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Sample records for suppressing cell growth

  1. Bergenin suppresses the growth of colorectal cancer cells by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also led to marked accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), a breaker of DNA strand in HCT116 cells. ..... regulating cell proliferation described in the literature have been related to malignant transformation [12]. Thus, we assumed that bergenin-induced cell growth inhibition was due to cell cycle arrest.

  2. Total triterpenoids from Ganoderma Lucidum suppresses prostate cancer cell growth by inducing growth arrest and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Xie, Zi-ping; Huang, Zhan-sen; Li, Hao; Wei, An-yang; Di, Jin-ming; Xiao, Heng-jun; Zhang, Zhi-gang; Cai, Liu-hong; Tao, Xin; Qi, Tao; Chen, Di-ling; Chen, Jun

    2015-10-01

    In this study, one immortalized human normal prostatic epithelial cell line (BPH) and four human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, 22Rv1, PC-3, and DU-145) were treated with Ganoderma Lucidum triterpenoids (GLT) at different doses and for different time periods. Cell viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle were analyzed using flow cytometry and chemical assays. Gene expression and binding to DNA were assessed using real-time PCR and Western blotting. It was found that GLT dose-dependently inhibited prostate cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. GLT-induced apoptosis was due to activation of Caspases-9 and -3 and turning on the downstream apoptotic events. GLT-induced cell cycle arrest (mainly G1 arrest) was due to up-regulation of p21 expression at the early time and down-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and E2F1 expression at the late time. These findings demonstrate that GLT suppresses prostate cancer cell growth by inducing growth arrest and apoptosis, which might suggest that GLT or Ganoderma Lucidum could be used as a potential therapeutic drug for prostate cancer.

  3. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  4. Complete suppression of in vivo growth of human leukemia cells by specific immunotoxins: nude mouse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, H.; Seon, B.K.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, immunotoxins containing monoclonal anti-human T-cell leukemia antibodies are shown to be capable of completely suppressing the tumor growth of human T-cell leukemia cells in vivo without any overt undersirable toxicity. These immunotoxins were prepared by conjugating ricin A chain (RA) with our monoclonal antibodies, SN1 and SN2, directed specifically to the human T-cell leukemia cell surface antigens TALLA and GP37, respectively. The authors have shown that these monoclonal antibodies are highly specific for human T-cell leukemia cells and do not react with various normal cells including normal T and B cells, thymocytes, and bone marrow cells. Ascitic and solid human T-cell leukemia cell tumors were generated in nude mice. The ascitic tumor was generated by transplanting Ichikawa cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell) i.p. into nude mice, whereas the solid tumor was generated by transplanting s.c. MOLT-4 cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell line) and x-irradiated human fibrosarcoma cells into x-irradiated nude mice. To investigate the efficacy of specific immunotoxins in suppression the in vivo growth of the ascitic tumor, they divided 40 nude mice that were injected with Ichikawa cells into four groups. None of the mice in group 4 that were treated with SN1-RA and SN2-RA showed any signs of a tumor or undesirable toxic effects for the 20 weeks that they were followed after the transplantation. Treatment with SN1-RA plus SN2-RA completely suppressed solid tumor growth in 4 of 10 nude mice carrying solid tumors and partially suppressed the tumor growth in the remaining 6 nude mice. These results strongly suggest that SN1-RA and SN2-RA may be useful for clinical treatment

  5. Bergenin suppresses the growth of colorectal cancer cells by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate anticancer effects of bergenin on human colorectal cancer cell lines. Methods: Human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line HCT116 was treated with various concentrations of bergenin for 24 and 48 h. Cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level were analyzed ...

  6. Curcumin suppresses growth of mesothelioma cells in vitro and in vivo, in part, by stimulating apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Rishi, Arun K; Wu, Wenjuan; Polin, Lisa; Sharma, Sunita; Levi, Edi; Albelda, Steven; Pass, Harvey I; Wali, Anil

    2011-11-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive, asbestos-related malignancy of the thoracic pleura. Although, platinum-based agents are the first line of therapy, there is an urgent need for second-line therapies to treat the drug-resistant MPM. Cell cycle as well as apoptosis pathways are frequently altered in MPM and thus remain attractive targets for intervention strategies. Curcumin, the major component in the spice turmeric, alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutics has been under investigation for a number of cancers. In this study, we investigated the biological and molecular responses of MPM cells to curcumin treatments and the mechanisms involved. Flow-cytometric analyses coupled with western immunoblotting and gene-array analyses were conducted to determine mechanisms of curcumin-dependent growth suppression of human (H2373, H2452, H2461, and H226) and murine (AB12) MPM cells. Curcumin inhibited MPM cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner while pretreatment of MPM cells with curcumin enhanced cisplatin efficacy. Curcumin activated the stress-activated p38 kinase, caspases 9 and 3, caused elevated levels of proapoptotic proteins Bax, stimulated PARP cleavage, and apoptosis. In addition, curcumin treatments stimulated expression of novel transducers of cell growth suppression such as CARP-1, XAF1, and SULF1 proteins. Oral administration of curcumin inhibited growth of murine MPM cell-derived tumors in vivo in part by stimulating apoptosis. Thus, curcumin targets cell cycle and promotes apoptosis to suppress MPM growth in vitro and in vivo. Our studies provide a proof-of-principle rationale for further in-depth analysis of MPM growth suppression mechanisms and their future exploitation in effective management of resistant MPM.

  7. Tankyrase inhibitors suppress hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth via modulating the Hippo cascade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaoyuan Jia

    Full Text Available Previous data indicate that Tankyrase inhibitors exert anti-growth functions in many cancer cell lines due to their ability to inactivate the YAP protooncogene. In the present manuscript, we investigated the effect of Tankyrase inhibitors on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cell lines and the molecular mechanisms involved. For this purpose, we performed cell proliferation assay by colony-forming ability in seven human HCC cells subjected to XAV-939 and G007-LK Tankyrase inhibitors. Noticeably, the two Tankyrase inhibitors suppressed the HCC cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that Tankyrase inhibitors synergized with MEK and AKT inhibitors to suppress HCC cell proliferation. At the molecular level, Tankyrase inhibitors significantly decreased YAP protein levels, reduced the expression of YAP target genes, and inhibited YAP/TEAD luciferase reporter activity. In addition, Tankyrase inhibitors administration was accompanied by upregulation of Angiomotin-like 1 (AMOTL1 and Angiomotin-like 2 (AMOTL2 proteins, two major negative regulators of YAP. Altogether, the present data indicate that XAV-939 and G007-LK Tankyrase inhibitors could suppress proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and downregulate YAP/TAZ by stabilizing AMOTL1 and AMOTL2 proteins, thus representing new potential anticancer drugs against hepatocellular carcinoma.

  8. Rapamycin Suppresses Tumor Growth and Alters the Metabolic Phenotype in T-Cell Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittipongdaja, Wasakorn; Wu, Xuesong; Garner, Justine; Liu, Xiping; Komas, Steven M; Hwang, Sam T; Schieke, Stefan M

    2015-09-01

    The mTOR pathway is a master regulator of cellular growth and metabolism. The biosynthetic and energetic demand of rapidly proliferating cells such as cancer cells is met by metabolic adaptations such as an increased glycolytic rate known as the Warburg effect. Herein, we characterize the anti-tumor effect of rapamycin in a mouse model of T-cell lymphoma and examine the metabolic effects in vitro. The murine T-cell lymphoma line, MBL2, and human cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) lines, HH and Hut78, were used in syngeneic or standard NSG mouse models to demonstrate a marked suppression of tumor growth by rapamycin accompanied by inhibition of mTORC1/2. Analysis of the metabolic phenotype showed a substantial reduction in the glycolytic rate and glucose utilization in rapamycin-treated lymphoma cells. This was associated with reduced expression of glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes in cultured cells and xenograft tumors. As a result of the decrease in glycolytic state, rapamycin-treated cells displayed reduced sensitivity to low-glucose conditions but continued to rely on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) with sensitivity to inhibition of OXPHOS. Taken together, we demonstrate that rapamycin suppresses growth of T-cell lymphoma tumors and leads to a reduction in aerobic glycolysis counteracting the Warburg effect of cancer cells.

  9. SOCS3 in retinal neurons and glial cells suppresses VEGF signaling to prevent pathological neovascular growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Ju, Meihua; Lin, Zhiqiang; Fredrick, Thomas W; Evans, Lucy P; Tian, Katherine T; Saba, Nicholas J; Morss, Peyton C; Pu, William T; Chen, Jing; Stahl, Andreas; Joyal, Jean-Sébastien; Smith, Lois E H

    2015-09-22

    Neurons and glial cells in the retina contribute to neovascularization, or the formation of abnormal new blood vessels, in proliferative retinopathy, a condition that can lead to vision loss or blindness. We identified a mechanism by which suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) in neurons and glial cells prevents neovascularization. We found that Socs3 expression was increased in the retinal ganglion cell and inner nuclear layers after oxygen-induced retinopathy. Mice with Socs3 deficiency in neuronal and glial cells had substantially reduced vaso-obliterated retinal areas and increased pathological retinal neovascularization in response to oxygen-induced retinopathy, suggesting that loss of neuronal/glial SOCS3 increased both retinal vascular regrowth and pathological neovascularization. Furthermore, retinal expression of Vegfa (which encodes vascular endothelial growth factor A) was higher in these mice than in Socs3 flox/flox controls, indicating that neuronal and glial SOCS3 suppressed Vegfa expression during pathological conditions. Lack of neuronal and glial SOCS3 resulted in greater phosphorylation and activation of STAT3, which led to increased expression of its gene target Vegfa, and increased endothelial cell proliferation. In summary, SOCS3 in neurons and glial cells inhibited the STAT3-mediated secretion of VEGF from these cells, which suppresses endothelial cell activation, resulting in decreased endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis. These results suggest that neuronal and glial cell SOCS3 limits pathological retinal angiogenesis by suppressing VEGF signaling. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Growth suppression of Leydig TM3 cells mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iseki, Minoru; Ikuta, Togo; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Kawajiri, Kaname

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin induces developmental toxicity in reproductive organs. To elucidate the function of AhR, we generated stable transformants of TM3 cells overexpressing wild-type aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) or its mutants which carried mutations in nuclear localization signal or nuclear export signal. In the presence of 3-methylcholanthrene (MC), proliferation of the cells transfected with wild-type AhR was completely suppressed, whereas cells expressing AhR mutants proliferated in a manner equivalent to control TM3 cells, suggesting AhR-dependent growth inhibition. The suppression was associated with up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 Cip1 , which was abolished by pretreatment with actinomycin D. A p38 MAPK specific inhibitor, SB203580, blocked the increase of p21 Cip1 mRNA in response to MC. Treatment with indigo, another AhR ligand, failed to increase of p21 Cip1 mRNA, although up-regulation of mRNA for CYP1A1 was observed. These data suggest AhR in Leydig cells mediates growth inhibition by inducing p21 Cip1

  11. Knockdown of asparagine synthetase by RNAi suppresses cell growth in human melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhou, Fusheng; Du, Wenhui; Dou, Jinfa; Xu, Yu; Gao, Wanwan; Chen, Gang; Zuo, Xianbo; Sun, Liangdan; Zhang, Xuejun; Yang, Sen

    2016-05-01

    Melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer, causes more than 40,000 deaths each year worldwide. And epidermoid carcinoma is another major form of skin cancer, which could be studied together with melanoma in several aspects. Asparagine synthetase (ASNS) gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the glutamine- and ATP-dependent conversion of aspartic acid to asparagine, and its expression is associated with the chemotherapy resistance and prognosis in several human cancers. The present study aims to explore the potential role of ASNS in melanoma cells A375 and human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431. We applied a lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) system to study its function in cell growth of both cells. The results revealed that inhibition of ASNS expression by RNAi significantly suppressed the growth of melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells, and induced a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in melanoma cells. Knockdown of ASNS in A375 cells remarkably downregulated the expression levels of CDK4, CDK6, and Cyclin D1, and upregulated the expression of p21. Therefore, our study provides evidence that ASNS may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of melanoma. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Disulfiram suppresses growth of the malignant pleural mesothelioma cells in part by inducing apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vino T Cheriyan

    Full Text Available Dithiocarbamate compound Disulfiram (DSF that binds with copper and functions as an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase is a Food and Drug Administration approved agent for treatment of alcoholism. Copper complexed DSF (DSF-Cu also possesses anti-tumor and chemosensitizing properties; however, its molecular mechanisms of action remain unclear. Here we investigated malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM suppressive effects of DSF-Cu and the molecular mechanisms involved. DSF-Cu inhibited growth of the murine as well as human MPM cells in part by increasing levels of ubiquitinated proteins. DSF-Cu exposure stimulated apoptosis in MPM cells that involved activation of stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs p38 and JNK1/2, caspase-3, and cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose-polymerase, as well as increased expression of sulfatase 1 and apoptosis transducing CARP-1/CCAR1 protein. Gene-array based analyses revealed that DSF-Cu suppressed cell growth and metastasis-promoting genes including matrix metallopeptidase 3 and 10. DSF inhibited MPM cell growth and survival by upregulating cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1, IGFBP7, and inhibitors of NF-κB such as ABIN 1 and 2 and Inhibitory κB (IκBα and β proteins. DSF-Cu promoted cleavage of vimentin, as well as serine-phosphorylation and lysine-63 linked ubiquitination of podoplanin. Administration of 50 mg/kg DSF-Cu by daily i.p injections inhibited growth of murine MPM cell-derived tumors in vivo. Although podoplanin expression often correlates with metastatic disease and poor prognosis, phosphorylation of serines in cytoplasmic domain of podoplanin has recently been shown to interfere with cellular motility and migration signaling. Post-translational modification of podoplanin and cleavage of vimentin by DSF-Cu underscore a metastasis inhibitory property of this agent and together with our in vivo studies underscore its potential as an anti-MPM agent.

  13. MiR-214 inhibits cell growth in hepatocellular carcinoma through suppression of {beta}-catenin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun [Liver Diseases Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Chen, Ji [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Li, Feng [Department of Pathology, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Fuzhou (China); Lin, Yanting [Liver Diseases Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Zhang, Xiaoping; Lv, Zhongwei [Department of Interventional Therapy, Shanghai 10th People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Jiang, Jiaji, E-mail: jiang_jjcn@yahoo.com.cn [Liver Diseases Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-214 is frequently downregulated in human HCC cell lines and tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-214 overexpression inhibits HCC cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-214 directly targets {beta}-catenin 3 Prime -UTR in HCC cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-214 regulates {beta}-catenin downstream signaling molecules. -- Abstract: Mounting evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in carcinogenesis and can function as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Recent profile studies of miRNA expression have documented a deregulation of miRNA (miR-214) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its potential functions and underlying mechanisms in hepatocarcinogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we confirmed that miR-214 is significantly downregulated in HCC cells and specimens. Ectopic overexpression of miR-214 inhibited proliferation of HCC cells in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Further studies revealed that miR-214 could directly target the 3 Prime -untranslated region (3 Prime -UTR) of {beta}-catenin mRNA and suppress its protein expression. Similar to the restoring miR-214 expression, {beta}-catenin downregulation inhibited cell growth, whereas restoring the {beta}-catenin expression abolished the function of miR-214. Moreover, miR-214-mediated reduction of {beta}-catenin resulted in suppression of several downstream genes including c-Myc, cyclinD1, TCF-1, and LEF-1. These findings indicate that miR-214 serves as tumor suppressor and plays substantial roles in inhibiting the tumorigenesis of HCC through suppression of {beta}-catenin. Given these, miR-214 may serve as a useful prognostic or therapeutic target for treatment of HCC.

  14. Extract of Cordyceps militaris inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses tumor growth of human malignant melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruma, I Made Winarsa; Putranto, Endy Widya; Kondo, Eisaku; Watanabe, Risayo; Saito, Ken; Inoue, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi; Nakata, Susumu; Kaihata, Masaji; Murata, Hitoshi; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo

    2014-07-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for tumor development and metastasis. Among several angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF) is important for tumor-derived angiogenesis and commonly overexpressed in solid tumors. Thus, many antitumor strategies targeting VEGF have been developed to inhibit cancer angiogenesis, offering insights into the successful treatment of solid cancers. However, there are a number of issues such as harmful effects on normal vascularity in clinical trials. Taking this into consideration, we employed Cordyceps militaris as an antitumor approach due to its biological safety in vivo. The herbal medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris has been reported to show potential anticancer properties including anti-angiogenic capacity; however, its concrete properties have yet to be fully demonstrated. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the biological role of Cordyceps militaris extract in tumor cells, especially in regulating angiogenesis and tumor growth of a human malignant melanoma cell line. We demonstrated that Cordyceps militaris extract remarkably suppressed tumor growth via induction of apoptotic cell death in culture that links to the abrogation of VEGF production in melanoma cells. This was followed by mitigation of Akt1 and GSK-3β activation, while p38α phosphorylation levels were increased. Extract treatment in mouse model xenografted with human melanoma cells resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect with down-regulation of VEGF expression. The results suggest that suppression of tumor growth by Cordyceps militaris extract is, at least, mediated by its anti-angiogenicity and apoptosis induction capacities. Cordyceps militaris extract may be a potent antitumor herbal drug for solid tumors.

  15. Kaempferol suppresses bladder cancer tumor growth by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qiang; Song, Wenbin; Xu, Defeng; Ma, Yanmin; Li, Feng; Zeng, Jin; Zhu, Guodong; Wang, Xinyang; Chang, Luke S; He, Dalin; Li, Lei

    2015-09-01

    The effects of the flavonoid compound, kaempferol, which is an inhibitor of cancer cell proliferation and an inducer of cell apoptosis have been shown in various cancers, including lung, pancreatic, and ovarian, but its effect has never been studied in bladder cancer. Here, we investigated the effects of kaempferol on bladder cancer using multiple in vitro cell lines and in vivo mice studies. The MTT assay results on various bladder cancer cell lines showed that kaempferol enhanced bladder cancer cell cytotoxicity. In contrast, when analyzed by the flow cytometric analysis, DNA ladder experiment, and TUNEL assay, kaempferol significantly was shown to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. These in vitro results were confirmed in in vivo mice studies using subcutaneous xenografted mouse models. Consistent with the in vitro results, we found that treating mice with kaempferol significant suppression in tumor growth compared to the control group mice. Tumor tissue staining results showed decreased expressions of the growth related markers, yet increased expressions in apoptosis markers in the kaempferol treated group mice tissues compared to the control group mice. In addition, our in vitro and in vivo data showed kaempferol can also inhibit bladder cancer invasion and metastasis. Further mechanism dissection studies showed that significant down-regulation of the c-Met/p38 signaling pathway is responsible for the kaempferol mediated cell proliferation inhibition. All these findings suggest kaempferol might be an effective and novel chemotherapeutic drug to apply for the future therapeutic agent to combat bladder cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Targeted p53 activation by saRNA suppresses human bladder cancer cells growth and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenghe; Ge, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Qingsong; Chen, Zhong; Hu, Jia; Li, Fan; Ye, Zhangqun

    2016-03-25

    Previous study showed that dsP53-285 has the capacity to induce tumor suppressor gene p53 expression by targeting promoter in non-human primates' cells. And it is well known that TP53 gene is frequently mutant or inactivated in human bladder cancer. Hereby, whether this small RNA can activate the expression of wild-type p53 and inhibit human bladder cancer cells remains to be elucidated. Oligonucleotide and lentivirus were used to overexpress dsP53-285 and dsControl. Real-time PCR and western blot were used to detect genes' mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Cell proliferation assay, colony formation, flow cytometry, transwell assay and wound healing assay were performed to determine the effects on bladder cancer cells proliferation and migration/invasion in vitro. Animal models were carried out to analyze the effects on cells growth and metastasis in vivo. Transfection of dsP53-285 into human bladder cancer cell lines T24 and EJ readily activate wild-type p53 expression by targeting promoter. Moreover, dsP53-285 exhibited robust capacity to inhibit cells proliferation and colony formation, induce cells G0/G1 arrest, suppress migration and invasion. Besides, the Cyclin-CDK genes (Cyclin D1 and CDK4/6) were down-regulated and the EMT-associated genes (E-cadherin, β-catenin, ZEB1 and Vimentin) were also expressed inversely after dsP53-285 treatment. In addition, dsP53-285 could also significantly suppress the growth of bladder cancer xenografts and metastasis in nude mice. Most importantly, the anti-tumor effects mediated by dsP53-285 were mainly achieved by manipulating wild-type p53 expression. Our findings indicate that the dsP53-285 can upregulate wild-type p53 expression in human bladder cancer cells through RNA activation, and suppresses cells proliferation and metastasis in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Growth suppression by transforming growth factor beta 1 of human small-cell lung cancer cell lines is associated with expression of the type II receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K

    1994-01-01

    the growth-suppressive effect of TGF-beta 1, the expression of functional pRb, as characterised by nuclear localisation, was examined by immunocytochemistry. Nuclear association of pRb was only seen in two of the five TGF-beta 1-responsive cell lines. These results indicate that in SCLC pRb is not required...

  18. Integrating transcriptomics and proteomics to show that tanshinone IIA suppresses cell growth by blocking glucose metabolism in gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Ling; Hsia, Chieh-Ren; Hsu, Chia-Lang; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2015-02-05

    Tanshinone IIA (TIIA) is a diterpene quinone extracted from the plant Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. It has been reported to have anti-tumor potential against several kinds of cancer, including gastric cancer. In most solid tumors, a metabolic switch to glucose is a hallmark of cancer cells, which do this to provide nutrients for cell proliferation. However, the mechanism associated with glucose metabolism by which TIIA acts on gastric cancer cells remains to be elucidated. We found that TIIA treatment is able to significantly inhibit cell growth and the proliferation of gastric cancer in a dose-dependent manner. Using next-generation sequencing-based RNA-seq transcriptomics and quantitative proteomics-isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), we characterized the mechanism of TIIA regulation in gastric cancer cell line AGS. In total, 16,603 unique transcripts and 102 proteins were identified. After enrichment analysis, we found that TIIA regulated genes are involved in carbohydrate metabolism, the cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA damage and cytoskeleton reorganization. Our proteomics data revealed the downregulation of intracellular ATP levels, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and L-lactate dehydrogenase B chains by TIIA, which might work with disorders of glucose metabolism and extracellular lactate levels to suppress cell proliferation. The up-regulation of p53 and down-regulation of AKT was shown in TIIA- treated cells, which indicates the transformation of oncogenes. Severe DNA damage, cell cycle arrest at the G2/M transition and apoptosis with cytoskeleton reorganization were detected in TIIA-treated gastric cancer cells. Combining transcriptomics and proteomics results, we propose that TIIA treatment could lead cell stresses, including nutrient deficiency and DNA damage, by inhibiting the glucose metabolism of cancer cells. This study provides an insight into how the TIIA regulatory metabolism in

  19. Inhibition of TMEM16A expression suppresses growth and invasion in human colorectal cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Sui

    Full Text Available Metastasis leads to poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients, and there is a growing need for new therapeutic targets. TMEM16A (ANO1, DOG1 or TAOS2 has recently been identified as a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC and is reported to be overexpressed in several malignancies; however, its expression and function in colorectal cancer (CRC remains unclear. In this study, we found expression of TMEM16A mRNA and protein in high-metastatic-potential SW620, HCT116 and LS174T cells, but not in primary HCT8 and SW480 cells, using RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence labeling. Patch-clamp recordings detected CaCC currents regulated by intracellular Ca(2+ and voltage in SW620 cells. Knockdown of TMEM16A by short hairpin RNAs (shRNA resulted in the suppression of growth, migration and invasion of SW620 cells as detected by MTT, wound-healing and transwell assays. Mechanistically, TMEM16A depletion was accompanied by the dysregulation of phospho-MEK, phospho-ERK1/2 and cyclin D1 expression. Flow cytometry analysis showed that SW620 cells were inhibited from the G1 to S phase of the cell cycle in the TMEM16A shRNA group compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results indicate that TMEM16A CaCC is involved in growth, migration and invasion of metastatic CRC cells and provide evidence for TMEM16A as a potential drug target for treating metastatic colorectal carcinoma.

  20. Knockdown of asparagine synthetase (ASNS) suppresses cell proliferation and inhibits tumor growth in gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingxiang; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Li; Zheng, Jia; Wang, Jiang; Wang, Bangmao

    2016-10-01

    Asparagine synthetase (ASNS) gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the glutamine- and ATP-dependent conversion of aspartic acid to asparagine. ASNS is deemed as a promising therapeutic target and its expression is associated with the chemotherapy resistance in several human cancers. However, its role in gastric cancer tumorigenesis has not been investigated. In this study, we employed small interfering RNA (siRNA) to transiently knockdown ASNS in two gastric cancer cell lines, AGS and MKN-45, followed by growth rate assay and colony formation assay. Dose response curve analysis was performed in AGS and MKN-45 cells with stable ASNS knockdown to assess sensitivity to cisplatin. Xenograft experiment was performed to examine in vivo synergistic effects of ASNS depletion and cisplatin on tumor growth. Expression level of ASNS was evaluated in human patient samples using quantitative PCR. Kaplan-Meier curve analysis was performed to evaluate association between ASNS expression and patient survival. Transient knockdown of ASNS inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in AGS and MKN-45 cells. Stable knockdown of ASNS conferred sensitivity to cisplatin in these cells. Depletion of ASNS and cisplatin treatment exerted synergistic effects on tumor growth in AGS xenografts. Moreover, ASNS was found to be up-regulated in human gastric cancer tissues compared with matched normal colon tissues. Low expression of ASNS was significantly associated with better survival in gastric cancer patients. ASNS may contribute to gastric cancer tumorigenesis and may represent a novel therapeutic target for prevention or intervention of gastric cancer.

  1. Mycoepoxydiene suppresses HeLa cell growth by inhibiting glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kehua; Li, Li; Sun, Xihuan; Xu, Qingyan; Song, Siyang; Shen, Yuemao; Deng, Xianming

    2017-05-01

    Upregulation of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is a major characteristic of the metabolic reprogramming of cancer and provides cancer cells with energy and vital metabolites to support their rapid proliferation. Targeting glycolysis and the PPP has emerged as a promising antitumor therapeutic strategy. Marine natural products are attractive sources for anticancer therapeutics, as evidenced by the antitumor drug Yondelis. Mycoepoxydiene (MED) is a natural product isolated from a marine fungus that has shown promising inhibitory efficacy against HeLa cells in vitro. We used a proteomic approach with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with mass spectrometry to explore the cellular targets of MED and to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of MED in HeLa cells. Our proteomic data showed that triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) and 6-phosphogluconolactonase (PGLS), which participate in glycolysis and the PPP, respectively, were significantly downregulated by MED treatment. Functional studies revealed that the expression levels of several other enzymes involved in glycolysis and the PPP, including hexokinase 2 (HK2), phosphofructokinase 1 (PFKM), aldolase A (ALDOA), enolase 1 (ENO1), lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), were also reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the LDHA and G6PD enzymatic activities in HeLa cells were inhibited by MED, and overexpression of these downregulated enzymes rescued HeLa cells from the growth inhibition induced by MED. Our data suggest that MED suppresses HeLa cell growth by inhibiting glycolysis and the PPP, which provides a mechanistic basis for the development of new therapeutics against cervical cancer.

  2. Antrodia camphorata Grown on Germinated Brown Rice Suppresses Melanoma Cell Proliferation by Inducing Apoptosis and Cell Differentiation and Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjung Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antrodia camphorata grown on germinated brown rice (CBR was prepared to suppress melanoma development. CBR extracts were divided into hexane, EtOAc, BuOH, and water fractions. Among all the fractions, EtOAc fraction showed the best suppressive effect on B16F10 melanoma cell proliferation by CCK-8 assay. It also showed the increased cell death and the changed cellular morphology after CBR treatment. Annexin V-FITC/PI, flow cytometry, and western blotting were performed to elucidate anticancer activity of CBR. The results showed that CBR induced p53-mediated apoptotic cell death of B16F10. CBR EtOAc treatment increased melanin content and melanogenesis-related proteins of MITF and TRP-1 expressions, which supports its anticancer activity. Its potential as an anticancer agent was further investigated in tumor-xenografted mouse model. In melanoma-xenografted mouse model, melanoma tumor growth was significantly suppressed under CBR EtOAc fraction treatment. HPLC analysis of CBR extract showed peak of adenosine. In conclusion, CBR extracts notably inhibited B16F10 melanoma cell proliferation through the p53-mediated apoptosis induction and increased melanogenesis. These findings suggest that CBR EtOAc fraction can act as an effective anticancer agent to treat melanoma.

  3. The oncoprotein HBXIP suppresses gluconeogenesis through modulating PCK1 to enhance the growth of hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hui; Fang, Runping; Li, Yinghui; Li, Leilei; Zhang, Weiying; Wang, Huawei; Chen, Fuquan; Zhang, Shuqin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ye, Lihong

    2016-11-28

    Hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP) as an oncoprotein plays crucial roles in the development of cancer, involving glucose metabolism reprogramming. In this study, we are interested in whether the oncoprotein HBXIP is involved in the modulation of gluconeogenesis in liver cancer. Here, we showed that the expression level of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1), a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis, was lower in clinical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues than that in normal tissues. Mechanistically, HBXIP inhibited the expression of PCK1 through down-regulating transcription factor FOXO1 in hepatoma cells, and up-regulated miR-135a targeting the 3'UTR of FOXO1 mRNA in the cells. In addition, HBXIP increased the phosphorylation levels of FOXO1 protein by activating PI3K/Akt pathway, leading to the export of FOXO1 from nucleus to cytoplasm. Strikingly, over-expression of PCK1 could abolish the HBXIP-promoted growth of hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we conclude that the oncoprotein HBXIP is able to depress the gluconeogenesis through suppressing PCK1 to promote hepatocarcinogenesis, involving miR-135a/FOXO1 axis and PI3K/Akt/p-FOXO1 pathway. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which oncoprotein HBXIP modulates glucose metabolism reprogramming in HCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pharmacological blockade of cholesterol trafficking by cepharanthine in endothelial cells suppresses angiogenesis and tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Junfang; Yang, Eun Ju; Head, Sarah A; Ai, Nana; Zhang, Baoyuan; Wu, Changjie; Li, Ruo-Jing; Liu, Yifan; Yang, Chen; Dang, Yongjun; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Ge, Wei; Liu, Jun O; Shim, Joong Sup

    2017-11-28

    Cholesterol is an important modulator of membrane protein function and signaling in endothelial cells, thus making it an emerging target for anti-angiogenic agents. In this study, we employed a phenotypic screen that detects intracellular cholesterol distribution in endothelial cells (HUVEC) and identified 13 existing drugs as cholesterol trafficking inhibitors. Cepharanthine, an approved drug for anti-inflammatory and cancer management use, was amongst the candidates, which was selected for in-depth mechanistic studies to link cholesterol trafficking and angiogenesis. Cepharanthine inhibited the endolysosomal trafficking of free-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein in HUVEC by binding to Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) protein and increasing the lysosomal pH. The blockade of cholesterol trafficking led to a cholesterol-dependent dissociation of mTOR from the lysosomes and inhibition of its downstream signaling. Cepharanthine inhibited angiogenesis in HUVEC and in zebrafish in a cholesterol-dependent manner. Furthermore, cepharanthine suppressed tumor growth in vivo by inhibiting angiogenesis and it enhanced the antitumor activity of the standard chemotherapy cisplatin in lung and breast cancer xenografts in mice. Altogether, these results strongly support the idea that cholesterol trafficking is a viable drug target for anti-angiogenesis and that the inhibitors identified among existing drugs, such as cepharanthine, could be potential anti-angiogenic and antitumor agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. MELATONIN-INDUCED SUPPRESSION OF PC12 CELL GROWTH IS MEDIATED BY ITS GI COUPLED TRANSMEMBRANE RECEPTORS. (R826248)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of pertussis toxin, an uncoupler of Gi protein from adenylate cyclase, and luzindole, a competitive inhibitor of melatonin receptor binding, were examined for their ability to inhibit melatonin-induced suppression of PC12 cell growth. Both agents inhibited the mela...

  6. Breviscapine suppresses the growth of non-small cell lung cancer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Breviscapine (BVP) has previously been shown to inhibit the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.However, little is known about the effects of BVP on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) growth. Here, we aimedto study the effects of BVP on human NSCLC growth. We employed A549, NCL-H460 and A549 cells ...

  7. Breviscapine suppresses the growth of non-small cell lung cancer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-02-10

    Feb 10, 2017 ... Breviscapine (BVP) has previously been shown to inhibit the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. However, little is known about the effects of BVP on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) growth. Here, we aimed to study the effects of BVP on human NSCLC growth. We employed A549, NCL-H460 ...

  8. Sevoflurane suppresses hypoxia-induced growth and metastasis of lung cancer cells via inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor-1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hua; Yang, Cheng Xiang; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Han Bing; Liu, Hong Zhen; Lai, Xiao Hong; Liao, Mei Juan; Zhang, Tao

    2015-12-01

    Hypoxia promotes the progression of lung cancer cells. Unfortunately, anesthetic technique might aggravate hypoxia of lung cancer cells. Sevoflurane is a commonly used anesthetic. Its effect on hypoxia-induced aggressiveness of lung cancer cells remains unknown. The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of sevoflurane on hypoxia-induced growth and metastasis of lung cancer cells. As hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays a pivotal role in mediating the adaptation and tolerance of cancer cells under hypoxic microenvironment, the role of HIF-1α in the effect of sevoflurane on hypoxia-induced growth and metastasis has also been elucidated. A549 cells were treated with normoxia, hypoxia, co-treatment of sevoflurane and hypoxia, and dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG, a HIF-1α agonist) for 4 h, respectively. MTT assay and colony formation assay were used to evaluate cell growth. Transwell assay was performed to detect invasion and migration ability. The protein level of HIF-1α, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), survivin, fascin, heparanase (HPA), and p38 MAPK were determined by Western blotting. Hypoxia enhanced proliferation and metastatic potential of cells. Sevoflurane could suppress hypoxia-induced growth and metastasis ability of cells. Furthermore, HIF-1α, XIAP, survivin, fascin and HPA were down-regulated significantly by the co-treatment of sevoflurane and hypoxia as compared to hypoxia treatment. DMOG abolished the inhibiting effects of sevoflurane on hypoxia-induced growth and metastasis ability of cells. In addition, sevoflurane partly reversed the increase of p38 MAPK activity that was induced by hypoxia. Sevoflurane could suppress hypoxia-induced growth and metastasis of lung cancer cells, which might be associated with modulating HIF-1α and its down-stream genes. Moreover, p38 MAPK signaling pathway was involved in the regulation of HIF-1α by sevoflurane.

  9. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1 inhibition suppresses cell growth and enhances radiation sensitivity in medulloblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Peter S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children and remains a therapeutic challenge due to its significant therapy-related morbidity. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1 is highly expressed in many cancers and regulates critical steps in mitotic progression. Recent studies suggest that targeting PLK1 with small molecule inhibitors is a promising approach to tumor therapy. Methods We examined the expression of PLK1 mRNA in medulloblastoma tumor samples using microarray analysis. The impact of PLK1 on cell proliferation was evaluated by depleting expression with RNA interference (RNAi or by inhibiting function with the small molecule inhibitor BI 2536. Colony formation studies were performed to examine the impact of BI 2536 on medulloblastoma cell radiosensitivity. In addition, the impact of depleting PLK1 mRNA on tumor-initiating cells was evaluated using tumor sphere assays. Results Analysis of gene expression in two independent cohorts revealed that PLK1 mRNA is overexpressed in some, but not all, medulloblastoma patient samples when compared to normal cerebellum. Inhibition of PLK1 by RNAi significantly decreased medulloblastoma cell proliferation and clonogenic potential and increased cell apoptosis. Similarly, a low nanomolar concentration of BI 2536, a small molecule inhibitor of PLK1, potently inhibited cell growth, strongly suppressed the colony-forming ability, and increased cellular apoptosis of medulloblastoma cells. Furthermore, BI 2536 pretreatment sensitized medulloblastoma cells to ionizing radiation. Inhibition of PLK1 impaired tumor sphere formation of medulloblastoma cells and decreased the expression of SRY (sex determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2 mRNA in tumor spheres indicating a possible role in targeting tumor inititiating cells. Conclusions Our data suggest that targeting PLK1 with small molecule inhibitors, in combination with radiation therapy, is a novel strategy in the treatment of

  10. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibition suppresses cell growth and enhances radiation sensitivity in medulloblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Peter S; Foreman, Nicholas K; Vibhakar, Rajeev; Venkataraman, Sujatha; Alimova, Irina; Birks, Diane K; Donson, Andrew M; Knipstein, Jeffrey; Dubuc, Adrian; Taylor, Michael D; Handler, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children and remains a therapeutic challenge due to its significant therapy-related morbidity. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is highly expressed in many cancers and regulates critical steps in mitotic progression. Recent studies suggest that targeting PLK1 with small molecule inhibitors is a promising approach to tumor therapy. We examined the expression of PLK1 mRNA in medulloblastoma tumor samples using microarray analysis. The impact of PLK1 on cell proliferation was evaluated by depleting expression with RNA interference (RNAi) or by inhibiting function with the small molecule inhibitor BI 2536. Colony formation studies were performed to examine the impact of BI 2536 on medulloblastoma cell radiosensitivity. In addition, the impact of depleting PLK1 mRNA on tumor-initiating cells was evaluated using tumor sphere assays. Analysis of gene expression in two independent cohorts revealed that PLK1 mRNA is overexpressed in some, but not all, medulloblastoma patient samples when compared to normal cerebellum. Inhibition of PLK1 by RNAi significantly decreased medulloblastoma cell proliferation and clonogenic potential and increased cell apoptosis. Similarly, a low nanomolar concentration of BI 2536, a small molecule inhibitor of PLK1, potently inhibited cell growth, strongly suppressed the colony-forming ability, and increased cellular apoptosis of medulloblastoma cells. Furthermore, BI 2536 pretreatment sensitized medulloblastoma cells to ionizing radiation. Inhibition of PLK1 impaired tumor sphere formation of medulloblastoma cells and decreased the expression of SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2) mRNA in tumor spheres indicating a possible role in targeting tumor inititiating cells. Our data suggest that targeting PLK1 with small molecule inhibitors, in combination with radiation therapy, is a novel strategy in the treatment of medulloblastoma that warrants further investigation

  11. Measles virus C protein suppresses gamma-activated factor formation and virus-induced cell growth arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Shin-ichi; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Fujii, Nobuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Measles virus (MeV) produces two accessory proteins, V and C, from the P gene. These accessory proteins have been reported to contribute to efficient virus proliferation through the modulation of host cell events. Our previous paper described that Vero cell-adapted strains of MeV led host cells to growth arrest through the upregulation of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1), and wild strains did not. In the present study, we found that C protein expression levels varied among MeV strains in infected SiHa cells. C protein levels were inversely correlated with IRF-1 expression levels and with cell growth arrest. Forced expression of C protein released cells from growth arrest. C-deficient recombinant virus efficiently upregulated IRF-1 and caused growth arrest more efficiently than the wild-type virus. C protein preferentially bound to phosphorylated STAT1 and suppressed STAT1 dimer formation. We conclude that MeV C protein suppresses IFN-γ signaling pathway via inhibition of phosphorylated STAT1 dimerization.

  12. Insulin-like growth factor 2 enhances regulatory T-cell functions and suppresses food allergy in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gui; Geng, Xiao-Rui; Song, Jiang-Ping; Wu, Yingying; Yan, Hao; Zhan, Zhengke; Yang, Litao; He, Weiyi; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Qiu, Shuqi; Liu, Zhigang; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2014-06-01

    The functions of regulatory T (Treg) cells are important in immunity, and the regulatory mechanisms of Treg cell activities are not fully understood yet. We sought to investigate the role of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 2 in the upregulation of Treg cell function. The expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) on T cells was assessed by using flow cytometry. Treg cell functions were evaluated by assessing the suppressor effect on proliferation of other effector T (Teff) cells. The effect of IGF2 on regulating Treg cell functions were evaluated with a cell-culture model and a food allergy mouse model. Expression of IGF2R was observed in more than 90% of murine and human Treg cells but in less than 10% of effector CD4(+) T cells. Activation of IGF2R and T-cell receptor induced marked Treg cell proliferation and release of TGF-β from Treg cells, which enhanced Treg cell immune suppressor effects on other Teff cell activities and allergic inflammation in the intestine. Activation of IGF2R enhances Treg cell functions in suppressing other Teff cell activities and inhibiting allergic inflammation in the intestine. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Oncogenic roles of TOPK and MELK, and effective growth suppression by small molecular inhibitors in kidney cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Taigo; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Imoto, Seiya; Tamada, Yoshinori; Miyamoto, Takashi; Matsuo, Yo; Nakamura, Yusuke; Park, Jae-Hyun

    2016-04-05

    T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) and maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) have been reported to play critical roles in cancer cell proliferation and maintenance of stemness. In this study, we investigated possible roles of TOPK and MELK in kidney cancer cells and found their growth promotive effect as well as some feedback mechanism between these two molecules. Interestingly, the blockade of either of these two kinases effectively caused downregulation of forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1) activity which is known as an oncogenic transcriptional factor in various types of cancer cells. Small molecular compound inhibitors against TOPK (OTS514) and MELK (OTS167) effectively suppressed the kidney cancer cell growth, and the combination of these two compounds additively worked and showed the very strong growth suppressive effect on kidney cancer cells. Collectively, our results suggest that both TOPK and MELK are promising molecular targets for kidney cancer treatment and that dual blockade of OTS514 and OTS167 may bring additive anti-tumor effects with low risk of side effects.

  14. Transforming growth factor-β suppresses metastasis in a subset of human colon carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simms, Neka A K; Rajput, Ashwani; Sharratt, Elizabeth A; Ongchin, Melanie; Teggart, Carol A; Wang, Jing; Brattain, Michael G

    2012-01-01

    TGFβ signaling has typically been associated with suppression of tumor initiation while the role it plays in metastasis is generally associated with progression of malignancy. However, we present evidence here for an anti-metastatic role of TGFβ signaling. To test the importance of TGFβ signaling to cell survival and metastasis we compared human colon carcinoma cell lines that are either non-tumorigenic with TGFβ response (FET), or tumorigenic with TGFβ response (FETα) or tumorigenic with abrogated TGFβ response via introduction of dominant negative TGFβRII (FETα/DN) and their ability to metastasize. Metastatic competency was assessed by orthotopic transplantation. Metastatic colony formation was assessed histologically and by imaging. Abrogation of TGFβ signaling through introduction of a dominant negative TGFβ receptor II (TGFβRII) in non-metastatic FETα human colon cancer cells permits metastasis to distal organs, but importantly does not reduce invasive behavior at the primary site. Loss of TGFβ signaling in FETα-DN cells generated enhanced cell survival capabilities in response to cellular stress in vitro. We show that enhanced cellular survival is associated with increased AKT phosphorylation and cytoplasmic expression of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family members (survivin and XIAP) that elicit a cytoprotective effect through inhibition of caspases in response to stress. To confirm that TGFβ signaling is a metastasis suppressor, we rescued TGFβ signaling in CBS metastatic colon cancer cells that had lost TGFβ receptor expression due to epigenetic repression. Restoration of TGFβ signaling resulted in the inhibition of metastatic colony formation in distal organs by these cells. These results indicate that TGFβ signaling has an important role in the suppression of metastatic potential in tumors that have already progressed to the stage of an invasive carcinoma. The observations presented here indicate a metastasis suppressor role for TGF

  15. FOXD3 suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jun-Hai; Zhao, Chun-Liu [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Luwan Branch of Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 20020 (China); Ding, Lan-Bao [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People' s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhou, Xi, E-mail: modelmap@139.com [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Luwan Branch of Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 20020 (China)

    2015-10-09

    The transcription factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3), widely studied as a transcriptional repressor in embryogenesis, participates in the carcinogenesis of many cancers. However, the expression pattern and role of FOXD3 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not been well characterized. We report that FOXD3 is significantly downregulated in NSCLC cell lines and clinical tissues. FOXD3 overexpression significantly inhibits cell growth and results in G1 cell cycle arrest in NSCLC A549 and H1299 cells. In a xenograft tumor model, FOXD3 overexpression inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis. Remarkably, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was reduced in FOXD3 overexpression models both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that FOXD3 plays a potential tumor suppressor role in NSCLC progression and represents a promising clinical prognostic marker and therapeutic target for this disease. - Highlights: • FOXD3 is downregulated in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. • FOXD3 overexpression inhibited cell proliferation in NSCLC cells. • FOXD3 overexpression led to decreased angiogenesis in NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo.

  16. FOXD3 suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Jun-Hai; Zhao, Chun-Liu; Ding, Lan-Bao; Zhou, Xi

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3), widely studied as a transcriptional repressor in embryogenesis, participates in the carcinogenesis of many cancers. However, the expression pattern and role of FOXD3 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not been well characterized. We report that FOXD3 is significantly downregulated in NSCLC cell lines and clinical tissues. FOXD3 overexpression significantly inhibits cell growth and results in G1 cell cycle arrest in NSCLC A549 and H1299 cells. In a xenograft tumor model, FOXD3 overexpression inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis. Remarkably, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was reduced in FOXD3 overexpression models both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that FOXD3 plays a potential tumor suppressor role in NSCLC progression and represents a promising clinical prognostic marker and therapeutic target for this disease. - Highlights: • FOXD3 is downregulated in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. • FOXD3 overexpression inhibited cell proliferation in NSCLC cells. • FOXD3 overexpression led to decreased angiogenesis in NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor RO 48-8071 suppresses growth of hormone-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yayun; Mafuvadze, Benford; Aebi, Johannes D; Hyder, Salman M

    2016-01-01

    Standard treatment for primary prostate cancer includes systemic exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs that target androgen receptor or antihormone therapy (chemical castration); however, drug-resistant cancer cells generally emerge during treatment, limiting the continued use of systemic chemotherapy. Patients are then treated with more toxic standard therapies. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel and more effective treatments for prostate cancer. The cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is an attractive therapeutic target for treating endocrine-dependent cancers because cholesterol is an essential structural and functional component of cell membranes as well as the metabolic precursor of endogenous steroid hormones. In this study, we have examined the effects of RO 48-8071 (4'-[6-(allylmethylamino)hexyloxy]-4-bromo-2'-fluorobenzophenone fumarate; Roche Pharmaceuticals internal reference: RO0488071) (RO), which is an inhibitor of 2, 3-oxidosqualene cyclase (a key enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway), on prostate cancer cells. Exposure of both hormone-dependent and castration-resistant human prostate cancer cells to RO reduced prostate cancer cell viability and induced apoptosis in vitro. RO treatment reduced androgen receptor protein expression in hormone-dependent prostate cancer cells and increased estrogen receptor β (ERβ) protein expression in both hormone-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancer cell lines. Combining RO with an ERβ agonist increased its ability to reduce castration-resistant prostate cancer cell viability. In addition, RO effectively suppressed the growth of aggressive castration-resistant human prostate cancer cell xenografts in vivo without any signs of toxicity to experimental animals. Importantly, RO did not reduce the viability of normal prostate cells in vitro. Our study is the first to demonstrate that the cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor RO effectively suppresses growth of human prostate cancer cells. Our

  18. Blockage of glycolysis by targeting PFKFB3 suppresses tumor growth and metastasis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Min; Yang, Jie-Gang; Liu, Zhuo-Jue; Wang, Wei-Ming; Yu, Zi-Li; Ren, Jian-Gang; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Wei; Jia, Jun

    2017-01-07

    Many cancers including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are characterized by a metabolic rewiring with increased glucose uptake and lactate production, termed as aerobic glycolysis. Targeting aerobic glycolysis presents a promising strategy for cancer therapy. This study investigates the therapeutic potential of glycolysis blockage by targeting phosphofructokinase-2/fructose-2, 6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) in HNSCC. 1-(4-pyridinyl)-3-(2-quinolinyl)-2-propen-1-one (PFK15) was used as a selective antagonist of PFKFB3. Glycolytic flux was determined by measuring glucose uptake, lactate production and ATP yield. PFKFB3 expression was examined using HNSCC tissue arrays. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and motility were analysed. HNSCC xenograft mouse model and metastasis mouse model were established to examine the therapeutic efficacy of PFK15 in vivo. HNSCC showed an increased PFKFB3 expression compared with adjacent mucosal tissues (P < 0.01). Targeting PFKFB3 via PFK15 significantly reduced the glucose uptake, lactate production and ATP generation in HNSCC cell lines. PFK15 suppressed cell proliferation, halted cell cycle progression and induced cell apoptosis. The invadopodia of HNSCC cells was markedly reduced after PFK15 treatment, thereby impairing cell motility and extracellular matrix degradation ability. The in vivo data from the xenograft mice models proved that PFK15 administration suppressed the tumor growth. And the results from the metastatic mice models showed administration of PFK15 alleviated the lung metastasis of HNSCC and extended the life expectancy of mice. The pharmacological inhibition of PFKFB3 via PFK15 suppressed tumor growth and alleviated metastasis in HNSCC, offering a promising strategy for cancer therapy.

  19. Ganoderma lucidum suppresses growth of breast cancer cells through the inhibition of Akt/NF-kappaB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiahua; Slivova, Veronika; Harvey, Kevin; Valachovicova, Tatiana; Sliva, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi, Lingzhi) is a popular Asian mushroom that has been used for more than 2 millennia for the general promotion of health and was therefore called the "Mushroom of Immortality." Ganoderma lucidum was also used in traditional Chinese medicine to prevent or treat a variety of diseases, including cancer. We previously demonstrated that Ganoderma lucidum suppresses the invasive behavior of breast cancer cells by inhibiting the transcription factor NF-kappaB. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the inhibitory effects of Ganoderma lucidum on the growth of highly invasive and metastatic breast cancer cells has not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells by downregulating Akt/NF-kappaB signaling. Ganoderma lucidum suppresses phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473 and downregulates the expression of Akt, which results in the inhibition of NF-kappaB activity in MDA-MB-231 cells. The biological effect of Ganoderma lucidum was demonstrated by cell cycle arrest at G0/G1, which was the result of the downregulation of expression of NF-kappaB-regulated cyclin D1, followed by the inhibition of cdk4. Our results suggest that Ganoderma lucidum inhibits the growth of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by modulating Akt/NF-kappaB signaling and could have potential therapeutic use for the treatment of breast cancer.

  20. Androgen Receptor-Mediated Growth Suppression of HPr-1AR and PC3-Lenti-AR Prostate Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Chae Kim

    Full Text Available The androgen receptor (AR mediates the developmental, physiologic, and pathologic effects of androgens including 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT. However, the mechanisms whereby AR regulates growth suppression and differentiation of luminal epithelial cells in the prostate gland and proliferation of malignant versions of these cells are not well understood, though they are central to prostate development, homeostasis, and neoplasia. Here, we identify androgen-responsive genes that restrain cell cycle progression and proliferation of human prostate epithelial cell lines (HPr-1AR and PC3-Lenti-AR, and we investigate the mechanisms through which AR regulates their expression. DHT inhibited proliferation of HPr-1AR and PC3-Lenti-AR, and cell cycle analysis revealed a prolonged G1 interval. In the cell cycle, the G1/S-phase transition is initiated by the activity of cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK complexes, which relieve growth suppression. In HPr-1AR, cyclin D1/2 and CDK4/6 mRNAs were androgen-repressed, whereas CDK inhibitor, CDKN1A, mRNA was androgen-induced. The regulation of these transcripts was AR-dependent, and involved multiple mechanisms. Similar AR-mediated down-regulation of CDK4/6 mRNAs and up-regulation of CDKN1A mRNA occurred in PC3-Lenti-AR. Further, CDK4/6 overexpression suppressed DHT-inhibited cell cycle progression and proliferation of HPr-1AR and PC3-Lenti-AR, whereas CDKN1A overexpression induced cell cycle arrest. We therefore propose that AR-mediated growth suppression of HPr-1AR involves cyclin D1 mRNA decay, transcriptional repression of cyclin D2 and CDK4/6, and transcriptional activation of CDKN1A, which serve to decrease CDK4/6 activity. AR-mediated inhibition of PC3-Lenti-AR proliferation occurs through a similar mechanism, albeit without down-regulation of cyclin D. Our findings provide insight into AR-mediated regulation of prostate epithelial cell proliferation.

  1. Althaea rosea Cavanil and Plantago major L. suppress neoplastic cell transformation through the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Sun; Cho, Sung-Dae; Shin, Ji-Ae; Kwon, Ki Han; Cho, Nam-Pyo; Shim, Jung-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    For thousands of years in Asia, Althaea rosea Cavanil (ARC) and Plantago major L. (PML) have been used as powerful non-toxic therapeutic agents that inhibit inflammation. However, the anticancer mechanisms and molecular targets of ARC and PML are poorly understood, particularly in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced neoplastic cell transformation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemopreventive effects and mechanisms of the methanol extracts from ARC (MARC) and PML (MPML) in EGF-induced neoplastic cell transformation of JB6 P+ mouse epidermal cells using an MTS assay, anchorage-independent cell transformation assay and western blotting. Our results showed that MARC and MPML significantly suppressed neoplastic cell transformation by inhibiting the kinase activity of the EGF receptor (EGFR). The activation of EGFR by EGF was suppressed by MARC and MPML treatment in EGFR(+/+) cells, but not in EGFR(-/-) cells. In addition, MARC and MPML inhibited EGF-induced cell proliferation in EGFR-expressing murine embryonic fibroblasts (EGFR(+/+)). These results strongly indicate that EGFR targeting by MARC and MPML may be a good strategy for chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic applications.

  2. Tubulin binding cofactor C (TBCC) suppresses tumor growth and enhances chemosensitivity in human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hage-Sleiman, Rouba; Herveau, Stéphanie; Matera, Eva-Laure; Laurier, Jean-Fabien; Dumontet, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Microtubules are considered major therapeutic targets in patients with breast cancer. In spite of their essential role in biological functions including cell motility, cell division and intracellular transport, microtubules have not yet been considered as critical actors influencing tumor cell aggressivity. To evaluate the impact of microtubule mass and dynamics on the phenotype and sensitivity of breast cancer cells, we have targeted tubulin binding cofactor C (TBCC), a crucial protein for the proper folding of α and β tubulins into polymerization-competent tubulin heterodimers. We developed variants of human breast cancer cells with increased content of TBCC. Analysis of proliferation, cell cycle distribution and mitotic durations were assayed to investigate the influence of TBCC on the cell phenotype. In vivo growth of tumors was monitored in mice xenografted with breast cancer cells. The microtubule dynamics and the different fractions of tubulins were studied by time-lapse microscopy and lysate fractionation, respectively. In vitro sensitivity to antimicrotubule agents was studied by flow cytometry. In vivo chemosensitivity was assayed by treatment of mice implanted with tumor cells. TBCC overexpression influenced tubulin fraction distribution, with higher content of nonpolymerizable tubulins and lower content of polymerizable dimers and microtubules. Microtubule dynamicity was reduced in cells overexpressing TBCC. Cell cycle distribution was altered in cells containing larger amounts of TBCC with higher percentage of cells in G2-M phase and lower percentage in S-phase, along with slower passage into mitosis. While increased content of TBCC had little effect on cell proliferation in vitro, we observed a significant delay in tumor growth with respect to controls when TBCC overexpressing cells were implanted as xenografts in vivo. TBCC overexpressing variants displayed enhanced sensitivity to antimicrotubule agents both in vitro and in xenografts. These

  3. Cystatin A suppresses tumor cell growth through inhibiting epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunxia; Chen, Yuan; Li, Yong; Grün, Katja; Berndt, Alexander; Zhou, Zhongwei; Petersen, Iver

    2018-03-06

    Cystatin A ( CSTA ), belonging to type 1 cystatin super-family, is expressed primarily in epithelial and lymphoid tissues for protecting cells from proteolysis of cytoplasmic and cytoskeletal proteins by cathepsins B, H and L. CSTA acts as a tumor suppressor in esophageal cancer, however, its role in lung cancer has not yet been elucidated. Here we found that CSTA was down-regulated in all lung cancer cell lines compared to normal lung epithelial cells. CSTA was restored in most lung cancer cell lines after treatment with demethylation agent 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine and deacetylation agent Trichostatin. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that CSTA was partially methylated in the promoter and exon 1. In primary lung tumors, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) significantly expressed more CSTA compared to adenocarcinoma (pgrade (ptransition (MET) and prevented the TGF-β1-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) through inhibiting the ERK/MAPK pathway. In conclusion, our date indicate 1) epigenetic regulation is associated with CSTA gene silencing; 2) CSTA exerts tumor suppressive function through inhibiting MAPK and AKT pathways; 3) Overexpression of CSTA leads to MET and prevents TGF-β1-induced EMT by modulating the MAPK pathway; 4) CSTA may be a potential biomarker for lung SCC and tumor differentiation.

  4. Effusanin E suppresses nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell growth by inhibiting NF-κB and COX-2 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Zhuang

    Full Text Available Rabdosia serra is well known for its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities, but no information has been available for the active compounds derived from this plant in inhibiting human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC cell growth. In this study, we isolated and purified a natural diterpenoid from Rabdosia serra and identified its chemical structure as effusanin E and elucidated its underlying mechanism of action in inhibiting NPC cell growth. Effusanin E significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in NPC cells. Effusanin E also induced the cleavage of PARP, caspase-3 and -9 proteins and inhibited the nuclear translocation of p65 NF-κB proteins. Moreover, effusanin E abrogated the binding of NF-κB to the COX-2 promoter, thereby inhibiting the expression and promoter activity of COX-2. Pretreatment with a COX-2 or NF-κB-selective inhibitor (celecoxib or ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate had an additive effect on the effusanin E-mediated inhibition of proliferation, while pretreatment with an activator of NF-κB/COX-2 (lipopolysaccharides abrogated the effusanin E-mediated inhibition of proliferation. Effusanin E also significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model without obvious toxicity, furthermore, the expression of p50 NF-κB and COX-2 were down-regulated in the tumors of nude mice. These data suggest that effusanin E suppresses p50/p65 proteins to down-regulate COX-2 expression, thereby inhibiting NPC cell growth. Our findings provide new insights into exploring effusanin E as a potential therapeutic compound for the treatment of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  5. Disrupting Hypoxia-Induced Bicarbonate Transport Acidifies Tumor Cells and Suppresses Tumor Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Alan; Hulikova, Alzbeta; Ledaki, Ioanna; Snell, Cameron; Singleton, Dean; Steers, Graham; Seden, Peter; Jones, Dylan; Bridges, Esther; Wigfield, Simon; Li, Ji-Liang; Russell, Angela; Swietach, Pawel; Harris, Adrian L

    2016-07-01

    Tumor hypoxia is associated clinically with therapeutic resistance and poor patient outcomes. One feature of tumor hypoxia is activated expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), a regulator of pH and tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that impeding the reuptake of bicarbonate produced extracellularly by CA9 could exacerbate the intracellular acidity produced by hypoxic conditions, perhaps compromising cell growth and viability as a result. In 8 of 10 cancer cell lines, we found that hypoxia induced the expression of at least one bicarbonate transporter. The most robust and frequent inductions were of the sodium-driven bicarbonate transporters SLC4A4 and SLC4A9, which rely upon both HIF1α and HIF2α activity for their expression. In cancer cell spheroids, SLC4A4 or SLC4A9 disruption by either genetic or pharmaceutical approaches acidified intracellular pH and reduced cell growth. Furthermore, treatment of spheroids with S0859, a small-molecule inhibitor of sodium-driven bicarbonate transporters, increased apoptosis in the cell lines tested. Finally, RNAi-mediated attenuation of SLC4A9 increased apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer spheroids and dramatically reduced growth of MDA-MB-231 breast tumors or U87 gliomas in murine xenografts. Our findings suggest that disrupting pH homeostasis by blocking bicarbonate import might broadly relieve the common resistance of hypoxic tumors to anticancer therapy. Cancer Res; 76(13); 3744-55. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Growth differentiation factor-15 suppresses maturation and function of dendritic cells and inhibits tumor-specific immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhong Zhou

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs play a key role in the initiation stage of an antigen-specific immune response. A variety of tumor-derived factors (TDFs can suppress DC maturation and function, resulting in defects in the tumor-specific immune response. To identify unknown TDFs that may suppress DCs maturation and function, we established a high-throughput screening technology based on a human liver tumor T7 phage cDNA library and screened all of the proteins derived from hepatoma cells that potentially interact with immature DCs. Growth/differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15 was detected and chosen for further study. By incubation of DCs cultures with GDF-15, we demonstrate that GDF-15 can inhibit surface protrusion formation during DC maturation; suppress the membrane expression of CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR on DCs; enhance phagocytosis by DCs; reduce IL-12 and elevate TGF-β1 secretion by DCs; inhibit T cell stimulation and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL activation by DCs. By building tumor-bearing mouse models, we demonstrate that GDF-15 can inhibit the ability of DCs to stimulate a tumor-specific immune response in vivo. These results indicate that GDF-15 may be one of the critical molecules that inhibit DC maturation and function and are involved in tumor immune escape. Thus, GDF-15 may be a novel target in tumor immunotherapy.

  7. Silencing of E2F3 suppresses tumor growth of Her2+ breast cancer cells by restricting mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miyoung; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Saavedra, Harold I

    2015-11-10

    The E2F transcriptional activators E2F1, E2F2 and E2F3a regulate many important cellular processes, including DNA replication, apoptosis and centrosome duplication. Previously, we demonstrated that silencing E2F1 or E2F3 suppresses centrosome amplification (CA) and chromosome instability (CIN) in Her2+ breast cancer cells without markedly altering proliferation. However, it is unknown whether and how silencing a single E2F activator, E2F3, affects malignancy of human breast cancer cells. Thus, we injected HCC1954 Her2+ breast cancer cells silenced for E2F3 into mammary fat pads of immunodeficient mice and demonstrated that loss of E2F3 retards tumor growth. Surprisingly, silencing of E2F3 led to significant reductions in mitotic indices relative to vector controls, while the percentage of cells undergoing S phase were not affected. Nek2 is a mitotic kinase commonly upregulated in breast cancers and a critical regulator of Cdk4- or E2F-mediated CA. In this report, we found that Nek2 overexpression rescued back the CA caused by silencing of shE2F3. However, the effects of Nek2 overexpression in affecting tumor growth rates of shE2F3 and shE2F3; GFP cells were inconclusive. Taken together, our results indicate that E2F3 silencing decreases mammary tumor growth by reducing percentage of cells undergoing mitosis.

  8. Growth suppression of MCF-7 cancer cell-derived xenografts in nude mice by caveolin-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ping; Wang Xiaohui; Li Fei; Qi Baoju; Zhu Hua; Liu Shuang; Cui Yeqing; Chen Jianwen

    2008-01-01

    Caveolin-1 is an essential structural constituent of caveolae membrane domains that has been implicated in mitogenic signaling and oncogenesis. However, the exact functional role of caveolin-1 still remains controversial. In this report, utilizing MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells stably transfected with caveolin-1 (MCF-7/cav-1 cells), we demonstrate that caveolin-1 expression dramatically inhibits invasion and migration of these cells. Importantly, in vivo experiments employing xenograft tumor models demonstrated that expression of caveolin-1 results in significant growth inhibition of breast tumors. Moreover, a dramatic delay in tumor progression was observed in MCF-7/cav-1 cells as compared with MCF-7 cells. Histological analysis of tumor sections demonstrated a marked decrease in the percentage of proliferating tumor cells (Ki-67 assay) along with an increase in apoptotic tumor cells (TUNEL assay) in MCF-7/cav-1-treated animals. Our current findings provide for the first time in vivo evidence that caveolin-1 can indeed function as a tumor suppressor in human breast adenocarcinoma derived from MCF-7 cells rather than as a tumor promoter

  9. 17-AAG suppresses growth and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells via regulation of the LATS1/YAP pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiang-Yun; Luo, Qing-Quan; Xu, Yun-Hua; Tang, Nai-Wang; Niu, Xiao-Min; Li, Zi-Ming; Shen, Sheng-Ping; Lu, Shun; Chen, Zhi-Wei

    2015-03-01

    The large tumour suppressor 1 (LATS1) signalling network has been proved to be an essential regulator within the cell, participating in multiple cellular phenotypes. However, it is unclear concerning the clinical significance of LATS1 and the regulatory mechanisms of 17-Allylamino-17- demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation of LATS1 and yes-associated protein (YAP) expression with clinicopathological characteristics in LAC patients, and the effects of 17-AAG on biological behaviours of LAC cells. Subcutaneous LAC tumour models were further established to observe the tumour growth in nude mice. The results showed that the positive expression of LATS1 was significantly lowered (26.7% versus 68.0%, P AAG inhibited proliferation and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis and cycle arrest in LAC cells together with increased expression of E-cadherin and p-LATS1, and decreased expression of YAP and connective tissue growth factor. Tumour volumes and weight were much smaller in 17-AAG-treated groups than those in untreated group (P AAG suppresses growth and invasion of LAC cells via regulation of the LATS1/YAP pathway in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that we may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human LAC. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  10. 17-AAG suppresses growth and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells via regulation of the LATS1/YAP pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiang-Yun; Luo, Qing-Quan; Xu, Yun-Hua; Tang, Nai-Wang; Niu, Xiao-Min; Li, Zi-Ming; Shen, Sheng-Ping; Lu, Shun; Chen, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The large tumour suppressor 1 (LATS1) signalling network has been proved to be an essential regulator within the cell, participating in multiple cellular phenotypes. However, it is unclear concerning the clinical significance of LATS1 and the regulatory mechanisms of 17-Allylamino-17- demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation of LATS1 and yes-associated protein (YAP) expression with clinicopathological characteristics in LAC patients, and the effects of 17-AAG on biological behaviours of LAC cells. Subcutaneous LAC tumour models were further established to observe the tumour growth in nude mice. The results showed that the positive expression of LATS1 was significantly lowered (26.7% versus 68.0%, P AAG inhibited proliferation and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis and cycle arrest in LAC cells together with increased expression of E-cadherin and p-LATS1, and decreased expression of YAP and connective tissue growth factor. Tumour volumes and weight were much smaller in 17-AAG-treated groups than those in untreated group (P AAG suppresses growth and invasion of LAC cells via regulation of the LATS1/YAP pathway in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that we may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human LAC. PMID:25712415

  11. Human umbilical cord matrix mesenchymal stem cells suppress the growth of breast cancer by expression of tumor suppressor genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Ohta

    Full Text Available Human and rat umbilical cord matrix mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSC possess the ability to control the growth of breast carcinoma cells. Comparative analyses of two types of UCMSC suggest that rat UCMSC-dependent growth regulation is significantly stronger than that of human UCMSC. Their different tumoricidal abilities were clarified by analyzing gene expression profiles in the two types of UCMSC. Microarray analysis revealed differential gene expression between untreated naïve UCMSC and those co-cultured with species-matched breast carcinoma cells. The analyses screened 17 differentially expressed genes that are commonly detected in both human and rat UCMSC. The comparison between the two sets of gene expression profiles identified two tumor suppressor genes, adipose-differentiation related protein (ADRP and follistatin (FST, that were specifically up-regulated in rat UCMSC, but down-regulated in human UCMSC when they were co-cultured with the corresponding species' breast carcinoma cells. Over-expression of FST, but not ADRP, in human UCMSC enhanced their ability to suppress the growth of MDA-231 cells. The growth of MDA-231 cells was also significantly lower when they were cultured in medium conditioned with FST, but not ADRP over-expressing human UCMSC. In the breast carcinoma lung metastasis model generated with MDA-231 cells, systemic treatment with FST-over-expressing human UCMSC significantly attenuated the tumor burden. These results suggest that FST may play an important role in exhibiting stronger tumoricidal ability in rat UCMSC than human UCMSC and also implies that human UCMSC can be transformed into stronger tumoricidal cells by enhancing tumor suppressor gene expression.

  12. Sirt2 suppresses glioma cell growth through targeting NF-κB–miR-21 axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ya’nan; Dai, Dongwei [Department of Neurosurgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Lu, Qiong; Fei, Mingyu [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Li, Mengmeng [Department of Rheumatology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Wu, Xi, E-mail: xiwuchh@sina.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China)

    2013-11-22

    Highlights: •Sirt2 expression is down-regulated in human glioma tissues and cell lines. •Sirt2 regresses glioma cell growth and colony formation via inducing apoptosis. •miR-21 is essential for the functions of Sirt2 in glioma cells. •Sirt2 deacetylates p65 to decrease miR-21 expression. -- Abstract: Sirtuins are NAD{sup +}-dependent deacetylases that regulate numerous cellular processes including aging, DNA repair, cell cycle, metabolism, and survival under stress conditions. The roles of sirtuin family members are widely studied in carcinogenesis. However, their roles in glioma remain unclear. Here we report that Sir2 was under expressed in human glioma tissues and cell lines. We found that Sirt2 overexpression decreased cell proliferation and colony formation capacity. In addition, Sirt2 overexpression induced cellular apoptosis via up-regulating cleaved caspase 3 and Bax, and down-regulating anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Sirt2 knockdown obtained opposing results. We showed that Sirt2 overexpression inhibited miR-21 expression, and Sirt2 was not sufficient to reduce cell proliferation and colony formation as well as to induce apoptosis when miR-21 was knocked down in glioma cells. Mechanically, we demonstrated that Sirt2 deacetylated p65 at K310 and blocked p65 binding to the promoter region of miR-21, thus regressing the transcription of miR-21. In summary, Sirt2 is critical in human glioma via NF-κB–miR-21 pathway and Sirt2 activator may serve as candidate drug for glioma therapy.

  13. Wwox suppresses breast cancer cell growth through modulation of the hedgehog–GLI1 signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Anwen; Wei, Li; Ying, Mingzhen; Wu, Hongmei; Hua, Jin; Wang, Yajie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigated Gli1 as a novel partner of Wwox. • We observed a physical association between Wwox and the Gli1. • Wwox–Gli1 interaction affects Gli1 intracellular localization. • Gli1 Blocks Wwox-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in T47D cells. - Abstract: Wwox is a tumor suppressor that is frequently deleted or altered in several cancer types, including breast cancer. Previous studies have shown that ectopic expression of Wwox inhibits proliferation of breast cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of Wwox function, we investigated novel partners of this protein. Utilizing the coimmunoprecipitation assay, we observed a physical association between Wwox and the Gli1 zinc-finger transcription factor involved in the hedgehog pathway. Our results further demonstrated that Wwox expression triggered redistribution of nuclear Gli1 to the cytoplasm. Additionally, ectopic expression of Wwox reduced Gli1 expression in vitro. Furthermore, Gli1 Blocks Wwox-induced breast cancer cell growth inhibition. These findings suggest a functional crosstalk between Wwox and hedgehog–GLI1 signaling pathway in tumorigenesis

  14. Wwox suppresses breast cancer cell growth through modulation of the hedgehog–GLI1 signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Anwen [Department of Oncology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Wei, Li [Department of Oncology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Department of Oncology, NO. 401 hospital of PLA, Qingdao, Shandong (China); Ying, Mingzhen; Wu, Hongmei; Hua, Jin [Department of Oncology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Wang, Yajie, E-mail: yajiewang@live.com [Department of Oncology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-01-24

    Highlights: • We investigated Gli1 as a novel partner of Wwox. • We observed a physical association between Wwox and the Gli1. • Wwox–Gli1 interaction affects Gli1 intracellular localization. • Gli1 Blocks Wwox-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in T47D cells. - Abstract: Wwox is a tumor suppressor that is frequently deleted or altered in several cancer types, including breast cancer. Previous studies have shown that ectopic expression of Wwox inhibits proliferation of breast cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of Wwox function, we investigated novel partners of this protein. Utilizing the coimmunoprecipitation assay, we observed a physical association between Wwox and the Gli1 zinc-finger transcription factor involved in the hedgehog pathway. Our results further demonstrated that Wwox expression triggered redistribution of nuclear Gli1 to the cytoplasm. Additionally, ectopic expression of Wwox reduced Gli1 expression in vitro. Furthermore, Gli1 Blocks Wwox-induced breast cancer cell growth inhibition. These findings suggest a functional crosstalk between Wwox and hedgehog–GLI1 signaling pathway in tumorigenesis.

  15. miR-29a suppresses MCF-7 cell growth by downregulating tumor necrosis factor receptor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiling; Yang, Fenghua; Li, Wenyuan; Xu, Chunyan; Li, Li; Chen, Lifei; Liu, Yancui; Sun, Ping

    2017-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 is the main receptor mediating many tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced cellular events. Some studies have shown that tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 promotes tumorigenesis by activating nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway, while other studies have confirmed that tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 plays an inhibitory role in tumors growth by inducing apoptosis in breast cancer. Therefore, the function of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in breast cancer requires clarification. In this study, we first found that tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 was significantly increased in human breast cancer tissues and cell lines, and knockdown of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 by small interfering RNA inhibited cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis. In addition, miR-29a was predicted as a regulator of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 by TargetScan and was shown to be inversely correlated with tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 expression in human breast cancer tissues and cell lines. Luciferase reporter assay further confirmed that miR-29a negatively regulated tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 expression by binding to the 3' untranslated region. In our functional study, miR-29a overexpression remarkably suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation, arrested the cell cycle, and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cell. Furthermore, in combination with tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 transfection, miR-29a significantly reversed the oncogenic role caused by tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in MCF-7 cell. In addition, we demonstrated that miR-29a suppressed MCF-7 cell growth by inactivating the nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway and by decreasing cyclinD1 and Bcl-2/Bax protein levels. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-29a is an important regulator of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 expression in breast cancer and functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 to

  16. miR-216b promotes cell growth and enhances chemosensitivity of colorectal cancer by suppressing PDZ-binding kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jun; Kuang, Weihua; Hu, Jilong; Rao, Huamin

    2017-06-24

    PDZ-binding kinase (PBK/TOPK) acts as oncogene in various cancers and correlates with drug response. However, few studies have examined the expression and roles of PBK in colonrectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we found a significant increase in the expression of PBK in CRC tissues and cell lines. While overexpression of PBK promoted cell growth and decreased the toxicity effect of oxaliplation (OXA), targeting PBK with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or novel PBK inhibitor HI-TOPK-032 effectively suppressed tumor growth and potentiated chemosensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, there was a significant inverse correlation between the expressions of miR-216b and PBK. Further found that miR-216b could down-regulate PBK levels by binding to the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of PBK. Notably, while miR-216b decreased cell proliferation and enhanced sensitivity of CRC cells to oxaliplation, re-expression of PBK dramatically reversed these events. Collectively, our data indicated that miR-216b may function as a tumor suppressor though regulating PBK expression, which provided promising targets and possible therapeutic strategies for CRC treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. EFEMP1 Suppresses Growth and Invasion of Lung Cancer Cells 
by Downregulating Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan LANG

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective EFEMP1, a member of fibulin family proteins, is a very important extracellular matrix protein which is involved in cell metabolism and its role in tumor occurrence and progression is still poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the functional effect and mechanism of EFEMP1 in lung cancer cell growth and invasion. Methods EFEMP1 expression in lung cancer cells was determined by Western blot. The promoter methylation status of EFEMP1 was detected by methylation-specific PCR (MSP. After transfection of control or EFEMP1 vector in lung cancer cells, the ability of colony formation and invasion was detected by colony formation experiment and matrigel invasion method. Western blot and real-time PCR were used to detect matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7 expression. Luciferase assay was used to detect expression of MMP-7 reporter construct transfected with or without EFEMP1 in lung cancer cells. Results Western blot result showed EFEMP1 expression was downregulated in lung cancer cells. The promoter region of EFEMP1 was methylated in A549 and H1299 and after treatment with 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine, the EFEMP1 expression was upregulated. The growth and invasion of A549 and H1299 were all significantly suppressed by transfecting with EFEMP1 and the MMP-7 expression was dowanregulated by EFEMP1 as well. Expression activity of MMP-7 reporter construct was decreased by cotransfecting with EFEMP1. Conclusion Collectively, these results suggest that EFEMP1 functions as a suppressor of lung cancer growth and invasion. Epigenetic silencing of EFEMP1 promotes lung cancer invasion and metastasis by activating MMP-7 expression.

  18. microRNA 21-mediated suppression of Sprouty1 by Pokemon affects liver cancer cell growth and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiu-Li; Sun, Qin-Sheng; Liu, Feng; Yang, Hong-Wei; Liu, Min; Liu, Hong-Xia; Xu, Wei; Jiang, Yu-Yang

    2013-07-01

    Transcriptional repressor Pokemon is a critical factor in embryogenesis, development, cell proliferation, differentiation, and oncogenesis, thus behaving as an oncogene. Oncomine database suggests a potential correlation between the expressions of Pokemon and Sprouty1. This study investigated the regulatory role of Pokemon in Sprouty1 expression and the effect on liver cancer cell growth and proliferation, revealing a novel miR-21-mediated regulatory circuit. In normal (HL-7702) and cancer (QGY-7703) liver cell lines, Sprouty1 expression is inversely correlated with Pokemon levels. Targeted expression or siRNA-mediated silencing showed that Pokemon is a repressor of Sprouty1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, but Pokemon cannot affect the promoter activity of Sprouty1. Sprouty1 is a target of miR-21 and interestingly, we found that miR-21 is up-regulated by Pokemon in liver cancer cells. Luciferase reporter assays showed that Pokemon up-regulated miR-21 transcription in a dose-dependent manner, and ChIP assay exhibited a direct binding of Pokemon to the miR-21 promoter at -747 to -399 bp. Site-directed mutagenesis of the GC boxes at -684 to -679 bp and -652 to -647 bp of miR-21 promoter abolished the regulatory activity by Pokemon. Furthermore, we found that the modulation of Pokemon and miR-21 expression affected the growth and proliferation of liver cancer cells QGY-7703. In summary, our findings demonstrate that Pokemon suppresses Sprouty1 expression through a miR-21-mediated mechanism, affecting the growth and proliferation of liver cancer cells. This study recognized miR-21 and Sprouty1 as novel targets of the Pokemon regulatory network. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor expression by cannabinoids in a canine osteosarcoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo AS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Andreza S Figueiredo,1 Hiram J García-Crescioni,1 Sandra C Bulla,1 Matthew K Ross,2 Chelsea McIntosh,1 Kari Lunsford,3 Camilo Bulla11Department of Pathobiology and Population Medicine, 2Department of Basic Sciences, 3Department of Clinical Sciences and Animal Health Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USAAbstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a key regulator in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis, and cannabinoids decrease VEGF release in human and murine cancer cells. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro effects of a synthetic cannabinoid, WIN-55,212-2, on the expression of the proangiogenic factor VEGF-A in the canine osteosarcoma cell line 8. After analysis of gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the compound decreased VEGF-A expression by 35% ± 10% (P < 0.0001 as compared with the control. This synthetic cannabinoid shows promise as a potential inhibitor of angiogenesis, and further studies are warranted to investigate its in vivo effects and to explore the potential of this and related compounds as adjuvant cancer therapy in the dog.Keywords: dog, cancer, angiogenesis, cannabinoids

  20. Antroquinonol Targets FAK-Signaling Pathway Suppressed Cell Migration, Invasion, and Tumor Growth of C6 Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Varadharajan; Tsai, May-Jywan; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor protein tyrosine that is overexpressed in many types of tumors and plays a pivotal role in multiple cell signaling pathways involved in cell survival, migration, and proliferation. This study attempts to determine the effect of synthesized antroquinonol on the modulation of FAK signaling pathways and explore their underlying mechanisms. Antroquinonol significantly inhibits cell viability with an MTT assay in both N18 neuroblastoma and C6 glioma cell lines, which exhibits sub G1 phase cell cycle, and further induction of apoptosis is confirmed by a TUNEL assay. Antroquinonol decreases anti-apoptotic proteins, whereas it increases p53 and pro-apoptotic proteins. Alterations of cell morphology are observed after treatment by atomic force microscopy. Molecular docking results reveal that antroquinonol has an H-bond with the Arg 86 residue of FAK. The protein levels of Src, pSrc, FAK, pFAK, Rac1, and cdc42 are decreased after antroquinonol treatment. Additionally, antroquinonol also regulates the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) proteins. Furthermore, antroquinonol suppresses the C6 glioma growth in xenograft studies. Together, these results suggest that antroquinonol is a potential anti-tumorigenesis and anti-metastasis inhibitor of FAK.

  1. Antroquinonol Targets FAK-Signaling Pathway Suppressed Cell Migration, Invasion, and Tumor Growth of C6 Glioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varadharajan Thiyagarajan

    Full Text Available Focal adhesion kinase (FAK is a non-receptor protein tyrosine that is overexpressed in many types of tumors and plays a pivotal role in multiple cell signaling pathways involved in cell survival, migration, and proliferation. This study attempts to determine the effect of synthesized antroquinonol on the modulation of FAK signaling pathways and explore their underlying mechanisms. Antroquinonol significantly inhibits cell viability with an MTT assay in both N18 neuroblastoma and C6 glioma cell lines, which exhibits sub G1 phase cell cycle, and further induction of apoptosis is confirmed by a TUNEL assay. Antroquinonol decreases anti-apoptotic proteins, whereas it increases p53 and pro-apoptotic proteins. Alterations of cell morphology are observed after treatment by atomic force microscopy. Molecular docking results reveal that antroquinonol has an H-bond with the Arg 86 residue of FAK. The protein levels of Src, pSrc, FAK, pFAK, Rac1, and cdc42 are decreased after antroquinonol treatment. Additionally, antroquinonol also regulates the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT proteins. Furthermore, antroquinonol suppresses the C6 glioma growth in xenograft studies. Together, these results suggest that antroquinonol is a potential anti-tumorigenesis and anti-metastasis inhibitor of FAK.

  2. Gallotannin imposes S phase arrest in breast cancer cells and suppresses the growth of triple-negative tumors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tiejun; Sun, Qiang; del Rincon, Sonia V; Lovato, Amanda; Marques, Maud; Witcher, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers are associated with poor clinical outcomes and new therapeutic strategies are clearly needed. Gallotannin (Gltn) has been previously demonstrated to have potent anti-tumor properties against cholangiocarcinoma in mice, but little is known regarding its capacity to suppress tumor outgrowth in breast cancer models. We tested Gltn for potential growth inhibitory properties against a variety of breast cancer cell lines in vitro. In particular, triple-negative breast cancer cells display higher levels of sensitivity to Gltn. The loss of proliferative capacity in Gltn exposed cells is associated with slowed cell cycle progression and S phase arrest, dependent on Chk2 phosphorylation and further characterized by changes to proliferation related genes, such as cyclin D1 (CcnD1) as determined by Nanostring technology. Importantly, Gltn administered orally or via intraperitoneal (IP) injections greatly reduced tumor outgrowth of triple-negative breast cells from mammary fat pads without signs of toxicity. In conclusion, these data strongly suggest that Gltn represents a novel approach to treat triple-negative breast carcinomas.

  3. Gallotannin imposes S phase arrest in breast cancer cells and suppresses the growth of triple-negative tumors in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiejun Zhao

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancers are associated with poor clinical outcomes and new therapeutic strategies are clearly needed. Gallotannin (Gltn has been previously demonstrated to have potent anti-tumor properties against cholangiocarcinoma in mice, but little is known regarding its capacity to suppress tumor outgrowth in breast cancer models. We tested Gltn for potential growth inhibitory properties against a variety of breast cancer cell lines in vitro. In particular, triple-negative breast cancer cells display higher levels of sensitivity to Gltn. The loss of proliferative capacity in Gltn exposed cells is associated with slowed cell cycle progression and S phase arrest, dependent on Chk2 phosphorylation and further characterized by changes to proliferation related genes, such as cyclin D1 (CcnD1 as determined by Nanostring technology. Importantly, Gltn administered orally or via intraperitoneal (IP injections greatly reduced tumor outgrowth of triple-negative breast cells from mammary fat pads without signs of toxicity. In conclusion, these data strongly suggest that Gltn represents a novel approach to treat triple-negative breast carcinomas.

  4. Candidate tumour suppressor CCDC19 regulates miR-184 direct targeting of C-Myc thereby suppressing cell growth in non-small cell lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Mai, Chunping; Yang, Huiling; Zhen, Yan; Yu, Xiaoli; Hua, Shengni; Wu, Qiangyun; Jiang, Qinping; Zhang, Yajie; Song, Xin; Fang, Weiyi

    2014-08-01

    We previously reported and revised the nasopharyngeal epithelium specific protein CCDC19 and identified it as a potential tumour suppressor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of CCDC19 in the pathogenesis of human non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Down-regulated CCDC19 expression was observed in NSCLC tissues and cells compared to normal tissues. However, reduced protein expression did not correlate with the status of NSCLC progression. Instead, we observed that patients with lower CCDC19 expression had a shorter overall survival than did patients with higher CCDC19 expression. Lentiviral-mediated CCDC19 overexpression significantly suppressed cell proliferation and cell cycle transition from G1 to S and G2 phases in NSCLC cells. Knocking down CCDC19 expression significantly restored the ability of cell growth in CCDC19 overexpressing NSCLC cells. Mechanistically CCDC19 functions as a potential tumour suppressor by stimulating miR-184 suppression of C-Myc thus blocking cell growth mediated by the PI3K/AKT/C-Jun pathway. Our studies are the first to demonstrate that reduced expression of CCDC19 is an unfavourable factor in NSCLC. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  5. Met inactivation by S-allylcysteine suppresses the migration and invasion of nasopharyngeal cancer cells induced by hepatocyte growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, O Yeon; Hwang, Hye Sook; Lee, Bok Soon; Oh, Young Taek; Kim, Chul Ho; Chun, Mi Son

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have reported that S-allylcysteine (SAC) inhibits the migration and invasion of cancer cells through the restoration of E-cadherin, the reduction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and Slug protein expression, and inhibition of the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, evidence is emerging that shows that ROS induced by radiation could increase Met activation. Following on these reports of SAC and Met, we investigated whether SAC could suppress Met activation. Wound healing, invasion, 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT), soft agar colony forming, western blotting, and gelatin zymography assays were performed in the human nasopharyngeal cancer cell lines HNE1 and HONE1 treated with SAC (0, 10, 20, or 40 mM) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). This study showed that SAC could suppress the migration and invasion of HNE1 and HONE1 cell lines by inhibiting p-Met. An increase of migration and invasion induced by HGF and its decrease in a dose dependent manner by SAC in wound healing and invasion assays was observed. The reduction of p-Met by SAC was positively correlated with p-focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK) and p-extracellular related kinase (p-ERK in both cell lines). SAC reduced Slug, MMP2, and MMP9 involved in migration and invasion with the inhibition of Met-FAK signaling. These results suggest that SAC inhibited not only Met activation but also the downstream FAK, Slug, and MMP expression. Finally, SAC may be a potent anticancer compound for nasopharyngeal cancer treated with radiotherapy

  6. Met inactivation by S-allylcysteine suppresses the migration and invasion of nasopharyngeal cancer cells induced by hepatocyte growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, O Yeon; Hwang, Hye Sook; Lee, Bok Soon; Oh, Young Taek; Kim, Chul Ho; Chun, Mi Son [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Past studies have reported that S-allylcysteine (SAC) inhibits the migration and invasion of cancer cells through the restoration of E-cadherin, the reduction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and Slug protein expression, and inhibition of the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, evidence is emerging that shows that ROS induced by radiation could increase Met activation. Following on these reports of SAC and Met, we investigated whether SAC could suppress Met activation. Wound healing, invasion, 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT), soft agar colony forming, western blotting, and gelatin zymography assays were performed in the human nasopharyngeal cancer cell lines HNE1 and HONE1 treated with SAC (0, 10, 20, or 40 mM) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). This study showed that SAC could suppress the migration and invasion of HNE1 and HONE1 cell lines by inhibiting p-Met. An increase of migration and invasion induced by HGF and its decrease in a dose dependent manner by SAC in wound healing and invasion assays was observed. The reduction of p-Met by SAC was positively correlated with p-focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK) and p-extracellular related kinase (p-ERK in both cell lines). SAC reduced Slug, MMP2, and MMP9 involved in migration and invasion with the inhibition of Met-FAK signaling. These results suggest that SAC inhibited not only Met activation but also the downstream FAK, Slug, and MMP expression. Finally, SAC may be a potent anticancer compound for nasopharyngeal cancer treated with radiotherapy.

  7. Abrogation of Gli3 expression suppresses the growth of colon cancer cells via activation of p53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Han Na; Oh, Sang Cheul; Kim, Jun Suk; Yoo, Young A.

    2012-01-01

    p53, the major human tumor suppressor, appears to be related to sonic hedgehog (Shh)–Gli-mediated tumorigenesis. However, the role of p53 in tumor progression by the Shh–Gli signaling pathway is poorly understood. Herein we investigated the critical regulation of Gli3–p53 in tumorigenesis of colon cancer cells and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the mRNA level of Shh and Gli3 in colon tumor tissues was significantly higher than corresponding normal tissues (P < 0.001). The inhibition of Gli3 by treatment with Gli3 siRNA resulted in a clear decrease in cell proliferation and enhanced the level of expression of p53 proteins compared to treatment with control siRNA. The half-life of p53 was dramatically increased by treatment with Gli3 siRNA. In addition, treatment with MG132 blocked MDM2-mediated p53 ubiquitination and degradation, and led to accumulation of p53 in Gli3 siRNA-overexpressing cells. Importantly, ectopic expression of p53 siRNA reduced the ability of Gli3 siRNA to suppress proliferation of those cells compared with the cells treated with Gli3 siRNA alone. Moreover, Gli3 siRNA sensitized colon cancer cells to treatment with anti-cancer agents (5-FU and bevacizumab). Taken together, our studies demonstrate that loss of Gli3 signaling leads to disruption of the MDM2–p53 interaction and strongly potentiate p53-dependent cell growth inhibition in colon cancer cells, indicating a basis for the rational use of Gli3 antagonists as a novel treatment option for colon cancer.

  8. Abrogation of Gli3 expression suppresses the growth of colon cancer cells via activation of p53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Han Na [Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sang Cheul; Kim, Jun Suk [Division of Oncology/Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young A., E-mail: ydanbi@korea.ac.kr [Brain Korea 21 Program for Biomedical Science, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-10

    p53, the major human tumor suppressor, appears to be related to sonic hedgehog (Shh)-Gli-mediated tumorigenesis. However, the role of p53 in tumor progression by the Shh-Gli signaling pathway is poorly understood. Herein we investigated the critical regulation of Gli3-p53 in tumorigenesis of colon cancer cells and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the mRNA level of Shh and Gli3 in colon tumor tissues was significantly higher than corresponding normal tissues (P < 0.001). The inhibition of Gli3 by treatment with Gli3 siRNA resulted in a clear decrease in cell proliferation and enhanced the level of expression of p53 proteins compared to treatment with control siRNA. The half-life of p53 was dramatically increased by treatment with Gli3 siRNA. In addition, treatment with MG132 blocked MDM2-mediated p53 ubiquitination and degradation, and led to accumulation of p53 in Gli3 siRNA-overexpressing cells. Importantly, ectopic expression of p53 siRNA reduced the ability of Gli3 siRNA to suppress proliferation of those cells compared with the cells treated with Gli3 siRNA alone. Moreover, Gli3 siRNA sensitized colon cancer cells to treatment with anti-cancer agents (5-FU and bevacizumab). Taken together, our studies demonstrate that loss of Gli3 signaling leads to disruption of the MDM2-p53 interaction and strongly potentiate p53-dependent cell growth inhibition in colon cancer cells, indicating a basis for the rational use of Gli3 antagonists as a novel treatment option for colon cancer.

  9. Inhibition of SENP5 by Cucurbitacin B Suppresses Cell Growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The decrease in mRNA and protein levels of SENP5 led to decrease in proliferation of U2OS and Saos-2 cells. The 48 h cell cultures containing 50 mg of cucurbitacin B caused induction of apoptosis in 54.72 ± 5.42 % of the total cell population in U2OS cells. Similarly, in Saos-2 cells, exposure to 50 mg/mL cucurbitacin B ...

  10. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 mediates Tazarotene-induced gene 1-induced growth suppression of human colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chang-Chieh; Tsai, Fu-Ming; Shyu, Rong-Yaun; Tsai, Ya-Ming; Wang, Chun-Hua; Jiang, Shun-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Tazarotene-induced gene 1 (TIG1) is a retinoid-inducible type II tumour suppressor gene. The B isoform of TIG1 (TIG1B) inhibits growth and invasion of cancer cells. Expression of TIG1B is frequently downregulated in various cancer tissues; however, the expression and activities of the TIG1A isoform are yet to be reported. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of the TIG1A and TIG1B isoforms on cell growth and gene expression profiles using colon cancer cells. TIG1A and TIG1B stable clones derived from HCT116 and SW620 colon cancer cells were established using the GeneSwitch system; TIG1 isoform expression was induced by mifepristone treatment. Cell growth was assessed using the WST-1 cell proliferation and colony formation assays. RNA interference was used to examine the TIG1 mediating changes in cell growth. Gene expression profiles were determined using microarray and validated using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analyses. Both TIG1 isoforms were expressed at high levels in normal prostate and colon tissues and were downregulated in colon cancer cell lines. Both TIG1 isoforms significantly inhibited the growth of transiently transfected HCT116 cells and stably expressing TIG1A and TIG1B HCT116 and SW620 cells. Expression of 129 and 55 genes was altered upon induction of TIG1A and TIG1B expression, respectively, in stably expressing HCT116 cells. Of the genes analysed, 23 and 6 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in both TIG1A and TIG1B expressing cells. Upregulation of the G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) was confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses in both TIG1 stable cell lines. Silencing of TIG1A or GRK5 expression significantly decreased TIG1A-mediated cell growth suppression. Expression of both TIG1 isoforms was observed in normal prostate and colon tissues and was downregulated in colon cancer cell lines. Both TIG1 isoforms suppressed cell growth and

  11. Metformin-mediated growth inhibition involves suppression of the IGF-I receptor signalling pathway in human pancreatic cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnevi, Emelie; Said, Katarzyna; Andersson, Roland; Rosendahl, Ann H

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown direct associations between type 2 diabetes and obesity, both conditions associated with hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinemia, and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Up to 80% of pancreatic cancer patients present with either new-onset type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance at the time of diagnosis. Recent population studies indicate that the incidence of pancreatic cancer is reduced among diabetics taking metformin. In this study, the effects of exposure of pancreatic cancer cells to high glucose levels on their growth and response to metformin were investigated. The human pancreatic cancer cell lines AsPC-1, BxPC-3, PANC-1 and MIAPaCa-2 were grown in normal (5 mM) or high (25 mM) glucose conditions, with or without metformin. The influence by metformin on proliferation, apoptosis and the AMPK and IGF-IR signalling pathways were evaluated in vitro. Metformin significantly reduced the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells under normal glucose conditions. Hyperglycaemia however, protected against the metformin-induced growth inhibition. The anti-proliferative actions of metformin were associated with an activation of AMP-activated protein kinase AMPK Thr172 together with an inhibition of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor activation and downstream signalling mediators IRS-1 and phosphorylated Akt. Furthermore, exposure to metformin during normal glucose conditions led to increased apoptosis as measured by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. In contrast, exposure to high glucose levels promoted a more robust IGF-I response and Akt activation which correlated to stimulated AMPK Ser485 phosphorylation and impaired AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation, resulting in reduced anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects by metformin. Our results indicate that metformin has direct anti-tumour activities in pancreatic cancer cells involving AMPK Thr172 activation and suppression of the insulin/IGF signalling pathways

  12. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Inhibits Transformed Growth of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells through Selective Suppression of Snail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Choudhary

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Work from our laboratory and others has demonstrated that activation of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ inhibits transformed growth of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines in vitro and in vivo. We have demonstrated that activation of PPARγ promotes epithelial differentiation of NSCLC by increasing expression of E-cadherin, as well as inhibiting expression of COX-2 and nuclear factor-κB. The Snail family of transcription factors, which includes Snail (Snail1, Slug (Snail2, and ZEB1, is an important regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, as well as cell survival. The goal of this study was to determine whether the biological responses to rosiglitazone, a member of the thiazolidinedione family of PPARγ activators, are mediated through the regulation of Snail family members. Our results indicate that, in two independent NSCLC cell lines, rosiglitazone specifically decreased expression of Snail, with no significant effect on either Slug or ZEB1. Suppression of Snail using short hairpin RNA silencing mimicked the effects of PPARγ activation, in inhibiting anchorage-independent growth, promoting acinar formation in three-dimensional culture, and inhibiting invasiveness. This was associated with the increased expression of E-cadherin and decreased expression of COX-2 and matrix metaloproteinases. Conversely, overexpression of Snail blocked the biological responses to rosiglitazone, increasing anchorage-independent growth, invasiveness, and promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The suppression of Snail expression by rosiglitazone seemed to be independent of GSK-3 signaling but was rather mediated through suppression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity. These findings suggest that selective regulation of Snail may be critical in mediating the antitumorigenic effects of PPARγ activators.

  13. Suppression subtractive hybridization profiles of radial growth phase and metastatic melanoma cell lines reveal novel potential targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espreafico Enilza M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma progression occurs through three major stages: radial growth phase (RGP, confined to the epidermis; vertical growth phase (VGP, when the tumor has invaded into the dermis; and metastasis. In this work, we used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH to investigate the molecular signature of melanoma progression, by comparing a group of metastatic cell lines with an RGP-like cell line showing characteristics of early neoplastic lesions including expression of the metastasis suppressor KISS1, lack of αvβ3-integrin and low levels of RHOC. Methods Two subtracted cDNA collections were obtained, one (RGP library by subtracting the RGP cell line (WM1552C cDNA from a cDNA pool from four metastatic cell lines (WM9, WM852, 1205Lu and WM1617, and the other (Met library by the reverse subtraction. Clones were sequenced and annotated, and expression validation was done by Northern blot and RT-PCR. Gene Ontology annotation and searches in large-scale melanoma expression studies were done for the genes identified. Results We identified 367 clones from the RGP library and 386 from the Met library, of which 351 and 368, respectively, match human mRNA sequences, representing 288 and 217 annotated genes. We confirmed the differential expression of all genes selected for validation. In the Met library, we found an enrichment of genes in the growth factors/receptor, adhesion and motility categories whereas in the RGP library, enriched categories were nucleotide biosynthesis, DNA packing/repair, and macromolecular/vesicular trafficking. Interestingly, 19% of the genes from the RGP library map to chromosome 1 against 4% of the ones from Met library. Conclusion This study identifies two populations of genes differentially expressed between melanoma cell lines from two tumor stages and suggests that these sets of genes represent profiles of less aggressive versus metastatic melanomas. A search for expression profiles of melanoma in

  14. Suppression subtractive hybridization profiles of radial growth phase and metastatic melanoma cell lines reveal novel potential targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Josane F; Espreafico, Enilza M

    2008-01-01

    Melanoma progression occurs through three major stages: radial growth phase (RGP), confined to the epidermis; vertical growth phase (VGP), when the tumor has invaded into the dermis; and metastasis. In this work, we used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to investigate the molecular signature of melanoma progression, by comparing a group of metastatic cell lines with an RGP-like cell line showing characteristics of early neoplastic lesions including expression of the metastasis suppressor KISS1, lack of αvβ3-integrin and low levels of RHOC. Two subtracted cDNA collections were obtained, one (RGP library) by subtracting the RGP cell line (WM1552C) cDNA from a cDNA pool from four metastatic cell lines (WM9, WM852, 1205Lu and WM1617), and the other (Met library) by the reverse subtraction. Clones were sequenced and annotated, and expression validation was done by Northern blot and RT-PCR. Gene Ontology annotation and searches in large-scale melanoma expression studies were done for the genes identified. We identified 367 clones from the RGP library and 386 from the Met library, of which 351 and 368, respectively, match human mRNA sequences, representing 288 and 217 annotated genes. We confirmed the differential expression of all genes selected for validation. In the Met library, we found an enrichment of genes in the growth factors/receptor, adhesion and motility categories whereas in the RGP library, enriched categories were nucleotide biosynthesis, DNA packing/repair, and macromolecular/vesicular trafficking. Interestingly, 19% of the genes from the RGP library map to chromosome 1 against 4% of the ones from Met library. This study identifies two populations of genes differentially expressed between melanoma cell lines from two tumor stages and suggests that these sets of genes represent profiles of less aggressive versus metastatic melanomas. A search for expression profiles of melanoma in available expression study databases allowed us to point to a

  15. New structural analogues of curcumin exhibit potent growth suppressive activity in human colorectal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen, Ling; Hutzen, Brian; Ball, Sarah; DeAngelis, Stephanie; Chen, Chun-Liang; Fuchs, James R; Li, Chenglong; Li, Pui-Kai; Lin, Jiayuh

    2009-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the Western World. Novel therapeutic approaches are needed for colorectal carcinoma. Curcumin, the active component and yellow pigment of turmeric, has been reported to have several anti-cancer activities including anti-proliferation, anti-invasion, and anti-angiogenesis. Clinical trials have suggested that curcumin may serve as a potential preventive or therapeutic agent for colorectal cancer. We compared the inhibitory effects of curcumin and novel structural analogues, GO-Y030, FLLL-11, and FLLL-12, in three independent human colorectal cancer cell lines, SW480, HT-29, and HCT116. MTT cell viability assay was used to examine the cell viability/proliferation and western blots were used to determine the level of PARP cleavages. Half-Maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) were calculated using Sigma Plot 9.0 software. Curcumin inhibited cell viability in all three of the human colorectal cancer cell lines studied with IC 50 values ranging between 10.26 μM and 13.31 μM. GO-Y030, FLLL-11, and FLLL-12 were more potent than curcumin in the inhibition of cell viability in these three human colorectal cancer cell lines with IC 50 values ranging between 0.51 μM and 4.48 μM. In addition, FLLL-11 and FLLL-12 exhibit low toxicity to WI-38 normal human lung fibroblasts with an IC-50 value greater than 1,000 μM. GO-Y030, FLLL-11, and FLLL-12 are also more potent than curcumin in the induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase-3 in all three human colorectal cancer cell lines studied. The results indicate that the three curcumin analogues studied exhibit more potent inhibitory activity than curcumin in human colorectal cancer cells. Thus, they may have translational potential as chemopreventive or therapeutic agents for colorectal carcinoma

  16. Peripheral opioid antagonist enhances the effect of anti-tumor drug by blocking a cell growth-suppressive pathway in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Suzuki

    Full Text Available The dormancy of tumor cells is a major problem in chemotherapy, since it limits the therapeutic efficacy of anti-tumor drugs that only target dividing cells. One potential way to overcome chemo-resistance is to "wake up" these dormant cells. Here we show that the opioid antagonist methylnaltrexone (MNTX enhances the effect of docetaxel (Doc by blocking a cell growth-suppressive pathway. We found that PENK, which encodes opioid growth factor (OGF and suppresses cell growth, is predominantly expressed in diffuse-type gastric cancers (GCs. The blockade of OGF signaling by MNTX releases cells from their arrest and boosts the effect of Doc. In comparison with the use of Doc alone, the combined use of Doc and MNTX significantly prolongs survival, alleviates abdominal pain, and diminishes Doc-resistant spheroids on the peritoneal membrane in model mice. These results suggest that blockade of the pathways that suppress cell growth may enhance the effects of anti-tumor drugs.

  17. Imatinib mesylate inhibits cell growth of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors in vitro and in vivo through suppression of PDGFR-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Jun; Aoki, Mikiko; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Suzumiya, Junji; Takeuchi, Tamotsu; Ogose, Akira; Hakozaki, Michiyuki; Yamashita, Yuichi; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2013-05-04

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are highly aggressive and associated with poor prognosis. Basic research to develop new treatment regimens is critically needed. The effects of imatinib mesylate on MPNSTs were examined in six human MPNST cell lines and in a xenograft mouse model. The results showed expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β and suppression of its phosphorylation by imatinib mesylate in all six cell lines. Imatinib mesylate effectively suppressed MPNST cell growth in vitro at concentrations similar to those used clinically (1.46 - 4.6 μM) in three of six cell lines. Knockdown of PDGFR-β by transfection with a specific siRNA also caused significant reduction in cell proliferation in the sensitive cell lines, but not in the resistant cell lines. Furthermore, imatinib mesylate also significantly suppressed colony formation within soft agar and tumor growth in xenograft models using two of the three sensitive MPNST cell lines. There was excellent agreement between in vitro and in vivo sensitivity to imatinib mesylate, suggesting possible selection of imatinib-sensitive tumors by in vitro analysis. The results suggest that imatinib mesylate may be useful in the treatment of MPNST patients and in vitro studies may help select cells that are sensitive to imatinib mesylate in vivo.

  18. Hydrogen sulfide-releasing naproxen suppresses colon cancer cell growth and inhibits NF-κB signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodela R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ravinder Kodela,1 Niharika Nath,2 Mitali Chattopadhyay,1 Diandra E Nesbitt,1 Carlos A Velázquez-Martínez,3 Khosrow Kashfi11Department of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, City University of New York Medical School, 2Department of Life Sciences, New York Institute of Technology, New York, NY, USA; 3Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of death due to cancer and the third most common cancer in men and women in the USA. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB is known to be activated in CRC and is strongly implicated in its development and progression. Therefore, activated NF-κB constitutes a bona fide target for drug development in this type of malignancy. Many epidemiological and interventional studies have established nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs as a viable chemopreventive strategy against CRC. Our previous studies have shown that several novel hydrogen sulfide-releasing NSAIDs are promising anticancer agents and are safer derivatives of NSAIDs. In this study, we examined the growth inhibitory effect of a novel H2S-releasing naproxen (HS-NAP, which has a repertoire as a cardiovascular-safe NSAID, for its effects on cell proliferation, cell cycle phase transitions, and apoptosis using HT-29 human colon cancer cells. We also investigated its effect as a chemopreventive agent in a xenograft mouse model. HS-NAP suppressed the growth of HT-29 cells by induction of G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis and downregulated NF-κB. Tumor xenografts in mice were significantly reduced in volume. The decrease in tumor mass was associated with a reduction of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and decreases in NF-κB levels in vivo. Therefore, HS-NAP demonstrates strong anticancer potential in CRC. Keywords: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cell cycle, apoptosis, xenograft, NF

  19. Morin, a flavonoid from Moraceae, suppresses growth and invasion of the highly metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB‑231 partly through suppression of the Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hana; Lee, Won Sup; Eun, So Young; Jung, Ji Hyun; Park, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Gonsup; Choi, Yung Hyun; Ryu, Chung Ho; Jung, Jin Myung; Hong, Soon Chan; Shin, Sung Chul; Kim, Hye Jung

    2014-10-01

    Morin, a flavonoid found in figs and other Moraceae, displays a variety of biological actions, such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic. However, the anticancer effects of morin and in particular its anti-metastatic effects are not well known. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the anticancer effects of morin on highly metastatic human breast cancer cells. Our results showed that morin significantly inhibited the colony forming ability of highly metastatic MDA-MB‑231 breast cancer cells from low doses (50 µM) without cytotoxicity. In addition, morin changed MDA-MB‑231 cell morphology from mesenchymal shape to epithelial shape and inhibited the invasion of MDA-MB‑231 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Morin decreased matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) secretion and expression of the mesenchymal marker N-cadherin of MDA-MB‑231 cells, suggesting that morin might suppress the EMT process. Furthermore, morin significantly decreased the phosphorylation of Akt, and inhibition of the Akt pathway significantly reduced MDA-MB‑231 invasion. In an in vivo xenograft mouse model, morin suppressed MDA-MB‑231 cancer cell progression. Taken together, our findings suggest that morin exhibits an inhibitory effect on the cancer progression and EMT process of highly metastatic breast cancer cells at least in part through inhibiting Akt activation. This study provides evidence that morin may have anticancer effects against metastatic breast cancer.

  20. Curcumin suppresses growth of mesothelioma cells in vitro and in vivo, in part, by stimulating apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying; Rishi, Arun K.; Wu, Wenjuan; Polin, Lisa; Sharma, Sunita; Levi, Edi; Albelda, Steven; Pass, Harvey I.; Wali, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive, asbestos-related malignancy of the thoracic pleura. Although, platinum-based agents are the first line of therapy, there is an urgent need for second-line therapies to treat the drug-resistant MPM. Cell cycle as well as apoptosis pathways are frequently altered in MPM and thus remain attractive targets for intervention strategies. Curcumin, the major component in the spice turmeric, alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutics has...

  1. CDK2 and mTOR are direct molecular targets of isoangustone A in the suppression of human prostate cancer cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eunjung; Son, Joe Eun; Byun, Sanguine; Lee, Seung Joon; Kim, Yeong A [WCU Biomodulation Major, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Kangdong [The Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, 801 16th Avenue NE, Austin, MN 55912 (United States); Kim, Jiyoung [WCU Biomodulation Major, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Soon Sung; Park, Jung Han Yoon [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Natural Science, Hallym University, Chuncheon, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Zigang [The Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, 801 16th Avenue NE, Austin, MN 55912 (United States); Lee, Ki Won, E-mail: kiwon@snu.ac.kr [WCU Biomodulation Major, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyong Joo, E-mail: leehyjo@snu.ac.kr [WCU Biomodulation Major, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    Licorice extract which is used as a natural sweetener has been shown to possess inhibitory effects against prostate cancer, but the mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. Here, we report a compound, isoangustone A (IAA) in licorice that potently suppresses the growth of aggressive prostate cancer and sought to clarify its mechanism of action. We analyzed its inhibitory effects on the growth of PTEN-deleted human prostate cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo. Administration of IAA significantly attenuated the growth of prostate cancer cell cultures and xenograft tumors. These effects were found to be attributable to inhibition of the G1/S phase cell cycle transition and the accumulation of p27{sup kip1}. The elevated p27{sup kip1} expression levels were concurrent with the decrease of its phosphorylation at threonine 187 through suppression of CDK2 kinase activity and the reduced phosphorylation of Akt at Serine 473 by diminishing the kinase activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Further analysis using recombinant proteins and immunoprecipitated cell lysates determined that IAA exerts suppressive effects against CDK2 and mTOR kinase activity by direct binding with both proteins. These findings suggested that the licorice compound IAA is a potent molecular inhibitor of CDK2 and mTOR, with strong implications for the treatment of prostate cancer. Thus, licorice-derived extracts with high IAA content warrant further clinical investigation for nutritional sources for prostate cancer patients. - Highlights: • Isoangustone A suppresses growth of PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. • Administration of isoangustone A inhibits tumor growth in mice. • Treatment of isoangustone A induces cell cycle arrest and accumulation of p27{sup kip1}. • Isoangustone A inhibits CDK2 and mTOR activity. • Isoangustone A directly binds with CDK2 and mTOR complex in prostate cancer cells.

  2. Radionuclide therapy using ¹³¹I-labeled anti-epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted nanoparticles suppresses cancer cell growth caused by EGFR overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Zhongyun; Li, Chengxia; Li, Ning; Fang, Lei; Chang, Jin; Tan, Jian

    2016-03-01

    compared with those of the control BSA-PCL. The EGFR-targeted radioactive nanoparticle (131)I-EGFR-BSA-PCL exhibited favorable intracellular retention of (131)I. Radionuclide therapy using (131)I-EGFR-BSA-PCL, which showed excellent targeted cell killing, suppressed cancer cell growth caused by EGFR overexpression.

  3. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors suppress the AR-V7-mediated transcription and selectively inhibit cell growth in AR-V7-positive prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Daisuke; Koyama, Ryokichi; Nakayama, Kazuhide; Kitazawa, Satoshi; Watanabe, Tatsuya; Hara, Takahito

    2017-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that androgen receptor (AR) splice variants, including AR-V7, play a pivotal role in resistance to androgen blockade in prostate cancer treatment. The development of new therapeutic agents that can suppress the transcriptional activities of AR splice variants has been anticipated as the next generation treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer. High-throughput screening of AR-V7 signaling inhibitors was performed using an AR-V7 reporter system. The effects of a glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) inhibitor, LY-2090314, on endogenous AR-V7 signaling were evaluated in an AR-V7-positive cell line, JDCaP-hr, by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The relationship between AR-V7 signaling and β-catenin signaling was assessed using RNA interference. The effect of LY-2090314 on cell growth in various prostate cancer cell lines was also evaluated. We identified GSK3 inhibitors as transcriptional suppressors of AR-V7 using a high-throughput screen with an AR-V7 reporter system. LY-2090314 suppressed the reporter activity and endogenous AR-V7 activity in JDCaP-hr cells. Because silencing of β-catenin partly rescued the suppression, it was evident that the suppression was mediated, at least partially, via the activation of β-catenin signaling. AR-V7 signaling and β-catenin signaling reciprocally regulate each other in JDCaP-hr cells, and therefore, GSK3 inhibition can repress AR-V7 transcriptional activity by accumulating intracellular β-catenin. Notably, LY-2090314 selectively inhibited the growth of AR-V7-positive prostate cancer cells in vitro. Our findings demonstrate the potential of GSK3 inhibitors in treating advanced prostate cancer driven by AR splice variants. In vivo evaluation of AR splice variant-positive prostate cancer models will help illustrate the overall significance of GSK3 inhibitors in treating prostate cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. miR-129 suppresses tumor cell growth and invasion by targeting PAK5 in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Jian; Qu, Shuping; Li, Xiaowei; Zhong, Jiaming; Chen, Xiaoxia; Qu, Zengqiang; Wu, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulating HCC development and progression; however, the mechanisms by which their specific functions and mechanisms remained to be further explored. miR-129 has been reported in gastric cancers, lung cancer and colon cancer. In this study, we disclosed a new tumor suppresser function of miR-129 in HCC. We also found the downregulation of miR-129 occurred in nearly 3/4 of the tumors examined (56/76) compared with adjacent nontumorous tissues, which was more importantly, correlated to the advanced stage and vascular invasion. We then demonstrated that miR-129 overexpression attenuated HCC cells proliferation and invasion, inducing apoptosis in vitro. Moreover, we used miR-129 antagonist and found that anti-miR-129 promoted HCC cells malignant phenotypes. Mechanistically, our further investigations revealed that miR-129 suppressed cell proliferation and invasion by targeting the 3’-untranslated region of PAK5, as well as miR-129 silencing up-regulated PAK5 expression. Moreover, miR-129 expression was inversely correlated with PAK5 expression in 76 cases of HCC samples. RNA interference of PAK5 attenuated anti-miR-129 mediated cell proliferation and invasion in HCC cells. Taken together, these results demonstrated that miR-129 suppressed tumorigenesis and progression by directly targeting PAK5, defining miR-129 as a potential treatment target for HCC. - Highlights: • Decreased of miR-129 is found in HCC and associated with advanced stage and metastasis. • miR-129 suppresses proliferation and invasion of HCC cells. • miR-129 directly targets the 3′ UTR of PAK5 and diminishes PAK5 expression. • PAK5 is involved in miR-129 mediated suppression functions

  5. miR-129 suppresses tumor cell growth and invasion by targeting PAK5 in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Jian [Department II of Interventional Radiology, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200438 (China); Qu, Shuping [Department II of Special Medical Care, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200438 (China); Li, Xiaowei; Zhong, Jiaming; Chen, Xiaoxia [Department II of Interventional Radiology, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200438 (China); Qu, Zengqiang, E-mail: drquzengqiang@163.com [Department II of Interventional Radiology, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200438 (China); Wu, Dong, E-mail: wudongstc@126.com [Department II of Special Medical Care, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200438 (China)

    2015-08-14

    Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulating HCC development and progression; however, the mechanisms by which their specific functions and mechanisms remained to be further explored. miR-129 has been reported in gastric cancers, lung cancer and colon cancer. In this study, we disclosed a new tumor suppresser function of miR-129 in HCC. We also found the downregulation of miR-129 occurred in nearly 3/4 of the tumors examined (56/76) compared with adjacent nontumorous tissues, which was more importantly, correlated to the advanced stage and vascular invasion. We then demonstrated that miR-129 overexpression attenuated HCC cells proliferation and invasion, inducing apoptosis in vitro. Moreover, we used miR-129 antagonist and found that anti-miR-129 promoted HCC cells malignant phenotypes. Mechanistically, our further investigations revealed that miR-129 suppressed cell proliferation and invasion by targeting the 3’-untranslated region of PAK5, as well as miR-129 silencing up-regulated PAK5 expression. Moreover, miR-129 expression was inversely correlated with PAK5 expression in 76 cases of HCC samples. RNA interference of PAK5 attenuated anti-miR-129 mediated cell proliferation and invasion in HCC cells. Taken together, these results demonstrated that miR-129 suppressed tumorigenesis and progression by directly targeting PAK5, defining miR-129 as a potential treatment target for HCC. - Highlights: • Decreased of miR-129 is found in HCC and associated with advanced stage and metastasis. • miR-129 suppresses proliferation and invasion of HCC cells. • miR-129 directly targets the 3′ UTR of PAK5 and diminishes PAK5 expression. • PAK5 is involved in miR-129 mediated suppression functions.

  6. Inverse agonist of estrogen-related receptor α suppresses the growth of triple negative breast cancer cells through ROS generation and interaction with multiple cell signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Min; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Jiang, Guan-Min; Zhang, Kun-Shui; Liu, Qiao; Liang, Shu-Wei; Zhou, Yan; Huang, Hong-Bin; Du, Jun; Wang, Hong-Sheng

    2016-03-15

    There is an urgent clinical need for targeted therapy approaches for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. Increasing evidences suggested that the expression of estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) was correlate with unfavorable clinical outcomes of breast cancer patients. We here show that inhibition of ERRα by its inverse agonist XCT-790 can suppress the proliferation, decrease G2/M phases, and induce mitochondrial-related apoptosis of TNBC cells. XCT-790 elevates the proteins related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress such as ATF4/6, XBT-1 and CHOP. It also increases the expression of growth inhibition related proteins such as p53 and p21. Further, XCT-790 can increase the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TNBC cells mainly through inhibition of SOD1/2. While ROS scavenger NAC abolishes XCT-790 induced ER-stress and growth arrest. XCT-790 treatment can rapidly activate the signal molecules including ERK1/2, p38-MAPK, JNK, Akt, p65, and IκBα, while NAC attenuates effects of XCT-790 induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38-MAPK and Akt. Further, the inhibitors of ERK1/2, JNK, Akt, and NF-κB attenuate XCT-790 induced ROS generation. These data suggest that AKT/ROS and ERK/ROS positive feedback loops, NF-κB/ROS, and ROS/p38-MAPK, are activated in XCT-790 treated TNBC cells. In vivo experiments show that XCT-790 significantly suppresses the growth of MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumors, which is associated with up regulation of p53, p21, ER-stress related proteins while down regulation of bcl-2. The present discovery makes XCT-790 a promising candidate drug and lays the foundation for future development of ERRα-based therapies for TNBC patients.

  7. Retroviral expression of a kinase-defective IGF-I receptor suppresses growth and causes apoptosis of CHO and U87 cells in-vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seely, B Lynn; Samimi, Goli; Webster, Nicholas JG

    2002-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdInsP3) signaling is elevated in many tumors due to loss of the tumor suppressor PTEN, and leads to constitutive activation of Akt, a kinase involved in cell survival. Reintroduction of PTEN in cells suppresses transformation and tumorigenicity. While this approach works in-vitro, it may prove difficult to achieve in-vivo. In this study, we investigated whether inhibition of growth factor signaling would have the same effect as re-expression of PTEN. Dominant negative IGF-I receptors were expressed in CHO and U87 cells by retroviral infection. Cell proliferation, transformation and tumor formation in athymic nude mice were assessed. Inhibition of IGF-IR signaling in a CHO cell model system by expression of a kinase-defective IGF-IR impairs proliferation, transformation and tumor growth. Reduction in tumor growth is associated with an increase in apoptosis in-vivo. The dominant-negative IGF-IRs also prevented growth of U87 PTEN-negative glioblastoma cells when injected into nude mice. Injection of an IGF-IR blocking antibody αIR3 into mice harboring parental U87 tumors inhibits tumor growth and increases apoptosis. Inhibition of an upstream growth factor signal prevents tumor growth of the U87 PTEN-deficient glioma to the same extent as re-introduction of PTEN. This result suggests that growth factor receptor inhibition may be an effective alternative therapy for PTEN-deficient tumors

  8. A hepatoprotective Lindera obtusiloba extract suppresses growth and attenuates insulin like growth factor-1 receptor signaling and NF-kappaB activity in human liver cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroh Thorsten

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In traditional Chinese and Korean medicine, an aqueous extract derived from wood and bark of the Japanese spice bush Lindera obtusiloba (L.obtusiloba is applied to treat inflammations and chronic liver diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma. We previously demonstrated anti-fibrotic effects of L.obtusiloba extract in hepatic stellate cells. Thus, we here consequently examine anti-neoplastic effects of L.obtusiloba extract on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cell lines and the signaling pathways involved. Methods Four human HCC cell lines representing diverse stages of differentiation were treated with L.obtusiloba extract, standardized according to its known suppressive effects on proliferation and TGF-β-expression. Beside measurement of proliferation, invasion and apoptosis, effects on signal transduction and NF-κB-activity were determined. Results L.obtusiloba extract inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in all HCC cell lines and provoked a reduced basal and IGF-1-induced activation of the IGF-1R signaling cascade and a reduced transcriptional NF-κB-activity, particularly in the poorly differentiated SK-Hep1 cells. Pointing to anti-angiogenic effects, L.obtusiloba extract attenuated the basal and IGF-1-induced expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Conclusions The traditional application of the extract is confirmed by our experimental data. Due to its potential to inhibit critical receptor tyrosine kinases involved in HCC progression via the IGF-1 signaling pathway and NF-κB, the standardized L.obtusiloba extract should be further analysed for its active compounds and explored as (complementary treatment option for HCC.

  9. Acetylbritannilactone suppresses growth via upregulation of krüppel-like transcription factor 4 expression in HT-29 colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin-Mei; Liu, Bin; Liu, Ya-Bin; Wang, Jun-Jie; Wen, Jin-Kun; Li, Bing-Hui; Han, Mei

    2011-11-01

    Acetylbritannilactone (ABL) is a new active compound isolated from Inula Britannica L, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb. It has been reported that ABL can inhibit the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and neointima formation after balloon injury in rats. ABL also shows chemopreventive properties by inducing cell apoptosis in breast and ovarian cancers, but the antitumor activity and the molecular targets of ABL in colon cancer cells have not been determined. In this study, we showed that ABL inhibits the growth in dose- and time-dependent manners by inducing cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase of HT-29 human colon cancer cells. This suppression was accompanied by a strong decrease of cyclin E and CDK4 protein levels, and an increase in p21 protein expression in HT-29 cells. We also show that ABL-induced growth inhibition is associated with the upregulation of KLF4 expression. The overexpression of KLF4 by infection with pAd-KLF4 resulted in growth inhibition, with decrease in the protein levels of cyclin E and CDK4, and increase in the expression of p21, similarly to the effects of ABL. Conversely, knockdown of KLF4 using a specific siRNA impaired the ABL-induced growth inhibition in HT-29 cells. These results suggest that KLF4 as an important cellular target of ABL mediates the growth inhibition of HT-29 cells induced by ABL via upregulation of p21 expression.

  10. Treatment Combining X-Irradiation and a Ribonucleoside Anticancer Drug, TAS106, Effectively Suppresses the Growth of Tumor Cells Transplanted in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Hironobu; Inanami, Osamu; Asanuma, Taketoshi; Iizuka, Daisuke; Nakajima, Takayuki; Kon, Yasuhiro; Matsuda, Akira; Kuwabara, Mikinori

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the in vivo antitumor efficacy of X-irradiation combined with administration of a ribonucleoside anticancer drug, 1-(3-C-ethynyl-β-D-ribo-pentofuranosyl)cytosine (TAS106, ECyd), to tumor cell-transplanted mice. Methods and Materials: Colon26 murine rectum adenocarcinoma cells and MKN45 human gastric adenocarcinoma cells were inoculated into the footpad in BALB/c mice and severe combined immunodeficient mice, respectively. They were treated with a relatively low dose of X-irradiation (2 Gy) and low amounts of TAS106 (0.1 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg). The tumor growth was monitored by measuring the tumor volume from Day 5 to Day 16 for Colon26 and from Day 7 to Day 20 for MKN45. Histologic analyses for proliferative and apoptotic cells in the tumors were performed using Ki-67 immunohistochemical and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling staining. The expression of survivin, a key molecule related to tumor survival, was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis. Results: When X-irradiation and TAS106 treatment were combined, significant inhibition of tumor growth was observed in both types of tumors compared with mice treated with X-irradiation or TAS106 alone. Marked inhibition of tumor growth was observed in half of the mice that received the combined treatment three times at 2-day intervals. Parallel to these phenomena, the suppression of survivin expression and appearance of Ki-67-negative and apoptotic cells were observed. Conclusions: X-irradiation and TAS106 effectively suppress tumor growth in mice. The inhibition of survivin expression by TAS106 is thought to mainly contribute to the suppression of the tumor growth

  11. Point mutation in the NF2 gene of HEI-193 human schwannoma cells results in the expression of a merlin isoform with attenuated growth suppressive activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepont, Pierig; Stickney, John T.; Foster, Lauren A.; Meng, Jin-Jun; Hennigan, Robert F. [Department of Cell and Cancer Biology, Vontz Center for Molecular Studies, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3125 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0521 (United States); Ip, Wallace [Department of Cell and Cancer Biology, Vontz Center for Molecular Studies, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3125 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0521 (United States)], E-mail: wallace.ip@uc.edu

    2008-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a genetic disorder characterized by the formation of bilateral schwannomas of the eighth cranial nerve. Although the protein product of the NF2 gene (merlin) is a classical tumor suppressor, the mechanism by which merlin suppresses cell proliferation is not fully understood. The availability of isolated tumor cells would facilitate a better understanding of the molecular function of merlin, but primary schwannoma cells obtained from patients grow slowly and do not yield adequate numbers for biochemical analysis. In this study, we have examined the NF2 mutation in HEI-193 cells, an immortalized cell line derived from the schwannoma of an NF2 patient. Previous work showed that the NF2 mutation in HEI-193 cells causes a splicing defect in the NF2 transcript. We have confirmed this result and further identified the resultant protein product as an isoform of merlin previously designated as isoform 3. The level of isoform 3 proteins in HEI-193 cells is comparable to the levels of merlin isoforms 1 and 2 in normal human Schwann cells and several other immortalized cell lines. In contrast to many mutant forms of merlin, isoform 3 is as resistant to proteasomal degradation as isoforms 1 and 2 and can interact with each of these isoforms in vivo. Cell proliferation assays showed that, in NF2{sup -/-} mouse embryonic fibroblasts, exogenously expressed merlin isoform 3 does exhibit growth suppressive activity although it is significantly lower than that of identically expressed merlin isoform 1. These results indicate that, although HEI-193 cells have undetectable levels of merlin isoforms 1 and 2, they are, in fact, not a merlin-null model because they express the moderately active growth suppressive merlin isoform 3.

  12. Growth Arrest-Specific 6 Enhances the Suppressive Function of CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells Mainly through Axl Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-ju Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Growth arrest-specific (Gas 6 is one of the endogenous ligands of TAM receptors (Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk, and its role as an immune modulator has been recently emphasized. Naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs are essential for the active suppression of autoimmunity. The present study was designed to investigate whether Tregs express TAM receptors and the potential role of Gas6-TAM signal in regulating the suppressive function of Tregs. Methods. The protein and mRNA levels of TAM receptors were determined by using Western blot, immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR. Then, TAM receptors were silenced using targeted siRNA or blocked with specific antibody. The suppressive function of Tregs was assessed by using a CFSE-based T cell proliferation assay. Flow cytometry was used to determine the expression of Foxp3 and CTLA4 whereas cytokines secretion levels were measured by ELISA assay. Results. Tregs express both Axl and Mertk receptors. Gas6 increases the suppressive function of Tregs in vitro and in mice. Both Foxp3 and CTLA-4 expression on Tregs are enhanced after Gas6 stimulation. Gas6 enhances the suppressive activity of Tregs mainly through Axl receptor. Conclusion. Gas6 has a direct effect on the functions of CD4+CD25+Tregs mainly through its interaction with Axl receptor.

  13. Neutrophils with protumor potential could efficiently suppress tumor growth after cytokine priming and in presence of normal NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Luo, Jing; Li, Dong; Shu, Yu; Luo, Chao; Wang, Shan-Shan; Qin, Jian; Zhang, Gui-Mei; Feng, Zuo-Hua

    2014-12-30

    In tumor-bearing state, the function of neutrophils is converted from tumor-suppressing to tumor-promoting. Here we report that priming with IFN-γ and TNF-α could convert the potential of neutrophils from tumor-promoting to tumor-suppressing. The neutrophils with protumor potential have not lost their responsiveness to IFN-γ and TNF-α. After priming with IFN-γ and TNF-α, the potential of the neutrophils to express Bv8 and Mmp9 genes was reduced. Conversely, the tumor-promotional neutrophils recovered the expression of Rab27a and Trail, resumed the activation levels of PI3K and p38 MAPK pathways in response to stimuli, and expressed higher levels of IL-18 and NK-activating ligands such as RAE-1, MULT-1, and H60. Therefore, the anti-tumor function of the neutrophils was augmented, including the cytotoxicity to tumor cells, the capability of degranulation, and the capacity to activate NK cells. Since the function of NK cells is impaired in tumor-bearing state, the administration of normal NK cells could significantly augment the efficiency of tumor therapy based on neutrophil priming. These findings highlight the reversibility of neutrophil function in tumor-bearing state, and suggest that neutrophil priming by IFN-γ/TNF-α might be a potential approach to eliminate residual tumor cells in comprehensive strategy for tumor therapy.

  14. Transforming growth factor-beta promotes rhinovirus replication in bronchial epithelial cells by suppressing the innate immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Bedke

    Full Text Available Rhinovirus (RV infection is a major cause of asthma exacerbations which may be due to a deficient innate immune response in the bronchial epithelium. We hypothesized that the pleiotropic cytokine, TGF-β, influences interferon (IFN production by primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs following RV infection. Exogenous TGF-β(2 increased RV replication and decreased IFN protein secretion in response to RV or double-stranded RNA (dsRNA. Conversely, neutralizing TGF-β antibodies decreased RV replication and increased IFN expression in response to RV or dsRNA. Endogenous TGF-β(2 levels were higher in conditioned media of PBECs from asthmatic donors and the suppressive effect of anti-TGF-β on RV replication was significantly greater in these cells. Basal SMAD-2 activation was reduced when asthmatic PBECs were treated with anti-TGF-β and this was accompanied by suppression of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 expression. Our results suggest that endogenous TGF-β contributes to a suppressed IFN response to RV infection possibly via SOCS-1 and SOCS-3.

  15. EGCG Inhibits Proliferation, Invasiveness and Tumor Growth by Up-Regulation of Adhesion Molecules, Suppression of Gelatinases Activity, and Induction of Apoptosis in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yeu Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available (−-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, a major green tea polyphenol, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of a variety of tumor cells. Epidemiological studies have shown that drinking green tea can reduce the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, yet the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In this study, the inhibitory effect of EGCG was tested on a set of Epstein Barr virus-negative and -positive NPC cell lines. Treatment with EGCG inhibited the proliferation of NPC cells but did not affect the growth of a non-malignant nasopharyngeal cell line, NP460hTert. Moreover, EGCG treated cells had reduced migration and invasive properties. The expression of the cell adhesion molecules E-cadherin and β-catenin was found to be up-regulated by EGCG treatment, while the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9 were found to be mediated by suppression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation and AP-1 and Sp1 transactivation. Spheroid formation by NPC cells in suspension was significantly inhibited by EGCG. Oral administration of EGCG was capable of suppressing tumor growth in xenografted mice bearing NPC tumors. Treatment with EGCG was found to elevate the expression of p53 and p21, and eventually led to apoptosis of NPC cells via caspase 3 activation. The nuclear translocation of NF-κB and β-catenin was also suppressed by EGCG treatment. These results indicate that EGCG can inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness, and induce apoptosis, of NPC cells, making it a promising agent for chemoprevention or adjuvant therapy of NPC.

  16. Suppression of FAT/CD36 mRNA by human growth hormone in pancreatic β-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Louise Torp; Thams, Peter Grevsen; Gaarn, Louise Winkel

    2011-01-01

    of this study was to examine the effect of human growth hormone (hGH) on mRNAs of fatty acid transport and binding proteins expressed in pancreatic β-cells, and to examine this in relation to β-cell survival after exposure to fatty acids. hGH decreased mRNA levels of FAT/CD36, whereas mRNAs of GPR40, FASN, FABP...

  17. Suppression of FAT/CD36 mRNA by human growth hormone in pancreatic ß-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Louise Torp; Thams, Peter Grevsen; Gaarn, Louise Winkel

    2011-01-01

    of this study was to examine the effect of human growth hormone (hGH) on mRNAs of fatty acid transport and binding proteins expressed in pancreatic ß-cells, and to examine this in relation to ß-cell survival after exposure to fatty acids. hGH decreased mRNA levels of FAT/CD36, whereas mRNAs of GPR40, FASN, FABP...

  18. Bone Marrow Suppression by c-Kit Blockade Enhances Tumor Growth of Colorectal Metastases through the Action of Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Rupertus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mobilization of c-Kit+ hematopoietic cells (HCs contributes to tumor vascularization. Whereas survival and proliferation of HCs are regulated by binding of the stem cell factor to its receptor c-Kit, migration of HCs is directed by stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1. Therefore, targeting migration of HCs provides a promising new strategy of anti-tumor therapy. Methods. BALB/c mice (=16 were pretreated with an anti-c-Kit antibody followed by implantation of CT26.WT-GFP colorectal cancer cells into dorsal skinfold chambers. Animals (=8 additionally received a neutralizing anti-SDF-1 antibody. Animals (=8 treated with a control antibody served as controls. Investigations were performed using intravital fluorescence microscopy, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and western blot analysis. Results. Blockade of c-Kit significantly enhanced tumor cell engraftment compared to controls due to stimulation of tumor cell proliferation and invasion without markedly affecting tumor vascularization. C-Kit blockade significantly increased VEGF and CXCR4 expression within the growing tumors. Neutralization of SDF-1 completely antagonized this anti-c-Kit-associated tumor growth by suppression of tumor neovascularization, inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and reduction of muscular infiltration. Conclusion. Our study indicates that bone marrow suppression via anti-c-Kit pretreatment enhances tumor cell engraftment of colorectal metastases due to interaction with the SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway which is involved in HC-mediated tumor angiogenesis.

  19. Suppression of PTEN/AKT signaling decreases the expression of TUBB3 and TOP2A with subsequent inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells via ATP and caspase-3 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenhua; Liu, Ying; Shi, Changzheng; Zhang, Yuqin; Lv, Rongzhao; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Qian; Wang, Yiming

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of PTEN/AKT signaling on TUBB3 and TOP2A expression and on the subsequent cell growth of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. We found that the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of breast cancer patients with TUBB3‑positive tumors were lower than these rates in the patients with TUBB3-negative tumors. Meanwhile, DFS and OS of breast cancer patients with TOP2A-positive tumors were also lower than these rates in patients with TOP2A-negative tumors. Suppression of PTEN reduced the protein expression of TUBB3 and TOP2A in MCF-7 cells. Suppression of PTEN also reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activity in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, an increase in ATP also reduced TUBB3 and TOP2A protein expression, reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activity in the MCF-7 cells following suppression of PTEN. Suppression of phosphorylation-AKT (p-AKT) reduced the protein expression of TUBB3 and TOP2A in the MCF-7 cells. Suppression of p-AKT also reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activity in the MCF-7 cells. Then, ATP also reduced TUBB3 and TOP2A protein expression, reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activity in MCF-7 cells following suppression of p-AKT. These results suggest that PTEN/AKT signaling affects the expression of TUBB3 and TOP2A reducing cell growth and inducing apoptosis of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells through ATP and caspase-3 signaling pathways. TUBB3 and TOP2A may be promising prognostic markers for the efficacy of adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

  20. The HLJ1-targeting drug screening identified Chinese herb andrographolide that can suppress tumour growth and invasion in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Hua; Yu, Sung-Liang; Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Wang, Chi-Chung; Chen, Huei-Wen; Chen, Jeremy J W

    2013-05-01

    HLJ1 is a novel tumour suppressor and is a potential druggable target for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this report, using a promoter-containing enhancer region as the HLJ1-targeting drug-screening platform, we identified several herbal compounds from a Chinese herbal bank with the capacity to enhance HLJ1 promoter activity and suppress tumour growth and invasion of NSCLC. Among the herbal drugs identified, the andrographolide (from Andrographis paniculata [Burm. f.] Nees.) most significantly induced HLJ1 expression and suppressed tumorigenesis both in vitro and in vivo. The andrographolide upregulates HLJ1 via JunB activation, which modulates AP-2α binding at the MMP-2 promoter and represses the expression of MMP-2. In addition, silencing of HLJ1 partially reverses the inhibition of cancer-cell invasion by andrographolide. Microarray transcriptomic analysis was performed to comprehensively depict the andrographolide-regulated signalling pathways. We showed that andrographolide can affect 939 genes (analysis of variance, false discovery rate andrographolide on anticancer invasion and proliferation. In conclusion, the HLJ1-targeting drug-screening platform is useful for screening of novel anticancer compounds. Using this platform, we identified andrographolide is a promising new anticancer agent that could suppress tumour growth and invasion in NSCLC.

  1. Targeting DTL induces cell cycle arrest and senescence and suppresses cell growth and colony formation through TPX2 inhibition in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chia; Chen, I-Shu; Huang, Guan-Jin; Kang, Chi-Hsiang; Wang, Kuo-Chiang; Tsao, Min-Jen; Pan, Hung-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has an increasing incidence and high mortality. Surgical operation is not a comprehensive strategy for liver cancer. Moreover, tolerating systemic chemotherapy is difficult for patients with HCC because hepatic function is often impaired due to underlying cirrhosis. Therefore, a comprehensive strategy for cancer treatment should be developed. DTL (Cdc10-dependent transcript 2) is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression and genomic stability. In our previous study, the upregulation of DTL expression in aggressive HCC correlated positively with tumor grade and poor patient survival. We hypothesize that targeting DTL may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for liver cancer. DTL small interference RNAs were used to knock down DTL protein expression. A clonogenic assay, immunostaining, double thymidine block, imaging flow cytometry analysis, and a tumor spheroid formation assay were used to analyze the role of DTL in tumor cell growth, cell cycle progression, micronucleation, ploidy, and tumorigenicity. Our results demonstrated that targeting DTL reduced cell cycle regulators and chromosome segregation genes, resulting in increased cell micronucleation. DTL depletion inhibited liver cancer cell growth, increased senescence, and reduced tumorigenesis. DTL depletion resulted in the disruption of the mitotic proteins cyclin B, CDK1, securin, seprase, Aurora A, and Aurora B as well as the upregulation of the cell cycle arrest gene p21 . A rescue assay indicated that DTL should be targeted through TPX2 downregulation for cancer cell growth inhibition. Moreover, DTL silencing inhibited the growth of patient-derived primary cultured HCC cells. Our study results indicate that DTL is a potential novel target gene for treating liver cancer through liver cancer cell senescence induction. Furthermore, our results provide insights into molecular mechanisms for targeting DTL in liver cancer cells. The results also indicate several other starting

  2. Gomisin G Inhibits the Growth of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells by Suppressing AKT Phosphorylation and Decreasing Cyclin D1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Sony; Park, Byoung Kwon; Lee, Su In; Lim, Yoonho; Lee, Keunwook; Kwon, Hyung-Joo

    2018-03-28

    A type of breast cancer with a defect in three molecular markers such as the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor is called triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Many patients with TNBC have a lower survival rate than patients with other types due to a poor prognosis. In this study, we confirmed the anti-cancer effect of a natural compound, Gomisin G, in TNBC cancer cells. Treatment with Gomisin G suppressed the viability of two TNBC cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 but not non-TNBC cell lines such as MCF-7, T47D, and ZR75-1. To investigate the molecular mechanism of this activity, we examined the signal transduction pathways after treatment with Gomisin G in MDA-MB-231 cells. Gomisin G did not induce apoptosis but drastically inhibited AKT phosphorylation and reduced the amount of retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb) and phosphorylated Rb. Gomisin G induced in a proteasome-dependent manner a decrease in Cyclin D1. Consequently, Gomisin G causes cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. In contrast, there was no significant change in T47D cells except for a mild decrease in AKT phosphorylation. These results show that Gomisin G has an anti-cancer activity by suppressing proliferation rather than inducing apoptosis in TNBC cells. Our study suggests that Gomisin G could be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of TNBC patients.

  3. Propolis extracts from the northern region of Thailand suppress cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khacha-Ananda, Supakit; Tragoolpua, Khajornsak; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Tragoolpua, Yingmanee

    2016-12-01

    The continual increase in mortality rates and number of cancer cases is a matter of serious concern in developing countries. The incorporation of natural products into classical cancer treatment approaches is a promising direction. The mechanisms of A549 and HeLa cancer cell death induction by ethanolic extracts of propolis samples from Phayao, Chiang Mai, and Nan provinces in northern Thailand were investigated in this study. The propolis extract from Chiang Mai showed the highest antioxidant activity and the greatest total phenolic content. The propolis extract from Nan also exhibited the highest total flavonoid content. The proliferation of A549 and HeLa cells grown in the presence of the propolis extracts was suppressed in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, treatment of both cancer cells with the propolis extracts showed DNA fragmentation and significantly increased the number of the apoptotic cells. On A549 cells, the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of caspase enzymes were activated by the propolis extracts from Phayao and Chiang Mai. In the case of the propolis extract from Nan, the mechanisms involved apoptosis on the A549 cells were caspase-independent pathway. The extrinsic pathway of the caspase enzyme was triggered by all of the propolis extracts on HeLa cells. Finally, oral administration of the propolis granule produced from the propolis extract from Nan resulted in extended survival of tumour-bearing mice. Therefore, propolis extracts from the northern region of Thailand demonstrated pharmacological properties, both antioxidant and anticancer activities. From these findings, it is evident that propolis extracts can be considered as a naturally obtained agent extremely useful in cancer treatment.

  4. Evaluation of transforming growth factor-β1 suppress Pokemon/epithelial-mesenchymal transition expression in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Kidiyoor, Amritha; Hu, Yangyang; Guo, Changcheng; Liu, Min; Yao, Xudong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Peng, Bo; Zheng, Junhua

    2015-02-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a dual role in apoptosis and in proapoptotic responses in the support of survival in a variety of cells. The aim of this study was to determine the function of TGF-β1 in bladder cancer cells and the relationship with POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (Pokemon). TGF-β1 and its receptors mediate several tumorigenic cascades that regulate cell proliferation, migration, and survival of bladder cancer cells. Bladder cancer cells T24 were treated with different levels of TGF-β1. Levels of Pokemon, E-cadherin, Snail, MMP2, MMP9, Twist, VEGF, and β-catenin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were examined by real-time quantitative fluorescent PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The effects of TGF-β1 on epithelial-mesenchymal transition of T24 cells were evaluated with wound-healing assay, proliferation of T24 was evaluated with reference to growth curves with MTT assay, and cell invasive ability was investigated by Transwell assay. Data show that Pokemon was inhibited by TGF-β1 treatment; the gene and protein of E-cadherin and β-catenin expression level showed decreased markedly after TGF-β1 treatment (P Pokemon, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. The high expression of TGF-β1 leads to an increase in the phenotype and apical-base polarity of epithelial cells. These changes of cells may result in the recurrence and progression of bladder cancer at last. Related mechanism is worthy of further investigation.

  5. Simultaneous suppression of epidermal growth factor receptor and c-erbB-2 reverses aneuploidy and malignant phenotype of a human ovarian carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, Svetlana D; Alper, Ozgül M; Stromberg, Kurt; Augustus, Meena; Ozdemirli, Metin; Miermont, Anne M; Klus, Greg; Rusin, Marek; Slack, Rebecca; Hacker, Neville F; Ried, Thomas; Szallasi, Zoltan; Alper, Ozge

    2004-02-01

    Coexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and c-erbB-2 in 47-68% of ovarian cancer cells indicate their strong association with tumor formation. We examined the effects of simultaneous antisense- or immunosuppression of EGFR and c-erbB-2 expression on the invasive phenotype, aneuploidy, and genotype of cultured human ovarian carcinoma cells (NIH:OVCAR-8). We report here that suppression of both EGFR and c-erbB-2 results in regression of aneuploidy and genomic imbalances in NIH:OVCAR-8 cells, restores a more normal phenotype, and results in a more normal gene expression profile. Combined with cytogenetic analysis, our data demonstrate that the regression of aneuploidy is due to the selective apoptosis of double antisense transfected cells with highly abnormal karyotype.

  6. Attenuation of the beta-catenin/TCF4 complex in colorectal cancer cells induces several growth-suppressive microRNAs that target cancer promoting genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepeler, T; Holm, A; Halvey, P

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is causally involved in the formation of most colorectal cancers (CRCs). Although detailed knowledge exists regarding Wnt-regulated protein-coding genes, much less is known about the possible involvement of non-coding RNAs. Here we used TaqMan Array...... as inferred from expression microarray and ChIP-chip data. A module of miRNAs induced by abrogated Wnt signaling in vitro was downregulated in two independent series of human primary CRCs (n=76) relative to normal adjacent mucosa (n=34). Several of these miRNAs (miR-145, miR-126, miR-30e-3p and miR-139-5p......RNAs are upregulated as a consequence of forced attenuation of Wnt signaling in CRC cells, and some of these miRNAs inhibit cell growth with concomitant suppression of several growth-stimulatory cancer-related genes....

  7. The heat shock protein 90 inhibitor 17-AAG suppresses growth and induces apoptosis in human cholangiocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Zheng, Zhichao; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Tao; Gu, Xiaohu; Yang, Wei

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), a heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor, on the proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis of human cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells. Cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution were measured by the MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Induction of apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and Hoechst staining. The expressions of cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), Bcl-2, Survivin, and Cyclin B1 were detected by Western blot analysis. The activity of caspase-3 was also examined. We found that 17-AAG inhibited cell growth and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CCA cells together with the down-regulation of Bcl-2, Survivin and Cyclin B1, and the up-regulation of cleaved PARP. Moreover, increased caspase-3 activity was also observed in CCA cells treated with 17-AAG. In conclusion, our data suggest that the inhibition of HSP90 function by 17-AAG may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human CCA.

  8. Human chorionic gonadotropin suppresses human breast cancer cell growth directly via p53-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and indirectly via ovarian steroid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuri, Takashi; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Emoto, Yuko; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Tsubura, Airo

    2014-03-01

    The tumor-suppressive effects of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) against human breast cancer cells were examined. In cell viability assays, hCG inhibited the growth of three human breast cancer cell lines (estrogen receptor (ER)-positive KPL-1 and MCF-7, and ER-negative MKL-F cells), and the growth inhibition activity of hCG was most pronounced against KPL-1 cells (luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR)-positive and luminal-A subtype). In hCG-treated KPL-1 cells, immunoblotting analysis revealed the expression of tumor suppressor protein p53 peaking at 12 h following treatment, followed by cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3 at 24 h and 48 h, respectively. KPL-1-transplanted athymic mice were divided into 3 groups: a sham-treated group that received an inoculation of KPL-1 cells at 6 weeks of age followed by daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of saline; an in vitro hCG-treated KPL-1 group that received an inoculation of KPL-1 cells pre-treated with 100 IU/ml hCG in vitro for 48 h at 6 weeks of age, followed by daily i.p. injection of saline; and an in vivo hCG-treated group that received an KPL-1 cell inoculation at 6 weeks of age, followed by daily i.p. injection of 100 IU hCG. The daily injections of saline or hCG continued until the end of the experiment when mice reached 11 weeks of age. KPL-1 tumor growth was retarded in in vitro and in vivo hCG-treated mice compared to sham-treated controls, and the final tumor volume and tumor weight tended to be suppressed in the in vitro hCG-treated group and were significantly suppressed in the in vivo hCG-treated group. In vivo 100-IU hCG injections for 5 weeks elevated serum estradiol levels (35.7 vs. 23.5 pg/ml); thus, the mechanisms of hCG action may be directly coordinated via the p53-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and indirectly through ovarian steroid secretion that elevates estrogen levels. It is thus concluded that hCG may be an attractive agent for treating human breast

  9. A CD13-targeting peptide integrated protein inhibits human liver cancer growth by killing cancer stem cells and suppressing angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan-Bo; Gong, Jian-Hua; Liu, Xiu-Jun; Li, Yi; Zhen, Yong-Su

    2017-05-01

    CD13 is a marker of angiogenic endothelial cells, and recently it is proved to be a biomarker of human liver cancer stem cells (CSCs). Herein, the therapeutic effects of NGR-LDP-AE, a fusion protein composed of CD13-targeting peptide NGR and antitumor antibiotic lidamycin, on human liver cancer and its mechanism were studied. Western blot and immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that CD13 (WM15 epitope) was expressed in both human liver cancer cell lines and vascular endothelial cells, while absent in normal liver cells. MTT assay showed that NGR-LDP-AE displayed potent cytotoxicity to cultured tumor cell lines with IC 50 values at low nanomolar level. NGR-LDP-AE inhibited tumorsphere formation of liver cancer cells, and the IC 50 values were much lower than that in MTT assay, indicating selectively killing of CSCs. In endothelial tube formation assay, NGR-LDP-AE at low cytotoxic dose significantly inhibited the formation of intact tube networks. Animal experiment demonstrated that NGR-LDP-AE inhibited the growth of human liver cancer xenograft. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that NGR-LDP-AE induced the down-regulation of CD13. In vitro experiment using cultured tumor cells also confirmed this result. NGR-LDP-AE activated both apoptotic and autophagic pathways in cultured tumor cells, while the induced autophagy protected cells from death. Conclusively, NGR-LDP-AE exerts its antitumor activity via killing liver CSCs and inhibiting angiogenesis. With one targeting motif, NGR-LDP-AE acts on both liver CSCs and angiogenic endothelial cells. It is a promising dual targeting fusion protein for liver cancer therapy, especially for advanced or relapsed cancers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Toosendanin inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells through suppression of AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ge; Feng, Cheng-Cheng; Chu, Shao-Jun; Zhang, Rui; Lu, Yun-Min; Zhu, Jin-Shui; Zhang, Jing

    2015-11-01

    AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Toosendanin (TSN) is a triterpenoid extracted from the bark or fruits of Melia toosendan Sieb et Zucc and possesses antitumour effects on various human cancer cells. However, its effect on CRC remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the effect of TSN on CRC SW480 cells and the AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling. Proliferation assay, flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining demonstrated TSN dose-dependently inhibited cell viability and induced cell apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest in S phase. Confocal laser scanning microscope showed β-catenin transferred to the outside of the nucleus in TSN-treated cells. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis found that TSN effectively modulated molecules related to apoptosis and AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling. Moreover, TSN administration significantly inhibited CRC growth in a mouse tumor xenograft model. In conclusion, our findings indicate that TSN inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in CRC cells through suppression of AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway, suggesting that TSN may have potential for use in CRC treatment.

  11. Suppression of Homologous Recombination by insulin-like growth factor-1 inhibition sensitizes cancer cells to PARP inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Oreekha; Beauchamp, Marie-Claude; Nader, Paul Abou; Laskov, Ido; Iqbal, Sanaa; Philip, Charles-André; Yasmeen, Amber; Gotlieb, Walter H.

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of homologous recombination (HR) is found in close to 50 % of ovarian and breast cancer. Tumors with BRCA1 mutations show increased expression of the Insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R). We previously have shown that inhibition of IGF-1R results in growth inhibition and apoptosis of ovarian tumor cells. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the correlation between HR and sensitivity to IGF-1R inhibition. Further, we hypothesized that IGF-1R inhibition might sensitize HR proficient cancers to Poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Using ovarian and breast cancer cellular models with known BRCA1 status, we evaluated their HR functionality by RAD51 foci formation assay. The 50 % lethal concentration (LC50) of Insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor kinase inhibitor (IGF-1Rki) in these cells was assessed, and western immunoblotting was performed to determine the expression of proteins involved in the IGF-1R pathway. Moreover, IGF-1R inhibitors were added on HR proficient cell lines to assess mRNA and protein expression of RAD51 by qPCR and western blot. Also, we explored the interaction between RAD51 and Insulin receptor substance 1 (IRS-1) by immunoprecipitation. Next, combination effect of IGF-1R and PARP inhibitors was evaluated by clonogenic assay. Cells with mutated/methylated BRCA1 showed an impaired HR function, and had an overactivation of the IGF-1R pathway. These cells were more sensitive to IGF-1R inhibition compared to HR proficient cells. In addition, the IGF-IR inhibitor reduced RAD51 expression at mRNA and protein levels in HR proficient cells, and sensitized these cells to PARP inhibitor. Targeting IGF-1R might lead to improved personalized therapeutic approaches in cancer patients with HR deficiency. Targeting both PARP and IGF-1R might increase the clinical efficacy in HR deficient patients and increase the population of patients who may benefit from PARP inhibitors

  12. In vitro and in vivo growth suppression of human papillomavirus 16-positive cervical cancer cells by CRISPR/Cas9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen, Shuai, E-mail: usa_2002@163.com [Baoji Maternal and Child Health Hospital, 2 Xinjian Road East, WeiBin District, Baoji City, 721000, Shanxi Province (China); Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an (China); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Hua, Ling [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Takahashi, Y.; Narita, S. [Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Liu, Yun-Hui [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Li, Yan [Baoji Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No 43, BaoFu Road, Baoji City, Shanxi Province (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Established CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter of HPV 16 and targeting E6, E7 transcript. • CRISPR/Cas9 resulted in accumulation of p53 and p21, reduced the proliferation of cervical cancer cells. • Finding inhibited tumorigenesis and growth of mice incubated by cells with CRISPR/Cas9. • CRISPR/Cas9 will be a new treatment strategy, in cervical and other HPV-associated cancer therapy. - Abstract: Deregulated expression of high-risk human papillomavirus oncogenes (E6 and E7) is a pivotal event for pathogenesis and progression in cervical cancer. Both viral oncogenes are therefore regarded as ideal therapeutic targets. In the hope of developing a gene-specific therapy for HPV-related cancer, we established CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter of HPV 16 E6/E7 and targeting E6, E7 transcript, transduced the CRISPR/Cas9 into cervical HPV-16-positive cell line SiHa. The results showed that CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter, as well as targeting E6 and E7 resulted in accumulation of p53 and p21 protein, and consequently remarkably reduced the abilities of proliferation of cervical cancer cells in vitro. Then we inoculated subcutaneously cells into nude mice to establish the transplanted tumor animal models, and found dramatically inhibited tumorigenesis and growth of mice incubated by cells with CRISPR/Cas9 targeting (promoter+E6+E7)-transcript. Our results may provide evidence for application of CRISPR/Cas9 targeting HR-HPV key oncogenes, as a new treatment strategy, in cervical and other HPV-associated cancer therapy.

  13. In vitro and in vivo growth suppression of human papillomavirus 16-positive cervical cancer cells by CRISPR/Cas9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Shuai; Hua, Ling; Takahashi, Y.; Narita, S.; Liu, Yun-Hui; Li, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Established CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter of HPV 16 and targeting E6, E7 transcript. • CRISPR/Cas9 resulted in accumulation of p53 and p21, reduced the proliferation of cervical cancer cells. • Finding inhibited tumorigenesis and growth of mice incubated by cells with CRISPR/Cas9. • CRISPR/Cas9 will be a new treatment strategy, in cervical and other HPV-associated cancer therapy. - Abstract: Deregulated expression of high-risk human papillomavirus oncogenes (E6 and E7) is a pivotal event for pathogenesis and progression in cervical cancer. Both viral oncogenes are therefore regarded as ideal therapeutic targets. In the hope of developing a gene-specific therapy for HPV-related cancer, we established CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter of HPV 16 E6/E7 and targeting E6, E7 transcript, transduced the CRISPR/Cas9 into cervical HPV-16-positive cell line SiHa. The results showed that CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter, as well as targeting E6 and E7 resulted in accumulation of p53 and p21 protein, and consequently remarkably reduced the abilities of proliferation of cervical cancer cells in vitro. Then we inoculated subcutaneously cells into nude mice to establish the transplanted tumor animal models, and found dramatically inhibited tumorigenesis and growth of mice incubated by cells with CRISPR/Cas9 targeting (promoter+E6+E7)-transcript. Our results may provide evidence for application of CRISPR/Cas9 targeting HR-HPV key oncogenes, as a new treatment strategy, in cervical and other HPV-associated cancer therapy

  14. Alkaline phosphatase expression in cultured endothelial cells of aorta and brain microvessels: induction by interleukin-6-type cytokines and suppression by transforming growth factor betas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazato, H; Deguchi, M; Fujimoto, M; Fukushima, H

    1997-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is markedly high in endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) type but absent from or low in those of the non-BBB type. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been identified as a glial cell line-derived factor that induces high ALP activity in cultured aortic endothelial cells. In the present study, we examined the effect of IL-6-type cytokines and transforming growth factor betas (TGF-betas) on ALP expression in cultures of calf pulmonary aortic endothelial (CPAE) cells and porcine brain microvascular endothelial (PBME) cells. Leukemia inhibitory factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and oncostatin M, which are known as IL-6-type cytokines, induced high ALP expression in the CPAE cells but not in the PBME cells. ALP levels in these cells were markedly suppressed by culture with TGF-betas. However, in cultured PBME cells, IL-6 and a derivative of cyclic adenosine monophosphate significantly increased ALP activity. Our findings raise the posibility that local concentrations of IL-6, IL-6-type cytokines, and TGF-betas affect the ALP levels in the endothelial cells of aorta and brain microvessels under normal development and also under inflammatory conditions.

  15. Salinomycin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell in vitro and suppresses tumor growth in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Danxin; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Jie; Fan, Zirong; Shi, Fengrong; Wang, Senming, E-mail: wsenming@126.com

    2014-01-10

    Highlight: •We first evaluated the effect of salinomycin on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). •Salinomycin could inhibit Wnt/β-catenin signaling and induce apoptosis in NPC. •So salinomycin may be a good potential candidate for the chemotherapy of NPC. -- Abstract: Salinomycin (Sal) is a polyether ionophore antibiotic that has recently been shown to induce cell death in various human cancer cells. However, whether salinomycin plays a functional role in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has not been determined to date. The present study investigated the chemotherapeutic efficacy of salinomycin and its molecular mechanisms of action in NPC cells. Salinomycin efficiently inhibited proliferation and invasion of 3 NPC cell lines (CNE-1, CNE-2, and CNE-2/DDP) and activated a extensive apoptotic process that is accompanied by activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Meanwhile, the protein expression level of the Wnt coreceptor lipoprotein receptor related protein 6 (LRP6) and β-catenin was down-regulated, which showed that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling was involved in salinomycin-induced apoptosis of NPC cells. In a nude mouse NPC xenograft model, the anti-tumor effect of salinomycin was associated with the downregulation of β-catenin expression. The present study demonstrated that salinomycin can effectively inhibit proliferation and invasion, and induce apoptosis of NPC cells in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in vivo, probably via the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, suggesting salinomycin as a potential candidate for the chemotherapy of NPC.

  16. Derricin and derricidin inhibit Wnt/β-catenin signaling and suppress colon cancer cell growth in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara F Fonseca

    Full Text Available Overactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in adult tissues has been implicated in many diseases, such as colorectal cancer. Finding chemical substances that can prevent this phenomenon is an emerging problem. Recently, several natural compounds have been described as Wnt/β-catenin inhibitors and might be promising agents for the control of carcinogenesis. Here, we describe two natural substances, derricin and derricidin, belonging to the chalcone subclass, that show potent transcriptional inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Both chalcones are able to affect the cell distribution of β-catenin, and inhibit Wnt-specific reporter activity in HCT116 cells and in Xenopus embryos. Derricin and derricidin also strongly inhibited canonical Wnt activity in vitro, and rescued the Wnt-induced double axis phenotype in Xenopus embryos. As a consequence of Wnt/β-catenin inhibition, derricin and derricidin treatments reduce cell viability and lead to cell cycle arrest in colorectal cancer cell lines. Taken together, our results strongly support these chalcones as novel negative modulators of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and colon cancer cell growth in vitro.

  17. The Growth Suppressing Effects of Girinimbine on Hepg2 Involve Induction of Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Sook Wah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Murraya koenigii is an edible herb widely used in folk medicine. Here we report that girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from this plant, inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma, HepG2 cells. The MTT and LDH assay results showed that girinimbine decreased cell viability and increased cytotoxicity in a dose-and time-dependent manner selectively. Girinimbine-treated HepG2 cells showed typical morphological features of apoptosis, as observed from normal inverted microscopy and Hoechst 33342 assay. Furthermore, girinimbine treatment resulted in DNA fragmentation and elevated levels of caspase-3 in HepG2 cells. Girinimbine treatment also displayed a time-dependent accumulation of the Sub-G0/G1 peak (hypodiploid and caused G0/G1-phase arrest. Together, these results demonstrated for the first time that girinimbine could effectively induce programmed cell death in HepG2 cells and suggests the importance of conducting further investigations in preclinical human hepatocellular carcinoma models, especially on in vivo efficacy, to promote girinimbine for use as an anticancer agent against hepatocellular carcinoma.

  18. Derricin and Derricidin Inhibit Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling and Suppress Colon Cancer Cell Growth In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Barbara F.; Predes, Danilo; Cerqueira, Debora M.; Reis, Alice H.; Amado, Nathalia G.; Cayres, Marina C. L.; Kuster, Ricardo M.; Oliveira, Felipe L.; Mendes, Fabio A.; Abreu, Jose G.

    2015-01-01

    Overactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in adult tissues has been implicated in many diseases, such as colorectal cancer. Finding chemical substances that can prevent this phenomenon is an emerging problem. Recently, several natural compounds have been described as Wnt/β-catenin inhibitors and might be promising agents for the control of carcinogenesis. Here, we describe two natural substances, derricin and derricidin, belonging to the chalcone subclass, that show potent transcriptional inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Both chalcones are able to affect the cell distribution of β-catenin, and inhibit Wnt-specific reporter activity in HCT116 cells and in Xenopus embryos. Derricin and derricidin also strongly inhibited canonical Wnt activity in vitro, and rescued the Wnt-induced double axis phenotype in Xenopus embryos. As a consequence of Wnt/β-catenin inhibition, derricin and derricidin treatments reduce cell viability and lead to cell cycle arrest in colorectal cancer cell lines. Taken together, our results strongly support these chalcones as novel negative modulators of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and colon cancer cell growth in vitro. PMID:25775405

  19. Inhibiting oncogenic signaling by sorafenib activates PUMA via GSK3β and NF-κB to suppress tumor cell growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudgeon, Crissy; Peng, Rui; Wang, Peng; Sebastiani, Andrea; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Lin

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling is one of the most prevalent oncogenic alterations and confers survival advantage to tumor cells. Inhibition of this pathway can effectively suppress tumor cell growth. For example, sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor targeting c-Raf and other oncogenic kinases, has been used clinically for treating advanced liver and kidney tumors, and also has shown efficacy against other malignancies. However, how inhibition of oncogenic signaling by sorafenib and other drugs suppresses tumor cell growth remains unclear. In this study, we found that sorafenib kills cancer cells by activating PUMA, a p53 target and a BH3-only Bcl-2 family protein. Sorafenib treatment induces PUMA in a variety of cancer cells irrespective of their p53 status. Surprisingly, the induction of PUMA by sorafenib is mediated by IκB-independent activation of NF-κB, which directly binds to the PUMA promoter to activate its transcription. NF-κB activation by sorafenib requires GSK3β activation, subsequent to ERK inhibition. Deficiency in PUMA abrogates sorafenib-induced apoptosis and caspase activation, and renders sorafenib resistance in colony formation and xenograft tumor assays. Furthermore, the chemosensitization effect of sorafenib is dependent on PUMA, and involves concurrent PUMA induction through different pathways. BH3 mimetics potentiate the anticancer effects of sorafenib, and restore sorafenib sensitivity in resistant cells. Together, these results demonstrate a key role of PUMA-dependent apoptosis in therapeutic inhibition of Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling. They provide a rationale for manipulating the apoptotic machinery to improve sensitivity and overcome resistance to the therapies that target oncogenic kinase signaling. PMID:22286758

  20. A membrane penetrating peptide aptamer inhibits STAT3 function and suppresses the growth of STAT3 addicted tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghouts, Corina; Delis, Natalia; Brill, Boris; Weiss, Astrid; Mack, Laura; Lucks, Peter; Groner, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells are characterized by the aberrant activation of signaling pathways governing proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, migration and immune evasion. These processes are partially regulated by the transcription factor STAT3. This factor is inappropriately activated in diverse tumor types. Since tumor cells can become dependent on its persistent activation, STAT3 is a favorable drug target. Here, we describe the functional characterization of the recombinant STAT3 inhibitor, rS3-PA. This inhibitor is based on a 20 amino acid peptide which specifically interacts with the dimerization domain of STAT3. It is integrated into a thioredoxin scaffold and fused to a protein transduction domain. Protein gel blot and immunofluorescence analyses showed that rS3-PA is efficiently taken up by cells via an endocytosis independent mechanism. Intracellularly, it reduces the phosphorylation of STAT3 and enhances its degradation. This leads to the downregulation of STAT3 target gene expression on the mRNA and protein levels. Subsequently, tumor cell proliferation, survival and migration and the induction of angiogenesis are inhibited. In contrast, normal cells remain unaffected. Systemic administration of rS3-PA at doses of 7.5 mg/kg reduced P-STAT3 levels and significantly inhibited tumor growth up to 35% in a glioblastoma xenograft mouse model. PMID:24058750

  1. Cystatin C deficiency suppresses tumor growth in a breast cancer model through decreased proliferation of tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Završnik, Janja; Butinar, Miha; Prebanda, Mojca Trstenjak; Krajnc, Aleksander; Vidmar, Robert; Fonović, Marko; Grubb, Anders; Turk, Vito; Turk, Boris; Vasiljeva, Olga

    2017-09-26

    Cysteine cathepsins are proteases that, in addition to their important physiological functions, have been associated with multiple pathologies, including cancer. Cystatin C (CstC) is a major endogenous inhibitor that regulates the extracellular activity of cysteine cathepsins. We investigated the role of cystatin C in mammary cancer using CstC knockout mice and a mouse model of breast cancer induced by expression of the polyoma middle T oncoprotein (PyMT) in the mammary epithelium. We showed that the ablation of CstC reduced the rate of mammary tumor growth. Notably, a decrease in the proliferation of CstC knockout PyMT tumor cells was demonstrated ex vivo and in vitro , indicating a role for this protease inhibitor in signaling pathways that control cell proliferation. An increase in phosphorylated p-38 was observed in CstC knockout tumors, suggesting a novel function for cystatin C in cancer development, independent of the TGF-β pathway. Moreover, proteomic analysis of the CstC wild-type and knockout PyMT primary cell secretomes revealed a decrease in the levels of 14-3-3 proteins in the secretome of knock-out cells, suggesting a novel link between cysteine cathepsins, cystatin C and 14-3-3 proteins in tumorigenesis, calling for further investigations.

  2. Thymidine selectively enhances growth suppressive effects of camptothecin/irinotecan in MSI+ cells and tumors containing a mutation of MRE11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Rene; Hansen, Lasse Tengbjerg; Phear, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: DNA synthesis inhibitors and damaging agents are widely used in cancer therapy; however, sensitivity of tumors to such agents is highly variable. The response of tumor cells in culture to these agents is strongly influenced by the status of DNA damage response pathways. Here, we attempt...... is not a direct result of MMR, p53, or p21 status. However MMR-deficient cell lines containing an intronic frameshift mutation of MRE11 show greatest sensitivity to these agents. Increased sensitivity to this combination is also evident in vivo as thymidine enhances irinotecan-induced growth suppression of MMR......-deficient tumors carrying the MRE11 mutation in mouse xenografts. CONCLUSION: Irinotecan-thymidine combinations may be particularly effective when targeted to MSI+ tumors containing this readily detectable MRE11 mutation....

  3. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  4. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles combined with actein suppress non-small-cell lung cancer growth in a p53-dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang MS

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ming-Shan Wang,1 Liang Chen,2 Ya-Qiong Xiong,2 Jing Xu,2 Ji-Peng Wang,2 Zi-Li Meng2 1Department of Oncology, Huaiyin Hospital of Huai’an City, Huai’an, China; 2Department of Respiration, Huai’an First People’s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Huai’an, China Abstract: Actein (AT is a triterpene glycoside isolated from the rhizomes of Cimicifuga foetida that has been investigated for its antitumor effects. AT treatment leads to apoptosis in various cell types, including breast cancer cells, by regulating different signaling pathways. Iron oxide (Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs are nanomaterials with biocompatible activity and low toxicity. In the present study, the possible benefits of AT in combination with MNPs on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC were explored in in vitro and in vivo studies. AT-MNP treatment contributed to apoptosis in NSCLC cells, as evidenced by activation of the caspase 3-signaling pathway, which was accompanied by downregulation of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl2 and BclXL, and upregulation of the proapoptotic signals Bax and Bad. The death receptors of TRAIL were also elevated following AT-MNP treatment in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, a mouse xenograft model in vivo revealed that AT-MNP treatment exhibited no toxicity and suppressed NSCLC growth compared to either AT or MNP monotherapies. In conclusion, this study suggests a novel therapy to induce apoptosis in suppressing NSCLC growth in a p53-dependent manner by combining AT with Fe3O4 MNPs. Keywords: actein, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles, NSCLC, apoptosis, p53

  5. Suppression of facilitative glucose transporter 1 mRNA can suppress tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Y; Saito, A; Miyagi, Y; Yamanaka, S; Marat, D; Doi, C; Yoshikawa, T; Tsuburaya, A; Ito, T; Satoh, S

    2000-06-30

    We attempted to suppress glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression by transfecting MKN45 cells with cDNA for antisense GLUT1. Glucose transport was significantly decreased in cells with antisense GLUT1 compared with wild-type cells or cells with vector alone. Suppression of GLUT1 mRNA resulted in a decreased number of cells in the S phase. This was accompanied by overexpression of p21 protein. Tumorigenicity in the nude mice injected with antisense GLUT1 expressing cells was significantly slower than in those with wild-type MKN45 cells. These results suggest that antisense GLUT1 mRNA inhibits tumor growth through a G(1) arrest and that expression of antisense GLUT1 mRNA via gene therapy can be used as a tool in the treatment of cancer.

  6. Embelin suppresses growth of human pancreatic cancer xenografts, and pancreatic cancer cells isolated from KrasG12D mice by inhibiting Akt and Sonic hedgehog pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minzhao Huang

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease, and therefore effective treatment and/or prevention strategies are urgently needed. The objectives of this study were to examine the molecular mechanisms by which embelin inhibited human pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro, and xenografts in Balb C nude mice, and pancreatic cancer cell growth isolated from KrasG12D transgenic mice. XTT assays were performed to measure cell viability. AsPC-1 cells were injected subcutaneously into Balb c nude mice and treated with embelin. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured by Ki67 and TUNEL staining, respectively. The expression of Akt, and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh and their target gene products were measured by the immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis. The effects of embelin on pancreatic cancer cells isolated from 10-months old KrasG12D mice were also examined. Embelin inhibited cell viability in pancreatic cancer AsPC-1, PANC-1, MIA PaCa-2 and Hs 766T cell lines, and these inhibitory effects were blocked either by constitutively active Akt or Shh protein. Embelin-treated mice showed significant inhibition in tumor growth which was associated with reduced expression of markers of cell proliferation (Ki67, PCNA and Bcl-2 and cell cycle (cyclin D1, CDK2, and CDK6, and induction of apoptosis (activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP, and increased expression of Bax. In addition, embelin inhibited the expression of markers of angiogenesis (COX-2, VEGF, VEGFR, and IL-8, and metastasis (MMP-2 and MMP-9 in tumor tissues. Antitumor activity of embelin was associated with inhibition of Akt and Shh pathways in xenografts, and pancreatic cancer cells isolated from KrasG12D mice. Furthermore, embelin also inhibited epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT by up-regulating E-cadherin and inhibiting the expression of Snail, Slug, and ZEB1. These data suggest that embelin can inhibit pancreatic cancer growth, angiogenesis and metastasis by suppressing Akt and

  7. Splenectomy suppresses growth and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma through decreasing myeloid-derived suppressor cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xin; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Jian-Ping; Liang, Hui-Fang; Zhu, Peng; Cheng, Qi; Chen, Qian; Wu, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Zhan-Guo; Zhang, Bi-Xiang; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2016-10-01

    The function of the spleen in tumor development has been investigated for years. The relationship of the spleen with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a huge health burden worldwide, however, remains unknown. The present study aimed to examine the effect of splenectomy on the development of HCC and the possible mechanism. Mouse hepatic carcinoma lines H22 and Hepa1-6 as well as BALB/c and C57 mice were used to establish orthotopic and metastatic mouse models of liver cancer. Mice were divided into four groups, including control group, splenectomy control group (S group), tumor group (T group) and tumor plus splenectomy group (T+S group). Tumor growth, metastases and overall survival were assessed at determined time points. Meanwhile, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were isolated from the peripheral blood (PB), the spleen and liver tumors, and then measured by flow cytometery. It was found that liver cancer led to splenomegaly, and increased the percentage of MDSCs in the PB and spleen in the mouse models. Splenectomy inhibited the growth and progression of liver cancer and prolonged the overall survival time of orthotopic and metastatic models, which was accompanied by decreased proportion of MDSCs in the PB and tumors of liver cancer-bearing mouse. It was suggested that splenectomy could be considered an adjuvant therapy to treat liver cancer.

  8. A synthetic peptide hijacks the catalytic subunit of class I PI3K to suppress the growth of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weiwei; You, Xue; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Lin; Chen, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Activation of class I Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) by mutation or overexpression closely correlates with the development of various human cancers. Class I PI3Ks are heterodimers composed of p110 catalytic subunits and regulatory subunits represented by p85. PAQR3 has been found to inhibit p110α activity by blocking its interaction with p85. In this study, we identified the N-terminal 6-55 amino acid residues of PAQR3 being sufficient for its interaction with p110α. A synthetic peptide, P6-55, that contains the N-terminus of PAQR3 could disrupt the interactions of p110α with both PAQR3 and p85. The activity of PI3K was also inhibited by P6-55, accompanied by significant inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. In a xenograft mouse model, P6-55 was able to reduce tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, P6-55 was capable of inhibiting the elevated basal PI3K activity of H1047R, a hotspot mutation found in many types of human cancers. The cell proliferation and migration of cancer cells bearing H1047R mutation were also reduced by P6-55. In conclusion, our study provides a proof of concept that blocking the interaction of p110α with p85 by a peptide can serve as a new strategy to inhibit the oncogenic activity of PI3K in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Suppressive effect of formononetin on platelet-derived growth factor-BB-stimulated proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Liu, Suixin; Cai, Ying; Xie, Kangling; Zhang, Wenliang; Dong, Lei; Liu, Yuan; Zheng, Fan; Dun, Yaoshan; Li, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has been implicated in intimal hyperplasia, atherosclerosis and restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention. Formononetin, a phytoestrogen extracted from the root of Astragalus membranaceus , has been widely used in Chinese tradition medicine due to its protective effects against certain symptoms of cancer, hypertension, inflammation, hypoxia-induced cytotoxicity and ovariectomy-induced bone loss. However, the effect of formononetin on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs, as well as the underlying molecular mechanism, remains largely unclear. In the present study, treatment with formononetin significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-induced proliferation and migration of human VSMCs. Investigation into the underlying molecular mechanism revealed that the administration of formononetin suppressed PDGF-BB-stimulated switch of VSMCs to a proliferative phenotype. Furthermore, treatment with formononetin inhibited the PDGF-BB-induced upregulation of cell cycle-related proteins, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP2) and MMP9. In addition, the that administration of formononetin inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT induced by PDGF-BB in VSMCs. The present results suggest that formononetin has a suppressive effect on PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs proliferation and migration, which may occur partly via the inhibition of AKT signaling pathway. Therefore, formononetin may be useful for the treatment of intimal hyperplasia, atherosclerosis and restenosis.

  10. Prostaglandin E2 and Transforming Growth Factor-β Play a Critical Role in Suppression of Allergic Airway Inflammation by Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Sup Cho

    Full Text Available The role of soluble factors in the suppression of allergic airway inflammation by adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs remains to be elucidated. Moreover, the major soluble factors responsible for the immunomodulatory effects of ASCs in allergic airway diseases have not been well documented. We evaluated the effects of ASCs on allergic inflammation in asthmatic mice treated with a prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 inhibitor or transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β neutralizing antibodies.Asthmatic mice were injected intraperitoneally with a PGE2 inhibitor or TGF-β neutralizing antibodies at approximately the same time as ASCs injection and were compared with non-treated controls. In asthmatic mice, ASCs significantly reduced airway hyperresponsiveness, the number of total inflammatory cells and eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, eosinophilic inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, and serum total and allergen-specific IgE and IgG1. ASCs significantly inhibited Th2 cytokines, such as interleukin (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and enhanced the Th1 cytokine (Interferon-γ and regulatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β in the BALF and lung draining lymph nodes (LLNs. ASCs engraftment caused significant increases in the regulatory T cell (Treg and IL-10+ T cell populations in LLNs. However, blocking PGE2 or TGF-β eliminated the immunosuppressive effect of ASCs in allergic airway inflammation.ASCs are capable of secreting PGE2 and TGF-β, which may play a role in inducing Treg expansion. Furthermore, treatment with a PGE2 inhibitor or TGF-β neutralizing antibodies eliminated the beneficial effect of ASCs treatment in asthmatic mice, suggesting that PGE2 and TGF-β are the major soluble factors responsible for suppressing allergic airway inflammation.

  11. Targeting of GIT1 by miR-149* in breast cancer suppresses cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro and tumor growth in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Y

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Yan Dong,1,* Cai Chang,2,* Jingtian Liu,3 Jinwei Qiang4 1Department of Ultrasonography, Jinshan Hospital, 2Department of Ultrasonography, Cancer Center, 3Department of General Surgery, 4Department of Radiology, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Breast cancer remains a major cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs is involved in the initiation and progression of breast cancer. Moreover, it was found that GIT1 was widely involved in the development of many human cancers. Herein, we aimed to investigate the expression changes of miR-149* and GIT1 and the functional effects of miR-149*/GIT1 link in breast cancer. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and Western blot (WB were used to examine the expression levels of miR-149* and GIT1. Dual luciferase reporter assay was utilized to confirm the target interaction between miR-149* and GIT1. The biological functions, including cell proliferation, invasion, and migration, of miR-149* and GIT1 were determined by MTT assay and Transwell assays, respectively. Eventually, the tumor xenograft model in nude mice injected with stable transfected MDA-MB-231 cells was established to verify the effects of miR-149* and GIT1 on tumor growth. Our results showed that miR-149* expression was decreased, whereas GIT1 expression was increased in clinical samples of breast cancer. Based on the inverse expression trend between miR-149* and GIT1, we further demonstrated that miR-149* indeed directly targets GIT1. Subsequently, it was observed that inhibition of miR-149* significantly promoted cell proliferation, invasion, and migration, but the ability of cell proliferation, invasion, and migration was obviously declined after silencing of GIT1 in MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with miR-149* mimic and/or si-GIT1. Finally, it was also found that elevated miR-149* decelerated

  12. Void growth suppression by dislocation impurity atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weertman, J.; Green, W.V.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed calculation is given of the effect of an impurity atmosphere on void growth under irradiation damage conditions. Norris has proposed that such an atmosphere can suppress void growth. The hydrostatic stress field of a dislocation that is surrounded by an impurity atmosphere was found and used to calculate the change in the effective radius of a dislocation line as a sink for interstitials and vacancies. The calculation of the impurity concentration in a Cottrell cloud takes into account the change in hydrostatic pressure produced by the presence of the cloud itself. It is found that void growth is eliminated whenever dislocations are surrounded by a condensed atmosphere of either oversized substitutional impurity atoms or interstitial impurity atoms. A condensed atmosphere will form whenever the average impurity concentration is larger than a critical concentration

  13. Bone morphogenetic protein-9 suppresses growth of myeloma cells by signaling through ALK2 but is inhibited by endoglin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O E; Wader, K F; Misund, K

    2014-01-01

    myeloma cell samples by signaling through ALK2. BMP-9-induced apoptosis in myeloma cells was associated with c-MYC downregulation. The effects of BMP-9 were counteracted by membrane-bound (CD105) or soluble endoglin present in the bone marrow microenvironment, suggesting a mechanism for how myeloma cells...

  14. GF-15, a Novel Inhibitor of Centrosomal Clustering, Suppresses Tumor Cell Growth In Vitro and In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raab, Marc S.; Breitkreutz, Iris; Anderhub, Simon

    2012-01-01

    with supernumerary centrosomes to undergo multipolar mitoses resulting in apoptotic cell death. Here, we describe the characterization of the novel small molecule GF-15, a derivative of griseofulvin, as a potent inhibitor of centrosomal clustering in malignant cells. At concentrations where GF-15 had no significant...... impact on tubulin polymerization, spindle tension was markedly reduced in mitotic cells upon exposure to GF-15. Moreover, isogenic cells with conditional centrosome amplification were more sensitive to GF-15 than parental controls. In a wide array of tumor cell lines, mean inhibitory concentrations (IC50...

  15. Lidocaine Induces Apoptosis and Suppresses Tumor Growth in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells In Vitro and in a Xenograft Model In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Chen, Dong-Tai; Pan, Jia-Hao; Chen, Yong-Hua; Yan, Yan; Li, Qiang; Xue, Rui-Feng; Yuan, Yun-Fei; Zeng, Wei-An

    2017-05-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have focused on the potential beneficial effects of regional anesthetics, and the differences in cancer prognosis may be the result of anesthetics on cancer biologic behavior. However, the function and underlying mechanisms of lidocaine in hepatocellular carcinoma both in vitro and in vivo have been poorly studied. Human HepG2 cells were treated with lidocaine. Cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, and apoptosis were assessed. The effects of lidocaine on apoptosis-related and mitogen-activated protein kinase protein expression were evaluated by Western blot analysis. The antitumor activity of lidocaine in hepatocellular carcinoma with or without cisplatin was investigated with in vitro experiments and also with animal experiments. Lidocaine inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The authors also found that lidocaine arrested cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle (63.7 ± 1.7% vs. 72.4 ± 3.2%; P = 0.0143) and induced apoptosis (1.7 ± 0.3% vs. 5.0 ± 0.7%; P = 0.0009). Lidocaine may exert these functions by causing an increase in Bax protein and activated caspase-3 and a corresponding decrease in Bcl-2 protein through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 pathways. More importantly, for the first time, xenograft experiments (n = 8 per group) indicated that lidocaine suppressed tumor development (P lidocaine vs. control) and enhanced the sensitivity of cisplatin (P = 0.0008; lidocaine plus cisplatin vs. cisplatin). The authors' findings suggest that lidocaine may exert potent antitumor activity in hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, combining lidocaine with cisplatin may be a novel treatment option for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  16. Hwanggeumchal sorghum induces cell cycle arrest, and suppresses tumor growth and metastasis through Jak2/STAT pathways in breast cancer xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hee Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer is one of the highly virulent diseases known to humankind with a high mortality rate. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Sorghum is a principal cereal food in many parts of the world, and is critical in folk medicine of Asia and Africa. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of HSE in metastatic breast cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Preliminary studies conducted on MDA-MB 231 and MCF-7 xenograft models showed tumor growth suppression by HSE. Western blotting studies conducted both in vivo and in vitro to check the effect of HSE in Jak/STAT pathways. Anti-metastatic effects of HSE were confirmed using both MDA-MB 231 and MCF-7 metastatic animal models. These studies showed that HSE can modulate Jak/STAT pathways, and it hindered the STAT5b/IGF-1R and STAT3/VEGF pathways not only by down-regulating the expression of these signal molecules and but also by preventing their phosphorylation. The expression of angiogenic factors like VEGF, VEGF-R2 and cell cycle regulators like cyclin D, cyclin E, and pRb were found down-regulated by HSE. In addition, it also targets Brk, p53, and HIF-1α for anti-cancer effects. HSE induced G1 phase arrest and migration inhibition in MDA-MB 231 cells. The metastasis of breast cancer to the lungs also found blocked by HSE in the metastatic animal model. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Usage of HS as a dietary supplement is an inexpensive natural cancer therapy, without any side effects. We strongly recommend the use of HS as an edible therapeutic agent as it possesses tumor suppression, migration inhibition, and anti-metastatic effects on breast cancer.

  17. BAG-1 enhances cell-cell adhesion, reduces proliferation and induces chaperone-independent suppression of hepatocyte growth factor-induced epidermal keratinocyte migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinitt, C A M; Wood, J; Lee, S S; Williams, A C; Howarth, J L; Glover, C P; Uney, J B; Hague, A

    2010-08-01

    Cell motility is important in maintaining tissue homeostasis, facilitating epithelial wound repair and in tumour formation and progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether BAG-1 isoforms regulate epidermal cell migration in in vitro models of wound healing. In the human epidermal cell line HaCaT, endogenous BAG-1 is primarily nuclear and increases with confluence. Both transient and stable p36-Bag-1 overexpression resulted in increased cellular cohesion. Stable transfection of either of the three human BAG-1 isoforms p36-Bag-1 (BAG-1S), p46-Bag-1 (BAG-1M) and p50-Bag-1 (BAG-1L) inhibited growth and wound closure in serum-containing medium. However, in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in serum-free medium, BAG-1S/M reduced communal motility and colony scattering, but BAG-1L did not. In the presence of HGF, p36-Bag-1 transfectants retained proliferative response to HGF with no change in ERK1/2 activation. However, the cells retained E-cadherin localisation at cell-cell junctions and exhibited pronounced cortical actin. Point mutations in the BAG domain showed that BAG-1 inhibition of motility is independent of its function as a chaperone regulator. These findings are the first to suggest that BAG-1 plays a role in regulating cell-cell adhesion and suggest an important function in epidermal cohesion. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. BAG-1 enhances cell-cell adhesion, reduces proliferation and induces chaperone-independent suppression of hepatocyte growth factor-induced epidermal keratinocyte migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinitt, C.A.M.; Wood, J.; Lee, S.S.; Williams, A.C.; Howarth, J.L.; Glover, C.P.; Uney, J.B.; Hague, A.

    2010-01-01

    Cell motility is important in maintaining tissue homeostasis, facilitating epithelial wound repair and in tumour formation and progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether BAG-1 isoforms regulate epidermal cell migration in in vitro models of wound healing. In the human epidermal cell line HaCaT, endogenous BAG-1 is primarily nuclear and increases with confluence. Both transient and stable p36-Bag-1 overexpression resulted in increased cellular cohesion. Stable transfection of either of the three human BAG-1 isoforms p36-Bag-1 (BAG-1S), p46-Bag-1 (BAG-1M) and p50-Bag-1 (BAG-1L) inhibited growth and wound closure in serum-containing medium. However, in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in serum-free medium, BAG-1S/M reduced communal motility and colony scattering, but BAG-1L did not. In the presence of HGF, p36-Bag-1 transfectants retained proliferative response to HGF with no change in ERK1/2 activation. However, the cells retained E-cadherin localisation at cell-cell junctions and exhibited pronounced cortical actin. Point mutations in the BAG domain showed that BAG-1 inhibition of motility is independent of its function as a chaperone regulator. These findings are the first to suggest that BAG-1 plays a role in regulating cell-cell adhesion and suggest an important function in epidermal cohesion.

  19. Knockdown of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E suppresses cell growth and invasion, and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baofu; Zhang, Bo; Xia, Lilong; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Yu; Hu, Quanteng; Zhu, Chengchu

    2015-12-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) was shown to be upregulated in malignant human tumors. To assess the effect of downregulation of eIF4E on the proliferation and invasiveness of a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, a short hairpin (sh)RNA targeting eIF4E was constructed and transfected into A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. The expression of eIF4E was determined by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Cell viability was assessed using a Cell Counting kit‑8, and apoptosis levels and cell cycle distribution were assessed by flow cytometry. Invasiveness was assessed using Transwell chambers. Transfection of the A549 cells with eIF4E targeting shRNA reduced the mRNA and protein expression levels of eIF4E by >70% 48 and 72 h following transfection, and eIF4E targeting shRNA‑transfected cells were significantly less viable compared with the cells transfected with scrambled shRNA. The rate of apoptosis was also significantly increased, significantly more cells were in the G0/G1 phase and fewer were in the S phase, indicating cell cycle arrest. The fraction of transfected cells migrating across Transwell inserts were also reduced. In conclusion, inhibition of eIF4E suppressed cell growth and invasion, induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, suggesting that eIF4E may be a potential therapeutic target in lung adenocarcinoma.

  20. Reoxygenation of human coronary smooth muscle cells suppresses HIF-1{alpha} gene expression and augments radiation-induced growth delay and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumann, T.; Arab, A.; Bode, C.; Hehrlein, C. [Dept. of Cardiology, Univ. Clinic of Freiburg (Germany); Guttenberger, R. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Clinic of Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Catheter-based coronary brachytherapy with {beta}- and {gamma}-radiation is an evidence-based method to prevent restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and stent implantation, but the outcome may be PTCA are hypoxic. A lack of oxygen decreases the effect of low LET (linear energy transfer) irradiation. The authors assumed that reoxygenation of hypoxic human coronary smooth muscle cells (HCSMCs) improves the results of coronary brachytherapy. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) gene, and the rates of growth and apoptosis of hypoxic and reoxygenated HCSMCs after {gamma}-iradiation were therefore analyzed. Material and Methods: An in vitro model of megacolonies of HCSMCs was developed. After exposure to chronic hypoxia the HCSMCs were irradiated with graded doses of 2, 4, 8, and 16 Gy using a {sup 60}Co source either under hypoxia (pO{sub 2}<3 mmHg) or after reoxygenation (pO{sub 2}{approx}150 mmHg). RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) analysis was used to quantify HIF-1{alpha} gene expression and the growth of HCSMC megacolonies was measured serially. The oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) was calculate from the specific growth delay. Apoptosis of HCSMCs was quantified by counting cells with specific DNA strand breaks using the TUNEL assy. Results: HIF-1{alpha} gene expression was markedly suppressed in reoxygenated cells versus hypoxic cells 30 min after {gamma}-irradiation at all radiation doses (158{+-}46% vs. 1,675{+-}1,211%; p<0.01). Apoptosis was markedly increased in reoxygenated HCSMCs. The OER was 1.8(95% CI[confidence interval]1.3-2.4). Therefore, reoxygenated HCSMCs require 44% less radiation dose to achieve the equivalent biological radiation effect compared to hypoxic HCSMCs. Conclusion: Reoxygenation of coronary smooth muscle cells should be considered an option to increase efficacy of coronary brachytherapy. This could be used to reduce radiation dose

  1. Catalase gene disruptant of the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans is defective in hyphal growth, and a catalase-specific inhibitor can suppress hyphal growth of wild-type cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    Although the catalase gene (CAT1) disruptant of the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans was viable under ordinary growth conditions, we previously found that it could not grow on YPD (yeast extract/peptone/dextrose) containing SDS or at higher growth temperatures. To investigate the pleiotrophic nature of the disruptant, we examined the effect of the catalase inhibitor 3-AT on the growth of wild-type strains. Surprisingly, the addition of 3-AT and SDS caused the wild-type cells to be non-viable on YPD plates. We found an additional phenotype of the catalase gene disruptant: it did not produce normal hyphae on Spider medium. Hyphal growth was observed in a CAP1 (Candida AP-1-like protein gene) disruptant, a HOG1 (high-osmolarity glycerol signaling pathway gene) disruptant, and the double CAP1/HOG1 disruptant, suggesting that the defect in hyphal formation by the catalase disruptant was independent of these genes. Addition of 3-AT and SDS to hyphae-inducing media suppressed growth of normal hyphae in the wild-type strain. The potential necessity for catalase action upon exposure to hyphae-inducing conditions was confirmed by the immediate elevation of the catalase gene message. In spite of the requirement for catalase during hyphal growth, the catalase gene disruptant was capable of forming germ tubes in medium containing serum.

  2. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) induces growth suppression and enhances chemosensitivity of human colon cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan; Yue, Shijun; Alfayez, Musaad

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Molecular profiling of colorectal cancer (CRC) based on global gene expression has revealed multiple dysregulated signalling pathways associated with drug resistance and poor prognosis. However, the role of BMP2 signaling in CRC is not fully characterised. METHODS: Bioinformatics data...... datasets revealed significant downregulation of BMP2 in metastatic recurrent compared to non-metastatic cancer (p = 0.02). Global gene expression analysis in CRC cells over-expressing BMP2 revealed multiple dysregulated pathways mostly affecting cell cycle and DNA damage response. Concordantly, lentiviral...

  3. Tumor suppressor PDCD4 modulates miR-184-mediated direct suppression of C-MYC and BCL2 blocking cell growth and survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Yan; Liu, Zhen; Yang, Huiling; Yu, Xiaoli; Wu, Qiangyun; Hua, Shengni; Long, Xiaobin; Jiang, Qingping; Song, Ye; Cheng, Chao; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Menyang; Fu, Qiaofen; Lyu, Xiaoming; Chen, Yiyu; Fan, Yue; Liu, Yan; Li, Xin; Fang, Weiyi

    2013-10-24

    Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), a novel tumor suppressor, inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion as well as promotes cell apoptosis in tumors. However, the molecular mechanism of its tumor-suppressive function remains largely unknown in tumors including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this study, downregulated PDCD4 expression was significantly associated with the status of NPC progression and poor prognosis. PDCD4 markedly suppressed the ability of cell proliferation and cell survival by modulating C-MYC-controlled cell cycle and BCL-2-mediated mitochondrion apoptosis resistance signals, and oncogenic transcription factor C-JUN in NPC. Furthermore, miR-184, a tumor-suppressive miRNA modulated by PDCD4 directly targeting BCL2 and C-MYC, participated in PDCD4-mediated suppression of cell proliferation and survival in NPC. Further, we found that PDCD4 decreased the binding of C-Jun to the AP-1 element on the miR-184 promoter regions by PI3K/AKT/JNK/C-Jun pathway and stimulated miR-184 expression. In clinical fresh specimens, reduced PDCD4 mRNA level was positively correlated with miR-184 expression in NPC. Our studies are the first to demonstrate that PDCD4 as tumor suppressor regulated miR-184-mediated direct targeting of BCL2 and C-MYC via PI3K/AKT and JNK/C-Jun pathway attenuating cell proliferation and survival in NPC.

  4. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase-transduced human cytotoxic T cells suppress the growth of human melanoma in immunodeficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verra, Natascha C. V.; Jorritsma, Annelies; Weijer, Kees; Ruizendaal, Janneke J.; Voordouw, Arie; Weder, Pauline; Hooijberg, Erik; Schumacher, Ton N. M.; Haanen, John B. A. G.; Spits, Hergen; Luiten, Rosalie M.

    2004-01-01

    Immunotherapy of melanoma by adoptive transfer of tumor-reactive T lymphocytes aims at increasing the number of activated effectors at the tumor site that can mediate tumor regression. The limited life span of human T lymphocytes, however, hampers obtaining sufficient cells for adoptive transfer

  5. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase-transduced human cytotoxic T cells suppress the growth of human melanoma in immunodeficient mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verra, NC; Jorritsma, A; Weijer, K.; Ruizendaal, JJ; Voordouw, A; Weder, P; Hooijberg, E.; Schumacher, TN; Haanen, JB; Spits, H; Luiten, RM

    2004-01-01

    Immunotherapy of melanoma by adoptive transfer of tumor-reactive T lymphocytes aims at increasing the number of activated effectors at the tumor site that can mediate tumor regression. The limited life span of human T lymphocytes, however, hampers obtaining sufficient cells for adoptive transfer

  6. Tumor growth accelerated by chemotherapy-induced senescent cells is suppressed by treatment with IL-12 producing cellular vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šímová, Jana; Sapega, Olena; Imrichová, Terezie; Štěpánek, Ivan; Kyjacová, Lenka; Mikyšková, Romana; Indrová, Marie; Bieblová, Jana; Bubeník, Jan; Bartek, Jiří; Hodný, Zdeněk; Reiniš, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 34 (2016), s. 54952-54964 ISSN 1949-2553 R&D Projects: GA MZd NT14461 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : cellular senescence * cancer chemotherapy * docetaxel * IL-12 * cell therapy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.168, year: 2016

  7. Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and PI3K/Akt Signaling Suppresses Cell Proliferation and Survival through Regulation of Stat3 Activation in Human Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bito, T.; Sumita, N.; Ashida, M.; Budiyanto, A.; Ueda, M.; Ichihashi, M.; Nishigori, C.; Tokura, Y.; Bito, T.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have emphasized the important role of Stat3 activation in a number of human tumors from the viewpoint of its oncogenic and anti apoptotic activity. In this study, we examined the role and related signaling molecules of Stat3 in the carcinogenesis of human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In 35 human cutaneous SCC samples, 86% showed overexpression of phosphorylated (p)-Stat3, and most of those simultaneously over expressed p-EGFR or p-Akt. Constitutive activation of EGFR and Stat3 was observed in three SCC cell lines and four of five SCC tissues. AG1478, an inhibitor of the EGFR, down regulated Stat3 activation in HSC-1 human SCC cells. AG1478 inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of HSC-1 cells but did not inhibit the growth of normal human epidermal keratinocytes that did not show Stat3 activation. Furthermore, a PI3K inhibitor also suppressed Stat3 activation in HSC-1 cells to some degree. Combined treatment with the PI3K inhibitor and AG1478 strongly suppressed Stat3 activity and dramatically induced apoptosis of HSC-1 cells. These data suggest that Stat3 activation through EGFR and/or PI3K/Akt activation plays a critical role in the proliferation and survival of human cutaneous SCC.

  8. Berberine modulates AP-1 activity to suppress HPV transcription and downstream signaling to induce growth arrest and apoptosis in cervical cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain Syed A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background- Specific types of high risk Human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs particularly, HPV types 16 and 18 cause cervical cancer and while the two recently developed vaccines against these HPV types are prophylactic in nature, therapeutic options for treatment and management of already existing HPV infection are not available as yet. Because transcription factor, Activator Protein-1 (AP-1 plays a central role in HPV-mediated cervical carcinogenesis, we explored the possibility of its therapeutic targeting by berberine, a natural alkaloid derived from a medicinal plant species, Berberis which has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties with no known toxicity; however, the effect of berberine against HPV has not been elucidated. Results- We studied the effect of berberine on HPV16-positive cervical cancer cell line, SiHa and HPV18-positive cervical cancer cell line, HeLa using electrophoretic mobility gel shift assays, western and northern blotting which showed that berberine could selectively inhibit constitutively activated AP-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner and downregulates HPV oncogenes expression. Inhibition of AP-1 was also accompanied by changes in the composition of their DNA-binding complex. Berberine specifically downregulated expression of oncogenic c-Fos which was also absent in the AP-1 binding complex. Treatment with berberine resulted in repression of E6 and E7 levels and concomitant increase in p53 and Rb expression in both cell types. Berberine also suppressed expression of telomerase protein, hTERT, which translated into growth inhibition of cervical cancer cells. Interestingly, a higher concentration of berberine was found to reduce the cell viability through mitochondria-mediated pathway and induce apoptosis by activating caspase-3. Conclusion- These results indicate that berberine can effectively target both the host and viral factors responsible for development of cervical cancer

  9. Combination Therapy with c-Met and Src Inhibitors Induces Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis of Merlin-Deficient Schwann Cells and Suppresses Growth of Schwannoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Marisa A; Plati, Stephani Klingeman; Burns, Sarah S; Dinh, Christine T; Bracho, Olena; Yan, Denise; Mittal, Rahul; Shen, Rulong; Soulakova, Julia N; Copik, Alicja J; Liu, Xue Zhong; Telischi, Fred F; Chang, Long-Sheng; Franco, Maria Clara; Fernandez-Valle, Cristina

    2017-11-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a nervous system tumor disorder caused by inactivation of the merlin tumor suppressor encoded by the NF2 gene. Bilateral vestibular schwannomas are a diagnostic hallmark of NF2. Mainstream treatment options for NF2-associated tumors have been limited to surgery and radiotherapy; however, off-label uses of targeted molecular therapies are becoming increasingly common. Here, we investigated drugs targeting two kinases activated in NF2-associated schwannomas, c-Met and Src. We demonstrated that merlin-deficient mouse Schwann cells (MD-MSC) treated with the c-Met inhibitor, cabozantinib, or the Src kinase inhibitors, dasatinib and saracatinib, underwent a G 1 cell-cycle arrest. However, when MD-MSCs were treated with a combination of cabozantinib and saracatinib, they exhibited caspase-dependent apoptosis. The combination therapy also significantly reduced growth of MD-MSCs in an orthotopic allograft mouse model by greater than 80% of vehicle. Moreover, human vestibular schwannoma cells with NF2 mutations had a 40% decrease in cell viability when treated with cabozantinib and saracatinib together compared with the vehicle control. This study demonstrates that simultaneous inhibition of c-Met and Src signaling in MD-MSCs triggers apoptosis and reveals vulnerable pathways that could be exploited to develop NF2 therapies. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(11); 2387-98. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Combinatorial therapy with adenoviral-mediated PTEN and a PI3K inhibitor suppresses malignant glioma cell growth in vitro and in vivo by regulating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Yang; Guo, Liyun; Song, Yunpeng; Wang, Le; Yu, Kai; Huang, Qiang; Zhong, Yue

    2017-08-01

    Glioblastoma is a highly invasive and challenging tumor of the central nervous system. The mutation/deletion of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene is the main genetic change identified in glioblastomas. PTEN plays a critical role in tumorigenesis and has been shown to be an important therapeutic target. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 is commonly used to inhibit glioma cell growth via regulation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. In this study, we examined the growth inhibitory effects of a combinatorial therapy of adenoviral-mediated PTEN (Ad-PTEN) and LY294002 on LN229 and U251 glioma cells in vitro and on tumor xenografts in vivo. In vitro, LN229 and U251 glioma cells were treated by combinatorial therapy with Ad-PTEN and LY294002. The growth ability was determined by MTT assay. The cell cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry. Cell invasive ability was analyzed by transwell invasion assay and cell apoptosis analysis via FITC-Annexin V analysis. In vivo, U251 subcutaneous glioblastoma xenograft was used to assay anti-tumor effect of combinatorial therapy with Ad-PTEN and LY294002 by mean volume of tumors, immunohistochemistry and TUNEL method. The combinatorial treatment clearly suppressed cell proliferation, arrested the cell cycle, reduced cell invasion and promoted cell apoptosis compared with the Ad-PTEN or LY294002 treatment alone. The treatment worked by inhibiting the PI3K/AKT pathway. In addition, the growth of U251 glioma xenografts treated with the combination of Ad-PTEN and LY294002 was significantly inhibited compared with those treated with Ad-PTEN or LY294002 alone. Our data indicated that the combination of Ad-PTEN and LY294002 effectively suppressed the malignant growth of human glioma cells in vitro and in tumor xenografts, suggesting a promising new approach for glioma gene therapy that warrants further investigation.

  11. MicroRNA-134 regulates lung cancer cell H69 growth and apoptosis by targeting WWOX gene and suppressing the ERK1/2 signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Tianjun [Respiratory Department, The First Affiliated Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 277, Yanta West Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Gao, Fei [Ultrasound Department, Hua-shan Central Hospital of Xi' an, No. 8, Wanshou Middle Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Feng, Sifang; Yang, Tian [Respiratory Department, The First Affiliated Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 277, Yanta West Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Chen, Mingwei, E-mail: mingweichenxian@163.com [Respiratory Department, The First Affiliated Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 277, Yanta West Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China)

    2015-08-28

    MicroRNAs have been shown to act as crucial modulators during carcinogenesis. Recent studies have implied that miR-134 expression associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotype and invasive potential of NSCLC cells. Our study investigated the pathogenic implications of miR-134 in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Overexpression or inhibition MiR-134 expression by miR-134 mimics or miR-134 inhibitors (anti-miR-134) in SCLC cell lines was detected using qRT-PCR. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, MTT assays and flow cytometry were performed in order to clarify the growth and apoptosis of SCLC cells which had been transfected with miR-134 mimics or anti-miR-134. WWOX expression in H69 cells was detected by qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively. The results showed that overexpression miR-134 was significantly promoting SCLC cells growth and inhibit its apoptosis. In addition, reduced miR-134 expression was significantly correlated with cell growth inhibition and apoptosis promotion. Furthermore, transfection of miR-134 mimics into the SCLC cells markedly down-regulated the level of WWOX, whereas, anti-miR-134 up-regulated WWOX expression. We also found that overexpression WWOX attenuate miR-134 induced H69 cells growth, and promote cell apoptosis. Moreover, miR-134 promoted cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis via the activation of ERK1/2 pathway. These findings suggest that miR-134 may be an ideal diagnostic and prognostic marker, and may be attributed to the molecular therapy of SCLC. - Highlights: • MiR-134 play roles in small cell lung cancer cell growth and apoptosis. • MiR-134 negative regulated the level of WWOX in H69 cells. • WWOX overexpression attenuate miR-134 induced H69 cells growth. • MiR-134 promotes cell growth via the activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

  12. Probiotics modulated gut microbiota suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma growth in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Sung, Cecilia Ying Ju; Lee, Nikki; Ni, Yueqiong; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Panagiotou, Gianni; El-Nezami, Hani

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial roles of probiotics in lowering the gastrointestinal inflammation and preventing colorectal cancer have been frequently demonstrated, but their immunomodulatory effects and mechanism in suppressing the growth of extraintestinal tumors remain unexplored. Here, we adopted a mouse model and metagenome sequencing to investigate the efficacy of probiotic feeding in controlling s.c. hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the underlying mechanism suppressing the tumor progression. Our result demonstrated that Prohep, a novel probiotic mixture, slows down the tumor growth significantly and reduces the tumor size and weight by 40% compared with the control. From a mechanistic point of view the down-regulated IL-17 cytokine and its major producer Th17 cells, whose levels decreased drastically, played critical roles in tumor reduction upon probiotics feeding. Cell staining illustrated that the reduced Th17 cells in the tumor of the probiotic-treated group is mainly caused by the reduced frequency of migratory Th17 cells from the intestine and peripheral blood. In addition, shotgun-metagenome sequencing revealed the crosstalk between gut microbial metabolites and the HCC development. Probiotics shifted the gut microbial community toward certain beneficial bacteria, including Prevotella and Oscillibacter, that are known producers of antiinflammatory metabolites, which subsequently reduced the Th17 polarization and promoted the differentiation of antiinflammatory Treg/Tr1 cells in the gut. Overall, our study offers novel insights into the mechanism by which probiotic treatment modulates the microbiota and influences the regulation of the T-cell differentiation in the gut, which in turn alters the level of the proinflammatory cytokines in the extraintestinal tumor microenvironment. PMID:26884164

  13. P2X7R suppression promotes glioma growth through epidermal growth factor receptor signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jingqin; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Letian; Chen, Jinhua; Liang, Yi; Li, Xue; Xiang, Jianbo; Wang, Lili; Guo, Guangkuo; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-06-01

    P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has been shown to mediate an anticancer effect via apoptosis in different types of cancer. However, whether P2X7R exerts a promoting or suppressive effect on brain glioma is still a controversial issue and its underlying mechanism remains unknown. We showed here that P2X7R suppression exerted a pro-growth effect on glioma through directly promoting cells proliferation and pro-angiogenesis, which was associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. The P2X7R was markedly downregulated by cells exposure to the P2X7R antagonist, brilliant blue G (BBG), moreover, the cells proliferation was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner and the expression of EGFR or p-EGFR protein was significantly upregulated. By constructing C6 cells with reduced expression of P2X7R using shRNA, we also demonstrated strong upregulation in cells proliferation and EGFR/p-EGFR expression. However, this effect of BBG was reversed in the presence of gefitinib or suramin. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography perfusion showed that the BBG or P2X7R shRNA promoted the tumor growth by about 40% and 50%, respectively, and significantly increased angiogenesis. Nissl and Ki-67 staining also confirmed that BBG or P2X7R shRNA notably increased the tumor growth. More importantly, either BBG or P2X7R shRNA could markedly upregulated the expression of EGFR, p-EGFR, HIF-1α and VEGF in glioma cells. In conclusion, P2X7R suppression exerts a promoting effect on glioma growth, which is likely to be related to upregulated EGFR, HIF-1α and VEGF expression. These findings provide important clues to the molecular basis of anticancer effect of targeting purinergic receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The methanol-ethyl acetate partitioned fraction from Chinese olive fruits inhibits cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth by promoting apoptosis through the suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Shu-Chen; Hsieh, Wang-Ju; Chiang, An-Na; Su, Nan-Wei; Yeh, Yu-Te; Liao, Yi-Chun

    2016-12-07

    Chinese olives (Canarium album L.) have historically been used for medicinal purposes rather than commercially for oil. In this report, we reveal that the methanol-ethyl acetate partitioned fraction from Chinese olive fruits (MEO), of which ellagic acid accounted for 12%, exhibited profound anti-proliferative activities in the human colon cancer cell line, HCT116. Additionally, oral administration of MEO remarkably inhibited the tumor growth of subcutaneously implanted CT26 cells, a mouse colon carcinoma cell line, in BALB/c mice. Treatment with MEO induced a significant increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells and resulted in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, suggesting that MEO inhibits cancer cell proliferation by promoting apoptosis. Our study also showed that MEO exerted the most potent effect on the inhibition of NF-κB-mediated signaling among the partitioned fractions from Chinese olives. This process employed the use of reporter-based bio-platforms that are capable of detecting the activation of NF-κB. In addition, phosphorylation of NF-κB signaling-associated proteins, IKKα/β, IκBα, and p65, was reduced in MEO-incubated cancer cells, indicating that MEO suppresses NF-κB activation. Moreover, MEO treatment significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cancer cell proliferation, demonstrating that MEO promotes cancer cell apoptosis through the inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway. In summary, our findings demonstrate that the methanol-ethyl acetate partitioned fraction from Chinese olive fruits inhibits cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth by promoting apoptosis through the suppression of NF-κB signaling. Therefore, the Chinese olive fruit has promising potential in cancer treatment.

  15. Comparison of Cultivars and Seasonal Variation in Blueberry (Vaccinium Species) Leaf Extract on Adult T-Cell Leukemia Cell Line Growth Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Kai, Hisahiro; Fuse, Takuichi; Kunitake, Hisato; Morishita, Kazuhiro; Matsuno, Koji

    2014-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of blueberry leaves on the proliferation of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell lines have previously been reported. A comparison of blueberry leaf extracts from different cultivars and seasonal variation were investigated regarding their effects on ATL cell line proliferation. The inhibitory effects of 80% ethanol leaf extracts from different blueberry cultivars collected from April to December in 2006 or 2008 were evaluated using two ATL cell lines. The bioactivities of ...

  16. Cyclophosphamide chemotherapy sensitizes tumor cells to TRAIL-dependent CD8 T cell-mediated immune attack resulting in suppression of tumor growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbert G van der Most

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anti-cancer chemotherapy can be simultaneously lymphodepleting and immunostimulatory. Pre-clinical models clearly demonstrate that chemotherapy can synergize with immunotherapy, raising the question how the immune system can be mobilized to generate anti-tumor immune responses in the context of chemotherapy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used a mouse model of malignant mesothelioma, AB1-HA, to investigate T cell-dependent tumor resolution after chemotherapy. Established AB1-HA tumors were cured by a single dose of cyclophosphamide in a CD8 T cell- and NK cell-dependent manner. This treatment was associated with an IFN-alpha/beta response and a profound negative impact on the anti-tumor and total CD8 T cell responses. Despite this negative effect, CD8 T cells were essential for curative responses. The important effector molecules used by the anti-tumor immune response included IFN-gamma and TRAIL. The importance of TRAIL was supported by experiments in nude mice where the lack of functional T cells could be compensated by agonistic anti-TRAIL-receptor (DR5 antibodies. CONCLUSION: The data support a model in which chemotherapy sensitizes tumor cells for T cell-, and possibly NK cell-, mediated apoptosis. A key role of tumor cell sensitization to immune attack is supported by the role of TRAIL in tumor resolution and explains the paradox of successful CD8 T cell-dependent anti-tumor responses in the absence of CD8 T cell expansion.

  17. MiR-506 suppresses cell proliferation and tumor growth by targeting Rho-associated protein kinase 1 in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Quanjun; Xie, Liqun; Li, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that miR-506 plays important roles in human cancer progression. However, little is known about the function of miR-506 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we found that miR-506 significantly inhibits HCC cell proliferation in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Moreover, miR-506 induced G1/S cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HCC cells. Rho-associated protein kinase 1(ROCK1) was identified as a novel target of miR-506; overexpression of ROCK1 reversed the suppressive effects of miR-506 in HCC cells. Additionally, ROCK1 was found up-regulated and inversely correlated with miR-506 in HCC tissues. Therefore, our findings collectively suggest that miR-506 acts as a tumor suppressor via regulation of ROCK1 expression and may thus be a promising therapeutic target for HCC. - Highlights: • miR-506 inhibits HCC cell proliferation in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. • miR-506 induced G1/S cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HCC cells. • ROCK1 was identified as a novel target of miR-506. • ROCK1 was found up-regulated and inversely correlated with miR-506 in HCC tissues.

  18. HuR-targeted nanotherapy in combination with AMD3100 suppresses CXCR4 expression, cell growth, migration and invasion in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, R; Panneerselvam, J; Chen, A; Zhao, Y D; Munshi, A; Ramesh, R

    2015-12-01

    The CXCR4 chemokine receptor has an important role in cancer cell metastasis. The CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, has limited efficacy in controlling metastasis. HuR, an RNA-binding protein, regulates CXCR4 in cancer cells. We therefore investigated whether targeting HuR using a siRNA-based nanoparticle plus AMD3100 would suppress CXCR4 and inhibit lung cancer metastasis. We treated human H1299 lung cancer cells with HuR-specific siRNA contained in a folate-targeted lipid nanoparticle (HuR-FNP) plus AMD3100, and compared this with AMD3100 alone, HuR-FNP alone and no treatment. HuR-FNP plus AMD3100 treatment produced a G1 phase cell cycle arrest and reduced cell viability above and beyond the effects of AMD3100 alone. HuR and CXCR4 mRNA and protein expression levels were markedly reduced in all treatment groups. Phosphorylated (p) AKT(S473) protein was also reduced. P27 protein expression increased with HuR-FNP and combination treatment. Promoter-based reporter studies showed that the combination inhibited CXCR4 promoter activity more than did either treatment alone. Cell migration and invasion was significantly reduced with all treatments; the combination provided the most inhibition. Reduced matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2 and -9 expression was associated with reduced invasion in all treatment groups. Thus, we found that combined HuR and CXCR4 targeting effectively controlled lung cancer metastasis.

  19. Alpinia pricei Rhizome Extracts Induce Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Squamous Carcinoma KB Cells and Suppress Tumor Growth in Nude Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Cheng Hseu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpinia pricei has been shown to induce apoptosis in human squamous carcinoma (KB cells. In this study, we report the effectiveness of the ethanol (70% extracts of A. pricei rhizome (AP extracts in terms of tumor regression as determined using both in vitro cell culture and in vivo athymic nude mice models of KB cells. We found that the AP extract (25–200 μg/mL treatment decreased the proliferation of KB cells by arresting progression through the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. This cell cycle blockade was associated with reductions in cyclin A and B1, Cdc2, and Cdc25C, and increased p21/WAF1, Wee1, p53 and phospho-p53 (p-p53 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that AP extract treatment decreased metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 and urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA expression, while expression of their endogenous inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of MMP-1 (TIMP-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, were increased in KB cells. Furthermore, AP extract treatment effectively delayed tumor incidence in nude mice inoculated with KB cells and reduced the tumor burden. AP extract treatment also induced apoptotic DNA fragmentation, as detected by in situ TUNEL staining. Thus, A. pricei may possess antitumor activity in human squamous carcinoma (KB cells.

  20. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 and IGFBP-5 mediate TGF-β- and myostatin-induced suppression of proliferation in porcine embryonic myogenic cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamanga-Sollo, E.; Pampusch, M.S.; White, M.E.; Hathaway, M.R.; Dayton, W.R.

    2005-01-01

    We have previously shown that cultured porcine embryonic myogenic cells (PEMC) produce both insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 and IGFBP-5 and secrete these proteins into their media. Exogenously added recombinant porcine (rp) IGFBP-3 and rpIGFBP-5 act via IGF-dependent and IGF-independent mechanisms to suppress proliferation of PEMC cultures. Furthermore, immunoneutralization of endogenous IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 in the PEMC culture medium results in increased DNA synthesis rate suggesting that endogenous IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 suppress PEMC proliferation. TGF-β superfamily members myostatin and TGF-β 1 have also been shown to suppress proliferation of myogenic cells, and treatment of cultured PEMC with either TGF-β 1 or myostatin significantly (P 1 and myostatin. Here, we show that immunoneutralization of IGFBP-5 also significantly (P 1 or myostatin-treated PEMC cultures restores Long-R3-IGF-I-stimulated DNA synthesis rates to 90% of the levels observed in control cultures receiving no TGF-β 1 or myostatin treatment (P 1 or myostatin-treated PEMC cultures, phosphosmad2 levels in these cultures were not affected. These findings strongly suggest that IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 affect processes downstream from receptor-mediated Smad phosphorylation that facilitate the ability of TGF-β and myostatin to suppress proliferation of PEMC

  1. Rosiglitazone Suppresses the Growth and Invasiveness of SGC-7901 Gastric Cancer Cells and Angiogenesis In Vitro via PPARγ Dependent and Independent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing He

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although thiazolidinediones (TZDs were found to be ligands for peroxisome proliferators-activated receptorγ (PPARγ, the mechanism by which TZDs exert their anticancer effect remains unclear. Furthermore, the effect of TZDs on metastatic and angiogenesis potential of cancer cells is unknown. Our results in this paper show that rosiglitazone inhibited SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells growth, caused G1 cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of rosiglitazone on SGC-7901 cancer cells were completely reversed by treatment with PPARγ antagonist GW9662. Rosiglitazone inhibited SGC-7901 cell migration, invasiveness, and the expression of MMP-2 in dose-dependent manner via PPARγ-independent manner. Rosiglitazone reduced the VEGF induced angiogenesis of HUVEC in dose-dependent manner through PPARγ-dependent pathway. Moreover, rosiglitazone did not affect the expression of VEGF by SGC-7901 cells. Our results demonstrated that by PPARγ ligand, rosiglitazone inhibited growth and invasiveness of SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells and angiogenesis in vitro via PPARγ-dependent or -independent pathway.

  2. Uncovering growth-suppressive MicroRNAs in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xi; Sempere, Lorenzo F; Galimberti, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles improve classification, diagnosis, and prognostic information of malignancies, including lung cancer. This study uncovered unique growth-suppressive miRNAs in lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: miRNA arrays were done on normal lung tissues...... and adenocarcinomas from wild-type and proteasome degradation-resistant cyclin E transgenic mice to reveal repressed miRNAs in lung cancer. Real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays validated these findings. Lung cancer cell lines were derived from each......-malignant human lung tissue bank. RESULTS: miR-34c, miR-145, and miR-142-5p were repressed in transgenic lung cancers. Findings were confirmed by real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays. Similar miRNA profiles occurred in human normal versus malignant lung...

  3. Protein phosphatase 2A associates with Rb2/p130 and mediates retinoic acid-induced growth suppression of ovarian carcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuocolo, Scott; Purev, Enkhtsetseg; Zhang, Dongmei

    2003-01-01

    following ATRA treatment. Finally, using both small interfering RNA specific to the catalytic subunit of PP2A and a variant of the SKOV3 cell line that overexpresses PP2A, we have shown that modulation of PP2A protein levels correlates with the ability of ATRA to inhibit growth of ovarian carcinoma cells......Levels of Rb2/p130 protein are increased 5-10-fold following all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment of the retinoid-sensitive ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line CAOV3, but not the retinoid-resistant adenocarcinoma cell line SKOV3. We found that this increase in Rb2/p130 protein levels in ATRA...

  4. Metformin combined with aspirin significantly inhibit pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by suppressing anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wen; Zheng, Xi; Lin, Yong; Yang, Chung S; Xu, Qing; Carpizo, Darren; Huang, Huarong; DiPaola, Robert S; Tan, Xiang-Lin

    2015-08-28

    Metformin and aspirin have been studied extensively as cancer preventive or therapeutic agents. However, the effects of their combination on pancreatic cancer cells have not been investigated. Herein, we evaluated the effects of metformin and aspirin, alone or in combination, on cell viability, migration, and apoptosis as well as the molecular changes in mTOR, STAT3 and apoptotic signaling pathways in PANC-1 and BxPC3 cells. Metformin and aspirin, at relatively low concentrations, demonstrated synergistically inhibitory effects on cell viability. Compared to the untreated control or individual drug, the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited cell migration and colony formation of both PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. Metformin combined with aspirin significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of mTOR and STAT3, and induced apoptosis as measured by caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. Remarkably, metformin combined with aspirin significantly downregulated the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2, and upregulated the pro-apoptotic proteins Bim and Puma, as well as interrupted their interactions. The downregulation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 was independent of AMPK or STAT3 pathway but partially through mTOR signaling and proteasome degradation. In a PANC-1 xenograft mouse model, we demonstrated that the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited tumor growth and downregulated the protein expression of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 in tumors. Taken together, the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by regulating the pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, supporting the continued investigation of this two drug combination as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer.

  5. Metformin combined with aspirin significantly inhibit pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by suppressing anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wen; Zheng, Xi; Lin, Yong; Yang, Chung S.; Xu, Qing; Carpizo, Darren; Huang, Huarong; DiPaola, Robert S.; Tan, Xiang-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Metformin and aspirin have been studied extensively as cancer preventive or therapeutic agents. However, the effects of their combination on pancreatic cancer cells have not been investigated. Herein, we evaluated the effects of metformin and aspirin, alone or in combination, on cell viability, migration, and apoptosis as well as the molecular changes in mTOR, STAT3 and apoptotic signaling pathways in PANC-1 and BxPC3 cells. Metformin and aspirin, at relatively low concentrations, demonstrated synergistically inhibitory effects on cell viability. Compared to the untreated control or individual drug, the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited cell migration and colony formation of both PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. Metformin combined with aspirin significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of mTOR and STAT3, and induced apoptosis as measured by caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. Remarkably, metformin combined with aspirin significantly downregulated the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2, and upregulated the pro-apoptotic proteins Bim and Puma, as well as interrupted their interactions. The downregulation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 was independent of AMPK or STAT3 pathway but partially through mTOR signaling and proteasome degradation. In a PANC-1 xenograft mouse model, we demonstrated that the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited tumor growth and downregulated the protein expression of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 in tumors. Taken together, the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by regulating the pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, supporting the continued investigation of this two drug combination as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer. PMID:26056043

  6. Non-cell autonomous or secretory tumor suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Christelle En Lin; Chan, Shu Ning; Tang, Bor Luen

    2014-10-01

    Many malignancies result from deletions or loss-of-function mutations in one or more tumor suppressor genes, the products of which curb unrestrained growth or induce cell death in those with dysregulated proliferative capacities. Most tumor suppressors act in a cell autonomous manner, and only very few proteins are shown to exert a non-cell autonomous tumor suppressor function on other cells. Examples of these include members of the secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP) family and the secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC)-related proteins. Very recent findings have, however, considerably expanded our appreciation of non-cell autonomous tumor suppressor functions. Broadly, this may occur in two ways. Intracellular tumor suppressor proteins within cells could in principle inhibit aberrant growth of neighboring cells by conditioning an antitumor microenvironment through secreted factors. This is demonstrated by an apparent non-cell autonomous tumor suppressing property of p53. On the other hand, a tumor suppressor produced by a cell may be secreted extracellularly, and taken up by another cell with its activity intact. Intriguingly, this has been recently shown to occur for the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) by both conventional and unconventional modes of secretion. These recent findings would aid the development of therapeutic strategies that seek to reinstate tumor suppression activity in therapeutically recalcitrant tumor cells, which have lost it in the first place. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Dietary agent, benzyl isothiocyanate inhibits signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation and collaborates with sulforaphane in the growth suppression of PANC-1 cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deangelis Stephanie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT proteins comprise a family of latent transcription factors with diverse functions. STAT3 has well established roles in cell proliferation, growth and survival, and its persistent activation has been detected with high frequency in many human cancers. As constitutive activation of STAT3 appears to be vital for the continued survival of these cancerous cells, it has emerged as an attractive target for chemotherapeutics. We examined whether the inhibitory activities of bioactive compounds from cruciferous vegetables, such as Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC and sulforaphane, extended to STAT3 activation in PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells. BITC and sulforaphane were both capable of inhibiting cell viability and inducing apoptosis in PANC-1. Sulforaphane had minimal effect on the direct inhibition of STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation, however, suggesting its inhibitory activities are most likely STAT3-independent. Conversely, BITC was shown to inhibit the tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3, but not the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, MAPK and p70S6 kinase. These results suggest that STAT3 may be one of the targets of BITC-mediated inhibition of cell viability in PANC-1 cancer cells. In addition, we show that BITC can prevent the induction of STAT3 activation by Interleukin-6 in MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells. Furthermore, combinations of BITC and sulforaphane inhibited cell viability and STAT3 phosphorylation more dramatically than either agent alone. These findings suggest that the combination of the dietary agents BITC and sulforaphane has potent inhibitory activity in pancreatic cancer cells and that they may have translational potential as chemopreventative or therapeutic agents.

  8. Interleukin-35 induces regulatory B cells that suppress autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ren-Xi; Yu, Cheng-Rong; Dambuza, Ivy M; Mahdi, Rashid M; Dolinska, Monika B; Sergeev, Yuri V; Wingfield, Paul T; Kim, Sung-Hye; Egwuagu, Charles E

    2014-06-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10)-producing regulatory B (Breg) cells suppress autoimmune disease, and increased numbers of Breg cells prevent host defense to infection and promote tumor growth and metastasis by converting resting CD4(+) T cells to regulatory T (Treg) cells. The mechanisms mediating the induction and development of Breg cells remain unclear. Here we show that IL-35 induces Breg cells and promotes their conversion to a Breg subset that produces IL-35 as well as IL-10. Treatment of mice with IL-35 conferred protection from experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), and mice lacking IL-35 (p35 knockout (KO) mice) or defective in IL-35 signaling (IL-12Rβ2 KO mice) produced less Breg cells endogenously or after treatment with IL-35 and developed severe uveitis. Adoptive transfer of Breg cells induced by recombinant IL-35 suppressed EAU when transferred to mice with established disease, inhibiting pathogenic T helper type 17 (TH17) and TH1 cells while promoting Treg cell expansion. In B cells, IL-35 activates STAT1 and STAT3 through the IL-35 receptor comprising the IL-12Rβ2 and IL-27Rα subunits. As IL-35 also induced the conversion of human B cells into Breg cells, these findings suggest that IL-35 may be used to induce autologous Breg and IL-35(+) Breg cells and treat autoimmune and inflammatory disease.

  9. Mutations reducing replication from R-loops suppress the defects of growth, chromosome segregation and DNA supercoiling in cells lacking topoisomerase I and RNase HI activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usongo, Valentine; Martel, Makisha; Balleydier, Aurélien; Drolet, Marc

    2016-04-01

    R-loop formation occurs when the nascent RNA hybridizes with the template DNA strand behind the RNA polymerase. R-loops affect a wide range of cellular processes and their use as origins of replication was the first function attributed to them. In Escherichia coli, R-loop formation is promoted by the ATP-dependent negative supercoiling activity of gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and is inhibited by topoisomerase (topo) I (topA) relaxing transcription-induced negative supercoiling. RNase HI (rnhA) degrades the RNA moiety of R-loops. The depletion of RNase HI activity in topA null mutants was previously shown to lead to extensive DNA relaxation, due to DNA gyrase inhibition, and to severe growth and chromosome segregation defects that were partially corrected by overproducing topo III (topB). Here, DNA gyrase assays in crude cell extracts showed that the ATP-dependent activity (supercoiling) of gyrase but not its ATP-independent activity (relaxation) was inhibited in topA null cells lacking RNase HI. To characterize the cellular event(s) triggered by the absence of RNase HI, we performed a genetic screen for suppressors of the growth defect of topA rnhA null cells. Suppressors affecting genes in replication (holC2::aph and dnaT18::aph) nucleotide metabolism (dcd49::aph), RNA degradation (rne59::aph) and fimbriae synthesis (fimD22::aph) were found to reduce replication from R-loops and to restore supercoiling, thus pointing to a correlation between R-loop-dependent replication in topA rnhA mutants and the inhibition of gyrase activity and growth. Interestingly, the position of fimD on the E. coli chromosome corresponds to the site of one of the five main putative origins of replication from R-loops in rnhA null cells recently identified by next-generation sequencing, thus suggesting that the fimD22::aph mutation inactivated one of these origins. Furthermore, we show that topo III overproduction is unable to complement the growth defect of topA rnhA null mutants at low

  10. Withaferin a alone and in combination with cisplatin suppresses growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer by targeting putative cancer stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sham S Kakar

    Full Text Available Currently, the treatment for ovarian cancer entails cytoreductive surgery followed by chemotherapy, mainly, carboplatin combined with paclitaxel. Although this regimen is initially effective in a high percentage of cases, unfortunately within few months of initial treatment, tumor relapse occurs because of platinum-resistance. This is attributed to chemo-resistance of cancer stem cells (CSCs. Herein we show for the first time that withaferin A (WFA, a bioactive compound isolated from the plant Withania somnifera, when used alone or in combination with cisplatin (CIS targets putative CSCs. Treatment of nude mice bearing orthotopic ovarian tumors generated by injecting human ovarian epithelial cancer cell line (A2780 with WFA and cisplatin (WFA alone or in combination resulted in a 70 to 80% reduction in tumor growth and complete inhibition of metastasis to other organs compared to untreated controls. Histochemical and Western blot analysis of the tumors revealed that inclusion of WFA (2 mg/kg resulted in a highly significant elimination of cells expressing CSC markers - CD44, CD24, CD34, CD117 and Oct4 and downregulation of Notch1, Hes1 and Hey1 genes. In contrast treatment of mice with CIS alone (6 mg/kg had opposite effect on those cells. Increase in cells expressing CSC markers and Notch1 signaling pathway in tumors exposed to CIS may explain recurrence of cancer in patients treated with carboplatin and paclitaxel. Since, WFA alone or in combination with CIS eliminates putative CSCs, we conclude that WFA in combination with CIS may present more efficacious therapy for ovarian cancer.

  11. Classically induced suppression of energy growth in a chaotic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ically kicked particles evolve from a confined region of the potential, (2) to show that the energy growth of these evolving particles, under certain circumstances, is suppressed. This system does not obey the Kolmogorov–Arnold–Moser (KAM) theorem [6]. In addition, the momentum-dependent boundary conditions due to ...

  12. Classically induced suppression of energy growth in a chaotic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Classically induced suppression of energy growth in a chaotic quantum system. HARINDER PAL1 and M S SANTHANAM2,∗. 1Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009, India. 2Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pashan Road, Pune 411 008, India. ∗. Corresponding author.

  13. MicroRNA-124 suppresses growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting STAT3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yanxin [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Yue, Xupeng [Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Cui, Yuanyuan [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Jufeng, E-mail: jfzhang111@163.com [Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Wang, KeWei, E-mail: wangkw@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •miR-124 is down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. •Over-expression of miR-124 suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells. •miR-124 inhibits xenograft tumor growth in nude mice implanted with HepG2 cells by reducing STAT3 expression. •STATs function as a novel target of miR-124 in HCC HepG2 cells. -- Abstract: The aberrant expression of microRNAs is associated with development and progression of cancers. Down-regulation of miR-124 has been demonstrated in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the underlying mechanism by which miR-124 suppresses tumorigenesis in HCC remains elusive. In this study, we found that miR-124 suppresses the tumor growth of HCC through targeting the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). Overexpression of miR-124 suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in HepG-2 cells. Luciferase assay confirmed that miR-124 binding to the 3′-UTR region of STAT3 inhibited the expression of STAT3 and phosphorylated STAT3 proteins in HepG-2 cells. Knockdown of STAT3 by siRNA in HepG-2 cells mimicked the effect induced by miR-124. Overexpression of STAT3 in miR-124-transfected HepG-2 cells effectively rescued the inhibition of cell proliferation caused by miR-124. Furthermore, miR-124 suppressed xenograft tumor growth in nude mice implanted with HepG-2 cells by reducing STAT3 expression. Taken together, our findings show that miR-124 functions as tumor suppressor in HCC by targeting STAT3, and miR-124 may therefore serve as a biomarker for diagnosis and therapeutics in HCC.

  14. miR-137 suppresses tumor growth of malignant melanoma by targeting aurora kinase A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Xiao; Zhang, Haiping [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Lian, Shi [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Zhu, Wei, E-mail: zhuwei_2020@163.com [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2016-07-01

    As an oncogene, aurora kinase A (AURKA) is overexpressed in various types of human cancers. However, the expression and roles of AURKA in malignant melanoma are largely unknown. In this study, a miR-137-AURKA axis was revealed to regulate melanoma growth. We found a significant increase in levels of AURKA in melanoma. Both genetic knockdown and pharmacologic inhibition of AURKA decreased tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Further found that miR-137 reduced AURKA expression through interaction with its 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) and that miR-137 was negatively correlated with AURKA expression in melanoma specimens. Overexpression of miR-137 decreased cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro. Notably, re-expression of AURKA significantly rescued miR-137-mediated suppression of cell growth and clonality. In summary, these results reveal that miR-137 functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting AURKA, providing new insights into investigation of therapeutic strategies against malignant melanoma. -- Highlights: •First reported overexpression of AURKA in melanoma. •Targeting AURKA inhibits melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo. •Further found miR-137 suppressed cell growth by binding to AURKA 3′UTR. •Re-expression of AURKA rescued miR-137-mediated suppression. •miR-137-AURKA axis may be potential therapeutic targets of melanoma.

  15. Inhibition of class I histone deacetylases in non-small cell lung cancer by honokiol leads to suppression of cancer cell growth and induction of cell death in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2013-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents approximately 80% of all types of lung cancer. Here, we report the chemotherapeutic effect of honokiol, a phytochemical from Magnolia grandiflora, on NSCLC cells and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment of NSCLC cells (A549, H1299, H460 and H226) with honokiol (20, 40 and 60 µM) inhibited histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, reduced the levels of class I HDAC proteins and enhanced histone acetyltransferase activity in a dose-dependent manner. These effects of honokiol were associated with a significant reduction in the viability of NSCLC cells. Concomitant treatment of cells with a proteasome inhibitor, MG132, prevented honokiol-induced degradation of class I HDACs, suggesting that honokiol reduced the levels of HDACs in NSCLC cells through proteasomal degradation. Valproic acid, an inhibitor of HDACs, exhibited a similar pattern of reduced viability and induction of death of NSCLC cells. Treatment of A549 and H1299 cells with honokiol resulted in an increase in G 1 phase arrest, and a decrease in the levels of cyclin D1, D2 and cyclin dependent kinases. Further, administration of honokiol by oral gavage significantly inhibited the growth of subcutaneous A549 and H1299 tumor xenografts in athymic nude mice, which was associated with the induction of apoptotic cell death and marked inhibition of class I HDACs proteins and HDAC activity in the tumor xenograft tissues. Together, our study provides new insights into the role of class I HDACs in the chemotherapeutic effects of honokiol on lung cancer cells.

  16. Neuron-mediated generation of regulatory T cells from encephalitogenic T cells suppresses EAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawei; Teige, Ingrid; Birnir, Bryndis

    2006-01-01

    ) inflammation. Neurons induce the proliferation of activated CD4+ T cells through B7-CD28 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1-TGF-beta receptor signaling pathways, resulting in amplification of T-cell receptor signaling through phosphorylated ZAP-70, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-9. The interaction between......Neurons have been neglected as cells with a major immune-regulatory function because they do not express major histocompatibility complex class II. Our data show that neurons are highly immune regulatory, having a crucial role in governing T-cell response and central nervous system (CNS...... neurons and T cells results in the conversion of encephalitogenic T cells to CD25+ TGF-beta1+ CTLA-4+ FoxP3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells that suppress encephalitogenic T cells and inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Suppression is dependent on cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4...

  17. Kaempferol Suppresses Transforming Growth Factor-β1–Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells by Inhibiting Akt1-Mediated Phosphorylation of Smad3 at Threonine-1791

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Eunji; Park, Seong Ji; Choi, Yu Sun; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Kaempferol, a natural dietary flavonoid, is well known to possess chemopreventive and therapeutic anticancer efficacy; however, its antimetastatic effects have not been mechanistically studied so far in any cancer model. This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and accompanying mechanisms of kaempferol on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). In human A549 non–small lung cancer cells, kaempferol strongly blocked the enhancement of cell migration by TGF-β1–induced EMT through recovering the loss of E-cadherin and suppressing the induction of mesenchymal markers as well as the upregulation of TGF-β1–mediated matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity. Interestingly, kaempferol reversed TGF-β1–mediated Snail induction and E-cadherin repression by weakening Smad3 binding to the Snail promoter without affecting its C-terminus phosphorylation, complex formation with Smad4, and nuclear translocation under TGF-β1 stimulation. Mechanism study revealed that the phosphorylation of Smad3 linker region induced by TGF-β1 was required for the induction of EMT and cell migration, and selective downregulation of the phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue (not Ser204, Ser208, and Ser213) in the linker region was responsible for the inhibition by kaempferol of TGF-β1–induced EMT and cell migration. Furthermore, Akt1 was required for TGF-β1–mediated induction of EMT and cell migration and directly phosphorylated Smad3 at Thr179, and kaempferol completely abolished TGF-β1–induced Akt1 phosphorylation. In summary, kaempferol blocks TGF-β1–induced EMT and migration of lung cancer cells by inhibiting Akt1-mediated phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue, providing the first evidence of a molecular mechanism for the anticancer effect of kaempferol. PMID:26297431

  18. Kaempferol Suppresses Transforming Growth Factor-β1-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells by Inhibiting Akt1-Mediated Phosphorylation of Smad3 at Threonine-179.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Eunji; Park, Seong Ji; Choi, Yu Sun; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2015-07-01

    Kaempferol, a natural dietary flavonoid, is well known to possess chemopreventive and therapeutic anticancer efficacy; however, its antimetastatic effects have not been mechanistically studied so far in any cancer model. This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and accompanying mechanisms of kaempferol on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). In human A549 non-small lung cancer cells, kaempferol strongly blocked the enhancement of cell migration by TGF-β1-induced EMT through recovering the loss of E-cadherin and suppressing the induction of mesenchymal markers as well as the upregulation of TGF-β1-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity. Interestingly, kaempferol reversed TGF-β1-mediated Snail induction and E-cadherin repression by weakening Smad3 binding to the Snail promoter without affecting its C-terminus phosphorylation, complex formation with Smad4, and nuclear translocation under TGF-β1 stimulation. Mechanism study revealed that the phosphorylation of Smad3 linker region induced by TGF-β1 was required for the induction of EMT and cell migration, and selective downregulation of the phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue (not Ser204, Ser208, and Ser213) in the linker region was responsible for the inhibition by kaempferol of TGF-β1-induced EMT and cell migration. Furthermore, Akt1 was required for TGF-β1-mediated induction of EMT and cell migration and directly phosphorylated Smad3 at Thr179, and kaempferol completely abolished TGF-β1-induced Akt1 phosphorylation. In summary, kaempferol blocks TGF-β1-induced EMT and migration of lung cancer cells by inhibiting Akt1-mediated phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue, providing the first evidence of a molecular mechanism for the anticancer effect of kaempferol. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Withaferin A Suppresses Liver Tumor Growth in a Nude Mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of withaferin A on tumor volume, invasive growth pattern, expression of Pyk2, upregulation of BAX/P53, apoptotic signaling and ... the direct effect of withaferin A on liver cancer cells and endothelial cells was further investigated. Results: A significant ... tumor cell invasiveness in colon cancer [7] and is related to ...

  20. Ketamine suppresses the proliferation of rat C6 glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Hidetomo; Furukawa, Ken-Ichi; Seya, Kazuhiko; Hirota, Kazuyoshi

    2017-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine, on the growth of gliomas. To analyze the effects of ketamine treatment, rat C6 glioma cells arising from astrocytes, and RNB cells representing non-malignant astrocytes, were examined. In ketamine-treated C6 cells, the gene expression changes associated with cell proliferation following ketamine treatment were evaluated using a cDNA microarray. A cell proliferation assay was performed to analyze the dose-dependent proliferation of C6 glioma and RNB cells following culture (72 h) with ketamine treatment (0-100 µM). Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were performed following cell incubation with/without ketamine, to confirm if the ketamine-induced cell death of C6 glioma and RNB cells were due to apoptosis. In addition, cell proliferation and TUNEL assays were performed following cell incubations with a selective NMDAR antagonist, D-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (D-AP5). Analysis of the cDNA microarray indicated that the growth of C6 glioma cells were suppressed by the effects of ketamine. Furthermore, results of the proliferation assay confirmed that ketamine treatment inhibited C6 cell proliferation, most notably at a dose of 30 µM (n=7, 66.4%; Pcells, with a significant effect on the rate of death observed at all tested concentrations (3, 10, 30 and 100 µM). Results of the aforementioned proliferation and TUNEL assay experiments were reproduced when ketamine was replaced with a selective NMDAR antagonist, D-AP5. However, the NMDARantagonist-induced effects were not observed in RNB cell cultures. Although it would be premature to apply the results from the present study to human cases, these results indicated that ketamine is an anesthetic candidate providing potential benefit for glioma resection.

  1. Rapamycin delays growth of Wnt-1 tumors in spite of suppression of host immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svirshchevskaya, Elena V; Mariotti, Jacopo; Wright, Mollie H; Viskova, Natalia Y; Telford, William; Fowler, Daniel H; Varticovski, Lyuba

    2008-01-01

    Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR), is an immunosuppressive agent that has anti-proliferative effects on some tumors. However, the role of Rapamycin-induced immune suppression on tumor progression has not been examined. We developed a transplantation model for generation of mammary tumors in syngeneic recipients that can be used to address the role of the immune system on tumor progression. We examined the effect of Rapamycin on the immune system and growth of MMTV-driven Wnt-1 mammary tumors which were transplanted into irradiated and bone marrow-reconstituted, or naïve mice. Rapamycin induced severe immunosuppression and significantly delayed the growth of Wnt-1 tumors. T cell depletion in spleen and thymus and reduction in T cell cytokine secretion were evident within 7 days of therapy. By day 20, splenic but not thymic T cell counts, and cytokine secretion recovered. We determined whether adoptive T cell therapy enhances the anti-cancer effect using ex vivo generated Rapamycin-resistant T cells. However, T cell transfer during Rapamycin therapy did not improve the outcome relative to drug therapy alone. Thus, we could not confirm that suppression of T cell immunity contributes to tumor growth in this model. Consistent with suppression of the mTOR pathway, decreased 4E-BP1, p70 S6-kinase, and S6 protein phosphorylation correlated with a decrease in Wnt-1 tumor cell proliferation. Rapamycin has a direct anti-tumor effect on Wnt-1 breast cancer in vivo that involves inhibition of the mTOR pathway at doses that also suppress host immune responses

  2. A synthetic NOD2 agonist, muramyl dipeptide (MDP)-Lys (L18) and IFN-β synergistically induce dendritic cell maturation with augmented IL-12 production and suppress melanoma growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Taku; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Hidaka, Takanori; Ito, Yumiko; Aiba, Setsuya

    2011-05-01

    A synthetic NOD2 agonist, muramyl dipeptide (MDP)-Lys (L18), mimics the bacterial peptidoglycan moiety and acts as a powerful adjuvant that induces cell-mediated immunity. To investigate the induction of antitumor immune response for malignant melanoma by IFN-β in combination with MDP-Lys (L18) (IFN-MDP-Lys (L18)). Human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) are stimulated with IFN-MDP-Lys (L18) in vitro. We assess the expression of costimulatory molecules on MoDCs by FACS. Moreover, we investigate the induction of Th1 cytokines by real time PCR and ELISA. Further to confirm the anti tumor immune response of IFN-MDP-Lys (L18) therapy, we examine the growth of B16F10 melanoma in vivo. The stimulation of human MoDCs with IFN-MDP-Lys (L18) significantly augmented the production of IL-12p70, TNF-α, and IL-6 compared to that with MDP or that with IFN-β alone. IFN-MDP-Lys (L18) increased the expression of IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-10, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA by MoDC using real-time PCR. The expression of CD83 and costimulatory molecules CD40, CD80, and CD86 was also augmented in MoDC treated with IFN-MDP-Lys (L18), which resulted in their augmented allogeneic T cell stimulation. In vivo, the administration of IFN-MDP-Lys (L18) significantly suppressed the growth of B16F10 melanoma, while the monotherapy of IFN-β or MDP-Lys (L18) did not significantly affect the tumor growth. These findings suggest that IFN-MDP-Lys (L18) can be a promising adjuvant therapy for malignant melanoma. Copyright © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of derlin-1 as a novel growth factor-responsive endothelial antigen by suppression subtractive hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Yuliang; Jiang Yangfu; Zhong Xing; Zhou Zhuan; Liu Haiyan; Hu Hai; Lou Jinning; Yang Zhihua

    2006-01-01

    Endothelial cells play an important regulatory role in embryonic development, reproductive functions, tumor growth and progression. In the present study, the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method was employed to identify differentially expressed genes between non-stimulated endothelial cells and activated endothelial cells. Following mRNA isolation of non-stimulated and hepatocellular carcinoma homogenate-stimulated cells, cDNAs of both populations were prepared and subtracted by suppressive PCR. Sequencing of the enriched cDNAs identified a couple of genes differentially expressed, including derlin-1. Derlin-1 was significantly up-regulated by tumor homogenates, VEGF, and endothelial growth supplements in a dose-dependent manner. Knock-down of derlin-1 triggered endothelial cell apoptosis, inhibited endothelial cell proliferation, and blocked the formation of a network of tubular-like structures. Our data reveal that derlin-1 is a novel growth factor-responsive endothelial antigen that promotes endothelial cell survival and growth

  4. Human renal tubular epithelial cells suppress alloreactive T cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmers, M W H J; Korevaar, S S; Roemeling-van Rhijn, M; van den Bosch, T P P; Hoogduijn, M J; Betjes, M G H; Weimar, W; Baan, C C; Rowshani, A T

    2015-03-01

    Renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) are one of the main targets of alloreactive T cells during acute rejection. We hypothesize that TECs modulate the outcome of alloimmunity by executing immunosuppressive effects in order to dampen the local inflammation. We studied whether TECs possess immunosuppressive capacities and if indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) might play a role in suppressing T cell alloreactivity. Next, we studied the role of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 with regard to TEC-related immunomodulatory effects. CD3/CD28 and alloactivated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were co-cultured with activated TECs. We analysed CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation and apoptosis in the absence or presence of IDO inhibitor 1-methyl-L-tryptophan (1-L-MT), anti-PD-L1 and anti-ICAM-1. Further, we examined whether inhibition of T cell proliferation was cell-cell contact-dependent. We found that TECs dose-dependently inhibited CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation (Pcell proliferation was only partially restored or failed to restore using 1-L-MT. Activated TECs increased early and late apoptosis of proliferating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells; only CD4(+) T cell apoptosis was statistically affected by 1-L-MT. Transwell experiments revealed that TEC-mediated immunosuppression is cell-cell contact-dependent. We found that anti-ICAM-1 affected only CD4(+) T cell apoptosis and not T cell proliferation. Our data show that TECs suppress both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation contact dependently. Interestingly, inhibition of proliferation and enhancement of apoptosis of T cell subsets is differentially regulated by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and ICAM-1, with no evidence for the involvement of PD-L1 in our system. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  5. 17-AAG enhances the cytotoxicity of flavopiridol in mantle cell lymphoma via autophagy suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y; Guan, J

    2015-01-01

    Flavopiridol, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI), shows promising anti-tumor activity in hematologic malignancies. However, Flavopiridol-induced protective autophagy may lead to drug resistance. Here we found that Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG can sensitize mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cells to flavopiridol by suppressing flavopiridol-triggered protective autophagy. The suppressing effect of 17-AAG on autophgy was mediated by Beclin1 degradation and ERK inactivation. Furthermore, 17-AAG enhanced flavopiridol-induced apoptosis and growth suppression in MCL cells. Our study may provide some insights into CDKI -targeted chemotherapies.

  6. The JAK kinase inhibitor CP-690,550 suppresses the growth of human polycythemia vera cells carrying the JAK2V617F mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshouri, Taghi; Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso; Nussenzveig, Roberto H; Gaikwad, Amos; Estrov, Zeev; Prchal, Josef; Cortes, Jorge E; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2008-06-01

    The somatic activating janus kinase 2 mutation (JAK2)(V617F) is detectable in most patients with polycythemia vera (PV). Here we report that CP-690,550 exerts greater antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activity against cells harboring JAK2(V617F) compared with JAK2(WT). CP-690,550 treatment of murine factor-dependent cell Patersen-erythropoietin receptor (FDCP-EpoR) cells harboring human wild-type or V617F JAK2 resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 2.1 microM and 0.25 microM, respectively. Moreover, CP-690,550 induced a significant pro-apoptotic effect on murine FDCP-EpoR cells carrying JAK2(V617F), whereas a lesser effect was observed for cells carrying wild-type JAK2. This activity was coupled with inhibition of phosphorylation of the key JAK2(V617F)-dependent downstream signaling effectors signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3, STAT5, and v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT). Furthermore, CP-690,550 treatment of ex-vivo-expanded erythroid progenitors from JAK2(V617F)-positive PV patients resulted in specific, antiproliferative (IC(50) = 0.2 microM) and pro-apoptotic activity. In contrast, expanded progenitors from healthy controls were less sensitive to CP-690,550 in proliferation (IC(50) > 1.0 microM), and apoptosis assays. The antiproliferative effect on expanded patient progenitors was paralleled by a decrease in JAK2(V617F) mutant allele frequency, particularly in a patient homozygous for JAK2(V617F). Flow cytometric analysis of expanded PV progenitor cells treated with CP-690,550 suggests a possible transition towards a pattern of erythroid differentiation resembling expanded cells from normal healthy controls.

  7. The milk-derived fusion peptide, ACFP, suppresses the growth of primary human ovarian cancer cells by regulating apoptotic gene expression and signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Juan; Zhao, Mengjing; Tang, Yigui; Wang, Jing; Wei, Cai; Gu, Fang; Lei, Ting; Chen, Zhiwu; Qin, Yide

    2016-03-24

    ACFP is an anti-cancer fusion peptide derived from bovine milk protein. This study was to investigate the anti-cancer function and underlying mechanisms of ACFP in ovarian cancer. Fresh ovarian tumor tissues were collected from 53 patients who underwent initial debulking surgery, and primary cancer cells were cultured. Normal ovarian surface epithelium cells (NOSECs), isolated from 7 patients who underwent surgery for uterine fibromas, were used as normal control tissue. Anti-viabilities of ACFP were assessed by WST-1 (water-soluble tetrazolium 1), and apoptosis was measured using a flow cytometry-based assay. Gene expression profiles of ovarian cancer cells treated with ACFP were generated by cDNA microarray, and the expression of apoptotic-specific genes, such as bcl-xl, bax, akt, caspase-3, CDC25C and cyclinB1, was assessed by real time PCR and western blot analysis. Treatment with ACFP inhibited the viability and promoted apoptosis of primary ovarian cancer cells but exhibited little or no cytotoxicity toward normal primary ovarian cells. Mechanistically, the anti-cancer effects of ACFP in ovarian cells were shown to occur partially via changes in gene expression and related signal pathways. Gene expression profiling highlighted that ACFP treatment in ovarian cancer cells repressed the expression of bcl-xl, akt, CDC25C and cyclinB1 and promoted the expression of bax and caspase-3 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Our results suggest that ACFP may represent a potential therapeutic agent for ovarian cancer that functions by altering the expression and signaling of cancer-related pathways in ovarian cancer cells.

  8. The water soluble ruthenium(II) organometallic compound [Ru(p-cymene)(bis(3,5 dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)methane)Cl]Cl suppresses triple negative breast cancer growth by inhibiting tumor infiltration of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, Maura; Pazmay, Gretta V Badillo; Hysi, Albana; Lupidi, Giulio; Pettinari, Riccardo; Gambini, Valentina; Tilio, Martina; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Ferraro, Stefano; Iezzi, Manuela; Marchini, Cristina; Amici, Augusto

    2016-05-01

    Ruthenium compounds have become promising alternatives to platinum drugs by displaying specific activities against different cancers and favorable toxicity and clearance properties. Here, we show that the ruthenium(II) complex [Ru(p-cymene)(bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)methane)Cl]Cl (UNICAM-1) exhibits potent in vivo antitumor effects. When administered as four-dose course, by repeating a single dose (52.4mgkg-1) every three days, UNICAM-1 significantly reduces the growth of A17 triple negative breast cancer cells transplanted into FVB syngeneic mice. Pharmacokinetic studies indicate that UNICAM-1 is rapidly eliminated from kidney, liver and bloodstream thanks to its high hydrosolubility, exerting excellent therapeutic activity with minimal side effects. Immunohistological analysis revealed that the efficacy of UNICAM-1, mainly relies on its capacity to reverse tumor-associated immune suppression by significantly reducing the number of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells. Therefore, UNICAM-1 appears very promising for the treatment of TNBC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Virus-like particles suppress growth of the red-tide-forming marine dinoflagellate Gymnodinium mikimotoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onji, Masashi; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Satoru

    2003-01-01

    We isolated 2 virus-like agents that suppressed growth of Gymnodinium mikimotoi from coastal waters of the Uwa Sea, Japan. The agents found in the flagellate cells, named GM6 and GM7, were filterable in a 0.22-microm-pore filter with approximately 100-nm shapes. Electron microscopic observation showed the presence of virus-like particles in severely damaged G. mikimotoi cells infected by GM6. The growth-suppression activity of the agents (GM6 or GM7) was lost by heating at 50 degrees C, with treatments of DNase and protease, and filtration through a 0.05-microm filter. Our results suggest that the agents are DNA viruses infectious to and virulent for G. mikimotoi. This is the first report of a virus-like agent specific to G. mikimotoi.

  10. Ethanolic extracts of herbal supplement Equiguard suppress growth and control gene expression in CWR22Rv1 cells representing the transition of prostate cancer from androgen dependence to hormone refractory status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tze-Chen; Wu, Joseph M

    2008-01-01

    Dietary supplements and botanical products are widely used by patients diagnosed with prostate cancer (CaP) as a primary or adjuvant form of treatment for their medical conditions in the United States. Many of the available products are complex mixtures composed of extracts from foreign plants, whose mechanism of action typically is not systematically and rigorously investigated. Laboratory studies employing precisely defined conditions and referenced methodologies are essential not only for standardization and characterization of the products, but are also important requisites for providing scientific evidence and molecular insights in regard to the clinical efficacies some of these products purportedly demonstrate. In previous studies from this laboratory, we serendipitously observed that Equiguard, a dietary supplement formulated with extracts from nine Chinese herbs for preventing decline in renal functions associated with the aging process, contain 70% ethanol-extractable ingredients that displayed potent growth inhibitory activities in androgen-dependent (AD) LNCaP and androgen-independent (AI) DU-145 and PC-3 cells. Moreover, significant reduction in expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) also occurred in Equiguard-treated LNCaP cells. Although these results offer the possibility that Equiguard confers chemoprevention for CaP, it remains undetermined whether Equiguard functions in CaP cell types that represent the transition of AD to the AI status. Further, details of its mechanism of action have not been fully elucidated. The studies described in this report focusing on CWR22Rv1 cells are intended to fill these gaps. These cells express AR and PSA, yet show weak responsiveness to androgens and largely proliferate in an AI-independent manner - features that mimic AD --> AI in clinically advanced disease. Using the CWR22Rv1 cells, we showed that 70% ethanolic extracts of Equiguard effectively suppressed colony formation

  11. Silibinin and Its 2,3-Dehydro-Derivative Inhibit Basal Cell Carcinoma Growth via Suppression of Mitogenic Signaling and Transcription Factors Activation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tilley, C.; Deep, G.; Agarwal, Ch.; Wempe, M.F.; Biedermann, David; Valentová, Kateřina; Křen, Vladimír; Agarwal, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2016), s. 3-14 ISSN 0899-1987 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13097 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : basal cell carcinoma * chemoprevention * phytochemicals Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 4.185, year: 2016

  12. Genistein suppresses aerobic glycolysis and induces hepatocellular carcinoma cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sainan; Li, Jingjing; Dai, Weiqi; Zhang, Qinghui; Feng, Jiao; Wu, Liwei; Liu, Tong; Yu, Qiang; Xu, Shizan; Wang, Wenwen; Lu, Xiya; Chen, Kan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Fan, Xiaoming; Mo, Wenhui; Xu, Ling; Guo, Chuanyong

    2017-11-07

    Genistein is a natural isoflavone with many health benefits, including antitumour effects. Increased hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α (HIF-1α) levels and glycolysis in tumour cells are associated with an increased risk of mortality, cancer progression, and resistance to therapy. However, the effect of genistein on HIF-1α and glycolysis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unclear. Cell viability, apoptosis rate, lactate production, and glucose uptake were measured in HCC cell lines with genistein incubation. Lentivirus-expressed glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) or/and hexokinase 2 (HK2) and siRNA of HIF-1α were used to test the direct target of genistein. Subcutaneous xenograft mouse models were used to measure in vivo efficacy of genistein and its combination with sorafenib. Genistein inhibited aerobic glycolysis and induced mitochondrial apoptosis in HCC cells. Neither inhibitors nor overexpression of HK2 or GLUTs enhance or alleviate this effect. Although stabiliser of HIF-1α reversed the effect of genistein, genistein no longer has effects on HIF-1α siRNA knockdown HCC cells. In addition, genistein enhanced the antitumour effect of sorafenib in sorafenib-resistant HCC cells and HCC-bearing mice. Genistein sensitised aerobic glycolytic HCC cells to apoptosis by directly downregulating HIF-1α, therefore inactivating GLUT1 and HK2 to suppress aerobic glycolysis. The inhibitory effect of genistein on tumour cell growth and glycolysis may help identify effective treatments for HCC patients at advanced stages.

  13. Inhibition of BRD4 suppresses tumor growth and enhances iodine uptake in thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xuemei [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Department of Urology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Wu, Xinchao [Department of Urology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Zhang, Xiao; Hua, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yajing [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Maimaiti, Yusufu [Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Gao, Zairong, E-mail: gaobonn@163.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Zhang, Yongxue [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China)

    2016-01-15

    Thyroid cancer is a common malignancy of the endocrine system. Although radioiodine {sup 131}I treatment on differentiated thyroid cancer is widely used, many patients still fail to benefit from {sup 131}I therapy. Therefore, exploration of novel targeted therapies to suppress tumor growth and improve radioiodine uptake remains necessary. Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) is an important member of the bromodomain and extra terminal domain family that influences transcription of downstream genes by binding to acetylated histones. In the present study, we found that BRD4 was up-regulated in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. Inhibition of BRD4 in thyroid cancer cells by JQ1 resulted in cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and enhanced {sup 131}I uptake in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, JQ1 treatment suppressed C-MYC but enhanced NIS expression. We further demonstrated that BRD4 was enriched in the promoter region of C-MYC, which could be markedly blocked by JQ1 treatment. In conclusion, our findings revealed that the aberrant expression of BRD4 in thyroid cancer is possibly involved in tumor progression, and JQ1 is potentially an effective chemotherapeutic agent against human thyroid cancer. - Highlights: • BRD4 is upregulated in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. • Inhibition of BRD4 induced cell cycle arrest and enhanced radioiodine uptake in vitro and impaired tumor growth in vivo. • JQ1 suppressed the expression of C-MYC and promoted the expression of NIS and P21. • JQ1 attenuated the recruitment of BRD4 to MYC promoter in thyroid cancer.

  14. WNT10B functional dualism: beta-catenin/Tcf-dependent growth promotion or independent suppression with deregulated expression in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirohide; Matsubara, Kenichi; Zhou, Xiaoling; Okamura, Shu; Kubo, Takahiko; Murase, Yaeko; Shikauchi, Yuko; Esteller, Manel; Herman, James G; Wei Wang, Xin; Harris, Curtis C

    2007-11-01

    We found aberrant DNA methylation of the WNT10B promoter region in 46% of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 15% of colon cancer samples. Three of 10 HCC and one of two colon cancer cell lines demonstrated low or no expression, and 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine reactivated WNT10B expression with the induction of demethylation, indicating that WNT10B is silenced by DNA methylation in some cancers, whereas WNT10B expression is up-regulated in seven of the 10 HCC cell lines and a colon cancer cell line. These results indicate that WNT10B can be deregulated by either overexpression or silencing in cancer. We found that WNT10B up-regulated beta-catenin/Tcf activity. However, WNT10B-overexpressing cells demonstrated a reduced growth rate and anchorage-independent growth that is independent of the beta-catenin/Tcf activation, because mutant beta-catenin-transduced cells did not suppress growth, and dominant-negative hTcf-4 failed to alleviate the growth suppression by WNT10B. Although WNT10B expression alone inhibits cell growth, it acts synergistically with the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) to stimulate cell growth. WNT10B is bifunctional, one function of which is involved in beta-catenin/Tcf activation, and the other function is related to the down-regulation of cell growth through a different mechanism. We suggest that FGF switches WNT10B from a negative to a positive cell growth regulator.

  15. Opioid-dependent growth of glial cultures: Suppression of astrocyte DNA synthesis by met-enkephalin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiene-Martin, A.; Hauser, K.F. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The action of met-enkephalin on the growth of astrocytes in mixed-glial cultures was examined. Primary, mixed-glial cultures were isolated from 1 day-old mouse cerebral hemispheres and continuously treated with either basal growth media, 1 {mu}M met-enkephalin, 1 {mu}M met-enkephalin plus the opioid antagonist naloxone, or naloxone alone. Absolute numbers of neural cells were counted in unstained preparations, while combined ({sup 3}H)-thymidine autoradiography and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) immunocytochemistry was performed to identify specific changes in astrocytes. When compared to control and naloxone treated cultures, met-enkephalin caused a significant decrease in both total cell numbers, and in ({sup 3}H)-thymidine incorporation by GFAP-positive cells with flat morphology. These results indicate that met-enkephalin suppresses astrocyte growth in culture.

  16. Therapy with radio-attenuated vaccine in experimental murine visceral leishmaniasis showed enhanced T cell and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels, suppressed tumor growth factor-beta production with higher expression of some signaling molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sanchita; Roy, Syamal; Manna, Madhumita

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or Kala-Azar (KA) is one of the most deadly forms of disease among all neglected tropical diseases. There are no satisfactory drugs or vaccine candidates available for this dreaded disease. Our previous studies showed promising therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy of the live, radio-attenuated parasites through intramuscular (I.M.) and intraperitoneal (I.P.) route in BALB/c mice model. The T-cell proliferation level, the mRNA expression level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor growth factor-beta (TGF-β) genes and finally the phosphorylation levels of phosphoinositide dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) molecules were checked in BALB/c mice model immunized with radio-attenuated Leishmania donovani parasites through I.M. route. Higher T-cell proliferation, increased iNOS level, and suppressed TGF-β level were found in treated infected animal groups (100 and 150Gy) in relation to untreated infected animals. Likewise, phosphorylation levels of PDK1, PI3K and p38MAPK of these two groups were increased when compared to untreated infected controls. The clearance of the parasites from treated infected groups of animals may be mediated by the restoration of T-cell due to therapy with radio-attenuated L. donovani parasites. The killing of parasites was mediated by increase in nitric oxide release through PDK1, PI3K and p38MAPK signaling pathways. A lower TGF-β expression has augmented the restored Th1 ambience in the 100 and 150Gy treated animal groups proving further the efficacy of the candidate vaccine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  17. Melatonin Suppresses the Growth of Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines (OVCAR-429 and PA-1 and Potentiates the Effect of G1 Arrest by Targeting CDKs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ju Shen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is found in animals as well as plants. In animals, it is a hormone that anticipates the daily onset of darkness and regulates physiological functions, such as sleep timing, blood pressure, and reproduction. Melatonin has also been found to have anti-tumor properties. Malignant cancers are the most common cause of death, and the mortality rate of ovarian tumor is the highest among gynecological diseases. This study investigated the anti-tumor effects of melatonin on the ovarian cancer lines, OVCAR-429 and PA-1. We observed the accumulation of melatonin-treated cells in the G1 phase due to the down-regulation of CDK 2 and 4. Our results suggest that in addition to the known effects on prevention, melatonin may also provide anti-tumor activity in established ovarian cancer.

  18. Triparanol suppresses human tumor growth in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Xinyu; Han, Xingpeng; Zhang, Fang; He, Miao; Zhang, Yi; Zhi, Xiu-Yi; Zhao, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Demonstrate Triparanol can block proliferation in multiple cancer cells. ► Demonstrate Triparanol can induce apoptosis in multiple cancer cells. ► Proved Triparanol can inhibit Hedgehog signaling in multiple cancer cells. ► Demonstrated Triparanol can impede tumor growth in vivo in mouse xenograft model. -- Abstract: Despite the improved contemporary multidisciplinary regimens treating cancer, majority of cancer patients still suffer from adverse effects and relapse, therefore posing a significant challenge to uncover more efficacious molecular therapeutics targeting signaling pathways central to tumorigenesis. Here, our study have demonstrated that Triparanol, a cholesterol synthesis inhibitor, can block proliferation and induce apoptosis in multiple human cancer cells including lung, breast, liver, pancreatic, prostate cancer and melanoma cells, and growth inhibition can be rescued by exogenous addition of cholesterol. Remarkably, we have proved Triparanol can significantly repress Hedgehog pathway signaling in these human cancer cells. Furthermore, study in a mouse xenograft model of human lung cancer has validated that Triparanol can impede tumor growth in vivo. We have therefore uncovered Triparanol as potential new cancer therapeutic in treating multiple types of human cancers with deregulated Hedgehog signaling.

  19. Delayed Growth Suppression and Radioresistance Induced by Long-Term Continuous Gamma Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiroo; Furukawa, Chiharu; Chang, Young-Chae; Ogata, Hiromitsu; Magae, Junji

    2017-08-01

    Biological response to ionizing radiation depends not only on the type of radiation and dose, but also on the duration and dose rate of treatment. For a given radiation dose, the biological response may differ based on duration and dose rate. We studied the properties of two human cell lines, M059K glioma and U2OS osteosarcoma, continuously exposed to γ rays for long time periods of more than five months. Growth inhibition in both cell lines was dependent on total dose when exposed to acute radiation over several minutes, whereas prolonged growth inhibition was dependent on dose rate after continuous irradiation over several months. The minimum dose rate for growth inhibition was 53.6 mGy/h. Cell cycle analysis showed G 1 phase accumulation in cell populations continuously exposed to γ rays, and G 2 phase accumulation in cells acutely exposed to high-dose-rate γ rays. Cells continuously exposed to γ rays continued to exhibit delayed growth suppression even after one month in an environment of background radiation, and maintained a high-level expression of c-Jun and its phosphorylation forms, as well as resistance to apoptosis induced by staurosporine and chemotherapeutic agents. These delayed effects were not observed in cells acutely exposed to 5 Gy of radiation. These results suggest that optimization of the irradiation schedule is crucial for risk estimation, protection and therapeutic utilization of ionizing radiation.

  20. Tumor-specific RNA interference targeting Pokemon suppresses tumor growth and induces apoptosis in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yining; Xu, Shuxiong; Wang, Xiangwei; Shi, Hua; Sun, Zhaolin; Yang, Zhao

    2013-02-01

    To explore the exact mechanism of Pokemon in prostate cancer. Pokemon is a member of the POK family of transcriptional repressors. Its main function is suppression of the p14ARF (alternate reading frame) tumor suppressor gene. Although Pokemon expression has been found to be increased in various types of lymphoma, the exact mechanism of the gene in prostate cancer is not clear. In the present study, prostate cancer cells were transfected with the specific short hairpin ribonucleic acid (RNA) expression vector targeting Pokemon. The expression of Pokemon messenger RNA and its protein was detected by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. The cell growth and cell apoptosis were also examined using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that specific RNA interference (RNAi) could decrease the expression levels of Pokemon gene messenger RNA and protein in prostate cancer cells. In addition, that specific RNAi significantly inhibited the cell proliferation and increased the apoptotic rate. In vivo experiments showed that specific RNAi inhibited the tumorigenicity of prostate cancer cells and significantly suppressed tumor growth. Therefore, an RNAi-targeted Pokemon gene strategy could be a potential approach to prostate cancer therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of a single chromosome in the normal human genome essential for suppression of hamster cell transformation.

    OpenAIRE

    Stoler, A; Bouck, N

    1985-01-01

    Normal human fibroblasts were fused to carcinogen-transformed baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells and found to be able to suppress the anchorage-independent transformed phenotype of the hamster cells. This suppression was not due to interspecies incompatibility, for transformation could be effectively expressed in hybrids if either the human or the BHK parent had initially been transformed by a dominantly acting viral genome. Upon growth of suppressed hybrids, loss of human chromosomes was accomp...

  2. Pyridine 2,4-Dicarboxylic Acid Suppresses Tomato Seedling Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Kaloudas, Dimitrios; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    2018-01-01

    Pyridine 2,4-dicarboxylic acid is a structural analog of 2-oxoglutarate and is known to inhibit 2-oxoglutare-dependent dioxygenases. The effect of this inhibitor in tomato seedlings grown in MS media supplied with various concentrations of PDCA was investigated, resulting in shorter roots and hypocotyls in a dose-dependent manner. The partial inhibition of growth in roots was more drastic compared to hypocotyls and was attributed to a decrease in the elongation of root and hypocotyl cells. Concentrations of 100 and 250 μM of PDCA decreased hydroxyproline content in roots while only the 250 μM treatment reduced the hydroxyproline content in shoots. Seedlings treated with 100 μM PDCA exhibited enhanced growth of hypocotyl and cotyledon cells and higher hydroxyproline content resulting in cotyledons with greater surface area. However, no alterations in hypocotyl length were observed. Prolyl 4 hydroxylases (P4Hs) are involved in the O-glycosylation of AGPs and were also highly expressed during seedling growth. Moreover PDCA induced a decrease in the accumulation of HRGPs and particularly in AGPs-bound epitopes in a dose dependent-manner while more drastic reduction were observed in roots compared to shoots. In addition, bulged root epidermal cells were observed at the high concentration of 250 μM which is characteristic of root tissues with glycosylation defects. These results indicate that PDCA induced pleiotropic effects during seedling growth while further studies are required to better investigate the physiological significance of this 2-oxoglutarate analog. This pharmacological approach might be used as a tool to better understand the physiological significance of HRGPs and probably P4Hs in various growth and developmental programs in plants.

  3. Pyridine 2,4-Dicarboxylic Acid Suppresses Tomato Seedling Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Fragkostefanakis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyridine 2,4-dicarboxylic acid is a structural analog of 2-oxoglutarate and is known to inhibit 2-oxoglutare-dependent dioxygenases. The effect of this inhibitor in tomato seedlings grown in MS media supplied with various concentrations of PDCA was investigated, resulting in shorter roots and hypocotyls in a dose-dependent manner. The partial inhibition of growth in roots was more drastic compared to hypocotyls and was attributed to a decrease in the elongation of root and hypocotyl cells. Concentrations of 100 and 250 μM of PDCA decreased hydroxyproline content in roots while only the 250 μM treatment reduced the hydroxyproline content in shoots. Seedlings treated with 100 μM PDCA exhibited enhanced growth of hypocotyl and cotyledon cells and higher hydroxyproline content resulting in cotyledons with greater surface area. However, no alterations in hypocotyl length were observed. Prolyl 4 hydroxylases (P4Hs are involved in the O-glycosylation of AGPs and were also highly expressed during seedling growth. Moreover PDCA induced a decrease in the accumulation of HRGPs and particularly in AGPs-bound epitopes in a dose dependent-manner while more drastic reduction were observed in roots compared to shoots. In addition, bulged root epidermal cells were observed at the high concentration of 250 μM which is characteristic of root tissues with glycosylation defects. These results indicate that PDCA induced pleiotropic effects during seedling growth while further studies are required to better investigate the physiological significance of this 2-oxoglutarate analog. This pharmacological approach might be used as a tool to better understand the physiological significance of HRGPs and probably P4Hs in various growth and developmental programs in plants.

  4. Dietary compounds galangin and myricetin suppress ovarian cancer cell angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haizhi; Chen, Allen Y; Rojanasakul, Yon; Ye, Xingqian; Rankin, Gary O; Chen, Yi Charlie

    2015-05-01

    Galangin and myricetin are flavonoids isolated from vegetables and fruits which exhibit anti-proliferative activity in human cancer cells. In this study, their anti-angiogenic effects were investigated with in vitro (HUVEC) and in vivo (CAM) models, which showed that galangin and myricetin inhibited angiogenesis induced by OVCAR-3 cells. The molecular mechanisms through which galangin and myricetin suppress angiogenesis were also studied. It was observed that galangin and myricetin inhibited secretion of the key angiogenesis mediator vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and decreased levels of p-Akt, p-70S6K and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) proteins in A2780/CP70 and OVCAR-3 cells. Transient transfection experiments showed that galangin and myricetin inhibited secretion of VEGF by the Akt/p70S6K/ HIF-1α pathway. Moreover, a novel pathway, p21/HIF-1α/VEGF, was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of myricetin on angiogenesis in OVCAR-3 cells. These data suggest that galangin and myricetin might serve as potential anti-angiogenic agents in the prevention of ovarian cancers dependent on new blood vessel networks.

  5. Mesenchymal stem cells-regulated Treg cells suppress colitis-associated colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui-jing; Shen, Su-nan; Zhao, Xiao-yin; Nie, Yun-zhong; Xu, Yu-jun; Ren, Jing; Lv, Ming-ming; Hou, Ya-yi; Wang, Ting-ting

    2015-04-13

    Previous studies have produced controversial results regarding whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) promote or inhibit tumor development. Given the dual role of MSCs in inflammation and cancer, in this study the colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) model was used to examine whether umbilical cord tissue-derived MSCs could prevent neoplasm by inhibiting chronic inflammation. MSCs were obtained and identified using flow cytometry. Colitis-associated colorectal cancer model was induced using azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and MSCs were injected intravenously twice. Levels of immune cells in mesenteric lymph node including regulatory T (Treg) cells were detected using flow cytometry. Naïve T cells and Jurkat cells were co-cultured with MSCs and the effect of MSCs on Treg cells differentiation was evaluated. After injection through tail vein, MSCs could migrate to colon and suppress colitis-related neoplasm. This tumor suppressive effect was characterized by longer colon length, decreased tumor numbers and decreased expression of Ki-67. Moreover, MSCs alleviated the pathology of inflammation in the colitis stage of CAC model and inhibited inflammation cytokines both in colon and serum. Furthermore, Treg cells were accumulated in mesenteric lymph node of MSCs-treated mice while the percentage of T helper cells 2 (Th2) and Th17 were not changed. Of note, MSCs secreted transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) enhanced the induction of Treg cells from naïve T cells. The conditioned medium of MSCs also activated Smad2 signaling, which has been reported to regulate Treg cells. These results proved that MSCs could migrate to colon tissues and induce the differentiation of Treg cells via Smad2 as so to inhibit the colitis and suppress the development of CAC.

  6. Gigantol Suppresses Cancer Stem Cell-Like Phenotypes in Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narumol Bhummaphan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As cancer stem cells (CSCs contribute to malignancy, metastasis, and relapse of cancers, potential of compound in inhibition of CSCs has garnered most attention in the cancer research as well as drug development fields recently. Herein, we have demonstrated for the first time that gigantol, a pure compound isolated from Dendrobium draconis, dramatically suppressed stem-like phenotypes of human lung cancer cells. Gigantol at nontoxic concentrations significantly reduced anchorage-independent growth and survival of the cancer cells. Importantly, gigantol significantly reduced the ability of the cancer cells to form tumor spheroids, a critical hallmark of CSCs. Concomitantly, the treatment of the compound was shown to reduce well-known lung CSCs markers, including CD133 and ALDH1A1. Moreover, we revealed that gigantol decreased stemness in the cancer cells by suppressing the activation of protein kinase B (Akt signal which in turn decreased the cellular levels of pluripotency and self-renewal factors Oct4 and Nanog. In conclusion, gigantol possesses CSCs suppressing activity which may facilitate the development of this compound for therapeutic approaches by targeting CSCs.

  7. High Concentration of Melatonin Regulates Leaf Development by Suppressing Cell Proliferation and Endoreduplication in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiannan; An, Bang; Shi, Haitao; Luo, Hongli; He, Chaozu

    2017-05-05

    N -acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine (Melatonin), as a crucial messenger in plants, functions in adjusting biological rhythms, stress tolerance, plant growth and development. Several studies have shown the retardation effect of exogenous melatonin treatment on plant growth and development. However, the in vivo role of melatonin in regulating plant leaf growth and the underlying mechanism are still unclear. In this study, we found that high concentration of melatonin suppressed leaf growth in Arabidopsis by reducing both cell size and cell number. Further kinetic analysis of the fifth leaves showed that melatonin remarkably inhibited cell division rate. Additionally, flow cytometic analysis indicated that melatonin negatively regulated endoreduplication during leaf development. Consistently, the expression analysis revealed that melatonin regulated the transcriptional levels of key genes of cell cycle and ribosome. Taken together, this study suggests that high concentration of melatonin negatively regulated the leaf growth and development in Arabidopsis , through modulation of endoreduplication and the transcripts of cell cycle and ribosomal key genes.

  8. Chemical interference with iron transport systems to suppress bacterial growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Yang

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential nutrient for the growth of most bacteria. To obtain iron, bacteria have developed specific iron-transport systems located on the membrane surface to uptake iron and iron complexes such as ferrichrome. Interference with the iron-acquisition systems should be therefore an efficient strategy to suppress bacterial growth and infection. Based on the chemical similarity of iron and ruthenium, we used a Ru(II complex R-825 to compete with ferrichrome for the ferrichrome-transport pathway in Streptococcus pneumoniae. R-825 inhibited the bacterial growth of S. pneumoniae and stimulated the expression of PiuA, the iron-binding protein in the ferrichrome-uptake system on the cell surface. R-825 treatment decreased the cellular content of iron, accompanying with the increase of Ru(II level in the bacterium. When the piuA gene (SPD_0915 was deleted in the bacterium, the mutant strain became resistant to R-825 treatment, with decreased content of Ru(II. Addition of ferrichrome can rescue the bacterial growth that was suppressed by R-825. Fluorescence spectral quenching showed that R-825 can bind with PiuA in a similar pattern to the ferrichrome-PiuA interaction in vitro. These observations demonstrated that Ru(II complex R-825 can compete with ferrichrome for the ferrichrome-transport system to enter S. pneumoniae, reduce the cellular iron supply, and thus suppress the bacterial growth. This finding suggests a novel antimicrobial approach by interfering with iron-uptake pathways, which is different from the mechanisms used by current antibiotics.

  9. iNKT cells suppress the CD8+ T cell response to a murine Burkitt's-like B cell lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan L Bjordahl

    Full Text Available The T cell response to B cell lymphomas differs from the majority of solid tumors in that the malignant cells themselves are derived from B lymphocytes, key players in immune response. B cell lymphomas are therefore well situated to manipulate their surrounding microenvironment to enhance tumor growth and minimize anti-tumor T cell responses. We analyzed the effect of T cells on the growth of a transplantable B cell lymphoma and found that iNKT cells suppressed the anti-tumor CD8(+ T cell response. Lymphoma cells transplanted into syngeneic wild type (WT mice or Jalpha18(-/- mice that specifically lack iNKT cells grew initially at the same rate, but only the mice lacking iNKT cells were able to reject the lymphoma. This effect was due to the enhanced activity of tumor-specific CD8(+ T cells in the absence of iNKT cells, and could be partially reversed by reconstitution of iNKT cells in Jalpha 18(-/- mice. Treatment of tumor-bearing WT mice with alpha -galactosyl ceramide, an activating ligand for iNKT cells, reduced the number of tumor-specific CD8(+ T cells. In contrast, lymphoma growth in CD1d1(-/- mice that lack both iNKT and type II NKT cells was similar to that in WT mice, suggesting that type II NKT cells are required for full activation of the anti-tumor immune response. This study reveals a tumor-promoting role for iNKT cells and suggests their capacity to inhibit the CD8(+ T cell response to B cell lymphoma by opposing the effects of type II NKT cells.

  10. CXCL12 chemokine expression suppresses human pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishan Roy

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an unsolved health problem with nearly 75% of patients diagnosed with advanced disease and an overall 5-year survival rate near 5%. Despite the strong link between mortality and malignancy, the mechanisms behind pancreatic cancer dissemination and metastasis are poorly understood. Correlative pathological and cell culture analyses suggest the chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays a biological role in pancreatic cancer progression. In vivo roles for the CXCR4 ligand CXCL12 in pancreatic cancer malignancy were investigated. CXCR4 and CXCR7 were consistently expressed in normal and cancerous pancreatic ductal epithelium, established cell lines, and patient-derived primary cancer cells. Relative to healthy exocrine ducts, CXCL12 expression was pathologically repressed in pancreatic cancer tissue specimens and patient-derived cell lines. To test the functional consequences of CXCL12 silencing, pancreatic cancer cell lines stably expressingthe chemokine were engineered. Consistent with a role for CXCL12 as a tumor suppressor, cells producing the chemokine wereincreasingly adherent and migration deficient in vitro and poorly metastatic in vivo, compared to control cells. Further, CXCL12 reintroduction significantly reduced tumor growth in vitro, with significantly smaller tumors in vivo, leading to a pronounced survival advantage in a preclinical model. Together, these data demonstrate a functional tumor suppressive role for the normal expression of CXCL12 in pancreatic ducts, regulating both tumor growth andcellulardissemination to metastatic sites.

  11. TRIM45 negatively regulates NF-κB-mediated transcription and suppresses cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Mio; Sato, Tomonobu; Nukiwa, Ryota; Ariga, Tadashi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► NF-κB plays an important role in cell survival and carcinogenesis. ► TRIM45 negatively regulates TNFα-induced NF-κB-mediated transcription. ► TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. ► TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-κB signal and regulates cell growth. -- Abstract: The NF-κB signaling pathway plays an important role in cell survival, immunity, inflammation, carcinogenesis, and organogenesis. Activation of NF-κB is regulated by several posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation, neddylation and ubiquitination. The NF-κB signaling pathway is activated by two distinct signaling mechanisms and is strictly modulated by the ubiquitin–proteasome system. It has been reported that overexpression of TRIM45, one of the TRIM family ubiquitin ligases, suppresses transcriptional activities of Elk-1 and AP-1, which are targets of the MAPK signaling pathway. In this study, we showed that TRIM45 also negatively regulates TNFα-induced NF-κB-mediated transcription by a luciferase reporter assay and that TRIM45 lacking a RING domain also has an activity to inhibit the NF-κB signal. Moreover, we found that TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. These findings suggest that TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-κB signal and regulates cell growth.

  12. Suppression of tumor growth in vivo by local and systemic 90K level increase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jallal, B; Powell, J; Zachwieja, J

    1995-01-01

    Expression levels of the immunostimulatory 90K antigen in mammary carcinoma, glioblastoma, and other tumor-derived cell lines inversely correlate with their tumorigenicity in athymic mice. Engineered enhancement of 90K expression results in significant (> 80%) tumor growth inhibition, not by dire...... signal for the body's cellular defense against pathogens, which in a subset of tumors is suppressed to allow cancer progression....... action on the tumor cell, but by stimulation of the residual cell-mediated immune defense of the nude mouse. Enhanced 90K level effects are both localized and systemic and involve induction of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in the tumor endothelium. The findings presented suggest a role for 90K as a molecular alarm...

  13. Cyclohexylmethyl Flavonoids Suppress Propagation of Breast Cancer Stem Cells via Downregulation of NANOG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Liao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs are highly tumorigenic and possess the capacity to self-renew. Recent studies indicated that pluripotent gene NANOG involves in regulating self-renewal of breast CSCs, and expression of NANOG is correlated with aggressiveness of poorly differentiated breast cancer. We initially confirmed that breast cancer MCF-7 cells expressed NANOG, and overexpression of NANOG enhanced the tumorigenicity of MCF-7 cells and promoted the self-renewal expansion of CD24−/lowCD44+ CSC subpopulation. In contrast, knockdown of NANOG significantly affected the growth of breast CSCs. Utilizing flow cytometry, we identified five cyclohexylmethyl flavonoids that can inhibit propagation of NANOG-positive cells in both breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cells. Among these flavonoids, ugonins J and K were found to be able to induce apoptosis in non-CSC populations and to reduce self-renewal growth of CD24−/lowCD44+ CSC population. Treatment with ugonin J significantly reduced the tumorigenicity of MCF-7 cells and efficiently suppressed formation of mammospheres. This suppression was possibly due to p53 activation and NANOG reduction as either addition of p53 inhibitor or overexpression of NANOG can counteract the suppressive effect of ugonin J. We therefore conclude that cyclohexylmethyl flavonoids can possibly be utilized to suppress the propagation of breast CSCs via reduction of NANOG.

  14. Suppression of autophagy exacerbates Mefloquine-mediated cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji Hyun; Park, So Jung; Jo, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Eun Sung; Kang, Hee; Park, Ji-Ho; Lee, Eunjoo H; Cho, Dong-Hyung

    2012-05-02

    Mefloquine is an effective treatment drug for malaria. However, it can cause several adverse side effects, and the precise mechanism associated with the adverse neurological effects of Mefloquine is not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Mefloquine on autophagy in neuroblastoma cells. Mefloquine treatment highly induced the formation of autophagosomes and the conversion of LC3I into LC3II. Moreover, Mefloquine-induced autophagy was efficiently suppressed by an autophagy inhibitor and by down regulation of ATG6. The autophagy was also completely blocked in ATG5 deficient mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. Moreover, suppression of autophagy significantly intensified Mefloquine-mediated cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Our findings suggest that suppression of autophagy may exacerbate Mefloquine toxicity in neuroblastoma cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pharmacologic suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Vallina, L; Yañez, R; Blanco, B; Gil, M; Russell, S J

    2000-04-01

    Adoptive therapy with autologous T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors (chTCRs) is of potential interest for the treatment of malignancy. To limit possible T-cell-mediated damage to normal tissues that weakly express the targeted tumor antigen (Ag), we have tested a strategy for the suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells. Jurkat T cells were transduced with an anti-hapten chTCR tinder the control of a tetracycline-suppressible promoter and were shown to respond to Ag-positive (hapten-coated) but not to Ag-negative target cells. The engineered T cells were then reacted with hapten-coated target cells at different effector to target cell ratios before and after exposure to tetracycline. When the engineered T cells were treated with tetracycline, expression of the chTCR was greatly decreased and recognition of the hapten-coated target cells was completely suppressed. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells may be a useful strategy to limit the toxicity of the approach to cancer gene therapy.

  16. Growth suppressive effect of pegylated arginase in malignant pleural mesothelioma xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Sze-Kwan; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Shi; Leung, Leanne Lee; U, Kin-Pong; Zheng, Yan-Fang; Cheng, Paul Ning-Man; Ho, James Chung-Man

    2017-05-02

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a difficult-to-treat global disease. Pegylated arginase (BCT-100) has recently shown anti-tumor effects in hepatocellular carcinoma, acute myeloid leukemia and melanoma. This study aims to investigate the effects of PEG-BCT-100 in MPM. A panel of 5 mesothelioma cell lines (H28, 211H, H226, H2052 and H2452) was used to study the in vitro effects of BCT-100 by crystal violet staining. The in vivo effects of BCT-100 were studied using 211H and H226 nude mice xenografts. Protein expression (argininosuccinate synthetase, ornithine transcarbamylase, cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase 3, cyclins (A2, D3, E1 and H), CDK4 and Ki67) and arginine concentration were evaluated by Western blot and ELISA respectively. Cellular localization of BCT-100 was detected by immunohistochemistry and immunoflorescence. TUNEL assay was used to identify cellular apoptotic events. Argininosuccinate synthetase was expressed in H28, H226, and H2452 cells as well as 211H and H266 xenografts. Ornithine transcarbamylase was undetectable in all cell lines and xenograft models. BCT-100 reduced in vitro cell viability (IC 50 values at 13-24 mU/ml, 72 h) across different cell lines and suppressed tumor growth in both 211H and H226 xenograft models. BCT-100 (60 mg/kg) significantly suppressed tumor growth (p mesothelioma xenograft models. The findings provide scientific evidence to support further clinical development of BCT-100 in treatment of MPM.

  17. Suppression of polymorphonuclear (PMN) and monocyte-mediated inhibition of Candida albicans growth by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djeu, J.Y.; Parapanios, A.; Halkias, D.; Friedman, H.

    1986-03-05

    This study was an in vitro attempt to identify the effector cells responsible for growth inhibition of the opportunistic fungus, candida albicans, and to determine if THC or another marijuana derivatives, 11-hydroxyTHC, would adversely affect their function. Using a 24h radiolabel assay, the authors found that growth inhibition of C. albicans was primarily mediated by PMN and monocytes that could be isolated normal human peripheral blood. Both effector cell types caused almost complete inhibition of Candida growth at effector/target ratio of 300/1 and inhibition was often still seen at 30/1-. Incubation of PMN, PBL, or monocytes for 1 hr at 37C with THC or 11-hydroxyTHC caused a marked suppression of function in all 3 cell populations. Maximal suppression was obtained with 7.5-10..mu..g/ml of the drugs in medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or with 2-4..mu..g/ml in 1% FBS. These drug concentrations did not affect lymphoid cell viability or candida growth in the absence of lymphoid effector cells. Marijuana derivatives, therefore, are doubly dangerous in that opportunistic fungi such as C. albicans can grow in their presence while the effector cells that control fungal growth are readily inactivated.

  18. Suppression of polymorphonuclear (PMN) and monocyte-mediated inhibition of Candida albicans growth by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djeu, J.Y.; Parapanios, A.; Halkias, D.; Friedman, H.

    1986-01-01

    This study was an in vitro attempt to identify the effector cells responsible for growth inhibition of the opportunistic fungus, candida albicans, and to determine if THC or another marijuana derivatives, 11-hydroxyTHC, would adversely affect their function. Using a 24h radiolabel assay, the authors found that growth inhibition of C. albicans was primarily mediated by PMN and monocytes that could be isolated normal human peripheral blood. Both effector cell types caused almost complete inhibition of Candida growth at effector/target ratio of 300/1 and inhibition was often still seen at 30/1-. Incubation of PMN, PBL, or monocytes for 1 hr at 37C with THC or 11-hydroxyTHC caused a marked suppression of function in all 3 cell populations. Maximal suppression was obtained with 7.5-10μg/ml of the drugs in medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or with 2-4μg/ml in 1% FBS. These drug concentrations did not affect lymphoid cell viability or candida growth in the absence of lymphoid effector cells. Marijuana derivatives, therefore, are doubly dangerous in that opportunistic fungi such as C. albicans can grow in their presence while the effector cells that control fungal growth are readily inactivated

  19. Suppression of the cell proliferation in stomach cancer cells by the ZNRD1 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Liu; Zhang Yumei; Liu Na; Liu Changjiang; Zhi Min; Pan Yanglin; Lan Mei; Sun Li; Fan Daiming

    2004-01-01

    Zinc ribbon domain-containing 1 (ZNRD1), a transcription-associated gene, was recently found to be downregulated in human gastric cancer tissues as compared to the matched adjacent nonneoplastic tissues. In this study, we constructed the siRNA eukaryotic expression vectors of ZNRD1 and transfected them into normal gastric epithelial cells (GES-1). We also introduced the ZNRD1 gene into gastric cancer cells that do (SGC7901) and do not (AGS) express ZNRD1 endogenously. GES-1 cells stably transfected with the ZNRD1-RNAi were found to exhibit significantly quicker proliferation than empty vector transfectants. AGS cells stably transfected with the ZNRD1 cDNA exhibited significantly decreased growth rate as compared to control vector transfectants, whereas SGC7901 cells did not. Furthermore, ZNRD1 suppresses growth of AGS cells in soft agar and tumor formation in athymic nude mice. This study clearly demonstrates that ZNRD1 may play an important role in the control of human gastric cancer development by regulating cell proliferation. These results provide new insights into the function of ZNRD1 and further validate ZNRD1 as a potential therapeutic target in gastric cancer

  20. miR-203 Suppresses Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis by Targeting VEGFA in Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Zhu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: MicroRNA (miRNA plays important roles in the development of different cancers. In this study, we investigated the roles and mechanisms of miR-203 in human cervical cancer. Methods: miR-203 expression was detected in cervical cancer tumors and cell lines by qRT-PCR. The methylation status in the promoter region of miR-203 was examined by methylation-specific PCR. The functional effect of miR-203 was determined by both in vitro and in vivo assays. Results: miR-203 was frequently down-regulated in cervical cancer tumors and cell lines. This down-regulation of miR-203 was associated with methylation of the miR-203 promoter. Furthermore, miR-203 down-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor alpha (VEGFA expression by directly targeting its 3'-untranslated region. Functional assays revealed that miR-203 suppressed cervical cancer cell proliferation, tumor growth, and angiogenesis in nude mice, whereas forced expression of VEGFA rescued this inhibitory effect. Conclusion: Our collective findings indicate that miR-203 functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting VEGFA, resulting in the inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis. Thus, miR-203 may be a potential therapeutic target and prognostic marker in cervical cancer.

  1. TCDD causes suppression of growth and differentiation of MCF10A, human mammary epithelial cells by interfering with their insulin receptor signaling through c-Src kinase and ERK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sujin; Mazina, Olga; Kitagawa, Akira; Wong, Patrick; Matsumura, Fumio

    2004-01-01

    One of the proposed mechanisms of carcinogenic action of TCDD (=dioxin) on breast cells is that it causes significant inhibition of proper differentiation of mammary duct epithelial cells and thereby increases the number of terminal end buds, which are susceptible to other carcinogens (Fenton et al., Toxicol Sci 2002;67:63-74; Brown et al., Carcinogenesis 1998; 19:1623-1629; Lamartiniere, J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 2002;7:67-76). To address this topic, we selected MCF10A, a line of immortalized normal human breast epithelial cells as an in vitro model. An initial effort was made to optimize the cultural condition of MCF10A cells to promote the cell differentiation effect of insulin. Under this condition, TCDD clearly antagonized the action of insulin only in the presence of cholera toxin that is known to promote the differentiation of normal human breast epithelial cells. To test the hypothesis that TCDD-induced c-Src kinase activation is casually related to this compound's antagonistic action against insulin, we treated MCF10A cells with two c-Src blocking agents, an anti-Src antisense oligonucleotides blocker and a known specific inhibitor of c-Src kinase, PP-2 and studied the effect of insulin and TCDD on cell proliferation. The results showed that, in cells treated with either of these two c-Src blocking agents, the antagonistic effect of TCDD disappeared. It was also found that agents which specifically block the activation of ERK could also abrogate the action of TCDD to suppress insulin signaling. Together, these results indicate that the mechanism of the antagonistic action of TCDD on insulin signaling is mainly mediated through c-Src signaling through activation of ERK.

  2. Leptin Suppresses Mouse Taste Cell Responses to Sweet Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Noguchi, Kenshi; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Takahashi, Ichiro; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-11-01

    Leptin is known to selectively suppress neural and behavioral responses to sweet-tasting compounds. However, the molecular basis for the effect of leptin on sweet taste is not known. Here, we report that leptin suppresses sweet taste via leptin receptors (Ob-Rb) and KATP channels expressed selectively in sweet-sensitive taste cells. Ob-Rb was more often expressed in taste cells that expressed T1R3 (a sweet receptor component) than in those that expressed glutamate-aspartate transporter (a marker for Type I taste cells) or GAD67 (a marker for Type III taste cells). Systemically administered leptin suppressed taste cell responses to sweet but not to bitter or sour compounds. This effect was blocked by a leptin antagonist and was absent in leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice and mice with diet-induced obesity. Blocking the KATP channel subunit sulfonylurea receptor 1, which was frequently coexpressed with Ob-Rb in T1R3-expressing taste cells, eliminated the effect of leptin on sweet taste. In contrast, activating the KATP channel with diazoxide mimicked the sweet-suppressing effect of leptin. These results indicate that leptin acts via Ob-Rb and KATP channels that are present in T1R3-expressing taste cells to selectively suppress their responses to sweet compounds. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  3. Histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat suppresses the growth of uterine sarcomas in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Edgar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uterine sarcomas are very rare malignancies with no approved chemotherapy protocols. Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors belong to the most promising groups of compounds for molecular targeting therapy. Here, we described the antitumor effects of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; vorinostat on MES-SA uterine sarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo. We investigated effects of vorinostat on growth and colony forming ability by using uterine sarcoma MES-SA cells. We analyzed the influence of vorinostat on expression of different HDACs, p21WAF1 and activation of apoptosis. Finally, we examined the antitumor effects of vorinostat on uterine sarcoma in vivo. Results Vorinostat efficiently suppressed MES-SA cell growth at a low dosage (3 μM already after 24 hours treatment. Decrease of cell survival was even more pronounced after prolonged treatment and reached 9% and 2% after 48 and 72 hours of treatment, respectively. Colony forming capability of MES-SA cells treated with 3 μM vorinostat for 24 and 48 hours was significantly diminished and blocked after 72 hours. HDACs class I (HDAC2 and 3 as well as class II (HDAC7 were preferentially affected by this treatment. Vorinostat significantly increased p21WAF1 expression and apoptosis. Nude mice injected with 5 × 106 MES-SA cells were treated for 21 days with vorinostat (50 mg/kg/day and, in comparison to placebo group, a tumor growth reduction of more than 50% was observed. Results obtained by light- and electron-microscopy suggested pronounced activation of apoptosis in tumors isolated from vorinostat-treated mice. Conclusions Our data strongly indicate the high therapeutic potential of vorinostat in uterine sarcomas.

  4. Regulatory T cells: immune suppression and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Yisong Y

    2010-01-01

    Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells (Tregs) were originally identified as critical in maintaining self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. The immunosuppressive functions of Tregs are widely acknowledged and have been extensively studied. Recent studies have revealed many diverse roles of Tregs in shaping the immune system and the inflammatory response. This review will discuss our efforts as well as the efforts of others towards understanding the multifaceted function of Treg...

  5. Special regulatory T cell review: The suppression problem!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Herman

    2008-01-01

    The concept of T-cell mediated suppression evolved more than 30 years ago. At that time it spawned many claims that have not stood the test of time. The rediscovery of suppression phenomena and regulatory T cells over the past 15 years created schizophrenic responses amongst immunologists. Some claimed that the new proponents of suppression were, once again, bringing immunology into disrepute, whilst others have embraced the field with great enthusiasm and novel approaches to clarification. Without faithful repetition of the "old" experiments, it is difficult to establish what was right and what was wrong. Nevertheless, immunologists must now accept that a good number of the old claims were overstated, and reflected poor scientific discipline. "I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke, But here I am to speak what I do know" Shakespeare. Julius Caesar Act 3, Scene 2.

  6. Reversing SKI-SMAD4-mediated suppression is essential for TH17 cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Takaku, Motoki; Zou, Liyun; Gu, Ai-di; Chou, Wei-Chun; Zhang, Ge; Wu, Bing; Kong, Qing; Thomas, Seddon Y; Serody, Jonathan S; Chen, Xian; Xu, Xiaojiang; Wade, Paul A; Cook, Donald N; Ting, Jenny P Y; Wan, Yisong Y

    2017-11-02

    T helper 17 (T H 17) cells are critically involved in host defence, inflammation, and autoimmunity. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is instrumental in T H 17 cell differentiation by cooperating with interleukin-6 (refs 6, 7). Yet, the mechanism by which TGFβ enables T H 17 cell differentiation remains elusive. Here we reveal that TGFβ enables T H 17 cell differentiation by reversing SKI-SMAD4-mediated suppression of the expression of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt). We found that, unlike wild-type T cells, SMAD4-deficient T cells differentiate into T H 17 cells in the absence of TGFβ signalling in a RORγt-dependent manner. Ectopic SMAD4 expression suppresses RORγt expression and T H 17 cell differentiation of SMAD4-deficient T cells. However, TGFβ neutralizes SMAD4-mediated suppression without affecting SMAD4 binding to the Rorc locus. Proteomic analysis revealed that SMAD4 interacts with SKI, a transcriptional repressor that is degraded upon TGFβ stimulation. SKI controls histone acetylation and deacetylation of the Rorc locus and T H 17 cell differentiation via SMAD4: ectopic SKI expression inhibits H3K9 acetylation of the Rorc locus, Rorc expression, and T H 17 cell differentiation in a SMAD4-dependent manner. Therefore, TGFβ-induced disruption of SKI reverses SKI-SMAD4-mediated suppression of RORγt to enable T H 17 cell differentiation. This study reveals a critical mechanism by which TGFβ controls T H 17 cell differentiation and uncovers the SKI-SMAD4 axis as a potential therapeutic target for treating T H 17-related diseases.

  7. SH003 suppresses breast cancer growth by accumulating p62 in autolysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youn Kyung; Cho, Sung-Gook; Choi, Yu-Jeong; Yun, Yee Jin; Lee, Kang Min; Lee, Kangwook; Yoo, Hye-Hyun; Shin, Yong Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2017-10-24

    Drug markets revisits herbal medicines, as historical usages address their therapeutic efficacies with less adverse effects. Moreover, herbal medicines save both cost and time in development. SH003, a modified version of traditional herbal medicine extracted from Astragalus membranaceus (Am), Angelica gigas (Ag), and Trichosanthes Kirilowii Maximowicz (Tk) with 1:1:1 ratio (w/w) has been revealed to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis on highly metastatic breast cancer cells, both in vivo and in vitro with no toxicity. Meanwhile, autophagy is imperative for maintenance cellular homeostasis, thereby playing critical roles in cancer progression. Inhibition of autophagy by pharmacological agents induces apoptotic cell death in cancer cells, resulting in cancer treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that SH003-induced autophagy via inhibiting STAT3 and mTOR results in an induction of lysosomal p62/SQSTM1 accumulation-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and attenuates tumor growth. SH003 induced autophagosome and autolysosome formation by inhibiting activation of STAT3- and mTOR-mediated signaling pathways. However, SH003 blocked autophagy-mediated p62/SQSTM1 degradation through reducing of lysosomal proteases, Cathepsins, resulting in accumulation of p62/SQSTM1 in the lysosome. The accumulation of p62/SQSTM1 caused the increase of ROS, which resulted in the induction of apoptotic cell death. Therefore, we conclude that SH003 suppresses breast cancer growth by inducing autophagy. In addition, SH003-induced p62/SQSTM1 could function as an important mediator for ROS generation-dependent cell death suggesting that SH003 may be useful for treating breast cancer.

  8. Suppressive Effect of Some Forage Plants on the Growth of Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Iva xanthiifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senka Milanova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A pot trial in greenhouse conditions has been carried out to investigate the role ofsome plant species in suppression of Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Iva xanthiifolia growth.Screening of several plant species (Medicago sativa L., Lolium perenne L., Dactylis glomerataL. and Elymus repens (L. Gould – all from both turf and seeds was conducted. Theresults of the experiment showed that some perennial plants, especially L. perenne, D.glomerata and M. sativa, can be a reliable means of suppression of the growth and seedproduction of A. artemisiifolia and I. xanthiifolia. Moreover, simple greenhouse screeningturned to be a reliable method for predicting this potential suppressive role under certainconditions.

  9. Tumor-penetrating nanosystem strongly suppresses breast tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Mölder, Tarmo; Tobi, Allan; Teesalu, Tambet; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2018-01-01

    Antiangiogenic and vascular disrupting compounds have shown promise in cancer therapy, but tend to be only partially effective. We previously reported a potent theranostic nanosystem that was highly effective in glioblastoma and breast cancer mouse models, retarding tumor growth and producing some cures [Agemy et al. 2011,2013]. The nanosystem consists of iron oxide NPs (“nanoworms”) coated with a composite peptide with tumor-homing and pro-apoptotic domains. The homing component targets tumor vessels by binding to p32/gC1qR at the surface or tumor endothelial cells. We sought to further improve the efficacy nanosystem by searching for an optimally effective homing peptide that would also incorporate a tumor-penetrating function. To this effect, we tested a panel of candidate p32 binding peptides with a sequence motif that conveys tumor-penetrating activity (CendR motif). We identified a peptide designated as Linear TT1 (Lin TT1) (sequence: AKRGARSTA) as most effective in causing tumor homing and penetration of the nanosystem. This peptide had the lowest affinity for p32 among the peptides tested. The low affinity may have moderated the avidity effect from the multivalent presentation on nanoparticles (NPs), such that the NPs avoid getting trapped by the so called “binding-site barrier”, which can hinder tissue penetration of compounds with a high affinity for their receptors. Treatment of breast cancer mice with the LinTT1 nanosystem showed greatly improved efficacy compared to the original system. These results identify a promising treatment modality and underscore the value of tumor penetration effect in improving the efficacy tumor treatment. PMID:28178415

  10. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses melanoma growth by inhibiting inflammasome and IL-1{beta} secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Lixia Z.; Liu, Weimin; Luo, Yuchun; Okamoto, Miyako; Qu, Dovina; Dunn, Jeffrey H. [Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Fujita, Mayumi, E-mail: mayumi.fujita@ucdenver.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Denver, CO 80220 (United States)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG inhibits melanoma cell growth at physiological doses (0.1-1 {mu}M). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG inhibits melanoma cell growth via inflammasomes and IL-1{beta} suppression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inflammasomes and IL-1{beta} could be potential targets for future melanoma therapeutics. -- Abstract: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenolic component of green tea, has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties. The anti-melanoma effect of EGCG has been previously suggested, but no clear mechanism of action has been established. In this study, we demonstrated that EGCG inhibits melanoma cell growth at physiological doses (0.1-1 {mu}M). In the search for mechanisms of EGCG-mediated melanoma cell suppression, we found that NF-{kappa}B was inhibited, and that reduced NF-{kappa}B activity was associated with decreased IL-1{beta} secretion from melanoma cells. Since inflammasomes are involved in IL-1{beta} secretion, we investigated whether IL-1{beta} suppression was mediated by inflammasomes, and found that EGCG treatment led to downregulation of the inflammasome component, NLRP1, and reduced caspase-1 activation. Furthermore, silencing the expression of NLRP1 abolished EGCG-induced inhibition of tumor cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a key role of inflammasomes in EGCG efficacy. This paper provides a novel mechanism for EGCG-induced melanoma inhibition: inflammasome downregulation {yields} decreased IL-1{beta} secretion {yields} decreased NF-{kappa}B activities {yields} decreased cell growth. In addition, it suggests inflammasomes and IL-1{beta} could be potential targets for future melanoma therapeutics.

  11. Withaferin A Suppresses Liver Tumor Growth in a Nude Mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of withaferin A on tumor growth and metastasis in liver in a nude mouse model. Methods: Withaferin A was injected through a portal vein to the orthotopic liver tumor in a nude mice model. Xenogen in vivo imaging system was used to monitor tumor growth and metastasis. The effect of ...

  12. Targeting of the Hedgehog signal transduction pathway suppresses survival of malignant pleural mesothelioma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Min; Varona-Santos, Javier; Singh, Samer; Robbins, David J; Savaraj, Niramol; Nguyen, Dao M

    2014-01-01

    The present study sought to determine whether the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is active and regulates the cell growth of cultured malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cells and to evaluate the efficacy of pathway blockade using smoothened (SMO) antagonists (SMO inhibitor GDC-0449 or the antifungal drug itraconazole [ITRA]) or Gli inhibitors (GANT61 or the antileukemia drug arsenic trioxide [ATO]) in suppressing MPM viability. Selective knockdown of SMO to inhibit Hh signaling was achieved by small interfering RNA in 3 representative MPM cells. The growth inhibitory effect of GDC-0449, ITRA, GANT61, and ATO was evaluated in 8 MPM lines, with cell viability quantified using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell death was determined by annexinV/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. SMO small interfering RNA mediated a two- to more than fivefold reduction of SMO and Gli1 gene expression as determined by real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, indicating significant Hh pathway blockade. This was associated with significantly reduced cell viability (34% ± 7% to 61% ± 14% of nontarget small interfering RNA controls; P = .0024 to P = .043). Treating MPM cells with Hh inhibitors resulted in a 1.5- to 4-fold reduction of Gli1 expression. These 4 Hh antagonists strongly suppressed MPM cell viability. More importantly, ITRA, ATO, GANT61 induced significant apoptosis in the representative MPM cells. Hh signaling is active in MPM and regulates cell viability. ATO and ITRA were as effective as the prototypic SMO inhibitor GDC-0449 and the Gli inhibitor GANT61 in suppressing Hh signaling in MPM cells. Pharmaceutical agents Food and Drug Administration-approved for other indications but recently found to have anti-Hh activity, such as ATO or ITRA, could be repurposed to treat MPM. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  13. Selective Mitochondrial Uptake of MKT-077 Can Suppress Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Survival and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Starenki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMedullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC is a neuroendocrine tumor mainly caused by mutations in the rearranged during transfection (RET proto-oncogene. Not all patients with progressive MTC respond to current therapy inhibiting RET, demanding additional therapeutic strategies. We recently demonstrated that disrupting mitochondrial metabolism using a mitochondria-targeted agent or by depleting a mitochondrial chaperone effectively suppressed human MTC cells in culture and in mouse xenografts by inducing apoptosis and RET downregulation. These observations led us to hypothesize that mitochondria are potential therapeutic targets for MTC. This study further tests this hypothesis using1-ethyl-2-[[3-ethyl-5-(3-methylbenzothiazolin-2-yliden]-4-oxothiazolidin-2-ylidenemethyl] pyridinium chloride (MKT-077, a water-soluble rhodocyanine dye analogue, which can selectively accumulate in mitochondria.MethodsThe effects of MKT-077 on cell proliferation, survival, expression of RET and tumor protein 53 (TP53, and mitochondrial activity were determined in the human MTC lines in culture and in mouse xenografts.ResultsMKT-077 induced cell cycle arrest in TT and MZ-CRC-1. Intriguingly, MKT-077 also induced RET downregulation and strong cell death responses in TT cells, but not in MZ-CRC-1 cells. This discrepancy was mainly due to the difference between the capacities of these cell lines to retain MKT-077 in mitochondria. The cytotoxicity of MKT-077 in TT cells was mainly attributed to oxidative stress while being independent of TP53. MKT-077 also effectively suppressed tumor growth of TT xenografts.ConclusionMKT-077 can suppress cell survival of certain MTC subtypes by accumulating in mitochondria and interfering with mitochondrial activity although it can also suppress cell proliferation via other mechanisms. These results consistently support the hypothesis that mitochondrial targeting has therapeutic potential for MTC.

  14. Isolation of Treg cells and Treg cell suppression/death assay

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    In vitro Treg suppression assays are performed to determine the functional effect of Treg cells on CD4 T cells. They are performed by co-culturing the responding population (Tresp) with the Treg cells or control CD4 cells (Tcon cells).

  15. Suppression of T cell-induced osteoclast formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karieb, Sahar; Fox, Simon W., E-mail: Simon.fox@plymouth.ac.uk

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Genistein and coumestrol prevent activated T cell induced osteoclast formation. •Anti-TNF neutralising antibodies prevent the pro-osteoclastic effect of activated T cells. •Phytoestrogens inhibit T cell derived TNF alpha and inflammatory cytokine production. •Phytoestrogens have a broader range of anti-osteoclastic actions than other anti-resorptives. -- Abstract: Inhibition of T cell derived cytokine production could help suppress osteoclast differentiation in inflammatory skeletal disorders. Bisphosphonates are typically prescribed to prevent inflammatory bone loss but are not tolerated by all patients and are associated with an increased risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw. In light of this other anti-resorptives such as phytoestrogens are being considered. However the effect of phytoestrogens on T cell-induced osteoclast formation is unclear. The effect of genistein and coumestrol on activated T cell-induced osteoclastogenesis and cytokine production was therefore examined. Concentrations of genistein and coumestrol (10{sup −7} M) previously shown to directly inhibit osteoclast formation also suppressed the formation of TRAP positive osteoclast induced by con A activated T cells, which was dependent on inhibition of T cell derived TNF-α. While both reduced osteoclast formation their mechanism of action differed. The anti-osteoclastic effect of coumestrol was associated with a dual effect on con A induced T cell proliferation and activation; 10{sup −7} M coumestrol significantly reducing T cell number (0.36) and TNF-α (0.47), IL-1β (0.23) and IL-6 (0.35) expression, whereas genistein (10{sup −7} M) had no effect on T cell number but a more pronounced effect on T cell differentiation reducing expression of TNF-α (0.49), IL-1β (0.52), IL-6 (0.71) and RANKL (0.71). Phytoestrogens therefore prevent the pro-osteoclastic action of T cells suggesting they may have a role in the control of inflammatory bone loss.

  16. Let-7b-mediated suppression of basigin expression and metastasis in mouse melanoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Tzu-Yen [Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chia-Che [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chun-Ting [Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Lai, Cong-Hao [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Peng, Shao-Yu; Ko, Yi-Ju [Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Tang, Pin-Chi, E-mail: pctang@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-15

    Basigin (Bsg), also called extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), is highly expressed on the surface of tumor cells and stimulates adjacent fibroblasts or tumor cells to produce matrix metalloproteinases (mmps). It has been shown that Bsg plays an important role in growth, development, cell differentiation, and tumor progression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short endogenous non-protein coding RNAs of 20-25 nucleotides (nt) that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression by base-pairing to their target mRNAs and thereby mediate cleavage of target mRNAs or translational repression. In this study, let-7b, one of the let-7 family members, was investigated for its effect on the growth and invasiveness of the mouse melanoma cell line B16-F10. We have shown that let-7b can suppress the expression of Bsg in B16-F10 cells and also provided evidence that this suppression could result in the indirect suppression of mmp-9. The ability of B16-F10 cells transfected with let-7b to invade or migrate was significantly reduced. In addition, let-7b transfected B16-F10 cells displayed an inhibition of both cellular proliferation and colony formation. Furthermore, it was shown that the overexpression of let-7b in B16-F10 cells could reduce lung metastasis. Taken together, the present study identifies let-7b as a tumor suppressor that represses cancer cell proliferation and migration as well as tumor metastasis in mouse melanoma cells.

  17. Dormancy of cancer cells with suppression of AKT activity contributes to survival in chronic hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Endo

    Full Text Available A hypoxic microenvironment in tumors has been recognized as a cause of malignancy or resistance to various cancer therapies. In contrast to recent progress in understanding the acute response of cancer cells to hypoxia, the characteristics of tumor cells in chronic hypoxia remain elusive. We have identified a pancreatic cancer cell line, AsPC-1, that is exceptionally able to survive for weeks under 1% oxygen conditions while most tested cancer cell lines die after only some days under these conditions. In chronic hypoxia, AsPC-1 cells entered a state of dormancy characterized by no proliferation, no death, and metabolic suppression. They reversibly switched to active status after being placed again in optimal culture conditions. ATP turnover, an indicator of energy demand, was markedly decreased and accompanied by reduced AKT phosphorylation. Forced activation of AKT resulted in increased ATP turnover and massive cell death in vitro and a decreased number of dormant cells in vivo. In contrast to most cancer cell lines, primary-cultured colorectal cancer cells easily entered the dormant status with AKT suppression under hypoxia combined with growth factor-depleted conditions. Primary colorectal cancer cells in dormancy were resistant to chemotherapy. Thus, the ability to survive in a deteriorated microenvironment by entering into dormancy under chronic hypoxia might be a common property among cancer cells. Targeting the regulatory mechanism inducing this dormant status could provide a new strategy for treating cancer.

  18. Disrupting glucose-6-phosphate isomerase fully suppresses the "Warburg effect" and activates OXPHOS with minimal impact on tumor growth except in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Padua, Monique Cunha; Delodi, Giulia; Vučetić, Milica; Durivault, Jérôme; Vial, Valérie; Bayer, Pascale; Noleto, Guilhermina Rodrigues; Mazure, Nathalie M; Ždralević, Maša; Pouysségur, Jacques

    2017-10-20

    As Otto Warburg first observed, cancer cells largely favor fermentative glycolysis for growth even under aerobic conditions. This energy paradox also extends to rapidly growing normal cells indicating that glycolysis is optimal for fast growth and biomass production. Here we further explored this concept by genetic ablation of fermentative glycolysis in two fast growing cancer cell lines: human colon adenocarcinoma LS174T and B16 mouse melanoma. We disrupted the upstream glycolytic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase ( GPI ), to allow cells to re-route glucose-6-phosphate flux into the pentose-phosphate branch. Indeed, GPI -KO severely reduced glucose consumption and suppressed lactic acid secretion, which reprogrammed these cells to rely on oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial ATP production to maintain viability. In contrast to previous pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis that suppressed tumor growth, GPI -KO surprisingly demonstrated only a moderate impact on normoxic cell growth. However, hypoxic (1% O 2 ) cell growth was severely restricted. Despite in vitro growth restriction under hypoxia, tumor growth rates in vivo were reduced less than 2-fold for both GPI -KO cancer cell lines. Combined our results indicate that exclusive use of oxidative metabolism has the capacity to provide metabolic precursors for biomass synthesis and fast growth. This work and others clearly indicate that metabolic cancer cell plasticity poses a strong limitation to anticancer strategies.

  19. Inhibition of BRD4 Suppresses Cell Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinchao Wu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC remains an intractable genitourinary malignancy. Resistance to chemotherapy or targeted therapies in RCC is presumably due to the complicated underlying molecular mechanisms and insufficient understanding. The aim of this research was to assess the expression and role of bromodomain-4 protein (BRD4 in RCC and evaluate the effects of BRD4 inhibitor JQ1 for RCC treatment. Methods: BRD4 expressionlevels were assessed by qRT-PCR and western blot in RCC tissues and cells. The effects of BRD4 knockdown or JQ1 on RCC cells were assessed by MTT assay and flow cytometry. The effects of in vivo treatment were evaluated through xenograft experiments. Results: BRD4 is significantly overexpressed in RCC, and is related to tumor stage and lymph node metastasis. Inhibition of BRD4 suppressed RCC cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis in vitro and repressed tumor growth in vivo. Inhibition of BRD4 decreased BCL2 and C-MYC expression while increased BAX and cleaved caspase3 expression, and strikingly diminished the recruitment of BRD4 to BCL2 promoter. Conclusions: Our research reveals that BRD4 probably play a critical role in RCC progression, and is a new promising target for pharmacological treatment directed against this intractable disease.

  20. Classically induced suppression of energy growth in a chaotic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent experiments with Bose–Einstein condensates (BEC) in traps and speckle potentials have explored the dynamical regime in which the evolving BEC clouds localize due to the influence of classical dynamics. The growth of their mean energy is effectively arrested. This is in contrast with the well-known localization ...

  1. Eckol suppresses maintenance of stemness and malignancies in glioma stem-like cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Kyung-Hwan; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Rae-Kwon; Lim, Eun-Jung; An, Sungkwan; Park, Myung-Jin; Hyun, Jin-Won; Suh, Yongjoon; Kim, Min-Jung; Lee, Su-Jae

    2011-01-01

    A subpopulation of cancer cells with stem cell properties is responsible for tumor maintenance and progression, and may contribute to resistance to anticancer treatments. Thus, compounds that target cancer stem-like cells could be usefully applied to destroy cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of Eckol, a phlorotannin compound, on stemness and malignancies in glioma stem-like cells. To determine whether Eckol targets glioma stem-like cells, we examined whether Eckol treatment could change the expression levels of glioma stem-like cell markers and self-renewal-related proteins as well as the sphere forming ability, and the sensitivity to anticancer treatments. Alterations in the malignant properties of sphere-derived cells by Eckol were also investigated by soft-agar colony forming assay, by xenograft assay in nude mice, and by cell invasion assay. Treatment of sphere-forming glioma cells with Eckol effectively decreased the sphere formation as well as the CD133 + cell population. Eckol treatment suppressed expression of the glioma stem-like cell markers and the self-renewal-related proteins without cell death. Moreover, treatment of glioma stem-like cells with Eckol significantly attenuated anchorage-independent growth on soft agar and tumor formation in xenograft mice. Importantly, Eckol treatment effectively reduced the resistance of glioma stem-like cells to ionizing radiation and temozolomide. Treatment of glioma stem-like cells with Eckol markedly blocked both phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt and Ras-Raf-1-Erk signaling pathways. These results indicate that the natural phlorotannin Eckol suppresses stemness and malignancies in glioma stem-like cells, and thereby makes glioma stem-like cells more sensitive to anticancer treatments, providing novel therapeutic strategies targeting specifically cancer stem-like cells.

  2. Cardamonin Regulates miR-21 Expression and Suppresses Angiogenesis Induced by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Sheng Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardamonin has promising potential in cancer prevention and therapy by interacting with proteins and modifying the expressions and activities, including factors of cell survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis. In our precious study, we have demonstrated that cardamonin suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor- (VEGF- induced angiogenesis as evaluated in the mouse aortic ring assay. It is also known that microRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in angiogenesis. Herein, we hypothesized whether antiangiogenesis effect of cardamonin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs triggered by VEGF was associated with miRNAs. We found that cardamonin reduced the miR-21 expression induced by VEGF in HUVECs. Treatment with miR-21 mimics abolished the effects of cardamonin on VEGF-induced cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in HUVECs. However, treatment with miR-21 inhibitors presented the opposite effects, indicating the vital role of miR-21 in this process. Our study provides a new insight of the preliminary mechanism of anti-VEGF-induced angiogenesis by cardamonin in HUVECs.

  3. Sumoylation Inhibits the Growth Suppressive Properties of Ikaros.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostol Apostolov

    Full Text Available The Ikaros transcription factor is a tumor suppressor that is also important for lymphocyte development. How post-translational modifications influence Ikaros function remains partially understood. We show that Ikaros undergoes sumoylation in developing T cells that correspond to mono-, bi- or poly-sumoylation by SUMO1 and/or SUMO2/3 on three lysine residues (K58, K240 and K425. Sumoylation occurs in the nucleus and requires DNA binding by Ikaros. Sumoylated Ikaros is less effective than unsumoylated forms at inhibiting the expansion of murine leukemic cells, and Ikaros sumoylation is abundant in human B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemic cells, but not in healthy peripheral blood leukocytes. Our results suggest that sumoylation may be important in modulating the tumor suppressor function of Ikaros.

  4. Notch signaling is significantly suppressed in basal cell carcinomas and activation induces basal cell carcinoma cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng-Tao; Yu, Mei; Zloty, David; Bell, Robert H; Wang, Eddy; Akhoundsadegh, Noushin; Leung, Gigi; Haegert, Anne; Carr, Nicholas; Shapiro, Jerry; McElwee, Kevin J

    2017-04-01

    A subset of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are directly derived from hair follicles (HFs). In some respects, HFs can be defined as 'ordered' skin appendage growths, while BCCs can be regarded as 'disordered' skin appendage growths. The aim of the present study was to examine HFs and BCCs to define the expression of common and unique signaling pathways in each skin appendage. Human nodular BCCs, along with HFs and non‑follicular skin epithelium from normal individuals, were examined using microarrays, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry. Subsequently, BCC cells and root sheath keratinocyte cells from HFs were cultured and treated with Notch signaling peptide Jagged1 (JAG1). Gene expression, protein levels, and cell apoptosis susceptibility were assessed using qPCR, immunoblotting, and flow cytometry, respectively. Specific molecular mechanisms were found to be involved in the process of cell self‑renewal in the HFs and BCCs, including Notch and Hedgehog signaling pathways. However, several key Notch signaling factors showed significant differential expression in BCCs compared with HFs. Stimulating Notch signaling with JAG1 induced apoptosis of BCC cells by increasing Fas ligand expression and downstream caspase-8 activation. The present study showed that Notch signaling pathway activity is suppressed in BCCs, and is highly expressed in HFs. Elements of the Notch pathway could, therefore, represent targets for the treatment of BCCs and potentially in hair follicle engineering.

  5. Components of Streptococcus pneumoniae suppress allergic airways disease and NKT cells by inducing regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, Alison N; Foster, Paul S; Gibson, Peter G; Hansbro, Philip M

    2012-05-01

    Asthma is an allergic airways disease (AAD) caused by dysregulated immune responses and characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). NKT cells have been shown to contribute to AHR in some mouse models. Conversely, regulatory T cells (Tregs) control aberrant immune responses and maintain homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that Streptococcus pneumoniae induces Tregs that have potential to be harnessed therapeutically for asthma. In this study, mouse models of AAD were used to identify the S. pneumoniae components that have suppressive properties, and the mechanisms underlying suppression were investigated. We tested the suppressive capacity of type-3-polysaccharide (T3P), isolated cell walls, pneumolysoid (Ply) and CpG. When coadministered, T3P + Ply suppressed the development of: eosinophilic inflammation, Th2 cytokine release, mucus hypersecretion, and AHR. Importantly, T3P + Ply also attenuated features of AAD when administered during established disease. We show that NKT cells contributed to the development of AAD and also were suppressed by T3P + Ply treatment. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of NKT cells induced AHR, which also could be reversed by T3P + Ply. T3P + Ply-induced Tregs were essential for the suppression of NKT cells and AAD, which was demonstrated by Treg depletion. Collectively, our results show that the S. pneumoniae components T3P + Ply suppress AAD through the induction of Tregs that blocked the activity of NKT cells. These data suggest that S. pneumoniae components may have potential as a therapeutic strategy for the suppression of allergic asthma through the induction of Tregs and suppression of NKT cells.

  6. Aloe-emodin suppresses esophageal cancer cell TE1 proliferation by inhibiting AKT and ERK phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaobin; Zhao, Jimin; Tian, Fang; Jiang, Yanan; Lu, Jing; Ma, Junfen; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Jin, Guoguo; Huang, Youtian; Dong, Zigang; Liu, Kangdong; Dong, Ziming

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation is often observed in various human cancers. Both AKT and ERK are important in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/ERK signaling pathways, which play vital roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Compounds that are able to block these pathways have therefore a promising use in cancer treatment and prevention. The present study revealed that AKT and ERK are activated in esophageal cancer TE1 cells. Aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone present in aloe latex, can suppress TE1 cell proliferation and anchor-independent cell growth. Aloe-emodin can also reduce the number of TE1 cells in S phase. Protein analysis indicated that aloe-emodin inhibits the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, the present data indicate that aloe-emodin can suppress TE1 cell growth by inhibiting AKT and ERK phosphorylation, and suggest its clinical use for cancer therapy. PMID:27602169

  7. Fagopyrum esculentum Alters Its Root Exudation after Amaranthus retroflexus Recognition and Suppresses Weed Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Aurélie; Glauser, Gaétan; Etter, Clément; Signarbieux, Constant; Wirth, Judith

    2018-01-01

    Weed control by crops through growth suppressive root exudates is a promising alternative to herbicides. Buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum ) is known for its weed suppression and redroot pigweed ( Amaranthus retroflexus ) control is probably partly due to allelopathic root exudates. This work studies whether other weeds are also suppressed by buckwheat and if the presence of weeds is necessary to induce growth repression. Buckwheat and different weeds were co-cultivated in soil, separating roots by a mesh allowing to study effects due to diffusion. Buckwheat suppressed growth of pigweed, goosefoot and barnyard grass by 53, 42, and 77% respectively without physical root interactions, probably through allelopathic compounds. Root exudates were obtained from sand cultures of buckwheat (BK), pigweed (P), and a buckwheat/pigweed mixed culture (BK-P). BK-P root exudates inhibited pigweed root growth by 49%. Characterization of root exudates by UHPLC-HRMS and principal component analysis revealed that BK and BK-P had a different metabolic profile suggesting that buckwheat changes its root exudation in the presence of pigweed indicating heterospecific recognition. Among the 15 different markers, which were more abundant in BK-P, tryptophan was identified and four others were tentatively identified. Our findings might contribute to the selection of crops with weed suppressive effects.

  8. Resveratrol suppresses IGF-1 induced human colon cancer cell proliferation and elevates apoptosis via suppression of IGF-1R/Wnt and activation of p53 signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Sridhar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a global phenomenon and is associated with various types of cancer, including colon cancer. There is a growing interest for safe and effective bioactive compounds that suppress the risk for obesity-promoted colon cancer. Resveratrol (trans-3, 4', 5,-trihydroxystilbene, a stilbenoid found in the skin of red grapes and peanuts suppresses many types of cancers by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis through a variety of mechanisms, however, resveratrol effects on obesity-promoted colon cancer are not clearly established. Methods We investigated the anti-proliferative effects of resveratrol on HT-29 and SW480 human colon cancer cells in the presence and absence of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; elevated during obesity and elucidated the mechanisms of action using IGF-1R siRNA in HT-29 cells which represents advanced colon carcinogenesis. Results Resveratrol (100-150 μM exhibited anti-proliferative properties in HT-29 cells even after IGF-1 exposure by arresting G0/G1-S phase cell cycle progression through p27 stimulation and cyclin D1 suppression. Treatment with resveratrol suppressed IGF-1R protein levels and concurrently attenuated the downstream Akt/Wnt signaling pathways that play a critical role in cell proliferation. Targeted suppression of IGF-1R using IGF-1R siRNA also affected these signaling pathways in a similar manner. Resveratrol treatment induced apoptosis by activating tumor suppressor p53 protein, whereas IGF-1R siRNA treatment did not affect apoptosis. Our data suggests that resveratrol not only suppresses cell proliferation by inhibiting IGF-1R and its downstream signaling pathways similar to that of IGF-1R siRNA but also enhances apoptosis via activation of the p53 pathway. Conclusions For the first time, we report that resveratrol suppresses colon cancer cell proliferation and elevates apoptosis even in the presence of IGF-1 via suppression of IGF-1R/Akt/Wnt signaling pathways and

  9. Resveratrol suppresses IGF-1 induced human colon cancer cell proliferation and elevates apoptosis via suppression of IGF-1R/Wnt and activation of p53 signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanamala, Jairam; Reddivari, Lavanya; Radhakrishnan, Sridhar; Tarver, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a global phenomenon and is associated with various types of cancer, including colon cancer. There is a growing interest for safe and effective bioactive compounds that suppress the risk for obesity-promoted colon cancer. Resveratrol (trans-3, 4', 5,-trihydroxystilbene), a stilbenoid found in the skin of red grapes and peanuts suppresses many types of cancers by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis through a variety of mechanisms, however, resveratrol effects on obesity-promoted colon cancer are not clearly established. We investigated the anti-proliferative effects of resveratrol on HT-29 and SW480 human colon cancer cells in the presence and absence of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; elevated during obesity) and elucidated the mechanisms of action using IGF-1R siRNA in HT-29 cells which represents advanced colon carcinogenesis. Resveratrol (100-150 μM) exhibited anti-proliferative properties in HT-29 cells even after IGF-1 exposure by arresting G 0 /G 1 -S phase cell cycle progression through p27 stimulation and cyclin D1 suppression. Treatment with resveratrol suppressed IGF-1R protein levels and concurrently attenuated the downstream Akt/Wnt signaling pathways that play a critical role in cell proliferation. Targeted suppression of IGF-1R using IGF-1R siRNA also affected these signaling pathways in a similar manner. Resveratrol treatment induced apoptosis by activating tumor suppressor p53 protein, whereas IGF-1R siRNA treatment did not affect apoptosis. Our data suggests that resveratrol not only suppresses cell proliferation by inhibiting IGF-1R and its downstream signaling pathways similar to that of IGF-1R siRNA but also enhances apoptosis via activation of the p53 pathway. For the first time, we report that resveratrol suppresses colon cancer cell proliferation and elevates apoptosis even in the presence of IGF-1 via suppression of IGF-1R/Akt/Wnt signaling pathways and activation of p53, suggesting its potential role as a

  10. Mechanisms of plant growth promotion and disease suppression by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 2apa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariprasad, P; Chandrashekar, S; Singh, S Brijesh; Niranjana, S R

    2014-08-01

    A new Pseudomonas strain, designated as 2apa was isolated from tomato rhizosphere and identified as a member of species Pseudomonas aeruginosa based on its morphology, conventional, biochemical, cell wall fatty acid methyl ester analysis, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The strain 2apa was positive for root colonization, indole acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid and siderophore production and inhibited the growth of wide range of microorganisms. Antimicrobial substances produced by this strain with further purification and structure elucidation proved to be phenazine. Under laboratory and greenhouse conditions the strain promoted plant growth and suppressed a wide range of foliar and root pathogens in tomato. The protection offered by strain 2apa to foliar pathogens is considered as induced systemic resistance and was further confirmed by enhanced accumulation of phenolics, elicitation of lipoxygenas activity, and jasmonic acid levels. The broad-spectrum antimicrobial and induced systemic resistance exhibiting strain P. aeruginosa 2apa can be used as an effective biological control candidate against devastating fungal and bacterial pathogens, which attack both root and foliar portions of tomato plant. Production of other functional traits such as IAA and siderophore may enhance its potential as biofertilizer. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Anti-S100A4 antibody suppresses metastasis formation by blocking stroma cell invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Grum-Schwensen, Birgitte; Beck, Mette K

    2012-01-01

    microenvironment, making it an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy. In this study, we produced a function-blocking anti-S100A4 monoclonal antibody with metastasis-suppressing activity. Antibody treatment significantly reduced metastatic burden in the lungs of experimental animals by blocking the recruitment......The small Ca-binding protein, S100A4, has a well-established metastasis-promoting activity. Moreover, its expression is tightly correlated with poor prognosis in patients with numerous types of cancer. Mechanistically, the extracellular S100A4 drives metastasis by affecting the tumor...... of T cells to the site of the primary tumor. In vitro studies demonstrated that this antibody efficiently reduced the invasion of T cells in a fibroblast monolayer. Moreover, it was capable of suppressing the invasive growth of human and mouse fibroblasts. We presume therefore that the antibody exerts...

  12. MiR-203 Determines Poor Outcome and Suppresses Tumor Growth by Targeting TBK1 in Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiping Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Increasing evidence has shown that miR-203 plays important role in human cancer progression. However, little is known about the function of miR-203 in osteosarcoma (OS. Methods: The expression of miR-203 in OS tissues and cell lines were examined by qRT-PCR. The biological role of miR-20 in OS cell proliferation was examined in vitro and in vivo. The targets of miR-203 were identified by a luciferase reporter gene assay. Results: miR-203 was down regulated in OS tissues and cell lines; decreased miR-203 was associated with a poor overall survival in OS patients. Restoration of miR-203 expression reduced cell growth in vitro and suppressed tumorigenicity in vivo. In contrast, inhibition of miR-203 stimulated OS cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1 was identified as a direct target of miR-203; overexpression of TBK1 partly reversed the suppressive effects of miR-203. Furthermore, TBK1 was found up-regulated and inversely correlated with miR-203 in OS tissues. Conclusion: Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-203 acts as a tumor suppressor via regulation of TBK1 expression in OS progression, and miR-203 may be a promising therapeutic target for OS.

  13. Suppression of Tumor Growth in Mice by Rationally Designed Pseudopeptide Inhibitors of Fibroblast Activation Protein and Prolyl Oligopeptidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Jackson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor microenvironments (TMEs are composed of cancer cells, fibroblasts, extracellular matrix, microvessels, and endothelial cells. Two prolyl endopeptidases, fibroblast activation protein (FAP and prolyl oligopeptidase (POP, are commonly overexpressed by epithelial-derived malignancies, with the specificity of FAP expression by cancer stromal fibroblasts suggesting FAP as a possible therapeutic target. Despite overexpression in most cancers and having a role in angiogenesis, inhibition of POP activity has received little attention as an approach to quench tumor growth. We developed two specific and highly effective pseudopeptide inhibitors, M83, which inhibits FAP and POP proteinase activities, and J94, which inhibits only POP. Both suppressed human colon cancer xenograft growth >90% in mice. By immunohistochemical stains, M83- and J94-treated tumors had fewer microvessels, and apoptotic areas were apparent in both. In response to M83, but not J94, disordered collagen accumulations were observed. Neither M83- nor J94-treated mice manifested changes in behavior, weight, or gastrointestinal function. Tumor growth suppression was more extensive than noted with recently reported efforts by others to inhibit FAP proteinase function or reduce FAP expression. Diminished angiogenesis and the accompanying profound reduction in tumor growth suggest that inhibition of either FAP or POP may offer new therapeutic approaches that directly target TMEs.

  14. Berberine Suppresses Cell Motility Through Downregulation of TGF-β1 in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmin Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Transforming growth factor-beta proteins (TGF-βs are multifunctional growth factors and powerful modulators of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in a variety of cancer types including breast and lung cancer cells. Here, we demonstrated the inhibitory effect of berberine (BBR on tumor growth and metastasis of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC cells via suppression of TGF-β1 expression. Methods: The levels of mRNA expression were analyzed by real-time PCR. The levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and TGF-β1 protein expression were analyzed by zymography and confocal microscopy, respectively. Cell migration was analyzed by wound healing assay. Tumorigenicity of TNBC cells such as tumor growth and metastasis was analyzed using xenograft models. Results: In a clinical data set, aberrant TGF-β1 expression was associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. Our in vitro results using TNBC cells showed that the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9 and the capacity for cell migration were increased by TGF-β1 treatment. In contrast, basal levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were suppressed by a specific TGF-β receptor I inhibitor, SB431542. In addition, TGF-β1–induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and cell migration were decreased by SB431542. Interestingly, we showed for the first time that BBR decreased the level of TGF-β1, but not TGF-β2, in TNBC cells. Furthermore, BBR significantly decreased the level of MMP-2 expression as well as the capacity for cell migration in TNBC cells. Finally, we examined the effect of BBR on in vivo tumor growth and lung metastasis in MDA-MB231 and 4T1 breast cancer xenograft models and showed that both were significantly decreased following BBR treatment. Conclusion: BBR suppresses tumorigenicity of TNBC cells through inhibition of TGF-β1 expression. Therefore, we demonstrate that BBR could be a promising drug for treatment of TNBC.

  15. Procyanidins Mitigate Osteoarthritis Pathogenesis by, at Least in Part, Suppressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Procyanidins are a family of plant metabolites that have been suggested to mitigate osteoarthritis pathogenesis in mice. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. This study aimed to determine whether procyanidins mitigate traumatic injury-induced osteoarthritis (OA disease progression, and whether procyanidins exert a chondroprotective effect by, at least in part, suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor signaling. Procyanidins (extracts from pine bark, orally administered to mice subjected to surgery for destabilization of the medial meniscus, significantly slowed OA disease progression. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that procyanidin treatment reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and effectors in OA pathogenesis that are regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor. Procyanidin-suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor expression was correlated with reduced phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 in human OA primary chondrocytes. Moreover, components of procyanidins, procyanidin B2 and procyanidin B3 exerted effects similar to those of total procyanidins in mitigating the OA-related gene expression profile in the primary culture of human OA chondrocytes in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor. Together, these findings suggest procyanidins mitigate OA pathogenesis, which is mediated, at least in part, by suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor signaling.

  16. Growth Suppression and Therapy Sensitization of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    of Ad-p53 or Ad- Igal -infected cells, 48 hours post-infection, for the presence of oligonucleosomal fragments (Figure 4). These fragments are released...T98G parental 1-10-10(mutant) 1-10-6(mutant) T98GjJun i9gal p53 IRgal p53 Igal p53 Rgal p53 Figure 5. Western blot analysis of bax and bcl 2 protein...p n3easnse ta ine d usctionpof tolive takn fro mor i ce kileoa the nt telrination of thed-expeimentxpdesbdinTbl 1.or Nsectin cespohnd adtoite folloing

  17. Knockdown of Pokemon protein expression inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation by suppression of AKT activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaosan; Dai, Yichen; Chen, Zhangxin; Xie, Junpei; Zeng, Wei; Lin, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of Pokemon, which is an erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor protein, occurs in different cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Pokemon is also reported to have an oncogenic activity in various human cancers. This study investigated the effect of Pokemon knockdown on the regulation of HCC growth. POK shRNA suppressed the expression of Pokemon protein in HepG2 cells compared to the negative control vector-transfected HCC cells. Pokemon knockdown also reduced HCC cell viability and enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HCC cells. AKT activation and the expression of various cell cycle-related genes were inhibited following Pokemon knockdown. These data demonstrate that Pokemon may play a role in HCC progression, suggesting that inhibition of Pokemon expression using Pokemon shRNA should be further evaluated as a novel target for the control of HCC.

  18. MiR-223 suppresses cell proliferation by targeting IGF-1R.

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    Cheng You Jia

    Full Text Available To study the roles of microRNA-223 (miR-223 in regulation of cell growth, we established a miR-223 over-expression model in HeLa cells infected with miR-223 by Lentivirus pLL3.7 system. We observed in this model that miR-223 significantly suppressed the proliferation, growth rate, colony formation of HeLa cells in vitro, and in vivo tumorigenicity or tumor formation in nude mice. To investigate the mechanisms involved, we scanned and examined the potential and putative target molecules of miR-223 by informatics, quantitative PCR and Western blot, and found that insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R was the functional target of miR-223 inhibition of cell proliferation. Targeting IGF-1R by miR-223 was not only seen in HeLa cells, but also in leukemia and hepatoma cells. The downstream pathway, Akt/mTOR/p70S6K, to which the signal was mediated by IGF-1R, was inhibited as well. The relative luciferase activity of the reporter containing wild-type 3'UTR(3'untranslated region of IGF-1R was significantly suppressed, but the mutant not. Silence of IGF-1R expression by vector-based short hairpin RNA resulted in the similar inhibition with miR-223. Contrarily, rescued IGF-1R expression in the cells that over-expressed miR-223, reversed the inhibition caused by miR-223 via introducing IGF-1R cDNA that didn't contain the 3'UTR. Meanwhile, we also noted that miR-223 targeted Rasa1, but the downstream molecules mediated by Rasa1 was neither targeted nor regulated. Therefore we believed that IGF-1R was the functional target for miR-223 suppression of cell proliferation and its downstream PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway suppressed by miR-223 was by targeting IGF-1R.

  19. The Limits of Linked Suppression for Regulatory T cells

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    Toshiro eIto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have previously found that CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (T regs can adoptively transfer tolerance after its induction with co-stimulatory blockade in a mouse model of murine cardiac allograft transplantation. In these experiments, we tested an hypothesis with three components: 1 the T regs that transfer tolerance have the capacity for linked suppression, 2 the determinants that stimulate the T regs are expressed by the indirect pathway, and 3 the donor peptides contributing to these indirect determinants are derived from donor MHC antigens. Methods: 1st heart transplants were performed from the indicated donor strain to B10.D2 recipients along with co-stimulatory blockade treatment (250μg i.p. injection of MR1 on day 0 and 250μg i.p. injection of CTLA-4 Ig on day 2. At least 8 weeks later a 2nd heart transplant was performed to a new B10.D2 recipient that had been irradiated with 450 cGy. This recipient was given 40 x 106 naïve B10.D2 spleen cells plus 40 x 106 B10.D2 spleen cells from the first (tolerant recipient. We performed 3 different types of heart transplants with using various donor.Results: 1. T regs suppress the graft rejection in an antigen-specific manner. 2. T regs generated in the face of MHC disparities suppress the rejection of grafts expressing third party MHC along with tolerant MHC. Conclusion:The limits of linkage appear to be quantitative and not universally determined by either the indirect pathway or by peptides of donor MHC antigens.

  20. Integrin αvβ8-Mediated TGF-β Activation by Effector Regulatory T Cells Is Essential for Suppression of T-Cell-Mediated Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, John J.; Kelly, Aoife; Smedley, Catherine; Bauché, David; Campbell, Simon; Marie, Julien C.; Travis, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a pivotal role in suppressing self-harmful T cell responses, but how Treg cells mediate suppression to maintain immune homeostasis and limit responses during inflammation is unclear. Here we show that effector Treg cells express high amounts of the integrin αvβ8, which enables them to activate latent transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Treg-cell-specific deletion of integrin αvβ8 did not result in a spontaneous inflammatory phenotype, suggesting that this pathway is not important in Treg-cell-mediated maintenance of immune homeostasis. However, Treg cells lacking expression of integrin αvβ8 were unable to suppress pathogenic T cell responses during active inflammation. Thus, our results identify a mechanism by which Treg cells suppress exuberant immune responses, highlighting a key role for effector Treg-cell-mediated activation of latent TGF-β in suppression of self-harmful T cell responses during active inflammation. PMID:25979421

  1. Apamin suppresses biliary fibrosis and activation of hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Yeon; An, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Woon-Hae; Park, Yoon-Yub; Park, Kyung Duck; Park, Kwan-Kyu

    2017-05-01

    Cholestatic liver disease is characterized by the progressive destruction of biliary epithelial cells (BECs) followed by fibrosis, cirrhosis and liver failure. Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and portal fibroblasts are the major cellular effectors of enhanced collagen deposition in biliary fibrosis. Apamin, an 18 amino acid peptide neurotoxin found in apitoxin (bee venom), is known to block Ca2+-activated K+ channels and prevent carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis. In the present study, we aimed to ascertain whether apamin inhibits biliary fibrosis and the proliferation of HSCs. Cholestatic liver fibrosis was established in mouse models with 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) feeding. Cellular assays were performed on HSC-T6 cells (rat immortalized HSCs). DDC feeding led to increased hepatic damage and proinflammtory cytokine levels. Notably, apamin treatment resulted in decreased liver injury and proinflammatory cytokine levels. Moreover, apamin suppressed the deposition of collagen, proliferation of BECs and expression of fibrogenic genes in the DDC-fed mice. In HSCs, apamin suppressed activation of HSCs by inhibiting the Smad signaling pathway. These data suggest that apamin may be a potential therapeutic target in cholestatic liver disease.

  2. U1 Adaptor Oligonucleotides Targeting BCL2 and GRM1 Suppress Growth of Human Melanoma Xenografts In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Goraczniak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available U1 Adaptor is a recently discovered oligonucleotide-based gene-silencing technology with a unique mechanism of action that targets nuclear pre-mRNA processing. U1 Adaptors have two distinct functional domains, both of which must be present on the same oligonucleotide to exert their gene-silencing function. Here, we present the first in vivo use of U1 Adaptors by targeting two different human genes implicated in melanomagenesis, B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2 and metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (GRM1, in a human melanoma cell xenograft mouse model system. Using a newly developed dendrimer delivery system, anti-BCL2 U1 Adaptors were very potent and suppressed tumor growth at doses as low as 34 µg/kg with twice weekly intravenous (iv administration. Anti-GRM1 U1 Adaptors suppressed tumor xenograft growth with similar potency. Mechanism of action was demonstrated by showing target gene suppression in tumors and by observing that negative control U1 Adaptors with just one functional domain show no tumor suppression activity. The anti-BCL2 and anti-GRM1 treatments were equally effective against cell lines harboring either wild-type or a mutant V600E B-RAF allele, the most common mutation in melanoma. Treatment of normal immune-competent mice (C57BL6 indicated no organ toxicity or immune stimulation. These proof-of-concept studies represent an in-depth (over 800 mice in ~108 treatment groups validation that U1 Adaptors are a highly potent gene-silencing therapeutic and open the way for their further development to treat other human diseases.

  3. Suppressing Lithium Dendrite Growth with a Single-Component Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haodong; Zhou, Hongyao; Lee, Byoung-Sun; Xing, Xing; Gonzalez, Matthew; Liu, Ping

    2017-09-13

    A single-component coating was formed on lithium (Li) metal in a lithium iodide/organic carbonate [dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and ethylene carbonate (EC)] electrolyte. LiI chemically reacts with DMC to form lithium methyl carbonate (LMC), which precipitates and forms the chemically homogeneous coating layer on the Li surface. This coating layer is shown to enable dendrite-free Li cycling in a symmetric Li∥Li cell even at a current density of 3 mA cm -2 . Adding EC to DMC modulates the formation of LMC, resulting in a stable coating layer that is essential for long-term Li cycling stability. Furthermore, the coating can enable dendrite-free cycling after being transferred to common LiPF 6 /carbonate electrolytes, which are compatible with metal oxide cathodes.

  4. Tetrandrine suppresses proliferation, induces apoptosis, and inhibits migration and invasion in human prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrandrine (TET, a traditional Chinese medicine, exerts remarkable anticancer activity on various cancer cells. However, little is known about the effect of TET on human prostate cancer cells, and the mechanism of function of TET on prostate cancer has not yet been elucidated. To investigate the effects of TET on the suppression of proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of migration and invasion in human prostate cancer cell lines, DU145 and PC-3. Inhibition of growth was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and clone formation assay, and flow cytometry analysis was performed to detect the induction of apoptosis. Activation of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase, caspase-3, Akt, phospho-Akt, Bcl-2, and Bax was analyzed by Western blotting. Wound healing assay and transwell migration assay were used to evaluate the effect of TET on migration and invasion of cancer cells. TET inhibited the growth of DU145 and PC-3 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell cloning was inhibited in the presence of TET in DU145 and PC-3 cells. TET suppressed the migration of DU145 and PC-3 cells. Transwell invasion assay showed that TET significantly weakened invasion capacity of DU145 and PC-3 cells. TET exhibited strong inhibitory effect on proliferation, migration, and invasion of prostate cancer cells. In addition, TET induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner by activating the caspase cascade and inhibiting phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt signal pathway. The accumulating evidence suggests that TET could be a potential therapeutic candidate against prostate cancer in a clinical setting.

  5. Cholera toxin inhibits human hepatocarcinoma cell proliferation in vitro via suppressing ATX/LPA axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qi; Deng, An-mei; Wu, Shan-shan; Zheng, Min

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the antitumor effect of cholera toxin (CT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vitro and the mechanisms underlying the effect. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines Hep3B and Huh7, which expressed moderate and high level of autotaxin (ATX), respectively, were used. Cytokine level in the cells was evaluated using ELISA assay, and cell proliferation was investigated using MTT assay. ATX expression was determined using Western blot. ATX/lyso-PLD activity in the conditioned medium was measured using FS-3, a fluorescent lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) analogue, as substrate. Exposure to CT (7.5 and 10 ng/mL) significantly inhibited the cell growth, decreased secretion of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and promoted secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. CT at 10 ng/mL markedly suppressed ATX expression in Hep3B and Huh7 cells. Furthermore, ATX and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) were found to be crucial for growth of the cancer cells. CT could inhibit TNF-α-induced expression and secretion of ATX that led to decreased activity of lysophospholipase D, thus decreasing the conversion of LPC to LPA. CT inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth in vitro via regulating the ATX-LPA pathway.

  6. Crustose coralline algae can suppress macroalgal growth and recruitment on Hawaiian coral reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, M.J.A.; Dailer, M.L.; Smith, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Crustose coralline algae are important components of tropical reef communities because they promote successful settlement by corals and contribute to solidification of the reef framework. We show experimentally that crustose coralline algae are also capable of suppressing the growth and recruitment

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm hampers murine central wound healing by suppression of vascular epithelial growth factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trøstrup, Hannah; Lerche, Christian J; Christophersen, Lars J

    2018-01-01

    Biofilm-infected wounds are clinically challenging. Vascular endothelial growth factor and host defence S100A8/A9 are crucial for wound healing but may be suppressed by biofilms. The natural course of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infection was compared in central and peripheral zones of burn-wo...

  8. The isoflavone metabolite 6-methoxyequol inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses tumor growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellou Sofia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased consumption of plant-based diets has been linked to the presence of certain phytochemicals, including polyphenols such as flavonoids. Several of these compounds exert their protective effect via inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Identification of additional phytochemicals with potential antiangiogenic activity is important not only for understanding the mechanism of the preventive effect, but also for developing novel therapeutic interventions. Results In an attempt to identify phytochemicals contributing to the well-documented preventive effect of plant-based diets on cancer incidence and mortality, we have screened a set of hitherto untested phytoestrogen metabolites concerning their anti-angiogenic effect, using endothelial cell proliferation as an end point. Here, we show that a novel phytoestrogen, 6-methoxyequol (6-ME, inhibited VEGF-induced proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVE cells, whereas VEGF-induced migration and survival of HUVE cells remained unaffected. In addition, 6-ME inhibited FGF-2-induced proliferation of bovine brain capillary endothelial (BBCE cells. In line with its role in cell proliferation, 6-ME inhibited VEGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 MAPK, the key cascade responsible for VEGF-induced proliferation of endothelial cells. In this context, 6-ME inhibited in a dose dependent manner the phosphorylation of MEK1/2, the only known upstream activator of ERK1/2. 6-ME did not alter VEGF-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK or AKT, compatible with the lack of effect on VEGF-induced migration and survival of endothelial cells. Peri-tumor injection of 6-ME in A-431 xenograft tumors resulted in reduced tumor growth with suppressed neovasularization compared to vehicle controls (P  Conclusions 6-ME inhibits VEGF- and FGF2-induced proliferation of ECs by targeting the phosphorylation of MEK1/2 and it downstream substrate ERK1/2, both key components of the mitogenic MAPK

  9. Actin as Deathly Switch? How Auxin Can Suppress Cell-Death Related Defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoli; Riemann, Michael; Liu, Qiong; Nick, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Plant innate immunity is composed of two layers – a basal immunity, and a specific effector-triggered immunity, which is often accompanied by hypersensitive cell death. Initiation of cell death depends on a complex network of signalling pathways. The phytohormone auxin as central regulator of plant growth and development represents an important component for the modulation of plant defence. In our previous work, we showed that cell death is heralded by detachment of actin from the membrane. Both, actin response and cell death, are triggered by the bacterial elicitor harpin in grapevine cells. In this study we investigated, whether harpin-triggered actin bundling is necessary for harpin-triggered cell death. Since actin organisation is dependent upon auxin, we used different auxins to suppress actin bundling. Extracellular alkalinisation and transcription of defence genes as the basal immunity were examined as well as cell death. Furthermore, organisation of actin was observed in response to pharmacological manipulation of reactive oxygen species and phospholipase D. We find that induction of defence genes is independent of auxin. However, auxin can suppress harpin-induced cell death and also counteract actin bundling. We integrate our findings into a model, where harpin interferes with an auxin dependent pathway that sustains dynamic cortical actin through the activity of phospholipase D. The antagonism between growth and defence is explained by mutual competition for signal molecules such as superoxide and phosphatidic acid. Perturbations of the auxin-actin pathway might be used to detect disturbed integrity of the plasma membrane and channel defence signalling towards programmed cell death. PMID:25933033

  10. p53-Dependent suppression of genome instability in germ cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otozai, Shinji [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Osaka University School of Medicine, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ishikawa-Fujiwara, Tomoko [Department of Radiation Biology and Medical Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, B4, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Oda, Shoji [Department of Integrated Biosciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8562 (Japan); Kamei, Yasuhiro [Department of Radiation Biology and Medical Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, B4, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ryo, Haruko [Nomura Project, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Osaka 565-0085 (Japan); Sato, Ayuko [Department of Pathology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Nomura, Taisei [Nomura Project, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Osaka 565-0085 (Japan); Mitani, Hiroshi [Department of Integrated Biosciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8562 (Japan); Tsujimura, Tohru [Department of Pathology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Inohara, Hidenori [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Osaka University School of Medicine, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Todo, Takeshi, E-mail: todo@radbio.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Biology and Medical Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, B4, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Radiation-induced microsatellite instability (MSI) was investigated in medaka fish. • msh2{sup −/−} fish had a high frequency of spontaneous MSI. • p53{sup −/−} fish had a high frequency of radiation-induced MSI. • p53 and msh2 suppress MSI by different pathways: mismatch removal and apoptosis. - Abstract: Radiation increases mutation frequencies at tandem repeat loci. Germline mutations in γ-ray-irradiated medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) were studied, focusing on the microsatellite loci. Mismatch-repair genes suppress microsatellite mutation by directly removing altered sequences at the nucleotide level, whereas the p53 gene suppresses genetic alterations by eliminating damaged cells. The contribution of these two defense mechanisms to radiation-induced microsatellite instability was addressed. The spontaneous mutation frequency was significantly higher in msh2{sup −/−} males than in wild-type fish, whereas there was no difference in the frequency of radiation-induced mutations between msh2{sup −/−} and wild-type fish. By contrast, irradiated p53{sup −/−} fish exhibited markedly increased mutation frequencies, whereas their spontaneous mutation frequency was the same as that of wild-type fish. In the spermatogonia of the testis, radiation induced a high level of apoptosis both in wild-type and msh2{sup −/−} fish, but negligible levels in p53{sup −/−} fish. The results demonstrate that the msh2 and p53 genes protect genome integrity against spontaneous and radiation-induced mutation by two different pathways: direct removal of mismatches and elimination of damaged cells.

  11. Suppression of lymphocyte proliferation by marijuana components is related to cell number and cell source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, T.; Pross, S.; Newton, C.; Friedman, H.

    1986-03-05

    Conflicting reports have appeared concerning the effect of marijuana components on immune responsiveness. The authors have observed that the effect of cannabinoids on lymphocyte proliferation varied with both the concentration of the drug and the mitogen used. They now report that at a constant concentration of drug, the cannabinoid effect varied from no effect to suppression depending upon the number of cells in culture and the organ source of the cells. Dispersed cell suspensions of mouse lymph node, spleen, and thymus were prepared and cultured at varying cell numbers with either delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and various mitogens. Lymphocyte proliferation was analyzed by /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. T-lymphocyte mitogen responses in cultures containing high cell numbers were unaffected by the cannabinoids but as cell numbers were reduced a suppression of the response was observed. Furthermore, thymus cells were considerably more susceptible to cannabinoid suppression than cells from either lymph node or spleen. These results suggest that certain lymphocyte subpopulations are more sensitive to cannabinoid suppression and that in addition to drug concentration other variables such as cell number and cell source must be considered when analyzing cannabinoid effects.

  12. Suppression of lymphocyte proliferation by marijuana components is related to cell number and cell source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, T.; Pross, S.; Newton, C.; Friedman, H.

    1986-01-01

    Conflicting reports have appeared concerning the effect of marijuana components on immune responsiveness. The authors have observed that the effect of cannabinoids on lymphocyte proliferation varied with both the concentration of the drug and the mitogen used. They now report that at a constant concentration of drug, the cannabinoid effect varied from no effect to suppression depending upon the number of cells in culture and the organ source of the cells. Dispersed cell suspensions of mouse lymph node, spleen, and thymus were prepared and cultured at varying cell numbers with either delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and various mitogens. Lymphocyte proliferation was analyzed by 3 H-thymidine incorporation. T-lymphocyte mitogen responses in cultures containing high cell numbers were unaffected by the cannabinoids but as cell numbers were reduced a suppression of the response was observed. Furthermore, thymus cells were considerably more susceptible to cannabinoid suppression than cells from either lymph node or spleen. These results suggest that certain lymphocyte subpopulations are more sensitive to cannabinoid suppression and that in addition to drug concentration other variables such as cell number and cell source must be considered when analyzing cannabinoid effects

  13. INNO-406, a novel BCR-ABL/Lyn dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor, suppresses the growth of Ph+ leukemia cells in the central nervous system, and cyclosporine A augments its in vivo activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Asumi; Kimura, Shinya; Masuda, Satohiro; Ashihara, Eishi; Kuroda, Junya; Sato, Kiyoshi; Kamitsuji, Yuri; Kawata, Eri; Deguchi, Yasuyuki; Urasaki, Yoshimasa; Terui, Yasuhito; Ruthardt, Martin; Ueda, Takanori; Hatake, Kiyohiko; Inui, Ken-ichi; Maekawa, Taira

    2007-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) relapse accompanying the prolonged administration of imatinib mesylate has recently become apparent as an impediment to the therapy of Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) leukemia. CNS relapse may be explained by limited penetration of imatinib mesylate into the cerebrospinal fluid because of the presence of P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier. To overcome imatinib mesylate-resistance mechanisms such as bcr-abl amplification, mutations within the ABL kinase domain, and activation of Lyn, we developed a dual BCR-ABL/Lyn inhibitor, INNO-406 (formerly NS-187), which is 25 to 55 times more potent than imatinib mesylate in vitro and at least 10 times more potent in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of INNO-406 in treating CNS Ph+ leukemia. We found that INNO-406, like imatinib mesylate, is a substrate for P-glycoprotein. The concentrations of INNO-406 in the CNS were about 10% of those in the plasma. However, this residual concentration was enough to inhibit the growth of Ph+ leukemic cells which expressed not only wild-type but also mutated BCR-ABL in the murine CNS. Furthermore, cyclosporine A, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, augmented the in vivo activity of INNO-406 against CNS Ph+ leukemia. These findings indicate that INNO-406 is a promising agent for the treatment of CNS Ph+ leukemia.

  14. B cells exposed to enterobacterial components suppress development of experimental colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Esben Gjerløff Wedebye; Larsen, Hjalte List; Kristensen, Nanna Ny

    2012-01-01

    ). RESULTS: We demonstrate that splenic B cells exposed to ebx produce large amounts of IL-10 in vitro and express CD1d and CD5 previously known to be associated with regulatory B cells. In SCID mice transplanted with colitogenic CD4(+) CD25(-) T cells, co-transfer of ebx-B cells significantly suppressed...... development of colitis. Suppression was dependent on B cell-derived IL-10, as co-transfer of IL-10 knockout ebx-B cells failed to suppress colitis. Ebx-B cell-mediated suppression of colitis was associated with a decrease in interferon gamma (IFN-¿)-producing T(H) 1 cells and increased frequencies of Foxp3......-expressing T cells. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that splenic B cells exposed to enterobacterial components acquire immunosuppressive functions by which they can suppress development of experimental T cell-mediated colitis in an IL-10-dependent way. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2011;)....

  15. CD137 signaling suppresses the suppressive function of treg cells of peripheral blood from breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Tian; Jiang Linhua; ZZhang Chi; Sun Xuewei; Ju Songguang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the biological effect of CD137 and its molecular mechanism on CD4 + CD25 + Treg cells. Methods: Anti-CD137 mAb was added to stimulate the T cells that isolated from peripheral blood of breast cancer patients and activated by PHA. T cell proliferation was determined by cell counting or by 3 H-TdR incorporation assessing at the 3rd. The phenotype of cells was determined by FACS, and Foxp3 analysis was performed after fixation and intracellular staining. Cytokine in the supernatant was quantified with ELISA. Results: CD137 expressed on CD4 + CD25 + Treg cells. Triggering CD137 signaling of CD4 + CD25 + Treg cells by anti-CD137 mAb could promote the proliferation of T cells form PBMCs of breast cancer patients and decrease the ratio of Foxp3 + Treg population and reduce Foxp3 expression of Treg cells, as well as the production of TGF-β1 and IL-10, and suppress the ability of Treg cells to inhibit proliferation of CD4 + CD25 - T cells. Conclusion: CD137 signaling could suppress the suppressive function of Treg cells, and CD137 might be a potential molecular target for the immunological interference. (authors)

  16. Cushing's syndrome, growth impairment, and occult adrenal suppression associated with intranasal steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R J; Findlay, C A; Donaldson, M D C

    2002-07-01

    We have previously described iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome secondary to intranasal steroids. This report further highlights the potential deleterious effects of intranasal steroids. Nine cases (including the original two cases) are reviewed to show the varied clinical manifestations of adrenal suppression caused by intranasal steroids. Four presented with Cushing's syndrome, three with growth failure, while two asymptomatic patients were discovered in the course of pituitary function testing. Four children had dysmorphic syndromes--Down's, Treacher-Collins, CHARGE association, and campomelic dysplasia--reflecting the vulnerability of such children to ENT problems, together with the difficulty of interpreting steroid induced growth failure in this context. Adrenal suppression was seen not only with betamethasone but also with budesonide, beclomethasone and flunisolide nasal preparations. A careful enquiry as to the use of intranasal steroids should be routine in children presenting with unexplained growth failure or Cushing's syndrome. Particular vigilance/awareness is required in children with dysmorphic syndromes.

  17. Valvular interstitial cells suppress calcification of valvular endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hjortnaes, Jesper; Shapero, Kayle; Goettsch, Claudia; Hutcheson, Joshua D; Keegan, Joshua; Kluin, J; Mayer, John E; Bischoff, Joyce; Aikawa, Elena

    BACKGROUND: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most common heart valve disease in the Western world. We previously proposed that valvular endothelial cells (VECs) replenish injured adult valve leaflets via endothelial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EndMT); however, whether EndMT contributes

  18. Mycoplasma Suppression of THP-1 Cell TLR Responses Is Corrected with Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharova, Ekaterina; Grandhi, Jaykumar; Wewers, Mark D.; Gavrilin, Mikhail A.

    2010-01-01

    Mycoplasma contamination of cultured cell lines is a serious problem in research, altering cellular response to different stimuli thus compromising experimental results. We found that chronic mycoplasma contamination of THP-1 cells suppresses responses of THP-1 cells to TLR stimuli. For example, E. coli LPS induced IL-1 beta was suppressed by 6 fold and IL-8 by 10 fold in mycoplasma positive THP-1 cells. Responses to live F. novicida challenge were suppressed by 50-fold and 40-fold respective...

  19. Ascorbate induces apoptosis in melanoma cells by suppressing Clusterin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafi, Sushmita; Sant, David W; Liu, Zhao-Jun; Wang, Gaofeng

    2017-06-16

    Pharmacological levels of ascorbate have long been suggested as a potential treatment of cancer. However, we observed that EC50 of ascorbate was at a similar level for cultured healthy melanocytes and melanoma cells, suggesting a limit of pharmacological ascorbate in treating cancer. Loss of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC) is an epigenetic hallmark of cancer and ascorbate promotes 5 hmC generation by serving as a cofactor for TET methylcytosine dioxygenases. Our previous work demonstrated that ascorbate treatment at physiological level (100 μM) increased 5 hmC content in melanoma cells toward the level of healthy melanocytes. Here we show that 100 µM of ascorbate induced apoptosis in A2058 melanoma cells. RNA-seq analysis revealed that expression of the Clusterin (CLU) gene, which is related to apoptosis, was downregulated by ascorbate. The suppression of CLU was verified at transcript level in different melanoma cell lines, and at protein level in A2058 cells. The anti-apoptotic cytoplasmic CLU was decreased, while the pro-apoptotic nuclear CLU was largely maintained, after ascorbate treatment. These changes in CLU subcellular localization were also associated with Bax and caspases activation, Bcl-xL sequestration, and cytochrome c release. Taken together, this study establishes an impending therapeutic role of physiological ascorbate to potentiate apoptosis in melanoma.

  20. Burn injury suppresses human dermal dendritic cell and Langerhans cell function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Linda M.; de Jong, Marein A. W. P.; Witte, Lot de; Ulrich, Magda M. W.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2011-01-01

    Human skin contains epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) and dermal dendritic cells (DCs) that are key players in induction of adaptive immunity upon infection. After major burn injury, suppressed adaptive immunity has been observed in patients. Here we demonstrate that burn injury affects adaptive

  1. Albumin Suppresses Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Proliferation and the Cell Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Nojiri

    2014-03-01

    (+, Prionex, respectively. The same results were obtained in HepG2. Cell proliferation was inhibited in 5 g/dL albumin medium in both HepG2 cells and Hep3B cells in 24 h culture by counting cell numbers. The presence of albumin in serum reduces the phosphorylation of Rb proteins and enhances the expression of p21 and p57, following an increase in the G0/G1 cell population, and suppresses cell proliferation. These results suggest that albumin itself suppresses the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. Black Rice Anthocyanins Suppress Metastasis of Breast Cancer Cells by Targeting RAS/RAF/MAPK Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang-Yan; Zhou, Jie; Luo, Li-Ping; Han, Bin; Li, Fei; Chen, Jing-Yao; Zhu, Yan-Feng; Chen, Wei; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) drives the biology of 30% of breast cancer cases. As a transducer of HER2 signaling, RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway plays a pivotal role in the development of breast cancer. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the chemopreventive effects of black rice anthocyanins (BRACs) extract and identified their molecular targets in HER2(+) breast cancer cells. Treatment of MDA-MB-453 cells (HER2(+)) with BRACs inhibited cell migration and invasion, suppressed the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (RAF), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and downregulated the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP9. BRACs also weakened the interactions of HER2 with RAF, MEK, and JNK proteins, respectively, and decreased the mRNA expression of raf, mek, and jnk. Further, we found combined treatment with BRACs and RAF, MEK, or JNK inhibitors could enhance the antimetastatic activity, compared with that of each treatment. Transient transfection with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) specific for raf, mek, and jnk inhibited their mRNA expression in MDA-MB-453 cells. Moreover, cotreatment with BRACs and siRNA induces a more remarkable inhibitory effect than that by either substance alone. In summary, our study suggested that BRACs suppress metastasis in breast cancer cells by targeting the RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway.

  3. Toosendanin induces apoptosis through suppression of JNK signaling pathway in HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jianming; Qi, Zhichao; Cai, Xueting; Cao, Peng; Liu, Nan; Wang, Shuzhen; Chen, Yijun

    2013-02-01

    Toosendanin (TSN), a triterpenoid isolated from Melia toosendan Sieb. et Zucc., has been found to suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in a variety of human cancer cells. However, the mechanism how TSN induces apoptosis remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the effects of TSN on the growth, cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis and the involved signaling pathway in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. Proliferation of HL-60 cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner with the IC(50 (48 h)) of 28 ng/mL. The growth inhibition was due primarily to the S phase arrest and cell apoptosis. Cell apoptosis induced by TSN was confirmed by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining. The increase of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, cleaved PARP and caspase-3, and the decrease of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were observed. Western blot analysis indicated that TSN inhibits the CDC42/MEKK1/JNK pathway. Taken together, our study suggested, for the first time, that the pro-apoptotic effects of TSN on HL-60 cells were mediated through JNK signaling pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Suppression of tumorigenicity and metastatic potential of melanoma cells by transduction of interferon gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lykhova A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate an inhibitory effect of baculovirus-mediated transduction of the murine interferon-beta gene on mouse melanoma in vitro and in vivo. Methods. Studies were performed on B16 mouse melanoma (MM-4 cell line. Transduction, immunocytochemical and tumor cell biology approaches have been used in this study. Results. Transduction of MM-4 cells by the recombinant baculovirus with IFN-beta gene is accompanied by morphological changes of tumor cells, suppression of cell proliferation, significant inhibition of platting efficiency of cells and their colonies formation in semisolid agar. Moreover, transduction of melanoma MM-4 cells by the baculovirus IFN-transgene leads to inhibition of tumorigenicity and metastatic ability of the cells in vivo. The intravenous administration of recombinant baculovirus vector with IFN gene inhibits growth of metastases induced in the lungs of mice by intravenously injected tumor cells. Conclusions. Transduction of mouse melanoma cells by the recombinant baculovirus with murine IFN-beta gene inhibits their proliferative potential, tumorigenicity and metastatic activity.

  5. ASC-J9 Suppresses Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Growth through Degradation of Full-length and Splice Variant Androgen Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Yamashita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Early studies suggested androgen receptor (AR splice variants might contribute to the progression of prostate cancer (PCa into castration resistance. However, the therapeutic strategy to target these AR splice variants still remains unresolved. Through tissue survey of tumors from the same patients before and after castration resistance, we found that the expression of AR3, a major AR splice variant that lacks the AR ligand-binding domain, was substantially increased after castration resistance development. The currently used antiandrogen, Casodex, showed little growth suppression in CWR22Rv1 cells. Importantly, we found that AR degradation enhancer ASC-J9 could degrade both full-length (fAR and AR3 in CWR22Rv1 cells as well as in C4-2 and C81 cells with addition of AR3. The consequences of such degradation of both fAR and AR3 might then result in the inhibition of AR transcriptional activity and cell growth in vitro. More importantly, suppression of AR3 specifically by short-hairpin AR3 or degradation of AR3 by ASC-J9 resulted in suppression of AR transcriptional activity and cell growth in CWR22Rv1-fARKD (fAR knockdown cells in which DHT failed to induce, suggesting the importance of targeting AR3. Finally, we demonstrated the in vivo therapeutic effects of ASC-J9 by showing the inhibition of PCa growth using the xenografted model of CWR22Rv1 cells orthotopically implanted into castrated nude mice with undetectable serum testosterone. These results suggested that targeting both fAR- and AR3-mediated PCa growth by ASC-J9 may represent the novel therapeutic approach to suppress castration-resistant PCa. Successful clinical trials targeting both fAR and AR3 may help us to battle castration-resistant PCa in the future.

  6. Bioactive Compound Rich Indian Spices Suppresses the Growth of β-lactamase Produced Multidrug Resistant Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eadlapalli Siddhartha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidrug Resistance (MDR among bacteria become a global concern due to failure of antibiotics, is drawn attention for best antimicrobials from the spices which have been using ancient days in Indian culinary and traditional medicine. Aim and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the bioactive compounds and their antibacterial activity in routinely used culinary Indian spices against β-lactamase produced MDR bacteria. Material and Methods: Ethanolic extracts prepared from twenty spices and were evaluated for total phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, antioxidant properties, and also assayed their antibacterial activities against β-lactamase producing MDR bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. β-Lactamase and cell viability assays were performed in MDR bacteria. Results: Among twenty spices, cinnamon and clove exhibited highest levels of phenolics and terpenoids with elevated antioxidant potential and also showing greater reducing potential at lower concentrations of extract (2.3 and 4.06 µg GAE/gm, respectively. Further, the spices extracts were assessed for antimicrobial activity against β-lactamase produced tested MDR bacteria and observed higher antimicrobial activity with cinnamon, garlic, tamarind and clove at lowest concentrations of MIC and MBC at 16 - 32 µg GAE/ml, as compared to standard drug, amoxiclav (16/8 µg/ml. Spices significantly inhibited the β-lactamase activity (80–94% and also cell viability in tested MDR bacteria. Conclusion: Indian spices consist of rich bioactive profile and antioxidant activity inhibited the bacterial growth effectively by suppressing β-lactamase production in MDR bacteria. Results indicating the spices as functional foods and could be used in prevention of antibiotic resistance.

  7. AM251 Suppresses Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyo Yoshinaga

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of renal tubular epithelial cells is one of the causative mechanisms of kidney fibrosis. In our study, we screened lipophilic compounds using a lipid library including approximately 200 lipids to identify those that suppressed EMT induced by a transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 stimulus. Initial screening was performed with the immortalized HK-2 renal tubule epithelial cell line. The most promising compounds were further tested in RPTEC primary renal tubule epithelial cells. We found that the synthetic lipid AM251 suppressed two hallmark events associated with EMT, the upregulation of collagen 1A1 (COL1A1 and downregulation of E-cadherin. Though AM251 is known to act as an antagonist for the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 and an agonist for the G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GRP55, the suppression of EMT by AM251 was not mediated through either receptor. Microarray analyses revealed that AM251 inhibited induction of several EMT transcription factors such as SNAIL1, which is the key inducer of EMT, and the AP-1 transcription factors FOSB and JUNB. Activation of SMAD2/3 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK was inhibited by AM251, with greater inhibition of the latter, indicating that AM251 acted upstream of SMAD/p38 MAPK in the TGF-β signaling pathway. Our findings regarding the effects of AM251 on the TGF-β signaling pathway may inform development of a novel therapeutic agent suppressing EMT, thus preventing kidney fibrosis.

  8. A comprehensive siRNA screen for kinases that suppress macroautophagy in optimal growth conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szyniarowski, Piotr; Corcelle-Termeau, Elisabeth; Farkas, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    , whereas CSNK1A1, BUB1, PKLR and NEK4 suppressed autophagosome formation downstream or independent of mTORC1. Importantly, all identified kinases except for BUB1 regulated macroautophagy also in immortalized MCF-10A breast epithelial cells. The kinases identified here shed light to the complex regulation...

  9. Adeno-associated virus-mediated doxycycline-regulatable TRAIL expression suppresses growth of human breast carcinoma in nude mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL functions as a cytokine to selectively kill various cancer cells without toxicity to most normal cells. Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential use of recombinant soluble TRAIL as a cancer therapeutic agent. We have showed previous administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV vector expressing soluble TRAIL results in an efficient suppression of human tumor growth in nude mice. In the present study, we introduced Tet-On gene expression system into the rAAV vector to control the soluble TRAIL expression and evaluate the efficiency of the system in cancer gene therapy. Methods Controllability of the Tet-On system was determined by luciferase activity assay, and Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The breast cancer xenograft animal model was established and recombinant virus was administrated through tail vein injection to evaluate the tumoricidal activity. Results The expression of soluble TRAIL could be strictly controlled by the Tet-On system in both normal and cancer cells. Transduction of human cancer cell lines with rAAV-TRE-TRAIL&rAAV-Tet-On under the presence of inducer doxycycline resulted in a considerable cell death by apoptosis. Intravenous injection of the recombinant virus efficiently suppressed the growth of human breast carcinoma in nude mice when activated by doxycycline. Conclusion These data suggest that rAAV-mediated soluble TRAIL expression under the control of the Tet-On system is a promising strategy for breast cancer therapy.

  10. MicroRNA-424 suppresses estradiol-induced cell proliferation via targeting GPER in endometrial cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Wang, X; Chen, Z; Wang, W

    2015-11-30

    Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy with increasing morbidity in recent years. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a type of non-coding RNA, have been proven to be critical in the process of tumorigenesis. miR-424 has been reported to play a protective role in various type of cancer including endometrial carcinoma. It has been reported that high levels of estrogen increase morbidity of EC by promoting cell growth ability. The current research was designed to delineate the mechanism of miR-424 in regulating E2 (17β-estradiol)-induced cell proliferation in endometrial cancer. In this study, we confirmed that cell proliferation is increased significantly in E2-treated endometrial cancer cell lines. Moreover, miR-424 overexpression dramatically decreased E2-induced cell proliferation, indicating a pivotal role in endometrial cancer cell growth. In addition, the results suggest that miR-424 up-regulation inactivated the PI3K/AKT signaling, which was mediated by G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER) in endometrial cancer. Furthermore, the luciferase report confirmed the targeting reaction between miR-424 and GPER. After transfection with the GPER overexpression vector into E2-induced endometrial cancer cells, we found that GPER significantly attenuated the inhibition effect of miR-424 in E2-induced cell growth in EC. Taken together, our study suggests that increased miR-424 suppresses E2-induced cell growth, and providing a potential therapeutic target for estrogen-associated endometrial carcinoma.

  11. Melatonin suppresses thyroid cancer growth and overcomes radioresistance via inhibition of p65 phosphorylation and induction of ROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Wei Zou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine carcinoma with increasing incidence worldwide and anaplastic subtypes are frequently associated with cancer related death. Radioresistance of thyroid cancer often leads to therapy failure and cancer-related death. In this study, we found that melatonin showed potent suppressive roles on NF-κB signaling via inhibition of p65 phosphorylation and generated redox stress in thyroid cancer including the anaplastic subtypes. Our data showed that melatonin significantly decreased cell viability, suppressed cell migration and induced apoptosis in thyroid cancer cell lines in vitro and impaired tumor growth in the subcutaneous mouse model in vivo. By contrast, irradiation of thyroid cancer cells resulted in elevated level of phosphorylated p65, which could be reversed by cotreatment with melatonin. Consequently, melatonin synergized with irradiation to induce cytotoxicity to thyroid cancer, especially in the undifferentiated subgroups. Taken together, our results suggest that melatonin may exert anti-tumor activities against thyroid carcinoma by inhibition of p65 phosphorylation and induction of reactive oxygen species. Radio-sensitization by melatonin may have clinical benefits in thyroid cancer. Keywords: Melatonin, Thyroid cancer, Radioresistance, p65, Reactive oxygen species

  12. Quercetin suppresses insulin receptor signaling through inhibition of the insulin ligand–receptor binding and therefore impairs cancer cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng [Department of Gastroenterology, The Tenth People’s Hospital of Shanghai, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Yang, Yong, E-mail: yyang@houstonmethodist.org [Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2014-10-03

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quercetin inhibits insulin ligand–receptor interactions. • Quercetin reduces downstream insulin receptor signaling. • Quercetin blocks insulin induced glucose uptake. • Quercetin suppresses insulin stimulated cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. - Abstract: Although the flavonoid quercetin is known to inhibit activation of insulin receptor signaling, the inhibitory mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that quercetin suppresses insulin induced dimerization of the insulin receptor (IR) through interfering with ligand–receptor interactions, which reduces the phosphorylation of IR and Akt. This inhibitory effect further inhibits insulin stimulated glucose uptake due to decreased cell membrane translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), resulting in impaired cancer cell proliferation. The effect of quercetin in inhibiting tumor growth was also evident in an in vivo model, indicating a potential future application for quercetin in the treatment of cancers.

  13. Quercetin suppresses insulin receptor signaling through inhibition of the insulin ligand–receptor binding and therefore impairs cancer cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Yang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quercetin inhibits insulin ligand–receptor interactions. • Quercetin reduces downstream insulin receptor signaling. • Quercetin blocks insulin induced glucose uptake. • Quercetin suppresses insulin stimulated cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. - Abstract: Although the flavonoid quercetin is known to inhibit activation of insulin receptor signaling, the inhibitory mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that quercetin suppresses insulin induced dimerization of the insulin receptor (IR) through interfering with ligand–receptor interactions, which reduces the phosphorylation of IR and Akt. This inhibitory effect further inhibits insulin stimulated glucose uptake due to decreased cell membrane translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), resulting in impaired cancer cell proliferation. The effect of quercetin in inhibiting tumor growth was also evident in an in vivo model, indicating a potential future application for quercetin in the treatment of cancers

  14. Pokemon siRNA Delivery Mediated by RGD-Modified HBV Core Protein Suppressed the Growth of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jing; Liu, Xiaoping; Jia, Jianbo; Wu, Jinsheng; Wu, Ning; Chen, Jun; Fang, Fang

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly human malignant tumor that is among the most common cancers in the world, especially in Asia. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been well established as a high risk factor for hepatic malignance. Studies have shown that Pokemon is a master oncogene for HCC growth, suggesting it as an ideal therapeutic target. However, efficient delivery system is still lacking for Pokemon targeting treatment. In this study, we used core proteins of HBV, which is modified with RGD peptides, to construct a biomimetic vector for the delivery of Pokemon siRNAs (namely, RGD-HBc-Pokemon siRNA). Quantitative PCR and Western blot assays revealed that RGD-HBc-Pokemon siRNA possessed the highest efficiency of Pokemon suppression in HCC cells. In vitro experiments further indicated that RGD-HBc-Pokemon-siRNA exerted a higher tumor suppressor activity on HCC cell lines, evidenced by reduced proliferation and attenuated invasiveness, than Pokemon-siRNA or RGD-HBc alone. Finally, animal studies demonstrated that RGD-HBc-Pokemon siRNA suppressed the growth of HCC xenografts in mice by a greater extent than Pokemon-siRNA or RGD-HBc alone. Based on the above results, Pokemon siRNA delivery mediated by RGD-modified HBV core protein was shown to be an effective strategy of HCC gene therapy.

  15. Targeting polo-like kinase 1 suppresses essential functions of alloreactive T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berges, Carsten; Chatterjee, Manik; Topp, Max S; Einsele, Hermann

    2016-06-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) is still a major cause of transplant-related mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). It requires immunosuppressive treatments that broadly abrogate T cell responses including beneficial ones directed against tumor cells or infective pathogens. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is overexpressed in many cancer types including leukemia, and clinical studies demonstrated that targeting PLK1 using selective PLK1 inhibitors resulted in inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis predominantly in tumor cells, supporting the feasibility of PLK1 as target for anticancer therapy. Here, we show that activation of alloreactive T cells (Tallo) up-regulate expression of PLK1, suggesting that PLK1 is a potential new candidate for dual therapy of aGvHD and leukemia after ASCT. Inhibition of PLK1, using PLK1-specific inhibitor GSK461364A selectively depletes Tallo by preventing activation and by inducing apoptosis in already activated Tallo, while memory T cells are preserved. Activated Tallo cells which survive exposure to PLK1 undergo inhibition of proliferation by induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest, which is accompanied by accumulation of cell cycle regulator proteins p21(WAF/CIP1), p27(Kip1), p53 and cyclin B1, whereas abundance of CDK4 decreased. We also show that suppressive effects of PLK1 inhibition on Tallo were synergistically enhanced by concomitant inhibition of molecular chaperone Hsp90. Taken together, our data suggest that PLK1 inhibition represents a reasonable dual strategy to suppress residual tumor growth and efficiently deplete Tallo, and thus provide a rationale to selectively prevent and treat aGvHD.

  16. Proapoptotic PUMA targets stem-like breast cancer cells to suppress metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Lesperance, Jacqueline; Wettersten, Hiromi; Luterstein, Elaine; DeRose, Yoko S.; Welm, Alana; Cheresh, David A.; Desgrosellier, Jay S.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer cells with stem cell properties are key contributors to metastatic disease, and there remains a need to better understand and target these cells in human cancers. Here, we identified rare stem-like cells in patients’ tumors characterized by low levels of the proapoptotic molecule p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) and showed that these cells play a critical role in tumor progression that is independent of clinical subtype. A signaling axis consisting of the integrin αvβ3, Src kinase, and the transcription factor Slug suppresses PUMA in these cells, promoting tumor stemness. We showed that genetic or pharmacological disruption of αvβ3/Src signaling drives PUMA expression, specifically depleting these stem-like tumor cells; increases their sensitivity to apoptosis; and reduces pulmonary metastasis, with no effect on primary tumor growth. Taken together, these findings point to PUMA as a key vulnerability of stem-like cells and suggest that pharmacological upregulation of PUMA via Src inhibition may represent a strategy to selectively target these cells in a wide spectrum of aggressive breast cancers. PMID:29227280

  17. miR-17 inhibitor suppressed osteosarcoma tumor growth and metastasis via increasing PTEN expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yong; Luo, Ling-hui; Li, Shuai; Yang, Cao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • miR-17 was increased in OS tissues and cell lines. • Inhibition of miR-17 suppressed OS cell proliferation. • Inhibition of miR-17 suppressed OS cell migration and invasion. • PTEN was a target of miR-17. • miR-17 was negatively correlated with PTEN in OS tissues. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in cancer development and progression. Here, we investigated the role of miR-17 in the progression and metastasis of osteosarcoma (OS). miR-17 was frequently increased in OS tissues and cell lines. Inhibition of miR-17 in OS cell lines substantially suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was identified as a target of miR-17, and ectopic expression of miR-17 inhibited PTEN by direct binding to its 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR). Expression of miR-17 was negatively correlated with PTEN in OS tissues. Together, these findings indicate that miR-17 acts as an oncogenic miRNA and may contribute to the progression and metastasis of OS, suggesting miR-17 as a potential novel diagnostic and therapeutic target of OS

  18. miR-17 inhibitor suppressed osteosarcoma tumor growth and metastasis via increasing PTEN expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yong, E-mail: gaoyongunion@163.com [Department of Orthopedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Luo, Ling-hui [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Li, Shuai; Yang, Cao [Department of Orthopedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China)

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • miR-17 was increased in OS tissues and cell lines. • Inhibition of miR-17 suppressed OS cell proliferation. • Inhibition of miR-17 suppressed OS cell migration and invasion. • PTEN was a target of miR-17. • miR-17 was negatively correlated with PTEN in OS tissues. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in cancer development and progression. Here, we investigated the role of miR-17 in the progression and metastasis of osteosarcoma (OS). miR-17 was frequently increased in OS tissues and cell lines. Inhibition of miR-17 in OS cell lines substantially suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was identified as a target of miR-17, and ectopic expression of miR-17 inhibited PTEN by direct binding to its 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR). Expression of miR-17 was negatively correlated with PTEN in OS tissues. Together, these findings indicate that miR-17 acts as an oncogenic miRNA and may contribute to the progression and metastasis of OS, suggesting miR-17 as a potential novel diagnostic and therapeutic target of OS.

  19. Emodin and Aloe-Emodin Suppress Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation through ERα Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pao-Hsuan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chen, Mei-Chih; Lee, Yueh-Tsung; Yue, Chia-Herng; Wang, Hsin-Yi

    2013-01-01

    The anthraquinones emodin and aloe-emodin are abundant in rhubarb. Several lines of evidence indicate that emodin and aloe-emodin have estrogenic activity as phytoestrogens. However, their effects on estrogen receptor α (ERα) activation and breast cancer cell growth remain controversial. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of emodin and aloe-emodin on breast cancer cell proliferation. Our results indicate that both emodin and aloe-emodin are capable of inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation by downregulating ERα protein levels, thereby suppressing ERα transcriptional activation. Furthermore, aloe-emodin treatment led to the dissociation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and ERα and increased ERα ubiquitination. Although emodin had similar effects to aloe-emodin, it was not capable of promoting HSP90/ERα dissociation and ERα ubiquitination. Protein fractionation results suggest that aloe-emodin tended to induce cytosolic ERα degradation. Although emodin might induce cytosolic ERα degradation, it primarily affected nuclear ERα distribution similar to the action of estrogen when protein degradation was blocked. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that emodin and aloe-emodin specifically suppress breast cancer cell proliferation by targeting ERα protein stability through distinct mechanisms. These findings suggest a possible application of anthraquinones in preventing or treating breast cancer in the future. PMID:23864887

  20. The Fusarium oxysporum effector Six6 contributes to virulence and suppresses I-2-mediated cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawehns, F; Houterman, P M; Ichou, F Ait; Michielse, C B; Hijdra, M; Cornelissen, B J C; Rep, M; Takken, F L W

    2014-04-01

    Plant pathogens secrete effectors to manipulate their host and facilitate colonization. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is the causal agent of Fusarium wilt disease in tomato. Upon infection, F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici secretes numerous small proteins into the xylem sap (Six proteins). Most Six proteins are unique to F. oxysporum, but Six6 is an exception; a homolog is also present in two Colletotrichum spp. SIX6 expression was found to require living host cells and a knockout of SIX6 in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici compromised virulence, classifying it as a genuine effector. Heterologous expression of SIX6 did not affect growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves or susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana toward Verticillium dahliae, Pseudomonas syringae, or F. oxysporum, suggesting a specific function for F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Six6 in the F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici- tomato pathosystem. Remarkably, Six6 was found to specifically suppress I-2-mediated cell death (I2CD) upon transient expression in N. benthamiana, whereas it did not compromise the activity of other cell-death-inducing genes. Still, this I2CD suppressing activity of Six6 does not allow the fungus to overcome I-2 resistance in tomato, suggesting that I-2-mediated resistance is independent from cell death.

  1. Suppression of lymphangiogenesis by soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in a mouse lung cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehana, Shotaro; Nakamura, Masaki; Ogawa, Fumihiro; Imai, Rimika; Murakami, Rei; Kojima, Fumiaki; Majima, Masataka; Kitasato, Hidero

    2016-12-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family has a key role in the formation of blood vessels and lymphatics. Among the members of this family, VEGF-C is one of the most important factors involved in lymphangiogenesis via binding with two receptors (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and -3: VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3). Soluble VEGFR-2 (sVEGFR-2) has a role in maintaining the alymphatic state of the cornea associated with binding to VEGF-C, and selectively inhibits lymphangiogenesis but not angiogenesis. In this study, we introduced sVEGFR-2 into lung cancer cells and evaluated the influence on tumor progression and on genes regulating lymphatic formation and metastasis in vivo. A retroviral vector was used to introduce the sVEGFR-2 gene into Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LLC), which were designated as LLC-sVEGFR-2 cells. Proteins secreted into the culture supernatant by these cells were detected by western blotting using specific antibodies. To examine lymphangiogenesis by primary lung cancer in vivo, LLC-sVEGFR-2 cells were subcutaneously injected into C57BL/6 mice. At 14days after injection, immunohistochemistry was performed using an antibody directed against lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1), a marker of lymphatics. Expression of mRNA for VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was also determined by real-time PCR. Furthermore, LLC-sVEGFR-2 cells were directly inoculated into the left lung in C57BL/6 mice and the number of micro-metastases in pulmonary lymph nodes was determined. Introduction of sVEGFR-2 into LLC cells resulted in secretion of sVEGFR-2 protein into the culture supernatant. There were fewer LYVE-1 positive lymphatics after inoculation of LLC-sVEGFR-2 into mice compared with the control group. In addition, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, and MMPs gene expression was suppressed in the primary tumors of the LLC-sVEGFR-2 group compared with the control group. Furthermore, there were fewer micro-metastases in the

  2. Mitochondria-Targeted Nitroxide, Mito-CP, Suppresses Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Survival In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starenki, Dmytro

    2013-01-01

    Context: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine tumor mainly caused by mutations in the RET proto-oncogene. For MTC therapy, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved vandetanib and cabozantinib, multikinase inhibitors targeting RET and other tyrosine kinase receptors of vascular endothelial growth factor, epidermal growth factor, or hepatocyte growth factor. Nevertheless, not all patients with the progressive MTC respond to these drugs, requiring the development of additional therapeutic modalities that have distinct activity. Objective: We aimed to evaluate mitochondria-targeted carboxy-proxyl (Mito-CP), a mitochondria-targeted redox-sensitive agent, for its tumor-suppressive efficacy against MTC. Design: In vitro cultures of 2 human MTC cell lines, TT and MZ-CRC-1, and TT xenografts in mice were treated with Mito-CP in comparison with vandetanib. The effects on cell survival/death, RET expression, mitochondrial integrity, and oxidative stress were determined. Results: Contrary to vandetanib, Mito-CP induced RET downregulation and strong cytotoxic effects in both cell lines in vitro, including caspase-dependent apoptosis. These effects were accompanied by mitochondrial membrane depolarization, decreased oxygen consumption, and increased oxidative stress in cells. Intriguingly, Mito-CP–induced cell death, but not RET downregulation, was partially inhibited by the reactive oxygen species scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine, indicating that Mito-CP mediates tumor-suppressive effects via redox-dependent as well as redox-independent mechanisms. Orally administered Mito-CP effectively suppressed TT xenografts in mice, with an efficacy comparable to vandetanib and relatively low toxicity to animals. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Mito-CP can effectively suppress MTC cell growth/survival via a mechanism distinct from vandetanib effects. Mitochondrial targeting may be a potential strategy for MTC therapy. PMID:23509102

  3. Inhibition of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel ANO1/TMEM16A Suppresses Tumor Growth and Invasion in Human Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linghan Jia

    Full Text Available Lung cancer or pulmonary carcinoma is primarily derived from epithelial cells that are thin and line on the alveolar surfaces of the lung for gas exchange. ANO1/TMEM16A, initially identified from airway epithelial cells, is a member of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs that function to regulate epithelial secretion and cell volume for maintenance of ion and tissue homeostasis. ANO1/TMEM16A has recently been shown to be highly expressed in several epithelium originated carcinomas. However, the role of ANO1 in lung cancer remains unknown. In this study, we show that inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1/TMEM16A suppresses tumor growth and invasion in human lung cancer. ANO1 is upregulated in different human lung cancer cell lines. Knocking-down ANO1 by small hairpin RNAs inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GLC82 and NCI-H520 cancel cells evaluated by CCK-8, would-healing, transwell and 3D soft agar assays. ANO1 protein is overexpressed in 77.3% cases of human lung adenocarcinoma tissues detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the tumor growth in nude mice implanted with GLC82 cells was significantly suppressed by ANO1 silencing. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that ANO1 overexpression contributes to tumor growth and invasion of lung cancer; and suppressing ANO1 overexpression may have therapeutic potential in lung cancer therapy.

  4. Inhibition of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel ANO1/TMEM16A Suppresses Tumor Growth and Invasion in Human Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Linghan; Liu, Wen; Guan, Lizhao; Lu, Min; Wang, KeWei

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer or pulmonary carcinoma is primarily derived from epithelial cells that are thin and line on the alveolar surfaces of the lung for gas exchange. ANO1/TMEM16A, initially identified from airway epithelial cells, is a member of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) that function to regulate epithelial secretion and cell volume for maintenance of ion and tissue homeostasis. ANO1/TMEM16A has recently been shown to be highly expressed in several epithelium originated carcinomas. However, the role of ANO1 in lung cancer remains unknown. In this study, we show that inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1/TMEM16A suppresses tumor growth and invasion in human lung cancer. ANO1 is upregulated in different human lung cancer cell lines. Knocking-down ANO1 by small hairpin RNAs inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GLC82 and NCI-H520 cancel cells evaluated by CCK-8, would-healing, transwell and 3D soft agar assays. ANO1 protein is overexpressed in 77.3% cases of human lung adenocarcinoma tissues detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the tumor growth in nude mice implanted with GLC82 cells was significantly suppressed by ANO1 silencing. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that ANO1 overexpression contributes to tumor growth and invasion of lung cancer; and suppressing ANO1 overexpression may have therapeutic potential in lung cancer therapy.

  5. Radiation adaptive response for the growth of cultured glial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Miura, Y.; Kano, M.; Toda, T.; Urano, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: To examine the molecular mechanism of radiation adaptive response (RAR) for the growth of cultured glial cells and to investigate the influence of aging on the response, glial cells were cultured from young and aged rats (1 month and 24 months old). RAR for the growth of glial cells conditioned with a low dose of X-rays and subsequently exposed to a high dose of X-rays was examined for cell number and BrdU incorporation. Involvement of the subcellular signaling pathway factors in RAR was investigated using their inhibitors, activators and mutated glial cells. RAR was observed in cells cultured from young rats, but was not in cells from aged rats. The inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) suppressed RAR. The activators of PKC instead of low dose irradiation also caused RAR. Moreover, glial cells cultured from severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mice (CB-17 scid) and ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) cells from AT patients showed no RAR. These results indicated that PKC, ATM, DNAPK and/or PI3K were involved in RAR for growth and BrdU incorporation of cultured glial cells and RAR decreased with aging. Proteomics data of glial cells exposed to severe stress of H 2 O 2 or X-rays also will be presented in the conference since little or no difference has not been observed with slight stress yet

  6. Obesity Suppresses Estrogen Receptor Beta Expression in Breast Cancer Cells via a HER2-Mediated Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Laura W; Wiese, Megan; Brenner, Andrew J; Rossi, Emily L; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R; Hursting, Stephen D; deGraffenried, Linda A

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a worse breast cancer prognosis, while greater breast tumor estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) expression is correlated with improved therapy response and survival. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of obesity on breast cancer cell ERβ expression, which is currently unknown. We utilized an in vitro model of obesity in which breast cancer cells were exposed to patient serum pooled by body mass index category (obese (OB): ≥30 kg/m2; normal weight (N): 18.5-24.9 kg/m2). Four human mammary tumor cell lines representing the major breast cancer subtypes (SKBR3, MCF-7, ZR75, MDA-MB-231) and mammary tumor cells from MMTV-neu mice were used. ERβ expression, assessed by qPCR and western blotting, was suppressed in the two HER2-overexpressing cell lines (SKBR3, MMTV-neu) following OB versus N sera exposure, but did not vary in the other cell lines. Expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1, two genes negatively regulated by ERβ, was elevated in SKBR3 cells following exposure to OB versus N sera, but this difference was eliminated when the ERβ gene was silenced with siRNA. Herceptin, a HER2 antagonist, and siRNA to HER2 were used to evaluate the role of HER2 in sera-induced ERβ modulation. SKBR3 cell treatment with OB sera plus Herceptin increased ERβ expression three-fold. Similar results were obtained when HER2 expression was silenced with siRNA. OB sera also promoted greater SKBR3 cell viability and growth, but this variance was not present when ERβ was silenced or the cells were modified to overexpress ERβ. Based on this data, we conclude that obesity-associated systemic factors suppress ERβ expression in breast cancer cells via a HER2-mediated pathway, leading to greater cell viability and growth. Elucidation of the mechanism(s) mediating this effect could provide important insights into how ERβ expression is regulated as well as how obesity promotes a more aggressive disease.

  7. Obesity Suppresses Estrogen Receptor Beta Expression in Breast Cancer Cells via a HER2-Mediated Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura W Bowers

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with a worse breast cancer prognosis, while greater breast tumor estrogen receptor beta (ERβ expression is correlated with improved therapy response and survival. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of obesity on breast cancer cell ERβ expression, which is currently unknown. We utilized an in vitro model of obesity in which breast cancer cells were exposed to patient serum pooled by body mass index category (obese (OB: ≥30 kg/m2; normal weight (N: 18.5-24.9 kg/m2. Four human mammary tumor cell lines representing the major breast cancer subtypes (SKBR3, MCF-7, ZR75, MDA-MB-231 and mammary tumor cells from MMTV-neu mice were used. ERβ expression, assessed by qPCR and western blotting, was suppressed in the two HER2-overexpressing cell lines (SKBR3, MMTV-neu following OB versus N sera exposure, but did not vary in the other cell lines. Expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1, two genes negatively regulated by ERβ, was elevated in SKBR3 cells following exposure to OB versus N sera, but this difference was eliminated when the ERβ gene was silenced with siRNA. Herceptin, a HER2 antagonist, and siRNA to HER2 were used to evaluate the role of HER2 in sera-induced ERβ modulation. SKBR3 cell treatment with OB sera plus Herceptin increased ERβ expression three-fold. Similar results were obtained when HER2 expression was silenced with siRNA. OB sera also promoted greater SKBR3 cell viability and growth, but this variance was not present when ERβ was silenced or the cells were modified to overexpress ERβ. Based on this data, we conclude that obesity-associated systemic factors suppress ERβ expression in breast cancer cells via a HER2-mediated pathway, leading to greater cell viability and growth. Elucidation of the mechanism(s mediating this effect could provide important insights into how ERβ expression is regulated as well as how obesity promotes a more aggressive disease.

  8. PAR1 inhibition suppresses the self-renewal and growth of A2B5-defined glioma progenitor cells and their derived gliomas in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auvergne, R.; Wu, C.; Connell, A.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) remains the most common and lethal intracranial tumor. In a comparison of gene expression by A2B5-defined tumor-initiating progenitor cells (TPCs) to glial progenitor cells derived from normal adult human brain, we found that the F2R gene encoding PAR1 was differentially overex...

  9. Small molecule inhibitor regorafenib inhibits RET signaling in neuroblastoma cells and effectively suppresses tumor growthin vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenghu; Zhao, Yanling; Yu, Yang; Pang, Jonathan C; Woodfield, Sarah E; Tao, Ling; Guan, Shan; Zhang, Huiyuan; Bieerkehazhi, Shayahati; Shi, Yan; Patel, Roma; Vasudevan, Sanjeev A; Yi, Joanna S; Muscal, Jodi A; Xu, Guo-Tong; Yang, Jianhua

    2017-11-28

    Neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extracranial pediatric solid tumor, continues to cause significant cancer-related morbidity and mortality in children. Dysregulation of oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) has been shown to contribute to tumorigenesis in various human cancers and targeting these RTKs has had therapeutic benefit. RET is an RTK which is commonly expressed in NB, and high expression of RET correlates with poor outcomes in patients with NB. Herein we report that RET is required for NB cell proliferation and that the small molecule inhibitor regorafenib (BAY 73-4506) blocks glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-induced RET signaling in NB cells and inhibits NB growth both in vitro and in vivo . We found that regorafenib significantly inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation ability of NB cells. Moreover, regorafenib suppressed tumor growth in both an orthotopic xenograft NB mouse model and a TH-MYCN transgenic NB mouse model. Finally, regorafenib markedly improved the overall survival of TH-MYCN transgenic tumor-bearing mice. In summary, our study suggests that RET is a potential therapeutic target in NB, and that using a novel RET inhibitor, like regorafenib, should be investigated as a therapeutic treatment option for children with NB.

  10. FOXO/TXNIP pathway is involved in the suppression of hepatocellular carcinoma growth by glutamate antagonist MK-801

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Hirata, Yuko; Akram, Hossain; Kamitori, Kazuyo; Dong, Youyi; Sui, Li; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has suggested the importance of glutamate signaling in cancer growth, yet the signaling pathway has not been fully elucidated. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor activates intracellular signaling pathways such as the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and forkhead box, class O (FOXO). Suppression of lung carcinoma growth by NMDA receptor antagonists via the ERK pathway has been reported. However, series of evidences suggested the importance of FOXO pathways for the regulation of normal and cancer cell growth. In the liver, FOXO1 play important roles for the cell proliferation such as hepatic stellate cells as well as liver metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the involvement of the FOXO pathway and the target genes in the growth inhibitory effects of NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Expression of NMDAR1 in cancer cell lines from different tissues was examined by Western blot. NMDA receptor subunits in HepG2, HuH-7, and HLF were examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and growth inhibition by MK-801 and NBQX was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of MK-801 on the cell cycle were examined by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. Expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and p27 was determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Activation of the FOXO pathway and TXNIP induction were examined by Western blotting, fluorescence microscopy, Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, and reporter gene assay. The effects of TXNIP on growth inhibition were examined using the gene silencing technique. NMDA receptor subunits were expressed in all cell lines examined, and MK-801, but not NBQX, inhibited cell growth of hepatocellular carcinomas. Cell cycle analysis showed that MK-801 induced G1 cell cycle arrest by down-regulating cyclin D1 and up-regulating p27. MK-801 dephosphorylated

  11. Oroxin B selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrently inhibits tumor-adaptive ER stress in B-lymphoma cells for effective anti-lymphoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Fu, Shilong; Cao, Zhifei; Liao, Huaidong; Huo, Zihe; Pan, Yanyan; Zhang, Gaochuan; Gao, Aidi; Zhou, Quansheng

    2015-10-15

    Cancer cells have both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress machineries that determine cell fate. In malignant tumors including lymphoma, constant activation of tumor-adaptive ER stress and concurrent reduction of tumor-suppressive ER stress favors cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. Current ER stress-based anti-tumor drugs typically activate both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive ER stresses, resulting in low anti-cancer efficacy; hence, selective induction of tumor-suppressive ER stress and inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress are new strategies for novel anti-cancer drug discovery. Thus far, specific tumor-suppressive ER stress therapeutics have remained absent in clinical settings. In this study, we explored unique tumor-suppressive ER stress agents from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Oroxylum indicum, and found that a small molecule oroxin B selectively induced tumor-suppressive ER stress in malignant lymphoma cells, but not in normal cells, effectively inhibited lymphoma growth in vivo, and significantly prolonged overall survival of lymphoma-xenografted mice without obvious toxicity. Mechanistic studies have revealed that the expression of key tumor-adaptive ER-stress gene GRP78 was notably suppressed by oroxin B via down-regulation of up-stream key signaling protein ATF6, while tumor-suppressive ER stress master gene DDIT3 was strikingly activated through activating the MKK3-p38 signaling pathway, correcting the imbalance between tumor-suppressive DDIT3 and tumor-adaptive GRP78 in lymphoma. Together, selective induction of unique tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrent inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress in malignant lymphoma are new and feasible approaches for novel anti-lymphoma drug discovery and anti-lymphoma therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Butyrate suppresses proliferation and migration of RKO colon cancer cells though regulating endocan expression by MAPK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Li; Lu, Man; Zhou, Qing; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yuan

    2013-12-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid produced by colonic bacterial fermentation. In colon cancer cells butyrate is able to suppress cell growth, induce apoptosis. It also inhibits tumor growth in vivo. However, the underlying mechanism is still not fully understood. We hypothesize that butyrate regulates the growth and migration of colon cancer cells by altering endocan expression. To test this hypothesis, we performed quantitative real time RT–PCR and Western blots, and found that butyrate increased endocan expression of colon cancer cell RKO. Moreover, endocan over-expression inhibited RKO proliferation, migration and colony formation. Functionally, butyrate significantly suppressed RKO proliferation, migration, and colony formation, as well as induced apoptosis. Knocking down endogenous endocan was able to attenuate the inhibitory role of butyrate in RKO migration and proliferation. Since our results showed that butyrate inhibited MAPK/ERK2 phosphorylation. To determine whether ERK2 signaling is associated with endocan expression, we knocked down endogenous ERK2 expression. Our results showed that knocking down ERK2 expression up-regulated endocan expression. Taken together, these results suggested that butyrate suppressed RKO proliferation, colony formation, migration through up-regulating endocan expression via ERK2/MAPK signaling pathway.

  13. Bisphenol A in oocytes leads to growth suppression and altered stress performance in juvenile rainbow trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakanteswar Aluru

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA, used in the manufacture of plastics, is ubiquitously distributed in the aquatic environment. However, the effect of maternal transfer of these xenobiotics on embryonic development and growth is poorly understood in fish. We tested the hypothesis that BPA in eggs, mimicking maternal transfer, impact development, growth and stress performance in juveniles of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Trout oocytes were exposed to 0, 30 and 100 microg.mL(-1 BPA for 3 h in ovarian fluid, followed by fertilization. The embryos were maintained in clean water and sampled temporally over 156-days post-fertilization (dpf, and juveniles were sampled at 400-dpf. The egg BPA levels declined steadily after exposure and were undetectable after 21- dpf. Oocyte exposure to BPA led to a delay in hatching and yolk absorption and a consistently lower body mass over 152-dpf. The growth impairment, especially in the high BPA group, correlated with higher growth hormone (GH content and lower GH receptors gene expression. Also, mRNA abundances of insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1 and IGF-2 and their receptors were suppressed in the BPA treated groups. The juvenile fish grown from the BPA-enriched eggs had lower body mass and showed perturbations in plasma cortisol and glucose response to an acute stressor. CONCLUSION: BPA accumulation in eggs, prior to fertilization, leads to hatching delays, growth suppression and altered stress response in juvenile trout. The somatotropic axis appears to be a key target for BPA impact during early embryogenesis, leading to long term growth and stress performance defects in fish.

  14. ABA Suppresses Root Hair Growth via the OBP4 Transcriptional Regulator1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Ayako; Schäfer, Sabine; Breuer, Christian; Shibata, Michitaro; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Matsui, Minami

    2017-01-01

    Plants modify organ growth and tune morphogenesis in response to various endogenous and environmental cues. At the cellular level, organ growth is often adjusted by alterations in cell growth, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this control remain poorly understood. In this study, we identify the DNA BINDING WITH ONE FINGER (DOF)-type transcription regulator OBF BINDING PROTEIN4 (OBP4) as a repressor of cell growth. Ectopic expression of OBP4 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inhibits cell growth, resulting in severe dwarfism and the repression of genes involved in the regulation of water transport, root hair development, and stress responses. Among the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors known to control root hair growth, OBP4 binds the ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE6-LIKE2 (RSL2) promoter to repress its expression. The accumulation of OBP4 proteins is detected in expanding root epidermal cells, and its expression level is increased by the application of abscisic acid (ABA) at concentrations sufficient to inhibit root hair growth. ABA-dependent induction of OBP4 is associated with the reduced expression of RSL2. Furthermore, ectopic expression of OBP4 or loss of RSL2 function results in ABA-insensitive root hair growth. Taken together, our results suggest that OBP4-mediated transcriptional repression of RSL2 contributes to the ABA-dependent inhibition of root hair growth in Arabidopsis. PMID:28167701

  15. Suppression and activation of the malignant phenotype by extracellular matrix in xenograft models of bladder cancer: a model for tumor cell "dormancy".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E Hurst

    Full Text Available A major problem in cancer research is the lack of a tractable model for delayed metastasis. Herein we show that cancer cells suppressed by SISgel, a gel-forming normal ECM material derived from Small Intestine Submucosa (SIS, in flank xenografts show properties of suppression and re-activation that are very similar to normal delayed metastasis and suggest these suppressed cells can serve as a novel model for developing therapeutics to target micrometastases or suppressed cancer cells. Co-injection with SISgel suppressed the malignant phenotype of highly invasive J82 bladder cancer cells and highly metastatic JB-V bladder cancer cells in nude mouse flank xenografts. Cells could remain viable up to 120 days without forming tumors and appeared much more highly differentiated and less atypical than tumors from cells co-injected with Matrigel. In 40% of SISgel xenografts, growth resumed in the malignant phenotype after a period of suppression or dormancy for at least 30 days and was more likely with implantation of 3 million or more cells. Ordinary Type I collagen did not suppress malignant growth, and tumors developed about as well with collagen as with Matrigel. A clear signal in gene expression over different cell lines was not seen by transcriptome microarray analysis, but in contrast, Reverse Phase Protein Analysis of 250 proteins across 4 cell lines identified Integrin Linked Kinase (ILK signaling that was functionally confirmed by an ILK inhibitor. We suggest that cancer cells suppressed on SISgel could serve as a model for dormancy and re-awakening to allow for the identification of therapeutic targets for treating micrometastases.

  16. Syntaxin 1B suppresses macropinocytosis and semaphorin 3A-induced growth cone collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabayama, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Makoto; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Tokushige, Naoko; Kozaki, Shunji; Mizutani, Akihiro; Nakamura, Takeshi; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2011-05-18

    Growth cone collapse is a crucial process for repulsive axon guidance and is accompanied by a reduction in growth cone surface area. This process of reduction may be regulated by endocytosis; however, its molecular mechanism is unclear. Macropinocytosis is a clathrin-independent form of endocytosis in which large areas of plasma membrane can be engulfed. We have reported previously that macropinocytosis is induced in growth cones of chick dorsal root ganglion neurons by semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), a repulsive axon guidance cue, and that Sema3A-induced reduction in growth cone surface area and macropinocytic vacuole area were correlated, suggesting a positive role for macropinocytosis in Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse. In the present study, we found that syntaxin 1B (Syx1B), a membrane trafficking protein, is a negative regulator of macropinocytosis, and its expression is downregulated by Sema3A signaling. Macropinocytosis inhibitor ethylisopropylamiloride or Syx1B overexpression suppressed Sema3A-induced macropinocytosis and growth cone collapse. These results indicate that Syx1B couples macropinocytosis-mediated massive internalization of the plasma membrane to Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse.

  17. A crucial role of activin A-mediated growth hormone suppression in mouse and human heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noritoshi Fukushima

    Full Text Available Infusion of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMNC has been reported to ameliorate cardiac dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction. In this study, we investigated whether infusion of BMMNC is also effective for non-ischemic heart failure model mice and the underlying mechanisms. Intravenous infusion of BMMNC showed transient cardioprotective effects on animal models with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM without their engraftment in heart, suggesting that BMMNC infusion improves cardiac function via humoral factors rather than their differentiation into cardiomyocytes. Using conditioned media from sorted BMMNC, we found that the cardioprotective effects were mediated by growth hormone (GH secreted from myeloid (Gr-1(+ cells and the effects was partially mediated by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in cardiomyocytes. On the other hand, the GH expression in Gr-1(+ cells was significantly downregulated in DCM mice compared with that in healthy control, suggesting that the environmental cue in heart failure might suppress the Gr-1(+ cells function. Activin A was upregulated in the serum of DCM models and induced downregulation of GH levels in Gr-1(+ cells and serum. Furthermore, humoral factors upregulated in heart failure including angiotensin II upregulated activin A in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC via activation of NFκB. Similarly, serum activin A levels were also significantly higher in DCM patients with heart failure than in healthy subjects and the GH levels in conditioned medium from PBMNC of DCM patients were lower than that in healthy subjects. Inhibition of activin A increased serum GH levels and improved cardiac function of DCM model mice. These results suggest that activin A causes heart failure by suppressing GH activity and that inhibition of activin A might become a novel strategy for the treatment of heart failure.

  18. IgA-binding factor suppresses synthesis of IgA in MOPC-315 plasmacytoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, C.; Moore, J.S.; Muller, S.; Aaronsen, D.; Madianos, E.; Hoover, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    T cells with Fc receptors for IgA (T/sup α/ cells) and their products, IgA-binding factors (IgABF), have been implicated in the regulation of IgA expression by B cells. They have previously shown that an IgABF produced by IgA induced normal T cells or constitutively by the Fc/sup α/ R+ T cell lymphoma, BALENTL 8, is capable of suppressing the proliferation and the amount of secreted IgA by MOPC-315 cells. In the present studies, they demonstrate that: (a) suppression of proliferation and secretion requires surface membrane IgA on the target cell, (b) suppression exhibits rapid kinetics with maximal effect occurring by 3-4 hours, (c) suppression is reversible, and (d) suppression of secretion involves selective suppression of IgA synthesis as measured by 3 H-leucine incorporation into immunoprecipitable IgA(non-IgA protein is unaffected). These findings indicate that IgA-isotype-specific effector molecules interact directly with their B cell targets through surface membrane immunoglobulin and cause a down regulation of immunoglobulin synthesis by the target. Current studies are underway to address whether this selective suppression of IgA is mediated at the transcriptional, translational or post-translational level. The use of MOPC-315 tumor cells as targets of T cell produced, isotype-specific, effector molecules should provide a unique model for the further analysis of isotype regulation at the molecular level

  19. Down-Regulation by Resveratrol of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-Stimulated Osteoprotegerin Synthesis through Suppression of Akt in Osteoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroyanagi, Gen; Otsuka, Takanobu; Yamamoto, Naohiro; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Nakakami, Akira; Mizutani, Jun; Kozawa, Osamu; Tokuda, Haruhiko

    2014-01-01

    It is firmly established that resveratrol, a natural food compound abundantly found in grape skins and red wine, has beneficial properties for human health. In the present study, we investigated the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) on osteoprotegerin (OPG) synthesis in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells and whether resveratrol affects the OPG synthesis. FGF-2 stimulated both the OPG release and the expression of OPG mRNA. Resveratrol significantly suppressed the FGF-2-stimulated OPG release and the mRNA levels of OPG. SRT1720, an activator of SIRT1, reduced the FGF-2-induced OPG release and the OPG mRNA expression. PD98059, an inhibitor of upstream kinase activating p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, had little effect on the FGF-2-stimulated OPG release. On the other hand, SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, SP600125, an inhibitor of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), and Akt inhibitor suppressed the OPG release induced by FGF-2. Resveratrol failed to affect the FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase, p38 MAP kinase or SAPK/JNK. The phosphorylation of Akt induced by FGF-2 was significantly suppressed by resveratrol or SRT1720. These findings strongly suggest that resveratrol down-regulates FGF-2-stimulated OPG synthesis through the suppression of the Akt pathway in osteoblasts and that the inhibitory effect of resveratrol is mediated at least in part by SIRT1 activation. PMID:25290095

  20. Lipopolysaccharide suppresses IgE-mast cell-mediated reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N; McKell, M; Dang, A; Yamani, A; Waggoner, L; Vanoni, S; Noah, T; Wu, D; Kordowski, A; Köhl, J; Hoebe, K; Divanovic, S; Hogan, S P

    2017-12-01

    Clinical and experimental analyses have identified a central role for IgE/FcεRI/mast cells in promoting IgE-mediated anaphylaxis. Recent data from human studies suggest that bacterial infections can alter susceptibility to anaphylaxis. We examined the effect of LPS exposure on the induction of IgE-mast cell (MC) mediated reactions in mice. C57BL/6 WT, tlr4 -/- and IL10 -/- mice were exposed to LPS, and serum cytokines (TNF and IL-10) were measured. Mice were subsequently treated with anti-IgE, and the symptoms of passive IgE-mediated anaphylaxis, MC activation, Ca 2+ -mobilization and the expression of FcεRI on peritoneal MCs were quantitated. We show that LPS exposure of C57BL/6 WT mice constraints IgE-MC-mediated reactions. LPS-induced suppression of IgE-MC-mediated responses was TLR-4-dependent and associated with increased systemic IL-10 levels, decreased surface expression of FcεRI on MCs and loss of sensitivity to IgE activation. Notably, LPS-induced desensitization of MCs was short term with MC sensitivity to IgE reconstituted within 48 hours, which was associated with recapitulation of FcεRI expression on the MCs. Mechanistic analyses revealed a requirement for IL-10 in LPS-mediated decrease in MC FcεRI surface expression. Collectively, these studies suggest that LPS-induced IL-10 promotes the down-regulation of MC surface FcεRI expression and leads to desensitization of mice to IgE-mediated reactions. These studies indicate that targeting of the LPS-TLR-4-IL-10 pathway may be used as a therapeutic approach to prevent adverse IgE-mediated reactions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Butyl benzyl phthalate suppresses the ATP-induced cell proliferation in human osteosarcoma HOS cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.-S.; Chen, C.-Y.

    2010-01-01

    Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), an endocrine disruptor present in the environment, exerts its genomic effects via intracellular steroid receptors and elicits non-genomic effects by interfering with membrane ion-channel receptors. We previously found that BBP blocks the calcium signaling coupled with P2X receptors in PC12 cells (Liu and Chen, 2006). Osteoblast P2X receptors were recently reported to play a role in cell proliferation and bone remodeling. In this present study, the effects of BBP on ATP-induced responses were investigated in human osteosarcoma HOS cells. These receptors mRNA had been detected, named P2X4, P2X7, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y5, P2Y9, and P2Y11, in human osteosarcoma HOS cells by RT-PCR. The enhancement of cell proliferation and the decrease of cytoviability had both been shown to be coupled to stimulation via different concentrations of ATP. BBP suppressed the ATP-induced calcium influx (mainly coupled with P2X) and cell proliferation but not the ATP-induced intracellular calcium release (mainly coupled with P2Y) and cytotoxicity in human osteosarcoma HOS cells. Suramin, a common P2 receptor's antagonist, blocked the ATP-induced calcium signaling, cell proliferation, and cytotoxicity. We suggest that P2X is mainly responsible for cell proliferation, and P2Y might be partially responsible for the observed cytotoxicity. BBP suppressed the calcium signaling coupled with P2X, suppressing cell proliferation. Since the importance of P2X receptors during bone metastasis has recently become apparent, the possible toxic risk of environmental BBP during bone remodeling is a public problem of concern.

  2. CoQ0-induced mitochondrial PTP opening triggers apoptosis via ROS-mediated VDAC1 upregulation in HL-60 leukemia cells and suppresses tumor growth in athymic nude mice/xenografted nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hseu, You-Cheng; Thiyagarajan, Varadharajan; Ou, Ting-Tsz; Yang, Hsin-Ling

    2018-01-01

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ) analogs with variable numbers of isoprenoid units have been demonstrated as anticancer and antioxidant/pro-oxidant molecules. This study examined the in vitro and in vivo antitumor and apoptosis activities of CoQ 0 (2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, zero isoprenoid side-chains) through upregulation of the Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) signaling pathway on human promyelocytic leukemia. CoQ 0 (0-40 μg/mL) treatment significantly reduced HL-60 cell viability, and up-regulated mitochondrial VDAC1 expression. CoQ 0 treatment triggers intracellular ROS generation, calcium release, ΔΨm collapse and PTP opening in HL-60 cells. CoQ 0 treatment induced apoptosis, which was associated with DNA fragmentation, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 and PARP activation, and Bax/Bcl-2 dysregulation. Annexin V-PI staining indicated that CoQ 0 promotes late apoptosis. Furthermore, the blockade of CoQ 0 -induced ROS production by antioxidant NAC pretreatment substantially attenuated CoQ 0 -induced apoptosis. The activation of p-GSK3β expression, cyclophilin D inhibition, and p53 activation through ROS are involved in CoQ 0 -induced HL-60 apoptotic cell death. Notably, ROS-independent p38 activation is involved in CoQ 0 -mediated apoptosis in HL-60 cells. In addition, the silencing of VDAC1 also prevented CoQ 0 -induced mitochondrial translocation of Bax, activation of caspase-3, and reduction in Bcl-2. Intriguingly, VDAC1 silencing did not prevent ROS production induced by CoQ 0 , which in turn indicates that CoQ 0 induced ROS-mediated VDAC1 and then mitochondrial apoptosis in HL-60 cells. In vivo results revealed that CoQ 0 is effective in delaying tumor incidence and reducing the tumor burden in HL-60-xenografted nude mice. Taken together, CoQ 0 could be a promising anticancer agent for the treatment of human promyelocytic leukemia through upregulation of VDAC1 signaling pathways.

  3. Arctigenin suppresses unfolded protein response and sensitizes glucose deprivation-mediated cytotoxicity of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengrong; Wang, Xiong; Wang, Changhua; Nawaz, Ahmed; Wei, Wen; Li, Juanjuan; Wang, Lijun; Yu, De-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The involvement of unfolded protein response (UPR) activation in tumor survival and resistance to chemotherapies suggests a new anticancer strategy targeting UPR pathway. Arctigenin, a natural product, has been recently identified for its antitumor activity with selective toxicity against cancer cells under glucose starvation with unknown mechanism. Here we found that arctigenin specifically blocks the transcriptional induction of two potential anticancer targets, namely glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78) and its analog GRP94, under glucose deprivation, but not by tunicamycin. The activation of other UPR pathways, e.g., XBP-1 and ATF4, by glucose deprivation was also suppressed by arctigenin. A further transgene experiment showed that ectopic expression of GRP78 at least partially rescued arctigenin/glucose starvation-mediated cell growth inhibition, suggesting the causal role of UPR suppression in arctigenin-mediated cytotoxicity under glucose starvation. These observations bring a new insight into the mechanism of action of arctigenin and may lead to the design of new anticancer therapeutics. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. RAF Suppression Synergizes with MEK Inhibition in KRAS Mutant Cancer Cells

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    Simona Lamba

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available KRAS is the most frequently mutated oncogene in human cancer, yet no therapies are available to treat KRAS mutant cancers. We used two independent reverse genetic approaches to identify components of the RAS-signaling pathways required for growth of KRAS mutant tumors. Small interfering RNA (siRNA screening of 37 KRAS mutant colorectal cancer cell lines showed that RAF1 suppression was synthetic lethal with MEK inhibition. An unbiased kinome short hairpin RNA (shRNA-based screen confirmed this synthetic lethal interaction in colorectal as well as in lung cancer cells bearing KRAS mutations. Compounds targeting RAF kinases can reverse resistance to the MEK inhibitor selumetinib. MEK inhibition induces RAS activation and BRAF-RAF1 dimerization and sustains MEK-ERK signaling, which is responsible for intrinsic resistance to selumetinib. Prolonged dual blockade of RAF and MEK leads to persistent ERK suppression and efficiently induces apoptosis. Our data underlie the relevance of developing combinatorial regimens of drugs targeting the RAF-MEK pathway in KRAS mutant tumors.

  5. Maslinic acid inhibits proliferation of renal cell carcinoma cell lines and suppresses angiogenesis of endothelial cells

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    Parth Thakor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the introduction of many novel therapeutics in clinical practice, metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC remains a treatment-re-sistant cancer. As red and processed meat are considered risk factors for RCC, and a vegetable-rich diet is thought to reduce this risk, research into plant-based therapeutics may provide valuable complementary or alternative therapeutics for the management of RCC. Herein, we present the antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects of maslinic acid, which occurs naturally in edible plants, particularly in olive fruits, and also in a variety of medicinal plants. Human RCC cell lines (ACHN, Caki-1, and SN12K1, endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cell line [HUVEC], and primary cultures of kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC were treated with maslinic acid. Maslinic acid was relatively less toxic to PTEC when compared with RCC under similar experimental conditions. In RCC cell lines, maslinic acid induced a significant reduction in proliferation, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and colony formation. In HUVEC, maslinic acid induced a significant reduction in capillary tube formation in vitro and vascular endothelial growth factor. This study provides a rationale for incorporating a maslinic acid–rich diet either to reduce the risk of developing kidney cancer or as an adjunct to existing antiangiogenic therapy to improve efficacy.

  6. Noise suppress or express exponential growth for hybrid Hopfield neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Song; Shen Yi; Chen Guici

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, we will show that noise can make the given hybrid Hopfield neural networks whose solution may grows exponentially become the new stochastic hybrid Hopfield neural networks whose solution will grows at most polynomially. On the other hand, we will also show that noise can make the given hybrid Hopfield neural networks whose solution grows at most polynomially become the new stochastic hybrid Hopfield neural networks whose solution will grows at exponentially. In other words, we will reveal that the noise can suppress or express exponential growth for hybrid Hopfield neural networks.

  7. Lgr4 Expression in Osteoblastic Cells Is Suppressed by Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawaputanon Na Mahasarakham, Chantida; Izu, Yayoi; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Izumi, Yuichi; Noda, Masaki; Ezura, Yoichi

    2017-07-01

    LGR4 is expressed in bone and has been shown to be involved in bone metabolism. Oxidative stress is one of the key issues in pathophysiology of osteoporosis. However, the link between Lgr4 and oxidative stress has not been known. Therefore, effects of hydrogen peroxide on Lgr4 expression in osteoblasts were examined. Hydrogen peroxide treatment suppressed the levels of Lgr4 mRNA expression in an osteoblastic cell line, MC3T3-E1. The suppressive effects were not obvious at 0.1 mM, while 1 mM hydrogen peroxide suppressed Lgr4 expression by more than 50%. Hydrogen peroxide treatment suppressed Lgr4 expression within 12 h and this suppression lasted at least up to 48 h. Hydrogen peroxide suppression of Lgr4 expression was still observed in the presence of a transcription inhibitor but was no longer observed in the presence of a protein synthesis inhibitor. Although Lgr4 expression in osteoblasts is enhanced by BMP2 treatment as reported before, hydrogen peroxide treatment suppressed Lgr4 even in the presence of BMP2. Finally, hydrogen peroxide suppressed Lgr4 expression in primary cultures of osteoblasts similarly to MC3T3-E1 cells. These date indicate that hydrogen peroxide suppresses Lgr4 expression in osteoblastic cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1761-1766, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. IL13Rα2 siRNA inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis, and suppressed cell invasion in papillary thyroid carcinoma cells

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    Gu MJ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mingjun Gu Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Gongli Hospital, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Aim: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Infiltrative growth and metastasis are the two most intractable characteristics of PTC. Interleukin-13 receptor α2 (IL13Rα2 with high affinity for Th2-derived cytokine IL-13 has been reported to be overexpressed in several tumors. In this study, an analysis of IL13Rα2 expression in PTC and matched paracancerous tissues was undertaken, and its biologic functions in PTC were assessed. Methods: IL13Rα2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression were detected by using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry analyses. Cell proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, and caspase activity were measured with the Cell Counting Kit-8, Transwell, flow cytometry analyses, and biochemistry assay, respectively. Results: Upregulation of IL13Rα2 and VEGF was observed in PTC tissues compared with matched paracancerous tissues. Pearson’s correlation analysis indicated that IL13Rα2 mRNA level in the tested PTC tissues was positively correlated with VEGF mRNA level. Besides, inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis, and suppressed cell invasion were detected in IL13Rα2-silenced TPC-1 cells. Increased activity of Caspase 3 and Caspase 9, along with elevated cleaved Caspase 3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase indicated the signal pathway of cell apoptosis induced by IL13Rα2 siRNA. In addition, downregulated metastasis- and angiogenesis-related proteins VEGF, VEGFR2, MMP2, and MMP9 indicated the decreased number of invading cells after knockdown of IL13Rα2. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that IL13Rα2 plays an important role in the progress of PTC. IL13Rα2 knockdown in PTC cells inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis, and suppressed cell invasion. These data suggest that IL13Rα2

  9. CTLA-4 (CD152) controls homeostasis and suppressive capacity of regulatory T cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Paula; Knieke, Karin; Hegel, J Kolja E; Quandt, Dagmar; Burmester, Gerd-R; Hoff, Holger; Brunner-Weinzierl, Monika C

    2009-01-01

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (known as Treg cells) suppress unwanted and autoreactive T cell responses. Treg cells express the costimulatory molecule CTLA-4 intracellularly, but the mechanisms by which Treg cells exploit CTLA-4 signaling remain unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of CTLA-4 in controlling the homeostasis and suppressive function of Treg cells. Murine Treg cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for coexpression of CTLA-4 and typical Treg cell-expressed molecules, and the influence of CTLA-4 on T cell proliferation, suppression, and apoptosis was investigated by in vitro assays. To analyze the importance of CTLA-4 in Treg cell-mediated suppression in vivo, wild-type Treg cells were transferred into CTLA-4-deficient mice displaying lymphoproliferation, and survival was monitored over time. A strong correlation between expression of forkhead box P3 and ex vivo expression of CTLA-4 in Treg cells was observed. Inhibition of CTLA-4 signaling in Treg cells during in vitro stimulation increased cell cycling and led to enhanced activation-induced cell death (AICD), which was mediated by CD95/CD95 ligand-induced activation of caspases. Blockade of CTLA-4 signaling resulted in impairment of the suppressive capacity of Treg cells. Despite these effects, high amounts of Treg cells persisted in CTLA-4-deficient mice. Results of transfer experiments in CTLA-4-deficient mice showed that the mice had a significantly prolonged lifespan when CTLA-4-competent Treg cells were injected. Expression of CTLA-4 on Treg cells serves to control T cell proliferation, to confer resistance against AICD, and to maintain the suppressive function of Treg cells.

  10. The SIRT1 deacetylase suppresses intestinal tumorigenesis and colon cancer growth.

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    Ron Firestein

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous longevity genes have been discovered in model organisms and altering their function results in prolonged lifespan. In mammals, some have speculated that any health benefits derived from manipulating these same pathways might be offset by increased cancer risk on account of their propensity to boost cell survival. The Sir2/SIRT1 family of NAD(+-dependent deacetylases is proposed to underlie the health benefits of calorie restriction (CR, a diet that broadly suppresses cancer in mammals. Here we show that CR induces a two-fold increase SIRT1 expression in the intestine of rodents and that ectopic induction of SIRT1 in a beta-catenin-driven mouse model of colon cancer significantly reduces tumor formation, proliferation, and animal morbidity in the absence of CR. We show that SIRT1 deacetylates beta-catenin and suppresses its ability to activate transcription and drive cell proliferation. Moreover, SIRT1 promotes cytoplasmic localization of the otherwise nuclear-localized oncogenic form of beta-catenin. Consistent with this, a significant inverse correlation was found between the presence of nuclear SIRT1 and the oncogenic form of beta-catenin in 81 human colon tumor specimens analyzed. Taken together, these observations show that SIRT1 suppresses intestinal tumor formation in vivo and raise the prospect that therapies targeting SIRT1 may be of clinical use in beta-catenin-driven malignancies.

  11. The SIRT1 Deacetylase Suppresses Intestinal Tumorigenesis and Colon Cancer Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberdoerffer, Philipp; Ogino, Shuji; Campbell, Jennifer; Bhimavarapu, Anupama; Luikenhuis, Sandra; de Cabo, Rafael; Fuchs, Charles; Hahn, William C.; Guarente, Leonard P.; Sinclair, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous longevity genes have been discovered in model organisms and altering their function results in prolonged lifespan. In mammals, some have speculated that any health benefits derived from manipulating these same pathways might be offset by increased cancer risk on account of their propensity to boost cell survival. The Sir2/SIRT1 family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases is proposed to underlie the health benefits of calorie restriction (CR), a diet that broadly suppresses cancer in mammals. Here we show that CR induces a two-fold increase SIRT1 expression in the intestine of rodents and that ectopic induction of SIRT1 in a β-catenin-driven mouse model of colon cancer significantly reduces tumor formation, proliferation, and animal morbidity in the absence of CR. We show that SIRT1 deacetylates β-catenin and suppresses its ability to activate transcription and drive cell proliferation. Moreover, SIRT1 promotes cytoplasmic localization of the otherwise nuclear-localized oncogenic form of β-catenin. Consistent with this, a significant inverse correlation was found between the presence of nuclear SIRT1 and the oncogenic form of β−catenin in 81 human colon tumor specimens analyzed. Taken together, these observations show that SIRT1 suppresses intestinal tumor formation in vivo and raise the prospect that therapies targeting SIRT1 may be of clinical use in β−catenin-driven malignancies. PMID:18414679

  12. Mechanism of rapid suppression of cell expansion in cucumber hypocotyls after blue-light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    Rapid suppression of hypocotyl elongation by blue light in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was studied to examine possible hydraulic and wall changes responsible for diminished growth. Cell-sap osmotic pressure, measured by vapor-pressure osmometry, was not decreased by blue light; turgor pressure, measured by the pressure-probe technique, remained constant during the growth inhibition; and stem hydraulic conductance, measured by dynamic and static methods, was likewise unaffected by blue light. Wall yielding properties were assessed by the pressure-block technique for in-vivo stress relaxation. Blue light reduced the initial rate of relaxation by 77%, but had little effect on the final amount of relaxation. The results demonstrate that blue irradiation acts to decrease the wall yielding coefficient, but not the yield threshold. Stress-strain (Instron) analysis showed that irradiation of the seedlings had little effect on the mechanical extensibilities of the isolated wall. The results indicate that blue light can reduce cell-wall loosening without affecting bulk viscoelastic properties, and indicate a chemorheological mechanism of cell-wall expansion.

  13. Euglena extract suppresses adipocyte-differentiation in human adipose-derived stem cells.

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    Ryota Sugimoto

    Full Text Available Euglena gracilis Z (Euglena is a unicellular, photosynthesizing, microscopic green alga. It contains several nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, to verify the potential role of Euglena consumption on human health and obesity, we evaluated the effect of Euglena on human adipose-derived stem cells. We prepared a Euglena extract and evaluated its effect on cell growth and lipid accumulation, and found that cell growth was promoted by the addition of the Euglena extract. Interestingly, intracellular lipid accumulation was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis and western blotting analysis indicated that the Euglena extract suppressed adipocyte differentiation by inhibiting the gene expression of the master regulators peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ and one of three CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPα. Further Oil Red O staining experiments indicated that the Euglena extract inhibited the early stage of adipocyte-differentiation. Consistent with these results, we observed that down-regulation of gene expression was involved in the early stage of adipogenesis represented by the sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 c (SREBP1c, two of three CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPβ, C/EBPδ, and the cAMP regulatory element-binding protein (CREB. Taken together, these data suggest that Euglena extract is a promising candidate for the development of a new therapeutic treatment for obesity.

  14. Euglena extract suppresses adipocyte-differentiation in human adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Ryota; Ishibashi-Ohgo, Naoko; Atsuji, Kohei; Miwa, Yuko; Iwata, Osamu; Nakashima, Ayaka; Suzuki, Kengo

    2018-01-01

    Euglena gracilis Z (Euglena) is a unicellular, photosynthesizing, microscopic green alga. It contains several nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, to verify the potential role of Euglena consumption on human health and obesity, we evaluated the effect of Euglena on human adipose-derived stem cells. We prepared a Euglena extract and evaluated its effect on cell growth and lipid accumulation, and found that cell growth was promoted by the addition of the Euglena extract. Interestingly, intracellular lipid accumulation was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis and western blotting analysis indicated that the Euglena extract suppressed adipocyte differentiation by inhibiting the gene expression of the master regulators peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and one of three CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPα). Further Oil Red O staining experiments indicated that the Euglena extract inhibited the early stage of adipocyte-differentiation. Consistent with these results, we observed that down-regulation of gene expression was involved in the early stage of adipogenesis represented by the sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 c (SREBP1c), two of three CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPβ, C/EBPδ), and the cAMP regulatory element-binding protein (CREB). Taken together, these data suggest that Euglena extract is a promising candidate for the development of a new therapeutic treatment for obesity.

  15. Nematode suppression and growth stimulation in corn plants (Zea mays L.) irrigated with domestic effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Kenia Kelly; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Florencio, Lourdinha

    2012-01-01

    Treated wastewater has great potential for agricultural use due to its concentrations of nutrients and organic matter, which are capable of improving soil characteristics. Additionally, effluents can induce suppression of plant diseases caused by soil pathogens. This study evaluates the effect of irrigation with effluent in a UASB reactor on maize (Zea mays L.) development and on suppression of the diseases caused by nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne. Twelve lysimeters of 1 m(3) each were arranged in a completely randomized design, with four treatments and three replicates. The following treatments were used: T1 (W+I), irrigation with water and infestation with nematodes; T2 (W+I+NPK), irrigation with water, infestation with nematodes and fertilization with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K); T3 (E+I), irrigation with effluent and infestation with nematodes; and T4 (E+I+P), irrigation with effluent, infestation with nematodes and fertilization with phosphorus. The plants irrigated with the effluent plus the phosphorus fertilizer had better growth and productivity and were more resistant to the disease symptoms caused by the nematodes. The suppression levels may have been due to the higher levels of Zn and NO(3)(-) found in the leaf tissue of the plants irrigated with the effluent and phosphorus fertilizer.

  16. Suppression of Th1-mediated autoimmunity by embryonic stem cell-derived dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokunori Ikeda

    Full Text Available We herein demonstrate the immune-regulatory effect of embryonic stem cell-derived dendritic cells (ES-DCs using two models of autoimmune disease, namely non-obese diabetic (NOD mice and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. Treatment of pre-diabetic NOD mice with ES-DCs exerted almost complete suppression of diabetes development during the observation period for more than 40 weeks. The prevention of diabetes by ES-DCs was accompanied with significant reduction of insulitis and decreased number of Th1 and Th17 cells in the spleen. Development of EAE was also inhibited by the treatment with ES-DCs, and the therapeutic effect was obtained even if ES-DCs were administrated after the onset of clinical symptoms. Treatment of EAE-induced mice with ES-DCs reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the spinal cord and suppressed the T cell response to the myelin antigen. Importantly, the ES-DC treatment did not affect T cell response to an exogenous antigen. As the mechanisms underlying the reduction of the number of infiltrating Th1 cells, we observed the inhibition of differentiation and proliferation of Th1 cells by ES-DCs. Furthermore, the expression of VLA-4α on Th1 cells was significantly inhibited by ES-DCs. Considering the recent advances in human induced pluripotent stem cell-related technologies, these results suggest a clinical application for pluripotent stem cell-derived dendritic cells as a therapy for T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  17. MicroRNA-302b suppresses cell proliferation by targeting EGFR in human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lumin; Yao, Jiayi; Shi, Xin; Hu, Lili; Li, Zongfang; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs are regulators that can play an essential role in tumorigenesis. Although miR-302 families have been suggested to be tumor repressors in human cancer, the mechanism by which they suppress tumor development remains to be defined. In this study, we discover that miR302b suppresses tumor proliferation may due to directly targeting EGFR in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). QRT-PCR was used to assess miR-302b and EGFR expression in 27 pairs of clinical hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and their corresponding adjacent nontumorous liver tissues. MTT, colony formation, immunofluorescence staining, and cell cycle assays were used to examine the tumor suppressor role of miR302b in cell proliferation. Luciferase assays were performed to assess the EGFR was a novel target of miR-302b. Western blot assay was used to validate the protein expression level. We demonstrated that miR-302b was frequently down-regulated, whereas EGFR was up-regulated in 27 pairs of clinical HCC and non-tumorous counterparts. The dual-luciferase reporter assays revealed that EGFR was a novel target of miR-302b. Re-expression of miR-302b resulted in the inhibition of proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells. The silencing of EGFR by miR-302b or siEGFR led to down-regulation of proliferation-related proteins, such as AKT2, CCND1, and CDK2. miR-302b suppresses HCC growth may due to targeting the EGFR/AKT2/CCND1 pathway

  18. In vivo suppression of HIV by antigen specific T cells derived from engineered hematopoietic stem cells.

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    Scott G Kitchen

    Full Text Available The HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response is a critical component in controlling viral replication in vivo, but ultimately fails in its ability to eradicate the virus. Our intent in these studies is to develop ways to enhance and restore the HIV-specific CTL response to allow long-term viral suppression or viral clearance. In our approach, we sought to genetically manipulate human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs such that they differentiate into mature CTL that will kill HIV infected cells. To perform this, we molecularly cloned an HIV-specific T cell receptor (TCR from CD8+ T cells that specifically targets an epitope of the HIV-1 Gag protein. This TCR was then used to genetically transduce HSCs. These HSCs were then introduced into a humanized mouse containing human fetal liver, fetal thymus, and hematopoietic progenitor cells, and were allowed to differentiate into mature human CD8+ CTL. We found human, HIV-specific CTL in multiple tissues in the mouse. Thus, genetic modification of human HSCs with a cloned TCR allows proper differentiation of the cells to occur in vivo, and these cells migrate to multiple anatomic sites, mimicking what is seen in humans. To determine if the presence of the transgenic, HIV-specific TCR has an effect on suppressing HIV replication, we infected with HIV-1 mice expressing the transgenic HIV-specific TCR and, separately, mice expressing a non-specific control TCR. We observed significant suppression of HIV replication in multiple organs in the mice expressing the HIV-specific TCR as compared to control, indicating that the presence of genetically modified HIV-specific CTL can form a functional antiviral response in vivo. These results strongly suggest that stem cell based gene therapy may be a feasible approach in the treatment of chronic viral infections and provide a foundation towards the development of this type of strategy.

  19. High glucose suppresses embryonic stem cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes : High glucose inhibits ES cell cardiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Penghua; Chen, Xi; Kaushal, Sunjay; Reece, E Albert; Yang, Peixin

    2016-12-09

    Babies born to mothers with pregestational diabetes have a high risk for congenital heart defects (CHD). Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are excellent in vitro models for studying the effect of high glucose on cardiac lineage specification because ESCs can be differentiated into cardiomyocytes. ESC maintenance and differentiation are currently performed under high glucose conditions, whose adverse effects have never been clarified. We investigated the effect of high glucose on cardiomyocyte differentiation from a well-characterized ESC line, E14, derived from mouse blastocysts. E14 cells maintained under high glucose (25 mM) failed to generate any beating cardiomyocytes using the hanging-drop embryonic body method. We created a glucose-responsive E14 cell line (GR-E14) through a graduated low glucose adaptation. The expression of stem cell markers was similar in the parent E14 cells and the GR-E14 cells. Glucose transporter 2 gene was increased in GR-E14 cells. When GR-E14 cells were differentiated into cardiomyocytes under low (5 mM) or high (25 mM) glucose conditions, high glucose significantly delayed the appearance and reduced the number of TNNT2 (Troponin T Type 2)-positive contracting cardiomyocytes. High glucose suppressed the expression of precardiac mesoderm markers, cardiac transcription factors, mature cardiomyocyte markers, and potassium channel proteins. High glucose impaired the functionality of ESC-derived cardiomyocytes by suppressing the frequencies of Ca 2+ wave and contraction. Our findings suggest that high glucose inhibits ESC cardiogenesis by suppressing key developmental genes essential for the cardiac program.

  20. Suppression of Tumor Growth and Muscle Wasting in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Pancreatic Cancer by the Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor AR-42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Sally E; Ding, Li-Yun; Mo, Xiaokui; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Kulp, Samuel K; Chen, Ching-Shih; Huang, Po-Hsien

    2016-12-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States. This study was aimed at evaluating the efficacy of AR-42 (formerly OSU-HDAC42), a novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor currently in clinical trials, in suppressing tumor growth and/or cancer-induced muscle wasting in murine models of PDAC. The in vitro antiproliferative activity of AR-42 was evaluated in six human pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1, COLO-357, PANC-1, MiaPaCa-2, BxPC-3, SW1990). AsPC-1 subcutaneous xenograft and transgenic KP fl/fl C (LSL-Kras G12D ;Trp53 flox/flox ;Pdx-1-Cre) mouse models of pancreatic cancer were used to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of AR-42 in suppressing tumor growth and/or muscle wasting. Growth suppression in AR-42-treated cells was observed in all six human pancreatic cancer cell lines with dose-dependent modulation of proliferation and apoptotic markers, which was associated with the hallmark features of HDAC inhibition, including p21 upregulation and histone H3 hyperacetylation. Oral administration of AR-42 at 50 mg/kg every other day resulted in suppression of tumor burden in the AsPC-1 xenograft and KP fl/fl C models by 78% and 55%, respectively, at the end of treatment. Tumor suppression was associated with HDAC inhibition, increased apoptosis, and inhibition of proliferation. Additionally, AR-42 as a single agent preserved muscle size and increased grip strength in KP fl/fl C mice. Finally, the combination of AR-42 and gemcitabine in transgenic mice demonstrated a significant increase in survival than either agent alone. These results suggest that AR-42 represents a therapeutically promising strategy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel direct AMPK activator suppresses non-small cell lung cancer through inhibition of lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Xie, Chun; Fan, Xing-Xing; Jiang, Ze-Bo; Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; Xu, Jia-Hui; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Liang; Leung, Elaine Lai-Han

    2017-01-01

    Drug resistance is becoming an obstacle in anti-cancer therapies. For target-based therapy of lung cancer, gefitinib, as the first generation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), demonstrated good initial response to the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients whom harbors epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. However, within one year, additional EGFR mutation occurred, leading to eventual gefitinib-resistance. Therefore, it is urgently to discover novel effective small molecule inhibitors for those patients. Abnormal energy metabolism is accepted as new cancer hallmark. Recently, a metabolism rate-limiting enzyme 5’-adenosine menophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has become a promising anti-cancer target. In this study, we have identified a novel direct AMPK agonist, D561-0775 from a compound library by using molecular docking screening technique. We demonstrated that D561-0775 exhibited significant inhibitory effect on gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cell lines but less cytotoxicity on normal cells. Furthermore, D561-0775 demonstrated a remarkable in vitro AMPK enzyme activation effect. Taken together, D561-0775 showed potential anti-cancer activity via inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, suppressing glycolysis and cholesterol synthesis after activation of AMPK in gefitinib-resistant H1975 cells. D561-0775 has provided a new chemical structure that could be developed as cancer drug for gefitinib-resistant NSCLC patients through inhibition lipid metabolism by directly targeting at AMPK directly. PMID:29221189

  2. Small molecule inhibition of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase potently suppresses multiple malignant properties of glioma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouri, Mikaella; An, Qian; Birt, Matthew; Pilkington, Geoffrey J.; Hafizi, Sassan

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) often features a combination of tumour suppressor gene inactivation and multiple oncogene overactivation. The Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is found overexpressed in GBM and thought to contribute to invasiveness, chemoresistance and poor survival. Here, we have evaluated the effect of BGB324, a clinical candidate Axl-specific small molecule inhibitor, on the invasive behaviour of human GBM cells in vitro, as an indicator of its potential in GBM therapy and also to elucidate the role of Axl in GBM pathogenesis. Two cultured adult GBM cell lines, SNB-19 and UP007, were treated with Gas6 and/or BGB324, and analysed in assays for survival, 3D colony growth, motility, migration and invasion. Western blot was used to detect protein expression and signal protein phosphorylation. In both cell lines, BGB324 inhibited specifically phosphorylation of Axl as well as Akt kinase further downstream. BGB324 also inhibited survival and proliferation of both cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner, as well as completely suppressing migration and invasion. Furthermore, our results indicate co-operative activation between the Axl and Tyro3 receptors, as well as ligand-independent Axl signalling, to take place in GBM cells. In conclusion, small molecule inhibitor-led targeting of Axl may be a promising therapy for GBM progression. PMID:25980499

  3. Specific up-regulation of p21 by a small active RNA sequence suppresses human colorectal cancer growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu-Lu; Guo, Hui-Hui; Zhan, Yun; Feng, Chen-Lin; Huang, Shuai; Han, Yan-Xing; Zheng, Wen-Sheng; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2017-01-01

    The double stranded small active RNA (saRNA)- p21-saRNA-322 inhibits tumor growth by stimulating the p21 gene expression. We focused our research of p21-saRNA-322 on colorectal cancer because 1) p21 down-regulation is a signature abnormality of the cancer, and 2) colorectal cancer might be a suitable target for in situ p21-saRNA-322 delivery. The goal of the present study is to learn the activity of p21-saRNA-322 in colorectal cancer. Three human colorectal cancer cell lines, HCT-116, HCT-116 (p53–/−) and HT-29 were transfected with the p21-saRNA-322. The expression of P21 protein and p21 mRNA were measured using the Western blot and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The effect of p21-saRNA-322 on cancer cells was evaluated in vitro; and furthermore, a xenograft colorectal tumor mode in mice was established to estimate the tumor suppressing ability of p21-saRNA-322 in vivo. The results showed that in all three colorectal cancer cell lines, the expression of p21 mRNA and P21 protein were dramatically elevated after p21-saRNA-322 transfection. Transfection of p21-saRNA-322 caused apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1. Furthermore, anti-proliferation effect, reduction of colonies formation and cell senescence were observed in p21-saRNA-322 treated cells. Animal studies showed that p21-saRNA-322 treatment significantly inhibited the HT-29 tumor growth and facilitated p21 activation in vivo. These results indicated that, p21-saRNA-322-induceded up-regulation of p21 might be a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:28445988

  4. Suppression of Growth by Multiplicative White Noise in a Parametric Resonant System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Masamichi

    2015-02-01

    The growth of the amplitude in a Mathieu-like equation with multiplicative white noise is studied. To obtain an approximate analytical expression for the exponent at the extremum on parametric resonance regions, a time-interval width is introduced. To determine the exponents numerically, the stochastic differential equations are solved by a symplectic numerical method. The Mathieu-like equation contains a parameter α determined by the intensity of noise and the strength of the coupling between the variable and noise; without loss of generality, only non-negative α can be considered. The exponent is shown to decrease with α, reach a minimum and increase after that. The minimum exponent is obtained analytically and numerically. As a function of α, the minimum at α≠0, occurs on the parametric resonance regions of α=0. This minimum indicates suppression of growth by multiplicative white noise.

  5. Suppression of leukocyte inhibitory factor (LIF) production and [3H]thymidine incorporation by concanavalin A-activated mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomnitzer, R.; Rabson, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    The capacity of human mononuclear (MN) cells pretreated with concanavalin A (Con A) to suppress the activity of fresh phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-pulsed mononuclear cells was assessed. Con A-pretreated MN cells suppressed leukocyte inhibitory factor (LIF) activity in supernatants of PHA-pulsed cell cultures and [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation by these cells. Suppression was obtained in both allogeneic and autologous systems with mitomycin-treated, irradiated, or untreated Con A-induced cells. Lymphocytes from two patients that, following treatment with Con A, did not suppress mitogen-induced proliferative response of normal cells also did not suppress LIF production

  6. Systemic depletion of L-cyst(e)ine with cyst(e)inase increases reactive oxygen species and suppresses tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Shira L; Saha, Achinto; Liu, Jinyun; Tadi, Surendar; Tiziani, Stefano; Yan, Wupeng; Triplett, Kendra; Lamb, Candice; Alters, Susan E; Rowlinson, Scott; Zhang, Yan Jessie; Keating, Michael J; Huang, Peng; DiGiovanni, John; Georgiou, George; Stone, Everett

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells experience higher oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species (ROS) than do non-malignant cells because of genetic alterations and abnormal growth; as a result, maintenance of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) is essential for their survival and proliferation. Under conditions of elevated ROS, endogenous L-cysteine (L-Cys) production is insufficient for GSH synthesis. This necessitates uptake of L-Cys that is predominantly in its disulfide form, L-cystine (CSSC), via the xCT(-) transporter. We show that administration of an engineered and pharmacologically optimized human cyst(e)inase enzyme mediates sustained depletion of the extracellular L-Cys and CSSC pool in mice and non-human primates. Treatment with this enzyme selectively causes cell cycle arrest and death in cancer cells due to depletion of intracellular GSH and ensuing elevated ROS; yet this treatment results in no apparent toxicities in mice even after months of continuous treatment. Cyst(e)inase suppressed the growth of prostate carcinoma allografts, reduced tumor growth in both prostate and breast cancer xenografts and doubled the median survival time of TCL1-Tg:p53 -/- mice, which develop disease resembling human chronic lymphocytic leukemia. It was observed that enzyme-mediated depletion of the serum L-Cys and CSSC pool suppresses the growth of multiple tumors, yet is very well tolerated for prolonged periods, suggesting that cyst(e)inase represents a safe and effective therapeutic modality for inactivating antioxidant cellular responses in a wide range of malignancies.

  7. Roles for miR-375 in Neuroendocrine Differentiation and Tumor Suppression via Notch Pathway Suppression in Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Karan J; Zhang, Xiao; Vidal, Ricardo; Paré, Geneviève C; Feilotter, Harriet E; Tron, Victor A

    2016-04-01

    Dysfunction of key miRNA pathways regulating basic cellular processes is a common driver of many cancers. However, the biological roles and/or clinical applications of such pathways in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare but lethal cutaneous neuroendocrine (NE) malignancy, have yet to be determined. Previous work has established that miR-375 is highly expressed in MCC tumors, but its biological role in MCC remains unknown. Herein, we show that elevated miR-375 expression is a specific feature of well-differentiated MCC cell lines that express NE markers. In contrast, miR-375 is strikingly down-regulated in highly aggressive, undifferentiated MCC cell lines. Enforced miR-375 expression in these cells induced NE differentiation, and opposed cancer cell viability, migration, invasion, and survival, pointing to tumor-suppressive roles for miR-375. Mechanistically, miR-375-driven phenotypes were caused by the direct post-transcriptional repression of multiple Notch pathway proteins (Notch2 and RBPJ) linked to cancer and regulation of cell fate. Thus, we detail a novel molecular axis linking tumor-suppressive miR-375 and Notch with NE differentiation and cancer cell behavior in MCC. Our findings identify miR-375 as a putative regulator of NE differentiation, provide insight into the cell of origin of MCC, and suggest that miR-375 silencing may promote aggressive cancer cell behavior through Notch disinhibition. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression of an amino-terminal BRCA1 deletion mutant causes a dominant growth inhibition in MCF10A cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Fanglei; Chiba, Natsuko; Ishioka, Chikashi; Parvin, Jeffrey D

    2004-07-29

    Expression of deletion mutants of the breast and ovarian cancer-specific tumor suppressor protein, BRCA1, in the mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A revealed a powerful growth suppressive effect by a mutant that has the amino-terminal 302 amino acids deleted (DeltaN-BRCA1). The growth suppression is associated with an increase in apoptosis and amplification in centrosome number. The growth inhibitory effect of DeltaN-BRCA1 was not observed in cervical epithelial HeLa cells, suggesting that the phenotypes of BRCA1 mutant proteins differ depending on the cell line being tested. An internal domain, including BRCA1 residues 303-1292, caused the suppression of MCF10A cell growth, and the amino terminus of BRCA1 autoinhibited the growth suppression. Single point mutations that disrupted the amino-terminal RING domain of BRCA1 caused significant suppression of growth in MCF10A cells. These results suggest that the proper function of the RING domain, likely to be ubiquitin ligase function, is important in regulating the growth of the mammary epithelial cell line and in autoregulating the powerful internal growth-inhibiting domain of the BRCA1 tumor suppressor.

  9. Prolyl oligopeptidase inhibition-induced growth arrest of human gastric cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kanayo [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1094 (Japan); Sakaguchi, Minoru, E-mail: sakaguti@gly.oups.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1094 (Japan); Tanaka, Satoshi [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1094 (Japan); Yoshimoto, Tadashi [Department of Life Science, Setsunan University, 17-8 Ikeda-Nakamachi, Neyagawa, Osaka 572-8508 (Japan); Takaoka, Masanori [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1094 (Japan)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •We examined the effects of prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) inhibition on p53 null gastric cancer cell growth. •POP inhibition-induced cell growth suppression was associated with an increase in a quiescent G{sub 0} state. •POP might regulate the exit from and/or reentry into the cell cycle. -- Abstract: Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is a serine endopeptidase that hydrolyzes post-proline peptide bonds in peptides that are <30 amino acids in length. We recently reported that POP inhibition suppressed the growth of human neuroblastoma cells. The growth suppression was associated with pronounced G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} cell cycle arrest and increased levels of the CDK inhibitor p27{sup kip1} and the tumor suppressor p53. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of POP inhibition-induced cell growth arrest using a human gastric cancer cell line, KATO III cells, which had a p53 gene deletion. POP specific inhibitors, 3-((4-[2-(E)-styrylphenoxy]butanoyl)-L-4-hydroxyprolyl)-thiazolidine (SUAM-14746) and benzyloxycarbonyl-thioprolyl-thioprolinal, or RNAi-mediated POP knockdown inhibited the growth of KATO III cells irrespective of their p53 status. SUAM-14746-induced growth inhibition was associated with G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} cell cycle phase arrest and increased levels of p27{sup kip1} in the nuclei and the pRb2/p130 protein expression. Moreover, SUAM-14746-mediated cell cycle arrest of KATO III cells was associated with an increase in the quiescent G{sub 0} state, defined by low level staining for the proliferation marker, Ki-67. These results indicate that POP may be a positive regulator of cell cycle progression by regulating the exit from and/or reentry into the cell cycle by KATO III cells.

  10. Targeting mesothelin receptors with drug-loaded bacterial nanocells suppresses human mesothelioma tumour growth in mouse xenograft models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A Alfaleh

    Full Text Available Human malignant mesothelioma is a chemoresistant tumour that develops from mesothelial cells, commonly associated with asbestos exposure. Malignant mesothelioma incidence rates in European countries are still rising and Australia has one of the highest burdens of malignant mesothelioma on a population basis in the world. Therapy using systemic delivery of free cytotoxic agents is associated with many undesirable side effects due to non-selectivity, and is thus dose-limited which limits its therapeutic potential. Therefore, increasing the selectivity of anti-cancer agents has the potential to dramatically enhance drug efficacy and reduce toxicity. EnGeneIC Dream Vectors (EDV are antibody-targeted nanocells which can be loaded with cytotoxic drugs and delivered to specific cancer cells via bispecific antibodies (BsAbs which target the EDV and a cancer cell-specific receptor, simultaneously. BsAbs were designed to target doxorubicin-loaded EDVs to cancer cells via cell surface mesothelin (MSLN. Flow cytometry was used to investigate cell binding and induction of apoptosis, and confocal microscopy to visualize internalization. Mouse xenograft models were used to assess anti-tumour effects in vivo, followed by immunohistochemistry for ex vivo evaluation of proliferation and necrosis. BsAb-targeted, doxorubicin-loaded EDVs were able to bind to and internalize within mesothelioma cells in vitro via MSLN receptors and induce apoptosis. In mice xenografts, the BsAb-targeted, doxorubicin-loaded EDVs suppressed the tumour growth and also decreased cell proliferation. Thus, the use of MSLN-specific antibodies to deliver encapsulated doxorubicin can provide a novel and alternative modality for treatment of mesothelioma.

  11. Silencing of semaphorin 3C suppresses cell proliferation and migration in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaofang; Zhang, Xiangjian; Ye, Zhiqiang; Chen, Yizuo; Lv, Lin; Zhang, Xiaohua; Hu, Hongye

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have suggested that semaphorin 3C (SEMA3C) is involved in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of a number of types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of SEMA3C in the proliferation and migration of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Small interfering (si)RNA sequences targeting SEMA3C were constructed and transfected into MCF-7 cells in order to silence the expression of SEMA3C. Cell proliferation and migration were measured using CCK-8 and Transwell assays, respectively. Transfection with SEMA3C siRNA significantly downregulated the expression of SEMA3C in MCF-7 cells, and significantly suppressed cell proliferation and migration. Therefore, SEMA3C-targeted siRNA may be of potential use for the early diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer.

  12. MicroRNA-144-3p suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis by targeting SGK3 in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Manya; Huang, Chaoyuan; Huang, Xinping; Liang, Rong; Feng, Yan; Luo, Xiaoling

    2017-10-01

    In our previous studies, the Illumine Soledad massively parallel signature sequencing of miRNomes in non‑tumor and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues revealed that microRNA (miR)-144-3p was significantly downregulated in HCC, but its role in HCC development, especially angiogenesis, remains unclear. In this investigation, we found recovering miR‑144‑3p expression can significantly suppress the growth, migration and induced angiogenic capacity of HCC cells through both in vivo and in vitro experiments. Moreover, clinical correlation analysis showed that low expression of miR‑144‑3p was positively correlated to poor disease-free survival (DFS) of HCC patients. Mechanistically, serum and glucocorticoid kinase 3 (SGK3), the putative targets of miR‑144‑3p, was predicted by Target Scan database and identified to be suppressed by miR‑144‑3p so that inhibiting the activation of mTOR-VEGF downstream signals was activated by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-independent pathway. Hence, we concluded that miR‑144‑3p, which is frequently downregulated in HCC, can inhibit proliferation, migration and repress angiogenesis by regulating SGK3 activation with PI3K independent signal pathway, and acts as a prognostic factor for HCC patients.

  13. Brief Communication: Copper suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 is involved in the regression of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Li, Rui; Lin, Chen; Sun, Miao; Kang, Y James

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies revealed that copper (Cu)-induced regression of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is associated with enhanced activity in the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1) signaling pathway. The mechanism by which Cu enhances the activity of VEGFR-1 pathway remains to be defined. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that Cu enhances the VEGFR-1 signaling pathway via suppression of the VEGFR-2 signaling pathway. Primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to phenylephrine (PE) at a final concentration of 100 µM in cultures for 48 h to induce cell hypertrophy. The hypertrophic cardiomyocytes were exposed to copper sulfate at a final concentration of 5 µM Cu in cultures for 24 h. Western blot analysis showed that PE increased the protein levels of both VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2. Cu supplementation significantly reduced the increase in VEGFR-2, but had no effect on the elevation of VEGFR-1. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis found no difference in the mRNA levels between the VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 under the conditions defined above. This study thus demonstrated that Cu selectively suppressed PE-elevated VEGFR-2 levels likely via post-translational regulation, leading to the VEGFR-1 signaling pathway becoming dominant and thereby regressing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  14. Mycoplasma suppression of THP-1 Cell TLR responses is corrected with antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Ekaterina; Grandhi, Jaykumar; Wewers, Mark D; Gavrilin, Mikhail A

    2010-03-25

    Mycoplasma contamination of cultured cell lines is a serious problem in research, altering cellular response to different stimuli thus compromising experimental results. We found that chronic mycoplasma contamination of THP-1 cells suppresses responses of THP-1 cells to TLR stimuli. For example, E. coli LPS induced IL-1 beta was suppressed by 6 fold and IL-8 by 10 fold in mycoplasma positive THP-1 cells. Responses to live F. novicida challenge were suppressed by 50-fold and 40-fold respectively for IL-1beta and IL-8. Basal TLR4 expression level in THP-1 cells was decreased by mycoplasma by 2.4-fold (p = 0.0003). Importantly, cell responses to pathogen associated molecular patterns are completely restored by mycoplasma clearance with Plasmocin. Thus, routine screening of cell lines for mycoplasma is important for the maintenance of reliable experimental data and contaminated cell lines can be restored to their baseline function with antibiotic clearance of mycoplasma.

  15. Mycoplasma suppression of THP-1 Cell TLR responses is corrected with antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Zakharova

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma contamination of cultured cell lines is a serious problem in research, altering cellular response to different stimuli thus compromising experimental results. We found that chronic mycoplasma contamination of THP-1 cells suppresses responses of THP-1 cells to TLR stimuli. For example, E. coli LPS induced IL-1 beta was suppressed by 6 fold and IL-8 by 10 fold in mycoplasma positive THP-1 cells. Responses to live F. novicida challenge were suppressed by 50-fold and 40-fold respectively for IL-1beta and IL-8. Basal TLR4 expression level in THP-1 cells was decreased by mycoplasma by 2.4-fold (p = 0.0003. Importantly, cell responses to pathogen associated molecular patterns are completely restored by mycoplasma clearance with Plasmocin. Thus, routine screening of cell lines for mycoplasma is important for the maintenance of reliable experimental data and contaminated cell lines can be restored to their baseline function with antibiotic clearance of mycoplasma.

  16. [Screening of differentially expressed genes in human renal cell carcinoma using suppression subtractive hybridization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Wei; Li, Xu

    2008-01-01

    To suppress COL1A1 and COL3A1 gene expressions in human skin fibroblasts (HSFs) by means of RNA interference (RNAi). SSH was performed in two directions to isolate the differentially expressed genes between human a RCC cell line RLC-310 and a normal renal cell line HK-2 (ATCC). The cDNAs obtained from the final nested PCR were directly inserted into T/A cloning vector to establish a subtractive cDNA library of specifically or highly expressed genes in RCC. Reverse Northern dot blotting was performed to screen the truly differentially expressed genes, and 200 positive genes were randomly selected for sequencing. The two-directional subtractive libraries contained more than 1200 clones, and 213 positive clones were obtained using reverse Northern blotting. Sequence analysis of these clones identified 144 differentially expressed genes, including 67 up-regulated and 77 down-regulated genes, in which 14 novel ESTs and 21 functionally unknown genes were found. Cluster analysis indicated the involvement of the sequenced genes in cell growth, cell adhesion and apoptosis. Reliable subtractive cDNA libraries of human RCC have been constructed successfully with SSH. The identification of the gene expression profile in RCC may help clarify the mechanism of tumorigenesis and development of RCC, and also sheds light on new targets for prevention, diagnosis and therapy of this malignancy.

  17. Rb suppresses collective invasion, circulation and metastasis of breast cancer cells in CD44-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui-Jin Kim

    Full Text Available Basal-like breast carcinomas (BLCs present with extratumoral lymphovascular invasion, are highly metastatic, presumably through a hematogenous route, have augmented expression of CD44 oncoprotein and relatively low levels of retinoblastoma (Rb tumor suppressor. However, the causal relation among these features is not clear. Here, we show that Rb acts as a key suppressor of multiple stages of metastatic progression. Firstly, Rb suppresses collective cell migration (CCM and CD44-dependent formation of F-actin positive protrusions in vitro and cell-cluster based lymphovascular invasion in vivo. Secondly, Rb inhibits the release of single cancer cells and cell clusters into the hematogenous circulation and subsequent metastatic growth in lungs. Finally, CD44 expression is required for collective motility and all subsequent stages of metastatic progression initiated by loss of Rb function. Altogether, our results suggest that Rb/CD44 pathway is a crucial regulator of CCM and metastatic progression of BLCs and a promising target for anti-BLCs therapy.

  18. Suppression of Natural Killer Cell Activity by Regulatory NKT10 Cells Aggravates Alcoholic Hepatosteatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kele Cui

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We and others have found that the functions of hepatic natural killer (NK cells are inhibited but invariant NKT (iNKT cells become activated after alcohol drinking, leaving a possibility that there exists interplay between NK cells and iNKT cells during alcoholic liver disease. Here, in a chronic plus single-binge ethanol consumption mouse model, we observed that NK cells and interferon-γ (IFN-γ protected against ethanol-induced liver steatosis, as both wild-type (WT mice treated with anti-asialo GM1 antibody and IFN-γ-deficient GKO mice developed more severe alcoholic fatty livers. As expected, IFN-γ could directly downregulate lipogenesis in primary hepatocytes in vitro. On the contrary, iNKT cell-deficient Jα18−/− or interleukin-10 (IL-10−/− mice showed fewer alcoholic steatosis, along with the recovered number and IFN-γ release of hepatic NK cells, and exogenous IL-10 injection was sufficient to compensate for iNKT cell deficiency. Furthermore, NK cell depletion in Jα18−/− or IL-10−/− mice caused more severe hepatosteatosis, implying NK cells are the direct effector cells to inhibit liver steatosis. Importantly, adoptive transfer of iNKT cells purified from normal but not IL-10−/− mice resulted in suppression of the number and functions of NK cells and aggravated alcoholic liver injury in Jα18−/− mice, indicating that IL-10-producing iNKT (NKT10 cells are the regulators on NK cells. Conclusion: Ethanol exposure-triggered NKT10 cells antagonize the protective roles of NK cells in alcoholic hepatosteatosis.

  19. Exosomes Derived from Mesenchymal Stem Cells Suppress Angiogenesis by Down-Regulating VEGF Expression in Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Kuen; Park, Sae-Ra; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Jeon, Yoon-Kyung; Lee, Yeong-Shin; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Kim, Yong-Goo; Jang, Ji-Young; Kim, Chul-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are small membrane vesicles released by a variety of cell types. Exosomes contain genetic materials, such as mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs), implying that they may play a pivotal role in cell-to-cell communication. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which potentially differentiate into multiple cell types, can migrate to the tumor sites and have been reported to exert complex effects on tumor progression. To elucidate the role of MSCs within the tumor microenvironment, previous studies have suggested various mechanisms such as immune modulation and secreted factors of MSCs. However, the paracrine effects of MSC-derived exosomes on the tumor microenvironment remain to be explored. The hypothesis of this study was that MSC-derived exosomes might reprogram tumor behavior by transferring their molecular contents. To test this hypothesis, exosomes from MSCs were isolated and characterized. MSC-derived exosomes exhibited different protein and RNA profiles compared with their donor cells and these vesicles could be internalized by breast cancer cells. The results demonstrated that MSC-derived exosomes significantly down-regulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tumor cells, which lead to inhibition of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, miR-16, a miRNA known to target VEGF, was enriched in MSC-derived exosomes and it was partially responsible for the anti-angiogenic effect of MSC-derived exosomes. The collective results suggest that MSC-derived exosomes may serve as a significant mediator of cell-to-cell communication within the tumor microenvironment and suppress angiogenesis by transferring anti-angiogenic molecules. PMID:24391924

  20. Cells competition in tumor growth poroelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraldi, Massimiliano; Carotenuto, Angelo R.

    2018-03-01

    Growth of biological tissues has been recently treated within the framework of Continuum Mechanics, by adopting heterogeneous poroelastic models where the interaction between soft matrix and interstitial fluid flow is coupled with inelastic effects ad hoc introduced to simulate the macroscopic volumetric growth determined by cells division, cells growth and extracellular matrix changes occurring at the micro-scale level. These continuum models seem to overcome some limitations intrinsically associated to other alternative approaches based on mass balances in multiphase systems, because the crucial role played by residual stresses accompanying growth and nutrients walkway is preserved. Nevertheless, when these strategies are applied to analyze solid tumors, mass growth is usually assigned in a prescribed form that essentially copies the in vitro measured intrinsic growth rates of the cell species. As a consequence, some important cell-cell dynamics governing mass evolution and invasion rates of cancer cells, as well as their coupling with feedback mechanisms associated to in situ stresses, are inevitably lost and thus the spatial distribution and the evolution with time of the growth inside the tumor -which would be results rather than inputs- are forced to enter in the model simply as data. In order to solve this paradox, it is here proposed an enhanced multi-scale poroelastic model undergoing large deformations and embodying inelastic growth, where the net growth terms directly result from the "interspecific" predator-prey (Volterra/Lotka-like) competition occurring at the micro-scale level between healthy and abnormal cell species. In this way, a system of fully-coupled non-linear PDEs is derived to describe how the fight among cell species to grab the available common resources, stress field, pressure gradients, interstitial fluid flows driving nutrients and inhomogeneous growth all simultaneously interact to decide the tumor fate.

  1. HMGB1 enhances immune suppression by facilitating the differentiation and suppressive activity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Katherine H; Sinha, Pratima; Horn, Lucas A; Clements, Virginia K; Yang, Huan; Li, Jianhua; Tracey, Kevin J; Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne

    2014-10-15

    Chronic inflammation often precedes malignant transformation and later drives tumor progression. Likewise, subversion of the immune system plays a role in tumor progression, with tumoral immune escape now well recognized as a crucial hallmark of cancer. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are elevated in most individuals with cancer, where their accumulation and suppressive activity are driven by inflammation. Thus, MDSCs may define an element of the pathogenic inflammatory processes that drives immune escape. The secreted alarmin HMGB1 is a proinflammatory partner, inducer, and chaperone for many proinflammatory molecules that MDSCs develop. Therefore, in this study, we examined HMGB1 as a potential regulator of MDSCs. In murine tumor systems, HMGB1 was ubiquitous in the tumor microenvironment, activating the NF-κB signal transduction pathway in MDSCs and regulating their quantity and quality. We found that HMGB1 promotes the development of MDSCs from bone marrow progenitor cells, contributing to their ability to suppress antigen-driven activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Furthermore, HMGB1 increased MDSC-mediated production of IL-10, enhanced crosstalk between MDSCs and macrophages, and facilitated the ability of MDSCs to downregulate expression of the T-cell homing receptor L-selectin. Overall, our results revealed a pivotal role for HMGB1 in the development and cancerous contributions of MDSCs. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Oroxin B selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrently inhibits tumor-adaptive ER stress in B-lymphoma cells for effective anti-lymphoma therapy

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    Yang, Ping; Fu, Shilong; Cao, Zhifei; Liao, Huaidong; Huo, Zihe; Pan, Yanyan; Zhang, Gaochuan; Gao, Aidi; Zhou, Quansheng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells have both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress machineries that determine cell fate. In malignant tumors including lymphoma, constant activation of tumor-adaptive ER stress and concurrent reduction of tumor-suppressive ER stress favors cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. Current ER stress-based anti-tumor drugs typically activate both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive ER stresses, resulting in low anti-cancer efficacy; hence, selective induction of tumor-suppressive ER stress and inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress are new strategies for novel anti-cancer drug discovery. Thus far, specific tumor-suppressive ER stress therapeutics have remained absent in clinical settings. In this study, we explored unique tumor-suppressive ER stress agents from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Oroxylum indicum, and found that a small molecule oroxin B selectively induced tumor-suppressive ER stress in malignant lymphoma cells, but not in normal cells, effectively inhibited lymphoma growth in vivo, and significantly prolonged overall survival of lymphoma-xenografted mice without obvious toxicity. Mechanistic studies have revealed that the expression of key tumor-adaptive ER-stress gene GRP78 was notably suppressed by oroxin B via down-regulation of up-stream key signaling protein ATF6, while tumor-suppressive ER stress master gene DDIT3 was strikingly activated through activating the MKK3-p38 signaling pathway, correcting the imbalance between tumor-suppressive DDIT3 and tumor-adaptive GRP78 in lymphoma. Together, selective induction of unique tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrent inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress in malignant lymphoma are new and feasible approaches for novel anti-lymphoma drug discovery and anti-lymphoma therapy. - Highlights: • Oroxin B selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress in B-lymphoma cells. • Oroxin B significantly prolonged overall survival of lymphoma-xenografted mice.

  3. Cell growth and division cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darzynkiewicz, Z.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of the cell cycle in its present form was introduced more than three decades ago. Studying incorporation of DNA precursors by autoradiography, these authors observed that DNA synthesis in individual cells was discontinuous and occupied a discrete portion of the cell life (S phase). Mitotic division was seen to occur after a certain period of time following DNA replication. A distinct time interval between mitosis and DNA replication was also apparent. Thus, the cell cycle was subdivided into four consecutive phases, G/sub 1/, S, G/sub 2/, and M. The G/sub 1/ and G/sub 2/ phases represented the ''gaps'' between mitosis and the start of DNA replication, and between the end of DNA replication and the onset of mitosis, respectively. The cell cycle was defined as the interval between the midpoint of mitosis and the midpoint of the subsequent mitosis of the daughter cell(s). The authors' present knowledge on the cell cycle benefited mostly from the development of four different techniques: autoradiography, time-lapse cinematography, cell synchronization and flow cytometry. Of these, autoradiography has been the most extensively used, especially during the past two decades. By providing a means to analyse incorporation of precursors of DNA, RNA or proteins by individual cells and, in combination with various techniques of cell synchronization, autoradiography yielded most of the data fundamental to the current understanding of the cell cycle-related phenomena. Kinetics of cell progression through the cell cycle could be analysed in great detail after development of such sophisticated autoradiographic approaches as measurements of the fraction of labeled mitoses (''FLM curves'') or multiple sequential cell labelling with /sup 3/H- and /sup 14/C-TdR

  4. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR agonists suppress interleukin-6 expression by bone marrow stromal cells: an immunotoxicology study

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    Schlezinger Jennifer J

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone marrow stromal cells produce cytokines required for the normal growth and development of all eight hematopoietic cell lineages. Aberrant cytokine production by stromal cells contributes to blood cell dyscrasias. Consequently, factors that alter stromal cell cytokine production may significantly compromise the development of normal blood cells. We have shown that environmental chemicals, such as aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR agonists, suppress B lymphopoiesis by modulating bone marrow stromal cell function. Here, we extend these studies to evaluate the potential for two prototypic AhR agonists, 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, to alter stromal cell cytokine responses. Methods Bone marrow stromal cells were treated with AhR agonists and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS to mimic innate inflammatory cytokine responses and to study the effects of AhR ligands on those responses. Steady state cytokine RNA levels were screened by RNAse protection assays (RPA and quantified by real-time PCR. Cytokine (IL-6 protein production was measured by ELISA. NF-κB EMSAs were used to study IL-6 transcriptional regulation. Results RPAs indicated that AhR+ bone marrow stromal cells consistently up-regulated genes encoding IL-6 and LIF in response to LPS, presumably through activation of Toll-like receptor 4. Pre-treatment with low doses of DMBA or TCDD selectively abrogated IL-6 gene induction but had no effect on LIF mRNA. Real-time-PCR indicated a significant inhibition of IL-6 mRNA by AhR ligands within 1 hour of LPS challenge which was reflected in a profound down-regulation of IL-6 protein induction, with DMBA and TCDD suppressing IL-6 levels as much as 65% and 88%, respectively. This potent inhibitory effect persisted for at least 72 hours. EMSAs measuring NF-κB binding to IL-6 promoter sequences, an event known to induce IL-6 transcription, indicated a significant decrease in

  5. Suppressive effect of AMP-activated protein kinase on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

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    Ryo Matoba

    Full Text Available The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells plays a central role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, a key regulator of energy homeostasis, on the EMT in RPE cells. In this study, EMT-associated formation of cellular aggregates was induced by co-stimulation of cultured ARPE-19 cells with tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α (10 ng/ml and transforming growth factor (TGF-β2 (5 ng/ml. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, a potent activator of AMPK, significantly suppressed TNF-α and TGF-β2-induced cellular aggregate formation (p < 0.01. Dipyridamole almost completely reversed the suppressive effect of AICAR, whereas 5'-amino-5'-deoxyadenosine restored aggregate formation by approximately 50%. AICAR suppressed the downregulation of E-cadherin and the upregulation of fibronectin and α-smooth muscle actin by TNF-α and TGF-β2. The levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2, MMP-9, interleukin-6, and vascular endothelial growth factor were significantly decreased by AICAR. Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin pathways, but not the Smad pathway, was inhibited by AICAR. These findings indicate that AICAR suppresses the EMT in RPE cells at least partially via activation of AMPK. AMPK is a potential target molecule for the prevention and treatment of PVR, so AICAR may be a promising candidate for PVR therapy.

  6. MicroRNA-124 suppresses growth and aggressiveness of osteosarcoma and inhibits TGF-β-mediated AKT/GSK-3β/SNAIL-1 signaling.

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    Bo, Yu; Kaibiao, Jiang; Jidong, Zhang

    2018-02-27

    Osteosarcoma is one of the most common malignant tumors in adolescent populations and the prognosis remains incompletely understand. Previous reports have demonstrated that microRNA‑124 (miR‑124) has inhibitory effects on various human malignancies and is associated with tumor progression. However, the clinical significance and potential mechanisms of miR‑124 in the progression of osteosarcoma is not clearly understood. In this study, the potential molecular mechanism of miR‑124 in osteosarcoma tumorigenesis, growth and aggressiveness was investigated. The growth, proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells were investigated following miR‑124 transfection were determined by colony formation assay, western blotting, immunofluorescence, migration/invasion assays and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In vivo anti‑cancer effects of miR‑124 were analyzed by a tumor growth assay, immunohistochemistry and survival rate observations. The results demonstrated that miR‑124 transfection significantly decreased integrin expression in osteosarcoma cells, and further inhibited growth, proliferation, migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells. Flow cytometry assays indicated that miR‑124 transfection attenuated apoptosis resistance of osteosarcoma to tunicamycin, potentially via the downregulation of P53 and Bcl‑2 apoptosis regulator expression. Mechanistic assays demonstrated that miR‑124 transfection suppressed TGF‑β expression in osteosarcoma. An animal study revealed that tumor growth was reduced in tumor cells transfected with miR‑124 compared with control cells, and the survival rate was prolonged in mice with miR‑124 transfected xenografts compared with control tumors. In conclusion, these results indicate that miR‑124 transection inhibits the growth and aggressive of osteosarcoma, potentially via suppression of TGF‑β‑mediated AKT/GSK‑3β/snail family transcriptional repressor

  7. Some observations of wood density and anatomical properties in a Douglas-fir sample with suppressed growth

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    J.Y. Zhu; David W. Vahey; C. Tim Scott

    2008-01-01

    This study used ring width correlations to examine the effects of tree-growth suppression on within-tree local wood density and tracheid anatomical properties. A wood core sample was taken from a 70-yr-old Douglas-fir that grew under various degrees of suppression in a natural forest setting. SilviScan and an imaging technique were used to obtain wood density and...

  8. Lemur Tyrosine Kinase-3 Suppresses Growth of Prostate Cancer Via the AKT and MAPK Signaling Pathways

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    Pengcheng Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lemur tyrosine kinase (LMTK-3 is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK family. Abnormal expression of LMTK-3 exists in various types of cancers, especially in endocrine-resistant breast cancers; however, the precise level of expression and the biological function in prostate cancer are poorly understood. Methods: In the present study, we determined the expression of LMTK-3 in prostate cancer using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. We infected PC3 and LNCaP cells with lentivirus-LMTK-3 and observed the biologic characteristics of the PC3 and LNCaP cells in vitro with TUNEL, and migration and invasion assays, respectively. We also established a transplant tumor model of human prostate cancer with infected cells in 15 BALB/c-nu/nu nude mice. Results: LMTK-3 was expressed in prostate epithelial cells. There was a significant decline in the level of LMTK-3 expression in prostate cancers compared to normal tissues. LMTK-3 inhibited PC3 and LNCaP cell growth, migration, and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis in vitro. We also observed that LMTK-3 induced PC3 cell apoptosis in vivo. Further study showed that LMTK-3 inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and ERK, and promoted phosphorylation and activation of p38 kinase and Jun kinase (JNK. Conclusion: Recombinant lentivirus with enhanced expression of LMTK-3 inhibited prostate cancer cell growth and induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. AKT and MAPK signaling pathways may contribute to the process.

  9. Suppression of Apoptosis by Basement Membrane Requires three-dimensional Tissue Organization and Withdrawal from the Cell Cycle

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    Boudreau, N.; Werb, Z.; Bissell, M.J.

    1995-12-28

    The basement membrane (BM) extracellular matrix induces differentiation and suppresses apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells, whereas cells lacking BM lose their differentiated phenotype and undergo apoptosis. Addition of purified BM components, which are known to induce {beta}-casein expression, did not prevent apoptosis, indicating that a more complex BM was necessary. A comparison of culture conditions where apoptosis would or would not occur allowed us to relate inhibition of apoptosis to a complete withdrawal from the cell cycle, which was observed only when cells acquired a three-dimensional alveolar structure in response to BM. In the absence of this morphology, both the G1 cyclin kinase inhibitor p21/WAF-I and positive proliferative signals including c-myc and cyclin Dl were expressed and the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) continued to be hyperphosphorylated. When we overexpressed either c-myc in quiescent cells or p21 when cells were still cycling, apoptosis was induced. In the absence of three-dimensional alveolar structures, mammary epithelial cells secrete a number of factors including transforming growth factor a and tenascin, which when added exogenously to quiescent cells induced expression of c-myc and interleukin-{beta}1-converting enzyme (ICE) mRNA and led to apoptosis. These experiments demonstrate that a correct tissue architecture is crucial for long-range homeostasis, suppression of apoptosis, and maintenance of differentiated phenotype.

  10. A Functional Role of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1 in the Suppression of Influenza A Virus Replication.

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    Xin Liu

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus causes annual epidemics and occasional pandemics in humans. Here, we investigated four members of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR family; FGFR1 to 4, and examined their expression patterns in human lung epithelial cells A549 with influenza A virus infection. We identified a functional role of FGFR1 in influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8 and A/Anhui/01/2005 (H5N1 virus replication. Our results showed that FGFR1 silencing by siRNA interference promoted influenza A/PR8 and H5N1 virus replication in A549 cells, while lentivirus-mediated exogenous FGFR1 expression significantly suppressed influenza A virus replication; however, FGFR4 did not have the same effects. Moreover, FGFR1 phosphorylation levels were downregulated in A549 cells by influenza A virus infection, while the repression of FGFR1 kinase using PD173074, a potent and selective FGFR1 inhibitor, could enhance virus replication. Furthermore, we found that FGFR1 inhibits influenza virus internalization, but not binding, during viral entry. These results suggested that FGFR1 specifically antagonizes influenza A virus replication, probably by blocking viral entry.

  11. Suppression in growth hormone during overeating ameliorates the increase in insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease risk

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    Cornford, Andrea S.; Barkan, Ariel L.; Hinko, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we reported that overeating for only a few days markedly suppressed the secretion of growth hormone (GH). The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of this reduction in GH concentration on key metabolic adaptations that occur during 2 wk of overeating. Nine nonobese, healthy adults were admitted to the hospital for 2 wk, during which time they ate ∼4,000 kcal/day (70 kcal·kg fat-free mass−1·day−1; 50% carbohydrate, 35% fat, and 15% protein), and their plasma GH concentration was allowed to decline naturally (control). An additional eight subjects underwent the same overeating intervention and received exogenous GH treatment (GHT) administered in four daily injections to mimic physiological GH secretion throughout the 2-wk overeating period. We measured plasma insulin and glucose concentrations in the fasting and postprandial state as well as fasting lipolytic rate, proteolytic rate, and fractional synthetic rate (FSR) using stable-isotope tracer methods. GHT prevented the fall in plasma GH concentration, maintaining plasma GH concentration at baseline levels (1.2 ± 0.2 ng/ml), which increased fasting and postprandial assessments of insulin resistance (P overeating also blunted the increase in systemic proteolysis (P overeating. In conclusion, our main findings suggest that the suppression in GH secretion that naturally occurs during the early stages of overeating may help attenuate the insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia that typically accompany overeating. PMID:23011065

  12. Suppression in growth hormone during overeating ameliorates the increase in insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, Andrea S; Barkan, Ariel L; Hinko, Alexander; Horowitz, Jeffrey F

    2012-11-15

    Previously, we reported that overeating for only a few days markedly suppressed the secretion of growth hormone (GH). The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of this reduction in GH concentration on key metabolic adaptations that occur during 2 wk of overeating. Nine nonobese, healthy adults were admitted to the hospital for 2 wk, during which time they ate ∼4,000 kcal/day (70 kcal·kg fat-free mass(-1)·day(-1); 50% carbohydrate, 35% fat, and 15% protein), and their plasma GH concentration was allowed to decline naturally (control). An additional eight subjects underwent the same overeating intervention and received exogenous GH treatment (GHT) administered in four daily injections to mimic physiological GH secretion throughout the 2-wk overeating period. We measured plasma insulin and glucose concentrations in the fasting and postprandial state as well as fasting lipolytic rate, proteolytic rate, and fractional synthetic rate (FSR) using stable-isotope tracer methods. GHT prevented the fall in plasma GH concentration, maintaining plasma GH concentration at baseline levels (1.2 ± 0.2 ng/ml), which increased fasting and postprandial assessments of insulin resistance (P overeating also blunted the increase in systemic proteolysis (P overeating. In conclusion, our main findings suggest that the suppression in GH secretion that naturally occurs during the early stages of overeating may help attenuate the insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia that typically accompany overeating.

  13. Panaxanthone isolated from pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. suppresses tumor growth and metastasis of a mouse model of mammary cancer.

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    Doi, Hitoshi; Shibata, Masa-Aki; Shibata, Eiko; Morimoto, Junji; Akao, Yukihiro; Iinuma, Munekazu; Tanigawa, Nobuhiko; Otsuki, Yoshinori

    2009-07-01

    The antitumor growth and antimetastatic activity of panaxanthone (approximately 80% alpha-mangostin and 20% gamma-mangostin) were studied in a mouse metastatic mammary cancer model that produces a metastatic spectrum similar to that seen in human breast cancer. Mammary tumors, induced by inoculation of syngeneic BALB/c mice with BJMC3879 cells, were subsequently treated with panaxanthone at 0, 2,500, or 5,000 ppm in their diet. In vitro studies were also conducted to evaluate the effects of alpha-mangostin, the main component of panaxanthone, on BJMC3879 cells. In the in vivo study, tumor volumes were significantly suppressed in mice treated with 2,500 and 5,000 ppm panaxanthone in their diet. The multiplicity of lung metastasis was significantly lower in the 5,000 ppm group. Lymph node metastasis also tended to decrease in the 5,000 ppm group but not significantly. The antitumor effects of panaxanthone were associated with elevation of apoptotic cell death, antiproliferation (inhibition of PCNA) and antiangiogenesis (inhibition of microvessel density). The in vitro study demonstrated that alpha-mangostin induced apoptosis, as evidenced by increased numbers of TUNEL-positive cells, elevated activities of caspases and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle arrest in the G(1)-phase and decreases in the cell population in the S- and G(2)/M-phases. These results suggest that the observed antimetastatic activity of panaxanthone may be of clinical significance as adjuvant therapy in metastatic human breast cancer, and may also be useful as a chemopreventative of breast cancer development.

  14. Saikosaponin-d: A potential chemotherapeutics in castration resistant prostate cancer by suppressing cancer metastases and cancer stem cell phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Di; Zhang, Hui-Jian; Jiang, Yao-Dong; Wu, Peng; Qi, Huan; Cai, Chao; Zheng, Shao-Bin; Dang, Qiang

    2016-06-10

    Androgen deprivation therapy is the gold standard regimen for advanced Prostate cancer (PCa) patients, nevertheless, patients eventually develop into castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Currently only a few chemotherapeutics are available for CRPC. Therefore, it is critical for identifying a new drug. In this study, we will explore a new agent, Saikosaponin-d (SSd), for CRPC therapy based on its mechanism of action. DU145 and CWR22Rv1 cells representing CRPC were employed in this study. A series of cell, biochemical, and molecular biologic assays such as Immunofluorescence, Zymography, Sphere formation, Colony formation, and MTT were used. Finally, we find SSd can significantly inhibit the growth of PCa cells in both dose- and time-dependent and suppress the colony formation during a long-term drug administration, it also can inhibit their migration and invasion abilities, which was accompanied by reverse the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and suppress MMP2/9 expression as well as activities. Furthermore, SSd can suppress cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotypes such as self-renewal ability. Mechanistically, SSd blocks Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by decreasing GSK3β phosphorylation to affect EMT and CSC. These findings demonstrate the mechanism of anti-cancer activity of SSd in targeting EMT and CSC, suggesting SSd can be a potent agent for CRPC therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Verteporfin suppresses cell survival, angiogenesis and vasculogenic mimicry of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma via disrupting the YAP-TEAD complex.

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    Wei, Honglong; Wang, Fuhai; Wang, Yong; Li, Tao; Xiu, Peng; Zhong, Jingtao; Sun, Xueying; Li, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies. The Yes-associated protein-1 (YAP) plays a critical role in cell proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. Verteporfin is a photosensitizer used in photodynamic therapy and also a small molecular inhibitor of the Hippo-YAP pathway. However, little is known about whether verteporfin could inhibit YAP activity in PDAC cells. Our present results showed that verteporfin suppressed the proliferation of human PDAC PANC-1 and SW1990 cells by arresting cells at the G1 phase, and inducing apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent manners. Verteporfin also inhibited the tumor growth on the PDAC xenograft model. Treatment with verteporfin led to downregulation of cyclinD1 and cyclinE1, modulation of Bcl-2 family proteins and activation of PARP. In addition, verteporfin exhibited an inhibitory effect on angiogenesis and vasculogenic mimicry via suppressing Ang2, MMP2, VE-cadherin, and α-SMA expression in vitro and in vivo. Mechanism studies demonstrated that verteporfin impaired YAP and TEAD interaction to suppress the expression of targeted genes. Our results provide a foundation for repurposing verteporfin as a promising anti-tumor drug in the treatment of pancreatic cancer by targeting the Hippo pathway. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  16. Inhibition of Stromal PlGF Suppresses the Growth of Prostate Cancer Xenografts

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    Dietmar Abraham

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth and vascularization of prostate cancer is dependent on interactions between cancer cells and supporting stromal cells. The primary stromal cell type found in prostate tumors is the carcinoma-associated fibroblast, which produces placental growth factor (PlGF. PlGF is a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF family of angiogenic molecules and PlGF mRNA levels increase after androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer. In this study, we show that PlGF has a direct dose-dependent proliferative effect on human PC-3 prostate cancer cells in vitro and fibroblast-derived PlGF increases PC-3 proliferation in co-culture. In xenograft tumor models, intratumoral administration of murine PlGF siRNA reduced stromal-derived PlGF expression, reduced tumor burden and decreased the number of Ki-67 positive proliferating cells associated with reduced vascular density. These data show that targeting stromal PlGF expression may represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  17. Resveratrol suppresses human colon cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis via targeting the pentose phosphate and the talin-FAK signaling pathways-A proteomic approach

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    Reddivari Lavanya

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We and others have previously reported that resveratrol (RSV suppresses colon cancer cell proliferation and elevates apoptosis in vitro and/or in vivo, however molecular mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Particularly, little information is available on RSV's effects on metabolic pathways and the cell-extra cellular matrix (ECM communication that are critical for cancer cell growth. To identify important targets of RSV, we analyzed whole protein fractions from HT-29 advanced human colon cancer cell line treated with solvent control, IGF-1 (10 nM and RSV (150 μM using LC/MS/MS-Mud PIT (Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology. Results Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP, a vital metabolic pathway for cell cycle progression, was elevated and suppressed by IGF-1 and RSV, respectively in the HT-29 cell line. Enzymatic assays confirmed RSV suppression of glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (rate limiting and transketolase, key enzymes of the PPP. RSV (150 μM suppressed, whereas IGF-1 (10 nM elevated focal adhesion complex (FAC proteins, talin and pFAK, critical for the cell-ECM communication. Western blotting analyses confirmed the suppression or elevation of these proteins in HT-29 cancer cells treated with RSV or IGF-1, respectively. Conclusions Proteomic analysis enabled us to establish PPP and the talin-pFAK as targets of RSV which suppress cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in the colon cancer cell line HT-29. RSV (150 μM suppressed these pathways in the presence and absence of IGF-1, suggesting its role as a chemo-preventive agent even in obese condition.

  18. A novel mouse monoclonal antibody targeting ErbB2 suppresses breast cancer growth

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    Kawa, Seiji [Division of Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai 4-6-1, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Matsushita, Hirohisa; Ohbayashi, Hirokazu [Department of Research and Development, Nichirei Biosciences Inc., Tokyo 104-8402 (Japan); Semba, Kentaro [Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, School of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Yamamoto, Tadashi, E-mail: tyamamot@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai 4-6-1, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan)

    2009-07-03

    Overexpression of ErbB2 in breast cancer is associated with increased recurrence and worse prognosis. Accumulating evidences suggest that molecular targeted therapy is a promising anticancer strategy. In this study, we produced a novel anti-ErbB2 monoclonal antibody, 6G10, that recognized an epitope distinct from the trastuzumab binding site. 6G10 induced aggregation of BT474 breast cancer cells and inhibited proliferation of various breast cancer cell lines including BT474. A growth inhibition assay showed that 6G10 had EC{sub 50} values comparable to trastuzumab, indicating that the drugs have a similar level of potency. Furthermore, intraperitoneal administration of 6G10 completely inhibited the growth of xenografted tumors derived from BT474 and SK-BR-3 cells. These data suggested that 6G10 has great therapeutic potential and could be administered to patients alternatively, or synergistically, with trastuzumab.

  19. Knockdown of eIF4E suppresses cell proliferation, invasion and enhances cisplatin cytotoxicity in human ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jing; Shi, Fang; Xu, Zhanzhan; Zhao, Min

    2015-12-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) plays an important role in cap-dependent translation. The overexpression of eIF4E gene has been found in a variety of human malignancies. In this study, we attempted to identify the potential effects of eIF4E and explore the possibility of eIF4E as a therapeutic target for the treatment of human ovarian cancer. First the activation of eIF4E protein was detected with m7-GTP cap binding assays in ovarian cancer and control cells. Next, the eIF4E-shRNA expression plasmids were used to specifically inhibit eIF4E activity in ovarian cancer cells line A2780 and C200. The effects of knockdown eIF4E gene on cell proliferation, migration and invasion were investigated in vitro. Moreover, the changes of cell cycle and apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells were detected by flow cytometry. Finally, we investigated the effect of knockdown of eIF4E on the chemosensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin in vitro. Our results show there is elevated activation of eIF4E in ovarian cancer cells compared with normal human ovarian epithelial cell line. The results of BrdU incorporation and FCM assay indicate that knockdown of eIF4E efficiently suppressed cell growth and induce cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and subsequent apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. From Transwell assay analysis, knockdown eIF4E significantly decrease cellular migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. We also confirmed that knockdown eIF4E could synergistically enhance the cytotoxicity effects of cisplatin to cancer cells and sensitized cisplatin-resistant C200 cells in vitro. This study demonstrates that the activation of eIF4E gene is an essential component of the malignant phenotype in ovarian cancer, and aberration of eIF4E expression is associated with proliferation, migration, invasion and chemosensitivity to cisplatin in ovarian cancer cells. Knockdown eIF4E gene can be used as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of human ovarian cancer.

  20. Preferential cytotoxicity of bortezomib toward highly malignant human liposarcoma cells via suppression of MDR1 expression and function

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    Hu, Yamei; Wang, Lingxian; Wang, Lu; Wu, Xuefeng; Wu, Xudong [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Gu, Yanhong; Shu, Yongqian [Department of Clinical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Sun, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Shen, Yan, E-mail: shenyan@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Qiang, E-mail: molpharm@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Liposarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma with a high risk of relapse. Few therapeutic options are available for the aggressive local or metastatic disease. Here, we report that the clinically used proteasome inhibitor bortezomib exhibits significantly stronger cytotoxicity toward highly malignant human liposarcoma SW872-S cells compared with its parental SW872 cells, which is accompanied by enhanced activation of apoptotic signaling both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of cells with Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP60015 or the translation inhibitor cycloheximide ameliorated this enhanced apoptosis. Bortezomib inhibited MDR1 expression and function more effectively in SW872-S cells than in SW872 cells, indicating that the increased cytotoxicity relies on the degree of proteasome inhibition. Furthermore, the pharmacological or genetic inhibition of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase (SERCA) 2, which is highly expressed in SW872-S cells, resulted in partial reversal of cell growth inhibition and increase of MDR1 expression in bortezomib-treated SW872-S cells. These results show that bortezomib exhibits preferential cytotoxicity toward SW872-S cells possibly via highly expressed SERCA2-associated MDR1 suppression and suggest that bortezomib may serve as a potent agent for treating advanced liposarcoma. - Highlights: • We compare the cytotoxicity of different drugs between SW872-S and SW872 cells. • Highly malignant liposarcoma cells SW872-S show hypersensitivity to bortezomib. • Apoptotic signaling is robustly enhanced in bortezomib-treated SW872-S cells. • Bortezomib has strong suppression on MDR1 expression and function in SW872-S cells. • Inhibition of SERCA2 protects SW872-S cells from bortezomib.

  1. Piperlongumine inhibits atherosclerotic plaque formation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by suppressing PDGF receptor signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Dong Ju; Kim, Soo Yeon; Han, Seong Su; Kim, Chan Woo; Kumar, Sandeep; Park, Byeoung Soo; Lee, Sung Eun; Yun, Yeo Pyo; Jo, Hanjoong; Park, Young Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Anti-atherogenic effect of PL was examined using partial carotid ligation model in ApoE KO mice. ► PL prevented atherosclerotic plaque development, VSMCs proliferation, and NF-κB activation. ► Piperlongumine reduced vascular smooth muscle cell activation through PDGF-Rβ and NF-κB-signaling. ► PL may serve as a new therapeutic molecule for atherosclerosis treatment. -- Abstract: Piperlongumine (piplartine, PL) is an alkaloid found in the long pepper (Piper longum L.) and has well-documented anti-platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties; however, the role of PL in prevention of atherosclerosis is unknown. We evaluated the anti-atherosclerotic potential of PL in an in vivo murine model of accelerated atherosclerosis and defined its mechanism of action in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. Local treatment with PL significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation as well as proliferation and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in an in vivo setting. PL treatment in VSMCs in vitro showed inhibition of migration and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-induced proliferation to the in vivo findings. We further identified that PL inhibited PDGF-BB-induced PDGF receptor beta activation and suppressed downstream signaling molecules such as phospholipase Cγ1, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and Akt. Lastly, PL significantly attenuated activation of NF-κB—a downstream transcriptional regulator in PDGF receptor signaling, in response to PDGF-BB stimulation. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a novel, therapeutic mechanism by which PL suppresses atherosclerosis plaque formation in vivo.

  2. Immunotherapy: Shifting the Balance of Cell-Mediated Immunity and Suppression in Human Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, Jo A.; Jochems, Caroline [Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Gulley, James L. [Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Medical Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Schlom, Jeffrey, E-mail: js141c@nih.gov; Tsang, Kwong Y. [Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2012-12-11

    Active immunotherapy is dependent on the ability of the immune system to recognize and respond to tumors. Despite overwhelming evidence to support a cell-mediated immune response to prostate cancer, it is insufficient to eradicate the disease. This is likely due to a high level of suppression at the tumor site from a variety of sources, including immunosuppressive cells. Immune cells entering the tumor microenvironment may be inhibited directly by the tumor, stromal cells or other immune cells that have been induced to adopt a suppressive phenotype. The resurgence of interest in immunotherapy following the approval of sipuleucel-T and ipilimumab by the Food and Drug Administration has brought about new strategies for overcoming tumor-mediated suppression and bolstering anti-tumor responses. Improved understanding of the immune response to prostate cancer can lead to new combination therapies, such as the use of vaccine with small molecule and checkpoint inhibitors or other immunotherapies.

  3. Immunotherapy: Shifting the Balance of Cell-Mediated Immunity and Suppression in Human Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, Jo A.; Jochems, Caroline; Gulley, James L.; Schlom, Jeffrey; Tsang, Kwong Y.

    2012-01-01

    Active immunotherapy is dependent on the ability of the immune system to recognize and respond to tumors. Despite overwhelming evidence to support a cell-mediated immune response to prostate cancer, it is insufficient to eradicate the disease. This is likely due to a high level of suppression at the tumor site from a variety of sources, including immunosuppressive cells. Immune cells entering the tumor microenvironment may be inhibited directly by the tumor, stromal cells or other immune cells that have been induced to adopt a suppressive phenotype. The resurgence of interest in immunotherapy following the approval of sipuleucel-T and ipilimumab by the Food and Drug Administration has brought about new strategies for overcoming tumor-mediated suppression and bolstering anti-tumor responses. Improved understanding of the immune response to prostate cancer can lead to new combination therapies, such as the use of vaccine with small molecule and checkpoint inhibitors or other immunotherapies

  4. Aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in liver cancer cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Jinyan; Liu, Yunxia; Wang, Tianjiao; Zhao, Man; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-05-06

    Abnormal lipid metabolism is a hallmark of tumorigenesis. Hence, the alterations of metabolism enhance the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aspirin is able to inhibit the growth of cancers through targeting nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). However, the role of aspirin in disrupting abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that aspirin can suppress the abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC cells through inhibiting acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1), a lipid metabolism-related enzyme. Interestingly, oil red O staining showed that aspirin suppressed lipogenesis in HepG2 cells and Huh7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, aspirin attenuated the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol in the cells, respectively. Strikingly, we identified that aspirin was able to down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein. Moreover, we validated that aspirin decreased the nuclear levels of NF-κB in HepG2 cells. Mechanically, PDTC, an inhibitor of NF-κB, could down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein in the cells. Functionally, PDTC reduced the levels of lipid droplets, triglyceride and cholesterol in HepG2 cells. Thus, we conclude that aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which aspirin inhibits abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC. Therapeutically, aspirin is potentially available for HCC through controlling abnormal lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Knockdown of TMEM16A suppressed MAPK and inhibited cell proliferation and migration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng L

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Liang Deng,1,* Jihong Yang,2,* Hongwu Chen,3 Bo Ma,4 Kangming Pan,1 Caikun Su,1 Fengfeng Xu,1 Jihong Zhang1 1Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The Eastern Hospital of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 2Department of General Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University, Baoding, 3Department of Emergency, 4Department of Gastroenterology, The Eastern Hospital of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: TMEM16A plays an important role in cell proliferation in various cancers. However, less was known about the expression and role of TMEM16A in hepatocellular carcinoma. We screened the expression of TMEM16A in patients’ hepatocellular carcinoma tissues, and also analyzed the biological function of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by knockdown of TMEM16A, as well as the expression of MAPK signaling proteins, including p38, p-p38, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, JNK, and p-JNK, and cell cycle regulatory protein cyclin D1 in TMEM16A siRNA-transfected SMMC-7721 cells by Western blot. Our results showed that TMEM16A was overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. Inhibition of TMEM16A suppressed the cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and cell cycle progression but did not influence the cell apoptosis. TMEM16A siRNA-suppressed cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth were accompanied by a reduction of p38 and ERK1/2 activation and cyclin D1 induction, and were not influenced by other tested MAPK signaling proteins. In addition, inhibition of TMEM16A suppressed tumorigenicity in vivo. TMEM16A is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma, and that inhibition of TMEM16A suppressed MAPK and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. TMEM16A could be a potentially novel therapeutic target for human cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma.Keywords: TMEM16A, cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis

  6. Modulation of phenotype of human prostatic stromal cells by transforming growth factor-betas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisataki, Toshihiro; Itoh, Naoki; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Atsushi; Masumori, Naoya; Tohse, Noritsugu; Ohmori, Yuki; Yamada, Shizuo; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2004-02-01

    We investigated the effects of transforming growth factor (TGF)-betas on morphological and receptor phenotypes, as well as proliferation of four currently established human prostatic myofibroblast cell lines and one commercially available prostatic stromal cell line. The effects of TGF-betas on morphological changes and proliferation of the cells were studied by immunohistochemistry and bromodeoxyuridine assay, respectively. The expression of alpha 1-receptor subtypes was measured by real time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the radioligand binding assay for the receptors was also performed. TGF-betas 1, 2, and 3 induced expression of desmin and myosin of cells of the established cell lines, and significantly inhibited their growth. The alpha 1a-receptor was expressed only in the commercially available cell line and alpha 1b and 1d, in all cell lines. TGF-beta 1 suppressed the expression of all three subtypes of the alpha 1-receptor. The binding sites of cells of all the cell lines were reduced by treatment with this growth factor. TGF-betas may induce human prostatic stromal cells to express the smooth muscle phenotype and inhibited their growth. However, the growth factor reduced the binding sites of the receptor and suppressed mRNA expression of its subtypes, suggesting that morphological and receptor phenotypes may be regulated via more than one pathway by TGF-beta(s). Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Andrographolide inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor-1 through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway and suppresses breast cancer growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jie Li,1 Chao Zhang,1 Hongchuan Jiang,1 Jiao Cheng21Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 is a master regulator of the transcriptional response to hypoxia. HIF-1α is one of the most compelling anticancer targets. Andrographolide (Andro was newly identified to inhibit HIF-1 in T47D cells (a half maximal effective concentration [EC50] of 1.03×10-7 mol/L, by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. It suppressed HIF-1α protein and gene accumulation, which was dependent on the inhibition of upstream phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/AKT pathway. It also abrogated the expression of HIF-1 target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF gene and protein. Further, Andro inhibited T47D and MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation and colony formation. In addition, it exhibited significant in vivo efficacy and antitumor potential against the MDA-MB-231 xenograft in nude mice. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which inhibits HIF-1, and hence may be developed as an antitumor agent for breast cancer therapy in future.Keywords: Andrographolide (Andro, HIF-1α, inhibit, breast cancer, hypoxia, PI3k/AKT/mTOR pathway

  8. Veto cell suppression mechanisms in the prevention of allograft rejection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, I M; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1998-01-01

    on the surface of the veto-active cell. Data from a large number of experimental and clinical studies strongly indicate that veto-active cells function in vivo and are capable of preventing allograft rejection. Thus, donor-cell-mediated veto activity is the most likely explanation for the well-known graft...

  9. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) suppresses proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells via inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu

    2017-07-08

    The medical mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi), a traditional Chinese medicine, has exhibited a promising anti-cancer effect. However, the molecular mechanism of its action on cancer cells remains unclear. Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is the cause of many types of cancer, including breast cancer. Here we investigated the effect of Reishi on Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and elucidated the molecular mechanism of its function in inhibiting breast cancer cells. We found that Reishi blocked Wnt/β-catenin signaling through inhibiting the phosphorylation of Wnt co-receptor LRP6. In human (MDA-MB-231) and mouse (4T1) breast cancer cell lines, Reishi significantly decreased the phosphorylation of LRP6 and suppressed Wnt3a-activated Wnt target gene Axin2 expression. Administration of Reishi inhibited Wnt-induced hyper-proliferation of breast cancer cells and MDA-MB-231 cell migration. Our results provide evidence that Reishi suppresses breast cancer cell growth and migration through inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling, indicating that Reishi may be a potential natural inhibitor for breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Suppression of renal fibrosis by galectin-1 in high glucose-treated renal epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, Kazuhiro, E-mail: kaokano@kc.twmu.ac.jp; Tsuruta, Yuki; Yamashita, Tetsuri; Takano, Mari; Echida, Yoshihisa; Nitta, Kosaku

    2010-11-15

    Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease. We investigated the ability of intracellular galectin-1 (Gal-1), a prototype of endogenous lectin, to prevent renal fibrosis by regulating cell signaling under a high glucose (HG) condition. We demonstrated that overexpression of Gal-1 reduces type I collagen (COL1) expression and transcription in human renal epithelial cells under HG conditions and transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) stimulation. Matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) is stimulated by Gal-1. HG conditions and TGF-{beta}1 treatment augment expression and nuclear translocation of Gal-1. In contrast, targeted inhibition of Gal-1 expression reduces COL1 expression and increases MMP1 expression. The Smad3 signaling pathway is inhibited, whereas two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), are activated by Gal-1, indicating that Gal-1 regulates these signaling pathways in COL1 production. Using specific inhibitors of Smad3, ERK, and p38 MAPK, we showed that ERK MAPK activated by Gal-1 plays an inhibitory role in COL1 transcription and that activation of the p38 MAPK pathway by Gal-1 plays a negative role in MMP1 production. Taken together, two MAPK pathways are stimulated by increasing levels of Gal-1 in the HG condition, leading to suppression of COL1 expression and increase of MMP1 expression.

  11. Beta cell proliferation and growth factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis; Svensson, C; Møldrup, Annette

    1999-01-01

    cloned a novel GH/PRL stimulated rat islet gene product, Pref-1 (preadipocyte factor-1). This protein contains six EGF-like motifs and may play a role both in embryonic pancreas differentiation and in beta cell growth and function. In summary, the increasing knowledge about the mechanisms involved...... in beta cell differentiation and proliferation may lead to new ways of forming beta cells for treatment of diabetes in man....

  12. Immunoregulatory adherent cells in human tuberculosis: radiation-sensitive antigen-specific suppression by monocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinhenz, M.E.; Ellner, J.J.

    1985-07-01

    In human tuberculosis, adherent mononuclear cells (AMC) selectively depress in vitro responses to the mycobacterial antigen tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD). The phenotype of this antigen-specific adherent suppressor cell was characterized by examining the functional activity of adherent cells after selective depletion of sheep erythrocyte-rosetting T cells or OKM1-reactive monocytes. Adherent cell suppression was studied in the (/sup 3/H)thymidine-incorporation microculture assay by using T cells rigorously depleted of T cells with surface receptors for the Fc portion of IgG (T gamma cells) as antigen-responsive cells. PPD-induced (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation by these non gamma T cells was uniformly reduced (mean, 42% +/- 10% (SD)) when autologous AMC were added to non gamma T cells at a ratio of 1:2. Antigen-specific suppression by AMC was not altered by depletion of sheep erythrocyte-rosetting T cells or treatment with indomethacin. However, AMC treated with OKM1 and complement or gamma irradiation (1,500 rads) no longer suppressed tuberculin responses in vitro. These studies identify the antigen-specific adherent suppressor cell in tuberculosis as an OKM1-reactive, non-erythrocyte-rosetting monocyte. The radiosensitivity of this monocyte immunoregulatory function may facilitate its further definition.

  13. Immunoregulatory adherent cells in human tuberculosis: radiation-sensitive antigen-specific suppression by monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinhenz, M.E.; Ellner, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    In human tuberculosis, adherent mononuclear cells (AMC) selectively depress in vitro responses to the mycobacterial antigen tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD). The phenotype of this antigen-specific adherent suppressor cell was characterized by examining the functional activity of adherent cells after selective depletion of sheep erythrocyte-rosetting T cells or OKM1-reactive monocytes. Adherent cell suppression was studied in the [ 3 H]thymidine-incorporation microculture assay by using T cells rigorously depleted of T cells with surface receptors for the Fc portion of IgG (T gamma cells) as antigen-responsive cells. PPD-induced [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation by these non gamma T cells was uniformly reduced (mean, 42% +/- 10% [SD]) when autologous AMC were added to non gamma T cells at a ratio of 1:2. Antigen-specific suppression by AMC was not altered by depletion of sheep erythrocyte-rosetting T cells or treatment with indomethacin. However, AMC treated with OKM1 and complement or gamma irradiation (1,500 rads) no longer suppressed tuberculin responses in vitro. These studies identify the antigen-specific adherent suppressor cell in tuberculosis as an OKM1-reactive, non-erythrocyte-rosetting monocyte. The radiosensitivity of this monocyte immunoregulatory function may facilitate its further definition

  14. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells mediate immune suppression in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yu, Wei-bo; Tao, Lian-yuan; Xu, Qing

    2016-01-15

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by the loss of motor and sensory functions in areas below the level of the lesion and numerous accompanying deficits. Previous studies have suggested that myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC)-induced immune depression may play a pivotal role in the course of SCI. However, the concrete mechanism of these changes regarding immune suppression remains unknown. Here, we created an SCI mouse model to gain further evidence regarding the relationship between MDSCs following SCI and T lymphocyte suppression. We showed that in the SCI mouse model, the expanding MDSCs have the capacity to suppress T cell proliferation, and this suppression could be reversed by blocking the arginase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Tumour suppression associated with expression of human insulin-like growth factor II.

    OpenAIRE

    Schofield, P. N.; Lee, A.; Hill, D. J.; Cheetham, J. E.; James, D.; Stewart, C.

    1991-01-01

    Recent circumstantial evidence has implicated Insulin-like growth factor II in the genesis of several tumour types, notably developmental tumours (Scott et al., 1985; Schofield & Tate, 1987; Wilkins et al., 1989). This type of tumour, thought to originate during the defective differentiation of organ precursors (Miereau et al., 1987), often expresses greatly elevated levels of mRNA for IGF-II, a known mitogen for these cells and abundantly expressed in their presumed normal counterparts (Scot...

  16. Tumor-suppressing effects of microRNA-612 in bladder cancer cells by targeting malic enzyme 1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengnan; Chen, Yifan; Huang, Bisheng; Mao, Shiyu; Cai, Keke; Wang, Longsheng; Yao, Xudong

    2018-03-29

    The present study investigated the possible tumor-suppressing function of microRNA (miR)-612 and the underlying molecular mechanism of its action in bladder cancer in vitro and in vivo. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) was carried out to quantify the expression levels of miR‑612 in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. The data demonstrated that the level of miR‑612 expression was significantly reduced in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines, as compared with that in non‑cancerous tissues and cells. Reduced miR‑612 expression was associated with advanced tumor, lymph node and metastasis stages, and with distant metastasis of bladder cancer. A functional study revealed that transfection of cells with an miR‑612 mimic suppressed bladder cancer cell growth, colony formation, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Bioinformatics analysis identified that miR‑612 targeted the expression of malic enzyme 1 (ME1), and this was confirmed by western blot and luciferase reporter assay results. Furthermore, the ME1 expression levels were inversely associated with miR‑612 expression in bladder cancer tissue specimens. In addition, knockdown of ME1 expression using ME1 siRNA mimicked the effect of ectopic miR‑612 overexpression in bladder cancer cells in terms of tumor cell growth, migration and invasion. By contrast, ME1 overexpression weakened the inhibitory effect of the miR‑612 mimic in bladder cancer cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that miR‑612 may function as a tumor suppressor in bladder cancer by targeting ME1 expression.

  17. Autophagy contributes to gefitinib-induced glioma cell growth inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Cheng-Yi [Department of Surgery, Fong-Yuan Hospital, Taichung 420, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 406, Taiwan (China); Kuan, Yu-Hsiang [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Pharmacy, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Ou, Yen-Chuan; Li, Jian-Ri [Division of Urology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chih-Cheng [Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Department of Financial and Computational Mathematics, Providence University, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Pan, Pin-Ho [Department of Pediatrics, Tungs’ Taichung MetroHarbor Hospital, Taichung 435, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Ying [Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Huang, Hsuan-Yi [Department of Surgery, Fong-Yuan Hospital, Taichung 420, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chun-Jung, E-mail: cjchen@vghtc.gov.tw [Department of Medical Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Rong Hsing Research Center for Translational Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Center for General Education, Tunghai University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Department of Nursing, HungKuang University, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-10

    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including gefitinib, have been evaluated in patients with malignant gliomas. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in gefitinib-mediated anticancer effects against glioma are incompletely understood. In the present study, the cytostatic potential of gefitinib was demonstrated by the inhibition of glioma cell growth, long-term clonogenic survival, and xenograft tumor growth. The cytostatic consequences were accompanied by autophagy, as evidenced by monodansylcadaverine staining of acidic vesicle formation, conversion of microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II), degradation of p62, punctate pattern of GFP-LC3, and conversion of GFP-LC3 to cleaved-GFP. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenosine and chloroquine and genetic silencing of LC3 or Beclin 1 attenuated gefitinib-induced growth inhibition. Gefitinib-induced autophagy was not accompanied by the disruption of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. Instead, the activation of liver kinase-B1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling correlated well with the induction of autophagy and growth inhibition caused by gefitinib. Silencing of AMPK suppressed gefitinib-induced autophagy and growth inhibition. The crucial role of AMPK activation in inducing glioma autophagy and growth inhibition was further supported by the actions of AMP mimetic AICAR. Gefitinib was shown to be capable of reducing the proliferation of glioma cells, presumably by autophagic mechanisms involving AMPK activation. - Highlights: • Gefitinib causes cytotoxic and cytostatic effect on glioma. • Gefitinib induces autophagy. • Gefitinib causes cytostatic effect through autophagy. • Gefitinib induces autophagy involving AMPK.

  18. Aromatic Hydrocarbon Receptor Suppresses Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis Cells-Induced Vasculogenesis of Endothelial Progenitor Cells under Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hypoxia leads to the development of neovascularization in solid tumor by regulating VEGF expression. Aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, a receptor for dioxin-like compounds, functions as a transcription factor through dimerization with hypoxia-inducible factors 1β (HIF-1β and inhibits the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. The purpose of this study was to explore whether AHR can suppress hypoxia-induced VEGF production in prostate bone metastasis cells and repress neovascularization in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, and, if so, through what mechanisms. Methods: PC-3 or LNCaP cells induced angiogenesis was detected by Matrigel-based tube formation assay, mRNA expression levels was measured by qRT-PCR, VEGF secretion level was determined by ELISA assay, respectively. Results: AHR activation inhibits hypoxia-induced adhesiveness and vasculogenesis of EPCs induced by PC-3 or LNCaP cells under hypoxia. Moreover, AHR activation suppressed hypoxia-induced VEGF production in PC-3 and LNCaP cells (48 ± 14% in PC-3, p = 0.000; 41 ± 14% in LNCaP, p = 0.000 by attenuating HIF-1α and HIF-1β level that in turn diminished the angiogenic ability of EPCs in vitro. Furthermore, we found the mRNA level of hypoxia-inducible factors 1α (HIF-1α (1.54 ± 0.13 fold in PC-3, p = 0.002, 1.62 ± 0.12 fold in LNCaP, p = 0.001 and HIF-1β (1.67 ± 0.23 fold in PC-3, p = 0.007; 1.75 ± 0.26 fold in LNCaP, p=0.008 were upregulated in prostate cancer bone metastasis PC-3 and LNCaP cell lines in response to hypoxia, and revealed that the regulation of VEGF by HIF-1α and HIF-1β was possibly mediated by the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. Conclusion: By providing a mechanistic insight into the modulation of neovascularization by AHR ligand, we suggest that AHR ligand has a strong potential of being a new therapeutic agent with applications in the field of bone metastatic prostate cancer.

  19. SOD mimetics: A Novel Class of Androgen Receptor Inhibitors that Suppresses Castration-Resistant Growth of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rusha; Sharifi, Nima

    2011-01-01

    Advanced prostate cancer (PCa) is the second-leading cause of cancer-related deaths among American men. The androgen receptor (AR) is vital for PCa progression, even in the face of castrate levels of serum testosterone following androgen ablation therapy, a mainstay therapy for advanced PCa. Downregulation of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), a major intracellular antioxidant enzyme, occurs progressively during PCa progression to advanced states, and is known to promote AR activity in PCa. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of SOD mimetics on AR expression and function in AR-dependent LNCaP, CWR22Rv1, and LAPC-4AD PCa cells. Treatment with Tempol, a SOD mimetic, not only lowered cellular superoxide levels, but also concomitantly attenuated AR transcriptional activity and AR target gene expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner, in the presence and absence of dihydrotestosterone, the major endogenous AR agonist. Tempol's inhibition of AR was mediated, in large part, by its ability to decrease AR protein via increased degradation, in the absence of any inhibitory effects on other nuclear receptors. Tempol's inhibitory effects on AR were also reproducible with other SOD mimetics, MnTBAP and MnTMPyP. Importantly, Tempol's effects on AR function were accompanied by significant in vitro and in vivo reduction in castration-resistant PCa survival and growth. Collectively, this study has demonstrated for the first time that SOD mimetics, by virtue of their ability to suppress AR function, may be beneficial in treating the currently incurable castration-resistant PCa in which SOD2 expression is highly suppressed. PMID:22172488

  20. Glycan Sulfation Modulates Dendritic Cell Biology and Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland El Ghazal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In cancer, proteoglycans have been found to play roles in facilitating the actions of growth factors, and effecting matrix invasion and remodeling. However, little is known regarding the genetic and functional importance of glycan chains displayed by proteoglycans on dendritic cells (DCs in cancer immunity. In lung carcinoma, among other solid tumors, tumor-associated DCs play largely subversive/suppressive roles, promoting tumor growth and progression. Herein, we show that targeting of DC glycan sulfation through mutation in the heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzyme N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (Ndst1 in mice increased DC maturation and inhibited trafficking of DCs to draining lymph nodes. Lymphatic-driven DC migration and chemokine (CCL21-dependent activation of a major signaling pathway required for DC migration (as measured by phospho-Akt were sensitive to Ndst1 mutation in DCs. Lewis lung carcinoma tumors in mice deficient in Ndst1 were reduced in size. Purified CD11c+ cells from the tumors, which contain the tumor-infiltrating DC population, showed a similar phenotype in mutant cells. These features were replicated in mice deficient in syndecan-4, the major heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed on the DC surface: Tumors were growth-impaired in syndecan-4–deficient mice and were characterized by increased infiltration by mature DCs. Tumors on the mutant background also showed greater infiltration by NK cells and NKT cells. These findings indicate the genetic importance of DC heparan sulfate proteoglycans in tumor growth and may guide therapeutic development of novel strategies to target syndecan-4 and heparan sulfate in cancer.

  1. Endothelial Cell-Targeted Adenoviral Vector for Suppressing Breast Tumors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Shuang

    2003-01-01

    .... We incorporated five previously published endothelial cell-specific peptide sequences into adenovirus capsid fiber sequence and the modified fibers were added to Beta-galactosidase- containing...

  2. Odorants suppress voltage-gated currents in retinal horizontal cells in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, F; Miyachi, E

    2000-03-10

    Odorants are known to suppress non-selectively voltage-gated currents in olfactory receptor cells. We found that odorants also suppress voltage-gated currents in neurons of outside of the olfactory system. Under voltage clamp, odorants such as amyl acetate, limonene, and acetophenone suppressed non-selectively voltage-gated currents (a Ca(2+) current, a delayed rectifier K(+) current, a fast transient K(+) current, and an anomalous rectifier K(+) current) in horizontal cells from the goldfish retina. An amyl acetate puff completely and immediately suppressed the Ca(2+) current (I(Ca)) and the delayed rectifier K(+) current induced by repetitive depolarizations, suggesting that amyl acetate is a closed-channel blocker. Odorants did not change significantly the activation curve of I(Ca), but made the slope of inactivation curve of I(Ca) gentler and shifted its half-inactivation voltage toward a negative voltage. These results are similar to the effects of odorants on voltage-gated currents in olfactory receptor cells. This suggests that odorants may suppress the voltage-gated currents in retinal horizontal cells by the same mechanism described in olfactory receptor cells.

  3. Genomic structure, chromosomal localization and expression profile of a novel melanoma differentiation associated (mda-7) gene with cancer specific growth suppressing and apoptosis inducing properties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, E. Y.; Madireddi, M. T.; Gopalkrishnan, R. V.; Leszczyniecka, M.; Su, Z. Z.; Lebedeva, I. V.; Kang, D. C.; Jian, H.; Lin, J. J.; Alexandre, D.; Chen, Y.; Vozhilla, N.; Mei, M. X.; Christiansen, K. A.; Sivo, F.; Goldstein, N. I.; Chada, S.; Huberman, E.; Pestka, S.; Fisher, P. B.; Biochip Technology Center; Columbia Univ.; Introgen Therapeutics Inc.; UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School

    2001-10-25

    Abnormalities in cellular differentiation are frequent occurrences in human cancers. Treatment of human melanoma cells with recombinant fibroblast interferon (IFN-beta) and the protein kinase C activator mezerein (MEZ) results in an irreversible loss in growth potential, suppression of tumorigenic properties and induction of terminal cell differentiation. Subtraction hybridization identified melanoma differentiation associated gene-7 (mda-7), as a gene induced during these physiological changes in human melanoma cells. Ectopic expression of mda-7 by means of a replication defective adenovirus results in growth suppression and induction of apoptosis in a broad spectrum of additional cancers, including melanoma, glioblastoma multiforme, osteosarcoma and carcinomas of the breast, cervix, colon, lung, nasopharynx and prostate. In contrast, no apparent harmful effects occur when mda-7 is expressed in normal epithelial or fibroblast cells. Human clones of mda-7 were isolated and its organization resolved in terms of intron/exon structure and chromosomal localization. Hu-mda-7 encompasses seven exons and six introns and encodes a protein with a predicted size of 23.8 kDa, consisting of 206 amino acids. Hu-mda-7 mRNA is stably expressed in the thymus, spleen and peripheral blood leukocytes. De novo mda-7 mRNA expression is also detected in human melanocytes and expression is inducible in cells of melanocyte/melanoma lineage and in certain normal and cancer cell types following treatment with a combination of IFN-beta plus MEZ. Mda-7 expression is also induced during megakaryocyte differentiation induced in human hematopoietic cells by treatment with TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate). In contrast, de novo expression of mda-7 is not detected nor is it inducible by IFN-beta+MEZ in a spectrum of additional normal and cancer cells. No correlation was observed between induction of mda-7 mRNA expression and growth suppression following treatment with IFN-beta+MEZ and

  4. Osteoclast activated FoxP3+ CD8+ T-cells suppress bone resorption in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary S Buchwald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteoclasts are the body's sole bone resorbing cells. Cytokines produced by pro-inflammatory effector T-cells (T(EFF increase bone resorption by osteoclasts. Prolonged exposure to the T(EFF produced cytokines leads to bone erosion diseases such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. The crosstalk between T-cells and osteoclasts has been termed osteoimmunology. We have previously shown that under non-inflammatory conditions, murine osteoclasts can recruit naïve CD8 T-cells and activate these T-cells to induce CD25 and FoxP3 (Tc(REG. The activation of CD8 T-cells by osteoclasts also induced the cytokines IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-γ. Individually, these cytokines can activate or suppress osteoclast resorption. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine the net effect of Tc(REG on osteoclast activity we used a number of in vitro assays. We found that Tc(REG can potently and directly suppress bone resorption by osteoclasts. Tc(REG could suppress osteoclast differentiation and resorption by mature osteoclasts, but did not affect their survival. Additionally, we showed that Tc(REG suppress cytoskeletal reorganization in mature osteoclasts. Whereas induction of Tc(REG by osteoclasts is antigen-dependent, suppression of osteoclasts by Tc(REG does not require antigen or re-stimulation. We demonstrated that antibody blockade of IL-6, IL-10 or IFN-γ relieved suppression. The suppression did not require direct contact between the Tc(REG and osteoclasts. SIGNIFICANCE: We have determined that osteoclast-induced Tc(REG can suppress osteoclast activity, forming a negative feedback system. As the CD8 T-cells are activated in the absence of inflammatory signals, these observations suggest that this regulatory loop may play a role in regulating skeletal homeostasis. Our results provide the first documentation of suppression of osteoclast activity by CD8 regulatory T-cells and thus, extend the purview of osteoimmunology.

  5. Dexamethasone Suppresses Oxysterol-Induced Differentiation of Monocytic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghae Son

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxysterol like 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OHChol has been reported to induce differentiation of monocytic cells into a mature dendritic cell phenotype. We examined whether dexamethasone (Dx affects 27OHChol-induced differentiation using THP-1 cells. Treatment of monocytic cells with Dx resulted in almost complete inhibition of transcription and surface expression of CD80, CD83, and CD88 induced by 27OHChol. Elevated surface levels of MHC class I and II molecules induced by 27OHChol were reduced to basal levels by treatment with Dx. A decreased endocytosis ability caused by 27OHChol was recovered by Dx. We also examined effects of Dx on expression of CD molecules involved in atherosclerosis. Increased levels of surface protein and transcription of CD105, CD137, and CD166 by treatment with 27OHChol were significantly inhibited by cotreatment with Dx. These results indicate that Dx inhibits 27OHChol-induced differentiation of monocytic cells into a mature dendritic cell phenotype and expression of CD molecules whose levels are associated with atherosclerosis. In addition, we examined phosphorylation of AKT induced by 27OHChol and effect of Dx, where cotreatment with Dx inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT. The current study reports that Dx regulates oxysterol-mediated dendritic cell differentiation of monocytic cells.

  6. Suppression of vascular smooth muscle cells' proliferation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-26

    Dec 26, 2011 ... migration period, transwell chambers were fixed by methyl alcohol and stained by hematoxylin, and then the non-migrating cells were removed with a cotton swab from the upper surface. The number of cells that had migrated to the lower surface of the membrane was determined per ×200 high power field.

  7. Micro-environmental mechanical stress controls tumor spheroid size and morphology by suppressing proliferation and inducing apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Cheng

    Full Text Available Compressive mechanical stress produced during growth in a confining matrix limits the size of tumor spheroids, but little is known about the dynamics of stress accumulation, how the stress affects cancer cell phenotype, or the molecular pathways involved.We co-embedded single cancer cells with fluorescent micro-beads in agarose gels and, using confocal microscopy, recorded the 3D distribution of micro-beads surrounding growing spheroids. The change in micro-bead density was then converted to strain in the gel, from which we estimated the spatial distribution of compressive stress around the spheroids. We found a strong correlation between the peri-spheroid solid stress distribution and spheroid shape, a result of the suppression of cell proliferation and induction of apoptotic cell death in regions of high mechanical stress. By compressing spheroids consisting of cancer cells overexpressing anti-apoptotic genes, we demonstrate that mechanical stress-induced apoptosis occurs via the mitochondrial pathway.Our results provide detailed, quantitative insight into the role of micro-environmental mechanical stress in tumor spheroid growth dynamics, and suggest how tumors grow in confined locations where the level of solid stress becomes high. An important implication is that apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway, induced by compressive stress, may be involved in tumor dormancy, in which tumor growth is held in check by a balance of apoptosis and proliferation.

  8. Reduction in placental growth factor impaired gestational beta-cell proliferation through crosstalk between beta-cells and islet endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaosheng; Shen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Reduced placental growth factor (PLGF) during pregnancy is known to be a reason for developing preeclampsia (PE) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, it has been shown that reduced PLGF may induce GDM through suppressing beta-cell mass growth in a PI3k/Akt signalling-dependent manner. Here, we dissected the interaction between beta-cells and islet endothelial cells in this model. We analysed proliferation of beta-cells and islet endothelial cells at different time points of gestation in mice. We cultured mouse islet endothelial cells (MS1), with or without PLGF. We cultured primary mouse beta-cells in conditioned media from PLGF-treated MS1. We cultured MS1 cells in conditioned media from proliferating beta-cells that were activated with conditioned media from PLGF-treated MS1 cells. We analysed cell proliferation by BrdU incorporation. We analysed cell growth by a MTT assay. We found that during mouse gestation, the increases in cell proliferation occurred earlier in beta-cells than in islet endothelial cells. In vitro, PLGF itself failed to induce proliferation of MS1 cells. However, conditioned media from the PLGF-treated MS1 cells induced beta-cell proliferation, resulting in increases in beta-cell number. Moreover, proliferation of MS1 cells significantly increased when MS1 cells were cultured in conditioned media from proliferating beta-cells activated with conditioned media from PLGF-treated MS1 cells. Thus, our data suggest that gestational PLGF may stimulate islet endothelial cells to release growth factors to promote beta-cell proliferation, and proliferating beta-cells in turn release endothelial cell growth factor to increase proliferation of endothelial cells. PE-associated reduction in PLGF impairs these processes to result in islet growth impairment, and subsequently the onset of GDM.

  9. Salmon cartilage proteoglycan suppresses mouse experimental colitis through induction of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsui, Toshihito; Sashinami, Hiroshi; Sato, Fuyuki; Kijima, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Yoh; Fukuda, Shinsaku; Yoshihara, Shuichi; Hakamada, Ken-Ichi; Nakane, Akio

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Salmon proteoglycan suppresses IL-10 -/- cell transfer-induced colitis progression. → Salmon proteoglycan suppresses Th1- and Th17-related factors in colitis mice. → Salmon proteoglycan enhances Foxp3 expression. -- Abstract: Proteoglycans (PGs) are complex glycohydrates which are widely distributed in extracellular matrix (ECM). PGs are involved in the construction of ECM, cell proliferation and differentiation. ECM components are involved in transduction of proinflammatory responses, but it is still unknown whether PGs are involved in inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the effect of PG extracted from salmon cartilage on the progression of experimental colitis-induced in severe combined immunodeficiency mice by cell transfer from interleukin-10 (IL-10) -/- mice. IL-10 -/- cell-transferred mice showed weight loss, colon shortening and histological appearance of mild colitis. Daily oral administration of PG attenuated the clinical progression of colitis in a dose-dependent manner. Colitis-induced mice showed the elevated expression of IFN-γ, IL-12, TNF-α, IL-21, IL-23p19, IL-6, IL-17A and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) in lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) and oral administration of PG suppressed the expression of these factors. Conversely, expression of Foxp3 that induces CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells in LPMCs was enhanced by PG administration. These findings suggested that salmon PG attenuated the progression of colitis due to suppression of inflammatory response by enhancement of regulatory T cell induction.

  10. Andrographolide Suppress Tumor Growth by Inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB Signaling Activation in Insulinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Ding, Yi; Lei, Yan; Qi, Cui-Ling; He, Xiao-Dong; Lan, Tian; Li, Jiang-Chao; Gong, Ping; Yang, Xuesong; Geng, Jian-Guo; Wang, Li-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Insulinomas are rare tumors, and approximately 10% of insulinomas are malignant. Accumulating evidence has implicated that we still lack effective therapy to treat the patients who are diagnosed with rare malignant insulinoma. Previous studies have reported that Andrographolide (Andro) could inhibit cell cycle progression, reduce cell invasion and induce cell apoptosis in many common cancer cells. However, the effects of andro are cell type-dependent. So we emplored the β-TC-6 cells and the RIP1-Tag2 transgenic mouse model of endogenously growing insulinoma model to elucidate the possible anti-cancer effect of Andro on insulinoma, an uncommon type of malignant cancers in this study. Our experiments revealed that Andro significantly inhibited tumor growth at both the early-stage and the advanced-stage of insulinoma through targeting the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. This work initially provides the evidence that the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway might be vital as a potential therapeutic target, and also indispensable in Andro-mediated anti-cancer effect in insulinoma. PMID:24719558

  11. Andrographolide suppress tumor growth by inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB signaling activation in insulinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Ding, Yi; Lei, Yan; Qi, Cui-Ling; He, Xiao-Dong; Lan, Tian; Li, Jiang-Chao; Gong, Ping; Yang, Xuesong; Geng, Jian-Guo; Wang, Li-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Insulinomas are rare tumors, and approximately 10% of insulinomas are malignant. Accumulating evidence has implicated that we still lack effective therapy to treat the patients who are diagnosed with rare malignant insulinoma. Previous studies have reported that Andrographolide (Andro) could inhibit cell cycle progression, reduce cell invasion and induce cell apoptosis in many common cancer cells. However, the effects of andro are cell type-dependent. So we emplored the β-TC-6 cells and the RIP1-Tag2 transgenic mouse model of endogenously growing insulinoma model to elucidate the possible anti-cancer effect of Andro on insulinoma, an uncommon type of malignant cancers in this study. Our experiments revealed that Andro significantly inhibited tumor growth at both the early-stage and the advanced-stage of insulinoma through targeting the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. This work initially provides the evidence that the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway might be vital as a potential therapeutic target, and also indispensable in Andro-mediated anti-cancer effect in insulinoma.

  12. Beta cell proliferation and growth factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis; Svensson, C; Møldrup, Annette

    1999-01-01

    cloned a novel GH/PRL stimulated rat islet gene product, Pref-1 (preadipocyte factor-1). This protein contains six EGF-like motifs and may play a role both in embryonic pancreas differentiation and in beta cell growth and function. In summary, the increasing knowledge about the mechanisms involved......Formation of new beta cells can take place by two pathways: replication of already differentiated beta cells or neogenesis from putative islet stem cells. Under physiological conditions both processes are most pronounced during the fetal and neonatal development of the pancreas. In adulthood little...

  13. Homoharringtonine suppresses imatinib resistance via the Bcl-6/p53 pathway in chronic myeloid leukemia cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Ding, Wei; Ding, Yihan; Ma, Jingjing; Qian, Zhaoye; Shao, Jingxian; Li, Yufeng

    2017-06-06

    The anti-leukemic mechanism of homoharringtonine (HHT) differs from that of IM, and HHT is one of the most useful agents for use in patients with IM resistance or intolerance. The Bcl-6/p53 pathway has been shown to regulate the sensitivity of tumor cells to antitumor drugs. We tested whether HHT blocked the Bcl-6/p53 pathway in order to promote the apoptosis of IM-resistant cells in vitro and in vivo. Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells and IM-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells showed high expression of Bcl-6 protein. Bcl-6 mediated the upregulation of p53, and and Bcl-6 induced growth inhibition of IM-resistant cells as well as its apoptosis by targeting p53. In addition, Bcl-6 was downregulated moderately after HHT treatment in different cells. The Bcl-6 expression was significantly increased in patients with CML when compared with healthy subjects. Furthermore, the expression of Bcl-6 was higher in patients with CML-blastic phase (CML-BP) than in those with CML-chronic phase (CML-CP). The inhibitory effect of drugs on cell growth was detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), The apoptosis rate and the cell cycle were investigated by flow cytometry. The expression of Bcl-6, p53, Bcl-2, caspase9, and caspase3 proteins was assayed by western blot, Real- Time PCR (qPCR) detect Bcl-6 and p53 mRNA. HHT can suppress the growth and induce apoptosis of IM-resistant cells, the mechanism of which is associated with blocking of the Bcl-6/p53 pathway. Our results could offer a theoretical explanation for HHT use in patients with IM resistance or intolerance.

  14. Polydatin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in laryngeal cancer and HeLa cells via suppression of the PDGF/AKT signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haixia; Shi, Baoyuan; Li, Yanyun; Yin, Fengfang

    2017-07-01

    Polydatin (PD), a stilbene compound extracted from Polygonum cuspidatum, is suggested to possess anti-cancer activities, including inhibition of cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis. The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)/AKT signaling pathway plays complex roles in tumor suppression. However, the effect of PD on the PDGF/AKT signaling pathway in laryngeal cancer and HeLa cells has not been explored. MTT assay and flow cytometry showed that PD inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in Hep-2 and AMC-HN-8 cells. Western blot analysis indicated that PD inhibited the expression levels of PDGF-B and phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) in both cells. Treatment of PDGF-B siRNA or PDGFR inhibitor found that after the PDGF signaling was inactivated, p-AKT expression was significantly decreased in Hep-2 cells. Tumor xenograft experiment in nude mice indicated PD significantly inhibited the growth of Hep-2 cells in vivo. In conclusion, PD inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in laryngeal cancer and HeLa cells via inactivation of the PDGF/AKT signaling pathway. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. [Suppression of WIFI transcript and protein in non-small cell lung carcinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobko, E V; Kalinichenko, S V; Shepelev, M V; Zborovskaia, I B; Allakhverdiev, A K; Zinov'eva, M V; Vinogradova, T V; Sverdlov, E D; Korobko, I V

    2007-01-01

    Changes in WIFI expression, an extracellular inhibitor of Wnt pathway, in non-small cell lung carcinomas were analyzed. Frequent (67% cases) suppression of WIFI transcript in non-small cell lung carcinomas were found. Our results, together with previously published data, suggest that inhibition of WIFI expression often occurs in squamous cell carcinomas and is less typical of adenocarcinomas. It was also found that a decrease in the WIFI transcript in tumors is parallel to concomitant suppression of the WIFI protein level. Our results provide further evidence that the WIFI suppression is a frequent event in the lung carcinogenesis, which might lead to disregulation of Wnt signaling pathway and contribute to tumor progression.

  16. Transforming growth factor-β1 suppresses hepatitis B virus replication by the reduction of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsiang Hong

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated that cytokine-mediated noncytopathic suppression of hepatitis B virus (HBV replication may provide an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B infection. In our previous study, we showed that transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1 could effectively suppress HBV replication at physiological concentrations. Here, we provide more evidence that TGF-β1 specifically diminishes HBV core promoter activity, which subsequently results in a reduction in the level of viral pregenomic RNA (pgRNA, core protein (HBc, nucleocapsid, and consequently suppresses HBV replication. The hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF-4α binding element(s within the HBV core promoter region was characterized to be responsive for the inhibitory effect of TGF-β1 on HBV regulation. Furthermore, we found that TGF-β1 treatment significantly repressed HNF-4α expression at both mRNA and protein levels. We demonstrated that RNAi-mediated depletion of HNF-4α was sufficient to reduce HBc synthesis as TGF-β1 did. Prevention of HNF-4α degradation by treating with proteasome inhibitor MG132 also prevented the inhibitory effect of TGF-β1. Finally, we confirmed that HBV replication could be rescued by ectopic expression of HNF-4α in TGF-β1-treated cells. Our data clarify the mechanism by which TGF-β1 suppresses HBV replication, primarily through modulating the expression of HNF-4α gene.

  17. Dutasteride and enzalutamide synergistically suppress prostate tumor cell proliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamid, A.R.; Verhaegh, G.W.C.T.; Smit, F.P.; RIjt-van de Westerlo, C.; Armandari, I.; Brandt, A.; Sweep, F.C.; Sedelaar, J.P.M.; Schalken, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Dihydrotestosterone is the main active androgen in the prostate and it has a role in prostate cancer progression. After androgen deprivation therapy androgen receptor signaling is still active in tumor cells. Persistent intratumor steroidogenesis and androgen receptor changes are

  18. Suppression of estrogen receptor transcriptional activity by connective tissue growth factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Cheng

    Full Text Available Secreted growth factors have been shown to stimulate the transcriptional activity of estrogen receptors (ER that are responsible for many biological processes. However, whether these growth factors physically interact with ER remains unclear. Here, we show for the first time that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF physically and functionally associates with ER. CTGF interacted with ER both in vitro and in vivo. CTGF interacted with ER DNA-binding domain. ER interaction region in CTGF was mapped to the thrombospondin type I repeat, a cell attachment motif. Overexpression of CTGF inhibited ER transcriptional activity as well as the expression of estrogen-responsive genes, including pS2 and cathepsin D. Reduction of endogenous CTGF with CTGF small interfering RNA enhanced ER transcriptional activity. The interaction between CTGF and ER is required for the repression of estrogen-responsive transcription by CTGF. Moreover, CTGF