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Sample records for suppressing innate antiviral

  1. Innate and intrinsic antiviral immunity in skin.

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    Kawamura, Tatsuyoshi; Ogawa, Youichi; Aoki, Rui; Shimada, Shinji

    2014-09-01

    As the body's most exposed interface with the environment, the skin is constantly challenged by potentially pathogenic microbes, including viruses. To sense the invading viruses, various types of cells resident in the skin express many different pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) such as C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) and cytosolic DNA sensors, that can detect the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of the viruses. The detection of viral PAMPs initiates two major innate immune signaling cascades: the first involves the activation of the downstream transcription factors, such as interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1), which cooperate to induce the transcription of type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The second signaling pathway involves the caspase-1-mediated processing of IL-1β and IL-18 through the formation of an inflammasome complex. Cutaneous innate immunity including the production of the innate cytokines constitutes the first line of host defence that limits the virus dissemination from the skin, and also plays an important role in the activation of adaptive immune response, which represents the second line of defence. More recently, the third immunity "intrinsic immunity" has emerged, that provides an immediate and direct antiviral defense mediated by host intrinsic restriction factors. This review focuses on the recent advances regarding the antiviral immune systems, highlighting the innate and intrinsic immunity against the viral infections in the skin, and describes how viral components are recognized by cutaneous immune systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evidence of the innate antiviral and neuroprotective properties of progranulin.

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    Hyeon-Sook Suh

    Full Text Available Compelling data exist that show that normal levels of progranulin (PGRN are required for successful CNS aging. PGRN production is also modulated by inflammation and infection, but no data are available on the production and role of PGRN during CNS HIV infection.To determine the relationships between PGRN and HIV disease, neurocognition, and inflammation, we analyzed 107 matched CSF and plasma samples from CHARTER, a well-characterized HIV cohort. Levels of PGRN were determined by ELISA and compared to levels of several inflammatory mediators (IFNγ, IL-6, IL-10, IP-10, MCP-1, TNFα, IL-1β, IL-4 and IL-13, as well as clinical, virologic and demographic parameters. The relationship between HIV infection and PGRN was also examined in HIV-infected primary human microglial cultures.In plasma, PGRN levels correlated with the viral load (VL, p<0.001. In the CSF of subjects with undetectable VL, lower PGRN was associated with neurocognitive impairment (p = 0.046. CSF PGRN correlated with CSF IP-10, TNFα and IL-10, and plasma PGRN correlated with plasma IP-10. In vitro, microglial HIV infection increased PGRN production and PGRN knockdown increased HIV replication, demonstrating that PGRN is an innate antiviral protein.We propose that PGRN plays dual roles in people living with HIV disease. With active HIV replication, PGRN is induced in infected macrophages and microglia and functions as an antiviral protein. In individuals without active viral replication, decreased PGRN production contributes to neurocognitive dysfunction, probably through a diminution of its neurotrophic functions. Our results have implications for the pathogenesis, biomarker studies and therapy for HIV diseases including HIV-associated neurocognitive dysfunction (HAND.

  3. Extraribosomal l13a is a specific innate immune factor for antiviral defense.

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    Mazumder, Barsanjit; Poddar, Darshana; Basu, Abhijit; Kour, Ravinder; Verbovetskaya, Valentina; Barik, Sailen

    2014-08-01

    We report a novel extraribosomal innate immune function of mammalian ribosomal protein L13a, whereby it acts as an antiviral agent. We found that L13a is released from the 60S ribosomal subunit in response to infection by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), an RNA virus of the Pneumovirus genus and a serious lung pathogen. Unexpectedly, the growth of RSV was highly enhanced in L13a-knocked-down cells of various lineages as well as in L13a knockout macrophages from mice. In all L13a-deficient cells tested, translation of RSV matrix (M) protein was specifically stimulated, as judged by a greater abundance of M protein and greater association of the M mRNA with polyribosomes, while general translation was unaffected. In silico RNA folding analysis and translational reporter assays revealed a putative hairpin in the 3'untranslated region (UTR) of M mRNA with significant structural similarity to the cellular GAIT (gamma-activated inhibitor of translation) RNA hairpin, previously shown to be responsible for assembling a large, L13a-containing ribonucleoprotein complex that promoted translational silencing in gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-activated myeloid cells. However, RNA-protein interaction studies revealed that this complex, which we named VAIT (respiratory syncytial virus-activated inhibitor of translation) is functionally different from the GAIT complex. VAIT is the first report of an extraribosomal L13a-mediated, IFN-γ-independent innate antiviral complex triggered in response to virus infection. We provide a model in which the VAIT complex strongly hinders RSV replication by inhibiting the translation of the rate-limiting viral M protein, which is a new paradigm in antiviral defense. The innate immune mechanisms of host cells are diverse in nature and act as a broad-spectrum cellular defense against viruses. Here, we report a novel innate immune mechanism functioning against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), in which the cellular ribosomal protein L13a is released

  4. DMPD: Innate immunity minireview series: making biochemical sense of nucleic acidsensors that trigger antiviral innate immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17395579 Innate immunity minireview series: making biochemical sense of nucleic aci...007 Mar 29. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Innate immunity minireview series: making biochemical sense o...itle Innate immunity minireview series: making biochemical sense of nucleic acidsensors that trigger antivir

  5. Immune evasion of porcine enteric coronaviruses and viral modulation of antiviral innate signaling.

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    Zhang, Qingzhan; Yoo, Dongwan

    2016-12-02

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) are emerged and reemerging viruses in pigs, and together with transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), pose significant economic concerns to the swine industry. These viruses infect epithelial cells of the small intestine and cause watery diarrhea, dehydration, and a high mortality in neonatal piglets. Type I interferons (IFN-α/β) are major antiviral cytokines forming host innate immunity, and in turn, these enteric coronaviruses have evolved to modulate the host innate immune signaling during infection. Accumulating evidence however suggests that IFN induction and signaling in the intestinal epithelial cells differ from other epithelial cells, largely due to distinct features of the gut epithelial mucosal surface and commensal microflora, and it appears that type III interferon (IFN-λ) plays a key role to maintain the antiviral state in the gut. This review describes the recent understanding on the immune evasion strategies of porcine enteric coronaviruses and the role of different types of IFNs for intestinal antiviral innate immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A molecular arms race between host innate antiviral response and emerging human coronaviruses.

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    Wong, Lok-Yin Roy; Lui, Pak-Yin; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2016-02-01

    Coronaviruses have been closely related with mankind for thousands of years. Community-acquired human coronaviruses have long been recognized to cause common cold. However, zoonotic coronaviruses are now becoming more a global concern with the discovery of highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses causing severe respiratory diseases. Infections by these emerging human coronaviruses are characterized by less robust interferon production. Treatment of patients with recombinant interferon regimen promises beneficial outcomes, suggesting that compromised interferon expression might contribute at least partially to the severity of disease. The mechanisms by which coronaviruses evade host innate antiviral response are under intense investigations. This review focuses on the fierce arms race between host innate antiviral immunity and emerging human coronaviruses. Particularly, the host pathogen recognition receptors and the signal transduction pathways to mount an effective antiviral response against SARS and MERS coronavirus infection are discussed. On the other hand, the counter-measures evolved by SARS and MERS coronaviruses to circumvent host defense are also dissected. With a better understanding of the dynamic interaction between host and coronaviruses, it is hoped that insights on the pathogenesis of newly-identified highly pathogenic human coronaviruses and new strategies in antiviral development can be derived.

  7. Innate immune reconstitution with suppression of HIV-1.

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    Scully, Eileen P; Lockhart, Ainsley; Garcia-Beltran, Wilfredo; Palmer, Christine D; Musante, Chelsey; Rosenberg, Eric; Allen, Todd M; Chang, J Judy; Bosch, Ronald J; Altfeld, Marcus

    2016-03-17

    Progressive HIV-1 infection leads to both profound immune suppression and pathologic inflammation in the majority of infected individuals. While adaptive immune dysfunction, as evidenced by CD4 + T cell depletion and exhaustion, has been extensively studied, less is known about the functional capacity of innate immune cell populations in the context of HIV-1 infection. Given the broad susceptibility to opportunistic infections and the dysregulated inflammation observed in progressive disease, we hypothesized that there would be significant changes in the innate cellular responses. Using a cohort of patients with multiple samplings before and after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, we demonstrated increased responses to innate immune stimuli following viral suppression, as measured by the production of inflammatory cytokines. Plasma viral load itself had the strongest association with this change in innate functional capacity. We further identified epigenetic modifications in the TNFA promoter locus in monocytes that are associated with viremia, suggesting a molecular mechanism for the observed changes in innate immune function following initiation of ART. These data indicate that suppression of HIV-1 viremia is associated with changes in innate cellular function that may in part determine the restoration of protective immune responses.

  8. Global Screening of Antiviral Genes that Suppress Baculovirus Transgene Expression in Mammalian Cells.

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    Wang, Chia-Hung; Naik, Nenavath Gopal; Liao, Lin-Li; Wei, Sung-Chan; Chao, Yu-Chan

    2017-09-15

    Although baculovirus has been used as a safe and convenient gene delivery vector in mammalian cells, baculovirus-mediated transgene expression is less effective in various mammalian cell lines. Identification of the negative regulators in host cells is necessary to improve baculovirus-based expression systems. Here, we performed high-throughput shRNA library screening, targeting 176 antiviral innate immune genes, and identified 43 host restriction factor genes in a human A549 lung carcinoma cell line. Among them, suppression of receptor interaction protein kinase 1 (RIP1, also known as RIPK1) significantly increased baculoviral transgene expression without resulting in significant cell death. Silencing of RIP1 did not affect viral entry or cell viability, but it did inhibit nuclear translocation of the IRF3 and NF-κB transcription factors. Also, activation of downstream signaling mediators (such as TBK1 and IRF7) was affected, and subsequent interferon and cytokine gene expression levels were abolished. Further, Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1)-an inhibitor of RIP1 kinase activity-dramatically increased baculoviral transgene expression in RIP1-silenced cells. Using baculovirus as a model system, this study presents an initial investigation of large numbers of human cell antiviral innate immune response factors against a "nonadaptive virus." In addition, our study has made baculovirus a more efficient gene transfer vector for some of the most frequently used mammalian cell systems.

  9. Viral degradasome hijacks mitochondria to suppress innate immunity

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    Goswami, Ramansu; Majumdar, Tanmay; Dhar, Jayeeta; Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Bandyopadhyay, Sudip K; Verbovetskaya, Valentina; Sen, Ganes C; Barik, Sailen

    2013-01-01

    The balance between the innate immunity of the host and the ability of a pathogen to evade it strongly influences pathogenesis and virulence. The two nonstructural (NS) proteins, NS1 and NS2, of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are critically required for RSV virulence. Together, they strongly suppress the type I interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immunity of the host cells by degrading or inhibiting multiple cellular factors required for either IFN induction or response pathways, including RIG-I, IRF3, IRF7, TBK1 and STAT2. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of a large and heterogeneous degradative complex assembled by the NS proteins, which we named “NS-degradasome” (NSD). The NSD is roughly ∼300-750 kD in size, and its degradative activity was enhanced by the addition of purified mitochondria in vitro. Inside the cell, the majority of the NS proteins and the substrates of the NSD translocated to the mitochondria upon RSV infection. Genetic and pharmacological evidence shows that optimal suppression of innate immunity requires mitochondrial MAVS and mitochondrial motility. Together, we propose a novel paradigm in which the mitochondria, known to be important for the innate immune activation of the host, are also important for viral suppression of the innate immunity. PMID:23877405

  10. Systems-Biology Approaches to Discover Anti-Viral Effectors of the Human Innate Immune Response

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    Andreas F.R. Sommer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Virus infections elicit an immediate innate response involving antiviral factors. The activities of some of these factors are, in turn, blocked by viral countermeasures. The ensuing battle between the host and the viruses is crucial for determining whether the virus establishes a foothold and/or induces adaptive immune responses. A comprehensive systems-level understanding of the repertoire of anti-viral effectors in the context of these immediate virus-host responses would provide significant advantages in devising novel strategies to interfere with the initial establishment of infections. Recent efforts to identify cellular factors in a comprehensive and unbiased manner, using genome-wide siRNA screens and other systems biology “omics” methodologies, have revealed several potential anti-viral effectors for viruses like Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, Hepatitis C virus (HCV, West Nile virus (WNV, and influenza virus. This review describes the discovery of novel viral restriction factors and discusses how the integration of different methods in systems biology can be used to more comprehensively identify the intimate interactions of viruses and the cellular innate resistance.

  11. Solute Carrier NTCP Regulates Innate Antiviral Immune Responses Targeting Hepatitis C Virus Infection of Hepatocytes.

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    Verrier, Eloi R; Colpitts, Che C; Bach, Charlotte; Heydmann, Laura; Zona, Laetitia; Xiao, Fei; Thumann, Christine; Crouchet, Emilie; Gaudin, Raphaël; Sureau, Camille; Cosset, François-Loïc; McKeating, Jane A; Pessaux, Patrick; Hoshida, Yujin; Schuster, Catherine; Zeisel, Mirjam B; Baumert, Thomas F

    2016-10-25

    Chronic hepatitis B, C, and D virus (HBV, HCV, and HDV) infections are the leading causes of liver disease and cancer worldwide. Recently, the solute carrier and sodium taurocholate co-transporter NTCP has been identified as a receptor for HBV and HDV. Here, we uncover NTCP as a host factor regulating HCV infection. Using gain- and loss-of-function studies, we show that NTCP mediates HCV infection of hepatocytes and is relevant for cell-to-cell transmission. NTCP regulates HCV infection by augmenting the bile-acid-mediated repression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including IFITM3. In conclusion, our results uncover NTCP as a mediator of innate antiviral immune responses in the liver, and they establish a role for NTCP in the infection process of multiple viruses via distinct mechanisms. Collectively, our findings suggest a role for solute carriers in the regulation of innate antiviral responses, and they have potential implications for virus-host interactions and antiviral therapies. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Solute Carrier NTCP Regulates Innate Antiviral Immune Responses Targeting Hepatitis C Virus Infection of Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloi R. Verrier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis B, C, and D virus (HBV, HCV, and HDV infections are the leading causes of liver disease and cancer worldwide. Recently, the solute carrier and sodium taurocholate co-transporter NTCP has been identified as a receptor for HBV and HDV. Here, we uncover NTCP as a host factor regulating HCV infection. Using gain- and loss-of-function studies, we show that NTCP mediates HCV infection of hepatocytes and is relevant for cell-to-cell transmission. NTCP regulates HCV infection by augmenting the bile-acid-mediated repression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs, including IFITM3. In conclusion, our results uncover NTCP as a mediator of innate antiviral immune responses in the liver, and they establish a role for NTCP in the infection process of multiple viruses via distinct mechanisms. Collectively, our findings suggest a role for solute carriers in the regulation of innate antiviral responses, and they have potential implications for virus-host interactions and antiviral therapies.

  13. Virus-Heat Shock Protein Interaction and a Novel Axis for Innate Antiviral Immunity

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    Michael Oglesbee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Virus infections induce heat shock proteins that in turn enhance virus gene expression, a phenomenon that is particularly well characterized for the major inducible 70 kDa heat shock protein (hsp70. However, hsp70 is also readily induced by fever, a phylogenetically conserved response to microbial infections, and when released from cells, hsp70 can stimulate innate immune responses through toll like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and 4. This review examines how the virus-hsp70 relationship can lead to host protective innate antiviral immunity, and the importance of hsp70 dependent stimulation of virus gene expression in this host response. Beginning with the well-characterized measles virus-hsp70 relationship and the mouse model of neuronal infection in brain, we examine data indicating that the innate immune response is not driven by intracellular sensors of pathogen associated molecular patterns, but rather by extracellular ligands signaling through TLR2 and 4. Specifically, we address the relationship between virus gene expression, extracellular release of hsp70 (as a damage associated molecular pattern, and hsp70-mediated induction of antigen presentation and type 1 interferons in uninfected macrophages as a novel axis of antiviral immunity. New data are discussed that examines the more broad relevance of this protective mechanism using vesicular stomatitis virus, and a review of the literature is presented that supports the probable relevance to both RNA and DNA viruses and for infections both within and outside of the central nervous system.

  14. Induction and suppression of innate antiviral responses by picornaviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Qian; Langereis, Martijn A; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2014-01-01

    The family Picornaviridae comprises of small, non-enveloped, positive-strand RNA viruses and contains many human and animal pathogens including enteroviruses (e.g. poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus 71 and rhinovirus), cardioviruses (e.g. encephalomyocarditis virus), hepatitis A virus and

  15. Budesonide and formoterol reduce early innate anti-viral immune responses in vitro.

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    Janet M Davies

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airways disease in which respiratory viral infections frequently trigger exacerbations. Current treatment of asthma with combinations of inhaled corticosteroids and long acting beta2 agonists improves asthma control and reduces exacerbations but what impact this might have on innate anti-viral immunity is unclear. We investigated the in vitro effects of asthma drugs on innate anti-viral immunity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from healthy and asthmatic donors were cultured for 24 hours with the Toll-like receptor 7 agonist, imiquimod, or rhinovirus 16 (RV16 in the presence of budesonide and/or formoterol. Production of proinflammatory cytokines and expression of anti-viral intracellular signalling molecules were measured by ELISA and RT-PCR respectively. In PBMC from healthy donors, budesonide alone inhibited IP-10 and IL-6 production induced by imiquimod in a concentration-dependent manner and the degree of inhibition was amplified when budesonide and formoterol were used in combination. Formoterol alone had little effect on these parameters, except at high concentrations (10⁻⁶ M when IL-6 production increased. In RV16 stimulated PBMC, the combination of budesonide and formoterol inhibited IFNα and IP-10 production in asthmatic as well as healthy donors. Combination of budesonide and formoterol also inhibited RV16-stimulated expression of the type I IFN induced genes myxovirus protein A and 2', 5' oligoadenylate synthetise. Notably, RV16 stimulated lower levels of type Myxovirus A and oligoadenylate synthase in PBMC of asthmatics than control donors. These in vitro studies demonstrate that combinations of drugs commonly used in asthma therapy inhibit both early pro-inflammatory cytokines and key aspects of the type I IFN pathway. These findings suggest that budesonide and formoterol curtail excessive inflammation induced by rhinovirus infections in patients with asthma, but whether this inhibits

  16. Multifunctional roles of leader protein of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in suppressing host antiviral responses.

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    Liu, Yingqi; Zhu, Zixiang; Zhang, Miaotao; Zheng, Haixue

    2015-10-28

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) leader protein (L(pro)) is a papain-like proteinase, which plays an important role in FMDV pathogenesis. L(pro) exists as two forms, Lab and Lb, due to translation being initiated from two different start codons separated by 84 nucleotides. L(pro) self-cleaves from the nascent viral polyprotein precursor as the first mature viral protein. In addition to its role as a viral proteinase, L(pro) also has the ability to antagonize host antiviral effects. To promote FMDV replication, L(pro) can suppress host antiviral responses by three different mechanisms: (1) cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 γ (eIF4G) to shut off host protein synthesis; (2) inhibition of host innate immune responses through restriction of interferon-α/β production; and (3) L(pro) can also act as a deubiquitinase and catalyze deubiquitination of innate immune signaling molecules. In the light of recent functional and biochemical findings regarding L(pro), this review introduces the basic properties of L(pro) and the mechanisms by which it antagonizes host antiviral responses.

  17. Evasion of antiviral innate immunity by Theiler's virus L* protein through direct inhibition of RNase L.

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    Frédéric Sorgeloos

    Full Text Available Theiler's virus is a neurotropic picornavirus responsible for chronic infections of the central nervous system. The establishment of a persistent infection and the subsequent demyelinating disease triggered by the virus depend on the expression of L*, a viral accessory protein encoded by an alternative open reading frame of the virus. We discovered that L* potently inhibits the interferon-inducible OAS/RNase L pathway. The antagonism of RNase L by L* was particularly prominent in macrophages where baseline oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS and RNase L expression levels are elevated, but was detectable in fibroblasts after IFN pretreatment. L* mutations significantly affected Theiler's virus replication in primary macrophages derived from wild-type but not from RNase L-deficient mice. L* counteracted the OAS/RNase L pathway through direct interaction with the ankyrin domain of RNase L, resulting in the inhibition of this enzyme. Interestingly, RNase L inhibition was species-specific as Theiler's virus L* protein blocked murine RNase L but not human RNase L or RNase L of other mammals or birds. Direct RNase L inhibition by L* and species specificity were confirmed in an in vitro assay performed with purified proteins. These results demonstrate a novel viral mechanism to elude the antiviral OAS/RNase L pathway. By targeting the effector enzyme of this antiviral pathway, L* potently inhibits RNase L, underscoring the importance of this enzyme in innate immunity against Theiler's virus.

  18. ISG15 inhibits Nedd4 ubiquitin E3 activity and enhances the innate antiviral response.

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    Malakhova, Oxana A; Zhang, Dong-Er

    2008-04-04

    Interferons regulate diverse immune functions through the transcriptional activation of hundreds of genes involved in anti-viral responses. The interferon-inducible ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 is expressed in cells in response to a variety of stress conditions like viral or bacterial infection and is present in its free form or is conjugated to cellular proteins. In addition, protein ubiquitination plays a regulatory role in the immune system. Many viruses modulate the ubiquitin (Ub) pathway to alter cellular signaling and the antiviral response. Ubiquitination of retroviral group-specific antigen precursors and matrix proteins of the Ebola, vesicular stomatitis, and rabies viruses by Nedd4 family HECT domain E3 ligases is an important step in facilitating viral release. We found that Nedd4 is negatively regulated by ISG15. Free ISG15 specifically bound to Nedd4 and blocked its interaction with Ub-E2 molecules, thus preventing further Ub transfer from E2 to E3. Furthermore, overexpression of ISG15 diminished the ability of Nedd4 to ubiquitinate viral matrix proteins and led to a decrease in the release of Ebola VP40 virus-like particles from the cells. These results point to a mechanistically novel function of ISG15 in the enhancement of the innate anti-viral response through specific inhibition of Nedd4 Ub-E3 activity. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a Ub-like protein with the ability to interfere with Ub-E2 and E3 interaction to inhibit protein ubiquitination.

  19. Intestinal innate antiviral immunity and immunobiotics: beneficial effects against rotavirus infection

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    Julio Villena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The mucosal tissues of the gastrointestinal tract are the main portal entry of pathogens such as rotavirus (RVs, which is a leading cause of death due to diarrhea among young children across the globe and a major cause of severe acute intestinal infection in livestock animals. The interactions between intestinal epithelial cells (IECs and immune cells with RVs have been studied for several years, and now it is known that the innate immune responses triggered by this virus can have both beneficial and detrimental effects for the host. It was demonstrated that natural RVs infection in infants and experimental challenges in mice result in the intestinal activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs like Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 and striking secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators that can lead to increased local tissue damage and immunopathology. Therefore, modulating desregulated intestinal immune responses triggered by PRRs activation are a significant promise for reducing the burden of RVs diseases. The ability of immunoregulatory probiotic microorganisms (immunobiotics to protect against intestinal infections such as those caused by RVs, are among the oldest effects studied for these important group of beneficial microbes. In this review, we provide an update of the current status on the modulation of intestinal antiviral innate immunity by immunobiotics, and their beneficial impact on RVs infection. In addition, we describe the research of our group that demonstrated the capacity of immunobiotic strains to beneficially modulated TLR3-triggered immune response in IECs, reduce the disruption of intestinal homeostasis caused by intraepithelial lymphocytes, and improve the resistance to RVs infections.

  20. Human influenza is more effective than avian influenza at antiviral suppression in airway cells.

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    Hsu, Alan Chen-Yu; Barr, Ian; Hansbro, Philip M; Wark, Peter A

    2011-06-01

    Airway epithelial cells are the initial site of infection with influenza viruses. The innate immune responses of airway epithelial cells to infection are important in limiting virus replication and spread. However, relatively little is known about the importance of this innate antiviral response to infection. Avian influenza viruses are a potential source of future pandemics; therefore, it is critical to examine the effectiveness of the host antiviral system to different influenza viruses. We used a human influenza (H3N2) and a low-pathogenic avian influenza (H11N9) to assess and compare the antiviral responses of Calu-3 cells. After infection, H3N2 replicated more effectively than the H11N9 in Calu-3 cells. This was not due to differential expression of sialic acid residues on Calu-3 cells, but was attributed to the interference of host antiviral responses by H3N2. H3N2 induced a delayed antiviral signaling and impaired type I and type III IFN induction compared with the H11N9. The gene encoding for nonstructural (NS) 1 protein was transfected into the bronchial epithelial cells (BECs), and the H3N2 NS1 induced a greater inhibition of antiviral responses compared with the H11N9 NS1. Although the low-pathogenic avian influenza virus was capable of infecting BECs, the human influenza virus replicated more effectively than avian influenza virus in BECs, and this was due to a differential ability of the two NS1 proteins to inhibit antiviral responses. This suggests that the subversion of human antiviral responses may be an important requirement for influenza viruses to adapt to the human host and cause disease.

  1. HBV Bypasses the Innate Immune Response and Does Not Protect HCV From Antiviral Activity of Interferon.

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    Mutz, Pascal; Metz, Philippe; Lempp, Florian A; Bender, Silke; Qu, Bingqian; Schöneweis, Katrin; Seitz, Stefan; Tu, Thomas; Restuccia, Agnese; Frankish, Jamie; Dächert, Christopher; Schusser, Benjamin; Koschny, Ronald; Polychronidis, Georgios; Schemmer, Peter; Hoffmann, Katrin; Baumert, Thomas F; Binder, Marco; Urban, Stephan; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2018-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is sensitive to interferon (IFN)-based therapy, whereas hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is not. It is unclear whether HBV escapes detection by the IFN-mediated immune response or actively suppresses it. Moreover, little is known on how HBV and HCV influence each other in coinfected cells. We investigated interactions between HBV and the IFN-mediated immune response using HepaRG cells and primary human hepatocytes (PHHs). We analyzed the effects of HBV on HCV replication, and vice versa, at the single-cell level. PHHs were isolated from liver resection tissues from HBV-, HCV-, and human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients. Differentiated HepaRG cells overexpressing the HBV receptor sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (dHepaRGNTCP) and PHHs were infected with HBV. Huh7.5 cells were transfected with circular HBV DNA genomes resembling viral covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), and subsequently infected with HCV; this served as a model of HBV and HCV coinfection. Cells were incubated with IFN inducers, or IFNs, and antiviral response and viral replication were analyzed by immune fluorescence, reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and flow cytometry. HBV infection of dHepaRGNTCP cells and PHHs neither activated nor inhibited signaling via pattern recognition receptors. Incubation of dHepaRGNTCP cells and PHHs with IFN had little effect on HBV replication or levels of cccDNA. HBV infection of these cells did not inhibit JAK-STAT signaling or up-regulation of IFN-stimulated genes. In coinfected cells, HBV did not prevent IFN-induced suppression of HCV replication. In dHepaRGNTCP cells and PHHs, HBV evades the induction of IFN and IFN-induced antiviral effects. HBV infection does not rescue HCV from the IFN-mediated response. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Alveolar macrophage–derived type I interferons orchestrate innate immunity to RSV through recruitment of antiviral monocytes

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    Goritzka, Michelle; Makris, Spyridon; Kausar, Fahima; Durant, Lydia R.; Pereira, Catherine; Kumagai, Yutaro; Culley, Fiona J.; Mack, Matthias; Akira, Shizuo

    2015-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) are important for host defense from viral infections, acting to restrict viral production in infected cells and to promote antiviral immune responses. However, the type I IFN system has also been associated with severe lung inflammatory disease in response to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Which cells produce type I IFNs upon RSV infection and how this directs immune responses to the virus, and potentially results in pathological inflammation, is unclear. Here, we show that alveolar macrophages (AMs) are the major source of type I IFNs upon RSV infection in mice. AMs detect RSV via mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS)–coupled retinoic acid–inducible gene 1 (RIG-I)–like receptors (RLRs), and loss of MAVS greatly compromises innate immune restriction of RSV. This is largely attributable to loss of type I IFN–dependent induction of monocyte chemoattractants and subsequent reduced recruitment of inflammatory monocytes (infMo) to the lungs. Notably, the latter have potent antiviral activity and are essential to control infection and lessen disease severity. Thus, infMo recruitment constitutes an important and hitherto underappreciated, cell-extrinsic mechanism of type I IFN–mediated antiviral activity. Dysregulation of this system of host antiviral defense may underlie the development of RSV-induced severe lung inflammation. PMID:25897172

  3. DMPD: The role of viral nucleic acid recognition in dendritic cells for innate andadaptive antiviral immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18086372 The role of viral nucleic acid recognition in dendritic cells for innate a...1-14. Epub 2007 Nov 9. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The role of viral nucleic acid recognition in dend...e role of viral nucleic acid recognition in dendritic cells for innate andadaptive antiviral immunity. Autho

  4. Accessory factors of cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors required for antiviral innate immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki eOshiumi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferon (IFN induces many antiviral factors in host cells. RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs are cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors that trigger the signal to induce the innate immune response that includes type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 are RLRs that form nucleoprotein filaments along viral double-stranded RNA, resulting in the activation of MAVS adaptor molecule. The MAVS protein forms a prion-like aggregation structure, leading to type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 undergo post-translational modification. TRIM25 and Riplet ubiquitin ligases deliver a K63-linked polyubiquitin moiety to the RIG-I N-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs and C-terminal region; the polyubiquitin chain then stabilizes the two-CARD tetramer structure required for MAVS assembly. MDA5 activation is regulated by phosphorylation. RIOK3 is a protein kinase that phosphorylates the MDA5 protein in a steady state, and PP1α/γ dephosphorylate this protein, resulting in its activation. RIG-I and MDA5 require cytoplasmic RNA helicases for their efficient activation. LGP2, another RLR, is an RNA helicase involved in RLR signaling. This protein does not possess N-terminal CARDs and thus cannot trigger downstream signaling by itself. Recent studies have revealed that this protein modulates MDA5 filament formation, resulting in enhanced type I IFN production. Several other cytoplasmic RNA helicases are involved in RLR signaling. DDX3, DHX29, DHX36, and DDX60 RNA helicases have been reported to be involved in RLR-mediated type I IFN production after viral infection. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Future studies are required to reveal the role of RNA helicases in the RLR signaling pathway.

  5. Exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus delbrueckii OLL1073R-1 modulate innate antiviral immune response in porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Albarracin, Leonardo; Kobayashi, Hisakazu; Iida, Hikaru; Komatsu, Ryoya; Humayun Kober, A K M; Ikeda-Ohtsubo, Wakako; Suda, Yoshihito; Aso, Hisashi; Makino, Seiya; Kano, Hiroshi; Saito, Tadao; Villena, Julio; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii OLL1073R-1 (LDR-1) improve antiviral immunity, especially in the systemic and respiratory compartments. However, it was not studied before whether those EPSs are able to beneficially modulate intestinal antiviral immunity. In addition, LDR-1-host interaction has been evaluated mainly with immune cells while its interaction with intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was not addressed before. In this work, we investigated the capacity of EPSs from LDR-1 to modulate the response of porcine IECs (PIE cells) to the stimulation with the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 agonist poly(I:C) and the role of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR negative regulators in the immunoregulatory effect. We showed that innate immune response triggered by TLR3 activation in porcine IECs was differentially modulated by EPS from LDR-1. EPSs treatment induced an increment in the expression of interferon (IFN)-α and IFN-β in PIE cells after the stimulation with poly(I:C) as well as the expression of the antiviral factors MxA and RNase L. Those effects were related to the reduced expression of A20 in EPS-treated PIE cells. EPS from LDR-1 was also able to reduce the expression of IL-6 and proinflammatory chemokines. Although further in vivo studies are needed, our results suggest that these EPSs or a yogurt fermented with LDR-1 have potential to improve intestinal innate antiviral response and protect against intestinal viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of ethanol on innate antiviral pathways and HCV replication in human liver cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Nelson

    2005-12-01

    alcohol have extremely low response rates to IFN therapy 9, but the mechanisms involved have not been clarified. MAPKs play essential roles in regulation of differentiation, cell growth, and responses to cytokines, chemokines and stress. The core element in MAPK signaling consists of a module of 3 kinases, named MKKK, MKK, and MAPK, which sequentially phosphorylate each other 10. Currently, four MAPK modules have been characterized in mammalian cells: Extracellular Regulated Kinases (ERK1 and 2, Stress activated/c-Jun N terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK, p38 MAP kinases, and ERK5 11. Interestingly, ethanol modulates MAPKs 12. However, information on how ethanol affects MAPKs in the context of innate antiviral pathways such as the Jak-Stat pathway in human cells is extremely limited. When IFN-α binds its receptor, two receptor associated tyrosine kinases, Tyk2 and Jak1 become activated by phosphorylation, and phosphorylate Stat1 and Stat2 on conserved tyrosine residues 13. Stat1 and Stat2 combine with the IRF-9 protein to form the transcription factor interferon stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF-3, which binds to the interferon stimulated response element (ISRE, and induces transcription of IFN-α-induced genes (ISG. The ISGs mediate the antiviral effects of IFN. The transcriptional activities of Stats 1, 3, 4, 5a, and 5b are also regulated by serine phosphorylation 14. Phosphorylation of Stat1 on a conserved serine amino acid at position 727 (S727, results in maximal transcriptional activity of the ISGF-3 transcription factor complex 15. Although cross-talk between p38 MAPK and the Jak-Stat pathway is essential for IFN-induced ISRE transcription, p38 does not participate in IFN induction of Stat1 serine phosphorylation 1416171819. However, cellular stress responses induced by stimuli such as ultraviolet light do induce p38 MAPK mediated Stat1 S727 phosphorylation 18. In the current report, we postulated that alcohol and HCV proteins modulate MAPK and Jak-Stat pathways in human

  7. Mucosal immunization in macaques upregulates the innate APOBEC 3G anti-viral factor in CD4(+) memory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yufei; Bergmeier, Lesley A; Stebbings, Richard; Seidl, Thomas; Whittall, Trevor; Singh, Mahavir; Berry, Neil; Almond, Neil; Lehner, Thomas

    2009-02-05

    APOBEC3G is an innate intracellular anti-viral factor which deaminates retroviral cytidine to uridine. In vivo studies of APOBEC3G (A3G) were carried out in rhesus macaques, following mucosal immunization with SIV antigens and CCR5 peptides, linked to the 70kDa heat shock protein. A progressive increase in A3G mRNA was elicited in PBMC after each immunization (p<0.0002 to p< or =0.02), which was maintained for at least 17 weeks. Analysis of memory T cells showed a significant increase in A3G mRNA and protein in CD4(+)CCR5(+) memory T cells in circulating (p=0.0001), splenic (p=0.0001), iliac lymph nodes (p=0.002) and rectal (p=0.01) cells of the immunized compared with unimmunized macaques. Mucosal challenge with SIVmac 251 showed a significant increase in A3G mRNA in the CD4(+)CCR5(+) circulating cells (p<0.01) and the draining iliac lymph node cells (p<0.05) in the immunized uninfected macaques, consistent with a protective effect exerted by A3G. The results suggest that mucosal immunization in a non-human primate can induce features of a memory response to an innate anti-viral factor in CCR5(+)CD4(+) memory and CD4(+)CD95(+)CCR7(-) effector memory T cells.

  8. Neonatal plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs display subset variation but can elicit potent anti-viral innate responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Zhang

    Full Text Available Neonates are highly susceptible to infectious diseases and defective antiviral pDC immune responses have been proposed to contribute to this phenomenon. Isolated cord blood pDCs innately responded to a variety of TLR7 and TLR9 dependent viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV or herpes-simplex virus (HSV by efficiently producing IFN-α, TNF-α as well as chemokines. Interestingly, following activation by CpGA, but not viruses, cord pDCs tend to survive less efficiently. We found that a hallmark of pDCs in neonates is an extended CD2+pDCs compartment compared to adult pDCs without affecting the antiviral IFN-α response. Within CD2+pDCs, we identified a subpopulation expressing CD5 and responsible for IL-12p40 production, however this population is significantly decreased in cord blood compared to adult blood. Therefore, neonatal pDCs clearly display variation in phenotype and subset composition, but without major consequences for their antiviral responses.

  9. Factors affecting the purpose suppressive antiviral therapy for patients with recurrent genital herpes

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    I. S. Коlova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the factors that influence the destination of suppressive antiviral therapy in patients with recurrent genital herpes doctors of different specialties.Material and Methods: The study was conducted based on an anonymous survey of professionals providing medical care to patients with genital herpes. The survey involved 67 experts – 44 dermatologist, 13 obstetricians and 10 urologists working in Skin and Venereal Diseases, Women’s consuitation post and Saint Petersburg clinics.Results: Most respondents indicated that among patients with genital herpes, seeking an appointment, dominated by patients with relapsing nature of the disease. Suppressive antiviral therapy is recommended 68,7% of specialists, including dermatologists 61,3%, 84,6% of obstetricians and gynecologists, and 80% of urologists. The main indications for its experts consider high frequency of relapses, the patient’s tendency to promiscuity, the desire of the patient with fewer relapses, and the emotional response of the patient for the presence of the disease. Do not prescribe suppressive therapy for recurrent genital herpes 31,4% of the doctors surveyed. Among the reasons for which are not appointed by the type of treatment, the patient is dominated by the rejection of this type of treatment, the lack of experience of the destination suppressive therapy, as well as the uncertainty of specialists in its effectiveness.Conclusion: Suppressive antiviral therapy is recommended 68,7% of specialists. Do not prescribe this type of treatment for recurrent genital herpes 31,4% of the doctors surveyed. The proportion of professionals who refuse the appointment of suppressive antiviral therapy, the highest among dermatologists (38,7% compared with 15,4% among obstetricians and 20% of urologists. The most frequent grounds for refusal from this type of treatment is the lack of confidence in its effectiveness. 

  10. Antiviral RNA silencing suppression activity of Tomato spotted wilt virus NSs protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo Ocampo, T; Gabriel Peralta, S M; Bacheller, N; Uiterwaal, S; Knapp, A; Hennen, A; Ochoa-Martinez, D L; Garcia-Ruiz, H

    2016-06-17

    In addition to regulating gene expression, RNA silencing is an essential antiviral defense system in plants. Triggered by double-stranded RNA, silencing results in degradation or translational repression of target transcripts. Viruses are inducers and targets of RNA silencing. To condition susceptibility, most plant viruses encode silencing suppressors that interfere with this process, such as the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) NSs protein. The mechanism by which NSs suppresses RNA silencing and its role in viral infection and movement remain to be determined. We cloned NSs from the Hawaii isolate of TSWV and using two independent assays show for the first time that this protein restored pathogenicity and supported the formation of local infection foci by suppressor-deficient Turnip mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus. Demonstrating the suppression of RNA silencing directed against heterologous viruses establishes the foundation to determine the means used by NSs to block this antiviral process.

  11. Initiation of Antiviral B Cell Immunity Relies on Innate Signals from Spatially Positioned NKT Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaya, Mauro; Barral, Patricia; Burbage, Marianne; Aggarwal, Shweta; Montaner, Beatriz; Warren Navia, Andrew; Aid, Malika; Tsui, Carlson; Maldonado, Paula; Nair, Usha; Ghneim, Khader; Fallon, Padraic G; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Barouch, Dan H; Shalek, Alex K; Bruckbauer, Andreas; Strid, Jessica; Batista, Facundo D

    2018-01-25

    B cells constitute an essential line of defense from pathogenic infections through the generation of class-switched antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) in germinal centers. Although this process is known to be regulated by follicular helper T (TfH) cells, the mechanism by which B cells initially seed germinal center reactions remains elusive. We found that NKT cells, a population of innate-like T lymphocytes, are critical for the induction of B cell immunity upon viral infection. The positioning of NKT cells at the interfollicular areas of lymph nodes facilitates both their direct priming by resident macrophages and the localized delivery of innate signals to antigen-experienced B cells. Indeed, NKT cells secrete an early wave of IL-4 and constitute up to 70% of the total IL-4-producing cells during the initial stages of infection. Importantly, the requirement of this innate immunity arm appears to be evolutionarily conserved because early NKT and IL-4 gene signatures also positively correlate with the levels of neutralizing antibodies in Zika-virus-infected macaques. In conclusion, our data support a model wherein a pre-TfH wave of IL-4 secreted by interfollicular NKT cells triggers the seeding of germinal center cells and serves as an innate link between viral infection and B cell immunity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. miR-194 Inhibits Innate Antiviral Immunity by Targeting FGF2 in Influenza H1N1 Virus Infection

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    Keyu Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2 or basic FGF regulates a wide range of cell biological functions including proliferation, angiogenesis, migration, differentiation, and injury repair. However, the roles of FGF2 and the underlying mechanisms of action in influenza A virus (IAV-induced lung injury remain largely unexplored. In this study, we report that microRNA-194-5p (miR-194 expression is significantly decreased in A549 alveolar epithelial cells (AECs following infection with IAV/Beijing/501/2009 (BJ501. We found that miR-194 can directly target FGF2, a novel antiviral regulator, to suppress FGF2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Overexpression of miR-194 facilitated IAV replication by negatively regulating type I interferon (IFN production, whereas reintroduction of FGF2 abrogated the miR-194-induced effects on IAV replication. Conversely, inhibition of miR-194 alleviated IAV-induced lung injury by promoting type I IFN antiviral activities in vivo. Importantly, FGF2 activated the retinoic acid-inducible gene I signaling pathway, whereas miR-194 suppressed the phosphorylation of tank binding kinase 1 and IFN regulatory factor 3. Our findings suggest that the miR-194-FGF2 axis plays a vital role in IAV-induced lung injury, and miR-194 antagonism might be a potential therapeutic target during IAV infection.

  13. The Adenovirus E1A C Terminus Suppresses a Delayed Antiviral Response and Modulates RAS Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Nathan R; Berk, Arnold J

    2017-12-13

    The N-terminal half of adenovirus e1a assembles multimeric complexes with host proteins that repress innate immune responses and force host cells into S-phase. In contrast, the functions of e1a's C-terminal interactions with FOXK, DCAF7, and CtBP are unknown. We found that these interactions modulate RAS signaling, and that a single e1a molecule must bind all three of these host proteins to suppress activation of a subset of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). These ISGs were otherwise induced in primary respiratory epithelial cells at 12 hr p.i. This delayed activation of ISGs required IRF3 and coincided with an ∼10-fold increase in IRF3 from protein stabilization. The induced IRF3 bound to chromatin and localized to the promoters of activated ISGs. While IRF3, STAT1/2, and IRF9 all greatly increased in concentration, there were no corresponding mRNA increases, suggesting that e1a regulates the stabilities of these key activators of innate immune responses, as shown directly for IRF3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A systems biology approach reveals that tissue tropism to West Nile virus is regulated by antiviral genes and innate immune cellular processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehul S Suthar

    2013-02-01

    -specific antiviral effector gene expression and innate immune cellular processes that control tissue tropism to WNV infection.

  15. Innate immunity in the vagina (Part II): Anti-HIV activity and antiviral content of human vaginal secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mickey V; Ghosh, Mimi; Fahey, John V; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Rossoll, Richard M; Wira, Charles R

    2014-07-01

    Whether the concentrations of antiviral proteins, and anti-HIV activity, within human vaginal secretions change across the menstrual cycle is unknown. Using a menstrual cup, vaginal secretions from pre-menopausal women were recovered at the proliferative (d6-8), mid-cycle (d13-15), and secretory (d21-23) stages of the menstrual cycle. Antiviral protein concentration was determined by ELISA, and anti-HIV activity assessed using the TZM-bl reporter cell line. CCL20, RANTES, elafin, HBD2, SDF-1α, and IL-8 levels were detectable in the secretions. Vaginal secretions had anti-HIV activity against specific clade B strains of HIV, with significant inhibition of IIIB and increased infectivity of transmitted/founder CH077.t. No significant differences in either antiviral protein concentration or anti-HIV activity with respect to menstrual cycle stage were measured, but marked differences were observed in both parameters over the course of the cycle between different women and in consecutive cycles from the same woman. The vagina contains a complement of antiviral proteins. The variation in anti-HIV activity demonstrates that immune protection in the vagina is not constant. Intra- and interindividual variations suggest that factors in addition to sex hormones influence antiviral protection. Lastly, the menstrual cup is a new model for recovering undiluted vaginal secretions from women throughout their reproductive life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Antiviral Efficacy and Host Innate Immunity Associated with SB 9200 Treatment in the Woodchuck Model of Chronic Hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle E Korolowicz

    Full Text Available SB 9200, an oral prodrug of the dinucleotide SB 9000, is being developed for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and represents a novel class of antivirals. SB 9200 is thought to activate the viral sensor proteins, retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2 resulting in interferon (IFN mediated antiviral immune responses in virus-infected cells. Additionally, the binding of SB 9200 to these sensor proteins could also sterically block the ability of the viral polymerase to access pre-genomic RNA for nucleic acid synthesis. The immune stimulating and direct antiviral properties of SB 9200 were evaluated in woodchucks chronically infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV by daily, oral dosing at 15 and 30 mg/kg for 12 weeks. Prolonged treatment resulted in 2.2 and 3.7 log10 reductions in serum WHV DNA and in 0.5 and 1.6 log10 declines in serum WHV surface antigen from pretreatment level with the lower or higher dose of SB 9200, respectively. SB 9200 treatment also resulted in lower hepatic levels of WHV nucleic acids and antigen and reduced liver inflammation. Following treatment cessation, recrudescence of viral replication was observed but with dose-dependent delays in viral relapse. The antiviral effects were associated with dose-dependent and long-lasting induction of IFN-α, IFN-β and IFN-stimulated genes in blood and liver, which correlated with the prolonged activation of the RIG-I/NOD2 pathway and hepatic presence of elevated RIG-I protein levels. These results suggest that in addition to a direct antiviral activity, SB 9200 induces antiviral immunity during chronic hepadnaviral infection via activation of the viral sensor pathway.

  17. A bacterial cysteine protease effector protein interferes with photosynthesis to suppress plant innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Herva, José J; González-Melendi, Pablo; Cuartas-Lanza, Raquel; Antúnez-Lamas, María; Río-Alvarez, Isabel; Li, Ziduo; López-Torrejón, Gema; Díaz, Isabel; Del Pozo, Juan C; Chakravarthy, Suma; Collmer, Alan; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; López-Solanilla, Emilia

    2012-05-01

    The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 suppresses plant innate immunity with effector proteins injected by a type III secretion system (T3SS). The cysteine protease effector HopN1, which reduces the ability of DC3000 to elicit programmed cell death in non-host tobacco, was found to also suppress the production of defence-associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and callose when delivered by Pseudomonas fluorescens heterologously expressing a P. syringae T3SS. Purified His(6) -tagged HopN1 was used to identify tomato PsbQ, a member of the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II (PSII), as an interacting protein. HopN1 localized to chloroplasts and both degraded PsbQ and inhibited PSII activity in chloroplast preparations, whereas a HopN1(D299A) non-catalytic mutant lost these abilities. Gene silencing of NtPsbQ in tobacco compromised ROS production and programmed cell death by DC3000. Our data reveal PsbQ as a contributor to plant immunity responses and a target for pathogen suppression. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Physiologic Doses of Bilirubin Contribute to Tolerance of Islet Transplants by Suppressing the Innate Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adin, Christopher A; VanGundy, Zachary C; Papenfuss, Tracey L; Xu, Feng; Ghanem, Mostafa; Lakey, Jonathan; Hadley, Gregg A

    2017-01-24

    Bilirubin has been recognized as a powerful cytoprotectant when used at physiologic doses and was recently shown to have immunomodulatory effects in islet allograft transplantation, conveying donor-specific tolerance in a murine model. We hypothesized that bilirubin, an antioxidant, acts to suppress the innate immune response to islet allografts through two mechanisms: 1) by suppressing graft release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and inflammatory cytokines, and 2) by producing a tolerogenic phenotype in antigen-presenting cells. Bilirubin was administered intraperitoneally before pancreatic procurement or was added to culture media after islet isolation in AJ mice. Islets were exposed to transplant-associated nutrient deprivation and hypoxia. Bilirubin significantly decreased islet cell death after isolation and hypoxic stress. Bilirubin supplementation of islet media also decreased the release of DAMPs (HMGB1), inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6), and chemokines (MCP-1). Cytoprotection was mediated by the antioxidant effects of bilirubin. Treatment of macrophages with bilirubin induced a regulatory phenotype, with increased expression of PD-L1. Coculture of these macrophages with splenocytes led to expansion of Foxp3+ Tregs. In conclusion, exogenous bilirubin supplementation showed cytoprotective and antioxidant effects in a relevant model of islet isolation and hypoxic stress. Suppression of DAMP release, alterations in cytokine profiles, and tolerogenic effects on macrophages suggest that the use of this natural antioxidant may provide a method of preconditioning to improve outcomes after allograft transplantation.

  19. Upregulation of innate antiviral restricting factor expression in the cord blood and decidual tissue of HIV-infected mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nátalli Zanete; Cardoso, Elaine Cristina; Oliveira, Luanda Mara da Silva; de Lima, Josenilson Feitosa; Branco, Anna Cláudia Calvielli Castelo; Ruocco, Rosa Maria de Souza Aveiro; Zugaib, Marcelo; de Oliveira Filho, João Bosco; Duarte, Alberto José da Silva; Sato, Maria Notomi

    2013-01-01

    Programs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV have reduced the transmission rate of perinatal HIV infection and have thereby increased the number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants. Natural immunity to HIV-1 infection in both mothers and newborns needs to be further explored. In this study, we compared the expression of antiviral restricting factors in HIV-infected pregnant mothers treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy (n=23) and in cord blood (CB) (n=16), placental tissues (n=10-13) and colostrum (n=5-6) samples and compared them to expression in samples from uninfected (UN) pregnant mothers (n=21). Mononuclear cells (MNCs) were prepared from maternal and CB samples following deliveries by cesarean section. Maternal (decidua) and fetal (chorionic villus) placental tissues were obtained, and colostrum was collected 24 h after delivery. The mRNA and protein expression levels of antiviral factors were then evaluated. We observed a significant increase in the mRNA expression levels of antiviral factors in MNCs from HIV-infected mothers and CB, including the apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme 3G (A3G), A3F, tripartite motif family-5α (TRIM-5α), TRIM-22, myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA), stimulator of interferon (IFN) genes (STING) and IFN-β, compared with the levels detected in uninfected (UN) mother-CB pairs. Moreover, A3G transcript and protein levels and α-defensin transcript levels were decreased in the decidua of HIV-infected mothers. Decreased TRIM-5α protein levels in the villi and increased STING mRNA expression in both placental tissues were also observed in HIV-infected mothers compared with uninfected (UN) mothers. Additionally, colostrum cells from infected mothers showed increased tetherin and IFN-β mRNA levels and CXCL9 protein levels. The data presented here indicate that antiviral restricting factor expression can be induced in utero in HIV-infected mothers. Future studies are warranted to determine

  20. Shrimp miR-12 Suppresses White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection by Synchronously Triggering Antiviral Phagocytosis and Apoptosis Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Le; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence has indicated that the innate immune system can be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). However, the mechanism underlying miRNA-mediated simultaneous activation of multiple immune pathways remains unknown. To address this issue, the role of host miR-12 in shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) antiviral immune responses was characterized in the present study. The results indicated that miR-12 participated in virus infection, host phagocytosis, and apoptosis in defense against white spot syndrome virus invasion. miR-12 could simultaneously trigger phagocytosis, apoptosis, and antiviral immunity through the synchronous downregulation of the expression of shrimp genes [PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) and BI-1(transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif containing 6)] and the viral gene (wsv024). Further analysis showed that miR-12 could synchronously mediate the 5′–3′ exonucleolytic degradation of its target mRNAs, and this degradation terminated in the vicinity of the 3′ untranslated region sequence complementary to the seed sequence of miR-12. Therefore, the present study showed novel aspects of the miRNA-mediated simultaneous regulation of multiple immune pathways. PMID:28824612

  1. Peripheral dendritic cells are essential for both the innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel, Christina D.; Hahto, Suzanne M.; Ciavarra, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Intranasal application of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) causes acute infection of the central nervous system (CNS). However, VSV encephalitis is not invariably fatal, suggesting that the CNS may contain a professional antigen-presenting cell (APC) capable of inducing or propagating a protective antiviral immune response. To examine this possibility, we first characterized the cellular elements that infiltrate the brain as well as the activation status of resident microglia in the brains of normal and transgenic mice acutely ablated of peripheral dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo. VSV encephalitis was characterized by a pronounced infiltrate of myeloid cells (CD45 high CD11b + ) and CD8 + T cells containing a subset that was specific for the immunodominant VSV nuclear protein epitope. This T cell response correlated temporally with a rapid and sustained upregulation of MHC class I expression on microglia, whereas class II expression was markedly delayed. Ablation of peripheral DCs profoundly inhibited the inflammatory response as well as infiltration of virus-specific CD8 + T cells. Unexpectedly, the VSV-induced interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) response in the CNS remained intact in DC-deficient mice. Thus, both the inflammatory and certain components of the adaptive primary antiviral immune response in the CNS are dependent on peripheral DCs in vivo.

  2. The Human Cytomegalovirus Major Immediate-Early Proteins as Antagonists of Intrinsic and Innate Antiviral Host Responses

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    Michael Nevels

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The major immediate-early (IE gene of human cytomegalovirus (CMV is believed to have a decisive role in acute infection and its activity is an important indicator of viral reactivation from latency. Although a variety of gene products are expressed from this region, the 72-kDa IE1 and the 86-kDa IE2 nuclear phosphoproteins are the most abundant and important. Both proteins have long been recognized as promiscuous transcriptional regulators. More recently, a critical role of the IE1 and IE2 proteins in counteracting nonadaptive host cell defense mechanisms has been revealed. In this review we will briefly summarize the available literature on IE1- and IE2-dependent mechanisms contributing to CMV evasion from intrinsic and innate immune responses.

  3. Activation of Nrf2 Signaling Augments Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Oncolysis via Autophagy-Driven Suppression of Antiviral Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagnier, David; Lababidi, Rassin R; Hadj, Samar Bel; Sze, Alexandre; Liu, Yiliu; Naidu, Sharadha Dayalan; Ferrari, Matteo; Jiang, Yuan; Chiang, Cindy; Beljanski, Vladimir; Goulet, Marie-Line; Knatko, Elena V; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T; Hiscott, John; Lin, Rongtuan

    2017-08-02

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) offer a promising therapeutic approach to treat multiple types of cancer. In this study, we show that the manipulation of the antioxidant network via transcription factor Nrf2 augments vesicular stomatitis virus Δ51 (VSVΔ51) replication and sensitizes cancer cells to viral oncolysis. Activation of Nrf2 signaling by the antioxidant compound sulforaphane (SFN) leads to enhanced VSVΔ51 spread in OV-resistant cancer cells and improves the therapeutic outcome in different murine syngeneic and xenograft tumor models. Chemoresistant A549 lung cancer cells that display constitutive dominant hyperactivation of Nrf2 signaling are particularly vulnerable to VSVΔ51 oncolysis. Mechanistically, enhanced Nrf2 signaling stimulated viral replication in cancer cells and disrupted the type I IFN response via increased autophagy. This study reveals a previously unappreciated role for Nrf2 in the regulation of autophagy and the innate antiviral response that complements the therapeutic potential of VSV-directed oncolysis against multiple types of OV-resistant or chemoresistant cancer. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The E-Id Protein Axis Specifies Adaptive Lymphoid Cell Identity and Suppresses Thymic Innate Lymphoid Cell Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Masaki; Miyazaki, Kazuko; Chen, Kenian; Jin, Yi; Turner, Jacob; Moore, Amanda J; Saito, Rintaro; Yoshida, Kenichi; Ogawa, Seishi; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Lin, Yin C; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Murre, Cornelis

    2017-05-16

    Innate and adaptive lymphoid development is orchestrated by the activities of E proteins and their antagonist Id proteins, but how these factors regulate early T cell progenitor (ETP) and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) development remains unclear. Using multiple genetic strategies, we demonstrated that E proteins E2A and HEB acted in synergy in the thymus to establish T cell identity and to suppress the aberrant development of ILCs, including ILC2s and lymphoid-tissue-inducer-like cells. E2A and HEB orchestrated T cell fate and suppressed the ILC transcription signature by activating the expression of genes associated with Notch receptors, T cell receptor (TCR) assembly, and TCR-mediated signaling. E2A and HEB acted in ETPs to establish and maintain a T-cell-lineage-specific enhancer repertoire, including regulatory elements associated with the Notch1, Rag1, and Rag2 loci. On the basis of these and previous observations, we propose that the E-Id protein axis specifies innate and adaptive lymphoid cell fate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Tobacco Smoke Component, Acrolein, Suppresses Innate Macrophage Responses by Direct Alkylation of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristova, Milena; Spiess, Page C.; Kasahara, David I.; Randall, Matthew J.; Deng, Bin

    2012-01-01

    The respiratory innate immune system is often compromised by tobacco smoke exposure, and previous studies have indicated that acrolein, a reactive electrophile in tobacco smoke, may contribute to the immunosuppressive effects of smoking. Exposure of mice to acrolein at concentrations similar to those in cigarette smoke (5 ppm, 4 h) significantly suppressed alveolar macrophage responses to bacterial LPS, indicated by reduced induction of nitric oxide synthase 2, TNF-α, and IL-12p40. Mechanistic studies with bone marrow–derived macrophages or MH-S macrophages demonstrated that acrolein (1–30 μM) attenuated these LPS-mediated innate responses in association with depletion of cellular glutathione, although glutathione depletion itself was not fully responsible for these immunosuppressive effects. Inhibitory actions of acrolein were most prominent after acute exposure (acrolein with critical signaling pathways. Among the key signaling pathways involved in innate macrophage responses, acrolein marginally affected LPS-mediated activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and significantly suppressed phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and activation of c-Jun. Using biotin hydrazide labeling, NF-κB RelA and p50, as well as JNK2, a critical mediator of innate macrophage responses, were revealed as direct targets for alkylation by acrolein. Mass spectrometry analysis of acrolein-modified recombinant JNK2 indicated adduction to Cys41 and Cys177, putative important sites involved in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK) binding and JNK2 phosphorylation. Our findings indicate that direct alkylation of JNK2 by electrophiles, such as acrolein, may be a prominent and hitherto unrecognized mechanism in their immunosuppressive effects, and may be a major factor in smoking-induced effects on the immune system. PMID:21778411

  6. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Suppresses Innate Immune Responses via a Ubiquitin and ISG15 Specific Protease

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    Florine E.M. Scholte

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antiviral responses are regulated by conjugation of ubiquitin (Ub and interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15 to proteins. Certain classes of viruses encode Ub- or ISG15-specific proteases belonging to the ovarian tumor (OTU superfamily. Their activity is thought to suppress cellular immune responses, but studies demonstrating the function of viral OTU proteases during infection are lacking. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV, family Nairoviridae is a highly pathogenic human virus that encodes an OTU with both deubiquitinase and deISGylase activity as part of the viral RNA polymerase. We investigated CCHFV OTU function by inactivating protease catalytic activity or by selectively disrupting its deubiquitinase and deISGylase activity using reverse genetics. CCHFV OTU inactivation blocked viral replication independently of its RNA polymerase activity, while deubiquitinase activity proved critical for suppressing the interferon responses. Our findings provide insights into viral OTU functions and support the development of therapeutics and vaccines.

  7. Human Antiviral Protein IFIX Suppresses Viral Gene Expression during Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Infection and Is Counteracted by Virus-induced Proteasomal Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Marni S; Cristea, Ileana M

    2017-04-01

    The interferon-inducible protein X (IFIX), a member of the PYHIN family, was recently recognized as an antiviral factor against infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). IFIX binds viral DNA upon infection and promotes expression of antiviral cytokines. How IFIX exerts its host defense functions and whether it is inhibited by the virus remain unknown. Here, we integrated live cell microscopy, proteomics, IFIX domain characterization, and molecular virology to investigate IFIX regulation and antiviral functions during HSV-1 infection. We find that IFIX has a dynamic localization during infection that changes from diffuse nuclear and nucleoli distribution in uninfected cells to discrete nuclear puncta early in infection. This is rapidly followed by a reduction in IFIX protein levels. Indeed, using immunoaffinity purification and mass spectrometry, we define IFIX interactions during HSV-1 infection, finding an association with a proteasome subunit and proteins involved in ubiquitin-proteasome processes. Using synchronized HSV-1 infection, microscopy, and proteasome-inhibition experiments, we demonstrate that IFIX co-localizes with nuclear proteasome puncta shortly after 3 h of infection and that its pyrin domain is rapidly degraded in a proteasome-dependent manner. We further demonstrate that, in contrast to several other host defense factors, IFIX degradation is not dependent on the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of the viral protein ICP0. However, we show IFIX degradation requires immediate-early viral gene expression, suggesting a viral host suppression mechanism. The IFIX interactome also demonstrated its association with transcriptional regulatory proteins, including the 5FMC complex. We validate this interaction using microscopy and reciprocal isolations and determine it is mediated by the IFIX HIN domain. Finally, we show IFIX suppresses immediate-early and early viral gene expression during infection. Altogether, our study demonstrates that IFIX antiviral

  8. Interleukin-7 receptor blockade suppresses adaptive and innate inflammatory responses in experimental colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis Cynthia R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin-7 (IL-7 acts primarily on T cells to promote their differentiation, survival, and homeostasis. Under disease conditions, IL-7 mediates inflammation through several mechanisms and cell types. In humans, IL-7 and its receptor (IL-7R are increased in diseases characterized by inflammation such as atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. In mice, overexpression of IL-7 results in chronic colitis, and T-cell adoptive transfer studies suggest that memory T cells expressing high amounts of IL-7R drive colitis and are maintained and expanded with IL-7. The studies presented here were undertaken to better understand the contribution of IL-7R in inflammatory bowel disease in which colitis was induced with a bacterial trigger rather than with adoptive transfer. Methods We examined the contribution of IL-7R on inflammation and disease development in two models of experimental colitis: Helicobacter bilis (Hb-induced colitis in immune-sufficient Mdr1a−/− mice and in T- and B-cell-deficient Rag2−/− mice. We used pharmacological blockade of IL-7R to understand the mechanisms involved in IL-7R-mediated inflammatory bowel disease by analyzing immune cell profiles, circulating and colon proteins, and colon gene expression. Results Treatment of mice with an anti-IL-7R antibody was effective in reducing colitis in Hb-infected Mdr1a−/− mice by reducing T-cell numbers as well as T-cell function. Down regulation of the innate immune response was also detected in Hb-infected Mdr1a−/− mice treated with an anti-IL-7R antibody. In Rag2−/− mice where colitis was triggered by Hb-infection, treatment with an anti-IL-7R antibody controlled innate inflammatory responses by reducing macrophage and dendritic cell numbers and their activity. Conclusions Results from our studies showed that inhibition of IL-7R successfully ameliorated inflammation and disease development

  9. The fungal quorum-sensing molecule farnesol activates innate immune cells but suppresses cellular adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ines; Spielberg, Steffi; Weber, Michael; Albrecht-Eckardt, Daniela; Bläss, Markus; Claus, Ralf; Barz, Dagmar; Scherlach, Kirstin; Hertweck, Christian; Löffler, Jürgen; Hünniger, Kerstin; Kurzai, Oliver

    2015-03-17

    Farnesol, produced by the polymorphic fungus Candida albicans, is the first quorum-sensing molecule discovered in eukaryotes. Its main function is control of C. albicans filamentation, a process closely linked to pathogenesis. In this study, we analyzed the effects of farnesol on innate immune cells known to be important for fungal clearance and protective immunity. Farnesol enhanced the expression of activation markers on monocytes (CD86 and HLA-DR) and neutrophils (CD66b and CD11b) and promoted oxidative burst and the release of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α] and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha [MIP-1α]). However, this activation did not result in enhanced fungal uptake or killing. Furthermore, the differentiation of monocytes to immature dendritic cells (iDC) was significantly affected by farnesol. Several markers important for maturation and antigen presentation like CD1a, CD83, CD86, and CD80 were significantly reduced in the presence of farnesol. Furthermore, farnesol modulated migrational behavior and cytokine release and impaired the ability of DC to induce T cell proliferation. Of major importance was the absence of interleukin 12 (IL-12) induction in iDC generated in the presence of farnesol. Transcriptome analyses revealed a farnesol-induced shift in effector molecule expression and a down-regulation of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor during monocytes to iDC differentiation. Taken together, our data unveil the ability of farnesol to act as a virulence factor of C. albicans by influencing innate immune cells to promote inflammation and mitigating the Th1 response, which is essential for fungal clearance. Farnesol is a quorum-sensing molecule which controls morphological plasticity of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. As such, it is a major mediator of intraspecies communication. Here, we investigated the impact of farnesol on human innate immune cells known to be

  10. The Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopG1 targets mitochondria, alters plant development, and suppresses plant innate immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Anna; Guo, Ming; Li, Guangyong; Elowsky, Christian; Clemente, Thomas E.; Alfano, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae uses a type III protein secretion system to inject type III effectors into plant cells. Primary targets of these effectors appear to be effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). The type III effector HopG1 is a suppressor of ETI that is broadly conserved in bacterial plant pathogens. Here we show that HopG1 from P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 also suppresses PTI. Interestingly, HopG1 localizes to plant mitochondria, suggesting that its suppression of innate immunity may be linked to a perturbation of mitochondrial function. While HopG1 possesses no obvious mitochondrial signal peptide, its N-terminal two-thirds was sufficient for mitochondrial localization. A HopG1-GFP fusion lacking HopG1’s N-terminal 13 amino acids was not localized to the mitochondria reflecting the importance of the N-terminus for targeting. Constitutive expression of HopG1 in Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) dramatically alters plant development resulting in dwarfism, increased branching and infertility. Constitutive expression of HopG1 in planta leads to reduced respiration rates and an increased basal level of reactive oxygen species. These findings suggest that HopG1’s target is mitochondrial and that effector/target interaction promotes disease by disrupting mitochondrial functions. PMID:19863557

  11. Suppression of Adaptive Immune Cell Activation Does Not Alter Innate Immune Adipose Inflammation or Insulin Resistance in Obesity.

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    Manikandan Subramanian

    Full Text Available Obesity-induced inflammation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT is a major contributor to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Whereas innate immune cells, notably macrophages, contribute to visceral adipose tissue (VAT inflammation and insulin resistance, the role of adaptive immunity is less well defined. To address this critical gap, we used a model in which endogenous activation of T cells was suppressed in obese mice by blocking MyD88-mediated maturation of CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells. VAT CD11c+ cells from Cd11cCre+Myd88fl/fl vs. control Myd88fl/fl mice were defective in activating T cells in vitro, and VAT T and B cell activation was markedly reduced in Cd11cCre+Myd88fl/fl obese mice. However, neither macrophage-mediated VAT inflammation nor systemic inflammation were altered in Cd11cCre+Myd88fl/fl mice, thereby enabling a focused analysis on adaptive immunity. Unexpectedly, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, and the glucose response to glucose and insulin were completely unaltered in Cd11cCre+Myd88fl/fl vs. control obese mice. Thus, CD11c+ cells activate VAT T and B cells in obese mice, but suppression of this process does not have a discernible effect on macrophage-mediated VAT inflammation or systemic glucose homeostasis.

  12. Ebolavirus VP35 uses a bimodal strategy to bind dsRNA for innate immune suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberlin, Christopher R.; Bornholdt, Zachary A.; Li, Sheng; Woods, Jr., Virgil L.; MacRae, Ian J.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann (Scripps); (UCSD)

    2010-03-12

    Ebolavirus causes a severe hemorrhagic fever and is divided into five distinct species, of which Reston ebolavirus is uniquely nonpathogenic to humans. Disease caused by ebolavirus is marked by early immunosuppression of innate immune signaling events, involving silencing and sequestration of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) by the viral protein VP35. Here we present unbound and dsRNA-bound crystal structures of the dsRNA-binding domain of Reston ebolavirus VP35. The structures show that VP35 forms an unusual, asymmetric dimer on dsRNA binding, with each of the monomers binding dsRNA in a different way: one binds the backbone whereas the other caps the terminus. Additional SAXS, DXMS, and dsRNA-binding experiments presented here support a model of cooperative dsRNA recognition in which binding of the first monomer assists binding of the next monomer of the oligomeric VP35 protein. This work illustrates how ebolavirus VP35 could mask key recognition sites of molecules such as RIG-I, MDA-5, and Dicer to silence viral dsRNA in infection.

  13. Chronic innate immune activation of TBK1 suppresses mTORC1 activity and dysregulates cellular metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Maroof; Gonugunta, Vijay K; Dobbs, Nicole; Ali, Aktar; Palchik, Guillermo; Calvaruso, Maria A; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Yan, Nan

    2017-01-24

    Three-prime repair exonuclease 1 knockout (Trex1 -/- ) mice suffer from systemic inflammation caused largely by chronic activation of the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes-TANK-binding kinase-interferon regulatory factor 3 (cGAS-STING-TBK1-IRF3) signaling pathway. We showed previously that Trex1-deficient cells have reduced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we performed detailed metabolic analysis in Trex1 -/- mice and cells that revealed both cellular and systemic metabolic defects, including reduced mitochondrial respiration and increased glycolysis, energy expenditure, and fat metabolism. We also genetically separated the inflammatory and metabolic phenotypes by showing that Sting deficiency rescued both inflammatory and metabolic phenotypes, whereas Irf3 deficiency only rescued inflammation on the Trex1 -/- background, and many metabolic defects persist in Trex1 -/- Irf3 -/- cells and mice. We also showed that Leptin deficiency (ob/ob) increased lipogenesis and prolonged survival of Trex1 -/- mice without dampening inflammation. Mechanistically, we identified TBK1 as a key regulator of mTORC1 activity in Trex1 -/- cells. Together, our data demonstrate that chronic innate immune activation of TBK1 suppresses mTORC1 activity, leading to dysregulated cellular metabolism.

  14. JAK-inhibitor tofacitinib suppresses interferon alfa production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells and inhibits arthrogenic and antiviral effects of interferon alfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boor, Patrick P C; de Ruiter, Petra E; Asmawidjaja, Patrick S; Lubberts, Erik; van der Laan, Luc J W; Kwekkeboom, Jaap

    2017-10-01

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor that is effective for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and shows encouraging therapeutic effects in several other autoimmune diseases. A prominent adverse effect of tofacitinib therapy is the increased risk of viral infections. Despite its advanced stage of clinical development, the modes of action that mediate the beneficial and adverse effects of tofacitinib in autoimmune diseases remain unclear. Interferon alfa (IFNα) produced by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) is critically involved in the pathogenesis of many systemic autoimmune diseases and in immunity to viral infections. Using in vitro culture models with human cells, we studied the effects of tofacitinib on PDC survival and IFNα production, and on arthrogenic and antiviral effects of IFNα. Tofacitinib inhibited the expression of antiapoptotic BCL-A1 and BCL-XL in human PDC and induced PDC apoptosis. TLR7 stimulation upregulated the levels of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members and prevented the induction of PDC apoptosis by tofacitinib. However, tofacitinib robustly inhibited the production of IFNα by toll like receptor-stimulated PDC. In addition, tofacitinib profoundly suppressed IFNα-induced upregulation of TLR3 on synovial fibroblasts, thereby inhibiting their cytokine and protease production in response to TLR3 ligation. Finally, tofacitinib counteracted the suppressive effects of IFNα on viral replication. Tofacitinib inhibits PDC survival and IFNα production and suppresses arthrogenic and antiviral effects of IFNα signaling. Inhibition of the IFNα pathway at 2 levels may contribute to the beneficial effects of tofacitinib in autoimmune diseases and explain the increased viral infection rates observed during tofacitinib treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Newly Emergent Turkey Arthritis Reovirus Shows Dominant Enteric Tropism and Induces Significantly Elevated Innate Antiviral and T Helper-1 Cytokine Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer A Sharafeldin

    Full Text Available Newly emergent turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARV were isolated from tendons of lame 15-week-old tom turkeys that occasionally had ruptured leg tendons. Experimentally, these TARVs induced remarkable tenosynovitis in gastrocnemius tendons of turkey poults. The current study aimed to characterize the location and the extent of virus replication as well as the cytokine response induced by TARV during the first two weeks of infection. One-week-old male turkeys were inoculated orally with TARV (O'Neil strain. Copy numbers of viral genes were estimated in intestines, internal organs and tendons at ½, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14 days Post inoculation (dpi. Cytokine profile was measured in intestines, spleen and leg tendons at 0, 4, 7 and 14 dpi. Viral copy number peaked in jejunum, cecum and bursa of Fabricius at 4 dpi. Copy numbers increased dramatically in leg tendons at 7 and 14 dpi while minimal copies were detected in internal organs and blood during the same period. Virus was detected in cloacal swabs at 1-2 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi indicating enterotropism of the virus and its early shedding in feces. Elevation of IFN-α and IFN-β was observed in intestines at 7 dpi as well as a prominent T helper-1 response (IFN-γ at 7 and 14 dpi. IFN-γ and IL-6 were elevated in gastrocnemius tendons at 14 dpi. Elevation of antiviral cytokines in intestines occurred at 7dpi when a significant decline of viral replication in intestines was observed. T helper-1 response in intestines and leg tendons was the dominant T-helper response. These results suggest the possible correlation between viral replication and cytokine response in early infection of TARV in turkeys. Our findings provide novel insights which help elucidate viral pathogenesis in turkey tendons infected with TARV.

  16. Flavivirus RNAi suppression: decoding non-coding RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijlman, Gorben P

    2014-08-01

    Flaviviruses are important human pathogens that are transmitted by invertebrate vectors, mostly mosquitoes and ticks. During replication in their vector, flaviviruses are subject to a potent innate immune response known as antiviral RNA interference (RNAi). This defense mechanism is associated with the production of small interfering (si)RNA that lead to degradation of viral RNA. To what extent flaviviruses would benefit from counteracting antiviral RNAi is subject of debate. Here, the experimental evidence to suggest the existence of flavivirus RNAi suppressors is discussed. I will highlight the putative role of non-coding, subgenomic flavivirus RNA in suppression of RNAi in insect and mammalian cells. Novel insights from ongoing research will reveal how arthropod-borne viruses modulate innate immunity including antiviral RNAi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Foot-and-mouth disease virus infection suppresses autophagy and NF-кB antiviral responses via degradation of ATG5-ATG12 by 3Cpro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuxu; Han, Shichong; Yan, Dan; Gao, Yuan; Wei, Yanquan; Liu, Xiangtao; Liao, Ying; Guo, Huichen; Sun, Shiqi

    2017-01-19

    Autophagy-related protein ATG5-ATG12 is an essential complex for the autophagophore elongation in autophagy, which has been reported to be involved in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication. Previous reports show that ATG5-ATG12 positively or negatively regulates type I interferon (IFN-α/β) pathway during virus infection. In this study, we found that FMDV infection rapidly induced LC3 lipidation and GFP-LC3 subcellular redistribution at the early infection stage in PK-15 cells. Along with infection time course to 2-5 h.p.i., the levels of LC3II and ATG5-ATG12 were gradually reduced. Further study showed that ATG5-ATG12 was degraded by viral protein 3C pro , demonstrating that FMDV suppresses autophagy along with viral protein production. Depletion of ATG5-ATG12 by siRNA knock down significantly increased the FMDV yields, whereas overexpression of ATG5-ATG12 had the opposite effects, suggesting that degradation of ATG5-ATG12 benefits virus growth. Further experiment showed that overexpression of ATG5-ATG12 positively regulated NF-кB pathway during FMDV infection, marked with promotion of IKKα/β phosphorylation and IκBα degradation, inhibition of p65 degradation, and facilitation of p65 nuclear translocation. Meanwhile, ATG5-ATG12 also promoted the phosphorylation of TBK1 and activation of IRF3 via preventing TRAF3 degradation. The positive regulation of NF-кB and IRF3 pathway by ATG5-ATG12 resulted in enhanced expression of IFN-β, chemokines/cytokines, and IFN stimulated genes, including anti-viral protein PKR. Altogether, above findings suggest that ATG5-ATG12 positively regulate anti-viral NF-κB and IRF3 signaling during FMDV infection, thereby limiting FMDV proliferation. FMDV has evolved mechanisms to counteract the antiviral function of ATG5-ATG12, via degradation of them by viral protein 3C pro .

  18. Innate Lymphoid Cells Are Depleted Irreversibly during Acute HIV-Infection in the Absence of Viral Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Henrik N.; Kazer, Samuel W.; Mjösberg, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play a central role in the response to infection by secreting cytokines crucial for immune regulation, tissue homeostasis, and repair. Although dysregulation of these systems is central to pathology, the impact of HIV-on ILCs remains unknown. We found that human blood...... upregulation of genes associated with cell death, temporally linked with a strong IFN acute-phase response and evidence of gut barrier breakdown. We found no evidence of tissue redistribution in chronic disease and remaining circulating ILCs were activated but not apoptotic. These data provide a potential...... mechanistic link between acute HIV-infection, lymphoid tissue breakdown, and persistent immune dysfunction....

  19. Innate-like CD4 T cells selected by thymocytes suppress adaptive immune responses against bacterial infections

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Yu; Gray, Brian M.; Sofi, Mohammed H.; Bauler, Laura D.; Eaton, Kathryn A.; O'Riordan, Mary X. D.; Chang, Cheong-Hee

    2011-01-01

    We have reported a new innate-like CD4 T cell population that expresses cell surface makers of effector/memory cells and produce Th1 and Th2 cytokines immediately upon activation. Unlike conventional CD4 T cells that are selected by thymic epithelial cells, these CD4 T cells, named T-CD4 T cells, are selected by MHC class II expressing thymocytes. Previously, we showed that the presence of T-CD4 T cells protected mice from airway inflammation suggesting an immune regulatory role of T-CD4 T ce...

  20. Sodium methyldithiocarbamate inhibits MAP kinase activation through toll-like receptor 4, alters cytokine production by mouse peritoneal macrophages, and suppresses innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Stephen B; Zheng, Qiang; Schwab, Carlton; Fan, Ruping

    2005-09-01

    Sodium methyldithiocarbamate (SMD; trade name, Metam Sodium) is an abundantly used soil fumigant that can cause adverse health effects in humans, including some immunological manifestations. The mechanisms by which SMD acts, and its targets within the immune system are not fully understood. Initial experiments demonstrated that SMD administered by oral gavage substantially decreased IL-12 production and increased IL-10 production induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice. The present study was conducted to further characterize these effects and to evaluate our working hypothesis that the mechanism for these effects involves alteration in signaling through toll-like receptor 4 and that this would suppress innate immunity to infection. SMD decreased the activation of MAP kinases and AP-1 but not NF-kappaB in peritoneal macrophages. The expression of mRNA for IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-18, IFN-gamma, IL-12 p35, IL-12 p40, and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was inhibited by SMD, whereas mRNA for IL-10 was increased. SMD increased the IL-10 concentration in the peritoneal cavity and serum and decreased the concentration of IL-12 p40 in the serum, peritoneal cavity, and intracellularly in peritoneal cells (which are >80% macrophages). Similar effects on LPS-induced cytokine production were observed following dermal administration of SMD. The major breakdown product of SMD, methylisothiocyanate (MITC), caused similar effects on cytokine production at dosages as low as 17 mg/kg, a dosage relevant to human exposure levels associated with agricultural use of SMD. Treatment of mice with SMD decreased survival following challenge with non-pathogenic Escherichia coli within 24-48 h, demonstrating suppression of innate immunity.

  1. Innate Immune Evasion Mediated by Flaviviridae Non-Structural Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shun; Wu, Zhen; Wang, Mingshu; Cheng, Anchun

    2017-10-07

    Flaviviridae-caused diseases are a critical, emerging public health problem worldwide. Flaviviridae infections usually cause severe, acute or chronic diseases, such as liver damage and liver cancer resulting from a hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and high fever and shock caused by yellow fever. Many researchers worldwide are investigating the mechanisms by which Flaviviridae cause severe diseases. Flaviviridae can interfere with the host's innate immunity to achieve their purpose of proliferation. For instance, dengue virus (DENV) NS2A, NS2B3, NS4A, NS4B and NS5; HCV NS2, NS3, NS3/4A, NS4B and NS5A; and West Nile virus (WNV) NS1 and NS4B proteins are involved in immune evasion. This review discusses the interplay between viral non-structural Flaviviridae proteins and relevant host proteins, which leads to the suppression of the host's innate antiviral immunity.

  2. Bacterial effector HopF2 interacts with AvrPto and suppresses Arabidopsis innate immunity at the plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant pathogenic bacteria inject a cocktail of effector proteins into host plant cells to modulate the host immune response, thereby promoting pathogenicity. How or whether these effectors work cooperatively is largely unknown. The Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 effector HopF2 suppresses the host plan...

  3. GYF-21, an Epoxide 2-(2-Phenethyl-Chromone Derivative, Suppresses Innate and Adaptive Immunity via Inhibiting STAT1/3 and NF-κB Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by demyelinating plaques and axonal loss. Inhibition on over activation of innate and adaptive immunity provides a rationale strategy for treatment of multiple sclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of GYF-21, an epoxide 2-(2-phenethyl-chromone derivative isolated from Chinese agarwood, on innate and adaptive immunity for revealing its potential to treat multiple sclerosis. The results showed that GYF-21 markedly inhibited the activation of microglia, and dendritic cells as well as neutrophils, all of which play important roles in innate immunity. Furthermore, GYF-21 significantly suppressed adaptive immunity via inhibiting the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into T helper 1 (Th1 and T helper 17 (Th17 cells, and suppressing the activation, proliferation, and IFN-γ secretion of CD8+ T cells. The mechanism study showed that GYF-21 evidently inhibited the activation of STAT1/3 and NF-κB signaling pathways in microglia. In conclusion, we demonstrated that GYF-21 can significantly inhibit innate and adaptive immunity via suppressing STAT1/3 and NF-κB signaling pathways, and has potential to be developed into therapeutic drug for multiple sclerosis.

  4. Duox2-induced innate immune responses in the respiratory epithelium and intranasal delivery of Duox2 DNA using polymer that mediates immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yung Jin; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2018-05-01

    Respiratory mucosa especially nasal epithelium is well known as the first-line barrier of air-borne pathogens. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are detected in in vitro cultured human epithelial cells and in vivo lung. With identification of NADPH oxidase (Nox) system of respiratory epithelium, the antimicrobial role of ROS has been studied. Duox2 is the most abundant Nox isoform and produces the regulated amount of ROS in respiratory epithelium. Duox2-derived ROS are involved in antiviral innate immune responses but more studies are needed to verify the mechanism. In respiratory epithelium, Duox2-derived ROS is critical for recognition of virus through families retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) at the early stage of antiviral innate immune responses. Various secreted interferons (IFNs) play essential roles for antiviral host defense by downstream cell signaling, and transcription of IFN-stimulated genes is started to suppress viral replication. Type I and type III IFNs are verified more responsible for influenza A virus (IAV) infection in respiratory epithelium and Duox2 is required to regulate IFN-related immune responses. Transient overexpression of Duox2 using cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI) induces secretion of type I and type III IFNs and significantly attenuated IAV replication in respiratory epithelium. Here, we discuss Duox2-mediated antiviral innate immune responses and the role of Duox2 as a mucosal vaccine to resist respiratory viral infection.

  5. A novel SIV gag-specific CD4(+)T-cell clone suppresses SIVmac239 replication in CD4(+)T cells revealing the interplay between antiviral effector cells and their infected targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Victor I; Trivett, Matthew T; Coren, Lori V; Jain, Sumiti; Bohn, Patrick S; Wiseman, Roger W; O'Connor, David H; Ohlen, Claes; Ott, David E

    2016-06-01

    To study CD4(+)T-cell suppression of AIDS virus replication, we isolated nine rhesus macaque SIVGag-specific CD4(+)T-cell clones. One responding clone, Gag68, produced a typical cytotoxic CD8(+)T-cell response: induction of intracellular IFN-γ, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and CD107a degranulation. Gag68 effectively suppressed the spread of SIVmac239 in CD4(+)T cells with a corresponding reduction of infected Gag68 effector cells, suggesting that CD4(+)effectors need to suppress their own infection in addition to their targets to be effective. Gag68 TCR cloning and gene transfer into CD4(+)T cells enabled additional experiments with this unique specificity after the original clone senesced. Our data supports the idea that CD4(+)T cells can directly limit AIDS virus spread in T cells. Furthermore, Gag68 TCR transfer into CD4(+)T-cell clones with differing properties holds promise to better understand the suppressive effector mechanisms used by this important component of the antiviral response using the rhesus macaque model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hepatitis C, innate immunity and alcohol: friends or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osna, Natalia A; Ganesan, Murali; Kharbanda, Kusum K

    2015-02-05

    Hepatitis C and alcohol are the most widespread causes of liver disease worldwide. Approximately 80% of patients with a history of hepatitis C and alcohol abuse develop chronic liver injury. Alcohol consumption in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients exacerbates liver disease leading to rapid progression of fibrosis, cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatocytes are the main sites of HCV-infection and ethanol metabolism, both of which generate oxidative stress. Oxidative stress levels affect HCV replication and innate immunity, resulting in a greater susceptibility for HCV-infection and virus spread in the alcoholic patients. In this review paper, we analyze the effects of ethanol metabolism and other factors on HCV replication. In addition, we illustrate the mechanisms of how HCV hijacks innate immunity and how ethanol exposure regulates this process. We also clarify the effects of HCV and ethanol metabolism on interferon signaling-a crucial point for activation of anti-viral genes to protect cells from virus-and the role that HCV- and ethanol-induced impairments play in adaptive immunity which is necessary for recognition of virally-infected hepatocytes. In conclusion, ethanol exposure potentiates the suppressive effects of HCV on innate immunity, which activates viral spread in the liver and finally, leads to impairments in adaptive immunity. The dysregulation of immune response results in impaired elimination of HCV-infected cells, viral persistence, progressive liver damage and establishment of chronic infection that worsens the outcomes of chronic hepatitis C in alcoholic patients.

  7. Hepatitis C, Innate Immunity and Alcohol: Friends or Foes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Osna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C and alcohol are the most widespread causes of liver disease worldwide. Approximately 80% of patients with a history of hepatitis C and alcohol abuse develop chronic liver injury. Alcohol consumption in hepatitis C virus (HCV-infected patients exacerbates liver disease leading to rapid progression of fibrosis, cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatocytes are the main sites of HCV-infection and ethanol metabolism, both of which generate oxidative stress. Oxidative stress levels affect HCV replication and innate immunity, resulting in a greater susceptibility for HCV-infection and virus spread in the alcoholic patients. In this review paper, we analyze the effects of ethanol metabolism and other factors on HCV replication. In addition, we illustrate the mechanisms of how HCV hijacks innate immunity and how ethanol exposure regulates this process. We also clarify the effects of HCV and ethanol metabolism on interferon signaling—a crucial point for activation of anti-viral genes to protect cells from virus—and the role that HCV- and ethanol-induced impairments play in adaptive immunity which is necessary for recognition of virally-infected hepatocytes. In conclusion, ethanol exposure potentiates the suppressive effects of HCV on innate immunity, which activates viral spread in the liver and finally, leads to impairments in adaptive immunity. The dysregulation of immune response results in impaired elimination of HCV-infected cells, viral persistence, progressive liver damage and establishment of chronic infection that worsens the outcomes of chronic hepatitis C in alcoholic patients.

  8. Ribosome Shunting, Polycistronic Translation, and Evasion of Antiviral Defenses in Plant Pararetroviruses and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail M. Pooggin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Viruses have compact genomes and usually translate more than one protein from polycistronic RNAs using leaky scanning, frameshifting, stop codon suppression or reinitiation mechanisms. Viral (pre-genomic RNAs often contain long 5′-leader sequences with short upstream open reading frames (uORFs and secondary structure elements, which control both translation initiation and replication. In plants, viral RNA and DNA are targeted by RNA interference (RNAi generating small RNAs that silence viral gene expression, while viral proteins are recognized by innate immunity and autophagy that restrict viral infection. In this review we focus on plant pararetroviruses of the family Caulimoviridae and describe the mechanisms of uORF- and secondary structure-driven ribosome shunting, leaky scanning and reinitiation after translation of short and long uORFs. We discuss conservation of these mechanisms in different genera of Caulimoviridae, including host genome-integrated endogenous viral elements, as well as in other viral families, and highlight a multipurpose use of the highly-structured leader sequence of plant pararetroviruses in regulation of translation, splicing, packaging, and reverse transcription of pregenomic RNA (pgRNA, and in evasion of RNAi. Furthermore, we illustrate how targeting of several host factors by a pararetroviral effector protein can lead to transactivation of viral polycistronic translation and concomitant suppression of antiviral defenses. Thus, activation of the plant protein kinase target of rapamycin (TOR by the Cauliflower mosaic virus transactivator/viroplasmin (TAV promotes reinitiation of translation after long ORFs on viral pgRNA and blocks antiviral autophagy and innate immunity responses, while interaction of TAV with the plant RNAi machinery interferes with antiviral silencing.

  9. Innate Immune Responses of Bat and Human Cells to Filoviruses: Commonalities and Distinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Ivan V; Schwarz, Toni M; Ilinykh, Philipp A; Jordan, Ingo; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Basler, Christopher F; Bukreyev, Alexander

    2017-04-15

    Marburg (MARV) and Ebola (EBOV) viruses are zoonotic pathogens that cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. The natural reservoir of MARV is the Egyptian rousette bat ( Rousettus aegyptiacus ); that of EBOV is unknown but believed to be another bat species. The Egyptian rousette develops subclinical productive infection with MARV but is refractory to EBOV. Interaction of filoviruses with hosts is greatly affected by the viral interferon (IFN)-inhibiting domains (IID). Our study was aimed at characterization of innate immune responses to filoviruses and the role of filovirus IID in bat and human cells. The study demonstrated that EBOV and MARV replicate to similar levels in all tested cell lines, indicating that permissiveness for EBOV at cell and organism levels do not necessarily correlate. Filoviruses, particularly MARV, induced a potent innate immune response in rousette cells, which was generally stronger than that in human cells. Both EBOV VP35 and VP24 IID were found to suppress the innate immune response in rousette cells, but only VP35 IID appeared to promote virus replication. Along with IFN-α and IFN-β, IFN-γ was demonstrated to control filovirus infection in bat cells but not in human cells, suggesting host species specificity of the antiviral effect. The antiviral effects of bat IFNs appeared not to correlate with induction of IFN-stimulated genes 54 and 56, which were detected in human cells ectopically expressing bat IFN-α and IFN-β. As bat IFN-γ induced the type I IFN pathway, its antiviral effect is likely to be partially induced via cross talk. IMPORTANCE Bats serve as reservoirs for multiple emerging viruses, including filoviruses, henipaviruses, lyssaviruses, and zoonotic coronaviruses. Although there is no evidence for symptomatic disease caused by either Marburg or Ebola viruses in bats, spillover of these viruses into human populations causes deadly outbreaks. The reason for the lack of symptomatic disease in bats infected with

  10. Exosome RNA Released by Hepatocytes Regulates Innate Immune Responses to Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahisa Kouwaki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system is essential for controlling viral infection. Hepatitis B virus (HBV persistently infects human hepatocytes and causes hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the innate immune response to HBV infection in vivo remains unclear. Using a tree shrew animal model, we showed that HBV infection induced hepatic interferon (IFN-γ expression during early infection. Our in vitro study demonstrated that hepatic NK cells produced IFN-γ in response to HBV only in the presence of hepatic F4/80+ cells. Moreover, extracellular vesicles released from HBV-infected hepatocytes contained viral nucleic acids and induced NKG2D ligand expression in macrophages by stimulating MyD88, TICAM-1, and MAVS-dependent pathways. In addition, depletion of exosomes from extracellular vesicles markedly reduced NKG2D ligand expression, suggesting the importance of exosomes for NK cell activation. In contrast, infection of hepatocytes with HBV increased immunoregulatory microRNA levels in extracellular vesicles and exosomes, which were transferred to macrophages, thereby suppressing IL-12p35 mRNA expression in macrophages to counteract the host innate immune response. IFN-γ increased the hepatic expression of DDX60 and augmented the DDX60-dependent degradation of cytoplasmic HBV RNA. Our results elucidated the crucial role of exosomes in antiviral innate immune response against HBV.

  11. Coxsackievirus cloverleaf RNA containing a 5' triphosphate triggers an antiviral response via RIG-I activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Qian; Langereis, Martijn A; Olagnier, David; Chiang, Cindy; van de Winkel, Roel; van Essen, Peter; Zoll, Jan; Hiscott, John; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2014-01-01

    Upon viral infections, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and stimulate an antiviral state associated with the production of type I interferons (IFNs) and inflammatory markers. Type I IFNs play crucial roles in innate antiviral responses by

  12. Type 2 innate lymphoid cell suppression by regulatory T cells attenuates airway hyperreactivity and requires inducible T-cell costimulator-inducible T-cell costimulator ligand interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigas, Diamanda; Lewis, Gavin; Aron, Jennifer L; Wang, Bowen; Banie, Homayon; Sankaranarayanan, Ishwarya; Galle-Treger, Lauriane; Maazi, Hadi; Lo, Richard; Freeman, Gordon J; Sharpe, Arlene H; Soroosh, Pejman; Akbari, Omid

    2017-05-01

    Atopic diseases, including asthma, exacerbate type 2 immune responses and involve a number of immune cell types, including regulatory T (Treg) cells and the emerging type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). Although ILC2s are potent producers of type 2 cytokines, the regulation of ILC2 activation and function is not well understood. In the present study, for the first time, we evaluate how Treg cells interact with pulmonary ILC2s and control their function. ILC2s and Treg cells were evaluated by using in vitro suppression assays, cell-contact assays, and gene expression panels. Also, human ILC2s and Treg cells were adoptively transferred into NOD SCID γC-deficient mice, which were given isotype or anti-inducible T-cell costimulator ligand (ICOSL) antibodies and then challenged with IL-33 and assessed for airway hyperreactivity. We show that induced Treg cells, but not natural Treg cells, effectively suppress the production of the ILC2-driven proinflammatory cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, our data reveal the necessity of inducible T-cell costimulator (ICOS)-ICOS ligand cell contact for Treg cell-mediated ILC2 suppression alongside the suppressive cytokines TGF-β and IL-10. Using a translational approach, we then demonstrate that human induced Treg cells suppress syngeneic human ILC2s through ICOSL to control airway inflammation in a humanized ILC2 mouse model. These findings suggest that peripheral expansion of induced Treg cells can serve as a promising therapeutic target against ILC2-dependent asthma. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acrolein and thiol-reactive electrophiles suppress allergen-induced innate airway epithelial responses by inhibition of DUOX1 and EGFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyal, Karamatullah; de Jong, Willem; O'Brien, Edmund; Bauer, Robert A; Heppner, David E; Little, Andrew C; Hristova, Milena; Habibovic, Aida; van der Vliet, Albert

    2016-11-01

    Acrolein is a major thiol-reactive component of cigarette smoke (CS) that is thought to contribute to increased asthma incidence associated with smoking. Here, we explored the effects of acute acrolein exposure on innate airway responses to two common airborne allergens, house dust mite and Alternaria alternata, and observed that acrolein exposure of C57BL/6 mice (5 ppm, 4 h) dramatically inhibited innate airway responses to subsequent allergen challenge, demonstrated by attenuated release of the epithelial-derived cytokines IL-33, IL-25, and IL-1α. Acrolein and other anti-inflammatory thiol-reactive electrophiles, cinnamaldehyde, curcumin, and sulforaphane, similarly inhibited allergen-induced production of these cytokines from human or murine airway epithelial cells in vitro. Based on our previous observations indicating the importance of Ca 2+ -dependent signaling, activation of the NADPH oxidase DUOX1, and Src/EGFR-dependent signaling in allergen-induced epithelial secretion of these cytokines, we explored the impact of acrolein on these pathways. Acrolein and other thiol-reactive electrophiles were found to dramatically prevent allergen-induced activation of DUOX1 as well as EGFR, and acrolein was capable of inhibiting EGFR tyrosine kinase activity via modification of C797. Biotin-labeling strategies indicated increased cysteine modification and carbonylation of Src, EGFR, as well as DUOX1, in response to acrolein exposure in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that direct alkylation of these proteins on accessible cysteine residues may be responsible for their inhibition. Collectively, our findings indicate a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of CS-derived acrolein and other thiol-reactive electrophiles, by directly inhibiting DUOX1- and EGFR-mediated airway epithelial responses to airborne allergens. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Tospovirus : induction and suppression of RNA silencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedil, Marcio

    2016-01-01

    While infecting their hosts, viruses must deal with host immunity. In plants the antiviral RNA silencing pathway is an important part of plant innate immunity. Tospoviruses are segmented negative-stranded RNA viruses of plants. To counteract the antiviral RNA silencing response in plants,

  15. In Vivo Screening of Chemically Modified RNA duplexes for their Ability to Induce Innate Immune Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Bramsen, Jesper Bertram; Kjems, Jørgen

    RNAs include the 2´-5´ oligoadenylate synthetase system, the protein kinase R, RIG-I and Toll-like receptor activated pathways all resulting in antiviral defence mechanism. We have previously shown that antiviral innate immune reactions against double stranded RNAs could be detected in vivo as partial...

  16. Which Plant Proteins Are Involved in Antiviral Defense? Review on In Vivo and In Vitro Activities of Selected Plant Proteins against Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Musidlak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved a variety of defense mechanisms to tackle virus attack. Endogenous plant proteins can function as virus suppressors. Different types of proteins mediate defense responses against plant viruses. Pathogenesis-related (PR proteins are activated upon pathogen infections or in different stress situations and their production is one of many components in plant defense. Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs suppress translation by enzymatically damaging ribosomes and they have been found to have antiviral activity. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs bind to target RNAs via specialized RNA-binding domain and can directly or indirectly function in plant defense system against RNA viruses. Proteins involved in silencing machinery, namely Dicer-like (DCL proteins, Argonaute (AGO proteins, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs confer innate antiviral defense in plants as they are able to degrade foreign RNA of viral origin. This review aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date picture of plant proteins participating in antiviral defense. As a result we discuss proteins conferring plant antiviral resistance and their potential future applications in different fields of life including agriculture and medicine.

  17. Isolation of highly suppressive CD25+FoxP3+ T regulatory cells from G-CSF-mobilized donors with retention of cytotoxic anti-viral CTLs: application for multi-functional immunotherapy post stem cell transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward R Samuel

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated the effective control of cytomegalovirus (CMV infections post haematopoietic stem cell transplant through the adoptive transfer of donor derived CMV-specific T cells (CMV-T. Strategies for manufacturing CMV immunotherapies has involved a second leukapheresis or blood draw from the donor, which in the unrelated donor setting is not always possible. We have investigated the feasibility of using an aliquot of the original G-CSF-mobilized graft as a starting material for manufacture of CMV-T and examined the activation marker CD25 as a targeted approach for identification and isolation following CMVpp65 peptide stimulation. CD25+ cells isolated from G-CSF-mobilized apheresis revealed a significant increase in the proportion of FoxP3 expression when compared with conventional non-mobilized CD25+ cells and showed a superior suppressive capacity in a T cell proliferation assay, demonstrating the emergence of a population of Tregs not present in non-mobilized apheresis collections. The expansion of CD25+ CMV-T in short-term culture resulted in a mixed population of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with CMV-specificity that secreted cytotoxic effector molecules and lysed CMVpp65 peptide-loaded phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated blasts. Furthermore CD25 expanded cells retained their suppressive capacity but did not maintain FoxP3 expression or secrete IL-10. In summary our data indicates that CD25 enrichment post CMV stimulation in G-CSF-mobilized PBMCs results in the simultaneous generation of both a functional population of anti-viral T cells and Tregs thus illustrating a potential single therapeutic strategy for the treatment of both GvHD and CMV reactivation following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The use of G-CSF-mobilized cells as a starting material for cell therapy manufacture represents a feasible approach to alleviating the many problems incurred with successive donations and procurement of cells from

  18. Antiviral Activity of Polyacrylic and Polymethacrylic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Somer, P.; De Clercq, E.; Billiau, A.; Schonne, E.; Claesen, M.

    1968-01-01

    Polyacrylic acid (PAA) and polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) were investigated for their antiviral properties in tissue culture. Compared to other related polyanions, as dextran sulfate, polystyrene sulfonate, polyvinyl sulfate, and polyphloroglucinol phosphate, PAA and PMAA were found to be significantly more antivirally active and less cytotoxic. PMAA added 24 hr prior to virus inoculation inhibited viral growth most efficiently but it was still effective when added 3 hr after infection. Neither a direct irreversible action on the virus nor inhibition of virus penetration into the cell could explain the antiviral activity of PMAA. PMAA inhibited the adsorption of the virus to the host cell and suppressed the one-cycle viral synthesis in tissue cultures inoculated with infectious RNA. PMID:4302187

  19. Smallpox Antiviral Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Candida albicans] A G1L (590 aa) Flag VV(WR) 30/ENDIDEILGIAHLLEHLLISF/50 107/HIKELENEYYFRNEVFH/123 H41A 30/ENDIDEILGIAALLEHLLISF/50 107...RSV) (Table 1). Additional antiviral drug examples include the use of interferon for human papilloma virus ( HPV ) [Cantell, 1995]. Antivirals are most...low oral bioavailability, and quick elimination from plasma [Ghosn et al., 2004; Hostetler et al., 1994; Kempf et al., 1991; Matsumoto et al., 2001

  20. DMPD: Antiviral innate immunity pathways. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (.csml) Open .csml file with CIOPlayer Open .csml file with CIOPlayer - ※CIO Playerのご利用上の注意 Open .csml file with CIO Open .csml file with CIO - ※CIOのご利用上の注意 ...

  1. E6D25E, HPV16 Asian variant shows specific proteomic pattern correlating in cells transformation and suppressive innate immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopjitt, Peechanika; Pientong, Chamsai; Sunthamala, Nuchsupha; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Haonon, Ornuma; Boonmars, Thidarut; Kikawa, Satomi; Nakahara, Tomomi; Kiyono, Tohru; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya

    2016-01-01

    HPV16 Asian variant (HPV16As) containing E6D25E oncogene, is commonly associated with cervical cancers of Asian populations. To explore a mechanism of E6D25E oncoprotein in carcinogenesis, we compared protein profiles in human keratinocytes expressing E6D25E with E6 of HPV16 prototype (E6Pro). A human cervical keratinocyte cell line, HCK1T, was transduced with retroviruses containing E6D25E or E6Pro genes. Biological properties of E6D25E or E6Pro transduced HCK1T cells were characterized. Protein profiles of the transduced HCK1T cells were analyzed using 2D-PAGE and characterized by mass spectrometry and western blotting. Reactomes of modulated proteins were analyzed by using the Reactome Knowledgebase. The E6D25E and E6Pro oncoproteins were comparable for their abilities to degrade p53 and suppress the induction of p21, and induce cell proliferation. Interestingly, the protein profiles of the HCK1T cells transduced with E6D25E showed specific proteomic patterns different from those with E6Pro. Among altered proteins, more than 1.5-fold up- or down- regulation was observed in E6D25E-expressing cells for gp96 and keratin7 which involved in activation of TLR signaling and transformation of squamocolumnar junction cells, respectively. This report describes new cellular proteins specifically targeted by E6D25E oncoprotein that may contribute to impair immune response against viral infection and cell transformation associated with oncogenic property of HPV16As variant. - Highlights: • E6D25E HPV16 specifically modulates protein profile of human keratinocytes. • E6D25E HPV16 modulates protein profile which involves in TLR signalling and transformation of squamocolumnar junction cells. • E6D25E oncoprotein may correlate to impair of immune response against viral infection and cells transformation.

  2. E6D25E, HPV16 Asian variant shows specific proteomic pattern correlating in cells transformation and suppressive innate immune response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopjitt, Peechanika; Pientong, Chamsai; Sunthamala, Nuchsupha [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 (Thailand); HPV & EBV and Carcinogenesis Research Group, Khon Kaen University (Thailand); Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 (Thailand); Haonon, Ornuma; Boonmars, Thidarut [Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 (Thailand); Kikawa, Satomi; Nakahara, Tomomi [Division of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045 (Japan); Kiyono, Tohru, E-mail: tkiyono@ncc.go.jp [Division of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045 (Japan); Ekalaksananan, Tipaya, E-mail: tipeka@kku.ac.th [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 (Thailand); HPV & EBV and Carcinogenesis Research Group, Khon Kaen University (Thailand)

    2016-09-09

    HPV16 Asian variant (HPV16As) containing E6D25E oncogene, is commonly associated with cervical cancers of Asian populations. To explore a mechanism of E6D25E oncoprotein in carcinogenesis, we compared protein profiles in human keratinocytes expressing E6D25E with E6 of HPV16 prototype (E6Pro). A human cervical keratinocyte cell line, HCK1T, was transduced with retroviruses containing E6D25E or E6Pro genes. Biological properties of E6D25E or E6Pro transduced HCK1T cells were characterized. Protein profiles of the transduced HCK1T cells were analyzed using 2D-PAGE and characterized by mass spectrometry and western blotting. Reactomes of modulated proteins were analyzed by using the Reactome Knowledgebase. The E6D25E and E6Pro oncoproteins were comparable for their abilities to degrade p53 and suppress the induction of p21, and induce cell proliferation. Interestingly, the protein profiles of the HCK1T cells transduced with E6D25E showed specific proteomic patterns different from those with E6Pro. Among altered proteins, more than 1.5-fold up- or down- regulation was observed in E6D25E-expressing cells for gp96 and keratin7 which involved in activation of TLR signaling and transformation of squamocolumnar junction cells, respectively. This report describes new cellular proteins specifically targeted by E6D25E oncoprotein that may contribute to impair immune response against viral infection and cell transformation associated with oncogenic property of HPV16As variant. - Highlights: • E6D25E HPV16 specifically modulates protein profile of human keratinocytes. • E6D25E HPV16 modulates protein profile which involves in TLR signalling and transformation of squamocolumnar junction cells. • E6D25E oncoprotein may correlate to impair of immune response against viral infection and cells transformation.

  3. Plant innate immunity induced by flagellin suppresses the hypersensitive response in non-host plants elicited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. averrhoi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Fong Wei

    Full Text Available A new pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. averrhoi (Pav, which causes bacterial spot disease on carambola was identified in Taiwan in 1997. Many strains of this pathovar have been isolated from different locations and several varieties of hosts. Some of these strains, such as HL1, are nonmotile and elicit a strong hypersensitive response (HR in nonhost tobacco leaves, while other strains, such as PA5, are motile and elicit a weak HR. Based on the image from a transmission electron microscope, the results showed that HL1 is flagellum-deficient and PA5 has normal flagella. Here we cloned and analyzed the fliC gene and glycosylation island from Pav HL1 and PA5. The amino acid sequences of FliC from HL1 and PA5 are identical to P. s. pvs. tabaci (Pta, glycinea and phaseolicola and share very high similarity with other pathovars of P. syringae. In contrast to the flagellin mutant PtaΔfliC, PA5ΔfliC grows as well as wild type in the host plant, but it elicits stronger HR than wild type does in non-host plants. Furthermore, the purified Pav flagellin, but not the divergent flagellin from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, is able to impair the HR induced by PA5ΔfliC. PA5Δfgt1 possessing nonglycosylated flagella behaved as its wild type in both bacterial growth in host and HR elicitation. Flagellin was infiltrated into tobacco leaves either simultaneously with flagellum-deficient HL1 or prior to the inoculation of wild type HL1, and both treatments impaired the HR induced by HL1. Moreover, the HR elicited by PA5 and PA5ΔfliC was enhanced by the addition of cycloheximide, suggesting that the flagellin is one of the PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns contributed to induce the PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI. Taken together, the results shown in this study reveal that flagellin in Pav is capable of suppressing HR via PTI induction during an incompatible interaction.

  4. Plant Innate Immunity Induced by Flagellin Suppresses the Hypersensitive Response in Non-Host Plants Elicited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. averrhoi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chia-Fong; Hsu, Shih-Tien; Deng, Wen-Ling; Wen, Yu-Der; Huang, Hsiou-Chen

    2012-01-01

    A new pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. averrhoi (Pav), which causes bacterial spot disease on carambola was identified in Taiwan in 1997. Many strains of this pathovar have been isolated from different locations and several varieties of hosts. Some of these strains, such as HL1, are nonmotile and elicit a strong hypersensitive response (HR) in nonhost tobacco leaves, while other strains, such as PA5, are motile and elicit a weak HR. Based on the image from a transmission electron microscope, the results showed that HL1 is flagellum-deficient and PA5 has normal flagella. Here we cloned and analyzed the fliC gene and glycosylation island from Pav HL1 and PA5. The amino acid sequences of FliC from HL1 and PA5 are identical to P. s. pvs. tabaci (Pta), glycinea and phaseolicola and share very high similarity with other pathovars of P. syringae. In contrast to the flagellin mutant PtaΔfliC, PA5ΔfliC grows as well as wild type in the host plant, but it elicits stronger HR than wild type does in non-host plants. Furthermore, the purified Pav flagellin, but not the divergent flagellin from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, is able to impair the HR induced by PA5ΔfliC. PA5Δfgt1 possessing nonglycosylated flagella behaved as its wild type in both bacterial growth in host and HR elicitation. Flagellin was infiltrated into tobacco leaves either simultaneously with flagellum-deficient HL1 or prior to the inoculation of wild type HL1, and both treatments impaired the HR induced by HL1. Moreover, the HR elicited by PA5 and PA5ΔfliC was enhanced by the addition of cycloheximide, suggesting that the flagellin is one of the PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns) contributed to induce the PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Taken together, the results shown in this study reveal that flagellin in Pav is capable of suppressing HR via PTI induction during an incompatible interaction. PMID:22911741

  5. Novel drugs targeting Toll-like receptors for antiviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mira C; Shirey, Kari Ann; Pletneva, Lioubov M; Boukhvalova, Marina S; Garzino-Demo, Alfredo; Vogel, Stefanie N; Blanco, Jorge Cg

    2014-09-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are sentinel receptors of the host innate immune system that recognize conserved 'pathogen-associated molecular patterns' of invading microbes, including viruses. The activation of TLRs establishes antiviral innate immune responses and coordinates the development of long-lasting adaptive immunity in order to control viral pathogenesis. However, microbe-induced damage to host tissues may release 'danger-associated molecular patterns' that also activate TLRs, leading to an overexuberant inflammatory response and, ultimately, to tissue damage. Thus, TLRs have proven to be promising targets as therapeutics for the treatment of viral infections that result in inflammatory damage or as adjuvants in order to enhance the efficacy of vaccines. Here, we explore recent advances in TLR biology with a focus on novel drugs that target TLRs (agonists and antagonists) for antiviral therapy.

  6. Cellular Antiviral Factors that Target Particle Infectivity of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffinet, Christine

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, the identification and characterization of antiviral genes with the ability to interfere with virus replication has established cell-intrinsic innate immunity as a third line of antiviral defense in addition to adaptive and classical innate immunity. Understanding how cellular factors have evolved to inhibit HIV-1 reveals particularly vulnerable points of the viral replication cycle. Many, but not all, antiviral proteins share type I interferon-upregulated expression and sensitivity to viral counteraction or evasion measures. Whereas well-established restriction factors interfere with early post-entry steps and release of HIV-1, recent research has revealed a diverse set of proteins that reduce the infectious quality of released particles using individual, to date poorly understood modes of action. These include induction of paucity of mature glycoproteins in nascent virions or self-incorporation into the virus particle, resulting in poor infectiousness of the virion and impaired spread of the infection. A better understanding of these newly discovered antiviral factors may open new avenues towards the design of drugs that repress the spread of viruses whose genomes have already integrated.

  7. Learning from the Messengers: Innate Sensing of Viruses and Cytokine Regulation of Immunity — Clues for Treatments and Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Melchjorsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Virus infections are a major global public health concern, and only via substantial knowledge of virus pathogenesis and antiviral immune responses can we develop and improve medical treatments, and preventive and therapeutic vaccines. Innate immunity and the shaping of efficient early immune responses are essential for control of viral infections. In order to trigger an efficient antiviral defense, the host senses the invading microbe via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, recognizing distinct conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. The innate sensing of the invading virus results in intracellular signal transduction and subsequent production of interferons (IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines. Cytokines, including IFNs and chemokines, are vital molecules of antiviral defense regulating cell activation, differentiation of cells, and, not least, exerting direct antiviral effects. Cytokines shape and modulate the immune response and IFNs are principle antiviral mediators initiating antiviral response through induction of antiviral proteins. In the present review, I describe and discuss the current knowledge on early virus–host interactions, focusing on early recognition of virus infection and the resulting expression of type I and type III IFNs, proinflammatory cytokines, and intracellular antiviral mediators. In addition, the review elucidates how targeted stimulation of innate sensors, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs and intracellular RNA and DNA sensors, may be used therapeutically. Moreover, I present and discuss data showing how current antimicrobial therapies, including antibiotics and antiviral medication, may interfere with, or improve, immune response.

  8. An Antiviral Role for Antimicrobial Peptides during the Arthropod Response to Alphavirus Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Zhijing; Kingsolver, Megan B.; Avadhanula, Vasanthi; Hardy, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Alphaviruses establish a persistent infection in arthropod vectors which is essential for the effective transmission of the virus to vertebrate hosts. The development of persistence in insects is not well understood, although it is thought to involve the innate immune response. Using a transgenic fly system expressing a self-replicating viral RNA genome analog, we have previously demonstrated antiviral roles of the Drosophila Imd (immune deficiency) and Jak-STAT innate immunity pathways in re...

  9. Ophthalmic antiviral chemotherapy : An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athmanathan Sreedharan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiviral drug development has been slow due to many factors. One such factor is the difficulty to block the viral replication in the cell without adversely affecting the host cell metabolic activity. Most of the antiviral compounds are analogs of purines and pyramidines. Currently available antiviral drugs mainly inhibit viral nucleic acid synthesis, hence act only on actively replicating viruses. This article presents an overview of some of the commonly used antiviral agents in clinical ophthalmology.

  10. Antiviral Drugs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee explains the nature of antiviral drugs and how they are used for seasonal flu.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  11. Antiviral properties of photosensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.B.; Towers, G.H.N.

    1988-01-01

    We have studied the antiviral properties of three different groups of photo-sensitizers, viz. (i) various furyl compounds; (ii) β-carboline alkaloids; (iii) thiophenes and their acetylene derivatives. In general the antiviral potency of the furyl compounds correlated with their ability to produce DNA photoadducts. Among the naturally occurring β-carboline alkaloids, harmine was considerably more potent (in the presence of long wavelength UV radiation, UVA) than several other harmane-related compounds. Slight alterations in chemical structure had profound effects on their antiviral activities. Harmine was shown to inactivate the DNA-virus murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) by inhibiting viral gene expression, although other targets may also exist. Several eudistomins, carboline derivatives isolated from a tunicate, were also photoactive against viruses. Various plant thiophenes and polyacetylenes were studied in detail. These compounds also required UVA for antiviral activity, and some of them were extremely potent against viruses with membranes, e.g. α-terthienyl, which showed significant activity at only 10 -5 μg/ml. When MCMV had been treated with α-terthienyl plus UVA, the virus retained its integrity and penetrated cells normally; but the virus did not replicate. (author)

  12. Kidney and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Gen

    2017-03-01

    Innate immune system is an important modulator of the inflammatory response during infection and tissue injury/repair. The kidney as a vital organ with high energy demand plays a key role in regulating the disease related metabolic process. Increasing research interest has focused on the immune pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. However, innate immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, NK cells and a few innate lymphocytes, as well as the complement system are essential for renal immune homeostasis and ensure a coordinated balance between tissue injury and regeneration. The innate immune response provides the first line of host defense initiated by several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as membrane-bound Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), together with inflammasomes responsible for early innate immune response. Although the innate immune system is well studied, the research on the detailed relationship between innate immunity and kidney is still very limited. In this review, we will focus on the innate immune sensing system in renal immune homeostasis, as well as the corresponding pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. The pivotal roles of innate immunity in renal injury and regeneration with special emphasis on kidney disease related immunoregulatory mechanism are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Skin innate immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Aksoy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available All multicellular organisms protect themselves from external universe and microorganisms by innate immune sytem that is constitutively present. Skin innate immune system has several different components composed of epithelial barriers, humoral factors and cellular part. In this review information about skin innate immune system and its components are presented to the reader. Innate immunity, which wasn’t adequately interested in previously, is proven to provide a powerfull early protection system, control many infections before the acquired immunity starts and directs acquired immunity to develop optimally

  14. ANTI-VIRAL ACTIVITY OF GLYCIRRHETINIC AND GLYCIRRHIZIC ACIDS

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    V. V. Zarubaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a highly contagious human disease. In the course of use of antiviral drugs drug-resistant strains of the virus are formed, resulting in reduced efficiency of the chemotherapy. The review describes the biological activity of glycirrhetinic (GLA and glycirrhizic (GA acids in terms of their use as a therapeutic agent for viral infections. So, these compounds are against a broad spectrum of viruses, including herpes, corona-, alphaand flaviviruses, human immunodeficiency virus, vaccinia virus, poliovirus type I, vesicular stomatitis virus and influenza A virus. These data indicate that anti-viral effect of these compounds is due to several types of activity — direct antiviral effects, effects on cellular proand anti-viral and immunomodulating pathways, in particular by activation of innate immunity system. GA interferes with early steps of the viral reproductive cycle such as virus binding to its receptor, the absorption of the virus by endocytosis or virus decapsidation in the cytoplasm. This is due to the effect of GA-induced reduction of membrane fluidity. Thus, one mechanism for the antiviral activity of GA is that GA molecule increases the rigidity of cellular and viral membranes after incorporation in there. This results in increasing of energy threshold required for the formation of negative curvature at the fusion zones, as well as difficult lateral migration of the virus-receptor complexes. In addition, glycyrrhizin prevents interaction of viral nucleoprotein with cellular protein HMGB1, which is necessary for the viral life cycle. Glycyrrhizin also inhibits the induction of oxidative stress during influenza infection, exhibiting antioxidant properties, which leads to a reduction of virus-induced production of cytokines/chemokines, without affecting the replication of the virus. A wide spectrum of biological activity and effect on various aspects of the viral pathogenesis substantiate the effect of GA and GLA as a component

  15. Human innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Mette D.; Spits, Hergen

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are lymphoid cells that do not express rearranged receptors and have important effector and regulatory functions in innate immunity and tissue remodeling. ILCs are categorized into 3 groups based on their distinct patterns of cytokine production and the requirement of

  16. Antiviral and Inflammatory Cellular Signaling Associated with Enterovirus 71 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuefei Jin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 infection has become a major threat to global public health, especially in infants and young children. Epidemiological studies have indicated that EV71 infection is responsible for severe and even fatal cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD. Accumulated evidence indicates that EV71 infection triggers a plethora of interactive signaling pathways, resulting in host immune evasion and inflammatory response. This review mainly covers the effects of EV71 infection on major antiviral and inflammatory cellular signal pathways. EV71 can activate cellular signaling networks including multiple cell surface and intracellular receptors, intracellular kinases, calcium flux, and transcription factors that regulate antiviral innate immunity and inflammatory response. Cellular signaling plays a critical role in the regulation of host innate immune and inflammatory pathogenesis. Elucidation of antiviral and inflammatory cellular signaling pathways initiated by EV71 will not only help uncover the potential mechanisms of EV71 infection-induced pathogenesis, but will also provide clues for the design of therapeutic strategies against EV71 infection.

  17. Antagonism of the Phosphatase PP1 by the Measles Virus V Protein Is Required for Innate Immune Escape of MDA5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Meredith E.; Wang, May K.; Rennick, Linda J.; Full, Florian; Gableske, Sebastian; Mesman, Annelies W.; Gringhuis, Sonja I.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; Duprex, W. Paul; Gack, Michaela U.

    2014-01-01

    The cytosolic sensor MDA5 is crucial for antiviral innate immune defense against various RNA viruses including measles virus; as such, many viruses have evolved strategies to antagonize the antiviral activity of MDA5. Here, we show that measles virus escapes MDA5 detection by targeting the

  18. La respuesta inmune antiviral

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez de la Rosa, Rainel; Sánchez de la Rosa, Ernesto; Rodríguez Hernández, Néstor

    1998-01-01

    Se expone que los virus son parásitos intracelulares obligados, puesto que no tienen metabolismo propio; esto obliga al sistema inmune a poner en marcha sus mecanismos más especializados para reconocer y eliminar, tanto a los virus libres, como a las células infectadas. Se señala que las células presentadoras de antígenos, los linfocitos B y los T unidos al complejo mayor de histocompatibilidad, forman parte de la organización de la respuesta inmune antiviral; la inducción de esta respuesta c...

  19. La respuesta inmune antiviral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainel Sánchez de la Rosa

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Se expone que los virus son parásitos intracelulares obligados, puesto que no tienen metabolismo propio; esto obliga al sistema inmune a poner en marcha sus mecanismos más especializados para reconocer y eliminar, tanto a los virus libres, como a las células infectadas. Se señala que las células presentadoras de antígenos, los linfocitos B y los T unidos al complejo mayor de histocompatibilidad, forman parte de la organización de la respuesta inmune antiviral; la inducción de esta respuesta con proteínas, péptidos y ADN desnudo, son alternativas actuales tanto en la prevención como en el tratamiento de las infecciones viralesIt is explained that viruses are compulsory intracellular parasites, since they don't have their own metabolism, which makes the immune system to start its mest specialized mechanisms to recognize and eliminate the free viruses and the infected cells. It is stated that the cells presenting antigens, and the B and T lymphocytes together with the major histocompatibility complex, are part of the organization of the immune antiviral response. The induction of this response with proteins, peptides and naked DNA are the present alternatives for the prevention and treatment of viral infections

  20. Corruption of innate immunity by bacterial proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potempa, Jan; Pike, Robert N

    2009-01-01

    The innate immune system of the human body has developed numerous mechanisms to control endogenous and exogenous bacteria and thus prevent infections by these microorganisms. These mechanisms range from physical barriers such as the skin or mucosal epithelium to a sophisticated array of molecules and cells that function to suppress or prevent bacterial infection. Many bacteria express a variety of proteases, ranging from non-specific and powerful enzymes that degrade many proteins involved in innate immunity to proteases that are extremely precise and specific in their mode of action. Here we have assembled a comprehensive picture of how bacterial proteases affect the host's innate immune system to gain advantage and cause infection. This picture is far from being complete since the numbers of mechanisms utilized are as astonishing as they are diverse, ranging from degradation of molecules vital to innate immune mechanisms to subversion of the mechanisms to allow the bacterium to hide from the system or take advantage of it. It is vital that such mechanisms are elucidated to allow strategies to be developed to aid the innate immune system in controlling bacterial infections.

  1. Lloviu virus VP24 and VP35 proteins function as innate immune antagonists in human and bat cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feagins, Alicia R.; Basler, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    Lloviu virus (LLOV) is a new member of the filovirus family that also includes Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV). LLOV has not been cultured; however, its genomic RNA sequence indicates the coding capacity to produce homologs of the EBOV and MARV VP24, VP35, and VP40 proteins. EBOV and MARV VP35 proteins inhibit interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta production and EBOV VP35 blocks activation of the antiviral kinase PKR. The EBOV VP24 and MARV VP40 proteins inhibit IFN signaling, albeit by different mechanisms. Here we demonstrate that LLOV VP35 suppresses Sendai virus induced IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) phosphorylation, IFN-α/β production, and PKR phosphorylation. Additionally, LLOV VP24 blocks tyrosine phosphorylated STAT1 binding to karyopherin alpha 5 (KPNA5), STAT1 nuclear accumulation, and IFN-induced gene expression. LLOV VP40 lacks detectable IFN antagonist function. These activities parallel EBOV IFN inhibitory functions. EBOV and LLOV VP35 and VP24 proteins also inhibit IFN responses in bat cells. These data suggest that LLOV infection will block innate immune responses in a manner similar to EBOV. - Highlights: • Lloviu virus (LLOV) is a new member of the filovirus family. • LLOV VP35 blocks IRF3 phosphorylation, IFN-α/β production and PKR phosphorylation. • LLOV VP24 inhibits IFN responses by targeting phospho-STAT1 KPNA interaction. • Infection by LLOV may block innate immune responses in a manner similar to EBOV.

  2. Lloviu virus VP24 and VP35 proteins function as innate immune antagonists in human and bat cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feagins, Alicia R.; Basler, Christopher F., E-mail: chris.basler@mssm.edu

    2015-11-15

    Lloviu virus (LLOV) is a new member of the filovirus family that also includes Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV). LLOV has not been cultured; however, its genomic RNA sequence indicates the coding capacity to produce homologs of the EBOV and MARV VP24, VP35, and VP40 proteins. EBOV and MARV VP35 proteins inhibit interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta production and EBOV VP35 blocks activation of the antiviral kinase PKR. The EBOV VP24 and MARV VP40 proteins inhibit IFN signaling, albeit by different mechanisms. Here we demonstrate that LLOV VP35 suppresses Sendai virus induced IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) phosphorylation, IFN-α/β production, and PKR phosphorylation. Additionally, LLOV VP24 blocks tyrosine phosphorylated STAT1 binding to karyopherin alpha 5 (KPNA5), STAT1 nuclear accumulation, and IFN-induced gene expression. LLOV VP40 lacks detectable IFN antagonist function. These activities parallel EBOV IFN inhibitory functions. EBOV and LLOV VP35 and VP24 proteins also inhibit IFN responses in bat cells. These data suggest that LLOV infection will block innate immune responses in a manner similar to EBOV. - Highlights: • Lloviu virus (LLOV) is a new member of the filovirus family. • LLOV VP35 blocks IRF3 phosphorylation, IFN-α/β production and PKR phosphorylation. • LLOV VP24 inhibits IFN responses by targeting phospho-STAT1 KPNA interaction. • Infection by LLOV may block innate immune responses in a manner similar to EBOV.

  3. Approaching archetypes: reconsidering innateness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwyn, Erik

    2010-09-01

    The question of innateness has hounded Jungian psychology since Jung originally postulated the archetype as an a priori structure within the psyche. During his life and after his death he was continually accused of Lamarckianism and criticized for his theory that the archetypes existed as prior structures. More recently, with the advent of genetic research and the human genome project, the idea that psychological structures can be innate has come under even harsher criticism even within Jungian thought. There appears to be a growing consensus that Jung's idea of innate psychological structures was misguided, and that perhaps the archetype-as-such should be abandoned for more developmental and 'emergent' theories of the psyche. The purpose of this essay is to question this conclusion, and introduce some literature on psychological innateness that appears relevant to this discussion. © 2010, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  4. Epimedium koreanum Nakai Displays Broad Spectrum of Antiviral Activity in Vitro and in Vivo by Inducing Cellular Antiviral State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Kyung Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epimedium koreanum Nakai has been extensively used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine to treat a variety of diseases. Despite the plant’s known immune modulatory potential and chemical make-up, scientific information on its antiviral properties and mode of action have not been completely investigated. In this study, the broad antiviral spectrum and mode of action of an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai was evaluated in vitro, and moreover, the protective effect against divergent influenza A subtypes was determined in BALB/c mice. An effective dose of Epimedium koreanum Nakai markedly reduced the replication of Influenza A Virus (PR8, Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV, Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV in RAW264.7 and HEK293T cells. Mechanically, we found that an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai induced the secretion of type I IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokines and the subsequent stimulation of the antiviral state in cells. Among various components present in the extract, quercetin was confirmed to have striking antiviral properties. The oral administration of Epimedium koreanum Nakai exhibited preventive effects on BALB/c mice against lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3 and H9N2. Therefore, an extract of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and its components play roles as immunomodulators in the innate immune response, and may be potential candidates for prophylactic or therapeutic treatments against diverse viruses in animal and humans.

  5. Human and Mouse Eosinophils Have Antiviral Activity against Parainfluenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Matthew G; Bivins-Smith, Elizabeth R; Proskocil, Becky J; Nie, Zhenying; Scott, Gregory D; Lee, James J; Lee, Nancy A; Fryer, Allison D; Jacoby, David B

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory viruses cause asthma exacerbations. Because eosinophils are the prominent leukocytes in the airways of 60-70% of patients with asthma, we evaluated the effects of eosinophils on a common respiratory virus, parainfluenza 1, in the lung. Eosinophils recruited to the airways of wild-type mice after ovalbumin sensitization and challenge significantly decreased parainfluenza virus RNA in the lungs 4 days after infection compared with nonsensitized animals. This antiviral effect was also seen in IL-5 transgenic mice with an abundance of airway eosinophils (NJ.1726) but was lost in transgenic eosinophil-deficient mice (PHIL) and in IL-5 transgenic mice crossed with eosinophil-deficient mice (NJ.1726-PHIL). Loss of the eosinophil granule protein eosinophil peroxidase, using eosinophil peroxidase-deficient transgenic mice, did not reduce eosinophils' antiviral effect. Eosinophil antiviral mechanisms were also explored in vitro. Isolated human eosinophils significantly reduced parainfluenza virus titers. This effect did not involve degradation of viral RNA by eosinophil granule RNases. However, eosinophils treated with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor lost their antiviral activity, suggesting eosinophils attenuate viral infectivity through production of nitric oxide. Consequently, eosinophil nitric oxide production was measured with an intracellular fluorescent probe. Eosinophils produced nitric oxide in response to virus and to a synthetic agonist of the virus-sensing innate immune receptor, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7. IFNγ increased expression of eosinophil TLR7 and potentiated TLR7-induced nitric oxide production. These results suggest that eosinophils promote viral clearance in the lung and contribute to innate immune responses against respiratory virus infections in humans.

  6. Aciclovir: nuevo antiviral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Repetto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available El aciclovir es un antiviral útil en infecciones graves causadas por el virus varicela-zoster. Es bien tolerado con escasas reacciones adversas. En pacientes deshidratados, en insuficiencia renal o si la infusión endovenosa es muy rápida, puede ocacionar una "nefropatía obstructiva" transitoria. Existen preparados de uso tópico, oftálmico, endovenoso y oral; esta última vía constituye una ventaja sobre la vidarabina con la que tiene en común el espectro de actividad. En razón de su selectividad, riesgo de resistencia y número reducido de antivirales, su prescripción debe restringirse a infecciones graves causadas por los agentes inmunodeprimidos; excluyendo por lo tanto las comunes y autolimitadas, frecuentes en el individuo normal.

  7. Innate Immunity Evasion by Enteroviruses: Insights into Virus-Host Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Lei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus genus includes multiple important human pathogens, such as poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus (EV A71, EV-D68 and rhinovirus. Infection with EVs can cause numerous clinical conditions including poliomyelitis, meningitis and encephalitis, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, acute flaccid paralysis, diarrhea, myocarditis and respiratory illness. EVs, which are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, trigger activation of the host antiviral innate immune responses through pathogen recognition receptors such as retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG-I-likeand Toll-like receptors. In turn, EVs have developed sophisticated strategies to evade host antiviral responses. In this review, we discuss the interplay between the host innate immune responses and EV infection, with a primary focus on host immune detection and protection against EV infection and viral strategies to evade these antiviral immune responses.

  8. Mechanisms of innate immune evasion in re-emerging RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Daphne Y; Suthar, Mehul S

    2015-06-01

    Recent outbreaks of Ebola, West Nile, Chikungunya, Middle Eastern Respiratory and other emerging/re-emerging RNA viruses continue to highlight the need to further understand the virus-host interactions that govern disease severity and infection outcome. As part of the early host antiviral defense, the innate immune system mediates pathogen recognition and initiation of potent antiviral programs that serve to limit virus replication, limit virus spread and activate adaptive immune responses. Concordantly, viral pathogens have evolved several strategies to counteract pathogen recognition and cell-intrinsic antiviral responses. In this review, we highlight the major mechanisms of innate immune evasion by emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses, focusing on pathogens that pose significant risk to public health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Translational control in plant antiviral immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo B. Machado

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the limited coding capacity of viral genomes, plant viruses depend extensively on the host cell machinery to support the viral life cycle and, thereby, interact with a large number of host proteins during infection. Within this context, as plant viruses do not harbor translation-required components, they have developed several strategies to subvert the host protein synthesis machinery to produce rapidly and efficiently the viral proteins. As a countermeasure against infection, plants have evolved defense mechanisms that impair viral infections. Among them, the host-mediated translational suppression has been characterized as an efficient mean to restrict infection. To specifically suppress translation of viral mRNAs, plants can deploy susceptible recessive resistance genes, which encode translation initiation factors from the eIF4E and eIF4G family and are required for viral mRNA translation and multiplication. Additionally, recent evidence has demonstrated that, alternatively to the cleavage of viral RNA targets, host cells can suppress viral protein translation to silence viral RNA. Finally, a novel strategy of plant antiviral defense based on suppression of host global translation, which is mediated by the transmembrane immune receptor NIK1 (nuclear shuttle protein (NSP-Interacting Kinase1, is discussed in this review.

  10. Screening for Antiviral Activities of Isolated Compounds from Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Astani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, β-eudesmol, farnesol, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60–80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40–98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only β-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of β-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV.

  11. Antiviral therapy: a perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidi Bonjar AH

    2016-02-01

    s recovery to a large extent depends on their general health status. EVAC would be for single use and appropriately disposed of after each detoxification procedure. When sufficient research has yielded positive results in animal models, EVAC could be used as a supportive treatment in humans along with conventional antiviral therapies. EVAC would not be suitable for all viral infections, but could be expected to decrease the casualties resulting from blood-borne viral infections. The EVAC approach would be efficient in terms of time, effort, and expenditure in the research and treatment of blood-borne viral infections. Keywords: blood, virus, infection, antiviral, sepsis, HIV, Ebola

  12. Antiviral Drug Research Proposal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Injaian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of antiviral drugs provides an excellent example of how basic and clinical research must be used together in order to achieve the final goal of treating disease. A Research Oriented Learning Activity was designed to help students to better understand how basic and clinical research can be combined toward a common goal. Through this project students gained a better understanding of the process of scientific research and increased their information literacy in the field of virology. The students worked as teams to research the many aspects involved in the antiviral drug design process, with each student becoming an "expert" in one aspect of the project. The Antiviral Drug Research Proposal (ADRP culminated with students presenting their proposals to their peers and local virologists in a poster session. Assessment data showed increased student awareness and knowledge of the research process and the steps involved in the development of antiviral drugs as a result of this activity.

  13. Antiviral agents for infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paor, Muireann; O'Brien, Kirsty; Fahey, Tom; Smith, Susan M

    2016-12-08

    outcome did not find any significant difference between treatment and control groups.There was a mean reduction in 'duration of lymphadenopathy' of nine days (95% CI -11.75 to -6.14, two studies, 61 participants) in favour of the treatment group.In terms of viral shedding, the overall effect from six studies was that viral shedding was suppressed while on antiviral treatment, but this effect was not sustained when treatment stopped.For all other outcomes there was no statistically significant difference between antiviral treatment and control groups. The effectiveness of antiviral agents (acyclovir, valomaciclovir and valacyclovir) in acute IM is uncertain. The quality of the evidence is very low. The majority of included studies were at unclear or high risk of bias and so questions remain about the effectiveness of this intervention. Although two of the 12 outcomes have results that favour treatment over control, the quality of the evidence of these results is very low and may not be clinically meaningful. Alongside the lack of evidence of effectiveness, decision makers need to consider the potential adverse events and possible associated costs, and antiviral resistance. Further research in this area is warranted.

  14. Topoisomerase 1 Inhibition Promotes Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase-Dependent Antiviral Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Pépin, Geneviève; Nejad, Charlotte; Ferrand, Jonathan; Thomas, Belinda J.; Stunden, H. James; Sanij, Elaine; Foo, Chwan-Hong; Stewart, Cameron R.; Cain, Jason E.; Bardin, Philip G.; Williams, Bryan R. G.; Gantier, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inflammatory responses, while essential for pathogen clearance, can also be deleterious to the host. Chemical inhibition of topoisomerase 1 (Top1) by low-dose camptothecin (CPT) can suppress transcriptional induction of antiviral and inflammatory genes and protect animals from excessive and damaging inflammatory responses. We describe the unexpected finding that minor DNA damage from topoisomerase 1 inhibition with low-dose CPT can trigger a strong antiviral immune response through c...

  15. Human innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjösberg, Jenny; Spits, Hergen

    2016-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly acknowledged as important mediators of immune homeostasis and pathology. ILCs act as early orchestrators of immunity, responding to epithelium-derived signals by expressing an array of cytokines and cell-surface receptors, which shape subsequent immune responses. As such, ILCs make up interesting therapeutic targets for several diseases. In patients with allergy and asthma, group 2 innate lymphoid cells produce high amounts of IL-5 and IL-13, thereby contributing to type 2-mediated inflammation. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells are implicated in intestinal homeostasis and psoriasis pathology through abundant IL-22 production, whereas group 1 innate lymphoid cells are accumulated in chronic inflammation of the gut (inflammatory bowel disease) and lung (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), where they contribute to IFN-γ-mediated inflammation. Although the ontogeny of mouse ILCs is slowly unraveling, the development of human ILCs is far from understood. In addition, the growing complexity of the human ILC family in terms of previously unrecognized functional heterogeneity and plasticity has generated confusion within the field. Here we provide an updated view on the function and plasticity of human ILCs in tissue homeostasis and disease. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Human innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mjösberg, Jenny; Spits, Hergen

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly acknowledged as important mediators of immune homeostasis and pathology. ILCs act as early orchestrators of immunity, responding to epithelium-derived signals by expressing an array of cytokines and cell-surface receptors, which shape subsequent immune

  17. Tick Innate Immunity.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Petr; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Burešová, Veronika; Daffre, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 708, - (2010), 137-162 ISSN 0065-2598 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2136; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick * pathogen transmission * innate immunity Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.379, year: 2010

  18. The human cathelicidin LL-37 has antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke M Currie

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract illness among infants, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Currently, there is no effective vaccine or disease modifying treatment available and novel interventions are urgently required. Cathelicidins are cationic host defence peptides expressed in the inflamed lung, with key roles in innate host defence against infection. We demonstrate that the human cathelicidin LL-37 has effective antiviral activity against RSV in vitro, retained by a truncated central peptide fragment. LL-37 prevented virus-induced cell death in epithelial cultures, significantly inhibited the production of new infectious particles and diminished the spread of infection, with antiviral effects directed both against the viral particles and the epithelial cells. LL-37 may represent an important targetable component of innate host defence against RSV infection. Prophylactic modulation of LL-37 expression and/or use of synthetic analogues post-infection may represent future novel strategies against RSV infection.

  19. Probiotic Modulation of Innate Cell Pathogen Sensing and Signaling Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Llewellyn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence documenting probiotic bacteria to have a beneficial effect to the host through their ability to modulate the mucosal immune system. Many probiotic bacteria can be considered to act as either immune activators or immune suppressors, which have appreciable influence on homeostasis, inflammatory- and suppressive-immunopathology. What is becoming apparent is the ability of these probiotics to modulate innate immune responses via direct or indirect effects on the signaling pathways that drive these activatory or suppressive/tolerogenic mechanisms. This review will focus on the immunomodulatory role of probiotics on signaling pathways in innate immune cells: from positive to negative regulation associated with innate immune cells driving gut mucosal functionality. Research investigations have shown probiotics to modulate innate functionality in many ways including, receptor antagonism, receptor expression, binding to and expression of adaptor proteins, expression of negative regulatory signal molecules, induction of micro-RNAs, endotoxin tolerisation and finally, the secretion of immunomodulatory proteins, lipids and metabolites. The detailed understanding of the immunomodulatory signaling effects of probiotic strains will facilitate strain-specific selective manipulation of innate cell signal mechanisms in the modulation of mucosal adjuvanticity, immune deviation and tolerisation in both healthy subjects and patients with inflammatory and suppressive pathology.

  20. Probiotic Modulation of Innate Cell Pathogen Sensing and Signaling Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Amy; Foey, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence documenting probiotic bacteria to have a beneficial effect to the host through their ability to modulate the mucosal immune system. Many probiotic bacteria can be considered to act as either immune activators or immune suppressors, which have appreciable influence on homeostasis, inflammatory- and suppressive-immunopathology. What is becoming apparent is the ability of these probiotics to modulate innate immune responses via direct or indirect effects on the signaling pathways that drive these activatory or suppressive/tolerogenic mechanisms. This review will focus on the immunomodulatory role of probiotics on signaling pathways in innate immune cells: from positive to negative regulation associated with innate immune cells driving gut mucosal functionality. Research investigations have shown probiotics to modulate innate functionality in many ways including, receptor antagonism, receptor expression, binding to and expression of adaptor proteins, expression of negative regulatory signal molecules, induction of micro-RNAs, endotoxin tolerisation and finally, the secretion of immunomodulatory proteins, lipids and metabolites. The detailed understanding of the immunomodulatory signaling effects of probiotic strains will facilitate strain-specific selective manipulation of innate cell signal mechanisms in the modulation of mucosal adjuvanticity, immune deviation and tolerisation in both healthy subjects and patients with inflammatory and suppressive pathology. PMID:29065562

  1. Viral evasion of DNA-stimulated innate immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Maria H; Paludan, Søren R

    2017-01-01

    Cellular sensing of virus-derived nucleic acids is essential for early defenses against virus infections. In recent years, the discovery of DNA sensing proteins, including cyclic GMP–AMP synthase (cGAS) and gamma-interferon-inducible protein (IFI16), has led to understanding of how cells evoke strong innate immune responses against incoming pathogens carrying DNA genomes. The signaling stimulated by DNA sensors depends on the adaptor protein STING (stimulator of interferon genes), to enable expression of antiviral proteins, including type I interferon. To facilitate efficient infections, viruses have evolved a wide range of evasion strategies, targeting host DNA sensors, adaptor proteins and transcription factors. In this review, the current literature on virus-induced activation of the STING pathway is presented and we discuss recently identified viral evasion mechanisms targeting different steps in this antiviral pathway. PMID:26972769

  2. Viral evasion of DNA-stimulated innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Maria H; Paludan, Søren R

    2017-01-01

    Cellular sensing of virus-derived nucleic acids is essential for early defenses against virus infections. In recent years, the discovery of DNA sensing proteins, including cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and gamma-interferon-inducible protein (IFI16), has led to understanding of how cells evoke strong innate immune responses against incoming pathogens carrying DNA genomes. The signaling stimulated by DNA sensors depends on the adaptor protein STING (stimulator of interferon genes), to enable expression of antiviral proteins, including type I interferon. To facilitate efficient infections, viruses have evolved a wide range of evasion strategies, targeting host DNA sensors, adaptor proteins and transcription factors. In this review, the current literature on virus-induced activation of the STING pathway is presented and we discuss recently identified viral evasion mechanisms targeting different steps in this antiviral pathway.

  3. Evasion of the Interferon-Mediated Antiviral Response by Filoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington B. Cárdenas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The members of the filoviruses are recognized as some of the most lethal viruses affecting human and non-human primates. The only two genera of the Filoviridae family, Marburg virus (MARV and Ebola virus (EBOV, comprise the main etiologic agents of severe hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in central Africa, with case fatality rates ranging from 25 to 90%. Fatal outcomes have been associated with a late and dysregulated immune response to infection, very likely due to the virus targeting key host immune cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs that are necessary to mediate effective innate and adaptive immune responses. Despite major progress in the development of vaccine candidates for filovirus infections, a licensed vaccine or therapy for human use is still not available. During the last ten years, important progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms of filovirus pathogenesis. Several lines of evidence implicate the impairment of the host interferon (IFN antiviral innate immune response by MARV or EBOV as an important determinant of virulence. In vitro and in vivo experimental infections with recombinant Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV, the best characterized filovirus, demonstrated that the viral protein VP35 plays a key role in inhibiting the production of IFN-α/β. Further, the action of VP35 is synergized by the inhibition of cellular responses to IFN-α/β by the minor matrix viral protein VP24. The dual action of these viral proteins may contribute to an efficient initial virus replication and dissemination in the host. Noticeably, the analogous function of these viral proteins in MARV has not been reported. Because the IFN response is a major component of the innate immune response to virus infection, this chapter reviews recent findings on the molecular mechanisms of IFN-mediated antiviral evasion by filovirus infection.

  4. Effects of engineered nanoparticles on the innate immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanchang; Hardie, Joseph; Zhang, Xianzhi; Rotello, Vincent M

    2017-12-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) have broad applications in industry and nanomedicine. When NPs enter the body, interactions with the immune system are unavoidable. The innate immune system, a non-specific first line of defense against potential threats to the host, immediately interacts with introduced NPs and generates complicated immune responses. Depending on their physicochemical properties, NPs can interact with cells and proteins to stimulate or suppress the innate immune response, and similarly activate or avoid the complement system. NPs size, shape, hydrophobicity and surface modification are the main factors that influence the interactions between NPs and the innate immune system. In this review, we will focus on recent reports about the relationship between the physicochemical properties of NPs and their innate immune response, and their applications in immunotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antiviral therapy: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi Bonjar, Amir Hashem

    2016-01-01

    research has yielded positive results in animal models, EVAC could be used as a supportive treatment in humans along with conventional antiviral therapies. EVAC would not be suitable for all viral infections, but could be expected to decrease the casualties resulting from blood-borne viral infections. The EVAC approach would be efficient in terms of time, effort, and expenditure in the research and treatment of blood-borne viral infections.

  6. Viral ancestors of antiviral systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Luis P

    2011-10-01

    All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the 'Big Bang' theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.

  7. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis P. Villarreal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the ‘Big Bang’ theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.

  8. Viruses transfer the antiviral second messenger cGAMP between cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, A; Maelfait, J; Davenne, T; Partridge, T; Peng, Y; Mayer, A; Dong, T; Kaever, V; Borrow, P; Rehwinkel, J

    2015-09-11

    Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) detects cytosolic DNA during virus infection and induces an antiviral state. cGAS signals by synthesis of a second messenger, cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), which activates stimulator of interferon genes (STING). We show that cGAMP is incorporated into viral particles, including lentivirus and herpesvirus virions, when these are produced in cGAS-expressing cells. Virions transferred cGAMP to newly infected cells and triggered a STING-dependent antiviral program. These effects were independent of exosomes and viral nucleic acids. Our results reveal a way by which a signal for innate immunity is transferred between cells, potentially accelerating and broadening antiviral responses. Moreover, infection of dendritic cells with cGAMP-loaded lentiviruses enhanced their activation. Loading viral vectors with cGAMP therefore holds promise for vaccine development. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Boosting innate immunity to sustainably control diseases in crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaise, Valerie

    2017-10-01

    Viruses cause epidemics in all major crops, threatening global food security. The development of efficient and durable resistance able to withstand viral attacks represents a major challenge for agronomy, and relies greatly on the understanding of the molecular dialogue between viral pathogens and their hosts. Research over the last decades provided substantial advances in the field of plant-virus interactions. Remarkably, the advent of studies of plant innate immunity has recently offered new strategies exploitable in the field. This review summarizes the recent breakthroughs that define the mechanisms underlying antiviral innate immunity in plants, and emphasizes the importance of integrating that knowledge into crop improvement actions, particularly by exploiting the insights related to immune receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Seneca Valley Virus Suppresses Host Type I Interferon Production by Targeting Adaptor Proteins MAVS, TRIF, and TANK for Cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Suhong; Fan, Wenchun; Liu, Tingting; Wu, Mengge; Zhang, Huawei; Cui, Xiaofang; Zhou, Yun; Hu, Junjie; Wei, Shaozhong; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Xiangmin; Qian, Ping

    2017-08-15

    Seneca Valley virus (SVV) is an oncolytic RNA virus belonging to the Picornaviridae family. Its nucleotide sequence is highly similar to those of members of the Cardiovirus genus. SVV is also a neuroendocrine cancer-selective oncolytic picornavirus that can be used for anticancer therapy. However, the interaction between SVV and its host is yet to be fully characterized. In this study, SVV inhibited antiviral type I interferon (IFN) responses by targeting different host adaptors, including mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS), Toll/interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β (TRIF), and TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK), via viral 3C protease (3C pro ). SVV 3C pro mediated the cleavage of MAVS, TRIF, and TANK at specific sites, which required its protease activity. The cleaved MAVS, TRIF, and TANK lost the ability to regulate pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-mediated IFN production. The cleavage of TANK also facilitated TRAF6-induced NF-κB activation. SVV was also found to be sensitive to IFN-β. Therefore, SVV suppressed antiviral IFN production to escape host antiviral innate immune responses by cleaving host adaptor molecules. IMPORTANCE Host cells have developed various defenses against microbial pathogen infection. The production of IFN is the first line of defense against microbial infection. However, viruses have evolved many strategies to disrupt this host defense. SVV, a member of the Picornavirus genus, is an oncolytic virus that shows potential functions in anticancer therapy. It has been demonstrated that IFN can be used in anticancer therapy for certain tumors. However, the relationship between oncolytic virus and innate immune response in anticancer therapy is still not well known. In this study, we showed that SVV has evolved as an effective mechanism to inhibit host type I IFN production by using its 3C pro to cleave the molecules MAVS, TRIF, and TANK directly. These molecules are crucial for

  11. Silencing the alarms: innate immune antagonism by rotavirus NSP1 and VP3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Marco; Ogden, Kristen M.; Patton, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune response involves a broad array of pathogen sensors that stimulate the production of interferons (IFN) to induce an antiviral state. Rotavirus, a significant cause of childhood gastroenteritis and a member of the Reoviridae family of segmented, double-stranded RNA viruses, encodes at least two direct antagonists of host innate immunity: NSP1 and VP3. NSP1, a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase, mediates the degradation of cellular factors involved in both IFN induction and downstream signaling. VP3, the viral capping enzyme, utilizes a 2H-phosphodiesterase domain to prevent activation of the cellular oligoadenylate synthase (OAS)-RNase L pathway. Computational, molecular, and biochemical studies have provided key insights into the structural and mechanistic basis of innate immune antagonism by NSP1 and VP3 of group A rotaviruses (RVA). Future studies with non-RVA isolates will be essential to understand how other RV species evade host innate immune responses. PMID:25724417

  12. Interferon induced IFIT family genes in host antiviral defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang; Michal, Jennifer J; Zhang, Lifan; Ding, Bo; Lunney, Joan K; Liu, Bang; Jiang, Zhihua

    2013-01-01

    Secretion of interferons (IFNs) from virus-infected cells is a hallmark of host antiviral immunity and in fact, IFNs exert their antiviral activities through the induction of antiviral proteins. The IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) family is among hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes. This family contains a cluster of duplicated loci. Most mammals have IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3 and IFIT5; however, bird, marsupial, frog and fish have only IFIT5. Regardless of species, IFIT5 is always adjacent to SLC16A12. IFIT family genes are predominantly induced by type I and type III interferons and are regulated by the pattern recognition and the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. IFIT family proteins are involved in many processes in response to viral infection. However, some viruses can escape the antiviral functions of the IFIT family by suppressing IFIT family genes expression or methylation of 5' cap of viral molecules. In addition, the variants of IFIT family genes could significantly influence the outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy. We believe that our current review provides a comprehensive picture for the community to understand the structure and function of IFIT family genes in response to pathogens in human, as well as in animals.

  13. Antiviral activity of exopolysaccharides from Arthrospira platensis against koi herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, M; Bergmann, S M; Hwang, J; Buchholz, R; Lindenberger, C

    2017-10-01

    Although koi herpesvirus (KHV) has a history of causing severe economic losses in common carp and koi farms, there are still no treatments available on the market. Thus, the aim of this study was to test exopolysaccharides (EPS) for its antiviral activity against KHV, by monitoring inhibition and cytotoxic effects in common carp brain cells. These substances can be easily extracted from extracellular algae supernatant and were identified as groups of sulphated polysaccharides. In order to reach this aim, Arthrospira platensis, which is well known for its antiviral activity of intra- and extracellular compounds towards mammalian herpesviruses, was investigated as standard organism and compared to commercial antiviral drug, ganciclovir, which inhibits the viral DNA polymerization. The antiviral activity of polysaccharides of A. platensis against KHV was confirmed in vitro using qualitative assessment of KHV life cycle genes, and it was found by RT-PCR that EPS, applied at a concentration of >18 μg mL -1 and a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.45 of KHV, suppressed the viral replication in common carp brain (CCB) cells even after 22 days post-infection, entirely. Further, this study presents first data indicating an enormous potential using polysaccharides as an additive for aquacultures to lower or hinder the spread of the KHV and koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) in future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The future of antiviral immunotoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiess, K.; Høy Jakobsen, Mette; Kledal, Thomas N

    2016-01-01

    There is a constant need for new therapeutic interventions in a wide range of infectious diseases. Over the past few years, the immunotoxins have entered the stage as promising antiviral treatments. Immunotoxins have been extensively explored in cancer treatment and have achieved FDA approval in ...

  15. Adaptation in the innate immune system and heterologous innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stefan F

    2014-11-01

    The innate immune system recognizes deviation from homeostasis caused by infectious or non-infectious assaults. The threshold for its activation seems to be established by a calibration process that includes sensing of microbial molecular patterns from commensal bacteria and of endogenous signals. It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptive features, a hallmark of the adaptive immune system, can also be identified in the innate immune system. Such adaptations can result in the manifestation of a primed state of immune and tissue cells with a decreased activation threshold. This keeps the system poised to react quickly. Moreover, the fact that the innate immune system recognizes a wide variety of danger signals via pattern recognition receptors that often activate the same signaling pathways allows for heterologous innate immune stimulation. This implies that, for example, the innate immune response to an infection can be modified by co-infections or other innate stimuli. This "design feature" of the innate immune system has many implications for our understanding of individual susceptibility to diseases or responsiveness to therapies and vaccinations. In this article, adaptive features of the innate immune system as well as heterologous innate immunity and their implications are discussed.

  16. Flavivirus RNAi suppression: decoding non-coding RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijlman, G.P.

    2014-01-01

    Flaviviruses are important human pathogens that are transmitted by invertebrate vectors, mostly mosquitoes and ticks. During replication in their vector, flaviviruses are subject to a potent innate immune response known as antiviral RNA interference (RNAi). This defense mechanism is associated with

  17. Natural IgM and TLR Agonists Switch Murine Splenic Pan-B to “Regulatory” Cells That Suppress Ischemia-Induced Innate Inflammation via Regulating NKT-1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter I. Lobo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural IgM anti-leukocyte autoantibodies (IgM-ALAs inhibit inflammation by several mechanisms. Here, we show that pan-B cells and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs are switched to regulatory cells when pretreated ex vivo with IgM. B cells are also switched to regulatory cells when pretreated ex vivo with CpG but not with LPS. Pre-emptive infusion of such ex vivo induced regulatory cells protects C57BL/6 mice from ischemia-induced acute kidney injury (AKI via regulation of in vivo NKT-1 cells, which normally amplify the innate inflammatory response to DAMPS released after reperfusion of the ischemic kidney. Such ex vivo induced regulatory pan-B cells and BMDC express low CD1d and inhibit inflammation by regulating in vivo NKT-1 in the context of low-lipid antigen presentation and by a mechanism that requires costimulatory molecules, CD1d, PDL1/PD1, and IL10. Second, LPS and CpG have opposite effects on induction of regulatory activity in BMDC and B cells. LPS enhances regulatory activity of IgM-pretreated BMDC but negates the IgM-induced regulatory activity in B cells, while CpG, with or without IgM pretreatment, induces regulatory activity in B cells but not in BMDC. Differences in the response of pan-B and dendritic cells to LPS and CpG, especially in the presence of IgM-ALA, may have relevance during infections and inflammatory disorders where there is an increased IgM-ALA and release of TLRs 4 and 9 ligands. Ex vivo induced regulatory pan-B cells could have therapeutic relevance as these easily available cells can be pre-emptively infused to prevent AKI that can occur during open heart surgery or in transplant recipients receiving deceased donor organs.

  18. Evasion of adaptive and innate immune response mechanisms by γ-herpesviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pinghui; Moses, Ashlee; Früh, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    γ-Herpesviral immune evasion mechanisms are optimized to support the acute, lytic and the longterm, latent phase of infection. During acute infection, specific immune modulatory proteins limit, but also exploit, the antiviral activities of cell intrinsic innate immune responses as well as those of innate and adaptive immune cells. During latent infection, a restricted gene expression program limits immune targeting and cis-acting mechanisms to reduce the antigen presentation as well as antigenicity of latency-associated proteins. Here, we will review recent progress in our understanding of γ-herpesviral immune evasion strategies. PMID:23735334

  19. Synthetic RNAs Mimicking Structural Domains in the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Genome Elicit a Broad Innate Immune Response in Porcine Cells Triggered by RIG-I and TLR Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Belén; Rodríguez-Pulido, Miguel; Revilla, Concepción; Álvarez, Belén; Sobrino, Francisco; Domínguez, Javier; Sáiz, Margarita

    2015-07-17

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Exploiting innate responses for antiviral, therapeutic and vaccine adjuvation strategies is being extensively explored. We have previously described, the ability of small in vitro RNA transcripts, mimicking the sequence and structure of different domains in the non-coding regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome (ncRNAs), to trigger a potent and rapid innate immune response. These synthetic non-infectious molecules have proved to have a broad-range antiviral activity and to enhance the immunogenicity of an FMD inactivated vaccine in mice. Here, we have studied the involvement of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) in the ncRNA-induced innate response and analyzed the antiviral and cytokine profiles elicited in swine cultured cells, as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).

  20. Curating the innate immunity interactome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynn, David J

    2010-01-01

    The innate immune response is the first line of defence against invading pathogens and is regulated by complex signalling and transcriptional networks. Systems biology approaches promise to shed new light on the regulation of innate immunity through the analysis and modelling of these networks. A key initial step in this process is the contextual cataloguing of the components of this system and the molecular interactions that comprise these networks. InnateDB (http:\\/\\/www.innatedb.com) is a molecular interaction and pathway database developed to facilitate systems-level analyses of innate immunity.

  1. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride on infection of cells by canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pei; Fu, Xinliang; Yan, Zhongshan; Fang, Bo; Huang, San; Fu, Cheng; Hong, Malin; Li, Shoujun

    2015-11-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 causes significant viral disease in dogs, with high morbidity, high infectivity, and high mortality. Lithium chloride is a potential antiviral drug for viruses. We determined the antiviral effect of Lithium Chloride on canine parvovirus type 2 in feline kidney cells. The viral DNA and proteins of canine parvovirus were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. Further investigation verified that viral entry into cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. These results indicated that lithium chloride could be a potential antiviral drug for curing dogs with canine parvovirus infection. The specific steps of canine parvovirus entry into cells that are affected by lithium chloride and its antiviral effect in vivo should be explored in future studies.

  2. Antiviral Potential of Algae Polysaccharides Isolated from Marine Sources: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Ahmadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available From food to fertilizer, algal derived products are largely employed in assorted industries, including agricultural, biomedical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Among different chemical compositions isolated from algae, polysaccharides are the most well-established compounds, which were subjected to a variety of studies due to extensive bioactivities. Over the past few decades, the promising results for antiviral potential of algae-derived polysaccharides have advocated them as inordinate candidates for pharmaceutical research. Numerous studies have isolated various algal polysaccharides possessing antiviral activities, including carrageenan, alginate, fucan, laminaran, and naviculan. In addition, different mechanisms of action have been reported for these polysaccharides, such as inhibiting the binding or internalization of virus into the host cells or suppressing DNA replication and protein synthesis. This review strives for compiling previous antiviral studies of algae-derived polysaccharides and their mechanism of action towards their development as natural antiviral agents for future investigations.

  3. Discovery of potent broad spectrum antivirals derived from marine actinobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avi Raveh

    Full Text Available Natural products provide a vast array of chemical structures to explore in the discovery of new medicines. Although secondary metabolites produced by microbes have been developed to treat a variety of diseases, including bacterial and fungal infections, to date there has been limited investigation of natural products with antiviral activity. In this report, we used a phenotypic cell-based replicon assay coupled with an iterative biochemical fractionation process to identify, purify, and characterize antiviral compounds produced by marine microbes. We isolated a compound from Streptomyces kaviengensis, a novel actinomycetes isolated from marine sediments obtained off the coast of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea, which we identified as antimycin A1a. This compound displays potent activity against western equine encephalitis virus in cultured cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of less than 4 nM and a selectivity index of greater than 550. Our efforts also revealed that several antimycin A analogues display antiviral activity, and mechanism of action studies confirmed that these Streptomyces-derived secondary metabolites function by inhibiting the cellular mitochondrial electron transport chain, thereby suppressing de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Furthermore, we found that antimycin A functions as a broad spectrum agent with activity against a wide range of RNA viruses in cultured cells, including members of the Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae, Picornaviridae, and Paramyxoviridae families. Finally, we demonstrate that antimycin A reduces central nervous system viral titers, improves clinical disease severity, and enhances survival in mice given a lethal challenge with western equine encephalitis virus. Our results provide conclusive validation for using natural product resources derived from marine microbes as source material for antiviral drug discovery, and they indicate that host mitochondrial electron transport is a viable

  4. Innate immune defences in the human endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Rodney W

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The human endometrium is an important site of innate immune defence, giving protection against uterine infection. Such protection is critical to successful implantation and pregnancy. Infection is a major cause of preterm birth and can also cause infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Natural anti-microbial peptides are key mediators of the innate immune system. These peptides, between them, have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-viral activity and are expressed at epithelial surfaces throughout the female genital tract. Two families of natural anti-microbials, the defensins and the whey acidic protein (WAP motif proteins, appear to be prominent in endometrium. The human endometrial epithelium expresses beta-defensins 1–4 and the WAP motif protein, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. Each beta-defensin has a different expression profile in relation to the stage of the menstrual cycle, providing potential protection throughout the cycle. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor is expressed during the secretory phase of the cycle and has a range of possible roles including anti-protease and anti-microbial activity as well as having effects on epithelial cell growth. The leukocyte populations in the endometrium are also a source of anti-microbial production. Neutrophils are a particularly rich source of alpha-defensins, lactoferrin, lysozyme and the WAP motif protein, elafin. The presence of neutrophils during menstruation will enhance anti-microbial protection at a time when the epithelial barrier is disrupted. Several other anti-microbials including the natural killer cell product, granulysin, are likely to have a role in endometrium. The sequential production of natural anti-microbial peptides by the endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle and at other sites in the female genital tract will offer protection from many pathogens, including those that are sexually transmitted.

  5. Double control systems for human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 by innate and acquired immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannagi, Mari; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kinpara, Shuichi; Shimizu, Yukiko; Takamori, Ayako; Utsunomiya, Atae

    2011-04-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative retrovirus of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HTLV-1-specific T-cell responses elicit antitumor and antiviral effects in experimental models, and are considered to be one of the most important determinants of the disease manifestation, since they are activated in HAM/TSP but not in ATL patients. The combination of low T-cell responses and elevated HTLV-1 proviral loads are features of ATL, and are also observed in a subpopulation of HTLV-1 carriers at the asymptomatic stage, suggesting that these features may be underlying risk factors. These risks may potentially be reduced by vaccination to activate HTLV-1-specific T-cell responses. HAM/TSP and ATL patients also differ in their levels of HTLV-1 mRNA expression, which are generally low in vivo but slightly higher in HAM/TSP patients. Our recent study indicated that viral expression in HTLV-1-infected T-cells is suppressed by stromal cells in culture through type-I IFNs. The suppression was reversible after isolation from the stromal cells, mimicking a long-standing puzzling phenomenon in HTLV-1 infection where the viral expression is very low in vivo and rapidly induced in vitro. Collectively, HTLV-1 is controlled by both acquired and innate immunity in vivo: HTLV-1-specific T-cells survey infected cells, and IFNs suppress viral expression. Both effects would contribute to a reduction in viral pathogenesis, although they may potentially influence or conflict with one another. The presence of double control systems for HTLV-1 infection provides a new concept for understanding the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-mediated malignant and inflammatory diseases. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  6. Evasion of Cytosolic DNA-Stimulated Innate Immune Responses by Herpes Simplex Virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunfu

    2018-03-15

    Recognition of virus-derived nucleic acids by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is crucial for early defense against viral infections. Recent studies revealed that PRRs also include several newly identified DNA sensors, most of which could activate the downstream adaptor stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and lead to the production of host antiviral factors. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is extremely successful in establishing effective infections, due to its capacity to counteract host innate antiviral responses. In this Gem, I summarize the most recent findings on the molecular mechanisms utilized by HSV-1 to target different steps of the cellular DNA-sensor-mediated antiviral signal pathway. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Depletion of elongation initiation factor 4E binding proteins by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing enhances antiviral response in porcine cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Type I interferons (IFN) are key mediators of the innate antiviral response in mammalian cells. Elongation initiation factor 4E binding proteins (4E-BPs) are translational controllers of interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7), the master regulator of IFN transcription. The role of 4EBPs in the negat...

  8. Evasion of Early Antiviral Responses by Herpes Simplex Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suazo, Paula A.; Ibañez, Francisco J.; Retamal-Díaz, Angello R.; Paz-Fiblas, Marysol V.; Bueno, Susan M.; Kalergis, Alexis M.; González, Pablo A.

    2015-01-01

    Besides overcoming physical constraints, such as extreme temperatures, reduced humidity, elevated pressure, and natural predators, human pathogens further need to overcome an arsenal of antimicrobial components evolved by the host to limit infection, replication and optimally, reinfection. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infect humans at a high frequency and persist within the host for life by establishing latency in neurons. To gain access to these cells, herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) must replicate and block immediate host antiviral responses elicited by epithelial cells and innate immune components early after infection. During these processes, infected and noninfected neighboring cells, as well as tissue-resident and patrolling immune cells, will sense viral components and cell-associated danger signals and secrete soluble mediators. While type-I interferons aim at limiting virus spread, cytokines and chemokines will modulate resident and incoming immune cells. In this paper, we discuss recent findings relative to the early steps taking place during HSV infection and replication. Further, we discuss how HSVs evade detection by host cells and the molecular mechanisms evolved by these viruses to circumvent early antiviral mechanisms, ultimately leading to neuron infection and the establishment of latency. PMID:25918478

  9. The interferon response circuit in antiviral host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, O; Weber, F

    2009-01-01

    Viruses have learned to multiply in the face of a powerful innate and adaptive immune response of the host. They have evolved multiple strategies to evade the interferon (IFN) system which would otherwise limit virus growth at an early stage of infection. IFNs induce the synthesis of a range of antiviral proteins which serve as cell-autonomous intrinsic restriction factors. For example, the dynamin-like MxA GTPase inhibits the multiplication of influenza and bunyaviruses (such as La Crosse virus, Hantaan virus, Rift Valley Fever virus, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus) by binding and sequestering the nucleocapsid protein into large perinuclear complexes. To overcome such intracellular restrictions, virulent viruses either inhibit IFN synthesis, bind and inactivate secreted IFN molecules, block IFN-activated signaling, or disturb the action of IFN-induced antiviral proteins. Many viruses produce specialized proteins to disarm the danger signal or express virulence genes that target members of the IFN regulatory factor family (IRFs) or components of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. An alternative evasion strategy is based on extreme viral replication speed which out-competes the IFN response. The identification of viral proteins with IFN antagonistic functions has great implications for disease prevention and therapy. Virus mutants lacking IFN antagonistic properties represent safe yet highly immunogenic candidate vaccines. Furthermore, novel drugs intercepting viral IFN-antagonists could be used to disarm the viral intruders.

  10. ID’ing Innate and Innate-like Lymphoid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verykokakis, Mihalis; Zook, Erin C.; Kee, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The immune system can be divided into innate and adaptive components that differ in their rate and mode of cellular activation, with innate immune cells being the first responders to invading pathogens. Recent advances in the identification and characterization of innate lymphoid cells have revealed reiterative developmental programs that result in cells with effector fates that parallel those of adaptive lymphoid cells and are tailored to effectively eliminate a broad spectrum of pathogenic challenges. However, activation of these cells can also be associated with pathologies such as autoimmune disease. One major distinction between innate and adaptive immune system cells is the constitutive expression of ID proteins in the former and inducible expression in the latter. ID proteins function as antagonists of the E protein transcription factors that play critical roles in lymphoid specification as well as B and T-lymphocyte development. In this review, we examine the transcriptional mechanisms controlling the development of innate lymphocytes, including natural killer cells and the recently identified innate lymphoid cells (ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3), and innate-like lymphocytes, including natural killer T cells, with an emphasis on the known requirements for the ID proteins. PMID:25123285

  11. ID'ing innate and innate-like lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verykokakis, Mihalis; Zook, Erin C; Kee, Barbara L

    2014-09-01

    The immune system can be divided into innate and adaptive components that differ in their rate and mode of cellular activation, with innate immune cells being the first responders to invading pathogens. Recent advances in the identification and characterization of innate lymphoid cells have revealed reiterative developmental programs that result in cells with effector fates that parallel those of adaptive lymphoid cells and are tailored to effectively eliminate a broad spectrum of pathogenic challenges. However, activation of these cells can also be associated with pathologies such as autoimmune disease. One major distinction between innate and adaptive immune system cells is the constitutive expression of ID proteins in the former and inducible expression in the latter. ID proteins function as antagonists of the E protein transcription factors that play critical roles in lymphoid specification as well as B- and T-lymphocyte development. In this review, we examine the transcriptional mechanisms controlling the development of innate lymphocytes, including natural killer cells and the recently identified innate lymphoid cells (ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3), and innate-like lymphocytes, including natural killer T cells, with an emphasis on the known requirements for the ID proteins. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. IFN-λ and microRNAs are important modulators of the pulmonary innate immune response against influenza A (H1N2) infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Louise; Larsen, Lars E.; Heegaard, Peter Mikael Helweg

    2018-01-01

    the expression of miRNAs and protein coding genes in the lungs of pigs 1, 3, and 14 days after challenge with swine IAV (H1N2). Through RT-qPCR we observed a 400-fold relative increase in IFN-lambda 3 gene expression on day 1 after challenge, and a strong interferon-mediated antiviral response was observed......The innate immune system is paramount in the response to and clearance of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in non-immune individuals. Known factors include type I and III interferons and antiviral pathogen recognition receptors, and the cascades of antiviral and pro- and anti-inflammatory gene...

  13. Glycoconjugates as elicitors or suppressors of plant innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silipo, Alba; Erbs, Gitte; Shinya, Tomonori

    2010-01-01

    Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading microorganisms in vertebrates and the only line of defense in invertebrates and plants. Bacterial glyco-conjugates, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and peptidoglycan (PGN) from the cell...... walls of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and fungal and oomycete glycoconjugates such as oligosaccharides derived from the cell wall components ß-glucan, chitin and chitosan, have been found to act as elicitors of plant innate immunity. These conserved indispensable microbe......-specific molecules are also referred to as microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Other glyco-conjugates such as bacterial extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and cyclic glucan have been shown to suppress innate immune responses, thus conversely promoting pathogenesis. MAMPs are recognized by the plant...

  14. Regulation of the Host Antiviral State by Intercellular Communications

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    Sonia Assil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Viruses usually induce a profound remodeling of host cells, including the usurpation of host machinery to support their replication and production of virions to invade new cells. Nonetheless, recognition of viruses by the host often triggers innate immune signaling, preventing viral spread and modulating the function of immune cells. It conventionally occurs through production of antiviral factors and cytokines by infected cells. Virtually all viruses have evolved mechanisms to blunt such responses. Importantly, it is becoming increasingly recognized that infected cells also transmit signals to regulate innate immunity in uninfected neighboring cells. These alternative pathways are notably mediated by vesicular secretion of various virus- and host-derived products (miRNAs, RNAs, and proteins and non-infectious viral particles. In this review, we focus on these newly-described modes of cell-to-cell communications and their impact on neighboring cell functions. The reception of these signals can have anti- and pro-viral impacts, as well as more complex effects in the host such as oncogenesis and inflammation. Therefore, these “broadcasting” functions, which might be tuned by an arms race involving selective evolution driven by either the host or the virus, constitute novel and original regulations of viral infection, either highly localized or systemic.

  15. Anti-viral RNA silencing: do we look like plants ?

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    Lecellier Charles-Henri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The anti-viral function of RNA silencing was first discovered in plants as a natural manifestation of the artificial 'co-suppression', which refers to the extinction of endogenous gene induced by homologous transgene. Because silencing components are conserved among most, if not all, eukaryotes, the question rapidly arose as to determine whether this process fulfils anti-viral functions in animals, such as insects and mammals. It appears that, whereas the anti-viral process seems to be similarly conserved from plants to insects, even in worms, RNA silencing does influence the replication of mammalian viruses but in a particular mode: micro(miRNAs, endogenous small RNAs naturally implicated in translational control, rather than virus-derived small interfering (siRNAs like in other organisms, are involved. In fact, these recent studies even suggest that RNA silencing may be beneficial for viral replication. Accordingly, several large DNA mammalian viruses have been shown to encode their own miRNAs. Here, we summarize the seminal studies that have implicated RNA silencing in viral infection and compare the different eukaryotic responses.

  16. Efficacy of Antiviral Drugs against Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

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    Katrin Hartmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is one of the most common infectious agents affecting cats worldwide .FIV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV share many properties: both are lifelong persistent lentiviruses that are similar genetically and morphologically and both viruses propagate in T-lymphocytes, macrophages, and neural cells. Experimentally infected cats have measurable immune suppression, which sometimes progresses to an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A transient initial state of infection is followed by a long latent stage with low virus replication and absence of clinical signs. In the terminal stage, both viruses can cause severe immunosuppression. Thus, FIV infection in cats has become an important natural model for studying HIV infection in humans, especially for evaluation of antiviral compounds. Of particular importance for chemotherapeutic studies is the close similarity between the reverse transcriptase (RT of FIV and HIV, which results in high in vitro susceptibility of FIV to many RT-targeted antiviral compounds used in the treatment of HIV-infected patients. Thus, the aim of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of studies on antiviral treatment of FIV, focusing on commercially available compounds for human or animal use.

  17. Viral Inhibition of PRR-Mediated Innate Immune Response: Learning from KSHV Evasion Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Ra; Choi, Un Yung; Hwang, Sung-Woo; Kim, Stephanie; Jung, Jae U

    2016-11-30

    The innate immune system has evolved to detect and destroy invading pathogens before they can establish systemic infection. To successfully eradicate pathogens, including viruses, host innate immunity is activated through diverse pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) which detect conserved viral signatures and trigger the production of type I interferon (IFN) and pro-inflammatory cytokines to mediate viral clearance. Viral persistence requires that viruses co-opt cellular pathways and activities for their benefit. In particular, due to the potent antiviral activities of IFN and cytokines, viruses have developed various strategies to meticulously modulate intracellular innate immune sensing mechanisms to facilitate efficient viral replication and persistence. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the study of viral immune evasion strategies with a specific focus on how Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) effectively targets host PRR signaling pathways.

  18. Enhancement of antiviral activity of collectin trimers through cross-linking and mutagenesis of the carbohydrate recognition domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Mitchell R; Boland, Patrick; Tecle, Tesfaldet

    2010-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays important roles in innate defense against respiratory viruses [including influenza A viruses (IAVs)]. Truncated trimers composed of its neck and carbohydrate recognition domains (NCRDs) bind various ligands; however, they have minimal inhibitory activity for IAV......., complementary strategies, namely cross-linking of NCRDs through various means and mutagenesis of CRD residues to increase viral binding. These findings may be relevant for antiviral therapy....

  19. Why Innate Lymphoid Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotas, Maya E; Locksley, Richard M

    2018-06-19

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are positioned in tissues perinatally, constitutively express receptors responsive to their organ microenvironments, and perform an arsenal of effector functions that overlap those of adaptive CD4 + T cells. Based on knowledge regarding subsets of invariant-like lymphocytes (e.g., natural killer T [NKT] cells, γδ T cells, mucosal-associated invariant T [MAIT] cells, etc.) and fetally derived macrophages, we hypothesize that immune cells established during the perinatal period-including, but not limited to, ILCs-serve intimate roles in tissue that go beyond classical understanding of the immune system in microbial host defense. In this Perspective, we propose mechanisms by which the establishment of ILCs and the tissue lymphoid niche during early development may have consequences much later in life. Although definitive answers require better tools, efforts to achieve deeper understanding of ILC biology across the mammalian lifespan have the potential to lift the veil on the unknown breadth of immune cell functions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Coxsackievirus cloverleaf RNA containing a 5' triphosphate triggers an antiviral response via RIG-I activation.

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    Qian Feng

    Full Text Available Upon viral infections, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and stimulate an antiviral state associated with the production of type I interferons (IFNs and inflammatory markers. Type I IFNs play crucial roles in innate antiviral responses by inducing expression of interferon-stimulated genes and by activating components of the adaptive immune system. Although pegylated IFNs have been used to treat hepatitis B and C virus infections for decades, they exert substantial side effects that limit their use. Current efforts are directed toward the use of PRR agonists as an alternative approach to elicit host antiviral responses in a manner similar to that achieved in a natural infection. RIG-I is a cytosolic PRR that recognizes 5' triphosphate (5'ppp-containing RNA ligands. Due to its ubiquitous expression profile, induction of the RIG-I pathway provides a promising platform for the development of novel antiviral agents and vaccine adjuvants. In this study, we investigated whether structured RNA elements in the genome of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3, a picornavirus that is recognized by MDA5 during infection, could activate RIG-I when supplied with 5'ppp. We show here that a 5'ppp-containing cloverleaf (CL RNA structure is a potent RIG-I inducer that elicits an extensive antiviral response that includes induction of classical interferon-stimulated genes, as well as type III IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In addition, we show that prophylactic treatment with CVB3 CL provides protection against various viral infections including dengue virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and enterovirus 71, demonstrating the antiviral efficacy of this RNA ligand.

  1. Innate lymphoid cells and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sanhong; Kim, Hye Young; Chang, Ya-Jen; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H; Umetsu, Dale T

    2014-04-01

    Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease with several phenotypes, including an allergic asthma phenotype characterized by TH2 cytokine production and associated with allergen sensitization and adaptive immunity. Asthma also includes nonallergic asthma phenotypes, such as asthma associated with exposure to air pollution, infection, or obesity, that require innate rather than adaptive immunity. These innate pathways that lead to asthma involve macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer T cells, and innate lymphoid cells, newly described cell types that produce a variety of cytokines, including IL-5 and IL-13. We review the recent data regarding innate lymphoid cells and their role in asthma. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lab-Attenuated Rabies Virus Causes Abortive Infection and Induces Cytokine Expression in Astrocytes by Activating Mitochondrial Antiviral-Signaling Protein Signaling Pathway

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    Bin Tian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is an ancient disease but remains endemic in most parts of the world and causes approximately 59,000 deaths annually. The mechanism through which the causative agent, rabies virus (RABV, evades the host immune response and infects the host central nervous system (CNS has not been completely elucidated thus far. Our previous studies have shown that lab-attenuated, but not wild-type (wt, RABV activates the innate immune response in the mouse and dog models. In this present study, we demonstrate that lab-attenuated RABV causes abortive infection in astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the CNS. Furthermore, we found that lab-attenuated RABV produces more double-stranded RNA (dsRNA than wt RABV, which is recognized by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I or melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5. Activation of mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, the common adaptor molecule for RIG-I and MDA5, results in the production of type I interferon (IFN and the expression of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes, which suppress RABV replication and spread in astrocytes. Notably, lab-attenuated RABV replicates in a manner identical to that of wt RABV in MAVS−/− astrocytes. It was also found that lab-attenuated, but not wt, RABV induces the expression of inflammatory cytokines via the MAVS- p38/NF-κB signaling pathway. These inflammatory cytokines increase the blood–brain barrier permeability and thus enable immune cells and antibodies infiltrate the CNS parenchyma, resulting in RABV control and elimination. In contrast, wt RABV restricts dsRNA production and thus evades innate recognition by RIG-I/MDA5 in astrocytes, which could be one of the mechanisms by which wt RABV evades the host immune response in resident CNS cells. Our findings suggest that astrocytes play a critical role in limiting the replication of lab-attenuated RABV in the CNS.

  3. A Role for PML in Innate Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardi, Andrea; Gaboli, Mirella; Giorgio, Marco; Rivi, Roberta; Bygrave, Anne; Antoniou, Michael; Drabek, Dubravka; Dzierzak, Elaine; Fagioli, Marta; Salmena, Leonardo; Botto, Marina; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Luzzatto, Lucio; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Grosveld, Frank; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The promyelocytic leukemia gene (PML) of acute promyelocytic leukemia is an established tumor suppressor gene with critical functions in growth suppression, induction of apoptosis, and cellular senescence. Interestingly, although less studied, PML seems to play a key role also in immune response to viral infection. Herein, we report that Pml −/− mice spontaneously develop an atypical invasive and lethal granulomatous lesion known as botryomycosis (BTM). In Pml −/− mice, BTM is the result of impaired function of macrophages, whereby they fail to become activated and are thus unable to clear pathogenic microorganisms. Accordingly, Pml −/− mice are resistant to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–induced septic shock as a result of an ineffective production of cytokines and chemokines, suggesting a role for PML in the innate immune Toll-like receptor (TLR)/NF-κB prosurvival pathway. These results not only shed light on a new fundamental function of PML in innate immunity, but they also point to a proto-oncogenic role for PML in certain cellular and pathological contexts. PMID:21779477

  4. What You Should Know about Flu Antiviral Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other What You Should Know About Flu Antiviral Drugs Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... used to treat flu illness. What are antiviral drugs? Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines (pills, liquid, an ...

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Targeting the Host Antiviral Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Pulido, Miguel; Sáiz, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of an acute vesicular disease affecting pigs, cattle and other domestic, and wild animals worldwide. The aim of the host interferon (IFN) response is to limit viral replication and spread. Detection of the viral genome and products by specialized cellular sensors initiates a signaling cascade that leads to a rapid antiviral response involving the secretion of type I- and type III-IFNs and other antiviral cytokines with antiproliferative and immunomodulatory functions. During co-evolution with their hosts, viruses have acquired strategies to actively counteract host antiviral responses and the balance between innate response and viral antagonism may determine the outcome of disease and pathogenesis. FMDV proteases Lpro and 3C have been found to antagonize the host IFN response by a repertoire of mechanisms. Moreover, the putative role of other viral proteins in IFN antagonism is being recently unveiled, uncovering sophisticated immune evasion strategies different to those reported to date for other members of the Picornaviridae family. Here, we review the interplay between antiviral responses induced by FMDV infection and viral countermeasures to block them. Research on strategies used by viruses to modulate immunity will provide insights into the function of host pathways involved in defense against pathogens and will also lead to development of new therapeutic strategies to fight virus infections.

  6. Negative regulation of RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling by TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Na-Rae; Shin, Han-Bo; Kim, Hye-In; Choi, Myung-Soo; Inn, Kyung-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •TRK-fused gene product (TFG) interacts with TRIM25 upon viral infection. •TFG negatively regulates RIG-I mediated antiviral signaling. •TFG depletion leads to enhanced viral replication. •TFG act downstream of MAVS. -- Abstract: RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I)-mediated antiviral signaling serves as the first line of defense against viral infection. Upon detection of viral RNA, RIG-I undergoes TRIM25 (tripartite motif protein 25)-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to type I interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we demonstrate that TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein, previously identified as a TRIM25-interacting protein, binds TRIM25 upon virus infection and negatively regulates RIG-I-mediated type-I IFN signaling. RIG-I-mediated IFN production and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways were upregulated by the suppression of TFG expression. Furthermore, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication was significantly inhibited by small inhibitory hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of TFG, supporting the suppressive role of TFG in RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling. Interestingly, suppression of TFG expression increased not only RIG-I-mediated signaling but also MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein)-induced signaling, suggesting that TFG plays a pivotal role in negative regulation of RNA-sensing, RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family signaling pathways

  7. New pathogenic viruses and novel antiviral drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Ben; Eggink, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The journal Antiviral Research was conceived and born in 1980, and launched in 1981, a time when very few antiviral drugs were around. This 30-year celebration meeting was convened by the publisher Elsevier and chaired by Eric de Clercq (Leuven University), who has acted as editor-in-chief for the

  8. Hepatitis C Virus and Antiviral Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungtaek; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Ahn, Sang Hoon

    2016-11-15

    Since its discovery in 1989, hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been intensively investigated to understand its biology and develop effective antiviral therapies. The efforts of the previous 25 years have resulted in a better understanding of the virus, and this was facilitated by the development of in vitro cell culture systems for HCV replication. Antiviral treatments and sustained virological responses have also improved from the early interferon monotherapy to the current all-oral regimens using direct-acting antivirals. However, antiviral resistance has become a critical issue in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, similar to other chronic viral infections, and retreatment options following treatment failure have become important questions. Despite the clinical challenges in the management of chronic hepatitis C, substantial progress has been made in understanding HCV, which may facilitate the investigation of other closely related flaviviruses and lead to the development of antiviral agents against these human pathogens.

  9. Trappin-2/elafin modulate innate immune responses of human endometrial epithelial cells to PolyI:C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna G Drannik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Upon viral recognition, innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses are initiated by genital epithelial cells (ECs to eradicate or contain viral infection. Such responses, however, are often accompanied by inflammation that contributes to acquisition and progression of sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Hence, interventions/factors enhancing antiviral protection while reducing inflammation may prove beneficial in controlling the spread of STIs. Serine antiprotease trappin-2 (Tr and its cleaved form, elafin (E, are alarm antimicrobials secreted by multiple cells, including genital epithelia. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated whether and how each Tr and E (Tr/E contribute to antiviral defenses against a synthetic mimic of viral dsRNA, polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C and vesicular stomatitis virus. We show that delivery of a replication-deficient adenovector expressing Tr gene (Ad/Tr to human endometrial epithelial cells, HEC-1A, resulted in secretion of functional Tr, whereas both Tr/E were detected in response to polyI:C. Moreover, Tr/E were found to significantly reduce viral replication by either acting directly on virus or through enhancing polyI:C-driven antiviral protection. The latter was associated with reduced levels of pro-inflammatory factors IL-8, IL-6, TNFα, lowered expression of RIG-I, MDA5 and attenuated NF-κB activation. Interestingly, enhanced polyI:C-driven antiviral protection of HEC-Ad/Tr cells was partially mediated through IRF3 activation, but not associated with higher induction of IFNβ, suggesting multiple antiviral mechanisms of Tr/E and the involvement of alternative factors or pathways. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first evidence of both Tr/E altering viral binding/entry, innate recognition and mounting of antiviral and inflammatory responses in genital ECs that could have significant implications for homeostasis of the female genital tract.

  10. RIG-I Like Receptors in Antiviral Immunity and Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gale Jr.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The RNA helicase family of RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs is a key component of host defense mechanisms responsible for detecting viruses and triggering innate immune signaling cascades to control viral replication and dissemination. As cytoplasm-based sensors, RLRs recognize foreign RNA in the cell and activate a cascade of antiviral responses including the induction of type I interferons, inflammasome activation, and expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. This review provides a brief overview of RLR function, ligand interactions, and downstream signaling events with an expanded discussion on the therapeutic potential of targeting RLRs for immune stimulation and treatment of virus infection.

  11. Virus-encoded chemokine receptors--putative novel antiviral drug targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Mette M

    2005-01-01

    Large DNA viruses, in particular herpes- and poxviruses, have evolved proteins that serve as mimics or decoys for endogenous proteins in the host. The chemokines and their receptors serve key functions in both innate and adaptive immunity through control of leukocyte trafficking, and have...... receptors belong to the superfamily of G-protein coupled 7TM receptors that per se are excellent drug targets. At present, non-peptide antagonists have been developed against many chemokine receptors. The potentials of the virus-encoded chemokine receptors as drug targets--ie. as novel antiviral strategies...

  12. Innate ideas in Islamic philosophy

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    Halilović Tehran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The human soul is the subject of debates in numerous scientific disciplines. Philosophical considerations encompass a special dimension of the human soul that is related to ontological truths. Among different philosophical questions raised regarding the human soul, the issue of innate ideas particularly stands out. Well-known points of disagreement between Plato and Aristotle regarding this question are usually focused on whether a person possesses knowledge and thoughts from their creation, i.e. birth, or they acquire them through time and experience. With the appearance of Cartesian scepticism and following the solutions Descartes offered for the problem of certain knowledge, the issue of innate ideas has remained the focal question for many prominent philosophers. In the Islamic philosophy, the rational explanation of the nature of innate ideas originates from the more comprehensive theory of the human soul and it states that a person, according to their nature, possesses already existent cognitive abilities they were born with. Innate cognitive abilities discussed in the Islamic philosophy do not refer just to theoretical, but to practical knowledge, as well. Therefore, the analysis of innate ideas in the works of Muslim philosophers is connected to a larger number of scientific disciplines than when it comes to most Western philosophers. The difference between the practical and theoretic intellect will serve as a cognitive basis for defining another aspect of innate ideas. The products of a practical intellect, the human will and his actions, are personal and particular and, therefore, can be connected to the everyday life of a person. Owing to the general presence of the practical intellect in all life spheres, the influence of innate ideas, which are determined in a human being, is recognizable in all most detailed moments of their life.

  13. Identification of innate immunodeficiencies by whole genome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Trine; Christiansen, Mette; Veirum, Jens Erik

    2014-01-01

    encephalitis or other herpes simplex virus (HSV) disease manifestations. The goal is to identify host factors in innate immunity which may explain the hitherto unknown mechanism underlying differential susceptibility to HSV infections between individuals. Such knowledge may have clinical and therapeutical...... implications. Methods: As part of a pilot study we performed WES on 4 patients with herpes encephalitis or mucocutaneous manifestations of HSV infection. WES was performed with Illumina technology (Illumina HiSeq/MiSeq) and analyzed PolyPhen-2 (Polymorphism Phenotyping v2) PhyloP, and SIFT prediction software......, TBK1 and Unc93B) may contribute to the development of herpes encephalitis. Common to these genetic defects is that they lead to reduced antiviral interferon (IFN) responses. In this study whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed to identify mutations associated with susceptibility to herpes...

  14. Current Landscape of Antiviral Drug Discovery [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade Blair

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Continued discovery and development of new antiviral medications are paramount for global human health, particularly as new pathogens emerge and old ones evolve to evade current therapeutic agents. Great success has been achieved in developing effective therapies to suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV; however, the therapies are not curative and therefore current efforts in HIV and HBV drug discovery are directed toward longer-acting therapies and/or developing new mechanisms of action that could potentially lead to cure, or eradication, of the virus. Recently, exciting early clinical data have been reported for novel antivirals targeting respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and influenza (flu. Preclinical data suggest that these new approaches may be effective in treating high-risk patients afflicted with serious RSV or flu infections. In this review, we highlight new directions in antiviral approaches for HIV, HBV, and acute respiratory virus infections.

  15. Viral Response to Specifically Targeted Antiviral Therapy for Hepatitis C and the Implications for Treatment Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis L Cooper

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, hepatitis C virus (HCV antiviral therapy is characterized by long duration, a multitude of side effects, difficult administration and suboptimal success; clearly, alternatives are needed. Collectively, specifically targeted antiviral therapy for HCV (STAT-C molecules achieve rapid viral suppression and very high rapid virological response rates, and improve sustained virological response rates. The attrition rate of agents within this class has been high due to various toxicities. Regardless, several STAT-C molecules are poised to become the standard of care for HCV treatment in the foreseeable future. Optimism must be tempered with concerns related to the rapid development of drug resistance with resulting HCV rebound. Strategies including induction dosing with interferon and ribavirin, use of combination high-potency STAT-C molecules and an intensive emphasis on adherence to HCV antiviral therapy will be critical to the success of this promising advance in HCV therapy.

  16. Alcohol, aging, and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boule, Lisbeth A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2017-07-01

    The global population is aging: in 2010, 8% of the population was older than 65 y, and that is expected to double to 16% by 2050. With advanced age comes a heightened prevalence of chronic diseases. Moreover, elderly humans fair worse after acute diseases, namely infection, leading to higher rates of infection-mediated mortality. Advanced age alters many aspects of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, leading to impaired responses to primary infection and poor development of immunologic memory. An often overlooked, yet increasingly common, behavior in older individuals is alcohol consumption. In fact, it has been estimated that >40% of older adults consume alcohol, and evidence reveals that >10% of this group is drinking more than the recommended limit by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol consumption, at any level, alters host immune responses, including changes in the number, phenotype, and function of innate and adaptive immune cells. Thus, understanding the effect of alcohol ingestion on the immune system of older individuals, who are already less capable of combating infection, merits further study. However, there is currently almost nothing known about how drinking alters innate immunity in older subjects, despite innate immune cells being critical for host defense, resolution of inflammation, and maintenance of immune homeostasis. Here, we review the effects of aging and alcohol consumption on innate immune cells independently and highlight the few studies that have examined the effects of alcohol ingestion in aged individuals. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  17. Epstein-Barr virus large tegument protein BPLF1 contributes to innate immune evasion through interference with toll-like receptor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Gent

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Viral infection triggers an early host response through activation of pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLR. TLR signaling cascades induce production of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines involved in establishing an anti-viral state as well as in orchestrating ensuing adaptive immunity. To allow infection, replication, and persistence, (herpesviruses employ ingenious strategies to evade host immunity. The human gamma-herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a large, enveloped DNA virus persistently carried by more than 90% of adults worldwide. It is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with several malignant tumors. EBV activates TLRs, including TLR2, TLR3, and TLR9. Interestingly, both the expression of and signaling by TLRs is attenuated during productive EBV infection. Ubiquitination plays an important role in regulating TLR signaling and is controlled by ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases (DUBs. The EBV genome encodes three proteins reported to exert in vitro deubiquitinase activity. Using active site-directed probes, we show that one of these putative DUBs, the conserved herpesvirus large tegument protein BPLF1, acts as a functional DUB in EBV-producing B cells. The BPLF1 enzyme is expressed during the late phase of lytic EBV infection and is incorporated into viral particles. The N-terminal part of the large BPLF1 protein contains the catalytic site for DUB activity and suppresses TLR-mediated activation of NF-κB at, or downstream of, the TRAF6 signaling intermediate. A catalytically inactive mutant of this EBV protein did not reduce NF-κB activation, indicating that DUB activity is essential for attenuating TLR signal transduction. Our combined results show that EBV employs deubiquitination of signaling intermediates in the TLR cascade as a mechanism to counteract innate anti-viral immunity of infected hosts.

  18. Topoisomerase 1 Inhibition Promotes Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase-Dependent Antiviral Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pépin, Geneviève; Nejad, Charlotte; Ferrand, Jonathan; Thomas, Belinda J; Stunden, H James; Sanij, Elaine; Foo, Chwan-Hong; Stewart, Cameron R; Cain, Jason E; Bardin, Philip G; Williams, Bryan R G; Gantier, Michael P

    2017-10-03

    Inflammatory responses, while essential for pathogen clearance, can also be deleterious to the host. Chemical inhibition of topoisomerase 1 (Top1) by low-dose camptothecin (CPT) can suppress transcriptional induction of antiviral and inflammatory genes and protect animals from excessive and damaging inflammatory responses. We describe the unexpected finding that minor DNA damage from topoisomerase 1 inhibition with low-dose CPT can trigger a strong antiviral immune response through cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) detection of cytoplasmic DNA. This argues against CPT having only anti-inflammatory activity. Furthermore, expression of the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen was paramount to the proinflammatory antiviral activity of CPT, as it potentiated cytoplasmic DNA leakage and subsequent cGAS recruitment in human and mouse cell lines. This work suggests that the capacity of Top1 inhibitors to blunt inflammatory responses can be counteracted by viral oncogenes and that this should be taken into account for their therapeutic development. IMPORTANCE Recent studies suggest that low-dose DNA-damaging compounds traditionally used in cancer therapy can have opposite effects on antiviral responses, either suppressing (with the example of CPT) or potentiating (with the example of doxorubicin) them. Our work demonstrates that the minor DNA damage promoted by low-dose CPT can also trigger strong antiviral responses, dependent on the presence of viral oncogenes. Taken together, these results call for caution in the therapeutic use of low-dose chemotherapy agents to modulate antiviral responses in humans. Copyright © 2017 Pépin et al.

  19. Pan-viral specificity of IFN-induced genes reveals new roles for cGAS in innate immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoggins, John W.; MacDuff, Donna A.; Imanaka, Naoko; Gainey, Maria D.; Shrestha, Bimmi; Eitson, Jennifer L.; Mar, Katrina B.; Richardson, R. Blake; Ratushny, Alexander V.; Litvak, Vladimir; Dabelic, Rea; Manicassamy, Balaji; Aitchison, John D.; Aderem, Alan; Elliott, Richard M.; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Racaniello, Vincent; Snijder, Eric J.; Yokoyama, Wayne M.; Diamond, Michael S.; Virgin, Herbert W.; Rice, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    The type I interferon (IFN) response protects cells from viral infection by inducing hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), some of which encode direct antiviral effectors. Recent screening studies have begun to catalogue ISGs with antiviral activity against several RNA and DNA viruses. However, antiviral ISG specificity across multiple distinct classes of viruses remains largely unexplored. Here we used an ectopic expression assay to screen a library of more than 350 human ISGs for effects on 14 viruses representing 7 families and 11 genera. We show that 47 genes inhibit one or more viruses, and 25 genes enhance virus infectivity. Comparative analysis reveals that the screened ISGs target positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses more effectively than negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. Gene clustering highlights the cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS, also known as MB21D1) as a gene whose expression also broadly inhibits several RNA viruses. In vitro, lentiviral delivery of enzymatically active cGAS triggers a STING-dependent, IRF3-mediated antiviral program that functions independently of canonical IFN/STAT1 signalling. In vivo, genetic ablation of murine cGAS reveals its requirement in the antiviral response to two DNA viruses, and an unappreciated contribution to the innate control of an RNA virus. These studies uncover new paradigms for the preferential specificity of IFN-mediated antiviral pathways spanning several virus families.

  20. The Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Constantinides, Michael G; Gudjonson, Herman; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-05-20

    The discovery of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cell populations effecting different forms of type 1, 2, and 3 immunity; tissue repair; and immune regulation has transformed our understanding of mucosal immunity and allergy. The emerging complexity of these populations along with compounding issues of redundancy and plasticity raise intriguing questions about their precise lineage relationship. Here we review advances in mapping the emergence of these lineages from early lymphoid precursors. We discuss the identification of a common innate lymphoid cell precursor characterized by transient expression of the transcription factor PLZF, and the lineage relationships of innate lymphoid cells with conventional natural killer cells and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. We also review the rapidly growing understanding of the network of transcription factors that direct the development of these lineages.

  1. SOME ASPECTS OF THE MARKETING STUDIES FOR THE PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET OF ANTIVIRAL DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Salnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiviral drugs are widely used in medicinal practice. They suppress the originator and stimulate the protection of an organism. The drugs are used for the treatment of flu and ARVI, herpetic infections, virus hepatitis, HIV-infection. Contemporary pharmaceutical market is represented by a wide range of antiviral drugs. Marketing studies are conducted to develop strategies, used for the enhancement of pharmacy organization activity efficiency. Conduction of the marketing researches of pharmaceutical market is the purpose of this study. We have used State Registry of Drugs, State Record of Drugs, List of vital drugs, questionnaires of pharmaceutical workers during our work. Historical, sociological, mathematical methods, and a method of expert evaluation were used in the paper. As the result of the study we have made the following conclusions. We have studied and generalized the literature data about classification and application of antiviral drugs, marketing, competition. The assortment of antiviral drugs on the pharmaceutical market of the Russian Federation was also studied. We have conducted an analysis for the obtainment of the information about antiviral drugs by pharmaceutical workers. We have determined the competitiveness of antiviral drugs, and on the basis of the research conducted we have submitted an offer for pharmaceutical organizations to form the range of antiviral drugs.

  2. Attenuated Innate Immunity in Embryonic Stem Cells and Its Implications in Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-Lin; Carmichael, Gordon G; Wang, Ruoxing; Hong, Xiaoxiao; Acharya, Dhiraj; Huang, Faqing; Bai, Fengwei

    2015-11-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) represent a promising cell source for regenerative medicine. Intensive research over the past 2 decades has led to the feasibility of using ESC-differentiated cells (ESC-DCs) in regenerative medicine. However, increasing evidence indicates that ESC-DCs generated by current differentiation methods may not have equivalent cellular functions to their in vivo counterparts. Recent studies have revealed that both human and mouse ESCs as well as some types of ESC-DCs lack or have attenuated innate immune responses to a wide range of infectious agents. These findings raise important concerns for their therapeutic applications since ESC-DCs, when implanted to a wound site of a patient, where they would likely be exposed to pathogens and inflammatory cytokines. Understanding whether an attenuated immune response is beneficial or harmful to the interaction between host and grafted cells becomes an important issue for ESC-based therapy. A substantial amount of recent evidence has demonstrated that the lack of innate antiviral responses is a common feature to ESCs and other types of pluripotent cells. This has led to the hypothesis that mammals may have adapted different antiviral mechanisms at different stages of organismal development. The underdeveloped innate immunity represents a unique and uncharacterized property of ESCs that may have important implications in developmental biology, immunology, and in regenerative medicine. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  3. Viruses and Antiviral Immunity in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Cherry, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Viral pathogens present many challenges to organisms, driving the evolution of a myriad of antiviral strategies to combat infections. A wide variety of viruses infect invertebrates, including both natural pathogens that are insect-restricted, and viruses that are transmitted to vertebrates. Studies using the powerful tools available in the model organism Drosophila have expanded our understanding of antiviral defenses against diverse viruses. In this review, we will cover three major areas. First, we will describe the tools used to study viruses in Drosophila. Second, we will survey the major viruses that have been studied in Drosophila. And lastly, we will discuss the well-characterized mechanisms that are active against these diverse pathogens, focusing on non-RNAi mediated antiviral mechanisms. Antiviral RNAi is discussed in another paper in this issue. PMID:23680639

  4. Antiviral lead compounds from marine sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil; Kaur, Mandeep; Minneman, Kenneth P.

    2010-01-01

    ). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due

  5. Nanoparticulate delivery systems for antiviral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, David; Cavalli, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    Nanomedicine opens new therapeutic avenues for attacking viral diseases and for improving treatment success rates. Nanoparticulate-based systems might change the release kinetics of antivirals, increase their bioavailability, improve their efficacy, restrict adverse drug side effects and reduce treatment costs. Moreover, they could permit the delivery of antiviral drugs to specific target sites and viral reservoirs in the body. These features are particularly relevant in viral diseases where high drug doses are needed, drugs are expensive and the success of a therapy is associated with a patient's adherence to the administration protocol. This review presents the current status in the emerging area of nanoparticulate delivery systems in antiviral therapy, providing their definition and description, and highlighting some peculiar features. The paper closes with a discussion on the future challenges that must be addressed before the potential of nanotechnology can be translated into safe and effective antiviral formulations for clinical use.

  6. DMPD: Triggering the innate antiviral response through IRF-3 activation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l) CSML File (.csml) Open .csml file with CIOPlayer Open .csml file with CIOPlayer - ※CIO Playerのご利用上の注意 Open .csml file with CIO Open .csml file with CIO - ※CIOのご利用上の注意 ...

  7. Opinion: Interactions of innate and adaptive lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, Georg; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) cells and the recently discovered innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have crucial roles during infection, tissue injury and inflammation. Innate signals regulate the activation and homeostasis of innate lymphocytes. Less well understood is the contribution of the adaptive immune system to the orchestration of innate lymphocyte responses. We review our current understanding of the interactions between adaptive and innate lymphocytes, and propose a model in which adaptive T cells function as antigen-specific sensors for the activation of innate lymphocytes to amplify and instruct local immune responses. We highlight the potential role of regulatory and helper T cells in these processes and discuss major questions in the emerging area of crosstalk between adaptive and innate lymphocytes. PMID:25132095

  8. Antiviral Effects of Saffron and its Major Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Sepehr; Zabihollahi, Rezvan; Shahbazi, Sepideh; Bolhassani, Azam

    2018-01-01

    The lack of an effective vaccine against viral infections, toxicity of the synthetic anti-viral drugs and the generation of resistant viral strains led to discover novel inhibitors. Recently, saffron and its compounds were used to treat different pathological conditions. In this study, we tested the anti-HSV-1 and anti-HIV-1 activities of Iranian saffron extract and its major ingredients including crocin and picrocrocin as well as cytotoxicity in vitro. The data showed that the aqueous saffron extract was not active against HIV-1 and HSV-1 virions at certain doses (i.e., a mild activity), but crocin and picrocrocin indicated significant anti-HSV-1 and also anti-HIV-1 activities. Crocin inhibited the HSV replication at before and after entry of virions into Vero cells. Indeed, crocin carotenoid suppressed HSV penetration in the target cells as well as disturbed virus replication after entry into the cells. Picrocrocin was also effective for inhibiting virus entry and also its replication. This monoterpen aldehyde showed higher anti-HSV effects after virus penetrating in the cells. Generally, these sugar-containing compounds extracted from saffron showed to be effective antiherpetic drug candidates. The recent study is the first report suggesting antiviral activities for saffron extract and its major ingredients. Crocin and picrocrocin could be a promising anti-HSV and anti-HIV agent for herbal therapy against viral infections. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. New antivirals for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Vincent; Barreiro, Pablo; Benitez, Laura; Peña, Jose M; de Mendoza, Carmen

    2017-07-01

    Current treatment with oral nucleos(t)ides entecavir or tenofovir provide sustained suppression of HBV replication and clinical benefit in most chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected persons. However, HBV rebound generally occurs upon drug discontinuation due to persistence of genomic HBV reservoirs as episomic cccDNA and chromosomic integrated HBV-DNA. There is renewed enthusiasm on HBV drug discovery following recent successes with antivirals for hepatitis C and immunotherapies for some cancers. Areas covered: New drugs that target distinct steps of the HBV life cycle are been developed, including inhibitors of viral entry, new polymerase inhibitors, capsid and assembly inhibitors, virus release blockers, and disruptors of cccDNA formation and transcription. Alongside these antivirals, agents that enhance anti-HBV specific immune responses are being tested, including TLR agonists, checkpoint inhibitors and therapeutic vaccines. Expert opinion: The achievement of a 'functional cure' for chronic HBV infection, with sustained HBsAg clearance and undetectable viremia once medications are stopped, represents the next step in the pace towards HBV elimination. Hopefully, the combination of new drugs that eliminate or functionally inactivate the genomic HBV reservoirs (cccDNA and integrated HBV-DNA) along with agents that enhance or activate immune responses against HBV will lead to a 'definitive cure' for chronic HBV infection.

  10. Estrogen mediates innate and adaptive immune alterations to influenza infection in pregnant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Pazos

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a leading risk factor for severe complications during an influenza virus infection. Women infected during their second and third trimesters are at increased risk for severe cardiopulmonary complications, premature delivery, and death. Here, we establish a murine model of aerosolized influenza infection during pregnancy. We find significantly altered innate antiviral responses in pregnant mice, including decreased levels of IFN-β, IL-1α, and IFN-γ at early time points of infection. We also find reduced cytotoxic T cell activity and delayed viral clearance. We further demonstrate that pregnancy levels of the estrogen 17-β-estradiol are able to induce key anti-inflammatory phenotypes in immune responses to the virus independently of other hormones or pregnancy-related stressors. We conclude that elevated estrogen levels result in an attenuated anti-viral immune response, and that pregnancy-associated morbidities occur in the context of this anti-inflammatory phenotype.

  11. Estrogen mediates innate and adaptive immune alterations to influenza infection in pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Michael A; Kraus, Thomas A; Muñoz-Fontela, César; Moran, Thomas M

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy is a leading risk factor for severe complications during an influenza virus infection. Women infected during their second and third trimesters are at increased risk for severe cardiopulmonary complications, premature delivery, and death. Here, we establish a murine model of aerosolized influenza infection during pregnancy. We find significantly altered innate antiviral responses in pregnant mice, including decreased levels of IFN-β, IL-1α, and IFN-γ at early time points of infection. We also find reduced cytotoxic T cell activity and delayed viral clearance. We further demonstrate that pregnancy levels of the estrogen 17-β-estradiol are able to induce key anti-inflammatory phenotypes in immune responses to the virus independently of other hormones or pregnancy-related stressors. We conclude that elevated estrogen levels result in an attenuated anti-viral immune response, and that pregnancy-associated morbidities occur in the context of this anti-inflammatory phenotype.

  12. Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a new role of a WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway as negative regulator of virus-induced innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Martin; Es-Saad, Salwa; Chatel-Chaix, Laurent; Fink, Karin; Pham, Tram; Raymond, Valérie-Ann; Audette, Karine; Guenier, Anne-Sophie; Duchaine, Jean; Servant, Marc; Bilodeau, Marc; Cohen, Eric; Grandvaux, Nathalie; Lamarre, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    To identify new regulators of antiviral innate immunity, we completed the first genome-wide gene silencing screen assessing the transcriptional response at the interferon-β (IFNB1) promoter following Sendai virus (SeV) infection. We now report a novel link between WNT signaling pathway and the modulation of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR)-dependent innate immune responses. Here we show that secretion of WNT2B and WNT9B and stabilization of β-catenin (CTNNB1) upon virus infection negatively regulate expression of representative inducible genes IFNB1, IFIT1 and TNF in a CTNNB1-dependent effector mechanism. The antiviral response is drastically reduced by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibitors but restored in CTNNB1 knockdown cells. The findings confirm a novel regulation of antiviral innate immunity by a canonical-like WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway. The study identifies novel avenues for broad-spectrum antiviral targets and preventing immune-mediated diseases upon viral infection.

  13. Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a new role of a WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway as negative regulator of virus-induced innate immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Baril

    Full Text Available To identify new regulators of antiviral innate immunity, we completed the first genome-wide gene silencing screen assessing the transcriptional response at the interferon-β (IFNB1 promoter following Sendai virus (SeV infection. We now report a novel link between WNT signaling pathway and the modulation of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I-like receptor (RLR-dependent innate immune responses. Here we show that secretion of WNT2B and WNT9B and stabilization of β-catenin (CTNNB1 upon virus infection negatively regulate expression of representative inducible genes IFNB1, IFIT1 and TNF in a CTNNB1-dependent effector mechanism. The antiviral response is drastically reduced by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 inhibitors but restored in CTNNB1 knockdown cells. The findings confirm a novel regulation of antiviral innate immunity by a canonical-like WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway. The study identifies novel avenues for broad-spectrum antiviral targets and preventing immune-mediated diseases upon viral infection.

  14. Innate Immune Responses in Leprosy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Schmitz, Veronica; Silva, Bruno Jorge de Andrade; Dias, André Alves; de Souza, Beatriz Junqueira; de Mattos Barbosa, Mayara Garcia; de Almeida Esquenazi, Danuza; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes

    2018-01-01

    Leprosy is an infectious disease that may present different clinical forms depending on host immune response to Mycobacterium leprae. Several studies have clarified the role of various T cell populations in leprosy; however, recent evidences suggest that local innate immune mechanisms are key determinants in driving the disease to its different clinical manifestations. Leprosy is an ideal model to study the immunoregulatory role of innate immune molecules and its interaction with nervous system, which can affect homeostasis and contribute to the development of inflammatory episodes during the course of the disease. Macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, and keratinocytes are the major cell populations studied and the comprehension of the complex networking created by cytokine release, lipid and iron metabolism, as well as antimicrobial effector pathways might provide data that will help in the development of new strategies for leprosy management. PMID:29643852

  15. The Epitranscriptome and Innate Immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A O'Connell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge of the variety and abundances of RNA base modifications is rapidly increasing. Modified bases have critical roles in tRNAs, rRNAs, translation, splicing, RNA interference, and other RNA processes, and are now increasingly detected in all types of transcripts. Can new biological principles associated with this diversity of RNA modifications, particularly in mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs, be identified? This review will explore this question by focusing primarily on adenosine to inosine (A-to-I RNA editing by the adenine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR enzymes that have been intensively studied for the past 20 years and have a wide range of effects. Over 100 million adenosine to inosine editing sites have been identified in the human transcriptome, mostly in embedded Alu sequences that form potentially innate immune-stimulating dsRNA hairpins in transcripts. Recent research has demonstrated that inosine in the epitranscriptome and ADAR1 protein establish innate immune tolerance for host dsRNA formed by endogenous sequences. Innate immune sensors that detect viral nucleic acids are among the readers of epitranscriptome RNA modifications, though this does preclude a wide range of other modification effects.

  16. Antiviral Defense Mechanisms in Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutscher, Laura M.; Daughenbaugh, Katie F.; Flenniken, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees are significant pollinators of agricultural crops and other important plant species. High annual losses of honey bee colonies in North America and in some parts of Europe have profound ecological and economic implications. Colony losses have been attributed to multiple factors including RNA viruses, thus understanding bee antiviral defense mechanisms may result in the development of strategies that mitigate colony losses. Honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms include RNA-interference, pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered signal transduction cascades, and reactive oxygen species generation. However, the relative importance of these and other pathways is largely uncharacterized. Herein we review the current understanding of honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms and suggest important avenues for future investigation. PMID:26273564

  17. Anopheles gambiae antiviral immune response to systemic O'nyong-nyong infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Waldock

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne viral diseases cause significant burden in much of the developing world. Although host-virus interactions have been studied extensively in the vertebrate host, little is known about mosquito responses to viral infection. In contrast to mosquitoes of the Aedes and Culex genera, Anopheles gambiae, the principal vector of human malaria, naturally transmits very few arboviruses, the most important of which is O'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV. Here we have investigated the A. gambiae immune response to systemic ONNV infection using forward and reverse genetic approaches.We have used DNA microarrays to profile the transcriptional response of A. gambiae inoculated with ONNV and investigate the antiviral function of candidate genes through RNAi gene silencing assays. Our results demonstrate that A. gambiae responses to systemic viral infection involve genes covering all aspects of innate immunity including pathogen recognition, modulation of immune signalling, complement-mediated lysis/opsonisation and other immune effector mechanisms. Patterns of transcriptional regulation and co-infections of A. gambiae with ONNV and the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei suggest that hemolymph immune responses to viral infection are diverted away from melanisation. We show that four viral responsive genes encoding two putative recognition receptors, a galectin and an MD2-like receptor, and two effector lysozymes, function in limiting viral load.This study is the first step in elucidating the antiviral mechanisms of A. gambiae mosquitoes, and has revealed interesting differences between A. gambiae and other invertebrates. Our data suggest that mechanisms employed by A. gambiae are distinct from described invertebrate antiviral immunity to date, and involve the complement-like branch of the humoral immune response, supressing the melanisation response that is prominent in anti-parasitic immunity. The antiviral immune response in A. gambiae is thus

  18. Bioprospecting of Red Sea Sponges for Novel Antiviral Pharmacophores

    KAUST Repository

    O'Rourke, Aubrie

    2015-01-01

    the coast of Saudi Arabia serves as a newly accessible location, which provides the opportunity to bioprospect marine sponges with the purpose of identifying novel antiviral scaffolds. Antivirals are underrepresented in present day clinical trials, as well

  19. Innate immunity in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Cheryl M

    2011-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common, immune-mediated inflammatory skin disorder. T helper(h)1 and Th17 lymphocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis through the release of inflammatory cytokines that promote further recruitment of immune cells, keratinocyte proliferation and sustained inflammation. The innate immune system is the first line of defence against infection and plays a crucial role in the initiation of the adaptive immune response. The presence of innate immune cells and their products in psoriatic skin plaques suggests a role for innate immunity in this disease. In addition, the innate immune system can direct the development of pathogenic Th cells in psoriasis. In this article, we will summarise the role of the innate immune system in psoriasis with particular emphasis on the role of cytokines, signalling pathways and cells of the innate immune system.

  20. Innate Immunity and Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, Nicole Theresa; Lawrence, Robert M

    2017-01-01

    Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant's optimal growth and development. The growing infant's immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant's innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk's effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas. Human milk microbiome directly shapes the infant's intestinal microbiome, while the human milk oligosaccharides drive the growth of these microbes within the gut. New techniques such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and glycomics are being used to describe this symbiotic relationship. An expanded role for antimicrobial proteins/peptides within human milk in innate immune protection is described. The unique milieu of enhanced immune protection with diminished inflammation results from a complex interaction of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors provided by human milk to the intestine. New data support the concept of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue and its contribution to the cellular content of human milk. Human milk stem cells (hMSCs) have recently been discovered. Their direct role in the infant for repair and regeneration is being investigated. The existence of these hMSCs could prove to be an easily harvested source of multilineage stem cells for the study of cancer and tissue regeneration. As the infant's gastrointestinal tract and immune system develop, there is a comparable transition in human milk over time to provide fewer immune factors and more calories and nutrients for growth. Each of these new findings opens the door to future studies of human milk and its effect on the innate immune system and the developing infant.

  1. Innate Immunity and Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Theresa Cacho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant’s optimal growth and development. The growing infant’s immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant’s innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk’s effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas. Human milk microbiome directly shapes the infant’s intestinal microbiome, while the human milk oligosaccharides drive the growth of these microbes within the gut. New techniques such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and glycomics are being used to describe this symbiotic relationship. An expanded role for antimicrobial proteins/peptides within human milk in innate immune protection is described. The unique milieu of enhanced immune protection with diminished inflammation results from a complex interaction of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors provided by human milk to the intestine. New data support the concept of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue and its contribution to the cellular content of human milk. Human milk stem cells (hMSCs have recently been discovered. Their direct role in the infant for repair and regeneration is being investigated. The existence of these hMSCs could prove to be an easily harvested source of multilineage stem cells for the study of cancer and tissue regeneration. As the infant’s gastrointestinal tract and immune system develop, there is a comparable transition in human milk over time to provide fewer immune factors and more calories and nutrients for growth. Each of these new findings opens the door to future studies of human milk and its effect on the innate immune system

  2. Innate lymphoid cells and the skin

    OpenAIRE

    Salimi, Maryam; Ogg, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells are an emerging family of effector cells that contribute to lymphoid organogenesis, metabolism, tissue remodelling and protection against infections. They maintain homeostatic immunity at barrier surfaces such as lung, skin and gut (Nature 464:1367?1371, 2010, Nat Rev Immunol 13: 145?149, 2013). Several human and mouse studies suggest a role for innate lymphoid cells in inflammatory skin conditions including atopic eczema and psoriasis. Here we review the innate lymphoid...

  3. Innate Immunity against Leishmania Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Prajwal; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major health problem that affects more than 300 million people throughout the world. The morbidity associated with the disease causes serious economic burden in Leishmania endemic regions. Despite the morbidity and economic burden associated with Leishmaniasis, this disease rarely gets noticed and is still categorized under neglected tropical diseases. The lack of research combined with the ability of Leishmania to evade immune recognition has rendered our efforts to design therapeutic treatments or vaccines challenging. Herein, we review the literature on Leishmania from innate immune perspective and discuss potential problems as well as solutions and future directions that could aid in identifying novel therapeutic targets to eliminate this parasite. PMID:26249747

  4. Shaping Innate Lymphoid Cell Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiutong Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are a key cell type that are enriched at mucosal surfaces and within tissues. Our understanding of these cells is growing rapidly. Paradoxically, these cells play a role in maintaining tissue integrity but they also function as key drivers of allergy and inflammation. We present here the most recent understanding of how genomics has provided significant insight into how ILCs are generated and the enormous heterogeneity present within the canonical subsets. This has allowed the generation of a detailed blueprint for ILCs to become highly sensitive and adaptive sensors of environmental changes and therefore exquisitely equipped to protect immune surfaces.

  5. Antiviral Prophylaxis and H1N1

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-14

    Dr. Richard Pebody, a consultant epidemiologist at the Health Protection Agency in London, UK, discusses the use of antiviral post-exposure prophylaxis and pandemic H1N1.  Created: 7/14/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/18/2011.

  6. Generation of antiviral transgenic chicken using spermatogonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in order to generate anti-viral transgenic chickens through transfected spermatogonial stem cell with fusion gene EGFP-MMx. After injecting fusion gene EGFP-MMx into testes, tissues frozen section, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blot of testes was performed at 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 ...

  7. Quantitative Analysis of a Parasitic Antiviral Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hwijin; Yin, John

    2004-01-01

    We extended a computer simulation of viral intracellular growth to study a parasitic antiviral strategy that diverts the viral replicase toward parasite growth. This strategy inhibited virus growth over a wide range of conditions, while minimizing host cell perturbations. Such parasitic strategies may inhibit the development of drug-resistant virus strains.

  8. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  9. Transmission of innate immune signaling by packaging of cGAMP in viral particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Matteo; Kowal, Joanna; Tkach, Mercedes; Satoh, Takeshi; Lahaye, Xavier; Conrad, Cécile; Boyron, Marilyn; Lombard, Bérangère; Durand, Sylvère; Kroemer, Guido; Loew, Damarys; Dalod, Marc; Théry, Clotilde; Manel, Nicolas

    2015-09-11

    Infected cells detect viruses through a variety of receptors that initiate cell-intrinsic innate defense responses. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP)-adenosine monophosphate (AMP) synthase (cGAS) is a cytosolic sensor for many DNA viruses and HIV-1. In response to cytosolic viral DNA, cGAS synthesizes the second messenger 2'3'-cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), which activates antiviral signaling pathways. We show that in cells producing virus, cGAS-synthesized cGAMP can be packaged in viral particles and extracellular vesicles. Viral particles efficiently delivered cGAMP to target cells. cGAMP transfer by viral particles to dendritic cells activated innate immunity and antiviral defenses. Finally, we show that cell-free murine cytomegalovirus and Modified Vaccinia Ankara virus contained cGAMP. Thus, transfer of cGAMP by viruses may represent a defense mechanism to propagate immune responses to uninfected target cells. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Innate Defense against Influenza A Virus: Activity of Human Neutrophil Defensins and Interactions of Defensins with Surfactant Protein D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartshorn, Kevan L.; White, Mitchell R.; Tecle, Tesfaldet

    2006-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays important roles in innate host defense against influenza A virus (IAV) infection, in part by modifying interactions with neutrophils. Human neutrophil defensins (HNPs) inhibit infectivity of enveloped viruses, including IAV. Our goal in this study was to characte......Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays important roles in innate host defense against influenza A virus (IAV) infection, in part by modifying interactions with neutrophils. Human neutrophil defensins (HNPs) inhibit infectivity of enveloped viruses, including IAV. Our goal in this study...... was to characterize antiviral interactions between SP-D and HNPs. Recombinant and/or natural forms of SP-D and related collectins and HNPs were tested for antiviral activity against two different strains of IAV. HNPs 1 and 2 did not inhibit viral hemagglutination activity, but they interfered...... with the hemagglutination-inhibiting activity of SP-D. HNPs had significant viral neutralizing activity against divergent IAV strains. However, the HNPs generally had competitive effects when combined with SP-D in assays using an SP-D-sensitive IAV strain. In contrast, cooperative antiviral effects were noted in some...

  11. Sustained Inhibition of HBV Replication In Vivo after Systemic Injection of AAVs Encoding Artificial Antiviral Primary MicroRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maepa, Mohube Betty; Ely, Abdullah; Grayson, Wayne; Arbuthnot, Patrick

    2017-06-16

    Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a problem of global significance and improving available treatment is important to prevent life-threatening complications arising in persistently infected individuals. HBV is susceptible to silencing by exogenous artificial intermediates of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. However, toxicity of Pol III cassettes and short duration of silencing by effectors of the RNAi pathway may limit anti-HBV therapeutic utility. To advance RNAi-based HBV gene silencing, mono- and trimeric artificial primary microRNAs (pri-miRs) derived from pri-miR-31 were placed under control of the liver-specific modified murine transthyretin promoter. The sequences, which target the X sequence of HBV, were incorporated into recombinant hepatotropic self-complementary adeno-associated viruses (scAAVs). Systemic intravenous injection of the vectors into HBV transgenic mice at a dose of 1 × 10 11 per animal effected significant suppression of markers of HBV replication for at least 32 weeks. The pri-miRs were processed according to the intended design, and intrahepatic antiviral guide sequences were detectable for 40 weeks after the injection. There was no evidence of toxicity, and innate immunostimulation was not detectable following the injections. This efficacy is an improvement on previously reported RNAi-based inhibition of HBV replication and is important to clinical translation of the technology. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An antiviral defense role of AGO2 in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagger J W Harvey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Argonaute (AGO proteins bind to small-interfering (siRNAs and micro (miRNAs to target RNA silencing against viruses, transgenes and in regulation of mRNAs. Plants encode multiple AGO proteins but, in Arabidopsis, only AGO1 is known to have an antiviral role.To uncover the roles of specific AGOs in limiting virus accumulation we inoculated turnip crinkle virus (TCV to Arabidopsis plants that were mutant for each of the ten AGO genes. The viral symptoms on most of the plants were the same as on wild type plants although the ago2 mutants were markedly hyper-susceptible to this virus. ago2 plants were also hyper-susceptible to cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, confirming that the antiviral role of AGO2 is not specific to a single virus. For both viruses, this phenotype was associated with transient increase in virus accumulation. In wild type plants the AGO2 protein was induced by TCV and CMV infection.Based on these results we propose that there are multiple layers to RNA-mediated defense and counter-defense in the interactions between plants and their viruses. AGO1 represents a first layer. With some viruses, including TCV and CMV, this layer is overcome by viral suppressors of silencing that can target AGO1 and a second layer involving AGO2 limits virus accumulation. The second layer is activated when the first layer is suppressed because AGO2 is repressed by AGO1 via miR403. The activation of the second layer is therefore a direct consequence of the loss of the first layer of defense.

  13. [Studies on evaluation of natural products for antiviral effects and their applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2008-01-01

    In the search for novel antiviral molecules from natural products, we have discovered various antiviral molecules with characteristic mechanisms of action. Scopadulciol (SDC), isolated from the tropical medicinal plant Scoparia dulcis L., showed stimulatory effects on the antiviral potency of acyclovir (ACV) or ganciclovir (GCV). This effect of SDC was exerted via the activation of viral thymidine kinase (HSV-1 TK) and, as a result, an increase in the cellular concentration of the active form of ACV/GCV, i.e., the triphosphate of ACV or GCV. On the basis of these experimental results, cancer gene therapy using the HSV-1 tk gene and ACV/GCV together with SDC was found to be effective in suppressing the growth of cancer cells in animals. Acidic polysaccharides such as calcium spirulan (Ca-SP) from Spirulina platensis, nostoflan from Nostoc flagelliforme, and a fucoidan from the sporophyll of Undaria pinnatifida (mekabu fucoidan) were also found to be potent inhibitors against several enveloped viruses. Their antiviral potency was dependent on molecular weight and content of the sulfate or carboxyl group as well as counterion species chelating with sulfate groups, indicating the importance of the three-dimensional structure of the molecules. In addition, unlike dextran sulfate, Ca-SP was shown to target not only viral absorption/penetration stages but also some replication stages of progeny viruses after penetration into cells. When mekabu fucoidan or nostoflan was administered with oseltamivir phosphate, their synergistic antiviral effects on influenza A virus were confirmed in vitro as well as in vivo.

  14. Modulating the innate immune response to influenza A virus: potential therapeutic use of anti-inflammatory drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eRamos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Infection by influenza A viruses (IAV is frequently characterized by robust inflammation that is usually more pronounced in the case of avian influenza. It is becoming clearer that the morbidity and pathogenesis caused by IAV is a consequence of this inflammatory response, with several components of the innate immune system acting as the main players. It has been postulated that using a therapeutic approach to limit the innate immune response in combination with antiviral drugs has the potential to diminish symptoms and tissue damage caused by IAV infection. Indeed, some anti-inflammatory agents have been shown to be effective in animal models at reducing IAV pathology as a proof of principle. The main challenge in developing such therapies is to selectively modulate signaling pathways that contribute to lung injury while maintaining the ability of the host cells to mount an antiviral response to control virus replication. However, the dissection of those pathways is very complex given the numerous components regulated by the same factors (i.e. NF kappa B transcription factors and the large number of players involved in this regulation, some of which may be undescribed or unknown. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current knowledge regarding the innate immune responses associated with tissue damage by IAV infection, the understanding of which is essential for the development of effective immunomodulatory drugs. Furthermore, we summarize the recent advances on the development and evaluation of such drugs as well as the lessons learned from those studies.

  15. Experimental in vitro and in vivo systems for studying the innate immune response during dengue virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitab, Bouchra; Kohara, Michinori; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko

    2018-03-08

    Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease in humans and leads to significant morbidity and socioeconomic burden in tropical and subtropical areas. Dengue is caused by infection with any of the four closely related serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4) and usually manifests as a mild febrile illness, but may develop into fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome. There are no specific antiviral therapies against dengue because understanding of DENV biology is limited. A tetravalent chimeric dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia, has finally been licensed for use, but its efficacy was significantly lower against DENV-2 infections and in dengue-naïve individuals. The identification of mechanisms underlying the interactions between DENV and immune responses will help to determine efficient therapeutic and preventive options. It has been well established how the innate immune system responds to DENV infection and how DENV overcomes innate antiviral defenses, however further progress in this field remains hampered by the absence of appropriate experimental dengue models. Herein, we review the available in vitro and in vivo approaches to study the innate immune responses to DENV.

  16. Cerebral Innate Immunity in Drosophila Melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Leung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modeling innate immunity in Drosophila melanogaster has a rich history that includes ground-breaking discoveries in pathogen detection and signaling. These studies revealed the evolutionary conservation of innate immune pathways and mechanisms of pathogen detection, resulting in an explosion of findings in the innate immunity field. In D. melanogaster, studies have focused primarily on responses driven by the larval fat body and hemocytes, analogs to vertebrate liver and macrophages, respectively. Aside from pathogen detection, many recent mammalian studies associate innate immune pathways with development and disease pathogenesis. Importantly, these studies stress that the innate immune response is integral to maintain central nervous system (CNS health. Microglia, which are the vertebrate CNS mononuclear phagocytes, drive vertebrate cerebral innate immunity. The invertebrate CNS contains microglial-like cells-ensheathing glia and reticular glia-that could be used to answer basic questions regarding the evolutionarily conserved innate immune processes in CNS development and health. A deeper understanding of the relationship between D. melanogaster phagocytic microglial-like cells and vertebrate microglia will be key to answering basic and translational questions related to cerebral innate immunity.

  17. Autophagy is involved in anti-viral activity of pentagalloylglucose (PGG) against Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Ying, E-mail: peiying-19802@163.com [Biomedicine Research and Development Center of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632 (China); Chen, Zhen-Ping, E-mail: 530670663@qq.com [Biomedicine Research and Development Center of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632 (China); Ju, Huai-Qiang, E-mail: 344464448@qq.com [Biomedicine Research and Development Center of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632 (China); Komatsu, Masaaki, E-mail: komatsu-ms@igakuken.or.jp [Laboratory of Frontier Science, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8613 (Japan); Ji, Yu-hua, E-mail: tjyh@jnu.edu.cn [Institute of Tissue Transplantation and Immunology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Liu, Ge, E-mail: lggege_15@hotmail.com [Division of Molecular Pharmacology of Infectious agents, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Guo, Chao-wan, E-mail: chaovan_kwok@hotmail.com [Division of Molecular Pharmacology of Infectious agents, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Zhang, Ying-Jun, E-mail: zhangyj@mail.kib.ac.cn [Kunming Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yunnan, Kunming 650204 (China); Yang, Chong-Ren, E-mail: cryang@mail.kib.ac.cn [Kunming Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yunnan, Kunming 650204 (China); Wang, Yi-Fei, E-mail: twang-yf@163.com [Biomedicine Research and Development Center of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632 (China); Kitazato, Kaio, E-mail: kkholi@msn.com [Division of Molecular Pharmacology of Infectious agents, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)

    2011-02-11

    Research highlights: {yields} We showed PGG has anti-viral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and can induce autophgy. {yields} Autophagy may be a novel and important mechanism mediating PGG anti-viral activities. {yields} Inhibition of mTOR pathway is an important mechanism of induction of autophagy by PGG. -- Abstract: Pentagalloylglucose (PGG) is a natural polyphenolic compound with broad-spectrum anti-viral activity, however, the mechanisms underlying anti-viral activity remain undefined. In this study, we investigated the effects of PGG on anti-viral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) associated with autophagy. We found that the PGG anti-HSV-1 activity was impaired significantly in MEF-atg7{sup -/-} cells (autophagy-defective cells) derived from an atg7{sup -/-} knockout mouse. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that PGG-induced autophagosomes engulfed HSV-1 virions. The mTOR signaling pathway, an essential pathway for the regulation of autophagy, was found to be suppressed following PGG treatment. Data presented in this report demonstrated for the first time that autophagy induced following PGG treatment contributed to its anti-HSV activity in vitro.

  18. Autophagy is involved in anti-viral activity of pentagalloylglucose (PGG) against Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Ying; Chen, Zhen-Ping; Ju, Huai-Qiang; Komatsu, Masaaki; Ji, Yu-hua; Liu, Ge; Guo, Chao-wan; Zhang, Ying-Jun; Yang, Chong-Ren; Wang, Yi-Fei; Kitazato, Kaio

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We showed PGG has anti-viral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and can induce autophgy. → Autophagy may be a novel and important mechanism mediating PGG anti-viral activities. → Inhibition of mTOR pathway is an important mechanism of induction of autophagy by PGG. -- Abstract: Pentagalloylglucose (PGG) is a natural polyphenolic compound with broad-spectrum anti-viral activity, however, the mechanisms underlying anti-viral activity remain undefined. In this study, we investigated the effects of PGG on anti-viral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) associated with autophagy. We found that the PGG anti-HSV-1 activity was impaired significantly in MEF-atg7 -/- cells (autophagy-defective cells) derived from an atg7 -/- knockout mouse. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that PGG-induced autophagosomes engulfed HSV-1 virions. The mTOR signaling pathway, an essential pathway for the regulation of autophagy, was found to be suppressed following PGG treatment. Data presented in this report demonstrated for the first time that autophagy induced following PGG treatment contributed to its anti-HSV activity in vitro.

  19. Innate immunity in vertebrates: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera Romo, Mario; Pérez-Martínez, Dayana; Castillo Ferrer, Camila

    2016-06-01

    Innate immunity is a semi-specific and widely distributed form of immunity, which represents the first line of defence against pathogens. This type of immunity is critical to maintain homeostasis and prevent microbe invasion, eliminating a great variety of pathogens and contributing with the activation of the adaptive immune response. The components of innate immunity include physical and chemical barriers, humoral and cell-mediated components, which are present in all jawed vertebrates. The understanding of innate defence mechanisms in non-mammalian vertebrates is the key to comprehend the general picture of vertebrate innate immunity and its evolutionary history. This is also essential for the identification of new molecules with applications in immunopharmacology and immunotherapy. In this review, we describe and discuss the main elements of vertebrate innate immunity, presenting core findings in this field and identifying areas that need further investigation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Bay laurel (Laurus nobilis) as potential antiviral treatment in naturally BQCV infected honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurori, Adriana C; Bobiş, Otilia; Dezmirean, Daniel S; Mărghitaş, Liviu A; Erler, Silvio

    2016-08-15

    Viral diseases are one of the multiple factors associated with honeybee colony losses. Apart from their innate immune system, including the RNAi machinery, honeybees can use secondary plant metabolites to reduce or fully cure pathogen infections. Here, we tested the antiviral potential of Laurus nobilis leaf ethanolic extracts on forager honeybees naturally infected with BQCV (Black queen cell virus). Total viral loads were reduced even at the lowest concentration tested (1mg/ml). Higher extract concentrations (≥5mg/ml) significantly reduced virus replication. Measuring vitellogenin gene expression as an indicator for transcript homeostasis revealed constant RNA levels before and after treatment, suggesting that its expression was not impacted by the L. nobilis treatment. In conclusion, plant secondary metabolites can reduce virus loads and virus replication in naturally infected honeybees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Innate lymphoid cells in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbertsen, Daniel; Lichtman, Andrew H

    2017-12-05

    The family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) consisting of NK cells, lymphoid tissue inducer cells and the 'helper'-like ILC subsets ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 have been shown to have important roles in protection against microbes, regulation of inflammatory diseases and involved in allergic reactions. ILC1s produce IFN-γ upon stimulation with IL-12 and IL-18, ILC2s produce IL-5 and IL-13 responding to IL-33 and IL-25 while ILC3s produce IL-17 and IL-22 after stimulation with IL-23 or IL-1. Although few studies have directly investigated the role for ILCs in atherosclerosis, several studies have investigated transcription factors and cytokines shared by ILCs and T helper cells. In this review we summarize our current understanding of the role of ILC in atherosclerosis and discuss future directions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Innate immune system and preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra ePerez-Sepulveda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal pregnancy is considered as a Th2 type immunological state that favors an immune-tolerance environment in order to prevent fetal rejection. PE has been classically described as a Th1/Th2 imbalance; however, the Th1/Th2 paradigm has proven insufficient to fully explain the functional and molecular changes observed during normal/pathological pregnancies. Recent studies have expanded the Th1/Th2 into a Th1⁄Th2⁄Th17 and regulatory T (Treg cells paradigm and where dendritic cells could have a crucial role. Recently, some evidence has emerged supporting the idea that mesenchymal stem cells might be part of the feto-maternal tolerance environment. This review will discuss the involvement of the innate immune system in the establishment of a physiological environment that favors pregnancy and possible alterations related to the development of preeclampsia.

  3. MAVS dimer is a crucial signaling component of innate immunity and the target of hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Martin; Racine, Marie-Eve; Penin, François; Lamarre, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    The mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein plays a central role in innate antiviral immunity. Upon recognition of a virus, intracellular receptors of the RIG-I-like helicase family interact with MAVS to trigger a signaling cascade. In this study, we investigate the requirement of the MAVS structure for enabling its signaling by structure-function analyses and resonance energy transfer approaches in live cells. We now report the essential role of the MAVS oligomer in signal transduction and map the transmembrane domain as the main determinant of dimerization. A combination of mutagenesis and computational methods identified a cluster of residues making favorable van der Waals interactions at the MAVS dimer interface. We also correlated the activation of IRF3 and NF-kappaB with MAVS oligomerization rather than its mitochondrial localization. Finally, we demonstrated that MAVS oligomerization is disrupted upon expression of HCV NS3/4A protease, suggesting a mechanism for the loss of antiviral signaling. Altogether, our data suggest that the MAVS oligomer is essential in the formation of a multiprotein membrane-associated signaling complex and enables downstream activation of IRF3 and NF-kappaB in antiviral innate immunity.

  4. Broad-spectrum antiviral properties of andrographolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Swati; Mishra, K P; Ganju, Lilly

    2017-03-01

    Andrographolide, a diterpenoid, is known for its anti-inflammatory effects. It can be isolated from various plants of the genus Andrographis, commonly known as 'creat'. This purified compound has been tested for its anti-inflammatory effects in various stressful conditions, such as ischemia, pyrogenesis, arthritis, hepatic or neural toxicity, carcinoma, and oxidative stress, Apart from its anti-inflammatory effects, andrographolide also exhibits immunomodulatory effects by effectively enhancing cytotoxic T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, phagocytosis, and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). All these properties of andrographolide form the foundation for the use of this miraculous compound to restrain virus replication and virus-induced pathogenesis. The present article covers antiviral properties of andrographolide in variety of viral infections, with the hope of developing of a new highly potent antiviral drug with multiple effects.

  5. La Crosse bunyavirus nonstructural protein NSs serves to suppress the type I interferon system of mammalian hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakqori, Gjon; Delhaye, Sophie; Habjan, Matthias; Blair, Carol D; Sánchez-Vargas, Irma; Olson, Ken E; Attarzadeh-Yazdi, Ghassem; Fragkoudis, Rennos; Kohl, Alain; Kalinke, Ulrich; Weiss, Siegfried; Michiels, Thomas; Staeheli, Peter; Weber, Friedemann

    2007-05-01

    La Crosse virus (LACV) is a mosquito-transmitted member of the Bunyaviridae family that causes severe encephalitis in children. For the LACV nonstructural protein NSs, previous overexpression studies with mammalian cells had suggested two different functions, namely induction of apoptosis and inhibition of RNA interference (RNAi). Here, we demonstrate that mosquito cells persistently infected with LACV do not undergo apoptosis and mount a specific RNAi response. Recombinant viruses that either express (rLACV) or lack (rLACVdelNSs) the NSs gene similarly persisted and were prone to the RNAi-mediated resistance to superinfection. Furthermore, in mosquito cells overexpressed LACV NSs was unable to inhibit RNAi against Semliki Forest virus. In mammalian cells, however, the rLACVdelNSs mutant virus strongly activated the antiviral type I interferon (IFN) system, whereas rLACV as well as overexpressed NSs suppressed IFN induction. Consequently, rLACVdelNSs was attenuated in IFN-competent mouse embryo fibroblasts and animals but not in systems lacking the type I IFN receptor. In situ analyses of mouse brains demonstrated that wild-type and mutant LACV mainly infect neuronal cells and that NSs is able to suppress IFN induction in the central nervous system. Thus, our data suggest little relevance of the NSs-induced apoptosis or RNAi inhibition for growth or pathogenesis of LACV in the mammalian host and indicate that NSs has no function in the insect vector. Since deletion of the viral NSs gene can be fully complemented by inactivation of the host's IFN system, we propose that the major biological function of NSs is suppression of the mammalian innate immune response.

  6. Antiviral lead compounds from marine sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil

    2010-10-11

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hopedto be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  7. Arthropod Innate Immune Systems and Vector-Borne Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Richard H G; Contet, Alicia; Krueger, Kathryn

    2017-02-21

    Arthropods, especially ticks and mosquitoes, are the vectors for a number of parasitic and viral human diseases, including malaria, sleeping sickness, Dengue, and Zika, yet arthropods show tremendous individual variation in their capacity to transmit disease. A key factor in this capacity is the group of genetically encoded immune factors that counteract infection by the pathogen. Arthropod-specific pattern recognition receptors and protease cascades detect and respond to infection. Proteins such as antimicrobial peptides, thioester-containing proteins, and transglutaminases effect responses such as lysis, phagocytosis, melanization, and agglutination. Effector responses are initiated by damage signals such as reactive oxygen species signaling from epithelial cells and recognized by cell surface receptors on hemocytes. Antiviral immunity is primarily mediated by siRNA pathways but coupled with interferon-like signaling, antimicrobial peptides, and thioester-containing proteins. Molecular mechanisms of immunity are closely linked to related traits of longevity and fertility, and arthropods have the capacity for innate immunological memory. Advances in understanding vector immunity can be leveraged to develop novel control strategies for reducing the rate of transmission of both ancient and emerging threats to global health.

  8. Innate imune response against retrovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia González

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Los retrovirus son un diverso grupo de virus que se encuentran en los vertebrados. Su importancia biomédica radica en que son capaces de infectar humanos, produciendo importantes problemas de salud. El virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH es capaz de producir un estado de inmunodeficiencia en el huésped determinando el desarrollo de enfermedades oportunistas en estadio avanzados de la enfermedad. Frente a la entrada de un retrovirus al organismo, nuestro sistema inmune presenta como primera línea de defensa a la inmunidad innata. El resultado de esta respuesta es la inducción de interferones de tipo I (IFN tipo I quienes generan un estado antiviral en la célula. Recientemente se ha ampliado la investigación sobre diferentes factores de restricción del huésped que forman parte de la inmunidad innata antiviral determinando la inhibición de la replicación de los retrovirus. En esta revisión abordaremos las distintas vías de señalización implicadas en la función de estos factores. Dentro de ellos, se mencionarán; el SAMHD1 que determina un agotamiento del pool celular de dNTP inhibiendo los pasos tempranos de la retrotranscripción en células infectadas; TREX1 que es considerado un factor de restricción del huésped antagónico ya que la ausencia del mismo resulta en la activación de una respuesta de interferón; APOBEC3 que media la restricción viral principalmente por un mecanismo de edición del DNA; TRIM5α que puede formar una estructura hexagonal por encima de la cápside, lo cual desestabilizaría el core viral; Tetherin que es capaz de bloquear la liberación de viriones de VIH.

  9. The Roles of RNase-L in Antimicrobial Immunity and the Cytoskeleton-Associated Innate Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezelle, Heather J; Malathi, Krishnamurthy; Hassel, Bret A

    2016-01-08

    The interferon (IFN)-regulated endoribonuclease RNase-L is involved in multiple aspects of the antimicrobial innate immune response. It is the terminal component of an RNA cleavage pathway in which dsRNA induces the production of RNase-L-activating 2-5A by the 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase. The active nuclease then cleaves ssRNAs, both cellular and viral, leading to downregulation of their expression and the generation of small RNAs capable of activating retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors or the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. This leads to IFNβ expression and IL-1β activation respectively, in addition to broader effects on immune cell function. RNase-L is also one of a growing number of innate immune components that interact with the cell cytoskeleton. It can bind to several cytoskeletal proteins, including filamin A, an actin-binding protein that collaborates with RNase-L to maintain the cellular barrier to viral entry. This antiviral activity is independent of catalytic function, a unique mechanism for RNase-L. We also describe here the interaction of RNase-L with the E3 ubiquitin ligase and scaffolding protein, ligand of nump protein X (LNX), a regulator of tight junction proteins. In order to better understand the significance and context of these novel binding partners in the antimicrobial response, other innate immune protein interactions with the cytoskeleton are also discussed.

  10. Molecular Mechanisms of Innate Immune Inhibition by Non-Segmented Negative-Sense RNA Viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Srirupa; Basler, Christopher F.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Leung, Daisy W.

    2016-08-01

    The host innate immune system serves as the first line of defense against viral infections. Germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors detect molecular patterns associated with pathogens and activate innate immune responses. Of particular relevance to viral infections are those pattern recognition receptors that activate type I interferon responses, which establish an antiviral state. The order Mononegavirales is composed of viruses that possess single-stranded, non-segmented negative-sense (NNS) RNA genomes and are important human pathogens that consistently antagonize signaling related to type I interferon responses. NNS viruses have limited encoding capacity compared to many DNA viruses, and as a likely consequence, most open reading frames encode multifunctional viral proteins that interact with host factors in order to evade host cell defenses while promoting viral replication. In this review, we will discuss the molecular mechanisms of innate immune evasion by select NNS viruses. A greater understanding of these interactions will be critical in facilitating the development of effective therapeutics and viral countermeasures.

  11. UBXN1 Interferes with Rig-I-like Receptor-Mediated Antiviral Immune Response by Targeting MAVS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penghua Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available RNA viruses are sensed by RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs, which signal through a mitochondria-associated adaptor molecule, MAVS, resulting in systemic antiviral immune responses. Although RLR signaling is essential for limiting RNA virus replication, it must be stringently controlled to prevent damage from inflammation. We demonstrate here that among all tested UBX-domain-containing protein family members, UBXN1 exhibits the strongest inhibitory effect on RNA-virus-induced type I interferon response. UBXN1 potently inhibits RLR- and MAVS-induced, but not TLR3-, TLR4-, or DNA-virus-induced innate immune responses. Depletion of UBXN1 enhances virus-induced innate immune responses, including those resulting from RNA viruses such as vesicular stomatitis, Sendai, West Nile, and dengue virus infection, repressing viral replication. Following viral infection, UBXN1 is induced, binds to MAVS, interferes with intracellular MAVS oligomerization, and disrupts the MAVS/TRAF3/TRAF6 signalosome. These findings underscore a critical role of UBXN1 in the modulation of a major antiviral signaling pathway.

  12. Addiction, adolescence, and innate immune gene induction

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    Fulton T Crews

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Repeated drug use/abuse amplifies psychopathology, progressively reducing frontal lobe behavioral control and cognitive flexibility while simultaneously increasing limbic temporal lobe negative emotionality. The period of adolescence is a neurodevelopmental stage characterized by poor behavioral control as well as strong limbic reward and thrill seeking. Repeated drug abuse and/or stress during this stage increase the risk of addiction and elevate activator innate immune signaling in the brain. Nuclear factor-kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB is a key glial transcription factor that regulates proinflammatory chemokines, cytokines, oxidases, proteases, and other innate immune genes. Induction of innate brain immune gene expression (e.g., NF-κB facilitates negative affect, depression-like behaviors, and inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis. In addition, innate immune gene induction alters cortical neurotransmission consistent with loss of behavioral control. Studies with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-depressant drugs as well as opiate antagonists link persistent innate immune gene expression to key behavioral components of addiction, e.g. negative affect-anxiety and loss of frontal cortical behavioral control. This review suggests that persistent and progressive changes in innate immune gene expression contribute to the development of addiction. Innate immune genes may represent a novel new target for addiction therapy.

  13. Spliceosome SNRNP200 Promotes Viral RNA Sensing and IRF3 Activation of Antiviral Response.

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    Nicolas Tremblay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spliceosomal SNRNP200 is a Ski2-like RNA helicase that is associated with retinitis pigmentosa 33 (RP33. Here we found that SNRNP200 promotes viral RNA sensing and IRF3 activation through the ability of its amino-terminal Sec63 domain (Sec63-1 to bind RNA and to interact with TBK1. We show that SNRNP200 relocalizes into TBK1-containing cytoplasmic structures upon infection, in contrast to the RP33-associated S1087L mutant, which is also unable to rescue antiviral response of SNRNP200 knockdown cells. This functional rescue correlates with the Sec63-1-mediated binding of viral RNA. The hindered IFN-β production of knockdown cells was further confirmed in peripheral blood cells of RP33 patients bearing missense mutation in SNRNP200 upon infection with Sendai virus (SeV. This work identifies a novel immunoregulatory role of the spliceosomal SNRNP200 helicase as an RNA sensor and TBK1 adaptor for the activation of IRF3-mediated antiviral innate response.

  14. Arginine-rich histones have strong antiviral activity for influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, Marloes; Tripathi, Shweta; White, Mitchell; Qi, Li; Taubenberger, Jeffery; van Eijk, Martin; Haagsman, Henk; Hartshorn, Kevan L

    2015-10-01

    While histones are best known for DNA binding and transcription-regulating properties, they also have antimicrobial activity against a broad range of potentially pathogenic organisms. Histones are abundant in neutrophil extracellular traps, where they play an important role in NET-mediated antimicrobial killing. Here, we show anti-influenza activity of histones against both seasonal H3N2 and H1N1, but not pandemic H1N1. The arginine rich histones, H3 and H4, had greater neutralizing and viral aggregating activity than the lysine rich histones, H2A and H2B. Of all core histones, histone H4 is most potent in neutralizing IAV, and incubation with IAV with histone H4 results in a decrease in uptake and viral replication by epithelial cells when measured by qRT-PCR. The antiviral activity of histone H4 is mediated principally by direct effects on viral particles. Histone H4 binds to IAV as assessed by ELISA and co-sedimentation of H4 with IAV. H4 also induces aggregation, as assessed by confocal microscopy and light transmission assays. Despite strong antiviral activity against the seasonal IAV strains, H4 was inactive against pandemic H1N1. These findings indicate a possible role for histones in the innate immune response against IAV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. A putative antiviral role of plant cytidine deaminases [version 2; referees: 2 approved

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    Susana Martín

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A mechanism of innate antiviral immunity operating against viruses infecting mammalian cells has been described during the last decade.  Host cytidine deaminases (e.g., APOBEC3 proteins edit viral genomes, giving rise to hypermutated nonfunctional viruses; consequently, viral fitness is reduced through lethal mutagenesis.  By contrast, sub-lethal hypermutagenesis may contribute to virus evolvability by increasing population diversity.  To prevent genome editing, some viruses have evolved proteins that mediate APOBEC3 degradation.  The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes nine cytidine deaminases (AtCDAs, raising the question of whether deamination is an antiviral mechanism in plants as well. Methods: Here we tested the effects of expression of AtCDAs on the pararetrovirus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV. Two different experiments were carried out. First, we transiently overexpressed each one of the nine A. thaliana AtCDA genes in Nicotiana bigelovii plants infected with CaMV, and characterized the resulting mutational spectra, comparing them with those generated under normal conditions.  Secondly, we created A. thaliana transgenic plants expressing an artificial microRNA designed to knock-out the expression of up to six AtCDA genes.  This and control plants were then infected with CaMV.  Virus accumulation and mutational spectra where characterized in both types of plants. Results:  We have shown that the A. thaliana AtCDA1 gene product exerts a mutagenic activity, significantly increasing the number of G to A mutations in vivo, with a concomitant reduction in the amount of CaMV genomes accumulated.  Furthermore, the magnitude of this mutagenic effect on CaMV accumulation is positively correlated with the level of AtCDA1 mRNA expression in the plant. Conclusions: Our results suggest that deamination of viral genomes may also work as an antiviral mechanism in plants.

  16. Analysis of Tospovirus NSs Proteins in Suppression of Systemic Silencing

    OpenAIRE

    Hedil, Marcio; Sterken, Mark G.; de Ronde, Dryas; Lohuis, Dick; Kormelink, Richard

    2015-01-01

    RNA silencing is a sequence-specific gene regulation mechanism that in plants also acts antiviral. In order to counteract antiviral RNA silencing, viruses have evolved RNA silencing suppressors (RSS). In the case of tospoviruses, the non-structural NSs protein has been identified as the RSS. Although the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) tospovirus NSs protein has been shown to exhibit affinity to long and small dsRNA molecules, its ability to suppress the non-cell autonomous part of RNA silen...

  17. Antimicrobial peptides in innate immune responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, O.E.; Borregaard, N.; Cole, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are ancient effector molecules in the innate immune response of eukaryotes. These peptides are important for the antimicrobial efficacy of phagocytes and for the innate immune response mounted by epithelia of humans and other mammals. AMPs are generated either by de...... novo synthesis or by proteolytic cleavage from antimicrobially inactive proproteins. Studies of human diseases and animal studies have given important clues to the in vivo role of AMPs. It is now evident that dysregulation of the generation of AMPs in innate immune responses plays a role in certain...

  18. Interferon-Mediated Innate Immune Responses against Malaria Parasite Liver Stages

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    Jessica L. Miller

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-transmitted malaria parasites infect hepatocytes and asymptomatically replicate as liver stages. Using RNA sequencing, we show that a rodent malaria liver-stage infection stimulates a robust innate immune response including type I interferon (IFN and IFNγ pathways. Liver-stage infection is suppressed by these infection-engendered innate responses. This suppression was abrogated in mice deficient in IFNγ, the type I IFN α/β receptor (IFNAR, and interferon regulatory factor 3. Natural killer and CD49b+CD3+ natural killer T (NKT cells increased in the liver after a primary infection, and CD1d-restricted NKT cells, which secrete IFNγ, were critical in reducing liver-stage burden of a secondary infection. Lack of IFNAR signaling abrogated the increase in NKT cell numbers in the liver, showing a link between type I IFN signaling, cell recruitment, and subsequent parasite elimination. Our findings demonstrate innate immune sensing of malaria parasite liver-stage infection and that the ensuing innate responses can eliminate the parasite.

  19. Interocular suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, Ana Rita; Almeida Neves Carrega, Filipa; Nunes, Amélia Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this work is to quantify the suppressive imbalance, based on the manipulation of ocular luminance, between a group of subjects with normal binocular vision and a group of subjects with amblyopia. The result reveals that there are statistically significant differences in interocular dominance between two groups, evidencing a greater suppressive imbalance in amblyopic subjects. The technique used, proved to be a simple, easy to apply and economic method, for quantified ocular dominance. It is presented as a technique with the potential to accompany subjects with a marked dominance in one of the eyes that makes fusion difficult.

  20. Pigeon RIG-I Function in Innate Immunity against H9N2 IAV and IBDV

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    Wenping Xu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I, a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor (PRR, can sense various RNA viruses, including the avian influenza virus (AIV and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV, and trigger the innate immune response. Previous studies have shown that mammalian RIG-I (human and mice and waterfowl RIG-I (ducks and geese are essential for type I interferon (IFN synthesis during AIV infection. Like ducks, pigeons are also susceptible to infection but are ineffective propagators and disseminators of AIVs, i.e., “dead end” hosts for AIVs and even highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI. Consequently, we sought to identify pigeon RIG-I and investigate its roles in the detection of A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 (H9N2 (ZB07, Gansu/Tianshui (IBDV TS and Beijing/CJ/1980 (IBDV CJ-801 strains in chicken DF-1 fibroblasts or human 293T cells. Pigeon mRNA encoding the putative pigeon RIG-I analogs was identified. The exogenous expression of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP-tagged pigeon RIG-I and caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs, strongly induced antiviral gene (IFN-β, Mx, and PKR mRNA synthesis, decreased viral gene (M gene and VP2 mRNA expression, and reduced the viral titers of ZB07 and IBDV TS/CJ-801 virus strains in chicken DF-1 cells, but not in 293T cells. We also compared the antiviral abilities of RIG-I proteins from waterfowl (duck and goose and pigeon. Our data indicated that waterfowl RIG-I are more effective in the induction of antiviral genes and the repression of ZB07 and IBDV TS/CJ-801 strain replication than pigeon RIG-I. Furthermore, chicken melanoma differentiation associated gene 5(MDA5/ mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS silencing combined with RIG-I transfection suggested that pigeon RIG-I can restore the antiviral response in MDA5-silenced DF-1 cells but not in MAVS-silenced DF-1 cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that pigeon RIG-I and CARDs have a strong antiviral

  1. Type I and Type III Interferons Display Different Dependency on Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases to Mount an Antiviral State in the Human Gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervolaraki, Kalliopi; Stanifer, Megan L; Münchau, Stephanie; Renn, Lynnsey A; Albrecht, Dorothee; Kurzhals, Stefan; Senís, Elena; Grimm, Dirk; Schröder-Braunstein, Jutta; Rabin, Ronald L; Boulant, Steeve

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are constantly exposed to commensal flora and pathogen challenges. How IECs regulate their innate immune response to maintain gut homeostasis remains unclear. Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines produced during infections. While type I IFN receptors are ubiquitously expressed, type III IFN receptors are expressed only on epithelial cells. This epithelium specificity strongly suggests exclusive functions at epithelial surfaces, but the relative roles of type I and III IFNs in the establishment of an antiviral innate immune response in human IECs are not clearly defined. Here, we used mini-gut organoids to define the functions of types I and III IFNs to protect the human gut against viral infection. We show that primary non-transformed human IECs, upon viral challenge, upregulate the expression of both type I and type III IFNs at the transcriptional level but only secrete type III IFN in the supernatant. However, human IECs respond to both type I and type III IFNs by producing IFN-stimulated genes that in turn induce an antiviral state. Using genetic ablation of either type I or type III IFN receptors, we show that either IFN can independently restrict virus infection in human IECs. Importantly, we report, for the first time, differences in the mechanisms by which each IFN establishes the antiviral state. Contrary to type I IFN, the antiviral activity induced by type III IFN is strongly dependent on the mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathway, suggesting a pathway used by type III IFNs that non-redundantly contributes to the antiviral state. In conclusion, we demonstrate that human intestinal epithelial cells specifically regulate their innate immune response favoring type III IFN-mediated signaling, which allows for efficient protection against pathogens without producing excessive inflammation. Our results strongly suggest that type III IFN constitutes the frontline of antiviral response in the human gut. We propose that

  2. RIG-I-like receptor-induced IRF3 mediated pathway of apoptosis (RIPA: a new antiviral pathway

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    Saurabh Chattopadhyay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The innate immune response is the first line of host defense to eliminate viral infection. Pattern recognition receptors in the cytosol, such as RIG-I-like receptors (RLR and Nod-like receptors (NLR, and membrane bound Toll like receptors (TLR detect viral infection and initiate transcription of a cohort of antiviral genes, including interferon (IFN and interferon stimulated genes (ISGs, which ultimately block viral replication. Another mechanism to reduce viral spread is through RIPA, the RLR-induced IRF3-mediated pathway of apoptosis, which causes infected cells to undergo premature death. The transcription factor IRF3 can mediate cellular antiviral responses by both inducing antiviral genes and triggering apoptosis through the activation of RIPA. The mechanism of IRF3 activation in RIPA is distinct from that of transcriptional activation; it requires linear polyubiquitination of specific lysine residues of IRF3. Using RIPA-active, but transcriptionally inactive, IRF3 mutants, it was shown that RIPA can prevent viral replication and pathogenesis in mice.

  3. Evolution and Antiviral Specificities of Interferon-Induced Mx Proteins of Bats against Ebola, Influenza, and Other RNA Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jonas; Hölzer, Martin; Schilling, Mirjam; Patzina, Corinna; Schoen, Andreas; Hoenen, Thomas; Zimmer, Gert; Marz, Manja; Weber, Friedemann; Müller, Marcel A; Kochs, Georg

    2017-08-01

    Bats serve as a reservoir for various, often zoonotic viruses, including significant human pathogens such as Ebola and influenza viruses. However, for unknown reasons, viral infections rarely cause clinical symptoms in bats. A tight control of viral replication by the host innate immune defense might contribute to this phenomenon. Transcriptomic studies revealed the presence of the interferon-induced antiviral myxovirus resistance (Mx) proteins in bats, but detailed functional aspects have not been assessed. To provide evidence that bat Mx proteins might act as key factors to control viral replication we cloned Mx1 cDNAs from three bat families, Pteropodidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae. Phylogenetically these bat Mx1 genes cluster closely with their human ortholog MxA. Using transfected cell cultures, minireplicon systems, virus-like particles, and virus infections, we determined the antiviral potential of the bat Mx1 proteins. Bat Mx1 significantly reduced the polymerase activity of viruses circulating in bats, including Ebola and influenza A-like viruses. The related Thogoto virus, however, which is not known to infect bats, was not inhibited by bat Mx1. Further, we provide evidence for positive selection in bat Mx1 genes that might explain species-specific antiviral activities of these proteins. Together, our data suggest a role for Mx1 in controlling these viruses in their bat hosts. IMPORTANCE Bats are a natural reservoir for various viruses that rarely cause clinical symptoms in bats but are dangerous zoonotic pathogens, like Ebola or rabies virus. It has been hypothesized that the interferon system might play a key role in controlling viral replication in bats. We speculate that the interferon-induced Mx proteins might be key antiviral factors of bats and have coevolved with bat-borne viruses. This study evaluated for the first time a large set of bat Mx1 proteins spanning three major bat families for their antiviral potential, including activity

  4. [Antiviral activity of representatives of the family Crassulaceae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirobokov, V P; Evtushenko, A I; Lapchik, V F; Shirobokova, D N; Suptel', E A

    1981-12-01

    The antiviral properties of the juice of 11 species of the orpine family were studied. 8 of them belonged to the genera Kalanchoe, i. e. Kalanchoe diagremontiona R. Hamet, K. pinnata (Zam.) Persoon, K. Peteri Werd., K. prolifera (Bovie) R. Hamet, K. marnierriana (Mann. et Boit) Jacobs; K. blossfeldiana v. Poelln, K. beharensis Drake del Gastillo, K. waldheimii R. Hamet et Perr and 3 belonged to the Sedum genera, i. e. Sedum telephium L., S. spectabile Boreau, S. acre L. A high virus neutralizing activity of the juice from 4 species of Kalanchoe, i. e. K. blossfeldiana, K. waldheimii, K. pinnata and K. beharensis was shown. Inhibition of the virus infecting activity was observed at the juice dilutions from 1-2 to 1-8000 and higher. The viricidal factor of Kalanchoe is stable. It is not destroyed by ether, alcohol and potassium periodate. It is not absorbed by bentonite at the acid pH values. Addition of cattle serum or purified proteins to the juice resulted in their precipitation which suppressed the viricidal activity of the juice.

  5. Spitting Image: Tick Saliva Assists the Causative Agent of Lyme Disease in Evading Host Skin's Innate Immune Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovius, Joppe W. R.

    2009-01-01

    Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted through ticks. Inhibition of host skin's innate immune response might be instrumental to both tick feeding and B. burgdorferi transmission. The article by Marchal et al. describes how tick saliva suppresses B.

  6. Antiviral activity of glycyrrhizin against hepatitis C virus in vitro.

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    Yoshihiro Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhizin (GL has been used in Japan to treat patients with chronic viral hepatitis, as an anti-inflammatory drug to reduce serum alanine aminotransferase levels. GL is also known to exhibit various biological activities, including anti-viral effects, but the anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV effect of GL remains to be clarified. In this study, we demonstrated that GL treatment of HCV-infected Huh7 cells caused a reduction of infectious HCV production using cell culture-produced HCV (HCVcc. To determine the target step in the HCV lifecycle of GL, we used HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp, replicon, and HCVcc systems. Significant suppressions of viral entry and replication steps were not observed. Interestingly, extracellular infectivity was decreased, and intracellular infectivity was increased. By immunofluorescence and electron microscopic analysis of GL treated cells, HCV core antigens and electron-dense particles had accumulated on endoplasmic reticulum attached to lipid droplet (LD, respectively, which is thought to act as platforms for HCV assembly. Furthermore, the amount of HCV core antigen in LD fraction increased. Taken together, these results suggest that GL inhibits release of infectious HCV particles. GL is known to have an inhibitory effect on phospholipase A2 (PLA2. We found that group 1B PLA2 (PLA2G1B inhibitor also decreased HCV release, suggesting that suppression of virus release by GL treatment may be due to its inhibitory effect on PLA2G1B. Finally, we demonstrated that combination treatment with GL augmented IFN-induced reduction of virus in the HCVcc system. GL is identified as a novel anti-HCV agent that targets infectious virus particle release.

  7. Topoisomerase 1 Inhibition Promotes Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase-Dependent Antiviral Responses

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    Geneviève Pèépin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory responses, while essential for pathogen clearance, can also be deleterious to the host. Chemical inhibition of topoisomerase 1 (Top1 by low-dose camptothecin (CPT can suppress transcriptional induction of antiviral and inflammatory genes and protect animals from excessive and damaging inflammatory responses. We describe the unexpected finding that minor DNA damage from topoisomerase 1 inhibition with low-dose CPT can trigger a strong antiviral immune response through cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS detection of cytoplasmic DNA. This argues against CPT having only anti-inflammatory activity. Furthermore, expression of the simian virus 40 (SV40 large T antigen was paramount to the proinflammatory antiviral activity of CPT, as it potentiated cytoplasmic DNA leakage and subsequent cGAS recruitment in human and mouse cell lines. This work suggests that the capacity of Top1 inhibitors to blunt inflammatory responses can be counteracted by viral oncogenes and that this should be taken into account for their therapeutic development.

  8. MAP kinase cascades in Arabidopsis innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Magnus Wohlfahrt; Roux, Milena Edna; Petersen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Plant mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades generally transduce extracellular stimuli into cellular responses. These stimuli include the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by host transmembrane pattern recognition receptors which trigger MAPK-dependent innate ...

  9. Antiviral potential of a diterpenoid compound sugiol from Metasequoia glyptostroboides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Vivek K; Kim, Na-Hyung; Kim, Kangmin; Kang, Sun Chul

    2016-05-01

    This research reports first time antiviral activity of sugiol, a diterpenoid isolated from Metasequoia glyptostroboides in terms of its ability to inhibit in vitro growth of H1N1 influenza virus. Antiviral potential of sugiol was evaluated through hcytopathogenic reduction assay using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line. Sugiol (500 μg/ml) was found to exhibit considerable anti-cytopathic effect on MDCK cell line confirming its antiviral efficacy against H1N1 influenza virus. These findings strongly reinforce the suggestion that sugiol could be a candidate of choice in combinational regimen with potential antiviral efficacy.

  10. Innate immune function in placenta and cord blood of hepatitis C--seropositive mother-infant dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Christine Waasdorp; Golden-Mason, Lucy; Brocato, Megan; Krull, Mona; Narkewicz, Michael R; Rosen, Hugo R

    2010-08-30

    Vertical transmission accounts for the majority of pediatric cases of hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection. In contrast to the adult population who develop persistent viremia in approximately 80% of cases following exposure, the rate of mother-to-child transmission (2-6%) is strikingly low. Protection from vertical transmission likely requires the coordination of multiple components of the immune system. Placenta and decidua provide a direct connection between mother and infant. We hypothesized that innate immune responses would differ across the three compartments (decidua, placenta and cord blood) and that hepatitis C exposure would modify innate immunity in these tissues. The study was comprised of HCV-infected and healthy control mother and infant pairs from whom cord blood, placenta and decidua were collected with isolation of mononuclear cells. Multiparameter flow cytometry was performed to assess the phenotype, intracellular cytokine production and cytotoxicity of the cells. In keeping with a model where the maternal-fetal interface provides antiviral protection, we found a gradient in proportional frequencies of NKT and gammadelta-T cells being higher in placenta than cord blood. Cytotoxicity of NK and NKT cells was enhanced in placenta and placental NKT cytotoxicity was further increased by HCV infection. HCV exposure had multiple effects on innate cells including a decrease in activation markers (CD69, TRAIL and NKp44) on NK cells and a decrease in plasmacytoid dendritic cells in both placenta and cord blood of exposed infants. In summary, the placenta represents an active innate immunological organ that provides antiviral protection against HCV transmission in the majority of cases; the increased incidence in preterm labor previously described in HCV-seropositive mothers may be related to enhanced cytotoxicity of NKT cells.

  11. Atividade antiviral de Musa acuminata Colla, Musaceae

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    Fernanda Otaviano Martins

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avalia a atividade antiviral de extratos e frações de Musa acuminata Colla, Musaceae, coletada em duas regiões do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Petrópolis e Santo Antônio de Pádua. As inflorescências de M. acuminata apresentaram excelente atividade para os dois vírus avaliados: herpesvírus simples humano tipo 1 e herpesvírus simples humano tipo 2, ambos resistentes ao Aciclovir. Os resultados indicam que os extratos de M. acuminata testados podem constituir alvo potencial para uso em terapias antivirais.

  12. Antiviral activity of shikonin ester derivative PMM-034 against enterovirus 71 in vitro

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    Y. Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Human enterovirus 71 (EV71 is the major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD, particularly in infants and children below 4 years of age. Shikonin is a bioactive compound with anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antibacterial activities derived from the roots of the Chinese medicinal herb Lithospermum erythrorhizon. This study aimed to examine the antiviral activity of PMM-034, a shikonin ester derivative, against EV71 in rhabdomyosarcoma (RD cells. Cytotoxicity of PMM-034 on RD cells was determined using WST-1 assay. Dose- and time-dependent effects of PMM-034 on EV71 replication in RD cells were determined using plaque reduction assay. mRNA expression levels of EV71/VP1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α were determined by real-time RT-PCR, and EV71/VP1 and phospho-p65 protein expressions were determined by western blot analysis. PMM-034 exhibited only weak cytotoxicity against RD cells. However, PMM-034 exhibited significant antiviral activity against EV71 in RD cells with 50% inhibitory concentration of 2.31 μg/mL. The VP1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly reduced in cells treated with PMM-034. Furthermore, relative mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α significantly decreased in the cells treated with PMM-034, while the phospho-p65 protein expression was also significantly lower in the treated cells. These results indicated that PMM-034 suppressed the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines in RD cells, exhibiting antiviral activity against EV71, as evidenced by the reduced VP1 mRNA and protein levels in PMM-034-treated cells. Thus, PMM-034 is a promising candidate for further development as an EV71 inhibitor.

  13. The Smc5/6 Complex Restricts HBV when Localized to ND10 without Inducing an Innate Immune Response and Is Counteracted by the HBV X Protein Shortly after Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffis, Stephane; Ramakrishnan, Dhivya; Burdette, Dara; Peiser, Leanne; Salas, Eduardo; Ramos, Hilario; Yu, Mei; Cheng, Guofeng; Strubin, Michel; Delaney IV, William E.; Fletcher, Simon P.

    2017-01-01

    The structural maintenance of chromosome 5/6 complex (Smc5/6) is a restriction factor that represses hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcription. HBV counters this restriction by expressing HBV X protein (HBx), which targets Smc5/6 for degradation. However, the mechanism by which Smc5/6 suppresses HBV transcription and how HBx is initially expressed is not known. In this study we characterized viral kinetics and the host response during HBV infection of primary human hepatocytes (PHH) to address these unresolved questions. We determined that Smc5/6 localizes with Nuclear Domain 10 (ND10) in PHH. Co-localization has functional implications since depletion of ND10 structural components alters the nuclear distribution of Smc6 and induces HBV gene expression in the absence of HBx. We also found that HBV infection and replication does not induce a prominent global host transcriptional response in PHH, either shortly after infection when Smc5/6 is present, or at later times post-infection when Smc5/6 has been degraded. Notably, HBV and an HBx-negative virus establish high level infection in PHH without inducing expression of interferon-stimulated genes or production of interferons or other cytokines. Our study also revealed that Smc5/6 is degraded in the majority of infected PHH by the time cccDNA transcription could be detected and that HBx RNA is present in cell culture-derived virus preparations as well as HBV patient plasma. Collectively, these data indicate that Smc5/6 is an intrinsic antiviral restriction factor that suppresses HBV transcription when localized to ND10 without inducing a detectable innate immune response. Our data also suggest that HBx protein may be initially expressed by delivery of extracellular HBx RNA into HBV-infected cells. PMID:28095508

  14. Exploiting Genetic Interference for Antiviral Therapy.

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    Elizabeth J Tanner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly evolving viruses are a major threat to human health. Such viruses are often highly pathogenic (e.g., influenza virus, HIV, Ebola virus and routinely circumvent therapeutic intervention through mutational escape. Error-prone genome replication generates heterogeneous viral populations that rapidly adapt to new selection pressures, leading to resistance that emerges with treatment. However, population heterogeneity bears a cost: when multiple viral variants replicate within a cell, they can potentially interfere with each other, lowering viral fitness. This genetic interference can be exploited for antiviral strategies, either by taking advantage of a virus's inherent genetic diversity or through generating de novo interference by engineering a competing genome. Here, we discuss two such antiviral strategies, dominant drug targeting and therapeutic interfering particles. Both strategies harness the power of genetic interference to surmount two particularly vexing obstacles-the evolution of drug resistance and targeting therapy to high-risk populations-both of which impede treatment in resource-poor settings.

  15. FORMATION OF INNATE AND ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FLAVIVIRUS VACCINES

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    N. V. Krylova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The review examines in a comparative perspective the key moments of formation of innate and adaptive immune responses to different types of current flavivirus vaccines: live attenuated against yellow fever virus and inactivated whole virus against tick-borne encephalitis virus. Particular attention is paid to the ability of these different vaccines, containing exogenous pathogen-associated molecular structures, to stimulate innate immunity. Live attenuated vaccine by infecting several subtypes of dendritic cells activates them through various pattern-recognition receptors, such as Tolland RIG-I-like receptors, which leads to significant production of proinflammatory cytokines, including interferon-α primary mediator of innate antiviral immunity. By simulating natural viral infection, this vaccine quickly spreads over the vascular network, and the dendritic cells, activated by it, migrate to the draining lymph nodes and trigger multiple foci of Tand B-cell activation. Inactivated vaccine stimulates the innate immunity predominantly at the injection site, and for the sufficient activation requires the presence in its composition of an adjuvant (aluminum hydroxide, which effects the formation and activation of inflammasomes, ensuring the formation and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 that, in turn, trigger a cascade of cellular and humoral innate immune responses. We demonstrated the possibility of involvement in the induction of innate immunity, mediated by the inactivated vaccine, endogenous pathogenassociated molecular patterns (uric acid and host cell DNA, forming at the vaccine injection site. We discuss the triggering of Band T-cell responses by flavivirus vaccines that determine various duration of protection against various pathogens. A single injection of the live vaccine against yellow fever virus induces polyvalent adaptive immune response, including the production of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, Th1and Th2-cells and neutralizing antibodies

  16. Human Cytomegalovirus Encoded miR-US25-1-5p Attenuates CD147/EMMPRIN-Mediated Early Antiviral Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cellular receptor-mediated signaling pathways play critical roles during the initial immune response to Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection. However, the involvement of type-I transmembrane glycoprotein CD147/EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer in the antiviral response to HCMV infection is still unknown. Here, we demonstrated the specific knockdown of CD147 significantly decreased HCMV-induced activation of NF-κB and Interferon-beta (IFN-β, which contribute to the cellular antiviral responses. Next, we confirmed that HCMV-encoded miR-US25-1-5p could target the 3′ UTR (Untranslated Region of CD147 mRNA, and thus facilitate HCMV lytic propagation at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI. The expression and secretion of Cyclophilin A (sCyPA, as a ligand for CD147 and a proinflammatory cytokine, were up-regulated in response to HCMV stimuli. Finally, we confirmed that CD147 mediated HCMV-triggered antiviral signaling via the sCyPA-CD147-ERK (extracellular regulated protein kinases/NF-κB axis signaling pathway. These findings reveal an important HCMV mechanism for evading antiviral innate immunity through its encoded microRNA by targeting transmembrane glycoprotein CD147, and a potential cause of HCMV inflammatory disorders due to the secretion of proinflammatory cytokine CyPA.

  17. Early Subretinal Allograft Rejection Is Characterized by Innate Immune Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, Kevin P; Holmes, Toby M; Wallace, Deborah M; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Keegan, David J

    2017-06-09

    Successful subretinal transplantation is limited by considerable early graft loss despite pharmacological suppression of adaptive immunity. We postulated that early innate immune activity is a dominant factor in determining graft survival and chose a nonimmunosuppressed mouse model of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell transplantation to explore this. Expression of almost all measured cytokines by DH01 RPE cells increased significantly following graft preparation, and the neutrophil chemoattractant KC/GRO/CINC was most significantly increased. Subretinal allografts of DH01 cells (C57BL/10 origin) into healthy, nonimmunosuppressed C57BL/6 murine eyes were harvested and fixed at 1, 3, 7, and 28 days postoperatively and subsequently cryosectioned and stained. Graft cells were detected using SV40 large T antigen (SV40T) immunolabeling and apoptosis/necrosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). Sections were also immunolabeled for macrophage (CD11b and F4/80), neutrophil (Gr1 Ly-6G), and T-lymphocyte (CD3-ɛ) infiltration. Images captured with an Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope were analyzed using the Imaris software. The proportion of the subretinal bolus comprising graft cells (SV40T+) was significantly (p < 0.001) reduced between postoperative day (POD) 3 (90 ± 4%) and POD 7 (20 ± 7%). CD11b+, F4/80+, and Gr1 Ly-6G+ cells increased significantly (p < 0.05) from POD 1 and predominated over SV40T+ cells by POD 7. Colabeling confocal microscopic analysis demonstrated graft engulfment by neutrophils and macrophages at POD 7, and reconstruction of z-stacked confocal images confirmed SV40T inside Gr1 Ly-6G+ cells. Expression of CD3-ɛ was low and did not differ significantly between time points. By POD 28, no graft cells were detectable and few inflammatory cells remained. These studies reveal, for the first time, a critical role for innate immune mechanisms early in subretinal graft rejection. The future success

  18. Plants as sources of antiviral agents | Abonyi | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antivirals are substances other than a virus or virus containing vaccine or specific antibody which can produce either a protective or therapeutic effect to the clear detectable advantage of the virus infected host. The search for antiviral agents began in earnest in the 1950s but this was directed mainly by chance, with little or ...

  19. Self-interest versus group-interest in antiviral control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, M. van; Klinkenberg, D.; Pen, I.; Weissing, F.J.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Antiviral agents have been hailed to hold considerable promise for the treatment and prevention of emerging viral diseases like H5N1 avian influenza and SARS. However, antiviral drugs are not completely harmless, and the conditions under which individuals are willing to participate in a

  20. Anti-viral effect of herbal medicine Korean traditional Cynanchum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pestiviruses in general, and Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) in particular, present several potential targets for directed antiviral therapy. Material and Methods: The antiviral effect of Cynanchum paniculatum (Bge.) Kitag (Dog strangling vine: DS) extract on the bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus was tested. First ...

  1. Antiviral activity and mechanism of action of arbidol against Hantaan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Hantavirus, Arbidol, Toll-like receptors, inducible nitric oxide synthase, Antiviral activity, ... hantavirus infection. Arbidol is a broad-spectrum antiviral compound that has been shown to have inhibitory effect on influenza virus [4,5], respiratory syncytial virus [6], ..... species in hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome.

  2. IRF-4 and c-Rel expression in antiviral-resistant adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Juan Carlos; Ruiz, Phillip; Ratner, Lee; Reis, Isildinha M.; Brites, Carlos; Pedroso, Celia; Byrne, Gerald E.; Toomey, Ngoc L.; Andela, Valentine; Harhaj, Edward W.; Lossos, Izidore S.

    2007-01-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a generally fatal malignancy. Most ATLL patients fare poorly with conventional chemotherapy; however, antiviral therapy with zidovudine (AZT) and interferon alpha (IFN-α) has produced long-term clinical remissions. We studied primary ATLL tumors and identified molecular features linked to sensitivity and resistance to antiviral therapy. Enhanced expression of the proto-oncogene c-Rel was noted in 9 of 27 tumors. Resistant tumors exhibited c-Rel (6 of 10; 60%) more often than did sensitive variants (1 of 9; 11%). This finding was independent of the disease form. Elevated expression of the putative c-Rel target, interferon regulatory factor-4 (IRF-4), was observed in 10 (91%) of 11 nonresponders and in all tested patients with c-Rel+ tumors and occurred in the absence of the HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax. In contrast, tumors in complete responders did not express c-Rel or IRF-4. Gene rearrangement studies demonstrated the persistence of circulating T-cell clones in long-term survivors maintained on antiviral therapy. The expression of nuclear c-Rel and IRF-4 occurs in the absence of Tax in primary ATLL and is associated with antiviral resistance. These molecular features may help guide treatment. AZT and IFN-α is a suppressive rather than a curative regimen, and patients in clinical remission should remain on maintenance therapy indefinitely. PMID:17138822

  3. In vivo Ebola virus infection leads to a strong innate response in circulating immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Ignacio S; Honko, Anna N; Gire, Stephen K; Winnicki, Sarah M; Melé, Marta; Gerhardinger, Chiara; Lin, Aaron E; Rinn, John L; Sabeti, Pardis C; Hensley, Lisa E; Connor, John H

    2016-09-05

    Ebola virus is the causative agent of a severe syndrome in humans with a fatality rate that can approach 90 %. During infection, the host immune response is thought to become dysregulated, but the mechanisms through which this happens are not entirely understood. In this study, we analyze RNA sequencing data to determine the host response to Ebola virus infection in circulating immune cells. Approximately half of the 100 genes with the strongest early increases in expression were interferon-stimulated genes, such as ISG15, OAS1, IFIT2, HERC5, MX1 and DHX58. Other highly upregulated genes included cytokines CXCL11, CCL7, IL2RA, IL2R1, IL15RA, and CSF2RB, which have not been previously reported to change during Ebola virus infection. Comparing this response in two different models of exposure (intramuscular and aerosol) revealed a similar signature of infection. The strong innate response in the aerosol model was seen not only in circulating cells, but also in primary and secondary target tissues. Conversely, the innate immune response of vaccinated macaques was almost non-existent. This suggests that the innate response is a major aspect of the cellular response to Ebola virus infection in multiple tissues. Ebola virus causes a severe infection in humans that is associated with high mortality. The host immune response to virus infection is thought to be an important aspect leading to severe pathology, but the components of this overactive response are not well characterized. Here, we analyzed how circulating immune cells respond to the virus and found that there is a strong innate response dependent on active virus replication. This finding is in stark contrast to in vitro evidence showing a suppression of innate immune signaling, and it suggests that the strong innate response we observe in infected animals may be an important contributor to pathogenesis.

  4. Characterization of the RNA silencing suppression activity of the Ebola virus VP35 protein in plants and mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yali; Cherukuri, Nil Celebi; Jackel, Jamie N; Wu, Zetang; Crary, Monica; Buckley, Kenneth J; Bisaro, David M; Parris, Deborah S

    2012-03-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) causes a lethal hemorrhagic fever for which there is no approved effective treatment or prevention strategy. EBOV VP35 is a virulence factor that blocks innate antiviral host responses, including the induction of and response to alpha/beta interferon. VP35 is also an RNA silencing suppressor (RSS). By inhibiting microRNA-directed silencing, mammalian virus RSSs have the capacity to alter the cellular environment to benefit replication. A reporter gene containing specific microRNA target sequences was used to demonstrate that prior expression of wild-type VP35 was able to block establishment of microRNA silencing in mammalian cells. In addition, wild-type VP35 C-terminal domain (CTD) protein fusions were shown to bind small interfering RNA (siRNA). Analysis of mutant proteins demonstrated that reporter activity in RSS assays did not correlate with their ability to antagonize double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase R (PKR) or bind siRNA. The results suggest that enhanced reporter activity in the presence of VP35 is a composite of nonspecific translational enhancement and silencing suppression. Moreover, most of the specific RSS activity in mammalian cells is RNA binding independent, consistent with VP35's proposed role in sequestering one or more silencing complex proteins. To examine RSS activity in a system without interferon, VP35 was tested in well-characterized plant silencing suppression assays. VP35 was shown to possess potent plant RSS activity, and the activities of mutant proteins correlated strongly, but not exclusively, with RNA binding ability. The results suggest the importance of VP35-protein interactions in blocking silencing in a system (mammalian) that cannot amplify dsRNA.

  5. RNAi: antiviral therapy against dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, Sobia; Ashfaq, Usman A

    2013-03-01

    Dengue virus infection has become a global threat affecting around 100 countries in the world. Currently, there is no licensed antiviral agent available against dengue. Thus, there is a strong need to develop therapeutic strategies that can tackle this life threatening disease. RNA interference is an important and effective gene silencing process which degrades targeted RNA by a sequence specific process. Several studies have been conducted during the last decade to evaluate the efficiency of siRNA in inhibiting dengue virus replication. This review summarizes siRNAs as a therapeutic approach against dengue virus serotypes and concludes that siRNAs against virus and host genes can be next generation treatment of dengue virus infection.

  6. Hedging against antiviral resistance during the next influenza pandemic using small stockpiles of an alternative chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T Wu

    2009-05-01

    large cities to investigate the robustness of these resistance-limiting strategies at a global scale. We found that as long as populations that were the main source of resistant strains employed these strategies (SMC or ECC, then those same strategies were also effective for populations far from the source even when some intermediate populations failed to control resistance. In essence, through the existence of many wild-type epidemics, the interconnectedness of the global network dampened the international spread of resistant strains.Our results indicate that the augmentation of existing stockpiles of a single anti-influenza drug with smaller stockpiles of a second drug could be an effective and inexpensive epidemiological hedge against antiviral resistance if either SMC or ECC were used. Choosing between these strategies will require additional empirical studies. Specifically, the choice will depend on the safety of combination therapy and the synergistic effect of one antiviral in suppressing the emergence of resistance to the other antiviral when both are taken in combination.

  7. Innate immunity is not related to the sex of adult Tree Swallows during the nestling period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdek, Bradley J.; Lombardo, Michael P.; Thorpe, Patrick A.; Hahn, D. Caldwell

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that exposure to more diverse pathogens will result in the evolution of a more robust immune response. We predicted that during the breeding season the innate immune function of female Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) should be more effective than that of males because (1) the transmission of sexually transmitted microbes during copulation puts females at greater risk because ejaculates move from males to females, (2) females copulate with multiple males, exposing them to the potentially pathogenic microbes in semen, and (3) females spend more time in the nest than do males so may be more exposed to nest microbes and ectoparasites that can be vectors of bacterial and viral pathogens. In addition, elevated testosterone in males may suppress immune function. We tested our prediction during the 2009 breeding season with microbicidal assays in vitro to assess the ability of the innate immune system to kill Escherichia coli. The sexes did not differ in the ability of their whole blood to kill E. coli. We also found no significant relationships between the ability of whole blood to kill E. coli and the reproductive performance or the physical condition of males or females. These results indicate that during the nestling period there are no sexual differences in this component of the innate immune system. In addition, they suggest that there is little association between this component of innate immunity and the reproductive performance and physical condition during the nestling period of adult Tree Swallows.

  8. WITHDRAWN. Antiviral treatment for Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagyor, Ildiko; Madhok, Vishnu B; Daly, Fergus; Somasundara, Dhruvashree; Sullivan, Michael; Gammie, Fiona; Sullivan, Frank

    2015-05-04

    Corticosteroids are widely used in the treatment of idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell's palsy), but the effectiveness of additional treatment with an antiviral agent is uncertain. Significant morbidity can be associated with severe cases of Bell's palsy. To assess the effects of antiviral treatments alone or in combination with any other therapy for Bell's palsy. On 7 October 2014 we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, DARE, NHS EED, and HTA. We also reviewed the bibliographies of the identified trials and contacted trial authors and known experts in the field and relevant drug companies to identify additional published or unpublished data. We searched clinical trials registries for ongoing studies. We considered randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials of antivirals with and without corticosteroids versus control therapies for the treatment of Bell's palsy. We excluded trials that had a high risk of bias in several domains. Pairs of authors independently assessed trials for relevance, eligibility, and risk of bias, using standard Cochrane procedures. Eleven trials, including 2883 participants, met the inclusion criteria and are included in the final analysis. We added four studies to the previous review for this update. Some of the trials were small, and a number were at high or unclear risk of bias. Other trials did not meet current best standards in allocation concealment and blinding. Incomplete recoveryWe found no significant benefit from adding antivirals to corticosteroids in comparison with corticosteroids alone for people with Bell's palsy (risk ratio (RR) 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 to 1.02, n = 1715). For people with severe Bell's palsy (House-Brackmann scores of 5 and 6 or the equivalent in other scales), we found a reduction in the rate of incomplete recovery at month six when antivirals plus corticosteroids were used (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.41 to 0

  9. An antiviral protein from Bougainvillea spectabilis roots; purification and characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasaraswathi, R; Sadasivam, S; Ward, M; Walker, J M

    1998-04-01

    An antiviral protein active against mechanical transmission of tomato spotted wilt virus was identified in the root tissues of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. Bougainvillea Antiviral Protein I (BAP I) was purified to apparent homogeneity from the roots of Bougainvillea by ammonium sulphate precipitation, CM- and DEAE-Sepharose chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. BAP I is a highly basic protein (pI value > 8.6) with an Mr of 28,000. The N-terminal sequence of BAP I showed homology with other plant antiviral proteins. Preliminary tests suggest that purified BAP I is capable of interfering with in vitro protein synthesis.

  10. Immune evasion strategies of ranaviruses and innate immune responses to these emerging pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayfer, Leon; Andino, Francisco De Jesús; Chen, Guangchun; Chinchar, Gregory V; Robert, Jacques

    2012-07-01

    Ranaviruses (RV, Iridoviridae) are large double-stranded DNA viruses that infect fish, amphibians and reptiles. For ecological and commercial reasons, considerable attention has been drawn to the increasing prevalence of ranaviral infections of wild populations and in aquacultural settings. Importantly, RVs appear to be capable of crossing species barriers of numerous poikilotherms, suggesting that these pathogens possess a broad host range and potent immune evasion mechanisms. Indeed, while some of the 95-100 predicted ranavirus genes encode putative evasion proteins (e.g., vIFα, vCARD), roughly two-thirds of them do not share significant sequence identity with known viral or eukaryotic genes. Accordingly, the investigation of ranaviral virulence and immune evasion strategies is promising for elucidating potential antiviral targets. In this regard, recombination-based technologies are being employed to knock out gene candidates in the best-characterized RV member, Frog Virus (FV3). Concurrently, by using animal infection models with extensively characterized immune systems, such as the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, it is becoming evident that components of innate immunity are at the forefront of virus-host interactions. For example, cells of the macrophage lineage represent important combatants of RV infections while themselves serving as targets for viral infection, maintenance and possibly dissemination. This review focuses on the recent advances in the understanding of the RV immune evasion strategies with emphasis on the roles of the innate immune system in ranaviral infections.

  11. An Interferon Regulated MicroRNA Provides Broad Cell-Intrinsic Antiviral Immunity through Multihit Host-Directed Targeting of the Sterol Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kevin A.; Hsieh, Wei Yuan; Forster, Thorsten; Blanc, Mathieu; Lu, Hongjin; Crick, Peter J.; Yutuc, Eylan; Watterson, Steven; Martin, Kimberly; Griffiths, Samantha J.; Enright, Anton J.; Yamamoto, Mami; Pradeepa, Madapura M.; Lennox, Kimberly A.; Behlke, Mark A.; Talbot, Simon; Haas, Jürgen; Dölken, Lars; Griffiths, William J.; Wang, Yuqin; Angulo, Ana; Ghazal, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In invertebrates, small interfering RNAs are at the vanguard of cell-autonomous antiviral immunity. In contrast, antiviral mechanisms initiated by interferon (IFN) signaling predominate in mammals. Whilst mammalian IFN-induced miRNA are known to inhibit specific viruses, it is not known whether host-directed microRNAs, downstream of IFN-signaling, have a role in mediating broad antiviral resistance. By performing an integrative, systematic, global analysis of RNA turnover utilizing 4-thiouridine labeling of newly transcribed RNA and pri/pre-miRNA in IFN-activated macrophages, we identify a new post-transcriptional viral defense mechanism mediated by miR-342-5p. On the basis of ChIP and site-directed promoter mutagenesis experiments, we find the synthesis of miR-342-5p is coupled to the antiviral IFN response via the IFN-induced transcription factor, IRF1. Strikingly, we find miR-342-5p targets mevalonate-sterol biosynthesis using a multihit mechanism suppressing the pathway at different functional levels: transcriptionally via SREBF2, post-transcriptionally via miR-33, and enzymatically via IDI1 and SC4MOL. Mass spectrometry-based lipidomics and enzymatic assays demonstrate the targeting mechanisms reduce intermediate sterol pathway metabolites and total cholesterol in macrophages. These results reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism by which IFN regulates the sterol pathway. The sterol pathway is known to be an integral part of the macrophage IFN antiviral response, and we show that miR-342-5p exerts broad antiviral effects against multiple, unrelated pathogenic viruses such Cytomegalovirus and Influenza A (H1N1). Metabolic rescue experiments confirm the specificity of these effects and demonstrate that unrelated viruses have differential mevalonate and sterol pathway requirements for their replication. This study, therefore, advances the general concept of broad antiviral defense through multihit targeting of a single host pathway. PMID:26938778

  12. An Interferon Regulated MicroRNA Provides Broad Cell-Intrinsic Antiviral Immunity through Multihit Host-Directed Targeting of the Sterol Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Robertson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In invertebrates, small interfering RNAs are at the vanguard of cell-autonomous antiviral immunity. In contrast, antiviral mechanisms initiated by interferon (IFN signaling predominate in mammals. Whilst mammalian IFN-induced miRNA are known to inhibit specific viruses, it is not known whether host-directed microRNAs, downstream of IFN-signaling, have a role in mediating broad antiviral resistance. By performing an integrative, systematic, global analysis of RNA turnover utilizing 4-thiouridine labeling of newly transcribed RNA and pri/pre-miRNA in IFN-activated macrophages, we identify a new post-transcriptional viral defense mechanism mediated by miR-342-5p. On the basis of ChIP and site-directed promoter mutagenesis experiments, we find the synthesis of miR-342-5p is coupled to the antiviral IFN response via the IFN-induced transcription factor, IRF1. Strikingly, we find miR-342-5p targets mevalonate-sterol biosynthesis using a multihit mechanism suppressing the pathway at different functional levels: transcriptionally via SREBF2, post-transcriptionally via miR-33, and enzymatically via IDI1 and SC4MOL. Mass spectrometry-based lipidomics and enzymatic assays demonstrate the targeting mechanisms reduce intermediate sterol pathway metabolites and total cholesterol in macrophages. These results reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism by which IFN regulates the sterol pathway. The sterol pathway is known to be an integral part of the macrophage IFN antiviral response, and we show that miR-342-5p exerts broad antiviral effects against multiple, unrelated pathogenic viruses such Cytomegalovirus and Influenza A (H1N1. Metabolic rescue experiments confirm the specificity of these effects and demonstrate that unrelated viruses have differential mevalonate and sterol pathway requirements for their replication. This study, therefore, advances the general concept of broad antiviral defense through multihit targeting of a single host pathway.

  13. Current antiviral drugs and their analysis in biological materials - Part II: Antivirals against hepatitis and HIV viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Lucie; Pavlík, Jakub; Chrenková, Lucia; Martinec, Ondřej; Červený, Lukáš

    2018-01-05

    This review is a Part II of the series aiming to provide comprehensive overview of currently used antiviral drugs and to show modern approaches to their analysis. While in the Part I antivirals against herpes viruses and antivirals against respiratory viruses were addressed, this part concerns antivirals against hepatitis viruses (B and C) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Many novel antivirals against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV have been introduced into the clinical practice over the last decade. The recent broadening portfolio of these groups of antivirals is reflected in increasing number of developed analytical methods required to meet the needs of clinical terrain. Part II summarizes the mechanisms of action of antivirals against hepatitis B virus (HBV), HCV, and HIV, their use in clinical practice, and analytical methods for individual classes. It also provides expert opinion on state of art in the field of bioanalysis of these drugs. Analytical methods reflect novelty of these chemical structures and use by far the most current approaches, such as simple and high-throughput sample preparation and fast separation, often by means of UHPLC-MS/MS. Proper method validation based on requirements of bioanalytical guidelines is an inherent part of the developed methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-consuming innate immunity in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofius, Daniel; Mundy, John; Petersen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) associated with the pathogen-induced hypersensitive response (HR) is a hallmark of plant innate immunity. HR PCD is triggered upon recognition of pathogen effector molecules by host immune receptors either directly or indirectly via effector modulation of host targets...

  15. The biology of human innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernink, J.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I performed studies to investigate the contribution of human innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in maintaining the mucosal homeostasis, initiating and/or propagating inflammatory responses, but also - when not properly regulated - how these cells contribute to immunopathology. First I

  16. Innate lymphoid cells in inflammation and immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenzie, Andrew N. J.; Spits, Hergen; Eberl, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were first described as playing important roles in the development of lymphoid tissues and more recently in the initiation of inflammation at barrier surfaces in response to infection or tissue damage. It has now become apparent that ILCs play more complex roles

  17. Innate lymphoid cells in inflammatory bowel diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, C. P.; Mjösberg, J. M.; Bernink, J. H.; Spits, H.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally believed that inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are caused by an aberrant immune response to environmental triggers in genetically susceptible individuals. The exact contribution of the adaptive and innate immune system has not been elucidated. However, recent advances in treatments

  18. The biology of innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artis, David; Spits, Hergen

    2015-01-01

    The innate immune system is composed of a diverse array of evolutionarily ancient haematopoietic cell types, including dendritic cells, monocytes, macrophages and granulocytes. These cell populations collaborate with each other, with the adaptive immune system and with non-haematopoietic cells to

  19. Transcriptional control of innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mjösberg, Jenny; Bernink, Jochem; Peters, Charlotte; Spits, Hergen

    2012-01-01

    Cells that belong to the family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) not only form a first line of defense against invading microbes, but also play essential roles in tissue remodeling and immune pathology. Ror?t+ ILCs, producing the cytokines IL-22 and IL-17, include lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells

  20. Biliary Innate Immunity: Function and Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Harada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biliary innate immunity is involved in the pathogenesis of cholangiopathies in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC and biliary atresia. Biliary epithelial cells possess an innate immune system consisting of the Toll-like receptor (TLR family and recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. Tolerance to bacterial PAMPs such as lipopolysaccharides is also important to maintain homeostasis in the biliary tree, but tolerance to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA is not found. In PBC, CD4-positive Th17 cells characterized by the secretion of IL-17 are implicated in the chronic inflammation of bile ducts and the presence of Th17 cells around bile ducts is causally associated with the biliary innate immune responses to PAMPs. Moreover, a negative regulator of intracellular TLR signaling, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ, is involved in the pathogenesis of cholangitis. Immunosuppression using PPARγ ligands may help to attenuate the bile duct damage in PBC patients. In biliary atresia characterized by a progressive, inflammatory, and sclerosing cholangiopathy, dsRNA viruses are speculated to be an etiological agent and to directly induce enhanced biliary apoptosis via the expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL. Moreover, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of biliary epithelial cells is also evoked by the biliary innate immune response to dsRNA.

  1. Is there an innate need for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    1974-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT It is commonly assumed that we have an innate need for children, in particular, that women have a 'mother instinct'. This belief lives in the general public as well as among scientists. In this paper that theory is criticized on two grounds: Firstly, it is argued that the theory

  2. Host Genetics: Fine-Tuning Innate Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Fellay, Jacques; Goldstein, David B.

    2007-01-01

    A polymorphism modulating innate immunity signal transduction has recently been shown to influence human susceptibility to many different infections, providing one more indication of the potential of host genetics to reveal physiological pathways and mechanisms that influence resistance to infectious diseases.

  3. Innate immune signalling of the zebrafish embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stockhammer, Oliver W.

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade the study of the innate immune system has gained renewed scientific momentum as a result of the discovery of essential receptor families, such as the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, that are required for pathogen recognition. These receptors detect specific molecular structures

  4. Peripheral blood monocyte subsets predict antiviral response in chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, Y; Martín-Vílchez, S; López-Rodríguez, R; Hernández-Bartolomé, A; Trapero-Marugán, M; Borque, M J; Moreno-Otero, R; Sanz-Cameno, P

    2011-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus infection evolves into chronic progressive liver disease in a significant percentage of patients. Monocytes constitute a diverse group of myeloid cells that mediate innate and adaptive immune response. In addition to proinflammatory CD16+ monocytes, a Tie-2+ subgroup - Tie-2 expressing monocytes (TEMs) - that has robust proangiogenic potential has been recently defined. To study the heterogeneity of peripheral blood monocytes in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients and to examine their proposed pathophysiological roles on disease progression and response to antiviral therapy. We studied CD16+ and Tie-2+ peripheral monocyte subpopulations in 21 healthy subjects and 39 CHC patients in various stages of disease and responses to antiviral treatment using flow cytometry. Expression profiles of proangiogenic and tissue remodelling factors in monocyte supernatants were measured using ELISA and protein arrays. Intrahepatic expression of CD14, CD31 and Tie-2 was analysed using immunofluorescence. Increases of certain peripheral monocyte subsets were observed in the blood of CHC patients, wherein those cells with proinflammatory (CD16+) or proangiogenic (TEMs) potential expanded (P TEMs were significantly increased in nonresponders, particularly those with lower CD16 expression. In addition, many angiogenic factors were differentially expressed by peripheral monocytes from control or CHC patients, such as angiopoietin-1 and angiogenin (P TEMs were distinguished within portal infiltrates of CHC patients. These findings suggest for the first time the relevance of peripheral monocytes phenotypes for the achievement of response to treatment. Hence, the study of monocyte subset regulation might effect improved CHC prognoses and adjuvant therapies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Transgenic Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat/Cas9-Mediated Viral Gene Targeting for Antiviral Therapy of Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuqing; Hou, Chengxiang; Bi, Honglun; Wang, Yueqiang; Xu, Jun; Li, Muwang; James, Anthony A; Huang, Yongping; Tan, Anjiang

    2017-04-15

    We developed a novel antiviral strategy by combining transposon-based transgenesis and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system for the direct cleavage of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) genome DNA to promote virus clearance in silkworms. We demonstrate that transgenic silkworms constitutively expressing Cas9 and guide RNAs targeting the BmNPV immediate early-1 ( ie-1 ) and me53 genes effectively induce target-specific cleavage and subsequent mutagenesis, especially large (∼7-kbp) segment deletions in BmNPV genomes, and thus exhibit robust suppression of BmNPV proliferation. Transgenic animals exhibited higher and inheritable resistance to BmNPV infection than wild-type animals. Our approach will not only contribute to modern sericulture but also shed light on future antiviral therapy. IMPORTANCE Pathogen genome targeting has shown its potential in antiviral research. However, transgenic CRISPR/Cas9 system-mediated viral genome targeting has not been reported as an antiviral strategy in a natural animal host of a virus. Our data provide an effective approach against BmNPV infection in a real-world biological system and demonstrate the potential of transgenic CRISPR/Cas9 systems in antiviral research in other species. Copyright © 2017 Chen et al.

  6. DMPD: Function of RIG-I-like receptors in antiviral innate immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available File (.html) CSML File (.csml) Open .csml file with CIOPlayer Open .csml file with CIOPlayer - ※CIO Playerのご利用上の注意 Open .csml file with CIO Open .csml file with CIO - ※CIOのご利用上の注意 ...

  7. Aberrant innate immune activation following tissue injury impairs pancreatic regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra E Folias

    Full Text Available Normal tissue architecture is disrupted following injury, as resident tissue cells become damaged and immune cells are recruited to the site of injury. While injury and inflammation are critical to tissue remodeling, the inability to resolve this response can lead to the destructive complications of chronic inflammation. In the pancreas, acinar cells of the exocrine compartment respond to injury by transiently adopting characteristics of progenitor cells present during embryonic development. This process of de-differentiation creates a window where a mature and stable cell gains flexibility and is potentially permissive to changes in cellular fate. How de-differentiation can turn an acinar cell into another cell type (such as a pancreatic β-cell, or a cell with cancerous potential (as in cases of deregulated Kras activity is of interest to both the regenerative medicine and cancer communities. While it is known that inflammation and acinar de-differentiation increase following pancreatic injury, it remains unclear which immune cells are involved in this process. We used a combination of genetically modified mice, immunological blockade and cellular characterization to identify the immune cells that impact pancreatic regeneration in an in vivo model of pancreatitis. We identified the innate inflammatory response of macrophages and neutrophils as regulators of pancreatic regeneration. Under normal conditions, mild innate inflammation prompts a transient de-differentiation of acinar cells that readily dissipates to allow normal regeneration. However, non-resolving inflammation developed when elevated pancreatic levels of neutrophils producing interferon-γ increased iNOS levels and the pro-inflammatory response of macrophages. Pancreatic injury improved following in vivo macrophage depletion, iNOS inhibition as well as suppression of iNOS levels in macrophages via interferon-γ blockade, supporting the impairment in regeneration and the

  8. Crosstalk between Innate Lymphoid Cells and Other Immune Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Flores-Borja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge and understanding of the tumor microenvironment (TME have been recently expanded with the recognition of the important role of innate lymphoid cells (ILC. Three different groups of ILC have been described based on their ability to produce cytokines that mediate the interactions between innate and adaptive immune cells in a variety of immune responses in infection, allergy, and autoimmunity. However, recent evidence from experimental models and clinical studies has demonstrated that ILC contribute to the mechanisms that generate suppressive or tolerant environments that allow tumor regression or progression. Defining the complex network of interactions and crosstalk of ILC with other immune cells and understanding the specific contributions of each type of ILC leading to tumor development will allow the manipulation of their function and will be important to develop new interventions and therapeutic strategies.

  9. Crosstalk between Innate Lymphoid Cells and Other Immune Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Sheeba; Gordon, Peter; Wong, Felix; Sheriff, Ibrahim; Tutt, Andrew; Ng, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge and understanding of the tumor microenvironment (TME) have been recently expanded with the recognition of the important role of innate lymphoid cells (ILC). Three different groups of ILC have been described based on their ability to produce cytokines that mediate the interactions between innate and adaptive immune cells in a variety of immune responses in infection, allergy, and autoimmunity. However, recent evidence from experimental models and clinical studies has demonstrated that ILC contribute to the mechanisms that generate suppressive or tolerant environments that allow tumor regression or progression. Defining the complex network of interactions and crosstalk of ILC with other immune cells and understanding the specific contributions of each type of ILC leading to tumor development will allow the manipulation of their function and will be important to develop new interventions and therapeutic strategies. PMID:27882334

  10. Innate scavenger receptor-A regulates adaptive T helper cell responses to pathogen infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhipeng; Xu, Lei; Li, Wei; Jin, Xin; Song, Xian; Chen, Xiaojun; Zhu, Jifeng; Zhou, Sha; Li, Yong; Zhang, Weiwei; Dong, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Xiaowei; Liu, Feng; Bai, Hui; Chen, Qi; Su, Chuan

    2017-01-01

    The pattern recognition receptor (PRR) scavenger receptor class A (SR-A) has an important function in the pathogenesis of non-infectious diseases and in innate immune responses to pathogen infections. However, little is known about the role of SR-A in the host adaptive immune responses to pathogen infection. Here we show with mouse models of helminth Schistosoma japonicum infection and heat-inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis stimulation that SR-A is regulated by pathogens and suppresses IRF5 nuclear translocation by direct interaction. Reduced abundance of nuclear IRF5 shifts macrophage polarization from M1 towards M2, which subsequently switches T-helper responses from type 1 to type 2. Our study identifies a role for SR-A as an innate PRR in regulating adaptive immune responses. PMID:28695899

  11. Potential Antiviral Agents from Marine Fungi: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity of the marine world is only partially subjected to detailed scientific scrutiny in comparison to terrestrial life. Life in the marine world depends heavily on marine fungi scavenging the oceans of lifeless plants and animals and entering them into the nutrient cycle by. Approximately 150 to 200 new compounds, including alkaloids, sesquiterpenes, polyketides, and aromatic compounds, are identified from marine fungi annually. In recent years, numerous investigations demonstrated the tremendous potential of marine fungi as a promising source to develop new antivirals against different important viruses, including herpes simplex viruses, the human immunodeficiency virus, and the influenza virus. Various genera of marine fungi such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were subjected to compound isolation and antiviral studies, which led to an illustration of the strong antiviral activity of a variety of marine fungi-derived compounds. The present review strives to summarize all available knowledge on active compounds isolated from marine fungi with antiviral activity.

  12. Antiviral evaluation of an Hsp90 inhibitor, gedunin, against dengue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further, in silico molecular docking data revealed strong interaction of gedunin with the ATP/ADP ... Keywords: Dengue virus replication, Hsp90, Gedunin, Antiviral, Molecular docking ..... Conformational dynamics of the molecular chaperone.

  13. Bell's Palsy: Treatment with Steroids and Antiviral Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drooping of a corner of the mouth • Difficulty smiling, frowning, or making other facial expressions • Twitching or ... no definite added improvement. If there is any benefit to adding an antiviral to steroid treatment, it ...

  14. Antiviral Resistance to Influenza Viruses: Clinical and Epidemiological Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vries, E.

    2017-01-01

    There are three classes of antiviral drugs approved for the treatment of influenza: the M2 ion channel inhibitors (amantadine, rimantadine), neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (laninamivir, oseltamivir, peramivir, zanamivir), and the protease inhibitor (favipiravir); some of the agents are only available

  15. Antiviral activities of streptomycetes against tobacco mosaic virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mahera Shinwari

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... Key words: Antiviral activity, tobacco mosaic virus, actinomycetes, Streptomyces, Datura metel ... have received less attention than those caused by fungal .... leaves were divided in to three partitions each containing triplicates.

  16. Development of Small-Molecule Antivirals for Ebola

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeba, Zlatko

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 6 (2015), s. 1175-1194 ISSN 0198-6325 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : antiviral * filovirus * Ebola virus * Marburg virus * hemorrhagic fever Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 9.135, year: 2015

  17. Elevation of intact and proteolytic fragments of acute phase proteins constitutes the earliest systemic antiviral response in HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger B Kramer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The earliest immune responses activated in acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection (AHI exert a critical influence on subsequent virus spread or containment. During this time frame, components of the innate immune system such as macrophages and DCs, NK cells, beta-defensins, complement and other anti-microbial factors, which have all been implicated in modulating HIV infection, may play particularly important roles. A proteomics-based screen was performed on a cohort from whom samples were available at time points prior to the earliest positive HIV detection. The ability of selected factors found to be elevated in the plasma during AHI to inhibit HIV-1 replication was analyzed using in vitro PBMC and DC infection models. Analysis of unique plasma donor panels spanning the eclipse and viral expansion phases revealed very early alterations in plasma proteins in AHI. Induction of acute phase protein serum amyloid A (A-SAA occurred as early as 5-7 days prior to the first detection of plasma viral RNA, considerably prior to any elevation in systemic cytokine levels. Furthermore, a proteolytic fragment of alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT, termed virus inhibitory peptide (VIRIP, was observed in plasma coincident with viremia. Both A-SAA and VIRIP have anti-viral activity in vitro and quantitation of their plasma levels indicated that circulating concentrations are likely to be within the range of their inhibitory activity. Our results provide evidence for a first wave of host anti-viral defense occurring in the eclipse phase of AHI prior to systemic activation of other immune responses. Insights gained into the mechanism of action of acute-phase reactants and other innate molecules against HIV and how they are induced could be exploited for the future development of more efficient prophylactic vaccine strategies.

  18. Research progress in antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Guoying

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Antiviral therapy is the most important treatment for chronic hepatitis C. This paper reviews the progress in antiviral treatment over recent years, including the combination therapy with polyethylene glycol-Interferon (PEG-IFN and ribavirin (RBV, specific target therapy, and gene therapy. The paper believes that the anti-hepatitis C virus treatment needs more effective drug combination therapies, shorter courses, less side effect, higher drug resistance threshold, etc.

  19. Antiviral resistance and the control of pandemic influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lipsitch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The response to the next influenza pandemic will likely include extensive use of antiviral drugs (mainly oseltamivir, combined with other transmission-reducing measures. Animal and in vitro studies suggest that some strains of influenza may become resistant to oseltamivir while maintaining infectiousness (fitness. Use of antiviral agents on the scale anticipated for the control of pandemic influenza will create an unprecedented selective pressure for the emergence and spread of these strains. Nonetheless, antiviral resistance has received little attention when evaluating these plans.We designed and analyzed a deterministic compartmental model of the transmission of oseltamivir-sensitive and -resistant influenza infections during a pandemic. The model predicts that even if antiviral treatment or prophylaxis leads to the emergence of a transmissible resistant strain in as few as 1 in 50,000 treated persons and 1 in 500,000 prophylaxed persons, widespread use of antivirals may strongly promote the spread of resistant strains at the population level, leading to a prevalence of tens of percent by the end of a pandemic. On the other hand, even in circumstances in which a resistant strain spreads widely, the use of antivirals may significantly delay and/or reduce the total size of the pandemic. If resistant strains carry some fitness cost, then, despite widespread emergence of resistance, antivirals could slow pandemic spread by months or more, and buy time for vaccine development; this delay would be prolonged by nondrug control measures (e.g., social distancing that reduce transmission, or use of a stockpiled suboptimal vaccine. Surprisingly, the model suggests that such nondrug control measures would increase the proportion of the epidemic caused by resistant strains.The benefits of antiviral drug use to control an influenza pandemic may be reduced, although not completely offset, by drug resistance in the virus. Therefore, the risk of resistance

  20. Mushrooms as a source of substances with antiviral activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Kandefer-Szerszeń

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Water extracts the fructifications of 56 species of fungi were examined as a source of antiviral substances with activity against VS and vaccinia viruses. Extracts from 16 fungal species exhibited the antiviral activity. Water extracts from Boletus edulis active against vaccinia virus and extract from Armillariella mellea active against VS virus are particularly worth nothing. Both of them in applied concentrations were not toxic in chick embryo fibroblasts tissue culture.

  1. Changes in soluble factor-mediated CD8+ cell-derived antiviral activity in cynomolgus macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac251: relationship to biological markers of progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioszeghy, Vincent; Benlhassan-Chahour, Kadija; Delache, Benoit; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Aubenque, Celine; Gras, Gabriel; Le Grand, Roger; Vaslin, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown that the capacity of CD8+ cells from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) SIVmac-infected macaques to suppress the replication of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses in vitro depends on the clinical stage of disease, but little is known about changes in this antiviral activity over time in individual HIV-infected patients or SIV-infected macaques. We assessed changes in the soluble factor-mediated noncytolytic antiviral activity of CD8+ cells over time in eight cynomolgus macaques infected with SIVmac251 to determine the pathophysiological role of this activity. CD8+ cell-associated antiviral activity increased rapidly in the first week after viral inoculation and remained detectable during the early phase of infection. The net increase in antiviral activity of CD8+ cells was correlated with plasma viral load throughout the 15 months of follow-up. CD8+ cells gradually lost their antiviral activity over time and acquired virus replication-enhancing capacity. Levels of antiviral activity correlated with CD4+ T-cell counts after viral set point. Concentrations of beta-chemokines and interleukin-16 in CD8+ cell supernatants were not correlated with this antiviral activity, and alpha-defensins were not detected. The soluble factor-mediated antiviral activity of CD8+ cells was neither cytolytic nor restricted to major histocompatibility complex. This longitudinal study strongly suggests that the increase in noncytolytic antiviral activity from baseline and the maintenance of this increase over time in cynomolgus macaques depend on both viral replication and CD4+ T cells.

  2. Changes in Soluble Factor-Mediated CD8+ Cell-Derived Antiviral Activity in Cynomolgus Macaques Infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac251: Relationship to Biological Markers of Progression†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioszeghy, Vincent; Benlhassan-Chahour, Kadija; Delache, Benoit; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Aubenque, Celine; Gras, Gabriel; Le Grand, Roger; Vaslin, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown that the capacity of CD8+ cells from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) SIVmac-infected macaques to suppress the replication of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses in vitro depends on the clinical stage of disease, but little is known about changes in this antiviral activity over time in individual HIV-infected patients or SIV-infected macaques. We assessed changes in the soluble factor-mediated noncytolytic antiviral activity of CD8+ cells over time in eight cynomolgus macaques infected with SIVmac251 to determine the pathophysiological role of this activity. CD8+ cell-associated antiviral activity increased rapidly in the first week after viral inoculation and remained detectable during the early phase of infection. The net increase in antiviral activity of CD8+ cells was correlated with plasma viral load throughout the 15 months of follow-up. CD8+ cells gradually lost their antiviral activity over time and acquired virus replication-enhancing capacity. Levels of antiviral activity correlated with CD4+ T-cell counts after viral set point. Concentrations of β-chemokines and interleukin-16 in CD8+ cell supernatants were not correlated with this antiviral activity, and α-defensins were not detected. The soluble factor-mediated antiviral activity of CD8+ cells was neither cytolytic nor restricted to major histocompatibility complex. This longitudinal study strongly suggests that the increase in noncytolytic antiviral activity from baseline and the maintenance of this increase over time in cynomolgus macaques depend on both viral replication and CD4+ T cells. PMID:16352548

  3. Antiviral Roles of Abscisic Acid in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Alazem

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA is a key hormone involved in tuning responses to several abiotic stresses and also has remarkable impacts on plant defense against various pathogens. The roles of ABA in plant defense against bacteria and fungi are multifaceted, inducing or reducing defense responses depending on its time of action. However, ABA induces different resistance mechanisms to viruses regardless of the induction time. Recent studies have linked ABA to the antiviral silencing pathway, which interferes with virus accumulation, and the micro RNA (miRNA pathway through which ABA affects the maturation and stability of miRNAs. ABA also induces callose deposition at plasmodesmata, a mechanism that limits viral cell-to-cell movement. Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV is a member of the potexvirus group and is one of the most studied viruses in terms of the effects of ABA on its accumulation and resistance. In this review, we summarize how ABA interferes with the accumulation and movement of BaMV and other viruses. We also highlight aspects of ABA that may have an effect on other types of resistance and that require further investigation.

  4. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestha Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.

  5. Viral respiratory diseases: vaccines and antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennette, E H

    1981-01-01

    Acute respiratory diseases, most of which are generally attributed to viruses, account for about 6% of all deaths and for about 60% of the deaths associated with all respiratory disease. The huge cost attributable to viral respiratory infections as a result of absenteeism and the disruption of business and the burden of medical care makes control of these diseases an important objective. The viruses that infect the respiratory tract fall taxonomically into five viral families. Although immunoprophylaxis would appear to be the logical approach, the development of suitable vaccines has been confronted with numerous obstacles, including antigenic drift and shift in the influenzaviruses, the large number of antigenically distinct immunotypes among rhinoviruses, the occurrence after immunization of rare cases of a severe form of the disease following subsequent natural infection with respiratory syncytial virus, and the risk of oncogenicity of adenoviruses for man. Considerable expenditure on the development of new antiviral drugs has so far resulted in only three compounds that are at present officially approved and licensed for use in the USA. Efforts to improve the tools available for control should continue and imaginative and inventive approaches are called for. However, creativity and ingenuity must operate within the constraints imposed by economic, political, ethical, and legal considerations.

  6. Characterization of the effect of Cr(VI) on humoral innate immunity using Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragya, P; Shukla, A K; Murthy, R C; Abdin, M Z; Kar Chowdhuri, D

    2015-11-01

    With the advancement of human race, different anthropogenic activities have heaped the environment with chemicals that can cause alteration in the immune system of exposed organism. As a first line of barrier, the evolutionary conserved innate immunity is crucial for the health of an organism. However, there is paucity of information regarding in vivo assessment of the effect of environmental chemicals on innate immunity. Therefore, we examined the effect of a widely used environmental chemical, Cr(VI), on humoral innate immune response using Drosophila melanogaster. The adverse effect of Cr(VI) on host humoral response was characterized by decreased gene expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the exposed organism. Concurrently, a significantly decreased transcription of humoral pathway receptors (Toll and PGRP) and triglyceride level along with inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities were observed in exposed organism. This in turn weakened the immune response of exposed organism that was manifested by their reduced resistance against bacterial infection. In addition, overexpression of the components of humoral immunity particularly Diptericin benefits Drosophila from Cr(VI)-induced humoral immune-suppressive effect. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding negative impact of an environmental chemical on humoral innate immune response of Drosophila along with subsequent protection by AMPs, which may provide novel insight into host-chemical interactions. Also, our data validate the utility and sensitivity of Drosophila as a model that could be used for screening the possible risk of environmental chemicals on innate immunity with minimum ethical concern that can be further extrapolated to higher organisms. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Perspective of Use of Antiviral Peptides against Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Skalickova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The threat of a worldwide influenza pandemic has greatly increased over the past decade with the emergence of highly virulent avian influenza strains. The increased frequency of drug-resistant influenza strains against currently available antiviral drugs requires urgent development of new strategies for antiviral therapy, too. The research in the field of therapeutic peptides began to develop extensively in the second half of the 20th century. Since then, the mechanisms of action for several peptides and their antiviral prospect received large attention due to the global threat posed by viruses. Here, we discussed the therapeutic properties of peptides used in influenza treatment. Peptides with antiviral activity against influenza can be divided into three main groups. First, entry blocker peptides such as a Flupep that interact with influenza hemagglutinin, block its binding to host cells and prevent viral fusion. Second, several peptides display virucidal activity, disrupting viral envelopes, e.g., Melittin. Finally, a third set of peptides interacts with the viral polymerase complex and act as viral replication inhibitors such as PB1 derived peptides. Here, we present a review of the current literature describing the antiviral activity, mechanism and future therapeutic potential of these influenza antiviral peptides.

  8. Keeping your armour intact: how HIV-1 evades detection by the innate immune system: HIV-1 capsid controls detection of reverse transcription products by the cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelfait, Jonathan; Seiradake, Elena; Rehwinkel, Jan

    2014-07-01

    HIV-1 infects dendritic cells (DCs) without triggering an effective innate antiviral immune response. As a consequence, the induction of adaptive immune responses controlling virus spread is limited. In a recent issue of Immunity, Lahaye and colleagues show that intricate interactions of HIV capsid with the cellular cofactor cyclophilin A (CypA) control infection and innate immune activation in DCs. Manipulation of HIV-1 capsid to increase its affinity for CypA results in reduced virus infectivity and facilitates access of the cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS to reverse transcribed DNA. This in turn induces a strong host response. Here, we discuss these findings in the context of recent developments in innate immunity and consider the implications for disease control and vaccine design. © 2014 The Authors. Bioessays published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Amygdala EphB2 Signaling Regulates Glutamatergic Neuron Maturation and Innate Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Na; Liu, Xian-Dong; Zhuang, Hanyi; Henkemeyer, Mark; Yang, Jing-Yu; Xu, Nan-Jie

    2016-09-28

    The amygdala serves as emotional center to mediate innate fear behaviors that are reflected through neuronal responses to environmental aversive cues. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the initial neuron responses is poorly understood. In this study, we monitored the innate defensive responses to aversive stimuli of either elevated plus maze or predator odor in juvenile mice and found that glutamatergic neurons were activated in amygdala. Loss of EphB2, a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed in amygdala neurons, suppressed the reactions and led to defects in spine morphogenesis and fear behaviors. We further found a coupling of spinogenesis with these threat cues induced neuron activation in developing amygdala that was controlled by EphB2. A constitutively active form of EphB2 was sufficient to rescue the behavioral and morphological defects caused by ablation of ephrin-B3, a brain-enriched ligand to EphB2. These data suggest that kinase-dependent EphB2 intracellular signaling plays a major role for innate fear responses during the critical developing period, in which spinogenesis in amygdala glutamatergic neurons was involved. Generation of innate fear responses to threat as an evolutionally conserved brain feature relies on development of functional neural circuit in amygdala, but the molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. We here identify that EphB2 receptor tyrosine kinase, which is specifically expressed in glutamatergic neurons, is required for the innate fear responses in the neonatal brain. We further reveal that EphB2 mediates coordination of spinogenesis and neuron activation in amygdala during the critical period for the innate fear. EphB2 catalytic activity plays a major role for the behavior upon EphB-ephrin-B3 binding and transnucleus neuronal connections. Our work thus indicates an essential synaptic molecular signaling within amygdala that controls synapse development and helps bring about innate fear emotions in the postnatal

  10. Species-independent bioassay for sensitive quantification of antiviral type I interferons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penski Nicola

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of the host response to infection often require quantitative measurement of the antiviral type I interferons (IFN-α/β in biological samples. The amount of IFN is either determined via its ability to suppress a sensitive indicator virus, by an IFN-responding reporter cell line, or by ELISA. These assays however are either time-consuming and lack convenient readouts, or they are rather insensitive and restricted to IFN from a particular host species. Results An IFN-sensitive, Renilla luciferase-expressing Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV-Ren was generated using reverse genetics. Human, murine and avian cells were tested for their susceptibility to RVFV-Ren after treatment with species-specific IFNs. RVFV-Ren was able to infect cells of all three species, and IFN-mediated inhibition of viral reporter activity occurred in a dose-dependent manner. The sensitivity limit was found to be 1 U/ml IFN, and comparison with a standard curve allowed to determine the activity of an unknown sample. Conclusions RVFV-Ren replicates in cells of several species and is highly sensitive to pre-treatment with IFN. These properties allowed the development of a rapid, sensitive, and species-independent antiviral assay with a convenient luciferase-based readout.

  11. An antiviral disulfide compound blocks interaction between arenavirus Z protein and cellular promyelocytic leukemia protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, C.C.; Topisirovic, I.; Djavani, M.; Borden, K.L.B.; Damonte, E.B.; Salvato, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) forms nuclear bodies (NB) that can be redistributed by virus infection. In particular, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) influences disruption of PML NB through the interaction of PML with the arenaviral Z protein. In a previous report, we have shown that the disulfide compound NSC20625 has antiviral and virucidal properties against arenaviruses, inducing unfolding and oligomerization of Z without affecting cellular RING-containing proteins such as the PML. Here, we further studied the effect of the zinc-finger-reactive disulfide NSC20625 on PML-Z interaction. In HepG2 cells infected with LCMV or transiently transfected with Z protein constructs, treatment with NSC20625 restored PML distribution from a diffuse-cytoplasmic pattern to punctate, discrete NB which appeared identical to NB found in control, uninfected cells. Similar results were obtained in cells transfected with a construct expressing a Z mutant in zinc-binding site 2 of the RING domain, confirming that this Z-PML interaction requires the integrity of only one zinc-binding site. Altogether, these results show that the compound NSC20625 suppressed Z-mediated PML NB disruption and may be used as a tool for designing novel antiviral strategies against arenavirus infection.

  12. TRBP and eIF6 homologue in Marsupenaeus japonicus play crucial roles in antiviral response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    Full Text Available Plants and invertebrates can suppress viral infection through RNA silencing, mediated by RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC. Trans-activation response RNA-binding protein (TRBP, consisting of three double-stranded RNA-binding domains, is a component of the RISC. In our previous paper, a TRBP homologue in Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Fc-TRBP was reported to directly bind to eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (Fc-eIF6. In this study, we further characterized the function of TRBP and the involvement of TRBP and eIF6 in antiviral RNA interference (RNAi pathway of shrimp. The double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBDs B and C of the TRBP from Marsupenaeus japonicus (Mj-TRBP were found to mediate the interaction of TRBP and eIF6. Gel-shift assays revealed that the N-terminal of Mj-TRBP dsRBD strongly binds to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA and that the homodimer of the TRBP mediated by the C-terminal dsRBD increases the affinity to dsRNA. RNAi against either Mj-TRBP or Mj-eIF6 impairs the dsRNA-induced sequence-specific RNAi pathway and facilitates the proliferation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. These results further proved the important roles of TRBP and eIF6 in the antiviral response of shrimp.

  13. An in vitro reprogrammable antiviral RISC with size-preferential ribonuclease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarov, Rustem T; Ciomperlik, Jessica; Scholthof, Herman B

    2016-03-01

    Infection of Nicotiana benthamiana plants with Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) mutants compromised for silencing suppression induces formation of an antiviral RISC (vRISC) that can be isolated using chromatography procedures. The isolated vRISC sequence-specifically degrades TBSV RNA in vitro, its activity can be down-regulated by removing siRNAs, and re-stimulated by exogenous supply of siRNAs. vRISC is most effective at hydrolyzing the ~4.8kb genomic RNA, but less so for a ~2.2kb TBSV subgenomic mRNA (sgRNA1), while the 3' co-terminal sgRNA2 of ~0.9kb appears insensitive to vRISC cleavage. Moreover, experiments with in vitro generated 5' co-terminal viral transcripts show that RNAs of ~2.7kb are efficiently cleaved while those of ~1.1kb or shorter are unaffected. The isolated antiviral ribonuclease complex fails to degrade ~0.4kb defective interfering RNAs (DIs) in vitro, agreeing with findings that in plants DIs are not targeted by silencing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Regulation of intestinal homeostasis by innate immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayama, Hisako; Nishimura, Junichi; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2013-12-01

    The intestinal immune system has an ability to distinguish between the microbiota and pathogenic bacteria, and then activate pro-inflammatory pathways against pathogens for host defense while remaining unresponsive to the microbiota and dietary antigens. In the intestine, abnormal activation of innate immunity causes development of several inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Thus, activity of innate immunity is finely regulated in the intestine. To date, multiple innate immune cells have been shown to maintain gut homeostasis by preventing inadequate adaptive immune responses in the murine intestine. Additionally, several innate immune subsets, which promote Th1 and Th17 responses and are implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD, have recently been identified in the human intestinal mucosa. The demonstration of both murine and human intestinal innate immune subsets contributing to regulation of adaptive immunity emphasizes the conserved innate immune functions across species and might promote development of the intestinal innate immunity-based clinical therapy.

  15. Pathogen recognition in the innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Himanshu; Kawai, Taro; Akira, Shizuo

    2009-04-28

    Immunity against microbial pathogens primarily depends on the recognition of pathogen components by innate receptors expressed on immune and non-immune cells. Innate receptors are evolutionarily conserved germ-line-encoded proteins and include TLRs (Toll-like receptors), RLRs [RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I)-like receptors] and NLRs (Nod-like receptors). These receptors recognize pathogens or pathogen-derived products in different cellular compartments, such as the plasma membrane, the endosomes or the cytoplasm, and induce the expression of cytokines, chemokines and co-stimulatory molecules to eliminate pathogens and instruct pathogen-specific adaptive immune responses. In the present review, we will discuss the recent progress in the study of pathogen recognition by TLRs, RLRs and NLRs and their signalling pathways.

  16. Innate lymphoid cells and the MHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, M L; Colonna, M

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a new class of immune cells that include natural killer (NK) cells and appear to be the innate counterparts to CD4(+) helper T cells and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells based on developmental and functional similarities. Like T cells, both NK cells and other ILCs also show connections to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In human and mouse, NK cells recognize and respond to classical and nonclassical MHC I molecules as well as structural homologues, whereas mouse ILCs have recently been shown to express MHC II. We describe the history of MHC I recognition by NK cells and discuss emerging roles for MHC II expression by ILC subsets, making comparisons between both mouse and human when possible. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Isolation of Human Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbendam, Lisette; Nagasawa, Maho; Spits, Hergen; Bal, Suzanne M

    2018-06-29

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are innate immune cells of lymphoid origin that have important effector and regulatory functions in the first line of defense against pathogens, but also regulate tissue homeostasis, remodeling, and repair. Their function mirrors T helper cells and cytotoxic CD8 + T lymphocytes, but they lack expression of rearranged antigen-specific receptors. Distinct ILC subsets are classified in group 1 ILCs (ILC1s), group 2 ILCs (ILC2s), and group 3 ILCs (ILC3s and lymphoid tissue-inducer cells), based on the expression of transcription factors and the cytokines they produce. As the frequency of ILCs is low, their isolation requires extensive depletion of other cell types. The lack of unique cell surface antigens further complicates the identification of these cells. Here, methods for ILC isolation and characterization from human peripheral blood and different tissues are described. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  19. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  20. Neuromodulation of Innate Behaviors in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Susy M; Su, Chih-Ying; Wang, Jing W

    2017-07-25

    Animals are born with a rich repertoire of robust behaviors that are critical for their survival. However, innate behaviors are also highly adaptable to an animal's internal state and external environment. Neuromodulators, including biogenic amines, neuropeptides, and hormones, are released to signal changes in animals' circumstances and serve to reconfigure neural circuits. This circuit flexibility allows animals to modify their behavioral responses according to environmental cues, metabolic demands, and physiological states. Aided by powerful genetic tools, researchers have made remarkable progress in Drosophila melanogaster to address how a myriad of contextual information influences the input-output relationship of hardwired circuits that support a complex behavioral repertoire. Here we highlight recent advances in understanding neuromodulation of Drosophila innate behaviors, with a special focus on feeding, courtship, aggression, and postmating behaviors.

  1. Innate nonhost immunity in barley to different heterologous rust fungi is controlled by sets of resistance genes with different and overlapping specificities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jafary, H.; Szabo, L.J.; Niks, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    We developed an evolutionary relevant model system, barley-Puccini rust fungi, to study the inheritance and specificity of plant factors that determine to what extent innate nonhost immunity can be suppressed. A mapping population was developed from a cross between an experimental barley line

  2. Antiviral Activity of Lambda Interferon in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Antje; Soubies, Sebastien; Härtle, Sonja; Schusser, Benjamin; Kaspers, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are essential components of the antiviral defense system of vertebrates. In mammals, functional receptors for type III IFN (lambda interferon [IFN-λ]) are found mainly on epithelial cells, and IFN-λ was demonstrated to play a crucial role in limiting viral infections of mucosal surfaces. To determine whether IFN-λ plays a similar role in birds, we produced recombinant chicken IFN-λ (chIFN-λ) and we used the replication-competent retroviral RCAS vector system to generate mosaic-transgenic chicken embryos that constitutively express chIFN-λ. We could demonstrate that chIFN-λ markedly inhibited replication of various virus strains, including highly pathogenic influenza A viruses, in ovo and in vivo, as well as in epithelium-rich tissue and cell culture systems. In contrast, chicken fibroblasts responded poorly to chIFN-λ. When applied in vivo to 3-week-old chickens, recombinant chIFN-λ strongly induced the IFN-responsive Mx gene in epithelium-rich organs, such as lungs, tracheas, and intestinal tracts. Correspondingly, these organs were found to express high transcript levels of the putative chIFN-λ receptor alpha chain (chIL28RA) gene. Transfection of chicken fibroblasts with a chIL28RA expression construct rendered these cells responsive to chIFN-λ treatment, indicating that receptor expression determines cell type specificity of IFN-λ action in chickens. Surprisingly, mosaic-transgenic chickens perished soon after hatching, demonstrating a detrimental effect of constitutive chIFN-λ expression. Our data highlight fundamental similarities between the IFN-λ systems of mammals and birds and suggest that type III IFN might play a role in defending mucosal surfaces against viral intruders in most if not all vertebrates. PMID:24371053

  3. Innate Immunity Dysregulation in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    by the Regional Ministry of Education of Castilla-la Mancha, Spain, supported by the European Social Fund (ESF). We are thankful for the efforts...consistent with previous reports that aber rant activation of innate immune signals in MDS, including overcxpression of several TLRs (36) and loss...281: 1652- 1659. 14. Loiarro M, Set te C , Gallo G. Ciacc.i A, Fa nto N, et al. (2005) Peptide- media ted interference of T JR domain dimeri7.ation

  4. Innate lymphoid cells and their stromal microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermayer, Zoltán; Vojkovics, Dóra; Balogh, Péter

    2017-09-01

    In addition to the interaction between antigen presenting cells, T and B lymphocytes, recent studies have revealed important roles for a diverse set of auxiliary cells that profoundly influence the induction and regulation of immune responses against pathogens. Of these the stromal cells composed of various non-hematopoietic constituents are crucial for the creation and maintenance of specialized semi-static three-dimensional lymphoid tissue microenvironment, whereas the more recently described innate lymphoid cells are generated by the diversification of committed lymphoid precursor cells independently from clonally rearranged antigen receptor genes. Recent findings have revealed important contributions by innate lymphoid cells in inflammation and protection against pathogens in a tissue-specific manner. Importantly, lymphoid stromal cells also influence the onset of immune responses in tissue-specific fashion, raising the possibility of tissue-specific stromal - innate lymphoid cell collaboration. In this review we summarize the main features and interactions between these two cells types, with particular emphasis on ILC type 3 cells and their microenvironmental partners. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Epigenomic Views of Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciumè, Giuseppe; Shih, Han-Yu; Mikami, Yohei; O'Shea, John J

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) with selective production of cytokines typically attributed to subsets of T helper cells forces immunologists to reassess the mechanisms by which selective effector functions arise. The parallelism between ILCs and T cells extends beyond these two cell types and comprises other innate-like T lymphocytes. Beyond the recognition of specialized effector functionalities in diverse lymphocytes, features typical of T cells, such as plasticity and memory, are also relevant for innate lymphocytes. Herein, we review what we have learned in terms of the molecular mechanisms underlying these shared functions, focusing on insights provided by next generation sequencing technologies. We review data on the role of lineage-defining- and signal-dependent transcription factors (TFs). ILC regulomes emerge developmentally whereas the much of the open chromatin regions of T cells are generated acutely, in an activation-dependent manner. And yet, these regions of open chromatin in T cells and ILCs have remarkable overlaps, suggesting that though accessibility is acquired by distinct modes, the end result is that convergent signaling pathways may be involved. Although much is left to be learned, substantial progress has been made in understanding how TFs and epigenomic status contribute to ILC biology in terms of differentiation, specification, and plasticity.

  6. Characteristic of innate lymphoid cells (ILC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Adamiak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILC is a newly described family of immune cells that are part of the natural immunity which is important not only during infections caused by microorganisms, but also in the formation of lymphoid tissue, tissue remodeling after damage due to injury and homeostasis tissue stromal cells. Family ILC cells form NK cells (natural killer and lymphoid tissue inducer T cells (LTi, which, although they have different functions, are evolutionarily related. NK cells are producing mainly IFN-γ, whereas LTi cells as NKR+LTi like, IL-17 and/or IL-22, which suggests that the last two cells, can also represent the innate versions of helper T cell - TH17 and TH22. Third population of ILC is formed by cells with characteristics such as NK cells and LTi (ILC22 - which are named NK22 cells, natural cytotoxicity receptor 22 (NCR22 cells or NK receptor-positive (LTi NKR+ LTi cells. Fourth population of ILC cells are ILC17 - producing IL-17, while the fifth is formed by natural helper type 2 T cells (nTH2, nuocyte, innate type 2 helper cells (IH2 and multi-potent progenitor type 2 cells (MPPtype2. Cells of the last population synthesize IL-5 and IL-13. It is assumed that an extraordinary functional diversity of ILC family, resembles T cells, probably because they are under the control of the corresponding transcription factors - as direct regulation factors, such as the family of lymphocytes T.

  7. siRNA and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Marjorie; Judge, Adam; MacLachlan, Ian

    2009-06-01

    Canonical small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes are potent activators of the mammalian innate immune system. The induction of innate immunity by siRNA is dependent on siRNA structure and sequence, method of delivery, and cell type. Synthetic siRNA in delivery vehicles that facilitate cellular uptake can induce high levels of inflammatory cytokines and interferons after systemic administration in mammals and in primary human blood cell cultures. This activation is predominantly mediated by immune cells, normally via a Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway. The siRNA sequence dependency of these pathways varies with the type and location of the TLR involved. Alternatively nonimmune cell activation may also occur, typically resulting from siRNA interaction with cytoplasmic RNA sensors such as RIG1. As immune activation by siRNA-based drugs represents an undesirable side effect due to the considerable toxicities associated with excessive cytokine release in humans, understanding and abrogating this activity will be a critical component in the development of safe and effective therapeutics. This review describes the intracellular mechanisms of innate immune activation by siRNA, the design of appropriate sequences and chemical modification approaches, and suitable experimental methods for studying their effects, with a view toward reducing siRNA-mediated off-target effects.

  8. Functional genomics highlights differential induction of antiviral pathways in the lungs of SARS-CoV-infected macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna de Lang

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV is likely mediated by disproportional immune responses and the ability of the virus to circumvent innate immunity. Using functional genomics, we analyzed early host responses to SARS-CoV infection in the lungs of adolescent cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis that show lung pathology similar to that observed in human adults with SARS. Analysis of gene signatures revealed induction of a strong innate immune response characterized by the stimulation of various cytokine and chemokine genes, including interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, and IP-10, which corresponds to the host response seen in acute respiratory distress syndrome. As opposed to many in vitro experiments, SARS-CoV induced a wide range of type I interferons (IFNs and nuclear translocation of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 in the lungs of macaques. Using immunohistochemistry, we revealed that these antiviral signaling pathways were differentially regulated in distinctive subsets of cells. Our studies emphasize that the induction of early IFN signaling may be critical to confer protection against SARS-CoV infection and highlight the strength of combining functional genomics with immunohistochemistry to further unravel the pathogenesis of SARS.

  9. Immunobiotics for the Bovine Host: Their Interaction with Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Their Effect on Antiviral Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Villena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The scientific community has reported several cases of microbes that exhibit elevated rates of antibiotic resistance in different regions of the planet. Due to this emergence of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms, the use of antibiotics as promoters of livestock animals’ growth is being banned in most countries around the world. One of the challenges of agricultural immunology therefore is to find alternatives by modulating the immune system of animals in drug-independent safe food production systems. In this regard, in an effort to supplant antibiotics from bovine feeds, several alternatives were proposed including the use of immunomodulatory probiotics (immunobiotics. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the status of the modulation of intestinal antiviral innate immunity of the bovine host by immunobiotics, and the beneficial impact of immunobiotics on viral infections, focused on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs. The results of our group, which demonstrate the capacity of immunobiotic strains to beneficially modulate Toll-like receptor 3-triggered immune responses in bovine IECs and improve the resistance to viral infections, are highlighted. This review provides comprehensive information on the innate immune response of bovine IECs against virus, which can be further investigated for the development of strategies aimed to improve defenses in the bovine host.

  10. Molecular characterization and expression pattern of X box-binding protein-1 (XBP1) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Indications for a role of XBP1 in antibacterial and antiviral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Li, Hua; Peng, Shaoqing; Zhang, Fumiao; An, Liguo; Yang, Guiwen

    2017-08-01

    X box-binding protein-1 (XBP1) is a transcription factor that is essential for the unfolded protein response (UPR) and the differentiation of plasma cells, and some findings have also uncovered its function in innate immunity. XBP1 typically has two different transcripts, un-spliced (XBP1u) and spliced forms (XBP1s), but XBP1s is an active transcription factor in the regulation of target genes. To date, there is no evidence about the identification and function of XBP1 in common carp. Moreover, no data are currently available regarding the role of fish XBP1 in innate immunity. Thus, to determine whether XBP1 is involved in innate immune response in common carp, we cloned CcXBP1s and examined the expression of XBP1s and a XBP1s stimulated gene (IL-6) after Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) challenges. The results imply that CcXBP1s, as an active transcription factor, might play regulation roles in the antibacterial and antiviral innate immune responses of common carp. This allows us to gain new insights into the immunological function of XBP1 in fish innate immunity and the evolution of this important class of genes across vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Interplays between soil-borne plant viruses and RNA silencing-mediated antiviral defense in roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Andika

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the majority of plant viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors and invade the host plants through the aerial parts, there is a considerable number of plant viruses that infect roots via soil-inhabiting vectors such as plasmodiophorids, chytrids, and nematodes. These soil-borne viruses belong to diverse families, and many of them cause serious diseases in major crop plants. Thus, roots are important organs for the life cycle of many viruses. Compared to shoots, roots have a distinct metabolism and particular physiological characteristics due to the differences in development, cell composition, gene expression patterns, and surrounding environmental conditions. RNA silencing is an important innate defense mechanism to combat virus infection in plants, but the specific information on the activities and molecular mechanism of RNA silencing-mediated viral defense in root tissue is still limited. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current knowledge regarding RNA silencing aspects of the interactions between soil-borne viruses and host plants. Overall, research evidence suggests that soil-borne viruses have evolved to adapt to the distinct mechanism of antiviral RNA silencing in roots.

  12. Club cells surviving influenza A virus infection induce temporary nonspecific antiviral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jennifer R; Sachs, David; Lim, Jean K; Langlois, Ryan A; Palese, Peter; Heaton, Nicholas S

    2016-04-05

    A brief window of antigen-nonspecific protection has been observed after influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Although this temporary immunity has been assumed to be the result of residual nonspecific inflammation, this period of induced immunity has not been fully studied. Because IAV has long been characterized as a cytopathic virus (based on its ability to rapidly lyse most cell types in culture), it has been a forgone conclusion that directly infected cells could not be contributing to this effect. Using a Cre recombinase-expressing IAV, we have previously shown that club cells can survive direct viral infection. We show here not only that these cells can eliminate all traces of the virus and survive but also that they acquire a heightened antiviral response phenotype after surviving. Moreover, we experimentally demonstrate temporary nonspecific viral immunity after IAV infection and show that surviving cells are required for this phenotype. This work characterizes a virally induced modulation of the innate immune response that may represent a new mechanism to prevent viral diseases.

  13. RIG-I antiviral signaling drives interleukin-23 production and psoriasis-like skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huiyuan; Lou, Fangzhou; Yin, Qianqian; Gao, Yuanyuan; Sun, Yang; Bai, Jing; Xu, Zhenyao; Liu, Zhaoyuan; Cai, Wei; Ke, Fang; Zhang, Lingyun; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Hong; Wang, Gang; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Hongxin; Wang, Zhugang; Ginhoux, Florent; Lu, Chuanjian; Su, Bing; Wang, Honglin

    2017-05-01

    Retinoic acid inducible-gene I (RIG-I) functions as one of the major sensors of RNA viruses. DDX58 , which encodes the RIG-I protein, has been newly identified as a susceptibility gene in psoriasis. Here, we show that the activation of RIG-I by 5'ppp-dsRNA, its synthetic ligand, directly causes the production of IL-23 and triggers psoriasis-like skin disease in mice. Repeated injections of IL-23 to the ears failed to induce IL-23 production and a full psoriasis-like skin phenotype, in either germ-free or RIG-I-deficient mice. RIG-I is also critical for a full development of skin inflammation in imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like mouse model. Furthermore, RIG-I-mediated endogenous IL-23 production was mainly confined to the CD11c + dendritic cells (DCs) via nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling, and stimulated RIG-I expression in an auto-regulatory feedback loop. Thus, our data suggest that the dysregulation in the antiviral immune responses of hosts through the innate pattern recognition receptors may trigger the skin inflammatory conditions in the pathophysiology of psoriasis. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  14. ORF7-encoded accessory protein 7a of feline infectious peritonitis virus as a counteragent against IFN-α-induced antiviral response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Olyslaegers, Dominique A J; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Roukaerts, Inge D M; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-02-01

    The type I IFN-mediated immune response is the first line of antiviral defence. Coronaviruses, like many other viruses, have evolved mechanisms to evade this innate response, ensuring their survival. Several coronavirus accessory genes play a central role in these pathways, but for feline coronaviruses this has never to our knowledge been studied. As it has been demonstrated previously that ORF7 is essential for efficient replication in vitro and virulence in vivo of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), the role of this ORF in the evasion of the IFN-α antiviral response was investigated. Deletion of ORF7 from FIPV strain 79-1146 (FIPV-Δ7) rendered the virus more susceptible to IFN-α treatment. Given that ORF7 encodes two proteins, 7a and 7b, it was further explored which of these proteins is active in this mechanism. Providing 7a protein in trans rescued the mutant FIPV-Δ7 from IFN sensitivity, which was not achieved by addition of 7b protein. Nevertheless, addition of protein 7a to FIPV-Δ3Δ7, a FIPV mutant deleted in both ORF3 and ORF7, could no longer increase the replication capacity of this mutant in the presence of IFN. These results indicate that FIPV 7a protein is a type I IFN antagonist and protects the virus from the antiviral state induced by IFN, but it needs the presence of ORF3-encoded proteins to exert its antagonistic function.

  15. Breastfeeding Behaviors and the Innate Immune System of Human Milk: Working Together to Protect Infants against Inflammation, HIV-1, and Other Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrick, Bethany M; Yao, Xiao-Dan; Nasser, Laila; Roozrogousheh, Ava; Rosenthal, Kenneth L

    2017-01-01

    The majority of infants' breastfeeding from their HIV-infected mothers do not acquire HIV-1 infection despite exposure to cell-free virus and cell-associated virus in HIV-infected breast milk. Paradoxically, exclusive breastfeeding regardless of the HIV status of the mother has led to a significant decrease in mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) compared with non-exclusive breastfeeding. Although it remains unclear how these HIV-exposed infants remain uninfected despite repeated and prolonged exposure to HIV-1, the low rate of transmission is suggestive of a multitude of protective, short-lived bioactive innate immune factors in breast milk. Indeed, recent studies of soluble factors in breast milk shed new light on mechanisms of neonatal HIV-1 protection. This review highlights the role and significance of innate immune factors in HIV-1 susceptibility and infection. Prevention of MTCT of HIV-1 is likely due to multiple factors, including innate immune factors such as lactoferrin and elafin among many others. In pursuing this field, our lab was the first to show that soluble toll-like receptor 2 (sTLR2) directly inhibits HIV infection, integration, and inflammation. More recently, we demonstrated that sTLR2 directly binds to selective HIV-1 proteins, including p17, gp41, and p24, leading to significantly reduced NFκB activation, interleukin-8 production, CCR5 expression, and HIV infection in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, a clearer understanding of soluble milk-derived innate factors with known antiviral functions may provide new therapeutic insights to reduce vertical HIV-1 transmission and will have important implications for protection against HIV-1 infection at other mucosal sites. Furthermore, innate bioactive factors identified in human milk may serve not only in protecting infants against infections and inflammation but also the elderly; thus, opening the door for novel innate immune therapeutics to protect newborns, infants, adults, and the elderly.

  16. Antiviral treatment for Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagyor, Ildiko; Madhok, Vishnu B; Daly, Fergus; Somasundara, Dhruvashree; Sullivan, Michael; Gammie, Fiona; Sullivan, Frank

    2015-11-09

    Corticosteroids are widely used in the treatment of idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell's palsy), but the effectiveness of additional treatment with an antiviral agent is uncertain. Significant morbidity can be associated with severe cases of Bell's palsy. This review was first published in 2001 and revised several times, most recently in 2009. This version replaces an update of the review in Issue 7 of the Cochrane Library subsequently withdrawn because of an ongoing investigation into the reliability of data from an included study. To assess the effects of antiviral treatments alone or in combination with any other therapy for Bell's palsy. On 7 October 2014 we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, DARE, NHS EED, and HTA. We also reviewed the bibliographies of the identified trials and contacted trial authors and known experts in the field and relevant drug companies to identify additional published or unpublished data. We searched clinical trials registries for ongoing studies. We considered randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials of antivirals with and without corticosteroids versus control therapies for the treatment of Bell's palsy. We excluded trials that had a high risk of bias in several domains. Pairs of authors independently assessed trials for relevance, eligibility, and risk of bias, using standard Cochrane procedures. Ten trials, including 2280 participants, met the inclusion criteria and are included in the final analysis. Some of the trials were small, and a number were at high or unclear risk of bias. Other trials did not meet current best standards in allocation concealment and blinding. Incomplete recoveryWe found a significant benefit from adding antivirals to corticosteroids in comparison with corticosteroids alone for people with Bell's palsy (risk ratio (RR) 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39 to 0.97, n = 1315). For people with severe Bell

  17. Induction and suppression of tick cell antiviral RNAi responses by tick-borne flaviviruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schnettler, E.; Tykalová, Hana; Watson, M.; Sharma, M.; Sterken, M.G.; Obbard, D.J.; Lewis, S.H.; McFarlane, M.; Bell-Sakyi, L.; Barry, G.; Weisheit, S.; Best, S.M.; Kuhn, R.J.; Pijlman, G.P.; Chase-Topping, M.E.; Gould, E. A.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Fazakerley, J.K.; Kohl, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 14 (2014), s. 9436-9446 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/12/2490 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Forest-virus replicon * interferon antagonist * immunity * replication * Drosophila * identification * mosquitos Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.112, year: 2014

  18. Interactions between Innate Lymphoid Cells and Cells of the Innate and Adaptive Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symowski, Cornelia; Voehringer, David

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a major source of cytokines, which are also produced by Th2 cells and several cell types of the innate immune system. Work over the past few years indicates that ILC2s play a central role in regulating type 2 immune responses against allergens and helminths. ILC2s can interact with a variety of cells types of the innate and adaptive immune system by cell-cell contacts or by communication via soluble factors. In this review, we provide an overview about recent advances in our understanding how ILC2s orchestrate type 2 immune responses with focus on direct interactions between ILC2s and other cells of the immune system.

  19. Antiviral agents: structural basis of action and rational design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Arias, Luis; Gago, Federico

    2013-01-01

    During the last 30 years, significant progress has been made in the development of novel antiviral drugs, mainly crystallizing in the establishment of potent antiretroviral therapies and the approval of drugs inhibiting hepatitis C virus replication. Although major targets of antiviral intervention involve intracellular processes required for the synthesis of viral proteins and nucleic acids, a number of inhibitors blocking virus assembly, budding, maturation, entry or uncoating act on virions or viral capsids. In this review, we focus on the drug discovery process while presenting the currently used methodologies to identify novel antiviral drugs by using a computer-based approach. We provide examples illustrating structure-based antiviral drug development, specifically neuraminidase inhibitors against influenza virus (e.g. oseltamivir and zanamivir) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitors (i.e. the development of darunavir from early peptidomimetic compounds such as saquinavir). A number of drugs in preclinical development acting against picornaviruses, hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus and their mechanism of action are presented to show how viral capsids can be exploited as targets of antiviral therapy.

  20. Bioprospecting of Red Sea Sponges for Novel Antiviral Pharmacophores

    KAUST Repository

    O'Rourke, Aubrie

    2015-05-01

    Natural products offer many possibilities for the treatment of disease. More than 70% of the Earth’s surface is ocean, and recent exploration and access has allowed for new additions to this catalog of natural treasures. The Central Red Sea off the coast of Saudi Arabia serves as a newly accessible location, which provides the opportunity to bioprospect marine sponges with the purpose of identifying novel antiviral scaffolds. Antivirals are underrepresented in present day clinical trials, as well as in the academic screens of marine natural product libraries. Here a high-throughput pipeline was initiated by prefacing the antiviral screen with an Image-based High-Content Screening (HCS) technique in order to identify candidates with antiviral potential. Prospective candidates were tested in a biochemical or cell-based assay for the ability to inhibit the NS3 protease of the West Nile Virus (WNV NS protease) as well as replication and reverse transcription of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1). The analytical chemistry techniques of High-Performance Liquid Chromatograpy (HPLC), Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) where used in order to identify the compounds responsible for the characteristic antiviral activity of the selected sponge fractions. We have identified a 3-alkyl pyridinium from Amphimedon chloros as the causative agent of the observed WNV NS3 protease inhibition in vitro. Additionally, we identified debromohymenialdisine, hymenialdisine, and oroidin from Stylissa carteri as prospective scaffolds capable of HIV-1 inhibition.

  1. Antiviral Screening of Multiple Compounds against Ebola Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowall, Stuart D; Bewley, Kevin; Watson, Robert J; Vasan, Seshadri S; Ghosh, Chandradhish; Konai, Mohini M; Gausdal, Gro; Lorens, James B; Long, Jason; Barclay, Wendy; Garcia-Dorival, Isabel; Hiscox, Julian; Bosworth, Andrew; Taylor, Irene; Easterbrook, Linda; Pitman, James; Summers, Sian; Chan-Pensley, Jenny; Funnell, Simon; Vipond, Julia; Charlton, Sue; Haldar, Jayanta; Hewson, Roger; Carroll, Miles W

    2016-10-27

    In light of the recent outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) disease in West Africa, there have been renewed efforts to search for effective antiviral countermeasures. A range of compounds currently available with broad antimicrobial activity have been tested for activity against EBOV. Using live EBOV, eighteen candidate compounds were screened for antiviral activity in vitro. The compounds were selected on a rational basis because their mechanisms of action suggested that they had the potential to disrupt EBOV entry, replication or exit from cells or because they had displayed some antiviral activity against EBOV in previous tests. Nine compounds caused no reduction in viral replication despite cells remaining healthy, so they were excluded from further analysis (zidovudine; didanosine; stavudine; abacavir sulphate; entecavir; JB1a; Aimspro; celgosivir; and castanospermine). A second screen of the remaining compounds and the feasibility of appropriateness for in vivo testing removed six further compounds (ouabain; omeprazole; esomeprazole; Gleevec; D-LANA-14; and Tasigna). The three most promising compounds (17-DMAG; BGB324; and NCK-8) were further screened for in vivo activity in the guinea pig model of EBOV disease. Two of the compounds, BGB324 and NCK-8, showed some effect against lethal infection in vivo at the concentrations tested, which warrants further investigation. Further, these data add to the body of knowledge on the antiviral activities of multiple compounds against EBOV and indicate that the scientific community should invest more effort into the development of novel and specific antiviral compounds to treat Ebola virus disease.

  2. Antiviral Screening of Multiple Compounds against Ebola Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart D. Dowall

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In light of the recent outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV disease in West Africa, there have been renewed efforts to search for effective antiviral countermeasures. A range of compounds currently available with broad antimicrobial activity have been tested for activity against EBOV. Using live EBOV, eighteen candidate compounds were screened for antiviral activity in vitro. The compounds were selected on a rational basis because their mechanisms of action suggested that they had the potential to disrupt EBOV entry, replication or exit from cells or because they had displayed some antiviral activity against EBOV in previous tests. Nine compounds caused no reduction in viral replication despite cells remaining healthy, so they were excluded from further analysis (zidovudine; didanosine; stavudine; abacavir sulphate; entecavir; JB1a; Aimspro; celgosivir; and castanospermine. A second screen of the remaining compounds and the feasibility of appropriateness for in vivo testing removed six further compounds (ouabain; omeprazole; esomeprazole; Gleevec; D-LANA-14; and Tasigna. The three most promising compounds (17-DMAG; BGB324; and NCK-8 were further screened for in vivo activity in the guinea pig model of EBOV disease. Two of the compounds, BGB324 and NCK-8, showed some effect against lethal infection in vivo at the concentrations tested, which warrants further investigation. Further, these data add to the body of knowledge on the antiviral activities of multiple compounds against EBOV and indicate that the scientific community should invest more effort into the development of novel and specific antiviral compounds to treat Ebola virus disease.

  3. Recent developments in antiviral agents against enterovirus 71 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chee Wah; Lai, Jeffrey Kam Fatt; Sam, I-Ching; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2014-02-12

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Recent EV-71 outbreaks in Asia-Pacific were not limited to mild HFMD, but were associated with severe neurological complications such as aseptic meningitis and brainstem encephalitis, which may lead to cardiopulmonary failure and death. The absence of licensed therapeutics for clinical use has intensified research into anti-EV-71 development. This review highlights the potential antiviral agents targeting EV-71 attachment, entry, uncoating, translation, polyprotein processing, virus-induced formation of membranous RNA replication complexes, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The strategies for antiviral development include target-based synthetic compounds, anti-rhinovirus and poliovirus libraries screening, and natural compound libraries screening. Growing knowledge of the EV-71 life cycle will lead to successful development of antivirals. The continued effort to develop antiviral agents for treatment is crucial in the absence of a vaccine. The coupling of antivirals with an effective vaccine will accelerate eradication of the disease.

  4. Terapia antiviral para VIH-SIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Tarinas Reyes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, muchos agentes antivirales nuevos han sido incorporados a la quimioterapéutica. En esta revisión se resumen tanto los fármacos establecidos de años atrás como los nuevos medicamentos desarrollados para el tratamiento de individuos infectados por VIH. El AZT fue el primero aprobado en marzo de 1987, le siguió el ddl (1991, ddC (1992, d4T (1994, 3TC (1995. Luego fue aprobado el primer inhibidor de proteasa, saquinavir en diciembre de 1995, seguido de ritonavir (1996, indinavir (1996, nelfinavir (1997; además de otros inhibidores de la reverso transcriptasa como nevirapine (1996, delavirdine (1997, efavirenz (1998, entre otros. En estos momentos se siguen buscando y desarrollando nuevas terapias alternativas para esta afección. En este trabajo se exponen algunas de las características de dichos medicamentos, como son: mecanismos de acción (sobre qué enzima actúa cada uno y cómo lo hacen, el ciclo viral, dosificación, incompatibilidades y reacciones adversas.During the last years many new antiviral agents have been incorporated to the chemotherapeutics. The pharmaceuticals established years ago as well as the new ones developed to treat HIV infected individuals are included in this review. The AZT was the first approved in March, 1987, followed by ddl (1991, ddc (1992, d4t (1994, and 3TC (1995. Later, the first protease inhibitor, saquinovir, was approved in December, 1995, followed by ritonavir (1996, indinavir (1996, and nelfinavir (1997; in addition to other inhibitors of the reverse transcriptase as neviparine (1996, delavirdine (1997, and efavirenz (1998, among others. At present new alternative therapies for this affection are being searched and developed. Some of the characteristics of these dugs, such as: action mechanisms (on which enzime each of them act and how they do it, viral cycle, dosage, incompatibilites and adverse reactions are dealt with in this paper.

  5. Nrf2-dependent induction of innate host defense via heme oxygenase-1 inhibits Zika virus replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hanxia; Falgout, Barry; Takeda, Kazuyo [Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Yamada, Kenneth M. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Dhawan, Subhash, E-mail: subhash.dhawan@fda.hhs.gov [Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

    2017-03-15

    We identified primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) as vulnerable target cells for Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. We demonstrate dramatic effects of hemin, the natural inducer of the heme catabolic enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), in the reduction of ZIKV replication in vitro. Both LLC-MK2 monkey kidney cells and primary MDM exhibited hemin-induced HO-1 expression with major reductions of >90% in ZIKV replication, with little toxicity to infected cells. Silencing expression of HO-1 or its upstream regulatory gene, nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2), attenuated hemin-induced suppression of ZIKV infection, suggesting an important role for induction of these intracellular mediators in retarding ZIKV replication. The inverse correlation between hemin-induced HO-1 levels and ZIKV replication provides a potentially useful therapeutic modality based on stimulation of an innate cellular response against Zika virus infection. - Highlights: •Hemin treatment protected monocyte-derived macrophages against Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. •Innate cellular protection against ZIKV infection correlated with Nrf2-dependent HO-1 expression. •Stimulation of innate cellular responses may provide a therapeutic strategy against ZIKV infection.

  6. Nrf2-dependent induction of innate host defense via heme oxygenase-1 inhibits Zika virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hanxia; Falgout, Barry; Takeda, Kazuyo; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Dhawan, Subhash

    2017-01-01

    We identified primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) as vulnerable target cells for Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. We demonstrate dramatic effects of hemin, the natural inducer of the heme catabolic enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), in the reduction of ZIKV replication in vitro. Both LLC-MK2 monkey kidney cells and primary MDM exhibited hemin-induced HO-1 expression with major reductions of >90% in ZIKV replication, with little toxicity to infected cells. Silencing expression of HO-1 or its upstream regulatory gene, nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2), attenuated hemin-induced suppression of ZIKV infection, suggesting an important role for induction of these intracellular mediators in retarding ZIKV replication. The inverse correlation between hemin-induced HO-1 levels and ZIKV replication provides a potentially useful therapeutic modality based on stimulation of an innate cellular response against Zika virus infection. - Highlights: •Hemin treatment protected monocyte-derived macrophages against Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. •Innate cellular protection against ZIKV infection correlated with Nrf2-dependent HO-1 expression. •Stimulation of innate cellular responses may provide a therapeutic strategy against ZIKV infection.

  7. Key Role of the Scavenger Receptor MARCO in Mediating Adenovirus Infection and Subsequent Innate Responses of Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maler, Mareike D; Nielsen, Peter J; Stichling, Nicole; Cohen, Idan; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Wood, Connor; Engelhard, Peggy; Suomalainen, Maarit; Gyory, Ildiko; Huber, Michael; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Schamel, Wolfgang W A; Gordon, Siamon; Jakob, Thilo; Martin, Stefan F; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Greber, Urs F; Freudenberg, Marina A; Fejer, György

    2017-08-01

    The scavenger receptor MARCO is expressed in several subsets of naive tissue-resident macrophages and has been shown to participate in the recognition of various bacterial pathogens. However, the role of MARCO in antiviral defense is largely unexplored. Here, we investigated whether MARCO might be involved in the innate sensing of infection with adenovirus and recombinant adenoviral vectors by macrophages, which elicit vigorous immune responses in vivo Using cells derived from mice, we show that adenovirus infection is significantly more efficient in MARCO-positive alveolar macrophages (AMs) and in AM-like primary macrophage lines (Max Planck Institute cells) than in MARCO-negative bone marrow-derived macrophages. Using antibodies blocking ligand binding to MARCO, as well as gene-deficient and MARCO-transfected cells, we show that MARCO mediates the rapid adenovirus transduction of macrophages. By enhancing adenovirus infection, MARCO contributes to efficient innate virus recognition through the cytoplasmic DNA sensor cGAS. This leads to strong proinflammatory responses, including the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), alpha/beta interferon, and mature IL-1α. These findings contribute to the understanding of viral pathogenesis in macrophages and may open new possibilities for the development of tools to influence the outcome of infection with adenovirus or adenovirus vectors. IMPORTANCE Macrophages play crucial roles in inflammation and defense against infection. Several macrophage subtypes have been identified with differing abilities to respond to infection with both natural adenoviruses and recombinant adenoviral vectors. Adenoviruses are important respiratory pathogens that elicit vigorous innate responses in vitro and in vivo The cell surface receptors mediating macrophage type-specific adenovirus sensing are largely unknown. The scavenger receptor MARCO is expressed on some subsets of naive tissue-resident macrophages, including lung alveolar macrophages

  8. Favipiravir elicits antiviral mutagenesis during virus replication in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Armando; Thorne, Lucy; Goodfellow, Ian

    2014-10-21

    Lethal mutagenesis has emerged as a novel potential therapeutic approach to treat viral infections. Several studies have demonstrated that increases in the high mutation rates inherent to RNA viruses lead to viral extinction in cell culture, but evidence during infections in vivo is limited. In this study, we show that the broad-range antiviral nucleoside favipiravir reduces viral load in vivo by exerting antiviral mutagenesis in a mouse model for norovirus infection. Increased mutation frequencies were observed in samples from treated mice and were accompanied with lower or in some cases undetectable levels of infectious virus in faeces and tissues. Viral RNA isolated from treated animals showed reduced infectivity, a feature of populations approaching extinction during antiviral mutagenesis. These results suggest that favipiravir can induce norovirus mutagenesis in vivo, which in some cases leads to virus extinction, providing a proof-of-principle for the use of favipiravir derivatives or mutagenic nucleosides in the clinical treatment of noroviruses.

  9. Phytochemistry, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of Eleusine indica (sambau)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberahim, Rashidah; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Goose grass also known as Eleusine indica (EI) is a local medicinal plant that displays antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The present study is to determine the phytochemical constituents, cytotoxicity and antiviral activities for both crude extract and fraction obtained from the plant. The crude extract contained more secondary metabolites compared to the hexane fraction as gauged using standard phytochemical tests. Cytotoxicity screening against Vero cells using MTT assay showed that the CC50 values for crude extract and hexane fraction were 2.07 and 5.62 mg/ml respectively. The antiviral activity towards Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) was determined using plaque reduction assay. The selective indices (SI = CC50 / EC50) for both methanol extract and hexane fraction were 12.2 and 6.2 respectively. These results demonstrate that the extract prepared from E. indica possesses phytochemical compound that was non cytotoxic to the cell with potential antiviral activity.

  10. The Antiviral Effect of Baicalin on Enterovirus 71 In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Baicalin is a flavonoid compound extracted from Scutellaria roots that has been reported to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities. However, the antiviral effect of baicalin on enterovirus 71 (EV71 is still unknown. In this study, we found that baicalin showed inhibitory activity on EV71 infection and was independent of direct virucidal or prophylactic effect and inhibitory viral absorption. The expressions of EV71/3D mRNA and polymerase were significantly blocked by baicalin treatment at early stages of EV71 infection. In addition, baicalin could decrease the expressions of FasL and caspase-3, as well as inhibit the apoptosis of EV71-infected human embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (RD cells. Altogether, these results indicate that baicalin exhibits potent antiviral effect on EV71 infection, probably through inhibiting EV71/3D polymerase expression and Fas/FasL signaling pathways.

  11. Aminoadamantanes versus other antiviral drugs for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamers, Mieke H; Broekman, Mark; Drenth, Joost Ph

    2014-01-01

    months after the end of treatment) in approximately 40% to 80% of treated patients, depending on viral genotype. Recently, a new class of drugs have emerged for hepatitis C infection, the direct acting antivirals, which in combination with standard therapy or alone can lead to sustained virological...... response in 80% or more of treated patients. Aminoadamantanes, mostly amantadine, are antiviral drugs used for the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C. We have previously systematically reviewed amantadine versus placebo or no intervention and found no significant effects of the amantadine...... on all-cause mortality or liver-related morbidity and on adverse events in patients with hepatitis C. Overall, we did not observe a significant effect of amantadine on sustained virological response. In this review, we systematically review aminoadamantanes versus other antiviral drugs. OBJECTIVES...

  12. [The role of the innate immune system in atopic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, T; Kaesler, S; Skabytska, Y; Biedermann, T

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms how the innate immune system detects microbes and mounts a rapid immune response have been more and more elucidated in the past years. Subsequently it has been shown that innate immunity also shapes adaptive immune responses and determines their quality that can be either inflammatory or tolerogenic. As atopic dermatitis is characterized by disturbances of innate and adaptive immune responses, colonization with pathogens and defects in skin barrier function, insight into mechanisms of innate immunity has helped to understand the vicious circle of ongoing skin inflammation seen in atopic dermatitis patients. Elucidating general mechanisms of the innate immune system and its functions in atopic dermatitis paves the way for developing new therapies. Especially the novel insights into the human microbiome and potential functional consequences make the innate immune system a very fundamental and promising target. As a result atopic dermatitis manifestations can be attenuated or even resolved. These currently developed strategies will be introduced in the current review.

  13. Effects of kefir fractions on innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinderola, Gabriel; Perdigon, Gabriela; Duarte, Jairo; Thangavel, Deepa; Farnworth, Edward; Matar, Chantal

    2006-01-01

    Innate immunity that protects against pathogens in the tissues and circulation is the first line of defense in the immune reaction, where macrophages have a critical role in directing the fate of the infection. We recently demonstrated that kefir modulates the immune response in mice, increasing the number of IgA+ cells in the intestinal and bronchial mucosa and the phagocytic activity of peritoneal and pulmonary macrophages. The aim of this study was to further characterize the immunomodulating capacity of the two fractions of kefir (F1: solids including bacteria and F2: liquid supernatant), by studying the cytokines produced by cells from the innate immune system: peritoneal macrophages and the adherent cells from Peyer's patches. BALB/c mice were fed either kefir solid fraction (F1) or kefir supernatant (F2) for 2, 5 or 7 consecutive days. The number of cytokine (IL-1alpha, IFNgamma, TNFalpha, IL-6 and IL-10) producing cells was determined on peritoneal macrophages and adherent cells from Peyer's patches. Both kefir fractions (F1 and F2) induced similar cytokine profiles on peritoneal macrophages (only TNFalpha and IL-6 were up-regulated). All cytokines studied on adherent cells from Peyer's patches were enhanced after F1 and F2 feeding, except for IFNgamma after F2 administration. Moreover, the percentage of IL-10+cells induced by fraction F2 on adherent cells from Peyer's patches was significantly higher than the one induced by fraction F1. Different components of kefir have an in vivo role as oral biotherapeutic substances capable of stimulating immune cells of the innate immune system, to down-regulate the Th2 immune phenotype or to promote cell-mediated immune responses against tumours and also against intracellular pathogenic infections.

  14. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Tumor Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Jasper J P; Martens, Anne W J; Bakdash, Ghaith; de Vries, I Jolanda M

    2016-02-25

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of immune cells of the lymphoid lineage that do not possess antigen specificity. The group includes natural killer (NK) cells, lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the recently identified ILC1s, ILC2s and ILC3s. Although the role of NK cells in the context of cancer has been well established, the involvement of other ILC subsets in cancer progression and resistance is just emerging. Here, we review the literature on the role of the different ILC subsets in tumor immunity and discuss its implications for cancer treatment and monitoring.

  15. The Development of Adult Innate Lymphoid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Bhandoola, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are a specialized family of effector lymphocytes that transcriptionally and functionally mirror effector subsets of T cells, but differ from T cells in that they lack clonally-distributed adaptive antigen receptors. Our understanding of this family of lymphocytes is still in its infancy. In this review, we summarize current understanding and discuss recent insights into the cellular and molecular events that occur during early ILC development in adult mice. We discuss how these events overlap and diverge with the early development of adaptive T cells, and how they may influence the molecular and functional properties of mature ILC. PMID:26871595

  16. Antiviral and cytotoxic activities of some Indonesian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, F; Bakhtiar, A; Bézivin, C; Amoros, M; Boustie, J

    2002-08-01

    Ten methanolic extracts from eight Indonesian medicinal plants were phytochemically screened and evaluated for antiviral (HSV-1 and Poliovirus) and cytotoxic activities on murine and human cancer lines (3LL, L1210, K562, U251, DU145, MCF-7). Besides Melastoma malabathricum (Melastomataceae), the Indonesian Loranthaceae species among which Elytranthe tubaeflora, E. maingayi, E. globosa and Scurrula ferruginea exhibited attractive antiviral and cytotoxic activities. Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) was found active on Poliovirus. S. ferruginea was selected for further studies because of its activity on the U251 glioblastoma cells.

  17. Antiviral activity of maca (Lepidium meyenii) against human influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Pumarola, Tomas; Alzamora Gonzales, Libertad; Valle Mendoza, Luis Javier del

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate antiviral activity of maca to reduce viral load in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells infected with influenza type A and B viruses (Flu-A and Flu-B, respectively). Methods Maca were extracted with methanol (1:2, v/v). The cell viability and toxicity of the extracts were evaluated on MDCK cells using method MTT assay. Antiviral activity of compounds against Flu-A and Flu-B viruses was assayed using a test for determining the inhibition of the cytopathic ...

  18. RNA interference-mediated intrinsic antiviral immunity in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Arabinda; Tassetto, Michel; Kunitomi, Mark; Andino, Raul

    2013-01-01

    In invertebrates such as insects and nematodes, RNA interference (RNAi) provides RNA-based protection against viruses. This form of immunity restricts viral replication and dissemination from infected cells and viruses, in turn, have evolved evasion mechanisms or RNAi suppressors to counteract host defenses. Recent advances indicate that, in addition to RNAi, other related small RNA pathways contribute to antiviral functions in invertebrates. This has led to a deeper understanding of fundamental aspects of small RNA-based antiviral immunity in invertebrates and its contribution to viral spread and pathogenesis.

  19. From genome to antivirals: SARS as a test tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliger, Yossef; Levanon, Erez Y; Gerber, Doron

    2005-03-01

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic brought into the spotlight the need for rapid development of effective anti-viral drugs against newly emerging viruses. Researchers have leveraged the 20-year battle against AIDS into a variety of possible treatments for SARS. Most prominently, based solely on viral genome information, silencers of viral genes, viral-enzyme blockers and viral-entry inhibitors were suggested as potential therapeutic agents for SARS. In particular, inhibitors of viral entry, comprising therapeutic peptides, were based on the recently launched anti-HIV drug enfuvirtide. This could represent one of the most direct routes from genome sequencing to the discovery of antiviral drugs.

  20. An index of the ratio of inflammatory to antiviral cell types mediates the effects of social adversity and age on chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Ronald L; Lei, Man-Kit; Beach, Steven R H; Barr, Ashley B; Cutrona, Carolyn E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Philibert, Robert A

    2017-07-01

    It is assumed that both social stress and chronological age increase the risk of chronic illness, in part, through their effect on systemic inflammation. Unfortunately, observational studies usually employ single-marker measures of inflammation (e.g., Interleukin-6, C-reactive protein) that preclude strong tests for mediational effects. The present study investigated the extent to which the effects of socioeconomic disadvantage and age on onset of chronic illness is mediated by dominance of the innate (inflammatory) over the acquired (antiviral) components of the immune system. We assessed inflammation using the ratio of inflammatory to antiviral cell types (ITACT Ratio). This approach provided a stronger test of evolutionary arguments regarding the effect of social stress on chronic inflammation than is the case with cytokine measures, and afforded an opportunity to replicate findings obtained utilizing mRNA. We used structural equation modeling and longitudinal data from a sample of 100 middle-age African American women to perform our analyses. Dominance of inflammatory over antiviral cell activity was associated with each of the eight illnesses included in our chronic illness measure. Both socioeconomic disadvantage and age were also associated with inflammatory dominance. Pursuant to the central focus of the study, the effects of socioeconomic adversity and age on increased illness were mediated by our measure of inflammatory dominance. The indirect effect of these variables through inflammatory cell profile was significant, with neither socioeconomic disadvantage nor age showing a significant association with illness once the impact of inflammatory cell profile was taken into account. First, the analysis provides preliminary validation of a new measure of inflammation that is calculated based on the ratio of inflammatory to antiviral white blood cells. Second, our results support the hypothesis that socioeconomic disadvantage and chronological age increase

  1. Voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system and attenuation of the innate immune response in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kox, Matthijs; van Eijk, Lucas T; Zwaag, Jelle; van den Wildenberg, Joanne; Sweep, Fred C G J; van der Hoeven, Johannes G; Pickkers, Peter

    2014-05-20

    Excessive or persistent proinflammatory cytokine production plays a central role in autoimmune diseases. Acute activation of the sympathetic nervous system attenuates the innate immune response. However, both the autonomic nervous system and innate immune system are regarded as systems that cannot be voluntarily influenced. Herein, we evaluated the effects of a training program on the autonomic nervous system and innate immune response. Healthy volunteers were randomized to either the intervention (n = 12) or control group (n = 12). Subjects in the intervention group were trained for 10 d in meditation (third eye meditation), breathing techniques (i.a., cyclic hyperventilation followed by breath retention), and exposure to cold (i.a., immersions in ice cold water). The control group was not trained. Subsequently, all subjects underwent experimental endotoxemia (i.v. administration of 2 ng/kg Escherichia coli endotoxin). In the intervention group, practicing the learned techniques resulted in intermittent respiratory alkalosis and hypoxia resulting in profoundly increased plasma epinephrine levels. In the intervention group, plasma levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased more rapidly after endotoxin administration, correlated strongly with preceding epinephrine levels, and were higher. Levels of proinflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 were lower in the intervention group and correlated negatively with IL-10 levels. Finally, flu-like symptoms were lower in the intervention group. In conclusion, we demonstrate that voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system results in epinephrine release and subsequent suppression of the innate immune response in humans in vivo. These results could have important implications for the treatment of conditions associated with excessive or persistent inflammation, such as autoimmune diseases.

  2. Human metapneumovirus M2-2 protein inhibits innate immune response in monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junping Ren

    Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is a leading cause of lower respiratory infection in young children, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. Repeated hMPV infections occur throughout life. However, immune evasion mechanisms of hMPV infection are largely unknown. Recently, our group has demonstrated that hMPV M2-2 protein, an important virulence factor, contributes to immune evasion in airway epithelial cells by targeting the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS. Whether M2-2 regulates the innate immunity in human dendritic cells (DC, an important family of immune cells controlling antigen presenting, is currently unknown. We found that human DC infected with a virus lacking M2-2 protein expression (rhMPV-ΔM2-2 produced higher levels of cytokines, chemokines and IFNs, compared to cells infected with wild-type virus (rhMPV-WT, suggesting that M2-2 protein inhibits innate immunity in human DC. In parallel, we found that myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88, an essential adaptor for Toll-like receptors (TLRs, plays a critical role in inducing immune response of human DC, as downregulation of MyD88 by siRNA blocked the induction of immune regulatory molecules by hMPV. Since M2-2 is a cytoplasmic protein, we investigated whether M2-2 interferes with MyD88-mediated antiviral signaling. We found that indeed M2-2 protein associated with MyD88 and inhibited MyD88-dependent gene transcription. In this study, we also identified the domains of M2-2 responsible for its immune inhibitory function in human DC. In summary, our results demonstrate that M2-2 contributes to hMPV immune evasion by inhibiting MyD88-dependent cellular responses in human DC.

  3. Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus from Germany shows receptor usage and innate immunity induction consistent with the pathogenicity of the virus in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Popugaeva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV is a European hantavirus causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS in humans with fatality rates of up to 12%. DOBV-associated clinical cases typically occur also in the northern part of Germany where the virus is carried by the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius. However, the causative agent responsible for human illness has not been previously isolated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report on characterization of a novel cell culture isolate from Germany obtained from a lung tissue of "spillover" infected yellow necked mouse (A. flavicollis trapped near the city of Greifswald. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated close clustering of the new strain, designated Greifswald/Aa (GRW/Aa with the nucleotide sequence obtained from a northern German HFRS patient. The virus was effectively blocked by specific antibodies directed against β3 integrins and Decay Accelerating Factor (DAF indicating that the virus uses same receptors as the highly pathogenic Hantaan virus (HTNV. In addition, activation of selected innate immunity markers as interferon β and λ and antiviral protein MxA after viral infection of A549 cells was investigated and showed that the virus modulates the first-line antiviral response in a similar way as HTNV. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, our study reveals novel data on DOBV receptor usage and innate immunity induction in relationship to virus pathogenicity and underlines the potency of German DOBV strains to act as human pathogen.

  4. Tweaking Innate Immunity: The Promise of Innate Immunologicals as Anti-Infectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth L Rosenthal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available New and exciting insights into the importance of the innate immune system are revolutionizing our understanding of immune defense against infections, pathogenesis, and the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. The innate immune system uses multiple families of germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs to detect infection and trigger a variety of antimicrobial defense mechanisms. PRRs are evolutionarily highly conserved and serve to detect infection by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns that are unique to microorganisms and essential for their survival. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are transmembrane signalling receptors that activate gene expression programs that result in the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, type I interferons and antimicrobial factors. Furthermore, TLR activation facilitates and guides activation of adaptive immune responses through the activation of dendritic cells. TLRs are localized on the cell surface and in endosomal/lysosomal compartments, where they detect bacterial and viral infections. In contrast, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins and RNA helicases are located in the cell cytoplasm, where they serve as intracellular PRRs to detect cytoplasmic infections, particularly viruses. Due to their ability to enhance innate immune responses, novel strategies to use ligands, synthetic agonists or antagonists of PRRs (also known as 'innate immunologicals' can be used as stand-alone agents to provide immediate protection or treatment against bacterial, viral or parasitic infections. Furthermore, the newly appreciated importance of innate immunity in initiating and shaping adaptive immune responses is contributing to our understanding of vaccine adjuvants and promises to lead to improved next-generation vaccines.

  5. Antiviral therapy for prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimer, Nina; Dahl, Emilie Kristine; Gluud, Lise Lotte

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether antiviral therapy reduces the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis C.......To determine whether antiviral therapy reduces the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis C....

  6. Innate immunity orchestrates adipose tissue homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Wei; Wei, Li-Na

    2017-06-23

    Obesity is strongly associated with multiple diseases including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, fatty liver disease, neurodegenerative diseases and cancers, etc. Adipose tissue (AT), mainly brown AT (BAT) and white AT (WAT), is an important metabolic and endocrine organ that maintains whole-body homeostasis. BAT contributes to non-shivering thermogenesis in a cold environment; WAT stores energy and produces adipokines that fine-tune metabolic and inflammatory responses. Obesity is often characterized by over-expansion and inflammation of WAT where inflammatory cells/mediators are abundant, especially pro-inflammatory (M1) macrophages, resulting in chronic low-grade inflammation and leading to insulin resistance and metabolic complications. Macrophages constitute the major component of innate immunity and can be activated as a M1 or M2 (anti-inflammatory) phenotype in response to environmental stimuli. Polarized M1 macrophage causes AT inflammation, whereas polarized M2 macrophage promotes WAT remodeling into the BAT phenotype, also known as WAT browning/beiging, which enhances insulin sensitivity and metabolic health. This review will discuss the regulation of AT homeostasis in relation to innate immunity.

  7. Necroptotic signaling in adaptive and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jennifer V; Chen, Helen C; Walsh, Craig M

    2014-11-01

    The vertebrate immune system is highly dependent on cell death for efficient responsiveness to microbial pathogens and oncogenically transformed cells. Cell death pathways are vital to the function of many immune cell types during innate, humoral and cellular immune responses. In addition, cell death regulation is imperative for proper adaptive immune self-tolerance and homeostasis. While apoptosis has been found to be involved in several of these roles in immunity, recent data demonstrate that alternative cell death pathways are required. Here, we describe the involvement of a programmed form of cellular necrosis called "necroptosis" in immunity. We consider the signaling pathways that promote necroptosis downstream of death receptors, type I transmembrane proteins of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family. The involvement of necroptotic signaling through a "RIPoptosome" assembled in response to innate immune stimuli or genotoxic stress is described. We also characterize the induction of necroptosis following antigenic stimulation in T cells lacking caspase-8 or FADD function. While necroptotic signaling remains poorly understood, it is clear that this pathway is an essential component to effective vertebrate immunity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fish innate immunity against intestinal helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, B S; Bosi, G; DePasquale, J A; Manera, M; Giari, L

    2016-03-01

    Most individual fish in farmed and wild populations are infected with parasites. Upon dissection of fish, helminths from gut are often easily visible. Enteric helminths include several species of digeneans, cestodes, acanthocephalans and nematodes. Some insights into biology, morphology and histopathological effects of the main fish enteric helminths taxa will be described here. The immune system of fish, as that of other vertebrates, can be subdivided into specific and aspecific types, which in vivo act in concert with each other and indeed are interdependent in many ways. Beyond the small number of well-described models that exist, research focusing on innate immunity in fish against parasitic infections is lacking. Enteric helminths frequently cause inflammation of the digestive tract, resulting in a series of chemical and morphological changes in the affected tissues and inducing leukocyte migration to the site of infection. This review provides an overview on the aspecific defence mechanisms of fish intestine against helminths. Emphasis will be placed on the immune cellular response involving mast cells, neutrophils, macrophages, rodlet cells and mucous cells against enteric helminths. Given the relative importance of innate immunity in fish, and the magnitude of economic loss in aquaculture as a consequence of disease, this area deserves considerable attention and support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Innateness and the instinct to learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Marler

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Concepts of innateness were at the heart of Darwin's approach to behavior and central to the ethological theorizing of Lorenz and, at least to start with, of Tinbergen. Then Tinbergen did an about face, and for some twenty years the term 'innate' became highly suspect. He attributed the change to Lehrman's famous 1953 critique in which he asserted that classifying behaviors as innate tells us nothing about how they develop. Although Lehrman made many valid points, I will argue that this exchange also led to profound misunderstandings that were ultimately damaging to progress in research on the development of behavior. The concept of 'instincts to learn', receiving renewed support from current theorizing among geneticists about phenotypic plasticity, provides a potential resolution of some of the controversies that Lehrman created. Bioacoustical studies, particularly on song learning in birds, serve both to confirm some of Lehrman's anxieties about the term 'innate', but also to make a case that he threw out the genetic baby with the bathwater. The breathtaking progress in molecular and developmental genetics has prepared the way for a fuller understanding of the complexities underlying even the simplest notions of innate behavior, necessary before we can begin to comprehend the ontogeny of behavior.O conceito de inato estava no cerne da abordagem de Darwin ao comportamento assim como no das teorias etológicas de Lorenz e, pelo menos inicialmente, de Tinbergen. Depois, Tinbergen deu uma reviravolta e, durante mais ou menos vinte anos, o termo ''inato'' tornou-se altamente suspeito. Tinbergen atribuiu sua mudança à famosa crítica de Lehrman, em 1953, segundo a qual classificar comportamentos como inatos não traz informação alguma a respeito de seu desenvolvimento. Embora muitas das críticas de Lehrman sejam relevantes, tentarei mostrar que a mudança de enfoque também gerou sérios equívocos que acabaram prejudicando o progresso da

  10. NEMO binds ubiquitinated TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1 to regulate innate immune responses to RNA viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyan Wang

    Full Text Available RIG-I-like receptors (RLR are intracellular sensors utilized by nearly all cell types for recognition of viral RNA, initiation of antiviral defense, and induction of type I interferons (IFN. TBK1 is a critical kinase implicated in RLR-dependent IFN transcription. Posttranslational modification of TBK1 by K63-linked ubiquitin is required for RLR driven signaling. However, the TBK1 ubiquitin acceptor sites and the function of ubiquitinated TBK1 in the signaling cascade are unknown. We now show that TBK1 is ubiquitinated on residues K69, K154, and K372 in response to infection with RNA virus. The K69 and K154 residues are critical for innate antiviral responses and IFN production. Ubiquitinated TBK1 recruits the downstream adaptor NEMO through ubiquitin binding domains. The assembly of the NEMO/TBK1 complex on the mitochondrial protein MAVS leads to activation of TBK1 kinase activity and phosphorylation of the transcription factor, interferon response factor 3. The combined results refine current views of RLR signaling, define the role of TBK1 polyubiquitination, and detail the mechanisms involved in signalosome assembly.

  11. Cloning and expression analysis of innate immune genes from red sea bream to assess different susceptibility to megalocytivirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, J W; Kim, Y C; Hong, S; Kim, M S; Jeong, J B; Jeong, H D

    2017-04-01

    As suggested by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), fishes belonging to the genus Oplegnathus are more sensitive to megalocytivirus infection than other fish species including red sea bream (Pagrus major). To assess the roles of the innate immune response to these different susceptibilities, we cloned the genes encoding inflammatory factors including IL-8 and COX-2, and the antiviral factor like Mx from red sea bream for the first time and performed phylogenetic and structural analysis. Analysed expression levels of IL-1β, IL-8 and COX-2 and the antiviral factor like Mx genes performed with in vivo challenge experiment showed no difference in inflammatory gene expression or respiratory burst activity between red sea bream and rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). However, the Mx gene expression levels in red sea bream were markedly higher than those in rock bream, suggesting the importance of type I interferon (IFN)-induced proteins, particularly Mx, during megalocytivirus infection, rather than inflammation-related genes. The in vitro challenge experiments using embryonic primary cultures derived from both fish species showed no difference in cytopathic effects (CPE), viral replication profiles, and inflammatory and Mx gene expression pattern between the two fish species. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The importance of becoming double-stranded: Innate immunity and the kinetic model of HIV-1 central plus strand synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschla, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Central initiation of plus strand synthesis is a conserved feature of lentiviruses and certain other retroelements. This complication of the standard reverse transcription mechanism produces a transient “central DNA flap” in the viral cDNA, which has been proposed to mediate its subsequent nuclear import. This model has assumed that the important feature is the flapped DNA structure itself rather than the process that produces it. Recently, an alternative kinetic model was proposed. It posits that central plus strand synthesis functions to accelerate conversion to the double-stranded state, thereby helping HIV-1 to evade single-strand DNA-targeting antiviral restrictions such as APOBEC3 proteins, and perhaps to avoid innate immune sensor mechanisms. The model is consistent with evidence that lentiviruses must often synthesize their cDNAs when dNTP concentrations are limiting and with data linking reverse transcription and uncoating. There may be additional kinetic advantages for the artificial genomes of lentiviral gene therapy vectors. - Highlights: • Two main functional models for HIV central plus strand synthesis have been proposed. • In one, a transient central DNA flap in the viral cDNA mediates HIV-1 nuclear import. • In the other, multiple kinetic consequences are emphasized. • One is defense against APOBEC3G, which deaminates single-stranded DNA. • Future questions pertain to antiviral restriction, uncoating and nuclear import

  13. Type I interferon production during herpes simplex virus infection is controlled by cell-type-specific viral recognition through Toll-like receptor 9, the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein pathway, and novel recognition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon Brandtoft; Sørensen, Louise Nørgaard; Malmgaard, Lene

    2007-01-01

    Recognition of viruses by germ line-encoded pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system is essential for rapid production of type I interferon (IFN) and early antiviral defense. We investigated the mechanisms of viral recognition governing production of type I IFN during herpes...... simplex virus (HSV) infection. We show that early production of IFN in vivo is mediated through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, whereas the subsequent alpha/beta IFN (IFN-alpha/beta) response is derived from several cell types and induced independently of TLR9...

  14. Analysis of Tospovirus NSs Proteins in Suppression of Systemic Silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedil, Marcio; Sterken, Mark G; de Ronde, Dryas; Lohuis, Dick; Kormelink, Richard

    2015-01-01

    RNA silencing is a sequence-specific gene regulation mechanism that in plants also acts antiviral. In order to counteract antiviral RNA silencing, viruses have evolved RNA silencing suppressors (RSS). In the case of tospoviruses, the non-structural NSs protein has been identified as the RSS. Although the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) tospovirus NSs protein has been shown to exhibit affinity to long and small dsRNA molecules, its ability to suppress the non-cell autonomous part of RNA silencing has only been studied to a limited extent. Here, the NSs proteins of TSWV, groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and tomato yellow ring virus (TYRV), representatives for three distinct tospovirus species, have been studied on their ability and strength to suppress local and systemic silencing. A system has been developed to quantify suppression of GFP silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana 16C lines, to allow a comparison of relative RNA silencing suppressor strength. It is shown that NSs of all three tospoviruses are suppressors of local and systemic silencing. Unexpectedly, suppression of systemic RNA silencing by NSsTYRV was just as strong as those by NSsTSWV and NSsGRSV, even though NSsTYRV was expressed in lower amounts. Using the system established, a set of selected NSsTSWV gene constructs mutated in predicted RNA binding domains, as well as NSs from TSWV isolates 160 and 171 (resistance breakers of the Tsw resistance gene), were analyzed for their ability to suppress systemic GFP silencing. The results indicate another mode of RNA silencing suppression by NSs that acts further downstream the biogenesis of siRNAs and their sequestration. The findings are discussed in light of the affinity of NSs for small and long dsRNA, and recent mutant screen of NSsTSWV to map domains required for RSS activity and triggering of Tsw-governed resistance.

  15. Antiviral activity of maca (Lepidium meyenii) against human influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Pumarola, Tomàs; Gonzales, Libertad Alzamora; Del Valle, Luis J

    2014-09-01

    To investigate antiviral activity of maca to reduce viral load in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells infected with influenza type A and B viruses (Flu-A and Flu-B, respectively). Maca were extracted with methanol (1:2, v/v). The cell viability and toxicity of the extracts were evaluated on MDCK cells using method MTT assay. Antiviral activity of compounds against Flu-A and Flu-B viruses was assayed using a test for determining the inhibition of the cytopathic effect on cell culture and multiplex RT-PCR. The methanol extract of maca showed low cytotoxicity and inhibited influenza-induced cytopathic effect significantly, while viral load was reduced via inhibition of viral growth in MDCK infected cells. Maca contains potent inhibitors of Flu-A and Flu-B with a selectivity index [cytotoxic concentration 50%/IC50] of 157.4 and 110.5, respectively. In vitro assays demonstrated that maca has antiviral activity not only against Flu-A (like most antiviral agents) but also Flu-B viruses, providing remarkable therapeutic benefits. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 78 FR 57166 - Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug...

  17. Developing antiviral surgical gown using nonwoven fabrics for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To develop antiviral surgical gown comprising of Polypropylene nonwoven as outer layer, Polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) film as middle layer and polyester nonwoven as inner layer and the surgical gown with a basic weight of 70 g/m2. Methods: The titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano dispersion was prepared with ...

  18. Antiviral acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: New structures and prodrugs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krečmerová, Marcela; Tichý, Tomáš; Pomeisl, Karel; Andrei, G.; Balzarini, J.; Snoeck, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2016), s. 37 [PharmaMed-2016. International Conference on Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry . 05.12.2016-07.12.2016, Dubai] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-00522S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * prodrugs * antivirals * 5-azacytosine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  19. The role of CC chemokine receptor 5 in antiviral immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nansen, Anneline; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Andreasen, Susanne Ørding

    2002-01-01

    The CC chemokine receptor CCR5 is an important coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and there is a major thrust to develop anti-CCR5-based therapies for HIV-1. However, it is not known whether CCR5 is critical for a normal antiviral T-cell response. This study investigated the immune...

  20. Antiviral evaluation of an Hsp90 inhibitor, gedunin, against dengue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antiviral potential of a tetranortriterpenoid, gedunin, against dengue virus (DENV) replication by targeting the host chaperone, Hsp90. Methods: The compound, gedunin, was tested against the replication of DENV in vitro using BHK-15 cells transfected with DENV-2 subgenomic replicon. Molecular ...

  1. 75 FR 16151 - Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug...

  2. 76 FR 62418 - Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug...

  3. Antiviral activity of the extracts of Rhodophyceae from Morocco

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2010-11-15

    Nov 15, 2010 ... replication of HSV-1 in vitro at an EC50 (Effective Concentration 50%) ranging from <2.5 to 75.9 µg mL-1. No cytotoxic effect ... Keywords: Antiviral, Aqueous extracts, Organic extracts, Rhodophyceae, Herpes simplex virus. INTRODUCTION ... from a species of Bryopsis as a possible treatment of lung cancer ...

  4. Bilirubin: an endogenous molecule with antiviral activity in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria eSantangelo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bilirubin-IX-alpha (BR is the final product of heme metabolism through the heme oxygenase/biliverdin reductase (HO/BVR system. Previous papers reported on the microbicidal effects of the HO by-products biliverdin-IX-alpha, carbon monoxide and iron, through either direct or indirect mechanisms. In this paper the evidence of a virucidal effect of BR against human herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and the enterovirus EV71 was provided. Bilirubin-IX-alpha, at concentrations 1-10 µM, close to those found in blood and tissues, significantly reduced HSV-1 and EV71 replication in Hep-2 and Vero cell lines, respectively. Bilirubin-IX-alpha inhibited viral infection of Hep-2 and Vero cells when given 2 hours before, concomitantly and 2 hours after viral infection. Furthermore, BR retained its antiviral activity even complexed with a saturating concentration of human serum-albumin. Moreover, 10 µM BR increased the formation of nitric oxide and the phosphorylation of JNK in Vero and Hep-2 cell lines, respectively, thus implying a role of these two pathways in the mechanism of antiviral activity of the bile pigment. In conclusion, these results support the antiviral effect of BR against HSV-1 and enterovirus in vitro, and put the basis for further basic and clinical studies to understand the real role of BR as an endogenous antiviral molecule.

  5. INVESTMENT IN ANTIVIRAL DRUGS : A REAL OPTIONS APPROACH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attema, Arthur E.; Lugner, Anna K.; Feenstra, Talitha L.

    2010-01-01

    Real options analysis is a promising approach to model investment under uncertainty. We employ this approach to value stockpiling of antiviral drugs as a precautionary measure against a possible influenza pandemic. Modifications of the real options approach to include risk attitude and deviations

  6. Developing antiviral surgical gown using nonwoven fabrics for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Developing antiviral surgical gown using nonwoven fabrics for health care sector. *Parthasarathi V, Thilagavathi G. Department of Fashion Technology, PSG college of Technology, Peelamedu, Coimbatore – 641 004,. India. Abstract. Background: Healthcare workers' uniforms including surgical gowns are used as barriers ...

  7. Testing of disease-resistance of pokeweed antiviral protein gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of pokeweed antiviral protein gene (PAP) into plants was shown to improve plant resistance to several viruses or fungi pathogens with no much negative effect on plant growth. The non-virulent defective PAP inhibits only the virus but does not interfere with the host. A non-virulent defective PAP gene ...

  8. Single cell analysis of innate cytokine responses to pattern recognition receptor stimulation in children across four continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolen, Kinga K; Cai, Bing; Fortuno, Edgardo S; Gelinas, Laura; Larsen, Martin; Speert, David P; Chamekh, Mustapha; Kollmann, Tobias R

    2014-01-01

    Innate immunity instructs adaptive immunity, and suppression of innate immunity is associated with increased risk for infection. We had previously shown that whole blood cellular components from a cohort of South African children secreted significantly lower levels of most cytokines following stimulation of pattern recognition receptors (PRR) as compared to whole blood from cohorts of Ecuadorian, Belgian, or Canadian children. To begin dissecting the responsible molecular mechanisms, we now set out to identify the relevant cellular source of these differences. Across the four cohorts represented in our study, we identified significant variation in the cellular composition of whole blood; however, significant reduction of the intracellular cytokine production on the single cell level was only detected in South African childrens’ monocytes, cDC, and pDC. We also uncovered a marked reduction in polyfunctionality for each of these cellular compartments in South African children as compared to children from other continents. Together our data identify differences in cell composition as well as profoundly lower functional responses of innate cells in our cohort of South African children. A possible link between altered innate immunity and increased risk for infection or lower response to vaccines in South African infants needs to be explored. PMID:25135829

  9. DMPD: Regulation of mitochondrial antiviral signaling pathways. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18549796 Regulation of mitochondrial antiviral signaling pathways. Moore CB, Ting J...P. Immunity. 2008 Jun;28(6):735-9. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Regulation of mitochondrial antiviral ...signaling pathways. PubmedID 18549796 Title Regulation of mitochondrial antiviral signaling pathways. Author

  10. DMPD: What is disrupting IFN-alpha's antiviral activity? [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15283983 What is disrupting IFN-alpha's antiviral activity? Mbow ML, Sarisky RT. Tr...ends Biotechnol. 2004 Aug;22(8):395-9. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show What is disrupting IFN-alpha's ant...iviral activity? PubmedID 15283983 Title What is disrupting IFN-alpha's antiviral activity? Authors Mbow ML,

  11. DMPD: Negative regulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18703349 Negative regulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. Komur...Show Negative regulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. PubmedID 18703349 Title Negative r...egulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. Authors Komuro A, Bamm

  12. Structural characterization and antiviral activity of a novel heteropolysaccharide isolated from Grifola frondosa against enterovirus 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Gao, Luying; Wang, Chunyang; Liu, Bin; Jin, Yu; Xing, Zheng

    2016-06-25

    A novel heteropolysaccharide from Grifola frondosa mycelia was extracted and purified using DEAE Sephadex A-50 and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR) spectroscopy were used to decipher the structure of the purified G. frondosa polysaccharide (GFP1). Chemical and spectral analysis revealed that GFP1, with an average molecular weight of 40.5kDa, possessed a 1,6-β-d-glucan backbone with a single 1,3-α-d-fucopyranosyl side-branching unit. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the causative pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease. GFP1 was tested for its anti-EV71 activity in cultured cells, which showed that EV71 viral replication was blocked and viral VP1 protein expression and genomic RNA synthesis were suppressed. Moreover, GFP1 exhibited apoptotic and other activities by suppressing the EV71-induced caspase-3 cleavage and IκBα down regulation. Our results demonstrate that the novel G. frondosa polysaccharide has antiviral activity, which could be valuable as a potentially new anti-EV71 therapeutic compound. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Innate immunological function of TH2 cells in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Th2 cells produce IL-13 when stimulated by papain or house dust mites (HDM) and induce eosinophilic inflammation. This innate response of cells of the adaptive immune system is dependent on IL-33-, not T cell receptor-, based stimulation. While type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are the dominant ...

  14. Innatism, Concept Formation, Concept Mastery and Formal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article will consider the claim that the possession of concepts is innate rather than learned. Innatism about concept learning is explained through consideration of the work of Fodor and Chomsky. First, an account of concept formation is developed. Second the argument against the claim that concepts are learned through the construction of a…

  15. Modulation of the innate immune responses in the striped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, most of the innate non-specific immune responses are inducible though they are constitutive of fish immune system exhibiting a basal level of activity even in the absence of pathogen challenge. Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila, Experimental challenge, Innate immune response, Striped snakehead murrel ...

  16. Dexamethasone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medicine. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  17. Viral RNA Silencing Suppression: The Enigma of Bunyavirus NSs Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Hedil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae is a family of arboviruses including both plant- and vertebrate-infecting representatives. The Tospovirus genus accommodates plant-infecting bunyaviruses, which not only replicate in their plant host, but also in their insect thrips vector during persistent propagative transmission. For this reason, they are generally assumed to encounter antiviral RNA silencing in plants and insects. Here we present an overview on how tospovirus nonstructural NSs protein counteracts antiviral RNA silencing in plants and what is known so far in insects. Like tospoviruses, members of the related vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses classified in the genera Orthobunyavirus, Hantavirus and Phlebovirus also code for a NSs protein. However, for none of them RNA silencing suppressor activity has been unambiguously demonstrated in neither vertebrate host nor arthropod vector. The second part of this review will briefly describe the role of these NSs proteins in modulation of innate immune responses in mammals and elaborate on a hypothetical scenario to explain if and how NSs proteins from vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses affect RNA silencing. If so, why this discovery has been hampered so far.

  18. How Flaviviruses Activate and Suppress the Interferon Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L. Fredericksen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The flavivirus genus includes viruses with a remarkable ability to produce disease on a large scale. The expansion and increased endemicity of dengue and West Nile viruses in the Americas exemplifies their medical and epidemiological importance. The rapid detection of viral infection and induction of the innate antiviral response are crucial to determining the outcome of infection. The intracellular pathogen receptors RIG-I and MDA5 play a central role in detecting flavivirus infections and initiating a robust antiviral response. Yet, these viruses are still capable of producing acute illness in humans. It is now clear that flaviviruses utilize a variety of mechanisms to modulate the interferon response. The non-structural proteins of the various flaviviruses reduce expression of interferon dependent genes by blocking phosphorylation, enhancing degradation or down-regulating expression of major components of the JAK/STAT pathway. Recent studies indicate that interferon modulation is an important factor in the development of severe flaviviral illness. This suggests that an increased understanding of viral-host interactions will facilitate the development of novel therapeutics to treat these viral infections and improved biological models to study flavivirus pathogenesis.

  19. Viral RNA Silencing Suppression: The Enigma of Bunyavirus NSs Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedil, Marcio; Kormelink, Richard

    2016-07-23

    The Bunyaviridae is a family of arboviruses including both plant- and vertebrate-infecting representatives. The Tospovirus genus accommodates plant-infecting bunyaviruses, which not only replicate in their plant host, but also in their insect thrips vector during persistent propagative transmission. For this reason, they are generally assumed to encounter antiviral RNA silencing in plants and insects. Here we present an overview on how tospovirus nonstructural NSs protein counteracts antiviral RNA silencing in plants and what is known so far in insects. Like tospoviruses, members of the related vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses classified in the genera Orthobunyavirus, Hantavirus and Phlebovirus also code for a NSs protein. However, for none of them RNA silencing suppressor activity has been unambiguously demonstrated in neither vertebrate host nor arthropod vector. The second part of this review will briefly describe the role of these NSs proteins in modulation of innate immune responses in mammals and elaborate on a hypothetical scenario to explain if and how NSs proteins from vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses affect RNA silencing. If so, why this discovery has been hampered so far.

  20. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in co...

  1. Innate immune response development in nestling tree swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambaugh, T.; Houdek, B.J.; Lombardo, M.P.; Thorpe, P.A.; Caldwell, Hahn D.

    2011-01-01

    We tracked the development of innate immunity in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and compared it to that of adults using blood drawn from nestlings during days 6, 12, and 18 of the ???20-day nestling period and from adults. Innate immunity was characterized using an in vitro assay of the ability of whole blood to kill Escherichia coli. The ability of whole blood to kill E. coli increased as nestlings matured. Neither this component of innate immunity nor right wing chord length on day18 were as developed as in adults indicating that development of the innate immune system and growth both continued after fledging. Narrow sense heritability analyses suggest that females with strong immune responses produced nestlings with strong immune responses. These data suggest nestling Tree Swallows allocated sufficient energy to support rapid growth to enable fledging by day 18, but that further development of innate immunity occurred post-fledging. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  2. Are innate immune signaling pathways in plants and animals conserved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausubel, Frederick M

    2005-10-01

    Although adaptive immunity is unique to vertebrates, the innate immune response seems to have ancient origins. Common features of innate immunity in vertebrates, invertebrate animals and plants include defined receptors for microbe-associated molecules, conserved mitogen-associated protein kinase signaling cascades and the production of antimicrobial peptides. It is commonly reported that these similarities in innate immunity represent a process of divergent evolution from an ancient unicellular eukaryote that pre-dated the divergence of the plant and animal kingdoms. However, at present, data suggest that the seemingly analogous regulatory modules used in plant and animal innate immunity are a consequence of convergent evolution and reflect inherent constraints on how an innate immune system can be constructed.

  3. Identification and isolation of stimulator of interferon genes (STING): an innate immune sensory and adaptor gene from camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premraj, A; Aleyas, A G; Nautiyal, B; Rasool, T J

    2013-10-01

    The mechanism by which type I interferon-mediated antiviral response is mounted by hosts against invading pathogen is an intriguing one. Of late, an endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein encoded by a gene called stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is implicated in the innate signalling pathways and has been identified and cloned in few mammalian species including human, mouse and pig. In this article, we report the identification of STING from three different species of a highly conserved family of mammals - the camelids. cDNAs encoding the STING of Old World camels - dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) and bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and a New World camel - llama (Llama glama) were amplified using conserved primers and RACE. The complete STING cDNA of dromedary camel is 2171 bp long with a 706-bp 5' untranslated regions (UTR), an 1137-bp open reading frame (ORF) and a 328-bp 3' UTR. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the ORF of STING from these three camelids indicate high level of similarity among camelids and conservation of critical amino acid residues across different species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed high levels of STING mRNA expression in blood, spleen, lymph node and lung. The identification of camelid STING will help in better understanding of the role of this molecule in the innate immunity of the camelids and other mammals. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Deciphering the Innate Lymphoid Cell Transcriptional Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Seillet

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are enriched at mucosal surfaces, where they provide immune surveillance. All ILC subsets develop from a common progenitor that gives rise to pre-committed progenitors for each of the ILC lineages. Currently, the temporal control of gene expression that guides the emergence of these progenitors is poorly understood. We used global transcriptional mapping to analyze gene expression in different ILC progenitors. We identified PD-1 to be specifically expressed in PLZF+ ILCp and revealed that the timing and order of expression of the transcription factors NFIL3, ID2, and TCF-1 was critical. Importantly, induction of ILC lineage commitment required only transient expression of NFIL3 prior to ID2 and TCF-1 expression. These findings highlight the importance of the temporal program that permits commitment of progenitors to the ILC lineage, and they expand our understanding of the core transcriptional program by identifying potential regulators of ILC development.

  5. Rotavirus nonstructural protein 1 antagonizes innate immune response by interacting with retinoic acid inducible gene I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Lan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nonstructural protein 1 (NSP1 of rotavirus has been reported to block interferon (IFN signaling by mediating proteasome-dependent degradation of IFN-regulatory factors (IRFs and (or the β-transducin repeat containing protein (β-TrCP. However, in addition to these targets, NSP1 may subvert innate immune responses via other mechanisms. Results The NSP1 of rotavirus OSU strain as well as the IRF3 binding domain truncated NSP1 of rotavirus SA11 strain are unable to degrade IRFs, but can still inhibit host IFN response, indicating that NSP1 may target alternative host factor(s other than IRFs. Overexpression of NSP1 can block IFN-β promoter activation induced by the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I, but does not inhibit IFN-β activation induced by the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, indicating that NSP1 may target RIG-I. Immunoprecipitation experiments show that NSP1 interacts with RIG-I independent of IRF3 binding domain. In addition, NSP1 induces down-regulation of RIG-I in a proteasome-independent way. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that inhibition of RIG-I mediated type I IFN responses by NSP1 may contribute to the immune evasion of rotavirus.

  6. Targeting the cytosolic innate immune receptors RIG-I and MDA5 effectively counteracts cancer cell heterogeneity in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glas, Martin; Coch, Christoph; Trageser, Daniel; Dassler, Juliane; Simon, Matthias; Koch, Philipp; Mertens, Jerome; Quandel, Tamara; Gorris, Raphaela; Reinartz, Roman; Wieland, Anja; Von Lehe, Marec; Pusch, Annette; Roy, Kristin; Schlee, Martin; Neumann, Harald; Fimmers, Rolf; Herrlinger, Ulrich; Brüstle, Oliver; Hartmann, Gunther; Besch, Robert; Scheffler, Björn

    2013-06-01

    Cellular heterogeneity, for example, the intratumoral coexistence of cancer cells with and without stem cell characteristics, represents a potential root of therapeutic resistance and a significant challenge for modern drug development in glioblastoma (GBM). We propose here that activation of the innate immune system by stimulation of innate immune receptors involved in antiviral and antitumor responses can similarly target different malignant populations of glioma cells. We used short-term expanded patient-specific primary human GBM cells to study the stimulation of the cytosolic nucleic acid receptors melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I). Specifically, we analyzed cells from the tumor core versus "residual GBM cells" derived from the tumor resection margin as well as stem cell-enriched primary cultures versus specimens without stem cell properties. A portfolio of human, nontumor neural cells was used as a control for these studies. The expression of RIG-I and MDA5 could be induced in all of these cells. Receptor stimulation with their respective ligands, p(I:C) and 3pRNA, led to in vitro evidence for an effective activation of the innate immune system. Most intriguingly, all investigated cancer cell populations additionally responded with a pronounced induction of apoptotic signaling cascades revealing a second, direct mechanism of antitumor activity. By contrast, p(I:C) and 3pRNA induced only little toxicity in human nonmalignant neural cells. Granted that the challenge of effective central nervous system (CNS) delivery can be overcome, targeting of RIG-I and MDA5 could thus become a quintessential strategy to encounter heterogeneous cancers in the sophisticated environments of the brain. Copyright © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  7. Antibacterial and antiviral roles of a fish β-defensin expressed both in pituitary and testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Yan Jin

    Full Text Available Defensins are a group of cationic peptides that exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. In this study, we cloned and characterized a β-defensin from pituitary cDNA library of a protogynous hermaphroditic orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides. Interestingly, the β-defensin was shown to be dominantly expressed in pituitary and testis by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, and its transcript level is significantly upregulated in reproduction organs from intersexual gonad to testis during the natural and artificial sex reversal. Promoter sequence and the responsible activity region analyses revealed the pituitary-specific POU1F1a transcription binding site and testis-specific SRY responsible site, and demonstrated that the pituitary-specific POU1F1a transcription binding site that locates between -180 and -208 bp is the major responsible region of grouper β-defensin promoter activity. Immunofluorescence localization observed its pituicyte expression in pituitary and spermatogonic cell expression in testis. Moreover, both in vitro antibacterial activity assay of the recombinant β-defensin and in vivo embryo microinjection of the β-defensin mRNA were shown to be effective in killing gram-negative bacteria. And, its antiviral role was also demonstrated in EPC cells transfected with the β-defensin construct. Additionally, the antibacterial activity was sensitive to concentrations of Na(+, K(+, Ca(2+ and Mg(2+. The above intriguing findings strongly suggest that the fish β-defensin might play significant roles in both innate immunity defense and reproduction endocrine regulation.

  8. Antibacterial and antiviral roles of a fish β-defensin expressed both in pituitary and testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun-Yan; Zhou, Li; Wang, Yang; Li, Zhi; Zhao, Jiu-Gang; Zhang, Qi-Ya; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2010-12-20

    Defensins are a group of cationic peptides that exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. In this study, we cloned and characterized a β-defensin from pituitary cDNA library of a protogynous hermaphroditic orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Interestingly, the β-defensin was shown to be dominantly expressed in pituitary and testis by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, and its transcript level is significantly upregulated in reproduction organs from intersexual gonad to testis during the natural and artificial sex reversal. Promoter sequence and the responsible activity region analyses revealed the pituitary-specific POU1F1a transcription binding site and testis-specific SRY responsible site, and demonstrated that the pituitary-specific POU1F1a transcription binding site that locates between -180 and -208 bp is the major responsible region of grouper β-defensin promoter activity. Immunofluorescence localization observed its pituicyte expression in pituitary and spermatogonic cell expression in testis. Moreover, both in vitro antibacterial activity assay of the recombinant β-defensin and in vivo embryo microinjection of the β-defensin mRNA were shown to be effective in killing gram-negative bacteria. And, its antiviral role was also demonstrated in EPC cells transfected with the β-defensin construct. Additionally, the antibacterial activity was sensitive to concentrations of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). The above intriguing findings strongly suggest that the fish β-defensin might play significant roles in both innate immunity defense and reproduction endocrine regulation.

  9. Eosinophils Promote Antiviral Immunity in Mice Infected with Influenza A Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasinghe, Amali E; Melo, Rossana C N; Duan, Susu; LeMessurier, Kim S; Liedmann, Swantje; Surman, Sherri L; Lee, James J; Hurwitz, Julia L; Thomas, Paul G; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2017-04-15

    Eosinophils are multifunctional cells of the innate immune system linked to allergic inflammation. Asthmatics were more likely to be hospitalized but less likely to suffer severe morbidity and mortality during the 2009 influenza pandemic. These epidemiologic findings were recapitulated in a mouse model of fungal asthma wherein infection during heightened allergic inflammation was protective against influenza A virus (IAV) infection and disease. Our goal was to delineate a mechanism(s) by which allergic asthma may alleviate influenza disease outcome, focused on the hypothesis that pulmonary eosinophilia linked with allergic respiratory disease is able to promote antiviral host defenses against the influenza virus. The transfer of eosinophils from the lungs of allergen-sensitized and challenged mice into influenza virus-infected mice resulted in reduced morbidity and viral burden, improved lung compliance, and increased CD8 + T cell numbers in the airways. In vitro assays with primary or bone marrow-derived eosinophils were used to determine eosinophil responses to the virus using the laboratory strain (A/PR/08/1934) or the pandemic strain (A/CA/04/2009) of IAV. Eosinophils were susceptible to IAV infection and responded by activation, piecemeal degranulation, and upregulation of Ag presentation markers. Virus- or viral peptide-exposed eosinophils induced CD8 + T cell proliferation, activation, and effector functions. Our data suggest that eosinophils promote host cellular immunity to reduce influenza virus replication in lungs, thereby providing a novel mechanism by which hosts with allergic asthma may be protected from influenza morbidity. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. A zebrafish larval model reveals early tissue-specific innate immune responses to Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelz, Kerstin; Gratacap, Remi L; Wheeler, Robert T

    2015-11-01

    Mucormycosis is an emerging fungal infection that is clinically difficult to manage, with increasing incidence and extremely high mortality rates. Individuals with diabetes, suppressed immunity or traumatic injury are at increased risk of developing disease. These individuals often present with defects in phagocytic effector cell function. Research using mammalian models and phagocytic effector cell lines has attempted to decipher the importance of the innate immune system in host defence against mucormycosis. However, these model systems have not been satisfactory for direct analysis of the interaction between innate immune effector cells and infectious sporangiospores in vivo. Here, we report the first real-time in vivo analysis of the early innate immune response to mucormycete infection using a whole-animal zebrafish larval model system. We identified differential host susceptibility, dependent on the site of infection (hindbrain ventricle and swim bladder), as well as differential functions of the two major phagocyte effector cell types in response to viable and non-viable spores. Larval susceptibility to mucormycete spore infection was increased upon immunosuppressant treatment. We showed for the first time that macrophages and neutrophils were readily recruited in vivo to the site of infection in an intact host and that spore phagocytosis can be observed in real-time in vivo. While exploring innate immune effector recruitment dynamics, we discovered the formation of phagocyte clusters in response to fungal spores that potentially play a role in fungal spore dissemination. Spores failed to activate pro-inflammatory gene expression by 6 h post-infection in both infection models. After 24 h, induction of a pro-inflammatory response was observed only in hindbrain ventricle infections. Only a weak pro-inflammatory response was initiated after spore injection into the swim bladder during the same time frame. In the future, the zebrafish larva as a live whole

  11. A role for PML in innate immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Lunardi (Andrea); M. Gaboli (Mirella); M. Giorgio (Marco); R. Rivi (Roberta); A. Bygrave (Anne); D.D. Drabek (Dubravka); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine); M. Fagioli (Marta); L. Salmena (Leonardo); M. Antoniou (Michael); M. Botto (Marina); C. Cordon-Cardo (Carlos); L. Luzzatto (Lucio); P.G. Pelicci; F.G. Grosveld (Frank); P.P. Pandolfi

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe promyelocytic leukemia gene (PML) of acute promyelocytic leukemia is an established tumor suppressor gene with critical functions in growth suppression, induction of apoptosis, and cellular senescence. Interestingly, although less studied, PML seems to play a key role also in immune

  12. The cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 suppresses Ebola virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Batorski, Lindsay; Halfmann, Peter; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2013-12-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is the causative agent of a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with reported case fatality rates as high as 90%. There are currently no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapeutics to combat EBOV infections. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in heme degradation, has antioxidative properties and protects cells from various stresses. Activated HO-1 was recently shown to have antiviral activity, potently inhibiting the replication of viruses such as hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus. However, the effect of HO-1 activation on EBOV replication remains unknown. To determine whether the upregulation of HO-1 attenuates EBOV replication, we treated cells with cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), a selective HO-1 inducer, and assessed its effects on EBOV replication. We found that CoPP treatment, pre- and postinfection, significantly suppressed EBOV replication in a manner dependent upon HO-1 upregulation and activity. In addition, stable overexpression of HO-1 significantly attenuated EBOV growth. Although the exact mechanism behind the antiviral properties of HO-1 remains to be elucidated, our data show that HO-1 upregulation does not attenuate EBOV entry or budding but specifically targets EBOV transcription/replication. Therefore, modulation of the cellular enzyme HO-1 may represent a novel therapeutic strategy against EBOV infection.

  13. Glycyrrhizic acid as the antiviral component of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. against coxsackievirus A16 and enterovirus 71 of hand foot and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Chen, Xiaoqing; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yating; Yang, Ziying; Jin, Yu; Ge, Hui Ming; Li, Erguang; Yang, Guang

    2013-05-02

    The radices of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. and herbal preparations containing Glycyrrhiza spp. have been used for thousands of years as an herbal medicine for the treatment of viral induced cough, viral hepatitis, and viral skin diseases like ulcers in China. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is considered the principal component in Glycyrrhiza spp. with a wide spectrum of antiviral activity. The present study attempt to validate the medicinal use of Glycyrrhiza uralensis for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and further to verify whether GA is an active antiviral component in the water extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Radices of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. were extracted with hot water. The chemical contents of the extract were profiled with HPLC analysis. The antiviral activity of the extract and the major components was evaluated against infection of enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) on Vero cells. The cytopathic effect caused by the infection was measured with MTT assay. Infectious virion production was determined using secondary infection assays and viral protein expression by immunoblotting analysis. The extract at 1000 μg/ml suppressed EV71 replication by 1.0 log and CVA16 by 1.5 logs. The antiviral activity was associated with the content of GA in the extract since selective depletion of GA from the extract by acid precipitation resulted in loss of antiviral activity. In contrast, the acid precipitant retained antiviral activity. The precipitant at a concentration of 200 μg/ml inhibited EV71 and CVA16 replication by 1.7 and 2.2 logs, respectively. Furthermore, GA dose-dependently blocked viral replication of EV71 and CVA16. At 3 mM, GA reduced infectious CVA16 and EV71 production by 3.5 and 2.2 logs, respectively. At 5mM, CVA16 production was reduced by 6.0 logs and EV71 by 4.0 logs. Both EV71 and CVA16 are members of Enterovirus genus, time-of-drug addition studies however showed that GA directly inactivated CVA16, while GA anti-EV71 effect

  14. Oral antiviral therapy for prevention of genital herpes outbreaks in immunocompetent and nonpregnant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cleach, Laurence; Trinquart, Ludovic; Do, Giao; Maruani, Annabel; Lebrun-Vignes, Benedicte; Ravaud, Philippe; Chosidow, Olivier

    2014-08-03

    Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) or 2 (HSV-2). Some infected people experience outbreaks of genital herpes, typically, characterized by vesicular and erosive localized painful genital lesions. To compare the effectiveness and safety of three oral antiviral drugs (acyclovir, famciclovir and valacyclovir) prescribed to suppress genital herpes outbreaks in non-pregnant patients. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the search portal of the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and pharmaceutical company databases up to February 2014. We also searched US Food and Drug Administration databases and proceedings of seven congresses to a maximum of 10 years. We contacted trial authors and pharmaceutical companies. We selected parallel-group and cross-over randomized controlled trials including patients with recurrent genital herpes caused by HSV, whatever the type (HSV-1, HSV-2, or undetermined), with at least four recurrences per year (trials concerning human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients or pregnant women were not eligible) and comparing suppressive oral antiviral treatment with oral acyclovir, famciclovir, and valacyclovir versus placebo or another suppressive oral antiviral treatment. Two review authors independently selected eligible trials and extracted data. The Risk of bias tool was used to assess risk of bias. Treatment effect was measured by the risk ratio (RR) of having at least one genital herpes recurrence. Pooled RRs were derived by conventional pairwise meta-analyses. A network meta-analysis allowed for estimation of all possible two-by-two comparisons between antiviral drugs. A total of 26 trials (among which six had a cross-over design) were included. Among the 6950 randomly assigned participants, 54% (range 0 to 100%) were female, mean age was 35 years (range 26 to 45.1), and the mean number of recurrences per year was 11

  15. Tolerance-like innate immunity and spleen injury: a novel discovery via the weekly administrations and consecutive injections of PEGylated emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang L

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Long Wang,* Chunling Wang,* Jiao Jiao, Yuqing Su, Xiaobo Cheng, Zhenjun Huang, Xinrong Liu, Yihui DengCollege of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: There has been an increasing interest in the study of the innate immune system in recent years. However, few studies have focused on whether innate immunity can acquire tolerance. Therefore, in this study, we investigated tolerance in the innate immune system via the consecutive weekly and daily injections of emulsions modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG, referred to as PEGylated emulsions (PE. The effects of these injections of PE on pharmacokinetics and biodistribution were studied in normal and macrophage-depleted rats. Additionally, we evaluated the antigenic specificity of immunologic tolerance. Immunologic tolerance against PE developed after 21 days of consecutive daily injections or the fourth week of PE administration. Compared with a single administration, it was observed that the tolerant rats had a lower rate of PE clearance from the blood, which was independent of the stress response. In addition, weekly PE injections caused injury to the spleen. Furthermore, the rats tolerant to PEs with the methoxy group (-OCH3 of PEG, failed to respond to the PEs with a different terminal group of PEG or to non-PEG emulsions. Innate immunity tolerance was induced by PE, regardless of the mode of administration. Further study of this mechanism suggested that monocytes play an essential role in the suppression of innate immunity. These findings provide novel insights into the understanding of the innate immune system.Keywords: immunologic tolerance, innate immune system, pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, antigenic specificity

  16. Indian marine bivalves: Potential source of antiviral drugs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Bichurina, M.A.; Sovetova, M.; Boikov, Y.A.

    in large quantities by traditional methods and sold live in the market for human consumption. The economically important sp e cies of marine bivalves are green mussel ( Perna viridis ), e s tuarine oyster ( Crassostrea madrasensis ), giant oyster... in developing an effecti ve drug has been the unique characteristics of antigenic variation of virus resulting in the emergence of new variant virus strains 14 . There are a number of antiviral drugs introduced in the market such as tricyclic sy m- metric...

  17. In Vitro Bioavailability Study of an Antiviral Compound Enisamium Iodide

    OpenAIRE

    Eleonore Haltner-Ukomadu; Svitlana Gureyeva; Oleksii Burmaka; Andriy Goy; Lutz Mueller; Grygorii Kostyuk; Victor Margitich

    2018-01-01

    An investigation into the biopharmaceutics classification and a study of the in vitro bioavailability (permeability and solubility) of the antiviral compound enisamium iodide (4-(benzylcarbamoyl)-1-methylpyridinium iodide) were carried out. The solubility of enisamium iodide was determined in four different buffers. Apparent intestinal permeability (Papp) of enisamium iodide was assessed using human colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells at three concentrations. The solubility of enisamium iodide in ...

  18. Antiviral activity of some South American medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Sanchez Palomino, S; Chiriboga, X; Carrasco, L

    1999-03-01

    Folk medicinal plants are potential sources of useful therapeutic compounds including some with antiviral activities. Extracts prepared from 10 South American medicinal plants (Baccharis trinervis, Baccharis teindalensis, Eupatorium articulatum, Eupatorium glutinosum, Tagetes pusilla, Neurolaena lobata, Conyza floribunda, Phytolacca bogotensis, Phytolacca rivinoides and Heisteria acuminata) were screened for in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex type I (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and poliovirus type 1. The most potent inhibition was observed with an aqueous extract of B. trinervis, which inhibited HSV-1 replication by 100% at 50-200 micrograms/mL, without showing cytotoxic effects. Good activities were also found with the ethanol extract of H. acuminata and the aqueous extract of E. articulatum, which exhibited antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses (HSV-1 and VSV, respectively) at 125-250 micrograms/mL. The aqueous extracts of T. pusilla (100-250 micrograms/mL), B. teindalensis (50-125 micrograms/mL) and E. glutinosum (50-125 micrograms/mL) also inhibited the replication of VSV, but none of the extracts tested had any effect on poliovirus replication.

  19. Tracking TCRβ sequence clonotype expansions during antiviral therapy using high-throughput sequencing of the hypervariable region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Robinson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To maintain a persistent infection viruses such as hepatitis C virus (HCV employ a range of mechanisms that subvert protective T cell responses. The suppression of antigen-specific T cell responses by HCV hinders efforts to profile T cell responses during chronic infection and antiviral therapy. Conventional methods of detecting antigen-specific T cells utilise either antigen stimulation (e.g. ELISpot, proliferation assays, cytokine production or antigen-loaded tetramer staining. This limits the ability to profile T cell responses during chronic infection due to suppressed effector function and the requirement for prior knowledge of antigenic viral peptide sequences. Recently high-throughput sequencing (HTS technologies have been developed for the analysis of T cell repertoires. In the present study we have assessed the feasibility of HTS of the TCRβ complementarity determining region (CDR3 to track T cell expansions in an antigen-independent manner. Using sequential blood samples from HCV-infected individuals undergoing anti-viral therapy we were able to measure the population frequencies of >35,000 TCRβ sequence clonotypes in each individual over the course of 12 weeks. TRBV/TRBJ gene segment usage varied markedly between individuals but remained relatively constant within individuals across the course of therapy. Despite this stable TRBV/TRBJ gene segment usage, a number of TCRβ sequence clonotypes showed dramatic changes in read frequency. These changes could not be linked to therapy outcomes in the present study however the TCRβ CDR3 sequences with the largest fold changes did include sequences with identical TRBV/TRBJ gene segment usage and high joining region homology to previously published CDR3 sequences from HCV-specific T cells targeting the HLA-B*0801-restricted 1395HSKKKCDEL1403 and HLA-A*0101–restricted 1435ATDALMTGY1443 epitopes. The pipeline developed in this proof of concept study provides a platform for the design of

  20. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Intestinal Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremia, Alessandra; Arancibia-Cárcamo, Carolina V.

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestine that encompasses Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis. The cause of IBD is unknown, but the evidence suggests that an aberrant immune response toward the commensal bacterial flora is responsible for disease in genetically susceptible individuals. Results from animal models of colitis and human studies indicate a role for innate lymphoid cells (ILC) in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation in IBD. ILC are a population of lymphocytes that are enriched at mucosal sites, where they play a protective role against pathogens including extracellular bacteria, helminthes, and viruses. ILC lack an antigen-specific receptor, but can respond to environmental stress signals contributing to the rapid orchestration of an early immune response. Several subsets of ILC reflecting functional characteristics of T helper subsets have been described. ILC1 express the transcription factor T-bet and are characterized by secretion of IFNγ, ILC2 are GATA3+ and secrete IL5 and IL13 and ILC3 depend on expression of RORγt and secrete IL17 and IL22. However, ILC retain a degree of plasticity depending on exposure to cytokines and environmental factors. IL23 responsive ILC have been implicated in the pathogenesis of colitis in several innate murine models through the production of IL17, IFNγ, and GM-CSF. We have previously identified IL23 responsive ILC in the human intestine and found that they accumulate in the inflamed colon and small bowel of patients with CD. Other studies have confirmed accumulation of ILC in CD with increased frequencies of IFNγ-secreting ILC1 in both the intestinal lamina propria and the epithelium. Moreover, IL23 driven IL22 producing ILC have been shown to drive bacteria-induced colitis-associated cancer in mice. Interestingly, our data show increased ILC accumulation in patients with IBD and primary sclerosing cholangitis, who carry an increased risk of

  1. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Geremia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestine that encompasses Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis. The cause of IBD is unknown, but the evidence suggests that an aberrant immune response toward the commensal bacterial flora is responsible for disease in genetically susceptible individuals. Results from animal models of colitis and human studies indicate a role for innate lymphoid cells (ILC in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation in IBD. ILC are a population of lymphocytes that are enriched at mucosal sites, where they play a protective role against pathogens including extracellular bacteria, helminthes, and viruses. ILC lack an antigen-specific receptor, but can respond to environmental stress signals contributing to the rapid orchestration of an early immune response. Several subsets of ILC reflecting functional characteristics of T helper subsets have been described. ILC1 express the transcription factor T-bet and are characterized by secretion of IFNγ, ILC2 are GATA3+ and secrete IL5 and IL13 and ILC3 depend on expression of RORγt and secrete IL17 and IL22. However, ILC retain a degree of plasticity depending on exposure to cytokines and environmental factors. IL23 responsive ILC have been implicated in the pathogenesis of colitis in several innate murine models through the production of IL17, IFNγ, and GM-CSF. We have previously identified IL23 responsive ILC in the human intestine and found that they accumulate in the inflamed colon and small bowel of patients with CD. Other studies have confirmed accumulation of ILC in CD with increased frequencies of IFNγ-secreting ILC1 in both the intestinal lamina propria and the epithelium. Moreover, IL23 driven IL22 producing ILC have been shown to drive bacteria-induced colitis-associated cancer in mice. Interestingly, our data show increased ILC accumulation in patients with IBD and primary sclerosing cholangitis, who carry an

  2. Prevention of Lung Carcinogenesis by Suppressing Pathogenic CD4 T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    intestinal inflammation by reducing TH17 cells and preserving group 3 innate lymphoid cells . Nat Med, 2016. 22(3): p. 319-23.   ...stable population of YFP+  cells  similar  to  innate  IL‐17–producing  cells  (e.g., γδ T  cells ) during acute infection (Fig.2) , which is in sharp contrast...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0100 TITLE: Prevention of Lung Carcinogenesis by Suppressing Pathogenic CD4 T Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Seon Hee

  3. Mechanism of Innate Resistance to Viral Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    development of immunity (20). Although serum antibody was not detected in recipients of immune SC unless they were challenged wih virus, it is reasonable to...inununo- suppression, cytotoxicity 21. ASSIRACr m(nm -oel ab w noomeao aid Momlw by block nmbu) Factors that influence the phenotypic expression of...both strains of mice withstood IP challenge with virus. In contrast, only resistant mice (C3H/RV) were able to withstand IC challenge . Similarly, C3H

  4. Innate immunity drives the initiation of a murine model of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hsuan Chang

    Full Text Available Invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells play complex roles in bridging innate and adaptive immunity by engaging with glycolipid antigens presented by CD1d. Our earlier work suggested that iNKT cells were involved in the initiation of the original loss of tolerance in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC. To address this issue in more detail and, in particular, to focus on whether iNKT cells activated by a Th2-biasing agonist (2s,3s,4r-1-O-(α-D-galactopyranosyl-N-tetracosanoyl-2-amino-1,3,4-nonanetriol (OCH, can influence the development of PBC in a xenobiotic-induced PBC murine model. Groups of mice were treated with either OCH or, as a control, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer and thence serially followed for cytokine production, markers of T cell activation, liver histopathology and anti-mitochondrial antibody responses. Further, additional groups of CD1d deleted mice were similarly studied. Our data indicate that administration of OCH has a dramatic influence with exacerbation of portal inflammation and hepatic fibrosis similar to mice treated with α-GalCer. Further, iNKT cell deficient CD1d knockout mice have decreased inflammatory portal cell infiltrates and reduced anti-mitochondrial antibody responses. We submit that activation of iNKT cells can occur via overlapping and/or promiscuous pathways and highlight the critical role of innate immunity in the natural history of autoimmune cholangitis. These data have implications for humans with PBC and emphasize that therapeutic strategies must focus not only on suppressing adaptive responses, but also innate immunity.

  5. Innate lymphoid cells, precursors and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronke, Konrad; Kofoed-Nielsen, Michael; Diefenbach, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) have only recently been recognized as a separate entity of the lymphoid lineage. Their subpopulations share common characteristics in terms of early development and major transcriptional circuitry with their related cousins of the T cell world. It is currently hypothesized that ILCs constitute an evolutionary older version of the lymphoid immune system. They are found at all primary entry points for pathogens such as mucosal surfaces of the lung and gastrointestinal system, the skin and the liver, which is the central contact point for pathogens that breach the intestinal barrier and enter the circulation. There, ILC contribute to the first line defense as well as to organ homeostasis. However, ILC are not only involved in classical defense tasks, but also contribute to the organogenesis of lymphoid organs as well as tissue remodeling and even stem cell regeneration. ILC may, therefore, implement different functions according to their emergence in ontogeny, their development and their final tissue location. We will review here their early development from precursors of the fetal liver and the adult bone marrow as well as their late plasticity in adaptation to their environment. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Innate lymphoid cells in secondary lymphoid organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Ephraïm, Yotam E; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-05-01

    The family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has attracted attention in recent years as its members are important regulators of immunity, while they can also cause pathology. In both mouse and man, ILCs were initially discovered in developing lymph nodes as lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. These cells form the prototypic members of the ILC family and play a central role in the formation of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). In the absence of LTi cells, lymph nodes (LN) and Peyer's Patches (PP) fail to form in mice, although the splenic white pulp can develop normally. Besides LTi cells, the ILC family encompasses helper-like ILCs with functional distinctions as seen by T-helper cells, as well as cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells. ILCs are still present in adult SLOs where they have been shown to play a role in lymphoid tissue regeneration. Furthermore, ILCs were implicated to interact with adaptive lymphocytes and influence the adaptive immune response. Here, we review the recent literature on the role of ILCs in secondary lymphoid tissue from the formation of SLOs to mature SLOs in adults, during homeostasis and pathology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Identification and expression analysis of irak1 gene in common carp Cyprinus carpio L.: indications for a role of antibacterial and antiviral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, S J; Liu, D Z; Wang, L; Zhu, Y Y; Zhang, F M; Li, T; An, L G; Yang, G W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the full-length complementary (c)DNA of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 gene (irak1) was cloned from common carp Cyprinus carpio. The complete open reading frame of irak1 contained 2109 bp encoding a protein of 702 amino acid residues that comprised a death domain, a ProST region, a serine-threonine-specific protein kinase catalytic domain and a C-terminal domain. The amino-acid sequence of C. carpio Irak1 protein shared sequence homology with grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus (84.5%). The phylogenetic tree of IRAKs separated the polypeptides into four clades, comprising IRAK1s, IRAK2s, IRAK3s and IRAK4s. Cyprinus carpio Irak1 fell into the cluster with previously reported IRAK1s including teleost Irak1s. The irak1 gene was highly expressed in gills, followed by brain, skin, hindgut, buccal epithelium, spleen, foregut, head kidney and liver, and was expressed at lowest levels in gonad and muscle. The irak1 messenger (m)RNA expression was up-regulated in liver, spleen, head kidney, foregut, hindgut, gills and skin after stimulation with Vibrio anguillarum and poly(I:C), and significantly high up-regulated expression was observed in liver and spleen. These results implied that irak1 might participate in antibacterial and antiviral innate immunity. These findings gave the indications that irak1 may participate in antibacterial and antiviral immunity. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Meningitis Caused by Toscana Virus Is Associated with Strong Antiviral Response in the CNS and Altered Frequency of Blood Antigen-Presenting Cells

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    Stefania Varani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Toscana virus (TOSV is a Phlebotomus-transmitted RNA virus and a frequent cause of human meningitis and meningoencephalitis in Southern Europe during the summer season. While evidence for TOSV-related central nervous system (CNS cases is increasing, little is known about the host defenses against TOSV. We evaluated innate immune response to TOSV by analyzing frequency and activation of blood antigen-presenting cells (APCs and cytokine levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from patients with TOSV neuroinvasive infection and controls. An altered frequency of different blood APC subsets was observed in TOSV-infected patients, with signs of monocytic deactivation. Nevertheless, a proper or even increased responsiveness of toll-like receptor 3 and 7/8 was observed in blood APCs of these patients as compared to healthy controls. Systemic levels of cytokines remained low in TOSV-infected patients, while levels of anti-inflammatory and antiviral mediators were significantly higher in CSF from TOSV-infected patients as compared to patients with other infectious and noninfectious neurological diseases. Thus, the early host response to TOSV appears effective for viral clearance, by proper response to TLR3 and TLR7/8 agonists in peripheral blood and by a strong and selective antiviral and anti-inflammatory response in the CNS.

  9. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-03-08

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in contrast detection thresholds) as a function of the visual features of the stimulus being suppressed and the stimulus evoking suppression, namely, the popular "Mondrian" CFS stimulus (N. Tsuchiya & C. Koch, 2005). First, we found that CFS differentially suppresses the spatial components of the suppressed stimulus: Observers' sensitivity for stimuli of relatively low spatial frequency or cardinally oriented features was more strongly impaired in comparison to high spatial frequency or obliquely oriented stimuli. Second, we discovered that this feature-selective bias primarily arises from the spatiotemporal structure of the CFS stimulus, particularly within information residing in the low spatial frequency range and within the smooth rather than abrupt luminance changes over time. These results imply that this CFS stimulus operates by selectively attenuating certain classes of low-level signals while leaving others to be potentially encoded during suppression. These findings underscore the importance of considering the contribution of low-level features in stimulus-driven effects that are reported under CFS.

  10. TOX sets the stage for innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, Hergen

    2015-01-01

    Like T cells and B cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) develop from common lymphoid progenitors, but how commitment to the ILC lineage is regulated has remained unclear. The transcriptional regulator TOX is important in this process

  11. Dissecting the hypothalamic pathways that underlie innate behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Xi; Xu, Xiaohong

    2015-12-01

    Many complex behaviors that do not require learning are displayed and are termed innate. Although traditionally the subject matter of ethology, innate behaviors offer a unique entry point for neuroscientists to dissect the physiological mechanisms governing complex behaviors. Since the last century, converging evidence has implicated the hypothalamus as the central brain area that controls innate behaviors. Recent studies using cutting-edge tools have revealed that genetically-defined populations of neurons residing in distinct hypothalamic nuclei and their associated neural pathways regulate the initiation and maintenance of diverse behaviors including feeding, sleep, aggression, and parental care. Here, we review the newly-defined hypothalamic pathways that regulate each innate behavior. In addition, emerging general principles of the neural control of complex behaviors are discussed.

  12. Diversity, Function and Transcriptional Regulation of Gut Innate Lymphocytes

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    Lucille eRankin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system plays a critical early role in host defense against viruses, bacteria and tumour cells. Until recently, natural killer (NK cells and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi cells were the primary members of the innate lymphocyte family: NK cells form the front-line interface between the external environment and the adaptive immune system, while LTi cells are essential for secondary lymphoid tissue formation. More recently, it has become apparent that the composition of this family is much more diverse than previously appreciated and newly recognized populations play distinct and essential functions in tissue protection. Despite the importance of these cells, the developmental relationships between different innate lymphocyte populations (ILCs remain unclear. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the development of different innate immune cell subsets, the transcriptional programs that might be involved in driving fate decisions during development, and their relationship to NK cells.

  13. Innate immune functions of microglia isolated from human glioma patients

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    Grimm Elizabeth

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Innate immunity is considered the first line of host defense and microglia presumably play a critical role in mediating potent innate immune responses to traumatic and infectious challenges in the human brain. Fundamental impairments of the adaptive immune system in glioma patients have been investigated; however, it is unknown whether microglia are capable of innate immunity and subsequent adaptive anti-tumor immune responses within the immunosuppressive tumor micro-environment of human glioma patients. We therefore undertook a novel characterization of the innate immune phenotype and function of freshly isolated human glioma-infiltrating microglia (GIM. Methods GIM were isolated by sequential Percoll purification from patient tumors immediately after surgical resection. Flow cytometry, phagocytosis and tumor cytotoxicity assays were used to analyze the phenotype and function of these cells. Results GIM expressed significant levels of Toll-like receptors (TLRs, however they do not secrete any of the cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α critical in developing effective innate immune responses. Similar to innate macrophage functions, GIM can mediate phagocytosis and non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity. However, they were statistically less able to mediate tumor cytotoxicity compared to microglia isolated from normal brain. In addition, the expression of Fas ligand (FasL was low to absent, indicating that apoptosis of the incoming lymphocyte population may not be a predominant mode of immunosuppression by microglia. Conclusion We show for the first time that despite the immunosuppressive environment of human gliomas, GIM are capable of innate immune responses such as phagocytosis, cytotoxicity and TLR expression but yet are not competent in secreting key cytokines. Further understanding of these innate immune functions could play a critical role in understanding and developing effective immunotherapies to malignant human gliomas.

  14. Interplay between Candida albicans and the Mammalian Innate Host Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shih-Chin; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Kullberg, Bart-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is both the most common fungal commensal microorganism in healthy individuals and the major fungal pathogen causing high mortality in at-risk populations, especially immunocompromised patients. In this review, we summarize the interplay between the host innate system and C. albicans, ranging from how the host recognizes, responds, and clears C. albicans infection to how C. albicans evades, dampens, and escapes from host innate immunity. PMID:22252867

  15. Recognition Strategies of Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Killig, Monica; Glatzer, Timor; Romagnani, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    During the early phase of an inflammatory response, innate cells can use different strategies to sense environmental danger. These include the direct interaction of specific activating receptors (actR) with pathogen-encoded/danger molecules or the engagement of cytokine receptors by pro-inflammatory mediators produced by antigen presenting cells (APC) in the course of the infection. These general recognition strategies, which have been extensively described for innate myeloid cells, are share...

  16. What can the semantic properties of innate representations explain?

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob , Pierre

    1997-01-01

    Dretske has argued that, unlike the content of beliefs and desires (formed by learning), the contents of innate representations (depending directly on evolution by natural selection) cannot in principle play a role in the causal explanation of an individual's behavior. I examine this "asymmetry" and against it, I argue that the content of innate mental representations too can play a causal role in the explanation of behavior.

  17. Network topologies and dynamics leading to endotoxin tolerance and priming in innate immune cells.

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    Yan Fu

    Full Text Available The innate immune system, acting as the first line of host defense, senses and adapts to foreign challenges through complex intracellular and intercellular signaling networks. Endotoxin tolerance and priming elicited by macrophages are classic examples of the complex adaptation of innate immune cells. Upon repetitive exposures to different doses of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide or other stimulants, macrophages show either suppressed or augmented inflammatory responses compared to a single exposure to the stimulant. Endotoxin tolerance and priming are critically involved in both immune homeostasis and the pathogenesis of diverse inflammatory diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. By means of a computational search through the parameter space of a coarse-grained three-node network with a two-stage Metropolis sampling approach, we enumerated all the network topologies that can generate priming or tolerance. We discovered three major mechanisms for priming (pathway synergy, suppressor deactivation, activator induction and one for tolerance (inhibitor persistence. These results not only explain existing experimental observations, but also reveal intriguing test scenarios for future experimental studies to clarify mechanisms of endotoxin priming and tolerance.

  18. Poliovirus intrahost evolution is required to overcome tissue-specific innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yinghong; Dolan, Patrick Timothy; Goldstein, Elizabeth Faul; Li, Min; Farkov, Mikhail; Brodsky, Leonid; Andino, Raul

    2017-08-29

    RNA viruses, such as poliovirus, have a great evolutionary capacity, allowing them to quickly adapt and overcome challenges encountered during infection. Here we show that poliovirus infection in immune-competent mice requires adaptation to tissue-specific innate immune microenvironments. The ability of the virus to establish robust infection and virulence correlates with its evolutionary capacity. We further identify a region in the multi-functional poliovirus protein 2B as a hotspot for the accumulation of minor alleles that facilitate a more effective suppression of the interferon response. We propose that population genetic dynamics enables poliovirus spread between tissues through optimization of the genetic composition of low frequency variants, which together cooperate to circumvent tissue-specific challenges. Thus, intrahost virus evolution determines pathogenesis, allowing a dynamic regulation of viral functions required to overcome barriers to infection.RNA viruses, such as polioviruses, have a great evolutionary capacity and can adapt quickly during infection. Here, the authors show that poliovirus infection in mice requires adaptation to innate immune microenvironments encountered in different tissues.

  19. Cardiovascular disease in haemodialysis: role of the intravascular innate immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Kristina N; Soveri, Inga; Hilborn, Jöns; Fellström, Bengt; Nilsson, Bo

    2017-05-01

    Haemodialysis is a life-saving renal replacement modality for end-stage renal disease, but this therapy also represents a major challenge to the intravascular innate immune system, which is comprised of the complement, contact and coagulation systems. Chronic inflammation is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients on haemodialysis. Biomaterial-induced contact activation of proteins within the plasma cascade systems occurs during haemodialysis and initially leads to local generation of inflammatory mediators on the biomaterial surface. The inflammation is spread by soluble activation products and mediators that are generated during haemodialysis and transported in the extracorporeal circuit back into the patient together with activated leukocytes and platelets. The combined effect is activation of the endothelium of the cardiovascular system, which loses its anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties, leading to atherogenesis and arteriosclerosis. This concept suggests that maximum suppression of the intravascular innate immune system is needed to minimize the risk of CVD in patients on haemodialysis. A potential approach to achieve this goal is to treat patients with broad-specificity systemic drugs that target more than one of the intravascular cascade systems. Alternatively, 'stealth' biomaterials that cause minimal cascade system activation could be used in haemodialysis circuits.

  20. Contribution to Tumor Angiogenesis From Innate Immune Cells Within the Tumor Microenvironment: Implications for Immunotherapy

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    Adriana Albini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The critical role of angiogenesis in promoting tumor growth and metastasis is strongly established. However, tumors show considerable variation in angiogenic characteristics and in their sensitivity to antiangiogenic therapy. Tumor angiogenesis involves not only cancer cells but also various tumor-associated leukocytes (TALs and stromal cells. TALs produce chemokines, cytokines, proteases, structural proteins, and microvescicles. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and inflammatory chemokines are not only major proangiogenic factors but are also immune modulators, which increase angiogenesis and lead to immune suppression. In our review, we discuss the regulation of angiogenesis by innate immune cells in the tumor microenvironment, specific features, and roles of major players: macrophages, neutrophils, myeloid-derived suppressor and dendritic cells, mast cells, γδT cells, innate lymphoid cells, and natural killer cells. Anti-VEGF or anti-inflammatory drugs could balance an immunosuppressive microenvironment to an immune permissive one. Anti-VEGF as well as anti-inflammatory drugs could therefore represent partners for combinations with immune checkpoint inhibitors, enhancing the effects of immune therapy.

  1. Cationic amino acid transporter 2 enhances innate immunity during Helicobacter pylori infection.

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    Daniel P Barry

    Full Text Available Once acquired, Helicobacter pylori infection is lifelong due to an inadequate innate and adaptive immune response. Our previous studies indicate that interactions among the various pathways of arginine metabolism in the host are critical determinants of outcomes following infection. Cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2 is essential for transport of L-arginine (L-Arg into monocytic immune cells during H. pylori infection. Once within the cell, this amino acid is utilized by opposing pathways that lead to elaboration of either bactericidal nitric oxide (NO produced from inducible NO synthase (iNOS, or hydrogen peroxide, which causes macrophage apoptosis, via arginase and the polyamine pathway. Because of its central role in controlling L-Arg availability in macrophages, we investigated the importance of CAT2 in vivo during H. pylori infection. CAT2(-/- mice infected for 4 months exhibited decreased gastritis and increased levels of colonization compared to wild type mice. We observed suppression of gastric macrophage levels, macrophage expression of iNOS, dendritic cell activation, and expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in CAT2(-/- mice suggesting that CAT2 is involved in enhancing the innate immune response. In addition, cytokine expression in CAT2(-/- mice was altered from an antimicrobial Th1 response to a Th2 response, indicating that the transporter has downstream effects on adaptive immunity as well. These findings demonstrate that CAT2 is an important regulator of the immune response during H. pylori infection.

  2. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase: An Emerging Key Player in Innate Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alexander N R; Bittner, Zsofia; Liu, Xiao; Dang, Truong-Minh; Radsak, Markus Philipp; Brunner, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) was initially discovered as a critical mediator of B cell receptor signaling in the development and functioning of adaptive immunity. Growing evidence also suggests multiple roles for BTK in mononuclear cells of the innate immune system, especially in dendritic cells and macrophages. For example, BTK has been shown to function in Toll-like receptor-mediated recognition of infectious agents, cellular maturation and recruitment processes, and Fc receptor signaling. Most recently, BTK was additionally identified as a direct regulator of a key innate inflammatory machinery, the NLRP3 inflammasome. BTK has thus attracted interest not only for gaining a more thorough basic understanding of the human innate immune system but also as a target to therapeutically modulate innate immunity. We here review the latest developments on the role of BTK in mononuclear innate immune cells in mouse versus man, with specific emphasis on the sensing of infectious agents and the induction of inflammation. Therapeutic implications for modulating innate immunity and critical open questions are also discussed.

  3. Stress Hyperglycemia, Insulin Treatment, and Innate Immune Cells

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    Fangming Xiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia (HG and insulin resistance are the hallmarks of a profoundly altered metabolism in critical illness resulting from the release of cortisol, catecholamines, and cytokines, as well as glucagon and growth hormone. Recent studies have proposed a fundamental role of the immune system towards the development of insulin resistance in traumatic patients. A comprehensive review of published literatures on the effects of hyperglycemia and insulin on innate immunity in critical illness was conducted. This review explored the interaction between the innate immune system and trauma-induced hypermetabolism, while providing greater insight into unraveling the relationship between innate immune cells and hyperglycemia. Critical illness substantially disturbs glucose metabolism resulting in a state of hyperglycemia. Alterations in glucose and insulin regulation affect the immune function of cellular components comprising the innate immunity system. Innate immune system dysfunction via hyperglycemia is associated with a higher morbidity and mortality in critical illness. Along with others, we hypothesize that reduction in morbidity and mortality observed in patients receiving insulin treatment is partially due to its effect on the attenuation of the immune response. However, there still remains substantial controversy regarding moderate versus intensive insulin treatment. Future studies need to determine the integrated effects of HG and insulin on the regulation of innate immunity in order to provide more effective insulin treatment regimen for these patients.

  4. Innate Immunity and Inflammation Post-Stroke: An α7-Nicotinic Agonist Perspective

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    Silke Neumann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and long-term disability, with limited treatment options available. Inflammation contributes to damage tissue in the central nervous system across a broad range of neuropathologies, including Alzheimer’s disease, pain, Schizophrenia, and stroke. While the immune system plays an important role in contributing to brain damage produced by ischemia, the damaged brain, in turn, can exert a powerful immune-suppressive effect that promotes infections and threatens the survival of stroke patients. Recently the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, in particular its modulation using α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR ligands, has shown potential as a strategy to dampen the inflammatory response and facilitate functional recovery in stroke patients. Here we discuss the current literature on stroke-induced inflammation and the effects of α7-nAChR modulators on innate immune cells.

  5. The cytosolic exonuclease TREX1 inhibits the innate immune response to HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Nan; Regalado-Magdos, Ashton D.; Stiggelbout, Bart; Lee-Kirsch, Min Ae; Lieberman, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Viral infection triggers innate immune sensors to produce type I interferons (IFN). However, HIV infection of T cells and macrophages does not trip these alarms. How HIV avoids activating nucleic acid sensors is unknown. The cytosolic exonuclease TREX1 suppressed IFN triggered by HIV. In Trex1−/− mouse cells and human CD4+ T cells and macrophages in which TREX1 was inhibited by RNA interference, cytosolic HIV DNA accumulated, and HIV infection induced type I IFN that inhibited HIV replication and spreading. TREX1 bound to cytosolic HIV DNA and digested excess HIV DNA that would otherwise activate IFN expression via a TBK1, STING and IRF3 dependent pathway. HIV-stimulated IFN production in cells deficient in TREX1 did not involve known nucleic acid sensors. PMID:20871604

  6. Acquired and innate immunity to polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, Nabiha; Timares, Laura; Seibert, Megan D.; Xu Hui; Elmets, Craig A.

    2007-01-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that are potent mutagens and carcinogens. Researchers have taken advantage of these properties to investigate the mechanisms by which chemicals cause cancer of the skin and other organs. When applied to the skin of mice, several carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons have also been shown to interact with the immune system, stimulating immune responses and resulting in the development of antigen-specific T-cell-mediated immunity. Development of cell-mediated immunity is strain-specific and is governed by Ah receptor genes and by genes located within the major histocompatibility complex. CD8 + T cells are effector cells in the response, whereas CD4 + T cells down-regulate immunity. Development of an immune response appears to have a protective effect since strains of mice that develop a cell-mediated immune response to carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons are less likely to develop tumors when subjected to a polyaromatic hydrocarbon skin carcinogenesis protocol than mice that fail to develop an immune response. With respect to innate immunity, TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ mice are more susceptible to polyaromatic hydrogen skin tumorigenesis than C3H/HeN mice in which TLR4 is normal. These findings support the hypothesis that immune responses, through their interactions with chemical carcinogens, play an active role in the prevention of chemical skin carcinogenesis during the earliest stages. Efforts to augment immune responses to the chemicals that cause tumors may be a productive approach to the prevention of tumors caused by these agents

  7. Mx Is Not Responsible for the Antiviral Activity of Interferon-α against Japanese Encephalitis Virus

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    Jing Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mx proteins are interferon (IFN-induced dynamin-like GTPases that are present in all vertebrates and inhibit the replication of myriad viruses. However, the role Mx proteins play in IFN-mediated suppression of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV infection is unknown. In this study, we set out to investigate the effects of Mx1 and Mx2 expression on the interferon-α (IFNα restriction of JEV replication. To evaluate whether the inhibitory activity of IFNα on JEV is dependent on Mx1 or Mx2, we knocked down Mx1 or Mx2 with siRNA in IFNα-treated PK-15 cells and BHK-21 cells, then challenged them with JEV; the production of progeny virus was assessed by plaque assay, RT-qPCR, and Western blotting. Our results demonstrated that depletion of Mx1 or Mx2 did not affect JEV restriction imposed by IFNα, although these two proteins were knocked down 66% and 79%, respectively. Accordingly, expression of exogenous Mx1 or Mx2 did not change the inhibitory activity of IFNα to JEV. In addition, even though virus-induced membranes were damaged by Brefeldin A (BFA, overexpressing porcine Mx1 or Mx2 did not inhibit JEV proliferation. We found that BFA inhibited JEV replication, not maturation, suggesting that BFA could be developed into a novel antiviral reagent. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that IFNα inhibits JEV infection by Mx-independent pathways.

  8. Decision Making with Regard to Antiviral Intervention during an Influenza Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eunha; Chapman, Gretchen B.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Antiviral coverage is defined by the proportion of the population that takes antiviral prophylaxis or treatment. High coverage of an antiviral drug has epidemiological and evolutionary repercussions. Antivirals select for drug resistance within the population, and individuals may experience adverse effects. To determine optimal antiviral coverage in the context of an influenza outbreak, we compared 2 perspectives: 1) the individual level (the Nash perspective), and 2) the population level (utilitarian perspective). Methods We developed an epidemiological game-theoretic model of an influenza pandemic. The data sources were published literature and a national survey. The target population was the US population. The time horizon was 6 months. The perspective was individuals and the population overall. The interventions were antiviral prophylaxis and treatment. The outcome measures were the optimal coverage of antivirals in an influenza pandemic. Results At current antiviral pricing, the optimal Nash strategy is 0% coverage for prophylaxis and 30% coverage for treatment, whereas the optimal utilitarian strategy is 19% coverage for prophylaxis and 100% coverage for treatment. Subsidizing prophylaxis by $440 and treatment by $85 would bring the Nash and utilitarian strategies into alignment. For both prophylaxis and treatment, the optimal antiviral coverage decreases as pricing of antivirals increases. Our study does not incorporate the possibility of an effective vaccine and lacks probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Our survey also does not completely represent the US population. Because our model assumes a homogeneous population and homogeneous antiviral pricing, it does not incorporate heterogeneity of preference. Conclusions The optimal antiviral coverage from the population perspective and individual perspectives differs widely for both prophylaxis and treatment strategies. Optimal population and individual strategies for prophylaxis and treatment might

  9. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is a modulator of anti-viral immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Jennifer L.; Lawrence, B. Paige

    2009-01-01

    Although immune modulation by AhR ligands has been studied for many years, the impact of AhR activation on host defenses against viral infection has not, until recently, garnered much attention. The development of novel reagents and model systems, new information regarding antiviral immunity, and a growing appreciation for the global health threat posed by viruses have invigorated interest in understanding how environmental signals affect susceptibility to and pathological consequences of viral infection. Using influenza A virus as a model of respiratory viral infection, recent studies show that AhR activation cues signaling events in both leukocytes and non-immune cells. Functional alterations include suppressed lymphocyte responses and increased inflammation in the infected lung. AhR-mediated events within and extrinsic to hematopoietic cells has been investigated using bone marrow chimeras, which show that AhR alters different elements of the immune response by affecting different tissue targets. In particular, suppressed CD8+ T cell responses are due to deregulated events within leukocytes themselves, whereas increased neutrophil recruitment to and IFN-γ levels in the lung result from AhR-regulated events extrinsic to bone marrow-derived cells. This latter discovery suggests that epithelial and endothelial cells are overlooked targets of AhR-mediated changes in immune function. Further support that AhR influences host cell responses to viral infection are provided by several studies demonstrating that AhR interacts directly with viral proteins and affects viral latency. While AhR clearly modulates host responses to viral infection, we still have much to understand about the complex interactions between immune cells, viruses, and the host environment. PMID:19027719

  10. 'Omics investigations of HIV and SIV pathogenesis and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Robert E; Fuller, Deborah H

    2013-01-01

    investigations as applied to understanding of HIV pathogenesis and innate immunity, drawing from our own research as well as the literature examples that utilized in vitro cell-based models or studies in nonhuman primates. We will also discuss the potential for systems biology to help guide strategies for HIV vaccines that offer significant protection by either preventing acquisition or strongly suppressing viral replication levels post-infection.

  11. Innate invariant NKT cells recognize Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages, produce interferon-gamma, and kill intracellular bacteria.

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    Isabel Sada-Ovalle

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cellular immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb requires a coordinated response between the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system, resulting in a type 1 cytokine response, which is associated with control of infection. The contribution of innate lymphocytes to immunity against Mtb remains controversial. We established an in vitro system to study this question. Interferon-gamma is produced when splenocytes from uninfected mice are cultured with Mtb-infected macrophages, and, under these conditions, bacterial replication is suppressed. This innate control of bacterial replication is dependent on CD1d-restricted invariant NKT (iNKT cells, and their activation requires CD1d expression by infected macrophages as well as IL-12 and IL-18. We show that iNKT cells, even in limiting quantities, are sufficient to restrict Mtb replication. To determine whether iNKT cells contribute to host defense against tuberculosis in vivo, we adoptively transferred iNKT cells into mice. Primary splenic iNKT cells obtained from uninfected mice significantly reduce the bacterial burden in the lungs of mice infected with virulent Mtb by the aerosol route. Thus, iNKT cells have a direct bactericidal effect, even in the absence of synthetic ligands such as alpha-galactosylceramide. Our finding that iNKT cells protect mice against aerosol Mtb infection is the first evidence that CD1d-restricted NKT cells mediate protection against Mtb in vivo.

  12. Molecular Mechanisms That Underlie the Dynamic Adaptation of Innate Monocyte Memory to Varying Stimulant Strength of TLR Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ruoxi; Geng, Shuo; Li, Liwu

    2016-01-01

    In adaptation to rising stimulant strength, innate monocytes can be dynamically programed to preferentially express either pro- or anti-inflammatory mediators. Such dynamic innate adaptation or programing may bear profound relevance in host health and disease. However, molecular mechanisms that govern innate adaptation to varying strength of stimulants are not well understood. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the model stimulant of toll-like-receptor 4 (TLR4), we reported that the expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators are preferentially sustained in monocytes adapted by lower doses of LPS, and suppressed/tolerized in monocytes adapted by higher doses of LPS. Mechanistically, monocytes adapted by super-low dose LPS exhibited higher levels of transcription factor, interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), and reduced levels of transcriptional modulator B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1). Intriguingly, the inflammatory monocyte adaptation by super-low dose LPS is dependent upon TRAM/TRIF but not MyD88. Similar to LPS, we also observed biphasic inflammatory adaptation and tolerance in monocytes challenged with varying dosages of TLR7 agonist. In sharp contrast, rising doses of TLR3 agonist preferentially caused inflammatory adaptation without inducing tolerance. At the molecular level, the differential regulation of IRF5 and Blimp-1 coincides with unique monocyte adaptation dynamics by TLR4/7 and TLR3 agonists. Our study provides novel clue toward the understanding of monocyte adaptation and memory toward distinct TLR ligands.

  13. Molecular mechanisms that underlie the dynamic adaptation of innate monocyte memory to varying stimulant strength of TLR ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoxi Yuan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In adaptation to rising stimulant strength, innate monocytes can be dynamically programmed to preferentially express either pro- or anti-inflammatory mediators. Such dynamic innate adaptation or programming may bear profound relevance in host health and disease. However, molecular mechanisms that govern innate adaptation to varying strength of stimulants are not well understood. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the model stimulant of Toll-Like-Receptor 4 (TLR4, we reported that the expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators are preferentially sustained in monocytes adapted by lower doses of LPS, and suppressed/tolerized in monocytes adapted by higher doses of LPS. Mechanistically, monocytes adapted by super-low dose LPS exhibited higher levels of transcription factor IRF5 and reduced levels of transcriptional modulator BLIMP-1. Intriguingly, the inflammatory monocyte adaptation by super-low dose LPS is dependent upon TRAM/TRIF but not MyD88. Similar to LPS, we also observed biphasic inflammatory adaptation and tolerance in monocytes challenged with varying dosages of TLR7 agonist. In sharp contrast, rising doses of TLR3 agonist preferentially caused inflammatory adaptation without inducing tolerance. At the molecular level, the differential regulation of IRF5 and Blimp-1 coincides with unique monocyte adaptation dynamics by TLR4/7 and TLR3 agonists. Our study provides novel clue toward the understanding of monocyte adaptation and memory toward distinct TLR ligands.

  14. Mycoplasma hyorhinis-Contaminated Cell Lines Activate Primary Innate Immune Cells via a Protease-Sensitive Factor.

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    Simon Heidegger

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma are a frequent and occult contaminant of cell cultures, whereby these prokaryotic organisms can modify many aspects of cell physiology, rendering experiments that are conducted with such contaminated cells problematic. Chronic Mycoplasma contamination in human monocytic cells lines has been associated with suppressed Toll-like receptor (TLR function. In contrast, we show here that components derived from a Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected cell line can activate innate immunity in non-infected primary immune cells. Release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 by dendritic cells in response to Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected cell components was critically dependent on the adapter protein MyD88 but only partially on TLR2. Unlike canonical TLR2 signaling that is triggered in response to the detection of Mycoplasma infection, innate immune activation by components of Mycoplasma-infected cells was inhibited by chloroquine treatment and sensitive to protease treatment. We further show that in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, soluble factors from Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected cells induce the production of large amounts of IFN-α. We conclude that Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected cell lines release protein factors that can potently activate co-cultured innate immune cells via a previously unrecognized mechanism, thus limiting the validity of such co-culture experiments.

  15. Alpinone exhibited immunomodulatory and antiviral activities in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Felipe E; Modak, Brenda; Imarai, Mónica

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we seek to identify flavonoids able to regulate the gene expression of a group of cytokines important for the control of infections in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Particularly, we studied the potential immunomodulatory effects of two flavonoids, Alpinone and Pinocembrine, which were isolated and purified from resinous exudates of Heliotropium huascoense and Heliotropium sinuatum, respectively. The transcript levels of TNF-α and IL-1 (inflammatory cytokines), IFN-γ and IL-12 (T helper 1 type cytokines), IL4/13A (Th2-type cytokine), IL-17 (Th17 type cytokine) TGF-β1 (regulatory cytokine) and IFN-α (antiviral cytokine) were quantified by qRT-PCR in kidneys of flavonoid-treated and control fish. We demonstrated that the administration of a single intramuscular dose of purified Alpinone increased the transcriptional expression of five cytokines, named TNF-α, IL-1, IFN-α, IFN-γ and TGF-β1 in treated fish compared to untreated fish. Conversely, administration of purified Pinocembrine reduced the transcriptional expression of TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-12 in the kidney of treated fish. No other changes were observed. Interestingly, Alpinone also induced in vitro antiviral effects against Infectious Salmon Anaemia virus. Results showed that Alpinone but not Pinocembrine induces the expression of cytokines, which in vertebrates are essential to control viral infections while Pinocembrine reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines. Altogether results suggest that Alpinone is a good candidate to be further tested as immunostimulant and antiviral drug. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Innate and Adaptive Immunity to Mucorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghuman, Harlene; Voelz, Kerstin

    2017-09-05

    Mucormycosis is an invasive fungal infection characterised by rapid filamentous growth, which leads to angioinvasion, thrombosis, and tissue necrosis. The high mortality rates (50-100%) associated with mucormycosis are reflective of not only the aggressive nature of the infection and the poor therapeutics currently employed, but also the failure of the human immune system to successfully clear the infection. Immune effector interaction with Mucorales is influenced by the developmental stage of the mucormycete spore. In a healthy immune environment, resting spores are resistant to phagocytic killing. Contrarily, swollen spores and hyphae are susceptible to damage and degradation by macrophages and neutrophils. Under the effects of immune suppression, the recruitment and efficacy of macrophage and neutrophil activity against mucormycetes is considerably reduced. Following penetration of the endothelial lining, Mucorales encounter platelets. Platelets adhere to both mucormycete spores and hyphae, and exhibit germination suppression and hyphal damage capacity in vitro. Dendritic cells are activated in response to Mucorales hyphae only, and induce adaptive immunity. It is crucial to further knowledge regarding our immune system's failure to eradicate resting spores under intact immunity and inhibit fungal growth under immunocompromised conditions, in order to understand mucormycosis pathogenicity and enhance therapeutic strategies for mucormycosis.

  17. Addressing the selectivity and toxicity of antiviral nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joy Y

    2018-01-01

    Nucleoside and nucleotide analogs have played significant roles in antiviral therapies and are valued for their impressive potency and high barrier to resistance. They have been approved for treatment of herpes simplex virus-1, HIV, HBV, HCV, and influenza, and new drugs are being developed for the treatment of RSV, Ebola, coronavirus MERS, and other emerging viruses. However, this class of compounds has also experienced a high attrition rate in clinical trials due to toxicity. In this review, we discuss the utility of different biochemical and cell-based assays and provide recommendations for assessing toxicity liability before entering animal toxicity studies.

  18. Antiviral therapy and prophylaxis of acute respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Osidak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thearticle presents the results of years of studies (including biochemical and immunological of the effectiveness of application and prophylaxis (in relation to nosocomial infections and the safety of antiviral chemical preparation Arbidol in 694 children with influenza and influenza-like illness, including the coronavirus infection (43 children and combined lesions of respiratory tract (150, indicating the possible inclusion of the drug in the complex therapy for children with the listed diseases, regardless of the severity and nature of their course. The studies were conducted according to the regulated standard of test conditions and randomized clinical trials.

  19. Direct-acting antivirals for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus C; Nielsen, Emil Eik; Feinberg, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    and Drug Administration (FDA) (www.fda.gov), and pharmaceutical company sources for ongoing or unpublished trials. Searches were last run in October 2016. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised clinical trials comparing DAAs versus no intervention or placebo, alone or with co-interventions, in adults with chronic......BACKGROUND: Millions of people worldwide suffer from hepatitis C, which can lead to severe liver disease, liver cancer, and death. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are relatively new and expensive interventions for chronic hepatitis C, and preliminary results suggest that DAAs may eradicate...

  20. Early life innate immune signatures of persistent food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeland, Melanie R; Koplin, Jennifer J; Dang, Thanh D; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L; Prescott, Susan L; Saffery, Richard; Martino, David J; Allen, Katrina J

    2017-11-14

    Food allergy naturally resolves in a proportion of food-allergic children without intervention; however the underlying mechanisms governing the persistence or resolution of food allergy in childhood are not understood. This study aimed to define the innate immune profiles associated with egg allergy at age 1 year, determine the phenotypic changes that occur with the development of natural tolerance in childhood, and explore the relationship between early life innate immune function and serum vitamin D. This study used longitudinally collected PBMC samples from a population-based cohort of challenge-confirmed egg-allergic infants with either persistent or transient egg allergy outcomes in childhood to phenotype and quantify the functional innate immune response associated with clinical phenotypes of egg allergy. We show that infants with persistent egg allergy exhibit a unique innate immune signature, characterized by increased numbers of circulating monocytes and dendritic cells that produce more inflammatory cytokines both at baseline and following endotoxin exposure when compared with infants with transient egg allergy. Follow-up analysis revealed that this unique innate immune signature continues into childhood in those with persistent egg allergy and that increased serum vitamin D levels correlate with changes in innate immune profiles observed in children who developed natural tolerance to egg. Early life innate immune dysfunction may represent a key immunological driver and predictor of persistent food allergy in childhood. Serum vitamin D may play an immune-modulatory role in the development of natural tolerance. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The traditional use of Vachellia nilotica for sexually transmitted diseases is substantiated by the antiviral activity of its bark extract against sexually transmitted viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donalisio, Manuela; Cagno, Valeria; Civra, Andrea; Gibellini, Davide; Musumeci, Giuseppina; Rittà, Massimo; Ghosh, Manik; Lembo, David

    2018-03-01

    Vachellia (Acacia) nilotica and other plants of this genus have been used in traditional medicine of Asian and African countries to treat many disorders, including sexually transmitted diseases, but few studies were performed to validate their anti-microbial and anti-viral activity against sexually transmitted infections. The present study was undertaken to explore whether the ethnomedical use of V.nilotica to treat genital lesions is substantiated by its antiviral activity against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the herpes simplex virus (HSV) and the human papillomavirus (HPV). The antiviral activity of V.nilotica was tested in vitro by virus-specific inhibition assays using HSV-2 strains, sensible or resistant to acyclovir, HIV-1IIIb strain and HPV-16 pseudovirion (PsV). The potential mode of action of extract against HSV-2 and HPV-16 was further investigated by virus inactivation and time-of-addition assays on cell cultures. V.nilotica chloroform, methanolic and water bark extracts exerted antiviral activity against HSV-2 and HPV-16 PsV infections; among these, methanolic extract showed the best EC50s with values of 4.71 and 1.80µg/ml against HSV-2 and HPV-16, respectively, and it was also active against an acyclovir-resistant HSV-2 strain with an EC50 of 6.71µg/ml. By contrast, no suppression of HIV infection was observed. Investigation of the mechanism of action revealed that the methanolic extract directly inactivated the infectivity of the HPV-16 particles, whereas a partial virus inactivation and interference with virus attachment (EC50 of 2.74µg/ml) were both found to contribute to the anti-HSV-2 activity. These results support the traditional use of V.nilotica applied externally for the treatment of genital lesions. Further work remains to be done in order to identify the bioactive components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Potencial antiviral da quercetina sobre o parvovírus canino Antiviral potencial of quercetin in canine parvovirus

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    O.V. Carvalho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do flavonoide quercetina na replicação do parvovírus canino in vitro por meio do ensaio de determinação da atividade virucida (ensaio 1, ensaio de determinação da atividade sobre a célula (ensaio 2 e ensaio de tempo de adição das drogas em diferentes etapas do ciclo replicativo viral (ensaio 3. A quercetina apresentou significante atividade antiviral, com valores máximos de redução do título viral de 96,3% no ensaio 1, 90% no ensaio 2 e 90% no ensaio 3. Os efeitos mais expressivos ocorreram nas etapas de adsorção e penetração viral. Os resultados deste trabalho sugerem a importância da quercetina para a medicina veterinária.The in vitro effect of the flavonoid quercetin against canine parvovirus was evaluated. The antiviral activity of quercetin was evaluated by determining the virucidal activity (assay 1, determining the activity on the cell (assay 2 and using the time of addition assay to test the inhibition of the viral replication cycle (assay 3. Quercetin showed a significant antiviral activity, with maximum viral titer reduction of 96.3% in assay 1, 90% in assay 2 and 90% in assay 3. The most expressive effects occurred in the stages of viral adsorption and penetration. The results show the importance of quercetin for veterinary medicine.

  3. Dynamic innate immune responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Yoshikawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human lung epithelial cells are likely among the first targets to encounter invading severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV. Not only can these cells support the growth of SARS-CoV infection, but they are also capable of secreting inflammatory cytokines to initiate and, eventually, aggravate host innate inflammatory responses, causing detrimental immune-mediated pathology within the lungs. Thus, a comprehensive evaluation of the complex epithelial signaling to SARS-CoV is crucial for paving the way to better understand SARS pathogenesis. Based on microarray-based functional genomics, we report here the global gene response of 2B4 cells, a cloned bronchial epithelial cell line derived from Calu-3 cells. Specifically, we found a temporal and spatial activation of nuclear factor (NFkappaB, activator protein (AP-1, and interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3/7 in infected 2B4 cells at 12-, 24-, and 48-hrs post infection (p.i., resulting in the activation of many antiviral genes, including interferon (IFN-beta, -lambdas, inflammatory mediators, and many IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs. We also showed, for the first time, that IFN-beta and IFN-lambdas were capable of exerting previously unrecognized, non-redundant, and complementary abilities to limit SARS-CoV replication, even though their expression could not be detected in infected 2B4 bronchial epithelial cells until 48 hrs p.i. Collectively, our results highlight the mechanics of the sequential events of antiviral signaling pathway/s triggered by SARS-CoV in bronchial epithelial cells and identify novel cellular targets for future studies, aiming at advancing strategies against SARS.

  4. Postnatal Innate Immune Development: From Birth to Adulthood

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    Anastasia Georgountzou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that adaptive immune responses are deficient in early life, contributing to increased mortality and morbidity. The developmental trajectories of different components of innate immunity are only recently being explored. Individual molecules, cells, or pathways of innate recognition and signaling, within different compartments/anatomical sites, demonstrate variable maturation patterns. Despite some discrepancies among published data, valuable information is emerging, showing that the developmental pattern of cytokine responses during early life is age and toll-like receptor specific, and may be modified by genetic and environmental factors. Interestingly, specific environmental exposures have been linked both to innate function modifications and the occurrence of chronic inflammatory disorders, such as respiratory allergies. As these conditions are on the rise, our knowledge on innate immune development and its modulating factors needs to be expanded. Improved understanding of the sequence of events associated with disease onset and persistence will lead toward meaningful interventions. This review describes the state-of-the-art on normal postnatal innate immune ontogeny and highlights research areas that are currently explored or should be further addressed.

  5. Infectious Agents as Stimuli of Trained Innate Immunity

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    Paulina Rusek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The discoveries made over the past few years have modified the current immunological paradigm. It turns out that innate immunity cells can mount some kind of immunological memory, similar to that observed in the acquired immunity and corresponding to the defense mechanisms of lower organisms, which increases their resistance to reinfection. This phenomenon is termed trained innate immunity. It is based on epigenetic changes in innate immune cells (monocytes/macrophages, NK cells after their stimulation with various infectious or non-infectious agents. Many infectious stimuli, including bacterial or fungal cells and their components (LPS, β-glucan, chitin as well as viruses or even parasites are considered potent inducers of innate immune memory. Epigenetic cell reprogramming occurring at the heart of the phenomenon may provide a useful basis for designing novel prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to prevent and protect against multiple diseases. In this article, we present the current state of art on trained innate immunity occurring as a result of infectious agent induction. Additionally, we discuss the mechanisms of cell reprogramming and the implications for immune response stimulation/manipulation.

  6. Alternatives to conventional vaccines--mediators of innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, D P; Liley, H G; Minchinton, R M

    2004-01-01

    Vaccines have been described as "weapons of mass protection". The eradication of many diseases is testament to their utility and effectiveness. Nevertheless, many vaccine preventable diseases remain prevalent because of political and economic barriers. Additionally, the effects of immaturity and old age, therapies that incapacitate the adaptive immune system and the multitude of strategies evolved by pathogens to evade immediate or sustained recognition by the mammalian immune system are barriers to the effectiveness of existing vaccines or development of new vaccines. In the front line of defence against the pervasiness of infection are the elements of the innate immune system. Innate immunity is under studied and poorly appreciated. However, in the first days after entry of a pathogen into the body, our entire protective response is dependant upon the various elements of our innate immune repertoire. In spite of its place as our initial defence against infection, attention is only now turning to strategies which enhance or supplement innate immunity. This review examines the need for and potential of innate immune therapies.

  7. Role of innate T cells in anti-bacterial immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifang eGao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Innate T cells are a heterogeneous group of αβ and γδ T cells that respond rapidly (<2 hours upon activation. These innate T cells also share a non MHC class I or II restriction requirement for antigen recognition. Three major populations within the innate T cell group are recognized, namely Invariant NKT cells (iNKT; Mucosal associated invariant T cells (MAIT and gamma delta T cells. These cells recognize foreign/self-lipid presented by non-classical MHC molecules, such as CD1d, MR1 and CD1a.They are activated during the early stages of bacterial infection and act as a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune systems. In this review we focus on the functional properties of these 3 innate T cell populations and how they are purposed for antimicrobial defense. Furthermore we address the mechanisms through which their effector functions are targeted for bacterial control and compare this in human and murine systems. Lastly we speculate on future roles of these cell types in therapeutic settings such as vaccination.

  8. Convergence of the innate and adaptive immunity during human aging

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    Branca Isabel Pereira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with profound changes in the human immune system, a phenomenon referred to as immunosenescence. This complex immune remodeling affects the adaptive immune system and the CD8+ T cell compartment in particular, leading to the accumulation of terminally differentiated T cells, which can rapidly exert their effector functions at the expenses of a limited proliferative potential. In this review we will discuss evidence suggesting that senescent αβCD8+ T cells acquire the hallmarks of innate-like T cells and use recently acquired NK cell receptors as an alternative mechanism to mediate rapid effector functions. These cells concomitantly lose expression of co-stimulatory receptors and exhibit decreased TCR signaling suggesting a functional shift away from antigen specific activation. The convergence of innate and adaptive features in senescent T cells challenges the classic division between innate and adaptive immune systems. Innate-like T cells are particularly important for stress and tumor surveillance and we propose a new role for these cells in aging, where the acquisition of innate-like functions may represent a beneficial adaptation to an increased burden of malignancy with age, although it may also pose a higher risk of autoimmune disorders.

  9. Mechanisms of Hepatitis C Viral Resistance to Direct Acting Antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asma; Felmlee, Daniel J

    2015-12-18

    There has been a remarkable transformation in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in recent years with the development of direct acting antiviral agents targeting virus encoded proteins important for viral replication including NS3/4A, NS5A and NS5B. These agents have shown high sustained viral response (SVR) rates of more than 90% in phase 2 and phase 3 clinical trials; however, this is slightly lower in real-life cohorts. Hepatitis C virus resistant variants are seen in most patients who do not achieve SVR due to selection and outgrowth of resistant hepatitis C virus variants within a given host. These resistance associated mutations depend on the class of direct-acting antiviral drugs used and also vary between hepatitis C virus genotypes and subtypes. The understanding of these mutations has a clear clinical implication in terms of choice and combination of drugs used. In this review, we describe mechanism of action of currently available drugs and summarize clinically relevant resistance data.

  10. Mechanisms of Hepatitis C Viral Resistance to Direct Acting Antivirals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a remarkable transformation in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in recent years with the development of direct acting antiviral agents targeting virus encoded proteins important for viral replication including NS3/4A, NS5A and NS5B. These agents have shown high sustained viral response (SVR rates of more than 90% in phase 2 and phase 3 clinical trials; however, this is slightly lower in real-life cohorts. Hepatitis C virus resistant variants are seen in most patients who do not achieve SVR due to selection and outgrowth of resistant hepatitis C virus variants within a given host. These resistance associated mutations depend on the class of direct-acting antiviral drugs used and also vary between hepatitis C virus genotypes and subtypes. The understanding of these mutations has a clear clinical implication in terms of choice and combination of drugs used. In this review, we describe mechanism of action of currently available drugs and summarize clinically relevant resistance data.

  11. RNAi and Antiviral Defense in the Honey Bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutscher, Laura M.; Flenniken, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees play an important agricultural and ecological role as pollinators of numerous agricultural crops and other plant species. Therefore, investigating the factors associated with high annual losses of honey bee colonies in the US is an important and active area of research. Pathogen incidence and abundance correlate with Colony Collapse Disorder- (CCD-) affected colonies in the US and colony losses in the US and in some European countries. Honey bees are readily infected by single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses. Largely dependent on the host immune response, virus infections can either remain asymptomatic or result in deformities, paralysis, or death of adults or larvae. RNA interference (RNAi) is an important antiviral defense mechanism in insects, including honey bees. Herein, we review the role of RNAi in honey bee antiviral defense and highlight some parallels between insect and mammalian immune systems. A more thorough understanding of the role of pathogens on honey bee health and the immune mechanisms bees utilize to combat infectious agents may lead to the development of strategies that enhance honey bee health and result in the discovery of additional mechanisms of immunity in metazoans. PMID:26798663

  12. RNAi and Antiviral Defense in the Honey Bee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Brutscher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees play an important agricultural and ecological role as pollinators of numerous agricultural crops and other plant species. Therefore, investigating the factors associated with high annual losses of honey bee colonies in the US is an important and active area of research. Pathogen incidence and abundance correlate with Colony Collapse Disorder- (CCD- affected colonies in the US and colony losses in the US and in some European countries. Honey bees are readily infected by single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses. Largely dependent on the host immune response, virus infections can either remain asymptomatic or result in deformities, paralysis, or death of adults or larvae. RNA interference (RNAi is an important antiviral defense mechanism in insects, including honey bees. Herein, we review the role of RNAi in honey bee antiviral defense and highlight some parallels between insect and mammalian immune systems. A more thorough understanding of the role of pathogens on honey bee health and the immune mechanisms bees utilize to combat infectious agents may lead to the development of strategies that enhance honey bee health and result in the discovery of additional mechanisms of immunity in metazoans.

  13. Antiviral Activity of Natural Products Extracted from Marine Organisms

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    Sobia Tabassum

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Many epidemics have broken out over the centuries. Hundreds and thousands of humans have died over a disease. Available treatments for infectious diseases have always been limited. Some infections are more deadly than the others, especially viral pathogens. These pathogens have continuously resisted all kinds of medical treatment, due to a need for new treatments to be developed. Drugs are present in nature and are also synthesized in vitro and they help in combating diseases and restoring health. Synthesizing drugs is a hard and time consuming task, which requires a lot of man power and financial aid. However, the natural compounds are just lying around on the earth, may it be land or water. Over a thousand novel compounds isolated from marine organisms are used as antiviral agents. Others are being pharmacologically tested. Today, over forty antiviral compounds are present in the pharmacological market. Some of these compounds are undergoing clinical and pre-clinical stages. Marine compounds are paving the way for a new trend in modern medicine.

  14. Immune-mediated competition in rodent malaria is most likely caused by induced changes in innate immune clearance of merozoites.

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    Jayanthi Santhanam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malarial infections are often genetically diverse, leading to competitive interactions between parasites. A quantitative understanding of the competition between strains is essential to understand a wide range of issues, including the evolution of virulence and drug resistance. In this study, we use dynamical-model based Bayesian inference to investigate the cause of competitive suppression of an avirulent clone of Plasmodium chabaudi (AS by a virulent clone (AJ in immuno-deficient and competent mice. We test whether competitive suppression is caused by clone-specific differences in one or more of the following processes: adaptive immune clearance of merozoites and parasitised red blood cells (RBCs, background loss of merozoites and parasitised RBCs, RBC age preference, RBC infection rate, burst size, and within-RBC interference. These processes were parameterised in dynamical mathematical models and fitted to experimental data. We found that just one parameter μ, the ratio of background loss rate of merozoites to invasion rate of mature RBCs, needed to be clone-specific to predict the data. Interestingly, μ was found to be the same for both clones in single-clone infections, but different between the clones in mixed infections. The size of this difference was largest in immuno-competent mice and smallest in immuno-deficient mice. This explains why competitive suppression was alleviated in immuno-deficient mice. We found that competitive suppression acts early in infection, even before the day of peak parasitaemia. These results lead us to argue that the innate immune response clearing merozoites is the most likely, but not necessarily the only, mediator of competitive interactions between virulent and avirulent clones. Moreover, in mixed infections we predict there to be an interaction between the clones and the innate immune response which induces changes in the strength of its clearance of merozoites. What this interaction is unknown, but

  15. Sodium fire suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  16. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  17. Suppressive effects of primed eosinophils on single epicutaneous sensitization through regulation of dermal dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Yi; Ta, Yng-Cun; Liu, I-Lin; Chen, Hsi-Wen; Wang, Li-Fang

    2016-07-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional innate immune cells involved in many aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. Epicutaneous sensitization with protein allergen is an important sensitization route for atopic dermatitis. In this study, using a murine single protein-patch model, we show that eosinophils of a primed status accumulate in draining lymph nodes following single epicutaneous sensitization. Further, depletion of eosinophils results in enhancement of the induced Th1/Th2 immune responses, whereas IL-5-induced hypereosinophilia suppresses these responses. Mechanistically, primed eosinophils cause a reduction in the numbers and activation status of dermal dendritic cells in draining lymph nodes. Collectively, these results demonstrate that primed eosinophils exert suppressive effects on single epicutaneous sensitization through regulation of dermal dendritic cells. Thus, these findings highlight the critical roles of eosinophils in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis with important clinical implications for the prevention of allergen sensitization. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Cheetahs have a stronger constitutive innate immunity than leopards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Sonja K; Hofer, Heribert; Courtiol, Alexandre; Melzheimer, Jörg; Dehnhard, Martin; Czirják, Gábor Á; Wachter, Bettina

    2017-03-23

    As a textbook case for the importance of genetics in conservation, absence of genetic variability at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is thought to endanger species viability, since it is considered crucial for pathogen resistance. An alternative view of the immune system inspired by life history theory posits that a strong response should evolve in other components of the immune system if there is little variation in the MHC. In contrast to the leopard (Panthera pardus), the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has a relatively low genetic variability at the MHC, yet free-ranging cheetahs are healthy. By comparing the functional competence of the humoral immune system of both species in sympatric populations in Namibia, we demonstrate that cheetahs have a higher constitutive innate but lower induced innate and adaptive immunity than leopards. We conclude (1) immunocompetence of cheetahs is higher than previously thought; (2) studying both innate and adaptive components of immune systems will enrich conservation science.

  19. Innate lymphoid cells in autoimmunity and chronic inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Tingting; Turner, Jan-Eric

    2018-03-22

    Abnormal activation of the innate immune system is a common feature of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. Since their identification as a separate family of leukocytes, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have emerged as important effector cells of the innate immune system. Alterations in ILC function and subtype distribution have been observed in a variety of immune-mediated diseases in humans and evidence from experimental models suggests a subtype specific role of ILCs in the pathophysiology of autoimmune inflammation. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of ILC biology in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders, including multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, psoriasis, and rheumatic diseases, with a special focus on the potential of ILCs as therapeutic targets for the development of novel treatment strategies in humans.

  20. Innate Lymphoid Cells: A Promising New Regulator in Fibrotic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Tang, Jun; Tian, Zhiqiang; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C; Song, Jianxun; Wu, Yuzhang; Ni, Bing

    2016-09-02

    Fibrosis is a consequence of chronic inflammation and the persistent accumulation of extracellular matrix, for which the cycle of tissue injury and repair becomes a predominant feature. Both the innate and adaptive immune systems play key roles in the progress of fibrosis. The recently identified subsets of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which are mainly localize to epithelial surfaces, have been characterized as regulators of chronic inflammation and tissue remodeling, representing a functional bridge between the innate and adaptive immunity. Moreover, recent research has implicated ILCs as potential contributing factors to several kinds of fibrosis diseases, such as hepatic fibrosis and pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we will summarize and discuss the key roles of ILCs and their related factors in fibrotic diseases and their potential for translation to the clinic.

  1. Retinoic Acid and Its Role in Modulating Intestinal Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Czarnewski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A (VA is amongst the most well characterized food-derived nutrients with diverse immune modulatory roles. Deficiency in dietary VA has not only been associated with immune dysfunctions in the gut, but also with several systemic immune disorders. In particular, VA metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (atRA has been shown to be crucial in inducing gut tropism in lymphocytes and modulating T helper differentiation. In addition to the widely recognized role in adaptive immunity, increasing evidence identifies atRA as an important modulator of innate immune cells, such as tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs. Here, we focus on the role of retinoic acid in differentiation, trafficking and the functions of innate immune cells in health and inflammation associated disorders. Lastly, we discuss the potential involvement of atRA during the plausible crosstalk between DCs and ILCs.

  2. Antiviral effect of diammonium glycyrrhizinate on cell infection by porcine parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) can cause reproductive failure in swine resulting in economic losses to the industry. Antiviral effects of diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG) have been reported on several animal viruses; however, to date it has yet to be tested on PPV. In this study, the antiviral activity of ...

  3. Evaluation of in vitro antiviral activity of a brown alga ( Cystoseira ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hot water extract of a brown marine alga, Cystoseira myrica, from the Persian Gulf was evaluated as an antiviral compound against KOS strain of HSV-1 in cell culture. The extract exhibited antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) not only during absorption of virus to the cells, but also on post ...

  4. Antiviral activity of Aloe vera against herpes simplex virus type 2: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... In this study we tested the antiviral activity of a crude hot glycerine extract of Aloe vera gel which was grown in Bushehr (Southwest of Iran) against HSV-2 replication in Vero cell line. The extract showed antiviral activity against HSV-2 not only before attachment and entry of virus to the Vero cells but also.

  5. Antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C in patients with human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iorio, Alfonso; Marchesini, Emanuela; Awad, Tahany

    2010-01-01

    Antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C may be less effective if patients are co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).......Antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C may be less effective if patients are co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)....

  6. Dengue-2 Structural Proteins Associate with Human Proteins to Produce a Coagulation and Innate Immune Response Biased Interactome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Luis RB

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue virus infection is a public health threat to hundreds of millions of individuals in the tropical regions of the globe. Although Dengue infection usually manifests itself in its mildest, though often debilitating clinical form, dengue fever, life-threatening complications commonly arise in the form of hemorrhagic shock and encephalitis. The etiological basis for the virus-induced pathology in general, and the different clinical manifestations in particular, are not well understood. We reasoned that a detailed knowledge of the global biological processes affected by virus entry into a cell might help shed new light on this long-standing problem. Methods A bacterial two-hybrid screen using DENV2 structural proteins as bait was performed, and the results were used to feed a manually curated, global dengue-human protein interaction network. Gene ontology and pathway enrichment, along with network topology and microarray meta-analysis, were used to generate hypothesis regarding dengue disease biology. Results Combining bioinformatic tools with two-hybrid technology, we screened human cDNA libraries to catalogue proteins physically interacting with the DENV2 virus structural proteins, Env, cap and PrM. We identified 31 interacting human proteins representing distinct biological processes that are closely related to the major clinical diagnostic feature of dengue infection: haemostatic imbalance. In addition, we found dengue-binding human proteins involved with additional key aspects, previously described as fundamental for virus entry into cells and the innate immune response to infection. Construction of a DENV2-human global protein interaction network revealed interesting biological properties suggested by simple network topology analysis. Conclusions Our experimental strategy revealed that dengue structural proteins interact with human protein targets involved in the maintenance of blood coagulation and innate anti-viral

  7. Elimination of immunodominant epitopes from multispecific DNA-based vaccines allows induction of CD8 T cells that have a striking antiviral potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedl, Petra; Wieland, Andreas; Lamberth, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    Immunodominance limits the TCR diversity of specific antiviral CD8 T cell responses elicited by vaccination or infection. To prime multispecific T cell responses, we constructed DNA vaccines that coexpress chimeric, multidomain Ags (with CD8 T cell-defined epitopes of the hepatitis B virus (HBV...... cell immunity by multidomain Ags. The "weak" (i.e., easily suppressed) K(b)/C(93-100)-specific CD8 T cell response was efficiently elicited by a HBV core Ag-encoding vector in 1.4HBV-S(mut) tg mice (that harbor a replicating HBV genome that produces HBV surface, core, and precore Ag in the liver). K......(b)/C(93-100)-specific CD8 T cells accumulated in the liver of vaccinated 1.4HBV-S(mut) transgenic mice where they suppressed HBV replication. Subdominant epitopes in vaccines can hence prime specific CD8 T cell immunity in a tolerogenic milieu that delivers specific antiviral effects to HBV...

  8. SUMO Ligase Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT1 (PIAS1) Is a Constituent Promyelocytic Leukemia Nuclear Body Protein That Contributes to the Intrinsic Antiviral Immune Response to Herpes Simplex Virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James R; Conn, Kristen L; Wasson, Peter; Charman, Matthew; Tong, Lily; Grant, Kyle; McFarlane, Steven; Boutell, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Aspects of intrinsic antiviral immunity are mediated by promyelocytic leukemia nuclear body (PML-NB) constituent proteins. During herpesvirus infection, these antiviral proteins are independently recruited to nuclear domains that contain infecting viral genomes to cooperatively promote viral genome silencing. Central to the execution of this particular antiviral response is the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) signaling pathway. However, the participating SUMOylation enzymes are not fully characterized. We identify the SUMO ligase protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1) as a constituent PML-NB protein. We show that PIAS1 localizes at PML-NBs in a SUMO interaction motif (SIM)-dependent manner that requires SUMOylated or SUMOylation-competent PML. Following infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), PIAS1 is recruited to nuclear sites associated with viral genome entry in a SIM-dependent manner, consistent with the SIM-dependent recruitment mechanisms of other well-characterized PML-NB proteins. In contrast to that of Daxx and Sp100, however, the recruitment of PIAS1 is enhanced by PML. PIAS1 promotes the stable accumulation of SUMO1 at nuclear sites associated with HSV-1 genome entry, whereas the accumulation of other evaluated PML-NB proteins occurs independently of PIAS1. We show that PIAS1 cooperatively contributes to HSV-1 restriction through mechanisms that are additive to those of PML and cooperative with those of PIAS4. The antiviral mechanisms of PIAS1 are counteracted by ICP0, the HSV-1 SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase, which disrupts the recruitment of PIAS1 to nuclear domains that contain infecting HSV-1 genomes through mechanisms that do not directly result in PIAS1 degradation. Adaptive, innate, and intrinsic immunity cooperatively and efficiently restrict the propagation of viral pathogens. Intrinsic immunity mediated by constitutively expressed cellular proteins represents the first line of intracellular defense against infection. PML

  9. RelAp43, a member of the NF-κB family involved in innate immune response against Lyssavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luco, Sophie; Delmas, Olivier; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Tangy, Frédéric; Weil, Robert; Bourhy, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    NF-κB transcription factors are crucial for many cellular processes. NF-κB is activated by viral infections to induce expression of antiviral cytokines. Here, we identified a novel member of the human NF-κB family, denoted RelAp43, the nucleotide sequence of which contains several exons as well as an intron of the RelA gene. RelAp43 is expressed in all cell lines and tissues tested and exhibits all the properties of a NF-κB protein. Although its sequence does not include a transactivation domain, identifying it as a class I member of the NF-κB family, it is able to potentiate RelA-mediated transactivation and stabilize dimers comprising p50. Furthermore, RelAp43 stimulates the expression of HIAP1, IRF1, and IFN-β - three genes involved in cell immunity against viral infection. It is also targeted by the matrix protein of lyssaviruses, the agents of rabies, resulting in an inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. Taken together, our data provide the description of a novel functional member of the NF-κB family, which plays a key role in the induction of anti-viral innate immune response.

  10. RelAp43, a member of the NF-κB family involved in innate immune response against Lyssavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Luco

    Full Text Available NF-κB transcription factors are crucial for many cellular processes. NF-κB is activated by viral infections to induce expression of antiviral cytokines. Here, we identified a novel member of the human NF-κB family, denoted RelAp43, the nucleotide sequence of which contains several exons as well as an intron of the RelA gene. RelAp43 is expressed in all cell lines and tissues tested and exhibits all the properties of a NF-κB protein. Although its sequence does not include a transactivation domain, identifying it as a class I member of the NF-κB family, it is able to potentiate RelA-mediated transactivation and stabilize dimers comprising p50. Furthermore, RelAp43 stimulates the expression of HIAP1, IRF1, and IFN-β - three genes involved in cell immunity against viral infection. It is also targeted by the matrix protein of lyssaviruses, the agents of rabies, resulting in an inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. Taken together, our data provide the description of a novel functional member of the NF-κB family, which plays a key role in the induction of anti-viral innate immune response.

  11. Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vincent L; Kasper, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We next introduce a category of immune cells, the innate lymphoid cells, and describe their classification and function in intestinal immunology. Finally, we discuss the effects of the intestinal microbiota on innate lymphoid cells. PMID:24418741

  12. Glutamine supplementation suppresses herpes simplex virus reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kening; Hoshino, Yo; Dowdell, Kennichi; Bosch-Marce, Marta; Myers, Timothy G; Sarmiento, Mayra; Pesnicak, Lesley; Krause, Philip R; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2017-06-30

    Chronic viral infections are difficult to treat, and new approaches are needed, particularly those aimed at reducing reactivation by enhancing immune responses. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes latency and reactivates frequently, and breakthrough reactivation can occur despite suppressive antiviral therapy. Virus-specific T cells are important to control HSV, and proliferation of activated T cells requires increased metabolism of glutamine. Here, we found that supplementation with oral glutamine reduced virus reactivation in latently HSV-1-infected mice and HSV-2-infected guinea pigs. Transcriptome analysis of trigeminal ganglia from latently HSV-1-infected, glutamine-treated WT mice showed upregulation of several IFN-γ-inducible genes. In contrast to WT mice, supplemental glutamine was ineffective in reducing the rate of HSV-1 reactivation in latently HSV-1-infected IFN-γ-KO mice. Mice treated with glutamine also had higher numbers of HSV-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8 T cells in latently infected ganglia. Thus, glutamine may enhance the IFN-γ-associated immune response and reduce the rate of reactivation of latent virus infection.

  13. Subversion of innate defenses by the interplay between DENV and pre-existing enhancing antibodies: TLRs signaling collapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naphak Modhiran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The phenomenon of antibody dependent enhancement as a major determinant that exacerbates disease severity in DENV infections is well accepted. While the detailed mechanism of antibody enhanced disease severity is unclear, evidence suggests that it is associated with both increased DENV infectivity and suppression of the type I IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokine responses. Therefore, it is imperative for us to understand the intracellular mechanisms altered during ADE infection to decipher the mechanism of severe pathogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this present work, qRT-PCR, immunoblotting and gene array analysis were conducted to determine whether DENV-antibody complex infection exerts a suppressive effect on the expression and/or function of the pathogen recognition patterns, focusing on the TLR-signaling pathway. We show here that FcγRI and FcγRIIa synergistically facilitated entry of DENV-antibody complexes into monocytic THP-1 cells. Ligation between DENV-antibody complexes and FcR not only down regulated TLRs gene expression but also up regulated SARM, TANK, and negative regulators of the NF-κB pathway, resulting in suppression of innate responses but increased viral production. These results were confirmed by blocking with anti-FcγRI or anti-FcγRIIa antibodies which reduced viral production, up-regulated IFN-β synthesis, and increased gene expression in the TLR-dependent signaling pathway. The negative impact of DENV-ADE infection on the TLR-dependent pathway was strongly supported by gene array screening which revealed that both MyD88-dependent and -independent signaling molecules were down regulated during DENV-ADE infection. Importantly, the same phenomenon was seen in PBMC of secondary DHF/DSS patients but not in PBMC of DF patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our present work demonstrates the mechanism by which DENV uses pre-existing immune mediators to defeat the principal activating pathway of innate

  14. Design, Synthesis and Antiviral Activity Studies of Schizonepetin Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwei Ding

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of schizonepetin derivatives have been designed and synthesized in order to obtain potent antivirus agents. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 and influenza virus H3N2 as well as the cytotoxicity of these derivatives was evaluated by using cytopathic effect (CPE inhibition assay in vitro. Compounds M2, M4, M5 and M34 showed higher inhibitory activity against HSV-1 virus with the TC50 values being in micromole. Compounds M28, M33, and M35 showed higher inhibitory activity against influenza virus H3N2 with their TC50 values being 96.4, 71.0 and 75.4 μM, respectively. Preliminary biological activity evaluation indicated that the anti-H3N2 and anti-HSV-1 activities improved obviously through the introduction of halogen into the structure of schizonepetin.

  15. Identification and Analysis of Antiviral Compounds Against Poliovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyssen, Pieter; Franco, David; Tijsma, Aloys; Lacroix, Céline; De Palma, Armando; Neyts, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988, had as its goal the eradication of polio worldwide by the year 2000 through large-scale vaccinations campaigns with the live attenuated oral PV vaccine (OPV) (Griffiths et al., Biologicals 34:73-74, 2006). Despite substantial progress, polio remains endemic in several countries and new imported cases are reported on a regular basis ( http://www.polioeradication.org/casecount.asp ).It was recognized by the poliovirus research community that developing antivirals against poliovirus would be invaluable in the post-OPV era. Here, we describe three methods essential for the identification of selective inhibitors of poliovirus replication and for determining their mode of action by time-of-drug-addition studies as well as by the isolation of compound-resistant poliovirus variants.

  16. Resistance to Rhabdoviridae Infection and Subversion of Antiviral Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Blondel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Interferon (IFN treatment induces the expression of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs. However, only a selection of their products have been demonstrated to be responsible for the inhibition of rhabdovirus replication in cultured cells; and only a few have been shown to play a role in mediating the antiviral response in vivo using gene knockout mouse models. IFNs inhibit rhabdovirus replication at different stages via the induction of a variety of ISGs. This review will discuss how individual ISG products confer resistance to rhabdoviruses by blocking viral entry, degrading single stranded viral RNA, inhibiting viral translation or preventing release of virions from the cell. Furthermore, this review will highlight how these viruses counteract the host IFN system.

  17. Resistance to Rhabdoviridae Infection and Subversion of Antiviral Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondel, Danielle; Maarifi, Ghizlane; Nisole, Sébastien; Chelbi-Alix, Mounira K

    2015-07-07

    Interferon (IFN) treatment induces the expression of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). However, only a selection of their products have been demonstrated to be responsible for the inhibition of rhabdovirus replication in cultured cells; and only a few have been shown to play a role in mediating the antiviral response in vivo using gene knockout mouse models. IFNs inhibit rhabdovirus replication at different stages via the induction of a variety of ISGs. This review will discuss how individual ISG products confer resistance to rhabdoviruses by blocking viral entry, degrading single stranded viral RNA, inhibiting viral translation or preventing release of virions from the cell. Furthermore, this review will highlight how these viruses counteract the host IFN system.

  18. Resistance to Rhabdoviridae Infection and Subversion of Antiviral Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondel, Danielle; Maarifi, Ghizlane; Nisole, Sébastien; Chelbi-Alix, Mounira K.

    2015-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) treatment induces the expression of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). However, only a selection of their products have been demonstrated to be responsible for the inhibition of rhabdovirus replication in cultured cells; and only a few have been shown to play a role in mediating the antiviral response in vivo using gene knockout mouse models. IFNs inhibit rhabdovirus  replication at different stages via the induction of a variety of ISGs. This review will discuss how individual ISG products confer resistance to rhabdoviruses by blocking viral entry, degrading single stranded viral RNA, inhibiting viral translation or preventing release of virions from the cell. Furthermore, this review will highlight how these viruses counteract the host IFN system. PMID:26198243

  19. Towards antiviral therapies for treating dengue virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Suzanne Jf; Neyts, Johan

    2016-10-01

    Dengue virus is an emerging human pathogen that poses a huge public health burden by infecting annually about 390 million individuals of which a quarter report with clinical manifestations. Although progress has been made in understanding dengue pathogenesis, a licensed vaccine or antiviral therapy against this virus is still lacking. Treatment of patients is confined to symptomatic alleviation and supportive care. The development of dengue therapeutics thus remains of utmost importance. This review focuses on the few molecules that were evaluated in dengue virus-infected patients: balapiravir, chloroquine, lovastatin, prednisolone and celgosivir. The lessons learned from these clinical trials can be very helpful for the design of future trials for the next generation of dengue virus inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimal antiviral switching to minimize resistance risk in HIV therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutao Luo

    Full Text Available The development of resistant strains of HIV is the most significant barrier to effective long-term treatment of HIV infection. The most common causes of resistance development are patient noncompliance and pre-existence of resistant strains. In this paper, methods of antiviral regimen switching are developed that minimize the risk of pre-existing resistant virus emerging during therapy switches necessitated by virological failure. Two distinct cases are considered; a single previous virological failure and multiple virological failures. These methods use optimal control approaches on experimentally verified mathematical models of HIV strain competition and statistical models of resistance risk. It is shown that, theoretically, order-of-magnitude reduction in risk can be achieved, and multiple previous virological failures enable greater success of these methods in reducing the risk of subsequent treatment failures.