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Sample records for suppressing background-bleaching effects

  1. Suppression effects on musical and verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Zachary A; Palmer, Caroline

    2007-06-01

    Three experiments contrasted the effects of articulatory suppression on recognition memory for musical and verbal sequences. In Experiment 1, a standard/comparison task was employed, with digit or note sequences presented visually or auditorily while participants remained silent or produced intermittent verbal suppression (saying "the") or musical suppression (singing "la"). Both suppression types decreased performance by equivalent amounts, as compared with no suppression. Recognition accuracy was lower during suppression for visually presented digits than during that for auditorily presented digits (consistent with phonological loop predictions), whereas accuracy was equivalent for visually presented notes and auditory tones. When visual interference filled the retention interval in Experiment 2, performance with visually presented notes but not digits was impaired. Experiment 3 forced participants to translate visually presented music sequences by presenting comparison sequences auditorily. Suppression effects for visually presented music resembled those for digits only when the recognition task required sensory translation of cues.

  2. Effects of thought suppression on episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E; Merckelbach, H; Muris, P

    1997-11-01

    Subjects were shown a short film fragment. Following this, one group of subjects (n = 26) was instructed to suppress their thoughts about the film, while the other group (n = 24) received no instructions. After 5 hrs subjects returned to the laboratory and completed a questionnaire testing their memory about the film. Results showed that suppression subjects reported a higher frequency of thoughts about the film than control subjects. No evidence was obtained for Wegner, Quillian, and Houston's (1996; Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 680-691) claim that suppression has an undermining effect on memory for chronology. Possible causes for the differences between the results as obtained by Wegner et al., and those found in the present study are discussed. These causes may pertain to the experimental design, but also to differences in emotional impact of the stimulus material that was used in both studies.

  3. Background Suppression Effects on Signal Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Gamma detectors at border crossings are intended to detect illicit nuclear material. One performance challenge involves the fact that vehicles suppress the natural background, thus potentially reducing detection probability for threat items. Methods to adjust for background suppression have been considered in related but different settings. Here, methods to adjust for background suppression are tested in the context of signal estimation. Adjustment methods include several clustering options. We find that for the small-to-moderate suppression magnitudes exhibited in the analyzed data, suppression adjustment is only moderatel helpful in locating the signal peak, and in estimating its width or magnitude.

  4. The paradoxical effects of suppressing anxious thoughts during imminent threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Ernst H W; Rassin, Eric; Crombez, Geert; Näring, Gérard W B

    2003-09-01

    In line with the ironic processing theory of Wegner (Psychol. Rev. 101 (1994) 34), it is often argued that the suppression of anxiety-related thoughts results in a paradoxical increase of anxiety and thought intrusions, both after and during the thought suppression. In a sample of undergraduate students (14 men, 18 women), we investigated the effects of suppressing anxious thoughts about an imminent painful electrocutaneous stimulus. During thought suppression, self-reported anxiety and frequency of anxious thoughts did not increase, and duration of anxious thoughts decreased. After thought suppression, participants experienced an increase in self-reported anxiety and the frequency of anxious thoughts. There was no effect upon thought duration. The results support the idea that suppression of anxiety-related thoughts may result in a paradoxical increase in anxiety, and may cause and/or maintain anxiety problems.

  5. When thought suppression backfires: its moderator effect on eating psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Palmeira, Lara; Trindade, Inês A; Catarino, Francisca

    2015-09-01

    Recently, several studies have pointed the importance of thought suppression as a form of experiential avoidance in different psychopathological conditions. Thought suppression may be conceptualized as an attempt to decrease or eliminate unwanted internal experiences. However, it encloses a paradoxical nature, making those thoughts hyper accessible and placing an extra burden on individuals. This avoidance process has been associated with several psychopathological conditions. However, its role in eating psychopathology remains unclear. The present study aims to explore the moderation effect of thought suppression on the associations between body image-related unwanted internal experiences (unfavorable social comparison through physical appearance and body image dissatisfaction) and eating psychopathology severity in a sample of 211 female students. Correlational analyses showed that thought suppression is associated with psychological inflexibility and eating disorders' main risk factors and symptoms. Moreover, two independent analyses revealed that thought suppression moderates, as it amplifies, the impact of unfavorable social comparisons through physical appearance (model 1) and body image dissatisfaction (model 2) on disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Hence, for the same level of these body-related internal experiences, young females who reveal higher levels of thought suppression present higher eating psychopathology. Taken together, these findings highlight the key role of thought suppression in eating psychopathology and present important clinical implications.

  6. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Infrared Signature Suppression of Aircraft Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian Wei; Wang, Qiang; Kwon, Oh Joon

    During typical supersonic cruising, the temperature of the aircraft skin rises above 300 K due to aerodynamic heating. In this situation, aircraft-skin infrared (IR) suppression, used to minimize the radiation contrast from the background is a crucial survival technology. In the present study, a technique to evaluate the effectiveness of IR suppression of aircraft skin is proposed. For this purpose, a synthetic procedure based on numerical simulations has been developed. In this procedure, the thermal status of aircraft skin is obtained using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method for complex aircraft geometries. An IR signature model is proposed using a reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) technique. The detection range and the IR contrast are adopted as the performance indicators for the evaluation of the aircraft IR suppression. The influence of these factors related to the aircraft-skin radiation, such as aircraft-skin emissivity, surface temperature distribution and flight speed, on the IR contrast and the detection range is also studied. As a test case, the effectiveness of various IR suppression schemes was analyzed for a typical air combat situation. Then, the method is applied to clarify the contribution of each aircraft component to the IR suppression of the overall IR radiation. The results show that aircraft-skin temperature control and emissivity control are effective means to reduce the IR radiation and to achieve lower detection. The results can be used as a practical guide for designing future stealth aircraft.

  7. Suppressing CMB low multipoles with ISW effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Santanu; Souradeep, Tarun

    2014-02-01

    Recent results of Planck data reveal that the power [1,2] in the low multipoles of the CMB angular power spectrum, approximately up to l = 30, is significantly lower than the theoretically predicted in the best fit ΛCDM model. There are different known physical effects that can affect the power at low multipoles, such as features in the primordial power spectrum (PPS) in some models of inflation and ISW effect. In this paper we investigate the possibility of invoking the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect to explain the power deficit at low multipoles. The ISW effect that originates from the late time expansion history of the universe is rich in possibilities given the limited understanding of the origin of dark energy (DE). It is a common understanding that the ISW effect adds to the power at the low multipoles of the CMB angular power spectrum. In this paper we carry out an analytic study to show that there are some expansion histories in which the ISW effect, instead of adding power, provides negative contribution to the power at low multipoles. Guided by the analytic study, we present examples of the features required in the late time expansion history of the universe that could explain the power deficiency through the ISW effect. We also show that an ISW origin of power deficiency is consistent, at present, with other cosmological observations that probe the expansion history such as distance modulus, matter power spectrum and the evolution of cluster number count. We also show that the ISW effect may be distinguished from power deficit originating from features in the PPS using the measurements of the CMB polarization spectrum at low multipoles expected from Planck. We conclude that the power at low multipoles of the CMB anisotropy could well be closely linked to Dark Energy puzzle in cosmology and this observation could be actually pointing to richer phenomenology of DE beyond the cosmological constant Λ.

  8. Morbidity suppressive effect of lithium carbonate in cycloid psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perris, C

    1978-03-01

    The possible morbidity suppressive effect of lithium carbonate on cycloid psychosis has been investigated in 30 patients who had suffered from recurrent episodes. The patients were followed up from 1 to 8.5 years after starting lithium treatment. In the analysis, patients were divided into those who took lithium regularly and those who took it irregularly, the division being based on the lithium plasma levels at the periodic control examinations. The study, which is of the so-called mirror tye, supports the hypothesis that well-conducted lithium maintenance treatment has a favorable morbidity suppressive effect in patients suffering from cycloid psychosis.

  9. Cholesterol suppresses antimicrobial effect of statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Haeri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Isoprenoid biosynthesis is a key metabolic pathway to produce a wide variety of biomolecules such as cholesterol and carotenoids, which target cell membranes. On the other hand, it has been reported that statins known as inhibitors of isoprenoid biosynthesis and cholesterol lowering agents, may have a direct antimicrobial effect on the some bacteria. The exact action of statins in microbial metabolism is not clearly understood. It is possible that statins inhibit synthesis or utilization of some sterol precursor necessary for bacterial membrane integrity. Accordingly, this study was designed in order to examine if statins inhibit the production of a compound, which can be used in the membrane, and whether cholesterol would replace it and rescue bacteria from toxic effects of statins. Materials and Methods: To examine the possibility we assessed antibacterial effect of statins with different classes; lovastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin, alone and in combination with cholesterol on two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis and two Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli bacteria using gel diffusion assay. Results: Our results showed that all of the statins except for lovastatin had significant antibacterial property in S. aureus, E. coli, and Enter. faecalis. Surprisingly, cholesterol nullified the antimicrobial action of effective statins in statin-sensitive bacteria. Conclusion: It is concluded that statins may deprive bacteria from a metabolite responsible for membrane stability, which is effectively substituted by cholesterol.

  10. Enhancement and suppression effects resulting from information structuring in sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Alison J S; Price, Jessica; Sanford, Anthony J

    2009-09-01

    Information structuring through the use of cleft sentences increases the processing efficiency of references to elements within the scope of focus. Furthermore, there is evidence that putting certain types of emphasis on individual words not only enhances their subsequent processing, but also protects these words from becoming suppressed in the wake of subsequent information, suggesting mechanisms of enhancement and suppression. In Experiment 1, we showed that clefted constructions facilitate the integration of subsequent sentences that make reference to elements within the scope of focus, and that they decrease the efficiency with reference to elements outside of the scope of focus. In Experiment 2, using an auditory text-change-detection paradigm, we showed that focus has similar effects on the strength of memory representations. These results add to the evidence for enhancement and suppression as mechanisms of sentence processing and clarify that the effects occur within sentences having a marked focus structure.

  11. A new solvent suppression method via radiation damping effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao-Hong; Peng, Ling; Zhang, Zhen-Min; Cai, Shu-Hui; Chen, Zhong

    2011-11-01

    Radiation damping effects induced by the dominated solvent in a solution sample can be applied to suppress the solvent signal. The precession pathway and rate back to equilibrium state between solute and solvent spins are different under radiation damping. In this paper, a series of pulse sequences using radiation damping were designed for the solvent suppression in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Compared to the WATERGATE method, the solute signals adjacent to the solvent would not be influenced by using the radiation damping method. The one-dimensional (1D) 1H NMR, two-dimensional (2D) gCOSY, and J-resolved experimental results show the practicability of solvent suppression via radiation damping effects in 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy.

  12. Attenuating social affective learning effects with Memory Suppression manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molet, Mikael; Kosinski, Thierry; Craddock, Paul; Miguez, Gonzalo; Mash, Lisa E; Miller, Ralph R

    2016-02-01

    People can form opinions of other individuals based on information about their good or bad behavior. The present study investigated whether this affective learning might depend on memory links formed between initially neutral people and valenced information. First, participants viewed neutral faces paired with sentences describing prosocial or antisocial behaviors. Second, memory suppression manipulations with the potential to aid in the forgetting of valenced information were administered. Using the Think/No think paradigm, the effectiveness of four different suppression instructions was compared: Unguided Suppression, Guided Suppression, Distraction, and Thought Substitution. Overall, all the tasks appreciably reduced affective learning based on prosocial information, but only the Guided Suppression and Thought Substitution tasks reduced affective learning based on antisocial information. These results suggest that weakening the putative memory link between initially neutral people and valenced information can decrease the effect of learned associations on the evaluation of other people. We interpreted this as indicative that social affective learning may rely on declarative memories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of curd suppression in a milk replacer on physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... four days of age, were randomly divided into two groups to determine the effect of abomasal curd suppression on selected blood profiles. Calves received a milk replacer in which casein coagulation either was normal (CM), or was prevented by the precipitation of Ca++ with an oxalic acid - sodium hydroxide buffer (NCM).

  14. The calpain-suppressing effects of olesoxime in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jonasz J; Ortiz Rios, Midea M; Riess, Olaf; Clemens, Laura E; Nguyen, Huu P

    2016-01-01

    Olesoxime, a small molecule drug candidate, has recently attracted attention due to its significant beneficial effects in models of several neurodegenerative disorders including Huntington's disease. Olesoxime's neuroprotective effects have been assumed to be conveyed through a direct, positive influence on mitochondrial function. In a long-term treatment study in BACHD rats, the latest rat model of Huntington's disease, olesoxime revealed a positive influence on mitochondrial function and improved specific behavioral and neuropathological phenotypes. Moreover, a novel target of the compound was discovered, as olesoxime was found to suppress the activation of the calpain proteolytic system, a major contributor to the cleavage of the disease-causing mutant huntingtin protein into toxic fragments, and key player in degenerative processes in general. Results from a second model of Huntington's disease, the Hdh (Q111) knock-in mouse, confirm olesoxime's calpain-suppressing effects and support the therapeutic value of olesoxime for Huntington's disease and other disorders involving calpain overactivation.

  15. Osteoporosis and thyrotropin-suppressive therapy: reduced effectiveness of alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Annalisa; Lupoli, Gelsy Arianna; Fonderico, Francesco; Marciello, Francesca; Martinelli, Addolorata; Assante, Roberta; Lupoli, Giovanni

    2009-05-01

    Many reports of the effect of exogenous thyroxine therapy on bone mineral density (BMD) show a relationship between excess thyroid hormone administration and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibone resorptive agents, in particular alendronate (ALN) on BMD in postmenopausal osteoporotic women with thyroid carcinoma who were receiving long-term thyrotropin (TSH)-suppressive therapy with thyroxine. Seventy-four postmenopausal women with low BMD (T-score or =0.05 and < or =0.1 microU/mL) for about 3-9 years were selected for the study. The patients were divided into three groups according to the length of levothyroxine (LT(4)) treatment prior to the beginning of the study: group A (TSH-suppressive therapy for about 3 years), group B (for about 6 years), and group C (for about 9 years). These patients were compared with 74 matched women not taking LT(4). All patients and controls were treated with bisphosphonates, calcium, and vitamin D for 2 years and evaluated. After 24 months of treatment group A showed a 7.8% increase in lumbar BMD; group B, a 4.6% increase; and group C, a 0.86% increase. In the control group BMD increased 8.2%. A significant difference was found in both lumbar and femoral BMD increase among the three groups: group C had a lower BMD increase than group A (p < 0.001) and B (p < 0.001). In postmenopausal women who were receiving adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D in their diet ALN was less effective for those who were also receiving TSH-suppressive doses of LT(4) for either 6 or 9 years. The positive effect of ALN on BMD was less for longer periods of LT(4) treatment. It seems likely that other bisphosphonates would also be less effective in increasing BMD in postmenopausal women receiving TSH-suppressing doses of LT(4).

  16. Suppression of the Leidenfrost effect via low frequency vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Boon T; Hung, Yew M; Tan, Ming K

    2015-01-28

    The ability to suppress the Leidenfrost effect is of significant importance in applications that require rapid and efficient cooling of surfaces with temperature higher than the Leidenfrost point TSL. The Leidenfrost effect will result in substantial reduction in cooling efficiency and hence there have been a few different approaches to suppress the Leidenfrost effect. The majority of these approaches relies on fabricating micro/nano-structures on heated surfaces, others rely on inducing an electric field between the droplets and the heated surfaces. In this paper, we present an approach that induces low frequency vibrations (f∼10(2) Hz) on a heated surface to suppress the effect. By mapping the different magnitudes of surface acceleration [greek xi with two dots above]sversus different initial surface temperatures Ts of the substrate, three regimes that represent three distinct impact dynamics are analyzed. Regime-I represents gentle film boiling ([greek xi with two dots above]s∼10(2) m s(-2) and Ts∼TSL), which is associated with the formation of thin spreading lamella around the periphery of the impinged droplet; Regime-II ([greek xi with two dots above]s∼10(2) m s(-2) and Ts>TSL) represents film boiling, which is associated with the rebound of the impinged droplet due to the presence of a thick vapor layer; Regime-III ([greek xi with two dots above]s∼10(3) m s(-2) and Ts∼TSL) represents contact boiling, which is associated with the ejection of tiny droplets due to the direct contact between the droplet and the heated surface. The estimated cooling enhancement for Regime-I is between 10% and 95%, Regime-II is between 5% and 15%, and Regime-III is between 95% and 105%. The improvement in cooling enhancement between Regime-I (strong Leidenfrost effect) and Regime-III (suppressed Leidenfrost effect) is more than 80%, demonstrating the effectiveness of using low frequency vibrations to suppress the Leidenfrost effect.

  17. Molecular mechanisms for sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanematsu, Keisuke; Kusakabe, Yuko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Nakamura, Seiji; Imoto, Toshiaki; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2014-09-12

    Gymnemic acids are triterpene glycosides that selectively suppress taste responses to various sweet substances in humans but not in mice. This sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids is diminished by rinsing the tongue with γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids and the interaction between gymnemic acids versus sweet taste receptor and/or γ-CD. To investigate whether gymnemic acids directly interact with human (h) sweet receptor hT1R2 + hT1R3, we used the sweet receptor T1R2 + T1R3 assay in transiently transfected HEK293 cells. Similar to previous studies in humans and mice, gymnemic acids (100 μg/ml) inhibited the [Ca(2+)]i responses to sweet compounds in HEK293 cells heterologously expressing hT1R2 + hT1R3 but not in those expressing the mouse (m) sweet receptor mT1R2 + mT1R3. The effect of gymnemic acids rapidly disappeared after rinsing the HEK293 cells with γ-CD. Using mixed species pairings of human and mouse sweet receptor subunits and chimeras, we determined that the transmembrane domain of hT1R3 was mainly required for the sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids. Directed mutagenesis in the transmembrane domain of hT1R3 revealed that the interaction site for gymnemic acids shared the amino acid residues that determined the sensitivity to another sweet antagonist, lactisole. Glucuronic acid, which is the common structure of gymnemic acids, also reduced sensitivity to sweet compounds. In our models, gymnemic acids were predicted to dock to a binding pocket within the transmembrane domain of hT1R3. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Effect of curd suppression in a milk replacer on physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of curd suppression in a milk replacer on physiological parameters in calves. I. Digestibility of ... Body mass-gain (kg) and efficiency of feed conversion (kg dry matter intake/kg gain) over the 28-day experimental period were respectively 7,3 and 1,8 (WM); 7,3 and 1,8 (NWM); 4,3 and 3,9 (CM) and 4,9 and 2,9 (NCM).

  19. Genuine and effective actions, the Master Equation and Suppressed SUSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Dixon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Genuine theories are defined to be those governed by a Master Equation. All other theories are defined to be Effective Theories. It is straightforward to integrate heavy particles out of a Genuine Theory to get an Effective Theory, but putting together a Genuine Theory takes years. The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model is an Effective Theory, which arises because of the hypothesis of an invisible sector where spontaneous breaking of Supersymmetry (SUSY occurs. Suppressed SUSY allows us to construct a Genuine Theory for SUSY, without the need for spontaneous breaking of SUSY.

  20. Sequential analysis of the numerical Stroop effect reveals response suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Gevers, Wim; Notebaert, Wim

    2011-09-01

    Automatic processing of irrelevant stimulus dimensions has been demonstrated in a variety of tasks. Previous studies have shown that conflict between relevant and irrelevant dimensions can be reduced when a feature of the irrelevant dimension is repeated. The specific level at which the automatic process is suppressed (e.g., perceptual repetition, response repetition), however, is less understood. In the current experiment we used the numerical Stroop paradigm, in which the processing of irrelevant numerical values of 2 digits interferes with the processing of their physical size, to pinpoint the precise level of the suppression. Using a sequential analysis, we dissociated perceptual repetition from response repetition of the relevant and irrelevant dimension. Our analyses of reaction times, error rates, and diffusion modeling revealed that the congruity effect is significantly reduced or even absent when the response sequence of the irrelevant dimension, rather than the numerical value or the physical size, is repeated. These results suggest that automatic activation of the irrelevant dimension is suppressed at the response level. The current results shed light on the level of interaction between numerical magnitude and physical size as well as the effect of variability of responses and stimuli on automatic processing. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Compressibility and rotation effects on transport suppression in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, A.

    1996-01-01

    Compressibility and rotation effects on turbulent transports in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows under arbitrary mean field are investigated using a Markovianized two-scale statistical approach. Some new aspects of MHD turbulence are pointed out in close relation to plasma compressibility. Special attention is paid to the turbulent electromotive force, which plays a central role in the generation of magnetic and velocity fluctuations. In addition to plasma rotation, the interaction between compressibility and magnetic fields is shown to bring a few factors suppressing MHD fluctuations and, eventually, density and temperature transports, even in the presence of steep mean density and temperature gradients. This finding is discussed in the context of the turbulence-suppression mechanism in the tokamak close-quote s high-confinement modes. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  2. Various background pattern-effect on saccadic suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrani, L; Radil-Weiss, T; Yakimoff, N; Mateeff, S; Bozkov, V

    1975-09-01

    It has been proved that the saccadic suppression is a phenomenon closely related to the presence of contours and structures in the visual field. Experiments were performed to clarify whether the structured background influences the pattern of attention distribution (making the stimulus detection more difficult) or whether the elevation of visual threshold is due to the "masking' effect of the moving background image over the retina. Two types of backgrounds were used therefore: those with symbolic meaning in the processing of which "psychological' mechanisms are presumably involved like picture reproductions of famous painters and photographs of nudes, and those lacking semantic significance like computer figures composed of randomly distributed black and white squares with different grain expressed as the entropy of the pattern. The results show that saccadic suppression is primarily a consequence of peripheral mechanisms, probably of lateral inhibition in the visual field occurring in the presence of moving edges over the retina. Psychological factors have to be excluded as being fundamental for saccadic suppression.

  3. Suppressive effects of coffee on the SOS responses induced by UV and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obana, Hirotaka; Nakamura, Sei-ichi; Tanaka, Ryou-ichi

    1986-01-01

    SOS-inducing activity of UV or chemical mutagens was strongly suppressed by instant coffee in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. As decaffeinated instant coffee showed a similarly strong suppressive effect, it would seem that caffeine, a known inhibitor of SOS responses, is not responsible for the effect observed. The suppression was also shown by freshly brewed coffee extracts. However, the suppression was absent in green coffee-bean extracts. These results suggest that coffee contains some substance(s) which, apart from caffeine, suppresses SOS-inducing activity of UV or chemical mutagens and that the suppressive substance(s) are produced by roasting coffee beans. (Auth.)

  4. Suppression of irradiation effects in gold-doped silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, M.; Sloan, T.; Jones, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Two sets of silicon detectors were irradiated with 1 MeV neutrons to different fluences and then characterized. The first batch were ordinary p-i-n photodiodes fabricated from high-resistivity (400 Ω cm) silicon, while the second batch were gold-doped powder diodes fabricated from silicon material initially of low resistivity (20 Ω cm). The increase in reverse leakage current after irradiation was found to be more in the former case than in the latter. The fluence dependence of the capacitance was much more pronounced in the p-i-n diodes than in the gold-doped diodes. Furthermore, photo current generation by optical means was less in the gold doped devices. All these results suggest that gold doping in silicon somewhat suppresses the effects of neutron irradiation. (author)

  5. Paradoxical and less paradoxical effects of thought suppression: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E; Merckelbach, H; Muris, P

    2000-11-01

    The process of consciously trying to avoid certain thoughts is referred to as thought suppression. Experimental research has documented that thought suppression may have paradoxical effects in that it leads to an increased frequency of the to-be-suppressed thought intruding consciousness. It has also been claimed that suppression has disruptive effects on episodic memory (i.e., a less paradoxical effect). The present article critically evaluates studies on the paradoxical and less paradoxical effects of thought suppression. More specifically, the issue of whether thought suppression plays a causative role in the development of various psychopathological symptoms is addressed. While laboratory studies have come up with highly consistent findings about the paradoxical effects of thought suppression, there is, as yet, little reason to believe that such effects are implicated in the etiology of obsessions, phobias, or other psychopathological conditions. Relatively little work has been done on the alleged memory effects of thought suppression. The studies that have examined this issue have found mixed results. Accordingly, the case for the amnestic power of thought suppression is weak. Alternative explanations and competing theories are discussed, and it is concluded that research concerned with the psychopathological consequences of thought suppression would benefit from development of better taxonomies of intrusive thinking and cognitive avoidance strategies.

  6. Nitrooxyethylation Reverses the Healing-Suppressant Effect of Ibuprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Kaushal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs like ibuprofen impede tissue repair by virtue of retarding inflammation. The present study was undertaken to explore if linking of nitrooxyethyl ester to ibuprofen reverses its healing-depressant propensity. Nitrooxyethyl ester of ibuprofen (NOE-Ibu was synthesized in our laboratory through a well-established synthetic pathway. NOE-Ibu was screened for its influence on collagenation, wound contraction and epithelialization phases of healing, and scar size of healed wound in three wound models, namely, incision, dead space, and excision wounds. Besides, its influence on the oxidative stress (levels of GSH and TBARS was also determined in 10-day-old granulation tissue. NOE-Ibu was further screened for its antiinflammatory activity in rat paw edema model. NOE-Ibu promoted collagenation (increase in breaking strength, granulation weight, and collagen content, wound contraction and epithelialization phases of healing. NOE-Ibu also showed a significant antioxidant effect in 10-day-old granulation tissue as compared to ibuprofen. Results vindicate that the esterification of ibuprofen with nitrooxyethyl group reverses the healing-suppressant effect of ibuprofen. The compound also showed equipotent antiinflammatory activity as ibuprofen.

  7. Effects of Subvocal Suppression of Learning Disabled Readers' Sentence Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee

    1983-01-01

    The role of subvocalization in 12 learning disabled (LD) adolescent readers' comprehension difficulties was studied. Nondisabled and LD readers were compared on silent reading and listening comprehension of noun lexical, verb lexical, semantic, and inferential sentences under conditions of suppressed and nonsuppressed subvocalization. (Author/SW)

  8. Sequential Analysis of the Numerical Stroop Effect Reveals Response Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadosh, Roi Cohen; Gevers, Wim; Notebaert, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Automatic processing of irrelevant stimulus dimensions has been demonstrated in a variety of tasks. Previous studies have shown that conflict between relevant and irrelevant dimensions can be reduced when a feature of the irrelevant dimension is repeated. The specific level at which the automatic process is suppressed (e.g., perceptual repetition,…

  9. Suppressive and Facilitative Effects of Shock Intensity and Interresponse Times Followed by Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, Jessica B.; Perone, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Although response-dependent shock often suppresses responding, response facilitation can occur. In two experiments, we examined the suppressive and facilitative effects of shock by manipulating shock intensity and the interresponse times that produced shock. Rats' lever presses were reinforced on a variable-interval 40-s schedule of food…

  10. Effect of mixed and single crops on disease suppressiveness of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddink, G.A.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of mixed cropping on disease suppressiveness of soils was tested for two cropping systems, Brussels sprouts¿barley and triticale¿white clover. Disease suppressiveness of field soils was evaluated in bioassays for the soilborne pathogens Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini,

  11. Organization and effectivity of works on dust suppressing in the special zone of the Chernobyl' NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimin, S.A.; Krapchatov, V.P.; Nad''yarnykh, G.V.; Komarov, V.I.; Andreev, Yu.B.; Samojlenko, Yu.N.

    1989-01-01

    In 1988 three methods of dust suppressing were used: regular watering of roads, chemical treatment of roadsides and dusting sections of area, long-time biologochemical fixation of open sections of area, including sowing with grass and simultaneous treatment by dust-suppressing compositions. Preliminary treatment of objects by polymeric compositions was an effective action to reduce dust-raising. 3 refs.; 3 figs

  12. Self-initiated coping with Tourette's syndrome: Effect of tic suppression on QOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Natsumi; Kono, Toshiaki; Nonaka, Maiko; Fujio, Miyuki; Kano, Yukiko

    2016-02-01

    Because of the semi-voluntary nature of tics, patients with Tourette' syndrome (TS) often report self-initiated coping with tics. Our goals were to understand the experiences of self-initiated coping with tics by individuals with TS (e.g., suppression frequency, suppression ability, and side effects of tic suppression), and investigate the effects of tic control on quality of life (QOL). One hundred participants with TS (38 children and 62 adults) answered a questionnaire concerning tic control, QOL, and other clinical characteristics. Fifty-eight percent of the participants always or frequently tried to suppress tics daily. In contrast, over 90% felt uncomfortable or incomplete when they suppressed tics and needed concentration or extra effort to suppress them. Thirty-four percent could suppress tics for less than one minute and 65% could suppress tics for less than 10min. Higher subjective satisfaction with tic control was positively correlated with life satisfaction and QOL. Individuals with TS often attempt self-initiated coping in their daily lives, especially through tic suppression, despite experiencing subjective discomfort and being aware that the duration of tic suppression is often limited. Moreover, it was found that their subjective satisfaction with tic control and effective tic suppression might have a positive influence on their life satisfaction and QOL. Thus, self-initiated coping with tics is vital for improving the QOL of individuals with TS and intervention aimed at enhancing subjective satisfaction with tic control could help manage TS. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. How to Handle Anxiety: The Effects of Reappraisal, Acceptance, and Suppression Strategies on Anxious Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Heering, Sanna; Sawyer, Alice T.; Asnaani, Anu

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that reappraisal strategies are more effective than suppression strategies for regulating emotions. Recently, proponents of the acceptance-based behavior therapy movement have further emphasized the importance of acceptance-based emotion regulation techniques. In order to directly compare these different emotion regulation strategies, 202 volunteers were asked to give an impromptu speech in front of a video camera. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups. The Reappraisal group was instructed to regulate their anxious arousal by reappraising the situation; the Suppression group was asked to suppress their anxious behaviors; and the Acceptance group was instructed to accept their anxiety. As expected, the Suppression group showed a greater increase in heart rate from baseline than the Reappraisal and Acceptance groups. Moreover, the Suppression group reported more anxiety than the Reappraisal group. However, the Acceptance and Suppression groups did not differ in their subjective anxiety response. These results suggest that both reappraising and accepting anxiety is more effective for moderating the physiological arousal than suppressing anxiety. However, reappraising is more effective for moderating the subjective feeling of anxiety than attempts to suppress or accept it. PMID:19281966

  14. The effect of chronic low back pain on tactile suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Stefaan; Van Hulle, Lore; Danneels, Lieven; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether tactile suppression, the phenomenon whereby tactile perception is suppressed during movement, would occur in the context of back movements. Of particular interest, it was investigated if tactile suppression in the back would be attenuated in those suffering from chronic low back pain. Individuals with chronic low back pain (N = 30) and a matched control group (N = 24) detected tactile stimuli on three possible locations (back, arm, chest) while performing a back or arm movement, or no movement. We hypothesized that the movements would induce tactile suppression, and that this effect would be largest for low-intense stimuli on the moving body part. We further hypothesized that, during back movements, tactile suppression on the back would be less pronounced in the chronic low back pain group than in the control group. The results showed the expected general tactile suppression effects. The hypothesis of back-specific attenuation of tactile suppression in the chronic low back pain group was not supported. However, back-specific tactile suppression in the chronic low back pain group was less pronounced in those who performed the back movements more slowly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of suppressing intrusive thoughts on dream content, dream distress and psychological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner-Borowik, Tana; Gosch, Stefanie; Hansen, Kathrin; Borowik, Benjamin; Schredl, Michael; Steil, Regina

    2013-10-01

    Suppressing unwanted thoughts can lead to an increased occurrence of the suppressed thought in dreams. This is explainable by the ironic control theory, which theorizes why the suppression of thoughts might make them more persistent. The present study examined the influence of thought suppression on dream rebound, dream distress, general psychiatric symptomatology, depression, sleep quality and perceived stress. Thirty healthy participants (good sleepers) were investigated over a period of 1 week. Half were instructed to suppress an unwanted thought 5 min prior to sleep, whereas the other half were allowed to think of anything at all. Dream content was assessed through a dream diary. Independent raters assessed whether or not the dreams were related to the suppressed target thought. The results demonstrated increased target-related dreams and a tendency to have more distressing dreams in the suppression condition. Moreover, the data imply that thought suppression may lead to significantly increased general psychiatric symptomatology. No significant effects were found for the other secondary outcomes. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  16. The N1-suppression effect for self-initiated sounds is independent of attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timm Jana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If we initiate a sound by our own motor behavior, the N1 component of the auditory event-related brain potential (ERP that the sound elicits is attenuated compared to the N1 elicited by the same sound when it is initiated externally. It has been suggested that this N1 suppression results from an internal predictive mechanism that is in the service of discriminating the sensory consequences of one’s own actions from other sensory input. As the N1-suppression effect is becoming a popular approach to investigate predictive processing in cognitive and social neuroscience, it is important to exclude an alternative interpretation not related to prediction. According to the attentional account, the N1 suppression is due to a difference in the allocation of attention between self- and externally-initiated sounds. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the allocation of attention to the sounds in different blocks: Attention was directed either to the sounds, to the own motor acts or to visual stimuli. If attention causes the N1-suppression effect, then manipulating attention should affect the effect for self-initiated sounds. Results We found N1 suppression in all conditions. The N1 per se was affected by attention, but there was no interaction between attention and self-initiation effects. This implies that self-initiation N1 effects are not caused by attention. Conclusions The present results support the assumption that the N1-suppression effect for self-initiated sounds indicates the operation of an internal predictive mechanism. Furthermore, while attention had an influence on the N1a, N1b, and N1c components, the N1-suppression effect was confined to the N1b and N1c subcomponents suggesting that the major contribution to the auditory N1-suppression effect is circumscribed to late N1 components.

  17. Suppression Pools: paradigm of the thermalhydraulic effect on severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L. E.; Lopez del Pra, C.

    2016-01-01

    Influence of thermal-hydrualic phenomena on severe accident unforlding is beyond question. The present paper supports this statement on two key aspects of a severe accident: preservation of containment integrity and transport of fission products once released from fuel. To illustrate them, the attention is focused on suppression pools performance and, particularly, on some recent findings stemming from authors research of Fukushima scenarios. Gas behvaior at the injection point and its later evolution, potential axial and/or azimuthal stratification of the aqueous body or water saturation state, are some of the processes tha more strongly affect the role of pools as a mass and energy sink. They are described and discussed in detail. (Author)

  18. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists suppress water intake independent of effects on food intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Naomi J.; Kanoski, Scott E.; Hayes, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced by and released from the small intestine following ingestion of nutrients. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists applied peripherally or centrally decrease food intake and increase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These effects make the GLP-1 system an attractive target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. In addition to these more frequently studied effects of GLP-1R stimulation, previous reports indicate that GLP-1R agonists suppress water intake. The present experiments were designed to provide greater temporal resolution and site specificity for the effect of GLP-1 and the long-acting GLP-1R agonists, exendin-4 and liraglutide, on unstimulated water intake when food was and was not available. All three GLP-1R ligands suppressed water intake after peripheral intraperitoneal administration, both in the presence of and the absence of food; however, the magnitude and time frame of water intake suppression varied by drug. GLP-1 had an immediate, but transient, hypodipsic effect when administered peripherally, whereas the water intake suppression by IP exendin-4 and liraglutide was much more persistent. Additionally, intracerebroventricular administration of GLP-1R agonists suppressed water intake when food was absent, but the suppression of intake showed modest differences depending on whether the drug was administered to the lateral or fourth ventricle. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of GLP-1 receptor agonists affecting unstimulated, overnight intake in the absence of food, the first test for antidipsogenic effects of hindbrain application of GLP-1 receptor agonists, and the first test of a central effect (forebrain or hindbrain) of liraglutide on water intake. Overall, these results show that GLP-1R agonists have a hypodipsic effect that is independent of GLP-1R-mediated effects on food intake, and this occurs, in part, through central nervous system GLP-1R activation

  19. Effect of curd suppression in a milk replacer on physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    milk powder, whey, fish protein and tallow, clot prevention had no effect on the digestibility of DM, nitrogen and lipids. Age of the calf has a marked effect on the digestibilityof nutrients. Lister & Emmons (l~76) reported that calves under the age of three weeks require a diet based on skimmed milk that has not been severely ...

  20. Effects of mindfulness, reappraisal, and suppression on sad mood and cognitive resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Shian-Ling; Tan, Elysia Li Yan; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Smoski, Moria J

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the relative effects of mindfulness, reappraisal and suppression in reducing sadness, and the extent to which implementation of these strategies affects cognitive resources in a laboratory context. A total of 171 Singaporean undergraduate participants were randomly assigned to receive brief training in mindfulness, reappraisal, or suppression prior to undergoing a sad mood induction. Individual adherence to Asian cultural values was assessed as a potential moderator of strategy effectiveness. Participants rated their mood and completed a Color-Word Stroop task before and after mood regulation instructions. Analyses using multi-level modelling showed that the suppression condition caused less robust declines in sadness over time compared to mindfulness. There was also a nonsignificant trend in which mindfulness was associated with greater sadness recovery compared to reappraisal. Suppression resulted in lower average sadness compared to mindfulness among those high on Asian cultural values, but not those low on Asian cultural values. Both mindfulness and reappraisal buffered against increases in Stroop interference from pre-to post-regulation compared to suppression. The findings highlight the advantage of mindfulness as a strategy effective not only in the regulation of sad mood, but also in the preservation of cognitive resources in the context of mood regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The flavonol epicatechin reverses the suppressive effects of a stressor on long-term memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Bogdan; Lukowiak, Ken

    2014-11-15

    Learning and subsequent memory formation are influenced by both environmental and lifestyle factors, such as stress and diet. Epicatechin, a plant flavonol found in cocoa, red wine and green tea enhances long-term memory (LTM) formation in Lymnaea. By contrast, an ecologically relevant stressor, low-calcium pond water, suppresses LTM formation. We tested the hypothesis that epicatechin overcomes the suppressive effects of the stressor on LTM formation in the continued presence of the stressor. Snails trained in low-calcium pond water exhibit learning but not LTM. Epicatechin (15 mg l(-1)) in control pond water enhances LTM formation. When epicatechin was added to the low-calcium pond water an enhanced LTM similar to that seen in control pond water was observed. Thus, a naturally occurring bioactive plant compound was able to overcome the suppressive effects of an ecologically relevant stressor on LTM formation. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Adaptive center determination for effective suppression of ring artifacts in tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, D., E-mail: diwaker.jha@nano.ku.dk; Sørensen, H. O., E-mail: osholm@nano.ku.dk; Dobberschütz, S.; Stipp, S. L. S. [Nano-Science Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Feidenhans' l, R. [Nano-Science Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-10-06

    Ring artifacts on tomogram slices hinder image interpretation. They are caused by minor variation in the response from individual elements in a two dimensional (2D) X-ray detector. Polar space decreases the suppression complexity by transforming the rings on the tomogram slice to linear stripes. However, it requires that the center of rings lie at the origin of polar transformation. If this is not the case, all methods employing polar space become ineffective. We developed a method based on Gaussian localization of the ring center in Hough parameter space to assign the origin for the polar transformation. Thus, obtained linear stripes can be effectively suppressed by already existing methods. This effectively suppresses ring artifacts in the data from a variety of experimental setups, sample types and also handles tomograms that are previously cropped. This approach functions automatically, avoids the need for assumptions and preserves fine details, all critical for synchrotron based nanometer resolution tomography.

  3. Suppressive effects of a polymer sodium silicate solution on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohsen

    2015-10-21

    Oct 21, 2015 ... content does not affect the incidence of powdery mildew. Root rot disease. Effect of each silicate solution on the root rot of miniature rose. The disease incidence of root rot on the aboveground parts and roots of miniature rose was examined. For the aboveground parts, the disease incidence of the pathogen ...

  4. Effect of curd suppression in a milk replacer on physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    may have a detrimental effect on amino acid and caloric homeostasis. Veertien Holsteinkalwers, tussen twee- en vier-dae-ouderdom, is ewekansig in twee groepe verdeel om die invloed van voorkoming van stolselvorming in die abomasum op geselekteerde bloedprofiele te bepaal. Een melksurrogaat is geformuleer en ...

  5. Suppressive effects of a polymer sodium silicate solution on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium silicate was dissolved in water in either a monomer form or polymer form; the effects of both forms of sodium silicate aqueous solution on rose powdery mildew and root rot diseases of miniature rose were examined. Both forms of sodium silicate aqueous solution were applied to the roots of the miniature rose.

  6. The effects of levothyroxine replacement or suppressive therapy on health status, mood, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Mary H; Kolobova, Irina; Smeraglio, Anne; Peters, Dawn; Janowsky, Jeri S; Schuff, Kathryn G

    2014-03-01

    TSH-suppressive doses of levothyroxine (L-T4) have adverse effects on bone and cardiac function, but it is unclear whether central nervous system function is also affected. The aim of the study was to determine whether women receiving TSH-suppressive L-T4 doses have decrements in health status, mood, or cognitive function. A cross-sectional comparison was made among three groups of women in an academic medical center research clinic. Twenty-four women receiving chronic TSH-suppressive L-T4 doses, 35 women receiving chronic replacement L-T4 doses, and 20 untreated control women participated in the study. Subjects underwent testing at a single outpatient visit. We measured health status (SF-36), mood (Profile of Mood States, Symptom Checklist 90-R, Affective Lability Scale), and cognitive function (declarative memory [Paragraph Recall], working memory [N-back, Subject Ordered Pointing], motor learning [Pursuit Rotor, Motor Sequence Learning Test], and executive function [Letter Cancellation Test, Trail Making Test, Iowa Gambling Test]). Women receiving TSH-suppressive or replacement L-T4 doses had decrements in health status and mood compared to healthy controls. These decrements were more pronounced in women receiving replacement, rather than suppressive, L-T4 doses. Memory and executive function were not affected in either treated group, compared to healthy controls. Women receiving TSH-suppressive doses of L-T4 do not have central nervous system dysfunction due to exogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis, but TSH-suppressed and L-T4-replaced women have slight decrements in health status and mood that may be related to self-knowledge of the presence of a thyroid condition or other uncharacterized factors. These mood alterations do not impair cognitive function.

  7. Suppressive Effects of Tea Catechins on Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li-Ping; Wang, Ao; Ye, Jian-Hui; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Polito, Curt Anthony; Lu, Jian-Liang; Li, Qing-Sheng; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Tea leaf (Camellia sinensis) is rich in catechins, which endow tea with various health benefits. There are more than ten catechin compounds in tea, among which epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) is the most abundant. Epidemiological studies on the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast cancer were summarized, and the inhibitory effects of tea catechins on breast cancer, with EGCG as a representative compound, were reviewed in the present paper. The controversial results regarding the role of tea in breast cancer and areas for further study were discussed. PMID:27483305

  8. Understanding noise suppression in heterojunction field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, F.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The enhanced transport properties displayed by quantum-well-confined, two-dimensional, electron systems underpin the success of heterojunction, field-effect transistors. At cryogenic temperatures, these devices exhibit impressive mobilities and, as a result, high signal gain and low noise. Conventional wisdom has it that the same favourable conditions also hold for normal room-temperature operation. In that case, however, high mobilities are precluded by abundant electron-phonon scattering. Our recent study of nonequilibrium current noise shows that quantum confinement, not high mobility, is the principal source of noise in these devices; this opens up new and exciting opportunities in low-noise transistor design. As trends in millimetre-wave technology push frequencies beyond 100 GHz, it is essential to develop a genuine understanding of noise processes in heterojunction devices

  9. Fanning old flames: emotional and cognitive effects of suppressing thoughts of a past relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, D M; Gold, D B

    1995-05-01

    Cognitive and electrodermal effects of suppressing thoughts of an old flame were examined in 2 experiments. Participants were asked to think aloud about an old flame--a past close relationship that either was or was not still desired--as their skin conductance level (SCL) was measured. Participants continued to think aloud as they were instructed either not to think about their old flame or to perform a comparison task. Participants were then asked to think about the old flame again. Participants who had suppressed thoughts of a no-longer-desired relationship were inclined to think aloud more about it afterward whereas those who suppressed thoughts of a still-desired relationship did not show such a rebound but evidenced increased SCL.

  10. An Investigation of Tic Suppression and the Rebound Effect in Tourette's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidinger, Amy L.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Himle, Michael; Omvig, Matthew; Trainor, Casey; Crosby, Ross

    2005-01-01

    Many patients, parents of children with Tourettes disorder, and professionals have suggested that following a period of suppression, tics will rebound to a rate that will exceed the average rate of occurrence. At present, there are no empirical data to support or refute such an effect. This experiment utilized an A-B-A design with replication to…

  11. Effective Suppression of Methane Emission by 2-Bromoethanesulfonate during Rice Cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waghmode, Tatoba R.; Haque, Md Mozammel; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2015-01-01

    2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) is a structural analogue of coenzyme M (Co-M) and potent inhibitor of methanogenesis. Several studies confirmed, BES can inhibit CH4 prodcution in rice soil, but the suppressing effectiveness of BES application on CH4 emission under rice cultivation has not been studied.

  12. Effect of plant spacing on weed suppression and yield of fluted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of plant spacing on weed suppression yield and economic benefit of fluted pumpkin (Telfeiria occidentalis Hook F). The experiment was carried out at the Department of Crop and Soil Science Demonstration Plot, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria ...

  13. The effect of articulatory suppression on implicit and explicit false memory in the DRM paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Ilse; Menten, Jan; d'Ydewalle, Gery

    2010-11-01

    Several studies have shown that reliable implicit false memory can be obtained in the DRM paradigm. There has been considerable debate, however, about whether or not conscious activation of critical lures during study is a necessary condition for this. Recent findings have revealed that articulatory suppression prevents subsequent false priming in an anagram task (Lovden & Johansson, 2003). The present experiment sought to replicate and extend these findings to an implicit word stem completion task, and to additionally investigate the effect of articulatory suppression on explicit false memory. Results showed an inhibitory effect of articulatory suppression on veridical memory, as well as on implicit false memory, whereas the level of explicit false memory was heightened. This suggests that articulatory suppression did not merely eliminate conscious lure activation, but had a more general capacity-delimiting effect. The drop in veridical memory can be attributed to diminished encoding of item-specific information. Superficial encoding also limited the spreading of semantic activation during study, which inhibited later false priming. In addition, the lack of item-specific and phenomenological details caused impaired source monitoring at test, resulting in heightened explicit false memory.

  14. Effects of carotenoids, immune activation and immune suppression on the intensity of chronic coccidiosis in greenfinches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, Tuul; Karu, Ulvi; Sild, Elin; Männiste, Marju; Hõrak, Peeter

    2011-03-01

    Allocation trade-offs of carotenoids between their use in the immune system and production of integumentary colouration have been suggested as a proximate mechanism maintaining honesty of signal traits. We tested how dietary carotenoid supplementation, immune activation and immune suppression affect intensity of coccidian infection in captive greenfinches Carduelis chloris, a passerine with carotenoid-based plumage. Immune activation with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) decreased body mass among birds not supplemented with lutein, while among the carotenoid-fed birds, PHA had no effect on mass dynamics. Immune suppression with dexamethasone (DEX) induced loss of body mass and reduced the swelling response to PHA. DEX and PHA increased the concentration of circulating heterophils. Lutein supplementation increased plasma carotenoid levels but had no effect on the swelling response induced by PHA. PHA and DEX treatments did not affect plasma carotenoids. Immune stimulation by PHA suppressed the infection, but only among carotenoid-supplemented birds. Priming of the immune system can thus aid in suppressing chronic infection but only when sufficient amount of carotenoids is available. Our experiment shows the importance of carotenoids in immune response, but also the complicated nature of this impact, which could be the reason for inconsistent results in studies investigating the immunomodulatory effects of carotenoids. The findings about involvement of carotenoids in modulation of an immune response against coccidiosis suggest that carotenoid-based ornaments may honestly signal individuals' ability to manage chronic infections. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Time for Awareness: The Influence of Temporal Properties of the Mask on Continuous Flash Suppression Effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Zhu

    Full Text Available Visual processing is not instantaneous, but instead our conscious perception depends on the integration of sensory input over time. In the case of Continuous Flash Suppression (CFS, masks are flashed to one eye, suppressing awareness of stimuli presented to the other eye. One potential explanation of CFS is that it depends, at least in part, on the flashing mask continually interrupting visual processing before the stimulus reaches awareness. We investigated the temporal features of masks in two ways. First, we measured the suppression effectiveness of a wide range of masking frequencies (0-32Hz, using both complex (faces/houses and simple (closed/open geometric shapes stimuli. Second, we varied whether the different frequencies were interleaved within blocks or separated in homogenous blocks, in order to see if suppression was stronger or weaker when the frequency remained constant across trials. We found that break-through contrast differed dramatically between masking frequencies, with mask effectiveness following a skewed-normal curve peaking around 6Hz and little or no masking for low and high temporal frequencies. Peak frequency was similar for trial-randomized and block randomized conditions. In terms of type of stimulus, we found no significant difference in peak frequency between the stimulus groups (complex/simple, face/house, closed/open. These findings suggest that temporal factors play a critical role in perceptual awareness, perhaps due to interactions between mask frequency and the time frame of visual processing.

  16. Effects of surround suppression on response adaptation of V1 neurons to visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Jin, Cai-Hong; Jiang, San; Li, Miao-Miao; Wang, Zi-Lu; Zhu, Hui; Chen, Cui-Yun; Hua, Tian-Miao

    2014-09-01

    The influence of intracortical inhibition on the response adaptation of visual cortical neurons remains in debate. To clarify this issue, in the present study the influence of surround suppression evoked through the local inhibitory interneurons on the adaptation effects of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) were observed. Moreover, the adaptations of V1 neurons to both the high-contrast visual stimuli presented in the classical receptive field (CRF) and to the costimulation presented in the CRF and the surrounding nonclassical receptive field (nCRF) were compared. The intensities of surround suppression were modulated with different sized grating stimuli. The results showed that the response adaptation of V1 neurons decreased significantly with the increase of surround suppression and this adaptation decrease was due to the reduction of the initial response of V1 neurons to visual stimuli. However, the plateau response during adaptation showed no significant changes. These findings indicate that the adaptation effects of V1 neurons may not be directly affected by surround suppression, but may be dynamically regulated by a negative feedback network and be finely adjusted by its initial spiking response to stimulus. This adaptive regulation is not only energy efficient for the central nervous system, but also beneficially acts to maintain the homeostasis of neuronal response to long-presenting visual signals.

  17. On the central noradrenergic mechanism underlying the social play-suppressant effect of methylphenidate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, E J Marijke; Damsteegt, Ruth; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2018-03-08

    Social play behaviour is a vigorous, highly rewarding social activity abundant in the young of most mammalian species, including humans. Social play is thought to be important for social, emotional and cognitive development, yet its neural underpinnings are incompletely understood. We have previously shown that low doses of methylphenidate suppress social play behaviour through a noradrenergic mechanism of action, and that methylphenidate exerts its effect within the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and habenula. In the present study, we sought to reveal whether these regions work in parallel or in series to mediate the play-suppressant effect of methylphenidate. To that aim, we tested whether infusion of the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist RX821002 into the anterior cingulate cortex, infralimbic cortex, basolateral amygdala or habenula prevents the effect of methylphenidate on social play behaviour, or the psychomotor stimulant effect of methylphenidate. We found that the social play-suppressant effect of methylphenidate was not prevented by infusion of the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist into either region, or by infusion of RX821002 into both the anterior cingulate and infralimbic cortex. By contrast, RX821002 infusion into the anterior cingulate modestly enhanced social play, and infusion of the antagonist into the infralimbic cortex attenuated the psychomotor stimulant effect of methylphenidate. We conclude that there is redundancy in the neural circuitry that mediates the play-suppressant effect of methylphenidate, whereby prefrontal cortical and subcortical limbic mechanisms act in parallel. Moreover, our data support the notion that prefrontal noradrenergic mechanisms contribute to the locomotor enhancing effect of psychostimulant drugs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effective combined water and sideband suppression for low-speed tissue and in vivo MAS NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarhan, Yalda Liaghati; Struppe, Jochem; Fortier-McGill, Blythe; Simpson, André J

    2017-08-01

    High-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR is a powerful technique that can provide metabolic profiles and structural constraints on intact biological and environmental samples such as cells, tissues and living organisms. However, centripetal force from fast spinning can lead to a loss of sample integrity. In analyses focusing on structural organization, metabolite compartmentalization or in vivo studies, it is critical to keep the sample intact. As such, there is growing interest in slow spinning studies that preserve sample longevity. In this study, for example, reducing the spinning rate from 2500 to 500 Hz during the analysis of a living freshwater shrimp increased the 100% survivability threshold from ~14 to 40 h. Unfortunately, reducing spinning rate decreases the intensity of the isotropic signals and increases both the intensity and number of spinning sidebands, which mask spectral information. Interestingly, water suppression approaches such as excitation sculpting and W5 WATERGATE, which are effective at higher spinning rates, fail at lower spinning rates (<2500 Hz) while simpler approaches such as presaturation are not able to effectively suppress water when the ratio of water to biomass is very high, as is the case in vivo. As such there is a considerable gap in NMR approaches which can be used to suppress water signals and sidebands in biological samples at lower spinning rates. This research presents simple but practically important sequences that combine PURGE water suppression with both phase-adjusted spinning sidebands and an analogue of TOSS termed TOSS.243. The result is simple and effective water and sideband suppression even in extremely dilute samples in pure water down to ~100 Hz spinning rate. The approach is introduced, described and applied to a range of samples including, ex vivo worm tissue, Daphnia magna (water fleas), and in vivo Hyalella azteca (shrimp).

  19. Onset and duration of ejaculatory suppression effect of tamsulosin in goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakdichod Kimsakulvech

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The duration of ejaculatory suppression of alpha adrenoceptor antagonist (tamsulosin, TAM was investigated in goats. Five males were injected intramuscularly with TAM 80 μg/kg (179.8 nmol/kg. Semen was collected using an artificial vagina with estrous female goats and the semen quality and libido score were evaluated at 1, 3, 6 and 9 h post TAM injection. Two replicates were carried out in the study. Heart rates were also measured before the injection and at 30 min before semen collection. The results showed that the libido score was not affected by TAM. At 1 h post injection, the highest percentage of suppressed ejaculation (80% was recorded and this effect was maintained for up to 3 h post injection (60%. Thereafter the percentage of suppressed ejaculation was significantly decreased (p < 0.05 at 6 h (20% and ejaculation was completely recovered at 9 h post injection. The semen characteristics of the collectable semen, semen volume and number of spermatozoa were lowest at 1 h and 3 h, thereafter they suddenly increased at 6 h and the significantly highest peak was noted at 9 h post injection. TAM injection suppressed goat ejaculation within 1 h and the duration was maintained up to 3 h post injection.

  20. Suppressing effect of low-dose gamma-ray irradiation on collagen-induced arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsukasa, Hiroko; Tsukimoto, Mitsutoshi; Ohshima, Yasuhiro; Tago, Fumitoshi; Masada, Ayako; Kojima, Shuji

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported attenuation of autoimmune disease by low-dose gamma-ray irradiation in MRL-lpr/lpr mice. Here, we studied the effect of low-dose gamma-ray irradiation on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1J mice. Mice were immunized with type II collagen, and exposed to low-dose gamma-rays (0.5 Gy per week for 5 weeks). Paw swelling, redness, and bone degradation were suppressed by irradiation, which also delayed the onset of pathological change and reduced the severity of the arthritis. Production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, and interleukin-6, which play important roles in the onset of CIA, was suppressed by the irradiation. The level of anti-type II collagen antibody, which is essential for the onset of CIA, was also lower in irradiated CIA mice. The population of plasma cells was increased in CIA mice, but irradiation blocked this increase. Since regulatory T cells are known to be involved in suppression of autoimmune disease, the population of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells was measured. Intriguingly, a significant increase of these regulatory T cells was found in irradiated CIA mice. Overall, our data suggest that low-dose gamma-ray irradiation could attenuate CIA through suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and autoantibody production, and induction of regulatory T cells. (author)

  1. Tumor suppressive effects of bromodomain-containing protein 7 (BRD7) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Ae; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Hye-Sun; Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Choi, Chel Hun; Choi, Jung-Joo; Jeon, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Young Jae; Ryu, Ji Yoon; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2014-02-01

    Bromodomain-containing protein 7 (BRD7), which is a subunit of SWI/SNF complex, has been recently suggested as a novel tumor suppressor in several cancers. In this study, we investigated the tumor suppressive effect of BRD7 in epithelial ovarian cancer. We analyzed the expression of BRD7 in human ovarian tissues with real-time PCR. To investigate the functional role of BRD7, we transfected ovarian cancer cells (A2780 and SKOV3) with BRD7 plasmid and checked the cell viability, apoptosis, and invasion. The activities of BRD7 in the signaling pathways associated with carcinogenesis were also tested. In addition, we used the orthotopic mouse model for ovarian cancer to evaluate tumor growth-inhibiting effect by administration of BRD7 plasmid. The BRD7 expression was downregulated in the ovarian cancer tissues compared with normal (P p53-wild) or SKOV3 (p53-null) ovarian cancer cells showed the tumor suppressive effects assessed by cell viability, apoptosis, and invasion assay and especially significantly decreased tumor weight in orthotopic mouse model (A2780). Moreover, we found that tumor suppressive effects of BRD7 are independent to the presence of p53 activity in ovarian cancer cells. BRD7 negatively regulated β-catenin pathway, resulting in decreased its accumulation in the nucleus. These results suggested that BRD7 acts as a tumor suppressor in epithelial ovarian cancers independently of p53 activity, via negative regulation of β-catenin pathway. ©2013 AACR.

  2. Consideration of Spillover Effect in Active Vibration Suppression of a Smart Composite Plate Using Piezoelectric Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Eshraqi

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the problem of vibration suppression of a smart composite plate with bonded piezoelectric patches is considered. A higher order plate model is used for finite element modeling of the plate and the PID controller is used to generate control voltage command to the piezo actuators from the piezo sensors data. Derived formulation and the control algorithm is implemented in a finite element (FE code and the FE modeling results are verified using available results of previous studies. The effect of control gain on the vibration suppression characteristics is studied. Furthermore, since FE modeling reduces the order of the real problem, the problem of un-modeled residual modes on the so-called spillover effect is investigated.

  3. Suppressive effect of norzoanthamine hydrochloride on experimental osteoporosis in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K; Yada, M; Tsuji, T; Kuramoto, M; Uemura, D

    1999-09-01

    Norzoanthamine is an alkaloid isolated from a colonial zoanthid. We examined the effects of norzoanthamine hydrochloride on bone weight, strength and morphology in ovariectomized mice, a postmenopausal osteoporosis model. Norzoanthamine hydrochloride significantly suppressed the decrease in femoral weight and bone biomechanical parameters caused by ovariectomy without an increase in uterine weight. This means that norzoanthamine hydrochloride does not have an estrogen-like effect on reproductive organs. Morphological observations of longitudinally ground sections of the humeri showed that norzoanthamine hydrochloride administration (2 mg/kg/d, p.o.) completely suppressed the loss of trabecular bone. Furthermore, norzoanthamine hydrochloride thickened the cortical bone. Based on these results, norzoanthamine hydrochloride may act as both a suppressor of bone resorption and an enhancer of bone formation in vivo.

  4. Suppressive effects of ethanolic extracts from propolis and its main botanical origin on dioxin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong K; Fukuda, Itsuko; Ashida, Hitoshi; Nishiumi, Shin; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi; Daugsch, Andreas; Sato, Helia H; Pastore, Glaucia M

    2005-12-28

    Suppressive effects of ethanolic extracts prepared from propolis group 12 and its main botanical origin (leaf bud of Baccharis dracunculifolia) on transformation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), the initial action of dioxin toxicity, were investigated. It was found that suppressive effects of propolis on AhR transformation were relatively higher than those of resins of its botanical origin in cell-free system and in Hepa-1c1c7 cells. When the composition of chemical ingredients was measured, propolis contained slightly higher amounts of flavonoid aglycones as compared with its botanical origin with the same characteristics. Moreover, antiradical activity, one of the typical biological activities of flavonoids, in propolis was also slightly higher than that in its botanical origin. These results indicate that not only propolis but also its botanical origin contains high amounts of flavonoid aglycones and that both of them are useful dietary sources for flavonoids with a potency to prevent dioxin toxicity.

  5. Simulated effects of YY-male stocking and manual suppression for eradicating nonnative Brook Trout populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Daniel J.; Meyer, Kevin A.; Hansen, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Eradication of nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis populations is difficult to achieve with standard techniques, such as electrofishing removal or piscicides; new approaches are needed. A novel concept is to stock “supermale” hatchery fish with wild conspecifics. Supermales (MYY) have two Y-chromosomes, resulting in offspring that are all males; over time, successful supermale reproduction could eradicate the wild population. We constructed an age-structured stochastic model to investigate the effects of manually suppressing wild fish and stocking MYY fingerlings on the long-term viability of hypothetical nonnative Brook Trout populations. In streams, an annual stocking rate of supermales equivalent to 50% of wild age-0 Brook Trout density combined with an annual selective suppression rate equivalent to 50% of wild Brook Trout density resulted in a time to extirpation of only 2–4 years if supermale fitness was equivalent to wild male fitness. However, time to extirpation in streams was 5–15 years if supermale fitness was 80% lower than wild male fitness. In alpine lakes, higher supermale stocking rates and nonselective gillnetting were required to eradicate Brook Trout populations. If supermales were assumed to be as fit as wild males, however, any supermale stocking rate greater than 49% in alpine lakes or 60% in streams achieved eradication in 10 years or less, regardless of the suppression rate. Because manual suppression and the stocking of MYY fingerlings can readily be conducted at the levels assumed in our simulations, use of such an integrated pest management (IPM) approach could extirpate undesirable Brook Trout populations within reasonably short periods of time. Given the recent successful development of an MYY Brook Trout broodstock capable of producing large numbers of MYY fingerlings and given the positive results of the present simulations for both streams and alpine lakes, field testing of MYY stocking is warranted within an

  6. BWR Mark I pressure suppression study: effect of downcomer fill level on the vertical load function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1977-02-01

    The investigation reported forms a part of the BWR Mark I Pressure Suppression Experiment Program and is one of a series of small scale studies designed to evaluate limited aspects of the pool dynamics phenomena prior to conduct of the 1/5 scale air test series. Presented is an experimental study of the effect of downcomer fill level (DFL) on the vertical load function

  7. Effects of surround suppression on response adaptation of V1 neurons to visual stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    LI, Peng; JIN, Cai-Hong; JIANG, San; LI, Miao-Miao; WANG, Zi-Lu; ZHU, Hui; CHEN, Cui-Yun; HUA, Tian-Miao

    2014-01-01

    The influence of intracortical inhibition on the response adaptation of visual cortical neurons remains in debate. To clarify this issue, in the present study the influence of surround suppression evoked through the local inhibitory interneurons on the adaptation effects of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) were observed. Moreover, the adaptations of V1 neurons to both the high-contrast visual stimuli presented in the classical receptive field (CRF) and to the costimulation presented ...

  8. Polarity Specific Suppression Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Joos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of an external auditory stimulus and affects 10–15% of the Western population. Previous studies have demonstrated the therapeutic effect of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the left auditory cortex on tinnitus loudness, but the effect of this presumed excitatory stimulation contradicts with the underlying pathophysiological model of tinnitus. Therefore, we included 175 patients with chronic tinnitus to study polarity specific effects of a single tDCS session over the auditory cortex (39 anodal, 136 cathodal. To assess the effect of treatment, we used the numeric rating scale for tinnitus loudness and annoyance. Statistical analysis demonstrated a significant main effect for tinnitus loudness and annoyance, but for tinnitus annoyance anodal stimulation has a significantly more pronounced effect than cathodal stimulation. We hypothesize that the suppressive effect of tDCS on tinnitus loudness may be attributed to a disrupting effect of ongoing neural hyperactivity, independent of the inhibitory or excitatory effects and that the reduction of annoyance may be induced by influencing adjacent or functionally connected brain areas involved in the tinnitus related distress network. Further research is required to explain why only anodal stimulation has a suppressive effect on tinnitus annoyance.

  9. Singular and combined effects of thought suppression and anxiety induction on frequency of threatening thoughts: An experimental investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cougle, J.R.; Smits, J.A.J.; Lee, H.J.; Powers, M.B.; Telch, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The suppression of unwanted thoughts has been hypothesized to play an important role in the maintenance of clinical disorders such as OCD and PTSD. The present study sought to examine the singular and combined effects of thought suppression instructions and anxiety induction (as induced by an

  10. Molecular mechanism of intracellular lipid accumulation: Suppressive effect of PycnogenolR in liver cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichiro Ikuyama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCells are physiologically ready to accumulate lipids such as triacylglycerides in the cytoplasm.Five classes of perilipin (PLIN family proteins are known to be involved in the process of intracellular lipid accumulation. PLIN2 is expressed ubiquitously including adipocytes, hepatocytes and macrophages. Over-expression of PLIN2 is demonstrated in the lesions of fatty liver diseases and atherosclerosis. Suppression of PLIN2 expression prevents from developing these pathological conditions in animal models, suggesting that PLIN2 could be a therapeutic target molecule for excessive intracellular lipid accumulation which leads to various metabolic derangements. The PLIN2 gene promoter has two important cis-acting elements in close proximity:AP-1 element which mediates inflammatory signals and PPRE which mediates free fatty acid effect. In NMuLi mouse liver cells, FFA such as oleic acid requires both functional AP-1 and PPRE simultaneously to stimulate the promoter activity, indicating the presence of intimate interaction of inflammatory and metabolic signals on this gene. PycnogenolR, French maritime pine bark extracts, suppressed the oleic acid-induced PLIN2 expression and lipid accumulation in NMuLi cells. We found that PycnogenolR did not suppress the PLIN2 promoter activity or AP-1 binding to DNA. Instead, PycnogenolRfacilitates the PLIN2 mRNA degradation, leading to suppression of lipid accumulation. This effect seems to be independent of antioxidant effect of PycnogenolR.We raise the idea that PLIN2 is a putative target molecule for prevention of pathological condition induced by excessive lipid accumulation, and this class of natural compounds could be putative therapeutic modalities.Key words: PycnogenolR, lipid droplet, perilipin, fatty liver disease

  11. Effective suppression of thermoelectric voltage in nonlocal spin-valve measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariki, Taisei; Nomura, Tatsuya; Ohnishi, Kohei; Kimura, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate that the background signal in the nonlocal spin-valve measurement can be sufficiently suppressed by optimizing the electrode design of the lateral spin valve. A relatively long length scale of heat propagation produces spin-independent thermoelectric signals under the combination of the Peltier and Seebeck effects. These unfavorable signals can be reduced by mixing the Peltier effects in two transparent ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic junctions. Proper understanding of the contribution from the heat current in no spin-current area is a key for effective reduction of the spin-independent background signal.

  12. Coumestrol Counteracts Interleukin-1β-Induced Catabolic Effects by Suppressing Inflammation in Primary Rat Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jae-Seek; Cho, In-A; Kang, Kyeong-Rok; Oh, Ji-Su; Yu, Sang-Joun; Lee, Gyeong-Je; Seo, Yo-Seob; Kim, Su-Gwan; Kim, Chun Sung; Kim, Do Kyung; Im, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Sung

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated the anti-catabolic effects of coumestrol, a phytoestrogen derived from herbal plants, against interleukin-1β-induced cartilage degeneration in primary rat chondrocytes and articular cartilage. Coumestrol did not affect the viability of human normal oral keratinocytes and primary rat chondrocytes treated for 24 h and 21 days, respectively. Although coumestrol did not significantly increase the proteoglycan contents in long-term culture, it abolished the interleukin-1β-induced loss of proteoglycans in primary rat chondrocytes and knee articular cartilage. Furthermore, coumestrol suppressed the expression of matrix-degrading enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinase-13, -3, and -1 in primary rat chondrocytes stimulated with interleukin-1β. Moreover, the expression of catabolic factors such as nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E 2 , and inflammatory cytokines in interleukin-1β-stimulated primary rat chondrocytes was suppressed by coumestrol. In summary, these results indicate that coumestrol counteracts the catabolic effects induced by interleukin-1β through the suppression of inflammation. Therefore, based on its biological activity and safety profile, coumestrol could be used as a potential anti-catabolic biomaterial for osteoarthritis.

  13. Functional MRI, ERP, and psychophysical measures show that contextual effects are orientation tuned and suppressive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Sung Jun

    2017-12-01

    The response of V1 neurons to a stimulus placed inside the classical receptive field can be modulated by stimuli presented outside the classical receptive field. However, the specific nature of these contextual modulations is unknown. Both enhancement and suppression have been observed as well as variability across measurement methodologies. To assess whether the contextual effect is facilitative or suppressive, we measured neural responses to an oriented Gabor stimulus ("target") in three conditions: in isolation, with two Gabor flankers that were the same orientation as the target, and with two flankers that were orthogonal to the target orientation. We show that the target-related fMRI response, event-related potential amplitude, and the amount of contrast adaptation are all lower when the flankers were the same orientation compared to both the isolated and orthogonal conditions. There was no evidence of response enhancement. These results all point to an orientation-tuned suppressive effect of contextual stimuli measured in the periphery that is well explained by models incorporating divisive or subtractive inhibition.

  14. 1-Deoxy-glucosamine initiates, then effectively suppresses feeding in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, T; Fujimoto, K; Fukushima, M; Terada, K; Arase, K

    1985-06-01

    The deoxy analogues of D-glucose, 1-deoxy-D-glucosamine and D-glucosamine, are biochemically and structurally similar to 1-deoxy-D-glucose, so their direct effects on food intake were studied. Both 12 and 24 mumol 1-deoxy-glucosamine potently decreased feeding and body weight after an initial transient elicitation of food intake. The suppression included decreased meal size and prolonged postprandial intermeal interval which persisted for at least 3 days after injection. Ambulatory activity was unaffected. The initial elicitation of feeding was not accompanied by drinking episodes, and subsequent drinking suppression was persisted. These findings, plus other biochemical evidence, suggest that inversion with an amino group or removal of a hydroxyl group from C-2 and/or C-1 may affect feeding.

  15. Suppression of the coffee-ring effect by self-assembling graphene oxide and monolayer titania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Pengzhan; Wang Kunlin; Zhong Minlin; Wei Jinquan; Wu Dehai; Zhu Hongwei; Ma Renzhi; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2013-01-01

    The in situ self-assembly of two types of typical two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials (i.e., graphene oxide (GO) and monolayer titania (TO)) is realized using a simple drop-casting method. Within the as-prepared hybrid films, the GO and TO nanosheets arrange alternately into a lamellar structure. Notably, the hybridization of GO and TO suppresses the formation of coffee-rings when drop-cast, which is attributed to the strong interactions between the GO and TO nanosheets. Finally, the mechanism for the in situ hybridization of these two types of nanosheets into heterogeneous lamellar films and the suppression of the coffee-ring effect are discussed. These results demonstrate the potential applications of drop-cast hybrid films for high-quality membrane deposition from liquid phases. (paper)

  16. Quantifying the effect of crop spatial arrangement on weed suppression using functional-structural plant modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Jochem B; Bastiaans, Lammert

    2016-05-01

    Suppression of weed growth in a crop canopy can be enhanced by improving crop competitiveness. One way to achieve this is by modifying the crop planting pattern. In this study, we addressed the question to what extent a uniform planting pattern increases the ability of a crop to compete with weed plants for light compared to a random and a row planting pattern, and how this ability relates to crop and weed plant density as well as the relative time of emergence of the weed. To this end, we adopted the functional-structural plant modelling approach which allowed us to explicitly include the 3D spatial configuration of the crop-weed canopy and to simulate intra- and interspecific competition between individual plants for light. Based on results of simulated leaf area development, canopy photosynthesis and biomass growth of the crop, we conclude that differences between planting pattern were small, particularly if compared to the effects of relative time of emergence of the weed, weed density and crop density. Nevertheless, analysis of simulated weed biomass demonstrated that a uniform planting of the crop improved the weed-suppression ability of the crop canopy. Differences in weed suppressiveness between planting patterns were largest with weed emergence before crop emergence, when the suppressive effect of the crop was only marginal. With simultaneous emergence a uniform planting pattern was 8 and 15 % more competitive than a row and a random planting pattern, respectively. When weed emergence occurred after crop emergence, differences between crop planting patterns further decreased as crop canopy closure was reached early on regardless of planting pattern. We furthermore conclude that our modelling approach provides promising avenues to further explore crop-weed interactions and aid in the design of crop management strategies that aim at improving crop competitiveness with weeds.

  17. Suppressive effects of thermal-treated oyster shells on cadmium and copper translocation in maize plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunyan; Alidoust, Darioush; Isoda, Akihiro; Li, Maosong

    2017-08-01

    The effect of varied concentrations of thermal-treated oyster shells (TOS) on the suppression of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) uptake and translocation into the shoots of maize plants was examined. Maize plants were grown in Cd- and Cu-contaminated Andosol for 70 days. The concentration of mobile Cd (extracted with 1 M NH 4 NO 3 ) decreased with increasing TOS applications, whereas an increase in the concentration of mobile Cu in soil resulted from cumulative TOS additions. The addition of 2% TOS had no prohibitive effects on Cd uptake in maize shoots, but the 4 and 8% TOS treatments decreased Cd accumulation in shoots by 41 and 59%, respectively. The possible mechanisms underlying Cd suppression in maize shoots were the enhanced Cd adsorption caused by pH-induced increases in the negative charge of the soil and the antagonistic effects of Ca resulting from competition for exchange sites at the root surface. Cu accumulation in maize shoots increased by 34, 51, and 53% with the addition of 2, 4, and 8% TOS, respectively, but this increase was not observed for Cd accumulation. These results suggested that, in multi-metal-contaminated soils, attention should be paid to the potential mobility of target metals and the pH of the contaminated soil. From a plant physiological perspective, contaminated soils slightly reduced photosynthetic performance. However, the addition of TOS to the soil at levels higher than 4% substantially decreased photosynthetic performance, indicating that CaO-based suppressants at critical loads might damage the net photosynthetic rates of sensitive maize plants.

  18. Effects of long-term acid suppressants with ranitidine and omeprazole on gastric mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P C Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Proton pump inhibitors are used widely for gastroesophageal reflux disease and ulcer type dyspepsia. Majority of the patients require long term medication. H2 receptor antagonist are also used for relief of symptoms. Though tachyphylaxis has been reported, symptom response is seen with long term use. The aim of the present study was to study the effects of long-term acid suppressants on gastric antral histology. Methods: Patients who received long-term acid suppressants such as ranitidine and omeprazole for gastroesophageal reflux disease or dyspepsia were included. All of them had an antral biopsy for histology and H. pylori status at baseline, at 6 months and 12 months. Patients on acid suppressants for less than a year or on long-term non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs were excluded from the study. The grading of gastritis was classified as chronic active gastritis, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia. Results: Thirty patients received ranitidine and 28 omeprazole. In H. pylori positive group, the median duration of ranitidine and omeprazole were 3 years (1.5 to 8 years and 4 years (1 to 10 years respectively. Two thirds of patients had chronic active gastritis (ranitidine: 35.5%; omeprazole:26.6%; 10 had gastric atrophy (ranitidine: 6.6%; omeprazole:15.5% and 7 had intestinal metaplasia (ranitidine4.4%; omeprazole11.1%. Four of the 10 patients on omeprazole showed progression of histology as against only one of the 13 patients on ranitidine at one year of follow up. In omeprazole pylori negative patients, the median duration of ranitidine and omeprazole was 2.5 years (range 1 to 6 years and 3 years (range 2 to 7 years respectively. Irrespective of the acid suppressants, the baseline histology was either chronic active gastritis (78.5% or gastric atrophy (21.5%. None had intestinal metaplasia. Also there was no progression in histology staging during the follow up. Conclusions: Long-term acid

  19. Enhancement and suppression effects of a nanopatterned surface on bacterial adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinlei; Chen, Tongsheng

    2016-05-01

    We present a quantitative thermodynamic model to elucidate the effects of a nanopatterned surface on bacterial adhesion. Based on the established model, we studied the equilibrium state of rodlike bacterial cells adhered to a nanopillar-patterned surface. Theoretical analyses showed the physical origin of bacterial adhesion on a nanopatterned surface is actually determined by the balance between adhesion energy and deformation energy of the cell membrane. We found that there are enhancement effects on bacterial adhesion to the patterned surface with large radius and small spacing of nanopillars, but suppression effects for nanopillars with a radius smaller than a critical value. In addition, according to our model, a phase diagram has been constructed which can clarify the interrelated effects of the radius and the spacing of nanopillars. The broad agreement with experimental observations implies that these studies would provide useful guidance to the design of nanopatterned surfaces for biomedical applications.

  20. Multifaceted effects of synthetic TLR2 ligand and Legionella pneumophilia on Treg-mediated suppression of T cell activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutmuller Roger PM

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulatory T cells (Treg play a crucial role in maintaining immune homeostasis and self-tolerance. The immune suppressive effects of Tregs should however be limited in case effective immunity is required against pathogens or cancer cells. We previously found that the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 agonist, Pam3CysSK4, directly stimulated Tregs to expand and temporarily abrogate their suppressive capabilities. In this study, we evaluate the effect of Pam3CysSK4 and Legionella pneumophila, a natural TLR2 containing infectious agent, on effector T (Teff cells and dendritic cells (DCs individually and in co-cultures with Tregs. Results TLR2 agonists can directly provide a co-stimulatory signal inducing enhanced proliferation and cytokine production of naive CD4+ Teff cells. With respect to cytokine production, DCs appear to be most sensitive to low amounts of TLR agonists. Using wild type and TLR2-deficient cells in Treg suppression assays, we accordingly show that all cells (e.g. Treg, Teff cells and DCs contributed to overcome Treg-mediated suppression of Teff cell proliferation. Furthermore, while TLR2-stimulated Tregs readily lost their ability to suppress Teff cell proliferation, cytokine production by Teff cells was still suppressed. Similar results were obtained upon stimulation with TLR2 ligand containing bacteria, Legionella pneumophila. Conclusions These findings indicate that both synthetic and natural TLR2 agonists affect DCs, Teff cells and Treg directly, resulting in multi-modal modulation of Treg-mediated suppression of Teff cells. Moreover, Treg-mediated suppression of Teff cell proliferation is functionally distinct from suppression of cytokine secretion.

  1. A galactolipid possesses novel cancer chemopreventive effects by suppressing inflammatory mediators and mouse B16 melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chia-Chung; Chen, Yi-Ping; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Huang, Chi-Chang; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Yang, Ning-Sun; Shyur, Lie-Fen

    2007-07-15

    Crassocephalum rabens (Asteraceae) is a popular anti-inflammatory folk medicine and food supplement. We investigated the cancer chemopreventive bioactivity of C. rabens phytocompounds in vitro and in vivo using cell- and gene-based bioassays and a mouse B16 melanoma model. The bioactive glyceroglycolipid 1,2-di-O-alpha-linolenoyl-3-O-beta-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (dLGG) that was identified from C. rabens was found in vitro and in vivo to be a potent nitric oxide (NO) scavenger. dLGG treatment inhibited both mRNA and protein expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in murine macrophages and inhibited COX-2 gene transcription in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated B16 cells. In immunohistochemical studies, dLGG inhibited TPA-induced expression of COX-2 and nitration of proteins in mouse skin. dLGG could also significantly inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandin E(2) production in murine macrophages. Furthermore, dLGG prevented nuclear translocation of cytoplasmic nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) by suppressing IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and degradation. Structure-activity relationship study by electrophoretic mobility shift assay indicated that the dilinolenoylglycerol moiety in dLGG is the essential structural feature preventing NF-kappaB.DNA complex formation. A dLGG-enriched extract from C. rabens (10 mg/kg) markedly suppressed B16 melanoma growth in C57BL/6J mice following i.p. administration, an effect comparable with that of cisplatin, a cancer chemotherapeutic drug. This study shows the detailed molecular mechanism(s) underlying the anti-inflammatory and tumor-suppressive effects of a natural galactolipid.

  2. Suppression chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Akio.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To miniaturize the storage tank of condensated water in BWR reactor. Constitution: A diaphragm is provided in a suppression chamber thereby to partition the same into an inner compartment and an outer compartment. In one of said compartments there is stored clean water to be used for feeding at the time of separating the reactor and for the core spray system, and in another compartment there is stored water necessary for accomplishing the depressurization effect at the time of coolant loss accident. To the compartment in which clean water is stored there is connected a water cleaning device for constantly maintaining water in clean state. As this cleaning device an already used fuel pool cleaning device can be utilized. Further, downcomers for accomplishing the depressurization function are provided in both inner compartment and outer compartment. The capacity of the storage tank can be reduced by the capacity of clean water within the suppression chamber. (Ikeda, J.)

  3. Allowing a wildfire to burn: estimating the effect on future fire suppression costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel M. Houtman; Claire A. Montgomery; Aaron R. Gagnon; David E. Calkin; Thomas G. Dietterich; Sean McGregor; Mark Crowley

    2013-01-01

    Where a legacy of aggressive wildland fire suppression has left forests in need of fuel reduction, allowing wildland fire to burn may provide fuel treatment benefits, thereby reducing suppression costs from subsequent fires. The least-cost-plus-net-value-change model of wildland fire economics includes benefits of wildfire in a framework for evaluating suppression...

  4. Tumor-suppressive effects of natural-type interferon-β through CXCL10 in melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hikaru; Nobeyama, Yoshimasa, E-mail: nobederm@jikei.ac.jp; Nakagawa, Hidemi

    2015-08-21

    Introduction: Type 1 interferon is in widespread use as adjuvant therapy to inhibit melanoma progression. Considering the tumor-suppressive effects of local administration of interferon-β (IFN-β) on lymphatic metastasis, the present study was conducted to identify melanoma-suppressive molecules that are up-regulated by IFN-β treatment of lymphatic endothelial cells. Materials and methods: Lymphatic endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and melanoma cells were treated with natural-type IFN-β, and melanoma cells were treated with CXCL10. Genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray analysis was performed using lymphatic endothelial cells with or without IFN-β treatment. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed to examine CXCL10 expression. A proliferation assay was performed to examine the effects of IFN-β and CXCL10 in melanoma cells. Results: Genome-wide microarray analyses detected CXCL10 as a gene encoding a secretory protein that was up-regulated by IFN-β in lymphatic endothelial cells. IFN-β treatment significantly induced CXCL10 in dermal lymphatic endothelial cells and melanoma cells that are highly sensitive to IFN-β. CXCL10 reduced melanoma cell proliferation in IFN-β-sensitive cells as well as resistant cells. Melanoma cells in which CXCL10 was knocked down were sensitive to IFN-β. CXCR3-B, which encodes the CXCL10 receptor, was up-regulated in melanoma cells with high sensitivity to IFN-β and down-regulated in melanoma cells with medium to low sensitivity. Conclusions: Our data suggest that IFN-β suppresses proliferation and metastasis from the local lymphatic system and melanoma cells via CXCL10. Down-regulation of CXCR3-B by IFN-β may be associated with resistance to IFN-β. - Highlights: • We search melanoma-suppressive molecules induced by IFN-β. • IFN-β induces a high amount of CXCL10 from lymphatic endothelial cells. • CXCL10 induction level in melanoma cells is correlated

  5. Immunologic mechanism of the suppressive effect of low dose radiation on thymic lymphoma induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiujuan; Yang Ying; Li Xiuyi; Liu Shuzheng

    1999-01-01

    To study immunologic mechanism of the suppressive effect of low dose radiation (LDR) on thymic lymphoma (TL) induced by high dose radiation (HDR). The authors adopted the model that C57BL/6J mice were administered whole body irradiation with 1.75 Gy X-rays one time every week for 4 weeks to induce TL. It was examined that splenic NK cytotoxic activity, IL-2 and γ-IFN secretion activity, peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis and its TNF-α secretion activity in mice with different dose 1 month after irradiation. The results showed that all the immunologic functions mentioned above in mice given 75 mGy 12 h before 1.75 Gy every time were higher than that in mice given only 1.75 Gy, and approached to the sham-irradiation mice. It suggested that the suppressive effect of LDR on TL induced by HDR may be related to the adaptive response induced by LDR and decreasing immunological functions damage caused by HDR

  6. Synergistic Effect of Hyperglycemia and Suppression on Adult Mouse Islet Beta Cell Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Tah Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The complementary role of hyperglycemia and suppression on islet beta cell regeneration was investigated in a syngeneic mouse model. gene silencing was performed by infecting islets of C57BL/6 with shRNA lentiviral particles. At 54 hours after viral infection, protein content in cultured targeting islets was 22% of that in freshly isolated islets. Six days after transplantation to diabetic mice, targeting islet graft had considerably more cells with Ki67-staining nuclei than nontargeting islets. The mice in the targeting-islet group had a significantly shorter duration of temporary hyperglycaemia than mice in the non-targeting-islet group. The long-term ex vivo beneficial effect of silencing on graft function was also indicated by the significantly higher cumulative cure rate for diabetes in mice receiving 200 targeting islets than that in mice receiving 200 non-targeting islets. Our data suggest that hyperglycemia and persistent suppression have a synergistic effect on islet beta cell replication in adult mice.

  7. Skin effect suppression for Cu/CoZrNb multilayered inductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Noriyuki; Endo, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2012-04-01

    The Cu/Co85Zr3Nb12 multilayer is studied as a conductor of a spiral inductor to suppress the skin effect at the 5 GHz range (matches IEEE 802.11 a standard) using negative-permeability in CoZrNb films beyond the ferromagnetic resonance frequency. The skin effect suppression becomes remarkable when the thickness of Cu in each period of the multilayer, tCu, is less than the skin depth of Cu at the targeting frequency. For the 5 GHz operation, tCu ≤ 750 nm. The resistance of the Cu/CoZrNb multilayered spiral inductor decreases as much as 8.7%, while keeping the same inductance of 1.1 nH as that of a similar air core. Accordingly, Q = 16. Therefore, the proposed method can contribute to realize a high-Q spiral inductor. We also study the potentially applicable frequency of this method. Given a soft magnetic material with Ms = 105 emu/cc and Hk = 5 Oe, the method can be applied at 700 MHz, the lowermost carrier frequency band for the 4th generation cellular phone system.

  8. Emotion regulation and the temporal dynamics of emotions: Effects of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression on emotional inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Peter; Butler, Emily A; Hollenstein, Tom; Lanteigne, Dianna; Kuppens, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The tendency for emotions to be predictable over time, labelled emotional inertia, has been linked to low well-being and is thought to reflect impaired emotion regulation. However, almost no studies have examined how emotion regulation relates to emotional inertia. We examined the effects of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression on the inertia of behavioural, subjective and physiological measures of emotion. In Study 1 (N = 111), trait suppression was associated with higher inertia of negative behaviours. We replicated this finding experimentally in Study 2 (N = 186). Furthermore, in Study 2, instructed suppressors and reappraisers both showed higher inertia of positive behaviours, and reappraisers displayed higher inertia of heart rate. Neither suppression nor reappraisal were associated with the inertia of subjective feelings in either study. Thus, the effects of suppression and reappraisal on the temporal dynamics of emotions depend on the valence and emotional response component in question.

  9. Design and evaluation of noise suppression sheet for GHz band utilizing magneto-elastic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Koichi; Yoshida, Shigeyoshi

    2017-12-01

    Feasibility of realizing a noise suppression sheet (NSS) coping with the low SHF band such as the 5 GHz band was investigated, which was composed of soft magnetic metal flakes dispersed in a polymer. For suppressing noises, the higher frequency one of the bimodal frequency dispersion (lower frequency one: Dispersion DII, higher frequency one: Dispersion DIII) seen in the imaginary permeability (μ″; magnetic loss component) spectrum of the NSS was aimed to utilize. Referring to the previous finding that Dispersion DIII is originated from a magneto-elastic effect, several magnetic composite sheets were prepared using various alloy flakes with different saturation magnetostriction (λs), and their frequency (fr(DIII)) and magnitude (μ″(DIII)) of Dispersion DIII were investigated. It was found that the NSS containing flakes with higher λs exhibited higher fr(DIII) and higher μ″(DIII)/μ″(DII), which was ratio of μ″(DIII) to the magnitude of Dispersion DII (μ″(DII)). The fr(DIII) for the NSS having the highest λs containing Fe-Co alloy flake reached 7.45 GHz and μ″ in the 5 GHz band was approximately twice as high as the conventional NSS containing Fe-Si-Al alloy flake. For transmission attenuation power ratio (Rtp) when an NSS was placed on a microstrip line with characteristic impedance of 50 Ω, NSS with larger fr(DIII)2 · μ″(DIII) ∝ Ms2 (Ms: saturation magnetization), which theoretically gave the frequency limit of imaginary permeability for a thin film, exhibited larger Rtp in the low SHF band. These results suggested that an NSS containing a magnetic flake material with both large λs and Ms was suitable for suppressing low SHF band noises.

  10. Butyrate enhances antibacterial effects while suppressing other features of alternative activation in IL-4-induced macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Maria R; Saxena, Alpana; Reyes, José-Luis; McKay, Derek M

    2016-05-15

    The short-chain fatty acid butyrate is produced by fermentation of dietary fiber by the intestinal microbiota; butyrate is the primary energy source of colonocytes and has immunomodulatory effects. Having shown that macrophages differentiated with IL-4 [M(IL-4)s] can suppress colitis, we hypothesized that butyrate would reinforce an M(IL-4) phenotype. Here, we show that in the presence of butyrate M(IL-4)s display reduced expression of their hallmark markers Arg1 and Ym1 and significantly suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide, IL-12p40, and IL-10 production. Butyrate treatment likely altered the M(IL-4) phenotype via inhibition of histone deacetylation. Functionally, M(IL-4)s treated with butyrate showed increased phagocytosis and killing of bacteria, compared with M(IL-4) and this was not accompanied by enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production. Culture of regulatory T cells with M(IL-4)s and M(IL-4 + butyrate)s revealed that both macrophage subsets suppressed expression of the regulatory T-cell marker Foxp3. However, Tregs cocultured with M(IL-4 + butyrate) produced less IL-17A than Tregs cocultured with M(IL-4). These data illustrate the importance of butyrate, a microbial-derived metabolite, in the regulation of gut immunity: the demonstration that butyrate promotes phagocytosis in M(IL-4)s that can limit T-cell production of IL-17A reveals novel aspects of bacterial-host interaction in the regulation of intestinal homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Suppression of exchange bias effect in maghemite nanoparticles functionalized with H{sub 2}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guivar, Juan A. Ramos, E-mail: juan.ramos5@unmsm.edu.pe [Faculty of Physical Sciences, National University of San Marcos, P. O. Box 14-0149, Lima, 14 Peru (Peru); Morales, M.A. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, UFRN, Natal, RN, 59078-970 Brazil (Brazil); Litterst, F. Jochen [Institut für Physik der Kondensierten Materie, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, 38110 Germany (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    The structural, vibrational, morphological and magnetic properties of maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles functionalized with polar molecules EDTA(or H{sub 4}Y) and H{sub 2}Y are reported. The samples were functionalized before and after total synthesis of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. The molecules are anchored on the monodentate mode on the nanoparticles surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the formation of maghemite nanoparticles with small diameter of 4 nm for the sample functionalized upon synthesis and 7.6 and 6.9 nm for the samples functionalized with EDTA and H{sub 2}Y after the formation of nanoparticles. Exchange bias phenomena were observed in some of the samples functionalized with EDTA at temperatures below 70 K. The presence of the bias effect was discussed in terms of the formation of a thin layer of a secondary phase like lepidocrocite, and the absence of this effect was explained in terms of the chemisorption of carboxylic groups from EDTA which suppressed the canting. Studies of Mössbauer spectroscopy as a function of temperature showed slow relaxation effects and allowed discussion of the secondary phase. In the M–T curves a maximum around 116 K was associated with this secondary phase also in agreement with the Mössbauer studies. The dynamic properties were studied by AC susceptibility, the out of phase signal revealed a spin glass like regime below 36.5 K. - Highlights: • Coprecipitation in alkaline medium was used for the synthesis of EDTA functionalized small maghemite nanoparticles. • Exchange bias effect was observed due to a thin layer of lepidocrocite like second phase. • The sample coprecipitated in a weak base did not show exchange bias effect. • The bias effect is discussed in terms of suppression of canting due to chemisorption of carboxylic groups from EDTA.

  12. Cell-mediated immune suppression effect of rocket kerosene through dermal exposure in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-xin XU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the effect of cell-mediated immune suppression effect of rocket kerosene (RK through dermal application in mice. Methods Skin delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH was used to observe the relation of the RK amount the skin exposed and the cellular immune inhibitory function. Different amount of the undiluted fuel was smeared directly onto the dorsal skin of mice. Mice in negative and positive control groups were treated with acetone. After the last exposure, all the mice except those in negative control group were allergized by evenly smearing with 1% dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB solution on their dorsum. Five days after allergy, 1% DNFB solution was smeared onto right ear of all mice to stimulate the allergic reaction. Twenty-four hours after attack, the auricle swelling, spleen index and thymus index in corresponding mice were determined. In the first series of experiments, different dosages of RK were applied once, and the ICR mice were randomly divided into negative control group, positive control group and experimental group (0.5ml/kg.BW×1, 1ml/kg.BW×1 and 2ml/kg.BW×1 group. In the second series of experiments, the certain and same dosage of RK was applied for different times, and the ICR mice were randomly divided into negative control group, positive control group and experimental group (0.5ml/kg.BW×1, 0.5mL/kg.BW×2, 0.5ml/kg.BW×3, 0.5ml/kg.BW×4 and 0.5mL/kg.BW×5 group. In the third series of experiments, the different dosages of RK were applied more than once, and the ICR mice were randomly divided into negative control group, positive control group and experimental group (0.5ml/kg.BW×5, 1ml/kg.BW×5 and 2ml/kg.BW×5 group. Lymphocyte proliferation experiment in vitrowas conducted to observe the persistent time of the cell-mediated immune suppression in mice by RK dermal exposure. The lymphocyte proliferation induced by concanavalin A (Con A was analyzed by MTT assay, and T lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+ and CD

  13. Suppressed compressibility of quantum Hall effect edge states in epitaxial graphene on SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slizovskiy, Sergey; Fal'ko, Vladimir I.

    2018-02-01

    We determine conditions for the formation of compressible stripes near the quantum Hall effect (QHE) edges of top-gated epitaxial graphene on Si-terminated SiC (G/SiC) and compare those to graphene exfoliated onto insulating substrate in the field-effect-transistor (GraFET) geometry. For G/SiC, a large density of localized surface states on SiC just underneath graphene layer and charge transfer between them lead both to doping of graphene and to screening of potential profile near its edge. This suppresses formation of compressible stripes near QHE edges in graphene, making them much narrower than the corresponding compressible stripes in GraFETs.

  14. Foaming in manure based digesters: Effect of overloading and foam suppression using antifoam agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan

    severe operational problems, such as blockage of mixing devices and collapse of pumps. Furthermore, the foaming problem is linked with economic consequences for biogas plants, due to income losses derived from the reduced biogas production, extra labour work and additional maintenance costs. Moreover...... study was to investigate the effect of organic loading rate on foam formation and also to evaluate the antifoam efficiency of different chemical compounds on foam suppression. Thus, the impact of organic loading rate on anaerobic digestion foaming was studied in a continuous mode experiment....... A continuous stirred tank reactor, operating under thermophilic conditions (55 oC) was fed with cattle manure. In order to investigate the effect of organic overloading on foam formation, a stepwise increase of the organic loading rate was performed by the addition of glucose in the feeding substrate. Biogas...

  15. Effect of onion extract on corneal haze suppression after air assisted lamellar keratectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, Soohyun; PARK, Young Woo; LEE, Euiri; PARK, Sang Wan; PARK, Sungwon; NOH, Hyunwoo; KIM, Jong Whi; SEONG, Je Kyung; SEO, Kangmoon

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of onion extract on corneal haze suppression after applying the air assisted lamellar keratectomy. The air assisted lamellar keratectomy was performed on 24 canine eyes. They were treated with an artificial tear (group C), prednisolone acetate (group P), onion extract (group O) and TGF-β1 (group T) three times per day from 7 to 28 days after the surgery. Corneal haze occurred on the all eyes and was observed beginning 7 days after the surgery. The haze was significantly decreased in groups P and O from day 14 compared with the group C using the clinical (group P; P=0.021, group O; P=0.037) and objective evaluation method (group P; P=0.021, group O; P=0.039). In contrast, it was significantly increased in group T from day 14 compared with group C based on the clinical (P=0.002) and objective evaluation method (P<0.001). Subsequently, these eyes were enucleated after euthanasia, and immunohistochemistry with α-SMA antibodies was done. The total green intensity for α-SMA was significantly more expressed in group T and significantly less expressed in groups P and O than in group C. Onion extract could have potential as a therapeutic in preventing corneal haze development by suppressing the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. PMID:26607134

  16. The effect of caffeine and adenine on radiation induced suppression of DNA synthesis, and cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcoxson, L.T.; Griffiths, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    Exposure of cultured mammalian cells to ionizing radiation or UV light results in a transient decrease in the rate of DNA synthesis. This depression in synthetic rate may be attenuated or deferred via a post-irradiation treatment with caffeine or adenine. It has been suggested that this attenuation may increase the fixation of damage and, therefore, increase radiation sensitivity. However, it has been previously reported that, for V79 cells treated with caffeine or adenine, no correlation exists between the extent of depression and cell survival. The present investigation expands upon these findings by examining the effect of caffeine or adenine post-irradiation treatment on two cell lines with normal UV sensitivity, mouse 3T3 and CHO AA8 cells, and one UV sensitive cell line, CHO UV5 cells. Both caffeine and adenine have been found to reduce, or delay, the suppression in DNA synthesis in all three cell lines. Surprisingly, caffeine appeared to induced even the UV5 cells to recover DNA synthetic ability. The amount of reduction in suppression of DNA synthesis, however, varies between the different cell lines and no consistent relationship with cell survival has emerged

  17. Histamine 2 blocker potentiates the effects of histamine 1 blocker in suppressing histamine-induced wheal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Histamine is responsible for the wheal and flare reaction in various allergic conditions. Classical antihistamines are the drugs which block the H 1 receptors and are widely used in various allergic conditions, whereas H 2 blockers are mainly used for acid peptic disease. Although H 1 receptor-mediated actions of histamine are primarily responsible for vasodilatation, vasopermeability, and itching, it has been observed that combined blocking of both H 1 and H 2 receptors may provide better relief. Aim: To compare the efficacy of levocetirizine (H 1 blocker versus levocetirizine and ranitidine (H 2 blocker in suppressing histamine-induced wheal. Methods: Fifteen volunteers were given a single dose of levocetirizine 5 mg on day 1 and a single dose of levocetirizine 5 mg with ranitidine 150 mg twice a day on day 7. A pretest was performed by intradermal histamine prick test. After administration of the drugs, the prick test was repeated at 1 hour, 2, 3, 6, and 24 hours, and the size of the wheal measured and statistically analyzed. Results: At 1 hour, there was no statistically significant difference in the wheal size between levocetirizine alone and the combination of levocetirizine and ranitidine. Levocetirizine with ranitidine resulted in statistically significant reduction of wheal size at 2, 3, 6, and 24 hours when compared with levocetirizine alone. Conclusion: H2 blocker potentiates the effects of an H1 blocker in suppressing histamine-induced wheal.

  18. Validating the effect of muscle artifact suppression in localizing focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mideksa, K G; Santillan-Guzman, A; Japaridze, N; Galka, A; Stephani, U; Deuschl, G; Heute, U; Muthuraman, M

    2014-01-01

    Source localization of an epileptic seizure is becoming an important diagnostic tool in pre-surgical evaluation of epileptic patients. However, for localizing the epileptogenic zone precisely, the epileptic activity needs to be isolated from other activities that are not related to the epileptic source. In this study, we aim at an investigation of the effect of muscle artifact suppression by using a low-pass filter (LPF), independent component analysis (ICA), and a combination of ICA-LPF prior to source localization in focal epilepsy. These techniques were applied on the EEG data obtained from a left-temporal lobe epileptic patient by artificially contaminating the isolated spike interval, present in the four left-temporal electrodes, with a muscle artifact. The results show that the muscle artifact was fully suppressed. Applying the dipole and current-density reconstruction (CDR) source-analysis algorithms on the filtered data, we were able to identify the location of the epileptogenic zone similar to that of the original undistorted data.

  19. Growth suppressive effect of pegylated arginase in malignant pleural mesothelioma xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Sze-Kwan; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Shi; Leung, Leanne Lee; U, Kin-Pong; Zheng, Yan-Fang; Cheng, Paul Ning-Man; Ho, James Chung-Man

    2017-05-02

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a difficult-to-treat global disease. Pegylated arginase (BCT-100) has recently shown anti-tumor effects in hepatocellular carcinoma, acute myeloid leukemia and melanoma. This study aims to investigate the effects of PEG-BCT-100 in MPM. A panel of 5 mesothelioma cell lines (H28, 211H, H226, H2052 and H2452) was used to study the in vitro effects of BCT-100 by crystal violet staining. The in vivo effects of BCT-100 were studied using 211H and H226 nude mice xenografts. Protein expression (argininosuccinate synthetase, ornithine transcarbamylase, cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase 3, cyclins (A2, D3, E1 and H), CDK4 and Ki67) and arginine concentration were evaluated by Western blot and ELISA respectively. Cellular localization of BCT-100 was detected by immunohistochemistry and immunoflorescence. TUNEL assay was used to identify cellular apoptotic events. Argininosuccinate synthetase was expressed in H28, H226, and H2452 cells as well as 211H and H266 xenografts. Ornithine transcarbamylase was undetectable in all cell lines and xenograft models. BCT-100 reduced in vitro cell viability (IC 50 values at 13-24 mU/ml, 72 h) across different cell lines and suppressed tumor growth in both 211H and H226 xenograft models. BCT-100 (60 mg/kg) significantly suppressed tumor growth (p mesothelioma xenograft models. The findings provide scientific evidence to support further clinical development of BCT-100 in treatment of MPM.

  20. Oregano demonstrates distinct tumour-suppressive effects in the breast carcinoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubatka, Peter; Kello, Martin; Kajo, Karol; Kruzliak, Peter; Výbohová, Desanka; Mojžiš, Ján; Adamkov, Marián; Fialová, Silvia; Veizerová, Lucia; Zulli, Anthony; Péč, Martin; Statelová, Dagmar; Grančai, Daniel; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2017-04-01

    There has been a considerable interest in the identification of natural plant foods for developing effective agents against cancer. Thus, the anti-tumour effects of oregano in the in vivo and in vitro breast cancer model were evaluated. Lyophilized oregano (ORE) was administered at two concentrations of 0.3 and 3 % through diet. The experiment was terminated 14 weeks after carcinogen administration. At autopsy, mammary tumours were removed and prepared for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Moreover, in vitro evaluation in MCF-7 cells was carried out. Low-dose ORE suppressed tumour frequency by 55.5 %, tumour incidence by 44 %, and tumour volume by 44.5 % compared to control animals. Analysis of rat tumour cells showed Ki67, VEGFR-2, CD24, and EpCAM expression decrease and caspase-3 expression increase after low-dose ORE treatment. High-dose ORE lengthened tumour latency by 12.5 days; moreover, Bcl-2, VEGFR-2, CD24, and EpCAM expression decrease and caspase-3 expression increase in carcinoma cells were observed. Histopathological analysis revealed a decrease in the ratio of high-/low-grade carcinomas in both treated groups. In vitro studies showed that ORE decreased survival and proliferation of MCF-7 cells. In ORE-treated MCF-7 cells, an increase in cells expressing sub-G 0 /G 1 DNA content and an increase in the percentage of annexin V/PI positive MCF-7 cells were observed. In vitro, both caspase-dependent and possible non-caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways were found. The deactivation of anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-2, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, and the activation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway were observed in the ORE-treated MCF-7 cells. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a distinct tumour-suppressive effect of oregano in the breast cancer model.

  1. Antiviral Hammerhead Ribozymes Are Effective for Developing Transgenic Suppression of Chikungunya Virus in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Priya; Furey, Colleen; Balaraman, Velmurugan; Fraser, Malcolm J

    2016-06-10

    The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging pathogen with widespread distribution in regions of Africa, India, and Asia that threatens to spread into temperate climates with the introduction of its major vector, Aedes albopictus. CHIKV causes a disease frequently misdiagnosed as dengue fever, with potentially life-threatening symptoms that can result in a longer-term debilitating arthritis. The increasing risk of spread from endemic regions via human travel and commerce and the current absence of a vaccine put a significant proportion of the world population at risk for this disease. In this study we designed and tested hammerhead ribozymes (hRzs) targeting CHIKV structural protein genes of the RNA genome as potential antivirals both at the cellular and in vivo level. We employed the CHIKV strain 181/25, which exhibits similar infectivity rates in both Vero cell cultures and mosquitoes. Virus suppression assay performed on transformed Vero cell clones of all seven hRzs demonstrated that all are effective at inhibiting CHIKV in Vero cells, with hRz #9 and #14 being the most effective. piggyBac transformation vectors were constructed using the Ae. aegypti t-RNA(val) Pol III promoted hRz #9 and #14 effector genes to establish a total of nine unique transgenic Higgs White Eye (HWE) Ae. aegypti lines. Following confirmation of transgene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), comparative TCID50-IFA analysis, in situ Immuno-fluorescent Assays (IFA) and analysis of salivary CHIKV titers demonstrated effective suppression of virus replication at 7 dpi in heterozygous females of each of these transgenic lines compared with control HWE mosquitoes. This report provides a proof that appropriately engineered hRzs are powerful antiviral effector genes suitable for population replacement strategies.

  2. Protective effect of Lycium Barbarum polysaccharides on dextromethorphan-induced mood impairment and neurogenesis suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po, Kevin Kai-Ting; Leung, Joseph Wai-Hin; Chan, Jackie Ngai-Man; Fung, Timothy Kai-Hang; Sánchez-Vidaña, Dalinda Isabel; Sin, Emily Lok-Lam; So, Kwok-Fai; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Siu, Andrew Man-Hong

    2017-09-01

    Dextromethorphan (DXM) is one of the common drugs abused by adolescents. It is the active ingredient found in cough medicine which is used for suppressing cough. High dosage of DXM can induce euphoria, dissociative effects and even hallucinations. Chronic use of DXM may also lead to depressive-related symptoms. Lycium barbarum, commonly known as wolfberry, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of ageing-related neurodegenerative diseases. A recent study has shown the potential beneficial effect of Lycium barbarum to reduce depression-like behavior. In the present study, we investigated the role of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) to alleviate DXM-induced emotional distress. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (n=6 per group), including the normal control (vehicles only), DXM-treated group (40 mg/kg DXM), LBP-treated group (1 mg/kg LBP) and DXM+ LBP-treated group (40 mg/kg DXM and 1 mg/kg LBP). After two-week treatment, the DXM-treated group showed increased depression-like and social anxiety-like behaviors in the forced swim test and social interaction test respectively. On the other hand, the adverse behavioral effects induced by DXM were reduced by LBP treatment. Histological results showed that LBP treatment alone did not promote hippocampal neurogenesis when compared to the normal control, but LBP could lessen the suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis induced by DXM. The findings provide insights for the potential use of wolfberry as an adjunct treatment option for alleviating mood disturbances during rehabilitation of cough syrup abusers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Antiviral Hammerhead Ribozymes Are Effective for Developing Transgenic Suppression of Chikungunya Virus in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Mishra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging pathogen with widespread distribution in regions of Africa, India, and Asia that threatens to spread into temperate climates with the introduction of its major vector, Aedes albopictus. CHIKV causes a disease frequently misdiagnosed as dengue fever, with potentially life-threatening symptoms that can result in a longer-term debilitating arthritis. The increasing risk of spread from endemic regions via human travel and commerce and the current absence of a vaccine put a significant proportion of the world population at risk for this disease. In this study we designed and tested hammerhead ribozymes (hRzs targeting CHIKV structural protein genes of the RNA genome as potential antivirals both at the cellular and in vivo level. We employed the CHIKV strain 181/25, which exhibits similar infectivity rates in both Vero cell cultures and mosquitoes. Virus suppression assay performed on transformed Vero cell clones of all seven hRzs demonstrated that all are effective at inhibiting CHIKV in Vero cells, with hRz #9 and #14 being the most effective. piggyBac transformation vectors were constructed using the Ae. aegypti t-RNAval Pol III promoted hRz #9 and #14 effector genes to establish a total of nine unique transgenic Higgs White Eye (HWE Ae. aegypti lines. Following confirmation of transgene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, comparative TCID50-IFA analysis, in situ Immuno-fluorescent Assays (IFA and analysis of salivary CHIKV titers demonstrated effective suppression of virus replication at 7 dpi in heterozygous females of each of these transgenic lines compared with control HWE mosquitoes. This report provides a proof that appropriately engineered hRzs are powerful antiviral effector genes suitable for population replacement strategies

  4. Suppression Effect of Astaxanthin on Osteoclast Formation In Vitro and Bone Loss In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ho Hwang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is characterized by a reduction of the bone mineral density (BMD and microarchitectural deterioration of the bone, which lead to bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. Astaxanthin (AST has a variety of biological activities, such as a protective effect against asthma or neuroinflammation, antioxidant effect, and decrease of the osteoclast number in the right mandibles in the periodontitis model. Although treatment with AST is known to have an effect on inflammation, no studies on the effect of AST exposure on bone loss have been performed. Thus, in the present study, we examined the antiosteoporotic effect of AST on bone mass in ovariectomized (OVX mice and its possible mechanism of action. The administration of AST (5, 10 mg/kg for 6 weeks suppressed the enhancement of serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity. The bone mineral density (BMD and bone microarchitecture of the trabecular bone in the tibia and femur were recovered by AST exposure. Moreover, in the in vitro experiment, we demonstrated that AST inhibits osteoclast formation through the expression of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT c1, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP, TRAP, and cathepsin K without any cytotoxic effects on bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs. Therefore, we suggest that AST may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  5. Effects of silicic spheres for the suppression of radiation heating using on electromagnetic wave scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawa, E.; Mikada, H.; Goto, T.; Takekawa, J.; Onishi, K.; Taniguchi, K.; Ashida, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The temperature of external materials of buildings rises when they are exposed to sunlight, and the room temperature rises too if the buildings’ external wall is in the sunlight. Therefore the crisis of electric power supply is frequently caused by air conditioning in midsummer. Recently, it has been experimentally confirmed that such temperature rising of such building materials may be suppressed when they are coated with paint including fine silicic spheres whose diameters are in micron to submicron scale. So we are able to reduce the energy consumption if room temperature is controlled not with any air conditioning but with these paints, and the heat island effects would be lowered. However, the mechanism of this temperature suppression has not been investigated. Experimental consideration of this paint has been done, but the mechanism how the paint controls the temperature rise has hardly been clarified theoretically. Since the best composition of the spheres and their best size are not understood well, it is necessary to theoretically clarify the controlling mechanism for the temperature rise to develop efficient paint. In this study, we aimed to find out the mechanism of the temperature suppression. When the electromagnetic wave at a frequency near eigenfrequencies of atoms, molecules or bindings enters the atoms or the molecules, they resonate and move intensely, and finally rise the temperature. Therefore, we presume that the temperature rise could be controlled if the electromagnetic waves around the eigenfrequencies could be removed. Here, we consider electromagnetic wave of light. Then we assumed that the electromagnetic waves in a certain range of frequencies were scattered to shield the radiated heat energy in the insolation and that the transmitted light through the paint layer is weakened. For verifying the hypotheses and finding the range of effective size, we used the Mie theory of a light scattering theory to calculate the intensity of scattered

  6. Moving stimuli are less effectively masked using traditional continuous flash suppression (CFS compared to a moving Mondrian mask (MMM: a test case for feature-selective suppression and retinotopic adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Moors

    Full Text Available Continuous flash suppression (CFS is a powerful interocular suppression technique, which is often described as an effective means to reliably suppress stimuli from visual awareness. Suppression through CFS has been assumed to depend upon a reduction in (retinotopically specific neural adaptation caused by the continual updating of the contents of the visual input to one eye. In this study, we started from the observation that suppressing a moving stimulus through CFS appeared to be more effective when using a mask that was actually more prone to retinotopically specific neural adaptation, but in which the properties of the mask were more similar to those of the to-be-suppressed stimulus. In two experiments, we find that using a moving Mondrian mask (i.e., one that includes motion is more effective in suppressing a moving stimulus than a regular CFS mask. The observed pattern of results cannot be explained by a simple simulation that computes the degree of retinotopically specific neural adaptation over time, suggesting that this kind of neural adaptation does not play a large role in predicting the differences between conditions in this context. We also find some evidence consistent with the idea that the most effective CFS mask is the one that matches the properties (speed of the suppressed stimulus. These results question the general importance of retinotopically specific neural adaptation in CFS, and potentially help to explain an implicit trend in the literature to adapt one's CFS mask to match one's to-be-suppressed stimuli. Finally, the results should help to guide the methodological development of future research where continuous suppression of moving stimuli is desired.

  7. Semiconductor optical amplifier pattern effect suppression with passive single microring resonator-based notch filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizou, Z. V.; Zoiros, K. E.; Hatziefremidis, A.

    2014-10-01

    We propose to employ a passive single microring resonator (MRR) to suppress the pattern effect in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). We specify the necessary conditions that must hold in order for the MRR to act as notch filter and compensate for the uneven spectral broadening of the amplified data pulses. This procedure allows us to find the permissible range of values of the MRR radius and suitably select this parameter so that the defined design criteria are satisfied and the employed figure-of-merits are acceptable. If designed and constructed as suggested, which is feasible with state-of-the-art technology, the MRR-based notch filter enables to significantly improve the pattern-dependent SOA performance and the quality characteristics of the amplified signal.

  8. The Warburg effect suppresses oxidative stress induced apoptosis in a yeast model for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Büttner, Sabrina; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Eisenberg, Tobias; Kroemer, Guido; Sigrist, Stephan J; Fröhlich, Kai-Uwe; Madeo, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Otto Warburg observed that cancer cells are often characterized by intense glycolysis in the presence of oxygen and a concomitant decrease in mitochondrial respiration. Research has mainly focused on a possible connection between increased glycolysis and tumor development whereas decreased respiration has largely been left unattended. Therefore, a causal relation between decreased respiration and tumorigenesis has not been demonstrated. For this purpose, colonies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is suitable for manipulation of mitochondrial respiration and shows mitochondria-mediated cell death, were used as a model. Repression of respiration as well as ROS-scavenging via glutathione inhibited apoptosis and conferred a survival advantage during seeding and early development of this fast proliferating solid cell population. In contrast, enhancement of respiration triggered cell death. Thus, the Warburg effect might directly contribute to the initiation of cancer formation--not only by enhanced glycolysis--but also via decreased respiration in the presence of oxygen, which suppresses apoptosis.

  9. Effect of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor antagonist on psychologically suppressed masculine sexual behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Yoshiji; Nagase, Keiko; Oyama, Nobuyuki; Akino, Hironobu; Yokoyama, Osamu

    2011-03-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) coordinates various responses of the body to stress, and CRF receptors are important targets of treatment for stress-related disorders. To investigate the effect of a nonselective CRF receptor antagonist, astressin, on suppression of masculine sexual behavior by psychological stress in rats. First, we investigated the influence of psychological stress, induced 2 hours per day for three consecutive days, on sexual behavior. Then, rats were divided into 4 groups: a control group, an astressin administration group (A), a psychological stress loading group (PS), and a psychological stress loading and astressin administration group (PS + A). The rats were exposed to sham or psychological stress for three consecutive days. After the last stress loading, the rats were injected with vehicle or astressin, and their sexual behavior was observed. We also measured serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The effects of astressin on sexual behavior and serum levels of ACTH in rats affected by psychological stress were determined. Sexual behavior was reduced after psychological stress loading. The PS rats had significantly longer mount, intromission, and ejaculation latencies and lower ejaculation frequency than did the control, A, and PS + A rats. The intromission latency and ejaculation frequency in the PS + A rats did not achieve the level observed in the controls. There was no significant difference in these parameters between the control and A rats. Serum ACTH levels were significantly lower in PS + A rats than in PS rats. Psychologically suppressed masculine sexual behavior could be partially recovered with astressin administration in rats. These data provide a rationale for the further study of CRF receptor antagonists as novel agents for treating psychological sexual disorders. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. The effects of spectral tuning of evening ambient light on melatonin suppression, alertness and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shadab A; St Hilaire, Melissa A; Lockley, Steven W

    2017-08-01

    We compared the effects of bedroom-intensity light from a standard fluorescent and a blue- (i.e., short-wavelength) depleted LED source on melatonin suppression, alertness, and sleep. Sixteen healthy participants (8 females) completed a 4-day inpatient study. Participants were exposed to blue-depleted circadian-sensitive (C-LED) light and a standard fluorescent light (FL, 4100K) of equal illuminance (50lx) for 8h prior to a fixed bedtime on two separate days in a within-subject, randomized, cross-over design. Each light exposure day was preceded by a dim light (light conditions, auditory reaction times were significantly slower under C-LED conditions compared to FL 30min prior to bedtime. EEG-based correlates of alertness corroborated the reduced alertness under C-LED conditions as shown by significantly increased EEG spectral power in the delta-theta (0.5-8.0Hz) bands under C-LED as compared to FL exposure. There was no significant difference in total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE%), and slow-wave activity (SWA) between the two conditions. Unlike melatonin suppression and alertness, a significant order effect was observed on all three sleep variables, however. Individuals who received C-LED first and then FL had increased TST, SE% and SWA averaged across both nights compared to individuals who received FL first and then C-LED. These data show that the spectral characteristics of light can be fine-tuned to attenuate non-visual responses to light in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamic telomerase gene suppression via network effects of GSK3 inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan E Bilsland

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase controls telomere homeostasis and cell immortality and is a promising anti-cancer target, but few small molecule telomerase inhibitors have been developed. Reactivated transcription of the catalytic subunit hTERT in cancer cells controls telomerase expression. Better understanding of upstream pathways is critical for effective anti-telomerase therapeutics and may reveal new targets to inhibit hTERT expression.In a focused promoter screen, several GSK3 inhibitors suppressed hTERT reporter activity. GSK3 inhibition using 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime suppressed hTERT expression, telomerase activity and telomere length in several cancer cell lines and growth and hTERT expression in ovarian cancer xenografts. Microarray analysis, network modelling and oligonucleotide binding assays suggested that multiple transcription factors were affected. Extensive remodelling involving Sp1, STAT3, c-Myc, NFkappaB, and p53 occurred at the endogenous hTERT promoter. RNAi screening of the hTERT promoter revealed multiple kinase genes which affect the hTERT promoter, potentially acting through these factors. Prolonged inhibitor treatments caused dynamic expression both of hTERT and of c-Jun, p53, STAT3, AR and c-Myc.Our results indicate that GSK3 activates hTERT expression in cancer cells and contributes to telomere length homeostasis. GSK3 inhibition is a clinical strategy for several chronic diseases. These results imply that it may also be useful in cancer therapy. However, the complex network effects we show here have implications for either setting.

  12. Suppression of Adult Neurogenesis Increases the Acute Effects of Kainic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Sloka S.; LaFrancois, John J.; Friedman, Daniel; Drew, Liam J.; Denny, Christine A.; Burghardt, Nesha S.; Wu, Melody V.; Hsieh, Jenny; Hen, René; Scharfman, Helen E.

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons in the adult brain, occurs in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and the olfactory bulb (OB) of all mammals, but the functions of these new neurons are not entirely clear. Originally, adult-born neurons were considered to have excitatory effects on the DG network, but recent studies suggest a net inhibitory effect. Therefore, we hypothesized that selective removal of newborn neurons would lead to increased susceptibility to the effects of a convulsant. This hypothesis was tested by evaluating the response to the chemoconvulsant kainic acid (KA) in mice with reduced adult neurogenesis, produced either by focal X-irradiation of the DG, or by pharmacogenetic deletion of dividing radial glial precursors. In the first 4 hrs after KA administration, when mice have the most robust seizures, mice with reduced adult neurogenesis had more severe convulsive seizures, exhibited either as a decreased latency to the first convulsive seizure, greater number of convulsive seizures, or longer convulsive seizures. Nonconvulsive seizures did not appear to change or they decreased. Four-21 hrs after KA injection, mice with reduced adult neurogenesis showed more interictal spikes (IIS) and delayed seizures than controls. Effects were greater when the anticonvulsant ethosuximide was injected 30 min prior to KA administration; ethosuximide allows forebrain seizure activity to be more easily examined in mice by suppressing seizures dominated by the brainstem. These data support the hypothesis that reduction of adult-born neurons increases the susceptibility of the brain to effects of KA. PMID:25476494

  13. Extra-dimensional curvature suppression of the effective four-dimensional vacuum energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, E. I.

    2012-05-01

    Considering a very large number of extra dimensions, N → ∞, we show that in the effective four-dimensional picture, to leading order in N, both the cosmological constant in N + 4 dimensions and the curvature of the extra dimensions (curved as spheres) give the same type of contributions. Furthermore, in this limit, the extra-dimensional curvature naturally suppresses the effect of a positive cosmological constant, so that the resulting effective potential governing the vacuum energy in the effective 4 - D picture has a leading 1/N dependence (i.e. vanishing in the large N limit). We can understand qualitatively this effect in a heuristic picture by thinking that both visible and extra dimensions have an equal sharing of the curvature caused by Λ. In this case when increasing the overall number of dimensions by adding N extra dimensions, then if N is large, the visible dimensions do not have to curve too much; hence, a small four-dimensional vacuum energy follows. In the large N picture, the potential can also be stabilized by a small (i.e. vanishing at large N) expectation value of a four-index field strength.

  14. Effect of Nanoemitters on Suppressing the Formation of Metal Adduct Ions in Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Guan, Qi-Yuan; Wang, Jiang; Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Wu, Zeng-Qiang; Xia, Xing-Hua; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2017-02-07

    In the work, we showed that the use of nanoemitters (tip dimension metal adduction to peptide or protein ions as well as improve the matrix tolerance of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The proton-enriched smaller initial droplets are supposed to have played a significant role in suppressing the formation of metal adduct ions in nanoemitters. The proton-enrichment effect in the nanoemitters is related to both the exclusion-enrichment effect (EEE) and the ion concentration polarization effect (ICP effect), which permit the molecular ions to be regulated to protonated ones. Smaller initial charged droplets generated from nanoemitters need less fission steps to release the gas-phase ions; thus, the enrichment effect of salt was not as significant as that of microemitters (tip dimension >1 μm), resulting in the disappearing of salt cluster peaks in high mass-to-charge (m/z) region. The use of nanoemitters demonstrates a novel method for tuning the distribution of the metal-adducted ions to be in a controlled manner. This method is also characterized by ease of use and high efficiency in eliminating the formation of adduct ions, and no pretreatment such as desalting is needed even in the presence of salt at millimole concentration.

  15. Lack of tolerance to the suppressing effect of rimonabant on chocolate intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessa, Gian Luigi; Orrù, Alessandro; Lai, Paola; Maccioni, Paola; Lecca, Rossella; Lobina, Carla; Carai, Mauro A M; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2006-04-01

    Previous work indicated that tolerance to the anorectic effect of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist, rimonabant, developed rather rapidly in rats and mice given access to a standard rodent chow. The present study was designed to investigate whether the reducing effect of rimonabant on intake of a highly palatable food such as a chocolate-flavoured beverage underwent a development of tolerance as rapid as that manifested on intake of a standard rodent chow. To this aim, Wistar rats were concurrently exposed, with unlimited access for 24 h/day, to the chocolate-flavoured beverage, regular food pellets and water. Rimonabant (0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg; i.p.) was administered once a day for 21 consecutive days. Rimonabant administration resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of the high, daily intake of the chocolate-flavoured beverage; this effect lasted for the entire 21-day treatment period, without any apparent development of tolerance. Conversely, rimonabant-induced reduction in daily intake of regular food pellets was of a smaller magnitude and was limited to the first 3-4 days of treatment. Together, these results indicate that chronically administered rimonabant was more effective and longer-lasting in reducing the intake of a highly palatable food than that of regular food pellets in rats. These results also suggest that rimonabant may be more active on the hedonic rather than nutritive properties of diets.

  16. Enduring neurobehavioral effects of early life trauma mediated through learning and corticosterone suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Moriceau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Early life trauma alters later life emotions, including fear. To better understand mediating mechanisms, we subjected pups to either predictable or unpredictable trauma, in the form of paired or unpaired odor-0.5mA shock conditioning which, during a sensitive period, produces an odor preference and no learning respectively. Fear conditioning and its neural correlates were then assessed after the sensitive period at postnatal day (PN13 or in adulthood, ages when amygdala-dependent fear occurs. Our results revealed that paired odor-shock conditioning starting during the sensitive period (PN8-12 blocked fear conditioning in older infants (PN13 and pups continued to express olfactory bulb-dependent odor preference learning. This PN13 fear learning inhibition was also associated with suppression of shock-induced corticosterone, although the age appropriate amygdala-dependent fear learning was reinstated with systemic corticosterone (3mg/kg during conditioning. On the other hand, sensitive period odor-shock conditioning did not prevent adult fear conditioning, although freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake and corticosterone levels were attenuated compared to adult conditioning without infant conditioning. Normal levels of freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake were induced with systemic corticosterone (5mg/kg during adult conditioning. These results suggest that the contingency of early life trauma mediates at least some effects of early life stress through learning and suppression of corticosterone levels. However, developmental differences between infants and adults are expressed with PN13 infants’ learning consistent with the original learned preference, while adult conditioning overrides the original learned preference with attenuated amygdala-dependent fear learning.

  17. Sevoflurane-induced isoelectric EEG and burst suppression: differential and antagonistic effect of added nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, B; Xiao, J Y; Fang, Y; Zhou, B Y; Li, J; Cao, F; Tian, Y K; Mei, W

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether nitrous oxide influenced the ED50 of sevoflurane for induction of isoelectric electroencephalogram (ED50 isoelectric ) differently from its influence on the ED50 of sevoflurane for electroencephalogram burst suppression (ED50 burst ). In a prospective, randomised, double-blind, parallel group, up-down sequential allocation study, 77 ASA physical status 1 and 2 patients received sevoflurane induction and, after tracheal intubation, were randomly allocated to receive sevoflurane with either 40% oxygen in air (control group) or 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen mixture (nitrous group). The ED50 isoelectric in the two groups was determined using Dixon's up and down method, starting at 2.5% with 0.2% step size of end-tidal sevoflurane. The electroencephalogram was considered as isoelectric when a burst suppression ratio of 100% lasted > 1 min. The subsequent concentrations of sevoflurane administered were determined by the presence or absence of isoelectric electroencephalogram in the previous patient in the same group. The ED50 isoelectric in the nitrous group 4.08 (95%CI, 3.95-4.38)% was significantly higher than that in the control group 3.68 (95%CI, 3.50-3.78)% (p nitrous group and control group, respectively (p = 0.52). The addition of 60% nitrous oxide increases ED50 isoelectric , but not the ED50 burst of sevoflurane. Neither result indicates an additive effect of anaesthetic agents, as might be expected, and possible reasons for this are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Anaesthesia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. External human factors in incident management team decisionmaking and their effect on large fire suppression expenditures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janie Canton-Tompson; Krista M. Gebert; Brooke Thompson; Greg Jones; David Calkin; Geoff. Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Large wildland fires are complex, costly events influenced by a vast array of physical, climatic, and social factors. Changing climate, fuel buildup due to past suppression, and increasing populations in the wildland-urban interface have all been blamed for the extreme fire seasons and rising suppression expenditures of recent years. With each high-cost year comes a...

  19. Determination of The Minimal Amount of Water for Effective Suppression of The Thermal Decomposition of Forest Combustible Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhdanova Alena О.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are big problem for whole the world community. The development of new effective methods is needed to increase the efficiency of the firefighting. We have investigated experimentally the suppression of thermal decomposition of different typical forest combustibles using water aerosol. Droplet sizes were 0.02-0.2mm; the concentration −3.8·10−5 m3 of water/m3, the flow rate −0.00035 l/s, flow velocity −2 m/s. Registration of the aerosol propagation and interaction with combustibles was done by high-speed video camera using Shadow Photography and Particle Tracking Velocimetry methods. The effective water volumes for fire suppression were determined together with corresponding suppression times. The obtained results could be used for improvement of the fire-fighting technologies.

  20. Suppression (but not reappraisal impairs subsequent error detection: an ERP study of emotion regulation's resource-depleting effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Past event-related potentials (ERPs research shows that, after exerting effortful emotion inhibition, the neural correlates of performance monitoring (e.g. error-related negativity were weakened. An undetermined issue is whether all forms of emotion regulation uniformly impair later performance monitoring. The present study compared the cognitive consequences of two emotion regulation strategies, namely suppression and reappraisal. Participants were instructed to suppress their emotions while watching a sad movie, or to adopt a neutral and objective attitude toward the movie, or to just watch the movie carefully. Then after a mood scale, all participants completed an ostensibly unrelated Stroop task, during which ERPs (i.e. error-related negativity (ERN, post-error positivity (Pe and N450 were obtained. Reappraisal group successfully decreased their sad emotion, relative to the other two groups. Compared with participants in the control group and the reappraisal group, those who suppressed their emotions during the sad movie showed reduced ERN after error commission. Participants in the suppression group also made more errors in incongruent Stroop trials than the other two groups. There were no significant main effects or interactions of group for reaction time, Pe and N450. Results suggest that reappraisal is both more effective and less resource-depleting than suppression.

  1. Suppressive effects of the leaf of Terminalia catappa L. on osteoclast differentiation in vitro and bone weight loss in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Tomoyuki; Nakajima, Chie; Nishimoto, Sogo; Takami, Masamichi; Woo, Je-Tae; Yazawa, Kazunaga

    2012-01-01

    Oral administration of Terminalia catappa extract (TCE; 1,000 mg/kg) for 5 wk suppressed bone weight loss and trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized mice. An in vitro experiment showed that TCE (1.3-20 µg/mL) did not increase alkaline phosphatase activity, which would indicate osteoclast formation, in osteoblast-like 3T3-L1 cells. On the other hand, TCE (12.5 µg/mL) markedly decreased the number of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells, which would indicate osteoclast formation, in a co-culture system (bone marrow cells/osteoblastic UAMS-32 cells). A detailed analysis of the stages of osteoclast differentiation revealed that TCE mainly suppressed the differentiation of bone marrow mononuclear cells into osteoclast progenitor cells in the presence of M-CSF and TGF-β. An additional experiment using fractionated TCE revealed that the water-soluble fraction suppressed the bone weight loss in OVX-mice and osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Therefore, the suppressive effects of TCE on bone weight loss in mice might be due to the suppressive effects of highly polar components on the early stage of osteoclast differentiation.

  2. Effects of carbamazepine on dexamethasone suppression and sleep electroencephalography in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Fuente, José M; Bobes, Julio; Vizuete, Coro; Mendlewicz, Julien

    2002-01-01

    The pathophysiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) remains obscure, but there is mounting evidence of brain dysfunction without focal abnormality. The dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and sleep electroencephalography (sleep EEG) have been studied in BPD, but the findings seem to be related to a concomitant axis I diagnosis of major depression (MD) rather than to BPD itself. There is no effective treatment for BPD. Carbamazepine (CBZ) has shown contradictory results and in a previous study, our results were negative. In this study, we investigated the effects of CBZ versus placebo on the DST and sleep EEG in a sample of 20 BPD patients without concomitant MD. CBZ given at doses that are therapeutic for epilepsy and affective disorders may have an effect on the DST and sleep EEG in BPD. CBZ significantly increased the postdexamethasone plasma cortisol values. This did not parallel MD or an increase in the Hamilton depression rating scores. CBZ also increased slow wave sleep (SWS). The mechanisms by which CBZ increased postdexamethasone plasma cortisol levels and SWS in BPD are discussed. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Suppression of period-doubling and nonlinear parametric effects in periodically perturbed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.; Wiesenfeld, K.

    1986-01-01

    We consider the effect on a generic period-doubling bifurcation of a periodic perturbation, whose frequency ω 1 is near the period-doubled frequency ω 0 /2. The perturbation is shown to always suppress the bifurcation, shifting the bifurcation point and stabilizing the behavior at the original bifurcation point. We derive an equation characterizing the response of the system to the perturbation, analysis of which reveals many interesting features of the perturbed bifurcation, including (1) the scaling law relating the shift of the bifurcation point and the amplitude of the perturbation, (2) the characteristics of the system's response as a function of bifurcation parameter, (3) parametric amplification of the perturbation signal including nonlinear effects such as gain saturation and a discontinuity in the response at a critical perturbation amplitude, (4) the effect of the detuning (ω 1 -ω 0 /2) on the bifurcation, and (5) the emergence of a closely spaced set of peaks in the response spectrum. An important application is the use of period-doubling systems as small-signal amplifiers, e.g., the superconducting Josephson parametric amplifier

  4. Effective suppression of Dengue fever virus in mosquito cell cultures using retroviral transduction of hammerhead ribozymes targeting the viral genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ahmed

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Outbreaks of Dengue impose a heavy economic burden on developing countries in terms of vector control and human morbidity. Effective vaccines against all four serotypes of Dengue are in development, but population replacement with transgenic vectors unable to transmit the virus might ultimately prove to be an effective approach to disease suppression, or even eradication. A key element of the refractory transgenic vector approach is the development of transgenes that effectively prohibit viral transmission. In this report we test the effectiveness of several hammerhead ribozymes for suppressing DENV in lentivirus-transduced mosquito cells in an attempt to mimic the transgenic use of these effector molecules in mosquitoes. A lentivirus vector that expresses these ribozymes as a fusion RNA molecule using an Ae. aegypti tRNAval promoter and terminating with a 60A tail insures optimal expression, localization, and activity of the hammerhead ribozyme against the DENV genome. Among the 14 hammerhead ribozymes we designed to attack the DENV-2 NGC genome, several appear to be relatively effective in reducing virus production from transduced cells by as much as 2 logs. Among the sequences targeted are 10 that are conserved among all DENV serotype 2 strains. Our results confirm that hammerhead ribozymes can be effective in suppressing DENV in a transgenic approach, and provide an alternative or supplementary approach to proposed siRNA strategies for DENV suppression in transgenic mosquitoes.

  5. Studies on disease suppressiveness of soils. III. - Effects of γ-rays on microorganisms of a soil and on its suppressiveness to fusarium of Muskmelon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabouvette, C.; Rouxel, F.; Louvet, J.

    1977-01-01

    Soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt of Muskmelon persists after treatment by 50 krd in spite of 60-70% destruction of its microflora. From 50 to 250 krd, residual microflora is progressively reduced while suppressiveness sharply decreases between 50 and 100 krd. Soil becomes very receptive after 250-500 krd treatments in correlation with nearly total microflora breakdown [fr

  6. Effects of radiation damping for biomolecular NMR experiments in solution: a hemisphere concept for water suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishima, Rieko

    2015-09-01

    Abundant solvent nuclear spins, such as water protons in aqueous solution, cause radiation damping in NMR experiments. It is important to know how the effect of radiation damping appears in high-resolution protein NMR because macromolecular studies always require very high magnetic field strengths with a highly sensitive NMR probe that can easily cause radiation damping. Here, we show the behavior of water magnetization after a pulsed-field gradient (PFG) using nutation experiments at 900 MHz with a cryogenic probe: when water magnetization is located in the upper hemisphere (having +Z component, parallel to the external magnetic field), dephasing of the magnetization by a PFG effectively suppresses residual water magnetization in the transverse plane. In contrast, when magnetization is located in the lower hemisphere (having -Z component), the small residual transverse component remaining after a PFG is still sufficient to induce radiation damping. Based on this observation, we designed 1 H- 15 N HSQC experiments in which water magnetization is maintained in the upper hemisphere, but not necessarily along Z, and compared them with the conventional experiments, in which water magnetization is inverted during the t 1 period. The result demonstrates moderate gain of signal-to-noise ratio, 0-28%. Designing the experiments such that water magnetization is maintained in the upper hemisphere allows shorter pulses to be used compared to the complete water flip-back and, thereby, is useful as a building block of protein NMR pulse programs in solution.

  7. Elevated Temperature and Drought Interact to Reduce Parasitoid Effectiveness in Suppressing Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Cecilia M.; Tylianakis, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change affects the abundance, distribution and activity of natural enemies that are important for suppressing herbivore crop pests. Moreover, higher mean temperatures and increased frequency of climatic extremes are expected to induce different responses across trophic levels, potentially disrupting predator-prey interactions. Using field observations, we examined the response of an aphid host-parasitoid system to variation in temperature. Temperature was positively associated with attack rates by parasitoids, but also with a non-significant trend towards increased attack rates by higher-level hyperparasitoids. Elevated hyperparasitism could partly offset any benefit of climate warming to parasitoids, and would suggest that higher trophic levels may hamper predictions of predator-prey interactions. Additionally, the mechanisms affecting host-parasitoid dynamics were examined using controlled laboratory experiments that simulated both temperature increase and drought. Parasitoid fitness and longevity responded differently when exposed to each climatic variable in isolation, compared to the interaction of both variables at once. Although temperature increase or drought tended to positively affect the ability of parasitoids to control aphid populations, these effects were significantly reversed when the drivers were expressed in concert. Additionally, separate warming and drought treatments reduced parasitoid longevity, and although temperature increased parasitoid emergence success and drought increased offspring production, combined temperature and drought produced the lowest parasitoid emergence. The non-additive effects of different climate drivers, combined with differing responses across trophic levels, suggest that predicting future pest outbreaks will be more challenging than previously imagined. PMID:23472147

  8. Performance tolerance analysis of birefringent fiber loop for semiconductor optical amplifier pattern effect suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizou, Zoe V.; Zoiros, Kyriakos E.; Hatziefremidis, Antonios; Connelly, Michael J.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the performance of the birefringent fiber loop (BFL) when the settings of the components that construct this module are not perfect. The BFL is employed for suppressing the pattern effect on directly amplified data in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The analysis is conducted by describing the non-optimum BFL transmission response using Jones matrix method. This allows to formulate a comprehensive model, which is validated by comparing it to the experiment. Then we investigate and specify how sensitive the BFL is to imperfections of its building components by assessing its performance against the output amplitude modulation, power penalty, and crosstalk. For each critical operating parameter, we derive the tolerance range within which these performance metrics are acceptable. The obtained results suggest that the BFL can efficiently mitigate the SOA pattern effect even if it is built from non-ideal components. This can be achieved provided that these components are designed according to their extracted operating conditions, which are practically satisfiable.

  9. Suppressive effects of lysozyme on polyphosphate-mediated vascular inflammatory responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jiwoo [College of Pharmacy, CMRI, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, BK21 Plus KNU Multi-Omics Based Creative Drug Research Team, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Sae-Kwang [Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan 38610 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Suyeon [College of Pharmacy, CMRI, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, BK21 Plus KNU Multi-Omics Based Creative Drug Research Team, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jong-Sup, E-mail: baejs@knu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, CMRI, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, BK21 Plus KNU Multi-Omics Based Creative Drug Research Team, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-10

    Lysozyme, found in relatively high concentration in blood, saliva, tears, and milk, protects us from the ever-present danger of bacterial infection. Previous studies have reported proinflammatory responses of endothelial cells to the release of polyphosphate(PolyP). In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory responses and mechanisms of lysozyme and its effects on PolyP-induced septic activities in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mice. The survival rates, septic biomarker levels, behavior of human neutrophils, and vascular permeability were determined in PolyP-activated HUVECs and mice. Lysozyme suppressed the PolyP-mediated vascular barrier permeability, upregulation of inflammatory biomarkers, adhesion/migration of leukocytes, and activation and/or production of nuclear factor-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. Furthermore, lysozyme demonstrated protective effects on PolyP-mediated lethal death and the levels of the related septic biomarkers. Therefore, these results indicated the therapeutic potential of lysozyme on various systemic inflammatory diseases, such as sepsis or septic shock. -- Highlights: •PolyP is shown to be an important mediator of vascular inflammation. •Lysozyme inhibited PolyP-mediated hyperpermeability. •Lysozyme inhibited PolyP-mediated septic response. •Lysozyme reduced PolyP-induced septic mortality.

  10. Elevated temperature and drought interact to reduce parasitoid effectiveness in suppressing hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia M Romo

    Full Text Available Climate change affects the abundance, distribution and activity of natural enemies that are important for suppressing herbivore crop pests. Moreover, higher mean temperatures and increased frequency of climatic extremes are expected to induce different responses across trophic levels, potentially disrupting predator-prey interactions. Using field observations, we examined the response of an aphid host-parasitoid system to variation in temperature. Temperature was positively associated with attack rates by parasitoids, but also with a non-significant trend towards increased attack rates by higher-level hyperparasitoids. Elevated hyperparasitism could partly offset any benefit of climate warming to parasitoids, and would suggest that higher trophic levels may hamper predictions of predator-prey interactions. Additionally, the mechanisms affecting host-parasitoid dynamics were examined using controlled laboratory experiments that simulated both temperature increase and drought. Parasitoid fitness and longevity responded differently when exposed to each climatic variable in isolation, compared to the interaction of both variables at once. Although temperature increase or drought tended to positively affect the ability of parasitoids to control aphid populations, these effects were significantly reversed when the drivers were expressed in concert. Additionally, separate warming and drought treatments reduced parasitoid longevity, and although temperature increased parasitoid emergence success and drought increased offspring production, combined temperature and drought produced the lowest parasitoid emergence. The non-additive effects of different climate drivers, combined with differing responses across trophic levels, suggest that predicting future pest outbreaks will be more challenging than previously imagined.

  11. Suppressive effects of lysozyme on polyphosphate-mediated vascular inflammatory responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jiwoo; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Lee, Suyeon; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Lysozyme, found in relatively high concentration in blood, saliva, tears, and milk, protects us from the ever-present danger of bacterial infection. Previous studies have reported proinflammatory responses of endothelial cells to the release of polyphosphate(PolyP). In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory responses and mechanisms of lysozyme and its effects on PolyP-induced septic activities in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mice. The survival rates, septic biomarker levels, behavior of human neutrophils, and vascular permeability were determined in PolyP-activated HUVECs and mice. Lysozyme suppressed the PolyP-mediated vascular barrier permeability, upregulation of inflammatory biomarkers, adhesion/migration of leukocytes, and activation and/or production of nuclear factor-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. Furthermore, lysozyme demonstrated protective effects on PolyP-mediated lethal death and the levels of the related septic biomarkers. Therefore, these results indicated the therapeutic potential of lysozyme on various systemic inflammatory diseases, such as sepsis or septic shock. -- Highlights: •PolyP is shown to be an important mediator of vascular inflammation. •Lysozyme inhibited PolyP-mediated hyperpermeability. •Lysozyme inhibited PolyP-mediated septic response. •Lysozyme reduced PolyP-induced septic mortality.

  12. Suppressive Effect of Some Forage Plants on the Growth of Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Iva xanthiifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senka Milanova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A pot trial in greenhouse conditions has been carried out to investigate the role ofsome plant species in suppression of Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Iva xanthiifolia growth.Screening of several plant species (Medicago sativa L., Lolium perenne L., Dactylis glomerataL. and Elymus repens (L. Gould – all from both turf and seeds was conducted. Theresults of the experiment showed that some perennial plants, especially L. perenne, D.glomerata and M. sativa, can be a reliable means of suppression of the growth and seedproduction of A. artemisiifolia and I. xanthiifolia. Moreover, simple greenhouse screeningturned to be a reliable method for predicting this potential suppressive role under certainconditions.

  13. A new method to evaluate the weed-suppressing effect of mulches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, B. W.; Ali, A.; Streibig, Jens Carl

    2013-01-01

    To suppress weeds in an apple (Malus sp.) orchard, we placed spruce (Picea spp.) bark mulch and cocoa (Theobroma cacao) husk mulch for 3 months in thicknesses of 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 cm. To assess the development of weed cover, an innovative use of log-logistic dose–response models was applied...... (ED50 and ED90) differed significantly within and between mulch types. In all except one instance, the cocoa mulch was superior in suppressing weeds. This method was useful for the evaluation, but further research is needed to give a more general conclusion about the suppression ability of the two...

  14. Suppression of Adverse Effects of GIC Using Controlled Variable Grounding Resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhussein, A.; Ali, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    Geomagnetically induced current (GIC) has a harmful impact on power systems, with a large footprint. Mitigation strategies for the GIC are required to protect the integrity of the power system. To date, the adverse effects of GIC are being mitigated by either operational procedures or grounding fixed capacitors (GFCs). The operational procedures are uncertain, reduce systems' reliability, and increase energy losses. On the other hand, GFCs, incur voltage spikes, increase the transformer cost substantially, and require protection circuitry. This study investigates new possible approaches to cope with GIC, by using a controlled variable grounding resistor (CVGR), without interfering with the system's normal operation. In addition, the new techniques help suppress unsymmetrical faults in the power network. The controllability of the grounding resistor is applied using three different techniques: (1) a Parallel switch that is controlled by PI regulated duty cycle, (2) a Parallel switch that is triggered by a preset values in a look-up-table (LUT), and (3) a Mechanical resistor varied by a Fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The experimental results were obtained and validated using the MATLAB/SIMULINK software. A hypothetical power system that consists of a generator, a 765kv, 500 km long transmission lines connecting between a step-up, Δ-Yn, transformer, and a step-down, Yn-Δ, transformer, is considered. The performance of the CVGR is compared with that of the GFC under the cases of GIC event and unsymmetrical faults. From the simulation results, the following points are concluded: The CVGR effectively suppresses the GIC flowing in the system. Consequently, it protects the transformers from saturation and the rest of the system from collapsing. The CVGR also reduces the voltage and power swings associated with unsymmetrical faults and blocks the zero sequence current flowing through the neutral of the transformer. The performance of the CVGR surpasses that of the GFC in

  15. Effect of Sunn Hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) Cutting Date and Planting Density on Weed Suppression in Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit in Griffin, GA to investigate weed suppression by sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L). The objectives were to: 1) evaluate the effects of apical meristem removal (AMR) at three dates [5, 6, and 7 wks...

  16. Suppressive effects of metabolites from Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp. on phytopathogens of peach and pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to determine the suppressive abilities of bacterial metabolites derived from Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus spp. on Glomerella cingulata, Phomopsis sp., Phytophthora cactorum, and Fusicladosporium effusum, which are fungal or oomycete pathogens of pecan, and Monilinia fructicola, a f...

  17. Effect of X-ray suppression system upon parameters of electrostatic accelerator ion beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Ignat'ev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study results are presented for a beam profile and emittance of an electrostatic accelerator “Sokol” before and after being equipped with magnet X-ray suppression system.

  18. Suppressive effects of dietary high fluorine on the intestinal development in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qin; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Liu, Juan; Deng, Yubing

    2013-12-01

    Fluoride (F) is a well-recognized hazardous substance. Ingested F initially acts locally on the intestines. The small intestine plays a critical role in the digestion, absorption, and defense. In this study, therefore, we investigated the effects of fluorine on the intestinal development by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and histochemistry. A total of 280 one-day-old avian broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet (fluorine, 22.6 mg/kg) or the same basal diet supplemented with 400, 800, and 1,200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II, and III) in the form of sodium fluoride for 42 days. The results showed that the intestinal gross, histological, and ultrastructural changes were observed in the high fluorine groups II and III. Meanwhile, the intestinal length, weight, viscera index, villus height, crypt depth, villus height to crypt depth ratio, diameter, muscle layer thickness, and goblet cell numbers were significantly lower (p fluorine groups II and III than those in control group. In conclusion, dietary fluorine in the range of 800-1,200 mg/kg obviously altered the aforementioned parameters of the intestines, implying that the intestinal development was suppressed and the intestinal functions, such as digestion, absorption, defense, or osmoregulation were impaired in broilers.

  19. Suppressive effects of aluminum trichloride on the T lymphocyte immune function of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanzhu; Hu, Chongwei; Li, Xinwei; Shao, Bing; Sun, Hao; Zhao, Hansong; Li, Yanfei

    2012-03-01

    Aluminum (Al) has increasingly been used in the daily life, and could cause the change of human health because it can accumulate in the organs. A rat model was thus used to examine potential effect of Al on the immune function. Forty male Wistar rats (5 weeks old) weighed 110-120 g were randomly allocated into four groups and were orally exposed to 0, 64.18, 128.36, and 256.72 mg/kg body weight aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) in drinking water for 120 days. The levels of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocyte, acid non-specific activity esterase (ANAE+) in blood, and interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum were determined at the end of experiment. The results showed that the proportions of CD3+, CD4+ T lymphocyte, the ratio of CD4+/CD8+, and the levels of ANAE+, IL-2, and TNF-α were significantly reduced in AlCl3-treated rats, while the proportion of CD8+ T lymphocyte was increased in an AlCl3-dose dependent manner. Our findings indicate that a long term exposure of AlCl3 could suppress the T lymphocyte immune function of rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Utilizing Schottky barriers to suppress short-channel effects in organic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Anton F.; Zojer, Karin

    2017-10-01

    Transistors with short channel lengths exhibit profound deviations from the ideally expected behavior. One of the undesired short-channel effects is an enlarged OFF current that is associated with a premature turn on of the transistor. We present an efficient approach to suppress the OFF current, defined as the current at zero gate source bias, in short-channel organic transistors. We employ two-dimensional device simulations based on the drift-diffusion model to demonstrate that intentionally incorporating a Schottky barrier for injection enhances the ON-OFF ratio in both staggered and coplanar transistor architectures. The Schottky barrier is identified to directly counteract the origin of enlarged OFF currents: Short channels promote a drain-induced barrier lowering. The latter permits unhindered injection of charges even at reverse gate-source bias. An additional Schottky barrier hampers injection for such points of operations. We explain how it is possible to find the Schottky barrier of the smallest height necessary to exactly compensate for the premature turn on. This approach offers a substantial enhancement of the ON-OFF ratio. We show that this roots in the fact that such optimal barrier heights offer an excellent compromise between an OFF current diminished by orders of magnitude and an only slightly reduced ON current.

  1. USE OF SACCHROMYCES CERVISIAE TO SUPPRESS THE EFFECTS OF FUMONISIN MYCOTOXICOSIS IN JAPANESE QUAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABU TALEB, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, 400 unsexed Japanese quail chicks (1 day old) were used. The quail chicks were randomly assigned into four groups of 100 birds in each. The first group was served as control. The other experimental groups were fed on a basal diet supplemented with 0.5% yeast/kg diet (G2), 0.5% yeast/kg diet ± 200 mg fumonicin-B1/kg diet (G3) and 200 mg fumonicin-B1/kg diet (G4). The results showed significant increases in mortality rate, GPT (ALT), GOT (AST), cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and decreases in body weight, hatchability, fertility and hatching weight, serum total proteins, globulin and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in group of quails received fumonisin (G4) in comparison with the control group (G1) and all treatments. Yeast led to partial improvement in the parameters in group two (G2). Also, yeast suppressed the toxic effect of fumonisin B-1 (G3)

  2. The Warburg effect suppresses oxidative stress induced apoptosis in a yeast model for cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Ruckenstuhl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Otto Warburg observed that cancer cells are often characterized by intense glycolysis in the presence of oxygen and a concomitant decrease in mitochondrial respiration. Research has mainly focused on a possible connection between increased glycolysis and tumor development whereas decreased respiration has largely been left unattended. Therefore, a causal relation between decreased respiration and tumorigenesis has not been demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this purpose, colonies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is suitable for manipulation of mitochondrial respiration and shows mitochondria-mediated cell death, were used as a model. Repression of respiration as well as ROS-scavenging via glutathione inhibited apoptosis and conferred a survival advantage during seeding and early development of this fast proliferating solid cell population. In contrast, enhancement of respiration triggered cell death. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, the Warburg effect might directly contribute to the initiation of cancer formation--not only by enhanced glycolysis--but also via decreased respiration in the presence of oxygen, which suppresses apoptosis.

  3. The suppressive effect of apricot kernel extract on 5alpha-Androst-16-en-3-one generated by microbial metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikoshiba, S; Takenaka, H; Okumura, T; Someya, K; Ohdera, M

    2006-02-01

    Body odours are generated from dead skin cells and secreted materials, such as sweat and sebum, through the metabolism of microorganisms living on the skin. Volatile steroids, key compounds in body odours, are also generated through the metabolism of microorganisms. These volatile steroids strengthen the intensity of the overall body malodour and are sensed differently by males and females. Females are more sensitive than males to volatile steroids, especially 5alpha-androst-16-en-3-one (androstenone). To regulate body odours that are especially unpleasant for women, we devised an androstenone-generation model using the metabolism of Corynebacterium xerosis, which is one of the bacteria living on the axillary skin. Using this model, we studied the suppressive effect of plant extracts on the generation of androstenone. We found that apricot kernel extract (AKE) had the most positive effect among the plant extracts to which we applied the model. However, although AKE did suppress androstenone generation, it did not show any bactericidal effect. Using the cell-free system, AKE also suppressed the generation of androstenone. In conclusion, we found that AKE suppressed the generation of androstenone, which is especially unpleasant for women, and the mechanism was not bactericidal but metabolic inhibition. The results of these studies provide new understanding of the regulation of androstenone, which, in turn, should lead to the development of novel deodorant systems.

  4. Pleiotropic effect of the proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole leading to suppression of lung inflammation and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremariam, Yohannes T; Cooke, John P; Gerhart, William; Griego, Carol; Brower, Jeremy B; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Moeller, Benjamin C; Zhou, Qingtao; Ho, Lawrence; de Andrade, Joao; Raghu, Ganesh; Peterson, Leif; Rivera, Andreana; Rosen, Glenn D

    2015-08-01

    The beneficial outcome associated with the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has been reported in retrospective studies. To date, no prospective study has been conducted to confirm these outcomes. In addition, the potential mechanism by which PPIs improve measures of lung function and/or transplant-free survival in IPF has not been elucidated. Here, we used biochemical, cell biological and preclinical studies to evaluate regulation of markers associated with inflammation and fibrosis. In our in vitro studies, we exposed primary lung fibroblasts, epithelial and endothelial cells to ionizing radiation or bleomycin; stimuli typically used to induce inflammation and fibrosis. In addition, we cultured lung fibroblasts from IPF patients and studied the effect of esomeprazole on collagen release. Our preclinical study tested efficacy of esomeprazole in a rat model of bleomycin-induced lung injury. Furthermore, we performed retrospective analysis of interstitial lung disease (ILD) databases to examine the effect of PPIs on transplant-free survival. The cell culture studies revealed that esomeprazole controls inflammation by suppressing the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules including vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukins (IL-1β and IL-6). The antioxidant effect is associated with strong induction of the stress-inducible cytoprotective protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) and the antifibrotic effect is associated with potent inhibition of fibroblast proliferation as well as downregulation of profibrotic proteins including receptors for transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), fibronectin and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Furthermore, esomeprazole showed robust effect in mitigating the inflammatory and fibrotic responses in a murine model of acute lung injury. Finally, retrospective analysis of two ILD databases was performed to assess the effect

  5. Suppression Effects of Betaine-Enriched Spinach on Hyperhomocysteinemia Induced by Guanidinoacetic Acid and Choline Deficiency in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Qun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Betaine is an important natural component of rich food sources, especially spinach. Rats were fed diets with betaine or spinach powder at the same level of betaine for 10 days to investigate the dose-dependent effects of spinach powder supplementation on hyperhomocysteinemia induced by guanidinoacetic acid (GAA addition and choline deprivation. The GAA-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in rats fed 25% casein diet (25C was significantly suppressed by supplementation with betaine or spinach, and it was completely suppressed by taking 11.0% spinach supplementation. The choline deprivation-induced enhancement of plasma homocysteine concentration in rats fed 25% soybean protein diet (25S was markedly suppressed by 3.82% spinach. Supplementation with betaine or spinach partially prevented the effects of GAA on hepatic concentrations of methionine metabolites. The decrease in activity of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS in GAA-induced hyperhomocysteinemia was recovered by supplementation with betaine or spinach. Supplementation with betaine or spinach did not affect BHMT activity, whereas it partially restored CBS activity in choline-deprived 25S. The results indicated that betaine or spinach could completely suppress the hyperhomocysteinemia induced by choline deficiency resulting from stimulating the homocysteine removal by both remethylation and cystathionine formation.

  6. Inhibitory effect of putranjivain A on allergic inflammation through suppression of mast cell activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hui-Hun; Park, Seung-Bin; Lee, Soyoung [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Taeg Kyu [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Tae-Yong [College of Pharmacy, Woosuk University, Jeonju 565-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Pil-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Ho [College of Pharmacy, Youngnam University, Kyungsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun, E-mail: shkim72@knu.ac.kr [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    A great number of people are suffering from allergic inflammatory disease such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and sinusitis. Therefore discovery of drugs for the treatment of these diseases is an important subject in human health. Putranjivain A (PJA), member of ellagitannin, is known to possess beneficial effects including anti-cancer and anti-viral activities. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether PJA modulates the allergic inflammatory reaction and to study its possible mechanisms of action using mast cell-based in vitro and in vivo models. The study was performed in anaphylaxis mouse model and cultured mast cells. PJA inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immunoglobulin E-stimulated mast cells. PJA reduced this expression by inhibiting nuclear factor (NF)-κB and nuclear factor of activated T cell. The oral administration of PJA reduced systemic and cutaneous anaphylaxis, the release of serum histamine, and the expression of the histamine H{sub 1} receptor. In addition, PJA attenuated the activation of mast cells. PJA inhibited the release of histamine from various types of mast cells by the suppression of intracellular calcium. The inhibitory activity of PJA on the allergic reaction was similar to that of disodium cromoglycate, a known anti-allergic drug. These results suggest that PJA can facilitate the prevention or treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases mediated by mast cells. - Highlights: • PJA reduced the degranulation of mast cells. • PJA inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines. • The effect of PJA on allergic reaction was comparable to the DSCG. • PJA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases.

  7. Midazolam more effectively suppresses sympathetic activations and reduces stress feelings during mental arithmetic task than propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugayasu, Rie; Handa, Toshiyuki; Kaneko, Yuzuru; Ichinohe, Tatsuya

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of intravenous midazolam and propofol sedation on autonomic nervous activities during psychological stress, and whether these results are associated with changes in subjective stress feelings. Seven healthy male volunteers were included in a randomized crossover manner. The heart rate (HR), HR variability, arterial oxygen saturation, and bispectral index value were continuously monitored. A mental arithmetic task for 7 minutes was given with or without intravenous sedation with midazolam or propofol. A bispectral index value of 75 to 85 and an Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation score of 4 were the targeted sedation level in both groups. HR variability was assessed using the power spectral analysis (low-frequency [LF] and high-frequency [HF] components and LF/HF ratio). The faces anxiety scale was used to grade their stress feelings after each mental arithmetic task. During the mental arithmetic task with intravenous sedation, no differences were found in the bispectral index values, arterial oxygen saturation, or the results of the mental arithmetic task between the 2 groups. The HR, LF/HF ratio, and normalized unit LF increased, and the normalized unit HF decreased in both groups. However, the percentage of changes in LF/HF ratio, normalized unit LF, and normalized unit HF were smaller in the midazolam group. In addition, the reduction in faces anxiety scale was greater in the midazolam group. These results suggest that midazolam more effectively suppresses sympathetic nervous activation and reduces subjective stress feelings during a mental arithmetic task than propofol. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  9. Effect of Island Overlap on ELM Suppression by Resonant Magnetic Perturbations in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenstermacher, M E; Evans, T E; Osborne, T H; Schaffer, M J; Aldan, M P; deGrassie, J S; Gohil, P; Joseph, I; Moyer, R A; Snyder, P B; Groebner, R J; Jakubowski, M; Leonard, A W; Schmitz, O

    2007-11-08

    Recent DIII-D [J.L. Luxon, et al., Nucl. Fusion 43, 1813 (2003)] experiments show a correlation between the extent of overlap of magnetic islands induced in the edge plasma by perturbation coils and complete suppression of Type-I edge localized modes (ELMs) in plasmas with ITER-like electron pedestal collisionality {nu}*{sub e} {approx} 0.1, flux surface shape and low edge safety factor (q{sub 95} {approx} 3.6). With fixed n = 3 resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) strength, ELM suppression is obtained only in a finite window in the edge safety factor (q{sub 95}) consistent with maximizing the resonant component of the applied helical field. ELM suppression is obtained over an increasing range of q{sub 95} by either increasing the n = 3 RMP strength, or by adding n = 1 perturbations to 'fill in' gaps between islands across the edge plasma. The suppression of Type-I ELMs correlates with a minimum width of the edge region having magnetic islands with Chirikov parameter >1.0, based on vacuum calculations of RMP mode components excluding the plasma response or rotational shielding. The fraction of vacuum magnetic field lines that are lost from the plasma, with connection length to the divertor targets comparable to an electron-ion collisional mean free path, increases throughout the island overlap region in the ELM suppressed case compared with the ELMing case.

  10. Quantifying the influence of previously burned areas on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure: A case study of the Las Conchas Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Patrick Freeborn; Jon D. Rieck; Dave Calkin; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day; Mark A. Cochrane; Michael S. Hand

    2016-01-01

    We present a case study of the Las Conchas Fire (2011) to explore the role of previously burned areas (wildfires and prescribed fires) on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure. Methodological innovations include characterisation of the joint dynamics of fire growth and suppression activities, development of a fire line effectiveness framework, and...

  11. β-endorphin modulates the effect of stress on novelty-suppressed feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth T. Barfield

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although stress is implicated in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders, not all individuals who suffer stressful life events develop psychopathology. Differential susceptibility to stress may be influenced by genetically-mediated differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity and moderation of the stress response by the opioid peptide β-endorphin (β-E. The present study investigated genetic contributions to coping behavior by examining anxious behavior of transgenic mice with varying capacities to synthesize β-E (B6.129S2-Pomctm1Low/J; regulated by insertion of a premature stop codon into one or both copies of the proopiomelanocortin gene, both under normal conditions and following 3 minutes of forced swim. Ten minutes after this stress exposure or a control manipulation, acutely food-deprived female and male transgenic mice were subjected to a novelty-suppressed feeding (NSF test, during which their interaction with an almond slice located in the center of an open field box was measured. There was an interaction between genotype and stress for latency to approach the almond and whether or not the almond was approached, such that mice with low or absent β-E displayed a stronger aversion to novelty-feeding after stress exposure than did mice with normal levels. These data provide evidence for a moderating effect of β-E on the behavioral response to stress. Genotypic differences in anxious behavior emerged when mice were stressed prior to behavioral assessment, suggesting that β-E plays a role in coping behavior. These findings indicate that genetic variability in sensitivity of the β-E system to stress may contribute, at least in part, to heritable differences in stress reactivity as well as vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology.

  12. Effect of Gastric Acid Suppressant Prophylaxis on Incidence of Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahoora Abdollahi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Critically ill children admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU are at increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding due to stress related mucosal injury. Reducing gastric acid by acid suppressant medication is the accepted prophylaxis treatment, but there is not any definitive guideline for using prophylaxis in PICU patients. The present study aimed to assess the effect of Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI and H2 Blocker (H2B prophylaxis on gastrointestinal bleeding in admitted patients of PICU, Mashhad- Iran.Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 patients admitted in PICU divided into two equal groups on the first day of admission. They received ranitidine or pantoprazole as prophylaxis of stress ulcer. Those patients who had history of gastrointestinal bleeding or coagulation disorder were excluded. 100 PICU patients who had not received prophylaxis during last 6 months retrospectively evaluated as control of the study. Data were collected as demographic characteristics, admission reason, definitive diagnosis, receiving corticosteroid and mechanical ventilation in each patient. Gastrointestinal bleeding (hematemesis, coffee ground aspirate, and melena and clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding were daily monitored. Data analyzed through descriptive statistical tests, Chi-square, logistic regression, t-test and using SPSS-16 software.Results: Among 204 patients (control group=105 and case group=99, incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding (GB was 13.2% in which 6.9% of cases presented with clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding (CSGB. Loss of consciousness and respiratory distress were the main reason of admission. There was no significant differences between the incidence of (GB and (CSGB in experimental and control groups (P>0.05 as well as ranitidine and pantoprazole prophylaxis (P>0.05. Significant risk factors of (GB were mechanical ventilation and loss of consciousness and corticosteroid therapy

  13. Effect of grazing seedhead-suppressed tall fescue pasture on the vasoactivity of serotonin receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to ergot alkaloids reduces vasoactivity of serotonin (5HT) receptors. Chemical suppression of tall fescue seedhead production is a tool to reduce the level of exposure to ergot alkaloids by a grazing animal. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate co...

  14. Suppressive effect of cellulose on osmotic diarrhea caused by maltitol in healthy female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Tsuneyuki; Hongo, Ryoko; Nakamura, Sadako

    2008-08-01

    Using a single-group time-series design, we determined that osmotic diarrhea caused by maltitol ingestion was suppressed by the addition of not only soluble but also insoluble dietary fiber in healthy humans. We then clarified that cellulose delayed gastric emptying in rats. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers ingested maltitol step-wise at doses of 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 g from small to large amounts. Within that range of ingested amounts, 22 out of 27 subjects experienced osmotic diarrhea from maltitol ingestion, and the minimal dose level of maltitol that induced osmotic diarrhea (MMD) was established for each subject. When 5 g of cellulose was added to the MMD, osmotic diarrhea was suppressed in 13 out of 19 subjects (68.4%), while partially hydrolyzed alginate-Na (PHA-Na), a soluble dietary fiber, suppressed osmotic diarrhea in 10 out of 20 subjects (50.0%). When a mixed solution of cellulose and maltitol was administered to rats, the gastric emptying of maltitol was significantly delayed at 30 and 60 min after administration (p=0.019, p=0.013), respectively. PHA-Na also significantly delayed gastric emptying at 30 min (p=0.013). In conclusion, cellulose can suppress the osmotic diarrhea caused by maltitol ingestion in humans and delay the gastric emptying of maltitol in rats. A new physiological property of cellulose was clarified in this study.

  15. Effects of the Pauli suppression of the Born amplitude in a nuclear medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, W.T.

    1976-01-01

    It is noted that the suppression of the Born term in the pion-nucleon interaction which is expected due to the action of the Pauli Exclusion Principle in a nuclear medium gives rise to a downward shift to the (3,3) resonance

  16. Quantifying the effect of crop spatial arrangement on weed suppression using functional-structural plant modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Jochem B.; Bastiaans, Lammert

    2016-01-01

    Suppression of weed growth in a crop canopy can be enhanced by improving crop competitiveness. One way to achieve this is by modifying the crop planting pattern. In this study, we addressed the question to what extent a uniform planting pattern increases the ability of a crop to compete with weed

  17. The Effect of Acid Suppression on Upper Airway Anatomy and Obstruction in Patients with Sleep Apnea and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, William C.; Robert, Jennifer J.T.; Houck, John R.; Giddens, Cheryl L.; Tawk, Maroun M.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study was designed to assess the effect of acid suppression on upper airway structure and function in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Methods: This is a single-site within-subjects design. Twenty five patients with documented mild OSAS and objectively documented GERD via 24-hour pH measurement were included in the study. Patients were studied before and after 8 weeks of treatment with rabeprazole, 20 mg, twice a day. Subjects underwent laryngoscopy, polysomnography, and 24-hour pH monitoring. Subjective assessments of sleep obtained included the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Results: Posterior commissure edema was significantly reduced (p Giddens CL; Tawk MM. The effect of acid suppression on upper airway anatomy and obstruction in patients with sleep apnea and gastroesophageal reflux disease. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(4):330-334. PMID:19968010

  18. Importance of lifetime effects in breakup and suppression of complete fusion in reactions of weakly bound nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K. J.; Simpson, E. C.; Luong, D. H.; Kalkal, Sunil; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D. J.

    2016-06-01

    Background: Complete fusion cross sections in collisions of light weakly bound nuclei and high-Z targets show suppression of complete fusion at above-barrier energies. This has been interpreted as resulting from the breakup of the weakly bound nucleus prior to reaching the fusion barrier, reducing the probability of complete charge capture. Below-barrier studies of reactions of 9Be have found that the breakup of 8Be formed by neutron stripping dominates over direct breakup and that transfer-triggered breakup may account for the observed suppression of complete fusion. Purpose: This paper investigates how the above conclusions are affected by lifetimes of the resonant states that are populated prior to breakup. If the mean life of a populated resonance (above the breakup threshold) is much longer than the fusion time scale, then its breakup (decay) cannot suppress complete fusion. For short-lived resonances, the situation is more complex. This work explicitly includes the mean life of the short-lived 2+ resonance in 8Be in classical dynamical model calculations to determine its effect on energy and angular correlations of the breakup fragments and on model predictions of suppression of cross sections for complete fusion at above-barrier energies. Method: Previously performed coincidence measurements of breakup fragments produced in reactions of 9Be with 144Sm, 168Er, 186W, 196Pt, 208Pb, and 209Bi at energies below the barrier have been reanalyzed using an improved efficiency determination of the BALiN detector array. Predictions of breakup observables and of complete and incomplete fusion at energies above the fusion barrier are then made using the classical dynamical simulation code platypus, modified to include the effect of lifetimes of resonant states. Results: The agreement of the breakup observables is much improved when lifetime effects are included explicitly. Sensitivity to subzeptosecond lifetime is observed. The predicted suppression of complete fusion

  19. Antitumor effect of YM155, a novel small-molecule survivin suppressant, via mitochondrial apoptosis in human MFH/UPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoda, Masaya; Kawamoto, Teruya; Ueha, Takeshi; Kamata, Etsuko; Morishita, Masayuki; Harada, Risa; Toda, Mitsunori; Onishi, Yasuo; Hara, Hitomi; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Akisue, Toshihiro

    2015-09-01

    Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis family, which is known to inhibit mitochondrial apoptosis. Survivin is highly expressed in cancers and plays an important role in cancer cell survival, and increased survivin expression is an unfavorable prognostic marker in cancer patients. YM155, a novel small-molecule survivin suppressant, selectively suppresses survivin expression, resulting in the induction of apoptosis in various malignancies. However, the roles of survivin in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma/undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (MFH/UPS) have not been studied. In the present study, we examined survivin expression in human musculoskeletal tumor tissues, and the effect of survivin inhibition by siRNA or YM155 on apoptotic activity in human MFH/UPS cell lines. In tumor tissues, mRNA expression of survivin was significantly higher in MFH/UPS samples than in benign schwannomas. Moreover, in vitro studies revealed that both survivin siRNA and YM155 suppressed survivin expression and inhibited MFH/UPS cell proliferation in a dose- and a time-dependent manner. Further, the numbers of apoptotic cells significantly increased with YM155 treatment. in vivo, tumor volume in YM155-treated groups was significantly reduced without significant bodyweight loss. Increased apoptotic activity along with decreased survivin expression was also observed in YM155-treated tumors. The findings in this study strongly suggest that survivin suppressants, including YM155, contribute to the suppression of human MFH/UPS cell growth via promoting mitochondrial apoptosis, and that survivin may be a potent therapeutic target for the novel treatment of human MFH/UPS.

  20. The Effect of Suppressed Levels of Uninvolved Immunoglobulins on the Prognosis of Symptomatic Multiple Myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarı, Murat; Sarı, Selma; Nalçacı, Meliha

    2017-06-05

    The majority of multiple myeloma (MM) patients have high levels of monoclonal immunoglobulin in the serum and/or urine and suppressed levels of the uninvolved immunoglobulins. The prognostic significance of this phenomenon has not been assessed sufficiently. In this study, our aim is to evaluate the prognostic significance of uninvolved immunoglobulin suppression measured by nephelometry in patients with new symptomatic MM and the association with other features of the disease. Between August 2003 and February 2015, 137 patients who were referred for the treatment of newly diagnosed symptomatic myeloma to the Hematology Department polyclinics of the İstanbul University İstanbul Faculty of Medicine were prospectively included and had available pretreatment immunoglobulin levels measured by nephelometry. Suppression of at least one uninvolved immunoglobulin was observed in 87% of patients and this situation was slightly more common in patients with immunoglobulin A myeloma but had no statistical significance (p>0.05). Uninvolved immunoglobulin suppression was also more common among patients who had bone marrow plasma cell infiltration of ≥40% and presented with anemia and hypercalcemia (p65 years, lactate dehydrogenase of >300 IU/L, bone marrow plasma cells of ≥40%, and β2-microglobulin of >3.5 mg/dL (pmunoglobulins. We observed that patients who had preserved uninvolved immunoglobulin levels had better treatment responses and better pathologic signs, but statistical significance could not be shown. Conversely, patients with suppression of even one of the uninvolved immunoglobulins had a shorter survival, but similarly, statistical significance could not be shown.

  1. Suppressive effect of mitragynine on the 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine-induced head-twitch response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, K; Mizowaki, M; Takayama, H; Sakai, S; Aimi, N; Watanabe, H

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the effects of mitragynine, a major alkaloid isolated from the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa Korth (Rubiaceae), on the 5-HT2A receptor-mediated head-twitch response in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of mitragynine (5-30 mg/kg), as well as intraperitoneal injection of 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ritanserin, inhibited the 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT: 16 mg/kg, IP)-induced head-twitch response in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, mitragynine affected neither head-weaving caused by 5-MeO-DMT, nor drug-free spontaneous motor activity. Pretreatment of mice with reserpine (5 mg/kg, IP), p-chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA, 300 mg/kg x 3 times, IP), or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 50 micrograms/mouse, ICV) plus nomifensine (5 mg/kg, IP) did not change the suppressant effect of mitragynine on the head-twitch response caused by 5-MeO-DMT. On the other hand, the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonists yohimbine (0.5 mg/kg, IP), and idazoxan (0.2 mg/kg, IP), significantly attenuated the suppressant effect of mitragynine. Lesion of central noradrenergic systems by 6-OHDA plus nomifensine did not alter the effect of idazoxan (0.2 mg/kg) on mitragynine-induced suppression of the head-twitch response. These results indicate that stimulation of postsynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptor, blockade of 5-HT2A receptors, or both, are involved in suppression of 5-HT2A receptor-mediated head-twitch response by mitragynine.

  2. Immune Suppressive Effects of Tonsil-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Mouse Bone-Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhwa Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are considered valuable sources for cell therapy because of their immune regulatory function. Here, we investigated the effects of tonsil-derived MSCs (T-MSCs on the differentiation, maturation, and function of dendritic cells (DCs. We examined the effect of T-MSCs on differentiation and maturation of bone-marrow- (BM- derived monocytes into DCs and we found suppressive effect of T-MSCs on DCs via direct contact as well as soluble mediators. Moreover, T cell proliferation, normally increased in the presence of DCs, was inhibited by T-MSCs. Differentiation of CD4+ T cell subsets by the DC-T cell interaction also was inhibited by T-MSCs. The soluble mediators suppressed by T-MSCs were granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, RANTES, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1. Taken together, T-MSCs exert immune modulatory function via suppression of the differentiation, maturation, and function of BM-derived DCs. Our data suggests that T-MSCs could be used as a novel source of stem cell therapy as immune modulators.

  3. Optimization of L-shaped tunneling field-effect transistor for ambipolar current suppression and Analog/RF performance enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Zhao, Xiaolong; Zhuang, Yiqi; Yan, Zhirui; Guo, Jiaming; Han, Ru

    2018-03-01

    L-shaped tunneling field-effect transistor (LTFET) has larger tunnel area than planar TFET, which leads to enhanced on-current ION . However, LTFET suffers from severe ambipolar behavior, which needs to be further optimized for low power and high-frequency applications. In this paper, both hetero-gate-dielectric (HGD) and lightly doped drain (LDD) structures are introduced into LTFET for suppression of ambipolarity and improvement of analog/RF performance of LTFET. Current-voltage characteristics, the variation of energy band diagrams, distribution of band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) generation and distribution of electric field are analyzed for our proposed HGD-LDD-LTFET. In addition, the effect of LDD on the ambipolar behavior of LTFET is investigated, the length and doping concentration of LDD is also optimized for better suppression of ambipolar current. Finally, analog/RF performance of HGD-LDD-LTFET are studied in terms of gate-source capacitance, gate-drain capacitance, cut-off frequency, and gain bandwidth production. TCAD simulation results show that HGD-LDD-LTFET not only drastically suppresses ambipolar current but also improves analog/RF performance compared with conventional LTFET.

  4. Does suppression of oscillatory synchronisation mediate some of the therapeutic effects of DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio, Alexandre; Cagnan, Hayriye; Brown, Peter

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence for exaggerated oscillatory neuronal synchronisation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In particular, oscillations at around 20 Hz, in the so-called beta frequency band, relate to the cardinal symptoms of bradykinesia and rigidity. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) can significantly improve these motor impairments. Recent evidence has demonstrated reduction of beta oscillations concurrent with alleviation of PD motor symptoms, raising the possibility that suppression of aberrant activity may mediate the effects of DBS. Here we review the evidence supporting suppression of pathological oscillations during stimulation and discuss how this might underlie the efficacy of DBS. We also consider how beta activity may provide a feedback signal suitable for next generation closed-loop and intelligent stimulators.

  5. Does suppression of oscillatory synchronisation mediate some of the therapeutic effects of DBS in patients with Parkinson’s disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eEusebio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence for exaggerated oscillatory neuronal synchronisation in patients with Parkinson’s disease. In particular, oscillations at around 20 Hz, in the so-called beta frequency band, relate to the cardinal symptoms of bradykinesia and rigidity. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus can significantly improve these motor impairments. Recent evidence has demonstrated reduction of beta oscillations concurrent with alleviation of PD motor symptoms, raising the possibility that suppression of aberrant activity may mediate the effects of DBS. Here we review the evidence supporting suppression of pathological oscillations during stimulation and discuss how this might underlie the efficacy of DBS. We also consider how beta activity may provide a feedback signal suitable for next generation closed loop and intelligent stimulators.

  6. Suppressive effect of AMP-activated protein kinase on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Matoba

    Full Text Available The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells plays a central role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, a key regulator of energy homeostasis, on the EMT in RPE cells. In this study, EMT-associated formation of cellular aggregates was induced by co-stimulation of cultured ARPE-19 cells with tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α (10 ng/ml and transforming growth factor (TGF-β2 (5 ng/ml. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, a potent activator of AMPK, significantly suppressed TNF-α and TGF-β2-induced cellular aggregate formation (p < 0.01. Dipyridamole almost completely reversed the suppressive effect of AICAR, whereas 5'-amino-5'-deoxyadenosine restored aggregate formation by approximately 50%. AICAR suppressed the downregulation of E-cadherin and the upregulation of fibronectin and α-smooth muscle actin by TNF-α and TGF-β2. The levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2, MMP-9, interleukin-6, and vascular endothelial growth factor were significantly decreased by AICAR. Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin pathways, but not the Smad pathway, was inhibited by AICAR. These findings indicate that AICAR suppresses the EMT in RPE cells at least partially via activation of AMPK. AMPK is a potential target molecule for the prevention and treatment of PVR, so AICAR may be a promising candidate for PVR therapy.

  7. Suppressive versus augmenting effect of the same pretreatment regimen in two murine tumor systems with distinct effector mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Hiromi; Hamaoka, Toshiyuki; Kitagawa, Masayasu

    1978-01-01

    The effect of presensitization with x-irradiated tumor cells on the development of host's immune resistance against the tumor-associated transplantation antigens (TATA) was investigated in two syngeneic tumor systems with distinct effector mechanisms. When X5563 plasmacytoma, to which immune resistance was mediated exclusively by killer T lymphocytes, was intravenously inoculated into syngeneic C3H/He mice with lower number after 7000 R x-irradiation, the mice failed to exhibit any protective immunity against the subsequent challenge with viable tumor cells. Moreover, these mice lost their capability to develop any immune resistance even after an appropriate immunization procedure. The immunodepression induced by such a pretreatment regimen was specific for X5563 tumor. While no suppressor cell activity was detected in the above pretreated mice, serum factor(s) from these mice was virtually responsible for this suppression. When the serum factor mediating this tumor-specific suppression was fractionated on the Sephadex G-200 column, the suppressive activity was found in albumin-corresponding fraction, free of any immunoglobulin component. In contrast, in MM102 mammary tumor system, in which immune resistance is solely mediated by tumor-specific antibody, the pretreatment with x-irradiated MM102 cells augmented the induction of anti-tumor immunity. These results indicate that while tumor antigens given in the form of x-irradiated tumor cells suppress the induction of killer T cell-mediated immunity in one system, the same presensitization regimen of tumor antigens augments the antibody-mediated immunity in another system, thus giving a divergent effect on the distinct effector mechanisms of syngeneic tumor immunity. (author)

  8. Peripheral effects of insulin dominate suppression of fasting hepatic glucose production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ader, M.; Bergman, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    Insulin may suppress hepatic glucose production directly, or indirectly via suppression of release of gluconeogenic substrates from extrasplanchnic tissues. To compare these mechanisms, we performed insulin dose-response experiments in conscious dogs at euglycemia, during somatostatin infusion, and intraportal glucagon replacement. Insulin was sequentially infused either intraportally (0.05, 0.20, 0.40, 1.0, 1.4, and/or 3.0; protocol I) or systemically at half the intraportal rate (0.025, 0.10, 0.20, 0.50, 0.70, and/or 1.5 mU.min-1.kg-1; protocol II). Exogenous glucose infused during clamps was labeled with 3-[3H]glucose (2 microCi/g) to prevent a fall in plasma specific activity (P greater than 0.2) that may have contributed to previous underestimations of hepatic glucose output (HGO). Portal insulins were up to threefold higher during intraportal infusion, but peripheral insulin levels were not different between the intraportal and systemic protocols [7 +/- 5 vs. 9 +/- 1, 12 +/- 4 vs. 13 +/- 6, 16 +/- 3 vs. 27 +/- 5, 70 +/- 23 vs. 48 +/- 8, 83 +/- 3 vs. 86 +/- 21, and 128 vs. 120 +/- 14 microU/ml for paired insulin doses; P greater than 0.06 by analysis of variance (ANOVA)]. Despite higher portal insulin levels in protocol I, HGO suppression was equivalent in the two protocols when systemic insulin was matched, from 3.3 +/- 0.1 to near-total suppression at 0.3 mg.min-1.kg-1 at the highest insulin infusion rate (3.0 mU.min-1.kg-1; P less than 0.0001) with intraportal insulin, from 2.9 +/- 0.8 to -0.8 +/- 0.2 mg.min-1.kg-1 in protocol II (P less than 0.001). Suppression of HGO was similar at matched systemic insulin, regardless of portal insulin, suggesting the primacy of insulin's action on the periphery in its restraint of hepatic glucose production

  9. The application of cost-effective lasers in coherent UDWDM-OFDM-PON aided by effective phase noise suppression methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Yang, Chuanchuan; Yang, Feng; Li, Hongbin

    2014-03-24

    Digital coherent passive optical network (PON), especially the coherent orthogonal frequency division multiplexing PON (OFDM-PON), is a strong candidate for the 2nd-stage-next-generation PON (NG-PON2). As is known, OFDM is very sensitive to the laser phase noise which severely limits the application of the cost-effective distributed feedback (DFB) lasers and more energy-efficient vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) in the coherent OFDM-PON. The current long-reach coherent OFDM-PON experiments always choose the expensive external cavity laser (ECL) as the optical source for its narrow linewidth (usuallyOFDM-PON and study the possibility of the application of the DFB lasers and VCSEL in coherent OFDM-PON. A typical long-reach coherent ultra dense wavelength division multiplexing (UDWDM) OFDM-PON has been set up. The numerical results prove that the OBE method can stand severe phase noise of the lasers in this architecture and the DFB lasers as well as VCSEL can be used in coherent OFDM-PON. In this paper, we have also analyzed the performance of the RF-pilot-aided (RFP) phase noise suppression method in coherent OFDM-PON.

  10. Understanding the social effects of emotion regulation: the mediating role of authenticity for individual differences in suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Tammy; John, Oliver P

    2013-04-01

    Individuals differ in the strategies they use to regulate their emotions (e.g., suppression, reappraisal), and these regulatory strategies can differentially influence social outcomes. However, the mechanisms underlying these social effects remain to be specified. We examined one potential mediator that arises directly from emotion-regulatory effort (expression of positive emotion), and another mediator that does not involve emotion processes per se, but instead results from the link between regulation and self-processes (subjective inauthenticity). Across three studies, only inauthenticity mediated the link between habitual use of suppression and poor social functioning (lower relationship satisfaction, lower social support). These findings replicated across individuals socialized in Western and East Asian cultural contexts, younger and older adults, when predicting social functioning concurrently and a decade later, and even when broader adjustment was controlled. Thus, the social costs of suppression do not seem to be due to reduced positive emotion expression but rather the incongruence between inner-self and outer-behavior. Reappraisal was not consistently related to social functioning. Implications of these findings for emotion processes, self processes, and interpersonal relationships are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Oncogenic roles of TOPK and MELK, and effective growth suppression by small molecular inhibitors in kidney cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Taigo; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Imoto, Seiya; Tamada, Yoshinori; Miyamoto, Takashi; Matsuo, Yo; Nakamura, Yusuke; Park, Jae-Hyun

    2016-04-05

    T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) and maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) have been reported to play critical roles in cancer cell proliferation and maintenance of stemness. In this study, we investigated possible roles of TOPK and MELK in kidney cancer cells and found their growth promotive effect as well as some feedback mechanism between these two molecules. Interestingly, the blockade of either of these two kinases effectively caused downregulation of forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1) activity which is known as an oncogenic transcriptional factor in various types of cancer cells. Small molecular compound inhibitors against TOPK (OTS514) and MELK (OTS167) effectively suppressed the kidney cancer cell growth, and the combination of these two compounds additively worked and showed the very strong growth suppressive effect on kidney cancer cells. Collectively, our results suggest that both TOPK and MELK are promising molecular targets for kidney cancer treatment and that dual blockade of OTS514 and OTS167 may bring additive anti-tumor effects with low risk of side effects.

  12. Oroxin B selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrently inhibits tumor-adaptive ER stress in B-lymphoma cells for effective anti-lymphoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Fu, Shilong; Cao, Zhifei; Liao, Huaidong; Huo, Zihe; Pan, Yanyan; Zhang, Gaochuan; Gao, Aidi; Zhou, Quansheng

    2015-10-15

    Cancer cells have both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress machineries that determine cell fate. In malignant tumors including lymphoma, constant activation of tumor-adaptive ER stress and concurrent reduction of tumor-suppressive ER stress favors cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. Current ER stress-based anti-tumor drugs typically activate both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive ER stresses, resulting in low anti-cancer efficacy; hence, selective induction of tumor-suppressive ER stress and inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress are new strategies for novel anti-cancer drug discovery. Thus far, specific tumor-suppressive ER stress therapeutics have remained absent in clinical settings. In this study, we explored unique tumor-suppressive ER stress agents from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Oroxylum indicum, and found that a small molecule oroxin B selectively induced tumor-suppressive ER stress in malignant lymphoma cells, but not in normal cells, effectively inhibited lymphoma growth in vivo, and significantly prolonged overall survival of lymphoma-xenografted mice without obvious toxicity. Mechanistic studies have revealed that the expression of key tumor-adaptive ER-stress gene GRP78 was notably suppressed by oroxin B via down-regulation of up-stream key signaling protein ATF6, while tumor-suppressive ER stress master gene DDIT3 was strikingly activated through activating the MKK3-p38 signaling pathway, correcting the imbalance between tumor-suppressive DDIT3 and tumor-adaptive GRP78 in lymphoma. Together, selective induction of unique tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrent inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress in malignant lymphoma are new and feasible approaches for novel anti-lymphoma drug discovery and anti-lymphoma therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Suppression of autophagy in osteocytes does not modify the adverse effects of glucocorticoids on cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piemontese, Marilina; Onal, Melda; Xiong, Jinhu; Wang, Yiying; Almeida, Maria; Thostenson, Jeff D; Weinstein, Robert S; Manolagas, Stavros C; O'Brien, Charles A

    2015-06-01

    Glucocorticoid excess decreases bone mass and strength in part by acting directly on osteoblasts and osteocytes, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Macroautophagy (herein referred to as autophagy) is a lysosome-based recycling pathway that promotes the turnover of intracellular components and can promote cell function and survival under stressful conditions. Recent studies have shown that glucocorticoids stimulate autophagy in osteocytes, suggesting that autophagy may oppose the negative actions of glucocorticoids on this cell type. To address this possibility, we compared the impact of prednisolone administration on the skeletons of adult mice in which autophagy was suppressed in osteocytes, via deletion of Atg7 with a Dmp1-Cre transgene, to their control littermates. In control mice, prednisolone increased autophagic flux in osteocyte-enriched bone as measured by LC3 conversion, but this change did not occur in the mice lacking Atg7 in osteocytes. Nonetheless, prednisolone reduced femoral cortical thickness, increased cortical porosity, and reduced bone strength to similar extents in mice with and without autophagy in osteocytes. Prednisolone also suppressed osteoblast number and bone formation in the cancellous bone of control mice. As shown previously, Atg7 deletion in osteocytes reduced osteoblast number and bone formation in cancellous bone, but these parameters were not further reduced by prednisolone administration. In cortical bone, prednisolone elevated osteoclast number to a similar extent in both genotypes. Taken together, these results demonstrate that although glucocorticoids stimulate autophagy in osteocytes, suppression of autophagy in this cell type does not worsen the negative impact of glucocorticoids on the skeleton. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Rice pads. Devices to improve the effect of fat suppression of CHESS images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Susumu; Yokobayashi, Tsuneo; Miki, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    The chemical shift selective (CHESS) method is often used for fat suppression in magnetic resonance imaging. CHESS has several advantages, including versatility, quick imaging, and applicability to contrast examinations. One disadvantage of CHESS is the lingering fat signal generated as a result of nonuniformity of the static magnetic field. To overcome this drawback, some researchers have used pads made with polished rice (rice pads), a simple method in which rice pads are placed outside the area to be imaged. We describe ways to improve CHESS images, characteristics of the rice pad, its application to imaging, and methods of placing the pad. (author)

  15. Mechanism of suppressive effect of low dose radiation on cancer cell dissemination in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Haiqing; Li Xiuyi; Chen Yubing; Zhang Yingchun; Liu Shuzheng

    1997-01-01

    Influence of low dose radiation on immunity in C57 BL/6 mice injected with cancer cells was studied. In mice given 75 mGy WBI 24 h before injection of Lewis lung carcinoma cells or B 16 melanoma cells, the percentage of S-phase thymocytes and CD 3+ thymocytes, the splenic NK cell activity, IL-2 secretion and γIFN secretion were found to be potentiated 2∼8 day after irradiation in comparison with the sham-irradiation mice. The results suggest that low dose radiation might suppress cancer cell dissemination via the enhancement of immune reactivity

  16. Methane-suppressing effect of myristic acid in sheep as affected by dietary calcium and forage proportion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machmüller, Andrea; Machmüller, Andrea; Soliva, Carla R; Kreuzer, Michael

    2003-09-01

    The efficiency of myristic acid (14 : 0) as a feed additive to suppress CH4 emissions of ruminants was evaluated under different dietary conditions. Six sheep were subjected to a 6 x 6 Latin square arrangement. A supplement of non-esterified 14 : 0 (50 g/kg DM) was added to two basal diets differing in their forage:concentrate values (1 : 1.5 and 1 : 0.5), which were adjusted to dietary Ca contents of 4.2 and 9.0 g/kg DM, respectively. Comparisons were made with the unsupplemented basal diets (4.2 g Ca/kg DM). The 14 : 0 supplementation decreased (P<0.001) total tract CH4 release depending on basal diet type (interaction, P<0.001) and dietary Ca level (P<0.05, post hoc test). In the concentrate-based diet, 14 : 0 suppressed CH4 emission by 58 and 47 % with 4.2 and 9.0 g Ca/kg DM, respectively. The 14 : 0 effect was lower (22 %) in the forage-based diet and became insignificant with additional Ca. Myristic acid inhibited (P<0.05) rumen archaea without significantly altering proportions of individual methanogen orders. Ciliate protozoa concentration was decreased (P<0.05, post hoc test) by 14 : 0 only in combination with 9.0 g Ca/kg DM. Rumen fluid NH3 concentration and acetate:propionate were decreased (P<0.05) and water consumption was lower (P<0.01) with 14 : 0. The use of 14 : 0 had no clear effects on total tract organic matter and fibre digestion; this further illustrates that the suppressed methanogenesis resulted from direct effects against methanogens. The present study demonstrated that 14 : 0 is a potent CH4 inhibitor but, to be effective in CH4 mitigation feeding strategies, interactions with other diet ingredients have to be considered.

  17. Cotton fabrics treated with novel oxidic phases acting as effective smoke suppressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongi, Jenny; Malucelli, Giulio

    2012-09-01

    Sol-gel processes have been applied to cotton fabrics in order to coat the fibres with a silica film, able to improve their thermo-oxidative resistance and their combustion behaviour under the irradiative heat flow of a cone calorimeter. To this aim, tetramethoxysilane, inorganic precursor of the silica phase, has been employed alone or coupled with species having either smoke suppressant features (namely, zinc oxide, zinc acetate dihydrate and zinc borate) or well known flame retardant properties (like ammonium pentaborate octahydrate, boron phosphate, ammonium polyphosphate and 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide). In addition, the use of barium sulphate, which is a smoke suppressant and, at the same time, a flame retardant, has been investigated. Cone calorimetry turned out to be a suitable technique for assessing the flammability and smoke production of the treated fabrics (particularly when referring to total smoke release, smoke production rate and CO and CO2 yields). The composition and morphology of the deposited coatings, assessed by scanning electron microscopy, have been found to influence their combustion behaviour, as well as their thermal and thermo-oxidative stability evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis in nitrogen and air, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Suppressive effects of dietary fiber in yogurt on the postprandial serum lipid levels in healthy adult male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shizuki; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Takahashi, Noritoshi; Miyaji, Kazuhiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Kokubo, Sadayuki

    2004-05-01

    This study assessed the effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) in yogurt on the elevation of postprandial serum lipid levels. Eleven healthy adult male subjects were given yogurt with or without 6 g of PHGG in a fat tolerance test as a crossover study. Supplementation with 6 g of PHGG significantly suppressed the incremental peaks and areas under the incremental curve (AUIC) of postprandial serum remnant-like lipoprotein particle cholesterol (RLP-C) and triglyceride (TG). The results suggest the potential of PHGG to reduce the risk of hyperlipemia.

  19. The suppressive effect of etoposide on recovery from sublethal radiation damage in Chinese hamster V 79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Tsutomu; Shimada, Yuji; Kawamori, Jiro; Kamata, Rikisaburo

    1992-01-01

    The combined effect of radiation and etoposide on the survival of cultured Chinese hamster V 79 cells was investigated. Cells in exponential growth phase were treated with various combinations of radiation and etoposide. The surviving fraction was assessed by colony formation. Etoposide significantly reduced so-called shoulder width, as expressed in Dq (quasithreshold dose), of radiation survival curves. The reduction depended on the increase of etoposide concentrations, although steepening of slopes of exponentially regressing portions of the radiation survival curves was slight. Split dose experiments showed that cells did not recover from sublethal radiation damage in the presence of low concentration of etoposide, although they did recover from sublethal radiation damage under a drug free condition. The results show the suppressive effect of etoposide on recovery from sublethal radiation damage. The effect of a sequential combination of radiation and etoposide was also investigated. The effect was more marked when the interval between radiation and etoposide was shorter regardless of the sequence. (author)

  20. An analysis of suppressing migratory effect on human urinary bladder cancer cell line by silencing of snail-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Shima; Mansoori, Behzad; Mohammadi, Ali; Davoudian, Sadaf; Musavi Shenas, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Shajari, Neda; Majidi, Jafar; Baradaran, Behzad

    2017-12-01

    Snail-1 actively participates in tumor progression, invasion, and migration. Targeting snail-1 expression can suppress the EMT process in cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of snail1 silencing on urinary bladder cancer. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect snail-1 and other related metastatic genes expression following siRNA knockdown in urinary bladder cancer EJ-138 cells. The protein level of snail1 was assessed by Western blot. MTT and TUNEL assays were assessed to understand if snail-1 had survival effects on EJ-138 cells. Scratch wound healing assay measured cell motility effects after snail1 suppression. The significant silencing of snail-1 reached 60pmol siRNA in a 48-h post-transfection. The result of scratch assay showed that snail-1 silencing significantly decreased Vimentin, MMPs, and CXCR4 expression; however, expression of E-cadherin was induced. The cell death assay indicated that snail-1 played the crucial role in bladder cancer survival rate. These results propose that snail-1 plays a major role in the progression and migration of urinary bladder cancer, and can be a potential therapeutic target for target therapy of invasive urinary bladder cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Suppressive effect of ethanol extract from mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel on IgE production in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Momoko; Sasaki, Tomoko; Nishi, Kosuke; Tamamoto, Takeshi; Sugahara, Takuya

    2018-01-03

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is involved in the onset of allergic reaction, and the suppression of IgE production leads to alleviation of allergic symptoms. We found that mango peel ethanol extract (MPE) significantly suppresses IgE production by human myeloma cell line U266 cells, suggesting that MPE has an anti-allergic effect by inhibiting the production of IgE. Although mangiferin is contained in mango, which suppresses IgE production by U266 cells, it was not contained in MPE. We investigated the suppressive effect of MPE in 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis model mice. The elevation of serum IgE level was significantly suppressed by oral administration of MPE. Intake of MPE also suppressed the expression level of IL-4 in the DNFB-challenged ears, suggesting that MPE suppresses the IL-4-mediated maturation into IgE-producing cells. Our findings indicate that MPE has a potential to alleviate the increase in serum IgE level that is feature of type I allergy.

  2. The effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on suppression of habitual counting during random number generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, M; Profice, P; Brown, R G; Ridding, M C; Dirnberger, G; Rothwell, J C

    1998-08-01

    Random number generation is an attention-demanding task that engages working memory and executive processes. Random number generation requires holding information 'on line', suppression of habitual counting, internally driven response generation and monitoring of responses. Evidence from PET studies suggests that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is involved in the generation of random responses. We examined the effects of short trains of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the left or right DLPFC or medial frontal cortex on random number generation in healthy normal participants. As in previous evidence, in control trials without stimulation participants performed poorly on the random number generation task, showing repetition avoidance and a tendency to count. Brief disruption of processing with TMS over the left DLPFC changed the balance of the individuals' counting bias, increasing the most habitual counting in ones and reducing the lower probability response of counting in twos. This differential effect of TMS over the left DLPFC on the balance of the subject's counting bias was not obtained with TMS over the right DLPFC or the medial frontal cortex. The results suggest that, with disruption of the left DLPFC with TMS, habitual counting in ones that has previously been suppressed is released from inhibition. From these findings a network modulation model of random number generation is proposed, whereby suppression of habitual responses is achieved through the modulatory influence of the left DLPFC over a number-associative network in the superior temporal cortex. To allow emergence of appropriate random responses, the left DLPFC inhibits the superior temporal cortex to prevent spreading activation and habitual counting in ones.

  3. Oroxin B selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrently inhibits tumor-adaptive ER stress in B-lymphoma cells for effective anti-lymphoma therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ping; Fu, Shilong; Cao, Zhifei; Liao, Huaidong; Huo, Zihe; Pan, Yanyan; Zhang, Gaochuan; Gao, Aidi; Zhou, Quansheng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells have both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress machineries that determine cell fate. In malignant tumors including lymphoma, constant activation of tumor-adaptive ER stress and concurrent reduction of tumor-suppressive ER stress favors cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. Current ER stress-based anti-tumor drugs typically activate both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive ER stresses, resulting in low anti-cancer efficacy; hence, selective induction of tumor-suppressive ER stress and inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress are new strategies for novel anti-cancer drug discovery. Thus far, specific tumor-suppressive ER stress therapeutics have remained absent in clinical settings. In this study, we explored unique tumor-suppressive ER stress agents from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Oroxylum indicum, and found that a small molecule oroxin B selectively induced tumor-suppressive ER stress in malignant lymphoma cells, but not in normal cells, effectively inhibited lymphoma growth in vivo, and significantly prolonged overall survival of lymphoma-xenografted mice without obvious toxicity. Mechanistic studies have revealed that the expression of key tumor-adaptive ER-stress gene GRP78 was notably suppressed by oroxin B via down-regulation of up-stream key signaling protein ATF6, while tumor-suppressive ER stress master gene DDIT3 was strikingly activated through activating the MKK3-p38 signaling pathway, correcting the imbalance between tumor-suppressive DDIT3 and tumor-adaptive GRP78 in lymphoma. Together, selective induction of unique tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrent inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress in malignant lymphoma are new and feasible approaches for novel anti-lymphoma drug discovery and anti-lymphoma therapy. - Highlights: • Oroxin B selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress in B-lymphoma cells. • Oroxin B significantly prolonged overall survival of lymphoma-xenografted mice.

  4. Tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibits the suppressive effect of regulatory T cells on the hepatitis B virus-specific immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Jeroen N; Woltman, Andrea M; Biesta, Paula J; Kusters, Johannes G; Kuipers, Ernst J; Janssen, Harry L A; van der Molen, Renate G

    2007-09-01

    Chronicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by a weak immune response to the virus. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are present in increased numbers in the peripheral blood of chronic HBV patients, and these Treg are capable of suppressing the HBV-specific immune response. The aim of this study was to abrogate Treg-mediated suppression of the HBV-specific immune response. Therefore, Treg and a Treg-depleted cell fraction were isolated from peripheral blood of chronic HBV patients. Subsequently, the suppressive effect of Treg on the response to HBV core antigen (HBcAg) and tetanus toxin was compared, and the effect of exogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1-beta (IL-1beta), or neutralizing antibodies against interleukin-10 (IL-10) or transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) on Treg-mediated suppression was determined. The results show that Treg of chronic HBV patients had a more potent suppressive effect on the response to HBcAg compared with the response to tetanus toxin. Neutralization of IL-10 and TGF-beta or exogenous IL-1beta had no effect on Treg-mediated suppression of the anti-HBcAg response, whereas exogenous TNF-alpha partially abrogated Treg-mediated suppression. Preincubation of Treg with TNF-alpha demonstrated that TNF-alpha had a direct effect on the Treg. No difference was observed in the type II TNF receptor expression by Treg from chronic HBV patients and healthy controls. Treg-mediated suppression of the anti-HBV response can be reduced by exogenous TNF-alpha. Because chronic HBV patients are known to produce less TNF-alpha, these data implicate an important role for TNF-alpha in the impaired antiviral response in chronic HBV.

  5. [Suppressive Effects of Extract of Cedar Wood on Heat-induced Expression of Cellular Heat Shock Protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, Junji; Matsubara, Eri; Narita, Eijiro; Koyama, Shin; Shimizu, Yoko; Kawai, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

     In recent years, highly antimicrobial properties of cedar heartwood essential oil against the wood-rotting fungi and pathogenic fungi have been reported in several papers. Antimicrobial properties against oral bacteria by hinokitiol contained in Thujopsis have been also extensively studied. The relation of naturally derived components and human immune system has been studied in some previous papers. In the present study, we focused on Japanese cedar, which has the widest artificial afforestation site in the country among various tree species. Extract oil was obtained from mixture of sapwood and heartwood of about 40-year cedar grown in Oguni, Kumamoto, Japan. We examined the influence of extract components from Japanese cedar woods on the expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) during heating, and on the micronucleus formation induced by the treatment of bleomycin as a DNA damaging agent. Cell lines used in this study were human fetal glial cells (SVGp12) and human glioma cells (MO54). Remarkable suppression of the Hsp70 expression induced by heating at 43°C was detected by the treatment of cedar extract in both SVGp12 and MO54 cells. We also found that cedar extract had an inhibitory tendency to reduce the micronucleus formation induced by bleomycin. From these results, the extract components from Japanese cedar woods would have an inhibitory effect of the stress response as a suppression of the heat-induced Hsp70 expression, and might have a reductive effect on carcinogenicity.

  6. Melatonin exerts anti-oral cancer effect via suppressing LSD1 in patient-derived tumor xenograft models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Chih-Kung; Tsao, Chang-Huei; Hsieh, Cheng-Chih; Lin, Gu-Jiun; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Shieh, Yi-Shing; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Chen, Yuan-Wu

    2017-05-16

    Aberrant activation of histone lysine-specific demethylase (LSD1) increases tumorigenicity; hence, LSD1 is considered a therapeutic target for various human cancers. Although melatonin, an endogenously produced molecule, may defend against various cancers, the precise mechanism involved in its anti-oral cancer effect remains unclear. Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) models are preclinical models that can more accurately reflect human tumor biology compared with cell line xenograft models. Here, we evaluated the anticancer activity of melatonin by using LSD1-overexpressing oral cancer PDTX models. By assessing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissue arrays through immunohistochemistry, we examined whether aberrant LSD1 overexpression in OSCC is associated with poor prognosis. We also evaluated the action mechanism of melatonin against OSCC with lymphatic metastases by using the PDTX models. Our results indicated that melatonin, at pharmacological concentrations, significantly suppresses cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The observed suppression of proliferation was accompanied by the melatonin-mediated inhibition of LSD1 in oral cancer PDTXs and oral cancer cell lines. In conclusion, we determined that the beneficial effects of melatonin in reducing oral cancer cell proliferation are associated with reduced LSD1 expression in vivo and in vitro.

  7. Melatonin exerts anti-oral cancer effect via suppressing LSD1 in patient-derived tumor xenograft models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Chih-Kung; Tsao, Chang-Huei; Hsieh, Cheng-Chih; Lin, Gu-Jiun; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Shieh, Yi-Shing; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Chen, Yuan-Wu

    2017-01-01

    Aberrant activation of histone lysine-specific demethylase (LSD1) increases tumorigenicity; hence, LSD1 is considered a therapeutic target for various human cancers. Although melatonin, an endogenously produced molecule, may defend against various cancers, the precise mechanism involved in its anti-oral cancer effect remains unclear. Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) models are preclinical models that can more accurately reflect human tumor biology compared with cell line xenograft models. Here, we evaluated the anticancer activity of melatonin by using LSD1-overexpressing oral cancer PDTX models. By assessing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissue arrays through immunohistochemistry, we examined whether aberrant LSD1 overexpression in OSCC is associated with poor prognosis. We also evaluated the action mechanism of melatonin against OSCC with lymphatic metastases by using the PDTX models. Our results indicated that melatonin, at pharmacological concentrations, significantly suppresses cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The observed suppression of proliferation was accompanied by the melatonin-mediated inhibition of LSD1 in oral cancer PDTXs and oral cancer cell lines. In conclusion, we determined that the beneficial effects of melatonin in reducing oral cancer cell proliferation are associated with reduced LSD1 expression in vivo and in vitro. PMID:28422711

  8. Hesperetin, a Selective Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitor, Effectively Suppresses Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness without Influencing Xylazine/Ketamine-Induced Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hung Shih

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hesperetin, a selective phosphodiesterase (PDE4 inhibitor, is present in the traditional Chinese medicine, “Chen Pi.” Therefore, we were interested in investigating its effects on ovalbumin- (OVA- induced airway hyperresponsiveness, and clarifying its rationale for ameliorating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Hesperetin was revealed to have a therapeutic (PDE4H/PDE4L ratio of >11. Hesperetin (10 ~ 30 μmol/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p. dose-dependently and significantly attenuated the airway hyperresponsiveness induced by methacholine. It also significantly suppressed the increases in total inflammatory cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils, and levels of cytokines, including interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. It dose-dependently and significantly suppressed total and OVA-specific immunoglobulin E levels in the BALF and serum. However, hesperetin did not influence xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia, suggesting that hesperetin has few or no emetic effects. In conclusion, the rationales for ameliorating allergic asthma and COPD by hesperetin are anti-inflammation, immunoregulation, and bronchodilation.

  9. Effect of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) cutting date and planting density on weed suppression in Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J Bradley; Chase, Carlene; Treadwell, Danielle; Koenig, Rosie; Cho, Alyssa; Morales-Payan, Jose Pable; Murphy, Tim; Antonious, George F

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit in Griffin, GA, to investigate weed suppression by sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L). The objectives were to (1) evaluate the effects of apical meristem removal (AMR) at three dates [5, 6, and 7 wks after planting (WAP) on May 14, 2008 and May 21, 2009] and (2) assess the impact of seeding rates (11, 28, and 45 kg ha(-1)) on weed biomass reduction. Weed species were identified at 4, 8, and 12 wks after sunn hemp planting. Sunn hemp cutting date had no significant effect on weed suppression in 2008 but significant differences for grass weeds at 4, 8, and 12 WAP and for yellow nutsedge at 8 and 12 WAP did occur when compared to the control in 2009. In comparison to the sunn hemp-free control plot in 2009, all three seeding rates had reduced grass weed dry weights at 4, 8, and 12 WAP. The total mass of yellow nutsedge when grown with sunn hemp was reduced compared to the total mass of yellow nutsedge grown in the weedy check for all seeding rates at 8 and 12 WAP. Lower grass weed biomass was observed by 12 WAP for cutting dates and seeding rates during 2008 and 2009. Sunn hemp cutting date and seeding rate reduced branch numbers in both years. The reduction in sunn hemp seeding rates revealed a decrease in weed populations.

  10. Glucocorticoids Suppress the Protective Effect of Cyclooxygenase-2-Related Signaling on Hippocampal Neurogenesis Under Acute Immune Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanbo; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

    2017-04-01

    Stress and glucocorticoids suppress adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying stress-induced impairment of adult neurogenesis are poorly understood. We previously suggested that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is a common mediator of stresses in the brain. Here, using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute infectious stress model, we evaluated the roles of COX-2 and its major downstream product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in adult neurogenesis and the influence of glucocorticoids on COX-2-related signaling. Treatment of rats with LPS significantly decreased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, and this inhibitory effect of LPS on neurogenesis was reversed by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486. Moreover, RU486 significantly enhanced the increase in messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of COX-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES)-1 in the hippocampus following LPS stimulation. Administration of AH6809, a selective antagonist of the PGE2 EP2 receptor, as well as NS398, a COX-2 selective inhibitor, exacerbated the suppression of proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the DG. Gene expression of EP1, EP2, and EP3, but not EP4, receptors was also increased following LPS stimulation. Immunohistochemical studies indicated that NPCs expressed EP2 receptor, whereas the majority of cells expressing COX-2 and mPGES-1 were mature neurons in the DG. These results suggest that acute infectious stress upregulates COX-2-related signaling in neurons in the DG, which plays a protective role in neurogenesis through EP2 receptor at least partially. In addition, LPS-induced glucocorticoids suppress this COX-2-related signaling, resulting in decreased neurogenesis.

  11. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals the suppressive effects of dietary high glucose on the midgut growth of silkworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fan; Chen, Liang; Lian, Chaoqun; Xia, Hengchuan; Zhou, Yang; Yao, Qin; Chen, Keping

    2014-08-28

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is an important model of lepidoptera insect, and it has been used for several models of human diseases. In human being, long-term high-sugar diet can induce the occurrence of diabetes and other related diseases. Interestingly, our experiments revealed the high glucose diet also has a suppressive effect on the development of silkworms. To investigate the molecular mechanism by which high-glucose diet inhibited the midgut growth in silkworms, we employed comparative proteomic analysis to globally identify proteins differentially expressed in normal and high-glucose diet group silkworms. In all, 28 differently proteins were suppressed and 5 proteins induced in high-glucose diet group. Gene ontology analysis showed that most of these differently proteins are mainly involved in metabolic process, catalytic and cellular process. A development related protein, imaginal disk growth factor (IDGF), was further confirmed by western blot exclusively expressing in the normal diet group silkworms. Taken together, our data suggests that IDGF plays a critical role in impairing the development of silkworms by a high-glucose diet. Glucose has been thought to play essential roles in growth and development of silkworm. In this paper, we certified firstly that high-glucose diet can suppress the growth of silkworm, and comparative proteomic was employed to reveal the inhibition mechanism. Moreover, an important regulation related protein (IDGF) was found to involve in this inhibition process. These results will help us get a deeper understanding of the relationship between diet and healthy. Furthermore, IDGF may be the critical protein for reducing the blood sugar in silkworm, and it may be used for screening human hypoglycemic drug. The work has not been submitted elsewhere for publication, in whole or in part, and all the authors have approved the manuscript. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Suppressive effect of mangosteen rind extract on the spontaneous development of atopic dermatitis in NC/Tnd mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Akane; Nishikawa, Sho; Oida, Kumiko; Matsuda, Akira; Jung, Kyungsook; Amagai, Yosuke; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing skin disorder characterized by pruritic and dry skin lesions with allergic inflammation. Recent studies have revealed anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects of xanthones in mangosteen through regulation of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway. Activation of NF-κB signals is responsible for allergic inflammation in AD. To develop a new preventive therapy for AD, we examined the effects of the natural medicine, mangosteen rind extract (ME), on AD in a murine model. ME (250 mg/kg per day) was administrated to NC/Tnd mice, a model for human AD, for 6 weeks to evaluate its preventive effects on AD. We also confirmed the effects of ME on various immune cell functions. Oral administration of ME prevented the increase of clinical skin severity scores, plasma total immunoglobulin E levels, scratching behavior, transepidermal water loss and epidermal hyperplasia in NC/Tnd mice; moreover, no adverse effects were noted. We demonstrated that ME suppressed thymic stromal lymphopoietin and interferon-γ mRNA expression both in vitro and in vivo. Not only immunoglobulin E production from splenic B cells but also immunoglobulin E-mediated degranulation of bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells was significantly reduced by the addition of ME to the culture. In addition, mRNA expression levels of nerve growth factor were decreased in ME-administrated NC/Tnd mice compared with those of controls. Keratinocyte proliferation was well-controlled by ME application. Oral administration of ME exhibited its suppressive potential on the early development of AD by controlling inflammation, itch and epidermal barrier function. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  13. Small molecule inhibitor regorafenib inhibits RET signaling in neuroblastoma cells and effectively suppresses tumor growthin vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenghu; Zhao, Yanling; Yu, Yang; Pang, Jonathan C; Woodfield, Sarah E; Tao, Ling; Guan, Shan; Zhang, Huiyuan; Bieerkehazhi, Shayahati; Shi, Yan; Patel, Roma; Vasudevan, Sanjeev A; Yi, Joanna S; Muscal, Jodi A; Xu, Guo-Tong; Yang, Jianhua

    2017-11-28

    Neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extracranial pediatric solid tumor, continues to cause significant cancer-related morbidity and mortality in children. Dysregulation of oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) has been shown to contribute to tumorigenesis in various human cancers and targeting these RTKs has had therapeutic benefit. RET is an RTK which is commonly expressed in NB, and high expression of RET correlates with poor outcomes in patients with NB. Herein we report that RET is required for NB cell proliferation and that the small molecule inhibitor regorafenib (BAY 73-4506) blocks glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-induced RET signaling in NB cells and inhibits NB growth both in vitro and in vivo . We found that regorafenib significantly inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation ability of NB cells. Moreover, regorafenib suppressed tumor growth in both an orthotopic xenograft NB mouse model and a TH-MYCN transgenic NB mouse model. Finally, regorafenib markedly improved the overall survival of TH-MYCN transgenic tumor-bearing mice. In summary, our study suggests that RET is a potential therapeutic target in NB, and that using a novel RET inhibitor, like regorafenib, should be investigated as a therapeutic treatment option for children with NB.

  14. Ndm, a coiled-coil domain protein that suppresses macropinocytosis and has effects on cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Jessica S; Fastman, Nathan M; Noratel, Elizabeth F; Blumberg, Daphne D

    2012-09-01

    The ampA gene has a role in cell migration in Dictyostelium discoideum. Cells overexpressing AmpA show an increase in cell migration, forming large plaques on bacterial lawns. A second-site suppressor of this ampA-overexpressing phenotype identified a previously uncharacterized gene, ndm, which is described here. The Ndm protein is predicted to contain a coiled-coil BAR-like domain-a domain involved in endocytosis and membrane bending. ndm-knockout and Ndm-monomeric red fluorescent protein-expressing cell lines were used to establish a role for ndm in suppressing endocytosis. An increase in the rate of endocytosis and in the number of endosomes was detected in ndm(-) cells. During migration ndm(-) cells formed numerous endocytic cups instead of the broad lamellipodia structure characteristic of moving cells. A second lamellipodia-based function-cell spreading-was also defective in the ndm(-) cells. The increase in endocytosis and the defect in lamellipodia formation were associated with reduced chemotaxis in ndm(-) cells. Immunofluorescence results and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays revealed an association of Ndm with coronin and F-actin. The results establish ndm as a gene important in regulating the balance between formation of endocytic cups and lamellipodia structures.

  15. Suppressive effect of nobiletin and epicatechin gallate on fructose uptake in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsu, Hideo; Awara, Sohei; Unno, Tomonori; Shimizu, Makoto

    2018-04-01

    Inhibition of excessive fructose intake in the small intestine could alleviate fructose-induced diseases such as hypertension and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We examined the effect of phytochemicals on fructose uptake using human intestinal epithelial-like Caco-2 cells which express the fructose transporter, GLUT5. Among 35 phytochemicals tested, five, including nobiletin and epicatechin gallate (ECg), markedly inhibited fructose uptake. Nobiletin and ECg also inhibited the uptake of glucose but not of L-leucine or Gly-Sar, suggesting an inhibitory effect specific to monosaccharide transporters. Kinetic analysis further suggested that this reduction in fructose uptake was associated with a decrease in the apparent number of cell-surface GLUT5 molecules, and not with a change in the affinity of GLUT5 for fructose. Lastly, nobiletin and ECg suppressed the permeation of fructose across Caco-2 cell monolayers. These findings suggest that nobiletin and ECg are good candidates for preventing diseases caused by excessive fructose intake.

  16. Excess TSH causes abnormal skeletal development in young mice with hypothyroidism via suppressive effects on the growth plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Toyoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2013-09-01

    Hypothyroidism in the young leads to irreversible growth failure. hyt/hyt Mice have a nonfunctional TSH receptor (TSHR) and are severely hypothyroid, but growth retardation was not observed in adult mice. We found that epiphysial cartilage as well as cultured chondrocytes expressed functional TSHR at levels comparable to that seen in the thyroid, and that addition of TSH to cultured chondrocytes suppressed expression of chondrocyte differentiation marker genes such as Sox-9 and type IIa collagen. Next, we compared the long bone phenotypes of two distinct mouse models of hypothyroidism: thyroidectomized (THYx) mice and hyt/hyt mice. Although both THYx and hyt/hyt mice were severely hypothyroid and had similar serum Ca(2+) and growth hormone levels, the tibia was shorter and the proliferating and hypertrophic zones in the growth plate was significantly narrower in THYx mice than in hyt/hyt mice. Supplementation of hyt/hyt mice thyroid hormone resulted in a wider growth plate compared with that of wild-type mice. Expressions of chondrocyte differentiation marker genes Sox-9 and type IIa collagen in growth plate from THYx mice were 52 and 60% lower than those of hyt/hyt mice, respectively. High serum TSH causes abnormal skeletal development in young mice with hypothyroidism via suppressive effects on the growth plate.

  17. Effects of Regulating Positive Emotions through Reappraisal and Suppression on Verbal and Non-Verbal Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Catherine N. M.; de Koning, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that regulating emotions through reappraisal does not incur cognitive costs. However, in those experiments, cognitive costs were often assessed by recognition memory for information that was contextually related to the emotionally evocative stimuli and may have been incorporated into the reappraisal script, facilitating memory. Furthermore, there is little research on the cognitive correlates of regulating positive emotions. In the current experiment, we tested memory for information that was contextually unrelated to the emotional stimuli and could not easily be related to the reappraisal. Participants viewed neutral and mildly positive slides and either reappraised, suppressed their emotions, or viewed the images with no emotion regulation instruction. At the same time, they heard abstract words that were unrelated to the picture stimuli. Subsequent verbal recognition memory was lower after reappraising than viewing, whereas non-verbal recognition memory (of the slides) was higher after reappraising, but only for positive pictures and when participants viewed the positive pictures first. Suppression had no significant effect on either verbal or non-verbal recognition scores, although there was a trend towards poorer recognition of verbal information. The findings support the notion that reappraisal is effortful and draws on limited cognitive resources, causing decrements in performance in a concurrent memory task. PMID:23658647

  18. Effects of regulating positive emotions through reappraisal and suppression on verbal and non-verbal recognition memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine N M Ortner

    Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that regulating emotions through reappraisal does not incur cognitive costs. However, in those experiments, cognitive costs were often assessed by recognition memory for information that was contextually related to the emotionally evocative stimuli and may have been incorporated into the reappraisal script, facilitating memory. Furthermore, there is little research on the cognitive correlates of regulating positive emotions. In the current experiment, we tested memory for information that was contextually unrelated to the emotional stimuli and could not easily be related to the reappraisal. Participants viewed neutral and mildly positive slides and either reappraised, suppressed their emotions, or viewed the images with no emotion regulation instruction. At the same time, they heard abstract words that were unrelated to the picture stimuli. Subsequent verbal recognition memory was lower after reappraising than viewing, whereas non-verbal recognition memory (of the slides was higher after reappraising, but only for positive pictures and when participants viewed the positive pictures first. Suppression had no significant effect on either verbal or non-verbal recognition scores, although there was a trend towards poorer recognition of verbal information. The findings support the notion that reappraisal is effortful and draws on limited cognitive resources, causing decrements in performance in a concurrent memory task.

  19. Effects of regulating positive emotions through reappraisal and suppression on verbal and non-verbal recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Catherine N M; de Koning, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that regulating emotions through reappraisal does not incur cognitive costs. However, in those experiments, cognitive costs were often assessed by recognition memory for information that was contextually related to the emotionally evocative stimuli and may have been incorporated into the reappraisal script, facilitating memory. Furthermore, there is little research on the cognitive correlates of regulating positive emotions. In the current experiment, we tested memory for information that was contextually unrelated to the emotional stimuli and could not easily be related to the reappraisal. Participants viewed neutral and mildly positive slides and either reappraised, suppressed their emotions, or viewed the images with no emotion regulation instruction. At the same time, they heard abstract words that were unrelated to the picture stimuli. Subsequent verbal recognition memory was lower after reappraising than viewing, whereas non-verbal recognition memory (of the slides) was higher after reappraising, but only for positive pictures and when participants viewed the positive pictures first. Suppression had no significant effect on either verbal or non-verbal recognition scores, although there was a trend towards poorer recognition of verbal information. The findings support the notion that reappraisal is effortful and draws on limited cognitive resources, causing decrements in performance in a concurrent memory task.

  20. The halo effect: suppression of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton by Bt cotton in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wan

    Full Text Available In some previously reported cases, transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have suppressed insect pests not only in fields planted with such crops, but also regionally on host plants that do not produce Bt toxins. Here we used 16 years of field data to determine if Bt cotton caused this "halo effect" against pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella in six provinces of the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We found that Bt cotton significantly decreased the population density of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton, with net decreases of 91% for eggs and 95% for larvae on non-Bt cotton after 11 years of Bt cotton use. Insecticide sprays targeting pink bollworm and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera decreased by 69%. Previously reported evidence of the early stages of evolution of pink bollworm resistance to Bt cotton in China has raised concerns that if unchecked, such resistance could eventually diminish or eliminate the benefits of Bt cotton. The results reported here suggest that it might be possible to find a percentage of Bt cotton lower than the current level that causes sufficient regional pest suppression and reduces the risk of resistance.

  1. Effects of torus wall flexibility on forces in the Mark I Boiling Water Reactor Pressure Suppression System. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1977-09-01

    The authors investigated the effects of torus wall flexibility in the pressure suppression system of a Mark I boiling water reactor (BWR) when the torus wall is subjected to hydrodynamic loadings. Using hypothetical models, they examined these flexibility effects under two hydrodynamic loading conditions: (1) a steam relief valve (SRV) discharge pulse, and (2) a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) chugging pulse. In the analyses of these events they used a recently developed two-dimensional finite element computer code. Taking the basic geometry and dimensions of the Monticello Mark I BWR nuclear power plant (in Monticello, Minnesota, U.S.A.), they assessed the effects of flexibility in the torus wall by changing values of the inside-diameter-to-wall-thickness ratio. Varying the torus wall thickness (t) with respect to the inside diameter (D) of the torus, they assigned values to the ratio D/t ranging from 0 (infinitely rigid) to 600 (highly flexible). In the case of a modeled steam relief valve (SRV) discharge pulse, they found the peak vertical reaction force on the torus was reduced from that of a rigid wall response by a factor of 3 for the most highly flexible, plant-simulated wall (D/t = 600). The reduction factor for a modeled loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) chugging pulse was shown to be 1.5. The two-dimensional analyses employed overestimate these reduction factors but have provided, as intended, definition of the effect of torus boundary stiffness. In the work planned for FY79, improved modeling of the structure and of the source is expected to result in factors more directly applicable to actual pressure suppression systems

  2. The Beta-2-Adrenoreceptor Agonists, Formoterol and Indacaterol, but Not Salbutamol, Effectively Suppress the Reactivity of Human Neutrophils In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical relevance of the anti-inflammatory properties of beta-2 agonists remains contentious possibly due to differences in their molecular structures and agonist activities. The current study has compared the effects of 3 different categories of β2-agonists, namely, salbutamol (short-acting, formoterol (long-acting and indacaterol (ultra-long-acting, at concentrations of 1–1000 nM, with human blood neutrophils in vitro. Neutrophils were activated with either N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP, 1 µM or platelet-activating factor (PAF, 200 nM in the absence and presence of the β2-agonists followed by measurement of the generation of reactive oxygen species and leukotriene B4, release of elastase, and expression of the β2-integrin, CR3, using a combination of chemiluminescence, ELISA, colorimetric, and flow cytometric procedures respectively. These were correlated with alterations in the concentrations of intracellular cyclic-AMP and cytosolic Ca2+. At the concentrations tested, formoterol and indacaterol caused equivalent, significant (P<0.05 at 1–10 nM dose-related inhibition of all of the pro-inflammatory activities tested, while salbutamol was much less effective (P<0.05 at 100 nM and higher. Suppression of neutrophil reactivity was accompanied by elevations in intracellular cAMP and accelerated clearance of Ca2+ from the cytosol of activated neutrophils. These findings demonstrate that β2-agonists vary with respect to their suppressive effects on activated neutrophils.

  3. Soil biota suppress positive plant diversity effects on productivity at high but not low soil fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Shan; Deyn, De Gerlinde B.; Jiang, B.; Yu, Shixiao

    2017-01-01

    Plant community productivity commonly increases with increasing plant diversity, which is explained by complementarity among plant species in resource utilization (complementarity effect), or by selection of particularly productive plant species in diverse plant communities (selection effect).

  4. The suppressive effects of Vochysia divergens aqueous leaf extract and its 5-methoxyflavone on murine macrophages and lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Maria Fernanda Paresqui; Ventura, Thatiana Lopes Biá; Muzitano, Michelle Frazão; da Cruz, Elaine Dos Anjos; Bergonzi, Maria Camilla; Bilia, Anna Rita; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira; Costa, Sônia Soares

    2018-04-04

    Leaf infusion from the tree Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae), known as "cambará", is used in Brazilian popular medicine against respiratory infections and asthma. To evaluate the health-beneficial effects related to the ethnomedicinal uses of V. divergens (Vd), a biomonitored fractionation of an aqueous leaf extract was carried out. Leaves were extracted by decoction with distilled water, and the extract fractionated by a combination of separation techniques including precipitation, organic partition and chromatography. Chromatographic analyses of active samples were carried out using HPLC-DAD-MS and flavonoid 1 was isolated from n-BuOH fraction through classic chromatography techniques. Inhibitory effects of Vd extract, fractions and flavonoid 1 on NO and TNF-α production by macrophages were assessed by Griess method and L929 cell bioassay and cell viability by LDH release assay. Additionally, the suppressive ability on proliferation of BALB/c lymphocytes was estimated by [ 3 H] thymidine incorporation. Antioxidant activity of samples was verified by SNP and DPPH assay and inhibition ability of iNOS protein expression through Western blotting. The LC-MS analysis of Vd extract led to the identification of 5-methoxyluteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside (2), rutin (4) and the tannin galloyl-HHDP-glucopyranoside (3), besides the main flavonoid 3',5-dimethoxyluteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside (1), which was biologically evaluated in comparison with luteolin aglycone. Vd extract, n-BuOH fraction and flavonoid 1 inhibit NO and TNF-α production by LPS-stimulated macrophages. The reduction on NO levels was mediated mainly by suppression of iNOS expression. In addition, both Vd extract (IC 50 13.6µg/mL) and flavonoid 1 (IC 50 19.8µg/mL; 41.6µM) strongly inhibited stimulated lymphocyte proliferation when compared to immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A (IC 50 43.8µg/mL; 36.4µM). Vd extract also showed a scavenging activity toward DPPH and NO free radicals. This is the

  5. [The effect of magnesium pool isotopy on reactivation of mitochondrial ATP synthesis suppressed by 1-methyl-nicotine amide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, D A; Aliautdin, R N; Markarian, A A; Berdieva, A G; Khasigov, P Z; Gatagonova, T M; Ktsoeva, S A; Orlova, M A

    2006-01-01

    The ATP-generating activity of both rat myocardial mitochondria and intramitochondrial creatine phosphokinase (CPK) was examined as a function of the incubation medium magnesium pool isotopy. The in vitro systems tested were prepared from the hearts of animals treated with single injection of 1-methyl-nicotine amide (MNA) suppressing the NAD(P)-dependent reactions in vivo. The presense of the 25Mg paramagnetic cations leads to essential compensation of intramitochondrial ATP deficiency caused by the MNA induced blockade of oxidative phosphorylation. This effect is merely unreachable in those systems where the magnesium pool consists of isotopes with a zero nuclear spin (24Mg, 26Mg). The reactivation of mitochondrial ATP synthesis described here involves CPK activity which does not depends on MNA. In this case, a high efficiency of this reactivation seems to be a spin selective phenomenon which requires, predominantly, 25Mg2+ cations.

  6. Tumor-suppressing effects of microRNA-612 in bladder cancer cells by targeting malic enzyme 1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengnan; Chen, Yifan; Huang, Bisheng; Mao, Shiyu; Cai, Keke; Wang, Longsheng; Yao, Xudong

    2018-03-29

    The present study investigated the possible tumor-suppressing function of microRNA (miR)-612 and the underlying molecular mechanism of its action in bladder cancer in vitro and in vivo. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) was carried out to quantify the expression levels of miR‑612 in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. The data demonstrated that the level of miR‑612 expression was significantly reduced in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines, as compared with that in non‑cancerous tissues and cells. Reduced miR‑612 expression was associated with advanced tumor, lymph node and metastasis stages, and with distant metastasis of bladder cancer. A functional study revealed that transfection of cells with an miR‑612 mimic suppressed bladder cancer cell growth, colony formation, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Bioinformatics analysis identified that miR‑612 targeted the expression of malic enzyme 1 (ME1), and this was confirmed by western blot and luciferase reporter assay results. Furthermore, the ME1 expression levels were inversely associated with miR‑612 expression in bladder cancer tissue specimens. In addition, knockdown of ME1 expression using ME1 siRNA mimicked the effect of ectopic miR‑612 overexpression in bladder cancer cells in terms of tumor cell growth, migration and invasion. By contrast, ME1 overexpression weakened the inhibitory effect of the miR‑612 mimic in bladder cancer cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that miR‑612 may function as a tumor suppressor in bladder cancer by targeting ME1 expression.

  7. Fire suppression and fuels treatment effects on mixed-conifer carbon stocks and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. North; M Hurteau; J Innes

    2009-01-01

    Depending on management, forests can be an important sink or source of carbon that if released as CO2 could contribute to global warming. Many forests in the western United States are being treated to reduce fuels, yet the effects of these treatments on forest carbon are not well understood. We compared the immediate effects of fuels treatments on carbon stocks and...

  8. Someone to count on: social support as an effect modifier of viral load suppression in a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, M Reuel; Coulter, Robert W S; Silvestre, Anthony J; Stall, Ron; Teplin, Linda; Shoptaw, Steve; Surkan, Pamela J; Plankey, Michael W

    2017-04-01

    Though functional social support has been shown to serve as a protective factor for HIV viral load suppression in other populations, scant research has examined this relationship among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. We assessed characteristics of social support, effects of social support on HIV viral load, and moderation by social support of the relationship between psychosocial indicators of a synergistic epidemic (syndemic) and HIV viral load. We analyzed longitudinal data from HIV-positive MSM using antiretroviral therapy who were enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study between 2002 and 2009 (n = 712). First, we conducted reliability assessments of a one-item social support measure. Then, we conducted a series of generalized longitudinal mixed models to assess our research questions. Moderation was assessed using an interaction term. A three-level (low/medium/high) social support variable demonstrated high reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients  = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.75). Black and Hispanic MSM reported lower social support than their White counterparts (p social support (p social support (p social support levels were associated with greater viral load suppression and lower viral load means (p Social support moderated the relationships between syndemic and HIV viral load (p HIV-positive MSM, particularly those of color, may benefit greatly from interventions that can successfully boost functional social support. Creating strengths-based interventions may also have particularly high impact among HIV-positive MSM with the highest psychosocial burdens.

  9. The Effect of Antioxidants on Suppression of Thermal Degradation of Insulation Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagae, Masahiro; Sekii, Yasuo; Yoshino, Hiroto; Miyake, Koujirou

    Thermal degradation of EPDM and the effect of antioxidants on the degradation of EPDM was investigated. Using FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer) micrometer the degree of degradation was analyzed. A new evaluation method of mapping measurement was introduced and showed to be very useful. Among oxidants studied, the phenolic antioxidant 4,4'-tiobis(3-methyl-6-tert.-Butyl phenol was confirmed to be useful. A synergetic effects between phenolic antioxidant 2,2'-methylene- bis (4-methyl-6-tert.buthylphenol) and sulfur type antioxidant, dilauryl thiodipropionate, was also confirmed. The temperature dependence of thermal degradation of EPDM was also analyzed.

  10. A fluorometric microarray with ZnO substrate-enhanced fluorescence and suppressed ``coffee-ring'' effects for fluorescence immunoassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuying; Dong, Minmin; Li, Rui; Zhang, Liyan; Qiao, Yuchun; Jiang, Yao; Qi, Wei; Wang, Hua

    2015-11-01

    A glass slide was first patterned with hydrophobic hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDS) and then microspotted with hydrophilic ZnO nanoparticles in an aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) matrix. The resulting HDS-ZnO-APS microarray could present the capability of suppressing the undesirable ``coffee-ring'' effects through its hydrophobic pattern so as to allow the fabrication of ZnO-APS testing microspots with a highly dense and uniform distribution. The lotus-like ``self-cleaning'' function could also be expected to effectively curb the cross contamination of multiple sample droplets. More importantly, the introduction of ZnO nanoparticles could endow the testing microspots with substrate-enhanced fluorescence leading to signal-amplification microarray fluorometry. The practical application of the developed HDS-ZnO-APS microarray was investigated by the sandwiched fluorometric immunoassays of human IgG, showing a linear detection range from 0.010 to 10.0 ng mL-1. Such a throughput-improved fluorometric microarray could be tailored for probing multiple biomarkers in complicated media like serum or blood.A glass slide was first patterned with hydrophobic hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDS) and then microspotted with hydrophilic ZnO nanoparticles in an aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) matrix. The resulting HDS-ZnO-APS microarray could present the capability of suppressing the undesirable ``coffee-ring'' effects through its hydrophobic pattern so as to allow the fabrication of ZnO-APS testing microspots with a highly dense and uniform distribution. The lotus-like ``self-cleaning'' function could also be expected to effectively curb the cross contamination of multiple sample droplets. More importantly, the introduction of ZnO nanoparticles could endow the testing microspots with substrate-enhanced fluorescence leading to signal-amplification microarray fluorometry. The practical application of the developed HDS-ZnO-APS microarray was investigated by the sandwiched fluorometric

  11. Autophagy suppression potentiates the anti-glioblastoma effect of asparaginase in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qicheng; Ye, Li; Fan, Jiajun; Zhang, Xuyao; Wang, Huan; Liao, Siyang; Song, Ping; Wang, Ziyu; Wang, Shaofei; Li, Yubin; Luan, Jingyun; Wang, Yichen; Chen, Wei; Zai, Wenjing; Yang, Ping; Cao, Zhonglian; Ju, Dianwen

    2017-01-01

    Asparaginase has been reported to be effective in the treatment of various leukemia and several malignant solid cancers. However, the anti-tumor effect of asparaginase is always restricted due to complicated mechanisms. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms of how glioblastoma resisted asparaginase treatment and reported a novel approach to enhance the anti-glioblastoma effect of asparaginase. We found that asparaginase could induce growth inhibition and caspase-dependent apoptosis in U87MG/U251MG glioblastoma cells. Meanwhile, autophagy was activated as indicated by autophagosomes formation and upregulated expression of LC3-II. Importantly, abolishing autophagy using chloroquine (CQ) and LY294002 enhanced the cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by asparaginase in U87MG/U251MG cells. Further study proved that Akt/mTOR and Erk signaling pathways participated in autophagy induction, while reactive oxygen species (ROS) served as an intracellular regulator for both cytotoxicity and autophagy in asparaginase-treated U87MG/U251MG cells. Moreover, combination treatment with autophagy inhibitor CQ significantly enhanced anti-glioblastoma efficacy of asparaginase in U87MG cell xenograft model. Taken together, our results demonstrated that inhibition of autophagy potentiated the anti-tumor effect of asparagine depletion on glioblastoma, indicating that targeting autophagy and asparagine could be a potential approach for glioblastoma treatment. PMID:29207624

  12. Long-term effectiveness of unboosted atazanavir plus abacavir/lamivudine in subjects with virological suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llibre, Josep M; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Pedersen, Court

    2016-01-01

    Effectiveness data of an unboosted atazanavir (ATV) with abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) switch strategy in clinical routine are scant.We evaluated treatment outcomes of ATV + ABC/3TC in pretreated subjects in the EuroSIDA cohort when started with undetectable plasma HIV-1 viral load (pVL), perform...

  13. DHA-Rich Tuna Oil Effectively Suppresses Allergic Symptoms in Mice Allergic to Whey or Peanut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Elsen, Lieke Wj; Bol-Schoenmakers, Marianne; van Esch, Betty Cam; Hofman, Gerard A; van de Heijning, Bert Jm; Pieters, Raymond H; Smit, Joost J; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette Em

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supplementation with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) has been found to reduce the development of allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of fish oil diets rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid

  14. Suppressive effects of a water extract of Ulmus davidiana Planch (Ulmaceae) on collagen-induced arthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kap-Sung; Lee, Seung-Duk; Kim, Kyung-Ho; Kil, Sang-Yong; Chung, Kang-Hyun; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2005-02-10

    Ulmus davidiana Planch (Ulmaceae) has long been known to have anti-inflammatory and protective effects on damaged tissue, inflammation and bone resorption. Therefore, this study was undertaken to address (1) whether the water extract of the bark of Ulmus davidiana Planch (Ulmaceae) (UD) can modulate the expression of inducible inflammatory cytokines in mice; (2) in order to assess the therapeutic effects of UD in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. DBA/1 mice were immunized with bovine type II collagen. After a second collagen immunization, mice were treated with UD orally at 100mg/kg once a day for 3 weeks. Paws were evaluated macroscopically for redness, swelling and deformities. The levels of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in the ankle were examined. The severity of arthritis within the knee joints was evaluated by histological assessment of cartilage destruction and pannus formation. Administration of UD significantly suppressed the progression of CIA and inhibited the production of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in the paws. The erosion of cartilage was dramatically reduced in mouse knees after treatment with UD. In the serum of UD-treated mice, the levels of IL-4 and IL-10, anti-inflammatory cytokines, were increased. From the results, it was concluded that administration of UD has therapeutic effects on CIA including protection of cartilage and RA for a potential therapy.

  15. Suppressive Effects of the Site 1 Protease (S1P Inhibitor, PF-429242, on Dengue Virus Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Uchida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV infection causes one of the most widespread mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Despite the great need, effective vaccines and practical antiviral therapies are still under development. Intracellular lipid levels are regulated by sterol regulatory elements-binding proteins (SREBPs, which are activated by serine protease, site 1 protease (S1P. Small compound PF-429242 is known as a S1P inhibitor and the antivirus effects have been reported in some viruses. In this study, we examined the anti-DENV effects of PF-429242 using all four serotypes of DENV by several primate-derived cell lines. Moreover, emergence of drug-resistant DENV mutants was assessed by sequential passages with the drug. DENV dependency on intracellular lipids during their infection was also evaluated by adding extracellular lipids. The addition of PF-429242 showed suppression of viral propagation in all DENV serotypes. We showed that drug-resistant DENV mutants are unlikely to emerge after five times sequential passages through treatment with PF-429242. Although the levels of intracellular cholesterol and lipid droplets were reduced by PF-429242, viral propagations were not recovered by addition of exogenous cholesterol or fatty acids, indicating that the reduction of LD and cholesterol caused by PF-429242 treatment is not related to its mechanism of action against DENV propagation. Our results suggest that PF-429242 is a promising candidate for an anti-DENV agent.

  16. Plant polyphenols effectively protect HaCaT cells from ultraviolet C-triggered necrosis and suppress inflammatory chemokine expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Saveria; Potapovich, Alla; Kostyuk, Vladimir; Mariani, Valentina; Lulli, Daniela; De Luca, Chiara; Korkina, Liudmila

    2009-08-01

    Oxidative stress is a common response of epidermal cells to a variety of noxious stimuli such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation from solar light and proinflammatory cytokines from skin-infiltrating leukocytes. Here, we report that two types of plant-derived antioxidants, the phenylpropanoid glycoside verbascoside as well as the flavonoids rutin and quercetin possess protective effects against UVC-induced cell damage and proinflammatory activation. The molecules under investigation were effective against the loss of cell integrity associated with necrosis in doses consistent with their antioxidant activity, whereas they did not significantly oppose UVC-induced proliferation arrest and apoptosis. By contrast, only verbascoside effectively inhibited cytokine-induced release of proinflammatory mediators in a dose-dependent fashion. Verbascoside and its homologue teupolioside dramatically impaired NF-kappaB and AP-1 DNA binding activity. These results suggest that plant polyphenols with antioxidant properties have distinct mechanisms in the suppression of oxidative stress induced in keratinocytes by different stimuli. Verbascoside and teupolioside are hence of potential interest in the protection of the skin from both environmental and inflammatory insults.

  17. Suppressive Effects of the Site 1 Protease (S1P) Inhibitor, PF-429242, on Dengue Virus Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Leo; Urata, Shuzo; Ulanday, Gianne Eduard L; Takamatsu, Yuki; Yasuda, Jiro; Morita, Kouichi; Hayasaka, Daisuke

    2016-02-10

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes one of the most widespread mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Despite the great need, effective vaccines and practical antiviral therapies are still under development. Intracellular lipid levels are regulated by sterol regulatory elements-binding proteins (SREBPs), which are activated by serine protease, site 1 protease (S1P). Small compound PF-429242 is known as a S1P inhibitor and the antivirus effects have been reported in some viruses. In this study, we examined the anti-DENV effects of PF-429242 using all four serotypes of DENV by several primate-derived cell lines. Moreover, emergence of drug-resistant DENV mutants was assessed by sequential passages with the drug. DENV dependency on intracellular lipids during their infection was also evaluated by adding extracellular lipids. The addition of PF-429242 showed suppression of viral propagation in all DENV serotypes. We showed that drug-resistant DENV mutants are unlikely to emerge after five times sequential passages through treatment with PF-429242. Although the levels of intracellular cholesterol and lipid droplets were reduced by PF-429242, viral propagations were not recovered by addition of exogenous cholesterol or fatty acids, indicating that the reduction of LD and cholesterol caused by PF-429242 treatment is not related to its mechanism of action against DENV propagation. Our results suggest that PF-429242 is a promising candidate for an anti-DENV agent.

  18. Suppressive effect of Withania somnifera root powder on experimental gouty arthritis: An in vivo and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Mahaboobkhan; Varalakshmi, Palaninathan

    2006-12-15

    The effect of Withania somnifera L. Dunal root powder on paw volume and serum lysosomal enzyme activities was investigated in monosodium urate crystal-induced rats. The levels of beta-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase were also measured in monosodium urate crystal incubated polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL). A significant increase in the level of paw volume and serum lysosomal enzymes was observed in monosodium urate crystal-induced rats. The increased beta-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase level were observed in untreated monosodium urate crystal incubated polymorphonuclear leucocytes. On treatment with the W. somnifera root powder (500/1000 mg/kg body weight), the above changes were reverted back to near normal levels. W. somnifera also showed potent analgesic and antipyretic effect with the absence of gastric damage at different dose levels in experimental rats. For comparison purpose, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) indomethacin was used as a standard. These results provide evidence for the suppressive effect of W. somnifera root powder by retarding amplification and propagation of the inflammatory response without causing any gastric damage.

  19. Glucocorticoids suppress GLP-1 secretion: possible contribution to their diabetogenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappe, Camilla; Fransson, Liselotte; Wolbert, Petra; Ortsäter, Henrik

    2015-09-01

    Evidence indicates that subtle abnormalities in GC (glucocorticoid) plasma concentrations and/or in tissue sensitivity to GCs are important in the metabolic syndrome, and it is generally agreed that GCs induce insulin resistance. In addition, it was recently reported that short-term exposure to GCs reduced the insulinotropic effects of the incretin GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1). However, although defective GLP-1 secretion has been correlated with insulin resistance, potential direct effects of GCs on GLP-1-producing L-cell function in terms of GLP-1 secretion and apoptosis have not been studied in any greater detail. In the present study, we sought to determine whether GCs could exert direct effects on GLP-1-producing L-cells in terms of GLP-1 secretion and cell viability. We demonstrate that the GR (glucocorticoid receptor) is expressed in GLP-1-producing cells, where GR activation in response to dexamethasone induces SGK1 (serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1) expression, but did not influence preproglucagon expression or cell viability. In addition, dexamethasone treatment of enteroendocrine GLUTag cells reduced GLP-1 secretion induced by glucose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, fructose and potassium, whereas the secretory response to a phorbol ester was unaltered. Furthermore, in vivo administration of dexamethasone to rats reduced the circulating levels of GLP-1 concurrent with induction of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. We can conclude that GR activation in GLP-1-producing cells will diminish the secretory responsiveness of these cells to subsequent carbohydrate stimulation. These effects may not only elucidate the pathogenesis of steroid diabetes, but could ultimately contribute to the identification of novel molecular targets for controlling incretin secretion. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  20. The effect of niacinamide on reducing cutaneous pigmentation and suppression of melanosome transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakozaki, T; Minwalla, L; Zhuang, J; Chhoa, M; Matsubara, A; Miyamoto, K; Greatens, A; Hillebrand, G G; Bissett, D L; Boissy, R E

    2002-07-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentation occurs in multiple conditions. In addition, many Asian women desire a lighter skin colour. Thus, there is a need for the development of skin lightening agents. Niacinamide is a possible candidate. To investigate the effects of niacinamide on melanogenesis in vitro and on facial hyperpigmentation and skin colour in vivo in Japanese women. Melanin production was measured in a purified mushroom tyrosinase assay, cultured melanocytes, a keratinocyte/melanocyte coculture model, and a pigmented reconstructed epidermis (PREP) model. The clinical trials included 18 subjects with hyperpigmentation who used 5% niacinamide moisturizer and vehicle moisturizer in a paired design, and 120 subjects with facial tanning who were assigned to two of three treatments: vehicle, sunscreen and 2% niacinamide + sunscreen. Changes in facial hyperpigmentation and skin colour were objectively quantified by computer analysis and visual grading of high-resolution digital images of the face. Niacinamide had no effect on the catalytic activity of mushroom tyrosinase or on melanogenesis in cultured melanocytes. However, niacinamide gave 35-68% inhibition of melanosome transfer in the coculture model and reduced cutaneous pigmentation in the PREP model. In the clinical studies, niacinamide significantly decreased hyperpigmentation and increased skin lightness compared with vehicle alone after 4 weeks of use. The data suggest niacinamide is an effective skin lightening compound that works by inhibiting melanosome transfer from melanocytes to keratinocytes.

  1. Suppressive effect of astaxanthin on retinal injury induced by elevated intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Aysegul; Ozturk, Nihal; Akpinar, Deniz; Unal, Mustafa; Yucel, Gultekin; Ciftcioglu, Akif; Yargicoglu, Piraye; Aslan, Mutay

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the possible protective effect of astaxanthin (ASX) on the retina in rats with elevated intraocular pressure (EIOP). Rats were randomly divided into two groups which received olive oil or 5mg/kg/day ASX for a period of 8 weeks. Elevated intraocular pressure was induced by unilaterally cauterizing three episcleral vessels and the unoperated eye served as control. At the end of the experimental period, neuroprotective effect of ASX was determined via electrophysiological measurements of visual evoked potentials (VEP) and rats were subsequently sacrificed to obtain enucleated globes which were divided into four groups including control, ASX treated, EIOP, EIOP+ASX treated. Retinoprotective properties of ASX were determined by evaluating retinal apoptosis, protein carbonyl levels and nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS-2) expression. Latencies of all VEP components were significantly prolonged in EIOP and returned to control levels following ASX administration. When compared to controls, EIOP significantly increased retinal protein oxidation which returned to baseline levels in ASX treated EIOP group. NOS-2 expression determined by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining was significantly greater in rats with EIOP compared to ASX and control groups. Retinal TUNEL staining showed apoptosis in all EIOP groups; however ASX treatment significantly decreased the percent of apoptotic cells when compared to non treated ocular hypertensive controls. The presented data confirm the role of oxidative injury in EIOP and highlight the protective effect of ASX in ocular hypertension. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Taurine counteracts the suppressive effect of lipopolysaccharide on neurogenesis in the hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gaofeng; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Hu, Jianmin; Nishihara, Masugi

    2013-01-01

    Neurogenesis has been generally accepted to happen in the subventricular zone lining the lateral ventricular and subgranular zone (SGZ) in the hippocampus of adult mammalian brain. Recent studies have reported that inflammatory stimuli, such as injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), impair neurogenesis in the SGZ. Taurine, a sulfur-containing β-amino acid, is a major free intracellular amino acid in many tissues of mammals and having various supplementary effects on the mammalian body functions including the brain. Recently, it has been also reported that taurine levels in the brain significantly increase under stressful conditions. The present study was aimed to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of taurine on the neurogenesis in the SGZ under the condition of acute inflammatory stimuli by LPS. Adult male rats were intraperitoneally injected with taurine once a day for 39 days. Twenty-four hours before the animals were sacrificed on the last day of taurine treatment, LPS was injected simultaneously with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Immunohistochemistry for BrdU, Ki67, and Iba-1 in the brain was performed, and serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β 2 h after LPS injection were determined. The results showed that LPS significantly decreased the number of immunoreactive cells for both BrdU and Ki67 in the SGZ, while increased that for Iba-1, all of which were restored by taurine administration. Meanwhile, the serum concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly increased, which were significantly attenuated by taurine administration. These results suggest that taurine effectively maintains neurogenesis in the SGZ under the acute infectious condition by attenuating the increase of microgliosis in the hippocampus as well as proinflammatory cytokines in the peripheral circulation.

  3. Soybean glycinin improves HDL-C and suppresses the effects of rosuvastatin on hypercholesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Valdir A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was an investigation of the effects of ingesting a daily dose of isolated glycinin soy protein (11S globulin, in association with rosuvastatin, on the control of hypercholesterolemia in experimental animals. Methods Male Wistar rats were kept in individual cages under appropriate controlled conditions of temperature, light and humidity. The animals were divided into five groups (n = 9: 1 standard (STD: fed on casein as protein source; 2 hypercholesterolemic (HC: STD plus 1% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid; 3 HC+11S: hypercholesterolemic + glycinin (300 mg/kg/day; 4 HC+ROS: hypercholesterolemic + rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg/day; 5 HC+11S+ROS: HC diet, the 11S protein and the drug in the doses given in (3 and (4. The protein and the drug were administered by gavage for 28 days. The results indicated that the addition of 1% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid induced hypercholesterolemia in the animals without interfering with their weight gain. Results A single daily dose of glycinin contributed an additional 2.8% of dietary protein intake and demonstrated its functional role, particularly in raising HDL-C, decreasing triglycerides in the liver and improving the atherogenic index in animals exposed to a hypercholesterolemic diet. Conclusion Most of the beneficial effects of the isolated treatments disappeared when the drug (rosuvastatin and the protein (glycinin were taken simultaneously. The association was shown not to interact additively, as noted in the plasma levels of total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, and in the significant increase of cholesterol in the liver. Studies are in progress to identify the effects of peptides derived from the 11S globulin and their role in cholesterol metabolism.

  4. Involvement of stimulation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the suppressive effect of tropisetron on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaka, Yuichi; Yasunaga, Daiki; Kiyoi, Takeshi; Tanaka, Mamoru; Tanaka, Akihiro; Suemaru, Katsuya; Araki, Hiroaki

    2015-03-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) involves chronic inflammation of the large intestine. Several agents are used to treat UC, but adverse side effects are remaining problems. We examined the effect of tropisetron as a new type of drug for UC using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced model of colitis in mice. We developed a DSS-induced model of colitis and calculated the Disease Activity Index and colon length. We measured myeloperoxidase activity and determined the protein level and mRNA level of cytokines in the colon. DSS-induced colitis was ameliorated by administration of tropisetron and PNU282987. Pre-administration of methyllycaconitine diminished the suppressive effect of tropisetron upon DSS-induced colitis. These findings suggested that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs) were related to the suppressive effect of tropisetron on DSS-induced colitis. Additionally, stimulation of α7 nAChRs decreased the colon level of interleukin-6 and interferon-γ upon DSS administration. Furthermore, stimulation of α7 nAChRs decreased macrophage infiltration, with expression of α7 nAChR increased by DSS administration. These results suggest that the underlying mechanism of this suppressive effect on DSS-induced colitis is via stimulation of α7 nAChRs and involves suppression of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Tropisetron could be a new type of therapeutic agent for UC. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of spaceflight on human stem cell hematopoiesis: suppression of erythropoiesis and myelopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T A; Wiesmann, W; Kidwell, W; Cannon, T; Kerns, L; Serke, C; Delaplaine, T; Pranger, A; Lee, K P

    1996-07-01

    Humans subjected to periods of microgravity develop anemia, thrombocytopenia, and abnormalities in red blood cell structure. The causes of these abnormalities are complex and unclear. The in vitro effects of spaceflight on hematopoietic cell proliferation and differentiation were investigated during the space shuttle missions STS-63 (Discovery) and STS-69 (Endeavour). CD34+ bone marrow progenitor cells were cultured in liquid suspension culture and on hematopoietic supportive stromal cells using hollow-fiber culture modules. One set of cultures was maintained at microgravity (flight cultures) for the last 8-10 days of culture and a second control was at full gravity (ground control). Over the 11- to 13-test-day period, ground control culture total cell number increased 41.0- to 65.5-fold but flight culture total cell number increased only 10.1- to 17.6-fold (57-84% decrease). Comparing ground control cultures and microgravity cultures, respectively, for progenitor cell content, myeloid progenitor cell numbers expanded 2.6- to 17.5-fold compared with 0.9- to 7.0-fold and erythroid progenitor cell numbers expanded 2.0- to 4.1-fold in ground control cultures but actually declined at microgravity (>83% reduction). Moreover, microgravity cultures demonstrated accelerated maturation/differentiation toward the macrophage lineage. These data indicate that spaceflight has a direct effect on hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation and that specific aspects of in vitro hematopoiesis, particularly erythropoiesis, involve gravity-sensitive components.

  6. MicroRNAs-449a and -449b exhibit tumor suppressive effects in retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Alissa [Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Stem Cell Transplantation, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Jones, Aunica [Cancer Biology and Epigenomics Program, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago Research Center, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Bryar, Paul J. [Departments of Ophthalmology and Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Mets, Marilyn [Division of Ophthalmology, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Weinstein, Joanna [Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Stem Cell Transplantation, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Zhang, Gang [Biostatistics Research Core, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago Research Center, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Laurie, Nikia A., E-mail: n-laurie@northwestern.edu [Cancer Biology and Epigenomics Program, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago Research Center, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •We validate miR-449a/b expression in primary human retinoblastomas and cell lines. •Exogenous miRs-449a/b inhibited proliferation in retinoblastoma cell lines. •Exogenous miRs-449a/b increased apoptosis in retinoblastoma cell lines. •miRs-449a/b could serve as viable therapeutic targets for retinoblastoma treatment. -- Abstract: Retinoblastoma is the most common pediatric cancer of the eye. Currently, the chemotherapeutic treatments for retinoblastoma are broad-based drugs such as vincristine, carboplatin, or etoposide. However, therapies targeted directly to aberrant signaling pathways may provide more effective therapy for this disease. The purpose of our study is to illustrate the relationship between the expressions of miRs-449a and -449b to retinoblastoma proliferation and apoptosis. We are the first to confirm an inhibitory effect of miR-449a and -449b in retinoblastoma by demonstrating significantly impaired proliferation and increased apoptosis of tumor cells when these miRNAs are overexpressed. This study suggests that these miRNAs could serve as viable therapeutic targets for retinoblastoma treatment.

  7. The Suppressive Effects of Cinnamomi Cortex and Its Phytocompound Coumarin on Oxaliplatin-Induced Neuropathic Cold Allodynia in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changmin Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxaliplatin, a chemotherapy drug, induces acute peripheral neuropathy characterized by cold allodynia, spinal glial activation and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Herein, we determined whether Cinnamomi Cortex (C. Cortex, a widely used medicinal herb in East Asia for cold-related diseases, could attenuate oxaliplatin-induced cold allodynia in rats and the mechanisms involved. A single oxaliplatin injection (6 mg/kg, i.p. induced significant cold allodynia signs based on tail immersion tests using cold water (4 °C. Daily oral administration of water extract of C. Cortex (WECC (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg for five consecutive days following an oxaliplatin injection dose-dependently alleviated cold allodynia with only a slight difference in efficacies between the middle dose at 200 mg/kg and the highest dose at 400 mg/kg. WECC at 200 mg/kg significantly suppressed the activation of astrocytes and microglia and decreased the expression levels of IL-1β and TNF in the spinal cord after injection with oxaliplatin. Furthermore, oral administration of coumarin (10 mg/kg, a major phytocompound of C. Cortex, markedly reduced cold allodynia. These results indicate that C. Cortex has a potent anti-allodynic effect in oxaliplatin-injected rats through inhibiting spinal glial cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines. We also suggest that coumarin might play a role in the anti-allodynic effect of C. Cortex.

  8. The Suppressive Effects of Cinnamomi Cortex and Its Phytocompound Coumarin on Oxaliplatin-Induced Neuropathic Cold Allodynia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changmin; Lee, Ji Hwan; Kim, Woojin; Li, Dongxing; Kim, Yangseok; Lee, Kyungjin; Kim, Sun Kwang

    2016-09-20

    Oxaliplatin, a chemotherapy drug, induces acute peripheral neuropathy characterized by cold allodynia, spinal glial activation and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Herein, we determined whether Cinnamomi Cortex (C. Cortex), a widely used medicinal herb in East Asia for cold-related diseases, could attenuate oxaliplatin-induced cold allodynia in rats and the mechanisms involved. A single oxaliplatin injection (6 mg/kg, i.p.) induced significant cold allodynia signs based on tail immersion tests using cold water (4 °C). Daily oral administration of water extract of C. Cortex (WECC) (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) for five consecutive days following an oxaliplatin injection dose-dependently alleviated cold allodynia with only a slight difference in efficacies between the middle dose at 200 mg/kg and the highest dose at 400 mg/kg. WECC at 200 mg/kg significantly suppressed the activation of astrocytes and microglia and decreased the expression levels of IL-1β and TNF in the spinal cord after injection with oxaliplatin. Furthermore, oral administration of coumarin (10 mg/kg), a major phytocompound of C. Cortex, markedly reduced cold allodynia. These results indicate that C. Cortex has a potent anti-allodynic effect in oxaliplatin-injected rats through inhibiting spinal glial cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines. We also suggest that coumarin might play a role in the anti-allodynic effect of C. Cortex.

  9. Effects of age and immune suppression of sheep on fecundity, hatching and larval feeding of different strains of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargison, N D; Jackson, F; Gilleard, J S

    2011-09-01

    The effects of host age and immune suppression on abomasal parasitic infection in sheep were investigated following single experimental oral infections with MHco3 (ISE), MHco4 (WRS) and MHco10 (CAVR) strains of Haemonchus contortus in naïve 5-month-old crossbred lambs (n=1 per group) and 15-month-old Greyface sheep treated with methyl prednisolone acetate (n=2 per group) or without corticosteroid treatment (n=2 per group). Adult female H. contortus in 5-month-old lambs (n=1 per group) shed on average 6.5, 3.1 and 8.0 times more eggs than in 15-month-old sheep (n=4 per group) following infection with MHco3 (ISE), MHco4 (WRS) and MHco10 (CAVR) strains of H. contortus, respectively, over a period of 28 days following the commencement of patency. There was no obvious effect of age of sheep or corticosteroid treatment on the abomasal establishment of H. contortus or on in vitro assays for egg hatching or larval feeding at different concentrations of anthelmintics, although statistical analysis could not be performed due to the small group sizes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Suppressive effects of QFGJS, a preparation from an anti-arthritic herbal formula, on rat experimental adjuvant-induced arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xiong; Zhou Hua; Wong Yuenfan; Xie Ying; Liu Zhong Qiu; Jiang Zhhong; Bian Zhaoxiang; Xu Hongxi; Liu Liang

    2005-01-01

    To analyze the anti-arthritic effects of QFGJS (a pharmaceutical preparation from herbs) on rheumatoid arthritis, adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) was established in male SD rats, and two administration protocols, i.e., oral treatment with different doses of QFGJS on the day of arthritis induction or on the day when visible clinical signs of arthritis occurred, were initiated and continued until day 30. Treatments with QFGJS using both administration protocols significantly suppressed the incidence and severity of arthritis in a dose-dependent manner, showing dramatic reduction of paw swelling and ESR throughout the disease progression of AIA. Radiological and histopathological examinations showed markedly decreased tissue and bone destruction of ankle joints in the QFGJS-treated rats. The serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were significantly decreased in the QFGJS-treated rats. QFGJS demonstrates pronounced anti-arthritic effects on AIA, indicating that this herbal preparation would be a potent candidate as a novel botanical drug for further investigation

  11. Suppression of the Nonlinear Zeeman Effect and Heading Error in Earth-Field-Range Alkali-Vapor Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Guzhi; Wickenbrock, Arne; Rochester, Simon; Zhang, Weiping; Budker, Dmitry

    2018-01-01

    The nonlinear Zeeman effect can induce splitting and asymmetries of magnetic-resonance lines in the geophysical magnetic-field range. This is a major source of "heading error" for scalar atomic magnetometers. We demonstrate a method to suppress the nonlinear Zeeman effect and heading error based on spin locking. In an all-optical synchronously pumped magnetometer with separate pump and probe beams, we apply a radio-frequency field which is in phase with the precessing magnetization. This results in the collapse of the multicomponent asymmetric magnetic-resonance line with ˜100 Hz width in the Earth-field range into a single peak with a width of 22 Hz, whose position is largely independent of the orientation of the sensor within a range of orientation angles. The technique is expected to be broadly applicable in practical magnetometry, potentially boosting the sensitivity and accuracy of Earth-surveying magnetometers by increasing the magnetic-resonance amplitude, decreasing its width, and removing the important and limiting heading-error systematic.

  12. Suppression of Frost Nucleation Achieved Using the Nanoengineered Integral Humidity Sink Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoda; Rykaczewski, Konrad

    2017-01-24

    Inhibition of frost formation is important for increasing efficiency of refrigeration systems and heat exchangers, as well as for preventing the rapid icing over of water-repellant coatings that are designed to prevent accumulation of rime and glaze. From a thermodynamic point of view, this task can be achieved by either increasing hydrophobicity of the surface or decreasing the concentration of water vapor above it. The first approach has been studied in depth, but so far has not yielded a robust solution to the problem of frost formation. In this work, we systematically explore how frost growth can be inhibited by controlling water vapor concentration using bilayer coatings with a porous exterior covering a hygroscopic liquid-infused layer. We lay the theoretical foundation and provide experimental validation of the mass transport mechanism that governs the integral humidity sink effect based on this coating platform as well as reveal intriguing sizing effects about this system. We show that the concentration profile above periodically spaced pores is governed by the sink and source concentrations and two geometrical parameters: the nondimensional pore size and the ratio of the pore spacing to the boundary layer thickness. We demonstrate that when the ratio of the pore spacing to the boundary layer thickness vanishes, as for the nanoporous bilayer coatings, the entire surface concentration becomes uniform and equal to the concentration set by the hygroscopic liquid. In other words, the surface concentration becomes completely independent of the nanopore size. We identified the threshold geometrical parameters for this condition and show that it can lead to a 65 K decrease in the nucleation onset surface temperature below the dew point. With this fundamental insight, we use bilayer coatings to nanoengineer the integral humidity sink effect to provide extreme antifrosting performance with up to a 2 h delay in nucleation onset at 263 K. The nanoporous bilayer

  13. Effect of nozzle type on the fungicide efficacy for fusarium head blight suppression on wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šterbik Ildiko R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of fungicide treatments on Fusarium head blight (FHB and grain yield of wheat depending on application technique i.e. use of different nozzle types, was evaluated in the study. Nozzles types TJ 11004, Albuz ATR 8004 and Arag TFA 11004 were used for application of systemic fungicide Duett Ultra (0.5 l/ha. FHB intensity (% was determined on the basis of a visual assessment of the number of infected heads and the perecentage of the disease symptoms on the individual head. Differences in grain yield between the treated variants, as well as between the treated and untreated variants, were determined after hand threshing. The lowest percentage of FHB development in wheat and the highest yield were recorded in variants where fungicides were applied by nozzle type ATR 8004. Application technique directly affects the reduction of fusarium head blight in wheat and indirectly it also reduces yield loss.

  14. Suppressive effects of cacao polyphenols on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Midori; Baba, Seigo

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies in humans have shown that the cacao polyphenols, (-)-epicatechin and its oligomers, prevent in vitro and ex vivo low-density lipoprotein oxidation mediated by free radical generators and metal ions and also reduce plasma LDL-cholesterol levels. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cacao polyphenols on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (-/-) mice. Mice aged 8 weeks (n = 90) were randomized into three groups, and fed either normal mouse chow (controls) or chow supplemented with 0.25 or 0.40 % cacao polyphenols for 16 weeks. The mean plaque area in cross-sections of the brachiocephalic trunk was measured and found to be lower in the 0.25 % cacao polyphenol group than in the control group (p cacao polyphenol group (p cacao polyphenols inhibit the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (-/-) mice by reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  15. Metformin and Ara-a Effectively Suppress Brain Cancer by Targeting Cancer Stem/Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek H. Mouhieddine

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gliomas and neuroblastomas pose a great health burden worldwide with a poor and moderate prognosis, respectively. Many studies have tried to find effective treatments for these primary malignant brain tumors. Of interest, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK pathway was found to be associated with tumorigenesis and tumor survival, leading to many studies on AMPK drugs, especially Metformin, and their potential role as anti-cancer treatments. Cancer stem cells (CSCs are a small population of slowly-dividing, treatment-resistant, undifferentiated cancer cells that are being discovered in a multitude of cancers. They are thought to be responsible for replenishing the tumor with highly proliferative cells and increasing the risk of recurrence. Methods: Metformin and 9-β-d-Arabinofuranosyl Adenine (Ara-a were used to study the role of the AMPK pathway in vitro on U251 (glioblastoma and SHSY-5Y (neuroblastoma cell lines.Results: We found that both drugs are able to decrease the survival of U251 and SH-SY5Y cell lines in a 2D as well as a 3D culture model. Metformin and Ara-a significantly decreased the invasive ability of these cancer cell lines. Treatment with these drugs decreased the sphere-forming units (SFU of U251 cells, with Ara-a being more efficient, signifying the extinction of the CSC population. However, if treatment is withdrawn before all SFUs are extinguished, the CSCs regain some of their sphere-forming capabilities in the case of Metformin but not Ara-a treatment. Conclusion: Metformin and Ara-a have proved to be effective in the treatment of glioblastomas and neuroblastomas, in vitro, by targeting their cancer stem/progenitor cell population, which prevents recurrence.

  16. Oxidative stress suppresses the cellular bioenergetic effect of the 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase/hydrogen sulfide pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Módis, Katalin [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston, TX (United States); Asimakopoulou, Antonia [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Patras (Greece); Coletta, Ciro [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston, TX (United States); Papapetropoulos, Andreas [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston, TX (United States); Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Patras (Greece); Szabo, Csaba, E-mail: szabocsaba@aol.com [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Hospital for Children, Galveston, TX (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Oxidative stress impairs 3-MST-derived H{sub 2}S production in isolated enzyme and in isolated mitochondria. •This impairs the stimulatory bioenergetic effects of H{sub 2}S in hepatocytes. •This has implications for the pathophysiology of diseases with oxidative stress. -- Abstract: Recent data show that lower concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), as well as endogenous, intramitochondrial production of H{sub 2}S by the 3-mercaptopyruvate (3-MP)/3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) pathway serves as an electron donor and inorganic source of energy to support mitochondrial electron transport and ATP generation in mammalian cells by donating electrons to Complex II. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of oxidative stress on the activity of the 3-MP/3-MST/H{sub 2}S pathway in vitro. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, 100–500 μM) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the activity of recombinant mouse 3-MST enzyme. In mitochondria isolated from murine hepatoma cells, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (50–500 μM) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in production of H{sub 2}S from 3-MP. In cultured murine hepatoma cells H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, (3–100 μM), did not result in overall cytotoxicity, but caused a partial decrease in basal oxygen consumption and respiratory reserve rapacity. The positive bioenergetic effect of 3-MP (100–300 nM) was completely abolished by pre-treatment of the cells with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (50 μM). The current findings demonstrate that oxidative stress inhibits 3-MST activity and interferes with the positive bioenergetic role of the 3-MP/3-MST/H{sub 2}S pathway. These findings may have implications for the pathophysiology of various conditions associated with increased oxidative stress, such as various forms of critical illness, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes or physiological aging.

  17. The effect of acute exogenous melatonin on P50 suppression in healthy male volunteers stratified for low and high gating levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucar, Ebru; Lehtinen, Emilia K; Glenthøj, Birte Y

    2012-01-01

    Sensory gating is frequently found to be disturbed in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, a disruption of the circadian rhythm together with a low nocturnal melatonin output is regularly found in these patients. Since there is some evidence that a brief period of sleep normalizes sensory...... gating in schizophrenia patients, it is conceivable that their disrupted melatonin level may contribute to the deficits in P50 suppression. In this initial study, the effects of acutely administered melatonin on sensory gating in healthy subjects were investigated. In a double-blind placebo......-controlled crossover design, 21 healthy male volunteers were administered melatonin (4 mg) or placebo, after which they were tested in a P50 suppression paradigm. In the group as a whole, melatonin did not affect P50 suppression. However, melatonin increased the P50 ratio in the individuals with high baseline...

  18. Glyphosate suppresses the antagonistic effect of Enterococcus spp. on Clostridium botulinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Monika; Shehata, Awad Ali; Schrödl, Wieland; Rodloff, Arne

    2013-04-01

    During the last 10-15 years, an increase of Clostridium botulinum associated diseases in cattle has been observed in Germany. The reason for this development is currently unknown. The normal intestinal microflora is a critical factor in preventing intestinal colonisation by C. botulinum as shown in the mouse model of infant botulism. Numerous bacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) produce bacteriocines directed against C. botulinum and other pathogens: Lactic acid producing bacteria (LAB) such as lactobacilli, lactococci and enterococci, generate bacteriocines that are effective against Clostridium spp. A reduction of LAB in the GIT microbiota by ingestion of strong biocides like glyphosate could be an explanation for the observed increase in levels of C. botulinum associated diseases. In the present paper, we report on the toxicity of glyphosate to the most prevalent Enterococcus spp. in the GIT. Ingestion of this herbicide could be a significant predisposing factor that is associated with the increase in C. botulinum mediated diseases in cattle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Which is more effective for suppressing an infectious disease: imperfect vaccination or defense against contagion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuga, Kazuki; Tanimoto, Jun

    2018-02-01

    We consider two imperfect ways to protect against an infectious disease such as influenza, namely vaccination giving only partial immunity and a defense against contagion such as wearing a mask. We build up a new analytic framework considering those two cases instead of perfect vaccination, conventionally assumed as a premise, with the assumption of an infinite and well-mixed population. Our framework also considers three different strategy-updating rules based on evolutionary game theory: conventional pairwise comparison with one randomly selected agent, another concept of pairwise comparison referring to a social average, and direct alternative selection not depending on the usual copying concept. We successfully obtain a phase diagram in which vaccination coverage at equilibrium can be compared when assuming the model of either imperfect vaccination or a defense against contagion. The obtained phase diagram reveals that a defense against contagion is marginally inferior to an imperfect vaccination as long as the same coefficient value is used. Highlights - We build a new analytical framework for a vaccination game combined with the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model. - Our model can evaluate imperfect provisions such as vaccination giving only partial immunity and a defense against contagion. - We obtain a phase diagram with which to compare the quantitative effects of partial vaccination and a defense against contagion.

  20. Hydrophilic crosslinked-polymeric surface capable of effective suppression of protein adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamon, Yuri; Inoue, Naoko; Mihara, Erika; Kitayama, Yukiya; Ooya, Tooru; Takeuchi, Toshifumi, E-mail: takeuchi@gold.kobe-u.ac.jp

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Three hydrophilic crosslinked polymers were examined for protein adsorption. • All polymers showed low nonspecific adsorption of negatively charged proteins. • Poly(MMPC) showed the lowest adsorption for positively charged proteins. • Poly(MMPC) is able to reduce nonspecific adsorption of a wide range of proteins. - Abstract: We investigated the nonspecific adsorption of proteins towards three hydrophilic crosslinked-polymeric thin layers prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization using N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide, 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl-[N-(2-methacryloyloxy)ethyl]phosphorylcholine (MMPC), or 6,6′-diacryloyl-trehalose crosslinkers. Protein binding experiments were performed by surface plasmon resonance with six proteins of different pI values including α-lactalbumin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), myoglobin, ribonuclease A, cytochrome C, and lysozyme in buffer solution at pH 7.4. All of the obtained crosslinked-polymeric thin layers showed low nonspecific adsorption of negatively charged proteins at pH 7.4 such as α-lactalbumin, BSA, and myoglobin. Nonspecific adsorption of positively charged proteins including ribonuclease A, cytochrome C, and lysozyme was the lowest for poly(MMPC). These results suggest poly(MMPC) can effectively reduce nonspecific adsorption of a wide range of proteins that are negatively or positively charged at pH 7.4. MMPC is a promising crosslinker for a wide range of polymeric materials requiring low nonspecific protein binding.

  1. Protective effect of polyphenols on presbycusis via oxidative/nitrosative stress suppression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Carolina; Martín-Sanz, Eduardo; Cuadrado, Esperanza; Granizo, Juan José; Sanz-Fernández, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Age-related hearing loss (AHL) -presbycusis- is the number one neurodegenerative disorder and top communication deficit of our aged population. Experimental evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a central role in the aging process of cochlear cells. Dietary antioxidants, in particular polyphenols, have been found to be beneficial in protecting against the generation of ROS in various diseases associated with oxidative stress, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and aging. This study was designed to investigate the effects of polyphenols on AHL and to determine whether oxidative stress plays a role in the pathophysiology of AHL. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=100) were divided into five groups according to their age (3, 6, 12, 18 and 24months old) and treated with 100mg/kg/day body weight of polyphenols dissolved in tap water for half of the life of the animal. Auditory steady-state responses (ASSR) threshold shifts were measured before sacrificing the rats. Then, cochleae were harvested to measure total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, reactive oxidative and nitrogen species levels, superoxide anions and nitrotyrosine levels. Increased levels of ROS and RNS in cochlea observed with age decreases with polyphenol treatment. In addition, the activity of SOD and GPx enzymes in older rats recovered after the administration of polyphenols. The reduction in oxidative and nitrosative stress in the presence of polyphenols correlates with significant improvements in ASSR threshold shifts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential Effects of Caffeic Acid in Suppression of Matrix Metalloproteinases Activities in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Great Number of researches on the potential role of antioxidant nutrients and phenolic compounds in the prevention of chronic diseases has been accumulated over the past several decades. Despite this effort, there is much that remains uncertain. Bio markers research in this field has the potential to help fill the gaps in current knowledge. The present study was designed to evaluate, in one aspect, the probable direction expression of proteolytic enzymes as indices for gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative stress and their relationship, in other aspect with one antioxidant micro nutrient phenolic compound: caffeic acid (CA). Sprague Dawley male albino rats were administrated CA intraperitoneally (i.p.) 10 μmol/ kg body wt/ day for 8 consecutive days pre irradiation exposure (fractionated doses, instalment as 1 Gy every day up to total dose of 8 Gy). The treatment was continued for 15 successive days following irradiation processing. Quantitative assay of gelatinolytic zymo graphic analysis of serum and hepatic tissues showed that exposure to gamma-rays yields a marked significant increase in the activities of both latent and active MMP-9 (92 and 86 kDa), respectively, and both latent and active MMP-2 (72 and 66 kDa), respectively. Administration of CA significantly decreased the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in gamma-irradiated rats. Conclusion: the present findings demonstrated that irradiation-exposure leads to enhancement of enzymatic activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in their inactive and active forms in the serum and liver. Meanwhile, administration of CA exhibits protective effects in gamma-irradiated rats through down-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities

  3. Cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression strategies role in the emotion regulation: an overview on their modulatory effects and neural correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora eCutuli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals regulate their emotions in a wide variety of ways. In the present review it has been addressed the issue of whether some forms of emotion regulation are healthier than others by focusing on two commonly used emotion regulation strategies: cognitive reappraisal (changing the way one thinks about potentially emotion-eliciting events and expressive suppression (changing the way one behaviorally responds to emotion-eliciting events. In the first section, experimental findings showing that cognitive reappraisal has a healthier profile of short-term affective, cognitive, and social consequences than expressive suppression are briefly reported. In the second section, individual-difference findings are reviewed showing that using cognitive reappraisal to regulate emotions is associated with healthier patterns of affect, social functioning, and well-being than is using expressive suppression. Finally, brain structural basis and functional activation linked to the habitual usage of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression are discussed in detail.

  4. Cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression strategies role in the emotion regulation: an overview on their modulatory effects and neural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutuli, Debora

    2014-01-01

    Individuals regulate their emotions in a wide variety of ways. In the present review it has been addressed the issue of whether some forms of emotion regulation are healthier than others by focusing on two commonly used emotion regulation strategies: cognitive reappraisal (changing the way one thinks about potentially emotion-eliciting events) and expressive suppression (changing the way one behaviorally responds to emotion-eliciting events). In the first section, experimental findings showing that cognitive reappraisal has a healthier profile of short-term affective, cognitive, and social consequences than expressive suppression are briefly reported. In the second section, individual-difference findings are reviewed showing that using cognitive reappraisal to regulate emotions is associated with healthier patterns of affect, social functioning, and well-being than is using expressive suppression. Finally, brain structural basis and functional activation linked to the habitual usage of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression are discussed in detail.

  5. Effect of Ficus hispida L. on normal and dexamethasone suppressed wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Murti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extract of roots of Ficus hispida was investigated in normal and dexamethasone depressed healing conditions, using incision, excision and dead space wound models in albino rats. The root extract of Ficus hispida has shown the maximum breaking strength compared to control group. The rate of epithelialization and wound contraction in excision model was better as compared to control groups. There was significant increase in granulation tissue weight and hydroxyproline content in dead space model compared to control group. The antihealing effect of dexamethasone was also reverted by the administration of ethanolic extract of Ficus hispida in all the wound models .The results indicated that the root extract of Ficus hispida has a significant wound healing activity and also promotes healing in dexamethasone depressed healing conditions.O extrato etanólico de raízes de Ficus hispida foi ensaiado em ratos albinos normais e em condições de cicatrização deprimida por dexametasona, utilizando modelos de ferida por incisão, excisão e de espaço morto. O extrato da raiz de Ficus hispida mostrou a força máxima de tensão comparativamente ao grupo controle. A velocidade de epitelização e de contração da ferida no modelo de excisão foi melhor do que a dos grupos controles. Houve aumento significativo no peso do tecido de granulação e no conteúdo de hidroxiprolina no modelo de espaço morto comparativamente ao grupo controle. O efeito anticicatrizante da dexametasona foi, também, revertido pela administração do extrato etanólico de Ficus hispida em todos os modelos de feridas. Os resultados indicaram que o extrato de Ficus hispida tem atividade cicatrizante em feridas e, também, promove a cicatrização em condições de depressão de cicatrização pela dexametasona.

  6. Menstrual suppression in the adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantartzis, Kelly L; Sucato, Gina S

    2013-06-01

    Menstrual suppression, the use of contraceptive methods to eliminate or decrease the frequency of menses, is often prescribed for adolescents to treat menstrual disorders or to accommodate patient preference. For young women using hormonal contraceptives, there is no medical indication for menstruation to occur monthly, and various hormonal contraceptives can be used to decrease the frequency of menstruation with different side effect profiles and rates of amenorrhea. This article reviews the different modalities for menstrual suppression, common conditions in adolescents which may improve with menstrual suppression, and strategies for managing common side effects. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effective noise-suppressed and artifact-reduced reconstruction of SPECT data using a preconditioned alternating projection algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Si; Xu, Yuesheng, E-mail: yxu06@syr.edu [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Science, School of Mathematics and Computational Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhang, Jiahan; Lipson, Edward [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States); Krol, Andrzej; Feiglin, David [Department of Radiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York 13210 (United States); Schmidtlein, C. Ross [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Vogelsang, Levon [Carestream Health, Rochester, New York 14608 (United States); Shen, Lixin [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Science, School of Mathematics and Computational Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China and Department of Mathematics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    square errors (MSEs), and report the convergence speed and computation time. Results: HOTV-PAPA yields the best signal-to-noise ratio, followed by TV-PAPA and TV-OSL/GPF-EM. The local spatial resolution of HOTV-PAPA is somewhat worse than that of TV-PAPA and TV-OSL. Images reconstructed using HOTV-PAPA have the lowest local noise power spectrum (LNPS) amplitudes, followed by TV-PAPA, TV-OSL, and GPF-EM. The LNPS peak of GPF-EM is shifted toward higher spatial frequencies than those for the three other methods. The PAPA-type methods exhibit much lower ensemble noise, ensemble voxel variance, and image roughness. HOTV-PAPA performs best in these categories. Whereas images reconstructed using both TV-PAPA and TV-OSL are degraded by severe staircase artifacts; HOTV-PAPA substantially reduces such artifacts. It also converges faster than the other three methods and exhibits the lowest overall reconstruction error level, as measured by MSE. Conclusions: For high-noise simulated SPECT data, HOTV-PAPA outperforms TV-PAPA, GPF-EM, and TV-OSL in terms of hot lesion detectability, noise suppression, MSE, and computational efficiency. Unlike TV-PAPA and TV-OSL, HOTV-PAPA does not create sizable staircase artifacts. Moreover, HOTV-PAPA effectively suppresses noise, with only limited loss of local spatial resolution. Of the four methods, HOTV-PAPA shows the best lesion detectability, thanks to its superior noise suppression. HOTV-PAPA shows promise for clinically useful reconstructions of low-dose SPECT data.

  8. Effective noise-suppressed and artifact-reduced reconstruction of SPECT data using a preconditioned alternating projection algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Si; Xu, Yuesheng; Zhang, Jiahan; Lipson, Edward; Krol, Andrzej; Feiglin, David; Schmidtlein, C. Ross; Vogelsang, Levon; Shen, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    square errors (MSEs), and report the convergence speed and computation time. Results: HOTV-PAPA yields the best signal-to-noise ratio, followed by TV-PAPA and TV-OSL/GPF-EM. The local spatial resolution of HOTV-PAPA is somewhat worse than that of TV-PAPA and TV-OSL. Images reconstructed using HOTV-PAPA have the lowest local noise power spectrum (LNPS) amplitudes, followed by TV-PAPA, TV-OSL, and GPF-EM. The LNPS peak of GPF-EM is shifted toward higher spatial frequencies than those for the three other methods. The PAPA-type methods exhibit much lower ensemble noise, ensemble voxel variance, and image roughness. HOTV-PAPA performs best in these categories. Whereas images reconstructed using both TV-PAPA and TV-OSL are degraded by severe staircase artifacts; HOTV-PAPA substantially reduces such artifacts. It also converges faster than the other three methods and exhibits the lowest overall reconstruction error level, as measured by MSE. Conclusions: For high-noise simulated SPECT data, HOTV-PAPA outperforms TV-PAPA, GPF-EM, and TV-OSL in terms of hot lesion detectability, noise suppression, MSE, and computational efficiency. Unlike TV-PAPA and TV-OSL, HOTV-PAPA does not create sizable staircase artifacts. Moreover, HOTV-PAPA effectively suppresses noise, with only limited loss of local spatial resolution. Of the four methods, HOTV-PAPA shows the best lesion detectability, thanks to its superior noise suppression. HOTV-PAPA shows promise for clinically useful reconstructions of low-dose SPECT data

  9. Esculetin exerts anti-proliferative effects against non-small-cell lung carcinoma by suppressing specificity protein 1 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ra H; Jeon, Young-Joo; Cho, Jin H; Jang, Jeong-Yun; Kong, Il-Keun; Kim, Seok-Ho; Kim, MinSeok S; Chung, Hak-Jae; Oh, Keon B; Park, Seon-Min; Shin, Jae-Cheon; Seo, Jae-Min; Ko, Sungho; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Jung-Il

    2017-01-01

    Esculetin, a coumarin derivative, is a phenolic compound isolated from Artemisia capillaris, Citrus limonia, and Euphorbia lathyris. Although it has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative activities in several human cancers, its anti-proliferative activity against non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and the molecular mechanisms involved have not been adequately elucidated. In this study, we used two NSCLC cell lines (NCI-H358 and NCI-H1299) to investigate the anti-proliferative activity and apoptotic effect of esculetin. Our data showed that esculetin-treated cells exhibited reduced proliferation and apoptotic cell morphologies. Intriguingly, the transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1) was significantly suppressed by esculetin in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the levels of p27 and p21, two key regulators of the cell cycle, were up-regulated by the esculetin-mediated down-regulation of Sp1; the level of a third cell-cycle regulator, survivin, was decreased, resulting in caspase-dependent apoptosis. Therefore, we conclude that esculetin could be a potent anti-proliferative agent in patients with NSCLC.

  10. Long-term side-effects of intermittent androgen suppression therapy in prostate cancer: results of a phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Shawn; Perry, Gad; Segal, Roanne; Dahrouge, Simone; Crook, Juanita

    2005-09-01

    To assess the feasibility and tolerability of intermittent androgen suppression therapy (IAS) in prostate cancer. Patients with recurrent or metastic prostate cancer received cyclical periods of treatment with leuprolide acetate and nilutamide for 8 months, and rest periods. Cycles were repeated at progression until the treatment failed to achieve normal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Patients were followed with PSA level, testosterone level, haemoglobin level, weight and bone mineral density evaluations. The median time to treatment failure, recovery from anaemia, or normalization of testosterone level was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. In all, 95 patients received 245 cycles; the median duration of rest periods was 8 months and median time to treatment failure 47 months. Testosterone recovery during rest periods was documented in 117 (61%) of cycles. Anaemia was mild and reported in 33%, 44% and 67% of cycles 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Sexual function recovered during the rest periods in 47% of cycles. There was no significant overall change in body mass index at the end of the treatment period. Osteoporosis was documented in at least one site evaluated in 41 patients (37%). IAS has the potential to reduce side-effects, including recovery of haemoglobin level, return of sexual function and absence of weight gain at the end of the study period.

  11. Phosphate conversion coating reduces the degradation rate and suppresses side effects of metallic magnesium implants in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Muhammad Imran; Tavares, Ana; Evertz, Florian; Kieke, Marc; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Eifler, Rainer; Weizbauer, Andreas; Willbold, Elmar; Jürgen Maier, Hans; Glasmacher, Birgit; Behrens, Peter; Hauser, Hansjörg; Mueller, Peter P

    2017-08-01

    Magnesium alloys have promising mechanical and biological properties for the development of degradable implants. However, rapid implant corrosion and gas accumulations in tissue impede clinical applications. With time, the implant degradation rate is reduced by a highly biocompatible, phosphate-containing corrosion layer. To circumvent initial side effects after implantation it was attempted to develop a simple in vitro procedure to generate a similarly protective phosphate corrosion layer. To this end magnesium samples were pre-incubated in phosphate solutions. The resulting coating was well adherent during routine handling procedures. It completely suppressed the initial burst of corrosion and it reduced the average in vitro magnesium degradation rate over 56 days almost two-fold. In a small animal model phosphate coatings on magnesium implants were highly biocompatible and abrogated the appearance of gas cavities in the tissue. After implantation, the phosphate coating was replaced by a layer with an elemental composition that was highly similar to the corrosion layer that had formed on plain magnesium implants. The data demonstrate that a simple pre-treatment could improve clinically relevant properties of magnesium-based implants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1622-1635, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Suppressive effects of subchronic aluminum overload on the splenic immune function may be related to oxidative stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xue; Jia, Shujie; Ma, Qinlong; Zhong, Min; Gao, Peng; Yu, Zhengping; Zhang, Yanwen

    2014-03-01

    Aluminum (Al) is widely used in daily life and was recently recognized as a possible source of human intoxication because of its ability to accumulate in organs. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of subchronic Al overload on splenic immune function in mice. Furthermore, we have preliminarily explored its mechanism. The Al overload model was established via intragastric administration of Al once a day for 60 days. The body weight, spleen weight, and splenic coefficient were determined. The concentration of Al in the spleen was detected by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The cytokine mRNA expression of spleen tissues was detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Biochemical methods were used to detect superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in spleen tissue. Body weight, spleen weight, and cytokine mRNA expression of spleen tissues were significantly reduced by Al overload. SOD and GSH-Px activities were also decreased, while the MDA content was increased in subchronic Al overload mice. The results indicate that subchronic exposure to aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) would result in Al accumulation, which suppressed spleen immune function through a mechanism related to oxidative stress.

  13. Suppressive effects of Lactobacillus casei cells, a bacterial immunostimulant, on the incidence of spontaneous thymic lymphoma in AKR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, T

    1996-06-01

    The mean survival age of female AKR/J mice was significantly prolonged, the enlargement of thymus was markedly suppressed, and the proliferation of ecotropic and recombinant murine leukemia viruses (MuLV) was markedly inhibited when 8-week-old female AKR/J mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with heat-killed Lactobacillus casei cells twice weekly for 8 weeks. In contrast, such actions of heat-killed L. casei cells were not seen in 20-week-old female AKR/J mice. The leukemogenic activity of the cell-free extract of thymus from adult female AKR/J mice in newborn female AKR/J mice was drastically reduced by i.p. treatment with heat-killed L. casei cells. The difference in adjuvant effectiveness of heat-killed L. casei cells on 8- and 20-week-old animals may be dependent on the difference in the enhancing activity of the cell-mediated immune systems between the groups induced by heat-killed L. casei cells, and, as a result, on the difference in the degree of proliferation of ecotropic and recombinant MuLV in thymus, which consequently causes thymic lymphoma.

  14. Preventive effect of ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) on the suppression of hematopoietic system by X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hiroko; Nakata, Fukuyoshi; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Ito, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Reishi has been used for a roborant or the elixir of life from ancient times. In the present study, the preventive effects of Reishi on hematopoietic suppression from X-ray irradiation in mice were investigated. 5.0 Gy-irradiated mice induced the decrease of red blood cell, platelet, white blood cell, granulocytes, the index of spleen and thymus, and the number of spleen cells. Oral administration of Reishi tended to decrease these damage on hematopoiesis, and reticuloendothelial system. Reishi enhanced the degree of spleen cells-mediated sheep red blood cells (SRBC) hemolysis (quantitative hemolysis of SRBC). Reishi augmented the level of erythroid burst-forming cell (BFU-E), and accelerated the recovery of the number of BFU-E in X-irradiated mice, although Reishi did not influence red blood cell counts and colony-forming unit-erythropoetin dependent (CFU-E) number. A significant elevation in the CFU-GM (granulocytes-macrophages) level was observed. Histological examinations revealed that Reishi accerelated the hematopoietic recovery and decrease on damage of spleen and thymus. (author)

  15. Effect of vitamin D status on chick kidney proteins: detection of a 45-kilodalton mitochondrial protein suppressed by vitamin D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kain, S.R.; Kamrath, K.S.; Henry, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis along with L-[ 35 S]methionine radiolabeling studies were used to examine the effect of chronic vitamin D status on the composition and relative abundance of chick kidney proteins. Comparison of silver-stained gels revealed no extensive differences in either the electrophoretic mobility or the amounts of kidney proteins present in the mitochondrial fraction from vitamin D-replete and vitamin D-deficient chicks. A similar result was obtained in studies with L-[ 35 S]methionine-labeled proteins. Vitamin D deficiency specifically elevated levels of a 45-kilodalton mitochondrial protein (pI 5.0 to 5.5) by approximately 5- to 12-fold relative to amounts present in vitamin D-replete tissue. This protein could not be detected in postmitochondrial supernatant fractions and was only faintly visible in crude kidney homogenates. The specificity of the observed suppression of this 45-kilodalton protein by vitamin D suggests that it may play an important role in renal functions influenced by the vitamin D endocrine system

  16. The Effect of Natural Mulches on Crop Performance, Weed Suppression and Biochemical Constituents of Catnip and St. John's Wort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duppong, L M; Delate, K; Liebman, M; Horton, R; Romero, F; Kraus, G; Petrich, J; Chowdbury, P K

    2004-01-01

    Because of expanding markets for high-value niche crops, opportunities have increased for the production of medicinal herbs in the USA. An experiment was conducted in 2001 and 2002 near Gilbert, IA, to study crop performance, weed suppression, and environmental conditions associated with the use of several organic mulches in the production of two herbs, catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) and St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L. 'Helos'). Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design and included a positive (hand-weeded) control, a negative (nonweeded) control, oat straw, a flax straw mat, and a nonwoven wool mat. Catnip plant height was significantly greater in the oat straw than the other treatments at 4 wk through 6 wk in 2001; at 4 to 8 wk in 2002, catnip plant height and width was significantly lower in the negative control compared with the other treatments. Catnip yield was significantly higher in the flax straw mat than all other treatments in 2001. In 2002, St. John's wort yields were not statistically different in any treatments. All weed management treatments had significantly fewer weeds than the non-weeded rows in 2002. Total weed density comparisons in each crop from 2 yr showed fewer weeds present in the flax straw and wool mat treatments compared with positive control plots. There was no significant weed management treatment effect on the concentration of the target compounds, nepetalactone in catnip and pseudohypericin-hypericin in St. John's wort, although there was a trend toward higher concentrations in the flax straw treatment.

  17. The suppression effect of the intrahepatic recurrence of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization with cisplatin in the hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Tae Yong; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo; Kim, Yong Woo

    1997-01-01

    To compare the suppressive effects in hepatocellular carcinoma patients of transhepatic arterial chemoembolization by the infusion of adriamycin-lipiodol emulsion and of this plus 10ml of cisplatin solution. In a total of 151 cases, the frequency of intrahepatic recurrence was compared with follow-up angiographic findings after the first and second transhepatic arterial chemoembolization with adriamycin-lipiodol emulsion and adriamycin-lipiodol emulsion plus 10ml of cisplatin solution, respectively. Among 46 patients whose first single infusion was after mean 119 days, the recurrence rate was 22% ; for 42 who were given their first multiple infusion after mean 76 days this rate was 5% ; for 35 whose second single infusion was administered after mean 147 days, the rate was 34%, and among 28 whose second multiple infusion was after mean 110 days, the rate was 43%. During the first trial of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization with adriamycinlipiodol plus cisplatin solution, hepatocellular carcinoma recurred much less frequently, but during the second trial with cisplatin, recurrence was not suppresed

  18. A review on the effectiveness of street sweeping, washing and dust suppressants as urban PM control methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, F; Querol, X; Johansson, C; Nagl, C; Alastuey, A

    2010-07-15

    Given the absence of a definitive threshold for atmospheric particulate matter (PM)-induced adverse health effects and the evidence of road traffic as a main contributor to PM-urban levels, there is a general agreement in reducing PM-associated health risks by firstly focusing on vehicle traffic sector. Beside the reduction of primary exhaust emissions, recent potential measures are challenging to reduce emissions of particulate matter from abrasion and resuspension processes given the high potential health burden of heavy metals and metalloids sourced by vehicle-wear particles (brakes, tires, rotor, discs and catalysts) and of coarse particles (PM(2.5-10)). Some mitigating measures can be adopted in order to reduce road dust emissions from paved roads by removing or binding those particles already deposited and easy to be resuspended by traffic-generated turbulence. Sweeping, water flushing and use of chemical suppressants are usually more commonly employed to try to diminish emissions, but evaluating the effectiveness of preventive measures on improving air quality is a difficult task, consequently there is a general dearth of information about their effectiveness in reducing ambient PM concentrations. In particular, the scientific bibliography seems to be particularly scarce, whilst most of the information comes from local authorities committees. Consequently the existing reports are often aimed only to the municipalities and in the native language, with an objective difficulty for the international scientific community to access to them. For this review we have gathered contributions from some of major experts in this field, with the purpose of taking advantage of their background and personal awareness about any kind of related reports even not in English. Furthermore, the results we have gathered are often dissimilar, probably due to the different local conditions (weather, road pavement conditions etc.), therefore another objective of the review is to make a

  19. Anger management style moderates effects of emotion suppression during initial stress on pain and cardiovascular responses during subsequent pain-induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, John W; Quartana, Phillip J; Bruehl, Stephen

    2007-10-01

    Suppression of emotion, anger in particular, may be linked to heightened pain intensity during a subsequent painful event, but it is not clear whether an individual's anger management style (trait anger-out or trait anger-in) moderates effects on pain intensity and cardiovascular responses during pain. To determine whether (a) trait anger-out and/or trait anger-in moderate effects of Emotion-Induction (anger, anxiety)xEmotion Suppression (nonsuppression, experiential, expressive) manipulations during mental arithmetic on pain intensity and cardiovascular responses during and following a cold pressor pain task, such that "mismatch" relationships emerge (preferred anger management style is discrepant from situation demands), and (b) general emotional expressivity accounts for these effects. Healthy nonpatients (N=187) were assigned to 1 of 6 conditions for a mental arithmetic task. Cells were formed by crossing 2 Emotion-Induction (anxiety, anger)x3 Emotion Suppression (nonsuppression, experiential, expressive) conditions. After mental arithmetic, participants underwent a cold pressor followed by recovery. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), heart rate (HR), and pain intensity ratings were recorded. Spielberger Anger Expression Inventory tapped anger management style. General Linear Model procedures tested Emotion-Induction x Emotion SuppressionxAnger-Out or Anger-In (continuous)xPeriod (baseline, cold pressor, recovery) effects on pain intensity, SBP, DBP, and HR. A 4-way interaction emerged for pain intensity: Only for those in the anger-induction/experiential suppression condition, anger-out was related significantly to pain recovery. Three-way interactions emerged for SBP and DBP: Only for those in expressive suppression condition, anger-out was related significantly to SBP during and following cold pressor and to DBP following cold pressor. General emotion expressivity did not account for anger-out effects. A mismatch situation may apply for high

  20. Fabrication of Al2O3 Nano-Structure Functional Film on a Cellulose Insulation Polymer Surface and Its Space Charge Suppression Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose insulation polymer (paper/pressboard has been widely used in high voltage direct current (HVDC transformers. One of the most challenging issues in the insulation material used for HVDC equipment is the space charge accumulation. Effective ways to suppress the space charge injection/accumulation in insulation material is currently a popular research topic. In this study, an aluminium oxide functional film was deposited on a cellulose insulation pressboard surface using reactive radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering. The sputtered thin film was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The influence of the deposited functional film on the dielectric properties and the space charge injection/accumulation behaviour was investigated. A preliminary exploration of the space charge suppression effect is discussed. SEM/EDS, XPS, and XRD results show that the nano-structured Al2O3 film with amorphous phase was successfully fabricated onto the fibre surface. The cellulose insulation pressboard surface sputtered by Al2O3 film has lower permittivity, conductivity, and dissipation factor values in the lower frequency (<103 Hz region. The oil-impregnated sputtered pressboard presents an apparent space-charge suppression effect. Compared with the pressboard sputtered with Al2O3 film for 90 min, the pressboard sputtered with Al2O3 film for 60 min had a better space charge suppression effect. Ultra-small Al2O3 particles (<10 nm grew on the surface of the larger nanoparticles. The nano-structured Al2O3 film sputtered on the fibre surface could act as a functional barrier layer for suppression of the charge injection and accumulation. This study offers a new perspective in favour of the application of insulation pressboard with a nano-structured function surface against space charge injection/accumulation in HVDC equipment.

  1. PGE2 suppresses NK activity in vivo directly and through adrenal hormones: Effects that cannot be reflected by ex-vivo assessment of NK cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meron, G.; Tishler, Y.; Shaashua, L.; Rosenne, E.; Levi, B.; Melamed, R.; Gotlieb, N.; Matzner, P.; Sorski, L.; Ben-Eliyahu, S.

    2013-01-01

    Surgery can suppress in vivo levels of NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) through various mechanisms, including catecholamine-, glucocorticoid (CORT)-, and prostaglandin (PG)-mediated responses. However, PGs are synthesized locally following tissue damage, driving proinflammatory and CORT responses, while their systemic levels are often unaffected. Thus, we herein studied the role of adrenal factors in mediating in vivo effects of PGs on NKCC, using adrenalectomized and sham-operated F344 rats subjected to surgery or PGE2 administration. In vivo and ex-vivo approaches were employed, based on intravenous administration of the NK-sensitive MADB106 tumor line, and based on ex-vivo assessment of YAC-1 and MADB106 target-line lysis. Additionally, in vitro studies assessed the kinetics of the impact of epinephrine, CORT, and PGE2 on NKCC. The results indicated that suppression of NKCC by epinephrine and PGE2 are short lasting, and cannot be evident when these compounds are removed from the in vitro assay milieu, or in the context of ex-vivo assessment of NKCC. In contrast, the effects of CORT are long-lasting and are reflected in both conditions even after its removal. Marginating-pulmonary NKCC was less susceptible to suppression than circulating NKCC, when tested against the xenogeneic YAC-1 target line, but not against the syngeneic MADB106 line, which seems to involve different cytotoxicity mechanisms. Overall, these findings indicate that elevated systemic PG levels can directly suppress NKCC in vivo, but following laparotomy adrenal hormones mediate most of the effects of endogenously-released PGs. Additionally, the ex-vivo approach seems limited in reflecting the short-lasting NK-suppressive effects of catecholamines and PGs. PMID:23153554

  2. Performance of radiologists in detection of small pulmonary nodules on chest radiographs: effect of rib suppression with a massive-training artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Seitaro; Awai, Kazuo; Suzuki, Kenji; Yanaga, Yumi; Funama, Yoshinori; MacMahon, Heber; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2009-11-01

    A massive-training artificial neural network is a nonlinear pattern recognition tool used to suppress rib opacity on chest radiographs while soft-tissue contrast is maintained. We investigated the effect of rib suppression with a massive-training artificial neural network on the performance of radiologists in the detection of pulmonary nodules on chest radiographs. We used 60 chest radiographs; 30 depicted solitary pulmonary nodules, and 30 showed no nodules. A stratified random-sampling scheme was used to select the images from the standard digital image database developed by the Japanese Society of Radiologic Technology. The mean diameter of the 30 pulmonary nodules was 14.7 +/- 4.1 (SD) mm. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to evaluate observer performance in the detection of pulmonary nodules first on the chest radiographs without and then on the radiographs with rib suppression. Seven board-certified radiologists and five radiology residents participated in this observer study. For all 12 observers, the mean values of the area under the best-fit receiver operating characteristic curve for images without and with rib suppression were 0.816 +/- 0.077 and 0.843 +/- 0.074; the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.019). The mean areas under the curve for images without and with rib suppression were 0.848 +/- 0.059 and 0.883 +/- 0.050 for the seven board-certified radiologists (p = 0.011) and 0.770 +/- 0.081 and 0.788 +/- 0.074 for the five radiology residents (p = 0.310). In the detection of pulmonary nodules, evaluation of a combination of rib-suppressed and original chest radiographs significantly improved the diagnostic performance of radiologists over the use of chest radiographs alone.

  3. Suppressive effect of accumulated aluminum trichloride on the hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme system in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanzhu; Han, Yanfei; Zhao, Hansong; Li, Jing; Hu, Chongwei; Li, Yanfei; Zhang, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a low toxicological metal and can accumulate in the liver. The hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme system (CYPS) plays important role in the transformation of the toxic materials. It is not clear if the CYPS is affected by Al exposure. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of aluminum trichloride (AlCl(3)) on CYPS in rats. Forty male Wistar rats (5weeks old) weighing 110-120g were randomly allocated and orally exposed to 0, 64.18, 128.36 and 256.72mg/kg body weight (BW) AlCl(3) in drinking water for 120days. The body weight (BW) of rats, hepatosomatic index (HSI), hepatic Al content, the concentrations of cytochrome P450 (CYP450), cytochrome B5 (B5), microsomal protein and the activities of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase (CR), aminopyrin N-demethylase (AND), erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND) and aniline-4-hydeoxylase (AH) were assessed at the end of the experiment. The results showed that the increase in Al concentration decreased BW, HIS, concentrations of CYP450, B5, microsomal protein and the activity of CR, AND, ERND and AH in hepatic microsomes. The results revealed that exposure to AlCl(3) inhibited the microsomal CYP450 dependent enzyme system of liver. Our findings suggest that long term daily exposure of AlCl(3) exerts the suppressive effects and thus may cause dysfunction of hepatic CYP450 dependent enzyme system of rat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Electromigration Critical Product to Measure Effect of Underfill Material in Suppressing Bi Segregation in Sn-58Bi Solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Takaya, Satoshi; Muraoka, Mikio

    2017-08-01

    Recently, we detected length-dependent electromigration (EM) behavior in Sn-58Bi (SB) solder and revealed the existence of Bi back-flow, which retards EM-induced Bi segregation and is dependent on solder length. The cause of the back-flow is attributed to an oxide layer formed on the SB solder. At present, underfill (UF) material is commonly used in flip-chip packaging as filler between chip and substrate to surround solder bumps. In this study, we quantitatively investigated the effect of UF material as a passivation layer on EM in SB solder strips. EM tests on SB solder strips with length of 50 μm, 100 μm, and 150 μm were conducted simultaneously. Some samples were coated with commercial thermosetting epoxy UF material, which acted as a passivation layer on the Cu-SB-Cu interconnections. The value of the critical product for SB solder was estimated to be 38 A/cm to 43 A/cm at 353 K to 373 K without UF coating and 59 A/cm at 373 K with UF coating. The UF material acting as a passivation layer suppressed EM-induced Bi segregation and increased the threshold current density by 37% to 55%. However, at very high current density, this effect became very slight. In addition, Bi atoms can diffuse to the anode side through the Sn phase, hence addition of microelements to the Sn phase to form obstacles, such as intermetallic compounds, may retard Bi segregation in SB solder.

  5. Simultaneous application of bevacizumab and anti-CTGF antibody effectively suppresses proangiogenic and profibrotic factors in human RPE cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Abouzar; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Samiei, Shahram; Sheibani, Nader; Astaneh, Shamila Darvishalipour; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Mohammadian, Azam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells play key roles in the development of choroidal neovascularization and subsequent fibrosis. We investigated the impact of bevacizumab, antihuman vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody, and anticonnective tissue growth factor (anti-CTGF) neutralizing antibody, individually or in combination, on proangiogenic and profibrotic properties of RPE cells. Methods Primary cultures of human RPE cells were incubated with different concentrations of bevacizumab (0.25, 0.5, and 0.8 mg/ml) and/or anti-CTGF (10 μg/ml), and cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined. Expression and activity of proangiogenic and profibrotic genes including matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and 9, VEGFA, CTGF, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), cathepsin D, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) −1 and −2, and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were assessed with slot blot, real-time RT–PCR, and zymography. Results Bevacizumab alone inhibited proliferation of RPE cells while anti-CTGF or bevacizumab and anti-CTGF combined had no inhibitory effect in this regard. Bevacizumab increased MMP-2, MMP-9, and cathepsin D but decreased VEGFA and VEGFR-1 expression. The CTGF level was increased by using 0.25 mg/ml bevacizumab but decreased at the 0.8 mg/ml concentration of bevacizumab. Treatment with anti-CTGF antibody decreased MMP-2 expression whereas combined treatment with bevacizumab and anti-CTGF resulted in decreased expression of MMP-2, TIMP-1, cathepsin D, VEGFA, CTGF, and α-SMA in the treated cultures. Conclusions Treatment of RPE cells with the combination of bevacizumab and anti-CTGF could effectively suppress the proangiogenic and profibrotic activity of RPE cells. PMID:25883524

  6. Anomalous Hall effect suppression in anatase Co:TiO2 by the insertion of an interfacial TiO2 buffer layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Y.J.; de Jong, Machiel Pieter; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; Kim, Y.; Brock, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    We present the effect of introducing a TiO2 buffer layer at the SrTiO3 /Co:TiO2 interface on the magnetic and structural properties of anatase Co:TiO2 1.4 at. % Co. Inserting the buffer layer leads to suppression of the room-temperature anomalous Hall effect, accompanied by a reduced density of Co

  7. The effect of long-term thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy on the cognitive function of elderly patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jae Hoon; Ahn, Soyeon; Seo, Jiyeong; Han, Ji Won; Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Park, Young Joo; Park, Do Joon; Kim, Ki Woong; Jang, Hak Chul

    2014-10-01

    Several studies have evidenced the association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and cognitive impairment in the elderly. However, the effect of long-term TSH suppressive therapy on the cognitive function in elderly patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is still unclear. Our aim was to investigate the effect of long-term TSH suppression on the cognitive function of elderly patients with DTC. A cross-sectional case-control study including 50 DTC patients aged 65 years or older (mean age 70.9 ± 5.0 y) who have received a TSH-suppressive therapy for at least 5 years and 90 control subjects matched for age, sex, education period, and depressive mood was conducted. Major Outcome Measure: Comprehensive cognitive domains were compared between the patient and control groups. The association between serum thyroid hormone concentration and cognitive function was investigated. The patient group had higher serum free T4 levels and suppressed TSH levels compared with the control group. Age, sex, education period, the Korean version of the Geriatric Depression Scale scores, and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale scores were not different between the 2 groups. All assessed neuropsychiatric tests were comparable in both groups. In the patient group, those with higher serum free T4 levels performed better on Mini-Mental State Examination and Trail Making Test A. The association between serum free T4 and Trail Making Test A was maintained after adjusting for age, education period, the Korean version of the Geriatric Depression Scale, and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. In the control group, serum free T4 and TSH levels were not associated with any of the assessed cognitive domains. Our results demonstrated the safety of long-term TSH suppression on the cognitive function in elderly DTC patients. Furthermore, the positive correlations between serum free T4 levels and some cognitive domains suggest the potential beneficial effects of exogenous levothyroxine on the

  8. Conditioned suppression and freezing as measures of aversive Pavlovian conditioning: effects of discrete amygdala lesions and overtraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan L C; Dickinson, Anthony; Everitt, Barry J

    2005-04-30

    Freezing and suppression are measures of conditioned fear that correlate in unlesioned animals. Both the basolateral (BLA) and central (CeN) nuclei of the amygdala are required for conditioned freezing, though there can be recovery with overtraining. The neuroanatomical substrates of conditioned suppression are less clear, with evidence both for a specific requirement of the CeN and for disruption by BLA lesions. The present study investigated the impact of selective excitotoxic lesions of the BLA and CeN upon the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear, measured by freezing and both on-baseline and off-baseline conditioned suppression in the same rats. BLA and CeN lesions both abolished all measures of conditioned fear after 9 trials of fear conditioning. However, when conditioning was extended to 33 trials, whereas rats with combined lesions of both the BLA and CeN continued to show no conditioned fear responses, there was a pattern of recovery observed after selective lesions. There was a partial recovery of freezing with both lesions, and full recovery of conditioned suppression, except for off-baseline suppression in CeN lesioned rats. These results indicate that with few conditioning trials, both the BLA and CeN are required in a serial manner for conditioned fear responses, but that overtraining can mitigate such impairments, likely involving parallel pathways in and through the amygdala.

  9. Tree species effects on pathogen-suppressive capacities of soil bacteria across two tropical dry forests in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklund, Kristen; Powers, Jennifer; Kinkel, Linda

    2016-11-01

    Antibiotic-producing bacteria in the genus Streptomyces can inhibit soil-borne plant pathogens, and have the potential to mediate the impacts of disease on plant communities. Little is known about how antibiotic production varies among soil communities in tropical forests, despite a long history of interest in the role of soil-borne pathogens in these ecosystems. Our objective was to determine how tree species and soils influence variation in antibiotic-mediated pathogen suppression among Streptomyces communities in two tropical dry forest sites (Santa Rosa and Palo Verde). We targeted tree species that co-occur in both sites and used a culture-based functional assay to quantify pathogen-suppressive capacities of Streptomyces communities beneath 50 focal trees. We also measured host-associated litter and soil element concentrations as potential mechanisms by which trees may influence soil microbes. Pathogen-suppressive capacities of Streptomyces communities varied within and among tree species, and inhibitory phenotypes were significantly related to soil and litter element concentrations. Average proportions of inhibitory Streptomyces in soils from the same tree species varied between 1.6 and 3.3-fold between sites. Densities and proportions of pathogen-suppressive bacteria were always higher in Santa Rosa than Palo Verde. Our results suggest that spatial heterogeneity in the potential for antibiotic-mediated disease suppression is shaped by tree species, site, and soil characteristics, which could have significant implications for understanding plant community composition and diversity in tropical dry forests.

  10. An interesting biochar effect that suppressed dechlorination of pentachlorophenol while promoted iron/sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in flooded soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Zhu, Min

    2017-04-01

    Biochar has received increasing attention for its many environmental impacts in recent years, but there is still a lack of comprehensive understanding of its effects on the fate of reducible organic pollutants and soil biogeochemical processes under anaerobic environments. In this study, anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to explore the effect of biochar on reductive transformation of PCP and other soil redox processes in anaerobic incubation environment. Results showed that biochar had little impact on the system Eh and pH, both of which decreased gradually to a stable value during the incubation. Dissimilatory iron reduction and sulfate reduction were significantly enhanced following biochar addition, with the promoting effect more prominent in the treatment with 1% (w/w) than that with 5% biochar added. In addition, biochar accelerated the formation of carbon dioxide and methane, but there was no difference in the final content of these two greenhouse gases at the end of incubation between biochar amended and control treatments. Unexpectedly, compared to biochar-free controls, the reductively dechlorinated degradation of PCP was inhibited following biochar addition, with the inhibition extent increased with the increase of biochar amount. These revealed an interesting biochar effect that suppressed the dechlorination of PCP, but promoted the iron/sulfate reduction and accelerated the methanogenesis. It might be simultaneously mediated by the functional microbial groups that responded sensitively to the addition of biochar and/or PCP, including the potential dechlorinators, the potential iron/sulfate reducers, and the typical methanogenic archaea. Specific function of biochar as electron shuttle was also likely involved in underpinning this interesting effect, since biochar would be capable of splitting the limited electrons from the inferior electron acceptors (in our case, the PCP) to the dominant more competitive ones (in our case, Fe(III) and SO42

  11. Effect of suppression of arabinoxylan synthetic genes in wheat endosperm on chain length of arabinoxylan and extract viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jackie; Lovegrove, Alison; Wilkinson, Mark David; Saulnier, Luc; Shewry, Peter Robert; Mitchell, Rowan Andrew Craig

    2016-01-01

    Arabinoxylan (AX) is the dominant component within wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) endosperm cell walls, accounting for 70% of the polysaccharide. The viscosity of aqueous extracts from wheat grain is a key trait influencing the processing for various end uses, and this is largely determined by the properties of endosperm AX. We have previously shown dramatic effects on endosperm AX in transgenic wheat by down-regulating either TaGT43_2 or TaGT47_2 genes (orthologues to IRX9 and IRX10 in Arabidopsis, respectively) implicated in AX chain extension and the TaXAT1 gene responsible for monosubstitution by 3-linked arabinose. Here, we use these transgenic lines to investigate the relationship between amounts of AX in soluble and insoluble fractions, the chain-length distribution of these measured by intrinsic viscosity and the overall effect on extract viscosity. In transgenic lines expressing either the TaGT43_2 or TaGT47_2 RNAi transgenes, the intrinsic viscosities of water-extractable (WE-AX) and of a water-insoluble alkaline-extracted fraction (AE-AX) were decreased by between 10% and 50% compared to control lines. In TaXAT1 RNAi lines, there was a 15% decrease in intrinsic viscosity of WE-AX but no consistent effect on that of AE-AX. All transgenic lines showed decreases in extract viscosity with larger effects in TaGT43_2 and TaGT47_2 RNAi lines (by up to sixfold) than in TaXAT1 RNAi lines (by twofold). These effects were explained by the decreases in amount and chain length of WE-AX, with decreases in amount having the greater influence. Extract viscosity from wheat grain can therefore be greatly decreased by suppression of single gene targets. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Tetrahydrobiopterin Has a Glucose-Lowering Effect by Suppressing Hepatic Gluconeogenesis in an Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase–Dependent Manner in Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudukadier, Abulizi; Fujita, Yoshihito; Obara, Akio; Ohashi, Akiko; Fukushima, Toru; Sato, Yuichi; Ogura, Masahito; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Hosokawa, Masaya; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction induces insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of eNOS that regulates eNOS activity. In the diabetic state, BH4 is oxidized to 7,8-dihydrobiopterin, which leads to eNOS dysfunction owing to eNOS uncoupling. The current study investigates the effects of BH4 on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in diabetic mice. Single administration of BH4 lowered fasting blood glucose levels in wild-type mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and alleviated eNOS dysfunction by increasing eNOS dimerization in the liver of these mice. Liver has a critical role in glucose-lowering effects of BH4 through suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. BH4 activated AMP kinase (AMPK), and the suppressing effect of BH4 on gluconeogenesis was AMPK-dependent. In addition, the glucose-lowering effect and activation of AMPK by BH4 did not appear in mice with STZ-induced diabetes lacking eNOS. Consecutive administration of BH4 in ob/ob mice ameliorated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Taken together, BH4 suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis in an eNOS-dependent manner, and BH4 has a glucose-lowering effect as well as an insulin-sensitizing effect in diabetic mice. BH4 has potential in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23649519

  13. NLRP3 and ASC suppress lupus-like autoimmunity by driving the immunosuppressive effects of TGF-β receptor signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Maciej; Lorenz, Georg; Kulkarni, Onkar P; Grosser, Marian O O; Stigrot, Nora; Darisipudi, Murthy N; Günthner, Roman; Wintergerst, Maximilian W M; Anz, David; Susanti, Heni Eka; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2015-12-01

    The NLRP3/ASC inflammasome drives host defence and autoinflammatory disorders by activating caspase-1 to trigger the secretion of mature interleukin (IL)-1β/IL-18, but its potential role in autoimmunity is speculative. We generated and phenotyped Nlrp3-deficient, Asc-deficient, Il-1r-deficient and Il-18-deficient C57BL/6-lpr/lpr mice, the latter being a mild model of spontaneous lupus-like autoimmunity. While lack of IL-1R or IL-18 did not affect the C57BL/6-lpr/lpr phenotype, lack of NLRP3 or ASC triggered massive lymphoproliferation, lung T cell infiltrates and severe proliferative lupus nephritis within 6 months, which were all absent in age-matched C57BL/6-lpr/lpr controls. Lack of NLRP3 or ASC increased dendritic cell and macrophage activation, the expression of numerous proinflammatory mediators, lymphocyte necrosis and the expansion of most T cell and B cell subsets. In contrast, plasma cells and autoantibody production were hardly affected. This unexpected immunosuppressive effect of NLRP3 and ASC may relate to their known role in SMAD2/3 phosphorylation during tumour growth factor (TGF)-β receptor signalling, for example, Nlrp3-deficiency and Asc-deficiency significantly suppressed the expression of numerous TGF-β target genes in C57BL/6-lpr/lpr mice and partially recapitulated the known autoimmune phenotype of Tgf-β1-deficient mice. These data identify a novel non-canonical immunoregulatory function of NLRP3 and ASC in autoimmunity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Fighting food temptations: the modulating effects of short-term cognitive reappraisal, suppression and up-regulation on mesocorticolimbic activity related to appetitive motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siep, Nicolette; Roefs, Anne; Roebroeck, Alard; Havermans, Remco; Bonte, Milene; Jansen, Anita

    2012-03-01

    The premise of cognitive therapy is that one can overcome the irresistible temptation of highly palatable foods by actively restructuring the way one thinks about food. Testing this idea, participants in the present study were instructed to passively view foods, up-regulate food palatability thoughts, apply cognitive reappraisal (e.g., thinking about health consequences), or suppress food palatability thoughts and cravings. We examined whether these strategies affect self-reported food craving and mesocorticolimbic activity as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. It was hypothesized that cognitive reappraisal would most effectively inhibit the mesocorticolimbic activity and associated food craving as compared to suppression. In addition, it was hypothesized that suppression would lead to more prefrontal cortex activity, reflecting the use of more control resources, as compared to cognitive reappraisal. Self-report results indicated that up-regulation increased food craving compared to the other two conditions, but that there was no difference in craving between the suppression and cognitive reappraisal strategy. Corroborating self-report results, the neuroimaging results showed that up-regulation increased activity in important regions of the mesocorticolimbic circuitry, including the ventral tegmental area, ventral striatum, operculum, posterior insular gyrus, medial orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypothesis, suppression more effectively decreased activity in the core of the mesocorticolimbic circuitry (i.e., ventral tegmental area and ventral striatum) compared to cognitive reappraisal. Overall, the results support the contention that appetitive motivation can be modulated by the application of short-term cognitive control strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of imipramine on P50 suppression, prepulse inhibition and habituation of the startle response in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Trine Bjørg; Oranje, Bob; Glenthoj, Birte Y

    2007-01-01

    Schizophrenic patients exhibit impairments in filtering of sensory information, as can be assessed by use of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response and P50 suppression paradigms. In the treatment of negative symptoms or depressive syndromes during the course of schizophrenia...... as well as P50 suppression. No significant differences between the two treatments were observed on habituation of the acoustic startle reflex. Since sensory filtering is usually already reduced in patients with schizophrenia, the current results call for caution in the widespread use of dual......-acting antidepressants in the treatment of depressed or negative symptoms in these patients....

  16. Ultra-low-dose naltrexone suppresses rewarding effects of opiates and aversive effects of opiate withdrawal in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Mary C; Burns, Lindsay H

    2005-09-01

    Ultra-low-dose opioid antagonists enhance opiate analgesia and attenuate tolerance and withdrawal. To determine whether ultra-low-dose naltrexone (NTX) coadministration alters the rewarding effects of opiates or the aversive effects of opiate withdrawal. We used the conditioned place preference (CPP) and conditioned place aversion (CPA) paradigms to assess whether ultra-low-dose NTX alters the acute rewarding effects of oxycodone or morphine, or the aversive aspect of withdrawal from either drug. To assess the dose response for ultra-low-dose NTX, a range of NTX doses (0.03-30 ng/kg) was tested in the oxycodone CPP experiment. In order to avoid tolerance or sensitization effects, we used single conditioning sessions and female rats, as females are more sensitive to the conditioning effects of these drugs. Ultra-low-dose NTX (5 ng/kg) blocked the CPP to morphine (5 mg/kg) and the CPA to withdrawal from chronic morphine (5 mg/kg, for 7 days). Coadministration of ultra-low-dose NTX (30 pg/kg) also blocked the CPA to withdrawal from chronic oxycodone administration (3 mg/kg, for 7 days). The effects of NTX on the CPP to oxycodone (3 mg/kg) revealed a biphasic dose response. The two lowest doses (0.03 and 0.3 ng/kg) blocked the CPP, the middle dose (3 ng/kg) was ineffective, and oxycodone combined with the highest dose (30 ng/kg) produced a trend toward a CPP. Ultra-low-dose NTX coadministration blocks the acute rewarding effects of analgesic doses of oxycodone or morphine as well as the anhedonia of withdrawal from chronic administration.

  17. [The effect of Toll-like receptor 4 in nicotine suppressing the osteogenic potential of periodontal ligament stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Yan; Deqin, Yang

    2017-08-01

    Objective To explore the impact of nicotine on proliferation and osteogenic capability of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), and the role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in nicotine, suppressing the osteogenic capability of PDLSCs. Methods PDLSCs were cultured in vitro, and the flow cytometer was used to identify the surface antigen markers of PDLSCs. WST-1 was used to detect the proliferation ability of PDLSCs, which were stimulated by different concentrations of nicotine. Alizarin red staining was used to observe the formation of mineralized nodules after PDLSCs stimulation with different concentrations of nicotine. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot were used to detect the change in osteogenic potential of PDLSCs stimulated by nicotine, after TAK-242, and with the inhibitor of TLR4. Results PDLSCs expressed mesenchymal stem cell-associated markers CD90 and CD105. When the concentration of nicotine was 10⁻⁴ mol·L⁻¹, the PDLSC proliferation could be suppressed after 3 d compared with the control group (Pnicotine suppressed the PDLSCs (PNicotine suppresses the proliferation and osteogenic capability of PDLSCs, which may be regulated by TLR4.

  18. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) Suppresses the Effects of Glycerol Monolaurate (GML) on Human T Cell Activation and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Michael S; Houtman, Jon C D

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a monoglyceride with well characterized anti-microbial properties. Because of these properties, GML is widely used in food, cosmetics, and personal care products and currently being tested as a therapeutic for menstrual associated toxic shock syndrome, superficial wound infections, and HIV transmission. Recently, we have described that GML potently suppresses select T cell receptor (TCR)-induced signaling events, leading to reduced human T cell effector functions. However, how soluble host factors present in the blood and at sites of infection affect GML-mediated human T cell suppression is unknown. In this study, we have characterized how human serum albumin (HSA) affects GML-induced inhibition of human T cells. We found that HSA and other serum albumins bind to 12 carbon acyl side chain of GML at low micromolar affinities and restores the TCR-induced formation of LAT, PLC-γ1, and AKT microclusters at the plasma membrane. Additionally, HSA reverses GML mediated inhibition of AKT phosphorylation and partially restores cytokine production in GML treated cells. Our data reveal that HSA, one of the most abundant proteins in the human serum and at sites of infections, potently reverses the suppression of human T cells by GML. This suggests that GML-driven human T cell suppression depends upon the local tissue environment, with albumin concentration being a major determinant of GML function.

  19. Thermoregulatory effect in humans of suppressed endogenous melatonin by pre-sleep bright-light exposure in a cold environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Keita; Arikura, Satoshi; Kozaki, Tomoaki; Higuchi, Shigekazu; Yasukouchi, Akira

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the physiological function of suppressed melatonin through thermoregulation in a cold environment. Interactions between thermoregulation directly affected by exposure to a cold environment and indirectly affected by endogenous melatonin suppression by bright-light exposure were examined. Ten male subjects were exposed to two different illumination intensities (30 and 5000 lux) for 4.5 h, and two different ambient temperatures (15 and 27 degrees C) for 2 h before sleep under dark and thermoneutral conditions. Salivary melatonin level was suppressed by bright light (p cold ambient temperature (p cold exposure than thermoneutral conditions (cold: -0.54 +/- 0.07 degrees C/h; thermoneutral: -0.16 +/- 0.03 degrees C/h; p cold exposure masked the circadian rhythm with a precipitous decrease in T(re). A significant correlation between the T(re) nadir and melatonin level (r = -0.774, p cold exposure. These results suggest that suppressed endogenous melatonin inhibits the downregulation of the body temperature set-point during sleep.

  20. Inhibiting TGFβ1 has a protective effect on mouse bone marrow suppression following ionizing radiation exposure in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Heng; Yan Hao; Wang Xinzhuo; Niu Jingxiu; Wang Hui; Wang Yingai; Meng Aimin; Li Jin

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes not only acute tissue damage but also residual bone marrow (BM) suppression. The induction of residual BM injury is primarily attributable to the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) pressure in hematopoietic cells. In this study, we examined if SB431542, a transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) inhibitor, can mitigate IR-induced BM suppression in vitro. Our results showed that treatment with SB431542 protected mice bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs), hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from IR-induced suppression using cell viability assays, clonogenic assays and competitive repopulation assays. Moreover, expression of gene-related ROS production in hematopoietic cells was analyzed. The expression of NADPH oxidative 1 (NOX1), NOX2 and NOX4 was increased in irradiated BMMNCs, and that of NOX2 and NOX4 was reduced by SB431542 treatment. Therefore, the results from this study suggest that SB431542, a TGFβ1 inhibitor, alleviates IR-induced BM suppression at least in part via inhibiting IR-induced NOX2 and NOX4 expression. (author)

  1. Inappropriate suppression of glucagon during OGTT but not during isoglycaemic i.v. glucose infusion contributes to the reduced incretin effect in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, F K; Vilsbøll, T; Madsbad, S

    2007-01-01

    significant glucagon suppression only occurred following isoglycaemic i.v. glucose infusion (-63 +/- 21 vs 10 +/- 16 mmol/l x 45 min; p = 0.002). The incretin effect was significantly reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with control subjects, but no significant differences in the secretion...... ingestion of glucose, while isoglycaemic i.v. administration of glucose results in normal suppression of glucagon. We suggest that this phenomenon contributes both to the glucose intolerance and to the reduced incretin effect observed in patients with type 2 diabetes.......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated glucagon responses during OGTT and isoglycaemic i.v. glucose infusion, respectively, to further elucidate the mechanisms behind the glucose intolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients (eight men) with type 2 diabetes (age: 64...

  2. [Suppression of anti-Candida activity of human neutrophils by glucose and diminishment of the glucose effect by an amino acid mixture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansho, T; Okinaga, K; Tansho, S; Abe, S; Yamaguchi, H

    1996-05-01

    Effects of a glucose and amino acid mixture prescribed for parenteral alimentation on anti-Candida activity of neutrophils were examined. Neutrophils obtained from peripheral blood of healthy humans inhibited the growth of Candida albicans in vitro. More than 1.0% of glucose inhibited the anti-Candida activity of the neutrophils in a dose-dependent manner. This glucose effect was reduced by the addition of an amino acid mixture clinically prescribed with a carbohydrate solution (PN-twin) in Japan. The amino acid mixture neutralized the suppression of anti-Candida activity of neutrophils by dexamethasone. These results suggest that an amino acid mixture prescribed in an alimentation solution may play a role as a neutralizer of the suppressive action of glucose for anti-Candida activity of neutrophils in a limited area near the top of a catheter in a blood vessel.

  3. D1 and D2 antagonists reverse the effects of appetite suppressants on weight loss, food intake, locomotion, and rebalance spiking inhibition in the rat NAc shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanasundar, B.; Perez, Claudia I.; Luna, Alvaro; Solorio, Jessica; Moreno, Mario G.; Elias, David; Simon, Sidney A.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide health problem that has reached epidemic proportions. To ameliorate this problem, one approach is the use of appetite suppressants. These compounds are frequently amphetamine congeners such as diethylpropion (DEP), phentermine (PHEN), and bupropion (BUP), whose effects are mediated through serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopaminergic pathways. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell receives dopaminergic inputs and is involved in feeding and motor activity. However, little is known about how appetite suppressants modulate its activity. Therefore, we characterized behavioral and neuronal NAc shell responses to short-term treatments of DEP, PHEN, and BUP. These compounds caused a transient decrease in weight and food intake while increasing locomotion, stereotypy, and insomnia. They evoked a large inhibitory imbalance in NAc shell spiking activity that correlated with the onset of locomotion and stereotypy. Analysis of the local field potentials (LFPs) showed that all three drugs modulated beta, theta, and delta oscillations. These oscillations do not reflect an aversive-malaise brain state, as ascertained from taste aversion experiments, but tracked both the initial decrease in weight and food intake and the subsequent tolerance to these drugs. Importantly, the appetite suppressant-induced weight loss and locomotion were markedly reduced by intragastric (and intra-NAc shell) infusions of dopamine antagonists SCH-23390 (D1 receptor) or raclopride (D2 receptor). Furthermore, both antagonists attenuated appetite suppressant-induced LFP oscillations and partially restored the imbalance in NAc shell activity. These data reveal that appetite suppressant-induced behavioral and neuronal activity recorded in the NAc shell depend, to various extents, on dopaminergic activation and thus point to an important role for D1/D2-like receptors (in the NAc shell) in the mechanism of action for these anorexic compounds. PMID:25972577

  4. Cardiac Sirt1 mediates the cardioprotective effect of caloric restriction by suppressing local complement system activation after ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tsunehisa; Tamaki, Kayoko; Shirakawa, Kohsuke; Ito, Kentaro; Yan, Xiaoxiang; Katsumata, Yoshinori; Anzai, Atsushi; Matsuhashi, Tomohiro; Endo, Jin; Inaba, Takaaki; Tsubota, Kazuo; Sano, Motoaki; Fukuda, Keiichi; Shinmura, Ken

    2016-04-15

    Caloric restriction (CR) confers cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We previously found the essential roles of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the development of CR-induced cardioprotection and Sirt1 activation during CR (Shinmura K, Tamaki K, Ito K, Yan X, Yamamoto T, Katsumata Y, Matsuhashi T, Sano M, Fukuda K, Suematsu M, Ishii I. Indispensable role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in caloric restriction-induced cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury.Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 308: H894-H903, 2015). However, the exact mechanism by which Sirt1 in cardiomyocytes mediates the cardioprotective effect of CR remains undetermined. We subjected cardiomyocyte-specific Sirt1 knockout (CM-Sirt1(-/-)) mice and the corresponding control mice to either 3-mo ad libitum feeding or CR (-40%). Isolated perfused hearts were subjected to 25-min global ischemia, followed by 60-min reperfusion. The recovery of left ventricle function after I/R was improved, and total lactate dehydrogenase release into the perfusate during reperfusion was attenuated in the control mice treated with CR, but a similar cardioprotective effect of CR was not observed in the CM-Sirt1(-/-)mice. The expression levels of cardiac complement component 3 (C3) at baseline and the accumulation of C3 and its fragments in the ischemia-reperfused myocardium were attenuated by CR in the control mice, but not in the CM-Sirt1(-/-)mice. Resveratrol treatment also attenuated the expression levels of C3 protein in cultured neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Moreover, the degree of myocardial I/R injury in conventional C3 knockout (C3(-/-)) mice treated with CR was similar to that in the ad libitum-fed C3(-/-)mice, although the expression levels of Sirt1 were enhanced by CR. These results demonstrate that cardiac Sirt1 plays an essential role in CR-induced cardioprotection against I/R injury by suppressing cardiac C3 expression. This is the first report suggesting

  5. Peripheral opioid antagonist enhances the effect of anti-tumor drug by blocking a cell growth-suppressive pathway in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Suzuki

    Full Text Available The dormancy of tumor cells is a major problem in chemotherapy, since it limits the therapeutic efficacy of anti-tumor drugs that only target dividing cells. One potential way to overcome chemo-resistance is to "wake up" these dormant cells. Here we show that the opioid antagonist methylnaltrexone (MNTX enhances the effect of docetaxel (Doc by blocking a cell growth-suppressive pathway. We found that PENK, which encodes opioid growth factor (OGF and suppresses cell growth, is predominantly expressed in diffuse-type gastric cancers (GCs. The blockade of OGF signaling by MNTX releases cells from their arrest and boosts the effect of Doc. In comparison with the use of Doc alone, the combined use of Doc and MNTX significantly prolongs survival, alleviates abdominal pain, and diminishes Doc-resistant spheroids on the peritoneal membrane in model mice. These results suggest that blockade of the pathways that suppress cell growth may enhance the effects of anti-tumor drugs.

  6. Compton suppression gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Iskander, F.Y.; Niset, M.; Heydorn, K.

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade there have been many studies to use Compton suppression methods in routine neutron activation analysis as well as in the traditional role of low level gamma ray counting of environmental samples. On a separate path there have been many new PC based software packages that have been developed to enhance photopeak fitting. Although the newer PC based algorithms have had significant improvements, they still suffer from being effectively used in weak gamma ray lines in natural samples or in neutron activated samples that have very high Compton backgrounds. We have completed a series of experiments to show the usefulness of Compton suppression. As well we have shown the pitfalls when using Compton suppression methods for high counting deadtimes as in the case of neutron activated samples. We have also investigated if counting statistics are the same both suppressed and normal modes. Results are presented in four separate experiments. (author)

  7. Burst Suppression for ICP Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Frederick A; Akoth, Eva; Gillman, Lawrence M; West, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The goal of our study was to perform a systematic review of the literature to determine the effect that burst suppression has on intracranial pressure (ICP) control. All articles from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (inception to January 2015), reference lists of relevant articles, and gray literature were searched. The strength of evidence was adjudicated using both the Oxford and the Grading of Recommendation Assessment Development and Education (GRADE) methodology. Seven articles were considered for review. A total of 108 patients were studied, all receiving burst suppression therapy. Two studies failed to document a decrease in ICP with burst suppression therapy. There were reports of severe hypotension and increased infection rates with barbiturate-based therapy. Etomidate-based suppressive therapy was linked to severe renal dysfunction. There currently exists both Oxford level 2b and GRADE C evidence to support that achieving burst suppression reduces ICP, and also has no effect on ICP, in severe traumatic brain injury. The literature suggests burst suppression therapy may be useful for ICP reduction in certain cases, although these situations are currently unclear. In addition, the impact on patient functional outcome is unclear. Further prospective study is warranted.

  8. Thyroid suppression test with dextrothyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, D.; Fridman, J.; Ribeiro, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    The classic thyroid suppression test with triiodothyronine (l-T 3 ) has been shown to be efficient as an auxiliary method in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, but should not be performed on elderly patients or on those with heart disease or a tendency to tachycardia. Since these subjects seem able to support a short period of dextro-thyronine (d-T 4 ) feeding, we compared the effect of d-T 4 and l-T 3 on the 24 hours thyroid uptake in euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects. After basal radio-iodine uptake determination, 99 patients without hyperthyroidism and 27 with Graves' disease were randomly divided in 2 groups; one received 100μg of l-T 3 per day and the other 4 mg of d-T 4 per day, both groups being treated for a period of 10 days. At the end of this suppression period the 24 hours radio-iodine uptake was measured again and the percentual suppression index (S.I.) calculated. Since the comparison of the two groups showed no difference between the suppressive effect of l-T 3 and d-T 4 in euthyroid subjects, while dextro-thyronine, as levo-triiodothyronine, did not suppress the 24 hours uptake of hyperthyroid patients, l-T 3 or d-T 4 can be used interchangeably to test thyroid suppressibility. In the euthyroid subjects the normal range for the post-suppression uptake was 0-17.1% and for the suppression index 54,7.100% [pt

  9. Effects of Radix Adenophorae and Cyclosporine A on an OVA-Induced Murine Model of Asthma by Suppressing to T Cells Activity, Eosinophilia, and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Soo Roh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is performed to investigate the inhibitory effects of Radix Adenophorae extract (RAE on ovalbumin-induced asthma murine model. To study the anti-inflammatory and antiasthmatic effects of RAE, we examined the development of pulmonary eosinophilic inflammation and inhibitory effects of T cells in murine by RAE and cyclosporine A (CsA. We examined determination of airway hyperresponsiveness, flow cytometric analysis (FACS, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, quantitative real time (PCR, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and Masson trichrome staining in lung tissue, lung weight, total cells, and eosinophil numbers in lung tissue. We demonstrated how RAE suppressed development on inflammation and decreased airway damage.

  10. ATP Release from Chemotherapy-Treated Dying Leukemia Cells Elicits an Immune Suppressive Effect by Increasing Regulatory T Cells and Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecciso, Mariangela; Ocadlikova, Darina; Sangaletti, Sabina; Trabanelli, Sara; De Marchi, Elena; Orioli, Elisa; Pegoraro, Anna; Portararo, Paola; Jandus, Camilla; Bontadini, Andrea; Redavid, Annarita; Salvestrini, Valentina; Romero, Pedro; Colombo, Mario P; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Cavo, Michele; Adinolfi, Elena; Curti, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced immunogenic cell death can favor dendritic cell (DC) cross-priming of tumor-associated antigens for T cell activation thanks to the release of damage-associated molecular patterns, including ATP. Here, we tested the hypothesis that in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), ATP release, along with its well-known immune stimulatory effect, may also contribute to the generation of an immune suppressive microenvironment. In a cohort of AML patients, undergoing combined daunorubicin and cytarabine chemotherapy, a population of T regulatory cells (Tregs) with suppressive phenotype, expressing the immune checkpoint programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), was significantly increased. Moving from these results, initial in vitro data showed that daunorubicin was more effective than cytarabine in modulating DC function toward Tregs induction and such difference was correlated with the higher capacity of daunorubicin to induce ATP release from treated AML cells. DCs cultured with daunorubicin-treated AML cells upregulated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), which induced anti-leukemia Tregs. These data were confirmed in vivo as daunorubicin-treated mice show an increase in extracellular ATP levels with increased number of Tregs, expressing PD-1 and IDO1 + CD39 + DCs. Notably, daunorubicin failed to induce Tregs and tolerogenic DCs in mice lacking the ATP receptor P2X7. Our data indicate that ATP release from chemotherapy-treated dying cells contributes to create an immune suppressive microenvironment in AML.

  11. ATP Release from Chemotherapy-Treated Dying Leukemia Cells Elicits an Immune Suppressive Effect by Increasing Regulatory T Cells and Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Lecciso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced immunogenic cell death can favor dendritic cell (DC cross-priming of tumor-associated antigens for T cell activation thanks to the release of damage-associated molecular patterns, including ATP. Here, we tested the hypothesis that in acute myeloid leukemia (AML, ATP release, along with its well-known immune stimulatory effect, may also contribute to the generation of an immune suppressive microenvironment. In a cohort of AML patients, undergoing combined daunorubicin and cytarabine chemotherapy, a population of T regulatory cells (Tregs with suppressive phenotype, expressing the immune checkpoint programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1, was significantly increased. Moving from these results, initial in vitro data showed that daunorubicin was more effective than cytarabine in modulating DC function toward Tregs induction and such difference was correlated with the higher capacity of daunorubicin to induce ATP release from treated AML cells. DCs cultured with daunorubicin-treated AML cells upregulated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1, which induced anti-leukemia Tregs. These data were confirmed in vivo as daunorubicin-treated mice show an increase in extracellular ATP levels with increased number of Tregs, expressing PD-1 and IDO1+CD39+ DCs. Notably, daunorubicin failed to induce Tregs and tolerogenic DCs in mice lacking the ATP receptor P2X7. Our data indicate that ATP release from chemotherapy-treated dying cells contributes to create an immune suppressive microenvironment in AML.

  12. Hybrid PD and effective multi-mode positive position feedback control for slewing and vibration suppression of a smart flexible manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, Jun-qiang; Wei, Yan-ding; Yang, Yi-ling; Xie, Feng-ran

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid control strategy for slewing and vibration suppression of a smart flexible manipulator is presented in this paper. It consists of a proportional derivative controller to realize motion control, and an effective multi-mode positive position feedback (EMPPF) controller to suppress the multi-mode vibration. Rather than treat each mode equally as the standard multi-mode PPF, the essence of the EMPPF is that control forces of different modes are applied according to the mode parameters of the respective modes, so the vibration modes with less vibration energy receive fewer control forces. Stability conditions for the close loop system are established through stability analysis. Optimal parameters of the EMPPF controller are obtained using the method of root locus analysis. The performance of the proposed strategy is demonstrated by simulation and experiments. Experimental results show that the first two vibration modes of the manipulator are effectively suppressed. The setting time of the setup descends approximately 55%, reaching 3.12 s from 5.67 s. (paper)

  13. The involvement of noradrenergic mechanisms in the suppressive effects of diazepam on the hypothalamicpituitary- adrenal axis activity in female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Švob Štrac, Dubravka; Muck-Šeler, Dorotea

    2012-01-01

    Aim To elucidate the involvement of noradrenergic system in the mechanism by which diazepam suppresses basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Methods Plasma corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels were determined in female rats treated with diazepam alone, as well as with diazepam in combination with clonidine (α2-adrenoreceptor agonist), yohimbine (α2-adrenoreceptor antagonist), alpha-methylp- tyrosine (α-MPT, an inhibitor of ca...

  14. Cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression strategies role in the emotion regulation: an overview on their modulatory effects and neural correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Cutuli, Debora

    2014-01-01

    Individuals regulate their emotions in a wide variety of ways. In the present review it has been addressed the issue of whether some forms of emotion regulation are healthier than others by focusing on two commonly used emotion regulation strategies: cognitive reappraisal (changing the way one thinks about potentially emotion-eliciting events) and expressive suppression (changing the way one behaviorally responds to emotion-eliciting events). In the first section, experimental findings showin...

  15. Arginine-aromatic interactions and their effects on arginine-induced solubilization of aromatic solutes and suppression of protein aggregation

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, Dhawal

    2011-09-21

    We examine the interaction of aromatic residues of proteins with arginine, an additive commonly used to suppress protein aggregation, using experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. An aromatic-rich peptide, FFYTP (a segment of insulin), and lysozyme and insulin are used as model systems. Mass spectrometry shows that arginine increases the solubility of FFYTP by binding to the peptide, with the simulations revealing the predominant association of arginine to be with the aromatic residues. The calculations further show a positive preferential interaction coefficient, Γ XP, contrary to conventional thinking that positive Γ XP\\'s indicate aggregation rather than suppression of aggregation. Simulations with lysozyme and insulin also show arginine\\'s preference for aromatic residues, in addition to acidic residues. We use these observations and earlier results reported by us and others to discuss the possible implications of arginine\\'s interactions with aromatic residues on the solubilization of aromatic moieties and proteins. Our results also highlight the fact that explanations based purely on Γ XP, which measures average affinity of an additive to a protein, could obscure or misinterpret the underlying molecular mechanisms behind additive-induced suppression of protein aggregation. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  16. Use and Effectiveness of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonists for Prophylactic Menstrual Suppression in Postmenarchal Women Who Undergo Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorvu, Philip D; Barton, Sara E; Duncan, Christine N; London, Wendy B; Laufer, Marc R; Lehmann, Leslie E; Marcus, Karen J

    2016-06-01

    To describe the rates of use and effectiveness of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and other forms of hormonal menstrual suppression in prevention of vaginal bleeding among young women who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Retrospective descriptive study. University-based pediatric HCT practice. Fifty-five postmenarchal women who underwent HCT between 2004 and 2011. Administration of GnRH agonists or other forms of hormonal menstrual suppression. Rates of use of GnRH agonists and other forms of hormonal menstrual suppression, and rates and descriptions of vaginal bleeding. Forty-six of the 55 patients had experienced regular or irregular vaginal bleeding before HCT and were considered to be at risk for thrombocytopenia-associated menorrhagia. Forty of the 46 (87%) received hormonal menstrual suppression. Thirty-three patients were treated with a GnRH agonist, 4 with combined hormonal contraceptive pills, 1 with a combined hormonal contraceptive patch, 1 with depot medroxyprogesterone, and 1 with oral norethindrone. Twenty-nine of the 33 patients (88%) who received a GnRH agonist had complete amenorrhea during HCT and 4 of 33 (12%) experienced some degree of vaginal bleeding. GnRH agonists appear effective in prevention of vaginal bleeding complications in most postmenarchal women who underwent HCT. Some patients who might benefit do not receive a GnRH agonist and multiple barriers exist in identification and treatment of them. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Improved acylated ghrelin suppression at 2 years in obese patients with type 2 diabetes: effects of bariatric surgery vs standard medical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, S K; Samat, A; Wolski, K; Abood, B; Pothier, C E; Bhatt, D L; Nissen, S; Brethauer, S A; Schauer, P R; Kirwan, J P; Kashyap, S R

    2014-03-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) produces more durable glycemic control than sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or intensive medical therapy (IMT). However, the contribution of acylated ghrelin (AG), a gluco-regulatory/appetite hormone, to improve glucose metabolism and body composition in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) following RYGB is unknown. STAMPEDE (Surgical Treatment and Medication Potentially Eradicate Diabetes Efficiently) was a prospective, randomized controlled trial. Fifty-three (body mass index: 36±3 kg m(-2), age: 49±9 years) poorly controlled patients with T2D (HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin): 9.7±2%) were randomized to IMT, IMT+RYGB or IMT+SG and underwent a mixed-meal tolerance test at baseline, 12, and 24 months for evaluation of AG suppression (postprandial minus fasting) and beta-cell function (oral disposition index; glucose-stimulated insulin secretion × Matsuda index). Total/android body fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) was also assessed. RYGB and SG reduced body fat comparably (15-23 kg) at 12 and 24 months, whereas IMT had no effect. Beta-cell function increased 5.8-fold in RYGB and was greater than IMT at 24 months (PRYGB or IMT at 24 months. AG suppression improved more following RYGB than SG or IMT at 24 months (P=0.01 vs SG, P=0.07 vs IMT). At 24 months, AG suppression was associated with increased postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (r=-0.32, PRYGB, and this effect is associated with decreased android obesity and improved insulin secretion. Together, these findings suggest that AG suppression is partly responsible for the improved glucose control after RYGB surgery.

  18. A marginal structural model to estimate the causal effect of antidepressant medication treatment on viral suppression among homeless and marginally housed persons with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alexander C; Weiser, Sheri D; Petersen, Maya L; Ragland, Kathleen; Kushel, Margot B; Bangsberg, David R

    2010-12-01

    Depression strongly predicts nonadherence to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antiretroviral therapy, and adherence is essential to maintaining viral suppression. This suggests that pharmacologic treatment of depression may improve virologic outcomes. However, previous longitudinal observational analyses have inadequately adjusted for time-varying confounding by depression severity, which could yield biased estimates of treatment effect. Application of marginal structural modeling to longitudinal observation data can, under certain assumptions, approximate the findings of a randomized controlled trial. To determine whether antidepressant medication treatment increases the probability of HIV viral suppression. Community-based prospective cohort study with assessments conducted every 3 months. Community-based research field site in San Francisco, California. One hundred fifty-eight homeless and marginally housed persons with HIV who met baseline immunologic (CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, 13) inclusion criteria, observed from April 2002 through August 2007. Probability of achieving viral suppression to less than 50 copies/mL. Secondary outcomes of interest were probability of being on an antiretroviral therapy regimen, 7-day self-reported percentage adherence to antiretroviral therapy, and probability of reporting complete (100%) adherence. Marginal structural models estimated a 2.03 greater odds of achieving viral suppression (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-3.58; P = .02) resulting from antidepressant medication treatment. In addition, antidepressant medication use increased the probability of antiretroviral uptake (weighted odds ratio, 3.87; 95% CI, 1.98-7.58; P effect is likely attributable to improved adherence to a continuum of HIV care, including increased uptake and adherence to antiretroviral therapy.

  19. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  20. Appetite-suppressing effects and interactions of centrally administered corticotropin-releasing factor, urotensin I and serotonin in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van A. Ortega

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF, urotensin I (UI and serotonin (5-HT are generally recognized as key regulators of the anorexigenic stress response in vertebrates, yet the proximal effects and potential interactions of these central messengers on food intake in salmonids are not known. Moreover, no study to date in fishes has compared the appetite-suppressing effects of CRF and UI using species-specific peptides. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to 1 assess the individual effects of synthesized rainbow trout CRF (rtCRF, rtUI as well as 5-HT on food intake in rainbow trout, and 2 determine whether the CRF and serotonergic systems interact in the regulation of food intake in this species. Intracerebroventricular (icv injections of rtCRF and rtUI both suppressed food intake in a dose-related manner but rtUI (ED50 = 17.4 ng/g body weight [BW] was significantly more potent than rtCRF (ED50 = 105.9 ng/g BW. Co-injection of either rtCRF or rtUI with the CRF receptor antagonist a-hCRF(9-41 blocked the reduction in food intake induced by CRF-related peptides. Icv injections of 5-HT also inhibited feeding in a dose-related manner (ED50 = 14.7 ng/g BW and these effects were blocked by the serotonergic receptor antagonist methysergide. While the anorexigenic effects of 5-HT were reversed by a-hCRF(9-41 co-injection, the appetite-suppressing effects of either rtCRF or rtUI were not affected by methysergide co-injection. These results identify CRF, UI and 5-HT as anorexigenic agents in rainbow trout, and suggest that 5-HT-induced anorexia may be at least partially mediated by CRF- and/or UI-secreting neurons.

  1. The involvement of noradrenergic mechanisms in the suppressive effects of diazepam on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švob Štrac, Dubravka; Muck-Šeler, Dorotea; Pivac, Nela

    2012-06-01

    To elucidate the involvement of noradrenergic system in the mechanism by which diazepam suppresses basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Plasma corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels were determined in female rats treated with diazepam alone, as well as with diazepam in combination with clonidine (α(2)-adrenoreceptor agonist), yohimbine (α(2)-adrenoreceptor antagonist), alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (α-MPT, an inhibitor of catecholamine synthesis), or reserpine (a catecholamine depleting drug) and yohimbine. Diazepam administered in a dose of 2.0 mg/kg suppressed basal HPA axis activity, ie, decreased plasma corticosterone and ACTH levels. Pretreatment with clonidine or yohimbine failed to affect basal plasma corticosterone and ACTH concentrations, but abolished diazepam-induced inhibition of the HPA axis activity. Pretreatment with α-MPT, or with a combination of reserpine and yohimbine, increased plasma corticosterone and ACTH levels and prevented diazepam-induced inhibition of the HPA axis activity. The results suggest that α(2)-adrenoreceptors activity, as well as intact presynaptic noradrenergic function, are required for the suppressive effect of diazepam on the HPA axis activity.

  2. The involvement of noradrenergic mechanisms in the suppressive effects of diazepam on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švob Štrac, Dubravka; Muck-Šeler, Dorotea; Pivac, Nela

    2012-01-01

    Aim To elucidate the involvement of noradrenergic system in the mechanism by which diazepam suppresses basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Methods Plasma corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels were determined in female rats treated with diazepam alone, as well as with diazepam in combination with clonidine (α2-adrenoreceptor agonist), yohimbine (α2-adrenoreceptor antagonist), alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (α-MPT, an inhibitor of catecholamine synthesis), or reserpine (a catecholamine depleting drug) and yohimbine. Results Diazepam administered in a dose of 2.0 mg/kg suppressed basal HPA axis activity, ie, decreased plasma corticosterone and ACTH levels. Pretreatment with clonidine or yohimbine failed to affect basal plasma corticosterone and ACTH concentrations, but abolished diazepam-induced inhibition of the HPA axis activity. Pretreatment with α-MPT, or with a combination of reserpine and yohimbine, increased plasma corticosterone and ACTH levels and prevented diazepam-induced inhibition of the HPA axis activity. Conclusion The results suggest that α2-adrenoreceptors activity, as well as intact presynaptic noradrenergic function, are required for the suppressive effect of diazepam on the HPA axis activity. PMID:22661134

  3. Effect of deslorelin on testicular function, serum dihydrotestosterone and oestradiol concentrations during and after suppression of sexual activity in tom cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültiken, Nilgün; Aslan, Selim; Ay, Serhan Serhat; Gülbahar, Mustafa Yavuz; Thuróczy, Julianna; Koldaş, Ece; Kaya, Duygu; Fındık, Murat; Schäfer-Somi, Sabine

    2017-02-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a 4.7 mg deslorelin implant in tom cats. Methods Nine mature male cats were included in the deslorelin group and five cats in the control group. Before the study started, all cats were confirmed to have distinct sexually dimorphic behaviour. Blood samples were taken on the implantation day, at day 7 and at day 15, then monthly, in order to measure serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 17beta(β)-oestradiol concentrations. The deslorelin group (n = 9) was divided into two subgroups: five cats (cats 1-5) were neutered in the postimplantation period during suppression of sexually dimorphic behaviour, and four cats (cats 6-9) were neutered after re-expression of sexually dimorphic behaviour. The control group cats (n = 5) were castrated without administration of the implant. Results Sexually dimorphic behaviours ceased within a mean ± SD of 13-58 days (23.30 ± 14.17) after implantation. DHT concentration decreased within 30 days. The mean duration of suppression was 26.5 ± 7.42 months and reactivation coincided with increased DHT values reaching preimplantation concentrations within 1 month. 17β-oestradiol concentrations significantly correlated with DHT concentrations ( P tom cats without any side effects and with full reversibility; however, duration of suppression is highly individual.

  4. CRP and SAA1 Haplotypes Are Associated with Both C-Reactive Protein and Serum Amyloid A Levels: Role of Suppression Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lin Ko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the statistical association of the CRP and SAA1 locus variants with their corresponding circulating levels and metabolic and inflammatory biomarker levels by using mediation analysis, a sample population of 599 Taiwanese subjects was enrolled and five CRP and four SAA1 variants were genotyped. Correlation analysis revealed that C-reactive protein (CRP and serum amyloid A (SAA levels were significantly associated with multiple metabolic phenotypes and inflammatory marker levels. Our data further revealed a significant association of CRP and SAA1 variants with both CRP and SAA levels. Mediation analysis revealed that SAA levels suppressed the association between SAA1 genotypes/haplotypes and CRP levels and that CRP levels suppressed the association between CRP haplotypes and SAA levels. In conclusion, genetic variants at the CRP and SAA1 loci independently affect both CRP and SAA levels, and their respective circulating levels act as suppressors. These results provided further evidence of the role of the suppression effect in biological science and may partially explain the missing heritability in genetic association studies.

  5. Suppressive Effects of Bee Venom Acupuncture on Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats: Mediation by Spinal α₂-Adrenergic Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiho; Jeon, Changhoon; Lee, Ji Hwan; Jang, Jo Ung; Quan, Fu Shi; Lee, Kyungjin; Kim, Woojin; Kim, Sun Kwang

    2017-10-31

    Paclitaxel, a chemotherapy drug for solid tumors, induces peripheral painful neuropathy. Bee venom acupuncture (BVA) has been reported to have potent analgesic effects, which are known to be mediated by activation of spinal α-adrenergic receptor. Here, we investigated the effect of BVA on mechanical hyperalgesia and spinal neuronal hyperexcitation induced by paclitaxel. The role of spinal α-adrenergic receptor subtypes in the analgesic effect of BVA was also observed. Administration of paclitaxel (total 8 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) on four alternate days (days 0, 2, 4, and 6) induced significant mechanical hyperalgesic signs, measured using a von Frey filament. BVA (1 mg/kg, ST36) relieved this mechanical hyperalgesia for at least two hours, and suppressed the hyperexcitation in spinal wide dynamic range neurons evoked by press or pinch stimulation. Both melittin (0.5 mg/kg, ST36) and phospholipase A2 (0.12 mg/kg, ST36) were shown to play an important part in this analgesic effect of the BVA, as they significantly attenuated the pain. Intrathecal pretreatment with the α₂-adrenergic receptor antagonist (idazoxan, 50 µg), but not α₁-adrenergic receptor antagonist (prazosin, 30 µg), blocked the analgesic effect of BVA. These results suggest that BVA has potent suppressive effects against paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain, which were mediated by spinal α₂-adrenergic receptor.

  6. Effects of exposure to intermittent versus continuous red light on human circadian rhythms, melatonin suppression, and pupillary constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Mien, Ivan; Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Lau, Pauline; Tan, Luuan-Chin; Lee, Ivan Tian-Guang; Yeo, Sing-Chen; Tan, Sara Shuhui; Gooley, Joshua J

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to light is a major determinant of sleep timing and hormonal rhythms. The role of retinal cones in regulating circadian physiology remains unclear, however, as most studies have used light exposures that also activate the photopigment melanopsin. Here, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to alternating red light and darkness can enhance circadian resetting responses in humans by repeatedly activating cone photoreceptors. In a between-subjects study, healthy volunteers (n = 24, 21-28 yr) lived individually in a laboratory for 6 consecutive days. Circadian rhythms of melatonin, cortisol, body temperature, and heart rate were assessed before and after exposure to 6 h of continuous red light (631 nm, 13 log photons cm(-2) s(-1)), intermittent red light (1 min on/off), or bright white light (2,500 lux) near the onset of nocturnal melatonin secretion (n = 8 in each group). Melatonin suppression and pupillary constriction were also assessed during light exposure. We found that circadian resetting responses were similar for exposure to continuous versus intermittent red light (P = 0.69), with an average phase delay shift of almost an hour. Surprisingly, 2 subjects who were exposed to red light exhibited circadian responses similar in magnitude to those who were exposed to bright white light. Red light also elicited prolonged pupillary constriction, but did not suppress melatonin levels. These findings suggest that, for red light stimuli outside the range of sensitivity for melanopsin, cone photoreceptors can mediate circadian phase resetting of physiologic rhythms in some individuals. Our results also show that sensitivity thresholds differ across non-visual light responses, suggesting that cones may contribute differentially to circadian resetting, melatonin suppression, and the pupillary light reflex during exposure to continuous light.

  7. Effects of exposure to intermittent versus continuous red light on human circadian rhythms, melatonin suppression, and pupillary constriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ho Mien

    Full Text Available Exposure to light is a major determinant of sleep timing and hormonal rhythms. The role of retinal cones in regulating circadian physiology remains unclear, however, as most studies have used light exposures that also activate the photopigment melanopsin. Here, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to alternating red light and darkness can enhance circadian resetting responses in humans by repeatedly activating cone photoreceptors. In a between-subjects study, healthy volunteers (n = 24, 21-28 yr lived individually in a laboratory for 6 consecutive days. Circadian rhythms of melatonin, cortisol, body temperature, and heart rate were assessed before and after exposure to 6 h of continuous red light (631 nm, 13 log photons cm(-2 s(-1, intermittent red light (1 min on/off, or bright white light (2,500 lux near the onset of nocturnal melatonin secretion (n = 8 in each group. Melatonin suppression and pupillary constriction were also assessed during light exposure. We found that circadian resetting responses were similar for exposure to continuous versus intermittent red light (P = 0.69, with an average phase delay shift of almost an hour. Surprisingly, 2 subjects who were exposed to red light exhibited circadian responses similar in magnitude to those who were exposed to bright white light. Red light also elicited prolonged pupillary constriction, but did not suppress melatonin levels. These findings suggest that, for red light stimuli outside the range of sensitivity for melanopsin, cone photoreceptors can mediate circadian phase resetting of physiologic rhythms in some individuals. Our results also show that sensitivity thresholds differ across non-visual light responses, suggesting that cones may contribute differentially to circadian resetting, melatonin suppression, and the pupillary light reflex during exposure to continuous light.

  8. Gastric ulcer treatment: cure of Helicobacter pylori infection without subsequent acid-suppressive therapy: is it effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen; van der Knoop, Bloeme

    2008-06-01

    Whether it is a requirement to continue with anti-secretory therapy following anti-Helicobacter therapy in H. pylori positive gastric ulcers is an important question. As gastric ulcers tend to heal more slowly than duodenal ulcers, may be asymptomatic or only causing mild symptoms and success at curing H. pylori with current fist line therapies is 80% at best, clinicians will likely err on the side of caution and continue acid suppressive therapy to ensure healing of gastric ulcers. This is certainly recommended when dealing with bleeding ulcers.

  9. The effects of imipramine on P50 suppression, prepulse inhibition and habituation of the startle response in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Trine Bjørg; Oranje, Bob; Glenthoj, Birte Y

    2007-01-01

    antidepressants are often combined with antipsychotic medication. However, antidepressants increase monoaminergic activity, which has been suggested to decrease sensory gating, although these presumptions are mostly based on results from animal studies. Currently, little is known about monoaminergic modulation......-controlled cross-over design, 20 healthy male volunteers received either placebo or a dose of 50 mg imipramine (a dual-acting antidepressant), after which they were tested in a P50 suppression paradigm, a PPI paradigm, and an habituation of the startle reflex paradigm. Imipramine significantly decreased PPI......-acting antidepressants in the treatment of depressed or negative symptoms in these patients....

  10. PACAP inhibits β-cell mass expansion in a mouse model of type II diabetes: persistent suppressive effects on islet density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki eInoue

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP is a potent insulinotropic G-protein-coupled receptor ligand, for which morphoregulative roles in pancreatic islets have recently been suggested. Here, we evaluated the effects of pancreatic overexpression of PACAP on morphometric changes of islets in a severe type II diabetes model. Following cross-breeding of obese-diabetic model KKAy mice with mice overexpressing PACAP in their pancreatic β-cells, the resulting KKAy mice with or without PACAP transgene (PACAP/+:Ay/+ or Ay/+ mice were fed with a high-fat diet up to the age of 11 months. Pancreatic sections from 5 and 11 month old littermates were examined. Histomorphometric analyses revealed significant suppression of islet mass expansion in PACAP/+:Ay/+ mice compared with Ay/+ mice at 11 months, but no significant difference between PACAP/+ and +/+ (wild-type mice, as previously reported. The suppressed islet mass in PACAP/+:Ay/+ mice was due to a decrease in islet density but not islet size. In addition, the density of tiny islets (<0.001 mm2 and of insulin-positive clusters in ductal structures were markedly decreased in PACAP/+:Ay/+ mice compared with Ay/+ mice at 5 months of age. In contrast, PACAP overexpression caused no significant effects on the level of aldehyde-fuchsin reagent staining (a measure of β-cell granulation or the volume and localization of glucagon-positive cells in the pancreas. These results support previously reported inhibitory effects of PACAP on pancreatic islet mass expansion, and suggest it has persistent suppressive effects on pancreatic islet density which may be related with ductal cell-associated islet neogenesis in type II diabetes.

  11. Audiovisual speech integration does not rely on the motor system: evidence from articulatory suppression, the McGurk effect, and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchin, William; Groulx, Kier; Hickok, Gregory

    2014-03-01

    Visual speech influences the perception of heard speech. A classic example of this is the McGurk effect, whereby an auditory /pa/ overlaid onto a visual /ka/ induces the fusion percept of /ta/. Recent behavioral and neuroimaging research has highlighted the importance of both articulatory representations and motor speech regions of the brain, particularly Broca's area, in audiovisual (AV) speech integration. Alternatively, AV speech integration may be accomplished by the sensory system through multisensory integration in the posterior STS. We assessed the claims regarding the involvement of the motor system in AV integration in two experiments: (i) examining the effect of articulatory suppression on the McGurk effect and (ii) determining if motor speech regions show an AV integration profile. The hypothesis regarding experiment (i) is that if the motor system plays a role in McGurk fusion, distracting the motor system through articulatory suppression should result in a reduction of McGurk fusion. The results of experiment (i) showed that articulatory suppression results in no such reduction, suggesting that the motor system is not responsible for the McGurk effect. The hypothesis of experiment (ii) was that if the brain activation to AV speech in motor regions (such as Broca's area) reflects AV integration, the profile of activity should reflect AV integration: AV > AO (auditory only) and AV > VO (visual only). The results of experiment (ii) demonstrate that motor speech regions do not show this integration profile, whereas the posterior STS does. Instead, activity in motor regions is task dependent. The combined results suggest that AV speech integration does not rely on the motor system.

  12. Effective melanoma cancer suppression by iontophoretic co-delivery of STAT3 siRNA and imatinib using gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labala, Suman; Jose, Anup; Chawla, Sumeet Rajesh; Khan, Mohammed Shareef; Bhatnagar, Shubhmita; Kulkarni, Onkar Prakash; Venuganti, Venkata Vamsi Krishna

    2017-06-20

    Co-delivery of chemotherapeutic agents improve anti-tumor efficacy and reduce cancer resistance. Here, we report development of layer-by-layer assembled gold nanoparticles (LbL-AuNP) containing anti-STAT3 siRNA and imatinib mesylate (IM) to treat melanoma. The combination treatment with STAT3 siRNA and IM in B16F10 melanoma cells showed greater suppression of STAT3 protein, decreased cell viability and increased apoptotic events compared with LbL-AuNP containing either STAT3 siRNA or IM. In vivo efficacy studies in melanoma tumor bearing mice showed that non-invasive topical iontophoretic administration (0.5mA/cm 2 ) of LbL-AuNP was comparable with intratumoral administration. Co-delivery of STAT3 siRNA and IM using LbL-AuNP showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in percentage tumor volume, tumor weight and suppressed STAT3 protein expression compared with either STAT3 siRNA or IM loaded LbL-AuNP. Taken together, LbL-AuNP can be developed as nanocarrier system for co-delivery of siRNA and small molecule drugs for topical iontophoretic delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Halo Effect: Suppression of Pink Bollworm on Non-Bt Cotton by Bt Cotton in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Huang, Minsong; Wu, Kongming

    2012-01-01

    In some previously reported cases, transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have suppressed insect pests not only in fields planted with such crops, but also regionally on host plants that do not produce Bt toxins. Here we used 16 years of field data to determine if Bt cotton caused this “halo effect” against pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) in six provinces of the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We found that Bt cotton significantly decreased the population density of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton, with net decreases of 91% for eggs and 95% for larvae on non-Bt cotton after 11 years of Bt cotton use. Insecticide sprays targeting pink bollworm and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) decreased by 69%. Previously reported evidence of the early stages of evolution of pink bollworm resistance to Bt cotton in China has raised concerns that if unchecked, such resistance could eventually diminish or eliminate the benefits of Bt cotton. The results reported here suggest that it might be possible to find a percentage of Bt cotton lower than the current level that causes sufficient regional pest suppression and reduces the risk of resistance. PMID:22848685

  14. Suppression of the Coffee-Ring Effect and Evaporation-Driven Disorder to Order Transition in Colloidal Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shyamashis; Dey, Atreya; Reddy, Govardhan; Sarma, D D

    2017-10-05

    The formation of a ring-like deposit at the periphery of a drying colloidal droplet is a vexing problem in many applications. We show a complete suppression of such deposits when a droplet of aqueous colloidal suspension, deposited on a glass substrate coated with a thin layer of silicone oil, is evaporated. This coating prevents the periphery of the aqueous droplet from getting pinned to the substrate and helps in suppressing the ring formation. It also decreases the surface area of the droplet, thereby decreasing the evaporation rate. These two factors together, driving the colloidal particles slowly to the center of the droplet, contribute to form an ordered crystallite at the end of the evaporation process. Brownian dynamics simulations performed to study ordering in the aggregate show that the spherical colloidal particles form face-centered cubic structures. Experiments and simulations show that slow rates of droplet evaporation and smaller-sized colloidal particles further lead to high-quality ordered colloidal crystallites.

  15. In vitro effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol to stimulate somatostatin release and block that of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone by suppression of the release of prostaglandin E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettori, V.; Aguila, M.C.; McCann, S.M.; Gimeno, M.F.; Franchi, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Previous in vivo studies have shown that Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal active ingredient in marijuana, can suppress both luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) secretion after its injection into the third ventricle of conscious male rats. The present studies were deigned to determine the mechanism of these effects. Various doses of THC were incubated with either stalk median eminence fragments (MEs) or mediobasal hypothalamic (MBH) fragments in vitro. Although THC (10 nM) did not alter basal release of LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) from MEs in vitro, it completely blocked the stimulatory action of dopamine or nonrepinephrine on LHRH release. The effective doses to block LHRH release were associated with a blockade of synthesis and release of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) from MBH in vitro. In contrast to the suppressive effect of THC on LHRH release, somatostatin release from MEs was enhanced in a dose-related manner with a minimal effective dose of 1 nM. Since PGE 2 suppresses somatostatin release, this enhancement may also be related to the suppressive effect of THC on PGE 2 synthesis and release. The authors speculate that these actions are mediated by the recently discovered THC receptors in the tissue. The results indicate that the suppressive effect of THC on LH release is mediated by a blockade of LHRH release, whereas the suppressive effect of the compound on growth hormone release is mediated, at least in part, by a stimulation of somatostatin release

  16. Long term effectiveness of once-daily unboosted atazanavir plus abacavir/lamivudine as a switch strategy in subjects with virological suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llibre, Josep M; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; La Rosa, Jorge Antonio Valencia

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Use of unboosted atazanavir (ATV400) is approved in the US but not in Europe (1). Due to pharmacokinetic interactions it should not be used with tenofovir but can be used with abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) (1, 2) (3). Effectiveness data of ATV400+ABC/3TC as a switch strategy in clinic...... 50 c/mL is associated with relatively low rates of VF and discontinuation due to adverse events. Use might be considered in those with long-term suppression and without prior PI failure. Larger cohorts are required to further define the appropriate selection criteria....

  17. Appetite Suppression and Antiobesity Effect of a Botanical Composition Composed of Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Yimam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method. Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601. Appetite suppression activity was tested in acute feed intake rat model. Efficacy was evaluated in C57BL/6J mouse models treated with oral doses of 1.3 g/kg/day for 7 weeks. Orlistat at 40 mg/kg/day was used as a positive control. Body compositions of mice were assessed using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. ELISA was done for insulin, leptin, and ghrelin level quantitation. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH scoring was conducted. Results. Marked acute hypophagia with 81.8, 75.3, 43.9, and 30.9% reductions in food intake at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours were observed for UP601. Decreases in body weight gain (21.5% compared to the HFD at weeks 7 and 8.2% compared to baseline and calorie intake (40.5% for the first week were observed. 75.9% and 46.8% reductions in insulin and leptin, respectively, 4.2-fold increase in ghrelin level, and reductions of 18.6% in cholesterol and 59% in low-density lipoprotein were documented. A percentage body fat of 18.9%, 47.8%, 46.1%, and 30.4% was found for mice treated with normal control, HFD, Orlistat, and UP601, respectively. 59.3% less mesenteric fat pad and improved NASH scores were observed for UP601. Conclusion. UP601, a standardized botanical composition from Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis could be used as a natural alternative for appetite suppression, maintaining healthy body weight and metabolism management.

  18. Suppressive effect of formononetin on platelet-derived growth factor-BB-stimulated proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Liu, Suixin; Cai, Ying; Xie, Kangling; Zhang, Wenliang; Dong, Lei; Liu, Yuan; Zheng, Fan; Dun, Yaoshan; Li, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has been implicated in intimal hyperplasia, atherosclerosis and restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention. Formononetin, a phytoestrogen extracted from the root of Astragalus membranaceus , has been widely used in Chinese tradition medicine due to its protective effects against certain symptoms of cancer, hypertension, inflammation, hypoxia-induced cytotoxicity and ovariectomy-induced bone loss. However, the effect of formononetin on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs, as well as the underlying molecular mechanism, remains largely unclear. In the present study, treatment with formononetin significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-induced proliferation and migration of human VSMCs. Investigation into the underlying molecular mechanism revealed that the administration of formononetin suppressed PDGF-BB-stimulated switch of VSMCs to a proliferative phenotype. Furthermore, treatment with formononetin inhibited the PDGF-BB-induced upregulation of cell cycle-related proteins, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP2) and MMP9. In addition, the that administration of formononetin inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT induced by PDGF-BB in VSMCs. The present results suggest that formononetin has a suppressive effect on PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs proliferation and migration, which may occur partly via the inhibition of AKT signaling pathway. Therefore, formononetin may be useful for the treatment of intimal hyperplasia, atherosclerosis and restenosis.

  19. The Effects of Xiangqing Anodyne Spray on Treating Acute Soft-Tissue Injury Mainly Depend on Suppressing Activations of AKT and p38 Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shudong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In the present study we try to elucidate the mechanism of Xiangqing anodyne spray (XQAS effects on acute soft-tissue injury (STI. Methods. Acute STI model was established by hammer blow in the rat hind leg muscle. Within 8 hours, instantly after modeling and per 2-hour interval repeated topical applications with or without XQAS, CP or IH ethanol extracts spray (CPS and IHS were performed, respectively; muscle swelling rate and inflammation-related biochemical parameters, muscle histological observation, and mRNA and protein expression were then examined. Results. XQAS dose-dependently suppressed STI-caused muscle swelling, proinflammatory mediator productions, and oxidative stress as well as severe pathological changes in the injured muscle tissue. Moreover, CPS mainly by blocking p38 activation while IHS majorly by blocking AKT activation led to cytoplastic IκBα degradation with NF-κB p65 translocated into the nucleus. There are synergistic effects between CP and IH components in the XQAS on preventing from acute STI with suppressing IκBα degradation, NF-κB p65 translocation, and subsequent inflammation and oxidative stress-related abnormality. Conclusion. Marked effects of XQAS on treating acute STI are ascribed to strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidative actions with a reasonable combination of CP active components, blocking p38-NF-κB pathway activated, and IH active components, blocking AKT-NF-κB pathway activated.

  20. The effects of hippocampal aspiration lesions on conditioning to the CS and to a background stimulus in trace conditioned suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, J N; Tanner, J

    1998-03-01

    Rats with hippocampal aspiration lesions or cortical control lesions were compared to sham operated controls in a trace conditioned suppression task, in which a long-lasting background stimulus played the role of more conventional contextual cues. In all three surgical treatment groups, conditioning to the explicit conditioned stimulus (CS) decreased, but conditioning to the background cue increased, when a longer trace interval was used. There was thus no evidence of a differential partitioning of associative conditioning as a result of the lesion, despite the evident sensitivity of the behavioural paradigm to variations in the CS-->unconditioned stimulus (US) interval. This result contrasts with earlier reports using conventional contextual cues in analogous experimental designs, and so suggests that the sensitivity of contextual conditioning to hippocampal dysfunction depends at least in part on the physical nature of conventional contextual cues, and not solely on the less precise predictive information that such cues typically provide.

  1. MicroRNA-101 mediates the suppressive effect of laminar shear stress on mTOR expression in vascular endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kui; Fan, Wendong; Wang, Xing; Ke, Xiao [Division of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Wu, Guifu, E-mail: eecpchina@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory on Assisted Circulation, Ministry of Health, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Hu, Chengheng, E-mail: huchenghengpci@yahoo.com.cn [Division of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laminar shear stress upregulates miR-101 expression in vascular endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-101 represses mTOR expression through a specific 3 Prime UTR binding site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of miR-101 inhibits G1/S transition and endothelial cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blockade of miR-101 attenuates the suppressive effect of laminar flow on mTOR expression. -- Abstract: Shear stress associated with blood flow plays an important role in regulating gene expression and cell function in endothelial cells (ECs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are highly conserved, small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate the expression of target genes by binding to the mRNA 3 Prime -untranslated region (3 Prime UTR) at the posttranscriptional level involved in diverse cellular processes. This study demonstrates that microRNA-101 in response to laminar shear stress (LSS) is involved in the flow regulation of gene expression in ECs. qRT-PCR analysis showed that miR-101 expression was significantly upregulated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to 12 dyn/cm{sup 2} laminar shear stress for 12 h. We found that transfection of miR-101 significantly decreased the luciferase activity of plasmid reporter containing the 3 Prime UTR of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) gene. Western analysis revealed that the protein level of mTOR was significantly reduced in ECs transfected with miR-101. Furthermore, miR-101 overexpression induced cell cycle arrest at the G1/S transition and suppressed endothelial cell proliferation. Finally, transfection of miR-101 inhibitors attenuated the suppressive effects of LSS on mTOR expression, which identified the efficacy of loss-of-function of miR-101 in laminar flow-treated ECs. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that upregulation of miR-101 in response to LSS contributes to the suppressive effects of LSS on mTOR expression and EC

  2. Pulsing blue light through closed eyelids: effects on acute melatonin suppression and phase shifting of dim light melatonin onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiro MG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mariana G Figueiro, Barbara Plitnick, Mark S Rea Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA Abstract: Circadian rhythm disturbances parallel the increased prevalence of sleep disorders in older adults. Light therapies that specifically target regulation of the circadian system in principle could be used to treat sleep disorders in this population. Current recommendations for light treatment require the patients to sit in front of a bright light box for at least 1 hour daily, perhaps limiting their willingness to comply. Light applied through closed eyelids during sleep might not only be efficacious for changing circadian phase but also lead to better compliance because patients would receive light treatment while sleeping. Reported here are the results of two studies investigating the impact of a train of 480 nm (blue light pulses presented to the retina through closed eyelids on melatonin suppression (laboratory study and on delaying circadian phase (field study. Both studies employed a sleep mask that provided narrowband blue light pulses of 2-second duration every 30 seconds from arrays of light-emitting diodes. The results of the laboratory study demonstrated that the blue light pulses significantly suppressed melatonin by an amount similar to that previously shown in the same protocol at half the frequency (ie, one 2-second pulse every minute for 1 hour. The results of the field study demonstrated that blue light pulses given early in the sleep episode significantly delayed circadian phase in older adults; these results are the first to demonstrate the efficacy and practicality of light treatment by a sleep mask aimed at adjusting circadian phase in a home setting. Keywords: circadian phase, dim light melatonin onset, light through closed eyelids, blue light, sleep

  3. Efferocytosis promotes suppressive effects on dendritic cells through prostaglandin E2 production in the context of autoimmunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Pujol-Autonell

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Efferocytosis is a crucial process by which apoptotic cells are cleared by phagocytes, maintaining immune tolerance to self in the absence of inflammation. Peripheral tolerance, lost in autoimmune processes, may be restored by the administration of autologous dendritic cells loaded with islet apoptotic cells in experimental type 1 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate tolerogenic properties in dendritic cells induced by the clearance of apoptotic islet cells, thus explaining the re-establishment of tolerance in a context of autoimmunity. METHODS: Bone marrow derived dendritic cells from non-obese diabetic mice, a model of autoimmune diabetes, were generated and pulsed with islet apoptotic cells. The ability of these cells to induce autologous T cell proliferation and to suppress mature dendritic cell function was assessed, together with cytokine production. Microarray experiments were performed using dendritic cells to identify differentially expressed genes after efferocytosis. RESULTS: Molecular and functional changes in dendritic cells after the capture of apoptotic cells were observed. 1 Impaired ability of dendritic cells to stimulate autologous T cell proliferation after the capture of apoptotic cells even after proinflammatory stimuli, with a cytokine profile typical for immature dendritic cells. 2 Suppressive ability of mature dendritic cell function. 3 Microarray-based gene expression profiling of dendritic cells showed differential expression of genes involved in antigen processing and presentation after efferocytosis. 4 Prostaglandin E2 increased production was responsible for immunosuppressive mechanism of dendritic cells after the capture of apoptotic cells. CONCLUSIONS: The tolerogenic behaviour of dendritic cells after islet cells efferocytosis points to a mechanism of silencing potential autoreactive T cells in the microenvironment of autoimmunity. Our results suggest that dendritic cells may be programmed to induce

  4. Resonance suppression from color reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acconcia, R.; Chinellato, D. D.; de Souza, R. Derradi; Takahashi, J.; Torrieri, G.; Markert, C.

    2018-02-01

    We present studies that show how multi-parton interaction and color reconnection affect the hadro-chemistry in proton-proton (pp) collisions with special focus on the production of resonances using the pythia8 event generator. We find that color reconnection suppresses the relative production of meson resonances such as ρ0 and K* , providing an alternative explanation for the K*/K decrease observed in proton-proton collisions as a function of multiplicity by the ALICE collaboration. Detailed studies of the underlying mechanism causing meson resonance suppression indicate that color reconnection leads to shorter, less energetic strings whose fragmentation is less likely to produce more massive hadrons for a given quark content, therefore reducing ratios such as K*/K and ρ0/π in high-multiplicity pp collisions. In addition, we have also studied the effects of allowing string junctions to form and found that these may also contribute to resonance suppression.

  5. Suppression of sympathetic detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. C., Jr.; Gunger, M. E.; Craig, B. G.; Parsons, G. H.

    1984-08-01

    There are two basic approaches to suppression of sympathetic detonation. Minimizing the shock sensitivity of the explosive to long duration pressure will obviously reduce interround separation distances. However, given that the explosive sensitivity is fixed, then much can be gained through the use of simple barriers placed between the rounds. Researchers devised calculational methods for predicting shock transmission; experimental methods have been developed to characterize explosive shock sensitivity and observe the response of acceptors to barriers. It was shown that both EAK and tritonal can be initiated to detonation with relatively low pressure shocks of long durations. It was also shown that to be an effective barrier between the donor and acceptor, the material must attenuate shock and defect fragments. Future actions will concentrate on refining the design of barriers to minimize weight, volume, and cost.

  6. Suppression of the Neoclassical Tearing Modes in Tokamaks under Anomalous Transverse Transport Conditions when the Magnetic Well Effect Predominates over the Bootstrap Drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalov, S.V.; Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Shirokov, M.S.; Ozeki, T.; Tsypin, V.S.

    2005-01-01

    A study is made of the suppression of neoclassical tearing modes in tokamaks under anomalous transverse transport conditions when the magnetic well effect predominates over the bootstrap drive. It is stressed that the corresponding effect, which is called the compound suppression effect, depends strongly on the profiles of the electron and ion temperature perturbations. Account is taken of the fact that the temperature profile can be established as a result of the competition between anomalous transverse heat transport, on the one hand, and longitudinal collisional heat transport, longitudinal heat convection, longitudinal inertial transport, and transport due to the rotation of magnetic islands, on the other hand. The role of geodesic effects is discussed. The cases of competition just mentioned are described by the model sets of reduced transport equations, which are called, respectively, collisional, convective, inertial, and rotational plasmophysical models. The magnetic well is calculated with allowance for geodesic effects. It is shown that, for strong anomalous heat transport conditions, the contribution of the magnetic well to the generalized Rutherford equation for the island width W is independent of W not only in the collisional model (which has been investigated earlier) but also in the convective and inertial models and depends very weakly (logarithmically) on W in the rotational model. It is this weak dependence that gives rise to the compound effect, which is the subject of the present study. A criterion for the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes by the compound effect at an arbitrary level of the transverse heat transport by electrons and ions is derived and is analyzed for two cases: when the electron heat transport and ion heat transport are both strong, and when the electron heat transport is strong and the ion heat transport is weak

  7. Increased signal intensity on fat-suppressed three-dimensional T1-weighted pulse sequences in patellar tendon: magic angle effect?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karantanas, A.H.; Zibis, A.H. [CT-MRI Dept., Larissa General Hospital, Larissa (Greece); Papanikolaou, N. [Radiology Dept., University of Crete, Heraklion (Greece)

    2001-02-01

    Objective. To assess the frequency of increased signal intensity in the patellar tendon using three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI pulse sequences. Design and patients. Sixty patients were examined with a 1.0 T scanner (15mT/m gradient strength) using a quadrature coil. Three pulse sequences were applied in the sagittal plane: PD turbo spin echo (PD-TSE), 3D T1-weighted gradient echo with fat suppression (3D-T1-FFE-FS) and 3D T1-weighted echo planar imaging with fat suppression (3D-T1-EPI-FS). The high signal intensity areas were measured in their maximum length. The angle of the patellar tendon relative to the main field position was measured in the same slice. In eight patients with anterior knee pain, and in 11 with no anterior knee pain, a fourth T2-weighted TSE pulse sequence (T2-TSE) was obtained to rule out patellar tendinitis. Results. The correlation of the high signal intensity areas with the relative position of the tendon was found to be significant with the 3D sequences (P=0.03 for 3D-T1-FFE-FS and P=0.003 for 3D-T1-EPI-FS). The length of the high signal intensity area in the tendon was 5.4 mm with 3D-T1-FFE-FS, 4.9 mm with 3D-T1-EPI-FS and 3.1 mm with PD-TSE images. No patellar tendinitis was demonstrated on the T2-TSE images. Conclusion. The magic angle effect is commonly observed in the 3D based T1-weighted pulse sequences with fat suppression. The presence of the above sign must be recognized by radiologists, so that misdiagnosis of patellar tendinitis is avoided. (orig.)

  8. The effect of long-term thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy on the gonadal steroid hormones of patients with thyroid carcinoma after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Ying; Liang, Nan; Hong, Yang; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Sun, Hui

    2017-10-01

    To analyze the effect of long-term thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppressive therapy on the gonadal hormones and related symptoms in patients after surgery. From 2008 to 2011, totally 238 patients were recruited, who underwent thyroid surgery and subsequent TSH suppression treatment in Department of thyroid Surgery, China-Japan Union hospital, Jilin University. Then their postoperative follow-up data (3-8 years) were collected, including operational method, pathological diagnosis, whether processed radioiodine therapy and the period/dose of TSH suppression treatment. In addition, the menstrual cycle, menstruation quantity, whether accompanied with dysmenorrheal and menstrual disorder or not, date of last menstrual period, ages of menopause and so on were also collected. (I) Neither the level nor the duration of TSH treatment had any function on estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) in male patients; (II) in the subgroup of patients with TSH treatment for 3-5 years, patients who took high dose of TSH (TSH ≥0.5 U/L) obtained the lower T level compared with the group of medium dose (1.08±0.34 vs. 1.36±0.46 nmol/L, P=0.001); (III) in the medium dose (0.1 IU/L ≤ TSH hormone (FSH) did not show any change in terms of the dose and the duration of TSH treatment; (V) the menstrual volume, dysmenorrhea condition, menstrual cycle and menopause related indicators did not show any difference in terms of doses and duration of TSH treatment (P=0.701, 0.412 and 0.507 respectively). The long term of TSH repressive therapy after surgery did not affect T and E2 level in male patients. As for female patients, the impact was mainly reflected in the T and E2 levels especially in female sexual maturity but not FSH level. In addition, TSH treatment did not play any role on menstruation or menopause.

  9. Rodlike Supramolecular Nanoassemblies of Degradable Poly(Aspartic Acid) Derivatives and Hydroxyl-Rich Polycations for Effective Delivery of Versatile Tumor-Suppressive ncRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hai-Qing; Pan, Wenting; Li, Rui-Quan; Yu, Bingran; Liu, Wenjuan; Yang, Ming; Xu, Fu-Jian

    2018-03-01

    The delivery of tumor-suppressive noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) including short ncRNAs (i.e., miRNAs) and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) is put forward to treat tumors. In this work, novel rodlike supramolecular nanoassemblies (CNC @CB[8] @ PGEA) of degradable poly(aspartic acid) (PAsp) derivatives-grafted cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and hydroxyl-rich polycations (ethanolamine-functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate), PGEA) are proposed via typical cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8])-based host-guest interactions for delivery of different ncRNAs to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Spindly CNCs, one kind of natural polysaccharide nanoparticles, possess good biocompatibility and unique physico-chemical properties. PGEA with abundant hydroxyl groups is one promising gene carrier with low cytotoxicity. PAsp can benefit the disassembly and degradability of nanoassemblies within cells. CNC @ CB[8]@PGEA combines the different unique properties of CNC, PGEA, and PAsp. CNC @ CB[8] @ PGEA effectively complexes the expression constructs of miR-101 (plasmid pc3.0-miR-101) and lncRNA MEG3 (plasmid pc3.0-MEG3). CNC @ CB[8] @ PGEA produces much better transfection performances than PGEA-containing assembly units. In addition, the codelivery system of CNC @ CB[8] @ PGEA/(pc3.0-MEG3+pc3.0-miR-101) nanocomplexes demonstrates better efficacy in suppressing HCC than CNC @ CB[8] @ PGEA/pc3.0-MEG3 or CNC @ CB[8] @ PGEA/pc3.0-miR-101 nanocomplexes alone. Such rodlike supramolecular nanoassemblies will provide a promising means to produce efficient delivery vectors of versatile tumor-suppressive nucleic acids. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Isolation and Identification of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria from Cucumber Rhizosphere and Their Effect on Plant Growth Promotion and Disease Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Shaikhul; Akanda, Abdul M; Prova, Ananya; Islam, Md T; Hossain, Md M

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are the rhizosphere bacteria that may be utilized to augment plant growth and suppress plant diseases. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize PGPR indigenous to cucumber rhizosphere in Bangladesh, and to evaluate their ability to suppress Phytophthora crown rot in cucumber. A total of 66 isolates were isolated, out of which 10 (PPB1, PPB2, PPB3, PPB4, PPB5, PPB8, PPB9, PPB10, PPB11, and PPB12) were selected based on their in vitro plant growth promoting attributes and antagonism of phytopathogens. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences identified these isolates as new strains of Pseudomonas stutzeri, Bacillus subtilis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The selected isolates produced high levels (26.78-51.28 μg mL(-1)) of indole-3-acetic acid, while significant acetylene reduction activities (1.79-4.9 μmole C2H4 mg(-1) protein h(-1)) were observed in eight isolates. Cucumber plants grown from seeds that were treated with these PGPR strains displayed significantly higher levels of germination, seedling vigour, growth, and N content in root and shoot tissue compared to non-treated control plants. All selected isolates were able to successfully colonize the cucumber roots. Moreover, treating cucumber seeds with these isolates significantly suppressed Phytophthora crown rot caused by Phytophthora capsici, and characteristic morphological alterations in P. capsici hyphae that grew toward PGPR colonies were observed. Since these PGPR inoculants exhibited multiple traits beneficial to the host plants, they may be applied in the development of new, safe, and effective seed treatments as an alternative to chemical fungicides.

  11. Treatment Combining X-Irradiation and a Ribonucleoside Anticancer Drug, TAS106, Effectively Suppresses the Growth of Tumor Cells Transplanted in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Hironobu; Inanami, Osamu; Asanuma, Taketoshi; Iizuka, Daisuke; Nakajima, Takayuki; Kon, Yasuhiro; Matsuda, Akira; Kuwabara, Mikinori

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the in vivo antitumor efficacy of X-irradiation combined with administration of a ribonucleoside anticancer drug, 1-(3-C-ethynyl-β-D-ribo-pentofuranosyl)cytosine (TAS106, ECyd), to tumor cell-transplanted mice. Methods and Materials: Colon26 murine rectum adenocarcinoma cells and MKN45 human gastric adenocarcinoma cells were inoculated into the footpad in BALB/c mice and severe combined immunodeficient mice, respectively. They were treated with a relatively low dose of X-irradiation (2 Gy) and low amounts of TAS106 (0.1 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg). The tumor growth was monitored by measuring the tumor volume from Day 5 to Day 16 for Colon26 and from Day 7 to Day 20 for MKN45. Histologic analyses for proliferative and apoptotic cells in the tumors were performed using Ki-67 immunohistochemical and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling staining. The expression of survivin, a key molecule related to tumor survival, was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis. Results: When X-irradiation and TAS106 treatment were combined, significant inhibition of tumor growth was observed in both types of tumors compared with mice treated with X-irradiation or TAS106 alone. Marked inhibition of tumor growth was observed in half of the mice that received the combined treatment three times at 2-day intervals. Parallel to these phenomena, the suppression of survivin expression and appearance of Ki-67-negative and apoptotic cells were observed. Conclusions: X-irradiation and TAS106 effectively suppress tumor growth in mice. The inhibition of survivin expression by TAS106 is thought to mainly contribute to the suppression of the tumor growth

  12. Suppressive immunoregulatory effects of three antidepressants via inhibition of the nuclear factor-κB activation assessed using primary macrophages of carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wenhui; Wu, Minghong; Liu, Shuai; Chen, Bei; Pan, Chenyuan; Yang, Ming; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2017-05-01

    Antidepressants, having been applied for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions for decades, are among the most commonly detected human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. This study evaluated the immunotoxicity of acute exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of amitriptyline, fluoxetine and mianserin using an in vitro primary macrophage model isolated from red common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and also explored their potential mechanisms of action. A potential suppressive immunoregulatory effect of antidepressant exposure was suggested based on the observed suppressive effects on oxidative stress parameters, bactericidal activity, NO production, and NO synthase activity, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression, and a significant stimulatory effect on anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 and interferon cytokine gene expression and ATPase activities in macrophages after 6h-exposure to three individual antidepressants and a combination thereof. Notably, we also found these effects were significantly associated with a corresponding decrease in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity after antidepressants exposure, and the NF-κB antagonist significantly restrained the effects of antidepressants on gene expression of cytokines, indicating that antidepressants could alter the response of various immune-associated components via the inhibition of NF-κB. Moreover, time-dependent lethal concentrations of three antidepressants on primary macrophages were firstly determined at mg/L levels, and the synergetic effects of antidepressant mixtures were suggested and in particular, for some parameters including total antioxidant capacity and cytokine genes expression, they could be significantly affected by antidepressants exposure at concentrations as low as 10ng/L, which together thereby revealed the potential risk of antidepressants to aquatic life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident on a Mark I Boiling Water Reactor pressure-suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, J.H.; McCauley, E.W.

    1977-01-01

    A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a boiling-water-reactor (BWR) power plant has never occurred. However, because this type of accident could be particularly severe, it is used as a principal theoretical basis for design. A series of consistent, versatile, and accurate air-water tests that simulate LOCA conditions has been completed on a 1 / 5 -scale Mark I BWR pressure-suppression system. Results from these tests are used to quantify the vertical-loading function and to study the associated fluid dynamics phenomena. Detailed histories of vertical loads on the wetwell are shown. In particular, variation of hydrodynamic-generated vertical loads with changes in drywell-pressurization rate, downcomer submergence, and the vent-line loss coefficient are established. Initial drywell overpressure, which partially preclears the downcomers of water, substantially reduces the peak vertical loads. Scaling relationships, developed from dimensional analysis and verified by bench-top experiments, allow the 1 / 5 -scale results to be applied to a full-scale BWR power plant. This analysis leads to dimensionless groupings that are invariant. These groupings show that, if water is used as the working fluid, the magnitude of the forces in a scaled facility is reduced by the cube of the scale factor and occurs in a time reduced by the square root of the scale factor

  14. Proteomic analysis of the effect of acupuncture on the suppression of kainic Acid-induced neuronal destruction in mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Soo; Jun, Ye Lee; Kwon, Sunoh; Park, Hi-Joon; Hahm, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Seung-Tae

    2013-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA) is a neurotoxin that induces epileptic seizures and excitotoxicity in the hippocampus. Acupuncture is frequently used as an alternative therapy for epilepsy, and it has been known to protect hippocampal neurons against KA toxicity. Using proteomic analysis, we investigated protein expression changes in the hippocampus following acupuncture stimulation at HT8. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice (20-25 g) received acupuncture treatment at HT8 acupoint bilaterally once a day for 3 days and were then administered KA (30 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Twenty-four hours after KA injection, neuronal survival and astrocyte activation in the hippocampus were measured, and protein expression in the hippocampus was identified by 2-dimensional electrophoresis. Acupuncture stimulation at HT8 suppressed KA-induced neuronal death and astrocyte activation in the hippocampus. We identified the changes in the expression of 11 proteins by KA or acupuncture stimulation at HT8 and found that acupuncture stimulation at HT8 normalized the expression of dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 and upregulated the expression of transcriptional activator protein pur-alpha, serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 5, and T-complex protein 1 subunit alpha, which are related to the survival of neurons. These results suggest that acupuncture stimulation at HT8 changes protein expression profiles in the hippocampus in favor of neuronal survival in KA-treated mice.

  15. Proteomic Analysis of the Effect of Acupuncture on the Suppression of Kainic Acid-Induced Neuronal Destruction in Mouse Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hwan Bae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kainic acid (KA is a neurotoxin that induces epileptic seizures and excitotoxicity in the hippocampus. Acupuncture is frequently used as an alternative therapy for epilepsy, and it has been known to protect hippocampal neurons against KA toxicity. Using proteomic analysis, we investigated protein expression changes in the hippocampus following acupuncture stimulation at HT8. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice (20–25 g received acupuncture treatment at HT8 acupoint bilaterally once a day for 3 days and were then administered KA (30 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Twenty-four hours after KA injection, neuronal survival and astrocyte activation in the hippocampus were measured, and protein expression in the hippocampus was identified by 2-dimensional electrophoresis. Acupuncture stimulation at HT8 suppressed KA-induced neuronal death and astrocyte activation in the hippocampus. We identified the changes in the expression of 11 proteins by KA or acupuncture stimulation at HT8 and found that acupuncture stimulation at HT8 normalized the expression of dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 and upregulated the expression of transcriptional activator protein pur-alpha, serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 5, and T-complex protein 1 subunit alpha, which are related to the survival of neurons. These results suggest that acupuncture stimulation at HT8 changes protein expression profiles in the hippocampus in favor of neuronal survival in KA-treated mice.

  16. Extracellular Vesicles from a Helminth Parasite Suppress Macrophage Activation and Constitute an Effective Vaccine for Protective Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Coakley

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that many parasites release extracellular vesicles (EVs, yet little is known about the specific interactions of EVs with immune cells or their functions during infection. We show that EVs secreted by the gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus are internalized by macrophages and modulate their activation. EV internalization causes downregulation of type 1 and type 2 immune-response-associated molecules (IL-6 and TNF, and Ym1 and RELMα and inhibits expression of the IL-33 receptor subunit ST2. Co-incubation with EV antibodies abrogated suppression of alternative activation and was associated with increased co-localization of the EVs with lysosomes. Furthermore, mice vaccinated with EV-alum generated protective immunity against larval challenge, highlighting an important role in vivo. In contrast, ST2-deficient mice are highly susceptible to infection, and they are unable to clear parasites following EV vaccination. Hence, macrophage activation and the IL-33 pathway are targeted by H. polygyrus EVs, while neutralization of EV function facilitates parasite expulsion.

  17. Amyloid β42 peptide is toxic to non-neural cells in Drosophila yielding a characteristic metabolite profile and the effect can be suppressed by PI3K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Arnés

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The human Aβ42 peptide is associated with Alzheimer's disease through its deleterious effects in neurons. Expressing the human peptide in adult Drosophila in a tissue- and time-controlled manner, we show that Aβ42 is also toxic in non-neural cells, neurosecretory and epithelial cell types in particular. This form of toxicity includes the aberrant signaling by Wingless morphogen leading to the eventual activation of Caspase 3. Preventing Caspase 3 activation by means of p53 keeps epithelial cells from elimination but maintains the Aβ42 toxicity yielding more severe deleterious effects to the organism. Metabolic profiling by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR of adult flies at selected ages post Aβ42 expression onset reveals characteristic changes in metabolites as early markers of the pathological process. All morphological and most metabolic features of Aβ42 toxicity can be suppressed by the joint overexpression of PI3K.

  18. Inhibitory Effects of Palmultang on Inflammatory Mediator Production Related to Suppression of NF-κB and MAPK Pathways and Induction of HO-1 Expression in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Chang Oh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Palmultang (PM is an herbal decoction that has been used to treat anorexia, anemia, general prostration, and weakness due to chronic illness since medieval times in Korea, China, and Japan. The present study focused on the inhibitory effects of PM on the production of inflammatory factors and on the activation of mechanisms in murine macrophages. PM suppressed the expression of nitric oxide (NO, inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory proteins by inhibiting nuclear factor (NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways and by inducing heme oxygenase (HO-1 expression. Collectively, our results explain the anti-inflammatory effect and inhibitory mechanism of PM in macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS.

  19. Inhibitory effects of alpha-zearalenol on angiotensin II-induced integrin beta3 mRNA via suppression of nuclear factor-kappaB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su-Min; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Qiu, Jin; Si, Qin; Guo, Heng-Yi; Sun, Ren-Yu; Wu, Qi-Xia

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the effect of alpha-zearalenol on angiotensin II-induced beta3 integrin mRNA expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The mRNA level in integrin beta3 was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Endothelial NF-kappaB activity was determined by the luciferase activity assay of plasmid NF-kappaB-LUC. The angiotensin II-induced beta3 integrin mRNA expression was inhibited by alpha-zearalenol and 17beta-estradiol (10 nmol/L -1 micromol/L), but not influenced by ICI 182, 780, a pure competitive antagonist for estrogen receptor or a nitric oxide inhibitor Nomega-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride. Alpha-zearalenol and 17beta-estradiol suppressed the angiotensin II-induced activation of NF-kappaB in endothelial cells. Alpha-zearalenol inhibits angiotensin II-induced integrin beta3 mRNA expression by suppressing NF-kappaB activation in endothelial cells.

  20. Suppressive effects of anti-allergic agent suplatast tosilate (IPD-1151T on the expression of co-stimulatory molecules on mouse splenocytes in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatsugu Kurokawa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of IPD-1151T on the expression of costimulatory molecules, CD40, CD80 and CD86, were investigated in vivo using mice with allergic disorders. BALB/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally with two doses of dinitrophenylated ovalbumin (DNP-OVA at 1-week intervals. These mice then were treated intraperitoneally with 100μg/kg of IPD1151T once a day for 14 days, starting 7 days after the first immunization. On day 21, some mice were challenged intraperitoneally with DNP-OVA and the other mice were not challenged. All mice were autopsied on day 22 and assayed for immunoglobulin E, interleuken (IL-4 and IL-5 productions following DNP-OVA immunization. The intraperitoneal treatment with IPD-1151T strongly suppressed immunoglobulin E contents in serum, which were enhanced by DNA-OVA immunization. IPD-1151T also caused a decrease in both IL-4 and IL-5 levels in splenic lymphocytes. We next examined the influence of IPD1151T on co-stimulatory molecule expression on splenic lymphocytes. IPD-1151T caused suppression of CD40 and CD86 expression; however, the treatments did not affect CD80 expression.

  1. Dietary Karaya Saponin and Rhodobacter capsulatus Exert Hypocholesterolemic Effects by Suppression of Hepatic Cholesterol Synthesis and Promotion of Bile Acid Synthesis in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Afrose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to elucidate the mechanism underlying the hypolipidemic action of karaya saponin or Rhodobacter (R. capsulatus. A total of 40 laying hens (20-week-old were assigned into four dietary treatment groups and fed a basal diet (as a control or basal diets supplemented with either karaya saponin, R. capsulatus, or both for 60 days. The level of serum low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the serum, liver, and egg yolk were reduced by all the supplementations (<.05. Liver bile acid concentration and fecal concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and bile acid were simultaneously increased by the supplementation of karaya saponin, R. capsulatus, and the combination of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus (<.05. The supplementation of karaya saponin, R. capsulatus, and the combination of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus suppressed the incorporation of 14C from 1-14C-palmitic acid into the fractions of total lipids, phospholipids, triacylglycerol, and cholesterol in the liver in vitro (<.05. These findings suggest that the hypocholesterolemic effects of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus are caused by the suppression of the cholesterol synthesis and the promotion of cholesterol catabolism in the liver.

  2. MiR-218-targeting-Bmi-1 mediates the suppressive effect of 1,6,7-trihydroxyxanthone on liver cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei-Ming; Tang, Li-Peng; Zhu, Xiao; Lu, Ying-Fei; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Lee, Wayne Yuk-Wai; Wang, Hua; Yu, Yang; Liang, Wei-Cheng; Ko, Chun-Hay; Xu, Hong-Xi; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Zhang, Jin-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is recently emerged as anti-cancer therapy or adjuvant with reduced side-effects and improved quality of life. In the present study, an active ingredient, 1,6,7-trihydroxyxanthone (THA), derived from Goodyera oblongifolia was found to strongly suppress cell growth and induce apoptosis in liver cancer cells. MicroRNAs are a group of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional levels. Our results demonstrated that miR-218 was up-regulated and oncogene Bmi-1 was down-regulated by THA treatment. Further investigation showed that THA-induced-miR-218 up-regulation could lead to activation of tumor suppressor P16(Ink4a) and P14(ARF), the main down-stream targets of Bmi-1. In conclusion, THA might be a potential anti-cancer drug candidate, at least in part, through the activation of miR-218 and suppression of Bmi-1 expression.

  3. Effects of linezolid on suppressing in vivo production of staphylococcal toxins and improving survival outcomes in a rabbit model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Binh An; Afasizheva, Anna; Le, Hoan N; Kajikawa, Osamu; Matute-Bello, Gustavo; Tkaczyk, Christine; Sellman, Bret; Badiou, Cedric; Lina, Gerard; Chambers, Henry F

    2013-07-01

     Linezolid is recommended for treatment of pneumonia and other invasive infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The premise underlying this recommendation is that linezolid inhibits in vivo production of potent staphylococcal exotoxins, including Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and α-hemolysin (Hla), although supporting evidence is lacking.  A rabbit model of necrotizing pneumonia using MRSA clone USA300 was used to compare therapeutic effects of linezolid (50 mg/kg 3 times/day) and vancomycin (30 mg/kg 2 times/day) administered 1.5, 4, and 9 hours after infection on host survival outcomes and in vivo bacterial toxin production.  Mortality rates were 100% for untreated rabbits and 83%-100% for vancomycin-treated rabbits. In contrast, mortality rates were 25%, 50%, and 100% for rabbits treated with linezolid 1.5, 4, and 9 hours after infection, respectively. Compared with untreated and vancomycin-treated rabbits, improved survival of rabbits treated 1.5 hours after infection with linezolid was associated with a significant decrease in bacterial counts, suppressed bacterial production of PVL and Hla, and reduced production of the neutrophil-chemoattractant interleukin 8 in the lungs.  Across the study interval, only early treatment with linezolid resulted in significant suppression of exotoxin synthesis and improved survival outcomes in a rabbit model of MRSA necrotizing pneumonia.

  4. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Funahashi, Toshihiro.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a structure which permits the absorption of shocks and vibratory load produced on the floor of a pressure suppression chamber due to nitrogen gas or the like discharged into pool water in the pressure suppression chamber at the time of a loss-of-coolant accident. Constitution: A pressure suppression chamber accommodating pool water is comprised of a bottom wall and side walls constructed of concrete on the inner side of a liner. By providing concrete on the bottom surface and side wall surfaces of a pressure suppression chamber, it is possible to prevent non-condensing gas and steam exhausted from the vent duct and exhaust duct of a main vapor escapement safety valve exhaust duct from exerting impact forces and vibratory forces upon the bottom and side surfaces of the pressure suppression chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  5. Maternal effects and population regulation: maternal density-induced reproduction suppression impairs offspring capacity in response to immediate environment in root voles Microtus oeconomus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Jiang-Hui; Du, Shou-Yang; Wu, Yan; Cao, Yi-Fan; Nie, Xu-Heng; He, Hui; You, Zhi-Bing

    2015-03-01

    FCM elevations, reproduction suppression and body mass decrease at sexual maturity in offspring. The FCM elevations and reproduction suppression were independent of offspring population density and correlated with decreased offspring quality. These findings indicate that intrinsic state alterations induced by maternal stress impair offspring capacity in response to immediate environment, and these alterations are likely mediated by maternal stress system. The maladaptive reproduction suppression seen in HL group suggests intrinsic population density as one of ecological factors generating delayed density-dependent effects. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  6. Inhibitory effect of 1,2,4,5-tetramethoxybenzene on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation through suppression of IκB kinase complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Je, In-Gyu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyun Gyu [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hui-Hun; Lee, Soyoung; Choi, Jin Kyeong [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Duk-Sil [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, CHA Gumi Medical Center, CHA University, Gumi 730-040 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Taeg Kyu [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Tae-Yong [College of Pharmacy, Woosuk University, Jeonju 565-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Pil-Hoon [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Khang, Dongwoo, E-mail: dkhang@gachon.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun, E-mail: shkim72@knu.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-01

    As the importance of allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis and allergic asthma, research on potential drug candidates becomes more necessary. Mast cells play an important role as initiators of allergic responses through the release of histamine; therefore, they should be the target of pharmaceutical development for the management of allergic inflammation. In our previous study, anti-allergic effect of extracts of Amomum xanthioides was demonstrated. To further investigate improved candidates, 1,2,4,5-tetramethoxybenzene (TMB) was isolated from methanol extracts of A. xanthioides. TMB dose-dependently attenuated the degranulation of mast cells without cytotoxicity by inhibiting calcium influx. TMB decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-4 at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Increased expression of these cytokines was caused by translocation of nuclear factor-κB into the nucleus, and it was hindered by suppressing activation of IκB kinase complex. To confirm the effect of TMB in vivo, the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced active systemic anaphylaxis (ASA) and IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) models were used. In the ASA model, hypothermia was decreased by oral administration of TMB, which attenuated serum histamine, OVA-specific IgE, and IL-4 levels. Increased pigmentation of Evans blue was reduced by TMB in a dose-dependent manner in the PCA model. Our results suggest that TMB is a possible therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory diseases that acts through the inhibition of mast cell degranulation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. - Highlights: • TMB reduced the degranulation of mast cells. • TMB inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. • TMB suppressed both active and passive anaphylaxis. • Anti-allergic inflammatory effects of TMB might be due to the blocking IKK complex. • TMB might be a candidate for the treatment of

  7. Antidepressant effects of exercise are produced via suppression of hypocretin/orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone in the basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Kyung; Kim, Ji-Eun; Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Jung-Eun; Choi, Juli; Kim, Hannah; Lee, Eun-Hwa; Kim, Seung-Woo; Lee, Ja-Kyeong; Kang, Hyun-Sik; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2015-07-01

    Physical exercise is considered beneficial in the treatment of depression, but the underlying mechanism is not clearly understood. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism regulating antidepressant effects of exercise by focusing on the role of the amygdala using a well-defined animal model of depression. C57BL/6 mice treated with repeated restraint showed depression-like behaviors, which was counteracted by post-stress treatment with physical exercise. The two neuropeptides hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt/Orx) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) were transcriptionally upregulated in the BLA after repeated stress, and their enhanced expression was downregulated by treatment with exercise, mirroring stress-induced depression-like behaviors and their reversal by exercise. Stereotaxic injection of either Hcrt/Orx peptide or MCH peptide within the BLA commonly increased phospho-CaMKIIα level and produced depression-like behaviors, mimicking the neural states in the BLA of mice subjected to repeated stress. In contrast, siRNA-mediated suppression of Hcrt/Orx or MCH in the BLA blocked stress-induced depression-like behaviors. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated inhibition of CaMKIIα in the BLA also counteracted stress-induced depression-like behaviors. Local injection of Hcrt/Orx peptide or MCH peptide within the BLA in exercise-treated animals blocked antidepressant-like effects of exercise. Together these results suggest that exercise produces antidepressant effects via suppression of Hcrt/Orx and MCH neural systems in the BLA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tangible User Interface and Mu Rhythm Suppression: The Effect of User Interface on the Brain Activity in Its Operator and Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Isoda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The intuitiveness of tangible user interface (TUI is not only for its operator. It is quite possible that this type of user interface (UI can also have an effect on the experience and learning of observers who are just watching the operator using it. To understand the possible effect of TUI, the present study focused on the mu rhythm suppression in the sensorimotor area reflecting execution and observation of action, and investigated the brain activity both in its operator and observer. In the observer experiment, the effect of TUI on its observers was demonstrated through the brain activity. Although the effect of the grasping action itself was uncertain, the unpredictability of the result of the action seemed to have some effect on the mirror neuron system (MNS-related brain activity. In the operator experiment, in spite of the same grasping action, the brain activity was activated in the sensorimotor area when UI functions were included (TUI. Such activation of the brain activity was not found with a graphical user interface (GUI that has UI functions without grasping action. These results suggest that the MNS-related brain activity is involved in the effect of TUI, indicating the possibility of UI evaluation based on brain activity.

  9. Dual effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine dependent on NQO1 activity: Suppressive or promotive of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone-induced toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyooka, Tatsushi; Shinmen, Takuya [Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan); Aarts, Jac M.M.J.G. [Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Ibuki, Yuko, E-mail: ibuki@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    A typical antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) generally protects cells from oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ), a major quinone in diesel exhaust particles, produces ROS in redox cycling following two-electron reduction by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), which has been considered as a cause of its cyto- and genotoxicity. In this study, we show that NAC unexpectedly augments the toxicity of 9,10-PQ in cells with low NQO1 activity. In four human skin cell lines, the expression and the activity of NQO1 were lower than in human adenocarcinoma cell lines, A549 and MCF7. In the skin cells, the cytotoxicity of 9,10-PQ was significantly enhanced by addition of NAC. The formation of DNA double strand breaks accompanying phosphorylation of histone H2AX, was also remarkably augmented. On the other hand, the cyto- and genotoxicity were suppressed by addition of NAC in the adenocarcinoma cells. Two contrasting experiments: overexpression of NQO1 in CHO-K1 cells which originally expressed low NQO1 levels, and knock‐down of NQO1 in the adenocarcinoma cell line A549 by transfection of RNAi, also showed that NAC suppressed 9,10-PQ-induced toxicity in cell lines expressing high NQO1 activity and enhanced it in cell lines with low NQO1 activity. The results suggested that dual effects of NAC on the cyto- and genotoxicity of 9,10-PQ were dependent on tissue-specific NQO1 activity. -- Highlights: ► NAC augmented the cytotoxicity of 9,10-PQ in skin cell lines. ► 9,10-PQ-induced DSBs accompanying γ-H2AX were also augmented by NAC. ► NAC suppressed the cyto- and genotoxicity of 9,10-PQ in adenocarcinoma cell lines. ► The dual effects of NAC on toxicity of 9,10-PQ were dependent on NQO1 activity.

  10. Thymidine selectively enhances growth suppressive effects of camptothecin/irinotecan in MSI+ cells and tumors containing a mutation of MRE11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Rene; Hansen, Lasse Tengbjerg; Phear, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: DNA synthesis inhibitors and damaging agents are widely used in cancer therapy; however, sensitivity of tumors to such agents is highly variable. The response of tumor cells in culture to these agents is strongly influenced by the status of DNA damage response pathways. Here, we attempt...... is not a direct result of MMR, p53, or p21 status. However MMR-deficient cell lines containing an intronic frameshift mutation of MRE11 show greatest sensitivity to these agents. Increased sensitivity to this combination is also evident in vivo as thymidine enhances irinotecan-induced growth suppression of MMR......-deficient tumors carrying the MRE11 mutation in mouse xenografts. CONCLUSION: Irinotecan-thymidine combinations may be particularly effective when targeted to MSI+ tumors containing this readily detectable MRE11 mutation....

  11. Suppression of structural and magnetotransport transitions in compressed Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO3 thin films resulting in colossal magnetoresistance effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercey, B.; Hervieu, M.; Prellier, W.; Wolfman, J.; Simon, C.; Raveau, B.

    2001-01-01

    Thin films of Pr 0.5 Sr 0.5 MnO 3 have been deposited on [100]-LaAlO 3 using laser ablation. In contrast to the bulk compounds, such films do not exhibit any structural and magnetotransport transitions versus temperature; more particularly the A-type antiferromagnetic phase with the Fmmm structure which exists in the bulk below T N =135K is suppressed, and the film is an insulator in the absence of a magnetic field. However a colossal magnetoresistance effect is observed, with resistance ratios much larger than in the bulk. These differences with respect to the bulk, are explained by the presence of substrate-induced strains. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  12. Nanoscale fabrication by intrinsic suppression of proximity-electron exposures and general considerations for easy and effective top–down fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolf, H; Inderbitzin, K; Gómez, L B; Engel, A; Schilling, A

    2010-01-01

    We present results of a planar process development based on the combination of electron-beam lithography and dry etching for fabricating high-quality superconducting photosensitive structures in the sub-100 nm regime. The devices were fabricated by the application of an intrinsic proximity-effect suppression procedure which makes the need for an elaborated correction algorithm redundant for planar design layouts which are orders of magnitude smaller than the backscattering length. In addition, we discuss the necessary considerations for extending the fabrication spatial scale of optical contact-lithography with a mercury arc-discharge photon source down to the order of the exposure photon's wavelength (sub-μm), thereby minimizing the writing time on the electron-beam lithograph. Finally we developed a unique and novel technique for controlling the undercut during a planar lift-off fabrication procedure without cleaving the wafer

  13. Preventive effect of Ibrolipim on suppressing lipid accumulation and increasing lipoprotein lipase in the kidneys of diet-induced diabetic minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of renal lipoprotein lipase (LPL per se in kidney diseases is still controversial and obscure. The purpose of this study was to observe the preventive effects of Ibrolipim, a LPL activator, on lipid accumulation and LPL expression in the kidneys of minipigs fed a high-sucrose and high-fat diet (HSFD. Methods Male Chinese Bama minipigs were fed a control diet or HSFD with or without 0.1 g/kg/day Ibrolipim for 5 months. Body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, lipids, LPL activity, and urinary microalbumin were measured. Renal tissue was obtained for detecting LPL activity and contents of triglyceride and cholesterol, observing the renal lipid accumulation by Oil Red O staining, and examining the mRNA and protein expression of LPL by real time PCR, Western Blot and immunohistochemistry. Results Feeding HSFD to minipigs caused weight gain, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia and microalbuminuria. HSFD increased plasma LPL activity while it decreased the mRNA and protein expression and activity of LPL in the kidney. The increases in renal triglyceride and cholesterol contents were associated with the decrease in renal LPL activity of HSFD-fed minipigs. In contrast, supplementing Ibrolipim into HSFD lowered body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride and urinary albumin concentrations while it increased plasma total cholesterol and HDL-C. Ibrolipim suppressed the renal accumulation of triglyceride and cholesterol, and stimulated the diet-induced down-regulation of LPL expression and activity in the kidney. Conclusions Ibrolipim exerts renoprotective and hypolipidemic effects via the increase in renal LPL activity and expression, and thus the increased expression and activity of renal LPL play a vital role in suppressing renal lipid accumulation and ameliorating proteinuria in diet-induced diabetic minipigs.

  14. Suppressive Effect on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Proinflammatory Mediators by Citrus aurantium L. in Macrophage RAW 264.7 Cells via NF-κB Signal Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Rim Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus fruits have been used as an edible fruit and a traditional medicine since ancient times. In particular, the peels of immature citrus fruits are used widely in traditional herbal medicine in Korea, as they are believed to contain bioactive components exerting anti-inflammatory activity. This study examined whether the crude methanol extract of Citrus aurantium L. (CME has a suppressive effect on inducible enzymes and proinflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway in LPS-stimulated macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The cells were pretreated with the indicated concentrations of CME (5, 10, 20, and 50 μg/mL and then treated with LPS (1 μg/mL. The results showed that CME (10, 20, and 50 μg/mL inhibited the LPS- (1 μg/mL induced mRNA and protein expression of iNOS in macrophage Raw 264.7 cells. In addition, the expression of COX-2 was inhibited at the mRNA and protein levels by CME in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, were markedly reduced by CME (10, 20, and 50 μg/mL. Moreover, CME clearly suppressed the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunits, which was correlated with its inhibitory effect on I-κB phosphorylation. These results suggest that CME has anti-inflammatory properties by modulating the expression of COX-2, iNOS, and proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells via the NF-κB pathway.

  15. In vitro effect of. Delta. sup 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol to stimulate somatostatin release and block that of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone by suppression of the release of prostaglandin E sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettori, V.; Aguila, M.C.; McCann, S.M. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (United States)); Gimeno, M.F.; Franchi, A.M. (Centro de Estudios Farmacologicos y de Principios Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1990-12-01

    Previous in vivo studies have shown that {Delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal active ingredient in marijuana, can suppress both luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) secretion after its injection into the third ventricle of conscious male rats. The present studies were deigned to determine the mechanism of these effects. Various doses of THC were incubated with either stalk median eminence fragments (MEs) or mediobasal hypothalamic (MBH) fragments in vitro. Although THC (10 nM) did not alter basal release of LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) from MEs in vitro, it completely blocked the stimulatory action of dopamine or nonrepinephrine on LHRH release. The effective doses to block LHRH release were associated with a blockade of synthesis and release of prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) from MBH in vitro. In contrast to the suppressive effect of THC on LHRH release, somatostatin release from MEs was enhanced in a dose-related manner with a minimal effective dose of 1 nM. Since PGE{sub 2} suppresses somatostatin release, this enhancement may also be related to the suppressive effect of THC on PGE{sub 2} synthesis and release. The authors speculate that these actions are mediated by the recently discovered THC receptors in the tissue. The results indicate that the suppressive effect of THC on LH release is mediated by a blockade of LHRH release, whereas the suppressive effect of the compound on growth hormone release is mediated, at least in part, by a stimulation of somatostatin release.

  16. Menstrual suppression for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Anna Lea; Hillard, Paula J Adams

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent literature and emerging data describing clinical situations in which menstrual suppression may improve symptoms and quality of life for adolescents. A variety of conditions occurring frequently in adolescents and young adults, including heavy menstrual bleeding, and dysmenorrhea as well as gynecologic conditions such as endometriosis and pelvic pain, can safely be improved or alleviated with appropriate menstrual management. Recent publications have highlighted the efficacy and benefit of extended cycle or continuous combined oral contraceptives, the levonorgestrel intrauterine device, and progestin therapies for a variety of medical conditions. This review places menstrual suppression in an historical context, summarizes methods of hormonal therapy that can suppress menses, and reviews clinical conditions for which menstrual suppression may be helpful.

  17. Cryogenic Acoustic Suppression Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A proof-of-concept method utilizing a cryogenic fluid for acoustic suppression in rocket engine testing environments will be demonstrated. It is hypothesized that...

  18. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  19. Understanding effects of fire suppression, fuels treatment, and wildfire on bird communities in the Klamath-Siskiyou ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Alexander; C. John Ralph; Bill Hogoboom; Nathaniel E. Seavy; Stewart Janes

    2004-01-01

    Although fire management is increasingly recognized as an important component of conservation in Klamath-Siskiyou ecosystems, empirical evidence on the ecological effects of fire in this region is limited. Here we describe a conceptual model as a framework for understanding the effects of fire and fire management on bird abundance. This model identifies three major...

  20. Direct effect of chronic hypoxia in suppressing large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel activity in ovine uterine arteries via increasing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang-Qun; Huang, Xiaohui; Xiao, Daliao; Zhang, Lubo

    2016-01-15

    Chronic hypoxia has a direct effect in down-regulating the BKCa channel β1 subunit and inhibiting the BKCa channel activity in uterine arteries of pregnant sheep. Oxidative stress plays a causal role in hypoxia-mediated suppression of BKCa channel function. The steroid hormone-induced effect on BKCa channels is a target of hypoxia-mediated oxidative stress. Inhibition of oxidative stress ameliorates the adverse effect of hypoxia both ex vivo and in vivo in pregnant sheep exposed to long-term high-altitude hypoxia. Our findings provide novel evidence of a causative role of oxidative stress in hypoxia-mediated inhibition of the BKCa channel activity in uterine arteries and new insights in understanding and alleviating pregnancy complications associated with gestational hypoxia such as pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Uterine arteries of pregnant sheep acclimatized to long-term high-altitude hypoxia were associated with a decrease in large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BKCa) channel activity. The present study tested the hypothesis that prolonged hypoxia has a direct effect in suppressing BKCa channel activity by increasing oxidative stress. Uterine arteries were isolated from non-pregnant and near-term (∼142 days) pregnant sheep, and were treated ex vivo with 21.0 or 10.5% O2 for 48 h. The hypoxia treatment significantly increased the production of reactive oxygen species in uterine arteries, which was blocked by N-acetylcysteine. In uterine arteries of pregnant sheep, hypoxia significantly inhibited BKCa channel current density, decreased NS1619-induced relaxations and increased pressure-dependent tone, which were annulled by N-acetylcysteine. In accordance, hypoxia resulted in down-regulation of BKCa channel β1 subunit, which was restored in the presence of N-acetylcysteine. In addition, the N-acetylcysteine treatment significantly increased BKCa channel β1 subunit abundance and BKCa channel current density in uterine arteries from pregnant

  1. Suppression sours sacrifice: emotional and relational costs of suppressing emotions in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impett, Emily A; Kogan, Aleksandr; English, Tammy; John, Oliver; Oveis, Christopher; Gordon, Amie M; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-06-01

    What happens when people suppress their emotions when they sacrifice for a romantic partner? This multimethod study investigates how suppressing emotions during sacrifice shapes affective and relationship outcomes. In Part 1, dating couples came into the laboratory to discuss important romantic relationship sacrifices. Suppressing emotions was associated with emotional costs for the partner discussing his or her sacrifice. In Part 2, couples participated in a 14-day daily experience study. Within-person increases in emotional suppression during daily sacrifice were associated with decreases in emotional well-being and relationship quality as reported by both members of romantic dyads. In Part 3, suppression predicted decreases in relationship satisfaction and increases in thoughts about breaking up with a romantic partner 3 months later. In the first two parts of the study, authenticity mediated the costly effects of suppression. Implications for research on close relationships and emotion regulation are discussed.

  2. The effect of online source type on review attitude through perceived expertise and perceived trustworthiness: a suppression situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study suggests that online source types (typical consumer vs. expert source) can induce differential effects on two dimensions of source credibility - perceived source expertise and perceived source trustworthiness - and, hence, on messages attitudes. This was tested for online product

  3. Anti-proliferative and angio-suppressive effect of Stoechospermum marginatum (C. Agardh) Kutzing extract using various experimental models.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayak, R.C.; Puttananjaiah, S.; Chatterji, A.; Salimath, B.

    Abundant consumption of seaweeds in the diet is epidemiologically linked to the reduction in risk of developing cancer. In larger cases, however, identification of particular seaweeds that are accountable for these effects is still lacking...

  4. Dual effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine dependent on NQO1 activity: suppressive or promotive of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyooka, Tatsushi; Shinmen, Takuya; Aarts, Jac M M J G; Ibuki, Yuko

    2012-11-01

    A typical antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) generally protects cells from oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ), a major quinone in diesel exhaust particles, produces ROS in redox cycling following two-electron reduction by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), which has been considered as a cause of its cyto- and genotoxicity. In this study, we show that NAC unexpectedly augments the toxicity of 9,10-PQ in cells with low NQO1 activity. In four human skin cell lines, the expression and the activity of NQO1 were lower than in human adenocarcinoma cell lines, A549 and MCF7. In the skin cells, the cytotoxicity of 9,10-PQ was significantly enhanced by addition of NAC. The formation of DNA double strand breaks accompanying phosphorylation of histone H2AX, was also remarkably augmented. On the other hand, the cyto- and genotoxicity were suppressed by addition of NAC in the adenocarcinoma cells. Two contrasting experiments: overexpression of NQO1 in CHO-K1 cells which originally expressed low NQO1 levels, and knock-down of NQO1 in the adenocarcinoma cell line A549 by transfection of RNAi, also showed that NAC suppressed 9,10-PQ-induced toxicity in cell lines expressing high NQO1 activity and enhanced it in cell lines with low NQO1 activity. The results suggested that dual effects of NAC on the cyto- and genotoxicity of 9,10-PQ were dependent on tissue-specific NQO1 activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and Acid-suppressive Effects of Esomeprazole in Infants 1-24 Months Old With Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omari, Taher; Davidson, Geoffrey; Bondarov, Patrik; Nauclér, Emma; Nilsson, Catarina; Lundborg, Per

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and acid-suppressive effects of esomeprazole in infants with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In this single-blind, randomized, parallel-group study, 50 infants 1 to 24 months old with symptoms of GERD, and ≥ 5% of time with intraesophageal pH esomeprazole 0.25 mg/kg (n = 26) or 1 mg/kg (n = 24) once daily for 1 week. Intraesophageal and intragastric pH were recorded at 1 week, and blood samples were taken for pharmacokinetic analysis. At baseline, mean percentages of time with intragastric pH >4 and intraesophageal pH esomeprazole 0.25 mg/kg group and 28.6% and 12.5% in the esomeprazole 1 mg/kg group. After 1 week of treatment, times with intragastric pH >4 were 47.9% and 69.3% in the esomeprazole 0.25 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg groups, respectively (P 5 minutes duration decreased from 6 at baseline to 3 and 2 with esomeprazole 0.25 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg, respectively. The geometric mean AUC0-t of esomeprazole were 0.24 and 1.79 μmol · h/L for the 0.25 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg dosages of esomeprazole, respectively. Both esomeprazole dosages were well tolerated. Oral treatment with esomeprazole 0.25 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg was well tolerated and provided dose-related acid suppression, dose-related exposure to esomeprazole, and decreased esophageal acid exposure in infants 1-24 months old with GERD.

  6. Involvement of serotonergic system in the effect of a metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor antagonist in the novelty-suppressed feeding test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Fukumoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The blockade of metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5 receptor has been reported to exert antidepressant effects in several animal models. We previously reported that both ketamine and an mGlu5 receptor antagonist exerted an effect in a novelty-suppressed feeding (NSF test, and that the effect of ketamine may be mediated through an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA receptor-dependent increase in serotonergic transmission. However, the involvement of the serotonergic system in the effect of mGlu5 receptor antagonists in the NSF test is not well understood. Therefore, we examined the roles of the serotonergic system in the effect of an mGlu5 receptor antagonist, 6-methyl-2-(phenylethynylpyridine hydrochloride (MPEP, in the NSF test in mice. The administration of MPEP significantly shortened the latency to feed, which was not attenuated by the AMPA receptor antagonist, 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX. The effect of MPEP was abolished by the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA. Moreover, the effect of MPEP was blocked by a serotonin (5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist, ritanserin, but not by a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, N-{2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl-1-piperazinyl]ethyl}-N-(2-pyridynyl cyclohexane-carboxamide (WAY100635. These results suggest that the effect of an mGlu5 receptor antagonist may be mediated by the serotonergic system, including the stimulation of the 5-HT2A/2C receptor, in an AMPA receptor-independent manner in the NSF test.

  7. Involvement of serotonergic system in the effect of a metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor antagonist in the novelty-suppressed feeding test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Kenichi; Chaki, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    The blockade of metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor has been reported to exert antidepressant effects in several animal models. We previously reported that both ketamine and an mGlu5 receptor antagonist exerted an effect in a novelty-suppressed feeding (NSF) test, and that the effect of ketamine may be mediated through an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor-dependent increase in serotonergic transmission. However, the involvement of the serotonergic system in the effect of mGlu5 receptor antagonists in the NSF test is not well understood. Therefore, we examined the roles of the serotonergic system in the effect of an mGlu5 receptor antagonist, 6-methyl-2-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride (MPEP), in the NSF test in mice. The administration of MPEP significantly shortened the latency to feed, which was not attenuated by the AMPA receptor antagonist, 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX). The effect of MPEP was abolished by the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA). Moreover, the effect of MPEP was blocked by a serotonin (5-HT)2A/2C receptor antagonist, ritanserin, but not by a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, N-{2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl}-N-(2-pyridynyl) cyclohexane-carboxamide (WAY100635). These results suggest that the effect of an mGlu5 receptor antagonist may be mediated by the serotonergic system, including the stimulation of the 5-HT2A/2C receptor, in an AMPA receptor-independent manner in the NSF test. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Why expressive suppression does not pay? Cognitive costs of negative emotion suppression: The mediating role of subjective tense-arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczygieł Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to contribute to a broader understanding of the cognitive consequences of expressive suppression. Specifically, we examined whether the deteriorating effect of expressive suppression on cognitive functioning is caused by tense arousal enhanced by suppression. Two experiments were performed in order to test this prediction. In both studies we tested the effect of expressive suppression on working memory, as measured with a backwards digit-span task (Study 1, N = 43 and anagram problem-solving task (Study 2, N = 60. In addition, in Study 2 we tested whether expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression. Both studies were conducted in a similar design: Participants watched a film clip which evoked negative emotions (i.e. disgust in Study 1 and a combination of sadness and anxiety in Study 2 under the instruction to suppress those negative emotions or (in the control condition to simply watch the film. The results of these experiments lead to three conclusions. First, the results reveal that expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression and leads to poorer performance on working memory tasks, as measured with a backwards digit-span task and anagram problem-solving task. Second, the results indicate that expressive suppression leads to a significant increase in subjective tense arousal. Third, the results support our prediction that expressive suppression decreases cognitive performance through its effects on subjective tense arousal. The results of the Study 1 show that tense arousal activated during expressive suppression of disgust fully mediates the negative effect of suppression on working memory as measured with a backwards digit-span task. The results of Study 2 reveal that subjective tense arousal elicited while suppressing sadness and anxiety mediates both the effect of suppression on

  9. Hawthorn ethanolic extracts with triterpenoids and flavonoids exert hepatoprotective effects and suppress the hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei-Golmisheh, Ali; Malekinejad, Hassan; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Akbari, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The current study was aimed to determine the bioactive constituents and biological effects of the Crataegus monogyna ethanolic extracts from bark, leaves and berries on hypercholesterolemia. Materials and Methods: Oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, quercetin and lupeol concentrations were quantified by HPLC. Total phenol content and radical scavenging activity of extracts were also measured. The hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective effects of the extracts were examined in hypercholesterolemic rats and compared with orlistat. Results: The highest phenol content, oleanolic acid, quercetin and lupeol levels and free radical scavenging potency were found in the bark extract, and the highest ursolic acid level was found in the berries extract. Orlistat and extracts significantly (PHawthorn’s extracts protected from hepatic thiol depletion and improved the lipid profile and hepatic damages. Conclusion: Data suggested that hawthorn’s extracts are able to protect from hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress and hepatic injuries. Moreover, the hypocholesterolemic effect of extracts was found comparable to orlistat. PMID:26361538

  10. Exogenous Nitric Oxide Suppresses in Vivo X-ray-Induced Targeted and Non-Targeted Effects in Zebrafish Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Y. Kong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper studied the X-ray-induced targeted effect in irradiated zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio, as well as a non-targeted effect in bystander naïve embryos partnered with irradiated embryos, and examined the influence of exogenous nitric oxide (NO on these targeted and non-targeted effects. The exogenous NO was generated using an NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP. The targeted and non-targeted effects, as well as the toxicity of the SNAP, were assessed using the number of apoptotic events in the zebrafish embryos at 24 h post fertilization (hpf revealed through acridine orange (AO staining. SNAP with concentrations of 20 and 100 µM were first confirmed to have no significant toxicity on zebrafish embryos. The targeted effect was mitigated in zebrafish embryos if they were pretreated with 100 µM SNAP prior to irradiation with an X-ray dose of 75 mGy but was not alleviated in zebrafish embryos if they were pretreated with 20 µM SNAP. On the other hand, the non-targeted effect was eliminated in the bystander naïve zebrafish embryos if they were pretreated with 20 or 100 µM SNAP prior to partnering with zebrafish embryos having been subjected to irradiation with an X-ray dose of 75 mGy. These findings revealed the importance of NO in the protection against damages induced by ionizing radiations or by radiation-induced bystander signals, and could have important impacts on development of advanced cancer treatment strategies.

  11. A comparison of the effect of certain inorganic salts on suppression acute skin irritation by human biometric assay: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayedali Fatemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strontium, zinc, and potassium salts have been demonstrated to inhibit irritation and inflammation when applied topically. Particularly, strontium chloride (SC and potassium nitrate (KN are reported to reduce skin and tooth sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to compare the anti-irritant effects of four inorganic salts and assign the ingredient which can suppress skin irritation due to chemical or environmental exposure, more effectively. We compared the anti-inflammatory effects of SC, strontium nitrate (SN, KN, and zinc chloride (ZC. Materials and Methods: This double-blind trial was conducted on 32 healthy volunteers with sensitive skin. Irritation was induced by 24 h exposure with 1.0% sodium lauryl sulfate on arms.. Treatments were applied by an ointment of SN, SC hexahydrate, KN, and ZC and their 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/v concentrations were prepared. The dosage was twice daily for 6 days to the irritated areas. Skin reactions were evaluated instrumentally. Results: SC had a beneficial effect that was significant overall. All other treatments exert a protective effect in skin barrier function but not significantly. With the exception of ZC, all test substances improved skin hydration but the effect of SC was significant. In respect of colorimetric assessment, all treatments, excluding ZC, reduced erythema significantly compared with an untreated control 7 days after treatment start. There was no support for a dose-response effect. Conclusion: Analysis of the biometric measurements revealed that the strontium salts are best, not treating is worst, and there is little difference between the other treatments. Hence, the skin care products containing SC and SN may reduce the signs and symptoms of irritant contact dermatitis.

  12. Effects of minimal exposures to atmospheric pressure plasma on the activity of Salmonella Typhimurium: Deactivation of bacterial motility and suppression of host-cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Sung; Kim, Kijung; Han, Je-Hyun; Gweon, Bomi; Ko, Ung Hyun; Yoo, Suk Jae; Choe, Wonho; Shin, Jennifer H

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) has been shown effective in sterilization by reducing the number of viable microbes during surface cleaning, food processing, or human tissue treatment. For safe conduct, the majority of previous research focused on complete abolition of microbes, which may require severe treatments. Our aim is to investigate the minimal treatment conditions necessary for effective inactivation of bacteria in such a manner that the APP treated bacteria would not be able to harm the host cells. For this, we ought to identify the objective criteria to make the bacteria dysfunctional. We choose the motile properties and the host-cell invasion capability as two measures to quantify the pathogenic state of bacteria. In this paper, we investigated how the APP treatment in a minimal dosage affects the activity of Salmonella Typhimurium. At 100 W and 15 kHz for 20 s, the APP treatment effectively suppressed active "run and tumble" type motility and induced formation of abnormally long structures. With 20 s exposure, the bacterial cells failed to cause pyroptosis in the host cells with >90% survival after 12 h of co-incubation. Our results suggest novel measures to evaluate the functional pathogenic state for identifying safe APP treatment conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1998-01-01

    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  14. Macrobending Loss Measurements of G.657 Fiber with Suppression of Ripple Effect Induced by Whispering Gallery Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunsheng; Wang, Tao; Li, Linyin; Zhang, Xiaoguang

    2016-02-01

    During the macrobending loss performance tests of ITU-T G.657 fiber under small bending radius, the test results show big differencesin many tests for the same test samples and conditions. Research shows that the main reason for the difference is Whispering gallery modes phenomenon in small bending radius [1]. The inappropriate test conditions can affect the accuracy of macrobending loss test results. In the test of product validation and field application, single wavelength light source and optical power meter were often used. How to judge whether there is effect existing and how to remove the Whispering gallery modes influence in the testing process has become the key to correctly test macrobending loss by light source and optical power meter. This paper introduces the method of eliminating Whispering gallery modes effect during the macrobending test under small bending radius by single wavelength light source and optical power meter.

  15. Effectiveness of a Treatment Switch to Nevirapine plus Tenofovir and Emtricitabine (or Lamivudine) in Adults with HIV-1 Suppressed Viremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llibre, Josep M; Bravo, Isabel; Ornelas, Arelly

    2015-01-01

    follow-up 23 (6.7%) individuals (17 on lamivudine, 6 on emtricitabine; p = 0.034) developed VF and treatment modification due to toxicity occurred in 36 (10.7%). Factors independently associated with VF in a multivariate analysis were: intravenous drug use (HR 1.51; 95%CI 1.12, 2.04), time......BACKGROUND: Switching subjects with persistently undetectable HIV-1 viremia under antiretroviral treatment (ART) to once-daily tenofovir/emtricitabine (or lamivudine) + nevirapine is a cost-effective and well-tolerated strategy. However, the effectiveness of this approach has not been established...... equalled failure. The main endpoint was plasma HIV-RNA HIV-1 RNA treatment due to toxicity. During the whole...

  16. Size Effect Suppresses Brittle Failure in Hollow Cu60Zr40 Metallic Glass Nanolattices Deformed at Cryogenic Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seok-Woo; Jafary-Zadeh, Mehdi; Chen, David Z; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Greer, Julia R

    2015-09-09

    To harness "smaller is more ductile" behavior emergent at nanoscale and to proliferate it onto materials with macroscale dimensions, we produced hollow-tube Cu60Zr40 metallic glass nanolattices with the layer thicknesses of 120, 60, and 20 nm. They exhibit unique transitions in deformation mode with tube-wall thickness and temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations and analytical models were used to interpret these unique transitions in terms of size effects on the plasticity of metallic glasses and elastic instability.

  17. To think or not to think, that is the question: individual differences in suppression and rebound effects in autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Saima; MacLeod, Malcolm D

    2014-01-01

    Two studies explored the effects of forget instructions on autobiographical memory at immediate test and following delays of either 12-13 months, or 3-4 months. Using the Autobiographical Think/No-Think procedure (cf., Noreen & MacLeod, 2013), 24 never-depressed participants (Study 1) first generated 12 positive and 12 negative autobiographical memories and associated cues. Participants were then asked to recall the memory associated with some of the cues (i.e., 'think' condition), or to avoid saying or thinking about the memory associated with other cues (i.e., 'no-think' condition). Participants were then asked to recall the memories associated with all the cues at immediate test and following a delay of 12-13 months. Participants were found to be successful at forgetting both positive and negative autobiographical memories following 'no-think' instructions at immediate test but this forgetting effect did not persist following a 12-13 month delay. This pattern of remembering and forgetting was replicated in a second study (using 27 never-depressed participants) following a 3-4 month delay. Participants who had been less successful at forgetting 'no-think' memories at immediate test, were more likely to show rebound effects for those memories following a delay compared to memories which received neither 'think' nor 'no-think' instructions. Individual differences in inhibitory control and the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions of 'no-think' instructions are considered. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hawthorn ethanolic extracts with triterpenoids and flavonoids exert hepatoprotective effects and suppress the hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei-Golmisheh, Ali; Malekinejad, Hassan; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Akbari, Peyman

    2015-07-01

    The current study was aimed to determine the bioactive constituents and biological effects of the Crataegus monogyna ethanolic extracts from bark, leaves and berries on hypercholesterolemia. Oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, quercetin and lupeol concentrations were quantified by HPLC. Total phenol content and radical scavenging activity of extracts were also measured. The hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective effects of the extracts were examined in hypercholesterolemic rats and compared with orlistat. The highest phenol content, oleanolic acid, quercetin and lupeol levels and free radical scavenging potency were found in the bark extract, and the highest ursolic acid level was found in the berries extract. Orlistat and extracts significantly (P<0.05) lowered the hypercholesterolemia-increased serum level of hepatic enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. Hawthorn's extracts protected from hepatic thiol depletion and improved the lipid profile and hepatic damages. Data suggested that hawthorn's extracts are able to protect from hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress and hepatic injuries. Moreover, the hypocholesterolemic effect of extracts was found comparable to orlistat.

  19. Ameliorating effect of TI-1-162, a hydroxyindenone derivative, against TNBS-induced rat colitis is mediated through suppression of RIP/ASK-1/MAPK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Pallavi; Banskota, Suhrid; Katila, Nikita; Gautam, Jaya; Kadayat, Tara Man; Choi, Dong-Young; Lee, Eung Seok; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2018-05-15

    The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with production of immense pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α. Once generated, TNF-α stimulates production of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and disrupts mucosal barrier by inducing inflamed mucosal epithelial cell death. In the present study, we investigated inhibitory effects of TI-1-162, a hydroxyindenone derivative, against TNF-α-induced and TNBS-induced colon inflammation. TI-1-162 showed inhibitory effect on the TNF-α-induced adhesion of U937 monocytic cells to HT-29 colonic epithelial cells (IC 50 = 0.83 ± 0.12 μM), which is an in vitro model representing the initial step of colitis. In addition, TI-1-162 suppressed TNF-α-stimulated caspase-3 activation and HT-29 cell apoptosis. These in vitro inhibitory activities of TI-1-162 correlated to recovery changes in in vivo colon tissues, such as downregulation of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1) and chemokines (CCL11, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CX3CL1) revealed by gene expression array and Western blot analyses. Such molecular recovery of colon epithelium from TNBS-treated rats corresponded to the recovery in body weight, colon weight/length, and myeloperoxidase level by TI-1-162 (10 and 30 mg/kg/day, orally). In relation to action mechanism, TI-1-162 did not disturb TNF-α binding to its receptor, but suppressed phosphorylation of RIP-1, ASK-1, JNK and p38, and nuclear translocation of NF-kB and AP-1, which corresponded to down regulation of inflammatory cytokines in TNF-α-treated cells (HT-29 and U937) and TNBS-treated rat colon tissues. Taken together, the results indicate that the protective effects of TI-1-162 against colon inflammation and epithelial cell death are associated with its inhibitory action in RIP/ASK-1/MAPK signaling pathway downstream to TNF receptor 1. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Secretoneurin suppresses cardiac hypertrophy through suppression of oxidant stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua-Li; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Xiao; Yuan, Guo-Lin; Zhao, Yi-Lin; Yu, Chao

    2018-03-05

    The neuropeptide secretoneurin (SN) plays protective roles in myocardial ischemia. In the present study, the effect of SN in cardiac hypertrophy was investigated. We observed that, in isoproterenol (ISO) treatment induced cardiac or cardiomyocytes hypertrophy, a marked increase in the expression of endogenous SN in mouse plasma, myocardium and primary-cultured cardiomyocytes occurs. In hypertrophic mice, the heart size, heart weight/body weight (HW/BW) ratio, cardiomyocyte size, and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) expression were significantly higher than those in controls but were effectively suppressed by SN gene therapy. Similarly, the protective effects of SN were also observed in cultured cardiomyocytes following ISO treatment. SN significantly increased the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in parallel with the decrease in reactive oxygen species levels in cardiomyocytes. We observed that SN evoked the activation of all of the AMPK, P38/MAPK and ERK/MAPK pathways in cardiomyocytes, but pretreatment with only AMPK inhibitor (compound C) and ERK1/2/MAPK inhibitor (PD98059) counteracted the protective effects of SN against cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and the suppressive effects of SN on oxidant stress in cardiomyocytes. These results indicated that endogenous SN is induced in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes, and may play a protective role in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy. These results suggest that exogenous SN supplementation protects the cardiac hypertrophy induced by ISO treatment through the activation of AMPK and ERK/MAPK pathways, thus upregulating antioxidants and suppressing oxidative stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Testing tic suppression: comparing the effects of dexmethylphenidate to no medication in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Tourette's disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Gholson J; Samar, Stephanie M; Conelea, Christine; Trujillo, Marcel R; Lipinski, Christina M; Bauer, Christopher C; Brandt, Bryan C; Kemp, Joshua J; Lawrence, Zoe E; Howard, Jonathan; Castellanos, F Xavier; Woods, Douglas; Coffey, Barbara J

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a pilot study testing whether single-dose, immediate-release dexmethylphenidate (dMPH) can facilitate tic suppression in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Tourette's disorder (TD) or chronic tic disorders. The primary hypothesis is that dMPH will improve behaviorally reinforced tic suppression in a standard tic suppression paradigm (TSP). Ten children with ADHD and TD were given dMPH on one visit and no medication on another, using a random crossover design. On both days, following a baseline period, subjects were reinforced for suppressing tics using a standard TSP. Thirteen subjects were enrolled; 10 subjects (mean age 12.7 +/- 2.6; 90% male) completed all study procedures. Relative to the no-medication condition, tics were reduced when children were given a single dose of dMPH. Behavioral reinforcement of tic suppression resulted in lower rates of tics compared to baseline, but dMPH did not enhance this suppression. Preliminary results indicate replication of prior studies of behavioral tic suppression in youths with TD and without ADHD. In addition, our findings indicate tic reduction (and not tic exacerbation) with acute dMPH challenge in children and adolescents with ADHD and TD.

  2. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Fukuda, Akira; Kitaguchi, Hidemi; Shimizu, Toshiaki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To relieve and absorb impact wave vibrations caused by steam and non-condensed gases releasing into the pressure suppression chamber at the time of an accident. Structure: The reactor container is filled with inert gases. A safety valve attached main steam pipe is provided to permit the excessive steam to escape, the valve being communicated with the pressure suppression chamber through an exhaust pipe. In the pressure suppression chamber, a doughnut-like cylindrical outer wall is filled at its bottom with pool water to condense the high temperature vapor released through the exhaust pipe. A head portion of a vent tube which leads the exhaust pipe is positioned at the top, and a down comer and an exhaust vent tube are locked by means of steady rests. At the bottom is mounted a pressure adsorber device which adsorbs a pressure from the pool water. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. High peak current operation of x-ray free-electron laser multiple beam lines by suppressing coherent synchrotron radiation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Toru; Kondo, Chikara; Inagaki, Takahiro; Togawa, Kazuaki; Fukami, Kenji; Nakazawa, Shingo; Hasegawa, Taichi; Morimoto, Osamu; Yoshioka, Masamichi; Maesaka, Hirokazu; Otake, Yuji; Tanaka, Hitoshi

    2018-04-01

    The parallel operation of multiple beam lines is an important means to expand the opportunity of user experiments at x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facilities. At SPring-8 Angstrom free-electron laser (SACLA), the multi-beam-line operation had been tested using two beam lines, but transverse coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects at a dogleg beam transport severely limited the laser performance. To suppress the CSR effects, a new beam optics based on two double bend achromat (DBA) structures was introduced for the dogleg. After the replacement of the beam optics, high peak current bunches of more than 10 kA are now stably transported through the dogleg and the laser pulse output is increased by a factor of 2-3. In the multi-beam-line operation of SACLA, the electron beam parameters, such as the beam energy and peak current, can be adjusted independently for each beam line. Thus the laser output can be optimized and wide spectral tunability is ensured for all beam lines.

  4. Suppressive effect of flavonoids from Korean Citrus aurantium L. on the expression of inflammatory mediators in L6 skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-A; Park, Hyeon-Soo; Kang, Sang-Rim; Park, Kwang-Il; Lee, Do-Hoon; Nagappan, Arulkumar; Shin, Sung-Chul; Lee, Won-Sup; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kim, Gon-Sup

    2012-12-01

    Citrus fruits (Citrus aurantium L.) have long been used as a traditional herbal medicine. The benefits of the flavonoids found in Citrus aurantium L. include anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, anti-viral and anti-bacterial activities, and enhancement of the immune response. The study investigated the effect of the flavonoids isolated from Citrus aurantium L. native to Korea on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators by blocking signal transduction mediated by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced L6 skeletal muscle cells. The flavonoids decreased the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha by suppressing NF-κB and MAPKs signal pathways in LPS-induced L6 skeletal muscle cells. These findings suggest that the flavonoids isolated from Korea Citrus aurantium L. might have anti-inflammatory effects that regulate the expression of inflammatory mediators in L6 skeletal muscle cells. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Meta-analysis of studies using suppression subtractive hybridization and microarrays to investigate the effects of environmental stress on gene transcription in oysters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli Anderson

    Full Text Available Many microarray and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH studies have analyzed the effects of environmental stress on gene transcription in marine species. However, there have been no unifying analyses of these data to identify common stress response pathways. To address this shortfall, we conducted a meta-analysis of 14 studies that investigated the effects of different environmental stressors on gene expression in oysters. The stressors tested included chemical contamination, hypoxia and infection, as well as extremes of temperature, pH and turbidity. We found that the expression of over 400 genes in a range of oyster species changed significantly after exposure to environmental stress. A repeating pattern was evident in these transcriptional responses, regardless of the type of stress applied. Many of the genes that responded to environmental stress encoded proteins involved in translation and protein processing (including molecular chaperones, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, anti-oxidant activity and the cytoskeleton. In light of these findings, we put forward a consensus model of sub-cellular stress responses in oysters.

  6. Chemical composition of total flavonoids from Polygonum amplexicaule and their pro-apoptotic effect on hepatocellular carcinoma cells: Potential roles of suppressing STAT3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Meixian; Su, Hanwen; Hong, Zongguo; Yang, Tianming; Shu, Guangwen

    2015-06-01

    Polygonum amplexicaule D. Don var. sinense Forb (P. amplexicaule) is a medical plant traditionally used in the treatment of malignant diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the scientific basis underlying its anti-HCC activity remains poorly understood. Here, we explored the chemical profile of total flavonoids from P. amplexicaule (TFPA). Nine compounds that constituted the major components of TFPA were separated and identified. Further investigations revealed that TFPA dose-dependently induced HepG2, Huh-7 and H22 HCC cell apoptosis. In HCC cells, TFPA dramatically inhibited the transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). In addition, TFPA increased the expression of SHP-1, a protein tyrosine phosphatase catalyzing STAT3 dephosphorylation, in HCC cells. Animal studies showed that TFPA considerably provoked transplanted H22 cell apoptosis with undetectable toxicological effects on tumor-bearing mice. Consistently, TFPA dose-dependently inhibited transcriptional activity of STAT3 in transplanted tumor tissues. This study collectively demonstrated that TFPA has the capacity of inducing HCC cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo with low toxic effects on normal hepatocytes and vital organs of tumor-bearing mice. Suppressing STAT3 signaling is implicated in TFPA-mediated HCC cell apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Suppressive Effects of Clerodendrum volubile P Beauv. [Labiatae] Methanolic Extract and Its Fractions on Type 2 Diabetes and Its Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochuko L. Erukainure

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is the most prominent of all diabetes types, contributing to global morbidity and mortality. Availability and cost of treatment with little or no side effect especially in developing countries, remains a huge burden. This has led to the search of affordable alternative therapies especially from medicinal plants. In this study, the antidiabetic effect of the methanolic extract, dichloromethane (DCM, butanol (BuOH and aqueous fractions of Clerodendrum volubile leaves were investigated in type 2 diabetic rats for their effect on glucose homeostasis, serum insulin level and hepatic biomarkers, lipid profile, pancreatic redox balance and Ca2+ levels, and β-cell distribution and function. The DCM was further fractionated to isolate the active compounds, biochanin and 5,7,4′-trimethoxykaempferol. They were investigated for their toxicity and ADMET properties, α-glucosidase and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities in silico. There were significant (p < 0.05 decrease in blood glucose, cholesterol, LDL-C, vLDL-C, triglyceride, AST and ALT levels in all treated groups, with DCM fraction showing the best activity. All treated rats showed significantly (p < 0.05 improved anti-oxidative activities. Treatment with the DCM fraction led to significant (p < 0.05 increased serum insulin and pancreatic Ca2+ levels, as well as improved β-cell distribution and function. DCM fraction also showed improved glucose tolerance. DCM fraction dose-dependently inhibited ACE activity. The toxicity class of the isolated compounds was predicted to be 5. They were also predicted to be potent inhibitors of cytochrome P (CYPs 1A2, 2D6 and 3A4. They docked well with α-glucosidase and ACE. These results indicate the therapeutic potential of the plant against type 2 diabetes, with the DCM fraction being the most potent which may be attributed to the isolated flavones. It further suggests antihypertensive potentials of the DCM fraction

  8. Rescue of proinflammatory cytokine-inhibited chondrogenesis by the antiarthritic effect of melatonin in synovium mesenchymal stem cells via suppression of reactive oxygen species and matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Xu, Yong; Chen, Sijin; Tan, Zifang; Xiong, Ke; Li, Yan; Ye, Yun; Luo, Zong-Ping; He, Fan; Gong, Yihong

    2014-03-01

    Cartilage repair by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) often occurs in diseased joints in which the inflamed microenvironment impairs chondrogenic maturation and causes neocartilage degradation. In this environment, melatonin exerts an antioxidant effect by scavenging free radicals. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective effects of melatonin on human MSCs in a proinflammatory cytokine-induced arthritic environment. MSCs were induced toward chondrogenesis in the presence of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) with or without melatonin. Levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide, antioxidant enzymes, and cell viability were then assessed. Deposition of glycosaminoglycans and collagens was also determined by histological analysis. Gene expression of chondrogenic markers and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the involvement of the melatonin receptor and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in chondrogenesis was investigated using pharmacologic inhibitors. The results showed that melatonin significantly reduced ROS accumulation and increased SOD expression. Both IL-1β and TNF-α had an inhibitory effect on the chondrogenesis of MSCs, but melatonin successfully restored the low expression of cartilage matrix and chondrogenic genes. Melatonin prevented cartilage degradation by downregulating MMPs. The addition of luzindole and SOD inhibitors abrogated the protective effect of melatonin associated with increased levels of ROS and MMPs. These results demonstrated that proinflammatory cytokines impair the chondrogenesis of MSCs, which was rescued by melatonin treatment. This chondroprotective effect was potentially correlated to decreased ROS, preserved SOD, and suppressed levels of MMPs. Thus, melatonin provides a new strategy for promoting cell-based cartilage regeneration in diseased or injured joints. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  9. Effect and mechanism of evodiamine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice by suppressing Rho/NF-кB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongyan; Gong, Shilin; Wang, Shumin; Ma, Chunhua

    2015-09-01

    Evodiamine (EVD), a major alkaloid compound extracted from the dry unripened fruit Evodia fructus (Evodia rutaecarpa Benth., Rutaceae), has various pharmacological effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible anti-ulcerogenic potential of EVD and explore the underlying mechanism against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Administration of EVD at the doses of 20, 40mg/kg body weight prior to the ethanol ingestion could effectively protect the stomach from ulceration. The gastric lesion was significantly ameliorated in the EVD group compared with that in the model group. Pre-treatment with EVD prevented the oxidative damage and decreased the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In addition, EVD pretreatment markedly increased the serum levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), decreased malonaldehyde (MDA) content in serum and activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in stomach tissues compared with those in the model group. In the mechanistic study, significant elevation of Rho, Rho-kinase 1 (ROCK1), ROCK2, cytosolic and nucleic NF-κBp65 expressions were observed in the gastric mucosa group, whereas EVD effectively suppressed the protein expressions of Rho, Rho-kinase 1 (ROCK1), ROCK2, cytosolic and nucleic NF-κBp65 in mice. Moreover, EVD showed protective activity on ethanol-induced GES-1 cells, while the therapeutic effects were not due to its cytotoxity. Taken together, these results strongly indicated that EVD exerted a gastro-protective effect against gastric ulceration. The underlying mechanism might be associated with the improvement of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status through Rho/NF-κB pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Woodland recovery after suppression of deer: cascade effects for small mammals, wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus and bank voles (Myodes glareolus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma R Bush

    Full Text Available Over the past century, increases in both density and distribution of deer species in the Northern Hemisphere have resulted in major changes in ground flora and undergrowth vegetation of woodland habitats, and consequentially the animal communities that inhabit them. In this study, we tested whether recovery in the vegetative habitat of a woodland due to effective deer management (from a peak of 0.4-1.5 to <0.17 deer per ha had translated to the small mammal community as an example of a higher order cascade effect. We compared deer-free exclosures with neighboring open woodland using capture-mark-recapture (CMR methods to see if the significant difference in bank vole (Myodes glareolus and wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus numbers between these environments from 2001-2003 persisted in 2010. Using the multi-state Robust Design method in program MARK we found survival and abundance of both voles and mice to be equivalent between the open woodland and the experimental exclosures with no differences in various metrics of population structure (age structure, sex composition, reproductive activity and individual fitness (weight, although the vole population showed variation both locally and temporally. This suggests that the vegetative habitat--having passed some threshold of complexity due to lowered deer density--has allowed recovery of the small mammal community, although patch dynamics associated with vegetation complexity still remain. We conclude that the response of small mammal communities to environmental disturbance such as intense browsing pressure can be rapidly reversed once the disturbing agent has been removed and the vegetative habitat is allowed to increase in density and complexity, although we encourage caution, as a source/sink dynamic may emerge between old growth patches and the recently disturbed habitat under harsh conditions.

  11. PLGA-based gene delivering nanoparticle enhance suppression effect of miRNA in HePG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Gao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The biggest challenge in the field of gene therapy is how to effectively deliver target genes to special cells. This study aimed to develop a new type of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA-based nanoparticles for gene delivery, which are capable of overcoming the disadvantages of polyethylenimine (PEI- or cationic liposome-based gene carrier, such as the cytotoxicity induced by excess positive charge, as well as the aggregation on the cell surface. The PLGA-based nanoparticles presented in this study were synthesized by emulsion evaporation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The size of PLGA/PEI nanoparticles in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS was about 60 nm at the optimal charge ratio. Without observable aggregation, the nanoparticles showed a better monodispersity. The PLGA-based nanoparticles were used as vector carrier for miRNA transfection in HepG2 cells. It exhibited a higher transfection efficiency and lower cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells compared to the PEI/DNA complex. The N/P ratio (ratio of the polymer nitrogen to the DNA phosphate 6 of the PLGA/PEI/DNA nanocomplex displays the best property among various N/P proportions, yielding similar transfection efficiency when compared to Lipofectamine/DNA lipoplexes. Moreover, nanocomplex shows better serum compatibility than commercial liposome. PLGA nanocomplexes obviously accumulate in tumor cells after transfection, which indicate that the complexes contribute to cellular uptake of pDNA and pronouncedly enhance the treatment effect of miR-26a by inducing cell cycle arrest. Therefore, these results demonstrate that PLGA/PEI nanoparticles are promising non-viral vectors for gene delivery.

  12. Tumor suppressive effect of PARP1 and FOXO3A in gastric cancers and its clinical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sarah; Jo, Yuna; Kwon, So Mee; Kim, Kyoung Min; Kwon, Keun Sang; Kim, Chan Young; Woo, Hyun Goo

    2015-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase1 (PARP1) has been reported as a possible target for chemotherapy in many cancer types. However, its action mechanisms and clinical implications for gastric cancer survival are not yet fully understood. Here, we investigated the effect of PARP1 inhibition in the growth of gastric cancer cells. PARP1 inhibition by Olaparib or PARP1 siRNA could significantly attenuate growth and colony formation of gastric cancer cells, and which were mediated through induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest but not apoptosis. FOXO3A expression was induced by PARP1 inhibition, suggesting that FOXO3A might be one of downstream target of the PARP1 effect on gastric cancer cell growth. In addition, by performing tissue microarrays on the 166 cases of gastric cancer patients, we could observe that the expression status of PARP1 and FOXO3A were significantly associated with overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS). Strikingly, combined expression status of PARP1 and FOXO3A showed better prediction for patient's clinical outcomes. The patient group with PARP1+/FOXO3A− expression had the worst prognosis while the patient group with PARP1−/FOXO3A+ had the most favorable prognosis (OS: P = 6.0 × 10−9, RFS: P = 2.2 × 10−8). In conclusion, we suggest that PARP1 and FOXO3A play critical roles in gastric cancer progression, and might have therapeutic and/or diagnostic potential in clinic. PMID:26540566

  13. Thyroxin hormone suppression treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the important modalities of treatment of thyroid cancer (TC) after surgery is the administration of thyroxin as an adjuvant treatment. The analysis supports the theory that thyroid suppression plays an important role in patient management. 300 μg of thyroxin, as this is an adequate dose for suppression is given. Ideally the dose should be tailored by testing s-TSH levels. However, since a large number of the patients come from out station cities and villages this is impractical. We therefore depend on clinical criteria of hyperthyroid symptoms and adjust the dose. Very few patients need such adjustment

  14. Anti-allodynic effect of Buja in a rat model of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy via spinal astrocytes and pro-inflammatory cytokines suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yongjae; Lee, Ji Hwan; Kim, Woojin; Yoon, Sang Hyub; Kim, Sun Kwang

    2017-01-14

    Oxaliplatin, a widely used anticancer drug against metastatic colorectal cancer, can induce acute peripheral neuropathy, which is characterized by cold and mechanical allodynia. Activation of glial cells (e.g. astrocytes and microglia) and increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1β and TNF-α) in the spinal cord play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. Our previous study demonstrated that Gyejigachulbu-Tang (GBT), a herbal complex formula, alleviates oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain in rats by suppressing spinal glial activation. However, it remains to be elucidated whether and how Buja (Aconiti Tuber), a major ingredient of GBT, is involved in the efficacy of GBT. Cold and mechanical allodynia induced by an oxaliplatin injection (6 mg/kg, i.p.) in Sprauge-Dawley rats were evaluated by a tail immersion test in cold water (4 °C) and a von Frey hair test, respectively. Buja (300 mg/kg) was orally administrated for five consecutive days after the oxaliplatin injection. Glial activation in the spinal cord was quantified by immunohistochemical staining using GFAP (for astrocytes) and Iba-1 (for microglia) antibodies. The amount of spinal pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, were measured by ELISA. Significant behavioral signs of cold and mechanical allodynia were observed 3 days after an oxaliplatin injection. Oral administration of Buja significantly alleviated oxaliplatin-induced cold and mechanical allodynia by increasing the tail withdrawal latency to cold stimuli and mechanical threshold. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the activation of astrocytes and microglia and the increase of the IL-1β and TNF-α levels in the spinal cord after an oxaliplatin injection. Administration of Buja suppressed the activation of spinal astrocytes without affecting microglial activation and down-regulated both IL-1β and TNF-α levels in the spinal cord. Our results indicate that Buja has a potent anti-allodynic effect in a rat

  15. Myocardial overexpression of TIMP3 after myocardial infarction exerts beneficial effects by promoting angiogenesis and suppressing early proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takawale, Abhijit; Zhang, Pu; Azad, Abul; Wang, Wang; Wang, Xiuhua; Murray, Allan G; Kassiri, Zamaneh

    2017-08-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) results in loss of cardiomyocytes, adverse extracellular matrix (ECM) and structural remodeling, and left ventricular (LV) dilation and dysfunction. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMPs) inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the main regulators of ECM turnover. TIMPs also have MMP-independent functions. TIMP3 levels are reduced in the heart within 24 h of MI in mice. We investigated if overexpression of TIMP3 post-MI limits adverse remodeling and LV dilation and dysfunction. MI was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation in 10- to 12-wk-old male C57BL/6J mice, and adenoviral constructs expressing human (h)TIMP3 (Ad-hTIMP3) or no TIMP (Ad-Null) were injected in the peri-infarct zone (5.4 × 10 7 plaque-forming units/heart, 5 injections/heart). Cardiac function assessed by echocardiography showed improved LV physiology and reduced LV dilation after TIMP3 overexpression compared with the Ad-Null-MI group. Post-MI adverse remodeling was attenuated in the Ad-hTIMP3-MI group, as assessed by greater cardiomyocyte density, less infarct expansion, and ECM disruption. TIMP3 overexpression blunted the early rise in proteolytic activities post-MI. A higher density of coronary arteries and a greater number of proliferating endothelial cells were detected in the infarct and peri-infarct regions in the Ad-hTIMP3-MI group compared with the Ad-Null-MI group. In vitro three-dimensional angiogenesis assay confirmed that recombinant TIMP3 promotes angiogenesis in human endothelial cells, although biphasically and in a dose-dependent manner. Intriguingly, overexpression of Ad-hTIMP3 at 10-fold higher concentration had no beneficial effects, consistent with antiangiogenic effects of TIMP3 at higher doses. In conclusion, optimal overexpression of TIMP3 can be a promising therapeutic approach to limit adverse post-MI remodeling by dually inhibiting early proteolysis and promoting angiogenesis. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Here, we report

  16. The Growth Suppressing Effects of Girinimbine on Hepg2 Involve Induction of Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Sook Wah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Murraya koenigii is an edible herb widely used in folk medicine. Here we report that girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from this plant, inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma, HepG2 cells. The MTT and LDH assay results showed that girinimbine decreased cell viability and increased cytotoxicity in a dose-and time-dependent manner selectively. Girinimbine-treated HepG2 cells showed typical morphological features of apoptosis, as observed from normal inverted microscopy and Hoechst 33342 assay. Furthermore, girinimbine treatment resulted in DNA fragmentation and elevated levels of caspase-3 in HepG2 cells. Girinimbine treatment also displayed a time-dependent accumulation of the Sub-G0/G1 peak (hypodiploid and caused G0/G1-phase arrest. Together, these results demonstrated for the first time that girinimbine could effectively induce programmed cell death in HepG2 cells and suggests the importance of conducting further investigations in preclinical human hepatocellular carcinoma models, especially on in vivo efficacy, to promote girinimbine for use as an anticancer agent against hepatocellular carcinoma.

  17. fMRI evidence for the role of recollection in suppressing misattribution errors: the illusory truth effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason P; Dodson, Chad S; Schacter, Daniel L

    2005-05-01

    Misattribution refers to the act of attributing a memory or idea to an incorrect source, such as successfully remembering a bit of information but linking it to an inappropriate person or time [Jacoby, L. L., Kelley, C., Brown, J., & Jasechko, J. (1989). Becoming famous overnight: Limits on the ability to avoid unconscious influences of the past. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 326-338; Schacter, D. L. (1999). The seven sins of memory: Insights from psychology and cognitive neuroscience. American Psychologist, 54, 182-203; Schacter, D. L. (2001). The seven sins of memory: How the mind forgets and remembers. Boston: Houghton Mifflin]. Cognitive studies have suggested that misattribution errors may occur in the absence of recollection for the details of an initial encounter with a stimulus, but little is known about the neural basis of this memory phenomenon. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the hypothesized role of recollection in counteracting the illusory truth effect, a misattribution error whereby perceivers systematically overrate the truth of previously presented information. Imaging was conducted during the encoding and subsequent judgment of unfamiliar statements that were presented as true or false. Event-related fMRI analyses were conditionalized as a function of subsequent performance. Results demonstrated that encoding activation in regions previously associated with successful recollection--including the hippocampus and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC)--correlated with the successful avoidance of misattribution errors, providing initial neuroimaging support for earlier cognitive accounts of misattribution.

  18. Treatment intensification has no effect on the HIV-1 central nervous system infection in patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Aylin; Verhofstede, Chris; D'Avolio, Antonio; Watson, Victoria; Hagberg, Lars; Fuchs, Dietmar; Svennerholm, Bo; Gisslén, Magnus

    2010-12-15

    Antiretroviral treatment (ART) significantly reduces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV-1 RNA levels and residual viremia is less frequently found in CSF than in blood. However, persistent intrathecal immunoactivation is common, even after several years of ART. To investigate whether low-level CSF viremia and residual immunoactivation within the central nervous system (CNS) derive from ongoing local viral replication, we conducted a study of treatment intensification in patients on effective ART. Ten patients on ART with plasma HIV RNA 18 months were included. Intensification was given for in total 8 weeks: 4 weeks with maraviroc or lopinavir/ritonavir (good CNS penetration), and 4 weeks with enfuvirtide (poor CNS penetration). Lumbar punctures were performed 4 weeks before, at intensification commencement, at switchover after 4 weeks, at the conclusion of, and 4 weeks after the intensification period. No significant changes in HIV RNA, neopterin, β2-microglobulin, immunoglobulin G index, albumin ratio, and CD4(+) T-cell count were observed, either in CSF or blood, neither before, during, nor after the intensification periods. ART intensification did not reduce residual CSF HIV RNA levels or intrathecal immunoactivation in patients on ART. These findings do not support an ongoing viral replication in CNS.

  19. Woodland recovery after suppression of deer: cascade effects for small mammals, wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Emma R; Buesching, Christina D; Slade, Eleanor M; Macdonald, David W

    2012-01-01

    Over the past century, increases in both density and distribution of deer species in the Northern Hemisphere have resulted in major changes in ground flora and undergrowth vegetation of woodland habitats, and consequentially the animal communities that inhabit them. In this study, we tested whether recovery in the vegetative habitat of a woodland due to effective deer management (from a peak of 0.4-1.5 to neighboring open woodland using capture-mark-recapture (CMR) methods to see if the significant difference in bank vole (Myodes glareolus) and wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) numbers between these environments from 2001-2003 persisted in 2010. Using the multi-state Robust Design method in program MARK we found survival and abundance of both voles and mice to be equivalent between the open woodland and the experimental exclosures with no differences in various metrics of population structure (age structure, sex composition, reproductive activity) and individual fitness (weight), although the vole population showed variation both locally and temporally. This suggests that the vegetative habitat--having passed some threshold of complexity due to lowered deer density--has allowed recovery of the small mammal community, although patch dynamics associated with vegetation complexity still remain. We conclude that the response of small mammal communities to environmental disturbance such as intense browsing pressure can be rapidly reversed once the disturbing agent has been removed and the vegetative habitat is allowed to increase in density and complexity, although we encourage caution, as a source/sink dynamic may emerge between old growth patches and the recently disturbed habitat under harsh conditions.

  20. Curcumin suppresses proliferation and in vitro invasion of human prostate cancer stem cells by ceRNA effect of miR-145 and lncRNA-ROR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Te; Chi, Huiying; Chen, Jiulin; Chen, Chuan; Huang, Yongyi; Xi, Hao; Xue, Jun; Si, Yibing

    2017-10-05

    Many studies have demonstrated that curcumin can effectively inhibit the proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, CD44 + /CD133 + human prostate cancer stem cells (HuPCaSCs) were isolated from the prostate cancer cell lines Du145 and 22RV1. Curcumin treatment of these cells resulted in the inhibition of in vitro proliferation and invasion, and cell cycle arrest. The expression levels of cell cycle proteins (Ccnd1 and Cdk4) and stem cell markers (Oct4, CD44, and CD133) were decreased in curcumin-treated HuPCaSCs. Microarray analysis and northern blotting assays indicated that miR-145 was overexpressed in curcumin-treated HuPCaSCs. Insights of the mechanism of competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) were gained from bioinformatic analysis, bioinformatics analysis and luciferase activity assays showed that the lncRNA-ROR and Oct4 mRNA both contain miR-145 binding sites, and Oct4 and lncRNA-ROR directly compete for microRNA binding. Curcumin induced high miR-145 expression and inhibited the expression of lncRNA-ROR. The tumorigenicity of curcumin- treated HuPCaSCs in nude mice was significantly reduced. In summary, reducing the expression of endogenous lncRNA-ROR could effectively increase the available concentration of miR-145 in HuPCaSCs, where miR-145 prevents cell proliferation by decreasing Oct4 expression. In particular, we hypothesized that lncRNA-ROR may act as a ceRNA, effectively becoming a sink for miR-145, thereby activating the derepression of core transcription factors Oct4. Thus, curcumin suppresses the proliferation, in vitro invasion, and tumorigenicity of HuPCaSCs through ceRNA effect of miR-145 and lncRNA-ROR caused. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. LH and testosterone production are more sensitive to the suppressive effects of food deprivation in prenatally undernourished male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Kuwahara, Akira; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Irahara, Minoru

    2015-06-01

    suggested that prenatal undernutrition increased the basal LH and testosterone production, whereas they are easily reduced by food deprivation in male rats. Changes of serum leptin level, but not of hypothalamic reproductive related factors, might be involved in these alterations. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for these effects remain unclear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasma suppression of beamstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, A.M.; Stewart, J.J.; Yu, S.S.

    1988-06-01

    We investigate the use of a plasma at the interaction point of two colliding beams to suppress beamsstrahlung and related phenomena. We derive conditions for good current cancellation via plasma return currents and report on numerical simulations conducted to confirm our analytic results. 10 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  3. miR-342-3p suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma proliferation through inhibition of IGF-1R-mediated Warburg effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu W

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wenpeng Liu,1,* Lei Kang,2,* Juqiang Han,3 Yadong Wang,1 Chuan Shen,1 Zhifeng Yan,4 Yanhong Tai,5 Caiyan Zhao1 1Department of Infectious Diseases, Third Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China; 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China; 3Institute of Liver Disease, Beijing Military General Hospital, Beijing, China; 4Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China; 5Department of Pathology, Hospital of PLA, Beijing, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R is a well-studied oncogenic factor that promotes cell proliferation and energy metabolism and is overexpressed in numerous cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Aerobic glycolysis is a hallmark of cancer, and drugs targeting its regulators, including IGF-1R, are being developed. However, the mechanisms of IGF-1R inhibition and the physiological significance of the IGF-1R inhibitors in cancer cells are unclear. Materials and methods: Cell proliferation was evaluated by cell counting Kit-8 and colony formation assay. Western blot and real-time PCR were accordingly used to detect the relevant proteins, miRNA and gene expression. Luciferase reporter assays were used to illustrate the interaction between miR-342-3p and IGF-1R. The effect of miR-342-3p on glycolysis was determined by glucose uptake, ATP concentration, lactate generation, extracellular acidification rate and oxygen consumption rate assays. In vivo, subcutaneous tumor formation assay and PET were performed in nude mice. Results: In this study, we demonstrate that by directly targeting the 3’-UTR (3’-untranslated regions of IGF-1R, microRNA-342-3p (miR-342-3p suppresses IGF-1R-mediated PI3K/AKT/GLUT1 signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo. Through suppression of IGF-1R, miR-342-3p dampens glycolysis by decreasing glucose uptake, lactate generation

  4. Molecular Orientation of a Terbium(III)-Phthalocyaninato Double-Decker Complex for Effective Suppression of Quantum Tunneling of the Magnetization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabayashi, Tsutomu; Katoh, Keiichi; Breedlove, Brian K; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2017-06-15

    Single-molecule magnet (SMM) properties of crystals of a terbium(III)-phthalocyaninato double-decker complex with different molecular packings ( 1 : TbPc₂, 2 : TbPc₂·CH₂Cl₂) were studied to elucidate the relationship between the molecular packing and SMM properties. From single crystal X-ray analyses, the high symmetry of the coordination environment of 2 suggested that the SMM properties were improved. Furthermore, the shorter intermolecular Tb-Tb distance and relative collinear alignment of the magnetic dipole in 2 indicated that the magnetic dipole-dipole interactions were stronger than those in 1 . This was confirmed by using direct current magnetic measurements. From alternating current magnetic measurements, the activation energy for spin reversal for 1 and 2 were similar. However, the relaxation time for 2 is three orders of magnitude slower than that for 1 in the low- T region due to effective suppression of the quantum tunneling of the magnetization. These results suggest that the SMM properties of TbPc₂ highly depend on the molecular packing.

  5. Effect of inter-train interval on the induction of repetition suppression of motor-evoked potentials using transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Pitkänen

    Full Text Available Repetition suppression (RS is evident as a weakened response to repeated stimuli after the initial response. RS has been demonstrated in motor-evoked potentials (MEPs induced with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Here, we investigated the effect of inter-train interval (ITI on the induction of RS of MEPs with the attempt to optimize the investigative protocols. Trains of TMS pulses, targeted to the primary motor cortex by neuronavigation, were applied at a stimulation intensity of 120% of the resting motor threshold. The stimulus trains included either four or twenty pulses with an inter-stimulus interval (ISI of 1 s. The ITI was here defined as the interval between the last pulse in a train and the first pulse in the next train; the ITIs used here were 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 12, and 17 s. RS was observed with all ITIs except with the ITI of 1 s, in which the ITI was equal to ISI. RS was more pronounced with longer ITIs. Shorter ITIs may not allow sufficient time for a return to baseline. RS may reflect a startle-like response to the first pulse of a train followed by habituation. Longer ITIs may allow more recovery time and in turn demonstrate greater RS. Our results indicate that RS can be studied with confidence at relatively short ITIs of 6 s and above.

  6. Effect of inter-train interval on the induction of repetition suppression of motor-evoked potentials using transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Minna; Kallioniemi, Elisa; Julkunen, Petro

    2017-01-01

    Repetition suppression (RS) is evident as a weakened response to repeated stimuli after the initial response. RS has been demonstrated in motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) induced with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Here, we investigated the effect of inter-train interval (ITI) on the induction of RS of MEPs with the attempt to optimize the investigative protocols. Trains of TMS pulses, targeted to the primary motor cortex by neuronavigation, were applied at a stimulation intensity of 120% of the resting motor threshold. The stimulus trains included either four or twenty pulses with an inter-stimulus interval (ISI) of 1 s. The ITI was here defined as the interval between the last pulse in a train and the first pulse in the next train; the ITIs used here were 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 12, and 17 s. RS was observed with all ITIs except with the ITI of 1 s, in which the ITI was equal to ISI. RS was more pronounced with longer ITIs. Shorter ITIs may not allow sufficient time for a return to baseline. RS may reflect a startle-like response to the first pulse of a train followed by habituation. Longer ITIs may allow more recovery time and in turn demonstrate greater RS. Our results indicate that RS can be studied with confidence at relatively short ITIs of 6 s and above.

  7. Suppressive effects of extracts from the aerial part of Coriandrum sativum L. on LPS-induced inflammatory responses in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Trang-Tiau; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Chen, Haw-Wen; Wu, Yu-Ling; Chen, Pei-Yin; Liu, Kai-Li

    2010-08-30

    Coriandrum sativum is used not only as a spice to aid flavour and taste values in food, but also as a folk medicine in many countries. Since little is known about the anti-inflammatory ability of the aerial parts (stem and leaf) of C. sativum, the present study investigated the effect of aerial parts of C. sativum on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. We further explored the molecular mechanism underlying these pharmacological properties of C. sativum. Ethanolic extracts from both stem and leaf of C. sativum (CSEE) significantly decreased LPS-induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E(2) production as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and pro-interleukin-1beta expression. Moreover, LPS-induced IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation and nuclear p65 protein expression as well as nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) nuclear protein-DNA binding affinity and reporter gene activity were dramatically inhibited by aerial parts of CSEE. Exogenous addition of CSEE stem and leaf significantly reduced LPS-induced expression of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Our data demonstrated that aerial parts of CSEE have a strong anti-inflammatory property which inhibits pro-inflammatory mediator expression by suppressing NF-kappaB activation and MAPK signal transduction pathway in LPS-induced macrophages. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Suppression effect of silicon (Si on Er3+ 1.54μm excitation in ZnO thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the photoluminescence (PL characteristics of ZnO:Er thin films on Si (100 single crystal and SiO2-on-silicon (SiO2 substrates, synthesized by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Rutherford backscattering/channeling spectrometry (RBS, X-ray diffraction (XRD and atomic force microscope (AFM were used to analyze the properties of thin films. The diffusion depth profiles of Si were determined by second ion mass spectrometry (SIMS. Infrared spectra were obtained from the spectrometer and related instruments. Compared with the results at room temperature (RT, PL (1.54μm intensity increased when samples were annealed at 250°C and decreased when at 550°C. A new peak at 1.15μm from silicon (Si appeared in 550°C samples. The Si dopants in ZnO film, either through the diffusion of Si from the substrate or ambient, directly absorbed the energy of pumping light and resulted in the suppression of Er3+ 1.54μm excitation. Furthermore, the energy transmission efficiency between Si and Er3+ was very low when compared with silicon nanocrystal (Si-NC. Both made the PL (1.54μm intensity decrease. All the data in experiments proved the negative effects of Si dopants on PL at 1.54μm. And further research is going on.

  9. ROS-induced nanotherapeutic approach for ovarian cancer treatment based on the combinatorial effect of photodynamic therapy and DJ-1 gene suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Canan; Taratula, Olena; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Palmer, Amy L; Cronk, Lauren M; Jones, Carson V; Escalante, Cesar A; Taratula, Oleh

    2015-11-01

    This study represents a novel approach for intraoperative ovarian cancer treatment based on the combinatorial effect of a targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT) associated with suppression of the DJ-1 protein, one of the key players in the ROS defense of cancer cells. To assess the potential of the developed therapy, dendrimer-based nanoplatforms for cancer-targeted delivery of near-infrared photosensitizer, phthalocyanine, and DJ-1 siRNA have been constructed. In vitro studies revealed that therapeutic efficacy of the combinatorial approach was enhanced when compared to PDT alone and this enhancement was more pronounced in ovarian carcinoma cells, which are characterized by higher basal levels of DJ-1 protein. Moreover, the ovarian cancer tumors exposed to a single dose of combinatorial therapy were completely eradicated from the mice and the treated animals showed no evidence of cancer recurrence. Thus, the developed therapeutic approach can be potentially employed intraoperatively to eradicate unresactable cancer cells. The complete clearance of microscopic residual tumor cells during excision surgery is important to improve survival of the patient. In this interesting paper, the authors developed a novel approach using targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT), combining a photosensitizer, phthalocyanine, and DJ-1 siRNA for the treatment of ovarian cancer. The data showed that this approach increased cancer cell killing and may pave way for future clinical studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lipolysis stimulating peptides of potato protein hydrolysate effectively suppresses high-fat-diet-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fibrosis in aging rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Dee Chiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the most common outcomes of obesity and is characterized by the accumulation of triglycerides, increased tissue apoptosis, and fibrosis. NAFLD is more common among elderly than in younger age groups, and it causes serious hepatic complications. Objective: In this study, alcalase treatment derived potato protein hydrolysate (APPH with lipolysis-stimulating property has been evaluated for its efficiency to provide hepato-protection in a high-fat-diet (HFD-fed aging rats. Design: Twenty-four-month-old SD rats were randomly divided into six groups (n=8: aged rats fed with standard chow, HFD-induced aged obese rats, HFD with low-dose (15 mg/kg/day APPH treatment, HFD with moderate (45 mg/kg/day APPH treatment, HFD with high (75 mg/kg/day APPH treatment, and HFD with probucol. Results: APPH was found to reduce the NAFLD-related effects in rat livers induced by HFD and all of the HFD-fed rats exhibited heavier body weight than those with control chow diet. However, the HFD-induced hepatic fat accumulation was effectively attenuated in rats administered with low (15 mg/kg/day, moderate (45 mg/kg/day, and high (75 mg/kg/day doses of APPH. APPH oral administration also suppressed the hepatic apoptosis- and fibrosis-related proteins induced by HFD. Conclusions: Our results thus indicate that APPH potentially attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation and anti-apoptosis and fibrosis effects in HFD-induced rats. APPH may have therapeutic potential in the amelioration of NAFLD liver damage.

  11. Amyloid β-Exposed Human Astrocytes Overproduce Phospho-Tau and Overrelease It within Exosomes, Effects Suppressed by Calcilytic NPS 2143—Further Implications for Alzheimer's Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chiarini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The two main drivers of Alzheimer's disease (AD, amyloid-β (Aβ and hyperphosphorylated Tau (p-Tau oligomers, cooperatively accelerate AD progression, but a hot debate is still ongoing about which of the two appears first. Here we present preliminary evidence showing that Tau and p-Tau are expressed by untransformed cortical adult human astrocytes in culture and that exposure of such cells to an Aβ42 proxy, Aβ25−35, which binds the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR and activates its signaling, significantly increases intracellular p-Tau levels, an effect CaSR antagonist (calcilytic NPS 2143 wholly hinders. The astrocytes also release both Tau and p-Tau by means of exosomes into the extracellular medium, an activity that could mediate p-Tau diffusion within the brain. Preliminary data also indicate that exosomal levels of p-Tau increase after Aβ25−35 exposure, but remain unchanged in cells pre-treated for 30-min with NPS 2143 before adding Aβ25−35. Thus, our previous and present findings raise the unifying prospect that Aβ•CaSR signaling plays a crucial role in AD development and progression by simultaneously activating (i the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor holoprotein, whose upshot is a surplus production and secretion of Aβ42 oligomers, and (ii the GSK-3β-mediated increased production of p-Tau oligomers which are next released extracellularly inside exosomes. Therefore, as calcilytics suppress both effects on Aβ42 and p-Tau metabolic handling, these highly selective antagonists of pathological Aβ•CaSR signaling would effectively halt AD's progressive spread preserving patients' cognition and life quality.

  12. TGF-β-Induced CD8+CD103+Regulatory T Cells Show Potent Therapeutic Effect on Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Lupus by Suppressing B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Haowen; Liu, Ya; Xu, Zhenjian; Liang, Peifeng; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao; Zhao, Jun; Chen, Junzhen; Fu, Sha; Tang, Ying; Lv, Jun; Wang, Julie; Olsen, Nancy; Xu, Anping; Zheng, Song Guo

    2018-01-01

    Lupus nephritis is one of most severe complications of systemic erythematosus lupus and current approaches are not curative for lupus nephritis. Although CD4 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Treg) are crucial for prevention of autoimmunity, the therapeutic effect of these cells on lupus nephritis is not satisfactory. We previously reported that CD8 + CD103 + Treg induced ex vivo with TGF-β1 and IL-2 (CD8 + CD103 + iTreg), regardless of Foxp3 expression, displayed potent immunosuppressive effect on Th cell response and had therapeutic effect on Th cell-mediated colitis. Here, we tested whether CD8 + CD103 + iTreg can ameliorate lupus nephritis and determined potential molecular mechanisms. Adoptive transfer of CD8 + CD103 + iTreg but not control cells to chronic graft-versus-host disease with a typical lupus syndrome showed decreased levels of autoantibodies and proteinuria, reduced renal pathological lesions, lowered renal deposition of IgG/C3, and improved survival. CD8 + CD103 + iTreg cells suppressed not only T helper cells but also B cell responses directly that may involve in both TGF-β and IL-10 signals. Using RNA-seq, we demonstrated CD8 + CD103 + iTreg have its own unique expression profiles of transcription factors. Thus, current study has identified and extended the target cells of CD8 + CD103 + iTreg and provided a possible application of this new iTreg subset on lupus nephritis and other autoimmune diseases.

  13. Strawberries Added to the Usual Diet Suppress Fasting Plasma Paraoxonase Activity and Have a Weak Transient Decreasing Effect on Cholesterol Levels in Healthy Nonobese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasowska-Nowak, Anna; Nowak, Piotr J; Bialasiewicz, Piotr; Prymont-Przyminska, Anna; Zwolinska, Anna; Sarniak, Agata; Wlodarczyk, Anna; Markowski, Jaroslaw; Rutkowski, Krzysztof P; Nowak, Dariusz

    2016-07-01

    Strawberries can improve oxidants-antioxidants balance and reduce some cardiovascular risk factors in obese subjects. Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) is a high-density lipoprotein-associated enzyme with antioxidant properties that can protect from coronary artery disease in humans. We examined the effect of strawberry consumption on plasma PON-1 activity and lipid profile in healthy nonobese subjects. Thirty-one subjects (body mass index [BMI] 24.4 ± 4.0 kg/m(2)) on their usual diet consumed 500 g of strawberry pulp daily for 30 days (first course) and after a 10-day washout the cycle was repeated (second course). Fasting blood and spot morning urine samples were collected before, during, and after each strawberry course (8 time points) for determination of paraoxonase and arylesterase PON-1 activities and lipid profile. Twenty subjects served as controls with respect to cholesterol and PON-1 activities changes over the study period. Strawberries decreased mean plasma paraoxonase PON-1 activity and this effect was more evident after the second course (by 11.6%, p Paraoxonase correlated with arylesterase activity (ƿ from 0.33 to 0.46 at the first 7 time points, p paraoxonase was noted. Supplementation of the usual diet with strawberries decreased paraoxonase PON-1 activity and did not improve lipid profiles in healthy nonobese subjects. Further studies are necessary to establish the clinical significance of paraoxonase suppression and to define a group of healthy subjects who can benefit from strawberry consumption with respect to cholesterol levels.

  14. Effect of androgen suppression on hemoglobin in prostate cancer patients undergoing salvage radiotherapy plus 2-year buserelin acetate for rising PSA after surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chander, Sarat; Choo, Richard; Danjoux, Cyril; Morton, Gerard; Pearse, Andrew; Deboer, Gerrit; Szumacher, Ewa; Loblaw, Andrew; Cheung, Patrick; Woo, Tony

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of 2-year androgen suppression (AS) on the pattern and extent of hemoglobin (Hb) change. Methods and Materials: The basis of this report was a Phase II study evaluating a combined treatment of salvage radiotherapy plus 2-year AS for a rising prostate-specific antigen level after surgery. Patients had laboratory tests performed, including Hb and serum testosterone, and answered a quality-of-life questionnaire (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-life Questionnaire 30 item) at regular intervals during the AS and post-AS period. The pattern and extent of the change in Hb was analyzed in relation to the testosterone level. The clinical significance of the Hb change was evaluated with a correlation analysis between Hb and the three specific domains of the questionnaire (Global Health Status, Physical Functioning, and Fatigue). Results: Of a total of 74 accrued patients, 69 were identified as eligible for this report. The median patient age was 70 years. The median follow-up was 38.6 months. The mean Hb was 150.7 g/L at baseline and declined with radiotherapy by 5.9 g/L. The maximal Hb drop during AS was 16.0 g/L (p <0.0001), occurring at 16 months after the initiation of AS. Hb recovery in the post-AS period was slow. The decline and recovery of the mean Hb and hematocrit followed that of testosterone. The three quality-of-life domains did not show any significant correlation with the change in Hb. Conclusion: Two-year AS resulted in a statistically significant drop in the mean Hb, but had no clinically apparent adverse effect. The pattern of Hb change was similar to that of testosterone change

  15. A poly(lactide) stereocomplex structure with modified magnesium oxide and its effects in enhancing the mechanical properties and suppressing inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kum, Chang Hun; Cho, Youngjin; Seo, Seong Ho; Joung, Yoon Ki; Ahn, Dong June; Han, Dong Keun

    2014-09-24

    Biodegradable polymers such as poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) have been widely utilized as materials for biomedical applications. However, the relatively poor mechanical properties of PLLA and its acid-induced cell inflammation brought about by the acidic byproducts during biodegradation pose severe problems. In this study, these drawbacks of PLLA are addressed using a stereocomplex structure, where oligo-D-lactide-grafted magnesium hydroxide (MgO-ODLA) is synthesized by grafting d-lactide onto the surface of magnesium hydroxide, which is then blended with a PLLA film. The structure, morphology, pH change, thermal and mechanical properties, in-vitro cytotoxicity, and inflammation effect of the MgO-ODLAs and their PLLA composites are evaluated through various analyses. The PLLA/MgO70-ODLA30 (0-20 wt%) composite with a stereocomplex structure shows a 20% increase in its tensile strength and an improvement in the modulus compared to its oligo-L-lactide (PLLA/MgO70-OLLA30) counterpart. The interfacial interaction parameter of PLLA/MgO70-ODLA30 (5.459) has superior properties to those of PLLA/MgO70-OLLA30 (4.013) and PLLA/Mg(OH)2 (1.774). The cell cytotoxicity and acid-induced inflammatory response are suppressed by the neutralizing effect of the MgO-ODLAs. In addition, the inflammatory problem caused by the rapid acidification of the stereocomplex structure is also addressed. As a result, the stereocomplex structure of the MgO-ODLA/PLLA composite can be used to overcome the problems associated with the biomedical applications of PLLA films. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker-Szendy, R.; Keller, L.; Niemi, G.; Perl, M.; Rochester, L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Anthony, P. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bosted, P. [American Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Kelley, L.; Klein, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-01

    The authors have studied quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung of low-energy 1-500 MeV photons from high-energy 25 GeV electrons. They have measured the LPM effect, where multiple scattering of the radiating electron destroys coherence required for the emission of low-energy photons, and the dielectric effect, where the emitted photon traveling in the radiator medium interferes with itself. For the experiment, the collaboration developed a novel method of extracting a parasitic low-intensity high-energy electron beam into the fixed target area during normal SLC operation of the accelerator. The results agree quantitatively with Migdal`s calculation of the LPM effect. Surface effects, for which there is no satisfactory theoretical prediction, are visible at low photon energies. For very thin targets, the suppression disappears, as expected. Preliminary results on dielectric suppression of bremsstrahlung are in qualitative agreement with the expectation.

  17. Test results of lithium pool-air reaction suppression systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.

    1987-02-01

    Engineered reaction suppression systems were demonstrated to be effective in suppressing lithium pool-air reactions for lithium quantities up to 100 kg. Lithium pool-air reaction suppression system tests were conducted to evaluate suppression system effectiveness for potential use in fusion facilities in mitigating consequences of postulated lithium spills. Small-scale perforated and sacrificial cover plate suppression systems with delayed inert gas purging proved effective in controlling the lithium-air interaction for lithium quantities near 15 kg at initial temperatures up to 450 0 C. A large-scale suppression system with a sacrificial cover, a diverter plate, an inert gas atmosphere, and remotely retrievable catch pans proved effective in controlling lithium pool-air interaction for a 100-kg lithium discharge at an initial temperature of 550 0 C. This suppression system limited the maximum pool temperature to about 600 0 C less than that expected for a similar lithium pool-air reaction without a suppression system. Lithium aerosol release from this large-scale suppression system was a factor of about 10,000 less than that expected for a lithium pool-air reaction with no suppression system. Remote retrieval techniques for lithium cleanup, such as (1) in-place lithium siphoning and overhead crane dismantling, and (2) lithium catch pan removal by use of an overhead crane, were demonstrated as part of this large-scale test

  18. J/Ψ suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubellino, P.; Abreu, M.C.; Alessandro, B.; Alexa, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Astruc, J.; Atayan, M.; Baglin, C.; Baldit, A.; Bedjidian, M.; Bellaiche, F.; Beole, S.; Boldea, V.; Bordalo, P.; Bussiere, A.; Capony, V.; Casagrande, L.; Castor, J.; Chambon, T.; Chaurand, B.; Chevrot, I.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constantinescu, S.; Cruz, J.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Drapier, O.; Espagnon, B.; Fargeix, J.; Filippov, S.N.; Fleuret, F.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gavrilov, Y.K.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gonin, M.; Grigorian, A.A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkaninan, H.; Hakobyan, R.; Haroutunian, R.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavitcheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kurepin, A.B.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lourenco, C.; Mac Cormick, M.; Macciotta, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mourgues, S.; Musso, A.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prado da Silva, W.L.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Racca, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Rato-Mendes, P.; Riccati, L.; Romana, A.; Sartori, S.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Silva, S.; Soave, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Temnikov, P.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.; Vale, C.; Vercellin, E.; Willis, N.

    1999-01-01

    The cross section for J/Ψ production in Pb-Pb interactions at 158 GeV per nucleon is measured at the CERN SPS by the NA50 experiment. The final results from the 1995 run are presented here together with preliminary ones from the high-statistics 1996 run. An anomalous J/Ψ suppression is observed in Pb-Pb collisions as compared to extrapolations of the previous results obtained by the NA38 experiment with proton and lighter ion beams. The results of the two runs are in good agreement. The results from the 1996 run allow the study of the onset of the anomalous suppression within the same set of data, showing evidence of a sharp change of behaviour around a value of neutral transverse energy, as measured by our electromagnetic calorimeter, of about 50 GeV

  19. Regulatory effects of bone morphogenetic protein-4 on tumour necrosis factor-α-suppressed Runx2 and osteoprotegerin expression in cementoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunlong; He, Hong; Cao, Zhengguo; Fang, Yi; Du, Mingyuan; Liu, Zhijian

    2017-08-01

    Root resorption is a common phenomenon presented in periodontitis and orthodontic treatment, both of which are accompanied by an elevated TNF-α expression level in the periodontal tissues. Previously, we proved that TNF-α showed an inhibitory effect on cementoblast differentiation, mineralization and proliferation. However, the effect of TNF-α on Runx2 and osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression remains undetermined. This study aimed to identify the influence of TNF-α on Runx2 and OPG expression in cementoblasts and to test whether BMP-2,-4,-6,-7 would affect TNF-α-regulated Runx2 and OPG. An immortalized murine cementoblast cell line OCCM-30 was used in this study. The expression of Runx2 and OPG were examined by qRT-PCR after stimulating cells with TNF-α. The role of signalling pathways, including MAPK, PI3K-Akt and NF-κB, were studied with the use of specific inhibitors. Cells were treated with TNF-α in combination with BMP-2,-4,-6 or -7, then the expression of Runx2 and OPG, the activity of MAPK and NF-κB pathways, and the proliferation ability were evaluated by qRT-PCR, Western blot and MTS assay respectively. TNF-α inhibited Runx2 and OPG mRNAs in OCCM-30 cells, and the inhibitory effects were further aggravated by blocking p38 MAPK or NF-κB pathway. TNF-α-inhibited Runx2 and OPG were up-regulated by BMP-4. The p38 MAPK and Erk1/2 pathways were further activated by the combined treatment of BMP-4 and TNF-α compared with TNF-α alone. Finally, the TNF-α-suppressed proliferation was not obviously affected by BMP-2,-4,-6 or -7. TNF-α inhibited Runx2 and OPG in cementoblasts, and the p38 MAPK and NF-κB pathways acted in a negative-feedback way to attenuate the inhibitory effects. TNF-α-inhibited Runx2 and OPG could be effectively up-regulated by BMP-4; however, further investigations are needed to fully elaborate the underlying mechanisms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Suppression of pool fires with HRC-125 in a simulated engine nacelle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, David R. (INS, Inc., Lexington Park, MD); Hewson, John C.

    2007-06-01

    CFD simulations are conducted to predict the distribution of fire suppressant in an engine nacelle and to predict the suppression of pool fires by the application of this suppressant. In the baseline configuration, which is based on an installed system, suppressant is injected through four nozzles at a rate fast enough to suppress all simulated pool fires. Variations that reduce the mass of the suppression system (reducing the impact of the suppression system on meeting mission needs) are considered, including a reduction in the rate of suppressant injection, a reduction in the mass of suppressant and a reduction in the number of nozzles. In general, these variations should work to reduce the effectiveness of the suppression system, but the CFD results point out certain changes that have negligible impact, at least for the range of phenomena considered here. The results are compared with measurements where available. Comparisons with suppressant measurements are reasonable. A series of twenty-three fire suppression tests were conducted to check the predictions. The pre-test predictions were generally successful in identifying the range of successful suppression tests. In two separate cases, each where one nozzle of the suppression system was capped, the simulation results did indicate a failure to suppress for a condition where the tests indicated successful suppression. When the test-suppressant discharge rate was reduced by roughly 25%, the tests were in agreement with the predictions. That is, the simulations predict a failure to suppress slightly before observed in these cases.

  1. Effects of Long-Term Speech-in-Noise Training in Air Traffic Controllers and High Frequency Suppression. A Control Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Zaballos, María Teresa; Ramos de Miguel, Ángel; Pérez Plasencia, Daniel; Zaballos González, María Luisa; Ramos Macías, Ángel

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate 1) if air traffic controllers (ATC) perform better than non-air traffic controllers in an open-set speech-in-noise test because of their experience with radio communications, and 2) if high-frequency information (>8000 Hz) substantially improves speech-in-noise perception across populations. The control group comprised 28 normal-hearing subjects, and the target group comprised 48 ATCs aged between 19 and 55 years who were native Spanish speakers. The hearing -in-noise abilities of the two groups were characterized under two signal conditions: 1) speech tokens and white noise sampled at 44.1 kHz (unfiltered condition) and 2) speech tokens plus white noise, each passed through a 4th order Butterworth filter with 70 and 8000 Hz low and high cutoffs (filtered condition). These tests were performed at signal-to-noise ratios of +5, 0, and -5-dB SNR. The ATCs outperformed the control group in all conditions. The differences were statistically significant in all cases, and the largest difference was observed under the most difficult conditions (-5 dB SNR). Overall, scores were higher when high-frequency components were not suppressed for both groups, although statistically significant differences were not observed for the control group at 0 dB SNR. The results indicate that ATCs are more capable of identifying speech in noise. This may be due to the effect of their training. On the other hand, performance seems to decrease when the high frequency components of speech are removed, regardless of training.

  2. Down-regulated long non-coding RNA-ATB in preeclampsia and its effect on suppressing migration, proliferation, and tube formation of trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xijing; Chen, Hongqin; Kong, Weiqi; Zhang, Yanping; Cao, Liyuan; Gao, Linbo; Zhou, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome and is one of the main causes of maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Inadequate trophoblast invasion and failure of uterine spiral artery remodeling exert a major role in the development of preeclampsia, especially the early-onset one. LncRNA-ATB is verified to be aberrantly expressed in many cancers and promote the invasion-metastasis and proliferation cascades. But little is known of lncRNA-ATB's role in preeclampsia. The aim of current study is to identify the changes of lncRNA-ATB in preeclampsia and its effects on trophoblast. The lncRNA-ATB levels were decreased in placental samples collected from preeclampsia women (n = 51) compared to those of healthy pregnant women (n = 40) by qRT-PCR analysis. Besides, it is demonstrated that lncRNA-ATB was intense stained in the trophoblast of the placenta by performing in-situ hybridization. By designing RNA interference species to suppress lncRNA-ATB and specific plasmids designed to overexpress lncRNA-ATB, we identify the role of lncRNA-ATB on the functions of trophoblast cell-line, HTR-8/SVneo. Inhibition of endogenous lncRNA-ATB decreased migration, proliferation, tube-formation of HTR-8/SVneo cells. In addition, overexpression of lncRNA-ATB promoted migration, proliferation, and tube-formation of HTR-8/SVneo cells. Therefore, lncRNA-ATB might be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia by regulating the process of trophoblast invasion and endovascular formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Natural Mulches on Crop Performance, Weed Suppression and Biochemical Constituents of Catnip and St. John’s Wort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duppong, L. M.; Delate, K.; Liebman, M.; Horton, R.; Romero, F.; Kraus, G.; Petrich, J.; Chowdbury, P. K.

    2006-01-01

    Because of expanding markets for high-value niche crops, opportunities have increased for the production of medicinal herbs in the USA. An experiment was conducted in 2001 and 2002 near Gilbert, IA, to study crop performance, weed suppression, and environmental conditions associated with the use of several organic mulches in the production of two herbs, catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) and St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L. ‘Helos’). Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design and included a positive (hand-weeded) control, a negative (nonweeded) control, oat straw, a flax straw mat, and a nonwoven wool mat. Catnip plant height was significantly greater in the oat straw than the other treatments at 4 wk through 6 wk in 2001; at 4 to 8 wk in 2002, catnip plant height and width was significantly lower in the negative control compared with the other treatments. Catnip yield was significantly higher in the flax straw mat than all other treatments in 2001. In 2002, St. John’s wort yields were not statistically different in any treatments. All weed management treatments had significantly fewer weeds than the non-weeded rows in 2002. Total weed density comparisons in each crop from 2 yr showed fewer weeds present in the flax straw and wool mat treatments compared with positive control plots. There was no significant weed management treatment effect on the concentration of the target compounds, nepetalactone in catnip and pseudohypericin–hypericin in St. John’s wort, although there was a trend toward higher concentrations in the flax straw treatment. PMID:17047728

  4. Suppressing effect of antimutagenic flavorings on chromosome aberrations induced by UV-light or X-rays in cultured Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yu.F.; Imanishi, Hisako; Watanabe, Mie; Ohta, Toshihiro; Shirasu

    1990-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations induces by UV-light or X-rays were suppressed by the post-treatment with antimutagenic flavorings, such as anisaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, coumarin, and vanillin. UV- or X-ray-irradiated surviving cells increased in the presence of each flavouring. X-ray-induced breakage-type and exchange-type chromosome aberrations were suppressed by the vanillin treatment in the G 1 phase of the cell cycle and a greater decrease in the number of X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations during G 1 holding was observed in the presence of vanillin. Furthermore, a greater decrease in the number of X-ray-induced DNA single-strand breaks was observed in the presence of vanillin. Treatment with vanillin in the G 2 phase suppressed UV-and X-ray-induced breakage-type but not exchange-type chromosome aberrations. The suppression of breakage-type aberrations was assumed to be due to a modification of the capability of the post-replicational repair of DNA double-strand breaks. (author). 28 refs.; 5 figs.; 6 tabs

  5. How to suppress obsessive thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, Eric; Diepstraten, Philip

    2003-01-01

    Thought suppression (i.e. consciously trying to avoid certain thoughts from entering consciousness) has been argued to be an inadequate strategy in case of unwanted intrusions. That is, thought suppression seems to result in more rather than less intrusions. Although this experimental finding has been explained in terms of failing attempts to distract oneself from the target thought, the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI; a scale that measures chronic thought suppression tendencies) does not address the means by which respondents try to suppress unwanted thoughts. To examine which strategies of mental control people use to suppress unwanted thoughts, obsessive-compulsive disorder patients (N=47) completed the WBSI, the Thought Control Questionnaire, and two measures of psychopathology. Results suggest that the crucial mechanism in thought suppression may not be distraction, but self-punishment.

  6. Reappraising suppression: subjective and physiological correlates of experiential suppression in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu eLemaire

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion regulation strategies based on suppressing behavioural expressions of emotion have been considered maladaptive. However this may not apply to suppressing the emotional experience (experiential suppression. The aim of this study was to define the effect of experiential suppression on subjective and physiological emotional responses. Methods: Healthy adults (N=101 were characterized in terms of the temperament, personality, and hedonic capacity using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Fawcett-Clark Pleasure Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Participants were shown positive, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System under two conditions, passive viewing and experiential suppression. During both conditions, subjective ratings of the intensity and duration of emotional responses and physiological measures of skin conductance (SC and cardiac inter-beat interval (IBI to each picture were recorded.Results: Negative pictures elicited the most intense physiological and emotional responses regardless of experimental condition. Ratings of emotional intensity were not affected by condition. In contrast, experiential suppression, compared to passive viewing, was associated with decreased duration of the emotional response, reduced maximum SC amplitude and longer IBIs independent of age, picture valence, personality traits, hedonic capacity and anxiety. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that experiential suppression may represent an adaptive emotion regulation mechanism associated with reduced arousal and cardiovascular activation.

  7. Reappraising suppression: subjective and physiological correlates of experiential suppression in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Mathieu; El-Hage, Wissam; Frangou, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Emotion regulation strategies based on suppressing behavioral expressions of emotion have been considered maladaptive. However, this may not apply to suppressing the emotional experience (experiential suppression). The aim of this study was to define the effect of experiential suppression on subjective and physiological emotional responses. Healthy adults (N = 101) were characterized in terms of the temperament, personality, and hedonic capacity using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Fawcett-Clark Pleasure Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Participants were shown positive, negative, and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System under two conditions, passive viewing, and experiential suppression. During both conditions, subjective ratings of the intensity and duration of emotional responses and physiological measures of skin conductance (SC) and cardiac inter-beat interval (IBI) to each picture were recorded. Negative pictures elicited the most intense physiological and emotional responses regardless of experimental condition. Ratings of emotional intensity were not affected by condition. In contrast, experiential suppression, compared to passive viewing, was associated with decreased duration of the emotional response, reduced maximum SC amplitude and longer IBIs independent of age, picture valence, personality traits, hedonic capacity, and anxiety. These findings demonstrate that experiential suppression may represent an adaptive emotion regulation mechanism associated with reduced arousal and cardiovascular activation.

  8. Anti-apoptotic effect of caspase inhibitors on H₂O₂-treated HeLa cells through early suppression of its oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woo Hyun

    2014-05-01

    Oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity in cervical cancer cells may be of toxicological interest. In the present study, the effects of exogenous H2O2 on cell growth and death in HeLa cervical cancer cells were investigated, and the anti-apoptotic effects of various caspase (pan-caspase, caspase-3, -8 or -9) inhibitors on H2O2-treated HeLa cells were also evaluated with regard to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) levels. Based on MTT assays, H2O2 inhibited the growth of HeLa cells with an IC50 value of ~75 µM at 24 h. H2O2 increased the number of dead cells and Annexin V-FITC-positive cells in the HeLa cells, which was accompanied by the activation of caspase-3 and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP; ΔΨm). However, relatively higher doses of H2O2 induced necrosis in HeLa cells. Caspase inhibitors significantly prevented H2O2-induced HeLa cell death. H2O2 increased ROS including O2•- at 24 h and increased the activity of catalase in HeLa cells. H2O2 also increased the ROS level at 1 h, and several caspase inhibitors attenuated the increased level at 1 h but not at 6, 12 and 24 h. H2O2 decreased the GSH level in HeLa cells at 1 h, and several caspase inhibitors attenuated the decreased level of GSH at this time. H2O2 induced GSH depletion at 24 h. In conclusion, H2O2 inhibited the growth of HeLa cells via apoptosis and/or necrosis, which was accompanied by intracellular increases in ROS levels and GSH depletion. Caspase inhibitors are suggested to suppress H2O2-induced oxidative stress to rescue HeLa cells at the early time point of 1 h.

  9. Suppressing unwanted memories: where there is a will, there is a way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E; van Brakel, A; Diederen, E

    2003-06-01

    Research suggests that suppressing unwanted thoughts, generally, is an ineffective thought control strategy, because suppression attempts oftentimes fail, and, furthermore, result in a paradoxical increase of unwanted thoughts, later on. The present study sought to investigate whether manipulated expectations about suppression efficacy determine actual effects of suppression attempts. To test this hypothesis, participants listened to an audiotaped story, and were subsequently appointed to one of four conditions: a no-instruction-control (n = 20), suppression (n = 20), suppression-works (n = 20; participants were told that suppression generally is a fruitful strategy), or suppression-does-not-work (n = 25; participants were told that suppression primarily has paradoxical effects) condition. Two hours later, participants' memories of the story were tested, and several metamemory questions were answered. Induced expectations actually determined the perceived efficacy of suppression attempts, as well as thought frequency, although perceived or actual accuracy of recollections was not affected by the instructions.

  10. Unihemispheric burst suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Mader Jr.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Burst suppression (BS consists of bursts of high-voltage slow and sharp wave activity alternating with periods of background suppression in the electroencephalogram (EEG. When induced by deep anesthesia or encephalopathy, BS is bihemispheric and is often viewed as a non-epileptic phenomenon. In contrast, unihemispheric BS is rare and its clinical significance is poorly understood. We describe here two cases of unihemispheric BS. The first patient is a 56-year-old woman with a left temporoparietal tumor who presented in convulsive status epilepticus. EEG showed left hemispheric BS after clinical seizure termination with lorazepam and propofol. The second patient is a 39-year-old woman with multiple medical problems and a vague history of seizures. After abdominal surgery, she experienced a convulsive seizure prompting treatment with propofol. Her EEG also showed left hemispheric BS. In both cases, increasing the propofol infusion rate resulted in disappearance of unihemispheric BS and clinical improvement. The prevailing view that typical bihemispheric BS is non-epileptic should not be extrapolated automatically to unihemispheric BS. The fact that unihemispheric BS was associated with clinical seizure and resolved with propofol suggests that, in both cases, an epileptic mechanism was responsible for unihemispheric BS.

  11. Suppression of MMP activity in bovine cartilage explants cultures has little if any effect on the release of aggrecanase-derived aggrecan fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondergaard Bodil-Cecilie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progressive loss of articular cartilage is a central hallmark in many joint disease, however, the relative importance of individual proteolytic pathways leading to cartilage erosion is at present unknown. We therefore investigated the time-dependant release ex vivo of MMP- and aggrecanase-derived fragments of aggrecan and type II collagen into the supernatant of bovine cartilage explants cultures using neo-epitope specific immunoassays, and to associate the release of these fragments with the activity of proteolytic enzymes using inhibitors. Findings Bovine cartilage explants were cultured in the presence or absence of the catabolic cytokines oncostatin M (OSM and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα. In parallel, explants were co-cultured with protease inhibitors such as GM6001, TIMP1, TIMP2 and TIMP3. Fragments released into the supernatant were determined using a range of neo-epitope specific immunoassays; (1 sandwich 342FFGVG-G2 ELISA, (2 competition NITEGE373ELISA (3 sandwich G1-NITEGE373 ELISA (4 competition 374ARGSV ELISA, and (5 sandwich 374ARGSV-G2 ELISA all detecting aggrecan fragments, and (6 sandwich CTX-II ELISA, detecting C-telopeptides of type II collagen. We found that (1 aggrecanase-derived aggrecan fragments are released in the early (day 2-7 and mid phase (day 9-14 into the supernatant from bovine explants cultures stimulated with catabolic cytokines, (2 the release of NITEGE373 neo-epitopes are delayed compared to the corresponding 374ARGSV fragments, (3 the MMP inhibitor GM6001 did not reduce the release of aggrecanase-derived fragment, but induced a further delay in the release of these fragments, and finally (4 the MMP-derived aggrecan and type II collagen fragments were released in the late phase (day 16-21 only. Conclusion Our data support the model, that aggrecanases and MMPs act independently in the processing of the aggrecan molecules, and furthermore that suppression of MMP-activity had little if

  12. Jet suppression measurement with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00443411; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Jets are produced at the early stages of this collision and are known to become attenuated as they propagate through the hot matter. One manifestation of this energy loss is a lower yield of jets emerging from the medium than expected in the absence of medium effects. Another manifestation of the energy loss is the modification of the dijet balance and the modification of fragmentation functions. In these proceedings, the latest ATLAS results on single jet suppression, dijet suppression, and modification of the jet internal structure in \\PbPb~collisions are presented.

  13. Feedback suppression in digital hearing instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Guilin

    . Methods to extract the fixed model are proposed and proved to be effective in representing the invariant part of the feedback path. Based on the investigation of the dynamic changes of the feedback path in adverse situations, for example when the user picks up the telephone handset, a reflection model...... is developed as one type of the fast varying models. The techniques to suppress the feedback are then reviewed. To improve the existing feedback suppression systems, two approaches are proposed to address the so-called “bias problem”. The first approach improves the performance of the adaptive feedback...... of the proposed feedback path models in the feedback cancellation systems is presented....

  14. The involvement of noradrenergic mechanisms in the suppressive effects of diazepam on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Švob Štrac, Dubravka; Muck-Šeler, Dorotea; Pivac, Nela

    2012-01-01

    Aim To elucidate the involvement of noradrenergic system in the mechanism by which diazepam suppresses basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Methods Plasma corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels were determined in female rats treated with diazepam alone, as well as with diazepam in combination with clonidine (α2-adrenoreceptor agonist), yohimbine (α2-adrenoreceptor antagonist), alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (α-MPT, an inhibitor of catecholamine synthesis), ...

  15. Suppression of Quantum Corrections by Classical Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Brouzakis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    We use heat-kernel techniques in order to compute the one-loop effective action in the cubic Galileon theory for a background that realizes the Vainshtein mechanism. We find that the UV divergences are suppressed relative to the predictions of standard perturbation theory at length scales below the Vainshtein radius.

  16. Contour detection by surround suppression of texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Tavares, JMRS; Jorge, RMN

    2007-01-01

    Based on a keynote lecture at Complmage 2006, Coimbra, Oct. 20-21, 2006, an overview is given of our activities in modelling and using surround inhibition for contour detection. The effect of suppression of a line or edge stimulus by similar surrounding stimuli is known from visual perception

  17. Reciprocal effects of epidermal growth factor on key lipogenic enzymes in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes. Induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and suppression of malic enzyme and lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, K; Nakamura, T; Ichihara, A

    1983-10-25

    In primary cultured hepatocytes of adult rats epidermal growth factor (EGF) caused 2- to 3-fold induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49, G6P dehydrogenase) within 2 days. The effect of EGF was additive with a similar effect of insulin. The half-maximum dose of EGF for the induction was 1 ng/ml. Induction of this enzyme by these hormones was shown by immunotitration to be due to increase of the amount of enzyme. Furthermore, this increase in the amount of enzyme was found to result from increase of syntheses of mRNA and enzyme protein. In contrast, the induction of malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.40, L-malate:NADP+) oxidoreductase) by insulin plus triiodothyronine was strongly suppressed by the concomitant addition of EGF. Induction of G6P dehydrogenase by EGF, like that by insulin, was not suppressed by either glucagon or dibutyryl cAMP, whereas that of malic enzyme was suppressed additively by EGF and dibutyryl cAMP. EGF also suppressed stimulation of lipogenesis by insulin, measured as incorporation of [1-14C]acetate into triglycerides and phospholipids. Another difference between the inductions of G6P dehydrogenase and malic enzyme was in their dependence on cell density; G6P dehydrogenase induction by insulin and EGF was high at low cell density (3 X 10(4) cells/cm2) and less at higher cell density (13 X 10(4) cells/cm2), whereas induction of malic enzyme was high at higher cell density and less at lower cell density. These results are consistent with the dual role of G6P dehydrogenase in lipogenesis in resting cells and in synthesis of nucleic acid in growing cells. Malic enzyme plays a role only for lipogenesis in mature hepatocytes.

  18. Hearing aid noise suppression and working memory function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Rosa-Linde; Neher, Tobias; Wagener, Kirsten C.

    Research findings concerning the relation between outcome from hearing aid (HA) noise suppression and working memory function are unclear. The current study thus investigated the effects of three noise suppression algorithms on auditory working memory as well as the relation with reading span...

  19. Hearing aid noise suppression and working memory function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neher, Tobias; Wagener, Kirsten C.; Fischer, Rosa-Linde

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research findings concerning the relation between benefit from hearing aid (HA) noise suppression and working memory function are inconsistent. The current study thus investigated the effects of three noise suppression algorithms on auditory working memory and the relation with reading...

  20. Effective suppression of dengue virus using a novel group-I intron that induces apoptotic cell death upon infection through conditional expression of the Bax C-terminal domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, James R; Keith, James H; Fraser, Tresa S; Dawson, James L; Kucharski, Cheryl A; Horne, Kate M; Higgs, Stephen; Fraser, Malcolm J

    2014-06-13

    Approximately 100 million confirmed infections and 20,000 deaths are caused by Dengue virus (DENV) outbreaks annually. Global warming and rapid dispersal have resulted in DENV epidemics in formally non-endemic regions. Currently no consistently effective preventive measures for DENV exist, prompting development of transgenic and paratransgenic vector control approaches. Production of transgenic mosquitoes refractory for virus infection and/or transmission is contingent upon defining antiviral genes that have low probability for allowing escape mutations, and are equally effective against multiple serotypes. Previously we demonstrated the effectiveness of an anti-viral group I intron targeting U143 of the DENV genome in mediating trans-splicing and expression of a marker gene with the capsid coding domain. In this report we examine the effectiveness of coupling expression of ΔN Bax to trans-splicing U143 intron activity as a means of suppressing DENV infection of mosquito cells. Targeting the conserved DENV circularization sequence (CS) by U143 intron trans-splicing activity appends a 3' exon RNA encoding ΔN Bax to the capsid coding region of the genomic RNA, resulting in a chimeric protein that induces premature cell death upon infection. TCID50-IFA analyses demonstrate an enhancement of DENV suppression for all DENV serotypes tested over the identical group I intron coupled with the non-apoptotic inducing firefly luciferase as the 3' exon. These cumulative results confirm the increased effectiveness of this αDENV-U143-ΔN Bax group I intron as a sequence specific antiviral that should be useful for suppression of DENV in transgenic mosquitoes. Annexin V staining, caspase 3 assays, and DNA ladder observations confirm DCA-ΔN Bax fusion protein expression induces apoptotic cell death. This report confirms the relative effectiveness of an anti-DENV group I intron coupled to an apoptosis-inducing ΔN Bax 3' exon that trans-splices conserved sequences of the 5' CS

  1. Effect of gonadotropin releasing factor suppression with an immunological on growth performance, estrus activity, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of market gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, B M; Flowers, W L; Kyle, J M; Johnson, S S; King, V L; Spruill, J L; Thompson, D P; Schroeder, A L; Boler, D D

    2014-10-01

    Objectives were to evaluate the administration of an anti-gonadotropin releasing factor (GnRF) analog on suppression of estrus, consistency of feed intake, and growth performance in market gilts and to investigate the impact the physiological changes would have on carcass characteristics and fresh meat quality. Gonadotropin releasing factor stimulates the anterior pituitary to release luteinizing hormone that acts on the ovary to induce follicle development and indirectly initiates ovulation. Improvest (Zoetis, Kalamazoo, MI) contains an incomplete version of naturally occurring GnRF and causes the production of anti-GnRF antibodies that bind to the GnRF receptor and thus render GnRF inactive. This in turn suppresses estrus in female pigs. Gilts were initially separated into 10 blocks based on age and then within each block allotted to a pen (n = 114; 5 pigs/pen) based on BW. Gilts received the first dose at 12 wk of age and the second dose at 16 wk of age, were exposed to a boar daily from 20 to 26 wk of age, and were slaughtered at 26 wk of age (10 wk after second dose). Meat quality was analyzed on the 2 gilts closest to pen average ending live weight in 5 of the 10 blocks. Pen served as the experimental unit for all data analysis. During the 15-wk finishing period, ADG was 0.03 kg greater (P gilts administered GnRF suppression (treated) compared with untreated gilts (control). The majority of improvements in growth performance were observed from 16 to 20 wk of age (4 wk after second dose), as ADG was 0.07 kg greater (P gilts compared with control gilts. Ovarian weights were reduced (P gilts exhibiting puberty were reduced by 87.80% (P gilts compared with control gilts. Back fat depth was 3.78 mm greater (P gilts compared with control gilts. With the exception of subjective color, there were no differences (P ≥ 0.12) in meat quality parameters between treated and control gilts. Subjective color was darker (P = 0.03) in treated gilts compared with control gilts

  2. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  3. Effect of HSV-2 Suppressive Therapy on Genital Tract HIV-1 RNA Shedding among Women on HAART: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Nijhawan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The role of suppressive HSV therapy in women coinfected with HSV-2 and HIV-1 taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART is unclear. Methods. 60 women with HIV-1/HSV-2 coinfection on HAART with plasma HIV-1 viral load (PVL ≤75 copies/mL were randomized to receive acyclovir (N=30 or no acyclovir (N=30. PVL, genital tract (GT HIV-1, and GT HSV were measured every 4 weeks for one year. Results. Detection of GT HIV-1 was not significantly different in the two arms (OR 1.23, P=0.67, although this pilot study was underpowered to detect this difference. When PVL was undetectable, the odds of detecting GT HIV were 0.4 times smaller in the acyclovir arm than in the control arm, though this was not statistically significant (P=0.07. The odds of detecting GT HSV DNA in women receiving acyclovir were significantly lower than in women in the control group, OR 0.38, P<0.05. Conclusions. Chronic suppressive therapy with acyclovir in HIV-1/HSV-2-positive women on HAART significantly reduces asymptomatic GT HSV shedding, though not GT HIV shedding or PVL. PVL was strongly associated with GT HIV shedding, reinforcing the importance of HAART in decreasing HIV sexual transmission.

  4. Disrupting glucose-6-phosphate isomerase fully suppresses the "Warburg effect" and activates OXPHOS with minimal impact on tumor growth except in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Padua, Monique Cunha; Delodi, Giulia; Vučetić, Milica; Durivault, Jérôme; Vial, Valérie; Bayer, Pascale; Noleto, Guilhermina Rodrigues; Mazure, Nathalie M; Ždralević, Maša; Pouysségur, Jacques

    2017-10-20

    As Otto Warburg first observed, cancer cells largely favor fermentative glycolysis for growth even under aerobic conditions. This energy paradox also extends to rapidly growing normal cells indicating that glycolysis is optimal for fast growth and biomass production. Here we further explored this concept by genetic ablation of fermentative glycolysis in two fast growing cancer cell lines: human colon adenocarcinoma LS174T and B16 mouse melanoma. We disrupted the upstream glycolytic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase ( GPI ), to allow cells to re-route glucose-6-phosphate flux into the pentose-phosphate branch. Indeed, GPI -KO severely reduced glucose consumption and suppressed lactic acid secretion, which reprogrammed these cells to rely on oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial ATP production to maintain viability. In contrast to previous pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis that suppressed tumor growth, GPI -KO surprisingly demonstrated only a moderate impact on normoxic cell growth. However, hypoxic (1% O 2 ) cell growth was severely restricted. Despite in vitro growth restriction under hypoxia, tumor growth rates in vivo were reduced less than 2-fold for both GPI -KO cancer cell lines. Combined our results indicate that exclusive use of oxidative metabolism has the capacity to provide metabolic precursors for biomass synthesis and fast growth. This work and others clearly indicate that metabolic cancer cell plasticity poses a strong limitation to anticancer strategies.

  5. Hepatic anti-inflammatory effect of hexane extracts of Dioscorea batatas Decne: Possible suppression of toll-like receptor 4-mediated signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun Jung; Lee, SungRyul; Chang, Kwang Jin; Sohn, Eunsoo; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Kang, Se Chan; Pyo, Suhkneung

    2017-08-01

    The hepatic anti-inflammatory potential of hexane extracts of Dioscorea batatas Decne edible part (EDH-1e) and bark (EDH-2b) were investigated in Western-type diet-fed apolipoprotein E null [ApoE (-/-)] mice and HepG2 cells. EDH-1e and EDH-2b suppressed the increased levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (VCAM-1), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and reduced infiltration of monocytes into liver tissue. The protein levels of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) were also downregulated by EDH-1e and EDH-2b treatment as were the levels of activator protein 1 (AP-1), c-fos, and c-jun in the livers from Western-type diet-fed ApoE (-/-) mice and in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HepG2 cells. Taken together, EDH-1e and EDH-2b attenuated hepatic inflammation and fibrosis via suppression of the TLR4-AP1-mediated signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariyadath, Vani; Eagleman, David M

    2012-01-01

    Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression. Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli) followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus). We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials. Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  7. Suppression of Poxvirus Replication by Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Poxviruses continue to cause serious diseases even after eradication of the historically deadly infectious human disease, smallpox. Poxviruses are currently being developed as vaccine vectors and cancer therapeutic agents. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol stilbenoid found in plants that has been shown to inhibit or enhance replication of a number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. In the present study, we found that resveratrol dramatically suppressed the replication of vaccinia virus (VACV, the prototypic member of poxviruses, in various cell types. Resveratrol also significantly reduced the replication of monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus that is endemic in Western and Central Africa and causes human mortality. The inhibitory effect of resveratrol on poxviruses is independent of VACV N1 protein, a potential resveratrol binding target. Further experiments demonstrated that resveratrol had little effect on VACV early gene expression, while it suppressed VACV DNA synthesis, and subsequently post-replicative gene expression.

  8. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  9. Emotion suppression reduces hippocampal activity during successful memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Julia; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Friese, Malte; Luechinger, Roger; Boesiger, Peter; Rasch, Björn

    2012-10-15

    People suppressing their emotions while facing an emotional event typically remember it less well. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the impairing effect of emotion suppression on successful memory encoding are not well understood. Because successful memory encoding relies on the hippocampus and the amygdala, we hypothesized that memory impairments due to emotion suppression are associated with down-regulated activity in these brain areas. 59 healthy females were instructed either to simply watch the pictures or to down-regulate their emotions by using a response-focused emotion suppression strategy. Brain activity was recorded using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and free recall of pictures was tested afterwards. As expected, suppressing one's emotions resulted in impaired recall of the pictures. On the neural level, the memory impairments were associated with reduced activity in the right hippocampus during successful encoding. No significant effects were observed in the amygdala. In addition, functional connectivity between the hippocampus and the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was strongly reduced during emotion suppression, and these reductions predicted free-recall performance. Our results indicate that emotion suppression interferes with memory encoding on the hippocampal level, possibly by decoupling hippocampal and prefrontal encoding processes, suggesting that response-focused emotion suppression might be an adaptive strategy for impairing hippocampal memory formation in highly arousing situations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Appetite Suppression and Antiobesity Effect of a Botanical Composition Composed ofMorus alba,Yerba mate, andMagnolia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Lee, Young-Chul; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Tae-Woo; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Jia, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Background . Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba , Yerba mate , and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method . Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601. Appetite suppression activity was tested in acute feed intake rat model. Efficacy was evaluated in C57BL/6J mouse models treated with oral doses of 1.3 g/kg/day for 7 weeks. Orlistat at 40 mg/kg/day was used as a positive control. Body compositions of mice were assessed using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). ELISA was done for insulin, leptin, and ghrelin level quantitation. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) scoring was conducted. Results . Marked acute hypophagia with 81.8, 75.3, 43.9, and 30.9% reductions in food intake at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours were observed for UP601. Decreases in body weight gain (21.5% compared to the HFD at weeks 7 and 8.2% compared to baseline) and calorie intake (40.5% for the first week) were observed. 75.9% and 46.8% reductions in insulin and leptin, respectively, 4.2-fold increase in ghrelin level, and reductions of 18.6% in cholesterol and 59% in low-density lipoprotein were documented. A percentage body fat of 18.9%, 47.8%, 46.1%, and 30.4% was found for mice treated with normal control, HFD, Orlistat, and UP601, respectively. 59.3% less mesenteric fat pad and improved NASH scores were observed for UP601. Conclusion . UP601, a standardized botanical composition from Morus alba , Yerba mate , and Magnolia officinalis could be used as a natural alternative for appetite suppression, maintaining healthy body weight and metabolism management.

  11. Efflux inhibitor suppresses Streptococcus mutans virulence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huihui; Liu, Jia; Ling, Junqi

    2017-04-01

    It is well established that efflux pumps play important roles in bacterial pathogenicity and efflux inhibitors (EIs) have been proved to be effective in suppressing bacterial virulence properties. However, little is known regarding the EI of Streptococcus mutans, a well-known caries-inducing bacterium. In this study, we identified the EI of S. mutans through ethidium bromide efflux assay and investigated how EI affected S. mutans virulence regarding the cariogenicity and stress response. Results indicated that reserpine, the identified EI, suppressed acid tolerance, mutacin production and transformation efficiency of S. mutans, and modified biofilm architecture and extracellular polysaccharide distribution. Suppressed glycosyltransferase activity was also noted after reserpine exposure. The data from quantitative real-time-PCR demonstrated that reserpine significantly altered the expression profile of quorum-sensing and virulence-associated genes. These findings suggest that reserpine represents a promising adjunct anticariogenic agent in that it suppresses virulence properties of S. mutans. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa eMarzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive and neutral, participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase, participants were again shown each word and asked to recall the paired scene. The results show that memory control is influenced by high trait anxiety and emotions. Low trait anxiety individuals showed a memory suppression effect, whereas there was a lack of memory suppression in high trait anxious individuals, especially for emotionally negative scenes. Thus, we suggest that individuals with anxiety may have difficulty exerting cognitive control over memories with a negative valence. These findings provide evidence that memory suppression can be impaired by anxiety thus highlighting the crucial relation between cognitive control, emotions and individual differences in regulating emotions.

  13. Suppression Pools: paradigm of the thermalhydraulic effect on severe accidents; Piscinas de Supresion: Paradigma del efecto de la thermohidraulica durante accidentes severos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, L. E.; Lopez del Pra, C.

    2016-08-01

    Influence of thermal-hydrualic phenomena on severe accident unforlding is beyond question. The present paper supports this statement on two key aspects of a severe accident: preservation of containment integrity and transport of fission products once released from fuel. To illustrate them, the attention is focused on suppression pools performance and, particularly, on some recent findings stemming from authors research of Fukushima scenarios. Gas behvaior at the injection point and its later evolution, potential axial and/or azimuthal stratification of the aqueous body or water saturation state, are some of the processes tha more strongly affect the role of pools as a mass and energy sink. They are described and discussed in detail. (Author)

  14. Methyl eugenol and cue-lure traps for suppression of male oriental fruit flies and melon flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii: effects of lure mixtures and weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, R I; Stark, J D; Kido, M H; Ketter, H M; Whitehand, L C

    2000-02-01

    Methyl eugenol (4-allyl-1,2-dimethoxybenzene-carboxylate) and cue-lure [4-(p-acetoxyphenyl)-2-butanone] are highly attractive kairomone lures to oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett), respectively. Plastic bucket traps were evaluated as dispensers for methyl eugenol and cue-lure for suppression of the 2 fruit flies in Hawaii. Methyl eugenol and cue-lure mixtures were compared with pure methyl eugenol or cue-lure over 4 seasons. B. dorsalis captures differed significantly with treatment and season. B. dorsalis captures with 100% methyl-eugenol were significantly greater than all other treatments (25, 50, and 75%). B. cucurbitae captures also differed significantly with treatment but not with season. Captures with 100, 75, and 50% cue-lure were not significantly different. Bucket traps baited with cue-lure (+ malathion) and weathered under Hawaiian climatic conditions were attractive to B. cucurbitae up to 8 wk. Two methyl eugenol dispensers (canec disks and Min-U-Gel) were compared with bucket traps. Dispensers (methyl eugenol + malathion) were weathered for 2-16 wk under Hawaiian climatic conditions and bioassayed during summer and winter. Initially, captures of B. dorsalis were not significantly different for the 3 dispensers. Bucket traps and canec disks were most resistant to weather, remaining attractive to B. dorsalis flies up to 16 wk. Min-U-Gel was least resistant, losing attractiveness to B. dorsalis flies within 2 wk. On the basis of performance, bucket traps and canec disks were equally long-lived up to 14 wk; thereafter, bucket traps were slightly more attractive during winter. Canec disks were cheapest, but on the basis of possible environmental concerns, bucket traps may be the best all-around choice for areawide suppression of fruit flies.

  15. The Effect of Threshold Values and Weighting Factors on the Association between Entropy Measures and Mortality after Myocardial Infarction in the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Mayer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV is a non-invasive measurement based on the intervals between normal heart beats that characterize cardiac autonomic function. Decreased HRV is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. Characterizing HRV using only moment statistics fails to capture abnormalities in regulatory function that are important aspects of disease risk. Thus, entropy measures are a promising approach to quantify HRV for risk stratification. The purpose of this study was to investigate this potential for approximate, corrected approximate, sample, fuzzy, and fuzzy measure entropy and its dependency on the parameter selection. Recently, published parameter sets and further parameter combinations were investigated. Heart rate data were obtained from the "Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST RR Interval Sub-Study Database" (Physionet. Corresponding outcomes and clinical data were provided by one of the investigators. The use of previously-reported parameter sets on the pre-treatment data did not significantly add to the identification of patients at risk for cardiovascular death on follow-up. After arrhythmia suppression treatment, several parameter sets predicted outcomes for all patients and patients without coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. The strongest results were seen using the threshold parameter as a multiple of the data’s standard deviation ( r = 0 . 2 · σ . Approximate and sample entropy provided significant hazard ratios for patients without CABG and without diabetes for an entropy maximizing threshold approximation. Additional parameter combinations did not improve the results for pre-treatment data. The results of this study illustrate the influence of parameter selection on entropy measures’ potential for cardiovascular risk stratification and support the potential use of entropy measures in future studies.

  16. The use of repetition suppression paradigms in developmental cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordt, Marisa; Hoehl, Stefanie; Weigelt, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Repetition suppression paradigms allow a more detailed look at brain functioning than classical paradigms and have been applied vigorously in adult cognitive neuroscience. These paradigms are well suited for studies in the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience as they can be applied without collecting a behavioral response and across all age groups. Furthermore, repetition suppression paradigms can be employed in various neuroscience techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). In the present article we review studies using repetition suppression paradigms in developmental cognitive neuroscience covering the age range from infancy to adolescence. Our first goal is to point out characteristics of developmental repetition suppression effects. In doing so, we discuss the relationship of the direction of repetition effects (suppression vs enhancement) with developmental factors, and address the question how the direction of repetition effects might be related to looking-time effects in behavioral infant paradigms, the most prominently used behavioral measure in infant research. To highlight the potential of repetition suppression paradigms, our second goal is to provide an overview on the insights recently obtained by applying repetition paradigms in neurodevelopmental studies, including research on children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We conclude that repetition suppression paradigms are valuable tools for investigating neurodevelopmental processes, while at the same time we highlight the necessity for further studies that disentangle methodological and developmental factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In vivo Treg suppression assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Creg J; Collison, Lauren W; Bettini, Maria; Pillai, Meenu R; Rehg, Jerold E; Vignali, Dario A A

    2011-01-01

    To fully examine the functionality of a regulatory T cell (T(reg)) population, one needs to assess their ability to suppress in a variety of in vivo models. We describe five in vivo models that examine the suppressive capacity of T(regs) upon different target cell types. The advantages and disadvantages of each model including resources, time, and technical expertise required to execute each model are also described.

  18. In Vivo Treg Suppression Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Workman, Creg J.; Collison, Lauren W.; Bettini, Maria; Pillai, Meenu R.; Rehg, Jerold E.; Vignali, Dario A.A.

    2011-01-01

    To fully examine the functionality of a regulatory T cell (Treg) population, one needs to assess their ability to suppress in a variety of in vivo models. We describe five in vivo models that examine the suppressive capacity of Tregs upon different target cell types. The advantages and disadvantages of each model includ ing resources, time, and technical expertise required to execute each model are also described.

  19. Currently available cough suppressants for chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kian Fan

    2008-01-01

    Chronic cough is a common symptom but only a fraction of patients seek medical attention. Addressing the causes of chronic cough may lead to control of cough; however, this approach is not always successful since there is a certain degree of failure even when the cause(s) of cough are adequately treated; in idiopathic cough, there is no cause to treat. Persistent cough may be associated with deterioration of quality of life, and treatment with cough suppressants is indicated. Currently available cough suppressants include the centrally acting opioids such as morphine, codeine, and dextromethorphan. Peripherally acting antitussives include moguisteine and levodropropizine. Early studies report success in reducing cough in patients with chronic bronchitis or COPD; however, a carefully conducted study showed no effect of codeine on cough of COPD. Success with these cough suppressants can be achieved at high doses that are associated with side effects. Slow-release morphine has been reported to be useful in controlling intractable cough with good tolerance to constipation and drowsiness. There have been case reports of the success of centrally acting drugs such as amitryptiline, paroxetine, gabapentin, and carbamezepine in chronic cough. New opioids such as nociceptin or antagonists of TRPV1 may turn out to be more effective. Efficacy of cough suppressants must be tested in double-blind randomised trials using validated measures of cough in patients with chronic cough not responding to specific treatments. Patients with chronic cough are in desperate need of effective antitussives that can be used either on demand or on a long-term basis.

  20. The effect of intense intermittent training with and without taking vitamin E on mRNA expression of p53/PTEN tumor suppressing genes in prostate glands of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and diet are the most important modifiable determinants of cancer risk. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of intense intermittent training with and without taking vitamin E on expression of p53 and PTEN tumor suppressing genes in the prostate gland of male rats. For this purpose, 50 Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly assigned into 5 groups: [1] control (CON, n = 10, [2] sham (S, n = 10, [3] intense intermittent training (IIT, n = 10, [4] intense intermittent training + vitamin E (IIT + VE, n = 10, [5] vitamin E (VE, n = 10. Protocol of this study was implemented for 6 days per week for 6 weeks, with observing the overload principle on the motorized treadmill. After implementing training protocol, expression rate of p53 and PTEN genes reduced significantly (p<0.000, p<0.031, respectively. Taking vitamin E with intermittent training caused significant reduction in p53 expression (p<0.013, while it caused significant increase in expression of PTEN (p<0.035. These results showed that intense intermittent training reduces expression of p53 and PTEN tumor suppressing genes and taking supplementation vitamin E along with this type of training could cause different effects in expression of these tumor suppressor genes.

  1. Concurrent suppression of NF-κB, p38 MAPK and reactive oxygen species formation underlies the effect of a novel compound isolated from Curcuma comosa Roxb. in LPS-activated microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiamvoraphong, Nittaya; Jantaratnotai, Nattinee; Sanvarinda, Pantip; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Thampithak, Anusorn; Sanvarinda, Pimtip

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of (3S)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-phenyl-(6E)-6-hepten-3-ol, also known as compound 092, isolated from Curcuma comosa Roxb on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated highly aggressive proliferating immortalized (HAPI) microglial cell lines. Nitric oxide (NO) production was determined using the Griess reaction, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA. Western blotting was used to determine the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and their related upstream proteins. Compound 092 suppressed NO production and iNOS expression in LPS-stimulated HAPI cells. These effects originated from the ability of compound 092 to attenuate the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB as determined by the reduction in p-NF-κB and p-IκB kinase (IKK) protein levels. Compound 092 also significantly lowered LPS-activated intracellular reactive oxygen species production and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Compound 092 suppresses microglial activation through attenuation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation. Compound 092 thus holds the potential to treat neurodegenerative disorders associated with neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Coulomb suppression of the stellar enhancement factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, G.G.; Gyuerky, Gy.; Simon, A.; Fueloep, Zs.; Somorjai, E.

    2008-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Modern p process studies require large reaction networks, often including hundreds and thousands of nuclei and their respective reactions with light particles. Astrophysical reaction rates employed in reaction network calculations are determined either directly from cross sections or from the rate for the inverse reaction by applying detailed balance. The cross sections are known from experiment or predicted by theory. However, even when a reaction is experimentally accessible, often astrophysical rates cannot be directly measured. Excited states are thermally populated in an astrophysical plasma whereas only reactions on the ground state of the target can be investigated in the laboratory. A measure of the influence of the excited target states is given by the stellar enhancement factor f = r stellar /r g.s. , defined by the ratio of the stellar rate to the ground state rate. The enhancement factor f rev for the reverse reaction B(b,a)A (defined by having negative reaction Q value) is usually larger than the enhancement f forw of the forward reaction A(a,b)B (being the one with positive Q value) because more excited states are energetically accessible in nucleus B than in nucleus A. Therefore, it was assumed so far that more astrophysically relevant transitions are neglected when experimentally studying a reaction with negative Q value. However, there are cases for which f rev forw due to Coulomb suppression of a part of the energetically allowed transitions. This effect will be most pronounced in reactions with a charged particle in one and a neutral particle in the other channel, e.g. (n,p), but it can also appear when the entrance channel and exit channel have Coulomb barriers of different height, e.g. (p,α). Transitions from excited states to the same state in a compound nucleus are proceeding at smaller relative energy and are stronger suppressed by the Coulomb barrier. Thus, a prerequisite is that /Q/ is low compared to

  3. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoek, Hella Leonie [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-06-02

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B0 → D*- a0+ decays and the non-resonant B0 → D*- ηπ+ decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → B$\\bar{B}$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B0 → D*- a{sub 0}+ decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10-6. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B0 → D*- a0+ decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly

  4. Role of the Ah locus in suppression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity by halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PCBs and TCDD): Structure-activity relationships and effects in C57Bl/6 mice congenic at the Ah locus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerkvliet, N.I.; Baecher-Steppan, L.; Smith, B.B.; Youngberg, J.A.; Henderson, M.C.; Buhler, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) following allogeneic tumor challenge is suppressed in Ah-responsive C57Bl/6 mice treated with a single oral dose of the toxic, Ah receptor-binding 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HxCB). The present studies have examined the specific role of the Ah receptor in this immunotoxic response by utilizing HxCB isomers of known, varied affinity for the Ah receptor as well as by comparing effects of high-affinity Ah receptor ligands (3,4,5,3',4',5'-HxCB and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD]) on the CTL response of mice that differ only at the Ah locus, that is, Ah-responsive (Ahbb) and Ah-nonresponsive (Ahdd) congenic C57Bl/6 mice. Correlative changes in thymic weight, serum corticosterone (CS) levels, and spleen cellularity were also measured. The potency of HxCB congeners (3,4,5,3',4',5'-; 2,3,4,5,3',4'-; 2,4,5,2',4',5'-) and 2,3,7,8-TCDD to suppress the CTL response, to reduce spleen cellularity, to cause thymic atrophy, and to elevate serum CS levels was directly correlated with the binding affinity of the congener for the Ah receptor. Furthermore, these parameters of immunotoxicity in Ahdd C57Bl/6 mice were significantly more resistant to alterations induced by either 3,4,5,3',4',5'-HxCB or 2,3,7,8-TCDD as compared to Ahbb C57Bl/6 mice. These results strongly support an Ah receptor-dependent immunotoxic mechanism in suppression of the CTL response following acute exposure to halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons

  5. Echolocation versus echo suppression in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmeier, Ludwig; Geßele, Nikodemus; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that blind humans can gather spatial information through echolocation. However, when localizing sound sources, the precedence effect suppresses spatial information of echoes, and thereby conflicts with effective echolocation. This study investigates the interaction of echolocation and echo suppression in terms of discrimination suppression in virtual acoustic space. In the ‘Listening’ experiment, sighted subjects discriminated between positions of a single sound source, the leading or the lagging of two sources, respectively. In the ‘Echolocation’ experiment, the sources were replaced by reflectors. Here, the same subjects evaluated echoes generated in real time from self-produced vocalizations and thereby discriminated between positions of a single reflector, the leading or the lagging of two reflectors, respectively. Two key results were observed. First, sighted subjects can learn to discriminate positions of reflective surfaces echo-acoustically with accuracy comparable to sound source discrimination. Second, in the Listening experiment, the presence of the leading source affected discrimination of lagging sources much more than vice versa. In the Echolocation experiment, however, the presence of both the lead and the lag strongly affected discrimination. These data show that the classically described asymmetry in the perception of leading and lagging sounds is strongly diminished in an echolocation task. Additional control experiments showed that the effect is owing to both the direct sound of the vocalization that precedes the echoes and owing to the fact that the subjects actively vocalize in the echolocation task. PMID:23986105

  6. MiR-509-3-5p causes aberrant mitosis and anti-proliferative effect by suppression of PLK1 in human lung cancer A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Hui; Lu, Yao; Liang, Jing-Jing; Cao, Ji-Xiang; Jin, Ya-Qiong; An, Guo-Shun; Ni, Ju-Hua; Jia, Hong-Ti; Li, Shu-Yan

    2016-09-16

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potent post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and play roles in DNA damage response (DDR). PLK1 is identified as a modulator of DNA damage checkpoint. Although down-regulation of PLK1 by certain microRNAs has been reported, little is known about the interplay between PLK1 and miR-509-3-5p in DDR. Here we have demonstrated that miR-509-3-5p repressed PLK1 expression by targeting PLK1 3'-UTR, thereby causing mitotic aberration and growth arrest of human lung cancer A549 cells. Repression of PLK1 by miR-509-3-5p was further evidenced by over-expression of miR-509-3-5p in A549, HepG2 and HCT116p53(-/-) cancer cells, in which PLK1 protein was suppressed. Consistently, miR-509-3-5p was stimulated, while PLK1 protein was down-regulated in A549 cells exposed to CIS and ADR, suggesting that suppression of PLK1 by miR-509-3-5p is a component of CIS/ADR-induced DDR pathway. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence labeling showed that over-expression of miR-509-3-5p in A549 induced G2/M arrest and aberrant mitosis characterized by abnormal bipolar mitotic spindles, condensed chromosomes, lagging DNA and chromosome bridges. In addition, over-expression of miR-509-3-5p markedly blocked A549 cell proliferation and sensitized the cells to CIS and ADR treatment. Taken together, miR-509-3-5p is a feasible suppressor for cancer by targeting PLK1. Our data may provide aid in potential design of combined chemotherapy and in our better understanding of the roles of microRNAs in response to DNA damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibitory Effects of KP-A159, a Thiazolopyridine Derivative, on Osteoclast Differentiation, Function, and Inflammatory Bone Loss via Suppression of RANKL-Induced MAP Kinase Signaling Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Jung Ihn

    Full Text Available Abnormally elevated formation and activation of osteoclasts are primary causes for a majority of skeletal diseases. In this study, we found that KP-A159, a newly synthesized thiazolopyridine derivative, inhibited osteoclast differentiation and function in vitro, and inflammatory bone loss in vivo. KP-A159 did not cause a cytotoxic response in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs, but significantly inhibited the formation of multinucleated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive osteoclasts induced by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL. KP-A159 also dramatically inhibited the expression of marker genes related to osteoclast differentiation, including TRAP (Acp5, cathepsin K (Ctsk, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (Dcstamp, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (Mmp9, and nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (Nfatc1. Moreover, actin ring and resorption pit formation were inhibited by KP-A159. Analysis of the signaling pathway involved showed that KP-A159 inhibited RANKL-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase1/2 (MEK1/2. In a mouse inflammatory bone loss model, KP-A159 significantly rescued lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced bone loss by suppressing osteoclast numbers. Therefore, KP-A159 targets osteoclasts, and may be a potential candidate compound for prevention and/or treatment of inflammatory bone loss.

  8. Immuno-suppressive effects of aqueous extract of soapnut Sapindus emarginatus on the larvae and pupae of vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koodalingam, Arunagirinathan; Mullainadhan, Periasamy; Arumugam, Munusamy

    2013-06-01

    We recently reported the presence of potent anti-mosquito activity in aqueous kernel extract of the soapnut, Sapindus emarginatus, and demonstrated its impact on marker enzymes in larvae and pupae of the vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. As a sequel to these findings, the present study elucidates immunotoxicity of this extract with respect to hemocyte-mediated cellular immune responses in fourth instar larvae and pupae as well as cuticular melanization reaction in the