WorldWideScience

Sample records for suppressing plant diseases

  1. A review of the use of engineered nanomaterials to suppress plant disease and enhance crop yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servin, Alia; Elmer, Wade; Mukherjee, Arnab; Torre-Roche, Roberto De la; Hamdi, Helmi; White, Jason C.; Bindraban, Prem; Dimkpa, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential to play a critical role in global food production, food security, and food safety. The applications of nanotechnology in agriculture include fertilizers to increase plant growth and yield, pesticides for pest and disease management, and sensors for monitoring soil quality and plant health. Over the past decade, a number of patents and products incorporating nanomaterials into agricultural practices (e.g., nanopesticides, nanofertilizers, and nanosensors) have been developed. The collective goal of all of these approaches is to enhance the efficiency and sustainability of agricultural practices by requiring less input and generating less waste than conventional products and approaches. This review evaluates the current literature on the use of nanoscale nutrients (metals, metal oxides, carbon) to suppress crop disease and subsequently enhance growth and yield. Notably, this enhanced yield may not only be directly linked to the reduced presence of pathogenic organisms, but also to the potential nutritional value of the nanoparticles themselves, especially for the essential micronutrients necessary for host defense. We also posit that these positive effects are likely a result of the greater availability of the nutrients in the “nano” form. Last, we offer comments on the current regulatory perspective for such applications

  2. A review of the use of engineered nanomaterials to suppress plant disease and enhance crop yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servin, Alia; Elmer, Wade; Mukherjee, Arnab; Torre-Roche, Roberto De la [The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station (United States); Hamdi, Helmi [University of Carthage, Water Research and Technology Center (Tunisia); White, Jason C., E-mail: jason.white@ct.gov [The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station (United States); Bindraban, Prem; Dimkpa, Christian [Virtual Fertilizer Research Center (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Nanotechnology has the potential to play a critical role in global food production, food security, and food safety. The applications of nanotechnology in agriculture include fertilizers to increase plant growth and yield, pesticides for pest and disease management, and sensors for monitoring soil quality and plant health. Over the past decade, a number of patents and products incorporating nanomaterials into agricultural practices (e.g., nanopesticides, nanofertilizers, and nanosensors) have been developed. The collective goal of all of these approaches is to enhance the efficiency and sustainability of agricultural practices by requiring less input and generating less waste than conventional products and approaches. This review evaluates the current literature on the use of nanoscale nutrients (metals, metal oxides, carbon) to suppress crop disease and subsequently enhance growth and yield. Notably, this enhanced yield may not only be directly linked to the reduced presence of pathogenic organisms, but also to the potential nutritional value of the nanoparticles themselves, especially for the essential micronutrients necessary for host defense. We also posit that these positive effects are likely a result of the greater availability of the nutrients in the “nano” form. Last, we offer comments on the current regulatory perspective for such applications.

  3. The effector SPRYSEC-19 of Globodera rostochiensis suppresses CC-NB-LRR-mediated disease resistance in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Wiebe J; Slootweg, Erik J; Rehman, Sajid; Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Tytgat, Tom O G; van Gelderen, Kasper; Lozano-Torres, Jose L; Roosien, Jan; Pomp, Rikus; van Schaik, Casper; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska; Smant, Geert

    2012-10-01

    The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis invades roots of host plants where it transforms cells near the vascular cylinder into a permanent feeding site. The host cell modifications are most likely induced by a complex mixture of proteins in the stylet secretions of the nematodes. Resistance to nematodes conferred by nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins usually results in a programmed cell death in and around the feeding site, and is most likely triggered by the recognition of effectors in stylet secretions. However, the actual role of these secretions in the activation and suppression of effector-triggered immunity is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the effector SPRYSEC-19 of G. rostochiensis physically associates in planta with the LRR domain of a member of the SW5 resistance gene cluster in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Unexpectedly, this interaction did not trigger defense-related programmed cell death and resistance to G. rostochiensis. By contrast, agroinfiltration assays showed that the coexpression of SPRYSEC-19 in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana suppresses programmed cell death mediated by several coiled-coil (CC)-NB-LRR immune receptors. Furthermore, SPRYSEC-19 abrogated resistance to Potato virus X mediated by the CC-NB-LRR resistance protein Rx1, and resistance to Verticillium dahliae mediated by an unidentified resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum). The suppression of cell death and disease resistance did not require a physical association of SPRYSEC-19 and the LRR domains of the CC-NB-LRR resistance proteins. Altogether, our data demonstrated that potato cyst nematodes secrete effectors that enable the suppression of programmed cell death and disease resistance mediated by several CC-NB-LRR proteins in plants.

  4. Effect of successive cauliflower plantings and Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 inoculations on disease suppressiveness of a suppressive and a conducive soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Scheper, R.W.A.; Schilder, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Disease suppressiveness against Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 in cauliflower was studied in two marine clay soils with a sandy loam texture. The soils had a different cropping history. One soil had a long-term (40 years) cauliflower history and was suppressive, the other soil was conducive and came from

  5. Biowaste-derived hydrolysates as plant disease suppressants for oilseed rape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindřichová, Barbora; Burketová, Lenka; Montoneri, E.; Francavilla, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 183, MAY 10 (2018), s. 335-342 ISSN 0959-6526 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14056 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Biogas digestate * Compost * Induced resistance * Leptosphaeria maculans * Oilseed rape Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.715, year: 2016

  6. Impact of soil heat on reassembly of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere microbiome and plant disease suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, van der M.; Kempenaar, Marcel; Driel, van Marc; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; Mendes, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    The rhizosphere microbiome offers a range of ecosystem services to the plant, including nutrient acquisition and tolerance to (a)biotic stress. Here, analysing the data by Mendes et al. (2011), we show that short heat disturbances (50 or 80 °C, 1 h) of a soil suppressive to the root pathogenic

  7. Impact of soil heat on reassembly of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere microbiome and plant disease suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voort, M.; Kempenaar, M.; van Driel, M.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Mendes, R.

    2016-01-01

    The rhizosphere microbiome offers a range of ecosystem services to the plant, including nutrient acquisition and tolerance to (a)biotic stress. Here, analysing the data by Mendes et al. (2011), we show that short heat disturbances (50 or 80 °C, 1 h) of a soil suppressive to the root pathogenic

  8. Microbial enrichment to enhance the disease suppressive activity of compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Montenari, M.; Boogert, van den P.H.J.F.

    2003-01-01

    Compost amended soil has been found to be suppressive against plant diseases in various cropping systems. The level and reproducibility of disease suppressive properties of compost might be increased by the addition of antagonists. In the present study, the establishment and suppressive activity of

  9. The Effector SPRYSEC-19 of Globodera rostochiensis Suppresses CC-NB-LRR-Mediated Disease Resistance in Plants1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Wiebe J.; Slootweg, Erik J.; Rehman, Sajid; Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Tytgat, Tom O.G.; van Gelderen, Kasper; Lozano-Torres, Jose L.; Roosien, Jan; Pomp, Rikus; van Schaik, Casper; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska; Smant, Geert

    2012-01-01

    The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis invades roots of host plants where it transforms cells near the vascular cylinder into a permanent feeding site. The host cell modifications are most likely induced by a complex mixture of proteins in the stylet secretions of the nematodes. Resistance to nematodes conferred by nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins usually results in a programmed cell death in and around the feeding site, and is most likely triggered by the recognition of effectors in stylet secretions. However, the actual role of these secretions in the activation and suppression of effector-triggered immunity is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the effector SPRYSEC-19 of G. rostochiensis physically associates in planta with the LRR domain of a member of the SW5 resistance gene cluster in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Unexpectedly, this interaction did not trigger defense-related programmed cell death and resistance to G. rostochiensis. By contrast, agroinfiltration assays showed that the coexpression of SPRYSEC-19 in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana suppresses programmed cell death mediated by several coiled-coil (CC)-NB-LRR immune receptors. Furthermore, SPRYSEC-19 abrogated resistance to Potato virus X mediated by the CC-NB-LRR resistance protein Rx1, and resistance to Verticillium dahliae mediated by an unidentified resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum). The suppression of cell death and disease resistance did not require a physical association of SPRYSEC-19 and the LRR domains of the CC-NB-LRR resistance proteins. Altogether, our data demonstrated that potato cyst nematodes secrete effectors that enable the suppression of programmed cell death and disease resistance mediated by several CC-NB-LRR proteins in plants. PMID:22904163

  10. In vivo assessment of plant extracts for control of plant diseases: A sesquiterpene ketolactone isolated from Curcuma zedoaria suppresses wheat leaf rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae Woo; Shim, Sang Hee; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Choi, Yong Ho; Dang, Quang Le; Kim, Hun; Choi, Gyung Ja

    2018-02-01

    As an alternative to synthetic pesticides, natural materials such as plant extracts and microbes have been considered to control plant diseases. In this study, methanol extracts of 120 plants were explored for in vivo antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora infestans, Puccinia triticina, and Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Of the 120 plant extracts, eight plant extracts exhibited a disease control efficacy of more than 90% against at least one of five plant diseases. In particular, a methanol extract of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes exhibited strong activity against wheat leaf rust caused by P. triticina. When the C. zedoaria methanol extracts were partitioned with various solvents, the layers of n-hexane, methylene chloride, and ethyl acetate showed disease control values of 100, 80, and 43%, respectively, against wheat leaf rust. From the C. zedoaria rhizome extracts, an antifungal substance was isolated and identified as a sesquiterpene ketolactone based on the mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data. The active compound controlled the development of rice sheath blight, wheat leaf rust, and tomato late blight. Considering the in vivo antifungal activities of the sesquiterpene ketolactone and the C. zedoaria extracts, these results suggest that C. zedoaria can be used as a potent fungicide in organic agriculture.

  11. Evasion and suppression of plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, M.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Every year up to 20% of the crop production with an economical value of almost 200 billion euro is lost due to plant diseases. To be able to develop effective and durable strategies to counteract these plant diseases, understanding the mechanisms that enable pathogens to cause disease is essential.

  12. A saponin-detoxifying enzyme mediates suppression of plant defences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouarab, K.; Melton, R.; Peart, J.; Baulcombe, D.; Osbourn, A.

    2002-08-01

    Plant disease resistance can be conferred by constitutive features such as structural barriers or preformed antimicrobial secondary metabolites. Additional defence mechanisms are activated in response to pathogen attack and include localized cell death (the hypersensitive response). Pathogens use different strategies to counter constitutive and induced plant defences, including degradation of preformed antimicrobial compounds and the production of molecules that suppress induced plant defences. Here we present evidence for a two-component process in which a fungal pathogen subverts the preformed antimicrobial compounds of its host and uses them to interfere with induced defence responses. Antimicrobial saponins are first hydrolysed by a fungal saponin-detoxifying enzyme. The degradation product of this hydrolysis then suppresses induced defence responses by interfering with fundamental signal transduction processes leading to disease resistance.

  13. Effectors from Wheat Rust Fungi Suppress Multiple Plant Defense Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Sowmya R; Yin, Chuntao; Kud, Joanna; Tanaka, Kiwamu; Mahoney, Aaron K; Xiao, Fangming; Hulbert, Scot H

    2017-01-01

    Fungi that cause cereal rust diseases (genus Puccinia) are important pathogens of wheat globally. Upon infection, the fungus secretes a number of effector proteins. Although a large repository of putative effectors has been predicted using bioinformatic pipelines, the lack of available high-throughput effector screening systems has limited functional studies on these proteins. In this study, we mined the available transcriptomes of Puccinia graminis and P. striiformis to look for potential effectors that suppress host hypersensitive response (HR). Twenty small (wheat, confirming its activity in a homologous system. Overall, this study provides the first evidence for the presence of effectors in Puccinia species suppressing multiple plant defense responses.

  14. Suppression of soil nitrification by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, Guntur Venkata; Yoshihashi, Tadashi; Worthington, Margaret; Nakahara, Kazuhiko; Ando, Yasuo; Sahrawat, Kanwar Lal; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudhana; Lata, Jean-Christophe; Kishii, Masahiro; Braun, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Nitrification, the biological oxidation of ammonium to nitrate, weakens the soil's ability to retain N and facilitates N-losses from production agriculture through nitrate-leaching and denitrification. This process has a profound influence on what form of mineral-N is absorbed, used by plants, and retained in the soil, or lost to the environment, which in turn affects N-cycling, N-use efficiency (NUE) and ecosystem health and services. As reactive-N is often the most limiting in natural ecosystems, plants have acquired a range of mechanisms that suppress soil-nitrifier activity to limit N-losses via N-leaching and denitrification. Plants' ability to produce and release nitrification inhibitors from roots and suppress soil-nitrifier activity is termed 'biological nitrification inhibition' (BNI). With recent developments in methodology for in-situ measurement of nitrification inhibition, it is now possible to characterize BNI function in plants. This review assesses the current status of our understanding of the production and release of biological nitrification inhibitors (BNIs) and their potential in improving NUE in agriculture. A suite of genetic, soil and environmental factors regulate BNI activity in plants. BNI-function can be genetically exploited to improve the BNI-capacity of major food- and feed-crops to develop next-generation production systems with reduced nitrification and N2O emission rates to benefit both agriculture and the environment. The feasibility of such an approach is discussed based on the progresses made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Variation in plant defense suppresses herbivore performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Ian; Paul, Ryan; Ode, Paul J.

    2018-01-01

    Defensive variability of crops and natural systems can alter herbivore communities and reduce herbivory. However, it is still unknown how defense variability translates into herbivore suppression. Nonlinear averaging and constraints in physiological tracking (also more generally called time-dependent effects) are the two mechanisms by which defense variability might impact herbivores. We conducted a set of experiments manipulating the mean and variability of a plant defense, showing that defense variability does suppress herbivore performance and that it does so through physiological tracking effects that cannot be explained by nonlinear averaging. While nonlinear averaging predicted higher or the same herbivore performance on a variable defense than on an invariable defense, we show that variability actually decreased herbivore performance and population growth rate. Defense variability reduces herbivore performance in a way that is more than the average of its parts. This is consistent with constraints in physiological matching of detoxification systems for herbivores experiencing variable toxin levels in their diet and represents a more generalizable way of understanding the impacts of variability on herbivory. Increasing defense variability in croplands at a scale encountered by individual herbivores can suppress herbivory, even if that is not anticipated by nonlinear averaging.

  16. Diversity and functions of volatile organic compounds produced by Streptomyces from a disease-suppressive soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordovez da Cunha, V.; Carrion Bravo, V.J.; Etalo, D.W.; Mumm, R.; Zhu, H.; Wezel, van G.P.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In disease-suppressive soils, plants are protected from infections by specific root pathogens due to the antagonistic activities of soil and rhizosphere microorganisms. For most disease-suppressive soils, however, the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in pathogen control are largely unknown.

  17. Diversity and functions of volatile organic compounds produced by Streptomyces from a disease-suppressive soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordovez, Viviane; Carrion, Victor; Etalo, Desalegn W.; Mumm, Roland; Zhu, Hua; Van Wezel, Gilles P.; Raaijmakers, Jos M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In disease-suppressive soils, plants are protected from infections by specific root pathogens due to the antagonistic activities of soil and rhizosphere microorganisms. For most disease-suppressive soils, however, the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in pathogen control are largely

  18. Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of multi-trait plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for their growth promoting and disease suppressing effects on ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Raghavan; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy; Kumar, Aundy; Bini, Yogiyar Kundil; Subila, Kizhakke Purayil; Aravind, Ravindran

    2015-04-01

    In this study, 100 PGPR strains isolated from different varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) were first characterized for their morphological, biochemical, and nutrient mobilization traits in vitro. The PGPR were also screened in vitro for inhibition of Pythium myriotylum causing soft rot in ginger. Results revealed that only five PGPR showed >70% suppression of P. myriotylum. These 5 PGPR viz., GRB (Ginger rhizobacteria) 25--Burkholderia cepacia, GRB35--Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; GRB58--Serratia marcescens; GRB68--S. marcescens; GRB91--Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for further growth promotion and biocontrol studies in the green house and field. The green house study revealed that GRB35 (B. amyloliquefaciens) and GRB68 (S. marcescens) registered markedly higher sprouting (96.3%) and lower disease incidence (48.1%) and greater rhizome yield (365.6 g pot(-1) and 384.4 g pot(-1), respectively), while control registered the lowest sprouting (66%), maximum soft rot incidence (100%) and lowest rhizome yield (134.4 g pot(-1)). In the field experiments also, GRB68 (S. marcescens) and GRB35 (B. amyloliquefaciens) registered the greatest sprouting (80% each), markedly lower soft rot incidence (5.2% and 7.3%, respectively) and higher yield (5.0 and 4.3 kg(3)m(-2), respectively) compared to chemicals like Streptomycin sulphate (73.0%, 18.5% and 2.3 kg(3)m(-2), respectively), Metalaxyl-Mancozeb (73.0%, 14.0% and 3.8 kg(3)m(-2), respectively) and control (73.0%, 25.1% and 2.2 kg 3m(-2), respectively). Overall, the results suggested that for growth promotion and management of soft rot disease in ginger, GRB35 B. amyloliquefaciens and GRB68 S. marcescens could be good alternatives to chemical measures. Since, the latter has been reported to be an opportunistic human pathogen, we recommend the use of B. amyloliquefaciens for integration into nutrient and disease management schedules for ginger cultivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative Metatranscriptomics of Wheat Rhizosphere Microbiomes in Disease Suppressive and Non-suppressive Soils for Rhizoctonia solani AG8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L. Hayden

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG 8 is a major pathogen of grain crops resulting in substantial production losses. In the absence of resistant cultivars of wheat or barley, a sustainable and enduring method for disease control may lie in the enhancement of biological disease suppression. Evidence of effective biological control of R. solani AG8 through disease suppression has been well documented at our study site in Avon, South Australia. A comparative metatranscriptomic approach was applied to assess the taxonomic and functional characteristics of the rhizosphere microbiome of wheat plants grown in adjacent fields which are suppressive and non-suppressive to the plant pathogen R. solani AG8. Analysis of 12 rhizosphere metatranscriptomes (six per field was undertaken using two bioinformatic approaches involving unassembled and assembled reads. Differential expression analysis showed the dominant taxa in the rhizosphere based on mRNA annotation were Arthrobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. for non-suppressive samples and Stenotrophomonas spp. and Buttiauxella spp. for the suppressive samples. The assembled metatranscriptome analysis identified more differentially expressed genes than the unassembled analysis in the comparison of suppressive and non-suppressive samples. Suppressive samples showed greater expression of a polyketide cyclase, a terpenoid biosynthesis backbone gene (dxs and many cold shock proteins (csp. Non-suppressive samples were characterised by greater expression of antibiotic genes such as non-heme chloroperoxidase (cpo which is involved in pyrrolnitrin synthesis, and phenazine biosynthesis family protein F (phzF and its transcriptional activator protein (phzR. A large number of genes involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS and superoxide radicals (sod, cat, ahp, bcp, gpx1, trx were also expressed in the non-suppressive rhizosphere samples most likely in response to the infection of wheat

  20. Suppression of Plant Defenses by Herbivorous Mites Is Not Associated with Adaptation to Host Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica T. Paulo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Some herbivores suppress plant defenses, which may be viewed as a result of the coevolutionary arms race between plants and herbivores. However, this ability is usually studied in a one-herbivore-one-plant system, which hampers comparative studies that could corroborate this hypothesis. Here, we extend this paradigm and ask whether the herbivorous spider-mite Tetranychus evansi, which suppresses the jasmonic-acid pathway in tomato plants, is also able to suppress defenses in other host plants at different phylogenetic distances from tomatoes. We test this using different plants from the Solanales order, namely tomato, jimsonweed, tobacco, and morning glory (three Solanaceae and one Convolvulaceae, and bean plants (Fabales. First, we compare the performance of T. evansi to that of the other two most-commonly found species of the same genus, T. urticae and T. ludeni, on several plants. We found that the performance of T. evansi is higher than that of the other species only on tomato plants. We then showed, by measuring trypsin inhibitor activity and life history traits of conspecific mites on either clean or pre-infested plants, that T. evansi can suppress plant defenses on all plants except tobacco. This study suggests that the suppression of plant defenses may occur on host plants other than those to which herbivores are adapted.

  1. Suppressive composts: microbial ecology links between abiotic environments and healthy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Yitzhak; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K

    2012-01-01

    Suppressive compost provides an environment in which plant disease development is reduced, even in the presence of a pathogen and a susceptible host. Despite the numerous positive reports, its practical application is still limited. The main reason for this is the lack of reliable prediction and quality control tools for evaluation of the level and specificity of the suppression effect. Plant disease suppression is the direct result of the activity of consortia of antagonistic microorganisms that naturally recolonize the compost during the cooling phase of the process. Thus, it is imperative to increase the level of understanding of compost microbial ecology and population dynamics. This may lead to the development of an ecological theory for complex ecosystems as well as favor the establishment of hypothesis-driven studies.

  2. Isolation, characterization and comparative analysis of plant-associated bacteria for suppression of soil-borne diseases of field-grown groundnut in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, C.N.; Hoang, T.K.; Thai, T.H.; Tran, T.L.; Phan, T.P.N.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oil seed crop worldwide and used extensively for feed and food. In Vietnam, groundnut cultivation is hampered by several soil-borne fungal pathogens, in particular Sclerotium rolfsii. To develop sustainable measures to control stem rot disease

  3. Disease Suppressive Soils: New Insights from the Soil Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, Daniel; Kinkel, Linda; Thomashow, Linda; Weller, David; Paulitz, Timothy

    2017-11-01

    Soils suppressive to soilborne pathogens have been identified worldwide for almost 60 years and attributed mainly to suppressive or antagonistic microorganisms. Rather than identifying, testing and applying potential biocontrol agents in an inundative fashion, research into suppressive soils has attempted to understand how indigenous microbiomes can reduce disease, even in the presence of the pathogen, susceptible host, and favorable environment. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing of microbiomes have provided new tools to reexamine and further characterize the nature of these soils. Two general types of suppression have been described: specific and general suppression, and theories have been developed around these two models. In this review, we will present three examples of currently-studied model systems with features representative of specific and general suppressiveness: suppression to take-all (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici), Rhizoctonia bare patch of wheat (Rhizoctonia solani AG-8), and Streptomyces. To compare and contrast the two models of general versus specific suppression, we propose a number of hypotheses about the nature and ecology of microbial populations and communities of suppressive soils. We outline the potential and limitations of new molecular techniques that can provide novel ways of testing these hypotheses. Finally, we consider how this greater understanding of the phytobiome can facilitate sustainable disease management in agriculture by harnessing the potential of indigenous soil microbes.

  4. Distinct roles for soil fungal and bacterial communities associated with the suppression of vanilla Fusarium wilt disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, Wu; Li, Rong; Ren, Yi; Liu, Chen; Zhao, Qingyun; Wu, Huasong; Jousset, Alexandre; Shen, Qirong

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing microbial communities associated with disease-suppressive soil is an important first step toward understanding the potential of microbiota to protect crops against plant pathogens. In the present study, we compared microbial communities in suppressive- and conducive-soils associated

  5. Managing Abiotic Factors of Compost to Increase Soilborne Disease Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Deirdre E.

    2012-01-01

    Soilborne pathogens can devastate crops, causing economic losses for farmers due to reduced yields and expensive management practices. Fumigants and fungicides have harmful impacts on the surrounding environment and can be toxic to humans. Therefore, alternative methods of disease management are important. The disease suppressive abilities of…

  6. Nematode suppression and growth stimulation in corn plants (Zea mays L.) irrigated with domestic effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Kenia Kelly; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Florencio, Lourdinha

    2012-01-01

    Treated wastewater has great potential for agricultural use due to its concentrations of nutrients and organic matter, which are capable of improving soil characteristics. Additionally, effluents can induce suppression of plant diseases caused by soil pathogens. This study evaluates the effect of irrigation with effluent in a UASB reactor on maize (Zea mays L.) development and on suppression of the diseases caused by nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne. Twelve lysimeters of 1 m(3) each were arranged in a completely randomized design, with four treatments and three replicates. The following treatments were used: T1 (W+I), irrigation with water and infestation with nematodes; T2 (W+I+NPK), irrigation with water, infestation with nematodes and fertilization with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K); T3 (E+I), irrigation with effluent and infestation with nematodes; and T4 (E+I+P), irrigation with effluent, infestation with nematodes and fertilization with phosphorus. The plants irrigated with the effluent plus the phosphorus fertilizer had better growth and productivity and were more resistant to the disease symptoms caused by the nematodes. The suppression levels may have been due to the higher levels of Zn and NO(3)(-) found in the leaf tissue of the plants irrigated with the effluent and phosphorus fertilizer.

  7. Oligotrophic bacteria and root disease suppression in organically managed soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senechkin, I.V.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to obtain a better understanding of soil health in terms of microbial and chemical characteristics as well as suppression of soil borne plant pathogens. Organic soils were chosen as an appropriate model for studying soil health. Four different organic

  8. The Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopG1 targets mitochondria, alters plant development, and suppresses plant innate immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Anna; Guo, Ming; Li, Guangyong; Elowsky, Christian; Clemente, Thomas E.; Alfano, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae uses a type III protein secretion system to inject type III effectors into plant cells. Primary targets of these effectors appear to be effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). The type III effector HopG1 is a suppressor of ETI that is broadly conserved in bacterial plant pathogens. Here we show that HopG1 from P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 also suppresses PTI. Interestingly, HopG1 localizes to plant mitochondria, suggesting that its suppression of innate immunity may be linked to a perturbation of mitochondrial function. While HopG1 possesses no obvious mitochondrial signal peptide, its N-terminal two-thirds was sufficient for mitochondrial localization. A HopG1-GFP fusion lacking HopG1’s N-terminal 13 amino acids was not localized to the mitochondria reflecting the importance of the N-terminus for targeting. Constitutive expression of HopG1 in Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) dramatically alters plant development resulting in dwarfism, increased branching and infertility. Constitutive expression of HopG1 in planta leads to reduced respiration rates and an increased basal level of reactive oxygen species. These findings suggest that HopG1’s target is mitochondrial and that effector/target interaction promotes disease by disrupting mitochondrial functions. PMID:19863557

  9. Overnight Dexamethasone Suppression Test in the Diagnosis of Cushing's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Esfahanian

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizing the cause of Cushing's Syndrome (CS is one of the most challenging processes in clinical endocrinology. The long high dose dexamethasone suppression test (standard test is costly and need an extended inpatient stay. In this study we want to show the clinical utility of the overnight 8 mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST for differential diagnosis of CS in a referral center. Retrospectively from 2002-2005 we selected the patients of endocrinology ward in Imam hospital who were admitted with the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome and had 8 mg DST (modified test along with classic DST. In modified test a decrease in an 8 AM serum cortisol level of 50% or more is thought to indicate suppression and we compared the results of modified test with standard test. This test had been done on 42 patients: 10 male (23% and 32 female (76%. The mean age of patients was 31.39 (15-63, 32 with proven pituitary Cushing's disease, 7 with primary adrnal tumors and 3 with ectopic ACTH syndrome. The standard test according to 50% suppression of UFC had 90.62% sensitivity, and according to 90% suppression had 43.75% sensitivity. The sensitivity of this test was 71.85% for serum cortisol suppression. The modified test (8 mg overnight DST had 78% sensitivity. All of these tests had 100% specificity for the diagnosis of Cushing's disease. The positive predictive vale (PPV of all of these tests was 100%. The negative predictive value (NPV of modified test for the diagnosis of Cushing's disease was 58.82%. In standard test the NPV of serum cortisol was 52.6%, UFC 50% had 76.9% NPV and UFC 90% had 35.7% NPV. The results of serum cortisol suppression in modified test is better than standard test. Although 50% suppression of UFC in standard test had greater sensitivity than modified test, collecting of urine is difficult, time consuming and needing hospitalization, so we advice modified test that is much simpler and more convenient instead of standard test in the first

  10. Chapter 15. Plant pathology and managing wildland plant disease systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Obtaining specific, reliable knowledge on plant diseases is essential in wildland shrub resource management. However, plant disease is one of the most neglected areas of wildland resources experimental research. This section is a discussion of plant pathology and how to use it in managing plant disease systems.

  11. Plant Growth Promotion and Suppression of Bacterial Leaf Blight in Rice by Inoculated Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumera Yasmin

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of rice rhizosphere associated antagonistic bacteria for growth promotion and disease suppression of bacterial leaf blight (BLB. A total of 811 rhizospheric bacteria were isolated and screened against 3 prevalent strains of BLB pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo of which five antagonistic bacteria, i.e., Pseudomonas spp. E227, E233, Rh323, Serratia sp. Rh269 and Bacillus sp. Rh219 showed antagonistic potential (zone of inhibition 1-19 mm. Production of siderophores was found to be the common biocontrol determinant and all the strains solubilized inorganic phosphate (82-116 μg mL-1 and produced indole acetic acid (0.48-1.85 mg L-1 in vitro. All antagonistic bacteria were non-pathogenic to rice, and their co-inoculation significantly improved plant health in terms of reduced diseased leaf area (80%, improved shoot length (31%, root length (41% and plant dry weight (60% as compared to infected control plants. Furthermore, under pathogen pressure, bacterial inoculation resulted in increased activity of defense related enzymes including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and polyphenol oxidase, along with 86% increase in peroxidase and 53% increase in catalase enzyme activities in plants inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. Rh323 as well as co-inoculated plants. Bacterial strains showed good colonization potential in the rice rhizosphere up to 21 days after seed inoculation. Application of bacterial consortia in the field resulted in an increase of 31% in grain yield and 10% in straw yield over non-inoculated plots. Although, yield increase was statistically non-significant but was accomplished with overall saving of 20% chemical fertilizers. The study showed that Pseudomonas sp. Rh323 can be used to develop dual-purpose inoculum which can serve not only to suppress BLB but also to promote plant growth in rice.

  12. Diversity and functions of volatile organic compounds produced by Streptomyces from a disease-suppressive soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordovez, Viviane; Carrion, Victor J; Etalo, Desalegn W; Mumm, Roland; Zhu, Hua; van Wezel, Gilles P; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2015-01-01

    In disease-suppressive soils, plants are protected from infections by specific root pathogens due to the antagonistic activities of soil and rhizosphere microorganisms. For most disease-suppressive soils, however, the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in pathogen control are largely unknown. Our recent studies identified Actinobacteria as the most dynamic phylum in a soil suppressive to the fungal root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Here we isolated and characterized 300 isolates of rhizospheric Actinobacteria from the Rhizoctonia-suppressive soil. Streptomyces species were the most abundant, representing approximately 70% of the isolates. Streptomyces are renowned for the production of an exceptionally large number of secondary metabolites, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOC profiling of 12 representative Streptomyces isolates by SPME-GC-MS allowed a more refined phylogenetic delineation of the Streptomyces isolates than the sequencing of 16S rRNA and the house-keeping genes atpD and recA only. VOCs of several Streptomyces isolates inhibited hyphal growth of R. solani and significantly enhanced plant shoot and root biomass. Coupling of Streptomyces VOC profiles with their effects on fungal growth, pointed to VOCs potentially involved in antifungal activity. Subsequent assays with five synthetic analogs of the identified VOCs showed that methyl 2-methylpentanoate, 1,3,5-trichloro-2-methoxy benzene and the VOCs mixture have antifungal activity. In conclusion, our results point to a potential role of VOC-producing Streptomyces in disease suppressive soils and show that VOC profiling of rhizospheric Streptomyces can be used as a complementary identification tool to construct strain-specific metabolic signatures.

  13. Diversity and functions of volatile organic compounds produced by Streptomyces from a disease-suppressive soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane eCordovez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In disease-suppressive soils, plants are protected from infections by specific root pathogens due to the antagonistic activities of soil and rhizosphere microorganisms. For most disease-suppressive soils, however, the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in pathogen control are largely unknown. Our recent studies identified Actinobacteria as the most dynamic phylum in a soil suppressive to the fungal root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Here we isolated and characterized 300 isolates of rhizospheric Actinobacteria from the Rhizoctonia-suppressive soil. Streptomyces species were the most abundant, representing approximately 70% of the isolates. Streptomyces are renowned for the production of an exceptionally large number of secondary metabolites, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs. VOC profiling of 12 representative Streptomyces isolates by SPME-GC-MS allowed a more refined phylogenetic delineation of the Streptomyces isolates than the sequencing of 16S rRNA and the house-keeping genes atpD and recA only. VOCs of several Streptomyces isolates inhibited hyphal growth of R. solani and significantly enhanced plant shoot and root biomass. Coupling of Streptomyces VOC profiles with their effects on fungal growth, pointed to VOCs potentially involved in antifungal activity. Subsequent assays with five synthetic analogues of the identified VOCs showed that methyl 2-methylpentanoate, 1,3,5-trichloro-2-methoxy benzene and the VOCs mixture have antifungal activity. In conclusion, our results point to a potential role of VOC-producing Streptomyces in disease suppressive soils and show that VOC profiling of rhizospheric Streptomyces can be used as a complementary identification tool to construct strain-specific metabolic signatures.

  14. Bacterial endophytes of perennial crops for management of plant disease

    OpenAIRE

    Melnick, Rachel L.; Bailey, B.A.; Backman, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Metadata only record Bacterial endophytes, microorganisms which inhabit the internal tissues of plants, can suppress disease and are often used as a biological control in annual crops. Less research, however, has been applied to the use of bacterial endophytes to prevent disease in perennial crops, which presents a more complex challenge. However, exploration of their potential as a biological control in perennial crops has been limited. This chapter assembles current knowledge on the subj...

  15. Take-all of Wheat and Natural Disease Suppression: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Sig Kwak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In agro-ecosystems worldwide, some of the most important and devastating diseases are caused by soil-borne necrotrophic fungal pathogens, against which crop plants generally lack genetic resistance. However, plants have evolved approaches to protect themselves against pathogens by stimulating and supporting specific groups of beneficial microorganisms that have the ability to protect either by direct inhibition of the pathogen or by inducing resistance mechanisms in the plant. One of the best examples of protection of plant roots by antagonistic microbes occurs in soils that are suppressive to take-all disease of wheat. Take-all, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, is the most economically important root disease of wheat worldwide. Take-all decline (TAD is the spontaneous decline in incidence and severity of disease after a severe outbreak of take-all during continuous wheat or barley monoculture. TAD occurs worldwide, and in the United States and The Netherlands it results from a build-up of populations of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. during wheat monoculture. The antibiotic 2,4-DAPG has a broad spectrum of activity and is especially active against the take-all pathogen. Based on genotype analysis by repetitive sequence-based-PCR analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism of phlD, a key 2,4-DAPG biosynthesis gene, at least 22 genotypes of 2,4-DAPG producing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. have been described worldwide. In this review, we provide an overview of G. graminis var. tritici, the take-all disease, Pseudomonas biocontrol agents, and mechanism of disease suppression.

  16. Rhizosphere Microbiome Recruited from a Suppressive Compost Improves Plant Fitness and Increases Protection against Vascular Wilt Pathogens of Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Anastasis; Tsolakidou, Maria-Dimitra; Stringlis, Ioannis A.; Pantelides, Iakovos S.

    2017-01-01

    Suppressive composts represent a sustainable approach to combat soilborne plant pathogens and an alternative to the ineffective chemical fungicides used against those. Nevertheless, suppressiveness to plant pathogens and reliability of composts are often inconsistent with unpredictable effects. While suppressiveness is usually attributed to the compost’s microorganisms, the mechanisms governing microbial recruitment by the roots and the composition of selected microbial communities are not fully elucidated. Herein, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of a compost on tomato plant growth and its suppressiveness against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Foxl) and Verticillium dahliae (Vd). First, growth parameters of tomato plants grown in sterile peat-based substrates including 20 and 30% sterile compost (80P/20C-ST and 70P/30C-ST) or non-sterile compost (80P/20C and 70P/30C) were evaluated in a growth room experiment. Plant height, total leaf surface, and fresh and dry weight of plants grown in the non-sterile compost mixes were increased compared to the plants grown in the sterile compost substrates, indicating the plant growth promoting activity of the compost’s microorganisms. Subsequently, compost’s suppressiveness against Foxl and Vd was evaluated with pathogenicity experiments on tomato plants grown in 70P/30C-ST and 70P/30C substrates. Disease intensity was significantly less in plants grown in the non-sterile compost than in those grown in the sterile compost substrate; AUDPC was 2.3- and 1.4-fold less for Foxl and Vd, respectively. Moreover, fungal quantification in planta demonstrated reduced colonization in plants grown in the non-sterile mixture. To further investigate these findings, we characterized the culturable microbiome attracted by the roots compared to the unplanted compost. Bacteria and fungi isolated from unplanted compost and the rhizosphere of plants were sequence-identified. Community-level analysis revealed

  17. Rhizosphere Microbiome Recruited from a Suppressive Compost Improves Plant Fitness and Increases Protection against Vascular Wilt Pathogens of Tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, Anastasis; Tsolakidou, Maria; Stringlis, I.; Pantelides, Iakovos

    2017-01-01

    Suppressive composts represent a sustainable approach to combat soilborne plant pathogens and an alternative to the ineffective chemical fungicides used against those. Nevertheless, suppressiveness to plant pathogens and reliability of composts are often inconsistent with unpredictable effects.

  18. New ways enhancing the vital activity of plants in order to increase crop yields and to suppress radionuclide accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N. V; Zebrakova, I. V.; Matsko, V. P.; Kislushko, P. M.

    1994-01-01

    After Chernobyl nuclear accident it has become very important to seek new ways of enhancing the vital activity of plants in order to increase crop yields and to suppress radionuclide accumulation. It is found that by optimizing the vital activity processes in plants, is possible to reduce radionuclide uptake. A great number of biologically active compounds have been tested, which increased the disease resistance of plants and simultaneously activated the physiological and biochemical processes that control the transport of micro- and macroelements (radionuclide included) and their 'soil-root-stem-leaf' redistribution. (author)

  19. Effect of land use and soil organic matter quality on the structure and function of microbial communities in pastoral soils: Implications for disease suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignam, Bryony E A; O'Callaghan, Maureen; Condron, Leo M; Kowalchuk, George A; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; Wakelin, Steven A

    2018-01-01

    Cropping soils vary in extent of natural suppression of soil-borne plant diseases. However, it is unknown whether similar variation occurs across pastoral agricultural systems. We examined soil microbial community properties known to be associated with disease suppression across 50 pastoral fields varying in management intensity. The composition and abundance of the disease-suppressive community were assessed from both taxonomic and functional perspectives. Pseudomonas bacteria were selected as a general taxonomic indicator of disease suppressive potential, while genes associated with the biosynthesis of a suite of secondary metabolites provided functional markers (GeoChip 5.0 microarray analysis). The composition of both the Pseudomonas communities and disease suppressive functional genes were responsive to land use. Underlying soil properties explained 37% of the variation in Pseudomonas community structure and up to 61% of the variation in the abundance of disease suppressive functional genes. Notably, measures of soil organic matter quality, C:P ratio, and aromaticity of the dissolved organic matter content (carbon recalcitrance), influenced both the taxonomic and functional disease suppressive potential of the pasture soils. Our results suggest that key components of the soil microbial community may be managed on-farm to enhance disease suppression and plant productivity.

  20. Disease susceptibiliy in the zig-zag model of host-microbe Interactions: only a consequence of immune suppression?

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Harald; Boyer, Laurent; Abad, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    For almost ten years, the Zig-Zag model has provided a convenient framework for explaining the molecular bases of compatibility and incompatibility in plant-microbe interactions (Jones and Dangl, 2006). According to the Zig-Zag model, disease susceptibility is a consequence of the suppression of host immunity during the evolutionary arms race between plants and pathogens. The Zig-Zag model thus fits well with biotrophic interactions, but is less applicable to interactions involving pathogens ...

  1. Water Extract from Spent Mushroom Substrate of Hericium erinaceus Suppresses Bacterial Wilt Disease of Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, A Min; Min, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Sang Yeop

    2015-01-01

    Culture filtrates of six different edible mushroom species were screened for antimicrobial activity against tomato wilt bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum B3. Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes (Sanjo 701), Grifola frondosa, and Hypsizygus marmoreus showed antibacterial activity against the bacteria. Water, n-butanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of H. erinaceus exhibited high antibacterial activity against different phytopathogenic bacteria: Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, R. solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. campestris pv. campestris, X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, X. axonopodis pv. citiri, and X. axonopodis pv. glycine. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that water extracts of SMS (WESMS) of H. erinaceus induced expressions of plant defense genes encoding β-1,3-glucanase (GluA) and pathogenesis-related protein-1a (PR-1a), associated with systemic acquired resistance. Furthermore, WESMS also suppressed tomato wilt disease caused by R. solanacearum by 85% in seedlings and promoted growth (height, leaf number, and fresh weight of the root and shoot) of tomato plants. These findings suggest the WESMS of H. erinaceus has the potential to suppress bacterial wilt disease of tomato through multiple effects including antibacterial activity, plant growth promotion, and defense gene induction. PMID:26539048

  2. Volatile-mediated suppression of plant pathogens is related to soil properties and microbial community composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Agtmaal, M.; Straathof, A.L.; Termorshuizen, Aad J; Lievens, Bart; Hoffland, Ellis; De Boer, W.

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the soil microbial community produces a suite of volatile organic compounds that suppress plant pathogens. However, it remains unknown which soil properties and management practices influence volatile-mediated pathogen suppression. The aim of this study was to

  3. Volatile-mediated suppression of plant pathogens is related to soil properties and microbial community composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agtmaal, van Maaike; Straathof, Angela L.; Termorshuizen, Aad; Lievens, Bart; Hoffland, Ellis; Boer, de Wietse

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the soil microbial community produces a suite of volatile organic compounds that suppress plant pathogens. However, it remains unknown which soil properties and management practices influence volatile-mediated pathogen suppression. The aim of this study was to

  4. Suppressive therapy for radiation-associated nodular thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Kazuo; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Tsukada, Yoshiaki; Razack, M.S.; Sciasicia, Michael.

    1981-01-01

    A thyroid screening program for individuals who had irradiation to the head and neck areas was started at Roswell Park Memorial Institute in February 1977 and by June 1979, 1,071 patients were seen in the clinic. Three hundred and ninety-six patients were found to have palpable abnormalities of the thyroid, and following pretreatment evaluation, suppressive therapy with triiodothyronine (T3) (50 μg/day) or DT (desiccated thyroid) (120 mg/day) was administered in a double-blind fashion. Two hundred fifty patients with nodular disease completed 6 mo of treatment and are analyzed in this paper. Pretreatment thyroid function tests showed that two patients had hypothyroidism with a high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and a low thyroxine level. A high incidence of thyroid autoantibodies was also noted and surgical findings confirmed a high incidence of chronic thyroiditis. Complete disappearance of the nodules was seen in 29% of the patients, and in addition, 38% of the patients were seen to have significant shrinkage of the nodules, indicating that radiation-associated thyroid nodules were as sensitive to the thyroactive agents as nonirradiated nodular thyroid disease. There was little difference in the response rate between T3 and DT. Both agents suppressed circulating TSH levels to an unmeasurable level in 76% of the patients. There was no correlation between scan findings and response rates. Thyroid carcinoma was found in 19% of the patients who underwent surgery; although all were well-differentiated carcinomas, two-thirds of the patients already had evidence of dissemination and/or invasion suggesting the aggressive nature of postirradiation thyroid carcinoma. (author)

  5. Fungal endophytes: modifiers of plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Posy E; Ridout, Mary; Newcombe, George

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have demonstrated that non-pathogenic fungi within plant microbiomes, i.e., endophytes ("endo" = within, "phyte" = plant), can significantly modify the expression of host plant disease. The rapid pace of advancement in endophyte ecology warrants a pause to synthesize our understanding of endophyte disease modification and to discuss future research directions. We reviewed recent literature on fungal endophyte disease modification, and here report on several emergent themes: (1) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease span the full spectrum from pathogen antagonism to pathogen facilitation, with pathogen antagonism most commonly reported. (2) Agricultural plant pathosystems are the focus of research on endophyte disease modification. (3) A taxonomically diverse group of fungal endophytes can influence plant disease severity. And (4) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease severity are context-dependent. Our review highlights the importance of fungal endophytes for plant disease across a broad range of plant pathosystems, yet simultaneously reveals that complexity within plant microbiomes presents a significant challenge to disentangling the biotic environmental factors affecting plant disease severity. Manipulative studies integrating eco-evolutionary approaches with emerging molecular tools will be poised to elucidate the functional importance of endophytes in natural plant pathosystems that are fundamental to biodiversity and conservation.

  6. Pressure suppression apparatus of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, W.; Funalashi, T.

    1980-01-01

    Pressure suppression apparatus for a nuclear reactor comprises a vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and containing a water pool at the bottom of the vessel, and a steam exhaust pipe. The apparatus further comprises an exhaust chamber connected to the immersed portion of the exhaust pipe and provided with a number of discharge openings. (auth)

  7. Quantifying the effect of crop spatial arrangement on weed suppression using functional-structural plant modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Jochem B; Bastiaans, Lammert

    2016-05-01

    Suppression of weed growth in a crop canopy can be enhanced by improving crop competitiveness. One way to achieve this is by modifying the crop planting pattern. In this study, we addressed the question to what extent a uniform planting pattern increases the ability of a crop to compete with weed plants for light compared to a random and a row planting pattern, and how this ability relates to crop and weed plant density as well as the relative time of emergence of the weed. To this end, we adopted the functional-structural plant modelling approach which allowed us to explicitly include the 3D spatial configuration of the crop-weed canopy and to simulate intra- and interspecific competition between individual plants for light. Based on results of simulated leaf area development, canopy photosynthesis and biomass growth of the crop, we conclude that differences between planting pattern were small, particularly if compared to the effects of relative time of emergence of the weed, weed density and crop density. Nevertheless, analysis of simulated weed biomass demonstrated that a uniform planting of the crop improved the weed-suppression ability of the crop canopy. Differences in weed suppressiveness between planting patterns were largest with weed emergence before crop emergence, when the suppressive effect of the crop was only marginal. With simultaneous emergence a uniform planting pattern was 8 and 15 % more competitive than a row and a random planting pattern, respectively. When weed emergence occurred after crop emergence, differences between crop planting patterns further decreased as crop canopy closure was reached early on regardless of planting pattern. We furthermore conclude that our modelling approach provides promising avenues to further explore crop-weed interactions and aid in the design of crop management strategies that aim at improving crop competitiveness with weeds.

  8. Quantifying the effect of crop spatial arrangement on weed suppression using functional-structural plant modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Jochem B.; Bastiaans, Lammert

    2016-01-01

    Suppression of weed growth in a crop canopy can be enhanced by improving crop competitiveness. One way to achieve this is by modifying the crop planting pattern. In this study, we addressed the question to what extent a uniform planting pattern increases the ability of a crop to compete with weed

  9. Neighbour tolerance, not suppression, provides competitive advantage to non-native plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golivets, Marina; Wallin, Kimberly F

    2018-05-01

    High competitive ability has often been invoked as a key determinant of invasion success and ecological impacts of non-native plants. Yet our understanding of the strategies that non-natives use to gain competitive dominance remains limited. Particularly, it remains unknown whether the two non-mutually exclusive competitive strategies, neighbour suppression and neighbour tolerance, are equally important for the competitive advantage of non-native plants. Here, we analyse data from 192 peer-reviewed studies on pairwise plant competition within a Bayesian multilevel meta-analytic framework and show that non-native plants outperform their native counterparts due to high tolerance of competition, as opposed to strong suppressive ability. Competitive tolerance ability of non-native plants was driven by neighbour's origin and was expressed in response to a heterospecific native but not heterospecific non-native neighbour. In contrast to natives, non-native species were not more suppressed by hetero- vs. conspecific neighbours, which was partially due to higher intensity of intraspecific competition among non-natives. Heterogeneity in the data was primarily associated with methodological differences among studies and not with phylogenetic relatedness among species. Altogether, our synthesis demonstrates that non-native plants are competitively distinct from native plants and challenges the common notion that neighbour suppression is the primary strategy for plant invasion success. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  10. Pest and disease resistance enhanced by heterologous suppression of a Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cytochrome P450 gene CYP72A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigocki, Ann C; Wilson, Dennis

    2004-12-01

    The functional role of the Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cytochrome P450 gene CYP72A2 was investigated in transgenic plants. N. tabacum plants transformed with a sense or antisense CYP72A2 construct exhibited diminished heights, branched stems, smaller leaves and deformed flowers. Western blot analysis revealed reduced levels of a 58 kDa protein corresponding to CYP72A2, suggesting that the CYP72A2 homolog was suppressed in the sense and antisense plants. Transgenic plants had increased resistance to Manduca sexta larvae that consumed about 35 to 90 less of transgenic versus control leaves. A virulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci induced a disease-limiting response followed by a delayed and decreased development of disease symptoms in the transgenics. CYP72A2 gene mediated resistance suggests that the plant-pest or -pathogen interactions may have been modified by changes in bioactive metabolite pools.

  11. Overcompensation of herbivore reproduction through hyper-suppression of plant defenses in response to competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Ataide, Livia M S; Chafi, Rachid; Villarroel, Carlos A; Alba, Juan M; Schuurink, Robert C; Kant, Merijn R

    2017-06-01

    Spider mites are destructive arthropod pests on many crops. The generalist herbivorous mite Tetranychus urticae induces defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and this constrains its fitness. By contrast, the Solanaceae-specialist Tetranychus evansi maintains a high reproductive performance by suppressing tomato defenses. Tetranychus evansi outcompetes T. urticae when infesting the same plant, but it is unknown whether this is facilitated by the defenses of the plant. We assessed the extent to which a secondary infestation by a competitor affects local plant defense responses (phytohormones and defense genes), mite gene expression and mite performance. We observed that T. evansi switches to hyper-suppression of defenses after its tomato host is also invaded by its natural competitor T. urticae. Jasmonate (JA) and salicylate (SA) defenses were suppressed more strongly, albeit only locally at the feeding site of T. evansi, upon introduction of T. urticae to the infested leaflet. The hyper-suppression of defenses coincided with increased expression of T. evansi genes coding for salivary defense-suppressing effector proteins and was paralleled by an increased reproductive performance. Together, these observations suggest that T. evansi overcompensates its reproduction through hyper-suppression of plant defenses in response to nearby competitors. We hypothesize that the competitor-induced overcompensation promotes competitive population growth of T. evansi on tomato. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Pressure suppression pool mixing in passive advanced BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, Robert E.; Nguyen, Thuy T.; Shiralkar, Bharat S.; Peterson, Per F.; Greif, Ralph; Tabata, H.

    2001-01-01

    In the SBWR passive boiling water reactor, the long-term post-accident containment pressure is determined by the combination of noncondensible gas pressure and steam pressure in the wetwell gas space. The suppression pool (SP) surface temperature, which determines the vapor partial pressure, is very important to overall containment performance. Therefore, the thermal stratification of the SP due to blowdown is of primary importance. This work looks at the various phases and phenomena present during the blowdown event and identifies those that are important to thermal stratification, and the scaling necessary to model them in reduced size tests. This is important in determining which of the large body of blowdown to SP data is adequate for application to the stratification problem. The mixing by jets from the main vents is identified as the key phenomena influencing the thermal response of the suppression pool and analytical models are developed to predict the jet influence on thermal stratification. The analytical models are implemented into a system simulation code, TRACG, and used to model thermal stratification behavior in a scaled test facility. The results show good general agreement with the test data

  13. Induced disease resistance signaling in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, B.W.M.; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    To protect themselves from disease, plants have evolved sophisticated inducible defense mechanisms in which the signal molecules salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene often play crucial roles. Elucidation of signaling pathways controlling induced disease resistance is a major objective in

  14. A methodology for analyzing the detection and suppression of fires in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, N.; Apostolakis, G.

    1986-01-01

    The assessment of the fire risk in nuclear power plants requires the analysis of fire scenarios within specified rooms. A methodology that integrates the fire protection features of a given room into an existing fire risk analysis framework is developed. An important component of this methodology is a model for the time required to detect and suppress a fire in a given room, called the ''hazard time.'' This model accounts for the reliability of fire detection and suppression equipment, as well as for the characteristics rates of the detection and suppression processes. Because the available evidence for fire detection and suppression in nuclear power plants is sparse and often qualitative, a second component of this methodology is a set of methods needed to employ imprecise information in a statistical analysis. These methods can be applied to a wide variety of problems

  15. Invasive plant suppresses the growth of native tree seedlings by disrupting belowground mutualisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina A Stinson

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of exotic species on native organisms is widely acknowledged, but poorly understood. Very few studies have empirically investigated how invading plants may alter delicate ecological interactions among resident species in the invaded range. We present novel evidence that antifungal phytochemistry of the invasive plant, Alliaria petiolata, a European invader of North American forests, suppresses native plant growth by disrupting mutualistic associations between native canopy tree seedlings and belowground arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Our results elucidate an indirect mechanism by which invasive plants can impact native flora, and may help explain how this plant successfully invades relatively undisturbed forest habitat.

  16. Effect of mixed and single crops on disease suppressiveness of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddink, G.A.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of mixed cropping on disease suppressiveness of soils was tested for two cropping systems, Brussels sprouts¿barley and triticale¿white clover. Disease suppressiveness of field soils was evaluated in bioassays for the soilborne pathogens Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini,

  17. Thermal stratification in a scaled-down suppression pool of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Byeongnam, E-mail: jo@vis.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Erkan, Nejdet [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Takahashi, Shinji [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Song, Daehun [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Hyundai and Kia Corporate R& D Division, Hyundai Motors, 772-1, Jangduk-dong, Hwaseong-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 445-706 (Korea, Republic of); Sagawa, Wataru; Okamoto, Koji [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Thermal stratification was reproduced in a scaled-down suppression pool of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants. • Horizontal temperature profiles were uniform in the toroidal suppression pool. • Subcooling-steam flow rate map of thermal stratification was obtained. • Steam bubble-induced flow model in suppression pool was suggested. • Bubble frequency strongly depends on the steam flow rate. - Abstract: Thermal stratification in the suppression pool of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants was experimentally investigated in sub-atmospheric pressure conditions using a 1/20 scale torus shaped setup. The thermal stratification was reproduced in the scaled-down suppression pool and the effect of the steam flow rate on different thermal stratification behaviors was examined for a wide range of steam flow rates. A sparger-type steam injection pipe that emulated Fukushima Daiichi Unit 3 (F1U3) was used. The steam was injected horizontally through 132 holes. The development (formation and disappearance) of thermal stratification was significantly affected by the steam flow rate. Interestingly, the thermal stratification in the suppression pool vanished when subcooling became lower than approximately 5 °C. This occurred because steam bubbles are not well condensed at low subcooling temperatures; therefore, those bubbles generate significant upward momentum, leading to mixing of the water in the suppression pool.

  18. Multiple candidate effectors from the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis suppress host plant immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Fabro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oomycete pathogens cause diverse plant diseases. To successfully colonize their hosts, they deliver a suite of effector proteins that can attenuate plant defenses. In the oomycete downy mildews, effectors carry a signal peptide and an RxLR motif. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa causes downy mildew on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis. We investigated if candidate effectors predicted in the genome sequence of Hpa isolate Emoy2 (HaRxLs were able to manipulate host defenses in different Arabidopsis accessions. We developed a rapid and sensitive screening method to test HaRxLs by delivering them via the bacterial type-three secretion system (TTSS of Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000-LUX (Pst-LUX and assessing changes in Pst-LUX growth in planta on 12 Arabidopsis accessions. The majority (~70% of the 64 candidates tested positively contributed to Pst-LUX growth on more than one accession indicating that Hpa virulence likely involves multiple effectors with weak accession-specific effects. Further screening with a Pst mutant (ΔCEL showed that HaRxLs that allow enhanced Pst-LUX growth usually suppress callose deposition, a hallmark of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI. We found that HaRxLs are rarely strong avirulence determinants. Although some decreased Pst-LUX growth in particular accessions, none activated macroscopic cell death. Fewer HaRxLs conferred enhanced Pst growth on turnip, a non-host for Hpa, while several reduced it, consistent with the idea that turnip's non-host resistance against Hpa could involve a combination of recognized HaRxLs and ineffective HaRxLs. We verified our results by constitutively expressing in Arabidopsis a sub-set of HaRxLs. Several transgenic lines showed increased susceptibility to Hpa and attenuation of Arabidopsis PTI responses, confirming the HaRxLs' role in Hpa virulence. This study shows TTSS screening system provides a useful tool to test whether

  19. Medicinal Plants in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Perspective of Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Shahpiri, Zahra; Mehri, Mohammad Reza; Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Rezaei, Mahdi; Raeesdana, Azade; Rahimi, Roja

    2018-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a progressive loss of structure and/or function of neurons. Weak therapeutic response and progressive nature of the diseases, as well as a wide range of side effects caused by conventional therapeutic approaches make patients seek for complementary and alternative medicine. The aim of the present paper is to discuss the neuropharmacological basis of medicinal plants and their principle phytochemicals which have been used in traditional Persian medicine for different types of neurodegenerative diseases. Medicinal plants introduced in traditional Persian medicine perform beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases via various cellular and molecular mechanisms including suppression of apoptosis mediated by an increase in the expression of anti-apoptotic agents (e.g. Bcl-2) as well as a decrease in the expression and activity of proapoptotic proteins (e.g. Bax, caspase 3 and 9). Alleviating inflammatory responses and suppressing the expression and function of pro-inflammatory cytokines like Tumor necrosis factor α and interleukins, as well as improvement in antioxidative performance mediated by superoxide dismutase and catalase, are among other neuroprotective mechanisms of traditional medicinal plants. Modulation of transcription, transduction, intracellular signaling pathways including ERK, p38, and MAPK, with upstream regulatory activity on inflammatory cascades, apoptosis and oxidative stress associated pathways, play an essential role in the preventive and therapeutic potential of the plants in neurodegenerative diseases. Medicinal plants used in traditional Persian medicine along with their related phytochemicals by affecting various neuropharmacological pathways can be considered as future drugs or adjuvant therapies with conventional pharmacotherapeutics; though, further clinical studies are necessary for the confirmation of their safety and efficacy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  20. Mechanisms and ecological consequences of plant defence induction and suppression in herbivore communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, M R; Jonckheere, W; Knegt, B; Lemos, F; Liu, J; Schimmel, B C J; Villarroel, C A; Ataide, L M S; Dermauw, W; Glas, J J; Egas, M; Janssen, A; Van Leeuwen, T; Schuurink, R C; Sabelis, M W; Alba, J M

    2015-06-01

    Plants are hotbeds for parasites such as arthropod herbivores, which acquire nutrients and energy from their hosts in order to grow and reproduce. Hence plants are selected to evolve resistance, which in turn selects for herbivores that can cope with this resistance. To preserve their fitness when attacked by herbivores, plants can employ complex strategies that include reallocation of resources and the production of defensive metabolites and structures. Plant defences can be either prefabricated or be produced only upon attack. Those that are ready-made are referred to as constitutive defences. Some constitutive defences are operational at any time while others require activation. Defences produced only when herbivores are present are referred to as induced defences. These can be established via de novo biosynthesis of defensive substances or via modifications of prefabricated substances and consequently these are active only when needed. Inducibility of defence may serve to save energy and to prevent self-intoxication but also implies that there is a delay in these defences becoming operational. Induced defences can be characterized by alterations in plant morphology and molecular chemistry and are associated with a decrease in herbivore performance. These alterations are set in motion by signals generated by herbivores. Finally, a subset of induced metabolites are released into the air as volatiles and function as a beacon for foraging natural enemies searching for prey, and this is referred to as induced indirect defence. The objective of this review is to evaluate (1) which strategies plants have evolved to cope with herbivores and (2) which traits herbivores have evolved that enable them to counter these defences. The primary focus is on the induction and suppression of plant defences and the review outlines how the palette of traits that determine induction/suppression of, and resistance/susceptibility of herbivores to, plant defences can give rise to

  1. Biological Control of Plant Disease Caused by Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwidodo Arwiyanto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial diseases in plants are difficult to control. The emphasis is on preventing the spread of the bacteria rather than curing the diseased plant. Integrated management measures for bacterial plant pathogens should be applied for successfull control. Biological control is one of the control measures viz. through the use of microorganisms to suppress the growth and development of bacterial plant pathogen and ultimately reduce the possibility of disease onset. The study of biological control of bacterial plant pathogen was just began compared with of fungal plant pathogen. The ecological nature of diverse bacterial plant pathogens has led scientists to apply different approach in the investigation of its biological control. The complex process of entrance to its host plant for certain soil-borne bacterial plant pathogens need special techniques and combination of more than one biological control agent. Problem and progress in controlling bacterial plant pathogens biologically will be discussed in more detail in the paper and some commercial products of biological control agents (biopesticides will be introduced.     Penyakit tumbuhan karena bakteri sulit dikendalikan. Penekanan pengendalian adalah pada pencegahan penyebaran bakteri patogen dan bukan pada penyembuhan tanaman yang sudah sakit. Untuk suksesnya pengendalian bakteri patogen tumbuhan diperlukan cara pengelolaan yang terpadu. Pengendalian secara biologi merupakan salah satu cara pengendalian dengan menggunakan mikroorganisme untuk menekan pertumbuhan dan perkembangan bakteri patogen tumbuhan dengan tujuan akhir menurunkan kemungkinan timbulnya penyakit. Sifat ekologi bakteri patogen tumbuhan yang berbeda-beda mengharuskan pendekatan yang berbeda pula dalam pengendaliannya secara biologi. Masalah dan perkembangan dalam pengendalian bakteri patogen tumbuhan secara biologi didiskusikan secara detail dalam makalah ini.

  2. Mechanisms and ecological consequences of plant defence induction and suppression in herbivore communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, M. R.; Jonckheere, W.; Knegt, B.; Lemos, F.; Liu, J.; Schimmel, B. C. J.; Villarroel, C. A.; Ataide, L. M. S.; Dermauw, W.; Glas, J. J.; Egas, M.; Janssen, A.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Schuurink, R. C.; Sabelis, M. W.; Alba, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Plants are hotbeds for parasites such as arthropod herbivores, which acquire nutrients and energy from their hosts in order to grow and reproduce. Hence plants are selected to evolve resistance, which in turn selects for herbivores that can cope with this resistance. To preserve their fitness when attacked by herbivores, plants can employ complex strategies that include reallocation of resources and the production of defensive metabolites and structures. Plant defences can be either prefabricated or be produced only upon attack. Those that are ready-made are referred to as constitutive defences. Some constitutive defences are operational at any time while others require activation. Defences produced only when herbivores are present are referred to as induced defences. These can be established via de novo biosynthesis of defensive substances or via modifications of prefabricated substances and consequently these are active only when needed. Inducibility of defence may serve to save energy and to prevent self-intoxication but also implies that there is a delay in these defences becoming operational. Induced defences can be characterized by alterations in plant morphology and molecular chemistry and are associated with a decrease in herbivore performance. These alterations are set in motion by signals generated by herbivores. Finally, a subset of induced metabolites are released into the air as volatiles and function as a beacon for foraging natural enemies searching for prey, and this is referred to as induced indirect defence. Scope The objective of this review is to evaluate (1) which strategies plants have evolved to cope with herbivores and (2) which traits herbivores have evolved that enable them to counter these defences. The primary focus is on the induction and suppression of plant defences and the review outlines how the palette of traits that determine induction/suppression of, and resistance/susceptibility of herbivores to, plant defences can

  3. Plum pox virus capsid protein suppresses plant pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaise, Valerie; Candresse, Thierry

    2017-08-01

    The perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by immune receptors launches defence mechanisms referred to as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Successful pathogens must suppress PTI pathways via the action of effectors to efficiently colonize their hosts. So far, plant PTI has been reported to be active against most classes of pathogens, except viruses, although this defence layer has been hypothesized recently as an active part of antiviral immunity which needs to be suppressed by viruses for infection success. Here, we report that Arabidopsis PTI genes are regulated upon infection by viruses and contribute to plant resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV). Our experiments further show that PPV suppresses two early PTI responses, the oxidative burst and marker gene expression, during Arabidopsis infection. In planta expression of PPV capsid protein (CP) was found to strongly impair these responses in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis, revealing its PTI suppressor activity. In summary, we provide the first clear evidence that plant viruses acquired the ability to suppress PTI mechanisms via the action of effectors, highlighting a novel strategy employed by viruses to escape plant defences. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  4. Effect of plant spacing on weed suppression and yield of fluted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of plant spacing on weed suppression yield and economic benefit of fluted pumpkin (Telfeiria occidentalis Hook F). The experiment was carried out at the Department of Crop and Soil Science Demonstration Plot, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria ...

  5. Direct and indirect plant defenses are not suppressed by endosymbionts of a specialist root herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect endosymbionts influence many important metabolic and developmental processes of their host. It has been speculated that they may also help to manipulate and suppress plant defenses to the benefit of herbivores. Recently, endosymbionts of the root herbivore Diabrotica virgifera virgifera have ...

  6. Combating plant diseases--the Darwin connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollomon, Derek W; Brent, Keith J

    2009-11-01

    Although Darwin knew of plant diseases, he did not study them as part of his analysis of natural selection. Effective plant disease control has only been developed after his death. This article explores the relevance of Darwin's ideas to three problem areas with respect to diseases caused by fungi: emergence of new diseases, loss of disease resistance bred into plants and development of fungicide resistance. Darwin's concept of change through natural or artificial selection relied on selection of many small changes, but subsequent genetic research has shown that change can also occur through large steps. Appearance of new diseases can involve gene duplication, transfer or recombination, but all evidence points to both host plant resistance and fungicide susceptibility being overcome through point mutations. Because the population size of diseases such as rusts and powdery and downy mildews is so large, all possible point mutations are likely to occur daily, even during moderate epidemics. Overcoming control measures therefore reflects the overall fitness of these mutants, and much resource effort is being directed towards assessment of their fitness, both in the presence and in the absence of selection. While recent developments in comparative genomics have caused some revision of Darwin's ideas, experience in managing plant disease control measures clearly demonstrates the relevance of concepts he introduced 150 years ago. It also reveals the remarkable speed and the practical impact of adaptation in wild microorganism populations to changes in their environment, and the difficulty of stopping or delaying such adaptation. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Bio-fertilizer application induces soil suppressiveness against Fusarium wilt disease by reshaping the soil microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Xiong; Guo, Sai; Jousset, Alexandre; Zhao, Qingyun; Wu, Huasong; Li, Rong; Kowalchuk, George A.; Shen, Qirong

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium wilt disease is a growing problem in agriculture systems. Application of bio-fertilizers containing beneficial microbes represents a promising disease control strategy. However, the mechanisms underlying disease suppression remain elusive. Here, in order to assess the importance of direct

  8. Plants used to treat skin diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Nahida; Hamdani, Mariya

    2014-01-01

    Skin diseases are numerous and a frequently occurring health problem affecting all ages from the neonates to the elderly and cause harm in number of ways. Maintaining healthy skin is important for a healthy body. Many people may develop skin diseases that affect the skin, including cancer, herpes and cellulitis. Some wild plants and their parts are frequently used to treat these diseases. The use of plants is as old as the mankind. Natural treatment is cheap and claimed to be safe. It is also suitable raw material for production of new synthetic agents. A review of some plants for the treatment of skin diseases is provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements that have taken place in this area during the past 17 years. PMID:24600196

  9. Disease-induced assemblage of a plant-beneficial bacterial consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendsen, Roeland L.; Vismans, Gilles; Yu, Ke

    2018-01-01

    Disease suppressive soils typically develop after a disease outbreak due to the subsequent assembly of protective microbiota in the rhizosphere. The role of the plant immune system in the assemblage of a protective rhizosphere microbiome is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate...... in a second population of plants growing in the same soil. Together our results indicate that plants can adjust their root microbiome upon pathogen infection and specifically recruit a group of disease resistance-inducing and growth-promoting beneficial microbes, therewith potentially maximizing the chance...

  10. Arsenic-phosphorus interactions in the soil-plant-microbe system: Dynamics of uptake, suppression and toxicity to plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawar, Hossain M; Rengel, Zed; Damon, Paul; Tibbett, Mark

    2018-02-01

    High arsenic (As) concentrations in the soil, water and plant systems can pose a direct health risk to humans and ecosystems. Phosphate (Pi) ions strongly influence As availability in soil, its uptake and toxicity to plants. Better understanding of As(V)-Pi interactions in soils and plants will facilitate a potential remediation strategy for As contaminated soils, reducing As uptake by crop plants and toxicity to human populations via manipulation of soil Pi content. However, the As(V)-Pi interactions in soil-plant systems are complex, leading to contradictory findings among different studies. Therefore, this review investigates the role of soil type, soil properties, minerals, Pi levels in soil and plant, Pi transporters, mycorrhizal association and microbial activities on As-Pi interactions in soils and hydroponics, and uptake by plants, elucidate the key mechanisms, identify key knowledge gaps and recommend new research directions. Although Pi suppresses As uptake by plants in hydroponic systems, in soils it could either increase or decrease As availability and toxicity to plants depending on the soil types, properties and charge characteristics. In soil, As(V) availability is typically increased by the addition of Pi. At the root surface, the Pi transport system has high affinity for Pi over As(V). However, Pi concentration in plant influences the As transport from roots to shoots. Mycorrhizal association may reduce As uptake via a physiological shift to the mycorrhizal uptake pathway, which has a greater affinity for Pi over As(V) than the root epidermal uptake pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of type III effectors from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis in virulence and suppression of plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Cesar Augusto; Reyes, Paola Andrea; Trujillo, Cesar Augusto; Gonzalez, Juan Luis; Bejarano, David Alejandro; Montenegro, Nathaly Andrea; Jacobs, Jonathan M; Joe, Anna; Restrepo, Silvia; Alfano, James R; Bernal, Adriana

    2018-03-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam) causes cassava bacterial blight, the most important bacterial disease of cassava. Xam, like other Xanthomonas species, requires type III effectors (T3Es) for maximal virulence. Xam strain CIO151 possesses 17 predicted T3Es belonging to the Xanthomonas outer protein (Xop) class. This work aimed to characterize nine Xop effectors present in Xam CIO151 for their role in virulence and modulation of plant immunity. Our findings demonstrate the importance of XopZ, XopX, XopAO1 and AvrBs2 for full virulence, as well as a redundant function in virulence between XopN and XopQ in susceptible cassava plants. We tested their role in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) using heterologous systems. AvrBs2, XopR and XopAO1 are capable of suppressing PTI. ETI suppression activity was only detected for XopE4 and XopAO1. These results demonstrate the overall importance and diversity in functions of major virulence effectors AvrBs2 and XopAO1 in Xam during cassava infection. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  12. Defense Response and Suppression of Phytophthora Blight Disease of Pepper by Water Extract from Spent Mushroom Substrate of Lentinula edodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Sun Kang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The spent mushroom substrate (SMS of Lentinula edodes that was derived from sawdust bag cultivation was used as materials for controlling Phytophthora blight disease of pepper. Water extract from SMS (WESMS of L. edodes inhibited mycelial growth of Phytophthora capsici, suppressed Phytophthora blight disease of pepper seedlings by 65% and promoted growth of the plant over 30%. In high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis, oxalic acid was detected as the main organic acid compound in WESMS and inhibited the fungal mycelium at a minimum concentration of 200 mg/l. In quantitative real-time PCR, the transcriptional expression of CaBPR1 (PR protein 1, CaBGLU (β-1,3-glucanase, CaPR-4 (PR protein 4, and CaPR-10 (PR protein 10 were significantly enhanced on WESMS and DL-β-aminobutyric acid (BABA treated pepper leaves. In addition, the salicylic acid content was also increased 4 to 6 folds in the WESMS and BABA treated pepper leaves compared to water treated leaf sample. These findings suggest that WESMS of L. edodes suppress Phytophthora blight disease of pepper through multiple effects including antifungal activity, plant growth promotion, and defense gene induction.

  13. The Ustilago maydis effector Pep1 suppresses plant immunity by inhibition of host peroxidase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Hemetsberger

    Full Text Available The corn smut Ustilago maydis establishes a biotrophic interaction with its host plant maize. This interaction requires efficient suppression of plant immune responses, which is attributed to secreted effector proteins. Previously we identified Pep1 (Protein essential during penetration-1 as a secreted effector with an essential role for U. maydis virulence. pep1 deletion mutants induce strong defense responses leading to an early block in pathogenic development of the fungus. Using cytological and functional assays we show that Pep1 functions as an inhibitor of plant peroxidases. At sites of Δpep1 mutant penetrations, H₂O₂ strongly accumulated in the cell walls, coinciding with a transcriptional induction of the secreted maize peroxidase POX12. Pep1 protein effectively inhibited the peroxidase driven oxidative burst and thereby suppresses the early immune responses of maize. Moreover, Pep1 directly inhibits peroxidases in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. Using fluorescence complementation assays, we observed a direct interaction of Pep1 and the maize peroxidase POX12 in vivo. Functional relevance of this interaction was demonstrated by partial complementation of the Δpep1 mutant defect by virus induced gene silencing of maize POX12. We conclude that Pep1 acts as a potent suppressor of early plant defenses by inhibition of peroxidase activity. Thus, it represents a novel strategy for establishing a biotrophic interaction.

  14. Effects of Three Fire-Suppressant Foams on the Germination and Physiological Responses of Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Uhram; Mun, Saeromi; Waldman, Bruce; Lee, Eun Ju

    2014-10-01

    Suppressant foams used to fight forest fires may leave residual effects on surviving biota that managers need to consider prior to using them. We examined how three fire-suppressant foams (FSFs) (Forexpan S, Phos-Chek-WD881, and Silv-ex) affected seed germination and physiological responses of three plant species. Exposure to FSFs, whether in diluted concentrations or those typical in the field, reduced final germination percentages of seeds grown in petri dishes and within growth chambers. However, the FSFs did not cause total germination failure in any treatment. Inhibition of germination increased with longer exposure times, but only to diluted FSF solutions. Unlike in the laboratory experiments, none of the three FSFs affected seedling emergence when tested in field conditions. Further, we found no evidence of long-term phytotoxic effects on antioxidant enzyme activity nor chlorophyll content of the plant saplings. Therefore, although the three FSFs showed evidence of phytotoxicity to plants in laboratory tests, their actual impact on terrestrial ecosystems may be minimal. We suggest that the benefits of using these FSFs to protect plants in threatened forest ecosystems outweigh their minor risks.

  15. Reduced herbicide doses in combination with allelopathic plant extracts suppress weeds in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, R.A.; Khan, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Allelopathy is gaining popularity worldwide probably for decreasing the cost of production and environment friendly weed suppressing approach. Repeated field studies conducted during 2011-12 and 2012-13 at Agricutural Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan where allelopathic water extracts of Oryza sativa, Parthenium hysterophorus, Phragmites australis and Datura alba along with reduced doses of phenoxaprop-p-ethyl and bromoxinil+MCPA were tested for controlling weeds in wheat. It was observed that weed density was encouragly suppressed whereas spike length (cm), number of spikelets spike-1 and 1000 grain weight (g) of the wheat were improved when the allelopathic plant water extracts were used in combination with lower doses of herbicides. Thus, allelochemicals provide weed suppressing option in wheat. However, more studies are required to fully explore the possibility of weed management and isolation of the chemicals involved in weed suppression for environment friendly weed management in wheat. Such studies may decrease the cost of crop production and total use of herbicides. (author)

  16. A bacterial cysteine protease effector protein interferes with photosynthesis to suppress plant innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Herva, José J; González-Melendi, Pablo; Cuartas-Lanza, Raquel; Antúnez-Lamas, María; Río-Alvarez, Isabel; Li, Ziduo; López-Torrejón, Gema; Díaz, Isabel; Del Pozo, Juan C; Chakravarthy, Suma; Collmer, Alan; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; López-Solanilla, Emilia

    2012-05-01

    The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 suppresses plant innate immunity with effector proteins injected by a type III secretion system (T3SS). The cysteine protease effector HopN1, which reduces the ability of DC3000 to elicit programmed cell death in non-host tobacco, was found to also suppress the production of defence-associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and callose when delivered by Pseudomonas fluorescens heterologously expressing a P. syringae T3SS. Purified His(6) -tagged HopN1 was used to identify tomato PsbQ, a member of the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II (PSII), as an interacting protein. HopN1 localized to chloroplasts and both degraded PsbQ and inhibited PSII activity in chloroplast preparations, whereas a HopN1(D299A) non-catalytic mutant lost these abilities. Gene silencing of NtPsbQ in tobacco compromised ROS production and programmed cell death by DC3000. Our data reveal PsbQ as a contributor to plant immunity responses and a target for pathogen suppression. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Components of Streptococcus pneumoniae suppress allergic airways disease and NKT cells by inducing regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, Alison N; Foster, Paul S; Gibson, Peter G; Hansbro, Philip M

    2012-05-01

    Asthma is an allergic airways disease (AAD) caused by dysregulated immune responses and characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). NKT cells have been shown to contribute to AHR in some mouse models. Conversely, regulatory T cells (Tregs) control aberrant immune responses and maintain homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that Streptococcus pneumoniae induces Tregs that have potential to be harnessed therapeutically for asthma. In this study, mouse models of AAD were used to identify the S. pneumoniae components that have suppressive properties, and the mechanisms underlying suppression were investigated. We tested the suppressive capacity of type-3-polysaccharide (T3P), isolated cell walls, pneumolysoid (Ply) and CpG. When coadministered, T3P + Ply suppressed the development of: eosinophilic inflammation, Th2 cytokine release, mucus hypersecretion, and AHR. Importantly, T3P + Ply also attenuated features of AAD when administered during established disease. We show that NKT cells contributed to the development of AAD and also were suppressed by T3P + Ply treatment. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of NKT cells induced AHR, which also could be reversed by T3P + Ply. T3P + Ply-induced Tregs were essential for the suppression of NKT cells and AAD, which was demonstrated by Treg depletion. Collectively, our results show that the S. pneumoniae components T3P + Ply suppress AAD through the induction of Tregs that blocked the activity of NKT cells. These data suggest that S. pneumoniae components may have potential as a therapeutic strategy for the suppression of allergic asthma through the induction of Tregs and suppression of NKT cells.

  18. Sex-dimorphic adverse drug reactions to immune suppressive agents in inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Zelinkova (Zuzana); E. Bultman (Evelien); L. Vogelaar (Lauran); C. Bouziane (Cheima); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); C.J. van der Woude (Janneke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAIM: To analyze sex differences in adverse drug reactions (ADR) to the immune suppressive medication in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. METHODS: All IBD patients attending the IBD outpatient clinic of a referral hospital were identifed through the electronic diagnosis

  19. Uncertainty analysis of suppression pool heating during an ATWS in a BWR-5 plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Mallen, A.N.; Johnsen, G.W.; Lellouche, G.S.

    1994-03-01

    The uncertainty has been estimated of predicting the peak temperature in the suppression pool of a BWR power plant, which undergoes an NRC-postulated Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS). The ATWS is initiated by recirculation-pump trips, and then leads to power and flow oscillations as they had occurred at the LaSalle-2 Power Station in March of 1988. After limit-cycle oscillations have been established, the turbines are tripped, but without MSIV closure, allowing steam discharge through the turbine bypass into the condenser. Postulated operator actions, namely to lower the reactor vessel pressure and the level elevation in the downcomer, are simulated by a robot model which accounts for operator uncertainty. All balance of plant and control systems modeling uncertainties were part of the statistical uncertainty analysis that was patterned after the Code Scaling, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) evaluation methodology. The analysis showed that the predicted suppression-pool peak temperature of 329.3 K (133 degrees F) has a 95-percentile uncertainty of 14.4 K (26 degrees F), and that the size of this uncertainty bracket is dominated by the experimental uncertainty of measuring Safety and Relief Valve mass flow rates under critical-flow conditions. The analysis showed also that the probability of exceeding the suppression-pool temperature limit of 352.6 K (175 degrees F) is most likely zero (it is estimated as < 5-104). The square root of the sum of the squares of all the computed peak pool temperatures is 350.7 K (171.6 degrees F)

  20. SacB-SacR gene cassette as the negative selection marker to suppress Agrobacterium overgrowth in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrobacterium overgrowth is a common problem in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. To suppress the Agrobacterium overgrowth, various antibiotics have been used during plant tissue culture steps. The antibiotics are expensive and may adversely affect plant cell differentiation and reduce ...

  1. Induced plant-defenses suppress herbivore reproduction but also constrain predation of their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataide, Livia M S; Pappas, Maria L; Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Lopez-Orenes, Antonio; Alba, Juan M; Duarte, Marcus V A; Pallini, Angelo; Schuurink, Robert C; Kant, Merijn R

    2016-11-01

    Inducible anti-herbivore defenses in plants are predominantly regulated by jasmonic acid (JA). On tomato plants, most genotypes of the herbivorous generalist spider mite Tetranychus urticae induce JA defenses and perform poorly on it, whereas the Solanaceae specialist Tetranychus evansi, who suppresses JA defenses, performs well on it. We asked to which extent these spider mites and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus longipes preying on these spider mites eggs are affected by induced JA-defenses. By artificially inducing the JA-response of the tomato JA-biosynthesis mutant def-1 using exogenous JA and isoleucine (Ile), we first established the relationship between endogenous JA-Ile-levels and the reproductive performance of spider mites. For both mite species we observed that they produced more eggs when levels of JA-Ile were low. Subsequently, we allowed predatory mites to prey on spider mite-eggs derived from wild-type tomato plants, def-1 and JA-Ile-treated def-1 and observed that they preferred, and consumed more, eggs produced on tomato plants with weak JA defenses. However, predatory mite oviposition was similar across treatments. Our results show that induced JA-responses negatively affect spider mite performance, but positively affect the survival of their offspring by constraining egg-predation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-08-14

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  3. SIRT7 Represses Myc Activity to Suppress ER Stress and Prevent Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyung Shin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common chronic liver disorder in developed countries. Its pathogenesis is poorly understood, and therapeutic options are limited. Here, we show that SIRT7, an NAD+-dependent H3K18Ac deacetylase, functions at chromatin to suppress ER stress and prevent the development of fatty liver disease. SIRT7 is induced upon ER stress and is stabilized at the promoters of ribosomal proteins through its interaction with the transcription factor Myc to silence gene expression and to relieve ER stress. SIRT7-deficient mice develop chronic hepatosteatosis resembling human fatty liver disease. Myc inactivation or pharmacological suppression of ER stress alleviates fatty liver caused by SIRT7 deficiency. Importantly, SIRT7 suppresses ER stress and reverts the fatty liver disease in diet-induced obese mice. Our study identifies SIRT7 as a cofactor of Myc for transcriptional repression and delineates a druggable regulatory branch of the ER stress response that prevents and reverts fatty liver disease.

  4. Oral delivery of Acid Alpha Glucosidase epitopes expressed in plant chloroplasts suppresses antibody formation in treatment of Pompe mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jin; Sherman, Alexandra; Doerfler, Phillip A; Byrne, Barry J; Herzog, Roland W; Daniell, Henry

    2015-10-01

    Deficiency of acid alpha glucosidase (GAA) causes Pompe disease in which the patients systemically accumulate lysosomal glycogen in muscles and nervous systems, often resulting in infant mortality. Although enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is effective in treating patients with Pompe disease, formation of antibodies against rhGAA complicates treatment. In this report, we investigated induction of tolerance by oral administration of GAA expressed in chloroplasts. Because full-length GAA could not be expressed, N-terminal 410-amino acids of GAA (as determined by T-cell epitope mapping) were fused with the transmucosal carrier CTB. Tobacco transplastomic lines expressing CTB-GAA were generated through site-specific integration of transgenes into the chloroplast genome. Homoplasmic lines were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Despite low-level expression of CTB-GAA in chloroplasts, yellow or albino phenotype of transplastomic lines was observed due to binding of GAA to a chloroplast protein that has homology to mannose-6 phosphate receptor. Oral administration of the plant-made CTB-GAA fusion protein even at 330-fold lower dose (1.5 μg) significantly suppressed immunoglobulin formation against GAA in Pompe mice injected with 500 μg rhGAA per dose, with several-fold lower titre of GAA-specific IgG1 and IgG2a. Lyophilization increased CTB-GAA concentration by 30-fold (up to 190 μg per g of freeze-dried leaf material), facilitating long-term storage at room temperature and higher dosage in future investigations. This study provides the first evidence that oral delivery of plant cells is effective in reducing antibody responses in ERT for lysosomal storage disorders facilitating further advances in clinical investigations using plant cell culture system or in vitro propagation. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. [Fungi isolated from diseased medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Matsuhashi, M; Iida, O

    1992-01-01

    One hundred and forty-four fungal isolates were obtained from diseased Paeonia albiflora Pall. var. trichocarpa Bung., Astragalus membranaceus Bung., Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc., Ledebouriella seseloides Wolff and Bupleurum falcatum L. which were collected in the test field of Tsukuba Medicinal Plant Research Station, National Institute of Hygienic Sciences. Most of them were identified into 15 genera containing 8 species. Fungal species presumed to be pathogens of the host plants were as follows: Cladosporium paeoniae, Pestalotia paeoniicola, Glomerella cingulata, Hainesia lythri, Guignardia sp. and Alternaria sp. from P. albiflora, Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia spp. and Neocosmospora vasinfecta from A. membranaceus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from L. erythrorhizon, Rhizoctonia sp., Fusarium spp., Phoma sp. and Pyrenochaeta sp. from L. seseloides, and Fusarium sp., Alternaria alternata, Phyllosticta sp., Phoma sp., Phomopsis sp. and C. gloeosporioides from B. falcatum. Roots of B. falcatum were found to be parasitized by Meloidogyne sp.

  6. Nuclear power plant providing a function of suppressing the deposition of radioactive substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, T.; Kawakami, T.; Izumiya, M.; Minato, A.; Ohsumi, K.

    1988-01-01

    In a nuclear power plant having a cooling system and radioactive coolant in the cooling system, the cooling system is described including ferrous structural material in contact with the radioactive coolant, wherein the ferrous structural material has a preliminary oxide film formed thereon, by oxidation of the bare surface portion thereof, by contacting bare surfaces of the structural material with flowing water containing an oxidizing agent and no metallic ions. The preliminary oxide film is formed at those portions of the ferrous structural material to be in contact with the radioactive coolant. The preliminary oxide film is formed prior to the structural material contacting the radioactive coolant. The preliminary oxide film consists essentially of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and having a thickness of at least 300 A, whereby later formation of new oxide film while the structural material is in contact with the radioactive coolant is suppressed to thereby suppress deposition of the radioactive substances on the ferrous structural material

  7. Disease interactions in a shared host plant: effects of pre-existing viral infection on cucurbit plant defense responses and resistance to bacterial wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori R Shapiro

    Full Text Available Both biotic and abiotic stressors can elicit broad-spectrum plant resistance against subsequent pathogen challenges. However, we currently have little understanding of how such effects influence broader aspects of disease ecology and epidemiology in natural environments where plants interact with multiple antagonists simultaneously. In previous work, we have shown that healthy wild gourd plants (Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana contract a fatal bacterial wilt infection (caused by Erwinia tracheiphila at significantly higher rates than plants infected with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV. We recently reported evidence that this pattern is explained, at least in part, by reduced visitation of ZYMV-infected plants by the cucumber beetle vectors of E. tracheiphila. Here we examine whether ZYMV-infection may also directly elicit plant resistance to subsequent E. tracheiphila infection. In laboratory studies, we assayed the induction of key phytohormones (SA and JA in single and mixed infections of these pathogens, as well as in response to the feeding of A. vittatum cucumber beetles on healthy and infected plants. We also tracked the incidence and progression of wilt disease symptoms in plants with prior ZYMV infections. Our results indicate that ZYMV-infection slightly delays the progression of wilt symptoms, but does not significantly reduce E. tracheiphila infection success. This observation supports the hypothesis that reduced rates of wilt disease in ZYMV-infected plants reflect reduced visitation by beetle vectors. We also documented consistently strong SA responses to ZYMV infection, but limited responses to E. tracheiphila in the absence of ZYMV, suggesting that the latter pathogen may effectively evade or suppress plant defenses, although we observed no evidence of antagonistic cross-talk between SA and JA signaling pathways. We did, however, document effects of E. tracheiphila on induced responses to herbivory that may influence host-plant

  8. Human Gut-Derived Commensal Bacteria Suppress CNS Inflammatory and Demyelinating Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalam, Ashutosh; Shahi, Shailesh K; Luckey, David; Karau, Melissa; Marietta, Eric; Luo, Ningling; Choung, Rok Seon; Ju, Josephine; Sompallae, Ramakrishna; Gibson-Corley, Katherine; Patel, Robin; Rodriguez, Moses; David, Chella; Taneja, Veena; Murray, Joseph

    2017-08-08

    The human gut is colonized by a large number of microorganisms (∼10 13 bacteria) that support various physiologic functions. A perturbation in the healthy gut microbiome might lead to the development of inflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Therefore, gut commensals might provide promising therapeutic options for treating MS and other diseases. We report the identification of human gut-derived commensal bacteria, Prevotella histicola, which can suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II transgenic mouse model. P. histicola suppresses disease through the modulation of systemic immune responses. P. histicola challenge led to a decrease in pro-inflammatory Th1 and Th17 cells and an increase in the frequencies of CD4 + FoxP3 + regulatory T cells, tolerogenic dendritic cells, and suppressive macrophages. Our study provides evidence that the administration of gut commensals may regulate a systemic immune response and may, therefore, have a possible role in treatment strategies for MS. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Persistent suppression of subthalamic beta-band activity during rhythmic finger tapping in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joundi, Raed A; Brittain, John-Stuart; Green, Alex L; Aziz, Tipu Z; Brown, Peter; Jenkinson, Ned

    2013-03-01

    The function of synchronous oscillatory activity at beta band (15-30Hz) frequencies within the basal ganglia is unclear. Here we sought support for the hypothesis that beta activity has a global function within the basal ganglia and is not directly involved in the coding of specific biomechanical parameters of movement. We recorded local field potential activity from the subthalamic nuclei of 11 patients with Parkinson's disease during a synchronized tapping task at three different externally cued rates. Beta activity was suppressed during tapping, reaching a minimum that differed little across the different tapping rates despite an increase in velocity of finger movements. Thus beta power suppression was independent of specific motor parameters. Moreover, although beta oscillations remained suppressed during all tapping rates, periods of resynchronization between taps were markedly attenuated during high rate tapping. As such, a beta rebound above baseline between taps at the lower rates was absent at the high rate. Our results demonstrate that beta desynchronization in the region of the subthalamic nucleus is independent of motor parameters and that the beta resynchronization is differentially modulated by rate of finger tapping, These findings implicate consistent beta suppression in the facilitation of continuous movement sequences. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Symbiotic immuno-suppression: is disease susceptibility the price of bleaching resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merselis, Daniel G; Lirman, Diego; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio

    2018-01-01

    Accelerating anthropogenic climate change threatens to destroy coral reefs worldwide through the processes of bleaching and disease. These major contributors to coral mortality are both closely linked with thermal stress intensified by anthropogenic climate change. Disease outbreaks typically follow bleaching events, but a direct positive linkage between bleaching and disease has been debated. By tracking 152 individual coral ramets through the 2014 mass bleaching in a South Florida coral restoration nursery, we revealed a highly significant negative correlation between bleaching and disease in the Caribbean staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis . To explain these results, we propose a mechanism for transient immunological protection through coral bleaching: removal of Symbiodinium during bleaching may also temporarily eliminate suppressive symbiont modulation of host immunological function. We contextualize this hypothesis within an ecological perspective in order to generate testable predictions for future investigation.

  11. The role of ethylene perception in plant disease resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraats, Bart Peter Johan

    2003-01-01

    Ethylene is a plant hormone that is involved in responses of the plant to various stress situations, such as pathogen attack. The role of ethylene in plant-pathogen interactions seems to be diverse. Exposure of plants to ethylene can induce disease resistance, but treatment with ethylene during

  12. The preliminary study of MR diffusion weighted imaging with background body signal suppression on pulmonary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huawei; Cheng Jiejun; Xu Jianrong; Lu Qing; Ge Xin; Li Lei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate maximum intensity projection (MIP) images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of MR diffusion weighted imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) on pulmonary diseases. Methods: Sixty-one patients with pulmonary diseases underwent DWlBS. The findings in three dimensional(3D) MIP image were observed and the ADC values of diseased region were measured. The diagnostic value of DWIBS on pulmonary diseases was evaluated. Results: Lung cancer and inflammatory disease were all demonstrated as dense intensity area on DWIBS. The mean ADC value of central lung cancer was (1.05±0.23) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. The mean ADC value of peripheral lung cancer was (1.10 ± 0.17) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. The mean ADC value of the inflammatory disease was (1.69 ± 0.29) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. The mean ADC value had significant difference between peripheral lung cancer and the inflammatory disease (P<0.05). The MR sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in diagnosing the pulmonary diseases with DWIBS (86.84%, 82.60%, 85.24%, respectively) was higher than conventional MRI(78.94%, 78.26%, and 78.68%, respectively). Conclusion: DWIBS can demonstrate clearly the lesion's shape with 3D display. The quantitative measurement of ADC values is feasible. DWIBS may be a potential diagnostic method for differentiation on pulmonary diseases. (authors)

  13. Suppression of inflammatory immune responses in celiac disease by experimental hookworm infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J McSorley

    Full Text Available We present immunological data from two clinical trials where the effect of experimental human hookworm (Necator americanus infection on the pathology of celiac disease was evaluated. We found that basal production of Interferon- (IFN-γ and Interleukin- (IL-17A from duodenal biopsy culture was suppressed in hookworm-infected participants compared to uninfected controls. Increased levels of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in the circulation and mucosa are associated with active celiac disease. We show that this accumulation also occurs during a short-term (1 week oral gluten challenge, and that hookworm infection suppressed the increase of circulating CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells during this challenge period. When duodenal biopsies from hookworm-infected participants were restimulated with the immunodominant gliadin peptide QE65, robust production of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-17A was detected, even prior to gluten challenge while participants were strictly adhering to a gluten-free diet. Intriguingly, IL-5 was produced only after hookworm infection in response to QE65. Thus we hypothesise that hookworm-induced TH2 and IL-10 cross-regulation of the TH1/TH17 inflammatory response may be responsible for the suppression of these responses during experimental hookworm infection.

  14. Major diseases of ornamental plants and their management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.A.; Zakria, M.; Sohail, F.

    2003-01-01

    Major diseases of ornamental plants are caused by infections agents (biotic) or non-infectious (abiotic) agents. Infectious agents are bacteria, fungi, nematodes and virus. Non infectious agents are nutritional imbalances, environmental stresses and chemical toxicities. Grouping of the diseases has been done on symptomatology basis. Disease management in ornamental plants has been described through cultural practices, chemical and other control strategies. (author)

  15. Soil biota suppress positive plant diversity effects on productivity at high but not low soil fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Shan; Deyn, De Gerlinde B.; Jiang, B.; Yu, Shixiao

    2017-01-01

    Plant community productivity commonly increases with increasing plant diversity, which is explained by complementarity among plant species in resource utilization (complementarity effect), or by selection of particularly productive plant species in diverse plant communities (selection effect).

  16. Plant responses to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van

    2007-01-01

    Non-pathogenic soilborne microorganisms can promote plant growth, as well as suppress diseases. Plant growth promotion is taken to result from improved nutrient acquisition or hormonal stimulation. Disease suppression can occur through microbial antagonism or induction of resistance in the plant.

  17. Differences Between Expressive Suppression and Cognitive Reappraisal Between Heart Disease and Generalal Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Reza Mirlohi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Heart disease and emotional disorders often co-occur, but effective role in dysregulation of heart disease that is often overlooked. Evidence suggests that people with heart disease are more problems in regulating their emotions. The study compared the re-evaluation of cognitive emotion regulation commonly used two strategies- and suppression- between heart disease and the general population. Methods: Sixty men (30 with heart complaints and 30 without the condition were selected by convenience sampling method and they responded to the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (Gross and John and a demographic questionnaire responded. To analyze the results and descriptive statistics such as frequency tables and inferential statistics, independent T-test was used SPSS software was used. Results: The result shows that heart disease and general population re-evaluation strategies groups (P<0.01. This is not only different from the strategy reassessment, but in different repression, too. (P <0.001. Conclusion: The results showed that heart disease and general population used different strategies to regulate their emotions. The key to finding the heart disease group prefer repression to regulate their emotions.

  18. Experimental coal dust suppression system installed at the Nikola Tesla thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzijan, D [Rudarski Institut, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Zavod za Ventilaciju i Tehnicku Zastitu

    1988-01-01

    Describes a project conducted at the Nikola Tesla thermal power plant by the Mining Institute of Belgrade to reduce the high levels of dust concentrations in overloading stations on coal conveyors and hoppers. A mathematical model was developed to determine the ventilation capacity required at each of the 18 overloading stations with the hoppers considered successively: empty, 1/3 full, 2/3 full and completely full. Shows how this model enabled an efficient dust suppression system to be developed and subsequently installed by the Termovent company in Belgrade using 4 axial ventilators supplied by the Ventilator Company in Zagreb. The ventilators were powered by means of 5.5 kW electric motors and provided 440 Pa pressure at 950 rpm. Gives the result of dust concentration measurements indicating that the installed system achieved the results predicted by the mathematical model and that the levels were well below the statutory limit. A description of the complete installation is included. 3 refs.

  19. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation influences expression and suppression of impulsive behaviour in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Elias, William J.; Frysinger, Robert C.; Bashore, Theodore R.; Downs, Kara E.; van Wouwe, Nelleke C.; van den Wildenberg, Wery P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Past studies show beneficial as well as detrimental effects of subthalamic nucleus deep-brain stimulation on impulsive behaviour. We address this paradox by investigating individuals with Parkinson’s disease treated with subthalamic nucleus stimulation (n = 17) and healthy controls without Parkinson’s disease (n = 17) on performance in a Simon task. In this reaction time task, conflict between premature response impulses and goal-directed action selection is manipulated. We applied distributional analytic methods to separate the strength of the initial response impulse from the proficiency of inhibitory control engaged subsequently to suppress the impulse. Patients with Parkinson’s disease were tested when stimulation was either turned on or off. Mean conflict interference effects did not differ between controls and patients, or within patients when stimulation was on versus off. In contrast, distributional analyses revealed two dissociable effects of subthalamic nucleus stimulation. Fast response errors indicated that stimulation increased impulsive, premature responding in high conflict situations. Later in the reaction process, however, stimulation improved the proficiency with which inhibitory control was engaged to suppress these impulses selectively, thereby facilitating selection of the correct action. This temporal dissociation supports a conceptual framework for resolving past paradoxical findings and further highlights that dynamic aspects of impulse and inhibitory control underlying goal-directed behaviour rely in part on neural circuitry inclusive of the subthalamic nucleus. PMID:20861152

  20. A retrospective of an unconventionally trained plant pathologist: plant diseases to molecular plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Seiji

    2006-01-01

    Plant pathology evolved from its mycology-oriented origins into a science dealing with biochemical mechanisms of diseases, along with enhanced crop production through disease control. This retrospective describes first my personal experience from my introduction to plant pathology, to the establishment of the concept of accessibility as a model pertaining to genetically defined basic compatibility induced by pathogens. I then refer to the development of molecular plant pathology from physiological and biochemical plant pathology fostered by the growth in recombinant technology in the second half of the past century. This progress was best reflected by the U.S.-Japan Seminar Series held at 4-5-year intervals from 1966 to 2003 and documented by publications in major journals of our discipline. These seminars emphasized that progress in science has always been supported by the invention of novel techniques and that knowledge integrated from modern genomics and subsequent proteomics should contribute to the progress of basic life sciences and, more importantly, to the elaboration of rational measures for disease control.

  1. Technical update on pressure suppression type containments in use in U.S. light water reactor nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    In 1972, Dr. S. H. Hanauer (Technical Advisor to the NRC's Executive Director for Operations) wrote a memorandum that raised several questions on the viability of pressure suppression containment concepts. The concerns raised by Dr. Hanauer have recently become the subject of considerable discussion by several members of the U.S. Congress and public. The report provides a response to these expressed concerns and a status summary for various technical matters that relate to the safety of pressure suppression type containments for light water cooled reactor plants

  2. Nuclear techniques in plant pathology 1. Plant disease control and physiology of parasitism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menten, J.O.M.; Ando, A.; Tulmann Neto, A.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are advantageously used in several areas of plant pathology. Among them are: induction of mutation for disease resistance, studies with pesticides, disease control through pathogen inactivation, induction of variability and stimulation in pathogens and natural enemies, studies of microorganism physiology and diseased plant physiology, effect of gamma radiation on pesticides, technology of pesticides application, etc. (Author) [pt

  3. How glyphosate affects plant disease development: it is more than enhanced susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschmidt, Ray

    2018-05-01

    Glyphosate has been shown to affect the development of plant disease in several ways. Plants utilize phenolic and other shikimic acid pathway-derived compounds as part of their defense against pathogens, and glyphosate inhibits the biosynthesis of these compounds via its mode of action. Several studies have shown a correlation between enhanced disease and suppression of phenolic compound production after glyphosate. Glyphosate-resistant crop plants have also been studied for changes in resistance as a result of carrying the glyphosate resistance trait. The evidence indicates that neither the resistance trait nor application of glyphosate to glyphosate-resistant plants increases susceptibility to disease. The only exceptions to this are cases where glyphosate has been shown to reduce rust diseases on glyphosate-resistant crops, supporting a fungicidal role for this chemical. Finally, glyphosate treatment of weeds or volunteer crops can cause a temporary increase in soil-borne pathogens that may result in disease development if crops are planted too soon after glyphosate application. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. [Microfungicid--a preparation based on trichoderma viride for plant diseases control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolombet, L V; Zhigletsova, S K; Derbyshev, V V; Ezhov, D V; Kosareva, N I; Bystrova, E V

    2001-01-01

    A technology was designed for manufacturing a preparation based on Trichoderma viride Pers ex S.F. Gray that strongly suppresses the development of causative agents of certain plant diseases and displays a growth-stimulating activity. Cultivation of the strain in a liquid medium for 18-24 h produced up to 60 g dry biomass per liter nutrient medium. A marketable form created in this work conserves the activity of the mycelial preparation for six months. The preparation is compatible with insecticides (carbofos, vismetrin, talstar, and applaud) and certain fungicides (such as baitan). Tests performed with the liquid form of Mycofungicid (seeds were treated with this preparation at a dose of 20-30 g per metric ton before sowing) showed its high efficiency in protecting cereal crops from plant pathogens. The incidence of plant diseases decreased by 65%, and crop yields increased by 15-20%.

  5. Disruption of Ethylene Responses by Turnip mosaic virus Mediates Suppression of Plant Defense against the Green Peach Aphid Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteel, Clare L; De Alwis, Manori; Bak, Aurélie; Dong, Haili; Whitham, Steven A; Jander, Georg

    2015-09-01

    Plants employ diverse responses mediated by phytohormones to defend themselves against pathogens and herbivores. Adapted pathogens and herbivores often manipulate these responses to their benefit. Previously, we demonstrated that Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) infection suppresses callose deposition, an important plant defense induced in response to feeding by its aphid vector, the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), and increases aphid fecundity compared with uninfected control plants. Further, we determined that production of a single TuMV protein, Nuclear Inclusion a-Protease (NIa-Pro) domain, was responsible for changes in host plant physiology and increased green peach aphid reproduction. To characterize the underlying molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, we examined the role of three phytohormone signaling pathways, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and ethylene (ET), in TuMV-infected Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), with or without aphid herbivory. Experiments with Arabidopsis mutants ethylene insensitive2 and ethylene response1, and chemical inhibitors of ET synthesis and perception (aminoethoxyvinyl-glycine and 1-methylcyclopropene, respectively), show that the ET signaling pathway is required for TuMV-mediated suppression of Arabidopsis resistance to the green peach aphid. Additionally, transgenic expression of NIa-Pro in Arabidopsis alters ET responses and suppresses aphid-induced callose formation in an ET-dependent manner. Thus, disruption of ET responses in plants is an additional function of NIa-Pro, a highly conserved potyvirus protein. Virus-induced changes in ET responses may mediate vector-plant interactions more broadly and thus represent a conserved mechanism for increasing transmission by insect vectors across generations. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Pharmacological inhibition of myostatin suppresses systemic inflammation and muscle atrophy in mice with chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Rajan, Vik; Lin, Eugene; Hu, Zhaoyong; Han, H. Q.; Zhou, Xiaolan; Song, Yanping; Min, Hosung; Wang, Xiaonan; Du, Jie; Mitch, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and several other catabolic conditions are characterized by increased circulating inflammatory cytokines, defects in IGF-1 signaling, abnormal muscle protein metabolism, and progressive muscle atrophy. In these conditions, no reliable treatments successfully block the development of muscle atrophy. In mice with CKD, we found a 2- to 3-fold increase in myostatin expression in muscle. Its pharmacological inhibition by subcutaneous injections of an anti-myostatin peptibody into CKD mice (IC50 ∼1.2 nM) reversed the loss of body weight (≈5–7% increase in body mass) and muscle mass (∼10% increase in muscle mass) and suppressed circulating inflammatory cytokines vs. results from CKD mice injected with PBS. Pharmacological myostatin inhibition also decreased the rate of protein degradation (16.38±1.29%; Pmyostatin expression via a NF-κB-dependent pathway, whereas muscle cells exposed to myostatin stimulated IL-6 production via p38 MAPK and MEK1 pathways. Because IL-6 stimulates muscle protein breakdown, we conclude that CKD increases myostatin through cytokine-activated pathways, leading to muscle atrophy. Myostatin antagonism might become a therapeutic strategy for improving muscle growth in CKD and other conditions with similar characteristics.—Zhang, L., Rajan, V., Lin, E., Hu, Z., Han, H.Q., Zhou, X., Song, Y., Min, H., Wang, X., Du, J., Mitch, W. E. Pharmacological inhibition of myostatin suppresses systemic inflammation and muscle atrophy in mice with chronic kidney disease. PMID:21282204

  7. In Vitro Screening of Antibacterial Agents for Suppression of Fire Blight Disease in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Su Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since fire blight disease on apple and pear was produced in Korea in 2015, there were no registered chemicals to control against this disease. Instead, several antibacterial chemicals that were registered for other bacterial diseases such as soft rot and bacterial spot have been authorized by Rural Development Administration (RDA. However, these chemicals are not tested efficacy for fire blight disease except damage by those treatments on apple and pear in Korea. Thus, we evaluated efficiency using in vitro and in planta assays of antibacterial chemicals such as antibiotics and copper compounds including kasugamycin, oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and streptomycin, and copper hydroxide, copper sulfate, oxine copper and tribasic copper sulfate, respectively. We also tested two kinds of biological agents. As expected, significant antibacterial effect was observed in vitro test of both antibiotics and copper-based chemicals. In planta test based on disease severity including ooze and water-soaked formation on immature pears, bacterial populations on blooms, and blight lesion formation in artificially inoculated shoots, kasugamycin, oxytetracycline and streptomycin have been shown the most efficiency among tested antibiotics. Four copper-based chemicals tested in this study, control effects are little bit lower than agricultural antibiotics but they seem to be available to use in terms of winter season. Biocontrol agents were also shown possibility to treat in eco-friendly farms. In addition, there are no antibiotic resistance genes in Korean isolates against antibiotics, which were selected for suppression of fire blight in this study.

  8. The novel GrCEP12 peptide from the plant-parasitic nematode Globodera rostochiensis suppresses flg22-mediated PTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiyan; Chronis, Demosthenis; Wang, Xiaohong

    2013-09-01

    The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is a biotrophic pathogen that secretes effector proteins into host root cells to promote successful plant parasitism. In addition to the role in generating within root tissue the feeding cells essential for nematode development, (1) nematode secreted effectors are becoming recognized as suppressors of plant immunity. (2)(-) (4) Recently we reported that the effector ubiquitin carboxyl extension protein (GrUBCEP12) from G. rostochiensis is processed into free ubiquitin and a 12-amino acid GrCEP12 peptide in planta. Transgenic potato lines overexpressing the derived GrCEP12 peptide showed increased susceptibility to G. rostochiensis and to an unrelated bacterial pathogen Streptomyces scabies, suggesting that GrCEP12 has a role in suppressing host basal defense or possibly pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) during the parasitic interaction. (3) To determine if GrCEP12 functions as a PTI suppressor we evaluated whether GrCEP12 suppresses flg22-induced PTI responses in Nicotiana benthamiana. Interestingly, we found that transient expression of GrCEP12 in N. benthamiana leaves suppressed reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the induction of two PTI marker genes triggered by the bacterial PAMP flg22, providing direct evidence that GrCEP12 indeed has an activity in PTI suppression.

  9. Study of ion suppression for phenolic compounds in medicinal plant extracts using liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccin, H; Viana, C; do Nascimento, P C; Bohrer, D; de Carvalho, L M

    2016-01-04

    A systematic study on the various sources of ion suppression in UHPLC-MS-MS analysis was carried out for 24 phenolic antioxidants in 6 different extracts of medicinal plants from Amazonia. The contributions of matrix effects, mobile-phase additives, analyte co-elution and electric charge competition during ionization to the global ion suppression were evaluated. Herein, the influence of mobile-phase additives on the ionization efficiency was found to be very pronounced, where ion suppression of approximately 90% and ion enhancement effects greater than 400% could be observed. The negative effect caused by the wrong choice of internal standard (IS) on quantitative studies was also evaluated and discussed from the perspective of ion suppression. This work also shows the importance of performing studies with this approach even for very similar matrices, such as varieties of medicinal plants from the same species, because different effects were observed for the same analyte. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An ANNEXIN-like protein from the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae suppresses plant defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlong Chen

    Full Text Available Parasitism genes encoding secreted effector proteins of plant-parasitic nematodes play important roles in facilitating parasitism. An annexin-like gene was isolated from the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae (termed Ha-annexin and had high similarity to annexin 2, which encodes a secreted protein of Globodera pallida. Ha-annexin encodes a predicted 326 amino acid protein containing four conserved annexin domains. Southern blotting revealed that there are at least two homologies in the H. avenae genome. Ha-annexin transcripts were expressed within the subventral gland cells of the pre-parasitic second-stage juveniles by in situ hybridization. Additionally, expression of these transcripts were relatively higher in the parasitic second-stage juveniles by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis, coinciding with the time when feeding cell formation is initiated. Knockdown of Ha-annexin by method of barley stripe mosaic virus-based host-induced gene silencing (BSMV-HIGS caused impaired nematode infections at 7 dpi and reduced females at 40 dpi, indicating important roles of the gene in parasitism at least in early stage in vivo. Transiently expression of Ha-ANNEXIN in onion epidermal cells and Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells showed the whole cell-localization. Using transient expression assays in N. benthamiana, we found that Ha-ANNEXIN could suppress programmed cell death triggered by the pro-apoptotic mouse protein BAX and the induction of marker genes of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI in N. benthamiana. In addition, Ha-ANNEXIN targeted a point in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway downstream of two kinases MKK1 and NPK1 in N. benthamiana.

  11. Porphyromonas gingivalis suppresses adaptive immunity in periodontitis, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingar Olsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen in chronic periodontitis, has been found to associate with remote body organ inflammatory pathologies, including atherosclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Although P. gingivalis has a plethora of virulence factors, much of its pathogenicity is surprisingly related to the overall immunosuppression of the host. This review focuses on P. gingivalis aiding suppression of the host’s adaptive immune system involving manipulation of cellular immunological responses, specifically T cells and B cells in periodontitis and related conditions. In periodontitis, this bacterium inhibits the synthesis of IL-2 and increases humoral responses. This reduces the inflammatory responses related to T- and B-cell activation, and subsequent IFN-γ secretion by a subset of T cells. The T cells further suppress upregulation of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1-receptor on CD+cells and its ligand PD-L1 on CD11b+-subset of T cells. IL-2 downregulates genes regulated by immune response and induces a cytokine pattern in which the Th17 lineage is favored, thereby modulating the Th17/T-regulatory cell (Treg imbalance. The suppression of IFN-γ-stimulated release of interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10 chemokine ligands [ITAC (CXCL11 and Mig (CXCL9] by P. gingivalis capsular serotypes triggers distinct T cell responses and contributes to local immune evasion by release of its outer membrane vesicles. In atherosclerosis, P. gingivalis reduces Tregs, transforms growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ-1, and causes imbalance in the Th17 lineage of the Treg population. In AD, P. gingivalis may affect the blood–brain barrier permeability and inhibit local IFN-γ response by preventing entry of immune cells into the brain. The scarcity of adaptive immune cells in AD neuropathology implies P. gingivalis infection of the brain likely causing impaired clearance of insoluble amyloid and inducing immunosuppression. By the effective manipulation of

  12. Characterization of the Xylella fastidiosa PD1311 gene mutant and its suppression of Pierce's disease on grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingyun; Johnson, Kameka; Cursino, Luciana; Mowery, Patricia; Burr, Thomas J

    2017-06-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes Pierce's disease (PD) on grapevines, leading to significant economic losses in grape and wine production. To further our understanding of X. fastidiosa virulence on grapevines, we examined the PD1311 gene, which encodes a putative acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) synthetase, and is highly conserved across Xylella species. It was determined that PD1311 is required for virulence, as the deletion mutant, ΔPD1311, was unable to cause disease on grapevines. The ΔPD1311 strain was impaired in behaviours known to be associated with PD development, including motility, aggregation and biofilm formation. ΔPD1311 also expressed enhanced sensitivity to H 2 O 2 and polymyxin B, and showed reduced survival in grapevine sap, when compared with wild-type X. fastidiosa Temecula 1 (TM1). Following inoculation, ΔPD1311 could not be detected in grape shoots, which may be related to its altered growth and sensitivity phenotypes. Inoculation with ΔPD1311 2 weeks prior to TM1 prevented the development of PD in a significant fraction of vines and eliminated detectable levels of TM1. In contrast, vines inoculated simultaneously with TM1 and ΔPD1311 developed disease at the same level as TM1 alone. In these vines, TM1 populations were distributed similarly to populations in TM1-only inoculated plants. These findings suggest that, through an indirect mechanism, pretreatment of vines with ΔPD1311 suppresses pathogen population and disease. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  13. Impaired Insulin Suppression of VLDL-Triglyceride Kinetics in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Marianne K; Nellemann, Birgitte; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Pedersen, Steen B; Grønbæk, Henning; Nielsen, Søren

    2016-04-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with glucose and lipid metabolic abnormalities. However, insulin suppression of very low-density lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG) kinetics is not fully understood. The objective of the study was to determine VLDL-TG, glucose, and palmitate kinetics during fasting and hyperinsulinemia in men with (NAFLD+) and without NAFLD (NAFLD−). Twenty-seven nondiabetic, upper-body obese (waist to hip ratio > 0.9, body mass index > 28 kg/m2) men, 18 NAFLD+, and nine NAFLD− determined by magnetic resonance spectroscopy were enrolled.14C-labeled VLDL-TG and 3H-labeled glucose and palmitate tracers were applied in combination with indirect calorimetry and breath samples to assess kinetics and substrate oxidations postabsorptively and during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Dual-X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging assessed body composition. Liver fat content was greater in NAFLD+ than NAFLD− men (21.0% vs 3.7%), even though body composition, metabolites (except triglycerides), and insulin were similar in the groups. Insulin suppression of VLDL-TG secretion (P = .0001), oxidation (P = .0003), and concentration (P= .008) as well as percentage decreases were lower in NAFLD+ than NAFLD− men (secretion: 31.9% ± 17.2% vs 64.7% ± 19.9%; oxidation: −9.0% ± 24.7% vs 46.5% ± 36.6%; concentration: 11.9% ± 20.7% vs 56.2% ± 22.9%, all P glucose production was similar in the groups. Compared with endogenous glucose production, the inability of NAFLD+ men to suppress VLDL-TG kinetics to compensate for the increased liver fat content seems to be an early pathophysiological manifestation of male NAFLD+. These data suggest therapeutic targets reducing liver fat content may ameliorate metabolic abnormalities associated with NAFLD and presumably diabetes.

  14. Peripheral Androgen Receptor Gene Suppression Rescues Disease in Mouse Models of Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Lieberman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA is caused by the polyglutamine androgen receptor (polyQ-AR, a protein expressed by both lower motor neurons and skeletal muscle. Although viewed as a motor neuronopathy, data from patients and mouse models suggest that muscle contributes to disease pathogenesis. Here, we tested this hypothesis using AR113Q knockin and human bacterial artificial chromosome/clone (BAC transgenic mice that express the full-length polyQ-AR and display androgen-dependent weakness, muscle atrophy, and early death. We developed antisense oligonucleotides that suppressed AR gene expression in the periphery but not the CNS after subcutaneous administration. Suppression of polyQ-AR in the periphery rescued deficits in muscle weight, fiber size, and grip strength, reversed changes in muscle gene expression, and extended the lifespan of mutant males. We conclude that polyQ-AR expression in the periphery is an important contributor to pathology in SBMA mice and that peripheral administration of therapeutics should be explored for SBMA patients.

  15. Suppression of dust explosions and ignition spots in biomass-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C; Rautalin, A

    1996-12-31

    Dust explosion characteristics of forest residue dust both at normal pressure and at elevated initial pressure have been determined in previous studies. These indices give a good base for evaluating the usability of suppression systems to obtain a sufficient level of peritoneal safety in biomass fuel handling equipment. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the usability of suppression systems and to demonstrate dust explosion suppression at elevated initial pressure. Suppression tests at 1 - 20 bar pressure will be carried out in co-operation with CTDD of British Coal, Kiddy Fire Protection and Health and Safety Executive. The tests with coal and biomass dust are scheduled to be started in March 1996 in Great Britain. In the second task of the project, self-ignition properties of forest residue dust and straw dust have been measured in a flow-through system simulating slow drying of the fuel

  16. Suppression of dust explosions and ignition spots in biomass-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Rautalin, A.

    1995-12-31

    Dust explosion characteristics of forest residue dust both at normal pressure and at elevated initial pressure have been determined in previous studies. These indices give a good base for evaluating the usability of suppression systems to obtain a sufficient level of peritoneal safety in biomass fuel handling equipment. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the usability of suppression systems and to demonstrate dust explosion suppression at elevated initial pressure. Suppression tests at 1 - 20 bar pressure will be carried out in co-operation with CTDD of British Coal, Kiddy Fire Protection and Health and Safety Executive. The tests with coal and biomass dust are scheduled to be started in March 1996 in Great Britain. In the second task of the project, self-ignition properties of forest residue dust and straw dust have been measured in a flow-through system simulating slow drying of the fuel

  17. Suppression of dust explosions and ignition spots in biomass- fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C; Rautalin, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Dust explosion characteristics of forest residue dust both at normal pressure and at elevated initial pressure have been determined in previous studies. These indices give a good base for evaluating the usability of suppression systems to obtain a sufficient level of operational safety in biomass fuel handling equipment. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the usability of suppression systems and to demonstrate dust explosion suppression at elevated initial pressure. Suppression tests at 1 - 20 bar pressure will be carried out in co-operation with CTDD of British Coal, Kiddy Fire Protection and Health and Safety Executive. The tests with coal and biomass dust are scheduled to be started in March 1996 in Great Britain. In the second task of the project, self-ignition properties of forest residue dust and straw dust have been measured in a flow-through system simulating slow drying of the fuel

  18. Biocontrol traits of plant growth suppressive arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi against root rot in tomato caused by Pythium aphanidermatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John; Graham, James H.; Cubero, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi known to cause plant growth depressions in tomato were examined for their biocontrol effects against root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. The main hypothesis was that plant growth suppressive AM fungi would elicit a defence response in the host plant reduci...

  19. current issues in plant disease control: biotechnology and plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    reaction (PCR) techniques are used in the identification of viral and bacterial disease and also new formats using .... process is also enhanced by the enzymatic activity of the RISC .... accumulation of ammonia in tobacco leaves, which causes.

  20. The concentration and type of liquid smoke to suppress the development of Elsinoe fawcettii causing scab on citrus plant of Japansche citroen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwiratno A.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrus is the main fruit commodity in Indonesia. Scab disease is a major disease in citrus plants. Scab disease control usually uses chemical fungicides that cause environmental pollution. Liquid smoke is a natural substance as a safer fungicide. The objective of this study was to analyze the ability of liquid smoke with the most effective concentration of three types of liquid smoke ie coconut shell, teak and falcata in suppressing the development of fungus Elsinoe fawcettii in citrus Japansche Citroen (JC. The identification and treatment carried out were analysis of phenol compounds contained in three types of liquid smoke (coconut shell, teak and falcata wood, testing of in vitro antifungal properties on growth of fungus E. fawcettii isolate in petri and in vivo sprouts against disease rate scab on JC citrus plant. The results showed that phenol content of coconut shell liquid smoke was 62.747 ml / L, 227.873 ml / L of teak wood and falcata wood was 115.587 ml / L. On observation of E. fawcettii fungal colony 14 days after inocculation (dai highest percentage inhibition was smoke falcata smoke 5% concentration, able to inhibit growth of E. fawcettii equal to 77,22% whereas the lowest concentration was coconut shell smoke concentration 2% with 10.14% inhibition rate. Observation of wet weight and dry weight of E. fawcetti result of falcata smoke smoke treatment of 5% and 1% concentration have the lowest wet weight and dry weight of 0.867 g and 0.030 g, while on observation of intensity and extent of disease attack in vivo treatment of liquid smoke shell coconut wood and falcata wood have almost the same level of effectiveness. The conclusions of this study indicate that three types of liquid smoke ie coconut shell, teak and falcata wood have the ability to suppress growth and development of E. fawcetti fungus both in vitro and in vivo, while the most effective type is falcata wood. The most effective concentration in suppressing growth and

  1. Persistent amyloidosis following suppression of Abeta production in a transgenic model of Alzheimer disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna L Jankowsky

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The proteases (secretases that cleave amyloid-beta (Abeta peptide from the amyloid precursor protein (APP have been the focus of considerable investigation in the development of treatments for Alzheimer disease. The prediction has been that reducing Abeta production in the brain, even after the onset of clinical symptoms and the development of associated pathology, will facilitate the repair of damaged tissue and removal of amyloid lesions. However, no long-term studies using animal models of amyloid pathology have yet been performed to test this hypothesis.We have generated a transgenic mouse model that genetically mimics the arrest of Abeta production expected from treatment with secretase inhibitors. These mice overexpress mutant APP from a vector that can be regulated by doxycycline. Under normal conditions, high-level expression of APP quickly induces fulminant amyloid pathology. We show that doxycycline administration inhibits transgenic APP expression by greater than 95% and reduces Abeta production to levels found in nontransgenic mice. Suppression of transgenic Abeta synthesis in this model abruptly halts the progression of amyloid pathology. However, formation and disaggregation of amyloid deposits appear to be in disequilibrium as the plaques require far longer to disperse than to assemble. Mice in which APP synthesis was suppressed for as long as 6 mo after the formation of Abeta deposits retain a considerable amyloid load, with little sign of active clearance.This study demonstrates that amyloid lesions in transgenic mice are highly stable structures in vivo that are slow to disaggregate. Our findings suggest that arresting Abeta production in patients with Alzheimer disease should halt the progression of pathology, but that early treatment may be imperative, as it appears that amyloid deposits, once formed, will require additional intervention to clear.

  2. A Novel Meloidogyne incognita Effector Misp12 Suppresses Plant Defense Response at Latter Stages of Nematode Parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jialian; Li, Shaojun; Mo, Chenmi; Wang, Gaofeng; Xiao, Xueqiong; Xiao, Yannong

    2016-01-01

    Secreted effectors in plant root-knot nematodes (RKNs, or Meloidogyne spp.) play key roles in their parasite processes. Currently identified effectors mainly focus on the early stage of the nematode parasitism. There are only a few reports describing effectors that function in the latter stage. In this study, we identified a potential RKN effector gene, Misp12, that functioned during the latter stage of parasitism. Misp12 was unique in the Meloidogyne spp., and highly conserved in Meloidogyne incognita. It encoded a secretory protein that specifically expressed in the dorsal esophageal gland, and highly up-regulated during the female stages. Transient expression of Misp12-GUS-GFP in onion epidermal cell showed that Misp12 was localized in cytoplast. In addition, in planta RNA interference targeting Misp12 suppressed the expression of Misp12 in nematodes and attenuated parasitic ability of M. incognita. Furthermore, up-regulation of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) pathway defense-related genes in the virus-induced silencing of Misp12 plants, and down-regulation of SA pathway defense-related genes in Misp12-expressing plants indicated the gene might be associated with the suppression of the plant defense response. These results demonstrated that the novel nematode effector Misp12 played a critical role at latter parasitism of M. incognita. PMID:27446188

  3. The molecular basis of disease resistance in higher plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xxxxxx

    Therefore, manipulating a single transcription factor could have the same effect as manipulating a set of specific genes within the plant. As highlighted above, transgenic plants allow the targeted ... including molecular techniques and genetics will provide insights into pathogen-defense mechanism and subsequent disease ...

  4. Biological control agents for suppression of post-harvest diseases of potatoes: strategies on discovery and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    As used in plant pathology, the term "biological control" or its short form “biocontrol” commonly refers to the decrease in the inoculum or the disease-producing activity of a pathogen accomplished through one or more organisms, including the host plant but excluding man. Biological control of plant...

  5. Plant innate immunity induced by flagellin suppresses the hypersensitive response in non-host plants elicited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. averrhoi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Fong Wei

    Full Text Available A new pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. averrhoi (Pav, which causes bacterial spot disease on carambola was identified in Taiwan in 1997. Many strains of this pathovar have been isolated from different locations and several varieties of hosts. Some of these strains, such as HL1, are nonmotile and elicit a strong hypersensitive response (HR in nonhost tobacco leaves, while other strains, such as PA5, are motile and elicit a weak HR. Based on the image from a transmission electron microscope, the results showed that HL1 is flagellum-deficient and PA5 has normal flagella. Here we cloned and analyzed the fliC gene and glycosylation island from Pav HL1 and PA5. The amino acid sequences of FliC from HL1 and PA5 are identical to P. s. pvs. tabaci (Pta, glycinea and phaseolicola and share very high similarity with other pathovars of P. syringae. In contrast to the flagellin mutant PtaΔfliC, PA5ΔfliC grows as well as wild type in the host plant, but it elicits stronger HR than wild type does in non-host plants. Furthermore, the purified Pav flagellin, but not the divergent flagellin from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, is able to impair the HR induced by PA5ΔfliC. PA5Δfgt1 possessing nonglycosylated flagella behaved as its wild type in both bacterial growth in host and HR elicitation. Flagellin was infiltrated into tobacco leaves either simultaneously with flagellum-deficient HL1 or prior to the inoculation of wild type HL1, and both treatments impaired the HR induced by HL1. Moreover, the HR elicited by PA5 and PA5ΔfliC was enhanced by the addition of cycloheximide, suggesting that the flagellin is one of the PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns contributed to induce the PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI. Taken together, the results shown in this study reveal that flagellin in Pav is capable of suppressing HR via PTI induction during an incompatible interaction.

  6. Plant Innate Immunity Induced by Flagellin Suppresses the Hypersensitive Response in Non-Host Plants Elicited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. averrhoi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chia-Fong; Hsu, Shih-Tien; Deng, Wen-Ling; Wen, Yu-Der; Huang, Hsiou-Chen

    2012-01-01

    A new pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. averrhoi (Pav), which causes bacterial spot disease on carambola was identified in Taiwan in 1997. Many strains of this pathovar have been isolated from different locations and several varieties of hosts. Some of these strains, such as HL1, are nonmotile and elicit a strong hypersensitive response (HR) in nonhost tobacco leaves, while other strains, such as PA5, are motile and elicit a weak HR. Based on the image from a transmission electron microscope, the results showed that HL1 is flagellum-deficient and PA5 has normal flagella. Here we cloned and analyzed the fliC gene and glycosylation island from Pav HL1 and PA5. The amino acid sequences of FliC from HL1 and PA5 are identical to P. s. pvs. tabaci (Pta), glycinea and phaseolicola and share very high similarity with other pathovars of P. syringae. In contrast to the flagellin mutant PtaΔfliC, PA5ΔfliC grows as well as wild type in the host plant, but it elicits stronger HR than wild type does in non-host plants. Furthermore, the purified Pav flagellin, but not the divergent flagellin from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, is able to impair the HR induced by PA5ΔfliC. PA5Δfgt1 possessing nonglycosylated flagella behaved as its wild type in both bacterial growth in host and HR elicitation. Flagellin was infiltrated into tobacco leaves either simultaneously with flagellum-deficient HL1 or prior to the inoculation of wild type HL1, and both treatments impaired the HR induced by HL1. Moreover, the HR elicited by PA5 and PA5ΔfliC was enhanced by the addition of cycloheximide, suggesting that the flagellin is one of the PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns) contributed to induce the PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Taken together, the results shown in this study reveal that flagellin in Pav is capable of suppressing HR via PTI induction during an incompatible interaction. PMID:22911741

  7. Powdery mildew suppresses herbivore-induced plant volatiles and interferes with parasitoid attraction in Brassica rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The co-occurrence of different antagonists on a plant can greatly affect infochemicals with ecological consequences for higher trophic levels. Here we investigated how the presence of a plant pathogen, the powdery mildew Erysiphe cruciferarum, on Brassica rapa affects 1) plant volatiles emitted in r...

  8. Insect herbivory stimulates allelopathic exudation by an invasive plant and the suppression of natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles C. Thelen; Jorge M. Vivanco; Beth Newingham; William Good; Harsh P. Bais; Peter Landres; Anthony Caesar; Ragan M. Callaway

    2005-01-01

    Exotic invasive plants are often subjected to attack from imported insects as a method of biological control. A fundamental, but rarely explicitly tested, assumption of biological control is that damaged plants are less fit and compete poorly. In contrast, we find that one of the most destructive invasive plants in North America, Centaurea maculosa,...

  9. Weed suppression greatly increased by plant diversity in intensively managed grasslands: A continental-scale experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, John; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Kirwan, Laura; Finn, John Anthony; Llurba, Rosa; Suter, Matthias; Collins, Rosemary P; Porqueddu, Claudio; Helgadóttir, Áslaug; Baadshaug, Ole H; Bélanger, Gilles; Black, Alistair; Brophy, Caroline; Čop, Jure; Dalmannsdóttir, Sigridur; Delgado, Ignacio; Elgersma, Anjo; Fothergill, Michael; Frankow-Lindberg, Bodil E; Ghesquiere, An; Golinski, Piotr; Grieu, Philippe; Gustavsson, Anne-Maj; Höglind, Mats; Huguenin-Elie, Olivier; Jørgensen, Marit; Kadziuliene, Zydre; Lunnan, Tor; Nykanen-Kurki, Paivi; Ribas, Angela; Taube, Friedhelm; Thumm, Ulrich; De Vliegher, Alex; Lüscher, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Grassland diversity can support sustainable intensification of grassland production through increased yields, reduced inputs and limited weed invasion. We report the effects of diversity on weed suppression from 3 years of a 31-site continental-scale field experiment.At each site, 15 grassland communities comprising four monocultures and 11 four-species mixtures based on a wide range of species' proportions were sown at two densities and managed by cutting. Forage species were selected according to two crossed functional traits, "method of nitrogen acquisition" and "pattern of temporal development".Across sites, years and sown densities, annual weed biomass in mixtures and monocultures was 0.5 and 2.0 t  DM ha -1 (7% and 33% of total biomass respectively). Over 95% of mixtures had weed biomass lower than the average of monocultures, and in two-thirds of cases, lower than in the most suppressive monoculture (transgressive suppression). Suppression was significantly transgressive for 58% of site-years. Transgressive suppression by mixtures was maintained across years, independent of site productivity.Based on models, average weed biomass in mixture over the whole experiment was 52% less (95% confidence interval: 30%-75%) than in the most suppressive monoculture. Transgressive suppression of weed biomass was significant at each year across all mixtures and for each mixture.Weed biomass was consistently low across all mixtures and years and was in some cases significantly but not largely different from that in the equiproportional mixture. The average variability (standard deviation) of annual weed biomass within a site was much lower for mixtures (0.42) than for monocultures (1.77). Synthesis and applications . Weed invasion can be diminished through a combination of forage species selected for complementarity and persistence traits in systems designed to reduce reliance on fertiliser nitrogen. In this study, effects of diversity on weed suppression were

  10. Effect of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) cutting date and planting density on weed suppression in Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J Bradley; Chase, Carlene; Treadwell, Danielle; Koenig, Rosie; Cho, Alyssa; Morales-Payan, Jose Pable; Murphy, Tim; Antonious, George F

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit in Griffin, GA, to investigate weed suppression by sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L). The objectives were to (1) evaluate the effects of apical meristem removal (AMR) at three dates [5, 6, and 7 wks after planting (WAP) on May 14, 2008 and May 21, 2009] and (2) assess the impact of seeding rates (11, 28, and 45 kg ha(-1)) on weed biomass reduction. Weed species were identified at 4, 8, and 12 wks after sunn hemp planting. Sunn hemp cutting date had no significant effect on weed suppression in 2008 but significant differences for grass weeds at 4, 8, and 12 WAP and for yellow nutsedge at 8 and 12 WAP did occur when compared to the control in 2009. In comparison to the sunn hemp-free control plot in 2009, all three seeding rates had reduced grass weed dry weights at 4, 8, and 12 WAP. The total mass of yellow nutsedge when grown with sunn hemp was reduced compared to the total mass of yellow nutsedge grown in the weedy check for all seeding rates at 8 and 12 WAP. Lower grass weed biomass was observed by 12 WAP for cutting dates and seeding rates during 2008 and 2009. Sunn hemp cutting date and seeding rate reduced branch numbers in both years. The reduction in sunn hemp seeding rates revealed a decrease in weed populations.

  11. Venom allergen-like proteins in secretions of plant-parasitic nematodes activate and suppress extracellular plant immune receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano Torres, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic worms threaten human, animal and plant health by infecting people, livestock and crops worldwide. Animals and plants share an anciently evolved innate immune system. Parasites modulate this immune system by secreting proteins to maintain their parasitic lifestyle. This thesis

  12. Acid-suppressive drugs and risk of kidney disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tingting; Zhou, Junwen; Zhang, Chao

    2018-04-12

    More concerns had been raised about the risk of kidney disease (KD) associated with acid-suppressive drugs (ASDs). But whether they could directly increase such risk remained unclear. Meta-analysis was conducted to comprehensively investigate this relationship. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and three Chinese databases were searched until April 2017 for observational studies investigating the associations between ASDs and KD. Pooled log (odds ratios, ORs) or log (hazard ratios, HRs) with standard errors for KD risk were calculated using the generic inverse variance method and random-effect model. Ten studies involving 128,020 KD patients were included. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy was associated with higher risks of acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) (OR, 2.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-6.17), acute kidney injury (AKI) (HR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.33-2.59), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.03-2.09), and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.26-2.04) than non-PPI therapy. Additionally, PPI significantly increased the risks of AKI (HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.16-1.51), CKD (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.24-1.33) and ESRD (HR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.21-3.17) compared to histamine 2 receptor antagonist (H 2 RA). Relationship between H 2 RA therapy and AKI (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.90-1.07) or CKD (OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.89-1.11) was not found. PPI therapy significantly increased the risks of AIN, AKI, CKD and ESRD. Similar risks were not identified for H 2 RA therapy. More clinical trials are needed to confirm our findings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. A physical theory of focus development in plant disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zawolek, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    Chapter 1. The 'diffusion theory' of focus development in plant disease is introduced. Foci develop in space and time. The theory applies primarily to air-borne fungal diseases of the foliage.

    Chapter 2. The contents of the present volume are outlined.

    Chapter 3. The

  14. Effect of selected essential oil plants on bacterial wilt disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a major constrain to production of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). Control of bacterial wilt is very difficult as there are no effective curative chemicals. This study was aimed at investigating the potential roles of essential oil plants in control of the disease.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. Strain In5 Isolated from a Greenlandic Disease Suppressive Soil with Potent Antimicrobial Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennessy, Rosanna C.; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas; Frydenlund Michelsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. In5 is an isolate of disease suppressive soil with potent activity against pathogens. Its antifungal activity has been linked to a gene cluster encoding nonribosomal peptide synthetases producing the peptides nunamycin and nunapeptin. The genome sequence will provide insight into ...

  16. Embedded mobile farm robot for identification of diseased plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadistap, S. S.; Botre, B. A.; Pandit, Harshavardhan; Chandrasekhar; Rao, Adesh

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a mobile robot used in farms for identification of diseased plants. It puts forth two of the major aspects of robotics namely automated navigation and image processing. The robot navigates on the basis of the GPS (Global Positioning System) location and data obtained from IR (Infrared) sensors to avoid any obstacles in its path. It uses an image processing algorithm to differentiate between diseased and non-diseased plants. A robotic platform consisting of an ARM9 processor, motor drivers, robot mechanical assembly, camera and infrared sensors has been used. Mini2440 microcontroller has been used wherein Embedded linux OS (Operating System) is implemented.

  17. Expert System For Diagnosis Pest And Disease In Fruit Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewanto, Satrio; Lukas, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    This paper discussed the development of an expert system to diagnose pests and diseases on fruit plants. Rule base method was used to store the knowledge from experts and literatures. Control technique using backward chain and started from the symptoms to get conclusions about the pests and diseases that occur. Development of the system has been performed using software Corvid Exsys developed by Exsys company. Results showed that the development of this expert system can be used to assist users in identifying the type of pests and diseases on fruit plants. Further development and possibility of using internet for this system are proposed.

  18. Treatment of silymarin, a plant flavonoid, prevents ultraviolet light-induced immune suppression and oxidative stress in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Santosh K

    2002-12-01

    It is well documented that ultraviolet (UV) light-induced immune suppression and oxidative stress play an important role in the induction of skin cancers. Earlier, we have shown that topical treatment of silymarin, a plant flavonoid from milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.), to mouse skin prevents photocarcinogenesis, but the preventive mechanism of photocarcinogenesis in vivo animal system by silymarin is not well defined and understood. To define the mechanism of prevention, we employed immunostaining, analytical assays and ELISA which revealed that topical treatment of silymarin (1 mg/cm2 skin area) to C3H/HeN mice inhibits UVB (90 mJ/cm2)-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response to contact sensitizer dinitrofluorobenzene. Prevention of UVB-induced suppression of CHS by silymarin was found to be associated with the inhibition of infiltrating leukocytes, particularly CD11b+ cell type, and myeloperoxidase activity (50-71%). Silymarin treatment also resulted in significant reduction of UVB-induced immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 producing cells and its production (58-72%, pskin cancer risk human population and ii) development of sunscreen containing silymarin as an antioxidant (chemopreventive agent) or silymarin can be supplemented in skin care products.

  19. Transient voltage control of a DFIG-based wind power plant for suppressing overvoltage using a reactive current reduction loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geon Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a transient voltage control scheme of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG-based wind power plant (WPP using a reactive current reduction loop to suppress the overvoltage at a point of interconnection (POI and DFIG terminal after a fault clearance. The change of terminal voltage of a DFIG is monitored at every predefined time period to detect the fault clearance. If the voltage change exceeds a set value, then the reactive current reduction loop reduces the reactive current reference in the DFIG controller using the step function. The reactive current injection of DFIGs in a WPP is rapidly reduced, and a WPP can rapidly suppress the overvoltage at a fault clearance because the reactive current reference is reduced. Using an electromagnetic transients program–released version (EMTP–RV simulator, the performance of the proposed scheme was validated for a model system comprising 20 units of a 5-MW DFIG considering various scenarios, such as fault and wind conditions. Test results show that the proposed scheme enables a WPP to suppress the overvoltage at the POI and DFIG terminal within a short time under grid fault conditions.

  20. Microbially produced phytotoxins and plant disease management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nowadays, these evaluation techniques are becoming an important complement to classical breeding methods. The knowledge of the inactivation of microbial toxins has led to the use of microbial enzymes to inactivate phytotoxins thereby reducing incidence and severity of disease induced by microbial toxins. Considering ...

  1. Time interval between cover crop termination and planting influences corn seedling disease, plant growth, and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were established in controlled and field environment to evaluate the effect of time intervals between cereal rye cover crop termination and corn planting on corn seedling disease, corn growth, and grain yield in 2014 and 2015. Rye termination dates ranged from 25 days before planting (DB...

  2. Mechanisms and ecological consequences of plant defence induction and suppression in herbivore communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, M.R.; Jonckheere, W.; Knegt, B.; Lemos, F.; Liu, J.; Schimmel, B.C.J.; Villarroel, C.A.; Ataide, L.M.S.; Dermauw, W.; Glas, J.J.; Egas, M.; Janssen, A.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Schuurink, R.C.; Sabelis, M.W.; Alba, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plants are hotbeds for parasites such as arthropod herbivores, which acquire nutrients and energy from their hosts in order to grow and reproduce. Hence plants are selected to evolve resistance, which in turn selects for herbivores that can cope with this resistance. To preserve their

  3. Sumoylation of the Plant Clock Transcription Factor CCA1 Suppresses DNA Binding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, L.L.; Imrie, L.; Le Bihan, T.; van den Burg, H.A.; van Ooijen, G.

    2017-01-01

    In plants, the circadian clock regulates the expression of one-third of all transcripts and is crucial to virtually every aspect of metabolism and growth. We now establish sumoylation, a posttranslational protein modification, as a novel regulator of the key clock protein CCA1 in the model plant

  4. The Y-Box Binding Protein 1 Suppresses Alzheimer's Disease Progression in Two Animal Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Bobkova

    Full Text Available The Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1 is a member of the family of DNA- and RNA binding proteins. It is involved in a wide variety of DNA/RNA-dependent events including cell proliferation and differentiation, stress response, and malignant cell transformation. Previously, YB-1 was detected in neurons of the neocortex and hippocampus, but its precise role in the brain remains undefined. Here we show that subchronic intranasal injections of recombinant YB-1, as well as its fragment YB-11-219, suppress impairment of spatial memory in olfactory bulbectomized (OBX mice with Alzheimer's type degeneration and improve learning in transgenic 5XFAD mice used as a model of cerebral amyloidosis. YB-1-treated OBX and 5XFAD mice showed a decreased level of brain β-amyloid. In OBX animals, an improved morphological state of neurons was revealed in the neocortex and hippocampus; in 5XFAD mice, a delay in amyloid plaque progression was observed. Intranasally administered YB-1 penetrated into the brain and could enter neurons. In vitro co-incubation of YB-1 with monomeric β-amyloid (1-42 inhibited formation of β-amyloid fibrils, as confirmed by electron microscopy. This suggests that YB-1 interaction with β-amyloid prevents formation of filaments that are responsible for neurotoxicity and neuronal death. Our data are the first evidence for a potential therapeutic benefit of YB-1 for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Cell-Permeable Parkin Proteins Suppress Parkinson Disease-Associated Phenotypes in Cultured Cells and Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tam; Kim, Jaetaek; Ruley, H. Earl; Jo, Daewoong

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of complex etiology characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons, particularly in the substantia nigra. Parkin, a tightly regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase, promotes the survival of dopaminergic neurons in both PD and Parkinsonian syndromes induced by acute exposures to neurotoxic agents. The present study assessed the potential of cell-permeable parkin (CP-Parkin) as a neuroprotective agent. Cellular uptake and tissue penetration of recombinant, enzymatically active parkin was markedly enhanced by the addition of a hydrophobic macromolecule transduction domain (MTD). The resulting CP-Parkin proteins (HPM13 and PM10) suppressed dopaminergic neuronal toxicity in cells and mice exposed to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDH) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). These included enhanced survival and dopamine expression in cultured CATH.a and SH-SY5Y neuronal cells; and protection against MPTP-induced damage in mice, notably preservation of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells with enhanced dopamine expression in the striatum and midbrain, and preservation of gross motor function. These results demonstrate that CP-Parkin proteins can compensate for intrinsic limitations in the parkin response and provide a therapeutic strategy to augment parkin activity in vivo. PMID:25019626

  6. Auto-acetylation on K289 is not essential for HopZ1a-mediated plant defense suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Sebastian Rufian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Pseudomonas syringae type III-secreted effector HopZ1a is a member of the HopZ / YopJ superfamily of effectors that triggers immunity in Arabidopsis. We have previously shown that HopZ1a suppresses both local (effector-triggered immunity, ETI and systemic immunity (systemic acquired resistance, SAR triggered by the heterologous effector AvrRpt2. HopZ1a has been shown to possess acetyltransferase activity, and this activity is essential to trigger immunity in Arabidopsis. HopZ1a acetyltransferase activity has been reported to require the auto-acetylation of the effector on a specific lysine (K289 residue. In this paper we analyze the relevance of autoacetylation of lysine residue 289 in HopZ1a ability to suppress plant defenses, and on the light of the results obtained, we also revise its relevance for HopZ1a avirulence activity. Our results indicate that, while the HopZ1aK289R mutant is impaired to some degree in its virulence and avirulence activities, is by no means phenotypically equivalent to the catalytically inactive HopZ1aC216A, since it is still able to trigger a defense response that induces detectable macroscopic HR and effectively protects Arabidopsis from infection, reducing growth of P. syringae within the plant. We also present evidence that the HopZ1aK289R mutant still displays virulence activities, partially suppressing both ETI and SAR.

  7. Suppression of jasmonic acid-dependent defense in cotton plant by the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengjun Zhang

    Full Text Available The solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, has been recently recognized as an aggressively invasive pest in China, and is now becoming a serious threat to the cotton industry in the country. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the molecular mechanisms employed by cotton for defending against P. solenopsis before the pest populations reach epidemic levels. Here, we examined the effects of exogenous jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid (SA, and herbivory treatments on feeding behavior and on development of female P. solenopsis. Further, we compared the volatile emissions of cotton plants upon JA, SA, and herbivory treatments, as well as the time-related changes in gossypol production and defense-related genes. Female adult P. solenopsis were repelled by leaves from JA-treated plant, but were not repelled by leaves from SA-treated plants. In contrast, females were attracted by leaves from plants pre-infested by P. solenopsis. The diverse feeding responses by P. solenopsis were due to the difference in volatile emission of plants from different treatments. Furthermore, we show that JA-treated plants slowed P. solenopsis development, but plants pre-infested by P. solenopsis accelerated its development. We also show that P. solenopsis feeding inhibited the JA-regulated gossypol production, and prevented the induction of JA-related genes. We conclude that P. solenopsis is able to prevent the activation of JA-dependent defenses associated with basal resistance to mealybugs.

  8. Growth Promotion and Disease Suppression Ability of a Streptomyces sp. CB-75 from Banana Rhizosphere Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yufeng; Zhou, Dengbo; Qi, Dengfeng; Gao, Zhufen; Xie, Jianghui; Luo, Yanping

    2018-01-01

    An actinomycete strain, CB-75, was isolated from the soil of a diseased banana plantation in Hainan, China. Based on phenotypic and molecular characteristics, and 99.93% sequence similarity with Streptomyces spectabilis NBRC 13424 (AB184393), the strain was identified as Streptomyces sp. This strain exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal activity against 11 plant pathogenic fungi. Type I polyketide synthase (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) were detected, which were indicative of the antifungal compounds that Streptomyces sp. CB-75 could produce. An ethyl acetate extract from the strain exhibited the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Colletotrichum musae (ATCC 96167) (0.78 μg/ml) and yielded the highest antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (ATCC 16330) (50.0 μg/ml). Also, spore germination was significantly inhibited by the crude extract. After treatment with the crude extract of Streptomyces sp. CB-75 at the concentration 2 × MIC, the pathogenic fungi showed deformation, shrinkage, collapse, and tortuosity when observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the crude extract, 18 chemical constituents were identified; (Z)-13-docosenamide was the major constituent. Pot experiments showed that the incidence of banana seedlings was reduced after using Streptomyces sp. CB-75 treatment. The disease index was 10.23, and the prevention and control effect was 83.12%. Furthermore, Streptomyces sp. CB-75 had a growth-promoting effect on banana plants. The chlorophyll content showed 88.24% improvement, the leaf area, root length, root diameter, plant height, and stem showed 88.24, 90.49, 136.17, 61.78, and 50.98% improvement, respectively, and the shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight showed 82.38, 72.01, 195.33, and 113.33% improvement, respectively, compared with treatment of fermentation broth without Streptomyces sp. CB-75

  9. Evaluation of Suppressiveness of Soils Exhibiting Soil-Borne Disease Suppression after Long-Term Application of Organic Amendments by the Co-cultivation Method of Pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum and Indigenous Soil Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuboshi, Masahiro; Kioka, Yuuzou; Noguchi, Katsunori; Asakawa, Susumu

    2018-03-29

    Preventive measures against soil-borne diseases need to be implemented before cultivation because very few countermeasures are available after the development of diseases. Some soils suppress soil-borne diseases despite the presence of a high population density of pathogens. If the suppressiveness of soil against soil-borne diseases may be predicted and diagnosed for crop fields, it may be possible to reduce the labor and cost associated with excessive disinfection practices. We herein evaluated the suppressiveness of soils in fields with the long-term application of organic amendments by examining the growth of pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum co-cultivated with indigenous soil microorganisms on agar plates. Soils treated with coffee residue compost or rapeseed meal showed suppressiveness against spinach wilt disease by F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae or spinach wilt and lettuce root rot diseases by F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae and F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae, respectively, and the growth of pathogenic Fusarium spp. on agar plates was suppressed when co-cultured with microorganisms in a suspension from these soils before crop cultivation. These results indicate the potential of the growth degree of pathogenic F. oxysporum estimated by this method as a diagnostic indicator of the suppressiveness of soil associated with the inhabiting microorganisms. A correlation was found between the incidence of spinach wilt disease in spinach and the growth degree of F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae by this co-cultivation method, indicating that suppressiveness induced by organic amendment applications against F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae is evaluable by this method. The co-cultivation method may be useful for predicting and diagnosing suppressiveness against soil-borne diseases.

  10. Effect of medicinal plants extracts on the incidence of mosaic disease caused by cucumber mosaic virus and growth of chili

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidson, H.; Damiri, N.; Angraini, E.

    2018-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the effect of the application of several extracts of medicinal plants on the incidence of mosaic disease caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus infection on the chili (Capsicum annuum L.) plantation. A Randomized Block Design with eight treatments including control was used throughout the experiment. Treatments consisted of Azadiracta indica (A), Piper bitle (B), Cymbopogon citrates (C), Curcuma domestica (D), Averroa bilimbi (E), Datura stramonium (F), Annona Muricata (G) and control (H). Each treatment consist of three replications. The parameters observed were the incidence of mosaic attack due to CMV, disease severity, plant height, wet and dry weight and production (number of fruits and the weight of total fruits) each plant. Results showed that the application of medicinal plant extracts reduced the disease severity due to CMV. Extracts of Annona muricata and Datura stramonium were most effective in suppressing disease severity caused by the virus as they significantly different from control and from a number of treatment. The plants medicinal extracts were found to have increased the plant height and total weight of the plant, fruit amount and fruit weight. Extracts of Curcuma domestica, Piper bitle and Cymbopogon citrates were the third highest in fruit amount and weight and significantly different from the control.

  11. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: diseases in hardwood tree plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut

    2006-01-01

    Hardwood trees planted for timber production, wildlife habitat, riparian buffers, native woodland restoration, windbreaks, watershed protection, erosion control, and conservation are susceptible to damage or even death by various native and exotic fungal or bacterial diseases. Establishment, growth, and the quality of the trees produced can be affected by these disease...

  12. Suppression of host-seeking Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs after dual applications of plant-derived acaricides in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Robert A; Dolan, Marc C; Piesman, Joseph; Schulze, Terry L

    2011-04-01

    We evaluated the ability of dual applications of natural, plant-derived acaricides to suppress nymphal Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Lyme disease endemic area of New Jersey. An aqueous formulation of 2% nootkatone provided >90% control of I. scapularis through 7 d. Control declined to 80.9% at 14 d, and a second application was made that provided >95% control through the remaining 4 wk of the nymphal season. Nootkatone provided >90% control of A. americanum through 35 d postapplication. Applications of 2% carvacrol and EcoTrol T&O resulted in rapid knockdown of both tick species, but control declined significantly to 76.7 and 73.7%, respectively, after 14 d when a second application was made that extended control of both tick species to between 86.2 and 94.8% at 21 d. Subsequently, control declined steadily in all plots by 42 d postapplication except for I. scapularis in carvacrol-treated plots, where levels of control >90% were observed through 35 d. Of the three compounds tested, 2% nootkatone provided the most consistent results, with 96.5 and 91.9% control of I. scapularis and A. americanum through 42 and 35 d, respectively. The ability of plant-derived natural products to quickly suppress and maintain significant control of populations of these medically important ticks may represent a future alternative to the use of conventional synthetic acaricides. In addition, the demonstrated efficacy of properly-timed backpack sprayer application may enable homeowner access to these minimal-risk acaricides.

  13. Effects of medicinal plants on Alzheimer's disease and memory deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory deficits. Various studies have been carried out to find therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer's disease. However, the proper treatment option is still not available. There is no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but symptomatic treatment may improve the memory and other dementia related problems. Traditional medicine is practiced worldwide as memory enhancer since ancient times. Natural therapy including herbs and medicinal plants has been used in the treatment of memory deficits such as dementia, amnesia, as well as Alzheimer's disease since a long time. Medicinal plants have been used in different systems of medicine, particularly Unani system of medicines and exhibited their powerful roles in the management and cure of memory disorders. Most of herbs and plants have been chemically evaluated and their efficacy has also been proven in clinical trials. However, the underlying mechanisms of actions are still on the way. In this paper, we have reviewed the role of different medicinal plants that play an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and memory deficits using conventional herbal therapy.

  14. Efficacy of Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis in suppression of Tetranychus urticae in young clementine plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Moyano, Raquel; Pina, Tatiana; Pérez-Panadés, Jordi; Carbonell, Emilio A; Urbaneja, Alberto

    2010-04-01

    Tetranychus urticae is one of the most damaging tetranychid mites affecting clementine orchards in Spain, where natural control is insufficient. Furthermore, in clementine nurseries, tender foliage is highly susceptible to attack and natural enemies are almost always absent. Therefore, acaricides are often used indiscriminately. Alternative control measures are necessary, both in commercial orchards and clementine nurseries. In order to assess the efficacy of inoculative releases of N. californicus and P. persimilis to reduce T. urticae populations in young Spanish clementine plants, a semi-field experiment was conducted and repeated in three seasons (spring, summer and autumn). Phytoseiulus persimilis was highly effective in reducing both T. urticae infestations and the damage level inflicted on plants at both release rates evaluated (40 and 80 phytoseiids/plant) and all three periods considered. By contrast, N. californicus demonstrated low performance under certain conditions. The results of this study could be adapted and transferred to nurseries and young citrus plantations.

  15. A novel plant glutathione S-transferase/peroxidase suppresses Bax lethality in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampranis, S C; Damianova, R; Atallah, M

    2000-01-01

    The mammalian inducer of apoptosis Bax is lethal when expressed in yeast and plant cells. To identify potential inhibitors of Bax in plants we transformed yeast cells expressing Bax with a tomato cDNA library and we selected for cells surviving after the induction of Bax. This genetic screen allows...... for the identification of plant genes, which inhibit either directly or indirectly the lethal phenotype of Bax. Using this method a number of cDNA clones were isolated, the more potent of which encodes a protein homologous to the class theta glutathione S-transferases. This Bax-inhibiting (BI) protein was expressed...... in Escherichia coli and found to possess glutathione S-transferase (GST) and weak glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity. Expression of Bax in yeast decreases the intracellular levels of total glutathione, causes a substantial reduction of total cellular phospholipids, diminishes the mitochondrial membrane...

  16. Uptake of 32P and 86Rb as influenced by temperature, transpiration suppress and shading treatment in rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, G.B.; Hong, Y.P.; Im, J.N.; Chung, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    This study was carried out to know the uptake pattern of phosphorous and potassium in rice plants using by two radioisotopes, 32P and 86Rb as tracers for two years, 1987 and 1988. Rice plants were grown in the hydroponic culture with Yoshida's solution, and treated with different temperatures, transpiration suppress, shading, and phosphorous and potassium deletions. The uptake amount of 32P and 86Rb were increased with the increasing temperature in root sphere of rice plant, particularly remarkable increase of 86Rb uptake at 35deg C. The uptake of 32P tended to be promoted at the treatment of low air-high water temperature (17-30deg C), while that of 86Rb was not significantly differenced from different temperature treatments. The effect of transpiration on the uptake of 32P and 86Rb was extremely low. This phenomenon may suggest that the absorption be depending on active uptake rather than passive one by transpiration stream. The total carbohydrate contents of rice root were decreased by shading treatment, resulting significant reduction in the uptake of 32P and 86Rb. The uptake of 86Rb was remarkably increased in the treatment of potassium deletion, but that of 32P was not significantly increased in the delection of phosphorous

  17. Uptake of 32P and 86Rb as influenced by temperature, transpiration suppress and shading treatment in rice plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, G. B.; Hong, Y. P.; Im, J. N.; Chung, K. W.

    1989-07-01

    This study was carried out to know the uptake pattern of phosphorous and potassium in rice plants using by two radioisotopes, 32P and 86Rb as tracers for two years, 1987 and 1988. Rice plants were grown in the hydroponic culture with Yoshida's solution, and treated with different temperatures, transpiration suppress, shading, and phosphorous and potassium deletions. The uptake amount of 32P and 86Rb were increased with the increasing temperature in root sphere of rice plant, particularly remarkable increase of 86Rb uptake at 35deg C. The uptake of 32P tended to be promoted at the treatment of low air-high water temperature (17-30deg C), while that of 86Rb was not significantly differenced from different temperature treatments. The effect of transpiration on the uptake of 32P and 86Rb was extremely low. This phenomenon may suggest that the absorption be depending on active uptake rather than passive one by transpiration stream. The total carbohydrate contents of rice root were decreased by shading treatment, resulting significant reduction in the uptake of 32P and 86Rb. The uptake of 86Rb was remarkably increased in the treatment of potassium deletion, but that of 32P was not significantly increased in the delection of phosphorous.

  18. Distinct regions of the Phytophthora essential effector Avh238 determine its function in cell death activation and plant immunity suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Qunqing; Jing, Maofeng; Guo, Baodian; Wu, Jiawei; Wang, Haonan; Wang, Yang; Lin, Long; Wang, Yan; Ye, Wenwu; Dong, Suomeng; Wang, Yuanchao

    2017-04-01

    Phytophthora pathogens secrete effectors to manipulate host innate immunity, thus facilitating infection. Among the RXLR effectors highly induced during Phytophthora sojae infection, Avh238 not only contributes to pathogen virulence but also triggers plant cell death. However, the detailed molecular basis of Avh238 functions remains largely unknown. We mapped the regions responsible for Avh238 functions in pathogen virulence and plant cell death induction using a strategy that combines investigation of natural variation and large-scale mutagenesis assays. The correlation between cellular localization and Avh238 functions was also evaluated. We found that the 79 th residue (histidine or leucine) of Avh238 determined its cell death-inducing activity, and that the 53 amino acids in its C-terminal region are responsible for promoting Phytophthora infection. Transient expression of Avh238 in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed that nuclear localization is essential for triggering cell death, while Avh238-mediated suppression of INF1-triggered cell death requires cytoplasmic localization. Our results demonstrate that a representative example of an essential Phytophthora RXLR effector can evolve to escape recognition by the host by mutating one nucleotide site, and can also retain plant immunosuppressive activity to enhance pathogen virulence in planta. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Plant Essential Oils Used Against Some Bee Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayet Tutun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The most common honey bee diseases are American foulbrood (AFB caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae, Chalkbrood caused by fungus Ascosphaera apis and diseases caused by parasitic mites such as Acarapis woodi, Varroa destructor. These diseases and pests not only cause economic loss but also cause ecological problems related to the role of honey bees, as the most important pollinators on Earth. Synthetic acaricides and antibiotics are used to keep the diseases and mites in control. Use of the drugs lead to the development of drug-resistant organisms, detrimental effect on non-target organisms and the residue problem in bee products. For this reasons, the need for alternative control methods has become compulsory in recent years. It has been known that some plant oils used widely in perfumery and food industry for flavor and smell have been used as repellent to certain insects, bactericide and fungicide. Therefore, intensive studies have been carried out on plants with anti-mites, antibacterial and antifungal potentials and these studies are still going on. Recently, studies in this area have shown that essential oils of plants such as thyme, cloves, mint, lemon grass, cinnamon, grapefruit, rosemary, marigold, are lethal to some mites, bacteria and fungi. In addition, it has been reported that some components, isolated from these plants such as sanguinarine, thymoquinone, capsaicin, carvacrol, citral, eugenol, thymol, show these effects on the organisms. As a result, in countries rich in biodiversity due to endemic plant species, the essential oils used in control of these diseases should be favored instead of or in combination with conventional drugs in integrated the disease management programs because of the lack of harmful effects of essential oils on non-target organisms and environment.

  20. Are local filters blind to provenance? Ant seed predation suppresses exotic plants more than natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson; Nadia S. Icasatti; Jose L. Hierro; Benjamin J. Bird

    2014-01-01

    The question of whether species' origins influence invasion outcomes has been a point of substantial debate in invasion ecology. Theoretically, colonization outcomes can be predicted based on how species' traits interact with community filters, a process presumably blind to species' origins. Yet, exotic plant introductions commonly result in monospecific...

  1. Achieving sustainable plant disease management through evolutionary principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jiasui; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy J

    2014-09-01

    Plants and their pathogens are engaged in continuous evolutionary battles and sustainable disease management requires novel systems to create environments conducive for short-term and long-term disease control. In this opinion article, we argue that knowledge of the fundamental factors that drive host-pathogen coevolution in wild systems can provide new insights into disease development in agriculture. Such evolutionary principles can be used to guide the formulation of sustainable disease management strategies which can minimize disease epidemics while simultaneously reducing pressure on pathogens to evolve increased infectivity and aggressiveness. To ensure agricultural sustainability, disease management programs that reflect the dynamism of pathogen population structure are essential and evolutionary biologists should play an increasing role in their design. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhancement of soil suppressiveness against Rhizoctonia solani in sugar beet by organic amendments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Schilder, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of different organic soil amendments on disease suppression to Rhizoctoniasolani AG 2-2IIIB was tested in a bio-assay with sugar beet as a test plant. Lysobacter populations in soil were quantified as a possible mechanism for disease suppression. Disease spread through the bio-assay

  3. Plant-made oral vaccines against human infectious diseases-Are we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hui-Ting; Daniell, Henry

    2015-10-01

    Although the plant-made vaccine field started three decades ago with the promise of developing low-cost vaccines to prevent infectious disease outbreaks and epidemics around the globe, this goal has not yet been achieved. Plants offer several major advantages in vaccine generation, including low-cost production by eliminating expensive fermentation and purification systems, sterile delivery and cold storage/transportation. Most importantly, oral vaccination using plant-made antigens confers both mucosal (IgA) and systemic (IgG) immunity. Studies in the past 5 years have made significant progress in expressing vaccine antigens in edible leaves (especially lettuce), processing leaves or seeds through lyophilization and achieving antigen stability and efficacy after prolonged storage at ambient temperatures. Bioencapsulation of antigens in plant cells protects them from the digestive system; the fusion of antigens to transmucosal carriers enhances efficiency of their delivery to the immune system and facilitates successful development of plant vaccines as oral boosters. However, the lack of oral priming approaches diminishes these advantages because purified antigens, cold storage/transportation and limited shelf life are still major challenges for priming with adjuvants and for antigen delivery by injection. Yet another challenge is the risk of inducing tolerance without priming the host immune system. Therefore, mechanistic aspects of these two opposing processes (antibody production or suppression) are discussed in this review. In addition, we summarize recent progress made in oral delivery of vaccine antigens expressed in plant cells via the chloroplast or nuclear genomes and potential challenges in achieving immunity against infectious diseases using cold-chain-free vaccine delivery approaches. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Characterization of the RNA silencing suppression activity of the Ebola virus VP35 protein in plants and mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yali; Cherukuri, Nil Celebi; Jackel, Jamie N; Wu, Zetang; Crary, Monica; Buckley, Kenneth J; Bisaro, David M; Parris, Deborah S

    2012-03-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) causes a lethal hemorrhagic fever for which there is no approved effective treatment or prevention strategy. EBOV VP35 is a virulence factor that blocks innate antiviral host responses, including the induction of and response to alpha/beta interferon. VP35 is also an RNA silencing suppressor (RSS). By inhibiting microRNA-directed silencing, mammalian virus RSSs have the capacity to alter the cellular environment to benefit replication. A reporter gene containing specific microRNA target sequences was used to demonstrate that prior expression of wild-type VP35 was able to block establishment of microRNA silencing in mammalian cells. In addition, wild-type VP35 C-terminal domain (CTD) protein fusions were shown to bind small interfering RNA (siRNA). Analysis of mutant proteins demonstrated that reporter activity in RSS assays did not correlate with their ability to antagonize double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase R (PKR) or bind siRNA. The results suggest that enhanced reporter activity in the presence of VP35 is a composite of nonspecific translational enhancement and silencing suppression. Moreover, most of the specific RSS activity in mammalian cells is RNA binding independent, consistent with VP35's proposed role in sequestering one or more silencing complex proteins. To examine RSS activity in a system without interferon, VP35 was tested in well-characterized plant silencing suppression assays. VP35 was shown to possess potent plant RSS activity, and the activities of mutant proteins correlated strongly, but not exclusively, with RNA binding ability. The results suggest the importance of VP35-protein interactions in blocking silencing in a system (mammalian) that cannot amplify dsRNA.

  5. Suppression of cotton leaf curl disease symptoms in Gossypium hirsutum through over expression of host-encoded miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmal, Mohd; Baig, Mirza S; Khan, Jawaid A

    2017-12-10

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD), a major factor resulting in the enormous yield losses in cotton crop, is caused by a distinct monopartite begomovirus in association with Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). Micro(mi)RNAs are known to regulate gene expression in eukaryotes, including antiviral defense in plants. In a previous study, we had computationally identified a set of cotton miRNAs, which were shown to have potential targets in the genomes of Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) and CLCuMB at multiple loci. In the current study, effect of Gossypium arboreum-encoded miRNAs on the genome of CLCuMuV and CLCuMB was investigated in planta. Two computationally predicted cotton-encoded miRNAs (miR398 and miR2950) that showed potential to bind multiple Open Reading Frames (ORFs; C1, C4, V1, and non- coding intergenic region) of CLCuMuV, and (βC1) of CLCuMB were selected. Functional validation of miR398 and miR2950 was done by overexpression approach in G. hirsutum var. HS6. A total of ten in vitro cotton plants were generated from independent events and subjected to biological and molecular analyses. Presence of the respective Precursor (pre)-miRNA was confirmed through PCR and Southern blotting, and their expression level was assessed by semi quantitative RT-PCR, Real Time quantitative PCR and northern hybridization in the PCR-positive lines. Southern hybridization revealed 2-4 copy integration of T-DNA in the genome of the transformed lines. Remarkably, expression of pre-miRNAs was shown up to 5.8-fold higher in the transgenic (T 0 ) lines as revealed by Real Time PCR. The virus resistance was monitored following inoculation of the transgenic cotton lines with viruliferous whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) insect vector. After inoculation, four of the transgenic lines remained apparently symptom free. While a very low titre of viral DNA could be detected by Rolling circle amplification, betasatellite responsible for symptom induction could not be detected

  6. AgroKnowledgeBase (AKB) for plant diseases: Poppy plant use case

    OpenAIRE

    Terhorst, Andew; Morshed, Ahsan

    2013-01-01

    World’s economy drives on crop production. Currently, most of the countries are facing food shortage in each year. Farmers are trying to increase their productivity but they need specific information so that they can take right decision in the right time. One of particular challenge facing farmers is plant disease, which can be defined as deviation from normal physiological functioning that harmful to a plant. In this paper, we proposed a knowledge based prototype called AKB that help farmer...

  7. Application of forwardchaining method to diagnosis of onion plant diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitanggang, Delima; Siregar, Saut D.; Situmeang, Suryani M. F.; Indra, Evta; Sagala, Ayu R.; Sihombing, Oloan; Nababan, Marlince; Pasaribu, Hendra; Damanik, Rudolf R.; Turnip, Mardi; Saragih, Rijois I. E.

    2018-04-01

    Red Onion is a tuber plant that is widely used by the people of Indonesia, both as herbs and herbal medicines. Onion farmers have limitations in identifying diseases that attack their crops.This disease can cause crop failure against the onion.This design begins with the creation of a knowledge base up to input-output design with forward chaining method. The results of this design can assist farmers in identifying their plant diseases. Based on diagnostic results of several methods that have been done testing can diagnose diseases contained in onion plants. With symptoms data that has been determined by the expert with the value of each symptom is different. As for the symptoms that have been determined that the leaves contain patches with a value of 0.3, White leaf spots value 0.4, Leaf spots form a purple zone if it is severe 0.5, Leaf tip of 0.2, Tubers rot 0.4. Based on the above diagnostic results then get the value of diagnosis 67% forward chaining with trotol disease type, Purple spotting.

  8. Oral contraceptive therapy for polycystic ovary disease after chronic gonadotropin-releasing agonist administration. Predictors of continued ovarian suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind-Hirsch, K E; Anania, C; Malinak, R

    1996-09-01

    To study the beneficial effects of oral contraceptive (OC) therapy following gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) administration in women with polycystic ovary disease (PCOD). Twenty-three hyperandrogenic women (aged 15-39) were randomized into two groups; GnRH-a (depot every 28 days) for six months or combination therapy (GnRH-a plus OC "addback") for six months. Following six months of treatment with either therapy, all patients received OC therapy for at least six months. The hormonal state was evaluated at three-month intervals. Hormone levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T) and free T remained suppressed within the normal range in 11 of 17 patients (65%) during the six months of OC only therapy, while the other six patients showed "escape" from suppression, with the LH, T and free T concentrations rising to pre-GnRH-a treatment levels. Use of OC addback therapy did not potentiate the long-acting therapeutic effect of GnRH-a pretreatment; three of six patients in the escape group were pretreated with combination therapy and three with GnRH-a only. In the majority of women with PCOD, OC therapy following GnRH-a administration was effective in maintaining ovarian androgen suppression. Failure to maintain ovarian suppression in this patient population was associated with higher elevations of baseline free T concentrations.

  9. Studies on the T3 suppression test with reference to the thyrodial 123I uptake in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Takahiko; Kobayashi, Isao; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Iwashita, Akira; Inukai, Toshihiko; Ohshima, Kihachi; Shimomura, Yohnosuke; Kobayashi, Setsuo

    1990-01-01

    Eighty-three patients with Graves' disease had been treated with methylmercaptoimidazole (MMI). They were prescribed a maintenance dose of antithyroid drug (MMI, 5 mg/day) at the time of a T 3 suppression test. The 3-hour and 24-hour thyroidal 123 I uptake after T 3 administration (75 μg/day, 2 weeks) were measured (post T 3 uptake). In 38 patients whose post T 3 uptake was below 35% in post T 3 24-hour uptake, treatment was stopped. The T 3 suppression test was then repeated 1 and 3 months later. During a one-year follow up, 26 remained well, while 12 relapsed within 6 to 12 months. We have observed a good correlation between 3-hour uptake and 24-hour uptake of 123 I after T 3 administration (r=0.847, p 3 suppression, most patients with MMI withdrawal produced a marked overshoot of post T 3 3-hour and 24-hour uptake at one month. Retrospective analysis indicated that there was no significant difference in circulating thyroid hormone levels between remission and relapse groups. The present study provides evidence that 3-hour uptake values are able to be substituted for 24-hour uptake values during a T 3 suppression test. In addition, overshoot of thyroidal uptake after antithyroid drug withdrawal was observed in 3-hour values, similar to 24-hour values. (author)

  10. Acid suppressants for managing gastro-oesophageal reflux and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in infants: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jane C; Schneuer, Francisco J; Harrison, Christopher; Trevena, Lyndal; Hiscock, Harriet; Elshaug, Adam G; Nassar, Natasha

    2018-02-22

    To evaluate the diagnosis and management of reflux and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) in infants aged reflux and GORD and their management including prescribing of acid-suppressant medicines (proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine receptor antagonists (H2RAs)) and counselling, advice or education. Of all infants' visits, 512 (2.7%) included a diagnosis of reflux (n=413, 2.2%) or GORD (n=99, 0.5%). From 2006 to 2016, diagnostic rates decreased for reflux and increased for GORD. Prescribing of acid suppressants occurred in 43.6% visits for reflux and 48.5% visits for GORD, similar to rates of counselling, advice or education (reflux: 38.5%, GORD: 43.4% of visits). Prescribing of PPIs increased (statistically significant only for visits for reflux), while prescribing of H2RAs decreased. Overprescribing of acid suppressants to infants may be occurring. In infants, acid-suppressant medicines are no better than placebo and may have significant negative side effects; however, guidelines are inconsistent. Clear, concise and consistent guidance is needed. GPs and parents need to understand what is normal and limitations of medical therapy. We need a greater understanding of the influences on GP prescribing practices, of parents' knowledge and attitudes and of the pressures on parents of infants with these conditions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Weed Suppressing Potential and Isolation of Potent Plant Growth Inhibitors from Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phung Thi Tuyen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study isolated, determined, and quantified plant growth inhibitors in Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc, a deciduous species native to Japan and Korea. In laboratory assays, C. crenata leaves showed strong inhibition on germination and seedling growth of Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyardgrass, Lactuca sativa (lettuce, and Raphanus sativus (radish. Laboratory and greenhouse trials showed that leaves of C. crenata appeared as a promising material to manage weeds, especially the dicot weeds. By GC-MS and HPLC analyses, gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, ferulic, ellagic, and cinnamic acids were identified and quantified, of which ellagic acid was present in the highest quantity (2.36 mg/g dried leaves. By column chromatography and spectral data (1H- and 13C-NMR, IR, and LC-MS analysis, a compound identified as 2α,3β,7β,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid (1 was purified from the methanolic leaf extract of C. crenata (0.93 mg/g dried leaves. This constituent showed potent inhibition on growth of E. crus-galli, a problematic weed in agricultural practice. The inhibition of the compound 1 (IC50 = 2.62 and 0.41 mM was >5 fold greater than that of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (IC50 = 15.33 and 2.11 mM on shoot and root growth of E. crus-galli, respectively. Results suggest that the isolated the compound 1 has potential to develop natural herbicides to manage E. crus-galli. This study is the first to isolate and identify 2α,3β,7β,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid in a plant and report its plant growth inhibitory potential.

  12. Plant Polyphenolic Antioxidants in Management of Chronic Degenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Das

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the over growing global population, degenerative diseases are on rise, despite using modern medicine for its cure. People prefer alternative systems of medicine like natural therapy and polyherbal therapy due to adverse effects of allopathic medication. According to W.H.O. report about 70% of world population relying on natural plant-based therapy. For a suitable, sustainable and cost effective cure use of polyphenolic natural antioxidants may be an appropriate tool. Now a day’s most food and pharmaceutical products contain synthetic antioxidants. But recent data indicating that, long term use of synthetic antioxidants could have carcinogenic effects on human cells. Thus, search for new natural and efficient antioxidants is need of the hour. Phenolic compounds (polyphenols are products of secondary metabolites and constitute one of the most widely distributed groups of substance in plant kingdom with more than 10,000 phenolic structures. Polyphenols are structurally characterized by the presence of one or more aromatic benzene ring compounds with one or more functional hydroxyl groups. Polyphenols are naturally occurring and most abundant antioxidants in human diets found largely in the fruits, vegetables and beverages. Plant flavonoids are the largest and best studied class of polyphenols which include more than 4000 compounds. Numerous studies confirm that, flavonoids exert a protective action on human health and are key components of a healthy and balanced diet. Epidemiological studies and associated meta-analysis correlate and strongly   suggest that, long term consumption of diets rich in plant flavonoids offer protection against development of chronic and degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases , diabetes , cancer, osteoporosis and neurodegenerative diseases. One of the main reasons for the age related diseases is linked with reduction in cellular oxidative stress. The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS in

  13. Possibilities of avoidance and control of bacterial plant diseases when using pathogen-tested (certified) or - treated planting material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, J.; Wenneker, M.

    2002-01-01

    Testing of planting material for freedom from phytopathogenic bacteria is an important, although not exclusive, method for control of bacterial diseases of plants. Ideally, pathogen-free or pathogen-/disease-resistant planting material is desirable, but this situation is not always possible on a

  14. Analysis of Globodera rostochiensis effectors reveals conserved functions of SPRYSEC proteins in suppressing and eliciting plant immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eMoffett

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs, including Globodera rostochiensis (Woll., are important pests of potato. Plant parasitic nematodes produce multiple effector proteins, secreted from their stylets, to successfully infect their hosts. These include proteins delivered to the apoplast and to the host cytoplasm. A number of effectors from G. rostochiensis predicted to be delivered to the host cytoplasm have been identified, including several belonging to the secreted SPRY domain (SPRYSEC family. SPRYSEC proteins are unique to members of the genera Globodera and have been implicated in both the induction and the repression of host defense responses. We have tested the properties of six different G. rostochiensis SPRYSEC proteins by expressing them in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum. We have found that all SPRYSEC proteins tested are able to suppress defense responses induced by NB-LRR proteins as well as cell death induced by elicitors, suggesting that defense repression is a common characteristic of members of this effector protein family. At the same time, GrSPRYSEC-15 elicited a defense response in N. tabacum, and tobacco was found to be resistant to a virus expressing GrSPRYSEC-15. These results suggest that SPRYSEC proteins may possess characteristics that allow them to be recognized by the plant immune system.

  15. Analysis of Globodera rostochiensis effectors reveals conserved functions of SPRYSEC proteins in suppressing and eliciting plant immune responses

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Shawkat

    2015-08-11

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs), including Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.), are important pests of potato. Plant parasitic nematodes produce multiple effector proteins, secreted from their stylets, to successfully infect their hosts. These include proteins delivered to the apoplast and to the host cytoplasm. A number of effectors from G. rostochiensis predicted to be delivered to the host cytoplasm have been identified, including several belonging to the secreted SPRY domain (SPRYSEC) family. SPRYSEC proteins are unique to members of the genus Globodera and have been implicated in both the induction and the repression of host defense responses. We have tested the properties of six different G. rostochiensis SPRYSEC proteins by expressing them in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum. We have found that all SPRYSEC proteins tested are able to suppress defense responses induced by NB-LRR proteins as well as cell death induced by elicitors, suggesting that defense repression is a common characteristic of members of this effector protein family. At the same time, GrSPRYSEC-15 elicited a defense responses in N. tabacum, which was found to be resistant to a virus expressing GrSPRYSEC-15. These results suggest that SPRYSEC proteins may possess characteristics that allow them to be recognized by the plant immune system.

  16. Atmospheric cold plasma jet for plant disease treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianhui; Liu, Dongping; Zhou, Renwu; Song, Ying; Sun, Yue; Zhang, Qi; Niu, Jinhai; Fan, Hongyu; Yang, Si-ze

    2014-01-01

    This study shows that the atmospheric cold plasma jet is capable of curing the fungus-infected plant leaves and controlling the spread of infection as an attractive tool for plant disease management. The healing effect was significantly dependent on the size of the black spots infected with fungal cells and the leaf age. The leaves with the diameter of black spots of plasma-generated species passing through the microns-sized stomas in a leaf can weaken the function of the oil vacuoles and cell membrane of fungal cells, resulting in plasma-induced inactivation.

  17. Excess iodine promotes apoptosis of thyroid follicular epithelial cells by inducing autophagy suppression and is associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengcheng; Wu, Fei; Mao, Chaoming; Wang, Xuefeng; Zheng, Tingting; Bu, Ling; Mou, Xiao; Zhou, Yuepeng; Yuan, Guoyue; Wang, Shengjun; Xiao, Yichuan

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of the autoimmune thyroid disease Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) has increased in recent years, and increasing evidence supports the contribution of excess iodine intake to thyroid disease. In this study, we examined the status of autophagy and apoptosis in thyroid tissues obtained from patients with HT, and we determined the effects of excessive iodine on the autophagy and apoptosis of thyroid follicular cells (TFCs) in an attempt to elucidate the effects of excess iodine on HT development. Our results showed decreases in the autophagy-related protein LC3B-II, and increases in caspase-3 were observed in thyroid tissues from HT patients. Interestingly, the suppression of autophagy activity in TFCs was induced by excess iodine in vitro, and this process is mediated through transforming growth factor-β1 downregulation and activation of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. In addition, excess iodine induced autophagy suppression and enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis of TFCs, which could be rescued by the activation of autophagy. Taken together, our results demonstrated that excess iodine contributed to autophagy suppression and apoptosis of TFCs, which could be important factors predisposing to increased risk of HT development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential Control Efficacies of Vitamin Treatments against Bacterial Wilt and Grey Mould Diseases in Tomato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt and grey mould in tomato plants are economically destructive bacterial and fungal diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. Various approaches including chemical and biological controls have been attempted to arrest the tomato diseases so far. In this study, in vitro growths of bacterial R. solanacearum and fungal B. cinerea were evaluated using four different vitamins including thiamine (vitamin B1, niacin (vitamin B3, pyridoxine (vitamin B6, and menadione (vitamin K3. In planta efficacies of the four vitamin treatments on tomato protection against both diseases were also demonstrated. All four vitamins showed different in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in dose-dependent manners. However, treatment with 2 mM thiamine was only effective in reducing bacterial wilt of detached tomato leaves without phytotoxicity under lower disease pressure (10⁶ colony-forming unit [cfu]/ml. Treatment with the vitamins also differentially reduced in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea. The four vitamins slightly reduced the conidial germination, and thiamine, pyridoxine and menadione inhibited the mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Menadione began to drastically suppress the conidial germination and mycelial growth by 5 and 0.5 mM, respectively. Grey mould symptoms on the inoculated tomato leaves were significantly reduced by pyridoxine and menadione pretreatments one day prior to the fungal challenge inoculation. These findings suggest that disease-specific vitamin treatment will be integrated for eco-friendly management of tomato bacterial wilt and grey mould.

  19. Differential Control Efficacies of Vitamin Treatments against Bacterial Wilt and Grey Mould Diseases in Tomato Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Kim, Hyeon Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yang, Hye Ji; Kim, Do Hoon; Sung, Chang Hyun; Park, Chang-Jin; Chang, Seog Won

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial wilt and grey mould in tomato plants are economically destructive bacterial and fungal diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea , respectively. Various approaches including chemical and biological controls have been attempted to arrest the tomato diseases so far. In this study, in vitro growths of bacterial R. solanacearum and fungal B. cinerea were evaluated using four different vitamins including thiamine (vitamin B1), niacin (vitamin B3), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), and menadione (vitamin K3). In planta efficacies of the four vitamin treatments on tomato protection against both diseases were also demonstrated. All four vitamins showed different in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in dose-dependent manners. However, treatment with 2 mM thiamine was only effective in reducing bacterial wilt of detached tomato leaves without phytotoxicity under lower disease pressure (10 6 colony-forming unit [cfu]/ml). Treatment with the vitamins also differentially reduced in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea . The four vitamins slightly reduced the conidial germination, and thiamine, pyridoxine and menadione inhibited the mycelial growth of B. cinerea . Menadione began to drastically suppress the conidial germination and mycelial growth by 5 and 0.5 mM, respectively. Grey mould symptoms on the inoculated tomato leaves were significantly reduced by pyridoxine and menadione pretreatments one day prior to the fungal challenge inoculation. These findings suggest that disease-specific vitamin treatment will be integrated for eco-friendly management of tomato bacterial wilt and grey mould.

  20. Dopa therapy and action impulsivity: subthreshold error activation and suppression in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluchère, F.; Deveaux, M.; Burle, B.; Vidal, F.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Witjas, T.; Eusebio, A.; Azulay, J.-P.; Hasbroucq, T.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Impulsive actions entail (1) capture of the motor system by an action impulse, which is an urge to act and (2) failed suppression of that impulse in order to prevent a response error. Several studies indicate that dopaminergic treatment can induce action impulsivity in patients diagnosed

  1. Does suppression of oscillatory synchronisation mediate some of the therapeutic effects of DBS in patients with Parkinson’s disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eEusebio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence for exaggerated oscillatory neuronal synchronisation in patients with Parkinson’s disease. In particular, oscillations at around 20 Hz, in the so-called beta frequency band, relate to the cardinal symptoms of bradykinesia and rigidity. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus can significantly improve these motor impairments. Recent evidence has demonstrated reduction of beta oscillations concurrent with alleviation of PD motor symptoms, raising the possibility that suppression of aberrant activity may mediate the effects of DBS. Here we review the evidence supporting suppression of pathological oscillations during stimulation and discuss how this might underlie the efficacy of DBS. We also consider how beta activity may provide a feedback signal suitable for next generation closed loop and intelligent stimulators.

  2. Anti-M Antibody Induced Prolonged Anemia Following Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn Due to Erythropoietic Suppression in 2 Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Atsushi; Ohto, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Hiroyasu; Negishi, Yutaka; Tsuiki, Hideki; Arakawa, Takeshi; Yagi, Yoshihito; Uchimura, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Toru; Ohashi, Wataru; Takamoto, Shigeru

    2015-08-01

    Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) arising from MNSs incompatibility is rare, with few reports of prolonged anemia and reticulocytopenia following HDN. We report the younger of 2 male siblings, both of whom had anti-M-induced HDN and anemia persisting for over a month. Peripheral reticulocytes remained inappropriately low for the degree of anemia, and they needed multiple red cell transfusions. Viral infections were ruled out. Corticosteroids were given for suspected pure red cell aplasia. Anemia and reticulocytopenia subsequently improved. Colony-forming unit erythroid assay revealed erythropoietic suppression of M antigen-positive erythroid precursor cells cultured with maternal or infant sera containing anti-M. In conclusion, maternal anti-M caused HDN and prolonged anemia by erythropoietic suppression in 2 siblings.

  3. CD4 decline is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death in virally suppressed patients with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleberg, Marie; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Gitte; Pedersen, Court; Obel, Niels; Gerstoft, Jan

    2013-07-01

    The clinical implications of a considerable CD4 decline despite antiretroviral treatment and viral suppression are unknown. We aimed to test the hypothesis that a major CD4 decline could be a marker of cardiovascular disease or undiagnosed cancer. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were followed in the Danish nationwide, population-based cohort study in the period 1995-2010 with quarterly CD4 measurements. Associations between a CD4 decline of ≥30% and cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death were analyzed using Poisson regression with date of CD4 decline as a time-updated variable. We followed 2584 virally suppressed HIV patients for 13 369 person-years (PY; median observation time, 4.7 years). Fifty-six patients developed CD4 decline (incidence rate, 4.2/1000 PY [95% confidence interval {CI}, 3.2-5.4]). CD4 counts dropped from a median of 492 cells/µL to 240 cells/µL. CD8, CD3, and total lymphocyte counts dropped concomitantly. No HIV-related factors, apart from treatment with didanosine, were associated with CD4 decline. The risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death increased markedly ≤6 months after CD4 decline (incidence rate ratio, 11.7 [95% CI, 3.6-37.4] and 13.7 [95% CI, 4.3-43.6], respectively, and mortality rate ratio 4.3 [95% CI, 1.1-17.6]). A major decline in CD4 count is associated with a marked increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death among virally suppressed HIV patients.

  4. A Phytophthora sojae effector PsCRN63 forms homo-/hetero-dimers to suppress plant immunity via an inverted association manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Zhang, Meixiang; Shen, Danyu; Liu, Tingli; Chen, Yanyu; Zhou, Jian-Min; Dou, Daolong

    2016-05-31

    Oomycete pathogens produce a large number of effectors to promote infection. Their mode of action are largely unknown. Here we show that a Phytophthora sojae effector, PsCRN63, suppresses flg22-induced expression of FRK1 gene, a molecular marker in pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). However, PsCRN63 does not suppress upstream signaling events including flg22-induced MAPK activation and BIK1 phosphorylation, indicating that it acts downstream of MAPK cascades. The PsCRN63-transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed increased susceptibility to bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst) DC3000 and oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici. The callose deposition were suppressed in PsCRN63-transgenic plants compared with the wild-type control plants. Genes involved in PTI were also down-regulated in PsCRN63-transgenic plants. Interestingly, we found that PsCRN63 forms an dimer that is mediated by inter-molecular interactions between N-terminal and C-terminal domains in an inverted association manner. Furthermore, the N-terminal and C-terminal domains required for the dimerization are widely conserved among CRN effectors, suggesting that homo-/hetero-dimerization of Phytophthora CRN effectors is required to exert biological functions. Indeed, the dimerization was required for PTI suppression and cell death-induction activities of PsCRN63.

  5. The polychlorinated dibenzofuran fingerprint of iron ore sinter plant: Its persistence with suppressant and alternative fuel addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis; Ooi, Tze C; Anderson, David R; Fisher, Ray; Ewan, Bruce C R

    2016-07-01

    An earlier demonstration that the relative concentrations of isomers of polychlorinated dibenzofuran do not vary as the flamefront of an iron ore sinter plant progresses through the bed, and profiles are similar for two sinter strands has been widened to include studies of the similarity or otherwise between full scale strand and sinter pot profiles, effect of addition of suppressants and of coke fuel substitution with other combustible materials. For dioxin suppressant addition, a study of the whole of the tetra- penta- and hexaCDF isomer range as separated by the DB5MS chromatography column, indicates no significant change in profile: examination of the ratios of the targeted penta- and hexaCDF isomers suggests the profile is similarly unaffected by coke fuel replacement. Addition of KCl at varied levels has also been shown to have no effect on the 'fingerprint' and there is no indication of any effect by the composition of the sinter mix. The recently published full elution sequence for the DB5MS column is applied to the results obtained using this column. It is confirmed that isomers with 1,9-substitution of chlorine atoms are invariably formed in low concentrations. This is consistent with strong interaction between the 1 and 9 substituted chlorine atoms predicted by DFT thermodynamic calculations. Non-1,9-substituted PCDF equilibrium isomer distributions based on DFT-derived thermodynamic data differ considerably from stack gas distributions obtained using SP2331 column separation. A brief preliminary study indicates the same conclusions (apart from the 1,9-interaction effect) hold for the much smaller content of PCDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. iPathology: Robotic Applications and Management of Plants and Plant Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannis Ampatzidis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of new technologies and the changing landscape of the online world (e.g., Internet of Things (IoT, Internet of All, cloud-based solutions provide a unique opportunity for developing automated and robotic systems for urban farming, agriculture, and forestry. Technological advances in machine vision, global positioning systems, laser technologies, actuators, and mechatronics have enabled the development and implementation of robotic systems and intelligent technologies for precision agriculture. Herein, we present and review robotic applications on plant pathology and management, and emerging agricultural technologies for intra-urban agriculture. Greenhouse advanced management systems and technologies have been greatly developed in the last years, integrating IoT and WSN (Wireless Sensor Network. Machine learning, machine vision, and AI (Artificial Intelligence have been utilized and applied in agriculture for automated and robotic farming. Intelligence technologies, using machine vision/learning, have been developed not only for planting, irrigation, weeding (to some extent, pruning, and harvesting, but also for plant disease detection and identification. However, plant disease detection still represents an intriguing challenge, for both abiotic and biotic stress. Many recognition methods and technologies for identifying plant disease symptoms have been successfully developed; still, the majority of them require a controlled environment for data acquisition to avoid false positives. Machine learning methods (e.g., deep and transfer learning present promising results for improving image processing and plant symptom identification. Nevertheless, diagnostic specificity is a challenge for microorganism control and should drive the development of mechatronics and robotic solutions for disease management.

  7. Tricking the guard: exploiting plant defense for disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, J; Kidarsa, T; Bradford, C S; Gilbert, B; Curtis, M; Tzeng, S-C; Maier, C S; Wolpert, T J

    2012-11-02

    Typically, pathogens deploy virulence effectors to disable defense. Plants defeat effectors with resistance proteins that guard effector targets. We found that a pathogen exploits a resistance protein by activating it to confer susceptibility in Arabidopsis. The guard mechanism of plant defense is recapitulated by interactions among victorin (an effector produced by the necrotrophic fungus Cochliobolus victoriae), TRX-h5 (a defense-associated thioredoxin), and LOV1 (an Arabidopsis susceptibility protein). In LOV1's absence, victorin inhibits TRX-h5, resulting in compromised defense but not disease by C. victoriae. In LOV1's presence, victorin binding to TRX-h5 activates LOV1 and elicits a resistance-like response that confers disease susceptibility. We propose that victorin is, or mimics, a conventional pathogen virulence effector that was defeated by LOV1 and confers virulence to C. victoriae solely because it incites defense.

  8. Preventative and Curative Effects of Several Plant Derived Agents Against Powdery Mildew Disease of Okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed MOHARAM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The preventative and curative effects of some plant derived agents based on plant extracts or essential oils were studied at different concentrations against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. ex Merat, the causal pathogen of okra powdery mildew by the detached leaf-disk and potted plants bioassays. Through detached leaf-disk assay, the highest mean preventative effect (97.74% was recorded by neem seed oil followed by jojoba oil (89.82% and extract of Rynoutria sachalinensis (82.77%. Neem seed oil at 1% was the most effective agent followed by jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis at 1.5% and 2%, respectively, where they suppressed E. cichoracearum completely. Potted plants assay revealed that neem seed oil, jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis as well as the fungicide (active ingredient dinocap showed higher preventative efficacy at all leaf olds treated after 7 and 14 days of inoculation as compared with extracts of henna and garlic. Moreover, the preventative efficacy partly remained apparent after 14 days of inoculation at all leaf olds tested. In field trials through 2010 and 2011 growing seasons, when the first symptoms of powdery mildew appeared naturally, 1.5% jojoba oil, 2% extract of R. sachalinensis and 1% neem seed oil were sprayed individually twice on grown plants to evaluate their efficacy on controlling powdery mildew, growth and yield of okra. Resulted showed that neem seed oil was the most effective agent and highly decreased the disease severity to 29.92%, recorded the highly curative effect (68.15% and also improved plant growth and pods yield.

  9. Risk-based management of invading plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt-Twynam, Samuel R; Parnell, Stephen; Stutt, Richard O J H; Gottwald, Tim R; Gilligan, Christopher A; Cunniffe, Nik J

    2017-05-01

    Effective control of plant disease remains a key challenge. Eradication attempts often involve removal of host plants within a certain radius of detection, targeting asymptomatic infection. Here we develop and test potentially more effective, epidemiologically motivated, control strategies, using a mathematical model previously fitted to the spread of citrus canker in Florida. We test risk-based control, which preferentially removes hosts expected to cause a high number of infections in the remaining host population. Removals then depend on past patterns of pathogen spread and host removal, which might be nontransparent to affected stakeholders. This motivates a variable radius strategy, which approximates risk-based control via removal radii that vary by location, but which are fixed in advance of any epidemic. Risk-based control outperforms variable radius control, which in turn outperforms constant radius removal. This result is robust to changes in disease spread parameters and initial patterns of susceptible host plants. However, efficiency degrades if epidemiological parameters are incorrectly characterised. Risk-based control including additional epidemiology can be used to improve disease management, but it requires good prior knowledge for optimal performance. This focuses attention on gaining maximal information from past epidemics, on understanding model transferability between locations and on adaptive management strategies that change over time. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. SacB-SacR gene cassette as the negative selection marker to suppress Agrobacterium overgrowth in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium overgrowth is a common problem in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transfor-mation. To suppress the Agrobacterium overgrowth, various antibiotics have been used during plant tissue culture steps. The antibiotics are expensive and may adversely affect plant cell differentiation and reduce plant transformation efficiency. The SacB-SacR proteins are toxic to most Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains when they are grown on culture medium sup¬plemented with sucrose. Therefore, SacB-SacR genes can be used as negative selection markers to suppress the overgrowth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in the plant tissue culture process. We generated a mutant Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV2260 (recA-SacB/R that has the SacB-SacR cassette inserted into the bacterial genome at the recA gene locus. The mutant Agrobacterium strain is sensitive to sucrose but maintains its ability to transform plant cells in both transient and stable transformation assays. We demonstrated that the mutant strain GV2260 (recA-SacB/R can be inhibited by sucrose that reduces the overgrowth of Agrobacterium and therefore improves the plant transformation efficiency. We employed GV2260 (recA-SacB/R to generate stable transgenic N. benthamiana plants expressing a CRISPR-Cas9 for knocking out a WRKY transcrip¬tion factor.

  11. Suppression of Lymphocyte Functions by Plasma Exosomes Correlates with Disease Activity in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Sonja; Floros, Theofanis; Theodoraki, Marie-Nicole; Hong, Chang-Sook; Jackson, Edwin K; Lang, Stephan; Whiteside, Theresa L

    2017-08-15

    Purpose: Head and neck cancers (HNCs) often induce profound immunosuppression, which contributes to disease progression and interferes with immune-based therapies. Body fluids of patients with HNC are enriched in exosomes potentially engaged in negative regulation of antitumor immune responses. The presence and content of exosomes derived from plasma of patients with HNC are evaluated for the ability to induce immune dysfunction and influence disease activity. Experimental Design: Exosomes were isolated by size-exclusion chromatography from plasma of 38 patients with HNC and 14 healthy donors. Morphology, size, numbers, and protein and molecular contents of the recovered exosomes were determined. Coculture assays were performed to measure exosome-mediated effects on functions of normal human lymphocyte subsets and natural killer (NK) cells. The results were correlated with disease stage and activity. Results: The presence, quantity, and molecular content of isolated, plasma-derived exosomes discriminated patients with HNC with active disease (AD) from those with no evident disease (NED) after oncologic therapies. Exosomes of patients with AD were significantly more effective than exosomes of patients with NED in inducing apoptosis of CD8 + T cells, suppression of CD4 + T-cell proliferation, and upregulation of regulatory T-cell (Treg) suppressor functions (all at P Exosomes of patients with AD also downregulated NKG2D expression levels in NK cells. Conclusions: Exosomes in plasma of patients with HNC carry immunosuppressive molecules and interfere with functions of immune cells. Exosome-induced immune suppression correlates with disease activity in HNC, suggesting that plasma exosomes could be useful as biomarkers of HNC progression. Clin Cancer Res; 23(16); 4843-54. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Circulating gluten-specific FOXP3+CD39+ regulatory T cells have impaired suppressive function in patients with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Laura; Munier, C Mee Ling; Seddiki, Nabila; van Bockel, David; Ontiveros, Noé; Hardy, Melinda Y; Gillies, Jana K; Levings, Megan K; Reid, Hugh H; Petersen, Jan; Rossjohn, Jamie; Anderson, Robert P; Zaunders, John J; Tye-Din, Jason A; Kelleher, Anthony D

    2017-12-01

    Celiac disease is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the gut triggered by dietary gluten. Although the effector T-cell response in patients with celiac disease has been well characterized, the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells in the loss of tolerance to gluten remains poorly understood. We sought to define whether patients with celiac disease have a dysfunction or lack of gluten-specific forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) + Treg cells. Treated patients with celiac disease underwent oral wheat challenge to stimulate recirculation of gluten-specific T cells. Peripheral blood was collected before and after challenge. To comprehensively measure the gluten-specific CD4 + T-cell response, we paired traditional IFN-γ ELISpot with an assay to detect antigen-specific CD4 + T cells that does not rely on tetramers, antigen-stimulated cytokine production, or proliferation but rather on antigen-induced coexpression of CD25 and OX40 (CD134). Numbers of circulating gluten-specific Treg cells and effector T cells both increased significantly after oral wheat challenge, peaking at day 6. Surprisingly, we found that approximately 80% of the ex vivo circulating gluten-specific CD4 + T cells were FOXP3 + CD39 + Treg cells, which reside within the pool of memory CD4 + CD25 + CD127 low CD45RO + Treg cells. Although we observed normal suppressive function in peripheral polyclonal Treg cells from patients with celiac disease, after a short in vitro expansion, the gluten-specific FOXP3 + CD39 + Treg cells exhibited significantly reduced suppressive function compared with polyclonal Treg cells. This study provides the first estimation of FOXP3 + CD39 + Treg cell frequency within circulating gluten-specific CD4 + T cells after oral gluten challenge of patients with celiac disease. FOXP3 + CD39 + Treg cells comprised a major proportion of all circulating gluten-specific CD4 + T cells but had impaired suppressive function, indicating that Treg cell dysfunction might be a key

  13. Suppression of skin inflammation in keratinocytes and acute/chronic disease models by caffeic acid phenethyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin; Koo, Jung Eun; Kim, Eun-Sun; Bae, Ok-Nam; Lee, Joo Young

    2015-04-01

    Skin inflammation plays a central role in the pathophysiology and symptoms of diverse chronic skin diseases including atopic dermatitis (AD). In this study, we examined if caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a skin-permeable bioactive compound from propolis, was protective against skin inflammation using in vitro cell system and in vivo animal disease models. CAPE suppressed TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation and expression of inflammatory cytokines in human keratinocytes (HaCaT). The potency and efficacy of CAPE were superior to those of a non-phenethyl derivative, caffeic acid. Consistently, topical treatment of CAPE (0.5 %) attenuated 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate(TPA)-induced skin inflammation on mouse ear as CAPE reduced ear swelling and histologic inflammation scores. CAPE suppressed increased expression of pro-inflammatory molecules such as TNF-α, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible NO synthase in TPA-stimulated skin. TPA-induced phosphorylation of IκB and ERK was blocked by CAPE suggesting that protective effects of CAPE on skin inflammation is attributed to inhibition of NF-κB activation. Most importantly, in an oxazolone-induced chronic dermatitis model, topical application of CAPE (0.5 and 1 %) was effective in alleviating AD-like symptoms such as increases of trans-epidermal water loss, skin thickening and serum IgE as well as histologic inflammation assessment. Collectively, our results propose CAPE as a promising candidate for a novel topical drug for skin inflammatory diseases.

  14. Iron deposition in cranial bone marrow with sickle cell disease: MR assessment using a fat suppression technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, K.; Humbert, J.H.; Kogutt, M.S.; Robinson, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) undergoing transfusion therapy and 8 control patients were examined by magnetic resonance imaging to discriminate bone marrow change due to iron deposition from hematologic marrow hyperplasia. Using T1-weighted spin echo images, only two subjects showed extremely low signal intensity marrow compatible with iron deposition. However, using T2-weighted fast spin echo images with fat suppression, cranial bone marrow in SCD patients with transfusion therapy showed considerably lower signal than that of controls. The main cause of marrow signal decrease in SCD patients with transfusion therapy was considered to be iron deposition due to repeated transfusion therapy rather than red marrow hyperplasia. (orig.)

  15. Suppression of inhibitor formation against FVIII in a murine model of hemophilia A by oral delivery of antigens bioencapsulated in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Alexandra; Su, Jin; Lin, Shina; Wang, Xiaomei; Herzog, Roland W; Daniell, Henry

    2014-09-04

    Hemophilia A is the X-linked bleeding disorder caused by deficiency of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). To address serious complications of inhibitory antibody formation in current replacement therapy, we created tobacco transplastomic lines expressing FVIII antigens, heavy chain (HC) and C2, fused with the transmucosal carrier, cholera toxin B subunit. Cholera toxin B-HC and cholera toxin B-C2 fusion proteins expressed up to 80 or 370 µg/g in fresh leaves, assembled into pentameric forms, and bound to GM1 receptors. Protection of FVIII antigen through bioencapsulation in plant cells and oral delivery to the gut immune system was confirmed by immunostaining. Feeding of HC/C2 mixture substantially suppressed T helper cell responses and inhibitor formation against FVIII in mice of 2 different strain backgrounds with hemophilia A. Prolonged oral delivery was required to control inhibitor formation long-term. Substantial reduction of inhibitor titers in preimmune mice demonstrated that the protocol could also reverse inhibitor formation. Gene expression and flow cytometry analyses showed upregulation of immune suppressive cytokines (transforming growth factor β and interleukin 10). Adoptive transfer experiments confirmed an active suppression mechanism and revealed induction of CD4(+)CD25(+) and CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells that potently suppressed anti-FVIII formation. In sum, these data support plant cell-based oral tolerance for suppression of inhibitor formation against FVIII. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  16. Application of Copper-Chitosan Nanoparticles Stimulate Growth and Induce Resistance in Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana Gaertn.) Plants against Blast Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan; Manikandan, Appu

    2018-02-28

    Copper-chitosan nanoparticle (CuChNp) was synthesized and used to study its effect on finger millet plant as a model plant system. Our objective was to explore the efficacy of CuChNp application to control blast disease of finger millet. CuChNp was applied to finger millet either as a foliar spray or as a combined application (involving seed coat and foliar spray). Both the application methods enhanced growth profile of finger millet plants and increased yield. The increased yield was nearly 89% in combined application method. Treated finger millet plants challenged with Pyricularia grisea showed suppression of blast disease development when compared to control. Nearly 75% protection was observed in the combined application of CuChNp to finger millet plants. In CuChNp treated finger millet plants, a significant increase in defense enzymes was observed, which was detected both qualitatively and quantitatively. The suppression of blast disease correlates well with increased defense enzymes in CuChNp treated finger millet plants.

  17. Effect Of Salinization On Fusarium Wilt Disease In Tomato Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.M.; Fath El-Bab, T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Salinization of soils or waters is one of the serious environmental problems in agriculture. It is necessary to determine the environmental factors under which the plants give higher yields and better quality to solve this problem. The problem of salinity is characterized by disruption in the physiological processes in plant which lead to shorting in growth and decrease in yield. The study was carried out to control fusarium disease in tomato plant irrigated with salt water (500, 1500, 15000, 45000 and 100000 ppm). These treatments lead to excess in malic and citric acids i.e. from 21 mmol/g fresh weight in control to 38.8 mmol/g fresh weight at 100000 ppm for citric acid while for malic acid, the value was increased from 1.4 mmol/g fresh weight for control to 2.1 mmol/g fresh weight. The excess of malic and citric acids lead to increase in acidity and vitamin C in tomato fruits. On the other side, the plant may adapt to this stress by increasing its proline content from 0.59 µmol/g fresh weight to 6.56 µmol/g fresh weight at 100000 and abscisic acid from 0.49 µmol/g fresh weight to 20.7 µmol/g fresh weight. The results showed that the fusarium fungal growth was observed till 100000 ppm but did not form sclerotia spores at 45000 ppm. On the other hand, the electrical conductivity was found to be 0.46, 2.3, 23.1, 69.2 and 153.8 dS/m for salinity levels of 500, 1500, 15000, 45000 and 100000 ppm, respectively. This study aimed to control the fusarium wilt disease by irrigating the plant with water has high salinity

  18. Suppression in growth hormone during overeating ameliorates the increase in insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, Andrea S; Barkan, Ariel L; Hinko, Alexander; Horowitz, Jeffrey F

    2012-11-15

    Previously, we reported that overeating for only a few days markedly suppressed the secretion of growth hormone (GH). The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of this reduction in GH concentration on key metabolic adaptations that occur during 2 wk of overeating. Nine nonobese, healthy adults were admitted to the hospital for 2 wk, during which time they ate ∼4,000 kcal/day (70 kcal·kg fat-free mass(-1)·day(-1); 50% carbohydrate, 35% fat, and 15% protein), and their plasma GH concentration was allowed to decline naturally (control). An additional eight subjects underwent the same overeating intervention and received exogenous GH treatment (GHT) administered in four daily injections to mimic physiological GH secretion throughout the 2-wk overeating period. We measured plasma insulin and glucose concentrations in the fasting and postprandial state as well as fasting lipolytic rate, proteolytic rate, and fractional synthetic rate (FSR) using stable-isotope tracer methods. GHT prevented the fall in plasma GH concentration, maintaining plasma GH concentration at baseline levels (1.2 ± 0.2 ng/ml), which increased fasting and postprandial assessments of insulin resistance (P overeating also blunted the increase in systemic proteolysis (P overeating. In conclusion, our main findings suggest that the suppression in GH secretion that naturally occurs during the early stages of overeating may help attenuate the insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia that typically accompany overeating.

  19. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for early detection of plant diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications in Earth observation. Nowadays spectral remote sensing techniques allow presymptomatic monitoring of changes in the physiological state of plants with high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence proved to be highly suitable for identification of growth anomalies of cultural plants that result from the environmental changes and different stress factors. Hyperspectral technologies can find place in many scientific areas, as well as for monitoring of plants status and functioning to help in making timely management decisions. This research aimed to detect a presence of viral infection in young pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) by using hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data and to assess the effect of some growth regulators on the development of the disease. In Bulgaria CMV is one of the widest spread pathogens, causing the biggest economical losses in crop vegetable production. Leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by a portable fibre-optics spectrometer in the spectral ranges 450÷850 nm and 600-900 nm. Greenhouse experiment with pepper plants of two cultivars, Sivria (sensitive to CMV) and Ostrion (resistant to CMV) were used. The plants were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of healthy (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with CMV. The other four groups were treated with growth regulators: Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), BTH (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin. On the next day, the pepper plants of these four groups were inoculated with CMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method DAS-ELISA. Statistical, first derivative and cluster analysis were applied and several vegetation indices were

  20. Hyperspectral imaging system for disease scanning on banana plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Daniel; Cevallos, Juan; Vargas, German; Criollo, Ronald; Romero, Dennis; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo

    2016-05-01

    Black Sigatoka (BS) is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. BS symptoms can be observed at late infection stages. By that time, BS has probably spread to other plants. In this paper, we present our current work on building an hyper-spectral (HS) imaging system aimed at in-vivo detection of BS pre-symptomatic responses in banana leaves. The proposed imaging system comprises a motorized stage, a high-sensitivity VIS-NIR camera and an optical spectrograph. To capture images of the banana leaf, the stage's speed and camera's frame rate must be computed to reduce motion blur and to obtain the same resolution along both spatial dimensions of the resulting HS cube. Our continuous leaf scanning approach allows imaging leaves of arbitrary length with minimum frame loss. Once the images are captured, a denoising step is performed to improve HS image quality and spectral profile extraction.

  1. Sulphonylurea usage in melioidosis is associated with severe disease and suppressed immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is a problem in the developing tropical regions of Southeast Asia and Northern Australia where the the Gram negative saprophytic bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei is endemic with the risk of fulminant septicaemia. While diabetes mellitus is a well-established risk factor for melioidiosis, little is known if specific hypoglycemic agents may differentially influence the susceptibility and clinical course of infection with B. pseudomallei (Bp. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this cohort study, patients with pre-existing diabetes and melioidosis were retrospectively studied. OUTCOME MEASURES: mortality, length of stay and development of complications (namely hypotension, intubation, renal failure and septicaemia were studied in relation to prior diabetic treatment regimen. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from diabetic patients and healthy PBMC primed with metformin, glyburide and insulin were stimulated with purified Bp antigens in vitro. Immune response and specific immune pathway mediators were studied to relate to the clinical findings mechanistically. Of 74 subjects, 44 (57.9% had sulphonylurea-containing diabetic regimens. Patient receiving sulphonylureas had more severe septic complications (47.7% versus 16.7% p = 0.006, in particular, hypotension requiring intropes (p = 0.005. There was also a trend towards increased mortality in sulphonylurea-users (15.9% versus 3.3% p = 0.08. In-vitro, glyburide suppressed inflammatory cytokine production in a dose-dependent manner. An effect of the drug was the induction of IL-1R-associated kinase-M at the level of mRNA transcription. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Sulphonylurea treatment results in suppression of host inflammatory response and may put patients at higher risk for adverse outcomes in melioidosis.

  2. Linking land management, the soil microbiome and suppression of Fusarium wilt disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, Wu

    2018-01-01

    Plant pathogens cause great loss of food production across the world. This problem is even more important given the need to produce more food for a growing human population. Given the negative effects of current pesticide-based management strategies, there is an urgent need to develop more

  3. Comparative microbiome analysis of a Fusarium wilt suppressive soil and a Fusarium wilt conducive soil from the Châteaurenard region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel-Hertz, Katarzyna; Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Chapelle, E.; Terrat, Sébastien; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; Steinberg, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Disease-suppressive soils are soils in which specific soil-borne plant pathogens cause only limited disease although the pathogen and susceptible host plants are both present. Suppressiveness is in most cases of microbial origin. We conducted a comparative metabarcoding analysis of the taxonomic

  4. Suppression of spleen pathological function by roentgenoendovascular occlussion in some blood systemic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabkin, I.Kh.; Matevosov, A.L.; Gotman, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that REO of splenic artery in thrombocytopenic purpura, hypoplastic and autoimmune hemolytic anemia manifests the same clinical effect as splenectomy. This treatment procedure may substitute splenectomy in a definite group of patients with above-mentioned blood systemic diseases or precede it as a preparation and prognosis stage. Stage-by-stage total embolization of splenic artery is a necessary technical method permitting to attain the necessary medical effect without risk of developing acute spleen infarction. At present REO is used in some blood diseases in patients with high risk of operation, particularly with active hemorrhagic syndrome of adrenal insufficiency, concomitant inflammatory processes

  5. Advances in RNA interference technology and its impact on nutritional improvement, disease and insect control in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Rajan; Thakur, Neelam

    2013-03-01

    This review highlights the advances in the knowledge of RNA interference (RNAi) and discusses recent progress on the functionality of different components RNAi machinery operating in the organisms. The silencing of genes by RNA interference has become the technology of choice for investigation of gene functions in different organisms. The refinement in the knowledge of the endogenous RNAi pathways in plants along with the development of new strategies and applications for the improvement of nutritional value of important agricultural crops through suppression of genes in different plants have opened new vistas for nutritional security. The improvement in the nutritional status of the plants and reduction in the level of toxins or antinutrients was desired for long, but the available technology was not completely successful in achieving the tissue specific regulation of some genes. In the recent years, a number of economically important crop plants have been tested successfully for improving plant nutritional value through metabolic engineering using RNAi. The implications of this technology for crop improvement programs, including nutritional enrichment, reduction of antinutrients, disease, and insect control have been successfully tested in variety of crops with commercial considerations. The enhancement of the nutraceutical traits for the desired health benefits in common crop plants through manipulation of gene expression has been elaborated in this article. The tremendous potential with RNAi technology is expected to revolutionize the modern agriculture for meeting the growing challenges is discussed.

  6. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease to...

  7. CD4 decline is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death in virally suppressed patients with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S

    2013-01-01

    immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were followed in the Danish nationwide, population-based cohort study in the period 1995-2010 with quarterly CD4 measurements. Associations between a CD4 decline of ≥30% and cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death were analyzed using Poisson regression with date of CD4 decline...... as a time-updated variable. Results. We followed 2584 virally suppressed HIV patients for 13 369 person-years (PY; median observation time, 4.7 years). Fifty-six patients developed CD4 decline (incidence rate, 4.2/1000 PY [95% confidence interval {CI}, 3.2-5.4]). CD4 counts dropped from a median of 492...

  8. Pallidotomy suppresses beta power in the subthalamic nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contarino, Maria Fiorella; Bour, Lo J.; Bot, Maarten; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Speelman, Johannes D.; Schuurman, P. Richard; de Bie, Rob M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Parkinsonian patients, who have had a unilateral pallidotomy, may require bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), due to disease progression. The current model of the basal ganglia circuitry does not predict a direct effect of pallidotomy on the neuronal activity of the

  9. Toll-like receptor 9 suppresses lupus disease in Fas-sufficient MRL Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M Nickerson

    Full Text Available Genetic deficiency in TLR9 accelerates pathogenesis in the spontaneous polygenic MRL.Faslpr murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus, despite the absence of anti-nucleosome autoantibodies. However, it could be argued that this result was dependent on Fas-deficiency rather than lupus-promoting genes in the MRL genetic background. Here we report the effects of TLR9 deficiency on autoimmune disease independent of the lpr mutation in Fas by characterizing Tlr9-/- and Tlr9+/+ mice on the Fas-intact MRL/+ genetic background. By 30 weeks of age, Tlr9-deficient MRL/+ had more severe renal disease, increased T cell activation, and higher titers of anti-Sm and anti-RNA autoantibodies than Tlr9-intact animals, as had been the case in the MRL.Faslpr model. In addition, Tlr9-deficient MRL/+ mice had increased numbers of germinal center phenotype B cells and an increase in splenic neutrophils and conventional dendritic cell populations. Thus, the disease accelerating effects of Tlr9 deficiency are separable from those mediated by the Fas mutation in the lupus-prone MRL genetic background. Nonetheless, disease acceleration in Tlr9-deficient MRL/+ mice was phenotypically distinct from that in Fas-deficient counterparts, which has important implications.

  10. The plant limonoid 7-oxo-deacetoxygedunin inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing activation of the NF-{kappa}B and MAPK pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisutsitthiwong, Chonnaree; Buranaruk, Chayanit [Graduate Program in Industrial Microbiology, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Pudhom, Khanitha [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Center for Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Palaga, Tanapat, E-mail: tanapat.p@chula.ac.th [Graduate Program in Industrial Microbiology, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A gedunin type limonoid from seeds of mangroves, 7-oxo-7-deacetoxygedunin, exhibits strong anti-osteoclastogenic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment with this limonoid results in significant decrease in expression of NFATc1 and osteoclast-related genes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mode of action of this limonoid is by inhibiting activation of the NF-{kappa}B and MAPK pathways which are activated by RANKL. -- Abstract: Osteoclasts together with osteoblasts play pivotal roles in bone remodeling. Aberrations in osteoclast differentiation and activity contribute to osteopenic disease. Osteoclasts differentiate from monocyte/macrophage progenitors, a process that is initiated by the interaction between receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B (RANK) and its ligand, RANKL. In this study, we identified 7-oxo-7-deacetoxygedunin (7-OG), a gedunin type limonoid from seeds of the mangrove Xylocarpus moluccensis, as a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis. Additionally, 7-OG showed strong anti-osteoclastogenic activity with low cytotoxicity against the monocyte/macrophage progenitor cell line, RAW264.7. The IC50 for anti-osteoclastogenic activity was 4.14 {mu}M. Treatment with 7-OG completely abolished the appearance of multinucleated giant cells with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with RANKL. When the expression of genes related to osteoclastogenesis was investigated, a complete downregulation of NFATc1 and cathepsin K and a delayed downregulation of irf8 were observed upon 7-OG treatment in the presence of RANKL. Furthermore, treatment with this limonoid suppressed RANKL-induced activation of p38, MAPK and Erk and nuclear localization of NF-{kappa}B p65. Taken together, we present evidence indicating a plant limonoid as a novel osteoclastogenic inhibitor that could be used for osteoporosis and related conditions.

  11. The plant limonoid 7-oxo-deacetoxygedunin inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing activation of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisutsitthiwong, Chonnaree; Buranaruk, Chayanit; Pudhom, Khanitha; Palaga, Tanapat

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► A gedunin type limonoid from seeds of mangroves, 7-oxo-7-deacetoxygedunin, exhibits strong anti-osteoclastogenic activity. ► Treatment with this limonoid results in significant decrease in expression of NFATc1 and osteoclast-related genes. ► The mode of action of this limonoid is by inhibiting activation of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways which are activated by RANKL. -- Abstract: Osteoclasts together with osteoblasts play pivotal roles in bone remodeling. Aberrations in osteoclast differentiation and activity contribute to osteopenic disease. Osteoclasts differentiate from monocyte/macrophage progenitors, a process that is initiated by the interaction between receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) and its ligand, RANKL. In this study, we identified 7-oxo-7-deacetoxygedunin (7-OG), a gedunin type limonoid from seeds of the mangrove Xylocarpus moluccensis, as a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis. Additionally, 7-OG showed strong anti-osteoclastogenic activity with low cytotoxicity against the monocyte/macrophage progenitor cell line, RAW264.7. The IC50 for anti-osteoclastogenic activity was 4.14 μM. Treatment with 7-OG completely abolished the appearance of multinucleated giant cells with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with RANKL. When the expression of genes related to osteoclastogenesis was investigated, a complete downregulation of NFATc1 and cathepsin K and a delayed downregulation of irf8 were observed upon 7-OG treatment in the presence of RANKL. Furthermore, treatment with this limonoid suppressed RANKL-induced activation of p38, MAPK and Erk and nuclear localization of NF-κB p65. Taken together, we present evidence indicating a plant limonoid as a novel osteoclastogenic inhibitor that could be used for osteoporosis and related conditions.

  12. Detection of plant leaf diseases using image segmentation and soft computing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijai Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural productivity is something on which economy highly depends. This is the one of the reasons that disease detection in plants plays an important role in agriculture field, as having disease in plants are quite natural. If proper care is not taken in this area then it causes serious effects on plants and due to which respective product quality, quantity or productivity is affected. For instance a disease named little leaf disease is a hazardous disease found in pine trees in United States. Detection of plant disease through some automatic technique is beneficial as it reduces a large work of monitoring in big farms of crops, and at very early stage itself it detects the symptoms of diseases i.e. when they appear on plant leaves. This paper presents an algorithm for image segmentation technique which is used for automatic detection and classification of plant leaf diseases. It also covers survey on different diseases classification techniques that can be used for plant leaf disease detection. Image segmentation, which is an important aspect for disease detection in plant leaf disease, is done by using genetic algorithm.

  13. The effect of climate change on plant diseases | Yáñez-López ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... related to the effects of climate change on plant diseases. Taking into account the work done, this review addresses the impact of climate change on plant diseases, considering the effect on crop grown, development and the impact on crop production. Key words: CO2, global warming, temperature effect on diseases.

  14. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  15. Exploring the potential of symbiotic fungal endophytes in cereal disease suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hanlon, Karen; Knorr, Kamilla; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2012-01-01

    , and environmental and health concerns surrounding the use of chemical treatments. There is currently a demand for new disease control strategies, and one such strategy involves the use of symbiotic fungal endophytes as biological control agents against fungal pathogens in cereals. Despite the fact that biological...... control by symbiotic fungal endophytes has been documented, particularly with respect to clavicipitaceous endophytes in C3 cool-season grasses, this area remains relatively underexplored in cereals. We highlight for the first time the potential in using symbiotic fungal endophytes to control foliar cereal...

  16. STAT6 deficiency ameliorates Graves' disease severity by suppressing thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuechao; Zha, Bingbing; Liu, Xiaoming; Liu, Ronghua; Liu, Jun; Huang, Enyu; Qian, Tingting; Liu, Jiajing; Wang, Zhiming; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Luman; Chu, Yiwei

    2016-12-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) is involved in epithelial cell growth. However, little is known regarding the STAT6 phosphorylation status in Graves' disease (GD) and its role in thyroid epithelial cells (TECs). In this study, we found that STAT6 phosphorylation (p-STAT6) was significantly increased in TECs from both GD patients and experimental autoimmune Graves' disease mice and that STAT6 deficiency ameliorated GD symptoms. Autocrine IL-4 signalling in TECs activated the phosphorylation of STAT6 via IL-4 R engagement, and the downstream targets of STAT6 were Bcl-xL and cyclin D1. Thus, the IL-4-STAT6-Bcl-xL/cyclin D1 pathway is crucial for TEC hyperplasia, which aggravates GD. More importantly, in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that STAT6 phosphorylation inhibited by AS1517499 decreased TEC hyperplasia, thereby reducing serum T3 and T4 and ameliorating GD. Thus, our study reveals that in addition to the traditional pathogenesis of GD, in which autoantibody TRAb stimulates thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors and consequently produces T3, T4, TRAb could also trigger TECs producing IL-4, and IL-4 then acts in an autocrine manner to activate p-STAT6 signalling and stimulate unrestricted cell growth, thus aggravating GD. These findings suggest that STAT6 inhibitors could be potent therapeutics for treating GD.

  17. MLKL and FADD Are Critical for Suppressing Progressive Lymphoproliferative Disease and Activating the NLRP3 Inflammasome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixi Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available MLKL, a key component downstream of RIPK3, is suggested to be a terminal executor of necroptosis. Genetic studies have revealed that Ripk3 ablation rescues embryonic lethality in Fadd- or Caspase-8-deficient mice. Given that RIPK3 has also been implicated in non-necroptotic pathways including apoptosis and inflammatory signaling, it remains unclear whether the lethality in Fadd−/− mice is indeed caused by necropotosis. Here, we show that genetic deletion of Mlkl rescues the developmental defect in Fadd-deficient mice and that Fadd−/−Mlkl−/− mice are viable and fertile. Mlkl−/−Fadd−/− mice display significantly accelerated lymphoproliferative disease characterized by lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly when compared to Ripk3−/− Fadd−/− mice. Mlkl−/−Fadd−/− bone-marrow-derived macrophages and dendritic cells have impaired NLRP3 inflammasome activation associated with defects in ASC speck formation and NF-κB-dependent NLRP3 transcription. Our findings reveal that MLKL and FADD play critical roles in preventing lymphoproliferative disease and activating the NLRP3 inflammasome.

  18. A loss of Pdxk model of Parkinson disease in Drosophila can be suppressed by Buffy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Angale, P Githure; Staveley, Brian E

    2017-06-12

    The identification of a DNA variant in pyridoxal kinase (Pdxk) associated with increased risk to Parkinson disease (PD) gene led us to study the inhibition of this gene in the Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc)-expressing neurons of the well-studied model organism Drosophila melanogaster. The multitude of biological functions attributable to the vitamers catalysed by this kinase reveal an overabundance of possible links to PD, that include dopamine synthesis, antioxidant activity and mitochondrial function. Drosophila possesses a single homologue of Pdxk and we used RNA interference to inhibit the activity of this kinase in the Ddc-Gal4-expressing neurons. We further investigated any association between this enhanced disease risk gene with the established PD model induced by expression of α-synuclein in the same neurons. We relied on the pro-survival functions of Buffy, an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 homologue, to rescue the Pdxk-induced phenotypes. To drive the expression of Pdxk RNA interference in DA neurons of Drosophila, we used Ddc-Gal4 which drives expression in both dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons, to result in decreased longevity and compromised climbing ability, phenotypes that are strongly associated with Drosophila models of PD. The inhibition of Pdxk in the α-synuclein-induced Drosophila model of PD did not alter longevity and climbing ability of these flies. It has been previously shown that deficiency in vitamers lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal decay, therefore, co-expression of Pdxk-RNAi with the sole pro-survival Bcl-2 homologue Buffy in the Ddc-Gal4-expressing neurons, resulted in increased survival and a restored climbing ability. In a similar manner, when we inhibited Pdxk in the developing eye using GMR-Gal4, we found that there was a decrease in the number of ommatidia and the disruption of the ommatidial array was more pronounced. When Pdxk was inhibited with the α-synuclein-induced developmental eye defects, the eye phenotypes were

  19. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv 'Embul'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayasekara, C L; Adikaram, N K B; Wanigasekara, U W N P; Bandara, B M R

    2013-03-01

    Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar 'Embul' (Mysore, AAB) infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and cell wall lignification. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4'-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana.

  20. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv ‘Embul’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Abayasekara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar ‘Embul’ (Mysore, AAB infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity and cell wall lignification. ¹H and ¹³C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4′-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana.

  1. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv ‘Embul’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayasekara, C. L.; Adikaram, N. K. B.; Wanigasekara, U. W. N. P.; Bandara, B. M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar ‘Embul’ (Mysore, AAB) infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and cell wall lignification. 1H and 13C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4′-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana. PMID:25288931

  2. Metal Homeostasis Regulators Suppress FRDA Phenotypes in a Drosophila Model of the Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirena Soriano

    Full Text Available Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA, the most commonly inherited ataxia in populations of European origin, is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a decrease in frataxin levels. One of the hallmarks of the disease is the accumulation of iron in several tissues including the brain, and frataxin has been proposed to play a key role in iron homeostasis. We found that the levels of zinc, copper, manganese and aluminum were also increased in a Drosophila model of FRDA, and that copper and zinc chelation improve their impaired motor performance. By means of a candidate genetic screen, we identified that genes implicated in iron, zinc and copper transport and metal detoxification can restore frataxin deficiency-induced phenotypes. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the metal dysregulation in FRDA includes other metals besides iron, therefore providing a new set of potential therapeutic targets.

  3. Which is more effective for suppressing an infectious disease: imperfect vaccination or defense against contagion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuga, Kazuki; Tanimoto, Jun

    2018-02-01

    We consider two imperfect ways to protect against an infectious disease such as influenza, namely vaccination giving only partial immunity and a defense against contagion such as wearing a mask. We build up a new analytic framework considering those two cases instead of perfect vaccination, conventionally assumed as a premise, with the assumption of an infinite and well-mixed population. Our framework also considers three different strategy-updating rules based on evolutionary game theory: conventional pairwise comparison with one randomly selected agent, another concept of pairwise comparison referring to a social average, and direct alternative selection not depending on the usual copying concept. We successfully obtain a phase diagram in which vaccination coverage at equilibrium can be compared when assuming the model of either imperfect vaccination or a defense against contagion. The obtained phase diagram reveals that a defense against contagion is marginally inferior to an imperfect vaccination as long as the same coefficient value is used. Highlights - We build a new analytical framework for a vaccination game combined with the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model. - Our model can evaluate imperfect provisions such as vaccination giving only partial immunity and a defense against contagion. - We obtain a phase diagram with which to compare the quantitative effects of partial vaccination and a defense against contagion.

  4. Suppression of glymphatic fluid transport in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Weiguo; Achariyar, Thiyagarajan M; Li, Baoman; Liao, Yonghong; Mestre, Humberto; Hitomi, Emi; Regan, Sean; Kasper, Tristan; Peng, Sisi; Ding, Fengfei; Benveniste, Helene; Nedergaard, Maiken; Deane, Rashid

    2016-09-01

    Glymphatic transport, defined as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) peri-arterial inflow into brain, and interstitial fluid (ISF) clearance, is reduced in the aging brain. However, it is unclear whether glymphatic transport affects the distribution of soluble Aβ in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In wild type mice, we show that Aβ40 (fluorescently labeled Aβ40 or unlabeled Aβ40), was distributed from CSF to brain, via the peri-arterial space, and associated with neurons. In contrast, Aβ42 was mostly restricted to the peri-arterial space due mainly to its greater propensity to oligomerize when compared to Aβ40. Interestingly, pretreatment with Aβ40 in the CSF, but not Aβ42, reduced CSF transport into brain. In APP/PS1 mice, a model of AD, with and without extensive amyloid-β deposits, glymphatic transport was reduced, due to the accumulation of toxic Aβ species, such as soluble oligomers. CSF-derived Aβ40 co-localizes with existing endogenous vascular and parenchymal amyloid-β plaques, and thus, may contribute to the progression of both cerebral amyloid angiopathy and parenchymal Aβ accumulation. Importantly, glymphatic failure preceded significant amyloid-β deposits, and thus, may be an early biomarker of AD. By extension, restoring glymphatic inflow and ISF clearance are potential therapeutic targets to slow the onset and progression of AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ruxolitinib combined with vorinostat suppresses tumor growth and alters metabolic phenotype in hematological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civallero, Monica; Cosenza, Maria; Pozzi, Samantha; Sacchi, Stefano

    2017-11-28

    JAK-2 dysregulation plays an important role as an oncogenic driver, and is thus a promising therapeutic target in hematological malignancies. Ruxolitinib is a pyrrolo[2.3-d]pyrimidine derivative with inhibitory activity against JAK1 and JAK2, moderate activity against TYK2, and minor activity against JAK3. Vorinostat is an HDAC inhibitor that reduces JAK-2 expression, thus affecting JAK-2 mRNA expression and increasing JAK-2 proteasomal deterioration. Here we hypothesized that the combination of ruxolitinib and vorinostat could have synergistic effects against hematological disease. We tested combinations of low doses of ruxolitinib and vorinostat in 12 cell lines, and observed highly synergistic cytotoxic action in six cell lines, which was maintained for up to 120 h in the presence of stromal cells. The sensitivity of the six cell lines may be explained by the broad effects of the drug combination, which can affect various targets. Treatment with the combination of ruxolitinib and vorinostat appeared to induce a possible reversal of the Warburg effect, with associated ROS production, apoptotic events, and growth inhibition. Decreased glucose metabolism may have markedly sensitized the six more susceptible cell lines to combined treatment. Therapeutic inhibition of the JAK/STAT pathway seems to offer substantial anti-tumor benefit, and combined therapy with ruxolitinib and vorinostat may represent a promising novel therapeutic modality for hematological neoplasms.

  6. Berberine prevents nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal loss and suppresses hippocampal apoptosis in mice with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mia; Cho, Ki-Ho; Shin, Mal-Soon; Lee, Jae-Min; Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Chang-Ju; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Yang, Hyeon Jeong

    2014-04-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the selective loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and a reduction in striatal dopaminergic fibers, which result in tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia and gait disturbance. In addition to motor dysfunction, dementia is a widely recognized symptom of patients with PD. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Berberis vulgaris L., is known to exert anxiolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipsychotic, antidepressant and anti-amnesic effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of berberine on short-term memory in relation to dopamine depletion and hippocampal neurogenesis using a mouse model of PD, induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid (MPTP/P) treatment. Mice in the berberine-treated groups were orally administered berberine once a day for a total of 5 weeks. Our results revealed that the injection of MPTP/P induced dopaminergic neuronal death in the substantia nigra and fiber loss in the striatum. This resulted in impaired motor balance and coordination, as assessed by the beam walking test. We further demonstrated that MPTP/P-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus deteriorated short-term memory, as shown by the step-down avoidance task. By contrast, neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, which is a compensatory adaptive response to excessive apoptosis, was increased upon PD induction. However, treatment with berberine enhanced motor balance and coordination by preventing dopaminergic neuronal damage. Treatment with berberine also improved short-term memory by inhibiting apoptosis in the hippocampus. Berberine demonstrated maximal potency at 50 mg/kg. Based on these data, treatment with berberine may serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for the alleviation of memory impairment and motor dysfunction in patients with PD.

  7. Suppression of Alzheimer's disease-related phenotypes by geranylgeranylacetone in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Hoshino

    Full Text Available Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Aβ is generated by the secretase-mediated proteolysis of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP, and cleared by enzyme-mediated degradation and phagocytosis. Transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 stimulates this phagocytosis. We recently reported that the APP23 mouse model for AD showed fewer AD-related phenotypes when these animals were crossed with transgenic mice expressing heat shock protein (HSP 70. We here examined the effect of geranylgeranylacetone, an inducer of HSP70 expression, on the AD-related phenotypes. Repeated oral administration of geranylgeranylacetone to APP23 mice for 9 months not only improved cognitive function but also decreased levels of Aβ, Aβ plaque deposition and synaptic loss. The treatment also up-regulated the expression of an Aβ-degrading enzyme and TGF-β1 but did not affect the maturation of APP and secretase activities. These outcomes were similar to those observed in APP23 mice genetically modified to overexpress HSP70. Although the repeated oral administration of geranylgeranylacetone did not increase the level of HSP70 in the brain, a single oral administration of geranylgeranylacetone significantly increased the level of HSP70 when Aβ was concomitantly injected directly into the hippocampus. Since geranylgeranylacetone has already been approved for use as an anti-ulcer drug and its safety in humans has been confirmed, we propose that this drug be considered as a candidate drug for the prevention of AD.

  8. Impact of Plant-Derived Flavonoids on Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Silvia Lima; Silva, Victor Diogenes Amaral; Dos Santos Souza, Cleide; Santos, Cleonice Creusa; Paris, Irmgard; Muñoz, Patricia; Segura-Aguilar, Juan

    2016-07-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders have a common characteristic that is the involvement of different cell types, typically the reactivity of astrocytes and microglia, characterizing gliosis, which in turn contributes to the neuronal dysfunction and or death. Flavonoids are secondary metabolites of plant origin widely investigated at present and represent one of the most important and diversified among natural products phenolic groups. Several biological activities are attributed to this class of polyphenols, such as antitumor activity, antioxidant, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory, among others, which give significant pharmacological importance. Our group have observed that flavonoids derived from Brazilian plants Dimorphandra mollis Bent., Croton betulaster Müll. Arg., e Poincianella pyramidalis Tul., botanical synonymous Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. also elicit a broad spectrum of responses in astrocytes and neurons in culture as activation of astrocytes and microglia, astrocyte associated protection of neuronal progenitor cells, neuronal differentiation and neuritogenesis. It was observed the flavonoids also induced neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells and human pluripotent stem cells. Moreover, with the objective of seeking preclinical pharmacological evidence of these molecules, in order to assess its future use in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, we have evaluated the effects of flavonoids in preclinical in vitro models of neuroinflammation associated with Parkinson's disease and glutamate toxicity associated with ischemia. In particular, our efforts have been directed to identify mechanisms involved in the changes in viability, morphology, and glial cell function induced by flavonoids in cultures of glial cells and neuronal cells alone or in interactions and clarify the relation with their neuroprotective and morphogetic effects.

  9. Pathogen filtration to control plant disease outbreak in greenhouse production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sangho; Krasnow, Charles; Bhalsod, Gemini; Granke, Leah; Harlan, Blair; Hausbeck, Mary; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has been extensively focused on understanding the fate and transport of human microbial pathogens in soil and water environments. However, little is known about the transport of plant pathogens, although these pathogens are often found in irrigation waters and could cause severe crop damage and economical loss. Water mold pathogens including Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. are infective to a wide range of vegetable and floriculture crops, and they are primarily harbored in soils and disseminated through water flow. It is challenging to control these pathogens because they often quickly develop resistance to many fungicides. Therefore, this multi-scale study aimed to investigate physical removal of plant pathogens from water by filtration, thus reducing the pathogen exposure risks to crops. In column-scale experiments, we studied controlling factors on the transport and retention of Phytophthora capsici zoospores in saturated columns packed with iron oxide coated-sand and uncoated-sand under varying solution chemistry. Biflagellate zoospores were less retained than encysted zoospores, and lower solution pH and greater iron oxide content increased the retention of encysted zoospores. These results provided insights on environmental dispersal of Phytophthora zoospores in natural soils as well as on developing cost-effective engineered filtration systems for pathogen removal. Using small-scale greenhouse filtration systems, we further investigated the performance of varying filter media (i.e., granular sand, iron oxide coated ceramic porous media, and activated carbon) in mitigating disease outbreaks of Phytophthora and Pythium for greenhouse-grown squash and poinsettia, respectively, in comparison with fungicide treatment. For squash, filtration by iron oxide coated media was more effective in reducing the Phytophthora infection, comparing to sand filtration and fungicide application. For poinsettia, sand filtration performed better in controlling

  10. Chitin amendment increases soil suppressiveness toward plant pathogens and modulates the actinobacterial and oxalobacteraceal communities in an experimental agricultural field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Korthals, Gerard W.; Visser, Johnny H. M.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    A long-term experiment on the effect of chitin addition to soil on the suppression of soilborne pathogens was set up and monitored for 8 years in an experimental field, Vredepeel, The Netherlands. Chitinous matter obtained from shrimps was added to soil top layers on two different occasions, and the

  11. Analysis of Globodera rostochiensis effectors reveals conserved functions of SPRYSEC proteins in suppressing and eliciting plant immune responses

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Shawkat; Magne, Maxime; Chen, Shiyan; Obradovic, Natasa; Jamshaid, Lubna; Wang, Xiaohong; Bé lair, Guy; Moffett, Peter

    2015-01-01

    in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum. We have found that all SPRYSEC proteins tested are able to suppress defense responses induced by NB-LRR proteins as well as cell death induced by elicitors, suggesting that defense repression is a common characteristic

  12. Ferulic Acid: A Hope for Alzheimer’s Disease Therapy from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Sgarbossa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the deposition of extracellular amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ and intracellular neurofibrillar tangles, associated with loss of neurons in the brain and consequent learning and memory deficits. Aβ is the major component of the senile plaques and is believed to play a central role in the development and progress of AD both in oligomer and fibril forms. Inhibition of the formation of Aβ fibrils as well as the destabilization of preformed Aβ in the Central Nervous System (CNS would be an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of AD. Moreover, a large number of studies indicate that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction may play an important role in AD and their suppression or reduction via antioxidant use could be a promising preventive or therapeutic intervention for AD patients. Many antioxidant compounds have been demonstrated to protect the brain from Aβ neurotoxicity. Ferulic acid (FA is an antioxidant naturally present in plant cell walls with anti-inflammatory activities and it is able to act as a free radical scavenger. Here we present the role of FA as inhibitor or disaggregating agent of amyloid structures as well as its effects on biological models.

  13. Food plant derived disease tolerance and resistance in a natural butterfly-plant-parasite interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; Lefèvre, Thierry; Li, James; de Castillejo, Carlos Lopez Fernandez; Li, Hui; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2012-11-01

    Organisms can protect themselves against parasite-induced fitness costs through resistance or tolerance. Resistance includes mechanisms that prevent infection or limit parasite growth while tolerance alleviates the fitness costs from parasitism without limiting infection. Although tolerance and resistance affect host-parasite coevolution in fundamentally different ways, tolerance has often been ignored in animal-parasite systems. Where it has been studied, tolerance has been assumed to be a genetic mechanism, unaffected by the host environment. Here we studied the effects of host ecology on tolerance and resistance to infection by rearing monarch butterflies on 12 different species of milkweed food plants and infecting them with a naturally occurring protozoan parasite. Our results show that monarch butterflies experience different levels of tolerance to parasitism depending on the species of milkweed that they feed on, with some species providing over twofold greater tolerance than other milkweed species. Resistance was also affected by milkweed species, but there was no relationship between milkweed-conferred resistance and tolerance. Chemical analysis suggests that infected monarchs obtain highest fitness when reared on milkweeds with an intermediate concentration, diversity, and polarity of toxic secondary plant chemicals known as cardenolides. Our results demonstrate that environmental factors-such as interacting species in ecological food webs-are important drivers of disease tolerance. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 controls Fusarium wilt disease in tomato plants in soilless culture through competition for iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, Guillem; Casanova, Eva; Avilés, Manuel; Trillas, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 has been reported to control the disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) on tomato plants. To study the importance of iron concentration in the growth media for the activity and competitiveness of T34 and the pathogen, we tested four iron concentrations in the nutrient solution [1, 10, 100, and 1000 microM provided as EDTA/Fe(III)] in a biological control experiment with T34 and Fol in tomato plants. The reduction of the Fusarium-infected shoot by T34 was only significant at 10 microM Fe. We hypothesized that Fe competition is one of the key factors in the biocontrol activity exerted by T34 against Fol, as an increase in Fe concentration over 10 microM would lead to the suppression of T34 siderophore synthesis and thus inhibition of Fe competition with Fol. T34 significantly reduced the populations of Fol at all the doses of Fe assayed. In contrast, Fol enhanced the populations of T34 at 1 and 10 microM Fe. Nevertheless, several plant physiological parameters like net CO(2) assimilation (A), stomatal conductance (g(s)), relative quantum efficiency of PSII (Phi(PSII)), and efficiency of excitation energy capture by open PSII reactive centers (Fv'/Fm') demonstrated the protection against Fol damage by treatment with T34 at 100 microM Fe. The first physiological parameter affected by the disease progression was g(s). Plant dry weight was decreased by Fe toxicity at 100 and 1,000 microM. T34-treated plants had significantly greater heights and dry weights than control plants at 1,000 microM Fe, even though T34 did not reduce the Fe content in leaves or stems. Furthermore, T34 enhanced plant height even at the optimal Fe concentration (10 microM) compared to control plants. In conclusion, T. asperellum strain T34 protected tomato plants from both biotic (Fusarium wilt disease) and abiotic stress [Fe(III) toxic effects].

  15. A reduce and replace strategy for suppressing vector-borne diseases: insights from a stochastic, spatial model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi W Okamoto

    Full Text Available Two basic strategies have been proposed for using transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to decrease dengue virus transmission: population reduction and population replacement. Here we model releases of a strain of Ae. aegypti carrying both a gene causing conditional adult female mortality and a gene blocking virus transmission into a wild population to assess whether such releases could reduce the number of competent vectors. We find this "reduce and replace" strategy can decrease the frequency of competent vectors below 50% two years after releases end. Therefore, this combined approach appears preferable to releasing a strain carrying only a female-killing gene, which is likely to merely result in temporary population suppression. However, the fixation of anti-pathogen genes in the population is unlikely. Genetic drift at small population sizes and the spatially heterogeneous nature of the population recovery after releases end prevent complete replacement of the competent vector population. Furthermore, releasing more individuals can be counter-productive in the face of immigration by wild-type mosquitoes, as greater population reduction amplifies the impact wild-type migrants have on the long-term frequency of the anti-pathogen gene. We expect the results presented here to give pause to expectations for driving an anti-pathogen construct to fixation by relying on releasing individuals carrying this two-gene construct. Nevertheless, in some dengue-endemic environments, a spatially heterogeneous decrease in competent vectors may still facilitate decreasing disease incidence.

  16. Multifunctional roles of leader protein of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in suppressing host antiviral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingqi; Zhu, Zixiang; Zhang, Miaotao; Zheng, Haixue

    2015-10-28

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) leader protein (L(pro)) is a papain-like proteinase, which plays an important role in FMDV pathogenesis. L(pro) exists as two forms, Lab and Lb, due to translation being initiated from two different start codons separated by 84 nucleotides. L(pro) self-cleaves from the nascent viral polyprotein precursor as the first mature viral protein. In addition to its role as a viral proteinase, L(pro) also has the ability to antagonize host antiviral effects. To promote FMDV replication, L(pro) can suppress host antiviral responses by three different mechanisms: (1) cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 γ (eIF4G) to shut off host protein synthesis; (2) inhibition of host innate immune responses through restriction of interferon-α/β production; and (3) L(pro) can also act as a deubiquitinase and catalyze deubiquitination of innate immune signaling molecules. In the light of recent functional and biochemical findings regarding L(pro), this review introduces the basic properties of L(pro) and the mechanisms by which it antagonizes host antiviral responses.

  17. A novel acylaminoimidazole derivative, WN1316, alleviates disease progression via suppression of glial inflammation in ALS mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Tanaka

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is an adult-onset motor neuron degenerative disease. Given that oxidative stress and resulting chronic neuronal inflammation are thought to be central pathogenic, anti-oxidative agents and modulators of neuronal inflammation could be potential therapies for ALS. We report here that the novel small molecular compound, 2-[mesityl(methylamino]-N-[4-(pyridin-2-yl-1H-imidazol-2-yl] acetamide trihydrochloride (WN1316 selectively suppresses oxidative stress-induced cell death and neuronal inflammation in the late-stage ALS mice. WN1316 has high blood-brain-barrier permeability and water solubility, and boosts both neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 which governed glutathione (GSH-related anti-oxidation pathway protecting motor neurons against oxidative injuries. Post-onset oral administration of low dose (1-100 µg/kg/day WN1316 in ALS(SOD1(H46R and ALS(SOD1(G93A mice resulted in sustained improved motor function and post onset survival rate. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed less DNA oxidative damage and motor neuronal inflammation as well as repression of both microgliosis and astrocytosis, concomitant down regulation of interleukin-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase, and preservation of the motoneurons in anterior horn of lumbar spinal cord and skeletal muscle (quadriceps femoris. Thus, WN1316 would be a novel therapeutic agent for ALS.

  18. Plant Pathology: A Life and Death Struggle in Rice Blast Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-Min

    2016-09-26

    The fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae causes severe disease symptoms and yield losses on rice plants. A new study shows that this fungus elicits disease lesions by co-opting a host protein and reveals how rice plants fight back. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. IAA-producing Penicillium sp. NICS01 triggers plant growth and suppresses Fusarium sp.-induced oxidative stress in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Shim, Kang-Bo; Lee, Byeong-Won; Hwang, Chung-Dong; Pae, Suk-Bok; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Sung-Up; Lee, Choon-Ki; Baek, In-Youl

    2013-06-28

    Application of rhizospheric fungi is an effective and environmentally friendly method of improving plant growth and controlling many plant diseases. The current study was aimed to identify phytohormone-producing fungi from soil, to understand their roles in sesame plant growth, and to control Fusarium disease. Three predominant fungi (PNF1, PNF2, and PNF3) isolated from the rhizospheric soil of peanut plants were screened for their growth-promoting efficiency on sesame seedlings. Among these isolates, PNF2 significantly increased the shoot length and fresh weight of seedlings compared with controls. Analysis of the fungal culture filtrate showed a higher concentration of indole acetic acid in PNF2 than in the other isolates. PNF2 was identified as Penicillium sp. on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence similarity. The in vitro biocontrol activity of Penicillium sp. against Fusarium sp. was exhibited by a 49% inhibition of mycelial growth in a dual culture bioassay and by hyphal injuries as observed by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, greenhouse experiments revealed that Fusarium inhibited growth in sesame plants by damaging lipid membranes and reducing protein content. Co-cultivation with Penicillium sp. mitigated Fusarium-induced oxidative stress in sesame plants by limiting membrane lipid peroxidation, and by increasing the protein concentration, levels of antioxidants such as total polyphenols, and peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities. Thus, our findings suggest that Penicillium sp. is a potent plant growthpromoting fungus that has the ability to ameliorate damage caused by Fusarium infection in sesame cultivation.

  20. Plant Growth Enhancement, Disease Resistance, and Elemental Modulatory Effects of Plant Probiotic Endophytic Bacillus sp. Fcl1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Aswathy; Krishna, Arathy; Mohan, Mahesh; Nair, Indu C; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2018-04-13

    Endophytic bacteria have already been studied for their beneficial support to plants to manage both biotic and abiotic stress through an array of well-established mechanisms. They have either direct or indirect impact on mobilizing diverse nutrients and elements from soil to plants. However, detailed insight into the fine-tuning of plant elemental composition by associated microorganism is very limited. In this study, endophytic Bacillus Fcl1 characterized from the rhizome of Curcuma longa was found to have broad range of plant growth-promoting and biocontrol mechanisms. The organism was found to have indole acetic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase production properties along with nitrogen fixation. The Bacillus Fcl1 could also inhibit diverse phytopathogens as confirmed by dual culture and well diffusion. By LC-MS/MS analysis, chemical basis of its antifungal activity has been proved to be due to the production of iturin A and a blend of surfactin compounds. Moreover, the organism was found to induce both plant growth and disease resistance in vivo in model plant system. Because of these experimentally demonstrated multiple plant probiotic features, Bacillus Fcl1 was selected as a candidate organism to study its role in modulation of plant elemental composition. ICP-MS analysis of Bacillus Fcl1-treated plants provided insight into relation of bacterial interaction with elemental composition of plants.

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Plant Extracts from Aloe Vera, Citrus Hystrix, Sabah Snake Grass and Zingiber Officinale against Pyricularia Oryzae that causes Rice Blast Disease in Paddy Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, M. N. A.; Harzana Shaari, N.; Shamiera. Said, N.; Hulwani Ibrahim, Nur; Akhir, Maisara A. M.; Khairul Rabani Hashim, Mohd; Salimi, M. N.; Nuradibah, M. A.; Hashim, Uda; Gopinath, Subash C. B.

    2018-03-01

    Rice blast disease, caused by the fungus known as Pyricularia oryzae, has become an important and serious disease of rice worldwide. Around 50% of production may be lost in a field moderately affected by infection and each year the fungus destroys rice, which is enough to feed an estimated 60 million people. Therefore, use of herbal plants offer an alternative for the management of plant diseases. Herbal plant like Aloe vera, Citrus hystrix, Sabah snake grass and Zingiber officinale extracts can be used for controlling disease of rice blast. In this study, these four herbal plants were used for evaluating antimicrobial activity against rice plant fungus Pyricularia oryzae, which causes rice blast disease.

  2. Chemical and biological characterization of phytotoxins produced by Diplodia species, fungi involved in forest plants diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Masi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have been initiated in order to understand what are the microorganisms involved in forest plants diseases and the role played by phytotoxins produced in the pathogenesis processes. The aim of the present thesis was to study the fungi and the phytotoxins associated with canker disease of the Italian cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) and the branch dieback of juniper (Juniperus phoenicea L.) which are plant diseases with noteworthy social and economical impli...

  3. Biochar-enhanced composts reduce the potential leaching of nutrients and heavy metals and suppress plant-parasitic nematodes in excessively fertilized cucumber soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yune; Gao, Yanming; Qi, Yanbin; Li, Jianshe

    2018-03-01

    Excessive fertilization is a common agricultural practice that has largely reduced soil nutrient retention capacity and led to nutrient leaching in China. To reduce nutrient leaching, in this study, we evaluated the application of biochar, compost, and biochar-compost on soil properties, leaching water quality, and cucumber plant growth in soils with different nutrient levels. In general, the concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals in leaching water were higher under high-nutrient conditions than under low-nutrient conditions. Both biochar and compost efficiently enhanced soil cation exchange capacity (CEC), water holding capacity (WHC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC), nitrogen (MBN), and phosphorus (MBP), reduced the potential leaching of nutrients and heavy metals, and improved plant growth. The efficiency of biochar and compost in soil CEC, WHC, MBC, MBN, and MBP and plant growth was enhanced when applied jointly. In addition, biochar and biochar-enhanced compost efficiently suppressed plant-parasitic nematode infestation in a soil with high levels of both N and P. Our results suggest that biochar-enhanced compost can reduce the potential environmental risks in excessively fertilized vegetable soils.

  4. Consumption of polyphenol plants may slow aging and associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Utku; Seremet, Sila; Lamping, Jeffrey W; Adams, Jerome M; Liu, Deede Y; Swerdlow, Russell H; Aires, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    Slowing aging is a widely shared goal. Plant-derived polyphenols, which are found in commonly consumed food plants such as tea, cocoa, blueberry and grape, have been proposed to have many health benefits, including slowing aging. In-vivo studies have demonstrated the lifespan-extending ability of six polyphenol-containing plants. These include five widely consumed foods (tea, blueberry, cocoa, apple, pomegranate) and a flower commonly used as a folk medicine (betony). These and multiple other plant polyphenols have been shown to have beneficial effects on aging-associated changes across a variety of organisms from worm and fly to rodent and human.

  5. Suppression of Tla1 gene expression for improved solar conversion efficiency and photosynthetic productivity in plants and algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Anastasios; Mitra, Mautusi

    2010-06-29

    The invention provides method and compositions to minimize the chlorophyll antenna size of photosynthesis by decreasing TLA1 gene expression, thereby improving solar conversion efficiencies and photosynthetic productivity in plants, e.g., green microalgae, under bright sunlight conditions.

  6. Ozone-induced growth suppression in radish plants in relation to pre- and post-fumigation temperatures. [Raphanus sativus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adedipe, N.O.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1974-01-01

    Two cultivars of Raphanus sativus L. (radish) were fumigated with ozone at a concentration of 25 parts per hundred million (pphm) for 3 h, before or after subjecting the plants to two growth temperature regimes. In the cultivar ''Cavalier'' ozone decreased leaf weight at the lower pre-fumigation day/night growth temperature regime of 20/15/sup 0/, but had no significant effect when the plants were either pre- or post-fumigation conditioned at the high temperatures of 30/25/sup 0/. In the cultivar ''Cherry Belle'', ozone decreased the leaf weight of only low temperature post-fumigation conditioned plants. Ozone had no significant effect on the total soluble carbohydrate concentration of ''Cherry Belle'', while it increased that of pre-fumigation conditioned ''Cavalier'' plants.

  7. Low Risk of Pneumonia From Pneumocystis jirovecii Infection in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease Receiving Immune Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Thomas G; Gathaiya, Nicola; Catania, Jelena; Loftus, Edward V; Tremaine, William J; Baddour, Larry M; Harmsen, W Scott; Zinsmeister, Alan R; Sandborn, William J; Limper, Andrew H; Pardi, Darrell S

    2017-06-01

    Use of immunosuppressants and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may increase the risk of pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii (PJP). We assessed the risk of PJP in a population-based cohort of patients with IBD treated with corticosteroids, immune-suppressive medications, and biologics. We performed a population-based cohort study of residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, diagnosed with Crohn's disease (n = 427) or ulcerative colitis (n = 510) from 1970 through 2011. Records of patients were reviewed to identify all episodes of immunosuppressive therapies and concomitant PJP prophylaxis through February 2016. We reviewed charts to identify cases of PJP, cross-referenced with the Rochester Epidemiology Project database (using diagnostic codes for PJP) and the Mayo Clinic and Olmsted Medical Center databases. The primary outcome was risk of PJP associated with the use of corticosteroids, immune-suppressive medications, and biologics by patients with IBD. Our analysis included 937 patients and 6066 patient-years of follow-up evaluation (median, 14.8 y per patient). Medications used included corticosteroids (520 patients; 55.5%; 555.4 patient-years of exposure), immunosuppressants (304 patients; 32.4%; 1555.7 patient-years of exposure), and biologics (193 patients; 20.5%; 670 patient-years of exposure). Double therapy (corticosteroids and either immunosuppressants and biologics) was used by 236 patients (25.2%), with 173 patient-years of exposure. Triple therapy (corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, and biologics) was used by 70 patients (7.5%) with 18.9 patient-years of exposure. There were 3 cases of PJP, conferring a risk of 0.2 (95% CI, 0.01-1.0) to corticosteroids, 0.1 (95% CI, 0.02-0.5) cases per 100 patient-years of exposure to immunosuppressants, 0.3 (95% CI, 0.04-1.1) cases per 100 patient-years of exposure to biologics, 0.6 (95% CI, 0.01-3.2) cases per 100 patient-years of exposure to double therapy, and 0 (95% CI, 0.0-19.5) cases per 100 patient

  8. Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Pamela K; Cunningham, Andrew A; Patel, Nikkita G; Morales, Francisco J; Epstein, Paul R; Daszak, Peter

    2004-10-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose threats to conservation and public health. Here, we apply the definition of EIDs used in the medical and veterinary fields to botany and highlight a series of emerging plant diseases. We include EIDs of cultivated and wild plants, some of which are of significant conservation concern. The underlying cause of most plant EIDs is the anthropogenic introduction of parasites, although severe weather events are also important drivers of disease emergence. Much is known about crop plant EIDs, but there is little information about wild-plant EIDs, suggesting that their impact on conservation is underestimated. We conclude with recommendations for improving strategies for the surveillance and control of plant EIDs.

  9. The parasitic plant Cuscuta australis is highly insensitive to abscisic acid-induced suppression of hypocotyl elongation and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Hettenhausen, Christian; Sun, Guiling; Zhuang, Huifu; Li, Jian-Hong; Wu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Around 1% of angiosperms are parasitic plants. Their growth and development solely or partly depend on host plants from which they extract water, nutrients, and other molecules using a parasitic plant-specific organ, the haustorium. Strong depletion of nutrients can result in serious growth retardation and in some cases, death of the hosts. The genus Cuscuta (dodder) comprises about 200 holoparasitic species occurring on all continents. Their seedlings have no roots and cotyledons but are only string-like hypocotyls. When they contact suitable host plants, haustoria are formed and thereafter seedlings rapidly develop into vigorously growing branches without roots and leaves. This highly specialized lifestyle suggests that Cuscuta plants likely have unique physiology in development and stress responses. Using germination and seedling growth assays, we show that C. australis seeds and seedlings are highly insensitive to abscisic acid (ABA). Transcriptome analysis and protein sequence alignment with Arabidopsis, tomato, and rice homologs revealed that C. australis most likely consists of only four functional ABA receptors. Given that Cuscuta plants are no longer severely challenged by drought stress, we hypothesize that the ABA-mediated drought resistance pathway in Cuscuta spp. might have had degenerated over time during evolution.

  10. The parasitic plant Cuscuta australis is highly insensitive to abscisic acid-induced suppression of hypocotyl elongation and seed germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    Full Text Available Around 1% of angiosperms are parasitic plants. Their growth and development solely or partly depend on host plants from which they extract water, nutrients, and other molecules using a parasitic plant-specific organ, the haustorium. Strong depletion of nutrients can result in serious growth retardation and in some cases, death of the hosts. The genus Cuscuta (dodder comprises about 200 holoparasitic species occurring on all continents. Their seedlings have no roots and cotyledons but are only string-like hypocotyls. When they contact suitable host plants, haustoria are formed and thereafter seedlings rapidly develop into vigorously growing branches without roots and leaves. This highly specialized lifestyle suggests that Cuscuta plants likely have unique physiology in development and stress responses. Using germination and seedling growth assays, we show that C. australis seeds and seedlings are highly insensitive to abscisic acid (ABA. Transcriptome analysis and protein sequence alignment with Arabidopsis, tomato, and rice homologs revealed that C. australis most likely consists of only four functional ABA receptors. Given that Cuscuta plants are no longer severely challenged by drought stress, we hypothesize that the ABA-mediated drought resistance pathway in Cuscuta spp. might have had degenerated over time during evolution.

  11. A novel Meloidogyne graminicola effector, MgGPP, is secreted into host cells and undergoes glycosylation in concert with proteolysis to suppress plant defenses and promote parasitism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansong Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogen effectors can recruit the host post-translational machinery to mediate their post-translational modification (PTM and regulate their activity to facilitate parasitism, but few studies have focused on this phenomenon in the field of plant-parasitic nematodes. In this study, we show that the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne graminicola has evolved a novel effector, MgGPP, that is exclusively expressed within the nematode subventral esophageal gland cells and up-regulated in the early parasitic stage of M. graminicola. The effector MgGPP plays a role in nematode parasitism. Transgenic rice lines expressing MgGPP become significantly more susceptible to M. graminicola infection than wild-type control plants, and conversely, in planta, the silencing of MgGPP through RNAi technology substantially increases the resistance of rice to M. graminicola. Significantly, we show that MgGPP is secreted into host plants and targeted to the ER, where the N-glycosylation and C-terminal proteolysis of MgGPP occur. C-terminal proteolysis promotes MgGPP to leave the ER, after which it is transported to the nucleus. In addition, N-glycosylation of MgGPP is required for suppressing the host response. The research data provide an intriguing example of in planta glycosylation in concert with proteolysis of a pathogen effector, which depict a novel mechanism by which parasitic nematodes could subjugate plant immunity and promote parasitism and may present a promising target for developing new strategies against nematode infections.

  12. The invasive plant Alternanthera philoxeroides was suppressed more intensively than its native congener by a native generalist: implications for the biotic resistance hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufeng Fan

    Full Text Available Prior studies on preferences of native herbivores for native or exotic plants have tested both the enemy release hypothesis and the biotic resistance hypothesis and have reported inconsistent results. The different levels of resistance of native and exotic plants to native herbivores could resolve this controversy, but little attention has been paid to this issue. In this study, we investigated population performance, photosynthesis, leaf nitrogen concentration, and the constitutive and induced resistances of the successful invasive plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides, and its native congener, Alternanthera sessilis, in the presence of three population densities of the grasshopper, Atractomorpha sinensis. When the grasshopper was absent, leaf biomass, total biomass, photosynthesis, and leaf nitrogen concentration of A. philoxeroides were higher than those of A. sessilis. However, the morphological and physiological performances of A. philoxeroides were all decreased more intensively than A. sessilis after herbivory by grasshoppers. Especially as the concentrations of constitutive lignin and cellulose in leaf of A. philoxeroides were higher than A. sessilis, A. philoxeroides exhibited increased leaf lignin concentration to reduce its palatability only at severe herbivore load, whereas, leaf lignin, cellulose, and polyphenolic concentrations of A. sessilis all increased with increasing herbivory pressure, and cellulose and polyphenolic concentrations were higher in A. sessilis than in A. philoxeroides after herbivory. Our study indicated that the capability of the invasive plant to respond to native insect damage was lower than the native plant, and the invasive plant was suppressed more intensively than its native congener by the native insect. Our results support the biotic resistance hypothesis and suggest that native herbivores can constrain the abundance and reduce the adverse effects of invasive species.

  13. Hif-1α and Hif-2α synergize to suppress AML development but are dispensable for disease maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Milica; Guitart, Amelie V; Sepulveda, Catarina; Villacreces, Arnaud; O'Duibhir, Eoghan; Panagopoulou, Theano I; Ivens, Alasdair; Menendez-Gonzalez, Juan; Iglesias, Juan Manuel; Allen, Lewis; Glykofrydis, Fokion; Subramani, Chithra; Armesilla-Diaz, Alejandro; Post, Annemarie E M; Schaak, Katrin; Gezer, Deniz; So, Chi Wai Eric; Holyoake, Tessa L; Wood, Andrew; O'Carroll, Dónal; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Kranc, Kamil R

    2015-12-14

    Leukemogenesis occurs under hypoxic conditions within the bone marrow (BM). Knockdown of key mediators of cellular responses to hypoxia with shRNA, namely hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) or HIF-2α, in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples results in their apoptosis and inability to engraft, implicating HIF-1α or HIF-2α as therapeutic targets. However, genetic deletion of Hif-1α has no effect on mouse AML maintenance and may accelerate disease development. Here, we report the impact of conditional genetic deletion of Hif-2α or both Hif-1α and Hif-2α at different stages of leukemogenesis in mice. Deletion of Hif-2α accelerates development of leukemic stem cells (LSCs) and shortens AML latency initiated by Mll-AF9 and its downstream effectors Meis1 and Hoxa9. Notably, the accelerated initiation of AML caused by Hif-2α deletion is further potentiated by Hif-1α codeletion. However, established LSCs lacking Hif-2α or both Hif-1α and Hif-2α propagate AML with the same latency as wild-type LSCs. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of the HIF pathway or HIF-2α knockout using the lentiviral CRISPR-Cas9 system in human established leukemic cells with MLL-AF9 translocation have no impact on their functions. We therefore conclude that although Hif-1α and Hif-2α synergize to suppress the development of AML, they are not required for LSC maintenance. © 2015 Vukovic et al.

  14. Performance of the 4-mg intravenous dexamethasone suppression test in differentiating Cushing disease from pseudo-Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvel, Migueline; Rabilloud, Muriel; Raverot, Véronique; Subtil, Fabien; Vouillarmet, Julien; Thivolet, Charles; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Pugeat, Michel; Raverot, Gérald

    2016-02-01

    Discriminating Cushing disease (CD) from pseudo-Cushing syndrome (PCS) is a challenging task that may be overcome with the 4-mg intravenous (IV) dexamethasone suppression test (DST). Assess the performance of the 4-mg IV DST in the differential diagnosis between CD and PCS in well-characterized patients. Retrospective comparative study of subjects seen in a tertiary care unit (November 2008 to July 2011). Thirty-six patients with PCS and 32 patients with CD underwent 4-mg IV dexamethasone infusions from 11 am to 3 pm. Areas Under ROC Curves (AUCs) were estimated and compared for ACTH and cortisol measured at 4 pm the same day (day 1) and 8 am the next day (day 2). The ROC curve of the marker with the highest AUC was used to determine the threshold with the highest specificity for 100% sensitivity. The AUC of ACTH at 8 am on day 2 was estimated at 98.4% (95% CI: [92.1-100]), which is significantly greater than that of ACTH at 4 pm on day 1 (P=0.04) and that of cortisol at 8 am on day 2 (P=0.05). For ACTH at 8 am on day 2, the threshold with the highest specificity for 100% sensitivity was estimated at 14.8 ng/L. At this threshold, the sensitivity was estimated at 100% [89-100] and the specificity at 83.3% [67-94]. The 4-mg IV DST is an easy and accurate tool in distinguishing CD from PCS. It deserves thus a better place in establishing the diagnosis of CD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Suppressed Expression of T-Box Transcription Factors is Involved in Senescence in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acquaah-Mensah, George; Malhotra, Deepti; Vulimiri, Madhulika; McDermott, Jason E.; Biswal, Shyam

    2012-06-19

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health problem. The etiology of COPD has been associated with apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. However, understanding of the molecular interactions that modulate COPD pathogenesis remains only partly resolved. We conducted an exploratory study on COPD etiology to identify the key molecular participants. We used information-theoretic algorithms including Context Likelihood of Relatedness (CLR), Algorithm for the Reconstruction of Accurate Cellular Networks (ARACNE), and Inferelator. We captured direct functional associations among genes, given a compendium of gene expression profiles of human lung epithelial cells. A set of genes differentially expressed in COPD, as reported in a previous study were superposed with the resulting transcriptional regulatory networks. After factoring in the properties of the networks, an established COPD susceptibility locus and domain-domain interactions involving protein products of genes in the generated networks, several molecular candidates were predicted to be involved in the etiology of COPD. These include COL4A3, CFLAR, GULP1, PDCD1, CASP10, PAX3, BOK, HSPD1, PITX2, and PML. Furthermore, T-box (TBX) genes and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), which are in a direct transcriptional regulatory relationship, emerged as preeminent participants in the etiology of COPD by means of senescence. Contrary to observations in neoplasms, our study reveals that the expression of genes and proteins in the lung samples from patients with COPD indicate an increased tendency towards cellular senescence. The expression of the anti-senescence mediators TBX transcription factors, chromatin modifiers histone deacetylases, and sirtuins was suppressed; while the expression of TBX-regulated cellular senescence markers such as CDKN2A, CDKN1A, and CAV1 was elevated in the peripheral lung tissue samples from patients with COPD. The critical balance between senescence

  16. Suppression subtractive hybridization library construction and identification of epidermal bladder cell related genes in the common ice plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siranet Roeurn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L., a halophytic species, displays modified trichomes, epidermal bladder cells (EBC, on the surfaces of its aerial organs. EBCs serve to sequester excessive salt from underlying metabolically active tissues. To elucidate the molecular determinants governing EBC development in the common ice plant, we constructed a cDNA-based suppression subtractive hybridization library and identified genes differentially expressed between the wild-type and the EBC-less mutant. After hybridization, 38 clones were obtained. Among them, 24 clones had homology with plant genes of known functions, whose roles might not be directly related to EBC-morphology, while 14 clones were homologous to genes of unknown functions. After confirmation by northern blot analysis, 12 out of 14 clones of unknown functions were chosen for semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis, and the results revealed that three clones designated as MW3, MW21, and MW31 preferentially expressed in the EBC-less mutant, whereas the other two designated as WM10 and WM28 preferentially expressed in the wild type. Among these genes, the expression of a putative jasmonate-induced gene, designated as WM28 was completely suppressed in the EBC-mutant. In addition, the deletion of C-box cis-acting element was found in the promoter region of WM28 in the EBC-less mutant. Overexpression of WM28 in Arabidopsis resulted in increased trichome number due to the upregulation of key trichome-related genes GLABRA1 (GL1, and GLABRA3 (GL3. These results demonstrate that WM28 can be an important factor responsible for EBC formation, and also suggest the similarity of developmental mechanism between trichome in Arabidopsis and EBC in common ice plant.

  17. Enhancing plant productivity while suppressing biofilm growth in a windowfarm system using beneficial bacteria and ultraviolet irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungjun; Ge, Chongtao; Bohrerova, Zuzana; Grewal, Parwinder S; Lee, Jiyoung

    2015-07-01

    Common problems in a windowfarm system (a vertical and indoor hydroponic system) are phytopathogen infections in plants and excessive buildup of biofilms. The objectives of this study were (i) to promote plant health by making plants more resistant to infection by using beneficial biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas chlororaphis around the roots and (ii) to minimize biofilm buildup by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of the water reservoir, thereby extending the lifespan of the whole system with minimal maintenance. Pseudomonas chlororaphis-treated lettuce grew significantly better than nontreated lettuce, as indicated by enhancement of color, mass, length, and number of leaves per head (p < 0.05). The death rate of the lettuce was reduced by ∼ 50% when the lettuce was treated with P. chlororaphis. UV irradiation reduced the bacteria (4 log reduction) and algae (4 log reduction) in the water reservoirs and water tubing systems. Introduction of P. chlororaphis into the system promoted plant growth and reduced damage caused by the plant pathogen Pythium ultimum. UV irradiation of the water reservoir reduced algal and biofilm growth and extended the lifespan of the system.

  18. RNA-protein interactions in plant disease: hackers at the dinner table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanu, Pietro D

    2015-09-01

    Plants are the source of most of our food, whether directly or as feed for the animals we eat. Our dinner table is a trophic level we share with the microbes that also feed on the primary photosynthetic producers. Microbes that enter into close interactions with plants need to evade or suppress detection and host immunity to access nutrients. They do this by deploying molecular tools - effectors - which target host processes. The mode of action of effector proteins in these events is varied and complex. Recent data from diverse systems indicate that RNA-interacting proteins and RNA itself are delivered by eukaryotic microbes, such as fungi and oomycetes, to host plants and contribute to the establishment of successful interactions. This is evidence that pathogenic microbes can interfere with the host software. We are beginning to see that pathogenic microbes are capable of hacking into the plants' immunity programs. © 2015 The Author. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Medicinal Plants with Multiple Effects on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hojjat; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hamid; Deris, Fatemeh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this systematic review article is to introduce the medicinal plants that exert significant clinical effects on hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and diabetes. In this review article, the international research databases including MEDLINE, Google scholar, EBSCO, Academic Search, Web of Science, SciVerse, Scopus (SCOPUS), EBSCO, Academic Search, Cochrane, Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and a Chinese database (China Network Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI]) were searched using the key words hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, herbal, obesity, and phytomedicine, matched by MESH, from their respective inceptions up to March, 2016. The plants that were effective on one, two, three, or all of four diseases were determined. The doses, side effects, the most important pharmaceutically effective compounds, the used organs, and important points regarding usage were separately recorded. Also known clinically significant interactions were presented. 1023 articles were found to be about medicinal plants and hypertension, 1912 articles about medicinal plants and hyperlipidemia, 810 articles about medicinal plants and obesity, 1174 articles about medicinal plants and diabetes. Of 144 plants included in the analysis, 83 were found to be effective on hyperlipidemia, 100 on hypertension, 66 on obesity, and 72 on diabetes. 43 plants were found to be effective on two diseases, 14 on three diseases, and 34 on all four diseases. Three plants (Tomato, Cranberry and Pomegranate), in food and therapeutic doses, were found to be used to treat cardiovascular diseases especially in pre-eclampsia and hyperlipidemia in pregnancy. Regarding the findings of this study, we can argue that the medicinal plants, other than monotherapy, can be used as poly-therapy, to treat cardiovascular diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any

  20. Automatic detection of diseased tomato plants using thermal and stereo visible light images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-e-Ahmed Raza

    Full Text Available Accurate and timely detection of plant diseases can help mitigate the worldwide losses experienced by the horticulture and agriculture industries each year. Thermal imaging provides a fast and non-destructive way of scanning plants for diseased regions and has been used by various researchers to study the effect of disease on the thermal profile of a plant. However, thermal image of a plant affected by disease has been known to be affected by environmental conditions which include leaf angles and depth of the canopy areas accessible to the thermal imaging camera. In this paper, we combine thermal and visible light image data with depth information and develop a machine learning system to remotely detect plants infected with the tomato powdery mildew fungus Oidium neolycopersici. We extract a novel feature set from the image data using local and global statistics and show that by combining these with the depth information, we can considerably improve the accuracy of detection of the diseased plants. In addition, we show that our novel feature set is capable of identifying plants which were not originally inoculated with the fungus at the start of the experiment but which subsequently developed disease through natural transmission.

  1. Screening of some plant extracts against some skin diseases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... environment, the skin provides the first line of defense against broad injury by microbial ... The plants were identified at the Department of. Biosciences ..... evaluation of natural products, In: Rasoanaivo P, Ratsimamanga US.

  2. Analysis of Globodera rostochiensis effectors reveals conserved functions of SPRYSEC proteins in suppressing and eliciting plant immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs), including Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.), are important pests of potato. Plant parasitic nematodes produce multiple effector proteins, secreted from their stylets, to successfully infect their hosts. These include proteins that are delivered to the apoplast, as well as...

  3. Review: Potential biotechnological assets related to plant immunity modulation applicable in engineering disease-resistant crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marilia Santos; Arraes, Fabrício Barbosa Monteiro; Campos, Magnólia de Araújo; Grossi-de-Sa, Maira; Fernandez, Diana; Cândido, Elizabete de Souza; Cardoso, Marlon Henrique; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fátima

    2018-05-01

    This review emphasizes the biotechnological potential of molecules implicated in the different layers of plant immunity, including, pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI), effector-triggered susceptibility (ETS), and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) that can be applied in the development of disease-resistant genetically modified (GM) plants. These biomolecules are produced by pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes) or plants during their mutual interactions. Biomolecules involved in the first layers of plant immunity, PTI and ETS, include inhibitors of pathogen cell-wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs), plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and susceptibility (S) proteins, while the ETI-related biomolecules include plant resistance (R) proteins. The biomolecules involved in plant defense PTI/ETI responses described herein also include antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and ribosome-inhibiting proteins (RIPs), as well as enzymes involved in plant defensive secondary metabolite biosynthesis (phytoanticipins and phytoalexins). Moreover, the regulation of immunity by RNA interference (RNAi) in GM disease-resistant plants is also considered. Therefore, the present review does not cover all the classes of biomolecules involved in plant innate immunity that may be applied in the development of disease-resistant GM crops but instead highlights the most common strategies in the literature, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ability of two natural products, nootkatone and carvacrol, to suppress Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Lyme disease endemic area of New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Marc C; Jordan, Robert A; Schulze, Terry L; Schulze, Christopher J; Manning, Mark Cornell; Ruffolo, Daniel; Schmidt, Jason P; Piesman, Joseph; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2009-12-01

    We evaluated the ability of the natural, plant-derived acaricides nootkatone and carvacrol to suppress Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae). Aqueous formulations of 1 and 5% nootkatone applied by backpack sprayer to the forest litter layer completely suppressed I. scapularis nymphs through 2 d. Thereafter, the level of reduction gradually declined to nootkatone was less effective, but at a 5% concentration, the level of control was similar or greater to that observed with I. scapularis through 21 d postapplication. Initial applications of 0.05% carvacrol were ineffective, but a 5% carvacrol formulation completely suppressed nymphs of both species through 2 d and resulted in significant reduction in I. scapularis and A. americanum nymphs through 28 and 14 d postapplication, respectively. Backpack sprayer applications of 5% nootkatone to the shrub and litter layers resulted in 100% control of I. scapularis adults through 6 d, but the level of reduction declined to 71.5% at 28 d postapplication. By contrast, high-pressure applications of 2% nootkatone to the litter layer resulted in 96.2-100% suppression of both I. scapularis and A. americanum nymphs through 42 d, whereas much lower control was obtained from the same formulation applied by backpack sprayer. Backpack sprayer application of a 3.1% nootkatone nanoemulsion resulted in 97.5-98.9 and 99.3-100% reduction in I. scapularis and A. americanum nymphs, respectively, at 1 d postapplication. Between 7 d and 35 d postapplication, the level of control varied between 57.1% and 92.5% for I. scapularis and between 78.5 and 97.1% for A. americanum nymphs. The ability of natural products to quickly suppress and maintain significant control of populations of these medically important ticks at relatively low concentrations may represent a future alternative to the use of conventional synthetic acaricides.

  5. Production of vaccines for treatment of infectious diseases by transgenic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina LEDL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the first pathogen antigen was expressed in transgenic plants with the aim of producing edible vaccine in early 1990s, transgenic plants have become a well-established expression system for production of alternative vaccines against various human and animal infectious diseases. The main focus of plant expression systems in the last five years has been on improving expression of well-studied antigens such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRSV, bovine viral diarrhea disease virus (BVDV, footh and mouth disease virus (FMDV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, rabies G protein, rotavirus, Newcastle disease virus (NDV, Norwalk virus capsid protein (NVCP, avian influenza virus H5N1, Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin subunit B (LT-B, cholera toxin B (CT-B, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, artherosclerosis, ebola and anthrax. Significant increases in expression have been obtained using improved expression vectors, different plant species and transformation methods.

  6. Assessing the status of biological control as a management tool for suppression of invasive alien plants in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Zachariades, Costas; Paterson, Iain D.; Strathie, Lorraine W.; Hill, Martin P.; van Wilgen, Brian W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Biological control of invasive alien plants (IAPs) using introduced natural enemies contributes significantly to sustained, cost-effective management of natural resources in South Africa. The status of, and prospects for, biological control is therefore integral to National Status Reports (NSRs) on Biological Invasions, the first of which is due in 2017. Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate the status of, and prospects for, biological control of IAPs in South Africa. We discuss...

  7. Accuracy of plant specimen disease severity estimates: concepts, history, methods, ramifications and challenges for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of the extent of the symptoms of a plant disease, generally referred to as severity, is key to both fundamental and applied aspects of plant pathology. Most commonly, severity is obtained visually and the accuracy of each estimate (closeness to the actual value) by individual raters is par...

  8. Restructuring of endophytic bacterial communities in grapevine yellows-diseased and recovered Vitis vinifera L. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgari, Daniela; Casati, Paola; Crepaldi, Paola; Daffonchio, Daniele; Quaglino, Fabio; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Bianco, Piero Attilio

    2011-07-01

    Length heterogeneity-PCR assays, combined with statistical analyses, highlighted that the endophytic bacterial community associated with healthy grapevines was characterized by a greater diversity than that present in diseased and recovered plants. The findings suggest that phytoplasmas can restructure the bacterial community by selecting endophytic strains that could elicit a plant defense response.

  9. New ways in enhancing the vital activity of plants in order to increase crop yields and to suppress radionuclide accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.; Kislushko, P.; Znebrakova, I.; Matsko, V.

    1994-01-01

    Soil contamination with long-lived isotopes as a result of Chernobyl nuclear accident necessitates substantially of crop raising procedures. It is found that by optimizing the vital activity processes in plants, is possible to reduce radionuclide uptake. In particular application of Fisher's mineral mix in concentration of 100, 200, 300, g/m 2 to soil decreased the 137 Cs accumulation in green material of lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) 1.1:1.3 and 2.2 times respectively and 1.2:1.1 and 1.1 times, respectively in green material of barley (Hordeum Vulgaris L.). The decrease of 90 Sr accumulation in green material of barley and lupine was similar. On the other hand chloroplasts isolated from showed higher activities of photochemical reactions and the light-dependent ATP enzyme. During the whole growing period of such plants the chlorophyll and protein concentration per wet unit mass were higher than those in control, therefore the high vital activity period in the former case was substantially extended. It has been also found that application of biologically active compounds and trace elements enhances photosynthetic and production activities of plants, reducing level radionuclide accumulation in the harvest. It is found that application of protectants and growth regulators to rye crops also reduces 137 Cs accumulation in green material in booting and earing phases. This finding suggests that this compounds activate the photosynthetic apparatus, reducing level radionuclide accumulation. (author)

  10. Deep 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing Reveals a Bacterial Community Associated with Banana Fusarium Wilt Disease Suppression Induced by Bio-Organic Fertilizer Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yunze; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2014-01-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that application of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) to a banana mono-culture orchard with serious Fusarium wilt disease effectively decreased the number of soil Fusarium sp. and controlled the soil-borne disease. Because bacteria are an abundant and diverse group of soil organisms that responds to soil health, deep 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing was employed to characterize the composition of the bacterial community to investigate how it responded to BIO or the application of other common composts and to explore the potential correlation between bacterial community, BIO application and Fusarium wilt disease suppression. After basal quality control, 137,646 sequences and 9,388 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the 15 soil samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria were the most frequent phyla and comprised up to 75.3% of the total sequences. Compared to the other soil samples, BIO-treated soil revealed higher abundances of Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria, while Bacteroidetes were found in lower abundance. Meanwhile, on genus level, higher abundances compared to other treatments were observed for Gemmatimonas and Gp4. Correlation and redundancy analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas and the soil total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content were higher after BIO application, and they were all positively correlated with disease suppression. Cumulatively, the reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence that was seen after BIO was applied for 1-year might be attributed to the general suppression based on a shift within the bacteria soil community, including specific enrichment of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas. PMID:24871319

  11. IgA against gut-derived endotoxins: does it contribute to suppression of hepatic inflammation in alcohol-induced liver disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Schäfer, C.; Bode, C.

    2002-01-01

    Endotoxins of intestinal origin are supposed to play an important role in the development of alcoholic hepatitis in man. To estimate the role of immunoglobulin response to gut-derived endotoxin in the development of alcohol-induced liver disease, serum levels of IgA and IgG against fecal endotoxin......, endotoxin, and acute-phase proteins were measured in patients with different stages of alcoholic liver disease and in healthy controls. Antibodies of type IgA, but not IgG, against fecal endotoxins were significantly increased in patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. IgA antibodies against fecal...... endotoxin were found to be closely correlated with the plasma concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and C-reactive protein in patients with alcoholic liver disease. In conclusion, as IgA located in body tissue was shown to suppress the inflammatory process, enhanced...

  12. Suppression of Plant Immune Responses by the Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 Type III Effector Tyrosine Phosphatases HopAO1 and HopAO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pilar Castañeda-Ojeda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effector repertoire of the olive pathogen P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 includes two members of the HopAO effector family, one of the most diverse T3E families of the P. syringae complex. The study described here explores the phylogeny of these dissimilar members, HopAO1 and HopAO2, among the complex and reveals their activities as immune defense suppressors. Although HopAO1 is predominantly encoded by phylogroup 3 strains isolated from woody organs of woody hosts, both HopAO1 and HopAO2 are phylogenetically clustered according to the woody/herbaceous nature of their host of isolation, suggesting host specialization of the HopAO family across the P. syringae complex. HopAO1 and HopAO2 translocate into plant cells and show hrpL-dependent expression, which allows their classification as actively deployed type III effectors. Our data also show that HopAO1 and HopAO2 possess phosphatase activity, a hallmark of the members of this family. Both of them exert an inhibitory effect on early plant defense responses, such as ROS production and callose deposition, and are able to suppress ETI responses induced by the effectorless polymutant of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000D28E in Nicotiana. Moreover, we demonstrate that a ΔhopAO1 mutant of P. savastanoi NCPBB 3335 exhibits a reduced fitness and virulence in olive plants, which supports the relevance of this effector during the interaction of this strain with its host plants. This work contributes to the field with the first report regarding functional analysis of HopAO homologs encoded by P. syringae or P. savastanoi strains isolated from woody hosts.

  13. Suppression of Plant Immune Responses by the Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 Type III Effector Tyrosine Phosphatases HopAO1 and HopAO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Ojeda, María Pilar; Moreno-Pérez, Alba; Ramos, Cayo; López-Solanilla, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    The effector repertoire of the olive pathogen P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 includes two members of the HopAO effector family, one of the most diverse T3E families of the P. syringae complex. The study described here explores the phylogeny of these dissimilar members, HopAO1 and HopAO2, among the complex and reveals their activities as immune defense suppressors. Although HopAO1 is predominantly encoded by phylogroup 3 strains isolated from woody organs of woody hosts, both HopAO1 and HopAO2 are phylogenetically clustered according to the woody/herbaceous nature of their host of isolation, suggesting host specialization of the HopAO family across the P. syringae complex. HopAO1 and HopAO2 translocate into plant cells and show hrpL-dependent expression, which allows their classification as actively deployed type III effectors. Our data also show that HopAO1 and HopAO2 possess phosphatase activity, a hallmark of the members of this family. Both of them exert an inhibitory effect on early plant defense responses, such as ROS production and callose deposition, and are able to suppress ETI responses induced by the effectorless polymutant of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000D28E) in Nicotiana. Moreover, we demonstrate that a ΔhopAO1 mutant of P. savastanoi NCPBB 3335 exhibits a reduced fitness and virulence in olive plants, which supports the relevance of this effector during the interaction of this strain with its host plants. This work contributes to the field with the first report regarding functional analysis of HopAO homologs encoded by P. syringae or P. savastanoi strains isolated from woody hosts. PMID:28529516

  14. Receptor-like proteins involved in plant disease resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijt, M.; Kock, de M.J.D.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Race-specific resistance in plants against microbial pathogens is governed by several distinct classes of resistance (R) genes. This review focuses on the class that consists of the plasma membrane-bound leucine-rich repeat proteins known as receptor-like proteins (RLPs). The first isolated

  15. Indigenous African foods plants: vehicles of disease or sources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determines the mycological quality of traditional leafy vegetables, commonly referred to as morogo, and investigates the folate content of such crops, as well as the antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potential of indigenous rooibos tea and other traditional food and medicinal plants. Results showed that a ...

  16. RNAi: A Novel Approach for Plant Disease Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shahnawaz

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... purple colour by introducing a chalcone synthase gene in. Petunia under a strong promoter. Contrary to their expectations, the pigmentation in the flowers of transformed plants was not enhanced. Instead, the flowers were de-pigmented and endogenous gene mRNA transcript levels were greatly reduced ...

  17. Phytochemical-rich medicinal plant extracts suppress bacterial antigens-induced inflammation in human tonsil epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niluni M. Wijesundara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Pharyngitis is an inflammatory condition of the pharynx and associated structures commonly caused by the Group A streptococci (GAS. There is a growing interest in discovering plant-based anti-inflammatory compounds as potential alternatives to conventional drugs. This study evaluated anti-inflammatory activity of phytochemical-rich extracts prepared from 12 herbal plants using human tonsil epithelial cells (HTonEpiC in vitro. Methods The HTonEpiC were induced by a mixture of lipoteichoic acid (LTA and peptidoglycan (PGN (10 µg/mL; bacterial antigens for 4 h and then exposed to ethanol extracts (EE or aqueous extracts (AE for 20 h. The secretion of four pro-inflammatory cytokines was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Results The herbal plant extracts (≤5 µg/mL were not cytotoxic to HTonEpiC. The extracts exhibited a broad range of reduction (1.2%–92.6% of secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8, human beta defensin-2 (hBD-2, epithelial-derived neutrophil activating protein-78 (ENA-78, and granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2. Both EE and AE of clove, ginger, and echinacea flower and EE from danshen root significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokine production as induced by LTA and PGN in HTonEpiCs at the concentrations of 1 and 5 µg/mL. Discussion Our observations indicate that danshen root, clove, ginger, and echinacea flower extracts exhibit an anti-inflammatory effect in HTonEpiCs. The most efficacious extracts from danshen root, clove, ginger and echinacea flowers have potential to be used as natural sources for developing phytotherapeutic products in the management of painful inflammation due to streptococcal pharyngitis.

  18. Potential Applications and Limitations of Electronic Nose Devices for Plant Disease Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cellini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic nose technology has recently been applied to the detection of several plant diseases and pests, with promising results. However, in spite of its numerous advantages, including operational simplicity, non-destructivity, and bulk sampling, drawbacks include a low sensitivity and specificity in comparison with microbiological and molecular methods. A critical review of the use of an electronic nose for plant disease diagnosis and pest detection is presented, describing the instrumental and procedural advances of sensorial analysis, for the improvement of discrimination between healthy and infected or infested plants. In conclusion, the use of electronic nose technology is suggested to assist, direct, and optimise traditionally adopted diagnostic techniques.

  19. Screening and Characterization of Potentially Suppressive Soils against Gaeumannomyces graminis under Extensive Wheat Cropping by Chilean Indigenous Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Durán

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production around the world is severely compromised by the occurrence of “take-all” disease, which is caused by the soil-borne pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt. In this context, suppressive soils are those environments in which plants comparatively suffer less soil-borne pathogen diseases than expected, owing to native soil microorganism activities. In southern Chile, where 85% of the national cereal production takes place, several studies have suggested the existence of suppressive soils under extensive wheat cropping. Thus, this study aimed to screen Ggt-suppressive soil occurrence in 16 locations managed by indigenous “Mapuche” communities, using extensive wheat cropping for more than 10 years. Ggt growth inhibition in vitro screenings allowed the identification of nine putative suppressive soils. Six of these soils, including Andisols and Ultisols, were confirmed to be suppressive, since they reduced take-all disease in wheat plants growing under greenhouse conditions. Suppressiveness was lost upon soil sterilization, and recovered by adding 1% of the natural soil, hence confirming that suppressiveness was closely associated to the soil microbiome community composition. Our results demonstrate that long-term extensive wheat cropping, established by small Mapuche communities, can generate suppressive soils that can be used as effective microorganism sources for take-all disease biocontrol. Accordingly, suppressive soil identification and characterization are key steps for the development of environmentally-friendly and efficient biotechnological applications for soil-borne disease control.

  20. Screening and Characterization of Potentially Suppressive Soils against Gaeumannomyces graminis under Extensive Wheat Cropping by Chilean Indigenous Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Paola; Jorquera, Milko; Viscardi, Sharon; Carrion, Victor J; Mora, María de la Luz; Pozo, María J

    2017-01-01

    Wheat production around the world is severely compromised by the occurrence of "take-all" disease, which is caused by the soil-borne pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt). In this context, suppressive soils are those environments in which plants comparatively suffer less soil-borne pathogen diseases than expected, owing to native soil microorganism activities. In southern Chile, where 85% of the national cereal production takes place, several studies have suggested the existence of suppressive soils under extensive wheat cropping. Thus, this study aimed to screen Ggt-suppressive soil occurrence in 16 locations managed by indigenous "Mapuche" communities, using extensive wheat cropping for more than 10 years. Ggt growth inhibition in vitro screenings allowed the identification of nine putative suppressive soils. Six of these soils, including Andisols and Ultisols, were confirmed to be suppressive, since they reduced take-all disease in wheat plants growing under greenhouse conditions. Suppressiveness was lost upon soil sterilization, and recovered by adding 1% of the natural soil, hence confirming that suppressiveness was closely associated to the soil microbiome community composition. Our results demonstrate that long-term extensive wheat cropping, established by small Mapuche communities, can generate suppressive soils that can be used as effective microorganism sources for take-all disease biocontrol. Accordingly, suppressive soil identification and characterization are key steps for the development of environmentally-friendly and efficient biotechnological applications for soil-borne disease control.

  1. Cancer-suppressive potential of extracts of endemic plant Helichrysum zivojinii: effects on cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matić, Ivana Z; Aljancić, Ivana; Vajs, Vlatka; Jadranin, Milka; Gligorijević, Nevenka; Milosavljević, Slobodan; Juranić, Zorica D

    2013-09-01

    Helichrysum zivojinii Cernjavski & Soska is an endemic plant species that grows in the National Park Galicica in Macedonia. Five extracts were isolated as fractions from the aerial parts of the plant: a n-hexane extract (1), a dichloromethane extract (2), an ethyl-acetate extract (3), a n-butanol extract (4) and a methanol extract (5). A dose-dependent cytotoxic activity of the extracts on MDA-MB-231 and EA.hy926 cells was observed. Extracts exhibited more pronounced cytotoxic actions on MDA-MB-231 cells than on EA.hy926 cells. The n-hexane extract (1), at a non-toxic concentration, exhibited an inhibitory effect on the migration as well the invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 cells. The dichloromethane extract (2), at a non-toxic concentration, demonstrated inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cells invasion. Each of the five extracts applied at non-toxic concentrations inhibited migration of EA.hy926 cells. The prominent inhibitory effect of the n-hexane extract on EA.hy926 cells migration was associated with a notable anti-angiogenic action of this extract. The other four tested extracts demonstrated mild anti-angiogenic activity. Our data highlight the prominent anticancer potential of n-hexane (1) and dichloromethane (2) extracts, which could be attributed to their very pronounced and selective cytotoxic activities as well as their anti-invasive and anti-angiogenic properties.

  2. Medicinal Plants Used for Treatment of Diarrhoeal Related Diseases in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizuneh Woldeab

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of relevant antidiarrhoeal medicinal plants based on the fundamental knowledge accumulated by indigenous people of Ethiopia. The review includes an inventory carried out on the phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of plant species used in the treatments of diarrhoeal diseases. This study is based on a review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses, proceedings, and reports. A total of 132 medicinal plants used by local people of Ethiopia are reported in the reviewed literature. Herbs (43.6% were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by trees (27%. Some findings include the predominance of leaf material used (78%, as well as the frequent use of crushing of the plant parts (38% as a mode of preparation. This study demonstrates the importance of traditional medicines in the treatment of basic human ailments such as diarrhoeal diseases in Ethiopia. Baseline information gaps were observed in different regions of Ethiopia. Thus, documentation of the knowledge held by other regions of Ethiopia that have so far received less attention and urban ethnobotany is recommended for future ethnobotanical studies. In addition, phytochemical studies are recommended mainly on frequently utilized medicinal plants for treatment of diarrhoeal diseases which can serve as a basis for future investigation of modern drug development. Although societies in Ethiopia have long used medicinal plants for diarrhoeal diseases treatment, it is also a good practice to perform toxicological tests.

  3. Medicinal Plants Used for Treatment of Diarrhoeal Related Diseases in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldeab, Bizuneh; Regassa, Reta

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a review of relevant antidiarrhoeal medicinal plants based on the fundamental knowledge accumulated by indigenous people of Ethiopia. The review includes an inventory carried out on the phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of plant species used in the treatments of diarrhoeal diseases. This study is based on a review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses, proceedings, and reports. A total of 132 medicinal plants used by local people of Ethiopia are reported in the reviewed literature. Herbs (43.6%) were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by trees (27%). Some findings include the predominance of leaf material used (78%), as well as the frequent use of crushing of the plant parts (38%) as a mode of preparation. This study demonstrates the importance of traditional medicines in the treatment of basic human ailments such as diarrhoeal diseases in Ethiopia. Baseline information gaps were observed in different regions of Ethiopia. Thus, documentation of the knowledge held by other regions of Ethiopia that have so far received less attention and urban ethnobotany is recommended for future ethnobotanical studies. In addition, phytochemical studies are recommended mainly on frequently utilized medicinal plants for treatment of diarrhoeal diseases which can serve as a basis for future investigation of modern drug development. Although societies in Ethiopia have long used medicinal plants for diarrhoeal diseases treatment, it is also a good practice to perform toxicological tests. PMID:29743923

  4. Effects of tillage operations and plant density on leaf spot disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two seasons experiments conducted in 2002 and 2003 revealed that Tillage operations significantly influenced leafspot disease severity; Percentage lodging 3.14; 2.08 and Grain yield 3.02; 3.84 in 2002 and 2003 respectively. Plant density also had significant difference on leafspot disease severity; Percentage lodging ...

  5. Application of hordothionins and cecropin B for engineering bacterial disease resistance into plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florack, D.

    1994-01-01

    Bacterial diseases can cause a drastic decrease of yield in certain crops. Breeding for bacterial disease resistance therefore is of utmost necessity. Up to now, traditional plant breeding was the only method to reach this goal. Recent developments in genetic engineering technology however

  6. Trichoderma spp.: a biocontrol agent for sustainable management of plant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naher, L.; Ismail, A.

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. are mainly asexual fungi that are present in all types of agricultural soils and also in decaying wood. The antagonistic activity of Trichoderma species showed that it is parasitic on many soil-borne and foliage pathogens. The fungus is also a decomposer of cellulosic waste materials. Recent discoveries show that the fungi not only act as biocontrol agents, but also stimulate plant resistance, and plant growth and development resulting in an increase in crop production. The biocontrol activity involving mycoparasitism, antibiotics and competition for nutrients, also induces defence responses or systemic resistance responses in plants. These responses are an important part of Trichoderma in biocontrol program. Currently, Trichoderma spp., is being used to control plant diseases in sustainable diseases management systems. This paper reviews the published information on Trichoderma spp., and its biocontrol activity in sustainable disease management programs. (author)

  7. Potential Use of Turkish Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Various Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Ozkan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are sources of health-promoting substances, including phytochemicals and phytoalexins that comprise polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamins A, C, E and several other constituents. Many studies have indicated that medicinal plants have been used to treat human diseases for thousands of years owing to their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Medicinal plants reduce the oxidative stress in cells and prevent cancer, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative and digestive system disorders. These potential beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds that show antioxidant properties by acting as free radical scavengers or metal chelators, reducing the reactions that produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS. Considering the importance of medicinal plants in terms of their beneficial health effects, some of the medicinally important plants grown in Turkey are covered in this review with respect to their antioxidant potential and phytochemical profile.

  8. Potential Use of Turkish Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Various Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Gulay; Kamiloglu, Senem; Ozdal, Tugba; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-02-25

    Medicinal plants are sources of health-promoting substances, including phytochemicals and phytoalexins that comprise polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamins A, C, E and several other constituents. Many studies have indicated that medicinal plants have been used to treat human diseases for thousands of years owing to their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Medicinal plants reduce the oxidative stress in cells and prevent cancer, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative and digestive system disorders. These potential beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds that show antioxidant properties by acting as free radical scavengers or metal chelators, reducing the reactions that produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Considering the importance of medicinal plants in terms of their beneficial health effects, some of the medicinally important plants grown in Turkey are covered in this review with respect to their antioxidant potential and phytochemical profile.

  9. In vitro screening methods for assessing plant disease resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebeda, A.; Svabova, L.

    2010-01-01

    A combination of biotechnological and phytopathological techniques provides an alternative approach to classical resistance breeding methods. Such techniques have been increasingly used since the 1980s, in parallel with the progress in plant biotechnology. In the approach of resistance screening and selection in vitro, both experimental objects, i.e., the plant and the pathogen, must first be transferred to in vitro conditions, and finally, the plant material must be transferred back to in vivo conditions and adapted to the outside settings. Specific attention must be paid to the methods of pathogen preparation for use in screening and selection in vitro. The selection agents are classified according to their origin, the methods of preparation, nature and content of active substances, and effective utilisation for screening or selection in vitro. Basic principles and methodological aspects of the in vitro work (explant cultures, sources of in vitro variability, screening and selection methods, types of selection agents) as well as examples of practical applications in the breeding of different crops are critically reviewed in this chapter. (author)

  10. Plant biotechnology and implications for rapeseed agronomy: development of new methods of pest and disease control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, C. [Hoechst Schering AgrEvo GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The last years several strategies are becoming available for molecular breeding to improve resistance of transgenic plants against pests. Generally, transgenic plants expressing antifungal proteins (chitinase, glucanase and RIP) have been effectively protected against a variety of fungal diseases, whereas symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi remain unaffected. Other antifungal strategies, such as artificial localized cell death, do exist for pyramiding strategies against fungal diseases. Insect predation has been controlled by expression of insect specific proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringensis (B.t.-toxin). A combination with other genes coding for insecticidal proteins in a transgenic plant could further enhance protection of plants against insect pests. Control of viral diseases in transgenic plants was achieved by overexpression of coat- or movement protein from the virus itself, which limits replication and spread in the plants. Other viral genes, or subgenomic fragments, either in sense or antisense orientation effectively conferred resistance to viral diseases. Several strategies also become available to engineer resistance against bacterial diseases and nemathode attack. Expression of proteinase inhibitors, active against nematodes, or specific physiological manipulation which leads to the collapse of feeding cells of sedentary nematodes has been shown to control nematode pests. This demonstrates that a fair number of strategies already exists to control plant pests by molecular breeding. In several cases a combination of different resistance strategies in one and the same plant has been shown to exert synergistic protective effects. In future, this probably will reduce the emergence of resistance breaking strains leading to genetically engineered plants with improved and stable resistance characteristics. The use of genetic engineering in resistance breeding as part of integrated pest management clearly could lead to a more ecologically sustainable

  11. Rice Gene Network Inferred from Expression Profiling of Plants Overexpressing OsWRKY13,a Positive Regulator of Disease Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deyun Qiu; Jun Xiao; Weibo Xie; Hongbo Liu; Xianghua Li; Lizhong Xiong; Shiping Wang

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating information indicates that plant disease resistance signaling pathways frequently interact with other pathways regulating developmental processes or abiotic stress responses. However, the molecular mechanisms of these types of crosstalk remain poorly understood in most cases. Here we report that OsWRKY13, an activator of rice resistance to both bacterial and fungal pathogens, appears to function as a convergent point for crosstalk among the pathogen-induced salicylate-dependent defense pathway and five other physiologic pathways. Genome-wide analysis of the expression profiles of OsWRKY13-overexpressing lines suggests that OsWRKY13 directly or indirectly regulates the expression of more than 500 genes that are potentially involved in different physiologic processes according to the classification of the Gene Ontology database. By comparing the expression patterns of genes functioning in known pathways or cellular processes of pathogen infection and the phenotypes between OsWRKY13-overexpressing and wildtype plants, our data suggest that OsWRKY13 is also a regulator of other physiologic processes during pathogen infection. The OsWRKY13-associated disease resistance pathway synergistically interacts via OsWRKY13 with the glutathione/glutaredoxin system and flavonoid biosynthesis pathway to monitor redox homeostasis and to putatively enhance the biosynthesis of antimicrobial flavonoid phytoalexins, respectively, in OsWRKY13-overexpressing lines. Meanwhile, the OsWRKY13-associated disease resistance pathway appears to interact antagonistically with the SNAC1-mediated abiotic stress defense pathway, jasmonic acid signaling pathway, and terpenoid metabolism pathway via OsWRKY13 to suppress salt and cold defense responses as well as to putatively retard rice growth and development.

  12. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  13. Suppression of Poxvirus Replication by Resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuai; Realegeno, Susan; Pant, Anil; Satheshkumar, Panayampalli S; Yang, Zhilong

    2017-01-01

    Poxviruses continue to cause serious diseases even after eradication of the historically deadly infectious human disease, smallpox. Poxviruses are currently being developed as vaccine vectors and cancer therapeutic agents. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol stilbenoid found in plants that has been shown to inhibit or enhance replication of a number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. In the present study, we found that resveratrol dramatically suppressed the replication of vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototypic member of poxviruses, in various cell types. Resveratrol also significantly reduced the replication of monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus that is endemic in Western and Central Africa and causes human mortality. The inhibitory effect of resveratrol on poxviruses is independent of VACV N1 protein, a potential resveratrol binding target. Further experiments demonstrated that resveratrol had little effect on VACV early gene expression, while it suppressed VACV DNA synthesis, and subsequently post-replicative gene expression.

  14. Suppression of Poxvirus Replication by Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Poxviruses continue to cause serious diseases even after eradication of the historically deadly infectious human disease, smallpox. Poxviruses are currently being developed as vaccine vectors and cancer therapeutic agents. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol stilbenoid found in plants that has been shown to inhibit or enhance replication of a number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. In the present study, we found that resveratrol dramatically suppressed the replication of vaccinia virus (VACV, the prototypic member of poxviruses, in various cell types. Resveratrol also significantly reduced the replication of monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus that is endemic in Western and Central Africa and causes human mortality. The inhibitory effect of resveratrol on poxviruses is independent of VACV N1 protein, a potential resveratrol binding target. Further experiments demonstrated that resveratrol had little effect on VACV early gene expression, while it suppressed VACV DNA synthesis, and subsequently post-replicative gene expression.

  15. Managing for soil health can suppress pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hodson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A “healthy” soil can be thought of as one that functions well, both agronomically and ecologically, and one in which soil biodiversity and crop management work in synergy to suppress pests and diseases. UC researchers have pioneered many ways of managing soil biology for pest management, including strategies such as soil solarization, steam treatment and anaerobic soil disinfestation, as well as improvements on traditional methods, such as reducing tillage, amending soil with organic materials, and cover cropping. As managing for soil health becomes more of an explicit focus due to restrictions on the use of soil fumigants, integrated soil health tests will be needed that are validated for use in California. Other research needs include breeding crops for disease resistance and pest suppressive microbial communities as well as knowledge of how beneficial organisms influence plant health.

  16. The Xanthomonas campestris type III effector XopJ targets the host cell proteasome to suppress salicylic-acid mediated plant defence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suayib Üstün

    Full Text Available The phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv requires type III effector proteins (T3Es for virulence. After translocation into the host cell, T3Es are thought to interact with components of host immunity to suppress defence responses. XopJ is a T3E protein from Xcv that interferes with plant immune responses; however, its host cellular target is unknown. Here we show that XopJ interacts with the proteasomal subunit RPT6 in yeast and in planta to inhibit proteasome activity. A C235A mutation within the catalytic triad of XopJ as well as a G2A exchange within the N-terminal myristoylation motif abolishes the ability of XopJ to inhibit the proteasome. Xcv ΔxopJ mutants are impaired in growth and display accelerated symptom development including tissue necrosis on susceptible pepper leaves. Application of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 restored the ability of the Xcv ΔxopJ to attenuate the development of leaf necrosis. The XopJ dependent delay of tissue degeneration correlates with reduced levels of salicylic acid (SA and changes in defence- and senescence-associated gene expression. Necrosis upon infection with Xcv ΔxopJ was greatly reduced in pepper plants with reduced expression of NPR1, a central regulator of SA responses, demonstrating the involvement of SA-signalling in the development of XopJ dependent phenotypes. Our results suggest that XopJ-mediated inhibition of the proteasome interferes with SA-dependent defence response to attenuate onset of necrosis and to alter host transcription. A central role of the proteasome in plant defence is discussed.

  17. Plant sterols and plant stanols in the management of dyslipidaemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gylling, Helena; Plat, Jogchum; Turley, Stephen; Ginsberg, Henry N; Ellegård, Lars; Jessup, Wendy; Jones, Peter J; Lütjohann, Dieter; Maerz, Winfried; Masana, Luis; Silbernagel, Günther; Staels, Bart; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L; De Backer, Guy; Deanfield, John; Descamps, Olivier S; Kovanen, Petri T; Riccardi, Gabriele; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Chapman, M John

    2014-02-01

    This EAS Consensus Panel critically appraised evidence relevant to the benefit to risk relationship of functional foods with added plant sterols and/or plant stanols, as components of a healthy lifestyle, to reduce plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, and thereby lower cardiovascular risk. Plant sterols/stanols (when taken at 2 g/day) cause significant inhibition of cholesterol absorption and lower LDL-C levels by between 8 and 10%. The relative proportions of cholesterol versus sterol/stanol levels are similar in both plasma and tissue, with levels of sterols/stanols being 500-/10,000-fold lower than those of cholesterol, suggesting they are handled similarly to cholesterol in most cells. Despite possible atherogenicity of marked elevations in circulating levels of plant sterols/stanols, protective effects have been observed in some animal models of atherosclerosis. Higher plasma levels of plant sterols/stanols associated with intakes of 2 g/day in man have not been linked to adverse effects on health in long-term human studies. Importantly, at this dose, plant sterol/stanol-mediated LDL-C lowering is additive to that of statins in dyslipidaemic subjects, equivalent to doubling the dose of statin. The reported 6-9% lowering of plasma triglyceride by 2 g/day in hypertriglyceridaemic patients warrants further evaluation. Based on LDL-C lowering and the absence of adverse signals, this EAS Consensus Panel concludes that functional foods with plant sterols/stanols may be considered 1) in individuals with high cholesterol levels at intermediate or low global cardiovascular risk who do not qualify for pharmacotherapy, 2) as an adjunct to pharmacologic therapy in high and very high risk patients who fail to achieve LDL-C targets on statins or are statin- intolerant, 3) and in adults and children (>6 years) with familial hypercholesterolaemia, in line with current guidance. However, it must be acknowledged that there are no randomised, controlled

  18. Pokeweed Antiviral Protein: Its Cytotoxicity Mechanism and Applications in Plant Disease Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Di

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP is a 29 kDa type I ribosome inactivating protein (RIP found in pokeweed plants. Pokeweed produces different forms of PAP. This review focuses on the spring form of PAP isolated from Phytolacca americana leaves. PAP exerts its cytotoxicity by removing a specific adenine from the α-sarcin/ricin loop of the large ribosomal RNA. Besides depurination of the rRNA, PAP has additional activities that contribute to its cytotoxicity. The mechanism of PAP cytotoxicity is summarized based on evidence from the analysis of transgenic plants and the yeast model system. PAP was initially found to be anti-viral when it was co-inoculated with plant viruses onto plants. Transgenic plants expressing PAP and non-toxic PAP mutants have displayed broad-spectrum resistance to both viral and fungal infection. The mechanism of PAP-induced disease resistance in transgenic plants is summarized.

  19. Integrating natural and social science perspectives on plant disease risk, management and policy formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Peter; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina; Ilbery, Brian; Jeger, Mike; Jones, Glyn; Little, Ruth; MacLeod, Alan; Parker, Steve; Pautasso, Marco; Pietravalle, Stephane; Maye, Damian

    2011-01-01

    Plant diseases threaten both food security and the botanical diversity of natural ecosystems. Substantial research effort is focused on pathogen detection and control, with detailed risk management available for many plant diseases. Risk can be assessed using analytical techniques that account for disease pressure both spatially and temporally. We suggest that such technical assessments of disease risk may not provide an adequate guide to the strategies undertaken by growers and government to manage plant disease. Instead, risk-management strategies need to account more fully for intuitive and normative responses that act to balance conflicting interests between stakeholder organizations concerned with plant diseases within the managed and natural environments. Modes of effective engagement between policy makers and stakeholders are explored in the paper, together with an assessment of such engagement in two case studies of contemporary non-indigenous diseases in one food and in one non-food sector. Finally, a model is proposed for greater integration of stakeholders in policy decisions. PMID:21624923

  20. Metabolic Engineering of Chemical Defence Pathways in Plant Disease Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rook, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    on each topic. The chapter reviews the some of the scientific and technical challenges in metabolic engineering and the new possibilities emerging from recent technological developments. It concludes by discussing the outlook for bioengineered chemical defences as part of crop protection strategies, also...... with antimicrobial properties for use in crop protection. It presents an overview of the metabolic engineering efforts made in the area of plant chemical defence. For in-depth information on the characteristics of a specific class of chemical defence compounds, the reader is referred to the specialized reviews...

  1. Collective biology of neoplastic disease in dicotyledonous plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.

    1987-07-01

    We discuss the two different responses from the angiosperms to the specific molecular mechanisms of the tumor-inducing agent contained in the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This is done in terms of the collective variables for expressing genetic response to a continuously varying supply of energy from metabolic pathways. We are led to the conjecture that the expression of the recessive oncogenes may not be restricted to humans (retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma), but may also occur in plants (crown gall), and be expressed through a heat-shock. (author). 11 refs

  2. Plant Polyphenols and Oxidative Metabolites of the Herbal Alkenylbenzene Methyleugenol Suppress Histone Deacetylase Activity in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Anna Maria Groh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has been provided that diet and environmental factors directly influence epigenetic mechanisms associated with cancer development in humans. The inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC activity and the disruption of the HDAC complex have been recognized as a potent strategy for cancer therapy and chemoprevention. In the present study, we investigated whether selected plant constituents affect HDAC activity or HDAC1 protein status in the human colon carcinoma cell line HT29. The polyphenols (−-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG and genistein (GEN as well as two oxidative methyleugenol (ME metabolites were shown to inhibit HDAC activity in intact HT29 cells. Concomitantly, a significant decrease of the HDAC1 protein level was observed after incubation with EGCG and GEN, whereas the investigated ME metabolites did not affect HDAC1 protein status. In conclusion, dietary compounds were found to possess promising HDAC-inhibitory properties, contributing to epigenetic alterations in colon tumor cells, which should be taken into account in further risk/benefit assessments of polyphenols and alkenylbenzenes.

  3. Rapid immunohistochemical diagnosis of tobacco mosaic virus disease by microwave-assisted plant sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellnig, Günther; Möstl, Stefan; Zechmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Immunoelectron microscopy is a powerful method to diagnose viral diseases and to study the distribution of the viral agent within plant cells and tissues. Nevertheless, current protocols for the immunological detection of viral diseases with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in plants take between 3 and 6 days and are therefore not suited for rapid diagnosis of virus diseases in plants. In this study, we describe a method that allows rapid cytohistochemical detection of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in leaves of tobacco plants. With the help of microwave irradiation, sample preparation of the leaves was reduced to 90 min. After sample sectioning, virus particles were stained on the sections by immunogold labelling of the viral coat protein, which took 100 min. After investigation with the TEM, a clear visualization of TMV in tobacco cells was achieved altogether in about half a day. Comparison of gold particle density by image analysis revealed that samples prepared with the help of microwave irradiation yielded significantly higher gold particle density as samples prepared conventionally at room temperature. This study clearly demonstrates that microwave-assisted plant sample preparation in combination with cytohistochemical localization of viral coat protein is well suited for rapid diagnosis of plant virus diseases in altogether about half a day by TEM. PMID:23580761

  4. Revisiting Amazonian Plants for Skin Care and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Burlando

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This review concerns five species of trees and palm trees that occur as dominant plants in different rainforest areas of the Amazon region. Due to their abundance, these species can be exploited as sustainable sources of botanical materials and include Carapa guianensis Aubl., family Meliaceae; Eperua falcata Aubl., family Fabaceae; Quassia amara L., family Simaroubaceae; and Attalea speciosa Mart. and Oenocarpus bataua Mart., family Arecaceae. For each species, the general features, major constituents, overall medicinal properties, detailed dermatological and skin care applications, and possible harmful effects have been considered. The major products include seed oils from A. speciosa and C. guianensis, fruit oil from O. bataua, and active compounds such as limonoids from C. guianensis, flavonoids from E. falcata, and quassinoids from Q. amara. The dermatologic and cosmetic applications of these plants are growing rapidly but are still widely based on empiric knowledge. Applications include skin rehydration and soothing; anti-inflammatory, antiage, and antiparasite effects; hair care; burn and wound healing; and the amelioration of rosacea and psoriasis conditions. Despite a limited knowledge about their constituents and properties, these species appear as promising sources of bioactive compounds for skin care and health applications. An improvement of knowledge about their properties will provide added value to the exploitation of these forest resources.

  5. 7-Dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), But Not Cholesterol, Causes Suppression of Canonical TGF-β Signaling and Is Likely Involved in the Development of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuan Shian; Liu, I-Hua; Chen, Chun-Lin; Chang, Jia-Ming; Johnson, Frank E; Huang, Jung San

    2017-06-01

    For several decades, cholesterol has been thought to cause ASCVD. Limiting dietary cholesterol intake has been recommended to reduce the risk of the disease. However, several recent epidemiological studies do not support a relationship between dietary cholesterol and/or blood cholesterol and ASCVD. Consequently, the role of cholesterol in atherogenesis is now uncertain. Much evidence indicates that TGF-β, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, protects against ASCVD and that suppression of canonical TGF-β signaling (Smad2-dependent) is involved in atherogenesis. We had hypothesized that cholesterol causes ASCVD by suppressing canonical TGF-β signaling in vascular endothelium. To test this hypothesis, we determine the effects of cholesterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC; the biosynthetic precursor of cholesterol), and other sterols on canonical TGF-β signaling. We use Mv1Lu cells (a model cell system for studying TGF-β activity) stably expressing the Smad2-dependent luciferase reporter gene. We demonstrate that 7-DHC (but not cholesterol or other sterols) effectively suppresses the TGF-β-stimulated luciferase activity. We also demonstrate that 7-DHC suppresses TGF-β-stimulated luciferase activity by promoting lipid raft/caveolae formation and subsequently recruiting cell-surface TGF-β receptors from non-lipid raft microdomains to lipid rafts/caveolae where TGF-β receptors become inactive in transducing canonical signaling and undergo rapid degradation upon TGF-β binding. We determine this by cell-surface 125 I-TGF-β-cross-linking and sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation. We further demonstrate that methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), a sterol-chelating agent, reverses 7-DHC-induced suppression of TGF-β-stimulated luciferase activity by extrusion of 7-DHC from resident lipid rafts/caveolae. These results suggest that 7-DHC, but not cholesterol, promotes lipid raft/caveolae formation, leading to suppression of canonical TGF-β signaling and atherogenesis. J

  6. The Evidential Basis of Decision Making in Plant Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gareth

    2017-08-04

    The evidential basis for disease management decision making is provided by data relating to risk factors. The decision process involves an assessment of the evidence leading to taking (or refraining from) action on the basis of a prediction. The primary objective of the decision process is to identify-at the time the decision is made-the control action that provides the best predicted end-of-season outcome, calculated in terms of revenue or another appropriate metric. Data relating to disease risk factors may take a variety of forms (e.g., continuous, discrete, categorical) on measurement scales in a variety of units. Log 10 -likelihood ratios provide a principled basis for the accumulation of evidence based on such data and allow predictions to be made via Bayesian updating of prior probabilities.

  7. Susceptibility to Laurel Wilt and disease incidence in two rare plant species, Pondberry and Pondspice Plant Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Fraedrich; T Harrington; C Bates; J Johnson; L. Reid; Glenda Susan Best; T Leininger; Tracy Hawkins

    2011-01-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, has been responsible for extensive losses of redbay (Persea borbonia) in South Carolina and Georgia since 2003. Symptoms of the disease have been noted in other species of the Lauraceae such as the federally endangered pondberry (Lindera melissifolia) and the threatened pondspice (Litsea aestivalis). Pondberry and pondspice...

  8. Natural AChE Inhibitors from Plants and their Contribution to Alzheimer's Disease Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ana Paula; Faraoni, María Belén; Castro, María Julia; Alza, Natalia Paola; Cavallaro, Valeria

    2013-07-01

    As acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are an important therapeutic strategy in Alzheimer's disease, efforts are being made in search of new molecules with anti-AChE activity. The fact that naturally-occurring compounds from plants are considered to be a potential source of new inhibitors has led to the discovery of an important number of secondary metabolites and plant extracts with the ability of inhibiting the enzyme AChE, which, according to the cholinergic hypothesis, increases the levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain, thus improving cholinergic functions in patients with Alzheimer's disease and alleviating the symptoms of this neurological disorder. This review summarizes a total of 128 studies which correspond to the most relevant research work published during 2006-2012 (1st semester) on plant-derived compounds, plant extracts and essential oils found to elicit AChE inhibition.

  9. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori ...

  10. Glyphosate Effects on Plant Mineral Nutrition, Crop Rhizosphere Microbiota, and Plant Disease in Glyphosate-Resistant Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Claims have been made recently that glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops sometimes have mineral deficiencies and increased plant disease. This review evaluates the literature that is germane to these claims. Our conclusions are: (1) although there is conflicting literature on the effects of glyphosate on mineral nutrition on GR crops, most of the literature indicates that mineral nutrition in GR crops is not affected by either the GR trait or by application of glyphosate; (2) most of the available data support the view that neither the GR transgenes nor glyphosate use in GR crops increases crop disease; and (3) yield data on GR crops do not support the hypotheses that there are substantive mineral nutrition or disease problems that are specific to GR crops. PMID:23013354

  11. A comparative analysis of machine learning approaches for plant disease identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat ur Rahman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The problems to leaf in plants are very severe and they usually shorten the lifespan of plants. Leaf diseases are mainly caused due to three types of attacks including viral, bacterial or fungal. Diseased leaves reduce the crop production and affect the agricultural economy. Since agriculture plays a vital role in the economy, thus effective mechanism is required to detect the problem in early stages. Methods: Traditional approaches used for the identification of diseased plants are based on field visits which is time consuming and tedious. In this paper a comparative analysis of machine learning approaches has been presented for the identification of healthy and non-healthy plant leaves. For experimental purpose three different types of plant leaves have been selected namely, cabbage, citrus and sorghum. In order to classify healthy and non-healthy plant leaves color based features such as pixels, statistical features such as mean, standard deviation, min, max and descriptors such as Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG have been used. Results: 382 images of cabbage, 539 images of citrus and 262 images of sorghum were used as the primary dataset. The 40% data was utilized for testing and 60% were used for training which consisted of both healthy and damaged leaves. The results showed that random forest classifier is the best machine method for classification of healthy and diseased plant leaves. Conclusion: From the extensive experimentation it is concluded that features such as color information, statistical distribution and histogram of gradients provides sufficient clue for the classification of healthy and non-healthy plants.

  12. Advanced DNA-Based Point-of-Care Diagnostic Methods for Plant Diseases Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Han Yih; Botella, Jose R.

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic technologies for the detection of plant pathogens with point-of-care capability and high multiplexing ability are an essential tool in the fight to reduce the large agricultural production losses caused by plant diseases. The main desirable characteristics for such diagnostic assays are high specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility, quickness, cost efficiency and high-throughput multiplex detection capability. This article describes and discusses various DNA-based point-of care di...

  13. The Use of Fta Card on Dna Sample Preparation for Molecular of Plant Disease Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistyawati, Purnamila; Rimbawanto, Anto

    2007-01-01

    Accurate and guick identification of pathogen is key to control the spread of plant disesases. Morphological identification is often ineffective because it requires fruit body which often are not presence, rely on characters which may be highly variable within and among species and can be slow and time consuming. Molecular identification of plant disease can overcome most of the shortcomings of morphological identification. Application of FTA Cardn for sample collection is crucial for the su...

  14. Molecular Phytopathology: Current Approaches and Main Directions in Diagnostics of Woody Plant Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Baranov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors describe the prospects for diagnosis of woody plants diseases based on the use of modern methods of molecular plant pathology. The metagenomic approach based on the analysis of complex pathogens, including non-pathogenic microflora is described. The use the multicopy universal loci characterized by a number of advantages in determining taxonomic affiliation of infectious agents during phytopathological molecular analysis is proposed.

  15. Diagnosis of occlusive arterial disease and assessment of IVR with fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo; Gemma, Kazuhito; Kawamata, Hiroshi; Okajima, Yuhji; Watari, Jun; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Maki, Toshio; Tsuchihashi, Toshio

    1996-10-01

    Fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography (FS-CE-3D-MRA) was performed to make a diagnosis of occlusive arterial disease and evaluate the effectiveness of IVR treatment for it. FS-CE-3D-MRA delineated stenosis of common iliac arteries, which was confirmed by X-ray angiography. FS-CE-3D-MRA also detected ulcerated plaque and arterial wall irregularity. The effectiveness of IVR as atherectomy and stent placement was accurately assessed with FS-CE-3D-MRA. FS-CE-3D-MRA was useful in evaluating occlusive arterial disease with short examination times and high spatial resolution, although iliac circumflexial arteries were not detected by this technique. (author)

  16. Disease induction by human microbial pathogens in plant-model systems: potential, problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baarlen, Peter; van Belkum, Alex; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2007-02-01

    Relatively simple eukaryotic model organisms such as the genetic model weed plant Arabidopsis thaliana possess an innate immune system that shares important similarities with its mammalian counterpart. In fact, some human pathogens infect Arabidopsis and cause overt disease with human symptomology. In such cases, decisive elements of the plant's immune system are likely to be targeted by the same microbial factors that are necessary for causing disease in humans. These similarities can be exploited to identify elementary microbial pathogenicity factors and their corresponding targets in a green host. This circumvents important cost aspects that often frustrate studies in humans or animal models and, in addition, results in facile ethical clearance.

  17. Metabolomics in plants and humans: applications in the prevention and diagnosis of diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Casati, Diego F; Zanor, Maria I; Busi, María V

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, there has been an increase in the number of metabolomic approaches used, in parallel with proteomic and functional genomic studies. The wide variety of chemical types of metabolites available has also accelerated the use of different techniques in the investigation of the metabolome. At present, metabolomics is applied to investigate several human diseases, to improve their diagnosis and prevention, and to design better therapeutic strategies. In addition, metabolomic studies are also being carried out in areas such as toxicology and pharmacology, crop breeding, and plant biotechnology. In this review, we emphasize the use and application of metabolomics in human diseases and plant research to improve human health.

  18. A Robust Deep-Learning-Based Detector for Real-Time Tomato Plant Diseases and Pests Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, Alvaro; Yoon, Sook; Kim, Sang Cheol; Park, Dong Sun

    2017-01-01

    Plant Diseases and Pests are a major challenge in the agriculture sector. An accurate and a faster detection of diseases and pests in plants could help to develop an early treatment technique while substantially reducing economic losses. Recent developments in Deep Neural Networks have allowed researchers to drastically improve the accuracy of object detection and recognition systems. In this paper, we present a deep-learning-based approach to detect diseases and pests in tomato plants using ...

  19. Use of cross-flow membrane filtration in a recirculating hydroponic system to suppress root disease in pepper caused by Pythium myriotylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, Andrew C; Hammer, William

    2009-05-01

    Zoosporic pathogens in the genera Pythium and Phytophthora cause extensive root disease epiphytotics in recirculating hydroponic vegetable-production greenhouses. Zoospore cysts of Pythium myriotylum Drechsler were used to evaluate the effectiveness of cross-flow membrane filters to control pythiaceous pathogens in recirculating hydroponic systems. Four membrane filter brands (Honeycomb, Polypure, Polymate, and Absolife) were tested alone or in combination to determine which filters would effectively remove infective propagules of P. myriotylum from solutions and reduce disease incidence and severity. Zoospore cysts of P. myriotylum generally measured 8 to 10 microm, and it was hypothesized that filters with pore-sizespepper plants from root infection. Single-filter assays with Honeycomb and Polypure brands removed 85 to 95% of zoospore cysts when pore sizes were rated at 1, 5, 10, 20, or 30 microm. Single-filter assays of Polymate and Absolife brands were more effective, exhibiting apparently 100% removal of zoospore cysts from nutrient solutions on filters rated at 1 to 10 microm. However, plant bioassays with Honeycomb and Polymate single filters failed to give long-term protection of pepper plants. Double-filter assays with 1- and 0.5-microm Polymate filters significantly increased the protection of pepper plants grown in nutrient film technique systems but, eventually, root disease and plant wilt could be observed. Insect transmissions by shore flies were not factors in disease development. Scanning electron microscopy images of zoospore cysts entrapped on Polymate filters revealed zoospore cysts that were either fully encysted, partially encysted, or of unusually small size (3 microm in diameter). It was concluded that either the atypically small or pliable pleomorphic zoospore cysts were able to penetrate filter membranes that theoretically should have captured them.

  20. Management of Parkinson's disease in Ayurveda: Medicinal plants and adjuvant measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak-Gandhi, Namyata; Vaidya, Ashok D B

    2017-02-02

    Medicinal plants like Mucuna pruriens L.(DC) and Withania somnifera L.(Dunal) have been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine to manage neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease. The aim of this review is to share the role of Ayurveda's insights, traditional usage and contemporary investigations for translational, integrative applications to manage Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease. High impact journals for Parkinson's diseases, traditional textbooks from Ayurveda as well as relevant clinical and para clinical studies with botanicals are selectively incorporated to evolve the aforesaid translational application. . A. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex multi-system, neurodegenerative disease. Though predominantly perceived as a motor disease, it also has debilitating non- motor features, which are frequently missed and not treated. Major treatment goals are to increase striatal dopamine levels with precursor-substitution and/or reduce its breakdown. As the disease progresses, a steady increase in the dose of levodopa is inevitable. However, higher doses cause motor complications of dyskinesia and dystonia and compromise medical treatment. B. ROLE OF MUCUNA PRURIENS L.DC), THE MOST PROMISING BOTANICAL FROM AYURVEDA: Ayurveda offers a natural source of levodopa - the seeds of Mucuna pruriens L.(DC)- which have a long standing safe use in the condition. Its clinical studies have shown pharmacokinetic profile distinct from synthetic levodopa, which is likely to reduce the untoward motor complications. Additionally, its seed extracts have shown neuroprotective benefits which are unrelated to levodopa. C. AYURVEDIC REGIMENS AND MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR NEUROPROTECTIVE AND SYMPTOMATIC BENEFITS: Other regimens (Panchakarma) and medicinal plants used in Ayurveda have been subjected to exploratory studies with promising early results in the condition. The debilitating non motor symptoms in patients have shown response with one of the regimens - medicated oil enema

  1. Association between vestibulo-ocular reflex suppression, balance, gait, and fall risk in ageing and neurodegenerative disease: protocol of a one-year prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srulijes, Karin; Mack, David J; Klenk, Jochen; Schwickert, Lars; Ihlen, Espen A F; Schwenk, Michael; Lindemann, Ulrich; Meyer, Miriam; Srijana, K C; Hobert, Markus A; Brockmann, Kathrin; Wurster, Isabel; Pomper, Jörn K; Synofzik, Matthis; Schneider, Erich; Ilg, Uwe; Berg, Daniela; Maetzler, Walter; Becker, Clemens

    2015-10-09

    Falls frequency increases with age and particularly in neurogeriatric cohorts. The interplay between eye movements and locomotion may contribute substantially to the occurrence of falls, but is hardly investigated. This paper provides an overview of current approaches to simultaneously measure eye and body movements, particularly for analyzing the association of vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) suppression, postural deficits and falls in neurogeriatric risk cohorts. Moreover, VOR suppression is measured during head-fixed target presentation and during gaze shifting while postural control is challenged. Using these approaches, we aim at identifying quantitative parameters of eye-head-coordination during postural balance and gait, as indicators of fall risk. Patients with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) or Parkinson's disease (PD), age- and sex-matched healthy older adults, and a cohort of young healthy adults will be recruited. Baseline assessment will include a detailed clinical assessment, covering medical history, neurological examination, disease specific clinical rating scales, falls-related self-efficacy, activities of daily living, neuro-psychological screening, assessment of mobility function and a questionnaire for retrospective falls. Moreover, participants will simultaneously perform eye and head movements (fixating a head-fixed target vs. shifting gaze to light emitting diodes in order to quantify vestibulo-ocular reflex suppression ability) under different conditions (sitting, standing, or walking). An eye/head tracker synchronized with a 3-D motion analysis system will be used to quantify parameters related to eye-head-coordination, postural balance, and gait. Established outcome parameters related to VOR suppression ability (e.g., gain, saccadic reaction time, frequency of saccades) and motor related fall risk (e.g., step-time variability, postural sway) will be calculated. Falls will be assessed prospectively over 12 months via protocols and

  2. PRGdb 3.0: a comprehensive platform for prediction and analysis of plant disease resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna-Cruz, Cristina M; Paytuvi-Gallart, Andreu; Di Donato, Antimo; Sundesha, Vicky; Andolfo, Giuseppe; Aiese Cigliano, Riccardo; Sanseverino, Walter; Ercolano, Maria R

    2018-01-04

    The Plant Resistance Genes database (PRGdb; http://prgdb.org) has been redesigned with a new user interface, new sections, new tools and new data for genetic improvement, allowing easy access not only to the plant science research community but also to breeders who want to improve plant disease resistance. The home page offers an overview of easy-to-read search boxes that streamline data queries and directly show plant species for which data from candidate or cloned genes have been collected. Bulk data files and curated resistance gene annotations are made available for each plant species hosted. The new Gene Model view offers detailed information on each cloned resistance gene structure to highlight shared attributes with other genes. PRGdb 3.0 offers 153 reference resistance genes and 177 072 annotated candidate Pathogen Receptor Genes (PRGs). Compared to the previous release, the number of putative genes has been increased from 106 to 177 K from 76 sequenced Viridiplantae and algae genomes. The DRAGO 2 tool, which automatically annotates and predicts (PRGs) from DNA and amino acid with high accuracy and sensitivity, has been added. BLAST search has been implemented to offer users the opportunity to annotate and compare their own sequences. The improved section on plant diseases displays useful information linked to genes and genomes to connect complementary data and better address specific needs. Through, a revised and enlarged collection of data, the development of new tools and a renewed portal, PRGdb 3.0 engages the plant science community in developing a consensus plan to improve knowledge and strategies to fight diseases that afflict main crops and other plants. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Effector-mediated suppression of chitin-triggered immunity by Magnaporthe oryzae is necessary for rice blast disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentlak, T.A.; Kombrink, A.; Shinya, T.; Ryder, L.S.; Otomo, I.; Saitoh, H.; Terauchi, R.; Nishizawa, Y.; Shibuya, N.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Talbot, N.J.

    2012-01-01

    Plants use pattern recognition receptors to defend themselves from microbial pathogens. These receptors recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and activate signaling pathways that lead to immunity. In rice (Oryza sativa), the chitin elicitor binding protein (CEBiP) recognizes

  4. FOOT ROT DISEASE IDENTIFICATION FOR VELLAIKODI VARIETY OF BETELVINE PLANTS USING DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vijayakumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Betelvine plants are infected variety of diseases in the complete plantation without any premature warning of the diseases. The aim of this paper is to detection of foot rot disease in the vellaikodi variety of betelvine plants using digital image processing techniques. The digital images of the uninfected or normal betelvine leaves and the digital images of the infected in foot rot diseased betelvine leaves at different stages are collected from different Betelvine plants using a high resolution digital camera and collected betelvine images are stored with JPEG format. The digital images of the betelvine leaves analyses are done using the image processing toolbox in MATLAB which gives the normal patterns of the digital images. Using RGB encoding process, the RGB components of the betelvine leaves are separated. The mean and median values for all sample leaves are computed and calculated values are stored in the system. The mean and median values of test leaves are computed and compared with the stored values. As the result of this comparison, it is identified whether test leaves are affected by foot rot disease or not. Finally this analysis helps to recognize the foot rot disease can be identified before it spreads to entire crop.

  5. Potential of Bacillus spp produces siderophores insuppressing thewilt disease of banana plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesaulya, H.; Hasinu, J. V.; Tuhumury, G. NC

    2018-01-01

    In nature, different types of siderophore such as hydroxymate, catecholets and carboxylate, are produced by different bacteria. Bacillus spp were isolated from potato rhizospheric soil can produce siderophore of both catecholets and salicylate type with different concentrations. Various strains of Bacillus spp were tested for pathogen inhibition capability in a dual culture manner. The test results showed the ability of inhibition of pathogen isolated from banana wilt disease. From the result tested were found Bacillus niabensis Strain PT-32-1, Bacillus subtilis Strain SWI16b, Bacillus subtilis Strain HPC21, Bacillus mojavensis Strain JCEN3, and Bacillus subtilis Strain HPC24 showed different capabilities in suppressing pathogen.

  6. Museum specimen data reveal emergence of a plant disease may be linked to increases in the insect vector population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Adam R; Rapacciuolo, Giovanni; Turek, Daniel; Oboyski, Peter T; Almeida, Rodrigo P P; Roderick, George K

    2017-09-01

    The emergence rate of new plant diseases is increasing due to novel introductions, climate change, and changes in vector populations, posing risks to agricultural sustainability. Assessing and managing future disease risks depends on understanding the causes of contemporary and historical emergence events. Since the mid-1990s, potato growers in the western United States, Mexico, and Central America have experienced severe yield loss from Zebra Chip disease and have responded by increasing insecticide use to suppress populations of the insect vector, the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Despite the severe nature of Zebra Chip outbreaks, the causes of emergence remain unknown. We tested the hypotheses that (1) B. cockerelli occupancy has increased over the last century in California and (2) such increases are related to climate change, specifically warmer winters. We compiled a data set of 87,000 museum specimen occurrence records across the order Hemiptera collected between 1900 and 2014. We then analyzed changes in B. cockerelli distribution using a hierarchical occupancy model using changes in background species lists to correct for collecting effort. We found evidence that B. cockerelli occupancy has increased over the last century. However, these changes appear to be unrelated to climate changes, at least at the scale of our analysis. To the extent that species occupancy is related to abundance, our analysis provides the first quantitative support for the hypothesis that B. cockerelli population abundance has increased, but further work is needed to link B. cockerelli population dynamics to Zebra Chip epidemics. Finally, we demonstrate how this historical macro-ecological approach provides a general framework for comparative risk assessment of future pest and insect vector outbreaks. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Optimal control issues in plant disease with host demographic factor and botanical fungicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggriani, N.; Mardiyah, M.; Istifadah, N.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss a mathematical model of plant disease with the effect of fungicide. We assume that the fungicide is given as a preventive treatment to infectious plants. The model is constructed based on the development of the disease in which the monomolecular is monocyclic. We show the value of the Basic Reproduction Number (BRN) ℛ0 of the plant disease transmission. The BRN is computed from the largest eigenvalue of the next generation matrix of the model. The result shows that in the region where ℛ0 greater than one there is a single stable endemic equilibrium. However, in the region where ℛ0 less than one this endemic equilibrium becomes unstable. The dynamics of the model is highly sensitive to changes in contact rate and infectious period. We also discuss the optimal control of the infected plant host by considering a preventive treatment aimed at reducing the infected host plant. The obtaining optimal control shows that it can reduce the number of infected hosts compared to that without control. Some numerical simulations are also given to illustrate our analytical results.

  8. Impact of regurgitation on health-related quality of life in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease before and after short-term potent acid suppression therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrilas, Peter J; Jonsson, Andreas; Denison, Hans; Wernersson, Börje; Hughes, Nesta; Howden, Colin W

    2014-05-01

    Limited data exist on the impact of regurgitation on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). We assessed the relationship between regurgitation frequency and HRQOL before and after acid suppression therapy in GORD. We used data from two randomised trials of AZD0865 25-75 mg/day versus esomeprazole 20 or 40 mg/day in non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) (n=1415) or reflux oesophagitis (RO) (n=1460). The Reflux Disease Questionnaire was used to select patients with frequent and intense heartburn for inclusion and to assess treatment response. The Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) questionnaire was used to assess HRQOL. At baseline, 93% of patients in both the NERD and RO groups experienced regurgitation. Mean QOLRAD scores were similar for NERD and RO at baseline and at week 4 and disclosed decremental HRQOL with increasing frequency of regurgitation; a clinically relevant difference of >0.5 in mean QOLRAD scores was seen with regurgitation ≥4 days/week versus <4 days/week. The prevalence of frequent, persistent regurgitation (≥4 days/week) at week 4 among heartburn responders (≤1 day/week of mild heartburn) was 28% in NERD and 23% in RO. QOLRAD scores were higher among heartburn responders. There was a similar pattern of impact related to regurgitation frequency in heartburn responders compared with the group as a whole. Frequent regurgitation was associated with a clinically relevant, incremental decline in HRQOL beyond that associated with heartburn before and after potent acid suppression in both NERD and RO. NCT00206284 and NCT00206245.

  9. Use of gamma radiation for increasing plant disease control efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamswarng, Chiradej; Intanoo, Wanwilai; Piadang, Nattayana

    2006-09-01

    Irradiation of Trichoderma harzianum with 0.5-8.0 k Gay of gamma ray revealed 41 strains resistant to 10 ppm propiconazole or benomyl fungicides and two strains (23/03-7 and 27/08-1) were resistant to 10 ppm of both fungicides. After these two mutant strains were repeatedly irradiated with gamma ray, 74 mutant strains were obtained. Among these, three mutant strains, used as seed treatment effectively protected tomato seedlings from the infection of Pythium apanidermatum with significantly higher surviving seedlings than the Pythium inoculated control. The higher root colonization of mutant strains was obtains from strains 03/7-113, 03-/7-114 and 08/1-11. Rice seeds (RD 17), previously soaked in water for 24 ht were placed in spore suspension of T. harzianum prepared from 1 kg of fresh culture of 81 mutant isolated derived from single or double irradiation with gamma ray in 50 1 of water for 30 min. Two mutants including 23/03-7 (derived from single irradiation) and 03/7-134 (derived from double irradiation) provided percentages of root colonization by 29.63 and 25.93, while growth-promoted roots were 12.48 and 12.65 cm in length. respectively. These two strains were tested in rice field by treating pre-soaked seeds with Trichoderma suspensions for 30 min and incubated for 24 hr before sowing. Detection of root colonization by T. harzianum at 35, 45 and 102 days after sowing revealed that all Trichoderma strains effectively colonized rice roots at all stages of growth, particularly two mutants completely colonized rice root at 102 days after sowing. After harvesting, a mutant strain 30/7-134 increased rice yield to the maximum level at 29.65% over a control, while the percentage of fertile-seeds and it's seed weight, total seed weight, fertile-seed weight were significantly higher than a control. However, all Trichoderma strains provided the potential increases of rice yield over a control. Strain 03/7-134 significantly reduced percentage of dirty-panicle diseased

  10. Knowledge of Medicinal Plants for Children Diseases in the Environs of District Bannu, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa (KPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Shaheen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are important treasures for the treatment of different types of diseases. Current study provides significant ethnopharmacological information, both qualitative and quantitative on medical plants related to children disorders from district Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK province of Pakistan. The information gathered was quantitatively analyzed using informant consensus factor, relative frequency of citation and use value method to establish a baseline data for more comprehensive investigations of bioactive compounds of indigenous medicinal plants specifically related to children disorders. To best of our knowledge it is first attempt to document ethno-botanical information of medicinal plants using quantitative approaches. Total of 130 informants were interviewed using questionnaire conducted during 2014–2016 to identify the preparations and uses of the medicinal plants for children diseases treatment. A total of 55 species of flowering plants belonging to 49 genera and 32 families were used as ethno-medicines in the study area. The largest number of specie belong to Leguminosae and Cucurbitaceae families (4 species each followed by Apiaceae, Moraceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae, and Solanaceae (3 species each. In addition leaves and fruits are most used parts (28%, herbs are most used life form (47%, decoction method were used for administration (27%, and oral ingestion was the main used route of application (68.5%. The highest use value was reported for species Momordica charantia and Raphnus sativus (1 for each and highest Informant Consensus Factor was observed for cardiovascular and rheumatic diseases categories (0.5 for each. Most of the species in the present study were used to cure gastrointestinal diseases (39 species. The results of present study revealed the importance of medicinal plant species and their significant role in the health care of the inhabitants in the present area. The people of Bannu own high traditional

  11. Knowledge of Medicinal Plants for Children Diseases in the Environs of District Bannu, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa (KPK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Shabnam; Abbas, Safdar; Hussain, Javid; Mabood, Fazal; Umair, Muhammad; Ali, Maroof; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Farooq, Umar; Khan, Ajmal

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants are important treasures for the treatment of different types of diseases. Current study provides significant ethnopharmacological information, both qualitative and quantitative on medical plants related to children disorders from district Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province of Pakistan. The information gathered was quantitatively analyzed using informant consensus factor, relative frequency of citation and use value method to establish a baseline data for more comprehensive investigations of bioactive compounds of indigenous medicinal plants specifically related to children disorders. To best of our knowledge it is first attempt to document ethno-botanical information of medicinal plants using quantitative approaches. Total of 130 informants were interviewed using questionnaire conducted during 2014–2016 to identify the preparations and uses of the medicinal plants for children diseases treatment. A total of 55 species of flowering plants belonging to 49 genera and 32 families were used as ethno-medicines in the study area. The largest number of specie belong to Leguminosae and Cucurbitaceae families (4 species each) followed by Apiaceae, Moraceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae, and Solanaceae (3 species each). In addition leaves and fruits are most used parts (28%), herbs are most used life form (47%), decoction method were used for administration (27%), and oral ingestion was the main used route of application (68.5%). The highest use value was reported for species Momordica charantia and Raphnus sativus (1 for each) and highest Informant Consensus Factor was observed for cardiovascular and rheumatic diseases categories (0.5 for each). Most of the species in the present study were used to cure gastrointestinal diseases (39 species). The results of present study revealed the importance of medicinal plant species and their significant role in the health care of the inhabitants in the present area. The people of Bannu own high traditional knowledge

  12. Non-destructive neutron activation analysis studies on a withering disease of lowland rice occurring near an iodine plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzaki, N.; Moriyama, N.

    1985-01-01

    The withering disease of lowland rice that seems to be an injury caused by excess iodine was recognized in the paddy fields near an iodine isolation plant. To investigate the cause of this disease, a pot experiment of lowland rice was performed and iodine contents of soils and rice plants were determined by non-destructive neutron activation analysis. The soils of the disease-produced paddy fields were remarkably polluted with iodine, its content in roots of diseased rice plants was higher than the reported limiting values for the disease. (author)

  13. Interocular suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, Ana Rita; Almeida Neves Carrega, Filipa; Nunes, Amélia Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this work is to quantify the suppressive imbalance, based on the manipulation of ocular luminance, between a group of subjects with normal binocular vision and a group of subjects with amblyopia. The result reveals that there are statistically significant differences in interocular dominance between two groups, evidencing a greater suppressive imbalance in amblyopic subjects. The technique used, proved to be a simple, easy to apply and economic method, for quantified ocular dominance. It is presented as a technique with the potential to accompany subjects with a marked dominance in one of the eyes that makes fusion difficult.

  14. Estimating the spatial distribution of a plant disease epidemic from a sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampling is of central importance in plant pathology. It facilitates our understanding of how epidemics develop in space and time and can also be used to inform disease management decisions. Making inferences from a sample is necessary because we rarely have the resources to conduct a complete censu...

  15. Deep Neural Networks Based Recognition of Plant Diseases by Leaf Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan Sladojevic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The latest generation of convolutional neural networks (CNNs has achieved impressive results in the field of image classification. This paper is concerned with a new approach to the development of plant disease recognition model, based on leaf image classification, by the use of deep convolutional networks. Novel way of training and the methodology used facilitate a quick and easy system implementation in practice. The developed model is able to recognize 13 different types of plant diseases out of healthy leaves, with the ability to distinguish plant leaves from their surroundings. According to our knowledge, this method for plant disease recognition has been proposed for the first time. All essential steps required for implementing this disease recognition model are fully described throughout the paper, starting from gathering images in order to create a database, assessed by agricultural experts. Caffe, a deep learning framework developed by Berkley Vision and Learning Centre, was used to perform the deep CNN training. The experimental results on the developed model achieved precision between 91% and 98%, for separate class tests, on average 96.3%.

  16. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARIOUS DISEASES IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maema, Lesibana Peter; Potgieter, Martin; Mahlo, Salome Mamokone

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are plants that have migrated from one geographical region to non-native region either intentional or unintentional. The general view of IAPs in environment is regarded as destructive to the ecosystem and they pose threat to native vegetation and species. However, some of these IAPS are utilized by local inhabitants as a substitute for scarce indigenous plants. The aim of the study is to conduct ethnobotanical survey on medicinal usage of invasive plant species in Waterberg District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey on invasive plant species was conducted to distinguish species used for the treatment of various ailments in the Waterberg, District in the area dominated by Bapedi traditional healers. About thirty Bapedi traditional healers (30) were randomly selected via the snowball method. A guided field work by traditional healers and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather information from the traditional healers. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on the local name of plants, plant parts used and methods of preparation which is administered by the traditional healers. The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japónica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest complaint, blood purification, asthma, hypertension and infertility. The most plant parts that were used are 57.6% leaves, followed by 33.3% roots, and whole plant, seeds and bark at 3% each. Noticeably, most of these plants are cultivated (38%), followed by 28% that are common to the study area, 20% abundant, 12% wild, and 3% occasionally. Schinus molle is the most frequently used plant species for the treatment of various ailments in the study area. National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act (NEMBA

  17. Curcumin inhibition of JNKs prevents dopaminergic neuronal loss in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease through suppressing mitochondria dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Jing

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Curcumin,a natural polyphenol obtained from turmeric,has been implicated to be neuroprotective in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders although the mechanism remains poorly understood. The results of our recent experiments indicated that curcumin could protect dopaminergic neurons from apoptosis in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease (PD. The death of dopaminergic neurons and the loss of dopaminergic axon in the striatum were significantly suppressed by curcumin in MPTP mouse model. Further studies showed that curcumin inhibited JNKs hyperphosphorylation induced by MPTP treatment. JNKs phosphorylation can cause translocation of Bax to mitochondria and the release of cytochrome c which both ultimately contribute to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. These pro-apoptosis effect can be diminished by curcumin. Our experiments demonstrated that curcumin can prevent nigrostriatal degeneration by inhibiting the dysfunction of mitochondrial through suppressing hyperphosphorylation of JNKs induced by MPTP. Our results suggested that JNKs/mitochondria pathway may be a novel target in the treatment of PD patients.

  18. Design of the expert system to analyze disease in Plant Teak using Forward Chaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poningsih Poningsih

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Teak is one kind of plant that is already widely known and developed by the wider community in the form of plantations and community forests. This is because until now Teak wood is a commodity of luxury, high quality, the price is expensive, and high economic value. Expert systems are a part of the method sciences artificial intelligence to make an application program disease diagnosis teak computerized seek to replace and mimic the reasoning process of an expert or experts in solving the problem specification that can be said to be a duplicate from an expert because science knowledge is stored inside a database  Expert System for the diagnosis of disease teak using forward chaining method aims to explore the characteristics shown in the form of questions in order to diagnose the disease teak with web-based software. Device keel expert system can recognize the disease after consulting identity by answering some of the questions presented by the application of expert systems and can infer some kind of disease in plants teak. Data disease known customize rules (rules are made to match the characteristics of teak disease and provide treatment solutions.

  19. Detection of mechanical and disease stresses in citrus plants by fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belasque, J., Jr.; Gasparoto, M. C. G.; Marcassa, L. G.

    2008-04-01

    We have investigated the detection of mechanical and disease stresses in citrus plants (Citrus limonia [L.] Osbeck) using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Due to its economic importance we have chosen to investigate the citrus canker disease, which is caused by the Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri bacteria. Mechanical stress was also studied because it plays an important role in the plant's infection by such bacteria. A laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy system, composed of a spectrometer and a 532 nm10 mW excitation laser was used to perform fluorescence spectroscopy. The ratio of two chlorophyll fluorescence bands allows us to detect and discriminate between mechanical and disease stresses. This ability to discriminate may have an important application in the field to detect citrus canker infected trees.

  20. The metabolism of plant sterols is disturbed in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gylling, Helena; Hallikainen, Maarit; Rajaratnam, Radhakrishnan A; Simonen, Piia; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Laakso, Markku; Miettinen, Tatu A

    2009-03-01

    In postmenopausal coronary artery disease (CAD) women, serum plant sterols are elevated. Thus, we investigated further whether serum plant sterols reflect absolute cholesterol metabolism in CAD as in other populations and whether the ABCG5 and ABCG8 genes, associated with plant sterol metabolism, were related to the risk of CAD. In free-living postmenopausal women with (n = 47) and without (n = 62) CAD, serum noncholesterol sterols including plant sterols were analyzed with gas-liquid chromatography, cholesterol absorption with peroral isotopes, absolute cholesterol synthesis with sterol balance technique, and bile acid synthesis with quantitating fecal bile acids. In CAD women, serum plant sterol ratios to cholesterol were 21% to 26% (P synthesis were reduced. Only in controls were serum plant sterols related to cholesterol absorption (eg, sitosterol; in controls: r = 0.533, P synthesis marker) and lathosterol-cholestanol (relative synthesis-absorption marker) were related to absolute synthesis and absorption percentage (P range from .05 to sterol metabolism is disturbed in CAD women; so serum plant sterols only tended to reflect absolute cholesterol absorption. Other relative markers of cholesterol metabolism were related to the absolute ones in both groups. ABCG5 and ABCG8 genes were not associated with the risk of CAD.

  1. The role of industry in the development of a product for control of mycoplasmal plant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, V J

    1982-01-01

    A number of mycoplasmal or mycoplasma-like diseases of plants have been treated with an oxytetracycline-based product. Remission of symptoms has generally resulted, and in some instances the local use of this product under temporary governmental registrations has been approved. The use of oxytetracycline for control of many such diseases is not commercially feasible because the potential market is relatively small and the costs of development are relatively high. However, oxytetracycline products may be useful when a disease problem becomes sufficiently serious to arouse academic attention and agricultural or public concern. The commercial use of oxytetracycline hydrochloride for remission and prevention of lethal yellowing of coconut palm was begun in 1974. Use of this product for control of pear decline disease followed shortly thereafter. To date, joint participation and cooperation of the drug and agricultural industries have also resulted in the control of two important mycoplasma-like diseases of peach trees in the United States.

  2. Automatic Image-Based Plant Disease Severity Estimation Using Deep Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic and accurate estimation of disease severity is essential for food security, disease management, and yield loss prediction. Deep learning, the latest breakthrough in computer vision, is promising for fine-grained disease severity classification, as the method avoids the labor-intensive feature engineering and threshold-based segmentation. Using the apple black rot images in the PlantVillage dataset, which are further annotated by botanists with four severity stages as ground truth, a series of deep convolutional neural networks are trained to diagnose the severity of the disease. The performances of shallow networks trained from scratch and deep models fine-tuned by transfer learning are evaluated systemically in this paper. The best model is the deep VGG16 model trained with transfer learning, which yields an overall accuracy of 90.4% on the hold-out test set. The proposed deep learning model may have great potential in disease control for modern agriculture.

  3. Automatic Image-Based Plant Disease Severity Estimation Using Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan; Sun, Yu; Wang, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Automatic and accurate estimation of disease severity is essential for food security, disease management, and yield loss prediction. Deep learning, the latest breakthrough in computer vision, is promising for fine-grained disease severity classification, as the method avoids the labor-intensive feature engineering and threshold-based segmentation. Using the apple black rot images in the PlantVillage dataset, which are further annotated by botanists with four severity stages as ground truth, a series of deep convolutional neural networks are trained to diagnose the severity of the disease. The performances of shallow networks trained from scratch and deep models fine-tuned by transfer learning are evaluated systemically in this paper. The best model is the deep VGG16 model trained with transfer learning, which yields an overall accuracy of 90.4% on the hold-out test set. The proposed deep learning model may have great potential in disease control for modern agriculture.

  4. Infection cycle of Artichoke Italian latent virus in tobacco plants: meristem invasion and recovery from disease symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Santovito

    Full Text Available Nepoviral infections induce recovery in fully expanded leaves but persist in shoot apical meristem (SAM by a largely unknown mechanism. The dynamics of infection of a grapevine isolate of Artichoke Italian latent virus (AILV-V, genus Nepovirus in tobacco plants, including colonization of SAM, symptom induction and subsequent recovery of mature leaves from symptoms, were characterized. AILV-V moved from the inoculated leaves systemically and invaded SAM in 7 days post-inoculation (dpi, remaining detectable in SAM at least up to 40 dpi. The new top leaves recovered from viral symptoms earliest at 21 dpi. Accumulation of viral RNA to a threshold level was required to trigger the overexpression of RDR6 and DCL4. Consequently, accumulation of viral RNA decreased in the systemically infected leaves, reaching the lowest concentration in the 3rd and 4th leaves at 23 dpi, which was concomitant with recovery of the younger, upper leaves from disease symptoms. No evidence of virus replication was found in the recovered leaves, but they contained infectious virus particles and were protected against re-inoculation with AILV-V. In this study we also showed that AILV-V did not suppress initiation or maintenance of RNA silencing in transgenic plants, but was able to interfere with the cell-to-cell movement of the RNA silencing signal. Our results suggest that AILV-V entrance in SAM and activation of RNA silencing may be distinct processes since the latter is triggered in fully expanded leaves by the accumulation of viral RNA above a threshold level rather than by virus entrance in SAM.

  5. Considerations of scale in the analysis of spatial pattern of plant disease epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turechek, William W; McRoberts, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Scale is an important but somewhat neglected subject in plant pathology. Scale serves as an abstract concept, providing a framework for organizing observations and theoretical models, and plays a functional role in the organization of ecological communities and physical processes. Rich methodological resources are available to plant pathologists interested in considering either or both aspects of scale in their research. We summarize important concepts in both areas of the literature, particularly as they apply to the spatial pattern of plant disease, and highlight some new results that emphasize the importance of scaling on the emergence of different types of probability distribution in empirical observation. We also highlight the important links between heterogeneity and scale, which are of central importance in plant disease epidemiology and the analysis of spatial pattern. We consider statistical approaches that are available, where actual physical scale is known, and for more conceptual research on hierarchies, where scale plays a more abstract role, particularly for field-based research. For the latter, we highlight methods that plant pathologists could consider to account for the effect of scale in the design of field studies.

  6. Advanced DNA-Based Point-of-Care Diagnostic Methods for Plant Diseases Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yih Lau

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic technologies for the detection of plant pathogens with point-of-care capability and high multiplexing ability are an essential tool in the fight to reduce the large agricultural production losses caused by plant diseases. The main desirable characteristics for such diagnostic assays are high specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility, quickness, cost efficiency and high-throughput multiplex detection capability. This article describes and discusses various DNA-based point-of care diagnostic methods for applications in plant disease detection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is the most common DNA amplification technology used for detecting various plant and animal pathogens. However, subsequent to PCR based assays, several types of nucleic acid amplification technologies have been developed to achieve higher sensitivity, rapid detection as well as suitable for field applications such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification, helicase-dependent amplification, rolling circle amplification, recombinase polymerase amplification, and molecular inversion probe. The principle behind these technologies has been thoroughly discussed in several review papers; herein we emphasize the application of these technologies to detect plant pathogens by outlining the advantages and disadvantages of each technology in detail.

  7. Efficacy of dexamethasone suppression test during the diagnosis of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease in Chinese adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi; Li, Ran; Lu, Lin; Duan, Lian; Zhang, Xuebin; Tong, Anli; Pan, Hui; Zhu, Huijuan; Lu, Zhaolin

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the cut-off value of the ratio of 24 h urinary free cortisol (24 h UFC) levels post-dexamethasone to prior-dexamethasone in dexamethasone suppression test (DST) during the diagnosis of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease in Chinese adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing syndrome. Retrospective study. The patients diagnosed with primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD, n = 25), bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH, n = 27), and adrenocortical adenoma (ADA, n = 84) were admitted to the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2001 to 2016. Serum cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and 24 h UFC were measured before and after low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST) and high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST). After LDDST and HDDST, 24 h UFC elevated in patients with PPNAD (paired t-test, P = 0.007 and P = 0.001), while it remained unchanged in the BMAH group (paired t-test, P = 0.471 and P = 0.414) and decreased in the ADA group (paired t-test, P = 0.002 and P = 0.004). The 24 h UFC level after LDDST was higher in PPNAD and BMAH as compared to ADA (P < 0.017), while no significant difference was observed between PPNAD and BMAH. After HDDST, 24 h UFC was higher in patients with PPNAD as compared to that of ADA and BMAH (P < 0.017). The cut-off value of 24 h UFC (Post-L-Dex)/(Pre-L-Dex) was 1.16 with 64.0% sensitivity and 77.9% specificity, and the cut-off value of 24 h UFC (Post-H-Dex)/(Pre-H-Dex) was 1.08 with 84.0% sensitivity and 75.6% specificity. The ratio of post-dexamethasone to prior-dexamethasone had a unique advantage in distinguishing PPNAD from BMAH and ADA.

  8. Microbial diversity in soil : Selection of microbial populations by plant and soil type and implications for disease suppressiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbeva, P; van Veen, JA; van Elsas, JD

    2004-01-01

    An increasing interest has emerged with respect to the importance of microbial diversity in soil habitats. The extent of the diversity of microorganisms in soil is seen to be critical to the maintenance of soil health and quality, as a wide range of microorganisms is involved in important soil

  9. A method for named entity normalization in biomedical articles: application to diseases and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyejin; Choi, Wonjun; Lee, Hyunju

    2017-10-13

    In biomedical articles, a named entity recognition (NER) technique that identifies entity names from texts is an important element for extracting biological knowledge from articles. After NER is applied to articles, the next step is to normalize the identified names into standard concepts (i.e., disease names are mapped to the National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings disease terms). In biomedical articles, many entity normalization methods rely on domain-specific dictionaries for resolving synonyms and abbreviations. However, the dictionaries are not comprehensive except for some entities such as genes. In recent years, biomedical articles have accumulated rapidly, and neural network-based algorithms that incorporate a large amount of unlabeled data have shown considerable success in several natural language processing problems. In this study, we propose an approach for normalizing biological entities, such as disease names and plant names, by using word embeddings to represent semantic spaces. For diseases, training data from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) disease corpus and unlabeled data from PubMed abstracts were used to construct word representations. For plants, a training corpus that we manually constructed and unlabeled PubMed abstracts were used to represent word vectors. We showed that the proposed approach performed better than the use of only the training corpus or only the unlabeled data and showed that the normalization accuracy was improved by using our model even when the dictionaries were not comprehensive. We obtained F-scores of 0.808 and 0.690 for normalizing the NCBI disease corpus and manually constructed plant corpus, respectively. We further evaluated our approach using a data set in the disease normalization task of the BioCreative V challenge. When only the disease corpus was used as a dictionary, our approach significantly outperformed the best system of the task. The proposed approach shows robust

  10. Polyamines: Bio-Molecules with diverse functions in plant and human health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Avtar K.; Fatima, Tahira; Mattoo, Autar K.

    2018-02-01

    Biogenic amines – polyamines (PAs), particularly putrescine, spermidine and spermine (and thermospermine) are ubiquitous in all living cells. Their indispensable roles in many biochemical and physiological processes are becoming commonly known, including promoters of plant life and differential roles in human health and disease. PAs positively impact cellular functions in plants – exemplified by increasing longevity, reviving physiological memory, enhancing carbon and nitrogen resource allocation/signaling, as well as in plant development and responses to extreme environments. Thus, one or more PAs are commonly found in genomic and metabolomics studies using plants, particulary during different abiotic stresses. In humans, a general decline in PA levels with aging occurs parallel with some human health disorders. Also, high PA dose is detrimental to patients suffering from cancer, aging, innate immunity and cognitive impairment during Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. A dichotomy exists in that while PAs may increase longevity and reduce some age-associated cardiovascular diseases, in disease conditions involving higher cellular proliferation, their intake has negative consequences. Thus, it is essential that PA levels be rigorously quantified in edible plant sources as well as in dietary meats. Such a database can be a guide for medical experts in order to recommend which foods/meats a patient may consume and which ones to avoid. Accordingly, designing both high and low polyamine diets for human consumption are in vogue, particularly in medical conditions where PA intake may be detrimental, for instance, cancer patients. In this review, literature data has been collated for the levels of the three main PAs, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, in different edible sources - vegetables, fruits, cereals, nuts, meat, sea food, cheese, milk and eggs. Based on our analysis of vast literature, the effects of PAs in human/animal health fall into two broad, Yang and

  11. Ecological and evolutionary dynamics of a model facultative pathogen: Agrobacterium and crown gall disease of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Ian S; Fuqua, Clay; Platt, Thomas G

    2018-01-01

    Many important pathogens maintain significant populations in highly disparate disease and non-disease environments. The consequences of this environmental heterogeneity in shaping the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of these facultative pathogens are incompletely understood. Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the causative agent for crown gall disease of plants has proven a productive model for many aspects of interactions between pathogens and their hosts and with other microbes. In this review, we highlight how this past work provides valuable context for the use of this system to examine how heterogeneity and transitions between disease and non-disease environments influence the ecology and evolution of facultative pathogens. We focus on several features common among facultative pathogens, such as the physiological remodelling required to colonize hosts from environmental reservoirs and the consequences of competition with host and non-host associated microbiota. In addition, we discuss how the life history of facultative pathogens likely often results in ecological tradeoffs associated with performance in disease and non-disease environments. These pathogens may therefore have different competitive dynamics in disease and non-disease environments and are subject to shifting selective pressures that can result in pathoadaptation or the within-host spread of avirulent phenotypes. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Tofacitinib suppresses disease activity and febrile attacks in a patient with coexisting rheumatoid arthritis and familial Mediterranean fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gök, Kevser; Cengiz, Gizem; Erol, Kemal; Ozgocmen, Salih

    2017-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common hereditary auto-inflammatory (periodic fever) syndrome, and usually successfully treated with colchicine. However, nearly 5-10% of FMF cases are resistant or intolerant to colchicine and treatment options are highly restricted in these cases. Biologics including anakinra, canakinumab, rilonacept, etanercept, infliximab, interferon-alpha, and tocilizumab are shown to have efficacy to control FMF attacks. Tofacitinib, a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor, is an orally administered non-biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Herein we report a female patient with coexisting RA and colchicine resistant FMF whose FMF attacks and disease activity were completely controlled after treatment with tofacitinib, a small-molecule JAK3 inhibitor.

  13. Tofacitinib suppresses disease activity and febrile attacks in a patient with coexisting rheumatoid arthritis and familial Mediterranean fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevser Gök

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF is the most common hereditary auto-inflammatory (periodic fever syndrome, and usually successfully treated with colchicine. However, nearly 5-10% of FMF cases are resistant or intolerant to colchicine and treatment options are highly restricted in these cases. Biologics including anakinra, canakinumab, rilonacept, etanercept, infliximab, interferon-alpha, and tocilizumab are shown to have efficacy to control FMF attacks. Tofacitinib, a Janus kinase (JAK inhibitor, is an orally administered non-biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Herein we report a female patient with coexisting RA and colchicine resistant FMF whose FMF attacks and disease activity were completely controlled after treatment with tofacitinib, a small-molecule JAK3 inhibitor.

  14. Spectral quality affects disease development of three pathogens on hydroponically grown plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants were grown under light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with various spectra to determine the effects of light quality on the development of diseases caused by tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlectend:Fr.) Pollaci] on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum Smith) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). One LED (660) array supplied 99% red light at 660 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660 nm and 17% far-red light at 735 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height). A third LED (660/BF) array supplied 98% red light at 660 nm, 1% blue light (BF) between 350 to 550 nm, and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. Control plants were grown under broad-spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Plants were grown at a mean photon flux (300 to 800 nm) of 330 micromoles m-2 s-1 under a 12-h day/night photoperiod. Spectral quality affected each pathosystem differently. In the ToMV/pepper pathosystem, disease symptoms developed slower and were less severe in plants grown under light sources that contained blue and UV-A wavelengths (MH and 660/BF treatments) compared to plants grown under light sources that lacked blue and UV-A wavelengths (660 and 660/735 LED arrays). In contrast, the number of colonies per leaf was highest and the mean colony diameters of S. fuliginea on cucumber plants were largest on leaves grown under the MH lamp (highest amount of blue and UV-A light) and least on leaves grown under the 660 LED array (no blue or UV-A light). The addition of far-red irradiation to the primary light source in the 660/735 LED array increased the colony counts per leaf in the S. fuliginea/cucumber pathosystem compared to the red-only (660) LED array. In the P. solanacearum/tomato pathosystem, disease symptoms were less severe in plants grown under the 660 LED array, but the

  15. Plant-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles: A newer and safer tool against mosquito-borne diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Benelli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases is a key challenge of huge public health importance. Plant-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has recently gained attention as a cheap, rapid and eco-friendly method to control mosquito vector populations, with special reference to young instars. Furthermore, plant-fabricated nanoparticles have been successfully employed as dengue virus growth inhibitors. In this Editorial, parasitologists, entomologists and researchers in drug nanosynthesis are encouraged to deal with a number of crucial challenges of public health importance.

  16. Natural AChE Inhibitors from Plants and their Contribution to Alzheimer’s Disease Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Ana Paula; Faraoni, María Belén; Castro, María Julia; Alza, Natalia Paola; Cavallaro, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    As acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are an important therapeutic strategy in Alzheimer’s disease, efforts are being made in search of new molecules with anti-AChE activity. The fact that naturally-occurring compounds from plants are considered to be a potential source of new inhibitors has led to the discovery of an important number of secondary metabolites and plant extracts with the ability of inhibiting the enzyme AChE, which, according to the cholinergic hypothesis, increases the le...

  17. Xanthomonas euvesicatoria Causes Bacterial Spot Disease on Pepper Plant in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Seong Kyeon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, bacterial spot-causing xanthomonads (BSX were reclassified into 4 species—Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, X. vesicatoria, X. perforans, and X. gardneri. Bacterial spot disease on pepper plant in Korea is known to be caused by both X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and X. vesicatoria. Here, we reidentified the pathogen causing bacterial spots on pepper plant based on the new classification. Accordingly, 72 pathogenic isolates were obtained from the lesions on pepper plants at 42 different locations. All isolates were negative for pectolytic activity. Five isolates were positive for amylolytic activity. All of the Korean pepper isolates had a 32 kDa-protein unique to X. euvesicatoria and had the same band pattern of the rpoB gene as that of X. euvesicatoria and X. perforans as indicated by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. A phylogenetic tree of 16S rDNA sequences showed that all of the Korean pepper plant isolates fit into the same group as did all the reference strains of X. euvesicatoria and X. perforans. A phylogenetic tree of the nucleotide sequences of 3 housekeeping genes—gapA, gyrB, and lepA showed that all of the Korean pepper plant isolates fit into the same group as did all of the references strains of X. euvesicatoria. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, we identified the pathogen as X. euvesicatoria. Neither X. vesicatoria, the known pathogen of pepper bacterial spot, nor X. perforans, the known pathogen of tomato plant, was isolated. Thus, we suggest that the pathogen causing bacterial spot disease of pepper plants in Korea is X. euvesicatoria.

  18. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang; Xu, Xuehong; Wang, Yuling; Lu, Gao; Feeley, Kenneth J; Yu, Mingjian

    2012-01-01

    Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs) in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD). Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1), deciduous woody species (PFT2), herbs (PFT3), and ferns (PFT4). We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation.

  19. Hydrogen Peroxide- and Nitric Oxide-mediated Disease Control of Bacterial Wilt in Tomato Plants

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    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in tomato plants by Ralstonia solanacearum infection and the role of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂ and nitric oxide in tomato bacterial wilt control were demonstrated. During disease development of tomato bacterial wilt, accumulation of superoxide anion (O₂− and H₂O₂ was observed and lipid peroxidation also occurred in the tomato leaf tissues. High doses of H₂O₂and sodium nitroprusside (SNP nitric oxide donor showed phytotoxicity to detached tomato leaves 1 day after petiole feeding showing reduced fresh weight. Both H₂O₂and SNP have in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in a dose-dependent manner, as well as plant protection in detached tomato leaves against bacterial wilt by 10⁶ and 10⁷ cfu/ml of R. solanacearum. H₂O₂- and SNP-mediated protection was also evaluated in pots using soil-drench treatment with the bacterial inoculation, and relative ‘area under the disease progressive curve (AUDPC’ was calculated to compare disease protection by H₂O₂ and/or SNP with untreated control. Neither H₂O₂ nor SNP protect the tomato seedlings from the bacterial wilt, but H₂O₂+ SNP mixture significantly decreased disease severity with reduced relative AUDPC. These results suggest that H₂O₂ and SNP could be used together to control bacterial wilt in tomato plants as bactericidal agents.

  20. Sphingolipids and plant defense/disease: the "death" connection and beyond

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    Robert eBerkey

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids comprise a major class of structural materials and lipid signaling molecules in all eukaryotic cells. Over the past two decades, there has been a phenomenal growth in the study of sphingolipids (i.e. sphingobiology at an average rate of >1000 research articles per year. Sphingolipid studies in plants, though accounting for only a small fraction (~6% of the total number of publications, have also enjoyed proportionally rapid growth in the past decade. Concomitant with the growth of sphingobiology, there has also been tremendous progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant innate immunity. In this review, we (i cross examine and analyze the major findings that establish and strengthen the intimate connections between sphingolipid metabolism and plant programmed cell death (PCD associated with plant defense or disease; (ii highlight and compare key bioactive sphingolipids involved in the regulation of plant PCD and possibly defense; (iii discuss the potential role of sphingolipids in polarized membrane/protein trafficking and formation of lipid rafts as subdomains of cell membranes in relation to plant defense; and (iv where possible, attempt to identify potential parallels for immunity-related mechanisms involving sphingolipids across kingdoms.

  1. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases

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    Fabíola Barbiéri Holetz

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major. The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases.

  2. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holetz, Fabíola Barbiéri; Pessini, Greisiele Lorena; Sanches, Neviton Rogério; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias

    2002-10-01

    Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major). The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases.

  3. Co-operative suppression of inflammatory responses in human dendritic cells by plant proanthocyanidins and products from the parasitic nematode Trichuris suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew R; Klaver, Elsenoor J; Laan, Lisa C

    2017-01-01

    Interactions between dendritic cells (DCs) and environmental, dietary and pathogen antigens play a key role in immune homeostasis and regulation of inflammation. Dietary polyphenols such as proanthocyanidins (PAC) may reduce inflammation, and we therefore hypothesized that PAC may suppress lipopo...

  4. Fungal Biofilms: Targets for the Development of Novel Strategies in Plant Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Federica; Cappitelli, Francesca; Cortesi, Paolo; Kunova, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The global food supply has been facing increasing challenges during the first decades of the 21 st century. Disease in plants is an important constraint to worldwide crop production, accounting for 20-40% of its annual harvest loss. Although the use of resistant varieties, good water management and agronomic practices are valid management tools in counteracting plant diseases, there are still many pathosystems where fungicides are widely used for disease management. However, restrictive regulations and increasing concern regarding the risk to human health and the environment, along with the incidence of fungicide resistance, have discouraged their use and have prompted for a search for new efficient, ecologically friendly and sustainable disease management strategies. The recent evidence of biofilm formation by fungal phytopathogens provides the scientific framework for designing and adapting methods and concepts developed by biofilm research that could be integrated in IPM practices. In this perspective paper, we provide evidence to support the view that the biofilm lifestyle plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of plant diseases. We describe the main factors limiting the durability of single-site fungicides, and we assemble the current knowledge on pesticide resistance in the specific context of the biofilm lifestyle. Finally, we illustrate the potential of antibiofilm compounds at sub-lethal concentrations for the development of an innovative, eco-sustainable strategy to counteract phytopathogenic fungi. Such fungicide-free solutions will be instrumental in reducing disease severity, and will permit more prudent use of fungicides decreasing thus the selection of resistant forms and safeguarding the environment.

  5. Screening of potential medicinal plants from District Sawat specific for controlling women diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwat, A.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Ahmad, N.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnobotany provides a scientific rationale to identify medicinally important plant species, especially for finding new drugs that play vital role in the treatment of different diseases. This ethnobotanical survey of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) was carried out to identify medicinally important plant species that are traditionally used to treat gynecological disorders and infectious diseases, and to study their antimicrobial potential against pathogens that cause infections in females. The antimicrobial activities were investigated using the well diffusion method against four different bacterial strains and one fungal strain. Results showed that out of 12 plants studied, seven plants exhibited inhibitory effects against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Woodfordia fruticosa, Quercus dilatata, Erythrina variegata, Ficus religiosa and Berberis lycium showed high antifungal activity against C. albicans with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 2.5, 1.25, 0.625, 1.25, 0.3125 mg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 5, 2.5, 1.25, 2.5, 0.625 mg/ml, respectively. Both Woodfordia fruticosa and Quercus dilatata showed antimicrobial potential against E. coli and K. pneumoniae with similar MIC values of 2.5 mg/ml and MBC values of 5 mg/ml. Plants exhibiting inhibitory potential against S. aureus were Woodfordia fruticosa, Quercus dilatata, Azadirachta indica and Curcuma longa and all of them possessed similar MIC values of 5 mg/ml and MBC values of 2.5 mg/ml, respectively. None of the plants showed antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proximate analysis showed that in comparative assessment of the various species, Zanthoxylum alatum had the highest fat and energy values. (author)

  6. An anticancer drug suppresses the primary nucleation reaction that initiates the production of the toxic Aβ42 aggregates linked with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habchi, Johnny; Arosio, Paolo; Perni, Michele; Costa, Ana Rita; Yagi-Utsumi, Maho; Joshi, Priyanka; Chia, Sean; Cohen, Samuel I A; Müller, Martin B D; Linse, Sara; Nollen, Ellen A A; Dobson, Christopher M; Knowles, Tuomas P J; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2016-02-01

    The conversion of the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide into pathogenic aggregates is linked to the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Although this observation has prompted an extensive search for therapeutic agents to modulate the concentration of Aβ or inhibit its aggregation, all clinical trials with these objectives have so far failed, at least in part because of a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of aggregation and its inhibition. To address this problem, we describe a chemical kinetics approach for rational drug discovery, in which the effects of small molecules on the rates of specific microscopic steps in the self-assembly of Aβ42, the most aggregation-prone variant of Aβ, are analyzed quantitatively. By applying this approach, we report that bexarotene, an anticancer drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, selectively targets the primary nucleation step in Aβ42 aggregation, delays the formation of toxic species in neuroblastoma cells, and completely suppresses Aβ42 deposition and its consequences in a Caenorhabditis elegans model of Aβ42-mediated toxicity. These results suggest that the prevention of the primary nucleation of Aβ42 by compounds such as bexarotene could potentially reduce the risk of onset of Alzheimer's disease and, more generally, that our strategy provides a general framework for the rational identification of a range of candidate drugs directed against neurodegenerative disorders.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis B6, a Rhizobacterium That Can Control Plant Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Han; Guo, Rong-Jun; Li, Shi-Dong

    2018-03-22

    The draft genome of Bacillus velezensis strain B6, a rhizobacterium with good biocontrol performance isolated from soil in China, was sequenced. The assembly comprises 32 scaffolds with a total size of 3.88 Mb. Gene clusters coding either ribosomally encoded bacteriocins or nonribosomally encoded antimicrobial polyketides and lipopeptides in the genome may contribute to plant disease control. Copyright © 2018 Gao et al.

  8. Polyamines: Bio-Molecules with Diverse Functions in Plant and Human Health and Disease

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    Avtar K. Handa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines—polyamines (PAs, particularly putrescine, spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous in all living cells. Their indispensable roles in many biochemical and physiological processes are becoming commonly known, including promoters of plant life and differential roles in human health and disease. PAs positively impact cellular functions in plants—exemplified by increasing longevity, reviving physiological memory, enhancing carbon and nitrogen resource allocation/signaling, as well as in plant development and responses to extreme environments. Thus, one or more PAs are commonly found in genomic and metabolomics studies using plants, particulary during different abiotic stresses. In humans, a general decline in PA levels with aging occurs parallel with some human health disorders. Also, high PA dose is detrimental to patients suffering from cancer, aging, innate immunity and cognitive impairment during Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. A dichotomy exists in that while PAs may increase longevity and reduce some age-associated cardiovascular diseases, in disease conditions involving higher cellular proliferation, their intake has negative consequences. Thus, it is essential that PA levels be rigorously quantified in edible plant sources as well as in dietary meats. Such a database can be a guide for medical experts in order to recommend which foods/meats a patient may consume and which ones to avoid. Accordingly, designing both high and low polyamine diets for human consumption are in vogue, particularly in medical conditions where PA intake may be detrimental, for instance, cancer patients. In this review, literature data has been collated for the levels of the three main PAs, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, in different edible sources—vegetables, fruits, cereals, nuts, meat, sea food, cheese, milk, and eggs. Based on our analysis of vast literature, the effects of PAs in human/animal health fall into two broad, Yang and Yin

  9. Two Legionnaires' disease cases associated with industrial waste water treatment plants: a case report

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    Putus Tuula

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Finnish and Swedish waste water systems used by the forest industry were found to be exceptionally heavily contaminated with legionellae in 2005. Case presentation We report two cases of severe pneumonia in employees working at two separate mills in Finland in 2006. Legionella serological and urinary antigen tests were used to diagnose Legionnaires' disease in the symptomatic employees, who had worked at, or close to, waste water treatment plants. Since the findings indicated a Legionella infection, the waste water and home water systems were studied in more detail. The antibody response and Legionella urinary antigen finding of Case A indicated that the infection had been caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Case A had been exposed to legionellae while installing a pump into a post-clarification basin at the waste water treatment plant of mill A. Both the water and sludge in the basin contained high concentrations of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, in addition to serogroups 3 and 13. Case B was working 200 meters downwind from a waste water treatment plant, which had an active sludge basin and cooling towers. The antibody response indicated that his disease was due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2. The cooling tower was the only site at the waste water treatment plant yielding that serogroup, though water in the active sludge basin yielded abundant growth of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 5 and Legionella rubrilucens. Both workers recovered from the disease. Conclusion These are the first reported cases of Legionnaires' disease in Finland associated with industrial waste water systems.

  10. Apoplastic and intracellular plant sugars regulate developmental transitions in witches' broom disease of cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barau, Joan; Grandis, Adriana; Carvalho, Vinicius Miessler de Andrade; Teixeira, Gleidson Silva; Zaparoli, Gustavo Henrique Alcalá; do Rio, Maria Carolina Scatolin; Rincones, Johana; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2015-03-01

    Witches' broom disease (WBD) of cacao differs from other typical hemibiotrophic plant diseases by its unusually long biotrophic phase. Plant carbon sources have been proposed to regulate WBD developmental transitions; however, nothing is known about their availability at the plant-fungus interface, the apoplastic fluid of cacao. Data are provided supporting a role for the dynamics of soluble carbon in the apoplastic fluid in prompting the end of the biotrophic phase of infection. Carbon depletion and the consequent fungal sensing of starvation were identified as key signalling factors at the apoplast. MpNEP2, a fungal effector of host necrosis, was found to be up-regulated in an autophagic-like response to carbon starvation in vitro. In addition, the in vivo artificial manipulation of carbon availability in the apoplastic fluid considerably modulated both its expression and plant necrosis rate. Strikingly, infected cacao tissues accumulated intracellular hexoses, and showed stunted photosynthesis and the up-regulation of senescence markers immediately prior to the transition to the necrotrophic phase. These opposite findings of carbon depletion and accumulation in different host cell compartments are discussed within the frame of WBD development. A model is suggested to explain phase transition as a synergic outcome of fungal-related factors released upon sensing of extracellular carbon starvation, and an early senescence of infected tissues probably triggered by intracellular sugar accumulation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. Berberine ameliorates chronic kidney injury caused by atherosclerotic renovascular disease through the suppression of NFκB signaling pathway in rats.

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    Xin Wan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Impaired renal function in atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARD may be the result of crosstalk between atherosclerotic renovascular stenosis and amplified oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Berberine (BBR regulates cholesterol metabolism and exerts antioxidant effects. Accordingly, we hypothesized that BBR treatment may ameliorate ARD-induced kidney injury through its cholesterol-lowering effect and also suppression of the pathways involved in oxidative stress, inflammation and NFκB activation. METHODS: Male rats were subjected to unilateral renal artery stenosis with silver-irritant coil, and then fed with 12-week hypercholesterolemic diet. Rats with renal artery stenosis were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 6 each - ARD, or ARD+BBR - according to diet alone or in combination with BBR. Similarly, age-matched rats underwent sham operation and were also fed with hypercholesterolemic diet alone or in combination with BBR as two corresponding controls. Single-kidney hemodynamic metrics were measured in vivo with Doppler ultrasound to determine renal artery flow. The metrics reflecting hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, renal structure and function, inflammation and NFκB activation were measured, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with control rats, ARD rats had a significant increase in urinary albumin, plasma cholesterol, LDL and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and a significant decrease in SOD activity. When exposed to 12-week BBR, ARD rats had significantly lower levels in blood pressure, LDL, urinary albumin, and TBARS. In addition, there were significantly lower expression levels of iNOS and TGF-β in the ARD+BBR group than in the ARD group, with attenuated NFκB-DNA binding activity and down-regulated protein levels of subunits p65 and p50 as well as IKKβ. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that BBR can improve hypercholesterolemia and redox status in the kidney, eventually ameliorating

  12. Unexpected suppression of anti-Fya and prevention of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn after administration of Rh immune globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Donald R; Scofield, Terry L; Moulds, John J; Swanson, Jane L

    2011-04-01

    Rh immune globulin (RhIG) has been used successfully for many years for the antenatal suppression of anti-D in D- mothers carrying D+ babies to prevent hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Although the mechanism of RhIG-induced immunosuppression remains unknown, a recent report (TRANSFUSION 2006;46:1316-22) has shown that women receiving RhIG produce elevated levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)β-1, a powerful immunosuppressant cytokine. It was suggested that induction of TGFβ-1 and immunosuppression may be independent of cognate antigen recognition by RhIG. Herein, we present a description of a mother and baby that supports this hypothesis. Red blood cells and serum were analyzed using saline-tube indirect antiglobulin test methods. RhIG (RhoGAM) was administered after each amniocentesis performed at 28, 31, and 36 weeks' gestation. A group A, D-(cde), K+, Fy(a-b+), MNs, Jk(a+b+) mother with no detectable anti-D had an anti-Fy(a) titer of 4096 before RhIG but only 256 after RhIG. Mother gave birth to a group O, D-(cde), Fy(a+b+) healthy baby boy having a weak-positive direct antiglobulin test with anti-Fy(a) eluted from his cells and the titer in the cord serum was 4. This case demonstrates the potential immunosuppressive properties of RhIG for down regulation of a possible clinically significant alloantibody, not anti-D, where no D+ antigen is in the circulation of the mother. The case illustrates the potential utility for using RhIG to modulate antibody levels in situations other than for classical suppression of anti-D production. Although the mechanism in this case is unknown, TGFβ-1-mediated or antibody-mediated immunosuppression to soluble nonparticulate antigens are possible mechanisms. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  13. Early detection of plant disease using close range sensing system for input into digital earth environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, W C; Lau, A M S; Kang, C S; Hashim, M; Battay, A E

    2014-01-01

    A case study on pre-symptom stage of plant disease infection using ground based hyperspectral remote sensing was conducted. The objectives of the study are: (1) to validate the existence of pre-symptom stage of Ralstonia Solanacearum infection in Solanum Melongena L. (eggplant), and (2) to determine the induced electromagnetic spectral response for infected eggplant. From the experiment, the pre-symptom duration of Ralstonia Solanacearum infection in the case of eggplant was estimated (with the artificial photosynthetic stress conditions were adopted in the experiment to induce measurable changes in daily hyperspectral measurement of disease infected eggplant samples during the pre-symptom stage) as four days which is the critical period for practicing effective treatments. Vegetation indices namely, (1) Chlorophyll Absorption Integral (CAI), (2) Photochemical Radiation Index (PRI), and (3) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) have successfully shown noticeable progress of index value from the infected sample plant (with 100% light stress condition) throughout the study. Yet, other infected sample plants with moderate light stress conditions (50% or 75%) did not result any similar progress of index value from the daily leaf scale hyperspectral measurements. Apparently, extreme light stress can induce significant changes at visible portion in hyperspectral measurements for a disease infected eggplant during the pre-symptom stage

  14. Detection and characterization of broad-spectrum antipathogen activity of novel rhizobacterial isolates and suppression of Fusarium crown and root rot disease of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Khabbaz, S E; Wang, A; Li, H; Abbasi, P A

    2015-03-01

    To detect and characterize broad-spectrum antipathogen activity of indigenous bacterial isolates obtained from potato soil and soya bean leaves for their potential to be developed as biofungicides to control soilborne diseases such as Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato (FCRR) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (Forl). Thirteen bacterial isolates (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (four isolates), Paenibacillus polymyxa (three isolates), Pseudomonas chlororaphis (two isolates), Pseudomonas fluorescens (two isolates), Bacillus subtilis (one isolate) and Pseudomonas sp. (one isolate)) or their volatiles showed antagonistic activity against most of the 10 plant pathogens in plate assays. Cell-free culture filtrates (CF) of five isolates or 1-butanol extracts of CFs also inhibited the growth of most pathogen mycelia in plate assays. PCR analysis confirmed the presence of most antibiotic biosynthetic genes such as phlD, phzFA, prnD and pltC in most Pseudomonas isolates and bmyB, bacA, ituD, srfAA and fenD in most Bacillus isolates. These bacterial isolates varied in the production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), siderophores, β-1,3-glucanases, chitinases, proteases, indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid, and for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified 10 volatile compounds from 10 isolates and 18 compounds from 1-butanol extracts of CFs of five isolates. Application of irradiated peat formulation of six isolates to tomato roots prior to transplanting in a Forl-infested potting mix and field soil provided protection of tomato plants from FCRR disease and enhanced plant growth under greenhouse conditions. Five of the 13 indigenous bacterial isolates were antagonistic to eight plant pathogens, both in vitro and in vivo. Antagonistic and plant-growth promotion activities of these isolates might be related to the production of several types of antibiotics, lytic enzymes, phytohormones, secondary

  15. Comparative Microbiome Analysis of a Fusarium Wilt Suppressive Soil and a Fusarium Wilt Conducive Soil From the Châteaurenard Region

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    Katarzyna Siegel-Hertz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Disease-suppressive soils are soils in which specific soil-borne plant pathogens cause only limited disease although the pathogen and susceptible host plants are both present. Suppressiveness is in most cases of microbial origin. We conducted a comparative metabarcoding analysis of the taxonomic diversity of fungal and bacterial communities from suppressive and non-suppressive (conducive soils as regards Fusarium wilts sampled from the Châteaurenard region (France. Bioassays based on Fusarium wilt of flax confirmed that disease incidence was significantly lower in the suppressive soil than in the conducive soil. Furthermore, we succeeded in partly transferring Fusarium wilt-suppressiveness to the conducive soil by mixing 10% (w/w of the suppressive soil into the conducive soil. Fungal diversity differed significantly between the suppressive and conducive soils. Among dominant fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs affiliated to known genera, 17 OTUs were detected exclusively in the suppressive soil. These OTUs were assigned to the Acremonium, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Clonostachys, Fusarium, Ceratobasidium, Mortierella, Penicillium, Scytalidium, and Verticillium genera. Additionally, the relative abundance of specific members of the bacterial community was significantly higher in the suppressive and mixed soils than in the conducive soil. OTUs found more abundant in Fusarium wilt-suppressive soils were affiliated to the bacterial genera Adhaeribacter, Massilia, Microvirga, Rhizobium, Rhizobacter, Arthrobacter, Amycolatopsis, Rubrobacter, Paenibacillus, Stenotrophomonas, and Geobacter. Several of the fungal and bacterial genera detected exclusively or more abundantly in the Fusarium wilt-suppressive soil included genera known for their activity against F. oxysporum. Overall, this study supports the potential role of known fungal and bacterial genera in Fusarium wilt suppressive soils from Châteaurenard and pinpoints new bacterial and fungal

  16. Compost made of organic wastes suppresses fusariosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryntseva, Polina; Galitskaya, Polina; Biktasheva, Liliya; Selivanovkaya, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    Fungal plant diseases cause dramatic yield losses worldwide. Usually, pesticides are used for soil sanitation, and it results in practically pest-free soils, although pesticides cause a biological vacuum, which present many horticultural disadvantages. Suppressive composts, which possess both fertilizing properties for plants and inhibiting properties for plant pathogens, represent an effective and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional pesticides. In this study, composts obtained from agricultural organic wastes were applied to suppress Fusarium oxysporum of tomato plants in model experiments. Composts were made of mixtures of the widespread organic wastes sampled in Tatarstan (Russia): straw (SW), corn wastes (CW), chicken manure (ChM), cattle manure (CM) and swine manure (SM). 11 two- and three-component mixtures were prepared to obtain the optimal carbon-nitrogen, moisture and pH balances, and composted for 210 days. It was found that the thermophilic phase of composting in all the mixtures lasted from 2 to 35 days, and was characterized by significant fluctuations in temperature, i.e. from 27°C to 59°C. In the initial mixtures, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was between 10 and 62 mg kg-1; it fell significantly on day 13, and then continuously decreased up to day 102, and subsequently remained low. For all the mixtures, maximal respiration activity was observed in the beginning of composting (231.9 mg CO2-C g-1 day-1). After 23 days, this parameter decreased significantly, and fluctuations subsided. The phytotoxicity of the initial compost mixtures varied from 18% (SW+SM) to 100% (CW+ChM+SM, CW+ChM); however, the trends in the dynamics were similar. After 120 days of composting, 5 of 11 samples were not phytotoxic. After 120 days of composting, each mixture was divided into two parts; one was inoculated with a biopreparation consisting of four microbial strains (Trichoderma asperellum, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens and

  17. A study of type and intensity of disease infecting banana plants Musa sp at Tegalagung village Semanding subdistrict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supiana Dian Nurtjahyani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diseases affecting banana plants are very detrimental to farmers as these can lower production and economic income. The purpose of this study was to determine the type and intensity of the disease affecting banana plants. This research was an observational analytic study that observe and analyze condition or symptoms of diseases affecting banana plants in Tegalagung village, Semanding subdistrict, Tuban as many as 38 samples. Parameters observed were type of disease and measure intensity of the disease, data obtained were analyzed descriptively. Based on the symptoms that occurred on the leaves, the study found four disease types affecting banana plant that were fusarium wilt, bacterial wilt (Blood, Sigatoka leaf spot and stunting disease. The diseases intensity were 50% of Fusarium wilt; 26,66% of bacterial wilt (Blood; 26.32% of Sigatoka leaf spot and 15.38% of stunting disease. Conclusion of the study, the highest intensity of the disease that attacks banana plants is Fusarium wilt as high as 50%.

  18. Plant latex: a promising antifungal agent for post harvest disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, G; Wadhavan, Rashmi; Singh, Sneha; Shukla, Abhilasha; Dhananjaya, K; Ravikumar, K R; Mallesha, H

    2013-12-01

    Bioactive compounds from plant latex are potential source of antifungic against post harvest pathogens. Latex from a total of seven plant species was investigated for its phytochemical and antifungal properties. Six fungi namely Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. terreus, F. solani, P. digitatum and R. arrhizus were isolated from infected fruits and vegetables and tested against various solvent extracts of latex. Analysis of latex extracts with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. Antifungal assay revealed the potential inhibitory activity of petroleum ether extracts against the postharvest fungal isolates. Various degree of sensitivity was observed irrespective of plant species studied with A. terreus and P. digitatum as the most susceptible ones. F. solani and A. fumigatus were moderately sensitive to the latex extracts tested. Among the plants, latex of Thevetia peruviana (75.2%) and Artocarpus heterophyllus (64.8%) were having potential antifungal activity against the isolates followed by Manilkara zapota (51.1%). In conclusion, use of plant latex makes interest to control postharvest fungal diseases and is fitting well with the concept of safety for human health and environment.

  19. Selective dicer suppression in the kidney alters GSK3β/β-catenin pathways promoting a glomerulocystic disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Iervolino

    Full Text Available Dicer is a crucial enzyme for the maturation of miRNAs. Mutations in the Dicer gene are highly associated with Pleuro Pulmonary Blastoma-Family Dysplasia Syndrome (PPB-FDS, OMIM 601200, recently proposed to be renamed Dicer syndrome. Aside from the pulmonary phenotype (blastoma, renal nephroma and thyroid goiter are frequently part of Dicer syndrome. To investigate the renal phenotype, conditional knockout (cKO mice for Dicer in Pax8 expressing cells were generated. Dicer cKO mice progressively develop a glomerulocystic phenotype coupled with urinary concentration impairment, proteinuria and severe renal failure. Higher cellular turnover of the parietal cells of Bowman's capsule precedes the development of the cysts and the primary cilium progressively disappears with cyst-enlargement. Upregulation of GSK3β precedes the development of the glomerulocystic phenotype. Downregulation of β-catenin in the renal cortex and its cytosolic removal in the cells lining the cysts may be associated with observed accumulation of GSK3β. Alterations of β-catenin regulating pathways could promote cystic degeneration as in other models. Thus, miRNAs are fundamental in preserving renal morphology and function. Alteration of the GSK3β/β-catenin pathway could be a crucial mechanism linking miRNA dysregulation and the development of a glomerulocystic disease.

  20. Photobiomodulation Suppresses Alpha-Synuclein-Induced Toxicity in an AAV-Based Rat Genetic Model of Parkinson's Disease.

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    Abid Oueslati

    Full Text Available Converging lines of evidence indicate that near-infrared light treatment, also known as photobiomodulation (PBM, may exert beneficial effects and protect against cellular toxicity and degeneration in several animal models of human pathologies, including neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we report that chronic PMB treatment mitigates dopaminergic loss induced by unilateral overexpression of human α-synuclein (α-syn in the substantia nigra of an AAV-based rat genetic model of Parkinson's disease (PD. In this model, daily exposure of both sides of the rat's head to 808-nm near-infrared light for 28 consecutive days alleviated α-syn-induced motor impairment, as assessed using the cylinder test. This treatment also significantly reduced dopaminergic neuronal loss in the injected substantia nigra and preserved dopaminergic fibers in the ipsilateral striatum. These beneficial effects were sustained for at least 6 weeks after discontinuing the treatment. Together, our data point to PBM as a possible therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PD and other related synucleinopathies.

  1. Medicinal plants used by Burundian traditional healers for the treatment of microbial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngezahayo, Jérémie; Havyarimana, François; Hari, Léonard; Stévigny, Caroline; Duez, Pierre

    2015-09-15

    Infectious diseases represent a serious and worldwide public health problem. They lead to high mortality, especially in non-developed countries. In Burundi, the most frequent infectious diseases are skin and respiratory (mainly in children) infections, diarrhea, added to malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. Local population used mostly traditional herbal medicines, sometimes animal and mineral substances, to fight against these plagues. To survey in different markets and herbal shops in Bujumbura city, medicinal plants sold to treat microbial infections, with particular emphasis on the different practices of traditional healers (THs) regarding plant parts used, methods of preparation and administration, dosage and treatment duration. The ethnobotanical survey was conducted by interviewing, using a pre-set questionnaire, sixty representative healers, belonging to different associations of THs approved and recognised by the Ministry of Health. Each interviewed herbalist also participated in the collection of samples and the determination of the common names of plants. The plausibility of recorded uses has been verified through an extensive literature search. Our informants enabled us to collect 155 different plant species, distributed in 51 families and 139 genera. The most represented families were Asteraceae (20 genera and 25 species), Fabaceae (14 genera and 16 species), Lamiaceae (12 genera and 15 species), Rubiaceae (9 genera and 9 species), Solanaceae (6 genera and 6 species) and Euphorbiaceae (5 genera and 6 families). These plants have been cited to treat 25 different alleged symptoms of microbial diseases through 271 multi-herbal recipes (MUHRs) and 60 mono-herbal recipes (MOHRs). Platostoma rotundifolium (Briq.) A. J. Paton (Lamiaceae), the most cited species, has been reported in the composition of 41 MUHRs, followed by Virectaria major (Schum.) Verdc (Rubiaceae, 39 recipes), Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haw. (Crassulaceae, 37 recipes), Stomatanthes

  2. Identifying the impacts of climate change on key pests and diseases of plant and animal industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, Jo; Aurambout, Jean-Philippe; Finlay, Kyla; Azuloas, Joe; Constable, Fiona; Rijswijk, Bonny Rowles-Van

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Climate change is increasingly recognised as a major threat to natural and agricultural systems. Understanding these threats will enable government and primary industries to better prepare and adapt to climate change. While observations of climate change are well documented, the potential effects on pests, pathogens and their hosts are not clearly understood. To address this, a review of the potential impacts on plant biosecurity was undertaken to determine the effects of climate change on the behaviour and distribution of emergent plant pests and pathogens. The review identified increasing C02 and temperature, decreasing frost events, heavy and unseasonal rains, increased humidity, drought, cyclones and hurricanes, and warmer winter temperatures as influencing the behaviour of plant pests and pathogens. To study the effects of these changes in detail, three key plant biosecurity threats were analysed in case studies; wheat stripe rust, silver leaf whitefly and citrus canker. The predicted distribution of citrus canker was examined with increasing temperature scenarios using the bioclimatic model CLIMEX. The model predicted a southerly shift in the geographic range of the causal organism which would threaten the major southern citrus growing regions in future climates. A similar study on Bluetongue disease of sheep, spread by the Culicoides midge, also predicted a southerly shift in the vector's geographic range. Significant limitations were identified with bioclimatic modelling when examining the effects of climate change on pests and diseases. The model was unable to assess the plant and animal response to increasing temperature in conjunction with the pest. Also the influence of temperature on the life cycle of the organism, pathogenicity of strains, competition with other species, host coverage and the general effect on the biology of the organism could not be assessed. To begin to address this, a dynamic model was constructed using daily

  3. Data on medicinal plants used in Central America to manage diabetes and its sequelae (skin conditions, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, urinary problems and vision loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Giovannini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article is related to the review article “Medicinal plants used in the traditional management of diabetes and its sequelae in Central America: a review” (Giovannini et al., 2016 [1]. We searched publications on the useful plants of Central America in databases and journals by using selected relevant keywords. We then extracted reported uses of medicinal plants within the disease categories: diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, urinary problems, skin diseases and infections, cardiovascular disease, sexual dysfunction, vision loss, and nerve damage. The following countries were included in our definition of Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Data were compiled in a bespoke Access database. Plant names from the published sources were validated against The Plant List (TPL, (The Plant List, 2013 [2] and accepted names and synonyms were extracted. In total, the database includes 607 plant names obtained from the published sources which correspond to 537 plant taxa, 9271 synonyms and 1055 use reports.

  4. Protective role of apigenin on rotenone induced rat model of Parkinson's disease: Suppression of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, Chandran; Sumathi, Thangarajan; Joseph, Leena Dennis

    2017-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra which is associated with oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and apoptosis. Apigenin (AGN), a non-mutagenic flavone found in fruits and vegetables, exhibits a variety of biological effects including anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and free radical scavenging activities. The current study was aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects and molecular mechanisms of AGN in a rat model of PD induced by rotenone (ROT). Unilateral stereotaxic intranigral infusion of ROT caused the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in striatum and substantia nigra. AGN treatment (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) showed a significant improvement in behavioral, biochemical and mitochondrial enzyme activities as compared to ROT exposed rats. The mRNA expression of inflammatory markers and neurotrophic factors was quantified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Administration of AGN significantly attenuated the upregulation of NF-κB gene expression in ROT induced group and prevented the neuroinflammation in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Further, AGN inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF- α, IL-6 and pro-inflammatory enzyme iNOS-1 induced by ROT. Additionally, AGN prevents the reduction of neurotrophic factors BDNF and GDNF mRNA expression in ROT lesioned rats. Immunoblot results illustrated that AGN treatment downregulated α-synuclein aggregation and upregulated the TH protein expression as well as dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) expression in ROT lesioned rats. Thus, the present findings collectively suggest that AGN exerts its neuroprotection in ROT model of PD and may act as an effective agent for treatment of PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Constitutive expression of a fungus-inducible carboxylesterase improves disease resistance in transgenic pepper plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Moonkyung; Cho, Jung Hyun; Seo, Hyo-Hyoun; Lee, Hyun-Hwa; Kang, Ha-Young; Nguyen, Thai Son; Soh, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Young Soon; Kim, Jeong-Il

    2016-08-01

    Resistance against anthracnose fungi was enhanced in transgenic pepper plants that accumulated high levels of a carboxylesterase, PepEST in anthracnose-susceptible fruits, with a concurrent induction of antioxidant enzymes and SA-dependent PR proteins. A pepper esterase gene (PepEST) is highly expressed during the incompatible interaction between ripe fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and a hemibiotrophic anthracnose fungus (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). In this study, we found that exogenous application of recombinant PepEST protein on the surface of the unripe pepper fruits led to a potentiated state for disease resistance in the fruits, including generation of hydrogen peroxide and expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes that encode mostly small proteins with antimicrobial activity. To elucidate the role of PepEST in plant defense, we further developed transgenic pepper plants overexpressing PepEST under the control of CaMV 35S promoter. Molecular analysis confirmed the establishment of three independent transgenic lines carrying single copy of transgenes. The level of PepEST protein was estimated to be approximately 0.002 % of total soluble protein in transgenic fruits. In response to the anthracnose fungus, the transgenic fruits displayed higher expression of PR genes, PR3, PR5, PR10, and PepThi, than non-transgenic control fruits did. Moreover, immunolocalization results showed concurrent localization of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and PR3 proteins, along with the PepEST protein, in the infected region of transgenic fruits. Disease rate analysis revealed significantly low occurrence of anthracnose disease in the transgenic fruits, approximately 30 % of that in non-transgenic fruits. Furthermore, the transgenic plants also exhibited resistance against C. acutatum and C. coccodes. Collectively, our results suggest that overexpression of PepEST in pepper confers enhanced resistance against the anthracnose fungi by activating the defense signaling

  6. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazhila C. Chinsembu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond. Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach. Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L. Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd. Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants.

  7. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-01-01

    Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants.

  8. The treatment of Alzheimer's disease using Chinese medicinal plants: from disease models to potential clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yang; Wang, Qiuhong; Wang, Changfu; Chan, Kelvin; Sun, Yanping; Kuang, Haixue

    2014-03-28

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the sustained higher nervous disorders of the activities and functions of the brain. Due to its heavy burden on society and the patients' families, it is urgent to review the treatments for AD to provide basic data for further research and new drug development. Among these treatments, Chinese Material Medica (CMM) has been traditionally clinical used in China to treat AD for a long time with obvious efficacy. With the further research reports of CMM, new therapeutic materials may be recovered from troves of CMM. However, So far, little or no review work has been reported to conclude anti-AD drugs from CMM in literature. Therefore, a systematic introduction of CMM anti-AD research progress is of great importance and necessity. This paper strives to systematically describe the progress of CMM in the treatment of AD, and lays a basis data for anti-AD drug development from CMM, and provides the essential theoretical support for the further development and utilization of CMM resources through a more comprehensive research of the variety of databases regarding CMM anti-AD effects reports. Literature survey was performed via electronic search (SciFinder®, Pubmed®, Google Scholar and Web of Science) on papers and patents and by systematic research in ethnopharmacological literature at various university libraries. This review mainly introduces the current research on the Chinese Material Medica (CMM) theoretical research on Alzheimer's disease (AD), anti-AD active constituent of CMM, anti-AD effects on AD models, anti-AD mechanism of CMM, and anti-AD effect of CMM formula. Scholars around the world have made studies on the anti-AD molecular mechanism of CMM from different pathways, and have made substantial progress. The progress not only enriched the anti-AD theory of CMM, but also provided clinical practical significance and development prospects in using CMM to treat AD. Western pure drugs cannot replace the advantages of

  9. An Approach Towards Structure Based Antimicrobial Peptide Design for Use in Development of Transgenic Plants: A Strategy for Plant Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Humaira; Datta, Aritreyee; Bhunia, Anirban

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also known as host defense peptides (HDPs), are ubiquitous and vital components of innate defense response that present themselves as potential candidates for drug design, and aim to control plant and animal diseases. Though their application for plant disease management has long been studied with natural AMPs, cytotoxicity and stability related shortcomings for the development of transgenic plants limit their usage. Newer technologies like molecular modelling, NMR spectroscopy and combinatorial chemistry allow screening for potent candidates and provide new avenues for the generation of rationally designed synthetic AMPs with multiple biological functions. Such AMPs can be used for the control of plant diseases that lead to huge yield losses of agriculturally important crop plants, via generation of transgenic plants. Such approaches have gained significant attention in the past decade as a consequence of increasing antibiotic resistance amongst plant pathogens, and the shortcomings of existing strategies that include environmental contamination and human/animal health hazards amongst others. This review summarizes the recent trends and approaches used for employing AMPs, emphasizing on designed/modified ones, and their applications toward agriculture and food technology. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. A novel p38α MAPK inhibitor suppresses brain proinflammatory cytokine up-regulation and attenuates synaptic dysfunction and behavioral deficits in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNamara Laurie K

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An accumulating body of evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that excessive or prolonged increases in proinflammatory cytokine production by activated glia is a contributor to the progression of pathophysiology that is causally linked to synaptic dysfunction and hippocampal behavior deficits in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD. This raises the opportunity for the development of new classes of potentially disease-modifying therapeutics. A logical candidate CNS target is p38α MAPK, a well-established drug discovery molecular target for altering proinflammatory cytokine cascades in peripheral tissue disorders. Activated p38 MAPK is seen in human AD brain tissue and in AD-relevant animal models, and cell culture studies strongly implicate p38 MAPK in the increased production of proinflammatory cytokines by glia activated with human amyloid-beta (Aβ and other disease-relevant stressors. However, the vast majority of small molecule drugs do not have sufficient penetrance of the blood-brain barrier to allow their use as in vivo research tools or as therapeutics for neurodegenerative disorders. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that brain p38α MAPK is a potential in vivo target for orally bioavailable, small molecules capable of suppressing excessive cytokine production by activated glia back towards homeostasis, allowing an improvement in neurologic outcomes. Methods A novel synthetic small molecule based on a molecular scaffold used previously was designed, synthesized, and subjected to analyses to demonstrate its potential in vivo bioavailability, metabolic stability, safety and brain uptake. Testing for in vivo efficacy used an AD-relevant mouse model. Results A novel, CNS-penetrant, non-toxic, orally bioavailable, small molecule inhibitor of p38α MAPK (MW01-2-069A-SRM was developed. Oral administration of the compound at a low dose (2.5 mg/kg resulted in attenuation of

  11. Hyperspectral remote sensing for advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel

    Early detection of disease and insect infestation within crops and precise application of pesticides can help reduce potential production losses, reduce environmental risk, and reduce the cost of farming. The goal of this study was the advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants using hyperspectral remote sensing data captured with a handheld spectroradiometer. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra were captured 10 times over five weeks from plants grown to the vegetative and tuber bulking growth stages. The spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), spectral change (ratio) analysis, partial least squares (PLS), cluster analysis, and vegetative indices. PCA successfully distinguished more heavily diseased plants from healthy and minimally diseased plants using two principal components. Spectral change (ratio) analysis provided wavelengths (490-510, 640, 665-670, 690, 740-750, and 935 nm) most sensitive to early blight infection followed by ANOVA results indicating a highly significant difference (p potato plants.

  12. Plant protein and animal proteins: do they differentially affect cardiovascular disease risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Champagne, Catherine M; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2015-11-01

    Proteins from plant-based compared with animal-based food sources may have different effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Numerous epidemiologic and intervention studies have evaluated their respective health benefits; however, it is difficult to isolate the role of plant or animal protein on CVD risk. This review evaluates the current evidence from observational and intervention studies, focusing on the specific protein-providing foods and populations studied. Dietary protein is derived from many food sources, and each provides a different composite of nonprotein compounds that can also affect CVD risk factors. Increasing the consumption of protein-rich foods also typically results in lower intakes of other nutrients, which may simultaneously influence outcomes. Given these complexities, blanket statements about plant or animal protein may be too general, and greater consideration of the specific protein food sources and the background diet is required. The potential mechanisms responsible for any specific effects of plant and animal protein are similarly multifaceted and include the amino acid content of particular foods, contributions from other nonprotein compounds provided concomitantly by the whole food, and interactions with the gut microbiome. Evidence to date is inconclusive, and additional studies are needed to further advance our understanding of the complexity of plant protein vs. animal protein comparisons. Nonetheless, current evidence supports the idea that CVD risk can be reduced by a dietary pattern that provides more plant sources of protein compared with the typical American diet and also includes animal-based protein foods that are unprocessed and low in saturated fat. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Apoplastic and intracellular plant sugars regulate developmental transitions in witches’ broom disease of cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barau, Joan; Grandis, Adriana; Carvalho, Vinicius Miessler de Andrade; Teixeira, Gleidson Silva; Zaparoli, Gustavo Henrique Alcalá; do Rio, Maria Carolina Scatolin; Rincones, Johana; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Witches’ broom disease (WBD) of cacao differs from other typical hemibiotrophic plant diseases by its unusually long biotrophic phase. Plant carbon sources have been proposed to regulate WBD developmental transitions; however, nothing is known about their availability at the plant–fungus interface, the apoplastic fluid of cacao. Data are provided supporting a role for the dynamics of soluble carbon in the apoplastic fluid in prompting the end of the biotrophic phase of infection. Carbon depletion and the consequent fungal sensing of starvation were identified as key signalling factors at the apoplast. MpNEP2, a fungal effector of host necrosis, was found to be up-regulated in an autophagic-like response to carbon starvation in vitro. In addition, the in vivo artificial manipulation of carbon availability in the apoplastic fluid considerably modulated both its expression and plant necrosis rate. Strikingly, infected cacao tissues accumulated intracellular hexoses, and showed stunted photosynthesis and the up-regulation of senescence markers immediately prior to the transition to the necrotrophic phase. These opposite findings of carbon depletion and accumulation in different host cell compartments are discussed within the frame of WBD development. A model is suggested to explain phase transition as a synergic outcome of fungal-related factors released upon sensing of extracellular carbon starvation, and an early senescence of infected tissues probably triggered by intracellular sugar accumulation. PMID:25540440

  14. Antibacterial efficacies of some plant extracts against Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases of farmed catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert P. Ekanem

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases are responsible for mortalities of some farmed catfish in Nigeria. The objective of the study is to investigate the efficacies of extracts of some plants against Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases of Heterobranchus longifilis. Ethanol extracts of Phyllanthus amarus, Allium sativum, Artemisia annua, Citrus limon, Moringa oleifera, Allium cepa and Azadirachta indica were tested against Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas flourescens of H. longifilis by disc diffusion assay. Extracts of P. amarus, A. sativum, A. annua and C. limon were significantly (P<0.05 more sensitive to A. hydrophila and P. flourescens than M. oleifera, A. cepa and A. indica which were effective against P. flourescens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the extracts were 25mg/ml for P. amarus and A. annua; 25 and 100mg/ml for C. lemon and A. cepa respectively and 50mg/ml for A. indica.  Alkaloid was demonstrated in all plants except A. annua by qualitative methods. Moderate amount (++ of cardiac glycosides was demonstrated in A. sativum, M. oleifera and P. amarus. Saponin (+++ was present in M. oleifera and A. indica while, tannin (++ was present in M. oleifera, P. amarus and A. indica respectively. Phlobatanins and Anthraquinones (++ were present in P. amarus and M. oleifera respectively.  Extracts of aforementioned plants have potentials as therapy against Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas flourescens of farmed catfish.

  15. Dipping Strawberry Plants in Fungicides before Planting to Control Anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Hyeon Nam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose crown rot (ACR, caused by Colletotrichum fructicola, is a serious disease of strawberry in Korea. The primary inoculums of ACR were symptomless strawberry plants, plant debris, and other host plants. To effectively control anthracnose in symptomless transplanted strawberries, it is necessary to use diseasefree plants, detect the disease early, and apply a fungicide. Therefore, in 2010 and 2011, we evaluated the efficacy of pre-plant fungicide dips by using strawberry transplants infected by C. fructicola for the control of anthracnose. Dipping plants in prochloraz-Mn for 10 min before planting was most effective for controlling anthracnose in symptomless strawberry plants and resulted in more than 76% control efficacy. Azoxystrobin showed a control efficacy of over 40%, but plants treated with pyraclostrobin, mancozeb and iminoctadine tris showed high disease severity. The control efficacy of the dip treatment with prochloraz-Mn did not differ with temperature and time. Treatment with prochloraz-Mn for more than an hour caused growth suppression in strawberry plants. Therefore, the development of anthracnose can be effectively reduced by dipping strawberry plants for 10 min in prochloraz-Mn before planting.

  16. The pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear plants with boiling water reactors have a safety containment with a pressure suppression system (PSS). Proceeding on significant self-developments, today the three PSS-lines of General Electric Co. (GE), Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) and ASEA-ATOM are predominant, which are currently represented by the MARK III type, the KWU type 72 and the BWR 75 containment. In addition, there are special developments for the nuclear ship propulsion and for the pressurized water reactors in the Soviet Union. Key design values of the PSS allow a first valuation of its loads during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. (orig.) [de

  17. Epidemiology: Past, Present, and Future Impacts on Understanding Disease Dynamics and Improving Plant Disease Management-A Summary of Focus Issue Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiambo, P S; Yuen, J; van den Bosch, F; Madden, L V

    2017-10-01

    Epidemiology has made significant contributions to plant pathology by elucidating the general principles underlying the development of disease epidemics. This has resulted in a greatly improved theoretical and empirical understanding of the dynamics of disease epidemics in time and space, predictions of disease outbreaks or the need for disease control in real-time basis, and tactical and strategic solutions to disease problems. Availability of high-resolution experimental data at multiple temporal and spatial scales has now provided a platform to test and validate theories on the spread of diseases at a wide range of spatial scales ranging from the local to the landscape level. Relatively new approaches in plant disease epidemiology, ranging from network to information theory, coupled with the availability of large-scale datasets and the rapid development of computer technology, are leading to revolutionary thinking about epidemics that can result in considerable improvement of strategic and tactical decision making in the control and management of plant diseases. Methods that were previously restricted to topics such as population biology or evolution are now being employed in epidemiology to enable a better understanding of the forces that drive the development of plant disease epidemics in space and time. This Focus Issue of Phytopathology features research articles that address broad themes in epidemiology including social and political consequences of disease epidemics, decision theory and support, pathogen dispersal and disease spread, disease assessment and pathogen biology and disease resistance. It is important to emphasize that these articles are just a sample of the types of research projects that are relevant to epidemiology. Below, we provide a succinct summary of the articles that are published in this Focus Issue .

  18. Formulations of the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape and improve plant vigor in field trials conducted at separate locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in The People’s Republic of China. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen in field trials conducted at two independent locations....

  19. Effect of a Bacterial Grass Culture on the Plant Growth and Disease Control in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Seong Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the plant growth-promoting and biocontrol potential of a grass culture with Paenibacillus ehimensis KWN8 on tomato. For this experiment, treatments of a chemical fertilizer (F, a bacterial grass culture (G, a 1/3 volume of G plus 2/3 F (GF, and F plus a synthetic fungicide (FSf were applied to tomato leaves and roots. The result showed that the severity of Alternariasolani and Botrytiscinerea symptoms were significantly reduced after the application of the bacterial grass culture (G and GF and FSf. In addition, root mortality in G and GF was lower compared to F. Tomato plants treated with G or GF had better vegetative growth and yield compared to F. Application of G affected the fungal and bacterial populations in the soil. In conclusion, treatment with a bacterial grass culture decreased disease severity and increased tomato growth parameters. However, there were no statistically significant correlations between disease occurrence and tomato yields. This experiment presents the possibility to manage diseases of tomato in an environmentally friendly manner and to also increase the yield of tomato by using a grass culture broth containing P. ehimensis KWN38.

  20. Effects of Phytophthora cinnamomi isolate, inoculum delivery method, flood, and drought on vigor, disease severity and mortality of blueberry plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four studies evaluated the effect of Phytophthora cinnamomi isolates, inoculum delivery methods, and flood and drought conditions on vigor, disease severity scores, and survival of blueberry plants grown in pots in the greenhouse. Phytophthora cinnamomi isolates were obtained from blueberry plants ...

  1. Restructuring of Endophytic Bacterial Communities in Grapevine Yellows-Diseased and Recovered Vitis vinifera L. Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgari, Daniela; Casati, Paola; Crepaldi, Paola; Daffonchio, Daniele; Quaglino, Fabio; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Bianco, Piero Attilio

    2011-01-01

    Length heterogeneity-PCR assays, combined with statistical analyses, highlighted that the endophytic bacterial community associated with healthy grapevines was characterized by a greater diversity than that present in diseased and recovered plants. The findings suggest that phytoplasmas can restructure the bacterial community by selecting endophytic strains that could elicit a plant defense response. PMID:21622794

  2. Induced mutations and in vitro culture techniques for improving crop plant resistance to diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This co-ordinated research program was undertaken in search of in vitro techniques to increase the resistance of plants to disease. The studies performed under the program ranged from the preparation of materials for mass screening to screening of mutagen-treated cells, tissues, organs or plantlets for resistance to viruses, fungi and other pathogens. The characteristics of the resulting mutants were evaluated to determine the relevance of these techniques for plant breeding. The present document contains the papers presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting of the program, as well as a summary of the conclusions and recommendations drawn from the work. The nine individual papers have been input separately to the database. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer′s disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Obulesu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer′s disease (AD is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree, Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree, Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod, Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium, Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm, and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage.

  4. Proteomics and plant disease: advances in combating a major threat to the global food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampitsch, Christof; Bykova, Natalia V

    2012-02-01

    The study of plant disease and immunity is benefiting tremendously from proteomics. Parallel streams of research from model systems, from pathogens in vitro and from the relevant pathogen-crop interactions themselves have begun to reveal a model of how plants succumb to invading pathogens and how they defend themselves without the benefit of a circulating immune system. In this review, we discuss the contribution of proteomics to these advances, drawing mainly on examples from crop-fungus interactions, from Arabidopsis-bacteria interactions, from elicitor-based model systems and from pathogen studies, to highlight also the important contribution of non-crop systems to advancing crop protection. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Metabolic patterns of bacterial communities in aerobic compost teas associated with potential biocontrol of soilborne plant diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catello PANE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerated compost teas (ACTs are organic products obtained by forced aeration of composts suspended in liquid phase. These products may be biological control tools alternative to synthetic fungicides, because ACTs contain antagonistic microorganisms. In this study, soilborne disease suppressive ability of seven water ACTs, extracted from five horticultural residue-based composts, from an animal waste anaerobic solid digestate and from a commercial municipal waste compost, was assessed using in vitro and in vivo systems. All the ACTs inhibited in vitro growth of Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia minor, Sclerotium rolfsii and Botrytis cinerea. Filter or thermal sterilization eliminated in vitro suppression, suggesting that microorganisms play key roles in pathogen inhibition. Drenching applications of raw ACTs have potential to reduced disease symptoms caused by R. solani on savoy cabbage, S. minor on lettuce and S. rolfsii on pepper, improved the biomass production and did not show any sign of phytotoxicity. Both in vitro and in vivo suppressiveness of ACTs may be explained by antagonistic  bacterial communities that provide general suppression activities. The metabolic BIOLOG GN and GP profiles reflected the functional potential of the numerically dominant members of the microbial communities used as inoculum. This study has demonstrated that useful resident microorganisms, including mainly Gram-positive and Gram-negative antagonistic bacteria, are likely to be responsible for biological control activity of ACTs.

  6. Scale-Dependent Assessment of Relative Disease Resistance to Plant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Skelsey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenotyping trials may not take into account sufficient spatial context to infer quantitative disease resistance of recommended varieties in commercial production settings. Recent ecological theory—the dispersal scaling hypothesis—provides evidence that host heterogeneity and scale of host heterogeneity interact in a predictable and straightforward manner to produce a unimodal (“humpbacked” distribution of epidemic outcomes. This suggests that the intrinsic artificiality (scale and design of experimental set-ups may lead to spurious conclusions regarding the resistance of selected elite cultivars, due to the failure of experimental efforts to accurately represent disease pressure in real agricultural situations. In this model-based study we investigate the interaction of host heterogeneity and scale as a confounding factor in the inference from ex-situ assessment of quantitative disease resistance to commercial production settings. We use standard modelling approaches in plant disease epidemiology and a number of different agronomic scenarios. Model results revealed that the interaction of heterogeneity and scale is a determinant of relative varietal performance under epidemic conditions. This is a previously unreported phenomenon that could provide a new basis for informing the design of future phenotyping platforms, and optimising the scale at which quantitative disease resistance is assessed.

  7. Prospects for the development of disease-resistant temperate fruit plants by mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.I.; Wilson, D.

    1977-01-01

    In most of the present conventional fruit breeding programmes disease resistance has become an important objective. Progress is slow because of the long generation time and the genetic complexity of most tree fruit species. The complexity is such that cultivars can only be maintained as clones and it is unlikely that identical genotypes could ever be sexually produced. Hence, the prospect of changing a few characters in an otherwise unchanged genetic background, as might be done by somatic mutation, is attractive. The occurence of natural mutations in some fruit cultivars and the induction of mutations in others demonstrates that such an approach is possible for some characters at least and these may include disease resistance. The yet limited success of mutation breeding in fruit crops may be due in part to the innate difficulties with this group of plants but may also be a consequence of the faulty methods that have been used in the past. New techniques of inducing and selecting mutants in fruit trees are reported, with particular reference to disease resistance and some basic guidelines for success are suggested. The type of disease resistance required will undoubtedly affect the approach used. In theory, monogenic resistance seems more likely to respond to change by mutation induction than polygenic resistance. However, the multiple effects seen in the natural spur-type apple mutants and in the preliminary results with induced apple mutations at Long Ashton suggest that field resistance to some major diseases may not be an unreasonable target

  8. An inventory of plants commonly used in the treatment of some disease conditions in Ogbomoso, South West, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olorunnisola, O S; Adetutu, A; Afolayan, A J

    2015-02-23

    This study was designed to take an inventory of medicinal plants, recipes and methods commonly used traditionally to treat some cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases in five local government areas in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. First-hand field survey through semi-structured questionnaire was employed in the 5 months study. A total of 101 plant species (medicinal plants (80.90%), spices (17.5%) and vegetables (1.53%)) belonging to 51 different families were mentioned for the treatment of various types of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. The survey revealed that 51.5% of the plants mentioned are used for the management of inflammatory diseases, 34.7% for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and 11.9% of the plants are used for the treatment of both diseases. Euphorbiaceae (7.9%) are the most frequently used families of plants for the treatment of the various types of diseases mentioned, followed by Caesalpiaceae, (4.9%), Apocynoceae (4.9%) and Poaceae (4.9%). Fifty-nine recipes are usually prepared for the treatment of the six types of inflammatory diseases while twenty-three recipes are reportedly used for the treatment of the four types of cardiovascular diseases mentioned in this study. The recipes covered in the survey were mostly prepared from leaves (37.6%) and roots (23.8%) decoction or infusions. Medications are mostly administered orally with few numbers of the recipes showing side effect. The study has documented indigenous plants in Ogbomoso as a potential source for the development of new drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Arrest of chronic acid suppressant drug use after successful Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with peptic ulcer disease: a six-month follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurenkamp, G. J.; Grundmeijer, H. G.; van der Ende, A.; Tytgat, G. N.; Assendelft, W. J.; van der Hulst, R. W.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It remains controversial whether successful H. pylori eradication leads to relief of dyspepsia and the subsequent arrest or tapering of acid-suppressant drug therapy, or to an aggravation of acid-related dyspepsia requiring more acid-suppressant drug intake. AIM: To evaluate

  10. Suppression of the β-carotene hydroxylase gene increases β-carotene content and tolerance to abiotic stress in transgenic sweetpotato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Le; Ji, Chang Yoon; Kim, Sun Ha; Ke, Qingbo; Park, Sung-Chul; Kim, Ho Soo; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Lee, Joon Seol; Park, Woo Sung; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Deng, Xiping; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2017-08-01

    β-carotene, a carotenoid that plays a key photo-protective role in plants is converted into zeaxanthin by β-carotene hydroxylase (CHY-β). Previous work showed that down-regulation of IbCHY-β by RNA interference (RNAi) results in higher levels of β-carotene and total carotenoids, as well as salt stress tolerance, in cultured transgenic sweetpotato cells. In this study, we introduced the RNAi-IbCHY-β construct into a white-fleshed sweetpotato cultivar (cv. Yulmi) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Among the 13 resultant transgenic sweetpotato plants (referred to as RC plants), three lines were selected for further characterization on the basis of IbCHY-β transcript levels. The RC plants had orange flesh, total carotenoid and β-carotene contents in storage roots were 2-fold and 16-fold higher, respectively, than those of non-transgenic (NT) plants. Unlike storage roots, total carotenoid and β-carotene levels in the leaves of RC plants were slightly increased compared to NT plants. The leaves of RC plants also exhibited tolerance to methyl viologen (MV)-mediated oxidative stress, which was associated with higher 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity. In addition, RC plants maintained higher levels of chlorophyll and higher photosystem II efficiency than NT plants after 250 mM NaCl stress. Yield of storage roots did not differ significantly between RC and NT plants. These observations suggest that RC plants might be useful as a nutritious and environmental stress-tolerant crop on marginal lands around the world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Persistence and ergodicity of plant disease model with markov conversion and impulsive toxicant input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wencai; Li, Juan; Zhang, Tongqian; Meng, Xinzhu; Zhang, Tonghua

    2017-07-01

    Taking into account of both white and colored noises, a stochastic mathematical model with impulsive toxicant input is formulated. Based on this model, we investigate dynamics, such as the persistence and ergodicity, of plant infectious disease model with Markov conversion in a polluted environment. The thresholds of extinction and persistence in mean are obtained. By using Lyapunov functions, we prove that the system is ergodic and has a stationary distribution under certain sufficient conditions. Finally, numerical simulations are employed to illustrate our theoretical analysis.

  12. Evolution of high yielding chickpea varieties, having improved plant type and disease resistance, through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, M.; Hussan, M.; Haq, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The breeding programme on the use of induced mutations, in chickpea for genetic variability for better plant type, grain yield and disease resistance has been started. The chickpea mutant variety is one of the leading varieties being extensively grown throughout Pakistan and has played its role in stabilizing the chickpea production in the country. Four chickpea varieties were treated, each with two dosed of gamma rays. The main purpose of the mutagenic treatment of these varieties/cultivars, was induce multiple resistance. (A.B.)

  13. Dissection and Manipulation of LRR Domains in Plant Disease Resistance Gene Products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, Andrew [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-11-28

    Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein domains offer a readily diversifiable platform - literally, an extended protein surface - for specific binding of very diverse ligands. The project addressed the following overlapping research questions: How do leucine-rich repeat proteins recognize their cognate ligands? What are the intra- and inter-molecular transitions that occur that cause transmembrane LRR proteins to switch between off and on states? How do plants use LRR receptor proteins to activate disease resistance? Can we synthetically evolve new LRR proteins that have acquired new ligand specificities?

  14. Overview of medicinal plants used for cardiovascular system disorders and diseases in ethnobotany of different areas in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baharvand-Ahmadi Babak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Today, cardiovascular diseases are the prominent cause of death in industrialized countries which include a variety of diseases such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, thromboembolism, coronary heart disease, heart failure, etc. Recent research findings haveshown that not only the extent of cultivation and production of medicinal plants have not beenreduced, but also day-to-day production and consumption have increased. In traditional botanicalknowledge, herbal medicines are used for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. In this study,we sought to gather and report medicinal plants used to treat these diseases in different regionsof Iran.Methods: The articles published about ethnobotanical study of cardiovascular diseases in variousregions of Iran, such as Arasbaran, Sistan, Kashan, Kerman, Isfahan Mobarakeh, Lorestan andIlam were prepared and summarized.Results: The results of ethnobotanical studies of various regions of Iran, such as Arasbaran, Sistan,Kashan, Kerman, Isfahan Mobarakeh, Lorestan and Ilam were gathered. The results showed thatsumac plants, barberry, yarrow, wild cucumber, horsetail, Eastern grape, hawthorn, wild rose,spinach, jujube, buckwheat, chamomile, chicory, thistle, Mary peas, nightshade, verbena, sorrel ,cherry, citrullus colocynthis, Peganum harmala, sesame and so many other plants are used for thetreatment of cardiovascular diseases and disorders.Conclusion: Herbal medicines are used effectively for some cardiovascular diseases. Rigoroustraining of patients to take precautions and drug interactions into account and to avoid thearbitrary use of medicinal plants is very important.

  15. Thyroid suppression test with dextrothyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, D.; Fridman, J.; Ribeiro, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    The classic thyroid suppression test with triiodothyronine (l-T 3 ) has been shown to be efficient as an auxiliary method in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, but should not be performed on elderly patients or on those with heart disease or a tendency to tachycardia. Since these subjects seem able to support a short period of dextro-thyronine (d-T 4 ) feeding, we compared the effect of d-T 4 and l-T 3 on the 24 hours thyroid uptake in euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects. After basal radio-iodine uptake determination, 99 patients without hyperthyroidism and 27 with Graves' disease were randomly divided in 2 groups; one received 100μg of l-T 3 per day and the other 4 mg of d-T 4 per day, both groups being treated for a period of 10 days. At the end of this suppression period the 24 hours radio-iodine uptake was measured again and the percentual suppression index (S.I.) calculated. Since the comparison of the two groups showed no difference between the suppressive effect of l-T 3 and d-T 4 in euthyroid subjects, while dextro-thyronine, as levo-triiodothyronine, did not suppress the 24 hours uptake of hyperthyroid patients, l-T 3 or d-T 4 can be used interchangeably to test thyroid suppressibility. In the euthyroid subjects the normal range for the post-suppression uptake was 0-17.1% and for the suppression index 54,7.100% [pt

  16. Bacterial disease management: challenges, experience, innovation and future prospects: Challenges in Bacterial Molecular Plant Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundin, George W; Castiblanco, Luisa F; Yuan, Xiaochen; Zeng, Quan; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2016-12-01

    Plant diseases caused by bacterial pathogens place major constraints on crop production and cause significant annual losses on a global scale. The attainment of consistent effective management of these diseases can be extremely difficult, and management potential is often affected by grower reliance on highly disease-susceptible cultivars because of consumer preferences, and by environmental conditions favouring pathogen development. New and emerging bacterial disease problems (e.g. zebra chip of potato) and established problems in new geographical regions (e.g. bacterial canker of kiwifruit in New Zealand) grab the headlines, but the list of bacterial disease problems with few effective management options is long. The ever-increasing global human population requires the continued stable production of a safe food supply with greater yields because of the shrinking areas of arable land. One major facet in the maintenance of the sustainability of crop production systems with predictable yields involves the identification and deployment of sustainable disease management solutions for bacterial diseases. In addition, the identification of novel management tactics has also come to the fore because of the increasing evolution of resistance to existing bactericides. A number of central research foci, involving basic research to identify critical pathogen targets for control, novel methodologies and methods of delivery, are emerging that will provide a strong basis for bacterial disease management into the future. Near-term solutions are desperately needed. Are there replacement materials for existing bactericides that can provide effective disease management under field conditions? Experience should inform the future. With prior knowledge of bactericide resistance issues evolving in pathogens, how will this affect the deployment of newer compounds and biological controls? Knowledge is critical. A comprehensive understanding of bacterial pathosystems is required to not

  17. Endophytic Bacteria Improve Plant Growth, Symbiotic Performance of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and Induce Suppression of Root Rot Caused by Fusarium solani under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilfuza Egamberdieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity causes disturbance in symbiotic performance of plants, and increases susceptibility of plants to soil-borne pathogens. Endophytic bacteria are an essential determinant of cross-tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. The aim of this study was to isolate non–rhizobial endophytic bacteria from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., and to assess their ability to improve plant growth and symbiotic performance, and to control root rot in chickpea under saline soil conditions. A total of 40 bacterial isolates from internal root tissues of chickpea grown in salinated soil were isolated. Four bacterial isolates, namely Bacillus cereus NUU1, Achromobacter xylosoxidans NUU2, Bacillus thuringiensis NUU3, and Bacillus subtilis NUU4 colonizing root tissue demonstrated plant beneficial traits and/or antagonistic activity against F. solani and thus were characterized in more detail. The strain B. subtilis NUU4 proved significant plant growth promotion capabilities, improved symbiotic performance of host plant with rhizobia, and promoted yield under saline soil as compared to untreated control plants under field conditions. A combined inoculation of chickpea with M. ciceri IC53 and B. subtilis NUU4 decreased H2O2 concentrations and increased proline contents compared to the un-inoculated plants indicating an alleviation of adverse effects of salt stress. Furthermore, the bacterial isolate was capable to reduce the infection rate of root rot in chickpea caused by F. solani. This is the first report of F. solani causing root rot of chickpea in a salinated soil of Uzbekistan. Our findings demonstrated that the endophytic B. subtilis strain NUU4 provides high potentials as a stimulator for plant growth and as biological control agent of chickpea root rot under saline soil conditions. These multiple relationships could provide promising practical approaches to increase the productivity of legumes under salt stress.

  18. Determination of the appetite suppressant P57 in Hoodia gordonii plant extracts and dietary supplements by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-MSD-TOF) and LC-UV methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Pawar, Rahul S; Shukla, Yatin J; Schaneberg, Brian; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2006-01-01

    Hoodia gordonii is traditionally used in South Africa for its appetite suppressant properties. P57AS3 (P57), an oxypregnane steroidal glycoside, is the only reported active constituent from this plant as an appetite suppressant. Effective quality control of these extracts or products requires rapid methods to determine P57 content. New methods of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and LC-UV for analysis of P57 from H. gordonii have been developed. The quantitative determination of P57 was achieved with a Phenomenex Gemini (Torrance, CA) reversed-phase column using gradient mobile phase of water and acetonitrile, both containing 0.1% acetic acid. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, and limits of detection and quantification. Good results were obtained in terms of repeatability (relative standard deviation <5.0%) and recovery (98.5-103.5%). The developed methods were applied to the determination of P57 for H. gordonii plant samples, one related genus (Opuntia ficus-indica), and dietary supplements that claim to contain H. gordonii.

  19. Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Elaine Cristina Betoni

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Searches for substances with antimicrobial activity are frequent, and medicinal plants have been considered interesting by some researchers since they are frequently used in popular medicine as remedies for many infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to verify the synergism between 13 antimicrobial drugs and 8 plant extracts - "guaco" (Mikania glomerata, guava (Psidium guajava, clove (Syzygium aromaticum, garlic (Allium sativum, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus, ginger (Zingiber officinale, "carqueja" (Baccharis trimera, and mint (Mentha piperita - against Staphylococcus aureus strains, and for this purpose, the disk method was the antimicrobial susceptibility test performed. Petri dishes were prepared with or without dilution of plant extracts at sub-inhibitory concentrations in Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA, and the inhibitory zones were recorded in millimeters. In vitro anti-Staphylococcus aureus activities of the extracts were confirmed, and synergism was verified for all the extracts; clove, guava, and lemongrass presented the highest synergism rate with antimicrobial drugs, while ginger and garlic showed limited synergistic capacity.

  20. Fungal disease detection in plants: Traditional assays, novel diagnostic techniques and biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Monalisa; Ray, Asit; Dash, Swagatika; Mishra, Abtar; Achary, K Gopinath; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Singh, Shikha

    2017-01-15

    Fungal diseases in commercially important plants results in a significant reduction in both quality and yield, often leading to the loss of an entire plant. In order to minimize the losses, it is essential to detect and identify the pathogens at an early stage. Early detection and accurate identification of pathogens can control the spread of infection. The present article provides a comprehensive overview of conventional methods, current trends and advances in fungal pathogen detection with an emphasis on biosensors. Traditional techniques are the "gold standard" in fungal detection which relies on symptoms, culture-based, morphological observation and biochemical identifications. In recent times, with the advancement of biotechnology, molecular and immunological approaches have revolutionized fungal disease detection. But the drawback lies in the fact that these methods require specific and expensive equipments. Thus, there is an urgent need for rapid, reliable, sensitive, cost effective and easy to use diagnostic methods for fungal pathogen detection. Biosensors would become a promising and attractive alternative, but they still have to be subjected to some modifications, improvements and proper validation for on-field use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An antibody that confers plant disease resistance targets a membrane-bound glyoxal oxidase in Fusarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiu-Shi; Xing, Shu; Li, He-Ping; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Qu, Bo; Jiang, Jin-He; Fan, Chao; Yang, Peng; Liu, Jin-Long; Hu, Zu-Quan; Xue, Sheng; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2016-05-01

    Plant germplasm resources with natural resistance against globally important toxigenic Fusarium are inadequate. CWP2, a Fusarium genus-specific antibody, confers durable resistance to different Fusarium pathogens that infect cereals and other crops, producing mycotoxins. However, the nature of the CWP2 target is not known. Thus, investigation of the gene coding for the CWP2 antibody target will likely provide critical insights into the mechanism underlying the resistance mediated by this disease-resistance antibody. Immunoblots and mass spectrometry analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels containing cell wall proteins from Fusarium graminearum (Fg) revealed that a glyoxal oxidase (GLX) is the CWP2 antigen. Cellular localization studies showed that GLX is localized to the plasma membrane. This GLX efficiently catalyzes hydrogen peroxide production; this enzymatic activity was specifically inhibited by the CWP2 antibody. GLX-deletion strains of Fg, F. verticillioides (Fv) and F. oxysporum had significantly reduced virulence on plants. The GLX-deletion Fg and Fv strains had markedly reduced mycotoxin accumulation, and the expression of key genes in mycotoxin metabolism was downregulated. This study reveals a single gene-encoded and highly conserved cellular surface antigen that is specifically recognized by the disease-resistance antibody CWP2 and regulates both virulence and mycotoxin biosynthesis in Fusarium species. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Contribution of nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide exposure from power plant emissions on respiratory symptom and disease prevalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amster, Eric D.; Haim, Maayan; Dubnov, Jonathan; Broday, David M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the association between exposure to ambient NO x and SO 2 originating from power plant emissions and prevalence of obstructive pulmonary disease and related symptoms. The Orot Rabin coal-fired power plant is the largest power generating facility in the Eastern Mediterranean. Two novel methods assessing exposure to power plant-specific emissions were estimated for 2244 participants who completed the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. The “source approach” modeled emissions traced back to the power plant while the “event approach” identified peak exposures from power plant plume events. Respiratory symptoms, but not prevalence of asthma and COPD, were associated with estimates of power plant NO x emissions. The “source approach” yielded a better estimate of exposure to power plant emissions and showed a stronger dose–response relationship with outcomes. Calculating the portion of ambient pollution attributed to power plants emissions can be useful for air quality management purposes and targeted abatement programs. -- Highlights: • Two methods assessing NO x and SO 2 exposure attributed to a coal-fired power plant are utilized. • Exposure estimates are compared with respiratory outcomes in 2244 participants. • Power plant nitrogen oxide emissions are associated with respiratory symptoms. • Stack emission models correlated closest with health outcomes. -- Chronic cough, nocturnal dyspnea, chronic phlegm, and shortness of breath were significantly associated with exposure estimates of power plant-specific NO x emissions

  3. DEP domain-containing mTOR-interacting protein suppresses lipogenesis and ameliorates hepatic steatosis and acute-on-chronic liver injury in alcoholic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanqing; Shen, Feng; Sherban, Alex; Nocon, Allison; Li, Yu; Wang, Hua; Xu, Ming-Jiang; Rui, Xianliang; Han, Jinyan; Jiang, Bingbing; Lee, Donghwan; Li, Na; Keyhani-Nejad, Farnaz; Fan, Jian-Gao; Liu, Feng; Kamat, Amrita; Musi, Nicolas; Guarente, Leonard; Pacher, Pal; Gao, Bin; Zang, Mengwei

    2018-02-19

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by lipid accumulation and liver injury. However, how chronic alcohol consumption causes hepatic lipid accumulation remains elusive. The present study demonstrates that activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) plays a causal role in alcoholic steatosis, inflammation, and liver injury. Chronic-plus-binge ethanol feeding led to hyperactivation of mTORC1, as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream kinase S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) in hepatocytes. Aberrant activation of mTORC1 was likely attributed to the defects of the DEP domain-containing mTOR-interacting protein (DEPTOR) and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in the liver of chronic-plus-binge ethanol-fed mice and in the liver of patients with ALD. Conversely, adenoviral overexpression of hepatic DEPTOR suppressed mTORC1 signaling and ameliorated alcoholic hepatosteatosis, inflammation, and acute-on-chronic liver injury. Mechanistically, the lipid-lowering effect of hepatic DEPTOR was attributable to decreased proteolytic processing, nuclear translocation, and transcriptional activity of the lipogenic transcription factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1). DEPTOR-dependent inhibition of mTORC1 also attenuated alcohol-induced cytoplasmic accumulation of the lipogenic regulator lipin 1 and prevented alcohol-mediated inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. Pharmacological intervention with rapamycin alleviated the ability of alcohol to up-regulate lipogenesis, to down-regulate fatty acid oxidation, and to induce steatogenic phenotypes. Chronic-plus-binge ethanol feeding led to activation of SREBP-1 and lipin 1 through S6K1-dependent and independent mechanisms. Furthermore, hepatocyte-specific deletion of SIRT1 disrupted DEPTOR function, enhanced mTORC1 activity, and exacerbated alcoholic fatty liver, inflammation, and liver injury in mice. The dysregulation of SIRT1

  4. Altered Activation in Cerebellum Contralateral to Unilateral Thalamotomy May Mediate Tremor Suppression in Parkinson's Disease: A Short-Term Regional Homogeneity fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Wen

    Full Text Available Ventral intermediate nucleus thalamotomy is an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease tremor. However, its mechanism is still unclear.We used resting-state fMRI to investigate short-term ReHo changes after unilateral thalamotomy in tremor-dominant PD, and to speculate about its possible mechanism on tremor suppression.26 patients and 31 healthy subjects (HS were recruited. Patients were divided into two groups according to right- (rPD and left-side (lPD thalamotomy. Tremor was assessed using the 7-item scale from the Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale motor score (mUPDRS. Patients were scanned using resting state fMRI after 12h withdrawal of medication, both preoperatively (PDpre and 7- day postoperatively (PDpost, whereas healthy subjects were scanned once. The regions associated with tremor and altered ReHo due to thalamic ablation were examined.The impact of unilateral VIM thalamotomy was characterized in the frontal, parietal, temporal regions, basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum. Compared with PDpre, significantly reduced ReHo was found in the left cerebellum in patients with rPDpost, and slightly decreased ReHo in the cerebellum vermis in patients with lPDpost, which was significantly higher than HS. We demonstrated a positive correlation between the ReHo values in the cerebellum (in rPD, peak coordinate [-12, -54, -21], R = 0.64, P = 0.0025, and peak coordinate [-9, -54, -18], R = 0.71, P = 0.0025; in lPD, peak coordinate [3, -45, -15], R = 0.71, P = 0.004 in the pre-surgical condition, changes of ReHo induced by thalamotomy (in rPD, R = 0.63, P = 0.021, R = 0.6, P = 0.009; in lPD, R = 0.58, P = 0.028 and tremor scores contralateral to the surgical side, respectively.The specific area that may be associated with PD tremor and altered ReHo due to thalamic ablation is the cerebellum. The neural basis underlying thalamotomy is complex; cerebellum involvement is far beyond cerebello-thalamic tract breakage.

  5. A rapid non invasive L-DOPA-¹³C breath test for optimally suppressing extracerebral AADC enzyme activity - toward individualizing carbidopa therapy in Parkinson’s disease.

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    Modak, Anil; Durso, Raymon; Josephs, Ephraim; Rosen, David

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral carbidopa (CD) levels directly impact on central dopamine (DA) production in Parkinson disease (PD) through extracerebral inhibition of dopa decarboxylase (AADC) resulting in an increase in levodopa (LD) bioavailability. Recent data suggests that higher CD doses than those presently used in PD treatment may result in improved clinical response. Optimizing CD doses in individual patients may, therefore, result in ideal individualized treatment. A single center, randomized, double-blind study was carried out recruiting 5 Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients already on LD/CD and 1 treatment näve PD patient using stable isotope labeled LD-1-¹³C as a substrate for a noninvasive breath test to evaluate individual AADC enzyme activity. Each patient was studied five times, receiving 200 mg LD-¹³C at each visit along with one of five randomized CD doses (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg). The metabolite ¹³CO₂ in breath was measured for evaluating AADC enzyme activity and plasma metabolite levels for LD-¹³C and homovanillic acid (HVA) were measured for 4 hours. HVA in plasma and ¹³CO₂ in breath are metabolic products of LD. We found a significant positive correlation of ¹³CO₂ DOB AUC0-240 with serum HVA AUC0-240 following the oral dose of LD-1-¹³C for all 5 doses of CD (r² = 0.9378). With increasing inhibition of AADC enzyme activity with CD, we observed an increase in the plasma concentration of LD.We found an inverse correlation of the 13CO2 DOB AUC with serum LD-¹³C AUC. Our studies indicate the optimal dose of CD for maximal suppression of AADC enzyme activity can be determined for each individual from ¹³CO₂ generation in breath. The LD-breath test can be a useful noninvasive diagnostic tool for evaluation of AADC enzyme activity using the biomarker ¹³CO₂ in breath, a first step in personalizing CD doses for PD patients.

  6. Sites of infection by pythium species in rice seedlings and effects of plant age and water depth on disease development.

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    Chun, S C; Schneider, R W

    1998-12-01

    ABSTRACT Seedling disease, caused primarily by several species of Pythium, is one of the major constraints to water-seeded rice production in Louisiana. The disease, also known as water-mold disease, seed rot, and seedling damping-off, causes stand reductions and growth abnormalities. In severe cases, fields must be replanted, which may result in delayed harvests and reduced yields. To develop more effective disease management tactics including biological control, this study was conducted primarily to determine sites of infection in seeds and seedlings; effect of plant age on susceptibility to P. arrhenomanes, P. myriotylum, and P. dissotocum; and minimum exposure times required for infection and seedling death. In addition, the effect of water depth on seedling disease was investigated. Infection rates of seed embryos were significantly higher than those of endosperms for all three Pythium spp. The development of roots from dry-seeded seedlings was significantly reduced by P. arrhenomanes and P. myriotylum at 5 days after planting compared with that of roots from noninoculated controls. Susceptibility of rice to all three species was sharply reduced within 2 to 6 days after planting, and seedlings were completely resistant at 8 days after planting. There was a steep reduction in emergence through the flood water, relative to the noninoculated control, following 2 to 3 days of exposure to inoculum of P. arrhenomanes and P. myriotylum. In contrast, P. dissotocum was much less virulent and required longer exposure times to cause irreversible seedling damage. Disease incidence was higher when seeds were planted into deeper water, implying that seedlings become resistant after they emerge through the flood water. These results suggest that disease control tactics including flood water management need to be employed for a very short period of time after planting. Also, given that the embryo is the primary site of infection and it is susceptible for only a few days, the

  7. Growth-suppressing and algicidal properties of an extract from Arundo donax, an invasive riparian plant, against Prymnesium parvum, an invasive harmful alga

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    Patino, Reynaldo; Rashel, Rakib H.; Rubio, Amede; Longing, Scott

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the ability of acidic and neutral/alkaline fractions of a methanolic extract from giant reed (Arundo donax) and of two of its constituents, gramine and skatole, to inhibit growth of the ichthyotoxic golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) in batch culture. For this study, growth suppression was defined as inhibition of maximum cell density, algicidal activity as early occurrence of negative growth, and algistatic activity as lack of net growth. The acidic fraction did not affect algal growth. The neutral/alkaline fraction showed growth-suppressing and algicidal activities but no signs of algistatic activity – namely, cells in cultures surviving a partial-algicidal exposure concentration (causing transient negative growth) were later able to initiate positive growth but at higher concentrations, algicidal activity was full and irreversible. Gramine suppressed growth more effectively than skatole and at the highest concentration tested, gramine also showed partial-algicidal and algistatic activity. While the partial-algicidal activities of the neutral/alkaline fraction and of gramine were short-lived (≤6 days) and thus may share similar mechanisms, algistatic activity was unique to gramine and persisted for >3 weeks. Given gramine’s reported concentration in the neutral/alkaline fraction, its corresponding level of algicidal activity is much lower than the fraction’s suggesting the latter contains additional potent algicides. Inhibition of maximum cell density by all test compounds was associated with reductions in exponential growth rate, and in the case of the neutral/alkaline fraction and gramine also reductions in early (pre-exponential) growth. These results indicate that giant reed is a potential source of natural products to control golden alga blooms. Giant reed is an invasive species in North America, thus also providing incentive for research into strategies to couple management efforts for both species.

  8. Medicinal plants--prophylactic and therapeutic options for gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets? A systematic review.

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    Ayrle, Hannah; Mevissen, Meike; Kaske, Martin; Nathues, Heiko; Gruetzner, Niels; Melzig, Matthias; Walkenhorst, Michael

    2016-06-06

    Gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets lead to significant economic losses in livestock husbandry. A high morbidity has been reported for diarrhea (calves ≤ 35%; piglets ≤ 50%) and for respiratory diseases (calves ≤ 80%; piglets ≤ 40%). Despite a highly diverse etiology and pathophysiology of these diseases, treatment with antimicrobials is often the first-line therapy. Multi-antimicrobial resistance in pathogens results in international accordance to strengthen the research in novel treatment options. Medicinal plants bear a potential as alternative or additional treatment. Based on the versatile effects of their plant specific multi-component-compositions, medicinal plants can potentially act as 'multi-target drugs'. Regarding the plurality of medicinal plants, the aim of this systematic review was to identify potential medicinal plant species for prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases and for modulation of the immune system and inflammation in calves and piglets. Based on nine initial sources including standard textbooks and European ethnoveterinary studies, a total of 223 medicinal plant species related to the treatment of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases was identified. A defined search strategy was established using the PRISMA statement to evaluate 30 medicinal plant species starting from 20'000 peer-reviewed articles published in the last 20 years (1994-2014). This strategy led to 418 references (257 in vitro, 84 in vivo and 77 clinical trials, thereof 48 clinical trials in veterinary medicine) to evaluate effects of medicinal plants and their efficacy in detail. The findings indicate that the most promising candidates for gastrointestinal diseases are Allium sativum L., Mentha x piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L.; for diseases of the respiratory tract Echinacea purpurea (L.) MOENCH, Thymus vulgaris L. and Althea officinalis L. were found most promising, and Echinacea purpurea (L

  9. Screening and Characterization of Potentially Suppressive Soils against Gaeumannomyces graminis under Extensive Wheat Cropping by Chilean Indigenous Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durán, Paola; Jorquera, Milko; Viscardi, Sharon; Carrion Bravo, Victor; Mora, María de la Luz; Pozo, María J.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat production around the world is severely compromised by the occurrence of “take-all” disease, which is caused by the soil-borne pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt). In this context, suppressive soils are those environments in which plants comparatively suffer less soil-borne

  10. Suppression of the invasive plant mile-a-minute (Mikania micrantha) by local crop sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) by means of higher growth rate and competition for soil nutrients.

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    Shen, Shicai; Xu, Gaofeng; Clements, David Roy; Jin, Guimei; Chen, Aidong; Zhang, Fudou; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2015-01-28

    There are a variety of ways of increasing crop diversity to increase agricultural sustainability and in turn having a positive influence on nearby natural ecosystems. Competitive crops may provide potent management tools against invasive plants. To elucidate the competitive mechanisms between a sweet potato crop (Ipomoea batatas) and an invasive plant, mile-a-minute (Mikania micrantha), field experiments were carried out in Longchuan County of Yunnan Province, Southwest China, utilizing a de Wit replacement series. The trial incorporated seven ratios of sweet potato and mile-a-minute plants in 25 m(2) plots. In monoculture, the total biomass, biomass of adventitious root, leafstalk length, and leaf area of sweet potato were all higher than those of mile-a-minute, and in mixed culture the plant height, branch, leaf, stem node, adventitious root, flowering and biomass of mile-a-minute were suppressed significantly (P competition was less than interspecific competition. The competitive balance index of sweet potato demonstrated a higher competitive ability than mile-a-minute. Except pH, other soil nutrient contents of initial soil (CK) were significantly higher than those of seven treatments. The concentrations of soil organic matter, total N, total K, available N, available P, available K, exchange Ca, exchange Mg, available Mn, and available B were significantly greater (P competition of sweet potato in the mixture. Evidently sweet potato has a competitive advantage in terms of plant growth characteristics and greater absorption of soil nutrients. Thus, planting sweet potato is a promising technique for reducing infestations of mile-a-minute, providing weed management benefits and economic returns from harvest of sweet potatoes. This study also shows the potential value of replacement control methods which may apply to other crop-weed systems or invaded natural ecosystems.

  11. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of respiratory diseases. 1. Screening of 68 plants against gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, A; Alvarez, A V; Ovando, A E; Samayoa, B E

    1991-02-01

    Respiratory ailments are important causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Ethnobotanical surveys and literature reviews conducted in Guatemala during 1986-88 showed that 234 plants from 75 families, most of them of American origin, have been used for the treatment of respiratory ailments. Three Gram-positive bacteria causing respiratory infections (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes) were used to screen 68 of the most commonly used plants for activity. Twenty-eight of these (41.2%) inhibited the growth of one or more of the bacteria tested. Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited by 18 of the plant extracts, while 7 extracts were effective against Streptococcus pyogenes. Plants of American origin which exhibited antibacterial activity were: Gnaphalium viscosum, Lippia alba, Lippia dulcis, Physalis philadelphica, Satureja brownei, Solanum nigrescens and Tagetes lucida. These preliminary in vitro results provide scientific basis for the use of these plants against bacterial respiratory infections.

  12. Antagonism between phytohormone signalling underlies the variation in disease susceptibility of tomato plants under elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Li, Xin; Sun, Zenghui; Shao, Shujun; Hu, Lingfei; Ye, Meng; Zhou, Yanhong; Xia, Xiaojian; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Increasing CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) have the potential to disrupt plant–pathogen interactions in natural and agricultural ecosystems, but the research in this area has often produced conflicting results. Variations in phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling could be associated with variations in the responses of pathogens to plants grown under elevated [CO2]. In this study, interactions between tomato plants and three pathogens with different infection strategies were compared. Elevated [CO2] generally favoured SA biosynthesis and signalling but repressed the JA pathway. The exposure of plants to elevated [CO2] revealed a lower incidence and severity of disease caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and by Pseudomonas syringae, whereas plant susceptibility to necrotrophic Botrytis cinerea increased. The elevated [CO2]-induced and basal resistance to TMV and P. syringae were completely abolished in plants in which the SA signalling pathway nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) had been silenced or in transgenic plants defective in SA biosynthesis. In contrast, under both ambient and elevated [CO2], the susceptibility to B. cinerea highly increased in plants in which the JA signalling pathway proteinase inhibitors (PI) gene had been silenced or in a mutant affected in JA biosynthesis. However, plants affected in SA signalling remained less susceptible to this disease. These findings highlight the modulated antagonistic relationship between SA and JA that contributes to the variation in disease susceptibility under elevated [CO2]. This information will be critical for investigating how elevated CO2 may affect plant defence and the dynamics between plants and pathogens in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. PMID:25657213

  13. Nitric oxide production by necrotrophic pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina and the host plant in charcoal rot disease of jute: complexity of the interplay between necrotroph-host plant interactions.

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    Tuhin Subhra Sarkar

    Full Text Available M. phaseolina, a global devastating necrotrophic fungal pathogen causes charcoal rot disease in more than 500 host plants. With the aim of understanding the plant-necrotrophic pathogen interaction associated with charcoal rot disease of jute, biochemical approach was attempted to study cellular nitric oxide production under diseased condition. This is the first report on M. phaseolina infection in Corchorus capsularis (jute plants which resulted in elevated nitric oxide, reactive nitrogen species and S nitrosothiols production in infected tissues. Time dependent nitric oxide production was also assessed with 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2',7'-Difluorofluorescein Diacetate using single leaf experiment both in presence of M. phaseolina and xylanases obtained from fungal secretome. Cellular redox status and redox active enzymes were also assessed during plant fungal interaction. Interestingly, M. phaseolina was found to produce nitric oxide which was detected in vitro inside the mycelium and in the surrounding medium. Addition of mammalian nitric oxide synthase inhibitor could block the nitric oxide production in M. phaseolina. Bioinformatics analysis revealed nitric oxide synthase like sequence with conserved amino acid sequences in M. phaseolina genome sequence. In conclusion, the production of nitric oxide and reactive nitrogen species may have important physiological significance in necrotrophic host pathogen interaction.

  14. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani disease and biostimulant effect by microbial products on bean plants

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    Roberta Roberti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial products containing a mixture of fungi and bacteria (EM Bokashi® 2-fi and EM-5 Sutociu® characterised by plant biostimulant activity, Trichoderma harzianum T22 (biofungicide and the antagonist fungus Trichoderma sp. TJ40 were tested for efficacy against R. solani disease and for their biostimulant effects on bean plants, in growth chamber experiments, and for their direct effect on the pathogen growth, through in vitro experiments. In growth chamber experiments, EM-5 Sutociu was applied to seed (Sut/Se, substrate (Sut/S and leaf (Sut/L many times, EM Bokashi 2-fi to substrare (Bok/S once and combined with Sut, T22 and TJ40 were applied once to substrate. The pathogen was inoculated to substrate at seeding time (first experiment or at seedling phase (second experiment. Under our experimental conditions, Bok/S+Sut/S+Sut/L, Sut/S+Sut/L, Sut/Se+Sut/S+Sut/L and T22, in the first experiment, and all treatments, with the exception of Bok/S applied alone in the second experiment, gave significantly disease severity reduction and increase of dry weight and leaf area with respect to the infected control. The TJ40 treatment reduced both disease incidence and disease severity only in the second experiment. In the experiment on the biostimulant effect, T22, Bok/S+Sut/S+Sut/L, Sut/S+Sut/L and Sut/Se+Sut/S+Sut/L showed significantly increases of both dry weight and leaf area. The direct effect of the treatment with T22, TJ40, Bok and Sut on R. solani growth in vitro was studied with two methods, submerged colony (SC and well diffusion (WD assays. The pathogen growth was completely inhibited by Trichoderma T22 in both assays, by Trichoderma TJ40 in a range of 80-50 % in SD assay, and 50-30 % in WD assay and slightly inhibited or not inhibited by Bok and Sut.

  15. Effects of Introduced and Indigenous Viruses on Native Plants: Exploring Their Disease Causing Potential at the Agro-Ecological Interface

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    Vincent, Stuart J.; Coutts, Brenda A.; Jones, Roger A. C.

    2014-01-01

    The ever increasing movement of viruses around the world poses a major threat to plants growing in cultivated and natural ecosystems. Both generalist and specialist viruses move via trade in plants and plant products. Their potential to damage cultivated plants is well understood, but little attention has been given to the threat such viruses pose to plant biodiversity. To address this, we studied their impact, and that of indigenous viruses, on native plants from a global biodiversity hot spot in an isolated region where agriculture is very recent (plant species, we used introduced generalist and specialist viruses, and indigenous viruses, to inoculate plants of 15 native species belonging to eight families. We also measured resulting losses in biomass and reproductive ability for some host–virus combinations. In addition, we sampled native plants growing over a wide area to increase knowledge of natural infection with introduced viruses. The results suggest that generalist introduced viruses and indigenous viruses from other hosts pose a greater potential threat than introduced specialist viruses to populations of native plants encountered for the first time. Some introduced generalist viruses infected plants in more families than others and so pose a greater potential threat to biodiversity. The indigenous viruses tested were often surprisingly virulent when they infected native plant species they were not adapted to. These results are relevant to managing virus disease in new encounter scenarios at the agro-ecological interface between managed and natural vegetation, and within other disturbed natural vegetation situations. They are also relevant for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species and avoiding spread of damaging viruses to undisturbed natural vegetation beyond the agro-ecological interface. PMID:24621926

  16. Effects of introduced and indigenous viruses on native plants: exploring their disease causing potential at the agro-ecological interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Stuart J; Coutts, Brenda A; Jones, Roger A C

    2014-01-01

    The ever increasing movement of viruses around the world poses a major threat to plants growing in cultivated and natural ecosystems. Both generalist and specialist viruses move via trade in plants and plant products. Their potential to damage cultivated plants is well understood, but little attention has been given to the threat such viruses pose to plant biodiversity. To address this, we studied their impact, and that of indigenous viruses, on native plants from a global biodiversity hot spot in an isolated region where agriculture is very recent (viruses readily. To establish their potential to cause severe or mild systemic symptoms in different native plant species, we used introduced generalist and specialist viruses, and indigenous viruses, to inoculate plants of 15 native species belonging to eight families. We also measured resulting losses in biomass and reproductive ability for some host-virus combinations. In addition, we sampled native plants growing over a wide area to increase knowledge of natural infection with introduced viruses. The results suggest that generalist introduced viruses and indigenous viruses from other hosts pose a greater potential threat than introduced specialist viruses to populations of native plants encountered for the first time. Some introduced generalist viruses infected plants in more families than others and so pose a greater potential threat to biodiversity. The indigenous viruses tested were often surprisingly virulent when they infected native plant species they were not adapted to. These results are relevant to managing virus disease in new encounter scenarios at the agro-ecological interface between managed and natural vegetation, and within other disturbed natural vegetation situations. They are also relevant for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species and avoiding spread of damaging viruses to undisturbed natural vegetation beyond the agro-ecological interface.

  17. Comparative Genomics of Non-TNL Disease Resistance Genes from Six Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Madhav P; Andersen, Ethan J; Neupane, Surendra; Benson, Benjamin V

    2017-09-30

    Disease resistance genes (R genes), as part of the plant defense system, have coevolved with corresponding pathogen molecules. The main objectives of this project were to identify non-Toll interleukin receptor, nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat (nTNL) genes and elucidate their evolutionary divergence across six plant genomes. Using reference sequences from Arabidopsis , we investigated nTNL orthologs in the genomes of common bean, Medicago , soybean, poplar, and rice. We used Hidden Markov Models for sequence identification, performed model-based phylogenetic analyses, visualized chromosomal positioning, inferred gene clustering, and assessed gene expression profiles. We analyzed 908 nTNL R genes in the genomes of the six plant species, and classified them into 12 subgroups based on the presence of coiled-coil (CC), nucleotide binding site (NBS), leucine rich repeat (LRR), resistance to Powdery mildew 8 (RPW8), and BED type zinc finger domains. Traditionally classified CC-NBS-LRR (CNL) genes were nested into four clades (CNL A-D) often with abundant, well-supported homogeneous subclades of Type-II R genes. CNL-D members were absent in rice, indicating a unique R gene retention pattern in the rice genome. Genomes from Arabidopsis , common bean, poplar and soybean had one chromosome without any CNL R genes. Medicago and Arabidopsis had the highest and lowest number of gene clusters, respectively. Gene expression analyses suggested unique patterns of expression for each of the CNL clades. Differential gene expression patterns of the nTNL genes were often found to correlate with number of introns and GC content, suggesting structural and functional divergence.

  18. Wolbachia strain wPip yields a pattern of cytoplasmic incompatibility enhancing a Wolbachia-based suppression strategy against the disease vector Aedes albopictus

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    Calvitti Maurizio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI is induced in nature by Wolbachia bacteria, resulting in conditional male sterility. Previous research demonstrated that the two Wolbachia strains (wAlbA and wAlbB that naturally co-infect the disease vector mosquito Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito can be replaced with the wPip Wolbachia strain from Culex pipiens. Since Wolbachia-based vector control strategies depend upon the strength and consistency of CI, a greater understanding is needed on the CI relationships between wPip, wAlbA and wAlbB Wolbachia in Ae. albopictus. Methods This work consisted of a collaborative series of crosses carried out in Italy and in US to study the CI relationships between the “wPip” infected Ae. albopictus strain (ARwP and the superinfected SR strain. The Ae. albopictus strains used in Italian tests are the wPip infected ARwP strain (ARwPIT, the superinfected SR strain and the aposymbiotic AR strain. To understand the observed pattern of CI, crossing experiments carried out in USA focused on the study of the CI relationships between ARwP (ARwPUS and artificially-generated single infected lines, in specific HTA and HTB, harbouring only wAlbA and wAlbB Wolbachia respectively. Results The paper reports an unusual pattern of CI observed in crossing experiments between ARwP and SR lines. Specifically, ARwP males are able to induce full sterility in wild type females throughout most of their lifetime, while crosses between SR males and ARwP females become partially fertile with male aging. We demonstrated that the observed decrease in CI penetrance with SR male age, is related to the previously described decrease in Wolbachia density, in particular of the wAlbA strain, occurring in aged superinfected males. Conclusions The results here reported support the use of the ARwP Ae. albopictus line as source of “ready-made sterile males”, as an alternative to gamma radiation sterilized males, for autocidal

  19. Foot-and-mouth disease virus infection suppresses autophagy and NF-кB antiviral responses via degradation of ATG5-ATG12 by 3Cpro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuxu; Han, Shichong; Yan, Dan; Gao, Yuan; Wei, Yanquan; Liu, Xiangtao; Liao, Ying; Guo, Huichen; Sun, Shiqi

    2017-01-19

    Autophagy-related protein ATG5-ATG12 is an essential complex for the autophagophore elongation in autophagy, which has been reported to be involved in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication. Previous reports show that ATG5-ATG12 positively or negatively regulates type I interferon (IFN-α/β) pathway during virus infection. In this study, we found that FMDV infection rapidly induced LC3 lipidation and GFP-LC3 subcellular redistribution at the early infection stage in PK-15 cells. Along with infection time course to 2-5 h.p.i., the levels of LC3II and ATG5-ATG12 were gradually reduced. Further study showed that ATG5-ATG12 was degraded by viral protein 3C pro , demonstrating that FMDV suppresses autophagy along with viral protein production. Depletion of ATG5-ATG12 by siRNA knock down significantly increased the FMDV yields, whereas overexpression of ATG5-ATG12 had the opposite effects, suggesting that degradation of ATG5-ATG12 benefits virus growth. Further experiment showed that overexpression of ATG5-ATG12 positively regulated NF-кB pathway during FMDV infection, marked with promotion of IKKα/β phosphorylation and IκBα degradation, inhibition of p65 degradation, and facilitation of p65 nuclear translocation. Meanwhile, ATG5-ATG12 also promoted the phosphorylation of TBK1 and activation of IRF3 via preventing TRAF3 degradation. The positive regulation of NF-кB and IRF3 pathway by ATG5-ATG12 resulted in enhanced expression of IFN-β, chemokines/cytokines, and IFN stimulated genes, including anti-viral protein PKR. Altogether, above findings suggest that ATG5-ATG12 positively regulate anti-viral NF-κB and IRF3 signaling during FMDV infection, thereby limiting FMDV proliferation. FMDV has evolved mechanisms to counteract the antiviral function of ATG5-ATG12, via degradation of them by viral protein 3C pro .

  20. E.M. Freeman: early research on cereal diseases and the rise of plant pathology at the University of Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, P D

    2001-01-01

    E.M. Freeman's role in early cereal disease research and the beginning of plant pathology at the University of Minnesota has been overshadowed largely by the enormous prestige of his student, E.C. Stakman. During the first decade of the twentieth century, Freeman was responsible for the transferral from Europe to the United States and the subsequent nurturing of important conceptual and technical developments in the area of cereal disease pathology. Under Freeman's leadership, these ideas would come to shape the direction of plant pathology research at the University of Minnesota for decades to follow.

  1. Plant-derived acetylcholinesterase inhibitory alkaloids for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

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    Dall'Acqua S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stefano Dall'AcquaDepartment of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, ItalyAbstract: The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE has been one of the most used strategies for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD. The AChE inhibitors (AChE-I produce not only short-term symptomatic effects, but can also play a role in other pathological mechanisms of the disease (eg, formation of amyloid-β plaques, which has renewed interest in the discovery of such inhibitors. Four of the five currently prescribed treatments for AD are AChE-I. Natural alkaloids such as galantamine or alkaloid-related synthetic compounds (such as rivastigmine are considered beneficial for patients with mild-to-moderate AD. However, there is a need for the discovery of more effective compounds and for this reason, plants can still be a potential source of new AChE-I. Findings and advances in knowledge about natural alkaloids as potential new drugs acting as AChE-I will be summarized in this paper.Keywords: quinolizidine, steroidal, indole, isoquinoline

  2. Aliskiren suppresses the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system and reduces blood pressure and albuminuria in elderly chronic kidney disease patients with hypertension

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    Morishita Y

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiyuki Morishita,1 Toshihiro Yasui,2 Akihiko Numata,1 Akira Onishi,1 Kenichi Ishibashi,3 Eiji Kusano11Department of Internal Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Japan; 2National Health Insurance Yukawa Clinic, Niimi, Japan; 3Department of Medical Physiology, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Tokyo, JapanBackground: We investigated the effects of aliskiren in terms of its inhibition of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS as well as that on blood pressure (BP, and renal and cardiac protection in elderly chronic kidney disease (CKD patients with hypertension.Methods: Nineteen elderly CKD patients (nine males, ten females, aged 74.6 ± 5.8 years were assigned to receive 150 mg/day of aliskiren added to existing antihypertensives for 6 months. Changes in plasma renin activity (PRA, angiotensin I (Ang I, angiotensin II (Ang II, aldosterone (Ald, BP, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, interventricular septum thickness (IVST, left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT, and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP levels were evaluated.Results: Aliskiren suppressed the RAAS as follows: PRA 1.3 ± 1.0 to 0.3 ± 0.3 ng/mL/hour, P < 0.05; Ang I 59.5 ± 32.1 to 26.0 ± 17.3 pg/mL, P < 0.05; Ang II 58.4 ± 62.1 to 14.3 ± 9.0 pg/mL, P < 0.05; and Ald 86.1 ± 38.3 to 80.1 ± 52.6 pg/mL, not significant (NS. Aliskiren reduced BP (153.6/77.2 ± 14.9/10.4 to 130.9/72.2 ± 15.6/9.9 mmHg, P < 0.05. It also reduced UACR (747.1 ± 1121.4 to 409.6 ± 636.8 mg/g, P < 0.05, whereas it did not change eGFR (52.1 ± 29.2 to 51.2 ± 29.3 mL/min/1.73 m2, NS, LVEF (66.8 ± 7.9 to 66.5% ± 6.8%, NS, IVST (10.1 ± 1.8 to 9.9 ± 1.8 mm, NS, LVPWT (10.0 ± 1.6 mm to 10.0 ± 1.4 mm, NS, or BNP (48.2 ± 46.0 to 54.9 ± 41.1 pg/mL, NS.Conclusion: Aliskiren was effective for BP control and reduced UACR while maintaining eGFR and heart function in elderly CKD

  3. Proportional odds model applied to mapping of disease resistance genes in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Spyrides-Cunha

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers have been used extensively to map quantitative trait loci (QTL controlling disease resistance in plants. Mapping is usually done by establishing a statistical association between molecular marker genotypes and quantitative variations in disease resistance. However, most statistical approaches require a continuous distribution of the response variable, a requirement not always met since evaluation of disease resistance is often done using visual ratings based on an ordinal scale of disease severity. This paper discusses the application of the proportional odds model to the mapping of disease resistance genes in plants amenable to expression as ordinal data. The model was used to map two resistance QTL of maize to Puccinia sorghi. The microsatellite markers bngl166 and bngl669, located on chromosomes 2 and 8, respectively, were used to genotype F2 individuals from a segregating population. Genotypes at each marker locus were then compared by assessing disease severity in F3 plants derived from the selfing of each genotyped F2 plant based on an ordinal scale severity. The residual deviance and the chi-square score statistic indicated a good fit of the model to the data and the odds had a constant proportionality at each threshold. Single-marker analyses detected significant differences among marker genotypes at both marker loci, indicating that these markers were linked to disease resistance QTL. The inclusion of the interaction term after single-marker analysis provided strong evidence of an epistatic interaction between the two QTL. These results indicate that the proportional odds model can be used as an alternative to traditional methods in cases where the response variable consists of an ordinal scale, thus eliminating the problems of heterocedasticity, non-linearity, and the non-normality of residuals often associated with this type of data.Marcadores moleculares têm sido extensivamente usados para o mapeamento de loci de

  4. Disease resistance or growth: the role of plant hormones in balancing immune responses and fitness costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denance, N.; Sanchez Vallet, A.; Goffner, D.; Molina, A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth and response to environmental cues are largely governed by phytohormones. The plant hormones ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) play a central role in the regulation of plant immune responses. In addition, other plant hormones, such as auxins, abscisic acid (ABA),

  5. Methyl esterification of pectin plays a role during plant-pathogen interactions and affects plant resistance to diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionetti, Vincenzo; Cervone, Felice; Bellincampi, Daniela

    2012-11-01

    The cell wall is a complex structure mainly composed by a cellulose-hemicellulose network embedded in a cohesive pectin matrix. Pectin is synthesized in a highly methyl esterified form and is de-esterified in muro by pectin methyl esterases (PMEs). The degree and pattern of methyl esterification affect the cell wall structure and properties with consequences on both the physiological processes of the plants and their resistance to pathogens. PME activity displays a crucial role in the outcome of the plant-pathogen interactions by making pectin more susceptible to the action of the enzymes produced by the pathogens. This review focuses on the impact of pectin methyl esterification in plant-pathogen interactions and on the dynamic role of its alteration during pathogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. A Robust Deep-Learning-Based Detector for Real-Time Tomato Plant Diseases and Pests Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Alvaro; Yoon, Sook; Kim, Sang Cheol; Park, Dong Sun

    2017-09-04

    Plant Diseases and Pests are a major challenge in the agriculture sector. An accurate and a faster detection of diseases and pests in plants could help to develop an early treatment technique while substantially reducing economic losses. Recent developments in Deep Neural Networks have allowed researchers to drastically improve the accuracy of object detection and recognition systems. In this paper, we present a deep-learning-based approach to detect diseases and pests in tomato plants using images captured in-place by camera devices with various resolutions. Our goal is to find the more suitable deep-learning architecture for our task. Therefore, we consider three main families of detectors: Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Network (Faster R-CNN), Region-based Fully Convolutional Network (R-FCN), and Single Shot Multibox Detector (SSD), which for the purpose of this work are called "deep learning meta-architectures". We combine each of these meta-architectures with "deep feature extractors" such as VGG net and Residual Network (ResNet). We demonstrate the performance of deep meta-architectures and feature extractors, and additionally propose a method for local and global class annotation and data augmentation to increase the accuracy and reduce the number of false positives during training. We train and test our systems end-to-end on our large Tomato Diseases and Pests Dataset, which contains challenging images with diseases and pests, including several inter- and extra-class variations, such as infection status and location in the plant. Experimental results show that our proposed system can effectively recognize nine different types of diseases and pests, with the ability to deal with complex scenarios from a plant's surrounding area.

  7. Plant perception of β-aminobutyric acid is mediated by an aspartyl-tRNA synthetase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luna, E.; Van Hulten, M.; Zhang, Y.; Berkowitz, O.; López, A.; Pétriacq, P.; Sellwood, M.A.; Chen, B.; Burrell, M.; Van de Meene, A.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Flors, V.; Ton, J.

    2014-01-01

    Specific chemicals can prime the plant immune system for augmented defense. β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) is a priming agent that provides broad-spectrum disease protection. However, BABA also suppresses plant growth when applied in high doses, which has hampered its application as a crop defense

  8. Plant perception of β-aminobutyric acid is mediated by an aspartyl-tRNA synthetase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luna, Estrella; van Hulten, Marieke; Zhang, Yuhua; Berkowitz, Oliver; López, Ana; Pétriacq, Pierre; Sellwood, Matthew A; Chen, Beining; Burrell, Mike; van de Meene, Allison; Pieterse, Corné M J; Flors, Victor; Ton, Jurriaan

    Specific chemicals can prime the plant immune system for augmented defense. β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) is a priming agent that provides broad-spectrum disease protection. However, BABA also suppresses plant growth when applied in high doses, which has hampered its application as a crop defense

  9. Molecular methods as tools to control plant diseases caused by Dickeya and Pectobacterium spp: A minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyka, Agata; Zoledowska, Sabina; Sledz, Wojciech; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2017-10-25

    Dickeya spp. and Pectobacterium spp. are etiological agents of soft rot on crops, vegetables, and ornamentals. They also cause blackleg on potato. These pectinolytic phytopathogens are responsible for significant economic losses, mostly within the potato production sector. Importantly, there are no methods to eradicate these microorganisms once they have infected plant material. Solely preventive measures remain, including early detection and identification of the pathogens, monitoring of their spread in addition to planting certified seed material tested for latent infections. As proper identification of the causative agent allows for efficient limitation of disease spread, numerous detection and differentiation methods have been developed. Most commonly followed procedures involve: isolation of viable bacterial cells (alternatively post-enrichment) on semi-selective media, identification to species level by PCR (single, multiplex, Real time), serology or fatty acids profiling. Differentiation of the isolates is often accomplished by sequencing the housekeeping genes or molecular fingerprinting. In view of lowering total costs of next-generation sequencing (NGS), a huge amount of generated data reveals subtle differences between strains that have proven to be potentially useful for the establishment of specific novel detection pipelines. Successful implementation of molecular diagnostic methods is exemplified by 20-year studies on the populations of pectinolytic bacteria on potatoes in Poland. The presented work aims to gather the characteristics of Dickeya spp. and Pectobacterium spp. important for the identification process in addition to providing an overview of modern and newly developed specific, rapid, high-throughput and cost-effective screening methods for the detection and identification of these phytopathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ovarian Suppression With Triptorelin During Adjuvant Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Long-term Ovarian Function, Pregnancies, and Disease-Free Survival: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Boni, Luca; Michelotti, Andrea; Gamucci, Teresa; Scotto, Tiziana; Gori, Stefania; Giordano, Monica; Garrone, Ornella; Levaggi, Alessia; Poggio, Francesca; Giraudi, Sara; Bighin, Claudia; Vecchio, Carlo; Sertoli, Mario Roberto; Pronzato, Paolo; Del Mastro, Lucia

    Whether the administration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogues (LHRHa) during chemotherapy is a reliable strategy to preserve ovarian function is controversial owing to both the lack of data on long-term ovarian function and pregnancies and the safety concerns about the potential negative interactions between endocrine therapy and chemotherapy. To evaluate long-term results of LHRHa-induced ovarian suppression during breast cancer chemotherapy. Parallel, randomized, open-label, phase 3 superiority trial conducted at 16 Italian sites. Between October 2003 and January 2008, 281 premenopausal women with stage I to III hormone receptor-positive or hormone receptor-negative breast cancer were enrolled. Last annual follow-up was June 3, 2014. Patients were randomized to receive adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone (control group) or chemotherapy plus triptorelin (LHRHa group). The primary planned end point was incidence of chemotherapy-induced early menopause. Post hoc end points were long-term ovarian function (evaluated by yearly assessment of menstrual activity and defined as resumed by the occurrence of at least 1 menstrual cycle), pregnancies, and disease-free survival (DFS). A total of 281 women (median age, 39 [range, 24-45] years) were randomized. Median follow-up was 7.3 years (interquartile range, 6.3-8.2 years). The 5-year cumulative incidence estimate of menstrual resumption was 72.6% (95% CI, 65.7%-80.3%) among the 148 patients in the LHRHa group and 64.0% (95% CI, 56.2%-72.8%) among the 133 patients in the control group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.28 [95% CI, 0.98-1.68]; P = .07; age-adjusted HR, 1.48 [95% CI, 1.12-1.95]; P = .006). Eight pregnancies (5-year cumulative incidence estimate of pregnancy, 2.1% [95% CI, 0.7%-6.3%]) occurred in the LHRHa group and 3 (5-year cumulative incidence estimate of pregnancy, 1.6% [95% CI, 0.4%-6.2%]) in the control group (HR, 2.56 [95% CI, 0.68-9.60]; P = .14; age-adjusted HR, 2.40 [95% CI, 0

  11. Tree species effects on pathogen-suppressive capacities of soil bacteria across two tropical dry forests in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklund, Kristen; Powers, Jennifer; Kinkel, Linda

    2016-11-01

    Antibiotic-producing bacteria in the genus Streptomyces can inhibit soil-borne plant pathogens, and have the potential to mediate the impacts of disease on plant communities. Little is known about how antibiotic production varies among soil communities in tropical forests, despite a long history of interest in the role of soil-borne pathogens in these ecosystems. Our objective was to determine how tree species and soils influence variation in antibiotic-mediated pathogen suppression among Streptomyces communities in two tropical dry forest sites (Santa Rosa and Palo Verde). We targeted tree species that co-occur in both sites and used a culture-based functional assay to quantify pathogen-suppressive capacities of Streptomyces communities beneath 50 focal trees. We also measured host-associated litter and soil element concentrations as potential mechanisms by which trees may influence soil microbes. Pathogen-suppressive capacities of Streptomyces communities varied within and among tree species, and inhibitory phenotypes were significantly related to soil and litter element concentrations. Average proportions of inhibitory Streptomyces in soils from the same tree species varied between 1.6 and 3.3-fold between sites. Densities and proportions of pathogen-suppressive bacteria were always higher in Santa Rosa than Palo Verde. Our results suggest that spatial heterogeneity in the potential for antibiotic-mediated disease suppression is shaped by tree species, site, and soil characteristics, which could have significant implications for understanding plant community composition and diversity in tropical dry forests.

  12. Beyond viral suppression of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Barton, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016-2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the '90-90-90' target calling on health systems to reduce under-diagnosis of HIV, treat a greater number of those diagnosed......, and ensure that those being treated achieve viral suppression. DISCUSSION: The WHO strategy calls for person-centered chronic care for people living with HIV (PLHIV), implicitly acknowledging that viral suppression is not the ultimate goal of treatment. However, it stops short of providing an explicit target...... for health-related quality of life. It thus fails to take into account the needs of PLHIV who have achieved viral suppression but still must contend with other intense challenges such as serious non-communicable diseases, depression, anxiety, financial stress, and experiences of or apprehension about HIV...

  13. Induction of Oral Tolerance with Transgenic Plants Expressing Antigens for Prevention/Treatment of Autoimmune, Allergic and Inflammatory Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shengwu; Liao, Yu-Cai; Jevnikar, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of autoimmune and allergic diseases have increased dramatically over the last several decades, especially in the developed world. The treatment of autoimmune and allergic diseases is typically with the use of non-specific immunosuppressive agents that compromise the integrity of the host immune system and therefore, increase the risk of infections. Antigenspecific immunotherapy by reinstating immunological tolerance towards self antigens without compromising immune functions is a much desired goal for the treatment of autoimmune and allergic diseases. Mucosal administration of antigen is a long-recognized method of inducing antigen-specific immune tolerance known as oral tolerance, which is viewed as having promising potential in the treatment of autoimmune and allergic diseases. Plant-based expression and delivery of recombinant antigens provide a promising new platform to induce oral tolerance, having considerable advantages including reduced cost and increased safety. Indeed, in recent years the use of tolerogenic plants for oral tolerance induction has attracted increasing attention, and considerable progress has been made. This review summarizes recent advances in using plants to deliver tolerogens for induction of oral tolerance in the treatment of autoimmune, allergic and inflammatory diseases.

  14. Is the efficacy of biological control against plant diseases likely to be more durable than that of chemical pesticides?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eBardin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The durability of a control method for plant protection is defined as the persistence of its efficacy in space and time. It depends on (i the selection pressure exerted by it on populations of plant pathogens and (ii on the capacity of these pathogens to adapt to the control method. Erosion of effectiveness of conventional plant protection methods has been widely studied in the past. For example, apparition of resistance to chemical pesticides in plant pathogens or pests has been extensively documented. The durability of biological control has often been assumed to be higher than that of chemical control. Results concerning pest management in agricultural systems have shown that this assumption may not always be justified. Resistance of various pests to one or several toxins of Bacillus thuringensis and apparition of resistance of the codling moth Cydia pomonella to the Cydia pomonella granulovirus have, for example, been described. In contrast with the situation for pests, the durability of biological control of plant diseases has hardly been studied and no scientific reports proving the loss of efficiency of biological control agents against plant pathogens in practice has been published so far. Knowledge concerning the possible erosion of effectiveness of biological control is essential to ensure a durable efficacy of biological control agents on target plant pathogens. This knowledge will result in identifying risk factors that can foster the selection of strains of plant pathogens resistant to biological control agents. It will also result in identifying types of biological control agents with lower risk of efficacy loss i.e. modes of action of biological control agents that does not favor the selection of resistant isolates in natural populations of plant pathogens. An analysis of the scientific literature was then conducted to assess the potential for plant pathogens to become resistant to biological control agents.

  15. Growth suppression of colorectal cancer by plant-derived multiple mAb CO17-1A × BR55 via inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dong Hoon; Moussavou, Ghislain; Lee, Ju Hyoung; Heo, Sung Youn; Ko, Kisung; Hwang, Kyung-A; Jekal, Seung-Joo; Choo, Young-Kug

    2014-11-14

    We have generated the transgenic Tabaco plants expressing multiple monoclonal antibody (mAb) CO7-1A × BR55 by cross-pollinating with mAb CO17-1A and mAb BR55. We have demonstrated the anti-cancer effect of plant-derived multiple mAb CO17-1A × BR55. We find that co-treatment of colorectal mAbs (anti-epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (EpCAM), plant-derived monoclonal antibody (mAb(P)) CO17-1A and mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55) with RAW264.7 cells significantly inhibited the cell growth in SW620 cancer cells. In particular, multi mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55 significantly and efficiently suppressed the growth of SW620 cancer cells compared to another mAbs. Apoptotic death-positive cells were significantly increased in the mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55-treated. The mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55 treatment significantly decreased the expression of B-Cell lymphoma-2 (BCl-2), but the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and cleaved caspase-3 were markedly increased. In vivo, the mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55 significantly and efficiently inhibited the growth of colon tumors compared to another mAbs. The apoptotic cell death and inhibition of pro-apoptotic proteins expression were highest by treatment with mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55. In addition, the mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55 significantly inhibited the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in cancer cells and tumors. Therefore, this study results suggest that multiple mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55 has a significant effect on apoptosis-mediated anticancer by suppression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in colon cancer compared to another mAbs. In light of these results, further clinical investigation should be conducted on mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55 to determine its possible chemopreventive and/or therapeutic efficacy against human colon cancer.

  16. An exploration of the potential mechanisms and translational potential of five medicinal plants for applications in Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Taner; Coulibaly, Ahmed Y; Kehoe, Patrick G

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia, and represents a vast worldwide socio-economic burden, and in the absence of a current cure, effective therapeutic strategies are still needed. Cholinergic and cerebral blood flow deficits, excessive levels of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and glutamate excitatory mechanisms are all believed to contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Scoparia dulcis, Catharanthus roseus, Sesamum indicum, Erythrina senegalensis and Vigna unguiculata represent five plants that have been used as traditional medicines for the treatment of AD in certain cultures. Review of the scientific literature was conducted to explore the properties of these plants that might be beneficial and explain what would be perceived by many to be largely anecdotal evidence of their benefit. All plants were found to possess varying levels of anti-oxidant capability. Scoparia dulcis was also found to potentiate nerve growth factor-like effects upon cell lines. Catharanthus roseus appears to inhibit acetylcholinesterase with relatively high potency, while Sesamum indicum demonstrated the strongest antioxidant ability. Comparisons with currently used plant derived therapeutics illustrate how these plants may be likely to have some therapeutic benefits in AD. The evidence presented also highlights how appropriate dietary supplementation with some of these plants in various cultural settings might have effects analogous or complementary to the so-called protective Mediterranean diet. However, prior to embarking on making any formal recommendations to this end, further rigorous evaluation is needed to better elucidate the breadth and potential toxicological aspects of medicinal properties harboured by these plants. This would be vital to ensuring a more informed and safe delivery of preparations of these plants if they were to be considered as a form of dietary supplementation and where appropriate, how these might

  17. An exploration of the potential mechanisms and translational potential of five medicinal plants for applications in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Taner; Coulibaly, Ahmed Y; Kehoe, Patrick G

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia, and represents a vast worldwide socio-economic burden, and in the absence of a current cure, effective therapeutic strategies are still needed. Cholinergic and cerebral blood flow deficits, excessive levels of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and glutamate excitatory mechanisms are all believed to contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Scoparia dulcis, Catharanthus roseus, Sesamum indicum, Erythrina senegalensis and Vigna unguiculata represent five plants that have been used as traditional medicines for the treatment of AD in certain cultures. Review of the scientific literature was conducted to explore the properties of these plants that might be beneficial and explain what would be perceived by many to be largely anecdotal evidence of their benefit. All plants were found to possess varying levels of anti-oxidant capability. Scoparia dulcis was also found to potentiate nerve growth factor-like effects upon cell lines. Catharanthus roseus appears to inhibit acetylcholinesterase with relatively high potency, while Sesamum indicum demonstrated the strongest antioxidant ability. Comparisons with currently used plant derived therapeutics illustrate how these plants may be likely to have some therapeutic benefits in AD. The evidence presented also highlights how appropriate dietary supplementation with some of these plants in various cultural settings might have effects analogous or complementary to the so-called protective Mediterranean diet. However, prior to embarking on making any formal recommendations to this end, further rigorous evaluation is needed to better elucidate the breadth and potential toxicological aspects of medicinal properties harboured by these plants. This would be vital to ensuring a more informed and safe delivery of preparations of these plants if they were to be considered as a form of dietary supplementation and where appropriate, how these might interact

  18. Nanotechnology in plant disease management: DNA-directed silver nanoparticles on graphene oxide as an antibacterial against Xanthomonas perforans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocsoy, Ismail; Paret, Mathews L; Ocsoy, Muserref Arslan; Kunwar, Sanju; Chen, Tao; You, Mingxu; Tan, Weihong

    2013-10-22

    Bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas perforans is a major disease of tomatoes, leading to reduction in production by 10-50%. While copper (Cu)-based bactericides have been used for disease management, most of the X. perforans strains isolated from tomatoes in Florida and other locations worldwide are Cu-resistant. We have developed DNA-directed silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) grown on graphene oxide (GO). These Ag@dsDNA@GO composites effectively decrease X. perforans cell viability in culture and on plants. At the very low concentration of 16 ppm of Ag@dsDNA@GO, composites show excellent antibacterial capability in culture with significant advantages in improved stability, enhanced antibacterial activity, and stronger adsorption properties. Application of Ag@dsDNA@GO at 100 ppm on tomato transplants in a greenhouse experiment significantly reduced the severity of bacterial spot disease compared to untreated plants, giving results similar to those of the current grower standard treatment, with no phytotoxicity.

  19. Antimicrobial agents of plant origin for the treatment of phlogistic-infectious diseases of the lower female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The phlogistic-infectious diseases of the lower female genital tract are one of the most widespread obstetricgynecologic issues, due to treatment failures that cause frequent relapses and to the adverse effects of some commonly used drugs.The most common vaginal syndromes are due to uncontrolled growth of bacteria or fungi which replace the normal vaginal flora, causing phlogistic and infectious based diseases. These infections are treated with anti-inflammatory and antibiotic therapy; however, the emergence of resistant strains and the ability of many microorganisms to grow inside biofilms severely reduce the repertoire of useful agents.Thus, in the last years increasing interest has been focused toward compounds of plant origin with anti-microbial properties. In the present work, we studied the antimicrobial activity of fractions obtained from endemic plants of Sardinia towards microorganisms that frequently are involved in vaginal infectious diseases: Streptococcus agalactiae, Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida albicans.

  20. Identification of predictor parameters to determine agro-industrial compost suppressiveness against Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora capsici diseases in muskmelon and pepper seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Josefa; Lloret, Eva; Ros, Margarita; Pascual, Jose Antonio

    2015-05-01

    The lack of reliable prediction tools for evaluation of the level and specificity of compost suppressiveness limits its application. In our study, different chemical, biological and microbiological parameters were used to evaluate their potential use as a predictor parameter for the suppressive effect of composts against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM) and Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici) in muskmelon and pepper seedlings respectively. Composts were obtained from artichoke sludge, chopped vineyard pruning waste and various agro-industrial wastes (C1: blanched artichokes; C2: garlic waste; C3: dry olive cake). Compost C3 proved to offer the highest level of resistance against FOM, and compost C2 the highest level of resistance against P. capsici. Analysis of phospholipid fatty acids isolated from compost revealed that the three composts showed different microbial community structures. Protease, NAGase and chitinase activities were significantly higher in compost C3, as was dehydrogenase activity in compost C2. The use of specific parameters such as general (dehydrogenase activity) and specific enzymatic activities (protease, NAGase and chitinase activities) may be useful to predict compost suppressiveness against both pathogens. The selection of raw materials for agro-industrial composts is important in controlling Fusarium wilt and Phytophthora root rot. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Microbial Degradation of Lobster Shells to Extract Chitin Derivatives for Plant Disease Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Ilangumaran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation of lobster shells by chitinolytic microorganisms are an environment safe approach to utilize lobster processing wastes for chitin derivation. In this study, we report degradation activities of two microbes, “S223” and “S224” isolated from soil samples that had the highest rate of deproteinization, demineralization and chitinolysis among ten microorganisms screened. Isolates S223 and S224 had 27.3 and 103.8 protease units mg-1 protein and 12.3 and 11.2 μg ml-1 of calcium in their samples, respectively, after 1 week of incubation with raw lobster shells. Further, S223 contained 23.8 μg ml-1 of N-Acetylglucosamine on day 3, while S224 had 27.3 μg ml-1 on day 7 of incubation with chitin. Morphological observations and 16S rDNA sequencing suggested both the isolates were Streptomyces. The culture conditions were optimized for efficient degradation of lobster shells and chitinase (∼30 kDa was purified from crude extract by affinity chromatography. The digested lobster shell extracts induced disease resistance in Arabidopsis by induction of defense related genes (PR1 > 500-fold, PDF1.2 > 40-fold upon Pseudomonas syringae and Botrytis cinerea infection. The study suggests that soil microbes aid in sustainable bioconversion of lobster shells and extraction of chitin derivatives that could be applied in plant protection.

  2. Use of Biofungicides for Controlling Plant Diseases to Improve Food Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Melgarejo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of fungal plant pathogens can improve global food availability, one of the three pillars of food security, by reducing crop losses, particularly for low-income farmers. However, the interrelationships of many environmental variables can result in multiple interactions among the organisms and their environment, several of which might contribute to effective biological control. Here, we present an advanced survey of the nature and practice of biological control when it is used to control brown rot in stone fruit. Specifically, we describe the population dynamics of Penicillium frequentans and Epicoccum nigrum and their efficacy as biocontrol agents against brown rot disease under field conditions. The size of P. frequentans population after an application of a P. frequentans conidial formulation during the crop season is bigger than that of E. nigrum following the application of an E. nigrum conidial formulation. Moreover, applications of a P. frequentans conidial formulation during the crop season also caused a higher reduction in the number of Monilinia spp. conidia on the fruit surface than that found after applications of an E. nigrum formulation during the growing season.

  3. A Robust Deep-Learning-Based Detector for Real-Time Tomato Plant Diseases and Pests Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Fuentes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant Diseases and Pests are a major challenge in the agriculture sector. An accurate and a faster detection of diseases and pests in plants could help to develop an early treatment technique while substantially reducing economic losses. Recent developments in Deep Neural Networks have allowed researchers to drastically improve the accuracy of object detection and recognition systems. In this paper, we present a deep-learning-based approach to detect diseases and pests in tomato plants using images captured in-place by camera devices with various resolutions. Our goal is to find the more suitable deep-learning architecture for our task. Therefore, we consider three main families of detectors: Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Network (Faster R-CNN, Region-based Fully Convolutional Network (R-FCN, and Single Shot Multibox Detector (SSD, which for the purpose of this work are called “deep learning meta-architectures”. We combine each of these meta-architectures with “deep feature extractors” such as VGG net and Residual Network (ResNet. We demonstrate the performance of deep meta-architectures and feature extractors, and additionally propose a method for local and global class annotation and data augmentation to increase the accuracy and reduce the number of false positives during training. We train and test our systems end-to-end on our large Tomato Diseases and Pests Dataset, which contains challenging images with diseases and pests, including several inter- and extra-class variations, such as infection status and location in the plant. Experimental results show that our proposed system can effectively recognize nine different types of diseases and pests, with the ability to deal with complex scenarios from a plant’s surrounding area.

  4. The role and place of medicinal plants in the strategies for disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal plants have been used in healthcare since time immemorial. Studies have been carried out globally to verify their efficacy and some of the findings have led to the production of plant-based medicines. The global market value of medicinal plant products exceeds $100 billion per annum. This paper discusses the ...

  5. Dexamethasone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medicine. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  6. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in co...

  7. Studies on the T sub 3 suppression test with reference to the thyrodial sup 123 I uptake in Graves' disease; Comparison of 24-hour and 3-hour uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Takahiko; Kobayashi, Isao; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Iwashita, Akira; Inukai, Toshihiko; Ohshima, Kihachi; Shimomura, Yohnosuke; Kobayashi, Setsuo (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-06-01

    Eighty-three patients with Graves' disease had been treated with methylmercaptoimidazole (MMI). They were prescribed a maintenance dose of antithyroid drug (MMI, 5 mg/day) at the time of a T{sub 3} suppression test. The 3-hour and 24-hour thyroidal {sup 123}I uptake after T{sub 3} administration (75 {mu}g/day, 2 weeks) were measured (post T{sub 3} uptake). In 38 patients whose post T{sub 3} uptake was below 35% in post T{sub 3} 24-hour uptake, treatment was stopped. The T{sub 3} suppression test was then repeated 1 and 3 months later. During a one-year follow up, 26 remained well, while 12 relapsed within 6 to 12 months. We have observed a good correlation between 3-hour uptake and 24-hour uptake of {sup 123}I after T{sub 3} administration (r=0.847, p<0.001). In 38 patients who showed positive T{sub 3} suppression, most patients with MMI withdrawal produced a marked overshoot of post T{sub 3} 3-hour and 24-hour uptake at one month. Retrospective analysis indicated that there was no significant difference in circulating thyroid hormone levels between remission and relapse groups. The present study provides evidence that 3-hour uptake values are able to be substituted for 24-hour uptake values during a T{sub 3} suppression test. In addition, overshoot of thyroidal uptake after antithyroid drug withdrawal was observed in 3-hour values, similar to 24-hour values. (author).

  8. Influence of Multiple Infection and Relatedness on Virulence: Disease Dynamics in an Experimental Plant Population and Its Castrating Parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Lorenza; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Shykoff, Jacqui A.; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    The level of parasite virulence, i.e., the decrease in host's fitness due to a pathogen, is expected to depend on several parameters, such as the type of the disease (e.g., castrating or host-killing) and the prevalence of multiple infections. Although these parameters have been extensively studied theoretically, few empirical data are available to validate theoretical predictions. Using the anther smut castrating disease on Silene latifolia caused by Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, we studied the dynamics of multiple infections and of different components of virulence (host death, non-recovery and percentage of castrated stems) during the entire lifespan of the host in an experimental population. We monitored the number of fungal genotypes within plants and their relatedness across five years, using microsatellite markers, as well as the rates of recovery and host death in the population. The mean relatedness among genotypes within plants remained at a high level throughout the entire host lifespan despite the dynamics of the disease, with recurrent new infections. Recovery was lower for plants with multiple infections compared to plants infected by a single genotype. As expected for castrating parasites, M. lychnidis-dioicae did not increase host mortality. Mortality varied across years but was generally lower for plants that had been diseased the preceding year. This is one of the few studies to have empirically verified theoretical expectations for castrating parasites, and to show particularly i) that castrated hosts live longer, suggesting that parasites can redirect resources normally used in reproduction to increase host lifespan, lengthening their transmission phase, and ii) that multiple infections increase virulence, here in terms of non-recovery and host castration. PMID:24892951

  9. Development of a biocontrol agent for plant disease control with special emphasis on the near commercial fungal antagonist Clonostachys rosea strain "IK726"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dan Funck; Knudsen, Inge M.B.; Lübeck, Mette

    2007-01-01

    Numerous experiments demonstrating potential biocontrol effects on soilborne diseases have been reported in the scientific literature. However, from the lists of approved and registered biocontrol agents, it is striking how few have been commercialised and are used in practise for plant disease c...... with in such a development. Australasian Plant Pathology 36(2) 95-101 Submitted: 12 January 2006 Accepted: 15 January 2007 Published: 6 March 2007 Full text DOI: 10.1071/AP07009 © Australasian Plant Pathology Society 2007...

  10. Albaconol, a Plant-Derived Small Molecule, Inhibits Macrophage Function by Suppressing NF-κB Activation and Enhancing SOCSI Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiuyan Liu; Xiaoli Shu; Li Wang; Anna Sun; Jikai Liu; Xuetao Cao

    2008-01-01

    Discovery and functional identification of plant-derived small compounds as the immunosuppressant attract much attention these years. Albaconol is a new kind of small compound, prenylated resorcinol, isolated from the fruiting bodies of the inedible mushroom Albatrellus confluens. Our previous studies showed that albaconol can inhibit tumor cell growth and dendritic cell maturation. However, the immunomodulatory roles and the underlying mechanisms of albaconol have not been fully understood. In this study we investigated the effects of aibaconol on the proliferation and LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production of macrophages. AIbaconol, when used at a dose higher than 1.0 μg/ml, inhibited proliferation of RAW264.7 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and could induce cellular apoptosis when used at high dosage (≥7.5 μg/ml). Furthermore, we found that albaconol used at a lower dosage without apoptosis induction could significantly inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6, IL-β and NO production in RAW264.7 cells. The inhibition of NF-κB activation and enhancement of SOCS1 expression in LPS-stimulated macrophages by albaconol may contribute to the above immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory activities of aibaconoi. Our results suggest that albaconol may be a potential immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory drug. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2008;5(4):271-278.

  11. Disruption of gene pqqA or pqqB reduces plant growth promotion activity and biocontrol of crown gall disease by Rahnella aquatilis HX2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    Full Text Available Rahnella aquatilis strain HX2 has the ability to promote maize growth and suppress sunflower crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium vitis, A. tumefaciens, and A. rhizogenes. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ, a cofactor of aldose and alcohol dehydrogenases, is required for the synthesis of an antibacterial substance, gluconic acid, by HX2. Mutants of HX2 unable to produce PQQ were obtained by in-frame deletion of either the pqqA or pqqB gene. In this study, we report the independent functions of pqqA and pqqB genes in relation to PQQ synthesis. Interestingly, both the pqqA and pqqB mutants of R. aquatilis eliminated the ability of strain HX2 to produce antibacterial substance, which in turn, reduced the effectiveness of the strain for biological control of sunflower crown gall disease. The mutation also resulted in decreased mineral phosphate solubilization by HX2, which reduced the efficacy of this strain as a biological fertilizer. These functions were restored by complementation with the wild-type pqq gene cluster. Additionally, the phenotypes of HX2 derivatives, including colony morphology, growth dynamic, and pH change of culture medium were impacted to different extents. Our findings suggested that pqqA and pqqB genes individually play important functions in PQQ biosynthesis and are required for antibacterial activity and phosphorous solubilization. These traits are essential for R. aquatilis efficacy as a biological control and plant growth promoting strain. This study enhances our fundamental understanding of the biosynthesis of an environmentally significant cofactor produced by a promising biocontrol and biological fertilizer strain.

  12. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants with hallucinogenic effect and plants used against pain, inflammatory diseases, diabetes and urinary lithiasis in Zagora “Morocco”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Boufous

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to identify different plants used in folk medicine for treating pain, inflammatory diseases, diabetes and kidney stones by the population of Zagora province, in southern east of Morocco. This investigation was undertaken during more than 2 years started in 2013 and ended in 2015. Methods: A total of 1400 person with different ages between 20 and 80 years, in twelve areas, was included in this survey; 348 were diabetes, 292 were suffering from kidney stones and 760 are healthy. Data collected was separated in two parts. The first part concerned interviewee information’s (age, sex and level of education and a second part was designed for plants uses (vernacular names, uses, parts used and mode of preparation.Use value (UV, fidelity level (FL and family use value (FUV were calculated. Results: We inventoried 83 plants species belonging to 40 families that were used, Ranunculaceae family family showed the highest significance (FUV= 0.36. Six species with the highest UV were Zygophyllum gaetulum L. (0.44, Nigella sativa (0.36, Rosmarinus officinalis L (0.36, Trigonella foenum-graecum L (0.35 and Thymus satureioides L (0.35. We identified 50 species used for treating or managing pain, 45 for diabetes, 19 for kidney stone, 7 for treating inflammatory diseases and only 3 species that were recognized with hallucinogenic effects. Conclusions: This study shows that folk medicine in Zagora still occupies a high level in primary health care. Data collected may help to preserve knowledge about different plants used and their mode of preparation. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(4.000: 342-350

  13. Greater Fusarium wilt suppression after complex than after simple organic amendments as affected by soil pH, total carbon and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senechkin, I.V.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to compare effects of four types of organic amendments on soil chemical, microbiological and disease suppression characteristics in an organic farm. The amendments were plant-derived fresh compost (C), steer-derived slurry (S), slurry plus dung (SD) and slurry,

  14. Hot Water Treatment, Trunk Diseases and Other Critical Factors in the Production of High-Quality Grapevine Planting Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Waite

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the critical factors on which successful grapevine propagation depends and discusses the steps that can be taken to improve the quality of planting material available to growers. Spasmodic occurrences of young vine decline and the failure of planting material have plagued the wine industry since the 1990s. The syndrome now described as Petri disease has been identified as the probable cause of many of the failures, but hot water treatment (HWT of dormant cuttings (50°C/30 min, for the control of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and other endogenous pathogens, has also been implicated in the losses. HWT is known to cause a temporary switch to fermentative respiration and early retarded growth in treated material, particularly in Pinot Noir, but the effects of HWT on dormant vine tissue are not yet fully understood. Poor nursery hygiene and poor storage and handling practices during propagation and planting have also been implicated in vine failure. Demand for planting material has exceeded supply and there has been little incentive for nurseries to improve their standards. The quality of planting material could be significantly improved by changing nursery practices, particularly by discontinuing the practice of soaking cuttings in water, treated or untreated, and by improving general standards of nursery hygiene and the management of cool rooms. There is a need to develop a set of universal quality standards for cuttings and rooted vines. Growers also need to be made aware of the characteristics and benefits of high quality planting material.

  15. The plant decapeptide OSIP108 prevents copper-induced toxicity in various models for Wilson disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spincemaille, Pieter [Centre of Microbial and Plant Genetics (CMPG), KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Pham, Duc-Hung [Laboratory for Molecular Biodiscovery, KU Leuven, Campus Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, O and N2, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Chandhok, Gursimran [Clinic for Transplantation Medicine, Münster University Hospital, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A14, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Verbeek, Jef [Department of Hepatology and Metabolic Center, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Zibert, Andree [Clinic for Transplantation Medicine, Münster University Hospital, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A14, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Libbrecht, Louis [Department of Hepatology and Metabolic Center, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Pathology, University Hospital Ghent, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Schmidt, Hartmut [Clinic for Transplantation Medicine, Münster University Hospital, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A14, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Esguerra, Camila V.; Witte, Peter A.M. de [Laboratory for Molecular Biodiscovery, KU Leuven, Campus Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, O and N2, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Cammue, Bruno P.A., E-mail: bruno.cammue@biw.kuleuven.be [Centre of Microbial and Plant Genetics (CMPG), KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Department of Plant Systems Biology, VIB, Technologiepark 927, 9052 Ghent (Belgium); Cassiman, David [Department of Hepatology and Metabolic Center, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Thevissen, Karin [Centre of Microbial and Plant Genetics (CMPG), KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2014-10-15

    Background: Wilson disease (WD) is caused by accumulation of excess copper (Cu) due to a mutation in the gene encoding the liver Cu transporter ATP7B, and is characterized by acute liver failure or cirrhosis and neuronal cell death. We investigated the effect of OSIP108, a plant derived decapeptide that prevents Cu-induced apoptosis in yeast and human cells, on Cu-induced toxicity in various mammalian in vitro models relevant for WD and in a Cu-toxicity zebrafish larvae model applicable to WD. Methods: The effect of OSIP108 was evaluated on viability of various cell lines in the presence of excess Cu, on liver morphology of a Cu-treated zebrafish larvae strain that expresses a fluorescent reporter in hepatocytes, and on oxidative stress levels in wild type AB zebrafish larvae. Results: OSIP108 increased not only viability of Cu-treated CHO cells transgenically expressing ATP7B and the common WD-causing mutant ATP7B{sup H1069Q}, but also viability of Cu-treated human glioblastoma U87 cells. Aberrancies in liver morphology of Cu-treated zebrafish larvae were observed, which were further confirmed as Cu-induced hepatotoxicity by liver histology. Injections of OSIP108 into Cu-treated zebrafish larvae significantly increased the amount of larvae with normal liver morphology and decreased Cu-induced production of reactive oxygen species. Conclusions: OSIP108 prevents Cu-induced toxicity in in vitro models and in a Cu-toxicity zebrafish larvae model applicable to WD. General significance: All the above data indicate the potential of OSIP108 as a drug lead for further development as a novel WD treatment. - Highlights: • Wilson disease (WD) is characterized by accumulation of toxic copper (Cu). • OSIP108 incre