s translational velocity. Furthermore, experimental data are presented that demonstrate full 3D velocity measurement.......We present an optical method for measuring the real-time three-dimensional (3D) translational velocity of a diffusely scattering rigid object observed through an imaging system. The method is based on a combination of the motion of random speckle patterns and regular fringe patterns. The speckle...

  11. Speckle tracking evaluation of right ventricular functions in children with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Abd Rab Elrasol Tolba


    Conclusions: Children with SCD have impaired right ventricular systolic and diastolic functions when compared to healthy children with early evaluation of the systolic dysfunction by speckle tracking imaging technique.

  12. Real time laser speckle imaging monitoring vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Ruth; Vyacheslav, Kalchenko; Scherz, Avigdor


    Laser speckle imaging is a technique that has been developed to non-invasively monitor in vivo blood flow dynamics and vascular structure, at high spatial and temporal resolution. It can record the full-field spatio-temporal characteristics of microcirculation and has therefore, often been used to study the blood flow in tumors after photodynamic therapy (PDT). Yet, there is a paucity of reports on real-time laser speckle imaging (RTLSI) during PDT. Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) with WST11, a water-soluble bacteriochlorophyll derivative, achieves tumor ablation through rapid occlusion of the tumor vasculature followed by a cascade of events that actively kill the tumor cells. WST11-VTP has been already approved for treatment of early/intermediate prostate cancer at a certain drug dose, time and intensity of illumination. Application to other cancers may require different light dosage. However, incomplete vascular occlusion at lower light dose may result in cancer cell survival and tumor relapse while excessive light dose may lead to toxicity of nearby healthy tissues. Here we provide evidence for the feasibility of concomitant RTLSI of the blood flow dynamics in the tumor and surrounding normal tissues during and after WST11-VTP. Fast decrease in the blood flow is followed by partial mild reperfusion and a complete flow arrest within the tumor by the end of illumination. While the primary occlusion of the tumor feeding arteries and draining veins agrees with previous data published by our group, the late effects underscore the significance of light dose control to minimize normal tissue impairment. In conclusion- RTSLI application should allow to optimize VTP efficacy vs toxicity in both the preclinical and clinical arenas.

  13. Speeding up 3D speckle tracking using PatchMatch (United States)

    Zontak, Maria; O'Donnell, Matthew


    Echocardiography provides valuable information to diagnose heart dysfunction. A typical exam records several minutes of real-time cardiac images. To enable complete analysis of 3D cardiac strains, 4-D (3-D+t) echocardiography is used. This results in a huge dataset and requires effective automated analysis. Ultrasound speckle tracking is an effective method for tissue motion analysis. It involves correlation of a 3D kernel (block) around a voxel with kernels in later frames. The search region is usually confined to a local neighborhood, due to biomechanical and computational constraints. For high strains and moderate frame-rates, however, this search region will remain large, leading to a considerable computational burden. Moreover, speckle decorrelation (due to high strains) leads to errors in tracking. To solve this, spatial motion coherency between adjacent voxels should be imposed, e.g., by averaging their correlation functions.1 This requires storing correlation functions for neighboring voxels, thus increasing memory demands. In this work, we propose an efficient search using PatchMatch, 2 a powerful method to find correspondences between images. Here we adopt PatchMatch for 3D volumes and radio-frequency signals. As opposed to an exact search, PatchMatch performs random sampling of the search region and propagates successive matches among neighboring voxels. We show that: 1) Inherently smooth offset propagation in PatchMatch contributes to spatial motion coherence without any additional processing or memory demand. 2) For typical scenarios, PatchMatch is at least 20 times faster than the exact search, while maintaining comparable tracking accuracy.

  14. Quantum Noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beenakker, C W J


    Quantum Noise is advertised as a handbook, and this is indeed how it functions for me these days: it is a book that I keep within hand's reach, ready to be consulted on the proper use of quantum stochastic methods in the course of my research on quantum dots. I should point out that quantum optics, the target field for this book, is not my field by training. So I have much to learn, and find this handbook to be a reliable and helpful guide. Crispin Gardiner previously wrote the Handbook of Stochastic Methods (also published by Springer), which provides an overview of methods in classical statistical physics. Quantum Noise, written jointly with Peter Zoller, is the counterpart for quantum statistical physics, and indeed the two books rely on each other by frequent cross referencing. The fundamental problem addressed by Quantum Noise is how the quantum dynamics of an open system can be described statistically by treating the environment as a source of noise. This is a general problem in condensed matter physics (in particular in the context of Josephson junctions) and in quantum optics. The emphasis in this book in on the optical applications (for condensed matter applications one could consult Quantum Dissipative Systems by Ulrich Weiss, published by World Scientific). The optical applications centre around the interaction of light with atoms, where the atoms represent the open system and the light is the noisy environment. A complete description of the production and detection of non-classical states of radiation (such as squeezed states) can be obtained using one of the equivalent quantum stochastic formulations: the quantum Langevin equation for the field operators (in either the Ito or the Stratonovich form), the Master equation for the density matrix, or the stochastic Schroedinger equation for the wave functions. Each formulation is fully developed here (as one would expect from a handbook), with detailed instructions on how to go from one to the other. The

  15. Holographic interferometry and laser speckle photography as aids to assessment of pressurized components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.J.V.


    This paper gives details of the defect detection holographic technique and describes laser speckle photography to evaluate in phase movement and strain in pressurized components. The new fibre optic technique and system appraisal is included. The holographic tests show that it is possible to detect on the outside of tubes defects in the bore approximately 10% of thickness deep. Speckle photography gives object lateral movement, direction and strain. (Auth.)

  16. Potential of the McMath-Pierce 1.6-Meter Solar Telescope for Speckle Interferometry (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard; Jones, Gregory; Wiley, Edward; Boyce, Patrick; Branston, Detrick; Rowe, David; Genet, Russell


    We explored the aiming and tracking accuracy of the McMath-Pierce 1.6 m solar telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory as part of an investigation of using this telescope for speckle interferometry of close visual double stars. Several slews of various lengths looked for hysteresis in the positioning system (we found none of significance) and concluded that the 1.6 m telescope would make a useful telescope for speckle interferometry.

  17. Estimation of vessel diameter and blood flow dynamics from laser speckle images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, Dmitry D.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Sosnovtseva, Olga


    Laser speckle imaging is a rapidly developing method to study changes of blood velocity in the vascular networks. However, to assess blood flow and vascular responses it is crucial to measure vessel diameter in addition to blood velocity dynamics. We suggest an algorithm that allows for dynamical...... masking of a vessel position and measurements of it's diameter from laser speckle images. This approach demonstrates high reliability and stability....

  18. Eliminating thermal violin spikes from LIGO noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamore, D. H.; Levin, Yuri


    We have developed a scheme for reducing LIGO suspension thermal noise close to violin-mode resonances. The idea is to monitor directly the thermally induced motion of a small portion of (a 'point' on) each suspension fiber, thereby recording the random forces driving the test-mass motion close to each violin-mode frequency. One can then suppress the thermal noise by optimally subtracting the recorded fiber motions from the measured motion of the test mass, i.e., from the LIGO output. The proposed method is a modification of an analogous but more technically difficult scheme by Braginsky, Levin and Vyatchanin for reducing broad-band suspension thermal noise. The efficiency of our method is limited by the sensitivity of the sensor used to monitor the fiber motion. If the sensor has no intrinsic noise (i.e. has unlimited sensitivity), then our method allows, in principle, a complete removal of violin spikes from the thermal-noise spectrum. We find that in LIGO-II interferometers, in order to suppress violin spikes below the shot-noise level, the intrinsic noise of the sensor must be less than {approx}2 x 10{sup -13} cm/Hz. This sensitivity is two orders of magnitude greater than that of currently available sensors.

  19. Eliminating thermal violin spikes from LIGO noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamore, D. H.; Levin, Yuri


    We have developed a scheme for reducing LIGO suspension thermal noise close to violin-mode resonances. The idea is to monitor directly the thermally induced motion of a small portion of (a 'point' on) each suspension fiber, thereby recording the random forces driving the test-mass motion close to each violin-mode frequency. One can then suppress the thermal noise by optimally subtracting the recorded fiber motions from the measured motion of the test mass, i.e., from the LIGO output. The proposed method is a modification of an analogous but more technically difficult scheme by Braginsky, Levin and Vyatchanin for reducing broad-band suspension thermal noise. The efficiency of our method is limited by the sensitivity of the sensor used to monitor the fiber motion. If the sensor has no intrinsic noise (i.e. has unlimited sensitivity), then our method allows, in principle, a complete removal of violin spikes from the thermal-noise spectrum. We find that in LIGO-II interferometers, in order to suppress violin spikes below the shot-noise level, the intrinsic noise of the sensor must be less than ∼2 x 10 -13 cm/Hz. This sensitivity is two orders of magnitude greater than that of currently available sensors

  20. Developing and setting up optical methods to study the speckle patterns created by optical beam smoothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surville, J.


    We have developed three main optical methods to study the speckles generated by a smoothed laser source. The first method addresses the measurement of the temporal and spatial correlation functions of the source, with a modified Michelson interferometer. The second one is a pump-probe technique created to shoot a picture of a speckle pattern generated at a set time. And the third one is an evolution of the second method dedicated to time-frequency coding, thanks to a frequency chirped probe pulse. Thus, the speckles can be followed in time and their motion can be described. According to these three methods, the average size and duration of the speckles can be measured. It is also possible to measure the size and the duration of each of them and mostly their velocity in a given direction. All the results obtained have been confronted to the different existing theories. We show that the statistical distributions of the measured speckles'size and speckles'intensity agree satisfactorily with theoretical values

  1. Noise thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Brixy, H.; Kakuta, Tsunemi.


    The noise thermometry (NT) is a temperature measuring method by which the absolute temperature measurement can be performed with a very high accuracy and without any influence of ambient environments and of the thermal history of its NT sensor (electric resistor). Hence it is quite suitable for application as a standard thermometry to the in-situ temperature calibration of incore thermocouples. The KFA Juelich had played a pioneering role in the development of NT and applied the results successfully to the AVR for testing its feasibility. In this report, all about the NT including its principle, sensor elements and system configurations are presented together with the experiences in the AVR and the results of investigation to apply it to high temperature measurement. The NT can be adopted as a standard method for incore temperature measurement and in situ temperature calibration in the HTTR. (author). 85 refs

  2. Noise thermometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Brixy, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Kakuta, Tsunemi


    The noise thermometry (NT) is a temperature measuring method by which the absolute temperature measurement can be performed with a very high accuracy and without any influence of ambient environments and of the thermal history of its NT sensor (electric resistor). Hence it is quite suitable for application as a standard thermometry to the in-situ temperature calibration of incore thermocouples. The KFA Juelich had played a pioneering role in the development of NT and applied the results successfully to the AVR for testing its feasibility. In this report, all about the NT including its principle, sensor elements and system configurations are presented together with the experiences in the AVR and the results of investigation to apply it to high temperature measurement. The NT can be adopted as a standard method for incore temperature measurement and in situ temperature calibration in the HTTR. (author). 85 refs.

  3. Coupling of relative intensity noise and pathlength noise to the length measurement in the optical metrology system of LISA Pathfinder (United States)

    Wittchen, Andreas; the LPF Collaboration


    LISA Pathfinder is a technology demonstration mission for the space-based gravitational wave observatory, LISA. It demonstrated that the performance requirements for the interferometric measurement of two test masses in free fall can be met. An important part of the data analysis is to identify the limiting noise sources. [1] This measurement is performed with heterodyne interferometry. The performance of this optical metrology system (OMS) at high frequencies is limited by sensing noise. One such noise source is Relative Intensity Noise (RIN). RIN is a property of the laser, and the photodiode current generated by the interferometer signal contains frequency dependant RIN. From this electric signal the phasemeter calculates the phase change and laser power, and the coupling of RIN into the measurement signal depends on the noise frequency. RIN at DC, at the heterodyne frequency and at two times the heterodyne frequency couples into the phase. Another important noise at high frequencies is path length noise. To reduce the impact this noise is suppressed with a control loop. Path length noise not suppressed will couple directly into the length measurement. The subtraction techniques of both noise sources depend on the phase difference between the reference signal and the measurement signal, and thus on the test mass position. During normal operations we position the test mass at the interferometric zero, which is optimal for noise subtraction purposes. This paper will show results from an in-flight experiment where the test mass position was changed to make the position dependant noise visible.

  4. A low-noise 492 GHz SIS waveguide receiver (United States)

    Walker, C. K.; Kooi, J. W.; Chant, M.; Leduc, H. G.; Schaffer, P. L.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Phillips, T. G.


    The design and performance are described of an SIS waveguide receiver which provides low noise performance from 375 to 510 GHz. At its design frequency of 492 GHz the receiver has a double-sideband noise temperature of about 172 K. By using embedded magnetic-field concentrators Josephson pair tunneling is effectively suppressed. Techniques for improving receiver performance are discussed.

  5. A Study of Pulse-Echo Image Formation Using Non-Quadratic Regularization with Speckle-Based Images (United States)

    Lavarello, R.; Kamalabadi, F.; O'Brien, W. D.

    Objective: B-mode imaging is a standard way of presenting results when pulse-echo data acquisition is used. Inverse approaches have been explored to a limited extent. The goals of this study are to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of regularization by: (a) evaluating the quality of the reconstruction of speckle-based images as a function of imaging parameters (i.e., bandwidth of the transducer, f/number, and distance between region of interest (ROI) and focal region), and (b) comparing the reconstructed images with those obtained by conventional imaging techniques (e.g., B-mode and synthetic aperture focusing techniques (SAFT)). Methodology: Two-dimensional pulse-echo data from a single-element focused transducer with center frequency of 6 MHz and focal distance of 19 mm were simulated using fractional bandwidths of 33%, 50% and 100%, f/numbers of 1, 2 and 3, and distances between ROI and focus of 0, 2.5 and 5 mm. A minimum scatterer density of 4 scatterers per resolution cell was used. The images were reconstructed using non-quadratic regularization. Because the desired image was known, the normalized mean squared error (MSE) was used as a quantitative indicator of reconstruction performance. The reconstructed images were also evaluated by visual inspection. Results: The best reconstructions were achieved when the ROI was at the focus, the bandwidth was 100% and the f/number was 1, for which the MSE was 25% for a 20-dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The MSE increased as the bandwidth decreased, the f/number increased, and the distance between ROI and focus increased. The bandwidth was the most sensitive parameter, increasing the MSE up to 86% for a SNR of 20 dB. For all cases, parameter selection techniques such as the L-curve and generalized cross-validation (GCV) gave a close approximation to the image with the best visual appearance. Conclusion: For speckle-based images the inversion using regularization gave better results than conventional techniques




    Operant responses of human subjects were conditioned according to a variable-interval schedule of positive reinforcement. A brief noise was delivered as punishment for each of the responses. The noise suppressed the punished responses more when an alternative unpunished response was concurrently available than when only a single punished response was available. This finding extends the generality of a previous study that had used a period of extinction rather than the brief noise as the punishing stimulus.

  7. Noise and Hearing Protection (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Noise and Hearing Protection Noise and Hearing Protection Patient ... it is. How can I tell if a noise is dangerous? People differ in their sensitivity to ...

  8. Inhibitory noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Destexhe


    Full Text Available Cortical neurons in vivo may operate in high-conductance states, in which the major part of the neuron's input conductance is due to synaptic activity, sometimes several-fold larger than the resting conductance. We examine here the contribution of inhibition in such high-conductance states. At the level of the absolute conductance values, several studies have shown that cortical neurons in vivo are characterized by strong inhibitory conductances. However, conductances are balanced and spiking activity is mostly determined by fluctuations, but not much is known about excitatory and inhibitory contributions to these fluctuations. Models and dynamic-clamp experiments show that, during high-conductance states, spikes are mainly determined by fluctuations of inhibition, or by inhibitory noise. This stands in contrast to low-conductance states, in which excitatory conductances determine spiking activity. To determine these contributions from experimental data, maximum likelihood methods can be designed and applied to intracellular recordings in vivo. Such methods indicate that action potentials are indeed mostly correlated with inhibitory fluctuations in awake animals. These results argue for a determinant role for inhibitory fluctuations in evoking spikes, and do not support feed-forward modes of processing, for which opposite patterns are predicted.

  9. Prosthetic clone and natural human tooth comparison by speckle interferometry (United States)

    Slangen, Pierre; Corn, Stephane; Fages, Michel; Raynal, Jacques; Cuisinier, Frederic J. G.


    New trends in dental prosthodontic interventions tend to preserve the maximum of "body" structure. With the evolution of CAD-CAM techniques, it is now possible to measure "in mouth" the remaining dental tissues. The prosthetic crown is then designed using this shape on which it will be glued on, and also by taking into account the contact surface of the opposite jaw tooth. Several theories discuss on the glue thickness and formulation, but also on the way to evolve to a more biocompatible crown and also new biomechanical concepts. In order to validate these new concepts and materials, and to study the mechanical properties and mechanical integrity of the prosthesis, high resolution optical measurements of the deformations of the glue and the crown are needed. Samples are two intact premolars extracted for orthodontics reasons. The reference sample has no modifications on the tooth while the second sample tooth is shaped to receive a feldspathic ceramic monoblock crown which will be glued. This crown was manufactured with a chairside CAD-CAM system from an intra-oral optical print. The software allows to realize a nearly perfect clone of the reference sample. The necessary space for the glue is also entered with ideal values. This duplication process yields to obtain two samples with identical anatomy for further processing. The glue joint thickness can also be modified if required. The purpose is to compare the behaviour of a natural tooth and its prosthetic clone manufactured with "biomechanical" concepts. Vertical cut samples have been used to deal with planar object observation, and also to look "inside" the tooth. We have developed a complete apparatus enabling the study of the compressive mechanical behaviour of the concerned tooth by speckle interferometry. Because in plane displacements are of great interest for orthodontic measurements1, an optical fiber in-plane sensitive interferometer has been designed. The fibers are wrapped around piezoelectric

  10. Measurement of skin stretch using digital image speckle correlation. (United States)

    Staloff, Isabelle Afriat; Rafailovitch, Miriam


    The surface of the skin is covered by intersecting grooves and ridges which produce characteristic skin surface patterns. It has been suggested that these folds provide a reserve of tissue, allowing the skin to stretch during normal muscle movements. More so, skin is anisotropic and under constant tension. Therefore, to characterize skin displacement following stretch, a discrete, description of the in-plane skin displacement during stretch is of interest. We introduce the use of digital image speckle correlation (DISC), a non-contact technique, to map, in two dimensions, the surface deformation patterns resulting from skin stretching. We analyze skin stretch under the mechanical action of a film former applied on a defined square surface on the back of the hand. This is achieved by taking a series of images, during the drying process of the film former. The images are then analyzed with DISC to create vector diagram and projection maps, from which we can obtain spatially resolved information regarding the skin displacement. We first show that DISC can provide spatially resolved information at any time point during the drying process: areas of de-wetting, wetting were identified using projection maps; we then extracted the value of the drying time. Finally using a vector map, we show the orientation of the skin displacement during stretching and calculated the magnitude of the total stretch. We have shown previously that DISC can be used to determine skin mechanical properties and muscular activity. We show here that DISC, as a non-contact technique, can map, in two dimensions, the surface deformation patterns of a polymer solution on a substrate at any time point during the drying process. DISC analysis generates for each speckle of the sample analyzed, the orientation and magnitude of displacement of the polymer solution. DISC can map in two dimensions the deformation undergone by the substrate and skin stretch is measured in this particular case. We therefore

  11. Holographic interferometry and laser speckle photography as aids to assessment of pressurised components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.J.V.


    This summary gives defect detection holographic technique and describes laser speckle photography to evaluate in-plane movement and strain in pressurized components and conclusions. In holography no lens is used, coherent light is reflected from all points of an object to all parts of a photosensitive surface, such as a photographic plate, simultaneously light of the same wave length and coherence is made to illuminate at a different angle the same plate. These two beams, the object and the reference, cause primary fringes. The developed plate when illuminated with the reference reconstructs the original object in three dimensions. If a double exposure is made on the same plate and if parts of the object have moved between exposure the reconstructed object will be lined with secondary fringes, each fringe representing displacement down the line of sight of one wavelength of the light used. Speckle photography is the same as conventional photography excepting, that instead of using daylight or a flash lamp a coherent light beam is used. Minute points on the object illuminated by divergent laser beam act as point sources of light giving the surface a speckled appearance. In speckle photography a camera records on the plate the object and speckles. A double exposure taken on the same plate when the object has moved between exposures will, after development, when illuminated with the laser beam from Youngs fringes. Speckles and fringes are related to points on the object therefore it is possible to obtain movement and strain. The holographic tests show that it is possible to detect on the outside of tube defects in the bore approximately 10% of thickness deep. Speckle photography gives object lateral movement, direction and strain

  12. Noise-Measuring Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.


    A noise-measuring method based on the use of a calibrated noise generator and an output meter with a special scale is described. The method eliminates the effect of noise contributions occurring in the circuits following the device under test.......A noise-measuring method based on the use of a calibrated noise generator and an output meter with a special scale is described. The method eliminates the effect of noise contributions occurring in the circuits following the device under test....

  13. Alanine repeats influence protein localization in splicing speckles and paraspeckles. (United States)

    Chang, Shuo-Hsiu; Chang, Wei-Lun; Lu, Chia-Chen; Tarn, Woan-Yuh


    Mammalian splicing regulatory protein RNA-binding motif protein 4 (RBM4) has an alanine repeat-containing C-terminal domain (CAD) that confers both nuclear- and splicing speckle-targeting activities. Alanine-repeat expansion has pathological potential. Here we show that the alanine-repeat tracts influence the subnuclear targeting properties of the RBM4 CAD in cultured human cells. Notably, truncation of the alanine tracts redistributed a portion of RBM4 to paraspeckles. The alanine-deficient CAD was sufficient for paraspeckle targeting. On the other hand, alanine-repeat expansion reduced the mobility of RBM4 and impaired its splicing activity. We further took advantage of the putative coactivator activator (CoAA)-RBM4 conjoined splicing factor, CoAZ, to investigate the function of the CAD in subnuclear targeting. Transiently expressed CoAZ formed discrete nuclear foci that emerged and subsequently separated-fully or partially-from paraspeckles. Alanine-repeat expansion appeared to prevent CoAZ separation from paraspeckles, resulting in their complete colocalization. CoAZ foci were dynamic but, unlike paraspeckles, were resistant to RNase treatment. Our results indicate that the alanine-rich CAD, in conjunction with its conjoined RNA-binding domain(s), differentially influences the subnuclear localization and biogenesis of RBM4 and CoAZ. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Feeding habits of the speckled guitarfish Rhinobatos glaucostigma (Elasmobranchii: Rhinobatidae). (United States)

    Lara-Mendoza, R E; Márquez-Farías, J F; Román-Reyes, J C


    The stomachs of 464 speckled guitarfish Rhinobatos glaucostigma were sampled from the south-eastern Gulf of California (GC) to determine diet composition. Numerical indices and prey-specific index of relative importance ((%I)PSIR ) were used to determine the feeding strategy of the species. An analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) was used to determine differences in diet with respect to sex, season (dry or rainy) and maturity stages (immature or mature). The diversity and niche breadth (by sex, season and maturity) and a general trophic level were determined. The overall diet was dominated by shrimps ((%I)PSIR  = 43.47), amphipods ((%I)PSIR  = 18.89) and crabs ((%I)PSIR  = 18.07). ANOSIM demonstrated differences in the diet by maturity and season, but not by sex. Rainy and dry season diets were dominated by shrimps and amphipods, respectively. Immature specimens fed mainly on amphipods, whereas mature fish preferred shrimps and crabs. Rhinobatos glaucostigma showed a narrow niche breadth with an intermediary trophic level (TL  = 3.72) and can be considered as a secondary consumer in the soft-bottom demersal community of the south-east GC. Understanding the feeding habits and trophic level of R. glaucostigma is vital to help identify the segments of the population vulnerable to overfishing by artisanal and industrial fisheries, and to aid in conservation and management of this elasmobranch. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. 3D Characterization of corneal deformation using ultrasound speckle tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyton Clayson


    Full Text Available The three-dimensional (3D mechanical response of the cornea to intraocular pressure (IOP elevation has not been previously reported. In this study, we use an ultrasound speckle tracking technique to measure the 3D displacements and strains within the central 5.5mm of porcine corneas during the whole globe inflation. Inflation tests were performed on dextran-treated corneas (treated with a 10% dextran solution and untreated corneas. The dextran-treated corneas showed an inflation response expected of a thin spherical shell, with through-thickness thinning and in-plane stretch, although the strain magnitudes exhibited a heterogeneous spatial distribution from the central to more peripheral cornea. The untreated eyes demonstrated a response consistent with swelling during experimentation, with through-thickness expansion overriding the inflation response. The average volume ratios obtained in both groups was near 1 confirming general incompressibility, but local regions of volume loss or expansion were observed. These results suggest that biomechanical measurements in 3D provide important new insight to understand the mechanical response of ocular tissues such as the cornea.

  16. In vivo lateral blood flow velocity measurement using speckle size estimation. (United States)

    Xu, Tiantian; Hozan, Mohsen; Bashford, Gregory R


    In previous studies, we proposed blood measurement using speckle size estimation, which estimates the lateral component of blood flow within a single image frame based on the observation that the speckle pattern corresponding to blood reflectors (typically red blood cells) stretches (i.e., is "smeared") if blood flow is in the same direction as the electronically controlled transducer line selection in a 2-D image. In this observational study, the clinical viability of ultrasound blood flow velocity measurement using speckle size estimation was investigated and compared with that of conventional spectral Doppler of carotid artery blood flow data collected from human patients in vivo. Ten patients (six male, four female) were recruited. Right carotid artery blood flow data were collected in an interleaved fashion (alternating Doppler and B-mode A-lines) with an Antares Ultrasound Imaging System and transferred to a PC via the Axius Ultrasound Research Interface. The scanning velocity was 77 cm/s, and a 4-s interval of flow data were collected from each subject to cover three to five complete cardiac cycles. Conventional spectral Doppler data were collected simultaneously to compare with estimates made by speckle size estimation. The results indicate that the peak systolic velocities measured with the two methods are comparable (within ±10%) if the scan velocity is greater than or equal to the flow velocity. When scan velocity is slower than peak systolic velocity, the speckle stretch method asymptotes to the scan velocity. Thus, the speckle stretch method is able to accurately measure pure lateral flow, which conventional Doppler cannot do. In addition, an initial comparison of the speckle size estimation and color Doppler methods with respect to computational complexity and data acquisition time indicated potential time savings in blood flow velocity estimation using speckle size estimation. Further studies are needed for calculation of the speckle stretch method

  17. Shot noise in a harmonically driven ballistic graphene transistor (United States)

    Korniyenko, Y.; Shevtsov, O.; Löfwander, T.


    We study time-dependent electron transport and quantum noise in a ballistic graphene field effect transistor driven by an ac gate potential. The nonlinear response to the ac signal is computed through Floquet theory for scattering states and Landauer-Büttiker theory for charge current and its fluctuations. Photon-assisted excitation of a quasibound state in the top-gate barrier leads to resonances in transmission that strongly influence the noise properties. For strong doping of graphene under source and drain contacts, when electrons are transmitted through the channel via evanescent waves, the resonance leads to a substantial suppression of noise. The Fano factor is then reduced well below the pseudodiffusive value, F tunneling (total suppression of back-reflection) persists for perpendicular incidence also when the barrier is driven harmonically. Although the transmission is inelastic and distributed among sideband energies, a sum rule leads to total suppression of shot noise.

  18. Study of microparticles' anomalous diffusion in active bath using speckle light fields (Presentation Recording) (United States)

    Pince, Ercag; Sabareesh, Sabareesh K. P.; Volpe, Giorgio; Gigan, Sylvain; Volpe, Giovanni S.


    Particles undergoing a stochastic motion within a disordered medium is a ubiquitous physical and biological phenomenon. Examples can be given from organelles as molecular machines of cells performing physical tasks in a populated cytoplasm to human mobility in patchy environment at larger scales. Our recent results showed that it is possible to use the disordered landscape generated by speckle light fields to perform advanced manipulation tasks at the microscale. Here, we use speckle light fields to study the anomalous diffusion of micron size silica particles (5 μm) in the presence of active microswimmers. The microswimmers we used in the experiments are motile bacteria, Escherichia coli (E.coli). They constitute an active background constantly agitating passive silica particles within complex optical potentials. The speckle fields are generated by mode mixing inside a multimode optical fiber where a small amount of incident laser power (maximum power = 12 μW/μm2) is needed to obtain an effective random landscape pattern for the purpose of optical manipulation. We experimentally show how complex potentials contribute to the anomalous diffusion of silica particles undergoing collisions with swimming bacteria. We observed an enhanced diffusion of particles interacting with the active bath of E.coli inside speckle light fields: this effect can be tuned and controlled by varying the intensity and the statistical properties of the speckle pattern. Potentially, these results could be of interest for many technological applications, such as the manipulation of microparticles inside optically disordered media of biological interests.

  19. Vegetation Detection in Stress of Moisture Shortage Based on Laser Speckle Recognition (United States)

    Ishizawa, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Tsukasa; Miki, Takashi

    This paper describes a new measuring method of plant vigor by using Laser speckle pattern. Furthermore, this proposes a practical application of this presented measurement system. The measuring instrument is consisted by a He-Ne Laser as the light source, and a set of optics, such as reflectors, a beam expander. The speckle pattern could be measured by a CCD camera through lenses. A Pothos (Epiremnum aureum) and Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil) were used as the sample plant. Their intact leaves were measured the speckle pattern images. Visible but small vigor veins could be clearly observed in the images obtained by the speckle patterns. On the other hand, withered ones have shown different images. The relationship has been obtained between the feature of the images and the chlorophyll degradation. It would be expected that the symptom of plant against some stress could be detected by measuring the Laser speckle pattern. It could be used as the sensor of the field server system at every field monitoring site.

  20. Effect of static scatterers in laser speckle contrast imaging: an experimental study on correlation and contrast (United States)

    Vaz, Pedro G.; Humeau-Heurtier, Anne; Figueiras, Edite; Correia, Carlos; Cardoso, João


    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is a non-invasive microvascular blood flow assessment technique with good temporal and spatial resolution. Most LSCI systems, including commercial devices, can perform only qualitative blood flow evaluation, which is a major limitation of this technique. There are several factors that prevent the utilization of LSCI as a quantitative technique. Among these factors, we can highlight the effect of static scatterers. The goal of this work was to study the influence of differences in static and dynamic scatterer concentration on laser speckle correlation and contrast. In order to achieve this, a laser speckle prototype was developed and tested using an optical phantom with various concentrations of static and dynamic scatterers. It was found that the laser speckle correlation could be used to estimate the relative concentration of static/dynamic scatterers within a sample. Moreover, the speckle correlation proved to be independent of the dynamic scatterer velocity, which is a fundamental characteristic to be used in contrast correction.

  1. Point-wise and whole-field laser speckle intensity fluctuation measurements applied to botanical specimens (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Wang, Junlan; Wu, Xiaoping; Williams, Fred W.; Schmidt, Richard J.


    Based on multi-scattering speckle theory, the speckle fields generated by plant specimens irradiated by laser light have been studied using a pointwise method. In addition, a whole-field method has been developed with which entire botanical specimens may be studied. Results are reported from measurements made on tomato and apple fruits, orange peel, leaves of tobacco seedlings, leaves of shihu seedlings (a Chinese medicinal herb), soy-bean sprouts, and leaves from an unidentified trailing houseplant. Although differences where observed in the temporal fluctuations of speckles that could be ascribed to differences in age and vitality, the growing tip of the bean sprout and the shihu seedling both generated virtually stationary speckles such as were observed from boiled orange peel and from localised heat-damaged regions on apple fruit. Our results suggest that both the identity of the botanical specimen and the site at which measurements are taken are likely to critically affect the observation or otherwise of temporal fluctuations of laser speckles.

  2. Random resampling masks: a non-Bayesian one-shot strategy for noise reduction in digital holography. (United States)

    Bianco, V; Paturzo, M; Memmolo, P; Finizio, A; Ferraro, P; Javidi, B


    Holographic imaging may become severely degraded by a mixture of speckle and incoherent additive noise. Bayesian approaches reduce the incoherent noise, but prior information is needed on the noise statistics. With no prior knowledge, one-shot reduction of noise is a highly desirable goal, as the recording process is simplified and made faster. Indeed, neither multiple acquisitions nor a complex setup are needed. So far, this result has been achieved at the cost of a deterministic resolution loss. Here we propose a fast non-Bayesian denoising method that avoids this trade-off by means of a numerical synthesis of a moving diffuser. In this way, only one single hologram is required as multiple uncorrelated reconstructions are provided by random complementary resampling masks. Experiments show a significant incoherent noise reduction, close to the theoretical improvement bound, resulting in image-contrast improvement. At the same time, we preserve the resolution of the unprocessed image.

  3. Selectivity and balance of spatial filtering velocimetry of objective speckles for measuring out-of-plane motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Yura, Hal T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    We probe the dynamics of objective laser speckles as the axial distance between the object and the observation plane changes. With the purpose of measuring out-of-plane motion in real time, we apply optical spatial filtering velocimetry to the speckle dynamics. To achieve this, a rotationally sym...

  4. Active Noise Control for Dishwasher noise (United States)

    Lee, Nokhaeng; Park, Youngjin


    The dishwasher is a useful home appliance and continually used for automatically washing dishes. It's commonly placed in the kitchen with built-in style for practicality and better use of space. In this environment, people are easily exposed to dishwasher noise, so it is an important issue for the consumers, especially for the people living in open and narrow space. Recently, the sound power levels of the noise are about 40 - 50 dBA. It could be achieved by removal of noise sources and passive means of insulating acoustical path. For more reduction, such a quiet mode with the lower speed of cycle has been introduced, but this deteriorates the washing capacity. Under this background, we propose active noise control for dishwasher noise. It is observed that the noise is propagating mainly from the lower part of the front side. Control speakers are placed in the part for the collocation. Observation part of estimating sound field distribution and control part of generating the anti-noise are designed for active noise control. Simulation result shows proposed active noise control scheme could have a potential application for dishwasher noise reduction.

  5. Non-Markovian noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulinski, A.


    The properties of non-Markovian noises with exponentially correlated memory are discussed. Considered are dichotomic noise, white shot noise, Gaussian white noise, and Gaussian colored noise. The stationary correlation functions of the non-Markovian versions of these noises are given by linear combinations of two or three exponential functions (colored noises) or of the δ function and exponential function (white noises). The non-Markovian white noises are well defined only when the kernel of the non-Markovian master equation contains a nonzero admixture of a Markovian term. Approximate equations governing the probability densities for processes driven by such non-Markovian noises are derived, including non-Markovian versions of the Fokker-Planck equation and the telegrapher's equation. As an example, it is shown how the non-Markovian nature changes the behavior of the driven linear process

  6. Correction of optical absorption and scattering variations in Laser Speckle Rheology measurements. (United States)

    Hajjarian, Zeinab; Nadkarni, Seemantini K


    Laser Speckle Rheology (LSR) is an optical technique to evaluate the viscoelastic properties by analyzing the temporal fluctuations of backscattered speckle patterns. Variations of optical absorption and reduced scattering coefficients further modulate speckle fluctuations, posing a critical challenge for quantitative evaluation of viscoelasticity. We compare and contrast two different approaches applicable for correcting and isolating the collective influence of absorption and scattering, to accurately measure mechanical properties. Our results indicate that the numerical approach of Monte-Carlo ray tracing (MCRT) reliably compensates for any arbitrary optical variations. When scattering dominates absorption, yet absorption is non-negligible, diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) formalisms perform similar to MCRT, superseding other analytical compensation approaches such as Telegrapher equation. The computational convenience of DWS greatly simplifies the extraction of viscoelastic properties from LSR measurements in a number of chemical, industrial, and biomedical applications.

  7. Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection (United States)

    Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Lui, Harvey; Kalia, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I.; Lee, Tim K.


    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the Western world. In order to accurately detect the disease, especially malignant melanoma-the most fatal form of skin cancer-at an early stage when the prognosis is excellent, there is an urgent need to develop noninvasive early detection methods. We believe that polarization speckle patterns, defined as a spatial distribution of depolarization ratio of traditional speckle patterns, can be an important tool for skin cancer detection. To demonstrate our technique, we conduct a large in vivo clinical study of 214 skin lesions, and show that statistical moments of the polarization speckle pattern could differentiate different types of skin lesions, including three common types of skin cancers, malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and two benign lesions, melanocytic nevus and seborrheic keratoses. In particular, the fourth order moment achieves better or similar sensitivity and specificity than many well-known and accepted optical techniques used to differentiate melanoma and seborrheic keratosis.

  8. Color quality improvement of reconstructed images in color digital holography using speckle method and spectral estimation (United States)

    Funamizu, Hideki; Onodera, Yusei; Aizu, Yoshihisa


    In this study, we report color quality improvement of reconstructed images in color digital holography using the speckle method and the spectral estimation. In this technique, an object is illuminated by a speckle field and then an object wave is produced, while a plane wave is used as a reference wave. For three wavelengths, the interference patterns of two coherent waves are recorded as digital holograms on an image sensor. Speckle fields are changed by moving a ground glass plate in an in-plane direction, and a number of holograms are acquired to average the reconstructed images. After the averaging process of images reconstructed from multiple holograms, we use the Wiener estimation method for obtaining spectral transmittance curves in reconstructed images. The color reproducibility in this method is demonstrated and evaluated using a Macbeth color chart film and staining cells of onion.

  9. Relationship between analysis of laser speckle image and Knoop hardness on softening enamel. (United States)

    Koshoji, Nelson H; Prates, Renato A; Bussadori, Sandra K; Bortoletto, Carolina C; de Miranda Junior, Walter G; Librantz, André F H; Leal, Cintia Raquel Lima; Oliveira, Marcelo T; Deana, Alessandro M


    In this study is presented the correlation between laser speckle images and enamel hardness loss. In order to shift the enamel hardness, a dental demineralization model was applied to 32 samples of vestibular bovine teeth. After they were cleaned, cut and polished, the samples were divided into 4 groups and immersed in 30ml of a cola-based soft drink for 10, 20, 30 and 40min twice a day for 7 consecutive days with half the surface protected by two layers of nail polish. Each sample was analyzed by Knoop hardness and laser speckle imaging. Pearson's correlation analysis demonstrated that the laser speckle image technique presents a strong correlation with the hardness loss of the enamel (r=0.7085, phardness. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Analysis of strain in reinforced concrete components by laser speckle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, K.P.


    Laser speckle photography is an optical process for non-contact measurement of strain in a plane at right angles to the axis of the optical system. The material composition and relief of the surface of a test sample have a great effect on the applicability of the process. Bodies with too smooth or too rough surfaces, and bodies of a transparent structure (salt bearing rocks) cannot be examined by speckle photography without previous surface treatment. The principle of the process and its application to the examination of reinforced concrete components is described. The capability of speckle photography, the accuracy of measurement which can be achieved and possible sources of error are discussed. (orig./RW) [de

  11. Three-dimensional displacement measurement by fringe projection and speckle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos, B.; Garcia-Marquez, J.; Cerca, M.; Hernandez-Bernal, C.


    3D displacement fields are measured by the combination of two optical methods, fringe projection and speckle photography. The use of only one camera recording the necessary information implies that no calibration procedures are necessary as is the case in techniques based on stereoscopy. The out-of-plane displacement is measured by fringe projection whereas speckle photography yields the 2-D in-plane component. To show the feasibility of the technique, we analyze a detailed morphological spatio-temporal evolution of a model of the Earth's crust while subjected to compression forces. The results show that the combination of fringe projection and speckle photography is well suited for this type of studies

  12. Quantitative X-ray dark-field and phase tomography using single directional speckle scanning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongchang, E-mail:; Kashyap, Yogesh; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)


    X-ray dark-field contrast tomography can provide important supplementary information inside a sample to the conventional absorption tomography. Recently, the X-ray speckle based technique has been proposed to provide qualitative two-dimensional dark-field imaging with a simple experimental arrangement. In this letter, we deduce a relationship between the second moment of scattering angle distribution and cross-correlation degradation of speckle and establish a quantitative basis of X-ray dark-field tomography using single directional speckle scanning technique. In addition, the phase contrast images can be simultaneously retrieved permitting tomographic reconstruction, which yields enhanced contrast in weakly absorbing materials. Such complementary tomography technique can allow systematic investigation of complex samples containing both soft and hard materials.

  13. Estudio de la magnetostricción por interferometría de Speckle


    Chicharro Higuera, José Manuel


    En esta tesis se realiza un estudio de la magnetostricción de materiales magnéticos por interferometría de speckle. En la primera parte, se recogen los fundamentos teóricos del fenómeno del speckle y de las técnicas experimentales que se aplican en el desarrollo de este trabajo. En la segunda parte, se analizan las bases teóricas de la magnetostricción, aplicando la fotografía de speckle en la determinación de la magnetostricción en saturación. Se estudia la aplicabilidad del método caracteri...

  14. Speckle and fringe dynamics in imagingspeckle-pattern interferometry for spatial-filtering velocimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Iversen, Theis F. Q.; Yura, Harold T.


    This paper analyzes the dynamics of laser speckles and fringes, formed in an imaging-speckle-pattern interferometer with the purpose of sensing linear three-dimensional motion and out-of-plane components of rotation in real time, using optical spatial-filtering-velocimetry techniques. The ensemble......-average definition of the cross-correlation function is applied to the intensity distributions, obtained in the observation plane at two positions of the object. The theoretical analysis provides a description for the dynamics of both the speckles and the fringes. The analysis reveals that both the magnitude...... and direction of all three linear displacement components of the object movement can be determined. Simultaneously, out-ofplane rotation of the object including the corresponding directions can be determined from the spatial gradient of the in-plane fringe motion throughout the observation plane. The theory...

  15. Laser speckle-imaging of blood microcirculation in the brain cortex of laboratory rats in stress (United States)

    Vilensky, M. A.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana V.; Timoshina, P. A.; Kuznetsova, Jana V.; Semyachkin-Glushkovskii, I. A.; Agafonov, Dmitry N.; Tuchin, Valerii V.


    The results of experimental approbation of the method of laser full-field speckle-imaging for monitoring the changes in blood microcirculation state of the brain cortex of laboratory rats under the conditions of developing stroke and administration of vasodilating and vasoconstrictive agents are presented. The studies aimed at the choice of the optimal conditions of speckle-image formation and recording were performed and the software implementing an adaptive algorithm for processing the data of measurements was created. The transfer of laser radiation to the probed region of the biotissue was implemented by means of a silica-polymer optical fibre. The problems and prospects of speckle-imaging of cerebral microcirculation of blood in laboratory and clinical conditions are discussed.

  16. assessment of noise pollutio noise pollutio noise pollution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES ... challenges. Symptoms of short or long periods exposure to noise include auditory effects such auditory fatigue and hearing loss, and indirect n auditory effects such as speech interfere .... ASSESSMENT OF NOISE POLLUTION FROM SAWMILL ACTIVITIES IN ILORIN, NIGERIA.

  17. assessment of noise pollutio noise pollutio noise pollution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This study examine. This study examined noise pollution pollution pollution from sawmillin from sawmillin using HD600 digital data l using HD600 digital data logging sound level me ogging sound level me designed to elicit noise related information. The res sawmills was 58.1 sawmills was 58.1-64.86 dB(A) while machine ...

  18. Supersonics Project - Airport Noise Tech Challenge (United States)

    Bridges, James


    The Airport Noise Tech Challenge research effort under the Supersonics Project is reviewed. While the goal of "Improved supersonic jet noise models validated on innovative nozzle concepts" remains the same, the success of the research effort has caused the thrust of the research to be modified going forward in time. The main activities from FY06-10 focused on development and validation of jet noise prediction codes. This required innovative diagnostic techniques to be developed and deployed, extensive jet noise and flow databases to be created, and computational tools to be developed and validated. Furthermore, in FY09-10 systems studies commissioned by the Supersonics Project showed that viable supersonic aircraft were within reach using variable cycle engine architectures if exhaust nozzle technology could provide 3-5dB of suppression. The Project then began to focus on integrating the technologies being developed in its Tech Challenge areas to bring about successful system designs. Consequently, the Airport Noise Tech Challenge area has shifted efforts from developing jet noise prediction codes to using them to develop low-noise nozzle concepts for integration into supersonic aircraft. The new plan of research is briefly presented by technology and timelines.

  19. Effects of rotating flows on combustion and jet noise. (United States)

    Schwartz, I. R.


    Experimental investigations of combustion in rotating (swirling) flow have shown that the mixing and combustion processes were accelerated, flame length and noise levels significantly decreased, and flame stability increased relative to that obtained without rotation. Unsteady burning accompanied by a pulsating flame, violent fluctuating jet, and intense noise present in straight flow burning were not present in rotating flow burning. Correlations between theory and experiment show good agreement. Such effects due to rotating flows could lead to suppressing jet noise, improving combustion, reducing pollution, and decreasing aircraft engine size. Quantitative analysis of the aero-acoustic relationship and noise source characteristics are needed.-

  20. Postharvest Monitoring of Tomato Ripening Using the Dynamic Laser Speckle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Mariusz Pieczywek


    Full Text Available The dynamic laser speckle (biospeckle method was tested as a potential tool for the assessment and monitoring of the maturity stage of tomatoes. Two tomato cultivars—Admiro and Starbuck—were tested. The process of climacteric maturation of tomatoes was monitored during a shelf life storage experiment. The biospeckle phenomena were captured using 640 nm and 830 nm laser light wavelength, and analysed using two activity descriptors based on biospeckle pattern decorrelation—C4 and ε. The well-established optical parameters of tomatoes skin were used as a reference method (luminosity, a*/b*, chroma. Both methods were tested with respect to their prediction capabilities of the maturity and destructive indicators of tomatoes—firmness, chlorophyll and carotenoids content. The statistical significance of the tested relationships were investigated by means of linear regression models. The climacteric maturation of tomato fruit was associated with an increase in biospckle activity. Compared to the 830 nm laser wavelength the biospeckle activity measured at 640 nm enabled more accurate predictions of firmness, chlorophyll and carotenoids content. At 640 nm laser wavelength both activity descriptors (C4 and ε provided similar results, while at 830 nm the ε showed slightly better performance. The linear regression models showed that biospeckle activity descriptors had a higher correlation with chlorophyll and carotenoids content than the a*/b* ratio and luminosity. The results for chroma were comparable with the results for both biospeckle activity indicators. The biospeckle method showed very good results in terms of maturation monitoring and the prediction of the maturity indices of tomatoes, proving the possibility of practical implementation of this method for the determination of the maturity stage of tomatoes.

  1. Miniaturization of speckle interferometry for rapid strain analysis (United States)

    Wegner, Ronny; Ettemeyer, Andreas


    Today's industry demands high-performance components meeting toughest mechanical features and ultimate safety standards. Especially in automotive and aircraft industry the development focuses on tailor-made design and solutions according to customer specifications. To reconcile economy, light-weight construction has become a key issue. Many companies are looking for new advanced strain/stress analysis techniques to improve cost efficiency and the limitations of classical methods. Detection of weak points and fatigue tests are carried out mainly with strain gauges which need careful application and experience. ESPI (electronic speckle pattern interferometry) allows a rapid, full field and 3D-measurement without contact. This paper presents the principle and application of a new miniaturized laser optical sensor combining contour and deformation measurement. In its basic employment ESPI is an interferometric method measuring deformations at modern working materials with high accuracy. Here also a module for contouring was developed and integrated into a single interferometer. Therefore even at complex components it is possible to measure and display strain-fields and -gradients with respect to the underlying contour. The new sensor is a unique device for flexible strain-analysis at welded-materials, extrusions, engines, car-bodies, etc. Without preparation and due to the full field and 3D- measurement 'hot spots' are shown, reducing the testing procedure and increasing the reliability of the complex component testing significantly. In this paper the recent development of a miniaturized ESPI-interferometer for strain and stress measurement is described. Advanced features according to classical techniques are specified and new applications in material and component testing are presented.

  2. What Do Contrast Threshold Equivalent Noise Studies Actually Measure? Noise vs. Nonlinearity in Different Masking Paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex S Baldwin

    Full Text Available The internal noise present in a linear system can be quantified by the equivalent noise method. By measuring the effect that applying external noise to the system's input has on its output one can estimate the variance of this internal noise. By applying this simple "linear amplifier" model to the human visual system, one can entirely explain an observer's detection performance by a combination of the internal noise variance and their efficiency relative to an ideal observer. Studies using this method rely on two crucial factors: firstly that the external noise in their stimuli behaves like the visual system's internal noise in the dimension of interest, and secondly that the assumptions underlying their model are correct (e.g. linearity. Here we explore the effects of these two factors while applying the equivalent noise method to investigate the contrast sensitivity function (CSF. We compare the results at 0.5 and 6 c/deg from the equivalent noise method against those we would expect based on pedestal masking data collected from the same observers. We find that the loss of sensitivity with increasing spatial frequency results from changes in the saturation constant of the gain control nonlinearity, and that this only masquerades as a change in internal noise under the equivalent noise method. Part of the effect we find can be attributed to the optical transfer function of the eye. The remainder can be explained by either changes in effective input gain, divisive suppression, or a combination of the two. Given these effects the efficiency of our observers approaches the ideal level. We show the importance of considering these factors in equivalent noise studies.

  3. Dynamic laser speckle to detect motile bacterial response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendra, H; Murialdo, S; Passoni, L


    This proposal deals with the technique for detection of motile response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using dynamic laser speckle or biospeckle as an alternative method. The study of bacterial displacement plays an essential role in biocatalysts processes and biodegradation. Hence, some biodegrading enzymes are benign catalytic that could be used for the production of industrially useful compounds as well as in wastewater treatments. This work presents an experimental set up and a computational process using frame sequences of dynamic laser speckle as a novel application. The objective was the detection of different levels of motility in bacteria. The encouraging results were achieved through a direct and non invasive observation method of the phenomenon

  4. Intensity dependent waiting time for strong electron trapping events in speckle stimulated raman scatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Harvey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daughton, W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yin, L [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The onset of Stimulated Raman scatter from an intense laser speckle is the simplest experimentally realizable laser-plasma-interaction environment. Despite this data and recent 3D particle simulations, the controlling mechanism at the onset of backscatter in the kinetic regime when strong electron trapping in the daughter Langmuir wave is a dominant nonlinearity is not understood. This paper explores the consequences of assuming that onset is controlled by large thermal fluctuations. A super exponential dependence of mean reflectivity on speckle intensity in the onset regime is predicted.

  5. Near-field to far-field characterization of speckle patterns generated by disordered nanomaterials. (United States)

    Parigi, Valentina; Perros, Elodie; Binard, Guillaume; Bourdillon, Céline; Maître, Agnès; Carminati, Rémi; Krachmalnicoff, Valentina; De Wilde, Yannick


    We study the intensity spatial correlation function of optical speckle patterns above a disordered dielectric medium in the multiple scattering regime. The intensity distributions are recorded by scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) with sub-wavelength spatial resolution at variable distances from the surface in a range which spans continuously from the near-field (distance ≪ λ) to the far-field regime (distance ≫ λ). The non-universal behavior at sub-wavelength distances reveals the connection between the near-field speckle pattern and the internal structure of the medium.

  6. Speckle technologies and measurement of retinal visual acuity in cataract patients (United States)

    Akchurin, Garif G.; Bakutkin, Valery V.; Radchenko, Elena Y.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Akchurin, Alexander G.


    Special features of speckle-modulated laser fields arising at in vitro measurements of different types of human cataractous lenses have been investigated experimentally. Computer analysis of digital images has allowed for estimation of destruction of the spatial coherence of a laser beam scattered by a turbid lens. Applied speckle-technologies have permitted the range of retinal angular resolution to be estimated with the help of laser retinometer at the stage of preoperative cataract diagnosis. An extent of laser retinometry at measuring visual acu9ity in patients with any type of cataract, and an incorrectness of its estimation by means of opto types charts have been set up.

  7. Three Dimensional Speckle Imaging Employing a Frequency-Locked Tunable Diode Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Bret D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schiffern, John T.; Mendoza, Albert


    We describe a high accuracy frequency stepping method for a tunable diode laser to improve a three dimensional (3D) imaging approach based upon interferometric speckle imaging. The approach, modeled after Takeda, exploits tuning an illumination laser in frequency as speckle interferograms of the object (specklegrams) are acquired at each frequency in a Michelson interferometer. The resulting 3D hypercube of specklegrams encode spatial information in the x-y plane of each image with laser tuning arrayed along its z-axis. We present laboratory data of before and after results showing enhanced 3D imaging resulting from precise laser frequency control.

  8. Growth hormone suppression test (United States)

    ... page: // Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  9. Aviation noise effects (United States)

    Newman, J. S.; Beattie, K. R.


    This report summarizes the effects of aviation noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a bottom line conclusion, criterion or perspective. Issues related to aviation noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific topic addressed include: annoyance; Hearing and hearing loss; noise metrics; human response to noise; speech interference; sleep interference; non-auditory health effects of noise; effects of noise on wild and domesticated animals; low frequency acoustical energy; impulsive noise; time of day weightings; noise contours; land use compatibility; and real estate values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with aviation noise to experts in the field.

  10. Synchronization of Time-Delay Chaotic System in Presence of Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Lei


    Full Text Available Chaotic synchronization, as a key technique of chaotic secure communication, has received much attention in recent years. This paper proposes a nonlinear synchronization scheme for the time-delay chaotic system in the presence of noise. In this scheme, an integrator is introduced to suppress the influence of channel noise in the synchronization process. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed scheme which is strongly robust against noises, especially the high-frequency noises.

  11. Semi-classical noise investigation for sub-40nm metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors


    C. Spathis; A. Birbas; K. Georgakopoulou


    Device white noise levels in short channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) dictate the performance and reliability of high-frequency circuits ranging from high-speed microprocessors to Low-Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) and microwave circuits. Recent experimental noise measurements with very short devices demonstrate the existence of suppressed shot noise, contrary to the predictions of classical channel thermal noise models. In this work we show that, as the dimensions ...

  12. Solar noise storms

    CERN Document Server

    Elgaroy, E O


    Solar Noise Storms examines the properties and features of solar noise storm phenomenon. The book also presents some theories that can be used to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon. The coverage of the text includes topics that cover the features and behavior of noise storms, such as the observable features of noise storms; the relationship between noise storms and the observable features on the sun; and ordered behavior of storm bursts in the time-frequency plane. The book also covers the spectrum, polarization, and directivity of noise storms. The text will be of great use to astr

  13. The genetic reservation of Hungarian Speckled Hen and the Speckled Transylvanian Naked Neck Hen in Hódmezővásárhely

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Benk


    Full Text Available Our faculty has been dealing with the cross-breeding of Hungarian speckled hen to maintain the species since 1977. We keep two varieties of the Hungarian speckled hen, the feathered-neck variant and the bare-neck type on the pilot farm. The three colour variations of the domestic hen species were bred from the Hungarian lea-land bird by the middle of the 20th Century. Because of the spread of intensive poultry keeping the population of this species has become endangered. Programs supporting ecological-biological farming that began in the last two decades placed the domestically bred birds in the forefront both as purebreds and as candidates in projects for developing merchandisable bio-poultry. Beside the gene preservation, we endeavour to find the best way for the productionpurpose utilisation of the speckled hen stock. On the basis of our experiments the laying hens can be used in small scale egg production. We examined the egg production, the eggshell colour and the hatching results.

  14. Noise propagation in gene regulation networks involving interlinked positive and negative feedback loops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    Full Text Available It is well known that noise is inevitable in gene regulatory networks due to the low-copy numbers of molecules and local environmental fluctuations. The prediction of noise effects is a key issue in ensuring reliable transmission of information. Interlinked positive and negative feedback loops are essential signal transduction motifs in biological networks. Positive feedback loops are generally believed to induce a switch-like behavior, whereas negative feedback loops are thought to suppress noise effects. Here, by using the signal sensitivity (susceptibility and noise amplification to quantify noise propagation, we analyze an abstract model of the Myc/E2F/MiR-17-92 network that is composed of a coupling between the E2F/Myc positive feedback loop and the E2F/Myc/miR-17-92 negative feedback loop. The role of the feedback loop on noise effects is found to depend on the dynamic properties of the system. When the system is in monostability or bistability with high protein concentrations, noise is consistently suppressed. However, the negative feedback loop reduces this suppression ability (or improves the noise propagation and enhances signal sensitivity. In the case of excitability, bistability, or monostability, noise is enhanced at low protein concentrations. The negative feedback loop reduces this noise enhancement as well as the signal sensitivity. In all cases, the positive feedback loop acts contrary to the negative feedback loop. We also found that increasing the time scale of the protein module or decreasing the noise autocorrelation time can enhance noise suppression; however, the systems sensitivity remains unchanged. Taken together, our results suggest that the negative/positive feedback mechanisms in coupled feedback loop dynamically buffer noise effects rather than only suppressing or amplifying the noise.

  15. Helicopter Noise And Noise Abatement Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borivoj Galović


    Full Text Available The helicopter generated noise at and around the airports islower than the noise generated by aeroplanes, since their numberof operations, i. e. the number of takeoffs and landings ismuch lower than the takeoffs and landings of the aeroplanes.Out of some hundred operations a day, helicopters participatewith approximately 15%, but the very impact of noise is by nomeans negligible, since the number of helicopter flights aboveurban areas is constantly increasing.This paper attempts to analyse this phenomenon and thetype of helicopter generated noise, its negative impacts, to explainthe flight procedures and the operative procedures duringtakeoff, landing and overflight of helicopters in operations inthe vicinity and outside airports, as well as the methods of measuringand determining the limit of noise [eve~ and the resultingproblems.

  16. Analysis of error functions in speckle shearing interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah


    Electronic Speckle Pattern Shearing Interferometry (ESPSI) or shearography has successfully been used in NDT for slope (∂w/ (∂x and / or (∂w/ (∂y) measurement while strain measurement (∂u/ ∂x, ∂v/ ∂y, ∂u/ ∂y and (∂v/ (∂x) is still under investigation. This method is well accepted in industrial applications especially in the aerospace industry. Demand of this method is increasing due to complexity of the test materials and objects. ESPSI has successfully performed in NDT only for qualitative measurement whilst quantitative measurement is the current aim of many manufacturers. Industrial use of such equipment is being completed without considering the errors arising from numerous sources, including wavefront divergence. The majority of commercial systems are operated with diverging object illumination wave fronts without considering the curvature of the object illumination wavefront or the object geometry, when calculating the interferometer fringe function and quantifying data. This thesis reports the novel approach in quantified maximum phase change difference analysis for derivative out-of-plane (OOP) and in-plane (IP) cases that propagate from the divergent illumination wavefront compared to collimated illumination. The theoretical of maximum phase difference is formulated by means of three dependent variables, these being the object distance, illuminated diameter, center of illuminated area and camera distance and illumination angle. The relative maximum phase change difference that may contributed to the error in the measurement analysis in this scope of research is defined by the difference of maximum phase difference value measured by divergent illumination wavefront relative to the maximum phase difference value of collimated illumination wavefront, taken at the edge of illuminated area. Experimental validation using test objects for derivative out-of-plane and derivative in-plane deformation, using a single illumination wavefront

  17. Passive, broadband suppression of radiation of low-frequency sound. (United States)

    Godin, Oleg A; Baynes, Alexander B


    Anthropogenic noise pollution of the ocean is an acute and growing problem. This letter explores one possible mechanism of noise abatement. The far-field acoustic pressure due to a compact underwater source can be suppressed by placing a small compliant body in the vicinity of the source. Here, the feasibility and efficiency of the suppression are evaluated by quantifying the reduction in radiated acoustic energy for several simple geometries, which include sound sources in an unbounded fluid, near a reflecting boundary, or in a shallow-water waveguide. The analysis is streamlined using analytic solutions for sound diffraction by simple shapes.

  18. Internal noise-sustained circadian rhythms in a Drosophila model. (United States)

    Li, Qianshu; Lang, Xiufeng


    Circadian rhythmic processes, mainly regulated by gene expression at the molecular level, have inherent stochasticity. Their robustness or resistance to internal noise has been extensively investigated by most of the previous studies. This work focuses on the constructive roles of internal noise in a reduced Drosophila model, which incorporates negative and positive feedback loops, each with a time delay. It is shown that internal noise sustains reliable oscillations with periods close to 24 h in a region of parameter space, where the deterministic kinetics would evolve to a stable steady state. The amplitudes of noise-sustained oscillations are significantly affected by the variation of internal noise level, and the best performance of the oscillations could be found at an optimal noise intensity, indicating the occurrence of intrinsic coherence resonance. In the oscillatory region of the deterministic model, the coherence of noisy circadian oscillations is suppressed by internal noise, while the period remains nearly constant over a large range of noise intensity, demonstrating robustness of the Drosophila model for circadian rhythms to intrinsic noise. In addition, the effects of time delay in the positive feedback on the oscillations are also investigated. It is found that the time delay could efficiently tune the performance of the noise-sustained oscillations. These results might aid understanding of the exploitation of intracellular noise in biochemical and genetic regulatory systems.

  19. Comparison of septal strain patterns in dyssynchronous heart failure between speckle tracking echocardiography vendor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Everdingen, Wouter M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413647595; Paiman, Marie-Louise; van Deursen, Caroline J M; Cramer, MJ|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/155240706; Vernooy, Kevin; Delhaas, Tammo; Prinzen, Frits W


    AIM: To analyze inter-vendor differences of speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in imaging cardiac deformation in patients with dyssynchronous heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eleven patients (all with LBBB, median age 60.7 years, 9 males) with implanted cardiac resynchronization therapy

  20. Egg Speckling Patterns Do Not Advertise Offspring Quality or Influence Male Provisioning in Great Tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoddard, M.C.; Fayet, A.; Kilner, R.M.; Hinde, C.A.


    Many passerine birds lay white eggs with reddish brown speckles produced by protoporphyrin pigment. However, the function of these spots is contested. Recently, the sexually selected eggshell coloration (SSEC) hypothesis proposed that eggshell color is a sexually selected signal through which a

  1. Functional assessment of the diaphragm by speckle tracking ultrasound during inspiratory loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mos-Oppersma, Eline; Hatam, Nima; Doorduin, Jonne; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.; Marx, Gernot; Goetzenich, Andreas; Fritsch, Sebastian; Heunks, Leo M.A.; Bruells, Christian S.


    Assessment of diaphragmatic effort is challenging, especially in critically ill patients in the phase of weaning. Fractional thickening during inspiration assessed by ultrasound has been used to estimate diaphragm effort. It is unknown whether more sophisticated ultrasound techniques such as speckle

  2. Application of the spectral analysis of speckle dynamics in some problems of mechanics and nondestructive testing (United States)

    Vladimirov, Alexander P.; Popov, Denis O.; Malygin, Alexander S.; Rzhannikov, Andrey A.


    It is shown, that interpretation of spectra is very simple and can be used for construction of diagrams of total micro - displacements. The spectral analysis was used also for: studying of interaction of a man - made and natural biological membrane with solutions, researches of periodic change of speckle brightness, arising at movement of water in a cuvette and at plastic deformation of materials.

  3. Measurement of fibrous cap thickness in atherosclerotic plaques by spatiotemporal analysis of laser speckle images (United States)

    Nadkarni, Seemantini K.; Bilenca, Alberto; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.


    Necrotic-core fibroatheromas (NCFA) with thin, mechanically weak fibrous caps overlying lipid cores comprise the majority of plaques that rupture and cause acute myocardial infarction. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) has been recently demonstrated to enable atherosclerotic plaque characterization with high accuracy. We investigate spatio-temporal analysis of LSI data, in conjunction with diffusion theory and Monte Carlo modeling of light transport, to estimate fibrous cap thickness in NCFAs. Time-varying laser speckle images of 20 NCFAs are selected for analysis. Spatio-temporal intensity fluctuations are analyzed by exponential fitting of the windowed normalized cross-correlation of sequential laser speckle patterns to obtain the speckle decorrelation time constant, τ(ρ), as a function of distance ρ from the source entry location. The distance, ρ′, at which τ(ρ) dropped to 65% of its maximum value is recorded. Diffusion theory and Monte Carlo models are utilized to estimate the maximum photon penetration depth, zmax(ρ′), for a distance equal to ρ′, measured from LSI. Measurements of zmax(ρ′) correlate well with histological measurements of fibrous cap thickness (R=0.78, p<0.0001), and paired t-tests show no significant difference between the groups (p=0.4). These results demonstrate that spatio-temporal LSI may allow the estimation of fibrous cap thickness in NCFAs, which is an important predictor of plaque Stability. PMID:16674181

  4. [Speckle tracking--a new ultrasound tool for the assessment of fetal myocardial function]. (United States)

    Willruth, A; Geipel, A; Merz, W; Gembruch, U


    Speckle tracking is a new ultrasound tool to assess 2D ventricular global and segmental myocardial velocity and deformation (strain, strain rate). Multiple factors such as fetal motion, high heart rates, low blood pressure, small size of the heart, physiological cardiac translation, filling and maturational changes of myocardium, polyhydramnion, maternal obesity and aortic pulsation can degrade the image quality and result in artifacts and measurement errors which may have an impact on the final analysis. Therefore deformation indices such as strain and strain rate offer a quantitative technique for the estimation of global and segmental myocardial function and contractility. At present longitudinal peak systolic strain is the most commonly applied deformation parameter used to analyse segmental and global myocardial contractility in adults. When obtained using Doppler methods, these measurements are angle dependent, whereas speckle tracking techniques overcome the limitations of Doppler echocardiography which is a particular advantage in foetal echocardiography. Nevertheless, the time and training necessary to acquire high-quality video clips limit the implementation of speckle tracking into clinical routine. It is not yet clear whether this new technique will identify subclinical myocardial impairment earlier than with current techniques or allow for better discrimination between healthy fetuses and fetuses with congenital heart disease. The clinical use of speckle tracking will have to be demonstrated in larger groups of complicated pregnancies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Thermo-mechanical toner transfer for high-quality digital image correlation speckle patterns (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Paolo; Zappa, Emanuele; Matta, Fabio; Sutton, Michael A.


    The accuracy and spatial resolution of full-field deformation measurements performed through digital image correlation are greatly affected by the frequency content of the speckle pattern, which can be effectively controlled using particles with well-defined and consistent shape, size and spacing. This paper introduces a novel toner-transfer technique to impress a well-defined and repeatable speckle pattern on plane and curved surfaces of metallic and cement composite specimens. The speckle pattern is numerically designed, printed on paper using a standard laser printer, and transferred onto the measurement surface via a thermo-mechanical process. The tuning procedure to compensate for the difference between designed and toner-transferred actual speckle size is presented. Based on this evidence, the applicability of the technique is discussed with respect to surface material, dimensions and geometry. Proof of concept of the proposed toner-transfer technique is then demonstrated for the case of a quenched and partitioned welded steel plate subjected to uniaxial tensile loading, and for an aluminum plate exposed to temperatures up to 70% of the melting point of aluminum and past the melting point of typical printer toner powder.

  6. GPC light shaper for speckle-free one- and two-photon contiguous pattern excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark Jayson


    Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) is an efficient method for generating speckle-free contiguous optical distributions useful in diverse applications such as static beam shaping, optical manipulation and recently, for excitation in two-photon optogenetics. To fully utilize typical Gaussian lasers...

  7. Improved quality of optical coherence tomography imaging of basal cell carcinomas using speckle reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Thrane, Lars


    suggests a method for improving OCT image quality for skin cancer imaging. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: OCT is an optical imaging method analogous to ultrasound. Two basal cell carcinomas (BCC) were imaged using an OCT speckle reduction technique (SR-OCT) based on repeated scanning by altering the distance between...

  8. Laser-line scanning speckle reduction based on a one-dimensional beam homogenizer (United States)

    Nelsen, B.; Jacobs, P.; Hartmann, P.


    Laser-line scanners have become ubiquitous in many forms of automation and measurement systems. Despite this fact, these systems are still susceptible to speckle or interference on rough scattering surfaces. Many scanning systems must be calibrated to the material being analyzed to obtain their full potential. In general, post-processing algorithms are used in most modern line-scanning devices in order to smooth out speckle and enhance the resolution through sub-pixel interpolation. However, these post-processing techniques come at a cost of increased CPU time and a subsequent decrease in bandwidth and resolution. in this paper, a low-cost, high-resolution solution to generating speckle-free sharply focused laser lines is presented. The key to this technique relies on only removing the spatial coherence in one dimension using a 1-D cylindrical lens array as a beam homogenizer. This beam homogenizer is then wrapped around and rotated about a central axis in order to remove the temporal component on the laser's coherence. Since the plane-wave-like behavior is maintained along one dimension, this beam can still be sharply focused to a line. however, the spatial coherence and temporal coherence are reduced to the point that speckle is minimally visible.

  9. Temperature mapping of sunspots and pores from speckle reconstructed three colour photometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sütterlin, P.; Wiehr, E.


    The two-dimensional temperature distribution in a highly structured sunspot and in two small umbrae is determined from a three-colour photometry in narrow spectral continua. Disturbing influences from the earth’s atmosphere are removed by speckle masking techniques, yielding a spatial resolution

  10. Becoming-Speckled Warbler: Re/Creating Australian Natural History Pedagogy (United States)

    Stewart, Alistair


    The speckled warbler and other woodland birds of south-eastern Australia have declined dramatically since European settlement; many species are at risk of becoming locally and/or nationally extinct. Coincidently, Australian environmental education research of the last decade has largely been silent on the development of pedagogy that reflects the…

  11. Laser speckle contrast imaging for monitoring changes in microvascular blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrus, Rikard; Strandby, Rune B.; Svendsen, Lars Bo


    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Microvascular blood flow is essential for healing and predicts surgical outcome. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relation between fluxes measured with the laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) technique and changes in absolute blood flow. In addition, we studied...

  12. Single-plane multiple speckle pattern phase retrieval using a deformable mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival F.; Glückstad, Jesper; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    A design for a single-plane multiple speckle pattern phase retrieval technique using a deformable mirror (DM) is analyzed within the formalism of complex ABCD-matrices, facilitating its use in conjunction with dynamic wavefronts. The variable focal length DM positioned at a Fourier plane of a lens...

  13. NESSI and `Alopeke: Two new dual-channel speckle imaging instruments (United States)

    Scott, Nicholas J.


    NESSI and `Alopeke are two new speckle imagers built at NASA's Ames Research Center for community use at the WIYN and Gemini telescopes, respectively. The two instruments are functionally similar and include the capability for wide-field imaging in additional to speckle interferometry. The diffraction-limited imaging available through speckle effectively eliminates distortions due to the presence of Earth's atmosphere by `freezing out' changes in the atmosphere by taking extremely short exposures and combining the resultant speckles in Fourier space. This technique enables angular resolutions equal to the theoretical best possible for a given telescope, effectively giving space-based resolution from the ground. Our instruments provide the highest spatial resolution available today on any single aperture telescope.A primary role of these instruments is exoplanet validation for the Kepler, K2, TESS, and many RV programs. Contrast ratios of 6 or more magnitudes are easily obtained. The instrument uses two emCCD cameras providing simultaneous dual-color observations help to characterize detected companions. High resolution imaging enables the identification of blended binaries that contaminate many exoplanet detections, leading to incorrectly measured radii. In this way small, rocky systems, such as Kepler-186b and the TRAPPIST-1 planet family, may be validated and thus the detected planets radii are correctly measured.

  14. Noise Radar Technology Basics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thayaparan, T; Wernik, C


    .... In this report, the basic theory of noise radar design is treated. The theory supports the use of noise waveforms for radar detection and imaging in such applications as covert military surveillance and reconnaissance...

  15. NASA Jet Noise Research (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda


    The presentation highlights NASA's jet noise research for 2016. Jet-noise modeling efforts, jet-surface interactions results, acoustic characteristics of multi-stream jets, and N+2 Supersonic Aircraft system studies are presented.

  16. Methodology for the conception of speckle reduction elements in the case of short pulse illumination (United States)

    Lutz, Yves; Poyet, Jean-Michel


    One of the most efficient ways to decrease the speckle contrast in the field of laser illumination is to increase the spatial diversity of coherent laser sources. For very short laser pulses such as those required for flash laser imaging, the spatial diversity should take place instantaneously and no time averaging effect can be used. The spatial diversity is realized by sampling the laser beam into m beamlets with increased optical path length. This path length has to be greater than or equal to the coherence length of the laser beam. In this case, the beamlets are no longer able to create interferences which each other. According to the Goodman's theory of speckle reduction, the speckle contrast is then reduced by a factor of 1/√m. Unfortunately, in the case of multimode lasers, the number of uncorrelated beamlets is not infinite but is limited by a periodicity function resulting from the laser resonator length itself. The speckle reduction possibility is therefore limited and is directly linked to each laser source where the coherence length and cavity length are defined. In this work we present a methodology to determine experimentally the optical path length difference as well as the number of beamlets for de-speckling a laser source. An experimental realization is presented where both, coherence length and periodicity function are measured with a Michelson interferometer where only the speckle contrast of the two beams from each arm is analyzed. For the validation of the method, the chosen laser source is a single emitter 660 nm laser diode. Two cylindrical steppers made with diamond turned PMMA have been realized. Both elements yield interesting results with close values and in accordance with the theory of spatial diversity. The speckle contrast could be reduced from about 10% to a value close to 4%. These values confirm and validate the methodology presented in this work. Steppers can also be a promising solution for the reduction of interference fringes

  17. Noise Gating Solar Images (United States)

    DeForest, Craig; Seaton, Daniel B.; Darnell, John A.


    I present and demonstrate a new, general purpose post-processing technique, "3D noise gating", that can reduce image noise by an order of magnitude or more without effective loss of spatial or temporal resolution in typical solar applications.Nearly all scientific images are, ultimately, limited by noise. Noise can be direct Poisson "shot noise" from photon counting effects, or introduced by other means such as detector read noise. Noise is typically represented as a random variable (perhaps with location- or image-dependent characteristics) that is sampled once per pixel or once per resolution element of an image sequence. Noise limits many aspects of image analysis, including photometry, spatiotemporal resolution, feature identification, morphology extraction, and background modeling and separation.Identifying and separating noise from image signal is difficult. The common practice of blurring in space and/or time works because most image "signal" is concentrated in the low Fourier components of an image, while noise is evenly distributed. Blurring in space and/or time attenuates the high spatial and temporal frequencies, reducing noise at the expense of also attenuating image detail. Noise-gating exploits the same property -- "coherence" -- that we use to identify features in images, to separate image features from noise.Processing image sequences through 3-D noise gating results in spectacular (more than 10x) improvements in signal-to-noise ratio, while not blurring bright, resolved features in either space or time. This improves most types of image analysis, including feature identification, time sequence extraction, absolute and relative photometry (including differential emission measure analysis), feature tracking, computer vision, correlation tracking, background modeling, cross-scale analysis, visual display/presentation, and image compression.I will introduce noise gating, describe the method, and show examples from several instruments (including SDO

  18. Robust Subspace Clustering With Complex Noise. (United States)

    He, Ran; Zhang, Yingya; Sun, Zhenan; Yin, Qiyue


    Subspace clustering has important and wide applications in computer vision and pattern recognition. It is a challenging task to learn low-dimensional subspace structures due to complex noise existing in high-dimensional data. Complex noise has much more complex statistical structures, and is neither Gaussian nor Laplacian noise. Recent subspace clustering methods usually assume a sparse representation of the errors incurred by noise and correct these errors iteratively. However, large corruptions incurred by complex noise cannot be well addressed by these methods. A novel optimization model for robust subspace clustering is proposed in this paper. Its objective function mainly includes two parts. The first part aims to achieve a sparse representation of each high-dimensional data point with other data points. The second part aims to maximize the correntropy between a given data point and its low-dimensional representation with other points. Correntropy is a robust measure so that the influence of large corruptions on subspace clustering can be greatly suppressed. An extension of pairwise link constraints is also proposed as prior information to deal with complex noise. Half-quadratic minimization is provided as an efficient solution to the proposed robust subspace clustering formulations. Experimental results on three commonly used data sets show that our method outperforms state-of-the-art subspace clustering methods.

  19. When noise became information: State-of-the-art in biospeckle laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Alves Braga Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Laser was presented to science and industry in the 1960s and shortly became a useful tool in many areas, with applications based on its multiple characteristics such as coherence of light, which presents a phenomenon known as interference pattern, or speckle, when beam returns from an illuminated surface. Despite great application of speckle pattern, its residual presence, for example, in interferometric approaches was considered as a noise, demanding filtering. However, grains themselves became information as their dynamic changes in time started to be linked to biological sample activity. Dynamic laser speckle has been since then a phenomenon widely used to monitor biological activities in many areas from agriculture to medicine. It is known as biospeckle laser (BSL when adopted in biological material, with high sensitivity to follow very tiny movements in biological tissues, linked to changes in speckle provided by scatterer activities inside and outside cells. Since the 1970s, biospeckle laser usage follows a crescent technologic spiral where technological developments opened room for new applications, while new demands regarding biological monitoring forced the development of new methodologies. Therefore, potential adoption of the phenomenon as a sensor, for instance, in agricultural and medical processes, as well as constant offer of new devices provided new turns in the BSL technologic spiral and opened room for technique improvement. In this study, I present a short history of biospeckle laser (BSL with applications and development associated with challenges regarding its usage in portable and accessible devices or even in commercial equipment. And the history was packed in a temporal diagram identifying the breakpoints responsible for improvements in the use of the technique.

  20. Equation for Combustion Noise (United States)

    Liu, T. M.


    Mathematical relationship derived for interactions between turbulent flame and combustion noise. Relationship is rigorous theoretical correlation of combustion noise and combustion process. Establishes foundation for acoustic measurements as tool for investigating structure of turbulent flames. Mathematical relationship is expected to aid researchers in field of noise generated by combustion.

  1. Introductory guide to noise

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferreira, T.M


    Full Text Available The difference between sound and noise varies from one human being to another. Noise, then, is simply unwanted sound and to understand how it can be combatted we must know more about its nature. A guide of acceptable levels of noise are investigated....

  2. Noise at the Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Andrew


    The notion of noise occupies a contested territory, in which it is framed as pollution and detritus even as it makes its opposite a possibility - noise is always defined in opposition to something else, even if this ‘other’ is not quite clear. This paper explores noise in the context of ‘the...

  3. Feature tracking measurement of dyssynchrony from cardiovascular magnetic resonance cine acquisitions: comparison with echocardiographic speckle tracking. (United States)

    Onishi, Toshinari; Saha, Samir K; Ludwig, Daniel R; Onishi, Tetsuari; Marek, Josef J; Cavalcante, João L; Schelbert, Erik B; Schwartzman, David; Gorcsan, John


    Analysis of left ventricular (LV) mechanical dyssynchrony may provide incremental prognostic information regarding cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) response in addition to QRS width alone. Our objective was to quantify LV dyssynchrony using feature tracking post processing of routine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) cine acquisitions (FT-CMR) in comparison to speckle tracking echocardiography. We studied 72 consecutive patients who had both steady-state free precession CMR and echocardiography. Mid-LV short axis CMR cines were analyzed using FT-CMR software and compared with echocardiographic speckle tracking radial dyssynchrony (time difference between the anteroseptal and posterior wall peak strain). Radial dyssynchrony analysis was possible by FT-CMR in all patients, and in 67 (93%) by echocardiography. Dyssynchrony by FT-CMR and speckle tracking showed limits of agreement of strain delays of ± 84 ms. These were large (up to 100% or more) relative to the small mean delays measured in more synchronous patients, but acceptable (mainly 200 ms. Radial dyssynchrony was significantly greater in wide QRS patients than narrow QRS patients by both FT-CMR (radial strain delay 230 ± 94 vs. 77 ± 92* ms) and speckle tracking (radial strain delay 242 ± 101 vs. 75 ± 88* ms, all *p acquisitions which, at least for the patients with more marked dyssynchrony, showed reasonable agreement with those from speckle tracking echocardiography. The clinical usefulness of the method, for example in predicting prognosis in CRT patients, remains to be investigated.

  4. Active noise control in a duct to cancel broadband noise (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Chun; Chang, Cheng-Yuan; Kuo, Sen M.


    The paper presents cancelling duct noises by using the active noise control (ANC) techniques. We use the single channel feed forward algorithm with feedback neutralization to realize ANC. Several kinds of ducts noises including tonal noises, sweep tonal signals, and white noise had investigated. Experimental results show that the proposed ANC system can cancel these noises in a PVC duct very well. The noise reduction of white noise can be up to 20 dB.

  5. Classical noise, quantum noise and secure communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannous, C; Langlois, J


    Secure communication based on message encryption might be performed by combining the message with controlled noise (called pseudo-noise) as performed in spread-spectrum communication used presently in Wi-Fi and smartphone telecommunication systems. Quantum communication based on entanglement is another route for securing communications as demonstrated by several important experiments described in this work. The central role played by the photon in unifying the description of classical and quantum noise as major ingredients of secure communication systems is highlighted and described on the basis of the classical and quantum fluctuation dissipation theorems. (review)

  6. Analysis and removing noise from speech using wavelet transform (United States)

    Tomala, Karel; Voznak, Miroslav; Partila, Pavol; Rezac, Filip; Safarik, Jakub


    The paper discusses the use of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT) wavelet in removing noise from voice samples and evaluation of its impact on speech quality. One significant part of Quality of Service (QoS) in communication technology is the speech quality assessment. However, this part is seriously overlooked as telecommunication providers often focus on increasing network capacity, expansion of services offered and their enforcement in the market. Among the fundamental factors affecting the transmission properties of the communication chain is noise, either at the transmitter or the receiver side. A wavelet transform (WT) is a modern tool for signal processing. One of the most significant areas in which wavelet transforms are used is applications designed to suppress noise in signals. To remove noise from the voice sample in our experiment, we used the reference segment of the voice which was distorted by Gaussian white noise. An evaluation of the impact on speech quality was carried out by an intrusive objective algorithm Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ). DWT and SWT transformation was applied to voice samples that were devalued by Gaussian white noise. Afterwards, we determined the effectiveness of DWT and SWT by means of objective algorithm PESQ. The decisive criterion for determining the quality of a voice sample once the noise had been removed was Mean Opinion Score (MOS) which we obtained in PESQ. The contribution of this work lies in the evaluation of efficiency of wavelet transformation to suppress noise in voice samples.

  7. Direct-reading dial for noise temperature and noise resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J.M.


    An attenuator arrangement for a noise generator is described. The scheme permits direct reading of both noise resistance and noise temperature¿the latter with a choice of source resistance.......An attenuator arrangement for a noise generator is described. The scheme permits direct reading of both noise resistance and noise temperature¿the latter with a choice of source resistance....

  8. Optical Johnson noise thermometry (United States)

    Shepard, R. L.; Blalock, T. V.; Maxey, L. C.; Roberts, M. J.; Simpson, M. L.


    A concept is being explored that an optical analog of the electrical Johnson noise may be used to measure temperature independently of emissivity. The concept is that a laser beam may be modulated on reflection from a hot surface by interaction of the laser photons with the thermally agitated conduction electrons or the lattice phonons, thereby adding noise to the reflected laser beam. If the reflectance noise can be detected and quantified in a background of other noise in the optical and signal processing systems, the reflectance noise may provide a noncontact measurement of the absolute surface temperature and may be independent of the surface's emissivity.

  9. Active3 noise reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzfuss, J.


    Noise reduction is a problem being encountered in a variety of applications, such as environmental noise cancellation, signal recovery and separation. Passive noise reduction is done with the help of absorbers. Active noise reduction includes the transmission of phase inverted signals for the cancellation. This paper is about a threefold active approach to noise reduction. It includes the separation of a combined source, which consists of both a noise and a signal part. With the help of interaction with the source by scanning it and recording its response, modeling as a nonlinear dynamical system is achieved. The analysis includes phase space analysis and global radial basis functions as tools for the prediction used in a subsequent cancellation procedure. Examples are given which include noise reduction of speech. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. Simulations of x-ray speckle-based dark-field and phase-contrast imaging with a polychromatic beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdora, Marie-Christine, E-mail: [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Thibault, Pierre [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Pfeiffer, Franz [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Zanette, Irene [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)


    Following the first experimental demonstration of x-ray speckle-based multimodal imaging using a polychromatic beam [I. Zanette et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(25), 253903 (2014)], we present a simulation study on the effects of a polychromatic x-ray spectrum on the performance of this technique. We observe that the contrast of the near-field speckles is only mildly influenced by the bandwidth of the energy spectrum. Moreover, using a homogeneous object with simple geometry, we characterize the beam hardening artifacts in the reconstructed transmission and refraction angle images, and we describe how the beam hardening also affects the dark-field signal provided by speckle tracking. This study is particularly important for further implementations and developments of coherent speckle-based techniques at laboratory x-ray sources.

  11. Airplane wing deformation and flight flutter detection method by using three-dimensional speckle image correlation technology. (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Yu, Zhijing; Wang, Tao; Zhuge, Jingchang; Ji, Yue; Xue, Bin


    Airplane wing deformation is an important element of aerodynamic characteristics, structure design, and fatigue analysis for aircraft manufacturing, as well as a main test content of certification regarding flutter for airplanes. This paper presents a novel real-time detection method for wing deformation and flight flutter detection by using three-dimensional speckle image correlation technology. Speckle patterns whose positions are determined through the vibration characteristic of the aircraft are coated on the wing; then the speckle patterns are imaged by CCD cameras which are mounted inside the aircraft cabin. In order to reduce the computation, a matching technique based on Geodetic Systems Incorporated coded points combined with the classical epipolar constraint is proposed, and a displacement vector map for the aircraft wing can be obtained through comparing the coordinates of speckle points before and after deformation. Finally, verification experiments containing static and dynamic tests by using an aircraft wing model demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Radial and longitudinal strain and strain rate assessed by speckle-tracking echocardiography in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Tidholm, A.; Nägga, K.M.


    Assessment of left ventricular (LV) function using conventional echocardiographic methods is difficult in mitral regurgitation (MR) owing to altered hemodynamic loading conditions. Newer methods such as speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) provide assessment of LV strain (St) and strain rates...

  13. A reduced gastric corpus microvascular blood flow during Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy detected by laser speckle contrast imaging technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrus, Rikard; Svendsen, Lars Bo; Secher, Niels H.


    BACKGROUND: Reduced microvascular blood flow is related to anastomotic insufficiency following esophagectomy, emphasizing a need for intraoperative monitoring of the microcirculation. This study evaluated if laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) was able to detect intraoperative changes in gastric...

  14. Estimation of individual response in finger blood concentration change under occlusion on human arm using speckle patterns (United States)

    Yokoi, Naomichi; Shinohara, Tomomi; Okazaki, Syunya; Funamizu, Hideki; Kyoso, Masaki; Shimatani, Yuichi; Yuasa, Tomonori; Aizu, Yoshihisa


    We have developed the method for imaging blood flow and blood concentration change by using laser speckle in fiber illumination. We experimentally discuss the relationship of blood occlusion condition and individual response of blood concentration change measured by the method.

  15. Modulation analysis in spatial phase shifting electronic speckle pattern interferometry and application for automated data selection on biological specimens (United States)

    Knoche, Sabine; Kemper, Björn; Wernicke, Günther; von Bally, Gert


    In electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), for a fast and objective analysis of measurement data which occur with a high repetition rate, an automated data processing is of particular advantage. For this reason, investigations were carried out to determine if the modulation of speckle interferograms can be applied as a quality parameter for the selection of suitable interferogram data for further evaluation e.g. phase unwrapping when spatial phase shifting (SPS) is performed. Six methods for determining the modulation of speckle interferograms are characterised and compared. The applicability of the speckle interferogram modulation as a parameter for mask generation in the unwrapping process of the phase difference is demonstrated by the evaluation of measurement data obtained from experiments with a spatial phase shifting endoscopic ESPI system on a technical surface and on a human gastrectomy specimen.

  16. The possibilities laser and computer Speckle-holographic of the interferometer for study concentrated flow to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, A.V.; Lonin, Yu.F.; Kudryavtsev, V.I.; Poddubko, N.S.; Tolstolutskij, A.G.


    Proposed solution to the problem of measuring small energies can be carried out by creating a new measuring device based on the unique properties of speckle holography with modern developments in the field of video and computer equipment. The developed laser speckle computer holographic interferometer (LKSGI) is a rapid analysis instrument movements at the nanometer scale, and with it the energy level mJ with the spatial and temporal resolution.

  17. Close Binary Star Speckle Interferometry on the McMath-Pierce 0.8-Meter Solar Telescope (United States)

    Wiley, Edward; Harshaw, Richard; Jones, Gregory; Branston, Detrick; Boyce, Patrick; Rowe, David; Ridgely, John; Estrada, Reed; Genet, Russell


    Observations were made in April 2014 to assess the utility of the 0.8-meter solar telescope at the McMath-Pierce Solar Observatory at Kitt Peak National Observatory for performing speckle interferometry observations of close binary stars. Several configurations using science cameras, acquisition cameras, eyepieces, and flip mirrors were evaluated. Speckle images were obtained and recommendations for further improvement of the acquisition system are presented.

  18. Changes in speckle patterns induced by load application onto an optical fiber and its possible application for sensing purpose (United States)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Okumura, Jyun-ya; Hyuga, Akio


    Speckle patterns to be observed in an output light spot from an optical fiber are known to be changed due to external disturbances applied onto the optical fiber. In order to investigate possibilities of utilizing such changes in speckle patterns for sensing application, a certain load was applied onto a jacket-covered communication-grade multi-mode glass optical fiber through which laser beams emitted from a laser diode were propagating, and observed changes in speckle patterns in the output light spot from the optical fiber were investigated both as image data via a CCD camera and as an output voltage from a photovoltaic panel irradiated with the output light spot. The load was applied via a load application mechanism in which several ridges were provided onto opposite flat plates and a certain number of weights were placed there so that corrugated bending of the optical fiber was intentionally induced via load application due to the ridges. The obtained results showed that the number of speckles in the observed pattern in the output light spot as well as the output voltage from the photovoltaic panel irradiated with the output light spot showed decreases upon load application with relatively satisfactory repeatability. When the load was reduced, i.e., the weights were removed, the number of speckles then showed recovery. These results indicate there is a certain possibility of utilizing changes in speckle patterns for sensing of load application onto the optical fiber.

  19. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Funahashi, Toshihiro.


    Purpose: To provide a structure which permits the absorption of shocks and vibratory load produced on the floor of a pressure suppression chamber due to nitrogen gas or the like discharged into pool water in the pressure suppression chamber at the time of a loss-of-coolant accident. Constitution: A pressure suppression chamber accommodating pool water is comprised of a bottom wall and side walls constructed of concrete on the inner side of a liner. By providing concrete on the bottom surface and side wall surfaces of a pressure suppression chamber, it is possible to prevent non-condensing gas and steam exhausted from the vent duct and exhaust duct of a main vapor escapement safety valve exhaust duct from exerting impact forces and vibratory forces upon the bottom and side surfaces of the pressure suppression chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  20. Adaptive noise cancellation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, N.


    In this report we describe the concept of adaptive noise canceling, an alternative method of estimating signals corrupted by additive noise of interference. The method uses 'primary' input containing the corrupted signal and a 'reference' input containing noise correlated in some unknown way with the primary noise, the reference input is adaptively filtered and subtracted from the primary input to obtain the signal estimate. Adaptive filtering before subtraction allows the treatment of inputs that are deterministic or stochastic, stationary or time variable. When the reference input is free of signal and certain other conditions are met then noise in the primary input can be essentially eliminated without signal distortion. It is further shown that the adaptive filter also acts as notch filter. Simulated results illustrate the usefulness of the adaptive noise canceling technique. (author)