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Sample records for suppresses sinoatrial node

  1. Is sodium current present in human sinoatrial node cells?

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    Verkerk, Arie O.; Wilders, Ronald; van Borren, Marcel M. G. J.; Tan, Hanno L.

    2009-01-01

    Pacemaker activity of the sinoatrial node has been studied extensively in various animal species, but is virtually unexplored in man. As such, it is unknown whether the fast sodium current (I-Na) plays a role in the pacemaker activity of the human sinoatrial node. Recently, we had the unique

  2. Cycle length restitution in sinoatrial node cells: a theory for understanding spontaneous action potential dynamics.

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    Patric Glynn

    Full Text Available Normal heart rhythm (sinus rhythm is governed by the sinoatrial node, a specialized and highly heterogeneous collection of spontaneously active myocytes in the right atrium. Sinoatrial node dysfunction, characterized by slow and/or asynchronous pacemaker activity and even failure, is associated with cardiovascular disease (e.g. heart failure, atrial fibrillation. While tremendous progress has been made in understanding the molecular and ionic basis of automaticity in sinoatrial node cells, the dynamics governing sinoatrial nodel cell synchrony and overall pacemaker function remain unclear. Here, a well-validated computational model of the mouse sinoatrial node cell is used to test the hypothesis that sinoatrial node cell dynamics reflect an inherent restitution property (cycle length restitution that may give rise to a wide range of behavior from regular periodicity to highly complex, irregular activation. Computer simulations are performed to determine the cycle length restitution curve in the computational model using a newly defined voltage pulse protocol. The ability of the restitution curve to predict sinoatrial node cell dynamics (e.g., the emergence of irregular spontaneous activity and susceptibility to termination is evaluated. Finally, ionic and tissue level factors (e.g. ion channel conductances, ion concentrations, cell-to-cell coupling that influence restitution and sinoatrial node cell dynamics are explored. Together, these findings suggest that cycle length restitution may be a useful tool for analyzing cell dynamics and dysfunction in the sinoatrial node.

  3. Fibrosis, electrics and genetics. Perspectives in sinoatrial node disease.

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    Morris, Gwilym M; Kalman, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    The sinoatrial node (SAN) is the normal pacemaker of the heart. During a human lifetime it must initiate approximately 2 billion heartbeats and coordinate the cardiovascular response to our physiological and emotional demands. Disease of the SAN is common, and one of the leading indications for electronic pacemaker implantation. Advances in understanding the genetics and molecular mechanisms determining normal SAN function, and of the pathways controlling remodeling are revealing SAN disease to be heterogeneous. We review the contemporary concepts of SAN function, heart rate adaptation and SAN disease from the molecular level to clinical application.

  4. Sinoatrial node dysfunction induces cardiac arrhythmias in diabetic mice

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    Soltysinska, Ewa; Speerschneider, Tobias; Winther, Sine V

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to probe cardiac complications, including heart-rate control, in a mouse model of type-2 diabetes. Heart-rate development in diabetic patients is not straight forward: In general, patients with diabetes have faster heart rates compared to non......-diabetic individuals, yet diabetic patients are frequently found among patients treated for slow heart rates. Hence, we hypothesized that sinoatrial node (SAN) dysfunction could contribute to our understanding the mechanism behind this conundrum and the consequences thereof.MethodsCardiac hemodynamic...... and electrophysiological characteristics were investigated in diabetic db/db and control db/+mice.ResultsWe found improved contractile function and impaired filling dynamics of the heart in db/db mice, relative to db/+controls. Electrophysiologically, we observed comparable heart rates in the two mouse groups, but SAN...

  5. Fibrosis: a structural modulator of Sinoatrial Node physiology and dysfunction

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    Thomas A Csepe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Heart rhythm is initialized and controlled by the Sinoatrial Node (SAN, the primary pacemaker of the heart. The SAN is a heterogeneous multi-compartment structure characterized by clusters of specialized cardiomyocytes, enmeshed within strands of connective tissue or fibrosis. Intranodal fibrosis is emerging as an important modulator of structural and functional integrity of the SAN pacemaker complex. In adult human hearts, fatty tissue and fibrosis insulate the SAN from the hyperpolarizing effect of the surrounding atria while electrical communication between the SAN and right atrium is restricted to discrete SAN conduction pathways. The amount of fibrosis within the SAN is inversely correlated with heart rate, while age and heart size are positively correlated with fibrosis. Pathological upregulation of fibrosis within the SAN may lead to tachycardia-bradycardia arrhythmias and cardiac arrest, possibly due to SAN reentry and exit block, and is associated with atrial fibrillation, ventricular arrhythmias, heart failure and myocardial infarction. In this review, we will discuss current literature on the role of fibrosis in normal SAN structure and function, as well as the causes and consequences of SAN fibrosis upregulation in disease conditions.

  6. Sudden fetal death due to dualism of the sino-atrial node.

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    Pusiol, Teresa; Roncati, Luca; Lavezzi, Anna Maria; Taddei, Fabrizio; Piscioli, Francesco; Ottaviani, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    First, we report a sudden fetal death at 33(+3)weeks due to sino-atrial node dualism. The female stillborn was delivered by induced labor. The postmortem examination of the cardiac conduction system revealed a dualism of the sino-atrial node, associated with fragmentation of the atrio-ventricular node and His bundle. These abnormalities of the cardiac conduction system represent the morphological substrate for the development of malignant arrhythmias. In particular, the dualism of the sino-atrial node can cause the dissociation of the longitudinal nodal impulse into two distinct ways of different pulse generation, resulting in supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. This observation suggests new avenues of research on the pathogenesis of the sudden unexpected fetal death. Moreover, our findings confirm the need for an accurate postmortem examination, including serial sectioning of the cardiac conduction system, in every case of unexplained fetal death, following standardized autoptic protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Abnormal sinoatrial node development resulting from disturbed vascular endothelial growth factor signaling

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    Calkoen, Emmeline E.; Vicente-Steijn, Rebecca; Hahurij, Nathan D.; van Munsteren, Conny J.; Roest, Arno A. W.; Deruiter, Marco C.; Steendijk, Paul; Schalij, Martin J.; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C.; Blom, Nico A.; Jongbloed, Monique R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sinus node dysfunction is frequently observed in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Variants in the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF) pathway are associated with CHD. In Vegf(120/120) mice, over-expressing VEGF(120), a reduced sinoatrial node (SAN) volume was

  8. Hyperpolarization-activated current, If, in mathematical models of rabbit sinoatrial node pacemaker cells

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    Verkerk, Arie O.; Wilders, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    A typical feature of sinoatrial (SA) node pacemaker cells is the presence of an ionic current that activates upon hyperpolarization. The role of this hyperpolarization-activated current, If, which is also known as the "funny current" or "pacemaker current," in the spontaneous pacemaker activity of

  9. The anatomy and physiology of the sinoatrial node--a contemporary review.

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    Monfredi, Oliver; Dobrzynski, Halina; Mondal, Tapas; Boyett, Mark R; Morris, Gwilym M

    2010-11-01

    The sinoatrial node is the primary pacemaker of the heart. Nodal dysfunction with aging, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and even endurance athletic training can lead to a wide variety of pathological clinical syndromes. Recent work utilizing molecular markers to map the extent of the node, along with the delineation of a novel paranodal area intermediate in characteristics between the node and the surrounding atrial muscle, has shown that pacemaker tissue is more widely spread in the right atrium than previously appreciated. This can explain the phenomenon of a "wandering pacemaker" and concomitant changes in the P-wave morphology. Extensive knowledge now exists regarding the molecular architecture of the node (in particular, the expression of ion channels) and how this relates to pacemaking. This review is an up-to-date summary of the current state of our appreciation of the above topics. ©2010, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Biochemical and biomechanical properties of the pacemaking sinoatrial node extracellular matrix are distinct from contractile left ventricular matrix.

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    Jessica M Gluck

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix plays a role in differentiation and phenotype development of its resident cells. Although cardiac extracellular matrix from the contractile tissues has been studied and utilized in tissue engineering, extracellular matrix properties of the pacemaking sinoatrial node are largely unknown. In this study, the biomechanical properties and biochemical composition and distribution of extracellular matrix in the sinoatrial node were investigated relative to the left ventricle. Extracellular matrix of the sinoatrial node was found to be overall stiffer than that of the left ventricle and highly heterogeneous with interstitial regions composed of predominantly fibrillar collagens and rich in elastin. The extracellular matrix protein distribution suggests that resident pacemaking cardiomyocytes are enclosed in fibrillar collagens that can withstand greater tensile strength while the surrounding elastin-rich regions may undergo deformation to reduce the mechanical strain in these cells. Moreover, basement membrane-associated adhesion proteins that are ligands for integrins were of low abundance in the sinoatrial node, which may decrease force transduction in the pacemaking cardiomyocytes. In contrast to extracellular matrix of the left ventricle, extracellular matrix of the sinoatrial node may reduce mechanical strain and force transduction in pacemaking cardiomyocytes. These findings provide the criteria for a suitable matrix scaffold for engineering biopacemakers.

  11. Murine transgenic embryonic stem cell lines for the investigation of sinoatrial node-related molecular pathways

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    Stefanie Schmitteckert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The elucidation of molecular mechanisms that restrict the potential of pluripotent stem cells and promote cardiac lineage differentiation is of crucial relevance, since embryonic stem cells (ESCs hold great potential for cell based heart therapies. The homeodomain transcription factor Shox2 is essential for the development and proper function of the native cardiac pacemaker, the sinoatrial node. This prompted us to develop a cardiac differentiation model using ESC lines isolated from blastocysts of Shox2-deficient mice. The established cell model provides a fundamental basis for the investigation of molecular pathways under physiological and pathophysiological conditions for evaluating novel therapeutic approaches.

  12. Expression and distribution of voltage-gated ion channels in ferret sinoatrial node.

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    Brahmajothi, Mulugu V; Morales, Michael J; Campbell, Donald L; Steenbergen, Charles; Strauss, Harold C

    2010-10-01

    Spontaneous diastolic depolarization in the sinoatrial (SA) node enables it to serve as pacemaker of the heart. The variable cell morphology within the SA node predicts that ion channel expression would be heterogeneous and different from that in the atrium. To evaluate ion channel heterogeneity within the SA node, we used fluorescent in situ hybridization to examine ion channel expression in the ferret SA node region and atrial appendage. SA nodal cells were distinguished from surrounding cardiac myocytes by expression of the slow (SA node) and cardiac (surrounding tissue) forms of troponin I. Nerve cells in the sections were identified by detection of GAP-43 and cytoskeletal middle neurofilament. Transcript expression was characterized for the 4 hyperpolarization-activated cation channels, 6 voltage-gated Na(+) channels, 3 voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, 24 voltage-gated K(+) channel α-subunits, and 3 ancillary subunits. To ensure that transcript expression was representative of protein expression, immunofluorescence was used to verify localization patterns of voltage-dependent K(+) channels. Colocalizations were performed to observe any preferential patterns. Some overlapping and nonoverlapping binding patterns were observed. Measurement of different cation channel transcripts showed heterogeneous expression with many different patterns of expression, attesting to the complexity of electrical activity in the SA node. This study provides insight into the possible role ion channel heterogeneity plays in SA node pacemaker activity.

  13. Controlling parasympathetic regulation of heart rate: a gatekeeperrole for RGS proteins in the sinoatrial node

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    Alexandra eMighiu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurotransmitters released from sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve terminals in the SAN exert their effects via G-protein-coupled receptors. Integration of these different G-protein signals within pacemaker cells of the sinoatrial node (SAN is critical for proper regulation of heart rate and function. For example, excessive parasympathetic signaling can be associated with sinus node dysfunction and supraventricular arrhythmias. Our previous work has shown that one member of the regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS protein family, RGS4, is highly and selectively expressed in pacemaker cells of the SAN. Consistent with its role as an inhibitor of parasympathetic signaling, RGS4-knockout mice have reduced basal heart rates and enhanced negative chronotropic responses to parasympathetic agonists. Moreover, RGS4 appears to be an important part of SA nodal myocyte signaling pathways that mediate G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel (GIRK channel activation/deactivation and desensitization. Since RGS4 acts immediately downstream of M2 muscarinic receptors, it is tempting to speculate that RGS4 functions as a master regulator of parasympathetic signaling upstream of GIRKs, HCNs and L-type Ca2+ channels in the SAN. Thus, loss of RGS4 function may lead to increased susceptibility to conditions associated with increased parasympathetic signaling, including bradyarrhythmia, sinus node dysfunction, and atrial fibrillation.

  14. Importance of gradients in membrane properties and electrical coupling in sinoatrial node pacing.

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    Shin Inada

    Full Text Available The sinoatrial node (SAN is heterogeneous in terms of cell size, ion channels, current densities, connexins and electrical coupling. For example, Nav1.5 (responsible for INa and Cx43 (responsible for electrical coupling are absent from the centre of the SAN (normally the leading pacemaker site, but present in the periphery (at SAN-atrial muscle junction. To test whether the heterogeneity is important for the functioning of the SAN, one- and two-dimensional models of the SAN and surrounding atrial muscle were created. Normal functioning of the SAN (in terms of cycle length, position of leading pacemaker site, conduction times, activation and repolarization sequences and space constants was observed when, from the centre to the periphery, (i cell characteristics (cell size and ionic current densities were changed in a gradient fashion from a central-type (lacking INa to a peripheral-type (possessing INa and (ii coupling conductance was increased in a gradient fashion. We conclude that the heterogeneous nature of the node is important for its normal functioning. The presence of Nav1.5 and Cx43 in the periphery may be essential for the node to be able to drive the atrial muscle: Nav1.5 provides the necessary depolarizing current and Cx43 delivers it to the atrial muscle.

  15. Pitx2-microRNA pathway that delimits sinoatrial node development and inhibits predisposition to atrial fibrillation.

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    Wang, Jun; Bai, Yan; Li, Na; Ye, Wenduo; Zhang, Min; Greene, Stephanie B; Tao, Ye; Chen, Yiping; Wehrens, Xander H T; Martin, James F

    2014-06-24

    The molecular mechanisms underlying atrial fibrillation, the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, remain poorly understood. Genome-wide association studies uncovered a major atrial fibrillation susceptibility locus on human chromosome 4q25 in close proximity to the paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (Pitx2) homeobox gene. Pitx2, a target of the left-sided Nodal signaling pathway that initiates early in development, represses the sinoatrial node program and pacemaker activity on the left side. To address the mechanisms underlying this repressive activity, we hypothesized that Pitx2 regulates microRNAs (miRs) to repress the sinoatrial node genetic program. MiRs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally. Using an integrated genomic approach, we discovered that Pitx2 positively regulates miR-17-92 and miR-106b-25. Intracardiac electrical stimulation revealed that both miR-17-92 and miR-106b-25 deficient mice exhibit pacing-induced atrial fibrillation. Furthermore electrocardiogram telemetry revealed that mice with miR-17-92 cardiac-specific inactivation develop prolonged PR intervals whereas mice with miR-17-92 cardiac-specific inactivation and miR-106b-25 heterozygosity develop sinoatrial node dysfunction. Both arrhythmias are risk factors for atrial fibrillation in humans. Importantly, miR-17-92 and miR-106b-25 directly repress genes, such as Shox2 and Tbx3, that are required for sinoatrial node development. Together, to our knowledge, these findings provide the first genetic evidence for an miR loss-of-function that increases atrial fibrillation susceptibility.

  16. Complete atrial-specific knockout of sodium-calcium exchange eliminates sinoatrial node pacemaker activity.

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    Sabine Groenke

    Full Text Available The origin of sinoatrial node (SAN pacemaker activity in the heart is controversial. The leading candidates are diastolic depolarization by "funny" current (If through HCN4 channels (the "Membrane Clock" hypothesis, depolarization by cardiac Na-Ca exchange (NCX1 in response to intracellular Ca cycling (the "Calcium Clock" hypothesis, and a combination of the two ("Coupled Clock". To address this controversy, we used Cre/loxP technology to generate atrial-specific NCX1 KO mice. NCX1 protein was undetectable in KO atrial tissue, including the SAN. Surface ECG and intracardiac electrograms showed no atrial depolarization and a slow junctional escape rhythm in KO that responded appropriately to β-adrenergic and muscarinic stimulation. Although KO atria were quiescent they could be stimulated by external pacing suggesting that electrical coupling between cells remained intact. Despite normal electrophysiological properties of If in isolated patch clamped KO SAN cells, pacemaker activity was absent. Recurring Ca sparks were present in all KO SAN cells, suggesting that Ca cycling persists but is uncoupled from the sarcolemma. We conclude that NCX1 is required for normal pacemaker activity in murine SAN.

  17. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy and phase resetting of the sinoatrial node: A conjecture

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    Cantini, Federico; Varanini, Maurizio; Macerata, Alberto; Piacenti, Marcello; Morales, Maria-Aurora; Balocchi, Rita

    2007-03-01

    Congestive heart failure is a severe chronic disease often associated with disorders that alter the mechanisms of excitation-contraction coupling that may result in an asynchronous left ventricular motion which may further impair the ability of the failing heart to eject blood. In recent years a therapeutic approach to resynchronize the ventricles (cardiac resynchronization therapy, CRT) has been performed through the use of a pacemaker device able to provide atrial-based biventricular stimulation. Atrial lead senses the spontaneous occurrence of cells depolarization and sends the information to the generator which, in turn, after a settled delay [atrioventricular (AV) delay], sends electrical impulses to both ventricles to stimulate their synchronous contraction. Recent studies performed on heart rate behavior of chronically implanted patients at different epochs after implantation have shown that CRT can lead to sustained overall improvement of heart function with a reduction in morbidity and mortality. At this moment, however, there are no studies about CRT effects on spontaneous heart activity of chronically implanted patients. We performed an experimental study in which the electrocardiographic signal of five subjects under chronic CRT was recorded during the activity of the pacemaker programmed at different AV delays and under spontaneous cardiac activity after pacemaker deactivation. The different behavior of heart rate variability during pacemaker activity and after pacemaker deactivation suggested the hypothesis of a phase resetting mechanism induced by the pacemaker stimulus on the sinoatrial (SA) node, a phenomenon already known in literature for aggregate of cardiac cells, but still unexplored in vivo. The constraints imposed by the nature of our study (in vivo tests) made it impossible to plan an experiment to prove our hypothesis directly. We therefore considered the best attainable result would be to prove the accordance of our data to the conjecture

  18. Remifentanil has a minimal direct effect on sinoatrial node pacemaker activity in the Guinea pig heart.

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    Kojima, Akiko; Ito, Yuki; Kitagawa, Hirotoshi; Matsuura, Hiroshi; Nosaka, Shuichi

    2013-11-01

    Whereas remifentanil administration is associated with severe bradycardia, it has yet to be fully investigated whether the negative chronotropic action of remifentanil is mediated by its direct action on sinoatrial (SA) node pacemaker activity in the heart versus indirect results of enhanced vagal activity. We examined the effects of remifentanil and fentanyl on the spontaneous action potentials of guinea pig SA node cells at concentrations of 5, 10, 100, and 1000 nM using the amphotericin B-perforated whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Isolated guinea pig hearts were perfused in a Langendorff mode with 5, 10, 100, and 1000 nM remifentanil. The spontaneous firing rate and diastolic depolarization rate (DDR) of the SA node action potentials were 189.1 ± 14.8 /min and 74.1 ± 2.9 mV/s (n = 8), respectively, under control conditions, and were not significantly affected by exposure to 5 nM (P = 1.0 for both spontaneous firing rate and DDR; n = 6), 10 nM (P = 0.62 for spontaneous firing rate, P = 0.99 for DDR; n = 6), or 100 nM (P = 0.23 for spontaneous firing rate, P = 0.38 for DDR; n = 6) remifentanil. However, 1000 nM remifentanil modestly but significantly decreased the spontaneous firing rate (P = 0.0087) and DDR (P = 0.0072, n = 6). Remifentanil did not affect the heart rate of isolated Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts at concentrations of 5 nM (P = 0.98), 10 nM (P = 0.35), or 100 nM (P = 0.24) but significantly reduced the heart rate at 1000 nM (P DDR at concentrations of 5 nM (P = 1.0 for both spontaneous firing rate and DDR) and 10 nM (P = 0.62 for spontaneous firing rate, P = 0.79 for DDR), but it significantly reduced both at 100 nM (P = 0.00038 for spontaneous firing rate, P = 0.0080 for DDR) and 1000 nM (P DDR). Clinically relevant concentrations (nanomolar order concentrations) of remifentanil do not produce significant direct effects on intrinsic cardiac automaticity; thus, suggesting that remifentanil-induced bradycardia in the clinical setting is

  19. Molecular Mapping of Sinoatrial Node HCN Channel Expression in the Human Heart.

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    Li, Ning; Csepe, Thomas A; Hansen, Brian J; Dobrzynski, Halina; Higgins, Robert S D; Kilic, Ahmet; Mohler, Peter J; Janssen, Paul M L; Rosen, Michael R; Biesiadecki, Brandon J; Fedorov, Vadim V

    2015-10-01

    The hyperpolarization-activated current, If, plays an important role in sinoatrial node (SAN) pacemaking. Surprisingly, the distribution of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels in human SAN has only been investigated at the mRNA level. Our aim was to define the expression pattern of HCN proteins in human SAN and different atrial regions. Entire SAN complexes were isolated from failing (n=5) and nonfailing (n=9) human hearts cardioplegically arrested in the operating room. Three-dimensional intramural SAN structure was identified as the fibrotic compact region around the SAN artery with Connexin 43-negative pacemaker cardiomyocytes visualized in Masson's trichrome and immunostained cryosections. SAN protein was precisely isolated from the adjacent frozen SAN tissue blocks using a 16G biopsy needle. The purity of the SAN protein was confirmed by Connexin 43 immunoblot. All 3 HCN isoform proteins were detected in SAN. HCN1 was predominantly distributed in the human SAN with a 125.1±40.2 (n=12) expression ratio of SAN to right atrium. HCN2 and HCN4 expression levels were higher in SAN than in atria, with SAN to right atrium ratios of 6.1±0.9 and 4.6±0.6 (n=12), respectively. This is the first study to conduct precise 3D molecular mapping of the human SAN by isolating pure pacemaker SAN tissue. All 3 cardiac HCN isoforms had higher expression in the SAN than in the atria. HCN1 was almost exclusively expressed in SAN, emphasizing its utility as a new specific molecular marker of the human SAN and as a potential target of specific treatments intended to modify sinus rhythm. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Computational assessment of the functional role of sinoatrial node exit pathways in the human heart.

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    Kharche, Sanjay R; Vigmond, Edward; Efimov, Igor R; Dobrzynski, Halina

    2017-01-01

    The human right atrium and sinoatrial node (SAN) anatomy is complex. Optical mapping experiments suggest that the SAN is functionally insulated from atrial tissue except at discrete SAN-atrial electrical junctions called SAN exit pathways, SEPs. Additionally, histological imaging suggests the presence of a secondary pacemaker close to the SAN. We hypothesise that a) an insulating border-SEP anatomical configuration is related to SAN arrhythmia; and b) a secondary pacemaker, the paranodal area, is an alternate pacemaker but accentuates tachycardia. A 3D electro-anatomical computational model was used to test these hypotheses. A detailed 3D human SAN electro-anatomical mathematical model was developed based on our previous anatomical reconstruction. Electrical activity was simulated using tissue specific variants of the Fenton-Karma action potential equations. Simulation experiments were designed to deploy this complex electro-anatomical system to assess the roles of border-SEPs and paranodal area by mimicking experimentally observed SAN arrhythmia. Robust and accurate numerical algorithms were implemented for solving the mono domain reaction-diffusion equation implicitly, calculating 3D filament traces, and computing dominant frequency among other quantitative measurements. A centre to periphery gradient of increasing diffusion was sufficient to permit initiation of pacemaking at the centre of the 3D SAN. Re-entry within the SAN, micro re-entry, was possible by imposing significant SAN fibrosis in the presence of the insulating border. SEPs promoted the micro re-entry to generate more complex SAN-atrial tachycardia. Simulation of macro re-entry, i.e. re-entry around the SAN, was possible by inclusion of atrial fibrosis in the presence of the insulating border. The border shielded the SAN from atrial tachycardia. However, SAN micro-structure intercellular gap junctional coupling and the paranodal area contributed to prolonged atrial fibrillation. Finally, the micro

  1. Contribution of small conductance K+ channels to sinoatrial node pacemaker activity: insights from atrial-specific Na+ /Ca2+ exchange knockout mice.

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    Torrente, Angelo G; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Heidi; Zaini, Audrey; Kim, Brian; Yue, Xin; Philipson, Kenneth D; Goldhaber, Joshua I

    2017-06-15

    Repolarizing currents through K + channels are essential for proper sinoatrial node (SAN) pacemaking, but the influence of intracellular Ca 2+ on repolarization in the SAN is uncertain. We identified all three isoforms of Ca 2+ -activated small conductance K + (SK) channels in the murine SAN. SK channel blockade slows repolarization and subsequent depolarization of SAN cells. In the atrial-specific Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger (NCX) knockout mouse, cellular Ca 2+ accumulation during spontaneous SAN pacemaker activity produces intermittent hyperactivation of SK channels, leading to arrhythmic pauses alternating with bursts of pacing. These findings suggest that Ca 2+ -sensitive SK channels can translate changes in cellular Ca 2+ into a repolarizing current capable of modulating pacemaking. SK channels are a potential pharmacological target for modulating SAN rate or treating SAN dysfunction, particularly under conditions characterized by abnormal increases in diastolic Ca 2+ . Small conductance K + (SK) channels have been implicated as modulators of spontaneous depolarization and electrical conduction that may be involved in cardiac arrhythmia. However, neither their presence nor their contribution to sinoatrial node (SAN) pacemaker activity has been investigated. Using quantitative PCR (q-PCR), immunostaining and patch clamp recordings of membrane current and voltage, we identified all three SK isoforms (SK1, SK2 and SK3) in mouse SAN. Inhibition of SK channels with the specific blocker apamin prolonged action potentials (APs) in isolated SAN cells. Apamin also slowed diastolic depolarization and reduced pacemaker rate in isolated SAN cells and intact tissue. We investigated whether the Ca 2+ -sensitive nature of SK channels could explain arrhythmic SAN pacemaker activity in the atrial-specific Na + /Ca 2+ exchange (NCX) knockout (KO) mouse, a model of cellular Ca 2+ overload. SAN cells isolated from the NCX KO exhibited higher SK current than wildtype (WT) and apamin

  2. Role of sinoatrial node architecture in maintaining a balanced source-sink relationship and synchronous cardiac pacemaking.

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    Unudurthi, Sathya D; Wolf, Roseanne M; Hund, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Normal heart rhythm (sinus rhythm) depends on regular activity of the sinoatrial node (SAN), a heterogeneous collection of specialized myocytes in the right atrium. SAN cells, in general, possess a unique electrophysiological profile that promotes spontaneous electrical activity (automaticity). However, while automaticity is required for normal pacemaking, it is not necessarily sufficient. Less appreciated is the importance of the elaborate structure of the SAN complex for proper pacemaker function. Here, we review the important structural features of the SAN with a focus on how these elements help manage a precarious balance between electrical charge generated by the SAN ("source") and the charge needed to excite the surrounding atrial tissue ("sink"). We also discuss how compromised "source-sink" balance due, for example to fibrosis, may promote SAN dysfunction, characterized by slow and/or asynchronous pacemaker activity and even failure, in the setting of cardiovascular disease (e.g., heart failure, atrial fibrillation). Finally, we discuss implications of the "source-sink" balance in the SAN complex for cell and gene therapies aimed at creating a biological pacemaker as replacement or bridge to conventional electronic pacemakers.

  3. Gender differences in the phosphorus content of the sino-atrial nodes and other cardiac regions of monkeys.

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    Tohno, Yoshiyuki; Tohno, Setsuko; Satoh, Hiroyasu; Hayashi, Motoharu; Oishi, Takao; Minami, Takeshi; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2011-11-01

    To examine whether there were gender differences in the sino-atrial node (SAN), the authors investigated the gender difference in the SAN using monkey hearts by direct chemical analysis from a viewpoint of element contents. The used rhesus and Japanese monkeys consisted of 30 males (average age=6.5±7.5 years) and 30 females (average age=12.2±10.3 years), ranging in age from newborn to 30 years. The SAN tissues were removed from the anatomical position of monkey hearts and were confirmed by means of histological observation. After ashing with nitric acid and with perchloric acid, element contents of the SANs, such as Ca, P, S, Mg, Zn, Fe, and Na, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. In addition, gender differences in the right atrial walls, left ventricular walls, mitral valves, and left coronary arteries of monkeys were also investigated as controls. It was found that the P content was significantly higher in females than in males in the SANs of monkeys, but the other six element contents, Ca, S, Mg, Zn, Fe, and Na, were not significantly different between males and females in the SANs of monkeys. Regarding the P content, a similar finding was also obtained in both the right atrial walls and the left ventricular walls of monkeys, but it was not obtained in the mitral valves and the left coronary arteries of monkeys. The P content of tissue is mostly determined by the nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) content and the phospholipid content of tissue. Nucleic acids in the cell nucleus and the cytosol, and phospholipids in the cell membrane are all indicators of metabolically active cells. It is reasonable to presume that the P content in the SAN indicates the active cell density, namely, the number of active cells per volume. Therefore, there is a possibility that the active cell density of the SAN is significantly higher in females than in males.

  4. Análise comparativa entre a vascularização arterial ventricular e do nó sinoatrial em corações de cães Comparative analysis between both ventricular and sinoatrial node arterial vascularization in heart of dogs

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    Caio Biasi

    2013-01-01

    vascularization the left coronary artery was predominant and gave rise to the paraconal interventricular and subsinuous branches. The region occupied by the sinoatrial node was most frequently (17 times, 42.5% in dependence of the left atrial proximal branch or in the collateral branch of that vessel, coming from the left circumflex branch, or this vessel was associated with the right atrial distal branch (8 times, 20%. With less frequency (14 times, 30%, in the area occupied by the sinoatrial node we found only the collaterals of the right circumflex branch, only the right atrial distal branch (10 times, 25%, only the right atrial proximal branch (3 times, 7.5% or exclusively the right atrial intermediary branch (once, 2.5%. In just one case (once, 2.5% in the area of the sinoatrial node we observed only the collateral of the left circumflex branch, i.e. the left atrial distal branch. According to our results we concluded that in this specie there is no relationship between the type of ventricular vascularization and irrigation of the sinoatrial node. In doing so, to consider just the ventricular branches is not sufficient for a clinical and surgical applied understanding, since the atrial branches make an important contribution to the sinoatrial node vascularization.

  5. Calsequestrin 2 deletion causes sinoatrial node dysfunction and atrial arrhythmias associated with altered sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium cycling and degenerative fibrosis within the mouse atrial pacemaker complex1

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    Glukhov, Alexey V.; Kalyanasundaram, Anuradha; Lou, Qing; Hage, Lori T.; Hansen, Brian J.; Belevych, Andriy E.; Mohler, Peter J.; Knollmann, Björn C.; Periasamy, Muthu; Györke, Sandor; Fedorov, Vadim V.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Loss-of-function mutations in Calsequestrin 2 (CASQ2) are associated with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). CPVT patients also exhibit bradycardia and atrial arrhythmias for which the underlying mechanism remains unknown. We aimed to study the sinoatrial node (SAN) dysfunction due to loss of CASQ2. Methods and results In vivo electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring, in vitro high-resolution optical mapping, confocal imaging of intracellular Ca2+ cycling, and 3D atrial immunohistology were performed in wild-type (WT) and Casq2 null (Casq2−/−) mice. Casq2−/− mice exhibited bradycardia, SAN conduction abnormalities, and beat-to-beat heart rate variability due to enhanced atrial ectopic activity both at baseline and with autonomic stimulation. Loss of CASQ2 increased fibrosis within the pacemaker complex, depressed primary SAN activity, and conduction, but enhanced atrial ectopic activity and atrial fibrillation (AF) associated with macro- and micro-reentry during autonomic stimulation. In SAN myocytes, CASQ2 deficiency induced perturbations in intracellular Ca2+ cycling, including abnormal Ca2+ release, periods of significantly elevated diastolic Ca2+ levels leading to pauses and unstable pacemaker rate. Importantly, Ca2+ cycling dysfunction occurred not only at the SAN cellular level but was also globally manifested as an increased delay between action potential (AP) and Ca2+ transient upstrokes throughout the atrial pacemaker complex. Conclusions Loss of CASQ2 causes abnormal sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release and selective interstitial fibrosis in the atrial pacemaker complex, which disrupt SAN pacemaking but enhance latent pacemaker activity, create conduction abnormalities and increase susceptibility to AF. These functional and extensive structural alterations could contribute to SAN dysfunction as well as AF in CPVT patients. PMID:24216388

  6. Ca2+-stimulated adenylyl cyclase isoform AC1 is preferentially expressed in guinea-pig sino-atrial node cells and modulates the I(f) pacemaker current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, Paul; Parrington, John; Odia, Efe; Simpson, Alasdair; Collins, Thomas; Terrar, Derek

    2007-08-01

    Ca(2+)-stimulated adenylyl cyclases (AC) are known to play important roles in neurons but have not previously been reported in the heart. Here we present the first evidence for selective expression of Ca(2+)-stimulated AC in the sino-atrial node (SAN) but not in ventricular muscle of the guinea-pig heart. The AC1 isoform of Ca(2+)-stimulated AC was shown to be present in SAN, both as mRNA using RT-PCR and as protein using immuno-blotting with a specific antibody. Confocal immuno-fluorescence studies detected membrane localization of AC1 in SAN cells, but no AC1 in ventricular muscle. Ca(2+)-stimulated AC8 may also be present in SAN. The functional importance of AC activity was investigated by monitoring activation of I(f) (gated by hyperpolarization and regulated by cAMP, which shifts activation to more depolarized voltages). Basal activity of AC in isolated SAN myocytes was demonstrated by the observations that an inhibitor of AC activity (MDL 12330A, 10 microm) shifted activation in the hyperpolarizing direction, while inhibition of phosphodiesterases (IBMX, 100 microm) shifted I(f) activation in the depolarizing direction. Buffering cytosolic Ca(2+) with the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA (by exposure to BAPTA-AM) shifted activation of I(f) in the hyperpolarizing direction, and under these conditions the AC inhibitor MDL had little or no further effect. The actions of BAPTA were overcome by exposure to forskolin (10 microm), a direct stimulator of all AC isoforms, to restore cAMP levels. These effects are consistent with the functional importance of Ca(2+)-stimulated AC, which is expected to be fundamental to initiation and regulation of the heartbeat.

  7. Vascularização arterial da região do nó sinoatrial em corações suínos: origem, distribuição e quantificação Arterial vascularization of the sinoatrial node in swine hearts: origin, distribution and quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. Vidotti

    2008-02-01

    superfície de área (Sv foi de 182 e a superfície de área (S - mm² - foi de 64,3x10(6µm². A estimação da densidade numérica vascular (Nv(vasc, quantidade de vasos por unidade de volume (cm³, foi de 2,19 10-5 e o número total de vasos no órgão (N(vasc, estimado pelo método dissector físico em combinação com a estimativa do número de Euler (Xv, foi de 773,6832 x10-2. A elevada densidade vascular e do número total de vasos na região do nó sinoatrial de suínos sugere a existência de uma complexa e densa rede vascular perinodal, ratificando a importância deste marca-passo pelo seu suprimento sangüíneo.The sinoatrial node, for being topographically installed as the initial component of the conduction system, is responsible for the production of the nervous impulses, which determines the cardiac contraction. There have been made studies related to the node's morphology in order to know the origin, distribution and quantification of the vases in this tissue, however, in spite of the results and quantitative data of the nodal irrigation - arterial vascular conduct and arterial vascular density, at the nodal level - the literature is scarce. With this objective 27 SRD swine hearts, injected with colored resin for macroscopic analysis of the origin and distribution of ANSA (sinoatrial node artery, 3 others injected with watery solution of colloidal coal (dyed nanquim were used, to mark the route of the vases on the node level for stereological analysis. The atrial arteries originated as well from the right coronary artery as from the left one, with predominance of the first (66.66% and 33.33%, respectively. When originated from the right coronary artery, there existed the following branches: AADAM (right cranial medial atrial artery in 14 cases, AADAI (right cranial intermedial atrial artery in 2 cases, and AADAL (right cranial lateral atrial artery in 2 cases. In 9 cases (33.33% the following branches originated from the left coronary artery: 4 through

  8. Beat-to-Beat Variation in Periodicity of Local Calcium Releases Contributes to Intrinsic Variations of Spontaneous Cycle Length in Isolated Single Sinoatrial Node Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Monfredi

    Full Text Available Spontaneous, submembrane local Ca(2+ releases (LCRs generated by the sarcoplasmic reticulum in sinoatrial nodal cells, the cells of the primary cardiac pacemaker, activate inward Na(+/Ca(2+-exchange current to accelerate the diastolic depolarization rate, and therefore to impact on cycle length. Since LCRs are generated by Ca(2+ release channel (i.e. ryanodine receptor openings, they exhibit a degree of stochastic behavior, manifested as notable cycle-to-cycle variations in the time of their occurrence.The present study tested whether variation in LCR periodicity contributes to intrinsic (beat-to-beat cycle length variability in single sinoatrial nodal cells.We imaged single rabbit sinoatrial nodal cells using a 2D-camera to capture LCRs over the entire cell, and, in selected cells, simultaneously measured action potentials by perforated patch clamp.LCRs begin to occur on the descending part of the action potential-induced whole-cell Ca(2+ transient, at about the time of the maximum diastolic potential. Shortly after the maximum diastolic potential (mean 54±7.7 ms, n = 14, the ensemble of waxing LCR activity converts the decay of the global Ca(2+ transient into a rise, resulting in a late, whole-cell diastolic Ca(2+ elevation, accompanied by a notable acceleration in diastolic depolarization rate. On average, cells (n = 9 generate 13.2±3.7 LCRs per cycle (mean±SEM, varying in size (7.1±4.2 µm and duration (44.2±27.1 ms, with both size and duration being greater for later-occurring LCRs. While the timing of each LCR occurrence also varies, the LCR period (i.e. the time from the preceding Ca(2+ transient peak to an LCR's subsequent occurrence averaged for all LCRs in a given cycle closely predicts the time of occurrence of the next action potential, i.e. the cycle length.Intrinsic cycle length variability in single sinoatrial nodal cells is linked to beat-to-beat variations in the average period of individual LCRs each cycle.

  9. Current concepts of anatomy and electrophysiology of the sinus node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cliona; Lazzara, Ralph

    2016-06-01

    The sinoatrial node, or sinus node, of humans is the principal pacemaker of the heart. Over the last century, studies have unraveled the complex molecular architecture of the sinus node and the expression of unique ion channels within its specialized myocytes. Aim of this review is to describe the embriology, the anatomy, the histology and the electrophisiology of the sinus node.

  10. Effects of Acetylcholine and Noradrenalin on Action Potentials of Isolated Rabbit Sinoatrial and Atrial Myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerk, Arie O.; Geuzebroek, Guillaume S. C.; Veldkamp, Marieke W.; Wilders, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system controls heart rate and contractility through sympathetic and parasympathetic inputs to the cardiac tissue, with acetylcholine (ACh) and noradrenalin (NA) as the chemical transmitters. In recent years, it has become clear that specific Regulators of G protein Signaling proteins (RGS proteins) suppress muscarinic sensitivity and parasympathetic tone, identifying RGS proteins as intriguing potential therapeutic targets. In the present study, we have identified the effects of 1 μM ACh and 1 μM NA on the intrinsic action potentials of sinoatrial (SA) nodal and atrial myocytes. Single cells were enzymatically isolated from the SA node or from the left atrium of rabbit hearts. Action potentials were recorded using the amphotericin-perforated patch-clamp technique in the absence and presence of ACh, NA, or a combination of both. In SA nodal myocytes, ACh increased cycle length and decreased diastolic depolarization rate, whereas NA decreased cycle length and increased diastolic depolarization rate. Both ACh and NA increased maximum upstroke velocity. Furthermore, ACh hyperpolarized the maximum diastolic potential. In atrial myocytes stimulated at 2 Hz, both ACh and NA hyperpolarized the maximum diastolic potential, increased the action potential amplitude, and increased the maximum upstroke velocity. Action potential duration at 50 and 90% repolarization was decreased by ACh, but increased by NA. The effects of both ACh and NA on action potential duration showed a dose dependence in the range of 1–1000 nM, while a clear-cut frequency dependence in the range of 1–4 Hz was absent. Intermediate results were obtained in the combined presence of ACh and NA in both SA nodal and atrial myocytes. Our data uncover the extent to which SA nodal and atrial action potentials are intrinsically dependent on ACh, NA, or a combination of both and may thus guide further experiments with RGS proteins. PMID:22754533

  11. Accuracy of diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI with background signal suppression (MR-DWIBS) in diagnosis of mediastinal lymph node metastasis of nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Tian, Jiakai; Liu, Yuhui; Li, Chuanfu

    2014-07-01

    To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with background signal suppression (MR-DWIBS) for detecting mediastinal lymph node metastasis of nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MR-DWIBS was performed in 42 consecutive patients (27 men, 15 women; age range, 42-78 years; median age, 55 years) with histologically proven NSCLC. The visualization rate of metastatic lymph node (MLN) and benign lymph node (BLN) of enlarged lymph nodes (ELN) and normal-sized lymph nodes (NLN) was compared by using a chi-square test or Fisher's exact test on a per-nodal basis. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of MLN and BLN was measured and compared by using two-tailed unpaired Student's t-test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the overall diagnostic accuracy of ADC for ELN and NLN. The optimal cutoff value was determined and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy was calculated. Thirty-five out of 119 lymph resected nodes were confirmed to be metastatic by histologic examination. The visualization rate of MLN was significantly higher than that of BLN for ELN (P accuracy were 75.0%, 90.9%, 66.7%, 93.8%, and 87.8%, respectively. MR-DWIBS may be clinically useful to visually detect mediastinal lymph nodes and ADC measurement can aid in malignant node discrimination. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Early versus deferred androgen suppression therapy for patients with lymph node-positive prostate cancer after local therapy with curative intent: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is currently no consensus regarding the optimal timing for androgen suppression therapy in patients with prostate cancer that have undergone local therapy with curative intent but are proven to have node-positive disease without signs of distant metastases at the time of local therapy. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the benefits and harms of early (at the time of local therapy) versus deferred (at the time of clinical disease progression) androgen suppression therapy for patients with node-positive prostate cancer after local therapy. Methods The protocol was registered prospectively (CRD42011001221; http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO). We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases, as well as reference lists, the abstracts of three major conferences, and three trial registers, to identify randomized controlled trials (search update 04/08/2012). Two authors independently screened the identified articles, assessed trial quality, and extracted data. Results Four studies including 398 patients were identified for inclusion. Early androgen suppression therapy lead to a significant decrease in overall mortality (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.46-0.84), cancer-specific mortality (HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.18-0.64), and clinical progression at 3 or 9 years (RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.16-0.52 at 3 years and RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.36-0.67 at 9 years). One study showed an increase of adverse effects with early androgen suppression therapy. All trials had substantial methodological limitations. Conclusions The data available suggest an improvement in survival and delayed disease progression but increased adverse events for patients with node-positive prostate cancer after local therapy treated with early androgen suppression therapy versus deferred androgen suppression therapy. However, quality of data is low. Randomized controlled trials with blinding of outcome assessment, planned to determine the timing of androgen suppression therapy in node

  13. Anatomical Variations in the Sinoatrial Nodal Artery: A Meta-Analysis and Clinical Considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Vikse

    Full Text Available The sinoatrial nodal artery (SANa is a highly variable vessel which supplies blood to the sinoatrial node (SAN. Due to its variability and susceptibility to iatrogenic injury, our study aimed to assess the anatomy of the SANa and determine the prevalence of its anatomical variations.An extensive search of major electronic databases was performed to identify all articles reporting anatomical data on the SANa. No lower date limit or language restrictions were applied. Anatomical data regarding the artery were extracted and pooled into a meta-analysis.Sixty-six studies (n = 21455 hearts were included in the meta-analysis. The SANa usually arose as a single vessel with a pooled prevalence of 95.5% (95%CI:93.6-96.9. Duplication and triplication of the artery were also observed with pooled prevalence of 4.3% (95%CI:2.8-6.0 and 0.3% (95%CI:0-0.7, respectively. The most common origin of the SANa was from the right coronary artery (RCA, found in 68.0% (95%CI:55.6-68.9 of cases, followed by origin from the left circumflex artery, and origin from the left coronary artery with pooled prevalence of 22.1% (95%CI:15.0-26.2 and 2.7 (95%CI:0.7-5.2, respectively. A retrocaval course of the SANa was the most common course of the artery with a pooled prevalence of 47.1% (95%CI:36.0-55.5. The pooled prevalence of an S-shaped SANa was 7.6% (95%CI:2.9-14.1.The SANa is most commonly reported as a single vessel, originating from the RCA, and taking a retrocaval course to reach the SAN. Knowledge of high risk anatomical variants of the SANa, such as an S-shaped artery, must be taken into account by surgeons to prevent iatrogenic injuries. Specifically, interventional or cardiosurgical procedures, such as the Cox maze procedure for atrial fibrillation, open heart surgeries through the right atrium or intraoperative cross-clamping or dissection procedures during mitral valve surgery using the septal approach can all potentiate the risk for injury in the setting of high

  14. Pathophysiological mechanisms of sino-atrial dysfunction and ventricular conduction disease associated with SCN5A deficiency: insights from mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L-H Huang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified mice provide a number of models for studying cardiac channelopathies related to cardiac Na+ channel (SCN5A abnormalities. We review key pathophysiological features in these murine models that may underlie clinical features observed in sinus node dysfunction and progressive cardiac conduction disease, thereby providing insights into their pathophysiological mechanisms. We describe loss of Na+ channel function and fibrotic changes associated with both loss and gain-of-function Na+ channel mutations. Recent reports further relate the progressive fibrotic changes to upregulation of TGF-β1 production and the transcription factors, Atf3, a stress-inducible gene, and Egr1, to the presence of heterozygous Scn5a inactivation. Both changes are thus directly implicated in the clinically observed disruptions in sino-atrial node pacemaker function, and sino-atrial and ventricular conduction, and their progression with age. Murine systems with genetic modifications in Scn5a thus prove a useful tool to address questions concerning roles of genetic and environmental modifiers on human SCN5A disease phenotypes.

  15. Computational analysis of the human sinus node action potential: model development and effects of mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabbri, Alan; Fantini, Matteo; Wilders, Ronald; Severi, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    We constructed a comprehensive mathematical model of the spontaneous electrical activity of a human sinoatrial node (SAN) pacemaker cell, starting from the recent Severi-DiFrancesco model of rabbit SAN cells. Our model is based on electrophysiological data from isolated human SAN pacemaker cells and

  16. Model clamp and its application to synchronization of rabbit sinoatrial node cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilders, R.; Verheijck, E. E.; Kumar, R.; Goolsby, W. N.; van Ginneken, A. C.; Joyner, R. W.; Jongsma, H. J.

    1996-01-01

    A method for coupling an isolated cardiac cell to a simulated cardiac cell, i.e., the real-time solution of a mathematical model of such cell, has been developed. With this "model clamp" technique, the real cell and the model cell are coupled by any desired value of intercellular coupling

  17. Ca²+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII activity and sinoatrial nodal pacemaker cell energetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Yaniv

    Full Text Available : Ca(2+-activated basal adenylate cyclase (AC in rabbit sinoatrial node cells (SANC guarantees, via basal cAMP/PKA-calmodulin/CaMKII-dependent protein phosphorylation, the occurrence of rhythmic, sarcoplasmic-reticulum generated, sub-membrane Ca(2+ releases that prompt rhythmic, spontaneous action potentials (APs. This high-throughput signaling consumes ATP.We have previously demonstrated that basal AC-cAMP/PKA signaling directly, and Ca(2+ indirectly, regulate mitochondrial ATP production. While, clearly, Ca(2+-calmodulin-CaMKII activity regulates ATP consumption, whether it has a role in the control of ATP production is unknown.We superfused single, isolated rabbit SANC at 37°C with physiological saline containing CaMKII inhibitors, (KN-93 or autocamtide-2 Related Inhibitory Peptide (AIP, or a calmodulin inhibitor (W-7 and measured cytosolic Ca(2+, flavoprotein fluorescence and spontaneous AP firing rate. We measured cAMP, ATP and O2 consumption in cell suspensions. Graded reductions in basal CaMKII activity by KN-93 (0.5-3 µmol/L or AIP (2-10 µmol/L markedly slow the kinetics of intracellular Ca(2+ cycling, decrease the spontaneous AP firing rate, decrease cAMP, and reduce O2 consumption and flavoprotein fluorescence. In this context of graded reductions in ATP demand, however, ATP also becomes depleted, indicating reduced ATP production.CaMKII signaling, a crucial element of normal automaticity in rabbit SANC, is also involved in SANC bioenergetics.

  18. Variaciones de la arteria del nodo sinoatrial en población colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yobany Quijano Blanco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. El conocimiento exacto de la integración anatomofisiológica del sistema de conducción del corazón, es fundamental para la comprender la fisiopatología, el diagnóstico y el manejo de muchas de las complicaciones de la enfermedad coronaria y de las cardiopatías en general. Uno de los aspectos fundamentales, más variable y con mayores repercusiones clínicas corresponde al origen y recorrido de las arterias encargadas de irrigar el nódulo sinoatrial. Objetivo. Determinar el origen, recorrido y distribución de las arterias que irrigan el nódulo sinoatrial en una muestra de población colombiana.  Material y métodos. La muestra de análisis fueron 60 bloques cardiopulmonares y digestivos seleccionados a través de muestreo por conveniencia. A estos se les realizó una disección convencional de los genitales para la determinación del sexo y posteriormente se procedió con la disección de las arterias coronarias específicamente de la arteria del nódulo sinoatrial, con el fin de establecer su origen y recorrido. Resultados. Como hallazgo principal se encontró que el origen de la arteria del nódulo sinoatrial en 75% provenía  de la coronaria derecha, un 15% procedía de la arteria circunfleja y el 10% restante fue codominante. En cuanto al trayecto 86,6% fueron lineales, mientras 13,4% tuvieron formas alternas como Y, doble Y o en tridente. Conclusiones. Se evidenció predominio del  origen de la arteria del nódulo sinoatrial en la coronaria derecha, hallazgo coincidente con investigaciones similares e independiente de la procedencia geográfica y el origen racial. Sin embargo, en este estudio se evidenciaron  recorridos no reportados en la literatura como la distribución en Y, en doble Y, en K invertida y en tridente.

  19. Estudo prospectivo das repercussões de baixas doses de remifentanil na função sinoatrial e na condução e refratariedade cardíaca Estudio prospectivo de las repercusiones de bajas dosis de remifentanil en la función sinoatrial en la conducción y refractariedad cardiaca Prospective study on the repercussions of low doses of remifentanil on sinoatrial function and in cardiac conduction and refractory period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Soares Leite

    2007-10-01

    recuperación del nódulo sino-atrial (p = 0,0004, del período refractario del atrio derecho (p = 0,001 y del período refractario del nódulo atrio ventricular (p = 0,0001, pero no hubo disminución de la frecuencia cardíaca basal entre M0 e M1. CONCLUSIONES: El remifentanil altero las variables electrofisiológicas cardíacas, lo que en dosis mayores que las estudiadas podría causar bradicardia sinusal, asistolia y disturbios de conducción.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Remifentanil is an opiod with fast onset of action and short acting, and its use in short-duration procedures has increased in the last few years. Bradycardia and asystole are among the side effects reported. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of this drug in cardiac conduction and refractory period in human beings. METHODS: A prospective study with 16 patients, ages 18 to 65, both genders, ASA I to III, undergoing elective intracardiac electrophysiological study, was undertaken. Patients with disorders of the sinoatrial node and those with severe cardiac blocks were excluded. In the laboratory of electrophysiology, patients were sedated with midazolam (0.03 mg.kg-1 after 5 minutes the degree of sedation and degree of pain, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation were evaluated. The electrophysiologist evaluated cardiac conduction (duration of the QRS complex, and AA, AH, HV, and PA intervals, duration of sinoatrial node recovery, and cardiac refractory period (refractory period of the right atrium, right ventricle, and atrioventricular node. After the initial measurements, remifentanil was administered (bolus of 0.5 µg.kg-1 + infusion of 0.05 µg.kg-1.min-1 and, after 20 minutes, the same parameters were evaluated. RESULTS: There was a reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.0001 between M0 and M1, and significant differences in respiratory rate and oxygen saturation, which were not statistically significant. The

  20. Sinus node dysfunction in ATX-II-induced in-vitro murine model of long QT3 syndrome and rescue effect of ranolazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjing; Cheng, Longxian; Lammers, Wim J; Wu, Lin; Wang, Xin; Shryock, John C; Belardinelli, Luiz; Lei, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the role of the late Na+ current (I(Na,L)) as a mechanism for induction of both tachy and bradyarrhythmias in murine heart and sino-atrial node tissue. The sea anemone toxin ATX-II and ranolazine were used to increase and inhibit, respectively, I(Na,L). In sixteen hearts studied, exposure to 1-10nM ATX-II caused a slowing of intrinsic heart rate and prolongations of the P-R and QT intervals, the duration of the monophasic action potential, and the sinus node recovery time, accompanied by frequent occurrences of early after depolarisations, delayed after depolarisations and rapid, repetitive ventricular tachy and sino-atrial bradyarrhythmias. ATX-II also slowed sinus node pacemaking, and induced bradycardic arrhythmias in isolated sino-atrial preparations (n=5). The ATX-II-induced alteration of electrophysiological properties and occurrence of arrhythmic events were significantly attenuated by 10 microM ranolazine in intact hearts (n=11) and isolated sino-atrial preparations (n=5). In conclusion, the I(Na,L) enhancer ATX-II causes both tachy and bradyarrhythmias in the murine heart, and these arrhythmias are markedly attenuated by the I(Na,L) blocker, ranolazine (10 microM). The results suggest that I(Na,L) blockade may be the mechanism underlying the reductions of both brady and tachyarrhythmias by ranolazine that were observed during the MERLIN-TIMI clinical outcomes trial.

  1. Node security

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    A practical and fast-paced guide that will give you all the information you need to secure your Node applications.If you are a developer who wishes to secure your Node applications, whether you are already using Node Security in production, or are considering using it for your next project, then this book will enable you to ensure security of your applications. An understanding of JavaScript is a prerequisite, and some experience with Node is recommended, though not required.

  2. Node cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Clements, David Mark

    2014-01-01

    In Node Cookbook Second Edition, each chapter focuses on a different aspect of working with Node. Following a Cookbook structure, the recipes are written in an easy-to-understand language. Readers will find it easier to grasp even the complex recipes which are backed by lots of illustrations, tips, and hints.If you have some knowledge of JavaScript and want to build fast, efficient, scalable client-server solutions, then Node Cookbook Second Edition is for you. Knowledge of Node will be an advantage but is not required. Experienced users of Node will be able to improve their skills.

  3. Diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT and whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging with background body suppression (DWIBS) in detection of lymph node and bone metastases from pediatric neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguchi, Hiroaki; Ito, Shinji; Kato, Katsuhiko; Sakurai, Yusuke; Kawai, Hisashi; Fujita, Naotoshi; Abe, Shinji; Narita, Atsushi; Nishio, Nobuhiro; Muramatsu, Hideki; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Naganawa, Shinji

    2018-04-17

    Recent many studies have shown that whole body "diffusion-weighted imaging with background body signal suppression" (DWIBS) seems a beneficial tool having higher tumor detection sensitivity without ionizing radiation exposure for pediatric tumors. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of whole body DWIBS and 18 F-FDG PET/CT for detecting lymph node and bone metastases in pediatric patients with neuroblastoma. Subjects in this retrospective study comprised 13 consecutive pediatric patients with neuroblastoma (7 males, 6 females; mean age, 2.9 ± 2.0 years old) who underwent both 18 F-FDG PET/CT and whole-body DWIBS. All patients were diagnosed as neuroblastoma on the basis of pathological findings. Eight regions of lymph nodes and 17 segments of skeletons in all patients were evaluated. The images of 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy/SPECT-CT, bone scintigraphy/SPECT, and CT were used to confirm the presence of lymph node and bone metastases. Two radiologists trained in nuclear medicine evaluated independently the uptake of lesions in 18 F-FDG PET/CT and the signal-intensity of lesions in whole-body DWIBS visually. Interobserver difference was overcome through discussion to reach a consensus. The sensitivities, specificities, and overall accuracies of 18 F-FDG PET/CT and whole-body DWIBS were compared using McNemer's test. Positive predictive values (PPVs) and negative predictive values (NPVs) of both modalities were compared using Fisher's exact test. The total numbers of lymph node regions and bone segments which were confirmed to have metastasis in the total 13 patients were 19 and 75, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, overall accuracy, PPV, and NPV of 18 F-FDG PET/CT for detecting lymph node metastasis from pediatric neuroblastoma were 100, 98.7, 98.9, 95.0, and 100%, respectively, and those for detecting bone metastasis were 90.7, 73.1, 80.3, 70.1, and 91.9%, respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity, specificity, overall accuracy, PPV

  4. Oxidized CaMKII causes cardiac sinus node dysfunction in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Paari Dominic; Purohit, Anil; Soni, Siddarth; Voigt, Niels; Singh, Madhu V.; Glukhov, Alexey V.; Gao, Zhan; He, B. Julie; Luczak, Elizabeth D.; Joiner, Mei-ling A.; Kutschke, William; Yang, Jinying; Donahue, J. Kevin; Weiss, Robert M.; Grumbach, Isabella M.; Ogawa, Masahiro; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Efimov, Igor; Dobrev, Dobromir; Mohler, Peter J.; Hund, Thomas J.; Anderson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Sinus node dysfunction (SND) is a major public health problem that is associated with sudden cardiac death and requires surgical implantation of artificial pacemakers. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms that cause SND. Most SND occurs in the setting of heart failure and hypertension, conditions that are marked by elevated circulating angiotensin II (Ang II) and increased oxidant stress. Here, we show that oxidized calmodulin kinase II (ox-CaMKII) is a biomarker for SND in patients and dogs and a disease determinant in mice. In wild-type mice, Ang II infusion caused sinoatrial nodal (SAN) cell oxidation by activating NADPH oxidase, leading to increased ox-CaMKII, SAN cell apoptosis, and SND. p47–/– mice lacking functional NADPH oxidase and mice with myocardial or SAN-targeted CaMKII inhibition were highly resistant to SAN apoptosis and SND, suggesting that ox-CaMKII–triggered SAN cell death contributed to SND. We developed a computational model of the sinoatrial node that showed that a loss of SAN cells below a critical threshold caused SND by preventing normal impulse formation and propagation. These data provide novel molecular and mechanistic information to understand SND and suggest that targeted CaMKII inhibition may be useful for preventing SND in high-risk patients. PMID:21785215

  5. Sinoatrial tissue of crucian carp heart has only negative contractile responses to autonomic agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hälinen Mervi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp (Carassius carassius cardiac activity varies according to the seasons. To clarify the role of autonomic nervous control in modulation of cardiac activity, responses of atrial contraction and heart rate (HR to carbacholine (CCh and isoprenaline (Iso were determined in fish acclimatized to winter (4°C, cold-acclimated, CA and summer (18°C, warm-acclimated, WA temperatures. Results Inhibitory action of CCh was much stronger on atrial contractility than HR. CCh reduced force of atrial contraction at an order of magnitude lower concentrations (EC50 2.75-3.5·10-8 M in comparison to its depressive effect on HR (EC50 1.23-2.02·10-7 M (P -8 M and 10-7 M CCh, respectively (P + current, IK,CCh, with an EC50 value of 3-4.5·10-7 M and inhibited Ca2+ current (ICa by 28 ± 8% and 51 ± 6% at 10-7 M and 10-6 M, respectively. These currents can explain the shortening of AP. Iso did not elicit any responses in crucian carp sinoatrial preparations nor did it have any effect on atrial ICa, probably due to the saturation of the β-adrenergic cascade in the basal state. Conclusion In the crucian carp, HR and force of atrial contraction show cardio-depressive responses to the cholinergic agonist, but do not have any responses to the β-adrenergic agonist. The scope of inhibitory regulation by CCh is increased by the high basal tone of the adenylate cyclase-cAMP cascade. Higher concentrations of CCh were required to induce IK,CCh and inhibit ICa than was needed for CCh's negative inotropic effect on atrial muscle suggesting that neither IK,CCh nor ICa alone can mediate CCh's actions but they might synergistically reduce AP duration and atrial force production. Autonomic responses were similar in CA winter fish and WA summer fish indicating that cardiac sensitivity to external modulation by the autonomic nervous system is not involved in seasonal acclimatization of the crucian carp heart to cold and anoxic

  6. Origem das artérias dos nós sinoatrial e atrioventricular em população do sul da Índia: um estudo angiográfico Origen de las arterias de los nódulos sinusal y atrioventricular en población del Sur de la India: un estudio angiográfico Origin of the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodal arteries in South Indians: an angiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Ramanathan

    2009-05-01

    the arterial dominance. RESULTS: The SA (sinoatrial node was supplied by the right coronary artery (RCA in 53% of the cases, by the circumflex (Cx branch of left coronary artery (LCA in 42.66%, and by both coronary arteries in 4.33% of cases. The AV (atrioventricular node was also more often supplied by the RCA (72.33% of cases than by the Cx branch of the LCA (27.66%, and surprisingly in none of the cases was this node supplied by both coronary arteries. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study may help cardiac surgeons, particularly in surgeries related to certain valvular disorders, due to the proximity of the nodal branches to the valve complex.

  7. Cycle length dependence of the chronotropic effects of adrenaline, acetylcholine, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the Guinea-pig sinoatrial node

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opthof, T.; de Jonge, B.; Schade, B.; Jongsma, H. J.; Bouman, L. N.

    1984-01-01

    Ca (1.1-5.5 mM) has a positive chronotropic action on isolated right atria of the guinea-pig. The magnitude of the response depends on the cycle length. Magnitude and cycle length dependence of the Ca response are independent of beta-blockade by propranolol. Mg (0.6-6.0 mM) has a negative

  8. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lymph node is positive for cancer has a therapeutic benefit for melanoma patients in terms of disease- ... being randomly assigned to immediate CLND or regular ultrasound examination of the remaining regional lymph nodes and ...

  9. Multiple node remote messaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Ohmacht, Martin (Yorktown Heights, NY); Salapura, Valentina (Chappaqua, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard (Esslingen, DE); Vranas, Pavlos (Danville, CA)

    2010-08-31

    A method for passing remote messages in a parallel computer system formed as a network of interconnected compute nodes includes that a first compute node (A) sends a single remote message to a remote second compute node (B) in order to control the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message. The method includes various steps including controlling a DMA engine at first compute node (A) to prepare the single remote message to include a first message descriptor and at least one remote message descriptor for controlling the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message, including putting the first message descriptor into an injection FIFO at the first compute node (A) and sending the single remote message and the at least one remote message descriptor to the second compute node (B).

  10. Modular sensor network node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jesse Harper Zehring [Berkeley, CA; Stark, Jr., Douglas Paul; Kershaw, Christopher Patrick [Hayward, CA; Kyker, Ronald Dean [Livermore, CA

    2008-06-10

    A distributed wireless sensor network node is disclosed. The wireless sensor network node includes a plurality of sensor modules coupled to a system bus and configured to sense a parameter. The parameter may be an object, an event or any other parameter. The node collects data representative of the parameter. The node also includes a communication module coupled to the system bus and configured to allow the node to communicate with other nodes. The node also includes a processing module coupled to the system bus and adapted to receive the data from the sensor module and operable to analyze the data. The node also includes a power module connected to the system bus and operable to generate a regulated voltage.

  11. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix.

  12. Melanoma Exosomes Enable Tumor Tolerance in Lymph Nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, Joshua L.

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma preferentially spreads via lymph nodes. Melanoma exosomes can induce angiogenesis and immune suppression. However, a role for melanoma exosomes in facilitating tumor tolerance in lymph nodes has not been considered. Herein, the hypothesis that melanoma exosome mediated induction of vascular endothelial cell (VEC) derived TNF-α results in lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) mediated tumor tolerance is explored. To support this hypothesis, experiments involving ex vivo lymph node associat...

  13. Variação nos tipos de irrigação do nodo sinoatrial em cães de diferentes raças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phelipe O. Favaron

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Considerando a heterogeneidade anatômica e eletrofisiológica do nodo sinoatrial para a geração e propagação do potencial de ação, bem como as particularidades relacionadas a origem da sua irrigação sanguínea, este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o comportamento das artérias envolvidas na irrigação do nodo sinoatrial em cães realizando uma análise descritiva e comparativa entre diferentes raças estudadas, detalhando a origem, o percurso e a ramescência dos vasos, assim como a eventual ocorrência de anastomoses. Ao todo analisamos resultados obtidos em 240 corações, os quais foram fixados em solução de formalina 10% e submetidos a diafanização de Spalteholz. A irrigação deste ocorre mediante colaterais oriundos do ramo circunflexo direito ou ramo circunflexo esquerdo, mostrando particularidades diferentes para cada raça. Assim, predominantemente, nas raças ora estudadas a irrigação arterial do nodo sinoatrial depende exclusivamente (63,6%, ou de anastomoses de colaterais da artéria coronária direita, havendo também participação dos ramo proximal atrial direito e intermédio atrial direito. Menos frequentemente (15,4% o suprimento sanguíneo ocorre exclusivamente por conta do ramo proximal atrial esquerdo, oriundo do ramo circunflexo da artéria coronária esquerda. Os dados aqui apresentados sobre a origem da irrigação sanguínea do nodo sinoatrial e a ramescência dos vasos envolvidos nesta tarefa representam conhecimento fundamental para o desenvolvimento da clínica-cirúrgica em cães, da patologia e trabalhos de natureza experimental.

  14. Deploying Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquali, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    If you are an intermediate or advanced developer deploying your Node.js applications, then this book is for you. If you have already built a Node application or module and want to take your knowledge to the next level, this book will help you find your way.

  15. Lymph node culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...

  16. Computational analysis of the human sinus node action potential: model development and effects of mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Alan; Fantini, Matteo; Wilders, Ronald; Severi, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    We constructed a comprehensive mathematical model of the spontaneous electrical activity of a human sinoatrial node (SAN) pacemaker cell, starting from the recent Severi-DiFrancesco model of rabbit SAN cells. Our model is based on electrophysiological data from isolated human SAN pacemaker cells and closely matches the action potentials and calcium transient that were recorded experimentally. Simulated ion channelopathies explain the clinically observed changes in heart rate in corresponding mutation carriers, providing an independent qualitative validation of the model. The model shows that the modulatory role of the 'funny current' (I f ) in the pacing rate of human SAN pacemaker cells is highly similar to that of rabbit SAN cells, despite its considerably lower amplitude. The model may prove useful in the design of experiments and the development of heart-rate modulating drugs. The sinoatrial node (SAN) is the normal pacemaker of the mammalian heart.  Over several decades, a large amount of data on the ionic mechanisms underlying the spontaneous electrical activity of SAN pacemaker cells has been obtained, mostly in experiments on single cells isolated from rabbit SAN. This wealth of data has allowed the development of mathematical models of the electrical activity of rabbit SAN pacemaker cells. The present study aimed to construct a comprehensive model of the electrical activity of a human SAN pacemaker cell using recently obtained electrophysiological data from human SAN pacemaker cells.  We based our model on the recent Severi-DiFrancesco model of a rabbit SAN pacemaker cell. The action potential and calcium transient of the resulting model are close to the experimentally recorded values. The model has a much smaller 'funny current' (I f ) than do rabbit cells, although its modulatory role is highly similar. Changes in pacing rate upon the implementation of mutations associated with sinus node dysfunction agree with the clinical observations. This agreement

  17. Instant node package module

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Juzer

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A practical exploration of the lifecycle of creating node modules as well as learning all of the top features that npm has to offer.Intended for readers who want to create their first node.js modules. The programming paradigm of JavaScript is not covered so a foundation in these concepts would be beneficial.

  18. Melanoma exosomes enable tumor tolerance in lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Joshua L

    2016-05-01

    Melanoma preferentially spreads via lymph nodes. Melanoma exosomes can induce angiogenesis and immune suppression. However, a role for melanoma exosomes in facilitating tumor tolerance in lymph nodes has not been considered. Herein, the hypothesis that melanoma exosome mediated induction of vascular endothelial cell (VEC) derived tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) results in lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) mediated tumor tolerance is explored. To support this hypothesis, experiments involving ex vivo lymph node associated VECs, LECs, dendritic cells and T lymphocytes are proposed based upon a previously established fluorescent exosome lymph node trafficking model. The implication of the hypothesis in the context of melanoma exosome mediated induction of tumor tolerance in lymph nodes is then discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Live and Dead Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehman; Jackson, A. D.

    2005-01-01

    a quantitative description of the empirical network composed of citations and references (in- and out-links) between papers (nodes) in the SPIRES database of scientific papers in high energy physics. We also demonstrate that the death mechanism alone can result in power law degree distributions for the resulting...

  20. Cancer and lymph nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or concerns about swollen lymph nodes or your cancer treatment. Alternative Names Lymph gland References Camp MS, Smith BL. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical Therapy . 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:592- ...

  1. Atrio-sinus interaction demonstrated by blockade of the rapid delayed rectifier current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijck, E. Etienne; Wilders, Ronald; Bouman, Lennart N.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Proper pacemaking of the heart requires a specific organization of the sinoatrial (SA) node. The SA node drives the surrounding atrium but needs to be protected from its hyperpolarizing influence, which tends to suppress pacemaker activity. It has been suggested that the hyperpolarizing

  2. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  3. Involved Node Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Aznar, Marianne C; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy...... to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. RESULTS: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field......, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7...

  4. Node web development

    CERN Document Server

    Herron, David

    2013-01-01

    Presented in a simple, step-by-step format, this book is an introduction to web development with Node.This book is for anybody looking for an alternative to the ""P"" languages (Perl, PHP, Python), or anyone looking for a new paradigm of server-side application development.The reader should have at least a rudimentary understanding of JavaScript and web application development.

  5. Abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis, atrial arrhythmogenesis and sinus node dysfunction in murine hearts modelling RyR2 modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmin eZhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available RyR2 mutations are implicated in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia thought to result from altered myocyte Ca2+ homeostasis reflecting inappropriate ‘leakiness’ of RyR2-Ca2+ release channels arising from increases in their basal activity, alterations in their phosphorylation, or defective interactions with other molecules or ions. The latter include calstabin, calsequestrin-2, Mg2+, and extraluminal or intraluminal Ca2+. Recent clinical studies additionally associate RyR2 abnormalities with atrial arrhythmias including atrial tachycardia, fibrillation and standstill, and sinus node dysfunction. Some RyR2 mutations associated with CPVT in mouse models also show such arrhythmias that similarly correlate with altered Ca2+ homeostasis. Some examples show evidence for increased Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation of RyR2. A homozygotic RyR2-P2328S variant demonstrates potential arrhythmic substrate resulting from reduced conduction velocity in addition to delayed afterdepolarizations and ectopic action potential firing. Finally, one model with an increased RyR2 activity in the sino-atrial node shows decreased automaticity in the presence of Ca2+-dependent decreases in ICa,L and diastolic sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ depletion.

  6. NRC/UBC Node

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis-Perry, B.; Yogendran, Y.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' In the search for cleaner, more sustainable energy sources, many of the most promising breakthroughs have been in hydrogen technology. However, this promise will remain unfulfilled without public interest and enthusiasm, and without the infrastructure to support the technology. In order to get there, we have to test, perfect, and demonstrate technology that is safe and affordable, and we must do so in practical, familiar settings. Ideally, such settings should be easily accessible to the engineers, planners, and architects of tomorrow while providing a showcase for hydrogen technology that will attract the general public. This place is the NRC/UBC Hydrogen Node. The UBC campus in Point Grey is home to leading edge, internationally recognized researchers in a range of disciplines, both within the University and at the NRC Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation. On average, 40,000 students, faculty, and staff use the campus every day; UBC graduates go on to leadership positions in communities around the globe. Its spectacular setting makes UBC a popular destination for thousands of visitors from around the world. In 2006 UBC will host the World Urban Forum, and in 2010 it will be one of the sites for the Vancouver-Whistler Olympic Games. UBC and its South Campus neighbourhoods are developing as a model sustainable community, offering an excellent opportunity to develop and showcase hydrogen infrastructure and technology in a real-life, attractive setting that will be seen by thousands of people around the world. UBC's facilities, location, and Trek 2010 commitment to excellence in learning, research, and sustainability make it an ideal location for such a project. The H2 Village at UBC will be an integrated hydrogen demonstration project, linked to the hydrogen highway. This project is bringing together leading companies, researchers, and government agencies committed to making the refinement and early adoption of safe hydrogen technology a reality

  7. Differences in sino-atrial and atrio-ventricular function with age and sex attributable to the Scn5a+/- mutation in a murine cardiac model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevaratnam, K; Zhang, Y; Guzadhur, L; Duehmke, R M; Lei, M; Grace, A A; Huang, C L-H

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the interacting effects of age and sex on electrocardiographic (ECG) features of Scn5a(+/-) mice modelling Brugada syndrome. Recordings were performed on anaesthetized wild-type (WT) and Scn5a(+/-) mice and differences attributable to these risk factors statistically stratified. Scn5a(+/-) exerted sex-dependent effects upon sino-atrial function that only became apparent with age. RR intervals were greater in old male than in old female Scn5a(+/-). Atrio-ventricular (AV) conduction was slower in young female mice, whether WT and Scn5a(+/-), than the corresponding young male WT and Scn5a(+/-). However, PR intervals lengthened with age in male but not in female Scn5a(+/-) giving the greatest PR intervals in old male Scn5a(+/-) compared with either old male WT or young male Scn5a(+/-) mice. In contrast, PR intervals were similar in old female Scn5a(+/-) and in old female WT. QTc was prolonged in Scn5a(+/-) compared with WT, and female Scn5a(+/-) compared with female WT. Age-dependent alterations in durations of ventricular repolarization relative to WT affected male but not female Scn5a(+/-). Thus, T-wave durations were greater in old male Scn5a(+/-) compared with old male WT, but indistinguishable between old female Scn5a(+/-) and old female WT. Finally, analysis for combined interactions of genotype, age and sex demonstrated no effects on P wave and QRS durations and QTc intervals. We demonstrate for the first time that age, sex and genotype exert both independent and interacting ECG effects. The latter suggest alterations in cardiac pacemaker function, atrio-ventricular conduction and ventricular repolarization greatest in ageing male Scn5a(+/-).

  8. Sentinel European Node Trial (SENT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilling, Clare; Stoeckli, Sandro J; Haerle, Stephan K

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Optimum management of the N0 neck is unresolved in oral cancer. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) can reliably detect microscopic lymph node metastasis. The object of this study was to establish whether the technique was both reliable in staging the N0 neck and a safe oncological procedure in p...

  9. Suppression chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Akio.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To miniaturize the storage tank of condensated water in BWR reactor. Constitution: A diaphragm is provided in a suppression chamber thereby to partition the same into an inner compartment and an outer compartment. In one of said compartments there is stored clean water to be used for feeding at the time of separating the reactor and for the core spray system, and in another compartment there is stored water necessary for accomplishing the depressurization effect at the time of coolant loss accident. To the compartment in which clean water is stored there is connected a water cleaning device for constantly maintaining water in clean state. As this cleaning device an already used fuel pool cleaning device can be utilized. Further, downcomers for accomplishing the depressurization function are provided in both inner compartment and outer compartment. The capacity of the storage tank can be reduced by the capacity of clean water within the suppression chamber. (Ikeda, J.)

  10. Smart Home Wireless Sensor Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per

    Smart homes are further development of intelligent buildings and home automation, where context awareness and autonomous behaviour are added. They are based on a combination of the Internet and emerging technologies like wireless sensor nodes. These wireless sensor nodes are challenging because....... This paper introduces an approach that considerably lowers the wireless sensor node power consumption and the amount of transmitted sensor events. It uses smart objects that include artificial intelligence to efficiently process the sensor event on location and thereby saves the costly wireless...

  11. Smart Home Wireless Sensor Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per

    . This paper introduces an approach that considerably lowers the wireless sensor node power consumption and the amount of transmitted sensor events. It uses smart objects that include artificial intelligence to efficiently process the sensor event on location and thereby saves the costly wireless......Smart homes are further development of intelligent buildings and home automation, where context awareness and autonomous behaviour are added. They are based on a combination of the Internet and emerging technologies like wireless sensor nodes. These wireless sensor nodes are challenging because...

  12. Immunolymphoscintigraphy for Metastatic Sentinel Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, A.H.; Nielsen, B.S.; Madsen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim. To develop a method and obtain proof-of-principle for immunolymphoscintigraphy for identification of metastatic sentinel nodes. Methods. We selected one of four tumour-specific antibodies against human breast cancer and investigated (1), in immune- deficient (nude) mice with xenograft human...... breast cancer expressing the antigen if specific binding of the intratumorally injected, radioactively labelled, monoclonal antibody could be scintigraphically visualized, and (2) transportation to and retention in regional lymph nodes of the radioactively labelled antibody after subcutaneous injection...

  13. Methodology of sentinel node detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maublant, J.

    2000-01-01

    The isotopic localisation of the sentinel node, i.e., the first functional lymph node in a tumor basin, is probably the fastest growing field ever experienced in nuclear medicine. Although based on the simple concept of the lymphatic migration of Tc-labeled colloids, the choice of the optimal technique remains controversial. We review and discuss the role of the colloids, of the site of injection, of the injected volume, of early imaging and of the colorimetric approach. Initially applied to melanoma and breast cancer, the sentinel node detection is now tested in other types of cancer such as lung, colon and prostate. It could become one of the leading tools in minimally invasive surgical oncology. The nuclear medicine physician has to remain aware of the rapid evolutions in this field in order to be able to answer to a rapidly growing demand. (author)

  14. Intraoperative Sentinel Lymph Node Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Richard; Christensen, Anders; Java, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    % of tumours. Discordance between different techniques indicated that OSNA was more sensitive than qRT-PCR or RNA-ISH, which in turn were more sensitive than IHC. OSNA results showed CK19 expression in 80% of primary cases, so if used for diagnosis of lymph node metastasis would lead to a false-negative result...... in 20% of patients with cervical lymph node metastases. CONCLUSIONS: OSNA in its current form is not suitable for use in OSCC SLNB due to inadequate expression of the CK19 target in all case. However, the same assay technology would likely be very promising if applied using a more ubiquitous squamous...

  15. Does the atrioventricular node conduct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Fisch, C.

    1989-01-01

    It is difficult to be certain wh en the term "conduction" was first applied to the transfer of atrial activation to the ventricles .' In 1894, Engelmann used the word "Leitung", which can be translated as "connection" or as "conduction" .2 In 1906, Tawara described the atrioventricular node,

  16. Node.js by example

    CERN Document Server

    Tsonev, Krasimir

    2015-01-01

    If you are a JavaScript developer with no experience with Node.js or server-side web development, this book is for you. It will lead you through creating a fairly complex social network. You will learn how to work with a database and create real-time communication channels.

  17. Critical nodes in signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniguchi, Cullen M; Emanuelli, Brice; Kahn, C Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Physiologically important cell-signalling networks are complex, and contain several points of regulation, signal divergence and crosstalk with other signalling cascades. Here, we use the concept of 'critical nodes' to define the important junctions in these pathways and illustrate their unique role...

  18. Secure message authentication system for node to node network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, R.; Vanitha, M. M.; Norman, J.

    2017-10-01

    The Message verification remains some of the best actual methods for prevent the illegal and dis honored communication after presence progressed to WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks). Intend for this purpose, several message verification systems must stand established, created on both symmetric key cryptography otherwise public key cryptosystems. Best of them will have some limits for great computational then statement above in count of deficiency of climb ability then flexibility in node settlement occurrence. In a polynomial based system was newly presented for these problems. Though, this system then situations delay will must the dimness of integral limitation firm in the point of polynomial: once the amount of message transferred remains the greater than the limitation then the opponent will completely improve the polynomial approaches. This paper suggests using ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography). Though using the node verification the technique in this paper permits some nodes to transfer a limitless amount of messages lacking misery in the limit problem. This system will have the message cause secrecy. Equally theoretic study then model effects show our planned system will be effective than the polynomial based method in positions of calculation then statement above in privacy points though message basis privacy.

  19. Sentinel node in colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoni, B.; Crosta, C.; Chiappa, A.; Bianchi, P. P.; Sonzogni, A.; Misitano, P.; Corbellini, C.; Veronesi, U.; Andreoni, B.; Chiappa, A.; Misitano, P.; Corbellini, C.; Senore, C.

    2009-01-01

    Treatment after 'complete' endoscopic polypectomy of a malignant polyp varies. The patient may undergo colon resection and lymphadenectomy with no evidence of disease at the final diagnosis (overtreatment?) or be offered the possibility of endoscopic surveillance only with a diagnosis of disease persistence after some time, which entails an apparent therapeutic 'delay' (undertreatment?). The choice between surgical radicalization and endoscopic follow-up after complete polypectomy of a malignant polyp is not based on scientifically-validated clinico-pathological proofs. The aim of this paper is to present the outlines of two studies: one on the choice between intensive surveillance or surgery after complete polypectomy of a malignant colorectal polyp (SEC=GISCoR) and one on the predictive value of sentinel node in staging early colorectal cancer. Should the studies prove the good predictive value of sentinel nodes in colon cancer and a satisfactory reproducibility of the technique, new management perspectives would open for patients with colon cancer. (authors)

  20. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... white blood cells that help fight illness. If breast cancer spreads, the lymph nodes in the underarm (called ... if they contain cancer cells. This helps determine breast cancer stage and guide treatment. Sentinel node biopsy and ...

  1. Node Activation with Polling Channel Access

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Long; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J

    2004-01-01

    ...) in which time slots are wasted when nodes selected for transmission have no packets to send, NAPA complements the election of nodes by means of polling and carrier sensing to use time slots allocated...

  2. CT perfusion study of neck lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jin; Liu Jun; Hua Rui; Qiao Hui; Gong Yi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT perfusion features of various lymph nodes in the neck. Methods: Dynamic perfusion CT scanning was performed in 83 neck lymph nodes proved by pathology, including tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes. The shapes, blood flow modes, and perfusion parameters of these lymph nodes were compared among 3 groups. Statistical analysis of L/T and CT perfusion parameters was performed by one-way ANOVA and LSD test. Results: The values of MTT of tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes were (28.13±5.08), (31.08±5.82), and (11.24±5.31) s, respectively. The MTT of metastatic lymph nodes was statistically lower than that of tuberculosis lymph nodes and lymphoma (P -1 · 100 g -1 , respectively. The values of BV were (24.68±2.84), (25.30±3.16), and (25.15± 8.81) ml·100 g -1 respectively. The values of TTP were (40.90±8.85), (40.67±6.45), and (40.98±6.62) s, respectively. There were no significant differences in L/T, BF, BV and TTP among tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes (P>0.05). Conclusion: CT perfusion, especially combination functional imaging with perfusion images may be helpful in judging the nature of neck lymph nodes. (authors)

  3. Online Movement Correlation of Wireless Sensor Nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Perianu, Mihai; Marin Perianu, Raluca; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Scholten, Johan

    Sensor nodes can autonomously form ad-hoc groups based on their common context. We propose a solution for grouping sensor nodes attached on the same vehicles on wheels. The nodes periodically receive the movement data from their neighbours and calculate the correlation coefficients over a time

  4. Kikuchi's disease of lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoon, Nadira; Haroon, Asna; Luqman, Muhammad; Jamal, Shahid

    2003-03-01

    To observe and document the clinical features, mode of presentation, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of Kikuchi's disease. An observational and descriptive study. Histopathology department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from January, 1997 to December, 2001. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Thirty-one cases of Kikuchi's disease of lymph node were diagnosed during the study period. Hematoxylin and Eosin stained slides were examined and histological features including extent of architectural effacement, zonation, extent of necrosis, and cellular composition were recorded. Special stains and immunohistochemistry was done. Kikuchi's disease was diagnosed in 31 cases (1.9%) out of 5762 lymph node biopsies received. There were 10 male and 21 female patients. Ten patients were aged between 21 and 25 years (33%). Eight (25.8%) patients were from pediatric age group. Thirty patients (96.4%) presented with cervical lymphadenopathy. Thirteen (41.9%) lymph nodes showed fragmentation, while 8 (25.8%) revealed perinodal spill. Seventeen cases (54.7%) showed more than 50% necrosis. Zonation was seen in 13 (41.9%) cases. Immunohistochemistry showed majority of cells to be histiocytes and T-lymphocytes. Eight cases were followed-up, all of which showed regression of symptoms over 4-8 months. Kikuchi's disease is an uncommon cause of cervical lymphadenopathy in young females. Necrotic areas, karyorrhexis, zonation, absence of neutrophils and predominance of histiocytes with many plasmacytoid monocytes are features that aid in diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry can be used to differentiate it from malignant lymphoma. It is important for clinicians and pathologists to be aware of this entity as it is a benign disorder with a self-limiting course.

  5. Pattern of Colon Cancer Lymph Node Metastases in Patients Undergoing Central Mesocolic Lymph Node Excision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Claus A; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Anders; Nielsen, Mingyuan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extended mesocolic lymph node dissection in colon cancer surgery seems to improve oncological outcome. A possible reason might be related to metastases in the central mesocolic lymph nodes. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of mesocolic lymph node...... metastases, particularly in central lymph nodes, and the risk of skip, aberrant, and gastrocolic ligament metastases as the argument for performing extended lymph node dissection. DATA SOURCES: EMBASE and PubMed were searched using the terms colon or colorectal with sentinel node, lymph node mapping, or skip...... node; lymph node resection colon; and complete or total and mesocolic excision. STUDY SELECTION: Studies describing the risk of metastases in central, skip, aberrant, and gastrocolic ligament lymph node metastases from colon adenocarcinomas in 10 or more patients were included. No languages were...

  6. Targeted Delivery of Immunomodulators to Lymph Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Azzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Active-targeted delivery to lymph nodes represents a major advance toward more effective treatment of immune-mediated disease. The MECA79 antibody recognizes peripheral node addressin molecules expressed by high endothelial venules of lymph nodes. By mimicking lymphocyte trafficking to the lymph nodes, we have engineered MECA79-coated microparticles containing an immunosuppressive medication, tacrolimus. Following intravenous administration, MECA79-bearing particles showed marked accumulation in the draining lymph nodes of transplanted animals. Using an allograft heart transplant model, we show that targeted lymph node delivery of microparticles containing tacrolimus can prolong heart allograft survival with negligible changes in tacrolimus serum level. Using MECA79 conjugation, we have demonstrated targeted delivery of tacrolimus to the lymph nodes following systemic administration, with the capacity for immune modulation in vivo.

  7. Node-pair reliability of network systems with small distances between adjacent nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, Jacek

    2007-01-01

    A new method for computing the node-pair reliability of network systems modeled by random graphs with nodes arranged in sequence is presented. It is based on a recursive algorithm using the 'sliding window' technique, the window being composed of several consecutive nodes. In a single step, the connectivity probabilities for all nodes included in the window are found. Subsequently, the window is moved one node forward. This process is repeated until, in the last step, the window reaches the terminal node. The connectivity probabilities found at that point are used to compute the node-pair reliability of the network system considered. The algorithm is designed especially for graphs with small distances between adjacent nodes, where the distance between two nodes is defined as the absolute value of the difference between the nodes' numbers. The maximal distance between any two adjacent nodes is denoted by Γ(G), where G symbolizes a random graph. If Γ(G)=2 then the method can be applied for directed as well as undirected graphs whose nodes and edges are subject to failure. This is important in view of the fact that many algorithms computing network reliability are designed for graphs with failure-prone edges and reliable nodes. If Γ(G)=3 then the method's applicability is limited to undirected graphs with reliable nodes. The main asset of the presented algorithms is their low numerical complexity-O(n), where n denotes the number of nodes

  8. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Temperature and Humidity Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper will provide a summary of the Node 1 ECLS THC subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for this subsystem.The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper will provide a summary of the Node 1 ECLS THC subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for this subsystem.

  9. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  10. Cytosolic calcium ions exert a major influence on the firing rate and maintenance of pacemaker activity in guinea-pig sinus node.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Anne Capel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The sino-atrial node (SAN provides the electrical stimulus to initiate every heart beat. Cellular processes underlying this activity have been debated extensively, especially with regards to the role of intracellular calcium. We have used whole-cell application of 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxyethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA, a rapid calcium chelator, to guinea pig isolated SAN myocytes to assess the effect of rapid reduction of intracellular calcium on SAN cell electrical activity. High-dose (10 mM BAPTA induced rapid and complete cessation of rhythmic action potential (AP firing (time to cessation 5.5±1.7 s. Over a range of concentrations, BAPTA induced slowing of action potential firing and disruption of rhythmic activity, which was dose-dependent in its time of onset. Exposure to BAPTA was associated with stereotyped action potential changes similar to those previously reported in the presence of ryanodine, namely depolarisation of the most negative diastolic potential, prolongation of action potentials and a reduction in action potential amplitude. These experiments are consistent with the view that cytosolic calcium is essential to the maintenance of rhythmic pacemaker activity.

  11. Localizing and placement of network node functions in a network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Meulenhoff, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The invention enables placement and use of a network node function in a second network node instead of using the network node function in a first network node. The network node function is e.g. a server function or a router function. The second network node is typically located in or close to the

  12. Sentinel Node in Oral Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tartaglione, Girolamo; Stoeckli, Sandro J; de Bree, Remco

    2016-01-01

    localization and estimated SN depth more efficiently. After pathological examination, 9.9% of the SN excised (138 of 1398 SNs) showed metastases. The first neck level (NL) containing SN+ was NL I in 28.6%, NL IIa in 44.8%, NL IIb in 2.8%, NL III in 17.1%, and NL IV in 6.7% of positive patients. Approximately...... 96% of positive SNs were localized in the first and second lymphatic basin visualized using lymphoscintigraphy. After neck dissection, the SN+ was the only lymph node containing metastasis in approximately 80% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Best results were observed using a dynamic scan in combination......PURPOSE: Nuclear imaging plays a crucial role in lymphatic mapping of oral cancer. This evaluation represents a subanalysis of the original multicenter SENT trial data set, involving 434 patients with T1-T2, N0, and M0 oral squamous cell carcinoma. The impact of acquisition techniques, tracer...

  13. [Cervical lymph node tuberculosis: diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaatar, R; Biet, A; Smail, A; Strunski, V; Page, C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the advantages of surgery for diagnosis and treatment of cervical lymph node tuberculosis. This was a retrospective study from 1st January 1998 to 31st December 2007 including 30 patients with cervical lymph node tuberculosis. The population included 60% autochthones with a mean age of 47.1 years and a female predominance (73.33%). The lymph nodes were most often supraclavicular, unilateral, firm, and a mean 3 cm at its largest span. Lymph nodes were excised for diagnosis in 22 patients, which demonstrated specific granulomatous and giant cell lesions with caseous necrosis in 21 patients out of 22. Five abscessed adenopathies required surgical drainage, and three cases required repeated lymph node cleaning after well-conducted medical treatment. Surgery retains an important place in the diagnosis and treatment of cervical lymph node tuberculosis.

  14. Gammascintigraphy of metastases of the lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, D.S.; Shishkina, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    It was indicated that according to the degree of informative value all the methods used in this study can be listed as follows: the method of combined use of positive and negative scintigraphy, the method of positive scintigraphy with Ga 67 -citrate (the tymph nodes above the diagram) and Tc 99 -pertechnate (the lymph nodes below the diaphragm), the method of indirect radionuclide lymphography with colloids. The main indices of radionuclide methods in the diagnosis of the lymph node metastatic involvement are presented

  15. The hidden sentinel node in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanis, P.J.; Sandick, J.W. van; Nieweg, O.E.; Rutgers, E.J.T.; Kroon, B.B.R.; Valdes Olmos, R.A.; Hoefnagel, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the occurrence of non-visualisation during preoperative lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification in breast cancer. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 495 clinically node-negative breast cancer patients (501 sentinel node procedures) after injection of technetium-99m nanocolloid. Anterior and prone lateral (hanging breast) planar images were obtained a few minutes and 4 h after injection. The sentinel node was intraoperatively identified with the aid of patent blue dye and a gamma-ray detection probe. A sentinel node was visualised on the 4-h images in 449 of 501 procedures (90%). This visualisation rate improved from 76% to 94% during the study period. Delayed imaging (5-23 h) in 19 patients whose sentinel nodes failed to show, resulted in visualisation in four of them. A repeat injection of radiocolloid in 11 patients revealed a sentinel node in six. In the end, the visualisation rate was 92%. The sentinel node was surgically retrieved in 24 of the remaining 42 patients with non-visualisation (57%). Sentinel nodes that were visualised were tumour-positive in 38% and non-visualised sentinel nodes were involved in 50% (χ 2 , P=0.17). In a multivariate regression analysis, scintigraphic non-visualisation was independently associated with increased patient age (P<0.001), decreased tracer dose (P<0.001) and increased number of tumour-positive lymph nodes (P=0.013). The use of a sufficient amount of radioactivity (at least 100 MBq) is recommended for lymphatic mapping in breast cancer, especially in elderly women. Delayed imaging and re-injection of the radioactive tracer increase the visualisation rate. The non-visualised sentinel node can be identified intraoperatively in more than half of the patients. (orig.)

  16. Lymph node cell responsiveness in BALB/C mice infected with Leishmania mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda A. Pérez

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured the blastogenic response of lymph node cells from BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania mexicana throughout the course of infection. Results showed that infected mice displayed normal blastogenic responses in the lymph nodes until twenty weeks of infection. Thereafter, there was a gradual suppression. Comparison of the immunoresponsiveness in the spleen and lymph nodes, revealed normal responses in the lymph nodes several weeks after suppression in the spleen had occurred. Suppression of blastogenic responses in the lymph nodes was related to an adherent macrophage-like cell which actively suppressed normal proliferative responses to mitogens.No presente trabalho medimos a resposta blastogênica de células de nódulos linfáticos de camundongos BALB/c inoculados com Leishmania mexicana, no decurso da infecção. Os resultados mostraram que os animais infectados exibem respostas blastogênicas normais nos nódulos linfáticos até vinte semanas depois da infecção. Daí por diante houve uma supressão gradual. A comparação da capacidade de resposta imunitária no baço e nos nódulos linfáticos mostrou respostas normais nesses nódulos várias semanas depois da ocorrência da supressão no baço. A supressão das respostas blastogênicas nos nódulos linfáticos estava relacionada a uma célula aderente de tipo macrófago, que suprimia ativamente as respostas proliferativas normais aos agentes mitogênicos.

  17. The complex network reliability and influential nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; He, Yongfeng

    2017-08-01

    In order to study the complex network node important degree and reliability, considering semi-local centrality, betweenness centrality and PageRank algorithm, through the simulation method to gradually remove nodes and recalculate the importance in the random network, small world network and scale-free network. Study the relationship between the largest connected component and node removed proportion, the research results show that betweenness centrality and PageRank algorithm based on the global information network are more effective for evaluating the importance of nodes, and the reliability of the network is related to the network topology.

  18. Computational Model of Rabbit SA Node Pacemaker Activity Probed with Action Potential and Calcium Transient Clamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Borren, Marcel M. J.; Zegers, Jan G.; Verkerk, Arie O.; Wilders, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    In the past decades, various computational models of the pacemaker activity of single sinoatrial (SA) nodal cells have been developed, building on data obtained in patch-clamp experiments on isolated SA nodal myocytes. These models show widely different results regarding the contribution of

  19. Penile Cancer: Contemporary Lymph Node Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jonathan S; Perera, Marlon; Manning, Todd; Bozin, Mike; Cabarkapa, Sonja; Chen, Emily; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2017-06-01

    In penile cancer, the optimal diagnostics and management of metastatic lymph nodes are not clear. Advances in minimally invasive staging, including dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy, have widened the diagnostic repertoire of the urologist. We aimed to provide an objective update of the recent trends in the management of penile squamous cell carcinoma, and inguinal and pelvic lymph node metastases. We systematically reviewed several medical databases, including the Web of Science® (with MEDLINE®), Embase® and Cochrane databases, according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The search terms used were penile cancer, lymph node, sentinel node, minimally invasive, surgery and outcomes, alone and in combination. Articles pertaining to the management of lymph nodes in penile cancer were reviewed, including original research, reviews and clinical guidelines published between 1980 and 2016. Accurate and minimally invasive lymph node staging is of the utmost importance in the surgical management of penile squamous cell carcinoma. In patients with clinically node negative disease, a growing body of evidence supports the use of sentinel lymph node biopsies. Dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy exposes the patient to minimal risk, and results in superior sensitivity and specificity profiles compared to alternate nodal staging techniques. In the presence of locoregional disease, improvements in inguinal or pelvic lymphadenectomy have reduced morbidity and improved oncologic outcomes. A multimodal approach of chemotherapy and surgery has demonstrated a survival benefit for patients with advanced disease. Recent developments in lymph node management have occurred in penile cancer, such as minimally invasive lymph node diagnosis and intervention strategies. These advances have been met with a degree of controversy in the contemporary literature. Current data suggest that dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy provides excellent

  20. Enhancement characteristics of retroperitoneal lymphomatous lymph nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagtvedt, Trond; Smith, Hans-Joergen; Kolbenstvedt, Alf [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Medicine, Univ. of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Aaloekken, Trond Mogens [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)], e-mail: trond.mogens.aalokken@rikshospitalet.no; Graff, Bjoern Anton [Div. of Diagnostics, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Drammen (Norway); Kongsberg Hospital, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Drammen (Norway); Holte, Harald [Dept. of Oncology, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    Background: Previous studies of CT enhancement of lymphomatous lymph nodes (LLN) of the neck and the mediastinum showed that the LLN had lower enhancement values than normal lymph nodes. Purpose: To elucidate the contrast medium enhancement curves of LLN in the retroperitoneum by comparing the curves of LLN with those of normal lymph nodes, to test whether differences between these curves could be of diagnostic value, and to compare the present enhancement curves of LLN of the retroperitoneum with the curves of LLN of the neck and the mediastinum from previous similar investigations. Material and Methods: Twenty-eight consecutive patients with LLN of the retroperitoneum (three with Hodgkin's lymphoma [HL]) and 21 control patients with sarcomas and thus presumably normal retroperitoneal nodes underwent dynamic CT examinations. The previous, similar investigation of lymph nodes of the neck comprised 28 patients with LLN and the investigation of mediastinal lymph nodes comprised 24 patients with LLN. Results: The enhancement curves of the retroperitoneal LLN had significantly lower attenuation than those of the retroperitoneal control nodes. A combination of peak contrast value and time to peak adjusted to total body weight yielded a diagnostic accuracy which at the best showed a sensitivity of 90.5% with a specificity of 82.6%. The LLN of the retroperitoneum had higher attenuation values than corresponding nodes of the mediastinum but no significant difference was found between LLN of the retroperitoneum and LLN of the neck in previous similar investigations. Conclusion: The comparison of enhancement curves of retroperitoneal LLN with retroperitoneal control nodes showed a marked similarity with and substantiates our previous findings in lymph nodes of the neck and of the mediastinum. The best diagnostic accuracy was achieved by combining the parameters peak contrast value and time to peak and adjusting these values to the body weight. Peak enhancement of the

  1. Localized Lymph Node Light Chain Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Dhakal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin-derived light chain amyloidosis can occasionally be associated with localized disease. We present a patient with localized lymph node light chain amyloidosis without an underlying monoclonal protein or lymphoproliferative disorder and review the literature of lymph node amyloidosis discussing work-up and risk factors for systemic progression.

  2. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of sentinel lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinWu Cui

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel lymph nodes are the first lymph nodes in the region that receive lymphatic drainage from a primary tumor. The detection or exclusion of sentinel lymph node micrometastases is critical in the staging of cancer, especially breast cancer and melanoma because it directly affects patient’s prognosis and surgical management. Currently, intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsies using blue dye and radioisotopes are the method of choice for the detection of sentinel lymph node with high identification rate. In contrast, conventional ultrasound is not capable of detecting sentinel lymph nodes in most cases. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with contrast specific imaging modes has been used for the evaluation and diagnostic work-up of peripherally located suspected lymphadenopathy. The method allows for real-time analysis of all vascular phases and the visualization of intranodal focal “avascular” areas that represent necrosis or deposits of neoplastic cells. In recent years, a number of animal and human studies showed that contrast enhanced ultrasound can be also used for the detection of sentinel lymph node, and may become a potential application in clinical routine. Several contrast agents have been used in those studies, including albumin solution, hydroxyethylated starch, SonoVue®, Sonazoid® and Definity®. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the use of ultrasound techniques in detection and evaluation of sentinel lymph node.

  3. The positional power of nodes in digraphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herings, P.J.J.; van der Laan, G.; Talman, A.J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Many economic and social situations can be represented by a digraph. Both local and global methods to determine the strength or power of all the nodes in a digraph have been proposed in the literature. We propose a new method, where the power of a node is determined by both the number of its

  4. Sentinel node biopsy in penile cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, J. K.; Krarup, K. P.; Sommer, P.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION & OBJECTIVES: Nodal involvement is a strong prognosticator in penile cancer and lymph node staging is crucial. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) has proven a useful staging tool with few complications, but evidence rely mostly on single institution publications with a short follow-up. In th......INTRODUCTION & OBJECTIVES: Nodal involvement is a strong prognosticator in penile cancer and lymph node staging is crucial. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) has proven a useful staging tool with few complications, but evidence rely mostly on single institution publications with a short follow......-up. In this study we estimated the diagnostic accuracy of SNB in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis and assessed procedure-related complications in a multicentre setting with long-term follow-up. MATERIAL & METHODS: Data was retrospectively collected from medical records by one medical doctor...... died from complications. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first complete national study on sentinel node biopsy. Penile cancer sentinel node biopsy with a close follow-up is a reliable lymph node staging and has few complications in a national multicentre setting. Inguinal lymph node...

  5. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Grupe, Peter

    2005-01-01

    AND METHODS: Forty patients (17 F and 23 M, aged 32-90) with 24 T1 and 16 T2 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Planar lymphoscintigraphy, emission and transmission tomography were performed. Detection and excision of the sentinel nodes were guided by a gamma probe. The sentinel nodes were step...

  6. Sentinel lymph node identification with magnetic nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouw, Joost Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Most solid malignancies have a tendency to spread through the lymphatic system to locoregional lymph nodes. Presence of metastasis is an important prognostic factor, and is used to determine the optimal treatment of the patient. The sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) receive direct lymphatic drainage from

  7. Dynamics of excitable nodes on random graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    emergence of different structural features as well as the level of dynamical activity supported on the network. Keywords ... dynamics of discrete excitable nodes and the rules of interaction between them are dis- cussed. ... if there is a connection between nodes i and j, the element Aij of the adjacency matrix A is. 1, else it is 0.

  8. Sentinel lymph node biopsy: clinical relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howman-Giles, R.

    2002-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become an important technique in the management of patients with intermediate level melanoma, clinical operable breast cancer and some other cancers. The technique relies on lymphatic mapping to define the lymph drainage from a primary tumour with the premise that the lymph nodes, which directly drain from that area, will reflect the tumour status of the remainder of the node field. Current techniques use lymphoscintigraphy where a radioactive labelled particle and / or blue dye are injected intradermally or intraparenchymally to map the lymph drainage, often in conjunction with a radioactive gamma probe at surgery. In patients with melanoma the SLNB has improved the staging and prognostic information by more accurate determination of whether regional lymph nodes have metastatic spread. This has a major impact on patient management as those patients with negative nodes do not require regional lymph node dissection and have a significantly better prognosis. In our experience of over 3000 patients the combined sentinel node biopsy technique localised accurately 98% of sentinel lymph nodes. Lymphoscintigraphy in patients with melanoma to locate the sentinel lymph nodes involves the intradermal injection of a radiocolloid around the melanoma site or the excision biopsy site. Injections of 5 -10 MBq in 0.05-0.1ml/inj are used and typically 4 injections are usually required. Following tracer injection dynamic imaging is performed to follow the lymphatic collecting vessels until they reach the draining sentinel nodes. An image should be acquired as the vessels reach the node field so that the sentinel nodes directly receiving the channels can be identified and distinguished from any second tier nodes which may sometimes be seen. Delayed scans are performed 2 hours later at which time all regions which can possible drain the primary melanoma site are examined with 5-10 minute static images. The surface location of all sentinel nodes is

  9. Diet-induced obesity causes visceral, but not subcutaneous, lymph node hyperplasia via increases in specific immune cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, A M; Regan, D P; Fouts, J K; Booth, A D; Dow, S W; Foster, M T

    2017-10-01

    The spatial proximity of adipose depots to secondary lymph nodes allows a unique relation between the two systems. Obesity, predominately visceral adiposity, links to numerous diseases; hence, we postulate that secondary lymphatics within this region contributes to disease risk. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed standard CHOW (18% kcal fat) or Western diet (45% kcal fat) for 7 weeks. Visceral and subcutaneous lymph nodes and associated adipose depots they occupy were excised. Lymph node morphology and resident immune cell populations were characterized via histopathology, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. Adipose tissue immune cell populations were also characterized. Obesity caused lymph node expansion, increased viable cell number and deviations in immune cell populations. These alterations were exclusive to visceral lymph nodes. Notably, pro-inflammatory antigen presenting cells and regulatory T cells increased in number in the visceral lymph node. Obesity, however, reduced T regulatory cells in visceral lymph nodes. The visceral adipose depot also had greater reactivity towards HFD than subcutaneous, with a greater percent of macrophages, dendritic and CD8 + T cells. Immune cell number, in both the visceral and subcutaneous, however decreased as adipose depots enlarged. Overall, HFD has a greater influence on visceral cavity than the subcutaneous. In the visceral lymph node, but not subcutaneous, HFD-induced obesity decreased cell populations that suppressed immune function while increasing those that regulate/activate immune response. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Incomplete differentiation of antigen-specific CD8 T cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargadon, Kristian M; Brinkman, C Colin; Sheasley-O'neill, Stacey L; Nichols, Lisa A; Bullock, Timothy N J; Engelhard, Victor H

    2006-11-01

    CD8 T cells lacking effector activity have been recovered from lymphoid organs of mice and patients with progressing tumors. We explored the basis for lack of effector activity in tumor-bearing mice by evaluating Ag presentation and CD8 T cell function in lymphoid organs over the course of tumor outgrowth. Early after tumor injection, cross-presentation by bone marrow-derived APC was necessary for T cell activation, inducing proliferation and differentiation into IFN-gamma-producing, cytolytic effectors. At later stages of outgrowth, tumor metastasized to draining lymph nodes. Both cross- and direct presentation occurred, but T cell differentiation induced by either modality was incomplete (proliferation without cytokine production). T cells within tumor-infiltrated nodes differentiated appropriately if Ag was presented by activated, exogenous dendritic cells. Thus, activated T cells lacking effector function develop through incomplete differentiation in the lymph nodes of late-stage tumor-bearing mice, rather than through suppression of previously differentiated cells.

  11. Transport optimization considering the node aggregation ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Li, Lian; Guo, Jiawei; Li, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Using the theories of complex networks and gravitational field, we study the dynamic routing process under the framework of node gravitational field, define the equation of gravitation of travel path to data package and introduce two parameters α and γ for adjusting the dependences of transmission data on the unblocked degree of node, the transmission capacity of node and the path length. Based on the path's attraction, a gravitational field routing strategy under node connection ability constraint is proposed with considering the affect of node aggregation ability to transport process, and a parameter is used to adjust the control strength of routing process to node aggregation ability. In order to clarify the efficiency of suggested method, we introduce an order parameter η to measure the throughput of the network by the critical value of phase transition from free state to congestion state, and analyze the distribution of betweenness centrality and traffic jam. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional shortest path routing strategy, our method greatly improve the throughput of a network, balance the network traffic load and most of the network nodes are used efficiently. Moreover, the network throughput is maximized under μ = -1, and the transmission performance of the algorithm is independent of the values of α and γ, which indicate the routing strategy is stable and reliable.

  12. Node Immunization with Time-Sensitive Restrictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Cui

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available When we encounter a malicious rumor or an infectious disease outbreak, immunizing k nodes of the relevant network with limited resources is always treated as an extremely effective method. The key challenge is how we can insulate limited nodes to minimize the propagation of those contagious things. In previous works, the best k immunised nodes are selected by learning the initial status of nodes and their strategies even if there is no feedback in the propagation process, which eventually leads to ineffective performance of their solutions. In this paper, we design a novel vaccines placement strategy for protecting much more healthy nodes from being infected by infectious nodes. The main idea of our solution is that we are not only utilizing the status of changing nodes as auxiliary knowledge to adjust our scheme, but also comparing the performance of vaccines in various transmission slots. Thus, our solution has a better chance to get more benefit from these limited vaccines. Extensive experiments have been conducted on several real-world data sets and the results have shown that our algorithm has a better performance than previous works.

  13. Point nodes persisting far beyond Tc in Bi2212

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Takeshi; Malaeb, W.; Ishida, Y.; Sasagawa, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Takeuchi, Tsunehiro; Tohyama, T.; Shin, S.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to a complex feature of antinodal state, suffering from competing orders, the pairing gap of cuprates is obtained in the nodal region, which therefore holds the key to the superconducting mechanism. One of the biggest question is whether the point nodal state as a hallmark of d-wave pairing collapses at Tc like the BCS-type superconductors, or it instead survives above Tc turning into the preformed pair state. A difficulty in this issue comes from the small magnitude of the nodal gap, which has been preventing experimentalists from solving it. Here we use a laser ARPES capable of ultrahigh-energy resolution, and detect the point nodes surviving far beyond Tc in Bi2212. By tracking the temperature evolution of spectra, we reveal that the superconductivity occurs when the pair-breaking rate is suppressed smaller than the single-particle scattering rate on cooling, which governs the value of Tc in cuprates. PMID:26158431

  14. Comparison between ultrasonography and MR imaging for discriminating squamous cell carcinoma nodes with extranodal spread in the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Ikuo; Sasaki, Miho; Kimura, Yasuo; Hotokezaka, Yuka; Eida, Sato; Tashiro, Shigeki; Sumi, Misa; Nakamura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic ability of ultrasonography (US) and MR imaging for discriminating squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) nodes with extranodal spread (ENS) in the neck. Methods: US and MR imaging was retrospectively evaluated for differentiating ENS-positive (n = 28) from ENS-negative (n = 26) SCC nodes (>10 mm short-axis diameter) in 50 patients with head and neck SCCs. We assessed nodal size on US and MR images; irregular nodal margin on US; and vanishing nodal border, flare, and shaggy nodal margin signs on T1-, fat-suppressed T2-, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR images, respectively. US and MR images were analyzed by 3 radiologists in consensus and the results were compared between ENS-positive and ENS-negative SCC nodes. Results: The nodal sizes of ENS-positive nodes (21 ± 9 mm) were significantly larger than those of ENS-negative SCC nodes (14 ± 4 mm) (p < 0.001). Irregular nodal margins were more frequently observed in ENS-positive SCC nodes (75%) than in ENS-negative SCC nodes (12%). The vanishing nodal margin, flare, and shaggy nodal margin signs were more frequently observed in ENS-positive SCC nodes (93%, 89%, and 82%, respectively) than in ENS-negative nodes (46%, 19%, and 19%, respectively). A combination of size (≥22 mm) and imaging criteria (irregular margin or flare sign) best discriminated ENS-positive SCC nodes with 82% sensitivity, 89% specificity, and 85% accuracy for US and 89% sensitivity, 81% specificity, and 85% accuracy for MR imaging. Conclusion: US discriminated ENS-positive from ENS-negative SCC nodes with comparable accuracy and higher specificity than MR imaging.

  15. Immunohistochemical study on roe deer haemal nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaydın Bozkurt, Yeşim; Karadağ Sarı, Ebru; Kabak, Murat

    2017-11-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical characteristics of the haemal nodes located in the abdominal and the thoracal cavity in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). In this study, two adult male and two adult female roe deers in addition to two roe deer foetuses at the late fetal stages were used. The avidin-biotin-peroxidase technique was applied to anti-CD3, anti-CD79αcy, anti-macrophage, anti-S100 primary antibodies. Positive results were gained for all the antibodies used. Many CD3 positive T lymphocytes were seen in the lymphoid tissue areas of the fetal haemal nodes, in the germinal center of the lymph follicles of the adult haemal nodes and in their lymphatic cords. CD79αcy positive cells were less in number while S-100 protein was positive in both lymph follicles and in sinuses of the adult haemal nodes. In fetal haemal nodes, positive reacting cells for S-100 protein were more in number in the sinuses. For the MAC387 primary antibody, there were positive macrophages seen in the capsule and trabecules of the haemal nodes, located denser in males. Macrophage cells in the lymphoid structures and granulocytes in the sinuses of the haemal nodes of both adults and fetuses reacted positive for MAC387. This study is the first one to define the detailed structural features immunohistochemically in the haemal nodes of the roe deer. Even it's concluded that the results were similar with the other ruminants, it's also pointed out that there are certain differences among the fetal, adult male and female haemal nodes of the roe deer.

  16. Defining nodes in complex brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lawrence Stanley

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Network science holds great promise for expanding our understanding of the human brain in health, disease, development, and aging. Network analyses are quickly becoming the method of choice for analyzing functional MRI data. However, many technical issues have yet to be confronted in order to optimize results. One particular issue that remains controversial in functional brain network analyses is the definition of a network node. In functional brain networks a node represents some predefined collection of brain tissue, and an edge measures the functional connectivity between pairs of nodes. The characteristics of a node, chosen by the researcher, vary considerably in the literature. This manuscript reviews the current state of the art based on published manuscripts and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of three main methods for defining nodes. Voxel-wise networks are constructed by assigning a node to each, equally sized brain area (voxel. The fMRI time-series recorded from each voxel is then used to create the functional network. Anatomical methods utilize atlases to define the nodes based on brain structure. The fMRI time-series from all voxels within the anatomical area are averaged and subsequently used to generate the network. Functional activation methods rely on data from traditional fMRI activation studies, often from databases, to identify network nodes. Such methods identify the peaks or centers of mass from activation maps to determine the location of the nodes. Small (~10-20 millimeter diameter spheres located at the coordinates of the activation foci are then applied to the data being used in the network analysis. The fMRI time-series from all voxels in the sphere are then averaged, and the resultant time series is used to generate the network. We attempt to clarify the discussion and move the study of complex brain networks forward. While the correct method to be used remains an open, possibly unsolvable question that

  17. Checkpointing for a hybrid computing node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-03-08

    According to an aspect, a method for checkpointing in a hybrid computing node includes executing a task in a processing accelerator of the hybrid computing node. A checkpoint is created in a local memory of the processing accelerator. The checkpoint includes state data to restart execution of the task in the processing accelerator upon a restart operation. Execution of the task is resumed in the processing accelerator after creating the checkpoint. The state data of the checkpoint are transferred from the processing accelerator to a main processor of the hybrid computing node while the processing accelerator is executing the task.

  18. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Funahashi, Toshihiro.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a structure which permits the absorption of shocks and vibratory load produced on the floor of a pressure suppression chamber due to nitrogen gas or the like discharged into pool water in the pressure suppression chamber at the time of a loss-of-coolant accident. Constitution: A pressure suppression chamber accommodating pool water is comprised of a bottom wall and side walls constructed of concrete on the inner side of a liner. By providing concrete on the bottom surface and side wall surfaces of a pressure suppression chamber, it is possible to prevent non-condensing gas and steam exhausted from the vent duct and exhaust duct of a main vapor escapement safety valve exhaust duct from exerting impact forces and vibratory forces upon the bottom and side surfaces of the pressure suppression chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  19. The role of driver nodes in managing epileptic seizures: Application of Kuramoto model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Ali; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Bakouie, Fatemeh

    2017-04-21

    Synchronization is an important global phenomenon which could be found in a wide range of complex systems such as brain or electronic devices. However, in some circumstances the synchronized states are not desirable for the system and should be suppressed. For example, excessively synchronized activities in the brain network could be the root of neuronal disorders like epileptic seizures. According to the controllability theory of the complex networks, a minimum set of driver nodes has the ability to control the entire system. In this study, we examine the role of driver nodes in suppressing the excessive synchronization in a generalized Kuramoto model, which consists of two types of oscillators: contrarian and regular ones. We used two different structural topologies: Barabási-Albert scale-free (BASF) network and Caenorhabditis elegans (C.elegans) neuronal network. Our results show that contrarian driver nodes have the sufficient ability to break the synchronized level of the systems. In this case, the system coherency level is not fully suppressed that is avoiding dysfunctions of normal brain functions which require the neuronal synchronized activities. Moreover, in this case, the oscillators grouped in two distinct synchronized clusters that could be an indication of chaotic behavior of the system known as resting-state activity of the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. phylo-node: A molecular phylogenetic toolkit using Node.js.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien M O'Halloran

    Full Text Available Node.js is an open-source and cross-platform environment that provides a JavaScript codebase for back-end server-side applications. JavaScript has been used to develop very fast and user-friendly front-end tools for bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses. However, no such toolkits are available using Node.js to conduct comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis.To address this problem, I have developed, phylo-node, which was developed using Node.js and provides a stable and scalable toolkit that allows the user to perform diverse molecular and phylogenetic tasks. phylo-node can execute the analysis and process the resulting outputs from a suite of software options that provides tools for read processing and genome alignment, sequence retrieval, multiple sequence alignment, primer design, evolutionary modeling, and phylogeny reconstruction. Furthermore, phylo-node enables the user to deploy server dependent applications, and also provides simple integration and interoperation with other Node modules and languages using Node inheritance patterns, and a customized piping module to support the production of diverse pipelines.phylo-node is open-source and freely available to all users without sign-up or login requirements. All source code and user guidelines are openly available at the GitHub repository: https://github.com/dohalloran/phylo-node.

  1. phylo-node: A molecular phylogenetic toolkit using Node.js.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Damien M

    2017-01-01

    Node.js is an open-source and cross-platform environment that provides a JavaScript codebase for back-end server-side applications. JavaScript has been used to develop very fast and user-friendly front-end tools for bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses. However, no such toolkits are available using Node.js to conduct comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis. To address this problem, I have developed, phylo-node, which was developed using Node.js and provides a stable and scalable toolkit that allows the user to perform diverse molecular and phylogenetic tasks. phylo-node can execute the analysis and process the resulting outputs from a suite of software options that provides tools for read processing and genome alignment, sequence retrieval, multiple sequence alignment, primer design, evolutionary modeling, and phylogeny reconstruction. Furthermore, phylo-node enables the user to deploy server dependent applications, and also provides simple integration and interoperation with other Node modules and languages using Node inheritance patterns, and a customized piping module to support the production of diverse pipelines. phylo-node is open-source and freely available to all users without sign-up or login requirements. All source code and user guidelines are openly available at the GitHub repository: https://github.com/dohalloran/phylo-node.

  2. Synchronizing compute node time bases in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Faraj, Daniel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip

    2015-01-27

    Synchronizing time bases in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes organized for data communications in a tree network, where one compute node is designated as a root, and, for each compute node: calculating data transmission latency from the root to the compute node; configuring a thread as a pulse waiter; initializing a wakeup unit; and performing a local barrier operation; upon each node completing the local barrier operation, entering, by all compute nodes, a global barrier operation; upon all nodes entering the global barrier operation, sending, to all the compute nodes, a pulse signal; and for each compute node upon receiving the pulse signal: waking, by the wakeup unit, the pulse waiter; setting a time base for the compute node equal to the data transmission latency between the root node and the compute node; and exiting the global barrier operation.

  3. Axillary node metastasis from primary ovarian carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti S Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasization and distinction from mammary carcinoma is of great clinical importance because of different treatment modalities. Here, we discuss a case of stage IIIC ovarian serous carcinoma, presenting with bilateral axillary nodes metastasis after 25 months interval of its initial presentation. Increased serum CA-125 level caused clinical suspicion. Computed tomography scan of abdomen and pelvis showed no residual disease or any abdominal lymphadenopathy. Mammography of both breast were normal. Bilateral axillary nodes were noted. Guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and biopsy of ovarian carcinoma to axillary node is a rare event. Its recogn done. Cytomorphology revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma, compatible to that of primary ovarian tumor. Thus, metastatic carcinoma to axillary node from ovary was confirmed. This case illustrates a rare metastatic presentation of ovarian carcinoma and unequivocal role of FNAC to provide rapid diagnosis and preferred to be first line diagnostic procedure.

  4. ARC Code TI: NodeMon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NodeMon is a resource utilization monitor tailored to the Altix architecture, but is applicable to any Linux system or cluster. It allows distributed resource...

  5. The association of exosomes with lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Joshua L

    2017-07-01

    Cells produce extracellular nanovesicles known as exosomes that transport information between tissue microenvironments. Exosomes can engage and regulate the function of various immune cell types facilitating both normal and pathological processes. It follows that exosomes should also associate with lymph nodes containing immune cells. Herein, data derived from investigations that incorporate experiments pertaining to the trafficking of exosomes to lymph nodes is reviewed. Within lymph nodes, direct evidence demonstrates that exosomes associate with dendritic cells, subcapsular sinus macrophages, B lymphocytes and stromal cells. Interactions with endothelial cells are also likely. The functional significance of these associations depends on exosome type. Continued investigations into the relationship between exosomes and lymph nodes will further our understanding of how exosomes regulate immune cells subsets and may serve to inspire new exosome based therapeutics to treat a variety of diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty in Painful Schmorl Nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masala, Salvatore; Pipitone, Vincenzo; Tomassini, Marco; Massari, Francesco; Romagnoli, Andrea; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    The Schmorl node represents displacement of intervertebral disc tissue into the vertebral body. Both Schmorl nodes and degenerative disc disease are common in the human spine. We performed a retrospective study, for the period from January 2003 to February 2005, evaluating 23 patients affected by painful Schmorl nodes, who underwent in our department percutaneous transpedicular injection of polymethylmethacrylate (vertebroplasty) in order to solve their back pain not responsive to medical and physical management. Eighteen patients reported improvement of the back pain and no one reported a worsening of symptoms. Improvement was swift and persistent in reducing symptoms. Painful Schmorl nodes, refractory to medical or physical therapy, should be considered as a new indication within those vertebral lesions adequately treatable utilizing Vertebroplasty procedure

  7. Intravital Microscopy of the Inguinal Lymph Node

    OpenAIRE

    Sellers, Stephanie L.; Payne, Geoffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    Lymph nodes (LN's), located throughout the body, are an integral component of the immune system. They serve as a site for induction of adaptive immune response and therefore, the development of effector cells. As such, LNs are key to fighting invading pathogens and maintaining health. The choice of LN to study is dictated by accessibility and the desired model; the inguinal lymph node is well situated and easily supports studies of biologically relevant models of skin and genital mucosal infe...

  8. Node self-connections in network metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura, Santiago

    2018-02-01

    Zamborain-Mason et al. (Ecol. Lett., 20, 2017, 815-831) state that they have newly proposed network metrics that account for node self-connections. Network metrics incorporating node self-connections, also referred to as intranode (intrapatch) connectivity, were however already proposed before and have been widely used in a variety of conservation planning applications. © 2017 The Author. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Uniform Strain Elements for Three-Node Triangular and Four-Node Tetrahedral Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohrmann, C.R.; Heinstein, M.W.; Jung, J.; Key, S.W.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1999-03-02

    A family of uniform strain elements is presented for three-node triangular and four-node tetrahedral meshes. The elements use the linear interpolation functions of the original mesh, but each element is associated with a single node. As a result, a favorable constraint ratio for the volumetric response is obtained for problems in solid mechanics. The uniform strain elements do not require the introduction of additional degrees of freedom and their performance is shown to be significantly better than that of three-node triangular or four-node tetrahedral elements. In addition, nodes inside the boundary of the mesh are observed to exhibit superconvergent behavior for a set of example problems.

  10. Dynamically reassigning a connected node to a block of compute nodes for re-launching a failed job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, Thomas A [Rochester, MN; Knudson, Brant L [Rochester, MN; Megerian, Mark G [Rochester, MN; Miller, Samuel J [Rochester, MN; Stockdell, William M [Byron, MN

    2012-03-20

    Methods, systems, and products for dynamically reassigning a connected node to a block of compute nodes for re-launching a failed job that include: identifying that a job failed to execute on the block of compute nodes because connectivity failed between a compute node assigned as at least one of the connected nodes for the block of compute nodes and its supporting I/O node; and re-launching the job, including selecting an alternative connected node that is actively coupled for data communications with an active I/O node; and assigning the alternative connected node as the connected node for the block of compute nodes running the re-launched job.

  11. International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System Keep Out Zone On-Orbit Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system performance can be impacted by operations on ISS. This is especially important for the Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) and for the Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS) subsystems. It is also more important for Node 1 since it has become a convenient area for many crew tasks and for stowing hardware prior to Shuttle arrival. This paper will discuss the current requirements for ECLS keep out zones in Node 1; the issues with stowage in Node 1 during Increment 7 and how they impacted the keep out zone requirements; and the solution during Increment 7 and 8 for maintaining the keep out zones in Node 1.

  12. Immunological aspects predicting metastatic sentinel lymph node in early breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordea, C; Bordea, M; Totan, A; Condrea, I; Voinea, S; Sandru, A; Plesca, M; Blidaru, A

    2012-12-15

    Tumour antigens are poorly expressed, heterogeneous and they modulate rapidly. As a result, their recognition and elimination by the immune system is very difficult. There are several mechanisms, by means of which, the host can neutralize oncogenesis and prevent it from occurring. The sentinel lymph node concept has brought about a revolution in the surgical treatment of the regional lymphatic basin while preserving the prognostic value of the regional lymph node status in breast cancer. This prospective study included 93 women with early breast cancer with initial indication for surgery in whom the sentinel lymph node technique was employed. Cell immune response was assessed prior to surgery by means of in vitro mononuclear cells blastic transformation assay (BLT), of immunoglobulin (Ig) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) measurements. The results were correlated with tumour size, presence of positive sentinel lymph node, tumour proliferation and growth markers (Ki-67, c-erbB2, bcl-2). Even in its less advanced stages, breast cancer is more aggressive and associates with an increased rate of sentinel lymph node metastases in patients below 50 years old, the tumour size exceeds 20 mm, with the presence of peritumoral lymphocytic infiltrate, positive Ki-67 and bcl-2, an alteration of T helper (Th) lymphocytes function, increased immune suppression through IL-2 decrease, signalled by blastic transformation indexes modifications and a drop in IL-2 production (p<0.01).

  13. Implementation of Multiple Host Nodes in Wireless Sensing Node Network System for Landslide Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Faizulsalihin bin; Takayama, Shigeru

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes multiple host nodes in Wireless Sensing Node Network System (WSNNS) for landslide monitoring. As landslide disasters damage monitoring system easily, one major demand in landslide monitoring is the flexibility and robustness of the system to evaluate the current situation in the monitored area. For various reasons WSNNS can provide an important contribution to reach that aim. In this system, acceleration sensors and GPS are deployed in sensing nodes. Location information by GPS, enable the system to estimate network topology and enable the system to perceive the location in emergency by monitoring the node mode. Acceleration sensors deployment, capacitate this system to detect slow mass movement that can lead to landslide occurrence. Once deployed, sensing nodes self-organize into an autonomous wireless ad hoc network. The measurement parameter data from sensing nodes is transmitted to Host System via host node and "Cloud" System. The implementation of multiple host nodes in Local Sensing Node Network System (LSNNS), improve risk- management of the WSNNS for real-time monitoring of landslide disaster.

  14. Menstrual suppression for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Anna Lea; Hillard, Paula J Adams

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent literature and emerging data describing clinical situations in which menstrual suppression may improve symptoms and quality of life for adolescents. A variety of conditions occurring frequently in adolescents and young adults, including heavy menstrual bleeding, and dysmenorrhea as well as gynecologic conditions such as endometriosis and pelvic pain, can safely be improved or alleviated with appropriate menstrual management. Recent publications have highlighted the efficacy and benefit of extended cycle or continuous combined oral contraceptives, the levonorgestrel intrauterine device, and progestin therapies for a variety of medical conditions. This review places menstrual suppression in an historical context, summarizes methods of hormonal therapy that can suppress menses, and reviews clinical conditions for which menstrual suppression may be helpful.

  15. Cryogenic Acoustic Suppression Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A proof-of-concept method utilizing a cryogenic fluid for acoustic suppression in rocket engine testing environments will be demonstrated. It is hypothesized that...

  16. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  17. In vivo and ex vivo sentinel node mapping does not identify the same lymph nodes in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Helene Schou; Bennedsen, Astrid Louise Bjørn; Burgdorf, Stefan Kobbelgaard; Eriksen, Jens Ravn; Eiholm, Susanne; Toxværd, Anders; Riis, Lene Buhl; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2017-07-01

    Identification of lymph nodes and pathological analysis is crucial for the correct staging of colon cancer. Lymph nodes that drain directly from the tumor area are called "sentinel nodes" and are believed to be the first place for metastasis. The purpose of this study was to perform sentinel node mapping in vivo with indocyanine green and ex vivo with methylene blue in order to evaluate if the sentinel lymph nodes can be identified by both techniques. Patients with colon cancer UICC stage I-III were included from two institutions in Denmark from February 2015 to January 2016. In vivo sentinel node mapping with indocyanine green during laparoscopy and ex vivo sentinel node mapping with methylene blue were performed in all patients. Twenty-nine patients were included. The in vivo sentinel node mapping was successful in 19 cases, and ex vivo sentinel node mapping was successful in 13 cases. In seven cases, no sentinel nodes were identified. A total of 51 sentinel nodes were identified, only one of these where identified by both techniques (2.0%). In vivo sentinel node mapping identified 32 sentinel nodes, while 20 sentinel nodes were identified by ex vivo sentinel node mapping. Lymph node metastases were found in 10 patients, and only two had metastases in a sentinel node. Placing a deposit in relation to the tumor by indocyanine green in vivo or of methylene blue ex vivo could only identify sentinel lymph nodes in a small group of patients.

  18. Prognostic significance of number of nodes removed in patients with node-negative early cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Siyue; Dong, Jun; Li, Sheng; Wang, Yiqi; Wu, Peihong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the number of removed lymph nodes was associated with survival of patients with node-negative early cervical cancer and to analyze the prognostic significance of clinical and pathologic features in these patients. Patients with FIGO stage IA-IIB cervical cancer who underwent radical hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy without receiving preoperative therapy were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were all proved to have lymph-node-negative disease and classified into five groups based on the number of nodes removed. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox's proportional hazards regression model were used in prognostic analysis. The final dataset included 359 patients: 45 (12.5%) patients had ≤10 nodes removed, 93 (25.9%) had 11-15, 98 (27.3%) had 16-20, 64 (17.8%) had 21-25, and 59 (16.4%) had >25 nodes removed. There was no association between the number of nodes removed and survival of patients with node-negative early cervical cancer (χ 2  = 6.19, P = 0.185). Similarly, subgroup analyses for FIGO stage IB1-IIB also showed that the number of lymph nodes was not significantly related to survival in each stage. Multivariate analyses showed that histology and depth of invasion were independent prognostic factors for survival in these patients. If a standardized lymphadenectomy is performed, the number of lymph nodes removed is not an independent prognostic factor for patients with node-negative early cervical cancer. Our study suggests that there is inconclusive evidence to support survival benefit of complete lymphadenectomy among these patients. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of thenodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarityof nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure toanalyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large...... university.Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with customdata collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The networkof social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructedfrom different channels of telecommunication as well as data...... might bepresent in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent inthe other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals atransition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively lowweight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest...

  20. SpicyNodes Radial Map Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, M.; Ligierko, G.; Angelov, I.

    2008-10-01

    The need for information has increased exponentially over the past decades. The current systems for constructing, exploring, classifying, organizing, and searching information face the growing challenge of enabling their users to operate efficiently and intuitively in knowledge-heavy environments. This paper presents SpicyNodes, an advanced user interface for difficult interaction contexts. It is based on an underlying structure known as a radial map, which allows users to manipulate and interact in a natural manner with entities called nodes. This technology overcomes certain limitations of existing solutions and solves the problem of browsing complex sets of linked information. SpicyNodes is also an organic system that projects users into a living space, stimulating exploratory behavior and fostering creative thought. Our interactive radial layout is used for educational purposes and has the potential for numerous other applications.

  1. Functional Testing of Wireless Sensor Node Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif M.; Madsen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are networked embedded computer systems with stringent power, performance, cost and form-factor requirements along with numerous other constraints related to their pervasiveness and ubiquitousness. Therefore, only a systematic design methdology coupled with an efficient...... test approach can enable their conformance to design and deployment specifications. We discuss off-line, hierarchical, functional testing of complete wireless sensor nodes containing configurable logic through a combination of FPGA-based board test and Software-Based Self-Test (SBST) techniques....... The proposed functional test methodology has been applied to a COTS-based sensor node development platform and can be applied, in general, for testing all types of wireless sensor node designs....

  2. [Radiotherapy in node-positive prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, D; Bartkowiak, D; Bolenz, C; Wiegel, T

    2016-03-01

    There are numerous randomized trials to guide the management of patients with localized (and metastatic) prostate cancer, but only a few (mostly retrospective) studies have specifically addressed node-positive patients. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding optimal treatment in this situation. Current guidelines recommend long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) alone or radiotherapy plus long-term ADT as treatment options. This overview summarizes the existing literature on the use of radiotherapy for node-positive prostate cancer as definitive treatment and as adjuvant or salvage therapy after radical prostatectomy. In this context, we also discuss several PET tracers in the imaging evaluation of patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. As for definitive treatment, retrospective studies suggest that ADT plus radiotherapy improves overall survival compared with ADT alone. These studies also consistently demonstrated that many patients with node-positive prostate cancer can achieve long-term survival - and are likely curable - with aggressive therapy. The beneficial impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival in patients with pN1 prostate cancer seems to be highly influenced by tumor characteristics. Men with ≤ 2 positive lymph nodes in the presence of intermediate- to high-grade disease, or positive margins, and those with 3 or 4 positive lymph nodes are the ideal candidates for adjuvant radiotherapy (plus long-term ADT) after surgery. There is a need for randomized trials to further examine the potential role of radiotherapy as either definitive or adjuvant treatment, for patients with node-positive prostate cancer.

  3. Simultaneous dual pathology in lymph node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakas Kumar Mandal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available [Abstract] Tubercuous lymphadenitis and Non Hodgkins’ Lymphoma are common in India. As both diseases can occur in elderly persons there is a definite chance of co-existence of both diseases; but that coexistence has not been reported. Here we present a unique case in an elderly woman who had synchronous double pathology of tuberculosis (TB and Diffuse Large B cell Lymphoma (DLBCL of the lymph nodes.     Key words:- lymph nodes, tuberculosis (TB, Diffuse Large B cell Lymphoma (DLBCL.

  4. Refining Nodes and Edges of State Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Snook, Colin

    2011-01-01

    State machines are hierarchical automata that are widely used to structure complex behavioural specifications. We develop two notions of refinement of state machines, node refinement and edge refinement. We compare the two notions by means of examples and argue that, by adopting simple conventions...... refinement theory and UML-B state machine refinement influences the style of node refinement. Hence we propose a method with direct proof of state machine refinement avoiding the detour via Event-B that is needed by UML-B....

  5. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Fukuda, Akira; Kitaguchi, Hidemi; Shimizu, Toshiaki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To relieve and absorb impact wave vibrations caused by steam and non-condensed gases releasing into the pressure suppression chamber at the time of an accident. Structure: The reactor container is filled with inert gases. A safety valve attached main steam pipe is provided to permit the excessive steam to escape, the valve being communicated with the pressure suppression chamber through an exhaust pipe. In the pressure suppression chamber, a doughnut-like cylindrical outer wall is filled at its bottom with pool water to condense the high temperature vapor released through the exhaust pipe. A head portion of a vent tube which leads the exhaust pipe is positioned at the top, and a down comer and an exhaust vent tube are locked by means of steady rests. At the bottom is mounted a pressure adsorber device which adsorbs a pressure from the pool water. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. Detection of sentinel nodes with radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Kinuya, Seigo; Konishi, Shota; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tonami, Norihisa [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes have been found to be an indicator of lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. In Japan, the theory and concept of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer have begun to be applied to carcinomas of the digestive system. Based on clinical experience in the detection of sentinel lymph nodes with radiopharmaceuticals, differences and similarities between the radiopharmaceuticals, methods, and techniques used to detect sentinel lymph nodes have been assessed in relation to breast cancer and carcinomas of the digestive system (including carcinomas of the esophagus and large intestine). The greatest difference between the methods used for breast and digestive cancers is the site of administration of the radiopharmaceutical. In breast cancer, the radiopharmaceutical is administered into a superficial organ (i.e., the mammary gland), whereas in carcinomas of the digestive system, it is administered into a deep organ (i.e., digestive tract). Another obvious difference is in lymph flow, i.e., the flow of the mammary glands is subcutaneous whereas lymph flow in the digestive tract is submucosal. Two radionuclide diagnostic methods are available to detect sentinel lymph nodes: sentinel lymphoscintigraphy with a gamma camera and a method that involves the use of a gamma probe intraoperatively. Radiopharmaceuticals used to detect sentinel lymph nodes must be smoothly transferred from the site of administration into the lymph, and uptake by the sentinel lymph node must continue for a long time without excessive flowing to lower reaches. The optimal particle size remains a matter of controversy, and no radiopharmaceuticals appropriate for lymphoscintigraphy have ever been approved in Japan. The authors compared the pharmacokinetics of three different radiopharmaceuticals used for sentinel lymphoscintigraphy in breast cancer ({sup 99m}Tc-labeled albumin, {sup 99m}Tc-labeled tin colloid, and {sup 99m}Tc-labeled phytic acid) and founded that the detection rate was

  7. Detection of sentinel nodes with radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Kinuya, Seigo; Konishi, Shota; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tonami, Norihisa

    2000-01-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes have been found to be an indicator of lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. In Japan, the theory and concept of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer have begun to be applied to carcinomas of the digestive system. Based on clinical experience in the detection of sentinel lymph nodes with radiopharmaceuticals, differences and similarities between the radiopharmaceuticals, methods, and techniques used to detect sentinel lymph nodes have been assessed in relation to breast cancer and carcinomas of the digestive system (including carcinomas of the esophagus and large intestine). The greatest difference between the methods used for breast and digestive cancers is the site of administration of the radiopharmaceutical. In breast cancer, the radiopharmaceutical is administered into a superficial organ (i.e., the mammary gland), whereas in carcinomas of the digestive system, it is administered into a deep organ (i.e., digestive tract). Another obvious difference is in lymph flow, i.e., the flow of the mammary glands is subcutaneous whereas lymph flow in the digestive tract is submucosal. Two radionuclide diagnostic methods are available to detect sentinel lymph nodes: sentinel lymphoscintigraphy with a gamma camera and a method that involves the use of a gamma probe intraoperatively. Radiopharmaceuticals used to detect sentinel lymph nodes must be smoothly transferred from the site of administration into the lymph, and uptake by the sentinel lymph node must continue for a long time without excessive flowing to lower reaches. The optimal particle size remains a matter of controversy, and no radiopharmaceuticals appropriate for lymphoscintigraphy have ever been approved in Japan. The authors compared the pharmacokinetics of three different radiopharmaceuticals used for sentinel lymphoscintigraphy in breast cancer ( 99m Tc-labeled albumin, 99m Tc-labeled tin colloid, and 99m Tc-labeled phytic acid) and founded that the detection rate was lowest with

  8. Thyroxin hormone suppression treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the important modalities of treatment of thyroid cancer (TC) after surgery is the administration of thyroxin as an adjuvant treatment. The analysis supports the theory that thyroid suppression plays an important role in patient management. 300 μg of thyroxin, as this is an adequate dose for suppression is given. Ideally the dose should be tailored by testing s-TSH levels. However, since a large number of the patients come from out station cities and villages this is impractical. We therefore depend on clinical criteria of hyperthyroid symptoms and adjust the dose. Very few patients need such adjustment

  9. Perillyl alcohol suppresses antigen-induced immune responses in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Oh; Okunishi, Katsuhide; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Harada, Hiroaki; Kawahata, Kimito; Tanaka, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Dohi, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Perillyl alcohol (POH) is an isoprenoid which inhibits the mevalonate pathway. •We examined whether POH suppresses immune responses with a mouse model of asthma. •POH treatment during sensitization suppressed Ag-induced priming of CD4 + T cells. •POH suppressed airway eosinophila and cytokine production in thoracic lymph nodes. -- Abstract: Perillyl alcohol (POH) is an isoprenoid which inhibits farnesyl transferase and geranylgeranyl transferase, key enzymes that induce conformational and functional changes in small G proteins to conduct signal production for cell proliferation. Thus, it has been tried for the treatment of cancers. However, although it affects the proliferation of immunocytes, its influence on immune responses has been examined in only a few studies. Notably, its effect on antigen-induced immune responses has not been studied. In this study, we examined whether POH suppresses Ag-induced immune responses with a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. POH treatment of sensitized mice suppressed proliferation and cytokine production in Ag-stimulated spleen cells or CD4 + T cells. Further, sensitized mice received aerosolized OVA to induce allergic airway inflammation, and some mice received POH treatment. POH significantly suppressed indicators of allergic airway inflammation such as airway eosinophilia. Cytokine production in thoracic lymph nodes was also significantly suppressed. These results demonstrate that POH suppresses antigen-induced immune responses in the lung. Considering that it exists naturally, POH could be a novel preventive or therapeutic option for immunologic lung disorders such as asthma with minimal side effects

  10. Sentinel node detection by lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel lymph node biopsy in vulvar melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trifiro, Giuseppe; Travaini, Laura L.; Pacifici, Monica; Vertua, Andrea; Paganelli, Giovanni; Sanvito, Francesca; Sideri, Mario G.; Mallia, Andrew; Ferrari, Mahila E.; Maggioni, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Vulvar melanoma is a rare malignant tumour. Its surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment whilst the surgical management of regional lymph nodes remains controversial; on the contrary elective inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy causes considerable morbidity. Lymphoscintigraphy (LS) and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) are accurate staging procedures of lymph node status in breast cancer and cutaneous melanoma patients. In this retrospective paper we report our experience of LS and SLNB in vulvar melanoma patients. Twenty-two consecutive patients with a diagnosis of vulvar melanoma were treated at our institute: patients with clinically positive groin nodes or with previous surgery on the primary tumour were excluded. Twelve were selected for our analysis. All patients underwent sentinel lymph node localization with LS the day before surgery and the surgical procedure of SLNB associated with radical surgery. Six patients had metastatic SLNB and in five of six (83.3%) it was the only positive node. In the other six patients SLNB was negative for metastatic disease. No skip metastases were observed. In SLNB negative patients the mean Breslow thickness was 2.06 mm (range: 0.60-7.10) and only one patient showed a high Breslow thickness (patient 8). In SLNB positive patients the mean Breslow thickness was 4.33 mm (1.8-6.0). Our data indicate that, even in vulvar melanoma, the sentinel lymph node pathological status predicts the pathological status of the remaining groin nodes and suggests that elective groin dissection can be spared in cases of a negative SLNB. Breslow thickness (<1 mm) was not predictive of negative nodes. (orig.)

  11. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Mollgaard

    Full Text Available The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships.

  12. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    M.S. (SYD.) Department of Surgery, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. General Surgery. TABLE I. CHARACTERISTICS OF CANCERS AND LYMPH. NODES. Primary tumour ... The 3 cases of dye failure illustrate the problems encountered with this ... undergone cosmetic surgery, ID injection of dye into the skin.

  13. Functional morphology of the mammalian sinuatrial node

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opthof, T.; de Jonge, B.; Jongsma, H. J.; Bouman, L. N.

    1987-01-01

    The primary pacemaker area is located at the site with lowest percentage of myofilaments and the highest rate of diastolic depolarization in rabbit, guinea-pig, cat and pig. All investigated sinuatrial nodes contained large amounts, 45% or more, of collagen. There was, however, substantially more

  14. Groin surgery and the sentinel lymph node

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hullu, JA; van der Zee, AGJ

    Vulvar cancer is a rare disease. Squamous-cell carcinomas account for 90% of vulvar cancers. The main mode of spread is lymphogenic to the inguinofemoral lymph nodes. Therefore, elective unior bilateral inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy is part of the standard treatment in combination with radical

  15. Node-based analysis of species distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Rahbek, Carsten; Fjeldså, Jon

    2014-01-01

    with case studies on two groups with well-described biogeographical histories: a local-scale community data set of hummingbirds in the North Andes, and a large-scale data set of the distribution of all species of New World flycatchers. The node-based analysis of these two groups generates a set...

  16. Penile lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Olmos, R.A.; Hoefnagel, C.A. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Tanis, P.J.; Jansen, L.; Nieweg, O.E. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Surgery; Meinhardt, W.; Horenblas, S. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Urology

    2001-05-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node (SN) identification has been extensively validated in breast cancer and melanoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the findings of lymphoscintigraphy for SN identification in carcinoma of the penis. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 74 consecutive patients (mean age 62.2 years, range 28-87 years) with clinically lymph node-negative squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (stage T2 or greater). Following local anaesthesia by xy-locaine 10% spray, technetium-99m nanocolloid (mean dose 64.8 MBq, range 40-131 MBq) in a volume of 0.3-0.4 ml was injected intradermally around the tumour. Shortly after injection, a 20-min dynamic study was performed with a dual-head gamma camera; subsequently, static anterior and lateral images were obtained at 30 min and 2 h using simultaneous cobalt-57 flood source transmission scanning. {sup 57}Co-assisted skin marking defined SN location for gamma probe/blue dye-guided biopsy, which was performed the next day. The SN visualization rate was 97% (72/74). Lymphatic drainage was bilateral in 81% of the cases (58/72), exclusively to the left groin in 13% (9/72) and only to the right groin in 6%. Bilateral lymph node drainage was synchronous in 38% (22/58) and asynchronous in 62% (in 18 patients the initial route was the left groin, and in the other 18, the right groin). Visualization before 30 min occurred in 66 patients (93%), in 64 of them (88%) already during the dynamic study. A total of 173 SNs were visualized (85 in the right groin, 88 in the left groin). Pitfalls were caused by inguinal skin contamination during injection (four patients) and intracavernous administration (one patient). At surgery, a total of 161 SNs were identified and removed. Sixteen patients (22%) had a tumour-positive SN and underwent standard regional lymph node dissection subsequently. During follow-up (median 28 months, range 3-74 months), two patients with a negative SN developed lymph node metastases in the mapped

  17. Plasma suppression of beamstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, A.M.; Stewart, J.J.; Yu, S.S.

    1988-06-01

    We investigate the use of a plasma at the interaction point of two colliding beams to suppress beamsstrahlung and related phenomena. We derive conditions for good current cancellation via plasma return currents and report on numerical simulations conducted to confirm our analytic results. 10 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Mining Important Nodes in Directed Weighted Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In complex networks, mining important nodes has been a matter of concern by scholars. In recent years, scholars have focused on mining important nodes in undirected unweighted complex networks. But most of the methods are not applicable to directed weighted complex networks. Therefore, this paper proposes a Two-Way-PageRank method based on PageRank for further discussion of mining important nodes in directed weighted complex networks. We have mainly considered the frequency of contact between nodes and the length of time of contact between nodes. We have considered the source of the nodes (in-degree and the whereabouts of the nodes (out-degree simultaneously. We have given node important performance indicators. Through numerical examples, we analyze the impact of variation of some parameters on node important performance indicators. Finally, the paper has verified the accuracy and validity of the method through empirical network data.

  19. Arm lymphoscintigraphy after axillary lymph node dissection or sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarri AJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Almir José Sarri,1 Rogério Dias,2 Carla Elaine Laurienzo,1 Mônica Carboni Pereira Gonçalves,3 Daniel Spadoto Dias,2 Sonia Marta Moriguchi4 1Department of Physical Therapy, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, 2Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Mastology, Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University – UNESP, Botucatu, 3Department of Nuclear Medicine, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, 4Department of Tropical Diseases and Diagnostic Imaging, Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University – UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil Purpose: Compare the lymphatic flow in the arm after breast cancer surgery and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND versus sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB using lymphoscintigraphy (LS.Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study with 39 women >18 years who underwent surgical treatment for unilateral breast cancer and manipulation of the axillary lymph node chain through either ALND or SLNB, with subsequent comparison of the lymphatic flow of the arm by LS. The variables analyzed were the area reached by the lymphatic flow in the upper limb and the sites and number of lymph nodes identified in the ALND or SLNB groups visualized in the three phases of LS acquisition (immediate dynamic and static images, delayed scan images. For all analyses, the level of significance was set at 5%.Results: There was a significant difference between the ALND and SLNB groups, with predominant visualization of lymphatic flow and/or lymph nodes in the arm and axilla (P=0.01 and extra-axillary lymph nodes (P<0.01 in the ALND group. There was no significant difference in the total number of lymph nodes identified between the two groups. However, there was a significant difference in the distribution of lymph nodes in these groups. The cubital lymph node was more often visualized in the immediate dynamic images in the ALND group (P=0.004, while the axillary lymph nodes were more often identified in the delayed scan

  20. Mitigating RF Front-End Nonlinearity of Sensor Nodes to Enhance Spectrum Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive radio wireless sensor network (CR-WSN has gained worldwide attention in recent years for its potential applications. Reliable spectrum sensing is the premise for opportunistic access to sensor nodes. However, as a result of the radio frequency (RF front-end nonlinearity of sensor nodes, distortion products can easily degrade the spectrum sensing performance by causing false alarms and degrading the detection probability. Given the limitations of the widely-used adaptive interference cancellation (AIC algorithm, this paper develops several details to avoid these limitations and form a new mitigation architecture to alleviate nonlinear distortions. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, verification tests for both simulations and actual RF front-end measurements are presented and discussed. The obtained results show that distortions can be suppressed significantly, thus improving the reliability of spectrum sensing. Moreover, compared to AIC, the proposed algorithm clearly shows better performance, especially at the band edges of the interferer signal.

  1. Beginning Amazon Web Services with Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Shackelford, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Beginning Amazon Web Services with Node.js teaches any novice Node.js developer to configure, deploy, and maintain scalable small to large scale Node.js applications in Amazon Web Services. Hosting a Node.js application in a production environment usually means turning to PaaS hosting, but this approach brings problems. Deploying Node.js directly to AWS solves the problems you encounter in these situations, enabling you to cut out the middle man. You will begin with a basic RESTful web service in Node.js, using the popular Express.js framework, pre-built and ready to run in your local env

  2. Incessant atrio-ventricular node reentrant tachycardia induced by unapparent dual atrio-ventricular node conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, Philippe; Detis, Nicolas; Duparc, Alexandre; Mondoly, Pierre; Rollin, Anne; Delay, Marc

    2013-04-01

    We present the case of a patient with incessant slow-fast atrio-ventricular (AV) node reentrant tachycardia induced by dual AV node conduction with aborted conduction to the ventricles. The unapparent conduction over the slow pathway was suspected here because of spontaneous nodal echoes without QRS complexes occurring during sinus rhythm, manifested as isolated premature atrial beats and which repetitively induced the tachycardia. ©2012, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. In vivo and ex vivo sentinel node mapping does not identify the same lymph nodes in colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helene Schou; Bennedsen, Astrid Louise Bjørn; Burgdorf, Stefan Kobbelgaard

    2017-01-01

    sentinel node mapping in vivo with indocyanine green and ex vivo with methylene blue in order to evaluate if the sentinel lymph nodes can be identified by both techniques. METHODS: Patients with colon cancer UICC stage I-III were included from two institutions in Denmark from February 2015 to January 2016....... In vivo sentinel node mapping with indocyanine green during laparoscopy and ex vivo sentinel node mapping with methylene blue were performed in all patients. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients were included. The in vivo sentinel node mapping was successful in 19 cases, and ex vivo sentinel node mapping...... mapping. Lymph node metastases were found in 10 patients, and only two had metastases in a sentinel node. CONCLUSION: Placing a deposit in relation to the tumor by indocyanine green in vivo or of methylene blue ex vivo could only identify sentinel lymph nodes in a small group of patients....

  4. J/Ψ suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubellino, P.; Abreu, M.C.; Alessandro, B.; Alexa, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Astruc, J.; Atayan, M.; Baglin, C.; Baldit, A.; Bedjidian, M.; Bellaiche, F.; Beole, S.; Boldea, V.; Bordalo, P.; Bussiere, A.; Capony, V.; Casagrande, L.; Castor, J.; Chambon, T.; Chaurand, B.; Chevrot, I.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constantinescu, S.; Cruz, J.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Drapier, O.; Espagnon, B.; Fargeix, J.; Filippov, S.N.; Fleuret, F.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gavrilov, Y.K.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gonin, M.; Grigorian, A.A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkaninan, H.; Hakobyan, R.; Haroutunian, R.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavitcheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kurepin, A.B.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lourenco, C.; Mac Cormick, M.; Macciotta, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mourgues, S.; Musso, A.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prado da Silva, W.L.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Racca, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Rato-Mendes, P.; Riccati, L.; Romana, A.; Sartori, S.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Silva, S.; Soave, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Temnikov, P.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.; Vale, C.; Vercellin, E.; Willis, N.

    1999-01-01

    The cross section for J/Ψ production in Pb-Pb interactions at 158 GeV per nucleon is measured at the CERN SPS by the NA50 experiment. The final results from the 1995 run are presented here together with preliminary ones from the high-statistics 1996 run. An anomalous J/Ψ suppression is observed in Pb-Pb collisions as compared to extrapolations of the previous results obtained by the NA38 experiment with proton and lighter ion beams. The results of the two runs are in good agreement. The results from the 1996 run allow the study of the onset of the anomalous suppression within the same set of data, showing evidence of a sharp change of behaviour around a value of neutral transverse energy, as measured by our electromagnetic calorimeter, of about 50 GeV

  5. Towards Interactive, Incremental Programming of ROS Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Marian Sorin; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    Writing software for controlling robots is a complex task, usually demanding command of many programming languages and requiring significant experimentation. We believe that a bottom-up development process that complements traditional component- and MDSD-based approaches can facilitate experiment......Writing software for controlling robots is a complex task, usually demanding command of many programming languages and requiring significant experimentation. We believe that a bottom-up development process that complements traditional component- and MDSD-based approaches can facilitate...... experimentation. We propose the use of an internal DSL providing both a tool to interactively create ROS nodes and a behaviour-replacement mechanism to interactively reshape existing ROS nodes by wrapping the external interfaces (the publish/subscribe topics), dynamically controlled using the Python command line...

  6. Node clustering for wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, S.; Qureshi, I.A.; Memon, S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed considerable growth in the development and deployment of clustering methods which are not only used to maintain network resources but also increases the reliability of the WSNs (Wireless Sensor Network) and the facts manifest by the wide range of clustering solutions. Node clustering by selecting key parameters to tackle the dynamic behaviour of resource constraint WSN is a challenging issue. This paper highlights the recent progress which has been carried out pertaining to the development of clustering solutions for the WSNs. The paper presents classification of node clustering methods and their comparison based on the objectives, clustering criteria and methodology. In addition, the potential open issues which need to be considered for future work are high lighted. Keywords: Clustering, Sensor Network, Static, Dynamic

  7. Source and sink nodes in absence seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Abner C; Machado, Birajara S; Caboclo, Luis Otavio S F; Fujita, Andre; Baccala, Luiz A; Sameshima, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    As opposed to focal epilepsy, absence seizures do not exhibit a clear seizure onset zone or focus since its ictal activity rapidly engages both brain hemispheres. Yet recent graph theoretical analysis applied to absence seizures EEG suggests the cortical focal presence, an unexpected feature for this type of epilepsy. In this study, we explore the characteristics of absence seizure by classifying the nodes as to their source/sink natures via weighted directed graph analysis based on connectivity direction and strength estimation using information partial directed coherence (iPDC). By segmenting the EEG signals into relatively short 5-sec-long time windows we studied the evolution of coupling strengths from both sink and source nodes, and the network dynamics of absence seizures in eight patients.

  8. Network Design with Node Degree Balance Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Berliner; Crainic, Teodor Gabriel

    This presentation discusses an extension to the network design model where there in addition to the flow conservation constraints also are constraints that require design conservation. This means that the number of arcs entering and leaving a node must be the same. As will be shown the model has...... applications within the design of transportation networks. The model is solved using a Tabu Search heuristic using a hybrid of the add/drop procedure and cycle-based neighbourhoods....

  9. Effect of topical cis-urocanic acid on local lymph node activation during contact sensitization in mouse, rat and guinea-pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauerma, A I; Homey, B; Vohr, H W; Lee, C H; Bloom, E; Maibach, H I

    1996-05-01

    Cis-urocanic acid (cUCA) has been suggested as a mediator of impairment of contact hypersensitivity induction by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. We ascertained whether topical cUCA influences local lymph node activation during induction of contact hypersensitivity. Topical cUCA or vehicle was applied during the local lymph node assay to oxazolone. Local lymph node weight and cell number were assessed in all animals. Additionally, cell proliferation rate was studied in Hartley guinea-pigs and CBA/Ca mice, whereas activation of antigen-presenting cells was quantified in NMRI mice and Wistar rats. Topical cUCA suppressed all parameters of local lymph node activation due to oxazolone application in guinea-pigs. No effect, with the exception of a suppression of antigen-presenting cell activity, was seen in mice. No effect was seen in rats. The study shows that topical cUCA may suppress local lymph node activation during contact sensitization and suggests that differences between the effect of cUCA in different animal species may exist.

  10. Simplified Dynamic Analysis of Grinders Spindle Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demec, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The contribution deals with the simplified dynamic analysis of surface grinding machine spindle node. Dynamic analysis is based on the use of the transfer matrix method, which is essentially a matrix form of method of initial parameters. The advantage of the described method, despite the seemingly complex mathematical apparatus, is primarily, that it does not require for solve the problem of costly commercial software using finite element method. All calculations can be made for example in MS Excel, which is advantageous especially in the initial stages of constructing of spindle node for the rapid assessment of the suitability its design. After detailing the entire structure of spindle node is then also necessary to perform the refined dynamic analysis in the environment of FEM, which it requires the necessary skills and experience and it is therefore economically difficult. This work was developed within grant project KEGA No. 023TUKE-4/2012 Creation of a comprehensive educational - teaching material for the article Production technique using a combination of traditional and modern information technology and e-learning.

  11. Sarcoidal Granuloma in Cervical Lymph Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chien Chen

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a multiorgan granulomatous disease, the most common head and neck manifestation of which is cervical lymphadenopathy. Only the presentation of sarcoidal granuloma in cervical lymph nodes without typical manifestations of systemic sarcoidosis poses a diagnostic difficulty. We describe the case of a 39-year-old male who had a 2-month history of a progressively increasing mass with soreness in his right neck. The biopsy from the neck mass demonstrated non-caseating epithelioid cell granuloma of the lymph nodes. The differential diagnoses of mycobacterial or fungal infections were excluded. Thoracic evaluations, including chest X-ray and high-resolution computed tomography, revealed no abnormal findings. Treatment with systemic corticosteroids resulted in improved clinical symptoms. No recurrence of the neck mass or other signs of systemic sarcoidosis were noted during 1.5 years of follow-up. Although our patient's definitive diagnosis could not be determined, the case highlights 2 important issues: sarcoidal granuloma in lymph nodes may be a precursor of sarcoidosis, even in the absence of pulmonary or other systemic involvement; and regular follow-up is recommended in such cases.

  12. Optimal allocation of resources for suppressing epidemic spreading on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanshuang; Li, Guofeng; Zhang, Haifeng; Hou, Zhonghuai

    2017-07-01

    Efficient allocation of limited medical resources is crucial for controlling epidemic spreading on networks. Based on the susceptible-infected-susceptible model, we solve the optimization problem of how best to allocate the limited resources so as to minimize prevalence, providing that the curing rate of each node is positively correlated to its medical resource. By quenched mean-field theory and heterogeneous mean-field (HMF) theory, we prove that an epidemic outbreak will be suppressed to the greatest extent if the curing rate of each node is directly proportional to its degree, under which the effective infection rate λ has a maximal threshold λcopt=1 / , where is the average degree of the underlying network. For a weak infection region (λ ≳λcopt ), we combine perturbation theory with the Lagrange multiplier method (LMM) to derive the analytical expression of optimal allocation of the curing rates and the corresponding minimized prevalence. For a general infection region (λ >λcopt ), the high-dimensional optimization problem is converted into numerically solving low-dimensional nonlinear equations by the HMF theory and LMM. Counterintuitively, in the strong infection region the low-degree nodes should be allocated more medical resources than the high-degree nodes to minimize prevalence. Finally, we use simulated annealing to validate the theoretical results.

  13. Node-Dependence-Based Dynamic Incentive Algorithm in Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyun Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic networks lack end-to-end paths between source nodes and destination nodes, so the communications are mainly carried out by the “store-carry-forward” strategy. Selfish behaviors of rejecting packet relay requests will severely worsen the network performance. Incentive is an efficient way to reduce selfish behaviors and hence improves the reliability and robustness of the networks. In this paper, we propose the node-dependence-based dynamic gaming incentive (NDI algorithm, which exploits the dynamic repeated gaming to motivate nodes relaying packets for other nodes. The NDI algorithm presents a mechanism of tolerating selfish behaviors of nodes. Reward and punishment methods are also designed based on the node dependence degree. Simulation results show that the NDI algorithm is effective in increasing the delivery ratio and decreasing average latency when there are a lot of selfish nodes in the opportunistic networks.

  14. Ideal Node Enquiry Search Algorithm (INESH in MANETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Riyaz Belgaum

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The different routing protocols in Mobile Ad hoc Networks take after various methodologies to send the data starting from one node then onto the next. The nodes in the system are non-static and they move arbitrarily and are inclined to interface disappointment which makes dependably to discover new routes to the destination. During the forwarding of packets to the destination, various intermediate nodes take part in routing, where such node should be an ideal node. An algorithm is proposed here to know the ideal node after studying the features of the reactive routing protocols. The malicious node can be eliminated from the networking function and the overhead on the protocol can be reduced. The node chooses the neighbor which can be found in less number of bounces and with less time delay and keeping up the QoS.

  15. The prognostic value of the number of lymph nodes removed in patients with node-negative colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraker, Nüvit; Civelek Çaynak, Zeynep; Hot, Semih

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the prognostic significance of the number of lymph nodes removed in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with no metastatic lymph node. The clinicopathological data of 461 CRC patients was analyzed. In order to compare the survival of patients who had fewer lymph nodes removed versus the survival of patients who had 1-3 metastatic lymph node(s), a separate group of 74 N1 disease patients were also included in the study. All patient data were collected prospectively. Kaplan-Meier method was used for calculation and plotting of the survival curves of the patient groups, and log-rank test was used for the comparison of the survival curves. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates of patients who had 1-7 lymph node(s) and 8-11 lymph nodes removed were significantly worse than those who had 12 or more lymph nodes removed (p = 0.006 and p = 0.037, respectively), while CSS was not significantly different between those who had 1-7 versus 8-11 lymph node(s) removed (p = 0.647); this grouping had independent prognostic significance in Cox analysis (p = 0.006). CSS of patients with N1 disease was not significantly different from those who had 1-7 and 8-11 lymph node(s) removed (p = 0.312 and p = 0.165, respectively), while it was significantly worse than CSS of patients who had 12 or more lymph nodes removed (p = 0.001). In colorectal cancer patients whose removed lymph nodes are non-metastatic, removal of at least 12 lymph nodes will determine the lymph node status reliably. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Absence of Granzyme B Positive Tumour-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Primary Melanoma Excisional Biopsies is Strongly Associated with the Presence of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. van Houdt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN status is strongly related to clinical outcome in melanoma patients. In this study we investigated the possible association between the presence of activated and/or suppressive Tumour Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs and SLN status in clinically stage I/II melanoma patients.

  17. Bottlenecks and stability in networks with contending nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Tom Johannes Maria; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.; de Graaf, Maurits; Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers a class of queueing network models where nodes have to contend with each other to serve their customers. In each time slot, a node with a non-empty queue either serves a customer or is blocked by a node in its vicinity. The focus of our study is on analyzing the throughput and

  18. Intraoperative examination of sentinel lymph nodes using scrape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. In breast cancer, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is widely used to assess the axilla when the nodes appear normal on palpation and ultrasonography. When the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are negative, no further dissection is required. Surgical dissection or radiotherapy of the axilla is indicated for ...

  19. Developmental features of porcine haemal nodes: a histological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological techniques were employed to provide detailed information on the histological features of haemal nodes in piglets and adult pig. Ten pigs were used for this study. The result demonstrated progressive changes in the structure of porcine haemal nodes. The capsule and trabeculae of piglet haemal nodes ...

  20. Prognostic value of lymph node ratio in node-positive breast cancer in Egyptian patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhodary, T.R.; Ebrahim, M.A.; Hatata, E.E.; Niazy, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer in Egypt is the most common cancer among women and is the leading cause of cancer mortality. Traditionally, axillary lymph node involvement is considered among the most important prognostic factors in breast cancer. Nonetheless, accumulating evidence suggests that axillary lymph node ratio should be considered as an alternative to classical pN classification. Materials and methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with operable node positive breast cancer, to investigate the prognostic significance of axillary lymph node ratio. Results: Five-hundred patients were considered eligible for the analysis. Median follow-up was 35 months (95% Cl 32-37 months), the median disease-free survival (DFS) was 49 months (95% Cl, 46.4-52.2 months). The classification of patients based on pN staging system failed to prognosticate DFS in the multivariate analysis. Conversely, grade 3 tumors, and the intermediate (> 0.20 to <0.65) and high (>0.65) LNR were the only variables that were independently associated with adverse DFS. The overall survival (OS) in this series was 69 months (95% Cl 60-77). Conclusion: The analysis of outcome of patients with early breast cancer in Egypt identified the adverse prognostic effects of high tumor grade, ER negativity and intermediate and high LNR on DFS. If the utility of the LNR is validated in other studies, it may replace the use of absolute number of axillary lymph nodes.

  1. Identifying Vulnerable Nodes of Complex Networks in Cascading Failures Induced by Node-Based Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shudong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the research on network security, distinguishing the vulnerable components of networks is very important for protecting infrastructures systems. Here, we probe how to identify the vulnerable nodes of complex networks in cascading failures, which was ignored before. Concerned with random attack (RA and highest load attack (HL on nodes, we model cascading dynamics of complex networks. Then, we introduce four kinds of weighting methods to characterize the nodes of networks including Barabási-Albert scale-free networks (SF, Watts-Strogatz small-world networks (WS, Erdos-Renyi random networks (ER, and two real-world networks. The simulations show that, for SF networks under HL attack, the nodes with small value of the fourth kind of weight are the most vulnerable and the ones with small value of the third weight are also vulnerable. Also, the real-world autonomous system with power-law distribution verifies these findings. Moreover, for WS and ER networks under both RA and HL attack, when the nodes have low tolerant ability, the ones with small value of the fourth kind of weight are more vulnerable and also the ones with high degree are easier to break down. The results give us important theoretical basis for digging the potential safety loophole and making protection strategy.

  2. How to suppress obsessive thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, Eric; Diepstraten, Philip

    2003-01-01

    Thought suppression (i.e. consciously trying to avoid certain thoughts from entering consciousness) has been argued to be an inadequate strategy in case of unwanted intrusions. That is, thought suppression seems to result in more rather than less intrusions. Although this experimental finding has been explained in terms of failing attempts to distract oneself from the target thought, the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI; a scale that measures chronic thought suppression tendencies) does not address the means by which respondents try to suppress unwanted thoughts. To examine which strategies of mental control people use to suppress unwanted thoughts, obsessive-compulsive disorder patients (N=47) completed the WBSI, the Thought Control Questionnaire, and two measures of psychopathology. Results suggest that the crucial mechanism in thought suppression may not be distraction, but self-punishment.

  3. A random network based, node attraction facilitated network evolution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In present study, I present a method of network evolution that based on random network, and facilitated by node attraction. In this method, I assume that the initial network is a random network, or a given initial network. When a node is ready to connect, it tends to link to the node already owning the most connections, which coincides with the general rule (Barabasi and Albert, 1999 of node connecting. In addition, a node may randomly disconnect a connection i.e., the addition of connections in the network is accompanied by the pruning of some connections. The dynamics of network evolution is determined of the attraction factor Lamda of nodes, the probability of node connection, the probability of node disconnection, and the expected initial connectance. The attraction factor of nodes, the probability of node connection, and the probability of node disconnection are time and node varying. Various dynamics can be achieved by adjusting these parameters. Effects of simplified parameters on network evolution are analyzed. The changes of attraction factor Lamda can reflect various effects of the node degree on connection mechanism. Even the changes of Lamda only will generate various networks from the random to the complex. Therefore, the present algorithm can be treated as a general model for network evolution. Modeling results show that to generate a power-law type of network, the likelihood of a node attracting connections is dependent upon the power function of the node's degree with a higher-order power. Matlab codes for simplified version of the method are provided.

  4. The generation of random directed networks with prescribed 1-node and 2-node degree correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora-Lopez, Gorka; Kurths, Juergen [Institute of Physics, University of Potsdam, PO Box 601553, 14415 Potsdam (Germany); Zhou Changsong [Department of Physics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Zlatic, Vinko [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, PO Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2008-06-06

    The generation of random networks is a very common problem in complex network research. In this paper, we have studied the correlation nature of several real networks and found that, typically, a large number of links are deterministic, i.e. they cannot be randomized. This finding permits fast generation of ensembles of maximally random networks with prescribed 1-node and 2-node degree correlations. When the introduction of self-loops or multiple-links are not desired, random network generation methods typically reach blocked states. Here, a mechanism is proposed, the 'force-and-drop' method, to overcome such states. Our algorithm can be easily simplified for undirected graphs and reduced to account for any subclass of 2-node degree correlations.

  5. Effects of node buffer and capacity on network traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Xiang; Ding Jian-Xun; Hu Mao-Bin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the optimization of network traffic by considering the effects of node buffer ability and capacity. Two node buffer settings are considered. The node capacity is considered to be proportional to its buffer ability. The node effects on network traffic systems are studied with the shortest path protocol and an extension of the optimal routing [Phys. Rev. E 74 046106 (2006)]. In the diagrams of flux—density relationships, it is shown that a nodes buffer ability and capacity have profound effects on the network traffic

  6. Sentinel node biopsy for melanoma: a study of 241 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, Annette Hougaard; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz; Jakobsen, Annika Loft

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sentinel node biopsy (SNB) technique for melanoma using both radiocolloid and blue dye in 241 clinically N0 patients with melanomas >1.0 mm, or thinner lesions exhibiting regression/ulceration. We showed that an increase in injected radioactivity increased......) of the lymph node basins, there was a discrepancy between the nodes visualized at lymphoscintigraphy and the nodes removed at surgery. There were 38 unusually located nodes. Only eight of these were removed surgically; none contained metastases. SN metastases were detected in 22% (53) of patients. There were...

  7. Unihemispheric burst suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Mader Jr.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Burst suppression (BS consists of bursts of high-voltage slow and sharp wave activity alternating with periods of background suppression in the electroencephalogram (EEG. When induced by deep anesthesia or encephalopathy, BS is bihemispheric and is often viewed as a non-epileptic phenomenon. In contrast, unihemispheric BS is rare and its clinical significance is poorly understood. We describe here two cases of unihemispheric BS. The first patient is a 56-year-old woman with a left temporoparietal tumor who presented in convulsive status epilepticus. EEG showed left hemispheric BS after clinical seizure termination with lorazepam and propofol. The second patient is a 39-year-old woman with multiple medical problems and a vague history of seizures. After abdominal surgery, she experienced a convulsive seizure prompting treatment with propofol. Her EEG also showed left hemispheric BS. In both cases, increasing the propofol infusion rate resulted in disappearance of unihemispheric BS and clinical improvement. The prevailing view that typical bihemispheric BS is non-epileptic should not be extrapolated automatically to unihemispheric BS. The fact that unihemispheric BS was associated with clinical seizure and resolved with propofol suggests that, in both cases, an epileptic mechanism was responsible for unihemispheric BS.

  8. Ex vivo MRI of axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, Alain; Pigneur, Frederic; Ghozali, Faridah; Dao, Thu-Ha; Cunin, Patrick; Meyblum, Evelyne; De Baecque-Fontaine, Cecile; Alamdari, Ali; Maison, Patrick; Deux, Jean Francois; Lagrange, Jean Leon; Lantieri, Laurent; Rahmouni, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a strategy for precise co-localization of lymph nodes on axillary lymph-node dissection (ALND) specimens both on pathology and MR. To identify nodal features suggestive of metastatic involvement on a node-to-node basis. Materials and methods: National Institutional review-board approved this prospective study of 18 patients with breast cancer referred for ALND. Ex vivo T1 and inversion recovery (IR) T2 WI of ALND specimens tightly positioned within scaled plastic cranes was performed immediately after surgery. The correspondence of MR-based or pathologically based nodes location was assessed. The MR size and morphological presentation of metastatic and normal nodes were compared (Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney test). Quantitative variables were compared using Pearson coefficient. Results: 207 nodes were retrieved on pathology and 165 on MR. MR-pathological correlation of nodes location was high regarding MR-identified nodes (r = 0.755). An MR short axis threshold of 4 mm yielded the best predictive value for metastatic nodal involvement (Se = 78.6%; Sp = 62.3%). Irregular contours (Se = 35.7%; Sp = 96.7%), central nodal hyper-intensity on IR T2 WI (Se = 57.1%; Sp = 91.4%), and a cortical thickness above 3 mm (Se = 63.6%; Sp = 83.2%) were significantly associated with metastatic involvement. Conclusion: Ex vivo MR allows node-to-node correlation with pathology. Morphological MR criteria can suggest metastatic involvement

  9. Interactive Graph Layout of a Million Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Mi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensemaking of large graphs, specifically those with millions of nodes, is a crucial task in many fields. Automatic graph layout algorithms, augmented with real-time human-in-the-loop interaction, can potentially support sensemaking of large graphs. However, designing interactive algorithms to achieve this is challenging. In this paper, we tackle the scalability problem of interactive layout of large graphs, and contribute a new GPU-based force-directed layout algorithm that exploits graph topology. This algorithm can interactively layout graphs with millions of nodes, and support real-time interaction to explore alternative graph layouts. Users can directly manipulate the layout of vertices in a force-directed fashion. The complexity of traditional repulsive force computation is reduced by approximating calculations based on the hierarchical structure of multi-level clustered graphs. We evaluate the algorithm performance, and demonstrate human-in-the-loop layout in two sensemaking case studies. Moreover, we summarize lessons learned for designing interactive large graph layout algorithms on the GPU.

  10. Primary tuberculosis of cystic duct lymph node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfar, Aamir; Asghar, Afifa; Khan, Naqeeb Ullah; Hassan, Iram

    2017-06-16

    Tuberculosis (TC) is very common and significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Isolated cystic duct lymph node TC cases without involvement of gallbladder are exceedingly rare. It is difficult to diagnose preoperatively because of lack of characteristic signs and symptoms of TC. We report a man aged 45 years who presented with right upper abdominal pain since 1week. It was associated with nausea and postprandial fullness. There was no evidence of jaundice and lymphadenopathy. Abdominal examination showed moderate right upper quadrant tenderness with positive Murphy's sign and splenomegaly but no signs of peritonism. Abdomen ultrasound revealed sludge in gallbladder, dilated pancreatic duct, coarse exotexture of liver, splenomegaly and no lymphadenopathy. He underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy; histological report showed chronic caseating granulomatous lymphadenitis with Langhans type of giant cells in lymph node near cystic duct with chronic cholecystitis of gallbladder. Standard antituberculosis therapy was given for 12 months. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Impact on survival of the number of lymph nodes resected in patients with lymph node-negative gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaoyuan; Yang, Zhong-Fa

    2015-06-01

    Patients with lymph node-negative gastric cancer show a better overall survival rate than those who have a pathological lymph node-positive gastric cancer. But a large number of patients still develop recurrence. We aimed to explore the significant prognostic factors of lymph node-negative gastric cancer and determine how many lymph nodes should be removed. A total of 3103 patients who underwent radical operation are identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Standard survival methods and restricted multivariable Cox regression models were applied. The overall survival rate was significantly higher with an increasing number of negative lymph node resected. Among the 843 patients who had the exact T stage, the overall survival rate was significantly better in T3-4 group with more than 15 lymph nodes resected (P patients (P = 0.44). A further 25 more lymph nodes resection did not show additional survival benefits. Multivariate analysis of patients demonstrated that age, depth of tumor invasion, and the number of lymph nodes resected were the significant and independent prognostic factors. A lymphadenectomy with more than 15 lymph nodes removal should be performed for T3-4 lymph node-negative gastric cancer. But the survival benefit of a lymphadenectomy with more than 25 lymph nodes removal is disputed. And the further treatment should refer to the prognostic indicators.

  12. Axillary node metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma with hürthle and signet ring cell differentiation. A case of disseminated thyroid cancer with peculiar histologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Fulciniti, Franco; Setola, Sergio Venanzio; Tommaselli, Antonio; Marone, Ugo; Di Cecilia, Maria Luisa; Pezzullo, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is usually associated with an excellent prognosis and indolent course. Distant metastases are rare events at the onset of thyroid cancer. Among these presentations, metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes is even more unusual: only few cases were previously reported in the literature; there has been no report of axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. Axillary lymph node metastasis generally arises in the context of disseminated disease and carries an ominous prognosis. Here we present a case of axillary lymph node metastasis in the context of disseminated differentiated thyroid cancer. The patient underwent near total thyroidectomy and neck and axillary lymph node dissection. A histopathological diagnosis of poorly differentiated follicular carcinoma with 'signet ring cells' and Hürthle cell features was established. The patient received radioactive iodine therapy and TSH suppression therapy. Subsequently his serum thyroglobulin level decreased to 44.000 ng/ml from over 100.000 ng/ml. Currently there are only few reported cases of axillary node metastases from thyroid cancer, and to our knowledge, this is the first report on axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. 'Signet ring cell' is a morphologic feature shared by both benign and, more rarely, malignant follicular thyroid neoplasm, and it generally correlates with an arrest in folliculogenesis. Our case is one of the rare 'signet ring cells' carcinomas so far described

  13. A Novel Topology Link-Controlling Approach for Active Defense of a Node in a Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Hu, HanPing; Ke, Qiao; Xiong, Naixue

    2017-03-09

    With the rapid development of virtual machine technology and cloud computing, distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, or some peak traffic, poses a great threat to the security of the network. In this paper, a novel topology link control technique and mitigation attacks in real-time environments is proposed. Firstly, a non-invasive method of deploying virtual sensors in the nodes is built, which uses the resource manager of each monitored node as a sensor. Secondly, a general topology-controlling approach of resisting the tolerant invasion is proposed. In the proposed approach, a prediction model is constructed by using copula functions for predicting the peak of a resource through another resource. The result of prediction determines whether or not to initiate the active defense. Finally, a minority game with incomplete strategy is employed to suppress attack flows and improve the permeability of the normal flows. The simulation results show that the proposed approach is very effective in protecting nodes.

  14. A Novel Topology Link-Controlling Approach for Active Defense of a Node in a Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of virtual machine technology and cloud computing, distributed denial of service (DDoS attacks, or some peak traffic, poses a great threat to the security of the network. In this paper, a novel topology link control technique and mitigation attacks in real-time environments is proposed. Firstly, a non-invasive method of deploying virtual sensors in the nodes is built, which uses the resource manager of each monitored node as a sensor. Secondly, a general topology-controlling approach of resisting the tolerant invasion is proposed. In the proposed approach, a prediction model is constructed by using copula functions for predicting the peak of a resource through another resource. The result of prediction determines whether or not to initiate the active defense. Finally, a minority game with incomplete strategy is employed to suppress attack flows and improve the permeability of the normal flows. The simulation results show that the proposed approach is very effective in protecting nodes.

  15. Suppression of sympathetic detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. C., Jr.; Gunger, M. E.; Craig, B. G.; Parsons, G. H.

    1984-08-01

    There are two basic approaches to suppression of sympathetic detonation. Minimizing the shock sensitivity of the explosive to long duration pressure will obviously reduce interround separation distances. However, given that the explosive sensitivity is fixed, then much can be gained through the use of simple barriers placed between the rounds. Researchers devised calculational methods for predicting shock transmission; experimental methods have been developed to characterize explosive shock sensitivity and observe the response of acceptors to barriers. It was shown that both EAK and tritonal can be initiated to detonation with relatively low pressure shocks of long durations. It was also shown that to be an effective barrier between the donor and acceptor, the material must attenuate shock and defect fragments. Future actions will concentrate on refining the design of barriers to minimize weight, volume, and cost.

  16. Cadaver study on the location of suboccipital lymph nodes: Guidance for suboccipital node dissection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Hidde J.; Klop, W. Martin C.; Lohuis, Peter J. F. M.; Nieweg, Omgo E.; van Velthuysen, M. Loes; Balm, Alfons J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide anatomic guidance for the extent (technique) of suboccipital node dissection. Five human cadaver necks (9 sides) were studied. Boundaries were the superior nuchal line and external occipital protuberance (cranial), the nuchal ligament (medial), an imaginary

  17. Survival benefit of greater number of lymph nodes dissection for advanced node-negative gastric cancer patients following radical gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongyong; Shen, Zhenbin; Wang, Xuefei; Qin, Jing; Sun, Yihong; Qin, Xinyu

    2016-01-01

    A common clinicopathological factor except for T stage that could significantly influence the clinical outcome of advanced node-negative gastric cancer patients following radical gastrectomy was unknown. This study was designed to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of these patients, and to evaluate the outcome indicators and improve the risk stratification. A total of 195 patients harboring advanced gastric adenocarcinoma with no lymph node and distant metastases and following radical gastrectomy were retrospectively analyzed from the prospectively collected database of Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University between 2006 and 2010. The 3-year and 5-year overall survival rates of this study population were 85.0 and 69.6%. Factors influencing the overall survival were the degree of tumor differentiation, the depth of invasion and the number of lymph nodes resected (LN, cutoff = 18). Lymph node was recognized as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival of advanced node-negative gastric cancer patients, and the prognosis of the patients with greater number of lymph nodes resected (LN ≥ 18) was significantly better than those with lymph node patients with T3/T4 stage could be significantly stratified by lymph node. Based on this condition, a new staging system named tumor-node-metastasis staging system for T3/T4 node-negative gastric cancer was constructed, which could have statistically different overall survival between subgroups. Lymph node was an independent prognostic factor of patients with advanced node-negative gastric cancer, and retrieval of more than 18 lymph nodes should be warranted. In addition, these patients with lesser number of lymph nodes resected might need aggressive postoperative treatment and closer follow-up. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Inguinal sentinel node dissection versus standard inguinal node dissection in patients with vulvar cancer: A comparison of the size of metastasis detected in inguinal lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Katina; Steinhoff, Margaret M; Granai, C O; Brard, Laurent; Gajewski, Walter; Moore, Richard G

    2006-04-01

    The emergence of sentinel lymph node (SLN) technology has provided the ability for an in depth pathologic evaluation for the detection of metastasis to lymph nodes through the use of ultra-staging. The SLN has been shown to be predictive of the metastatic status of its nodal basin. More recently, SLN dissections have been employed in the evaluation of the inguinal lymphatic basins in patients with vulvar malignancies. We hypothesize that the average size of metastasis detected in non-palpable inguinal lymph nodes is smaller when detected through the use of SLN dissection and ultra-staging versus complete inguinal node dissection (CND). This was an IRB approved retrospective study. The tumor registry database was searched to identify all patients diagnosed with a vulvar malignancy from 1990 to 2004. The records were reviewed to identify patients with inguinal lymph node metastasis. Only patients with non-palpable inguinal lymph nodes (metastasis 1 cm or less) were included in the analysis. All pathology slides were reviewed. The smallest metastatic foci of cells were measured from lymph nodes obtained through the traditional complete inguinal lymph node dissection (CND) and compared with the largest metastatic foci of cells detected in sentinel lymph node dissections. The mean size and standard deviation for each group was calculated and analyzed with a Mann-Whitney test. There were 336 inguinal node dissections performed in patients identified with a vulvar malignancy. SLN dissections were performed in 52 groins and CND in 284 groins. Fifty-eight patients were found to have metastatic disease to the inguinal lymph nodes. Thirty of these patients had no evidence of lymph node metastasis on clinical exam or at the time of their EUA. There were 7 groins with metastasis detected through an SLN and 23 groins through a CND. The mean size of the metastatic foci detected in the SLN group was 2.52 mm (SD 1.55) and in the CND group was 4.35 mm (SD 2.63). This was not

  19. Fractal dimension analysis of malignant and benign endobronchial ultrasound nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiz, José Antonio; Monte-Moreno, Enrique; Andreo, Felipe; Auteri, Santiago José; Sanz-Santos, José; Serra, Pere; Bonet, Gloria; Castellà, Eva; Manzano, Juan Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) has been applied as a routine procedure for the diagnostic of hiliar and mediastinal nodes. The authors assessed the relationship between the echographic appearance of mediastinal nodes, based on endobronchial ultrasound images, and the likelihood of malignancy. The images of twelve malignant and eleven benign nodes were evaluated. A previous processing method was applied to improve the quality of the images and to enhance the details. Texture and morphology parameters analyzed were: the image texture of the echographies and a fractal dimension that expressed the relationship between area and perimeter of the structures that appear in the image, and characterizes the convoluted inner structure of the hiliar and mediastinal nodes. Processed images showed that relationship between log perimeter and log area of hilar nodes was lineal (i.e. perimeter vs. area follow a power law). Fractal dimension was lower in the malignant nodes compared with non-malignant nodes (1.47(0.09), 1.53(0.10) mean(SD), Mann–Whitney U test p < 0.05)). Fractal dimension of ultrasonographic images of mediastinal nodes obtained through endobronchial ultrasound differ in malignant nodes from non-malignant. This parameter could differentiate malignat and non-malignat mediastinic and hiliar nodes

  20. Isolated axillary lymph node tuberculosis in ultrasonography. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ścieszka, Joanna; Urbańska-Krawiec, Dagmara; Kajor, Maciej; Stefański, Leszek

    2012-09-01

    We present a rare case of isolated axillary lymph node tuberculosis. A 66-year-old patient was admitted in order to perform the diagnostics of a painless tumor of the left armpit. Blood biochemistry tests and chest X-ray did not show any abnormalities. In the ultrasound examination a solid structure of the dimensions of 1.8×1 cm of irregular outline with adjacent hypoechogenic lymph nodes was visualized. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was based on histopathologic examination of the excised tumor. In the latter years an increase in extrapulmonary type of tuberculosis has been observed. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis may appear in practically each organ, nevertheless it affects pleura most often. Lymph node tuberculosis is the second, when it comes to the prevalence rate, type of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. In the majority of cases of lymph node tuberculosis it affects superficial lymph nodes. In the ultrasound examination a packet of pathological, enlarged and hypoechogenic lymph nodes is stated. In 1/3 of cases the central part of the nodes is hyperechogenic which indicates its caseation necrosis. Lymph nodes have a tendency to be matted and they have blurred outline. We observed this type of lymph node image in the presented patient. This image may be a diagnostic hint. Nevertheless, in the differentiation diagnostics one should take many other disease entities into consideration, inter alia: sarcoidosis, lymphomas, fungal infections, neoplastic metastases; the latter ones have an image most similar to tuberculosis lymph nodes. Tuberculosis ought to be considered in differential diagnosis of atypical masses.

  1. Preoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Reiki; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Ueno, Keiko; Murata, Yoko [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    From 1994 to 1995, to evaluate the utility of preoperative CT, EUS (endoscopic ultrasonography) and US in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer, 94 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy were studied clinicopathologically. The sensitivity of EUS diagnosis of upper mediastinal lymph node metastasis (85%), left-sided paragastrin lymph node metastasis (73-77%), and especially lower paraesophageal lymph node metastasis (100%) were good. But due to their low-grade specificity in EUS diagnosis, their overall accuracy was not very good. On the other hand, the overall accuracy of the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was fine. However, sensitivity, the most important clinical factor in the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was considerably inferior to EUS. The assessment of the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis around the tracheal bifurcation and the pulmonary hilum and the left para-cardial lesion by CT or EUS was poor. It was concluded that lymph node metastasis of these area must be the pitfall in preoperative diagnosis. The average diameter of the lymph nodes and the proportion of cancerous tissue in the lymph nodes diagnosed as metastatic lymph nodes by CT was larger than that of the false negative lymph nodes. However, the lymph nodes diagnosed as true positives by EUS showed no such tendency. This must be the reason the sensitivity of the EUS diagnosis and specificity of the CT diagnosis were favorable, but the specificity of the EUS diagnosis and especially the sensitivity of the CT diagnosis were not as good. (author)

  2. Feasibility of Sentinel Lymph Node Detection in Nodular Thyroid Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been proven to be successful and accurate in predicting the nodal status in melanoma and breast cancer. Occult lymph node metastases are common in well differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC). Although the prognostic significance of these occult lymph node metastases remains controversial, identifying these patients may help direct therapy. The purpose of the study was to assess the technical feasibility and the safety of the sentinel lymph node biopsy in uni-nodular thyroid disease. Methods: Patients of previously untreated benign solitary thyroid nodule, diagnosed preoperatively by fine needle aspiration cytology without any palpable cervical lymph node were prospectively studied. The nodule was injected with iso sulfan blue vital dye. Blue stained lymphatics were traced. Then, hemi thyroidectomy was per-formed. Results: A total of 30 patients underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy; lymph tics were observed in 23 patients and sentinel lymph nodes were found in 18. In 5 patients, blue stained lymphatics were traced to the outside of the central compartment but no sentinel lymph node was identified. Sentinel lymph nodes were located in the central compartment in 14 cases, in the lateral compartment in 3 cases and in one patient 2 sentinel lymph nodes were found in both the central and the lateral compartments. Overall detection of sentinel lymph nodes was possible in 60% of cases. There were no intra or postoperative complications. Conclusions: The role of sentinel lymph node biopsy has yet to be determined in the thyroid setting. Certainly the technique can be performed safely, but its accuracy needs further refinement and investigation on larger series of patients before it can be recommended in the routine management of thyroid neoplasia. Key Words: Sentinel node - Biopsy - Solitary thyroid nodule

  3. Intravital microscopy of the inguinal lymph node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Stephanie L; Payne, Geoffrey W

    2011-04-04

    Lymph nodes (LN's), located throughout the body, are an integral component of the immune system. They serve as a site for induction of adaptive immune response and therefore, the development of effector cells. As such, LNs are key to fighting invading pathogens and maintaining health. The choice of LN to study is dictated by accessibility and the desired model; the inguinal lymph node is well situated and easily supports studies of biologically relevant models of skin and genital mucosal infection. The inguinal LN, like all LNs, has an extensive microvascular network supplying it with blood. In general, this microvascular network includes the main feed arteriole of the LN that subsequently branches and feeds high endothelial venules (HEVs). HEVs are specialized for facilitating the trafficking of immune cells into the LN during both homeostasis and infection. How HEVs regulate trafficking into the LN under both of these circumstances is an area of intense exploration. The LN feed arteriole, has direct upstream influence on the HEVs and is the main supply of nutrients and cell rich blood into the LN. Furthermore, changes in the feed arteriole are implicated in facilitating induction of adaptive immune response. The LN microvasculature has obvious importance in maintaining an optimal blood supply to the LN and regulating immune cell influx into the LN, which are crucial elements in proper LN function and subsequently immune response. The ability to study the LN microvasculature in vivo is key to elucidating how the immune system and the microvasculature interact and influence one another within the LN. Here, we present a method for in vivo imaging of the inguinal lymph node. We focus on imaging of the microvasculature of the LN, paying particular attention to methods that ensure the study of healthy vessels, the ability to maintain imaging of viable vessels over a number of hours, and quantification of vessel magnitude. Methods for perfusion of the microvasculature

  4. Research on centrality of urban transport network nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Fu, Xiufen

    2017-05-01

    Based on the actual data of urban transport in Guangzhou, 19,150 bus stations in Guangzhou (as of 2014) are selected as nodes. Based on the theory of complex network, the network model of Guangzhou urban transport is constructed. By analyzing the degree centrality index, betweenness centrality index and closeness centrality index of nodes in the network, the level of centrality of each node in the network is studied. From a different point of view to determine the hub node of Guangzhou urban transport network, corresponding to the city's key sites and major transfer sites. The reliability of the network is determined by the stability of some key nodes (transport hub station). The research of network node centralization can provide a theoretical basis for the rational allocation of urban transport network sites and public transport system planning.

  5. Compressed sensing based missing nodes prediction in temporal communication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guangquan; Ma, Yang; Liu, Zhong; Xie, Fuli

    2018-02-01

    The reconstruction of complex network topology is of great theoretical and practical significance. Most research so far focuses on the prediction of missing links. There are many mature algorithms for link prediction which have achieved good results, but research on the prediction of missing nodes has just begun. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for missing node prediction in complex networks. We detect the position of missing nodes based on their neighbor nodes under the theory of compressed sensing, and extend the algorithm to the case of multiple missing nodes using spectral clustering. Experiments on real public network datasets and simulated datasets show that our algorithm can detect the locations of hidden nodes effectively with high precision.

  6. Error Control in Distributed Node Self-Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Location information of nodes in an ad hoc sensor network is essential to many tasks such as routing, cooperative sensing, and service delivery. Distributed node self-localization is lightweight and requires little communication overhead, but often suffers from the adverse effects of error propagation. Unlike other localization papers which focus on designing elaborate localization algorithms, this paper takes a different perspective, focusing on the error propagation problem, addressing questions such as where localization error comes from and how it propagates from node to node. To prevent error from propagating and accumulating, we develop an error-control mechanism based on characterization of node uncertainties and discrimination between neighboring nodes. The error-control mechanism uses only local knowledge and is fully decentralized. Simulation results have shown that the active selection strategy significantly mitigates the effect of error propagation for both range and directional sensors. It greatly improves localization accuracy and robustness.

  7. Identification of hybrid node and link communities in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Weixiong

    2015-03-01

    Identifying communities in complex networks is an effective means for analyzing complex systems, with applications in diverse areas such as social science, engineering, biology and medicine. Finding communities of nodes and finding communities of links are two popular schemes for network analysis. These schemes, however, have inherent drawbacks and are inadequate to capture complex organizational structures in real networks. We introduce a new scheme and an effective approach for identifying complex mixture structures of node and link communities, called hybrid node-link communities. A central piece of our approach is a probabilistic model that accommodates node, link and hybrid node-link communities. Our extensive experiments on various real-world networks, including a large protein-protein interaction network and a large network of semantically associated words, illustrated that the scheme for hybrid communities is superior in revealing network characteristics. Moreover, the new approach outperformed the existing methods for finding node or link communities separately.

  8. Mapping lymphatic nodes: Role of thrombospondin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spana, G.S.; Liu, J.; Rao, P.S.; Thakur, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Lymphatic (sentinel) node (SN) mapping determines the status of lymphatic basin draining a primary tumor, provides staging information of systemic spread of malignancy, and is vital in the management of breast cancer and melanoma. Thrombospondin (TSP), a matrix bound adhesive glycoprotein, promotes cell proliferation and angiogenesis. TSP receptors are expressed on lymphocytes, and on the cells of breast cancer and melanoma. We hypothesized that Tc-99m-CSVTCR, a small, soluble, and TSP specific peptide, can image SN. Method: CSVTCR was modified at the N terminus with Aba-G(D) AGG (TP1300) and labeled with Tc-99m. Female New Zealand rabbits were anesthetized and 125 μCi TP1300 was given into the plantar/palmer surface of each foot pad in the metacarpal/metatarsal region, followed by dynamic imaging for 2 hrs and quantification of Tc-99m in SN and injection site by ROI. Control rabbits received Tc-99m-O 4 - and TP1300>Tc-99mO- 4 . Tc-99m clearance from injection site was Tc-99m-O 4 >TP1300>>TSC. % ID/g in the axillary SN was greater in than the popliteal SN for all agents. For TP1300, SN to muscle Tc-99m ratios were 552 for axillary and 140 for popliteal nodes. With infiltrating tumor cells higher uptake in SN is expected. Summary: Due to high SN uptake, rapid clearance from injection site delivering low radiation dose at injection site and ease of handling, targeting TSP receptors with Tc-99m-TP1300, a soluble, receptor specific, small biomolecule for efficient imaging of SN is promising

  9. Quantification of microvessels in canine lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonar, Zbynĕk; Egger, Gunter F; Witter, Kirsti; Wolfesberger, Birgitt

    2008-10-01

    Quantification of microvessels in tumors is mostly based on counts of vessel profiles in tumor hot spots. Drawbacks of this method include low reproducibility and large interobserver variance, mainly as a result of individual differences in sampling of image fields for analysis. Our aim was to test an unbiased method for quantifying microvessels in healthy and tumorous lymph nodes of dogs. The endothelium of blood vessels was detected in paraffin sections by a combination of immunohistochemistry (von Willebrand factor) and lectin histochemistry (wheat germ agglutinin) in comparison with detection of basal laminae by laminin immunohistochemistry or silver impregnation. Systematic uniform random sampling of 50 image fields was performed during photo-documentation. An unbiased counting frame (area 113,600 microm(2)) was applied to each micrograph. The total area sampled from each node was 5.68 mm(2). Vessel profiles were counted according to stereological counting rules. Inter- and intraobserver variabilities were tested. The application of systematic uniform random sampling was compared with the counting of vessel profiles in hot spots. The unbiased estimate of the number of vessel profiles per unit area ranged from 100.5 +/- 44.0/mm(2) to 442.6 +/- 102.5/mm(2) in contrast to 264 +/- 72.2/mm(2) to 771.0 +/- 108.2/mm(2) in hot spots. The advantage of using systematic uniform random sampling is its reproducibility, with reasonable interobserver and low intraobserver variance. This method also allows for the possibility of using archival material, because staining quality is not limiting as it is for image analysis, and artifacts can easily be excluded. However, this method is comparatively time-consuming. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieweg, O E; Jansen, L; Valdés Olmos, R A; Rutgers, E J; Peterse, J L; Hoefnagel, K A; Kroon, B B

    1999-04-01

    Lymphatic mapping with selective lymphadenectomy is an attractive approach in breast-cancer patients. It uses existing technology to exploit logical anatomic and physiological principles to identify occult regional lymph-node metastases. The lymphatic flow is visualized and the first (sentinel) lymph node on a direct drainage pathway from the primary tumour is identified. This is the node at greatest risk of harbouring metastatic deposits. Retrieving this node requires a concerted effort from the nuclear medicine physician, surgeon and pathologist. Lymphoscintigraphy can indicate the number of sentinel nodes and their location. The surgeon can use two techniques to find the node. A vital dye injected at the tumour site will stain the lymphatic duct as well as the sentinel node and allow their visual identification. Alternatively, a lymph-node-seeking radiopharmaceutical will also migrate from the tumour site to the sentinel node and will enable its retrieval with the use of a gamma detection probe. The pathologist has a number of techniques to identify tumour deposits in the lymph node. A review of the literature shows that the sentinel node can be found in more than 90% of the patients. With experience, the false-negative rate can be kept down to about 5%. This novel approach of lymphatic mapping with selective lymphadenectomy may lead to a substantial reduction in the need for axillary node dissection in patients with breast cancer without compromising survival and regional control, and without loss of prognostic and staging information. This development will translate into a great reduction in patient morbidity and medical expenses.

  11. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  12. Chemical shift effect predicting lymph node status in rectal cancer using high-resolution MR imaging with node-for-node matched histopathological validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Zhang, Chongda; Ye, Feng; Liu, Yuan; Zhou, Chunwu [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, ChaoYang District, Beijing (China); Zheng, Zhaoxu [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Colorectal Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, ChaoYang District, Beijing (China); Zou, Shuangmei [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Pathology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, ChaoYang District, Beijing (China)

    2017-09-15

    To evaluate the value of the chemical shift effect (CSE) as well as other criteria for the prediction of lymph node status. Twenty-nine patients who underwent radical surgery of rectal cancers were studied with pre- and postoperative specimen MRI. Lymph nodes were harvested from transverse whole-mount specimens and compared with in vivo and ex vivo images to obtain a precise slice-for-section match. Preoperative MR characteristics including CSE, as well as other predictors, were evaluated by two readers independently between benign and metastatic nodes. A total of 255 benign and 35 metastatic nodes were obtained; 71.4% and 69.4% of benign nodes were detected with regular CSE for two readers, whereas 80.0% and 74.3% of metastatic nodes with absence of CSE. The CSE rendered areas under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.879 and 0.845 for predicting nodal status for two readers. The criteria of nodal location, border, signal intensity and minimum distance to the rectal wall were also useful but with AUCs (0.629-0.743) lower than those of CSE. CSE is a reliable predictor for differentiating benign from metastatic nodes. Additional criteria should be taken into account when it is difficult to determine the nodal status by using only a single predictor. (orig.)

  13. Enhancement characteristics of lymphomatous lymph nodes of the mediastinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagtvedt, Trond; Aaloekken, Trond Mogens (Dept. of Radiology, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)), email: trond.mogens.aalokken@rikshospitalet.no; Smith, Hans-Joergen; Kolbenstvedt, Alf (Dept. of Radiology, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Univ. of Oslo (Norway)); Graff, Bjoern Anton (Div. of Diagnostics, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Drammen (Norway)); Holte, Harald (Div. of Surgery and Cancer Medicine, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway))

    2011-12-15

    Background. Previous studies of CT enhancement of lymphomatous lymph nodes (LLN) of the neck showed that the LLN had lower enhancement values than normal lymph nodes. Purpose. To elucidate the contrast medium enhancement curves of LLN in the mediastinum by comparing the curves of LLN with those of normal lymph nodes, and to compare the present enhancement curves of LLN of the mediastinum with the curves of LLN of the neck from a previous similar investigation. Material and Methods. Twenty-four consecutive patients with LLN in the mediastinum (9 with Hodgkin's lymphoma [HL]) and 23 control patients with sarcomas and thus presumably normal mediastinal nodes underwent dynamic CT examinations. The previous, similar investigation of lymph nodes of the neck comprised 28 patients with LLN and 20 control patients. Results. The enhancement curves of the mediastinal LLN had significantly lower values than those of the mediastinal control nodes. The LLN of the mediastinum had lower mean peak contrast values than the corresponding nodes of the neck from a previous investigation. Conclusion. The comparison of enhancement curves of mediastinal LLN with mediastinal control nodes showed a marked similarity with and substantiates our previous findings in lymph nodes of the neck

  14. Enhancement characteristics of lymphomatous lymph nodes of the mediastinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagtvedt, Trond; Aaløkken, Trond Mogens; Smith, Hans-Jørgen; Graff, Bjørn Anton; Holte, Harald; Kolbenstvedt, Alf

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies of CT enhancement of lymphomatous lymph nodes (LLN) of the neck showed that the LLN had lower enhancement values than normal lymph nodes. To elucidate the contrast medium enhancement curves of LLN in the mediastinum by comparing the curves of LLN with those of normal lymph nodes, and to compare the present enhancement curves of LLN of the mediastinum with the curves of LLN of the neck from a previous similar investigation. Twenty-four consecutive patients with LLN in the mediastinum (9 with Hodgkin's lymphoma [HL]) and 23 control patients with sarcomas and thus presumably normal mediastinal nodes underwent dynamic CT examinations. The previous, similar investigation of lymph nodes of the neck comprised 28 patients with LLN and 20 control patients. The enhancement curves of the mediastinal LLN had significantly lower values than those of the mediastinal control nodes. The LLN of the mediastinum had lower mean peak contrast values than the corresponding nodes of the neck from a previous investigation. The comparison of enhancement curves of mediastinal LLN with mediastinal control nodes showed a marked similarity with and substantiates our previous findings in lymph nodes of the neck.

  15. Maximizing Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sink Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yourong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maximize network lifetime and balance energy consumption when sink nodes can move, maximizing lifetime of wireless sensor networks with mobile sink nodes (MLMS is researched. The movement path selection method of sink nodes is proposed. Modified subtractive clustering method, k-means method, and nearest neighbor interpolation method are used to obtain the movement paths. The lifetime optimization model is established under flow constraint, energy consumption constraint, link transmission constraint, and other constraints. The model is solved from the perspective of static and mobile data gathering of sink nodes. Subgradient method is used to solve the lifetime optimization model when one sink node stays at one anchor location. Geometric method is used to evaluate the amount of gathering data when sink nodes are moving. Finally, all sensor nodes transmit data according to the optimal data transmission scheme. Sink nodes gather the data along the shortest movement paths. Simulation results show that MLMS can prolong network lifetime, balance node energy consumption, and reduce data gathering latency under appropriate parameters. Under certain conditions, it outperforms Ratio_w, TPGF, RCC, and GRND.

  16. Sentinel node detection in pre-operative axillary staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trifiro, Giuseppe; Travaini, Laura Lavinia; Paganelli, Giovanni; Viale, Giuseppe; Gentilini, Oreste

    2004-01-01

    The concept of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer surgery is based on the fact that the tumour drains in a logical way via the lymphatic system, from the first to upper levels. Since axillary node dissection does not improve the prognosis of patients with breast cancer, sentinel lymph node biopsy might replace complete axillary dissection for staging of the axilla in clinically N0 patients. Sentinel lymph node biopsy would represent a significant advantage as a minimally invasive procedure, considering that about 70% of patients are found to be free from metastatic disease, yet axillary node dissection can lead to significant morbidity. Subdermal or peritumoural injection of small aliquots (and very low activity) of radiotracer is preferred to intratumoural administration, and 99m Tc-labelled colloids with most of the particles in the 100-200 nm size range would be ideal for radioguided sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer. The success rate of radioguidance in localising the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer surgery is about 97% in institutions where a high number of procedures are performed, and the success rate of lymphoscintigraphy in sentinel node detection is about 100%. The sentinel lymph node should be processed for intraoperative frozen section examination in its entirety, based on conventional histopathology and, when necessary, immune staining with anti-cytokeratin antibody. Nowadays, lymphoscintigraphy is a useful procedure in patients with different clinical evidence of breast cancer. (orig.)

  17. Predictors for lymph nodes involvement in low risk endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadan, Yfat; Calvino, Abdul Saied; Katz, Andrew; Katz, Steven; Moore, Richard G

    2017-05-01

    Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and BMI were examined as pre-operative predictors for lymph node metastases in patients with low-risk endometrial cancer. The study was a retrospective analysis of 534 endometrial cancer patients that underwent hysterectomy and lymph node dissection. Included subjects had a preoperative diagnosis of a grade 1 or 2 endometrioid carcinoma and no macroscopic extrauterine disease. We compared node-negative to node-positive patients to identify correlates of node-positive disease. The node-positive group presented with lower BMI than the node-negative group, 31.5 and 34.4, respectively (p = .03). The mean NLR was higher in the node-positive group 3.4 vs 2.9 (p = .08), showing a trend towards significance on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, lower BMI was found to be an independent predictor for nodal metastasis. Our data suggest that lower BMI is a risk factor for lymph nodes involvement in low-risk endometrial cancer. Impact statement Most endometrial cancer patients have low-risk disease with low risk for lymph nodes metastasis. In order to reduce the number of patients that will undergo unnecessary lymph node dissection, different types of preoperative predictors for lymph node involvement were studied. CA 125 and different imaging modalities were found as useful predictors for more advanced disease. Less studied predictors are the systemic inflammatory response markers and patient's BMI. This study suggests that lower BMI is a risk factor for lymph node involvement in low-risk endometrial cancer. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was close to significance as a predictor for lymph node involvement. In practice, physicians might favour comprehensive lymph node dissection when there is a doubt regarding the procedure but the patient is lean. The study's conclusion can be utilised for triaging patients to general gynaecologist vs gynaecologic oncologist. Further research should focus on combining predictors such as

  18. The number of positive nodes and the ratio of positive to excised nodes are significant predictors of survival in women with micrometastatic node-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Pauline T; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Cserni, Gabor; Woodward, Wendy A; Tai, Patricia; Vlastos, Georges

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate the prognostic impact of the number of positive nodes and the lymph node ratio (LNR) of positive to excised nodes on survival in women diagnosed with nodal micrometastatic breast cancer before the era of widespread sentinel lymph node biopsy. Subjects were 62,551 women identified by the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database, diagnosed with pT1-2pN0-1 breast cancer between 1988 and 1997. Kaplan-Meier breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS) were compared between three cohorts: node-negative (pN0, n=57,980) nodal micrometastasis all 2mm but or= 4) and the LNR (0.25). Median follow-up was 7.3 yr. Ten-year BCSS and OS in pNmic breast cancer were significantly lower compared to pN0 disease (BCSS 82.3% versus 91.9%, p<0.001 and OS 68.1% versus 75.7%, p<0.001). BCSS and OS with pNmic disease progressively declined with increasing number of positive nodes and increasing LNR. OS with pNmic was similar to pNmac disease when matched by the number of positive nodes and by the LNR. Both pN-based and LNR-based classifications were significantly prognostic of BCSS and OS on Cox regression multivariate analysis. Nodal micrometastasis is associated with poorer survival compared to pN0 disease. Mortality hazards with nodal micrometastasis increased with increasing number of positive nodes and increasing LNR. The number of positive nodes and the LNR should be considered in risk estimates for patients with nodal micrometastatic breast cancer.

  19. Gene expression profiling in lymph node-positive and lymph node-negative colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Chan; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Roh, Mee-Sook; Kim, Jae-Seok; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Choi, Hong-Jo; Jeong, Jin-Sook; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Hwang, Tae-Ho

    2004-02-01

    To identify the genes involved in the carcinogenesis and progression of colorectal cancer, we analyzed the gene-expression profiles of colorectal cancer cells from 12 tumors with corresponding noncancerous colonic epithelia using a cDNA microarray representing 4,08 genes. We classified both samples and genes by using a two-way clustering analysis and identified genes that were differentially expressed in the cancerous and noncancerous tissues. Genes associated with lymph node metastasis were identified by means of the supervised learning technique. Differentially expressed genes (77 up-regulated and 45 down-regulated genes) were identified in more than 75 percent of the tumors. The functional categories of these genes belonged to signal transduction (19 percent), metabolism (17 percent), cell structure/motility (14 percent), cell cycle (13 percent), and gene protein expression (13 percent). The gene expression pattern of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results from randomly selected genes shows a pattern similar to that of cDNA microarray. Moreover, the gene expression patterns observed were similar to those reported previously, suggesting rare racial differences. Sixty genes possibly associated with lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer were selected on the basis of clinicopathological data obtained by performing signal-to-noise calculations. "Leave-one-out" cross-validation testing correctly classified 10 of 12 patients (83.3 percent) as having colorectal cancer with lymph node metastasis vs. those without metastasis. These results provide not only a new molecular basis for understanding the biologic properties of colorectal cancer, including lymph node metastasis, but also provide a resource for future development of therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers for colorectal cancer.

  20. Node-to-node field calibration of wireless distributed air pollution sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizel, Fadi; Etzion, Yael; Shafran-Nathan, Rakefet; Levy, Ilan; Fishbain, Barak; Bartonova, Alena; Broday, David M

    2018-02-01

    Low-cost air quality sensors offer high-resolution spatiotemporal measurements that can be used for air resources management and exposure estimation. Yet, such sensors require frequent calibration to provide reliable data, since even after a laboratory calibration they might not report correct values when they are deployed in the field, due to interference with other pollutants, as a result of sensitivity to environmental conditions and due to sensor aging and drift. Field calibration has been suggested as a means for overcoming these limitations, with the common strategy involving periodical collocations of the sensors at an air quality monitoring station. However, the cost and complexity involved in relocating numerous sensor nodes back and forth, and the loss of data during the repeated calibration periods make this strategy inefficient. This work examines an alternative approach, a node-to-node (N2N) calibration, where only one sensor in each chain is directly calibrated against the reference measurements and the rest of the sensors are calibrated sequentially one against the other while they are deployed and collocated in pairs. The calibration can be performed multiple times as a routine procedure. This procedure minimizes the total number of sensor relocations, and enables calibration while simultaneously collecting data at the deployment sites. We studied N2N chain calibration and the propagation of the calibration error analytically, computationally and experimentally. The in-situ N2N calibration is shown to be generic and applicable for different pollutants, sensing technologies, sensor platforms, chain lengths, and sensor order within the chain. In particular, we show that chain calibration of three nodes, each calibrated for a week, propagate calibration errors that are similar to those found in direct field calibration. Hence, N2N calibration is shown to be suitable for calibration of distributed sensor networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  1. Exact asymptotic expansion for the resistance between the center node and a node on the cobweb network boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kenna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the resistance between two nodes in a cobweb network of resistors. Based on an exact expression, we derive the asymptotic expansions for the resistance between the center node and a node on the boundary of the M x N cobweb network with resistors r and s in the two spatial directions. All coefficients in this expansion are expressed through analytical functions.

  2. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with no preoperative evidence of lymph node metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Óscar; Zafon, Carles; Caubet, Enric; García-Burillo, Amparo; Serres, Xavier; Fort, José Manuel; Mesa, Jordi; Castell, Joan; Roca, Isabel; Ramón Y Cajal, Santiago; Iglesias, Carmela

    2017-10-01

    Lymphadenectomy is recommended during surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma when there is evidence of cervical lymph node metastasis (therapeutic) or in high-risk patients (prophylactic) such as those with T3 and T4 tumors of the TNM classification. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy may improve preoperative diagnosis of nodal metastases. To analyze the results of selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in a group of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and no evidence of nodal involvement before surgery. A retrospective, single-center study in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and no clinical evidence of lymph node involvement who underwent surgery between 2011 and 2013. The sentinel node was identified by scintigraphy. When the sentinel node was positive, the affected compartment was removed, and when sentinel node was negative, central lymph node dissection was performed. Forty-three patients, 34 females, with a mean age of 52.3 (±17) years, were enrolled. Forty-six (27%) of the 170 SNs resected from 24 (55.8%) patients were positive for metastasis. In addition, 94 (15.6%) out of the 612 lymph nodes removed in the lymphadenectomies were positive for metastases. Twelve of the 30 (40%) low risk patients (cT1N0 and cT2N0) changed their stage to pN1, whereas 12 of 13 (92%) high risk patients (cT3N0 and cT4N0) changed to pN1 stage. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy changes the stage of more than 50% of patients from cN0 to pN1. This confirms the need for lymph node resection in T3 and T4 tumors, but reveals the presence of lymph node metastases in 40% of T1-T2 tumors. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Perillyl alcohol suppresses antigen-induced immune responses in the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Oh; Okunishi, Katsuhide; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Harada, Hiroaki; Kawahata, Kimito; Tanaka, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko [Department of Allergy and Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Dohi, Makoto, E-mail: mdohi-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Allergy and Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Institute of Respiratory Immunology, Shibuya Clinic for Respiratory Diseases and Allergology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Perillyl alcohol (POH) is an isoprenoid which inhibits the mevalonate pathway. •We examined whether POH suppresses immune responses with a mouse model of asthma. •POH treatment during sensitization suppressed Ag-induced priming of CD4{sup +} T cells. •POH suppressed airway eosinophila and cytokine production in thoracic lymph nodes. -- Abstract: Perillyl alcohol (POH) is an isoprenoid which inhibits farnesyl transferase and geranylgeranyl transferase, key enzymes that induce conformational and functional changes in small G proteins to conduct signal production for cell proliferation. Thus, it has been tried for the treatment of cancers. However, although it affects the proliferation of immunocytes, its influence on immune responses has been examined in only a few studies. Notably, its effect on antigen-induced immune responses has not been studied. In this study, we examined whether POH suppresses Ag-induced immune responses with a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. POH treatment of sensitized mice suppressed proliferation and cytokine production in Ag-stimulated spleen cells or CD4{sup +} T cells. Further, sensitized mice received aerosolized OVA to induce allergic airway inflammation, and some mice received POH treatment. POH significantly suppressed indicators of allergic airway inflammation such as airway eosinophilia. Cytokine production in thoracic lymph nodes was also significantly suppressed. These results demonstrate that POH suppresses antigen-induced immune responses in the lung. Considering that it exists naturally, POH could be a novel preventive or therapeutic option for immunologic lung disorders such as asthma with minimal side effects.

  4. Nomogram for prediction of level 2 axillary lymph node metastasis in proven level 1 node-positive breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanlin; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Hao; Ou, Xunyan; Xu, Zhen; Ai, Liping; Sun, Lisha; Liu, Caigang

    2017-09-22

    The current management of the axilla in level 1 node-positive breast cancer patients is axillary lymph node dissection regardless of the status of the level 2 axillary lymph nodes. The goal of this study was to develop a nomogram predicting the probability of level 2 axillary lymph node metastasis (L-2-ALNM) in patients with level 1 axillary node-positive breast cancer. We reviewed the records of 974 patients with pathology-confirmed level 1 node-positive breast cancer between 2010 and 2014 at the Liaoning Cancer Hospital and Institute. The patients were randomized 1:1 and divided into a modeling group and a validation group. Clinical and pathological features of the patients were assessed with uni- and multivariate logistic regression. A nomogram based on independent predictors for the L-2-ALNM identified by multivariate logistic regression was constructed. Independent predictors of L-2-ALNM by the multivariate logistic regression analysis included tumor size, Ki-67 status, histological grade, and number of positive level 1 axillary lymph nodes. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the modeling set and the validation set were 0.828 and 0.816, respectively. The false-negative rates of the L-2-ALNM nomogram were 1.82% and 7.41% for the predicted probability cut-off points of level 1 axillary lymph node metastasis. Patients with a low probability of L-2-ALNM could be spared level 2 axillary lymph node dissection, thereby reducing postoperative morbidity.

  5. [Anatomy and histology characteristics of lymph node in nude mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, R; Gao, B; Guo, C B

    2017-10-18

    To compare the differences of anatomical and histological characteristics of lymph nodes between BALB/c nude mice and BALB/c mice. Firstly, twenty BALB/c nude mice and twenty BALB/c mice were dissected by using a surgical microscope. Secondly, the differences of T cells and B cells at the lymph node were compared by the expressions of CD 3 and CD 20 immunohistochemistry dyes. There were, on average, 23 nodes per mouse contained within the large lymph node assembly in the BALB/c nude mouse. The anatomical features of the lymph node distribution in the nude mice were mainly found in the neck with relatively higher density. There were two lymph nodes both in the submandible lymph nodes group and in the superficial cervical lymph nodes group (the constituent ratios were 95% and 90%, respectively) in the BALB/c nude mice, but there were four lymph nodes (the constituent ratios were 95% and 90%, respectively) in the BALB/c mice. There were significant difference between the BALB/c nude mice and the BALB/c mice. Mostly there were two lymph nodes of deep cervical lymph nodes both in the BALB/c nude mice and the BALB/c mice (the constituent ratios were 95% and 100%, respectively). There were no significant difference between the BALB/c nude mice and the BALB/c mice. We confirmed that the number of CD 3 -positive T lymphocytes in lymph nodes of the nude mice decreased greatly as compared with the BALB/c mice. Expressions of CD3 in T cells were 95% and 100% in the BALB/c nude mice and in the BALB/c mice, respectively. There were significant differences between the BALB/c nude mice and the BALB/c mice. Expressions of CD20 in B cells were 95% and 100% in the BALB/c nude mice and in the BALB/c mice, respectively. There was no significant difference between the BALB/c nude mice and BALB/c mice. The anatomical pictures of lymph node distribution in the nude mouse will be benefit to those who are interested. The anatomical features of the lymph node local higher density in neck of

  6. Number of Lymph Nodes Harvested From a Mediastinal Lymphadenectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark S.; Decker, Paul A.; Ballman, Karla; Malthaner, Richard A.; Inculet, Richard I.; Jones, David R.; McKenna, Robert J.; Landreneau, Rodney J.; Putnam, Joe B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lymph node status is a major determinant of stage and survival in patients with lung cancer; however, little information is available about the expected yield of a mediastinal lymphadenectomy. Methods: The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0030 prospective, randomized trial of mediastinal lymph node sampling vs complete mediastinal lymphadenectomy during pulmonary resection enrolled 1,111 patients from July 1999 to February 2004. Data from 524 patients who underwent complete mediastinal lymph node dissection were analyzed to determine the number of lymph nodes obtained. Results: The median number of additional lymph nodes harvested from a mediastinal lymphadenectomy following systematic sampling was 18 with a range of one to 72 for right-sided tumors, and 18 with a range of four to 69 for left-sided tumors. The median number of N2 nodes harvested was 11 on the right and 12 on the left. A median of at least six nodes was harvested from at least three stations in 99% of patients, and 90% of patients had at least 10 nodes harvested from three stations. Overall, 21 patients (4%) were found to have occult N2 disease. Conclusions: Although high variability exists in the actual number of lymph nodes obtained from various nodal stations, complete mediastinal lymphadenectomy removes one or more lymph nodes from all mediastinal stations. Adequate mediastinal lymphadenectomy should include stations 2R, 4R, 7, 8, and 9 for right-sided cancers and stations 4L, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 for left-sided cancers. Six or more nodes were resected in 99% of patients in this study. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00003831; URL: clinicaltrials.gov PMID:20829340

  7. Lymph node metastasis in maxillary sinus carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Q.-T.; Fu, Karen K.; Kaplan, Michael J.; Terris, David J.; Fee, Willard E.; Goffinet, Don R.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence and prognostic significance of lymph node metastasis in maxillary sinus carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 97 patients treated for maxillary sinus carcinoma with radiotherapy at Stanford University and at the University of California, San Francisco between 1959 and 1996. Fifty-eight patients had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 4 had adenocarcinoma (ADE), 16 had undifferentiated carcinoma (UC), and 19 had adenoid cystic carcinoma (AC). Eight patients had T2, 36 had T3, and 53 had T4 tumors according to the 1997 AJCC staging system. Eleven patients had nodal involvement at diagnosis: 9 with SCC, 1 with UC, and 1 with AC. The most common sites of nodal involvement were ipsilateral level 1 and 2 lymph nodes. Thirty-six patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy alone, and 61 received a combination of surgical and radiation treatment. Thirty-six patients had neck irradiation, 25 of whom received elective neck irradiation (ENI) for N0 necks. The median follow-up for alive patients was 78 months. Results: The median survival for all patients was 22 months (range: 2.4-356 months). The 5- and 10-year actuarial survivals were 34% and 31%, respectively. Ten patients relapsed in the neck, with a 5-year actuarial risk of nodal relapse of 12%. The 5-year risk of neck relapse was 14% for SCC, 25% for ADE, and 7% for both UC and ACC. The overall risk of nodal involvement at either diagnosis or on follow-up was 28% for SCC, 25% for ADE, 12% for UC, and 10% for AC. All patients with nodal involvement had T3-4, and none had T2 tumors. ENI effectively prevented nodal relapse in patients with SCC and N0 neck; the 5-year actuarial risk of nodal relapse was 20% for patients without ENI and 0% for those with elective neck therapy. There was no correlation between neck relapse and primary tumor control or tumor extension into areas containing a rich lymphatic network. The most common sites of nodal relapse were in the

  8. Menstrual suppression in the adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantartzis, Kelly L; Sucato, Gina S

    2013-06-01

    Menstrual suppression, the use of contraceptive methods to eliminate or decrease the frequency of menses, is often prescribed for adolescents to treat menstrual disorders or to accommodate patient preference. For young women using hormonal contraceptives, there is no medical indication for menstruation to occur monthly, and various hormonal contraceptives can be used to decrease the frequency of menstruation with different side effect profiles and rates of amenorrhea. This article reviews the different modalities for menstrual suppression, common conditions in adolescents which may improve with menstrual suppression, and strategies for managing common side effects. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Follicular Lymphoma Tregs Have a Distinct Transcription Profile Impacting Their Migration and Retention in the Malignant Lymph Node.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Nedelkovska

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that regulatory T cells (Tregs infiltrating follicular lymphoma lymph nodes are quantitatively and qualitatively different than those infiltrating normal and reactive nodes. To gain insight into how such Treg populations differ, we performed RNA sequence (RNAseq analyses on flow sorted Tregs from all three sources. We identify several molecules that could contribute to the observed increased suppressive capacity of follicular lymphoma nodal tregs, including upregulation of CTLA-4, IL-10, and GITR, all confirmed by protein expression. In addition, we identify, and confirm functionally, a novel mechanism by which Tregs target to and accumulate within a human tumor microenvironment, through the down regulation of S1PR1, SELL (L-selectin and CCR7, potentially resulting in greater lymph node retention. In addition we identify and confirm functionally the upregulation of the chemokine receptor CXCR5 as well as the secretion of the chemokines CXCL13 and IL-16 demonstrating the unique ability of the follicular derived Tregs to localize and accumulate within not only the malignant lymph node, but also localize and accumulate within the malignant B cell follicle itself. Such findings offer significant new insights into how follicular lymphoma nodal Tregs may contribute to the biology of follicular lymphoma and identify several novel therapeutic targets.

  10. Wireless Sensor Networks - Node Localization for Various Industry Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derr, Kurt; Manic, Milos

    2015-01-01

    Fast, effective monitoring following airborne releases of toxic substances is critical to mitigate risks to threatened population areas. Wireless sensor nodes at fixed predetermined locations may monitor such airborne releases and provide early warnings to the public. A challenging algorithmic problem is determining the locations to place these sensor nodes while meeting several criteria: 1) provide complete coverage of the domain, and 2) create a topology with problem dependent node densities, while 3) minimizing the number of sensor nodes. This manuscript presents a novel approach to determining optimal sensor placement, Advancing Front mEsh generation with Constrained dElaunay Triangulation and Smoothing (AFECETS) that addresses these criteria. A unique aspect of AFECETS is the ability to determine wireless sensor node locations for areas of high interest (hospitals, schools, high population density areas) that require higher density of nodes for monitoring environmental conditions, a feature that is difficult to find in other research work. The AFECETS algorithm was tested on several arbitrary shaped domains. AFECETS simulation results show that the algorithm 1) provides significant reduction in the number of nodes, in some cases over 40%, compared to an advancing front mesh generation algorithm, 2) maintains and improves optimal spacing between nodes, and 3) produces simulation run times suitable for real-time applications

  11. On Node Replication Attack in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Qabulio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks comprise a large number of small, inexpensive, low power and memory constrained sensing devices (called sensor nodes that are densely deployed to measure a given physical phenomenon. Since WSNs are commonly deployed in a hostile and unattended environment, it is easy for an adversary to physically capture one or more legitimate sensor nodes, re-program and redeploy them in the network. As a result, the adversary becomes able to deploy several identical copies of physically captured nodes in the network in order to perform illegitimate activities. This type of attack is referred to as Node Replication Attack or Clone Node Attack. By launching node replication attack, an adversary can easily get control on the network which consequently is the biggest threat to confidentiality, integrity and availability of data and services. Thus, detection and prevention of node replication attack in WSNs has become an active area of research and to date more than two dozen schemes have been proposed, which address this issue. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review, classification and comparative analysis of twenty five of these schemes which help to detect and/or prevent node replication attack in WSNs

  12. Analysis of delayed convergence in the three-noded Timoshenko ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    3. Field inconsistent and field consistent solutions of the three-noded Timoshenko beam element. 3.1 Field-inconsistent solution. The three-noded isoparametric beam element, formulated to cater to curved geometry in the plane, is shown in figure 2a. The general geometry and displacement field of this element are given by.

  13. Glial membranes at the node of Ranvier prevent neurite outgrowth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Jeffrey K; Phillips, Greg R; Roth, Alejandro D

    2005-01-01

    of neurite outgrowth, including the oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein (OMgp). In rat spinal cord, OMgp was not localized to compact myelin, as previously thought, but to oligodendroglia-like cells, whose processes converge to form a ring that completely encircles the nodes. In OMgp-null mice, CNS nodes...

  14. Mediastinal lymph node tuberculosis in an adult: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Emami Naeini; Abdolali Foroozmehr; Abbas Tabatabae

    2006-01-01

    Mediastinal lymph node enlargement is an uncommon feature of intrathoracic tuberculosis in adults, whereas it is the rule in primary tuberculosis in children. Herein, we report a 56–year-old female with three-year history of non-productive cough, which was diagnosed as mediastinal lymph node tuberculosis.

  15. Near-Minimal Node Control of Networked Evolutionary Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riehl, James Robert; Cao, Ming

    2014-01-01

    We investigate a problem related to the controllability of networked evolutionary games, first presenting an algorithm that computes a near-minimal set of nodes to drive all nodes in a tree network to a desired strategy, and then briefly discussing an algorithm that works for arbitrary networks

  16. Detailed examination of lymph nodes improves prognostication in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doekhie, Fania S.; Mesker, Wilma E.; Kuppen, Peter J.; van Leeuwen, Gijs A.; Morreau, Hans; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Putter, Hein; Tanke, Hans J.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.; Tollenaar, Rob A.

    2010-01-01

    Up to 30% of stage II patients with curatively resected colorectal cancer (CRC) will develop disease recurrence. We evaluated whether examination of lymph nodes by multilevel sectioning and immunohistochemical staining can improve prognostication. Lymph nodes (n = 780) from 36 CRC patients who had

  17. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer and melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doting, Meintje Hylkje Edwina

    2007-01-01

    Summary and conclusions In the introduction, a short overview of the development of the sentinel lymph node biopsy concept is presented. In addition to melanoma and breast cancer, the usefulness of sentinel lymph node biopsy as a surgical assessment method for squamous cell carcinoma of penis and

  18. Myofibroblast activation in colorectal cancer lymph node metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeung, T. M.; Buskens, C.; Wang, L. M.; Mortensen, N. J.; Bodmer, W. F.

    2013-01-01

    Myofibroblasts have an important role in regulating the normal colorectal stem cell niche. While the activation of myofibroblasts in primary colorectal cancers has been previously described, myofibroblast activation in lymph node metastases has not been described before. Paraffin-embedded lymph node

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jenny Edge, Athar Nizami, Judith Whittaker, Robert Mansel. Background. Sentinel lymph node biopsy ... Department of Surgery, Cardiff University, UK. Robert Mansel, MB BS, MRCS, LRCP, MS ..... Lucci A, Keleman P, Miller C, Chardkoft L, Wilson Li National practice patterns of sentinel lymph node dissection for breast ...

  20. Building scalable apps with Redis and Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Johanan, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    If the phrase scalability sounds alien to you, then this is an ideal book for you. You will not need much Node.js experience as each framework is demonstrated in a way that requires no previous knowledge of the framework. You will be building scalable Node.js applications in no time! Knowledge of JavaScript is required.

  1. Long range node-strut analysis of trabecular bone microarchitecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmah, Tanya; Marwan, Norbert; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: We present a new morphometric measure of trabecular bone microarchitecture, called mean node strength (NdStr), which is part of a newly developed approach called long range node-strut analysis. Our general aim is to describe and quantify the apparent "latticelike" microarchitecture of th...

  2. LIGHT regulates inflamed draining lymph node hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingzhao; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Yugang; Wang, Zhongnan; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2011-01-01

    Lymph node (LN) hypertrophy, the increased cellularity of LNs, is the major indication of the initiation and expansion of the immune response against infection, vaccination, cancer or autoimmunity. The mechanisms underlying LN hypertrophy remain poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that LIGHT (TNFSF14) is a novel factor essential for LN hypertrophy after CFA immunization. Mechanistically, LIGHT is required for the influx of lymphocytes into but not egress out of LNs. In addition, LIGHT is required for DC migration from the skin to draining LNs. Compared with WT mice, LIGHT−/− mice express lower levels of chemokines in skin and addressins in LN vascular endothelial cells after CFA immunization. We unexpectedly observed that LIGHT from radioresistant rather than radiosensitive cells, likely Langerhans cells, is required for LN hypertrophy. Importantly, antigen-specific T cell responses were impaired in DLN of LIGHT−/− mice, suggesting the importance of LIGHT regulation of LN hypertrophy in the generation of an adaptive immune response. Collectively, our data reveal a novel cellular and molecular mechanism for the regulation of LN hypertrophy and its potential impact on the generation of an optimal adaptive immune response. PMID:21572030

  3. Breast cancer with axillary lymph node involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaid, A.; Kanoun, S.; Kallel, A.; Ghorbel, I.; Azoury, F.; Heymann, S.; Marsiglia, H.; Bourgier, C.; Belaid, A.; Ghorbel, I.; Kanoun, S.; Kallel, A.; Pichenot, C.; Verstraet, R.; Marsiglia, H.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer of women in western countries. There are one million new cases per year in the world which represents 22% of all female cancers, and more than 370.000 deaths due to breast cancer per year (14% of cancer mortality). More than half of breast cancers are associated with axillary nodal involvement. Post-operative radiation therapy (XRT) is a crucial part of locoregional treatment in axillary nodal involvement breast cancer owing to a 15-years risk reduction of locoregional recurrence of 70% and to a 5.4% risk reduction of specific mortality. In 3D-conformal irradiation in such breast cancers, target volumes are chest wall when mastectomy was performed or breast and boost of tumor bed in case of breast conservative surgery, and supra-clavicular and/or axillary and/or internal mammary node areas. The main organs at risk are ipsilateral lung, heart and brachial plexus. The aim of this article is to describe epidemiologic, radio anatomic and prognostic features of axillary nodal involvement breast cancer and to propose guidelines for 3D-conformal treatment planning in locally advanced breast cancers. This review is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  4. Differentiation of hyperplastic from metastatic lymph nodes using a lymph node specific MR contrast agent gadofluorine M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Joo Hee; Cheon, Jung Eun [Seoul Municipal Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, SNUMRC, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2006-08-15

    We wanted to evaluate the value of a lymph node specific MR contrast agent, Gadofluorine M, for the differentiation of hyperplastic and metastatic lymph nodes. This study included thirty-one rabbits. In ten rabbits, an injection of egg yolk or feces of rat into the calf muscles induced hyperplasia of the lymph node. In sixteen rabbits, metastasis of the lymph node was induced by implantation of VX2 tumor. Five rabbits were normal control models. We acquired the T1-, T2-weighted and SPGR coronal imaging before enhancement with 1.5 T MR. After injection of Gadofluorine M (5 {mu}mol/mL, total amount: 4 mL) interstitially into the interdigital skin fold of the hind limb, we acquired the SPGR coronal imaging at 15, 30, 60 and 90 minutes. We calculated the signal-to-noise ratios on the sequential images, and we recorded the number, size and location of the popliteal and iliac lymph nodes. Three readers assessed the state of the lymph nodes according to the pattern of enhancement: they were deemed hyperplastic nodes when totally enhanced and as metastatic nodes when there was no or partial enhancement. We also compared the imaging patterns with the histopathological results. Among the 26 hyperplasia- or metastasis-induced rabbits, two rabbits were excluded because of failure to be enhanced. Histopathologic evaluation of the 24 rabbits detected one hundred seventeen lymph nodes: forty-six lymph nodes in nine hyperplasia-induced rabbits and seventy-one (metastasis in twenty-eight) lymph nodes in fifteen metastasis-induced rabbits. Out of one hundred two lymph nodes that were larger than 5 mm in size, MR enabled us to detect one hundred one lymph nodes (99.1%). The means of sensitivity, specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values for the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis by three readers were 97.6% (82/84), 98.2% (215/219), and 95.3% (82/86), and 99.1% (215/217), respectively ({rho} < 0.05). Interstitial MR lymphography using Gadofluorine M showed excellent

  5. Design consideration of relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator for suppression of beam-break-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Houck, T.L.; Yu, S.; Goffeney, N.

    1994-03-01

    It is demonstrated in this simulation study that by using the scheme of operating rf extraction structures on the betatron nodes of electron drive beam in conjunction with adequate de-Q-ing, appropriate choice of geometries for the rf structures (reducing transverse impedence) and/or staggered tuning we can suppress the overall growth of transverse instabilities to 4 e-folds in a relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator with 200 extraction cavities

  6. Edge- and Node-Disjoint Paths in P Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Dinneen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we continue our development of algorithms used for topological network discovery. We present native P system versions of two fundamental problems in graph theory: finding the maximum number of edge- and node-disjoint paths between a source node and target node. We start from the standard depth-first-search maximum flow algorithms, but our approach is totally distributed, when initially no structural information is available and each P system cell has to even learn its immediate neighbors. For the node-disjoint version, our P system rules are designed to enforce node weight capacities (of one, in addition to edge capacities (of one, which are not readily available in the standard network flow algorithms.

  7. GFT centrality: A new node importance measure for complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rahul; Chakraborty, Abhishek; Manoj, B. S.

    2017-12-01

    Identifying central nodes is very crucial to design efficient communication networks or to recognize key individuals of a social network. In this paper, we introduce Graph Fourier Transform Centrality (GFT-C), a metric that incorporates local as well as global characteristics of a node, to quantify the importance of a node in a complex network. GFT-C of a reference node in a network is estimated from the GFT coefficients derived from the importance signal of the reference node. Our study reveals the superiority of GFT-C over traditional centralities such as degree centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, eigenvector centrality, and Google PageRank centrality, in the context of various arbitrary and real-world networks with different degree-degree correlations.

  8. Cognitive Scout Node for Communication in Disaster Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K. Sharma

    2012-01-01

    highly desired to manage unexpected situations that may happen in a disaster scenario. The scout node proposed in this paper is an extended concept based on a powerful CR node in a heterogeneous nodes environment which takes a leading role for highly flexible, fast, and robust establishment of cooperative wireless links in a disaster situation. This node should have two components: one is a passive sensor unit that collects and stores the technical knowledge about the electromagnetic environment in a data processing unit so-called “radio environment map” in the form of a dynamically updated database, and other is an active transceiver unit which can automatically be configured either as a secondary node for opportunistic communication or as a cooperative base station or access point for primary network in emergency communications. Scout solution can be viable by taking advantage of the technologies used by existing radio surveillance systems in the context of CR.

  9. [Cervical lymph node tuberculosis in Libreville: epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouba, John Florent; Miloundja, Jérôme; Mimbila-Mayi, Mylène; Ndjenkam, Florent Tchouansi; N'zouba, Léon

    2011-01-01

    To analyse the epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of cervical lymph node tuberculosis (TB) in Libreville. This retrospective descriptive multicentre study included all 140 patients with complete files who were treated for cervical lymph node TB from 2001 through 2006, regardless of whether TB was found at any other site. A slight predominance of men was observed. The infected lymph nodes were most often located at the posterior triangle of the neck. Histological proof was obtained for 81 patients. We recorded 94 cures, 4 cases of therapeutic failure, 34 patients lost to follow-up and 8 deaths. Cervical lymph node tuberculosis is a common ailment. Excisional lymph node biopsy has a twofold interest -therapeutic and diagnostic. It is based on histological examination, which must henceforth be systematic. Tuberculosis is a major HIV-related opportunistic infection and must be screened for or monitored at every HIV check-up.

  10. Ranking influential nodes in complex networks with structural holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Mei, Ting

    2018-01-01

    Ranking influential nodes in complex networks is of great theoretical and practical significance to ensure the safe operations of networks. In view of the important role structural hole nodes usually play in information spreading in complex networks, we propose a novel ranking method of influential nodes using structural holes called E-Burt method, which can be applied to weighted networks. This method fully takes into account the total connectivity strengths of the node in its local scope, the number of the connecting edges and the distributions of the total connectivity strengths on its connecting edges. The simulation results on the susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) dynamics suggest that the proposed E-Burt method can rank influential nodes more effectively and accurately in complex networks.

  11. Node Heterogeneity for Energy Efficient Synchronization for Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    is the introduction of heterogeneous nodes regarding energy, and the other is to synchronize the local clock of the node with the global clock of the network. In this context, the paper proposes Node Heterogeneity aware Energy Efficient Synchronization Algorithm (NHES). It works on the formation of cluster......-based spanning tree (SPT). In the initial stage of the algorithm, the nodes are grouped into the cluster and form the tree. The nodes in the cluster and cluster heads in the network are synchronized with the notion of the global time scale of the network. Also, clock skews may cause the errors and be one...... of the sources of delay and energy consumption. To minimize the energy consumptions and delay, NHES synchronizes the time slots using TDMA based MAC protocol. The results show that level by level synchronization used in NHES is energy efficient and has less delay as compared to the state-of-the-art solutions...

  12. Axillary lymph node treatment in breast cancer: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patrick A; Suggs, Jeanann; Mangana, Sophy H

    2014-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNbx) is the standard of care for staging of breast cancer. Patients with a negative sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNbx) do not undergo axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) or regional nodal irradiation (RNI). However, if a patient has a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNbx), then axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) is the standard treatment. Recent studies, notably the Z-0011 and MA-20 trials, have demonstrated that omission of axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) did not decrease overall survival. MA-20 demonstrated that inclusion of regional nodal irradiation (RNI) in addition to axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) did increase survival when compared to axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) without regional nodal irradiation (RNI). Ongoing studies are randomizing patients to axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) or regional nodal irradiation (RNI) after a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNbx).

  13. The effect of additional equilibrium stress functions on the three-node hybrid-mixed curved beam element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Gon; Park, Yong Kuk

    2008-01-01

    To develop an effective hybrid-mixed element, it is extremely critical as to how to assume the stress field. This research article demonstrates the effect of additional equilibrium stress functions to enhance the numerical performance of the locking-free three-node hybrid-mixed curved beam element, proposed in Saleeb and Chang's previous work. It is exceedingly complicated or even infeasible to determine the stress functions to satisfy fully both the equilibrium conditions and suppression of kinematic deformation modes in the three-node hybrid-mixed formulation. Accordingly, the additional stress functions to satisfy partially or fully equilibrium conditions are incorporated in this study. Several numerical examples for static and dynamic problems confirm that the newly proposed element with these additional stress functions is highly effective regardless of the slenderness ratio and curvature of arches in static and dynamic analyses

  14. Prediction of lateral lymph node metastasis by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Satoshi; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Ishibashi, Keiichiro

    2010-01-01

    Considering the advantages and disadvantages of lateral lymph node dissection in patients with advanced lower rectal cancer, it would be ideal to select candidates for lateral lymph node dissection by preoperative imaging study including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We have reported that the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node could be set at 6 mm for indication of lateral lymph node dissection. In the present study, we evaluated whether it would be appropriate to apply the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node in MRI. Forty-four patients with advanced lower rectal cancer underwent a curative surgery with lateral lymph node dissection or sampling from 1997 to 2009 in our institute. Among them, 25 patients received MRI preoperatively and analyzed. The images were obtained by a sagittal method that was diagonal along sacro-iliac joint with 5 mm thick sections. Lateral lymph node metastasis was detected in 5 cases, one side in 4 cases and both sides in 1 case. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predict value, and accuracy for predicting metastasis was 50%, 90%, 42.9% and 84.8% respectively, when the cut-off value of the minimal diameter was set at 6 mm in MRI. Our results indicated that a 6 mm set as the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node was suitable for the prediction of lateral lymph node metastasis since the accuracy was relatively high (84.8%), though it was hardly to detect metastatic lymph node less than 6 mm. (author)

  15. [Prediction of lateral lymph node metastasis by magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Satoshi; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Ishiguro, Toru; Ohsawa, Tomonori; Okada, Norimichi; Nakata, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Masaru; Haga, Norihiro; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2010-11-01

    Considering the advantages and disadvantages of lateral lymph node dissection in patients with advanced lower rectal cancer, it would be ideal to select candidates for lateral lymph node dissection by preoperative imaging study including magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). We have reported that the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node could be set at 6 mm for indication of lateral lymph node dissection. In the present study, we evaluated whether it would be appropriate to apply the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node in MRI. Forty-four patients with advanced lower rectal cancer underwent a curative surgery with lateral lymph node dissection or sampling from 1997 to 2009 in our institute. Among them, 25 patients received MRI preoperatively and analyzed. The images were obtained by a sagittal method that was diagonal along sacro-iliac joint with 5 mm thick sections. Lateral lymph node metastasis was detected in 5 cases, one side in 4 cases and both sides in 1 case. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predict value, and accuracy for predicting metastasis was 50%, 90%, 42.9% and 84.8% respectively, when the cut-off value of the minimal diameter was set at 6 mm in MRI. Our results indicated that a 6 mm set as the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node was suitable for the prediction of lateral lymph node metastasis since the accuracy was relatively high (84.8%), though it was hardly to detect metastatic lymph node less than 6 mm.

  16. Compton suppression gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Iskander, F.Y.; Niset, M.; Heydorn, K.

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade there have been many studies to use Compton suppression methods in routine neutron activation analysis as well as in the traditional role of low level gamma ray counting of environmental samples. On a separate path there have been many new PC based software packages that have been developed to enhance photopeak fitting. Although the newer PC based algorithms have had significant improvements, they still suffer from being effectively used in weak gamma ray lines in natural samples or in neutron activated samples that have very high Compton backgrounds. We have completed a series of experiments to show the usefulness of Compton suppression. As well we have shown the pitfalls when using Compton suppression methods for high counting deadtimes as in the case of neutron activated samples. We have also investigated if counting statistics are the same both suppressed and normal modes. Results are presented in four separate experiments. (author)

  17. Thyroid suppression test with dextrothyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, D.; Fridman, J.; Ribeiro, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    The classic thyroid suppression test with triiodothyronine (l-T 3 ) has been shown to be efficient as an auxiliary method in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, but should not be performed on elderly patients or on those with heart disease or a tendency to tachycardia. Since these subjects seem able to support a short period of dextro-thyronine (d-T 4 ) feeding, we compared the effect of d-T 4 and l-T 3 on the 24 hours thyroid uptake in euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects. After basal radio-iodine uptake determination, 99 patients without hyperthyroidism and 27 with Graves' disease were randomly divided in 2 groups; one received 100μg of l-T 3 per day and the other 4 mg of d-T 4 per day, both groups being treated for a period of 10 days. At the end of this suppression period the 24 hours radio-iodine uptake was measured again and the percentual suppression index (S.I.) calculated. Since the comparison of the two groups showed no difference between the suppressive effect of l-T 3 and d-T 4 in euthyroid subjects, while dextro-thyronine, as levo-triiodothyronine, did not suppress the 24 hours uptake of hyperthyroid patients, l-T 3 or d-T 4 can be used interchangeably to test thyroid suppressibility. In the euthyroid subjects the normal range for the post-suppression uptake was 0-17.1% and for the suppression index 54,7.100% [pt

  18. In vivo Treg suppression assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Creg J; Collison, Lauren W; Bettini, Maria; Pillai, Meenu R; Rehg, Jerold E; Vignali, Dario A A

    2011-01-01

    To fully examine the functionality of a regulatory T cell (T(reg)) population, one needs to assess their ability to suppress in a variety of in vivo models. We describe five in vivo models that examine the suppressive capacity of T(regs) upon different target cell types. The advantages and disadvantages of each model including resources, time, and technical expertise required to execute each model are also described.

  19. In Vivo Treg Suppression Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Workman, Creg J.; Collison, Lauren W.; Bettini, Maria; Pillai, Meenu R.; Rehg, Jerold E.; Vignali, Dario A.A.

    2011-01-01

    To fully examine the functionality of a regulatory T cell (Treg) population, one needs to assess their ability to suppress in a variety of in vivo models. We describe five in vivo models that examine the suppressive capacity of Tregs upon different target cell types. The advantages and disadvantages of each model includ ing resources, time, and technical expertise required to execute each model are also described.

  20. Laparoscopic detection of sentinel lymph nodes followed by lymph node dissection in patients with early stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, Marrije R.; Pijpers, Rik J.; van Lingen, Arthur; van Diest, Paul J.; Dijkstra, Jan; Kenemans, Peter; Verheijen, René H. M.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of sentinel node detection through laparoscopy in patients with early cervical cancer. Furthermore, the results of laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection were studied, validated by subsequent laparotomy. Twenty-five patients with early

  1. Laparoscopic detection of sentinel lymph nodes followed by lymph node dissection in patients with early stage cervical cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, M.R.; Pijpers, RJ; Lingen, van A.; Diest, van P.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Kenemans, P.; Verheijen, R.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of sentinel node detection through laparoscopy in patients with early cervical cancer. Furthermore, the results of laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection were studied, validated by subsequent laparotomy. METHODS: Twenty-five

  2. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in node-negative squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, P

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: Considerable controversy exists regarding the merits of elective neck dissection in patients with early stage oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. It is highly desirable to have a method of identifying those patients who would benefit from further treatment of the neck when they are clinically node-negative. The purpose of the present study was to examine the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in identifying occult neck disease in a cohort of patients with node-negative oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: We evaluated a total of 13 patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer who were clinically and radiologically node-negative. RESULTS: A sentinel lymph node was found in all 13 patients, revealing metastatic disease in five patients, four of whom had one or more positive sentinel lymph nodes. There was one false negative result, in which the sentinel lymph node was negative for tumour whereas histological examination of the neck dissection specimen showed occult disease. CONCLUSION: In view of these findings, we would recommend the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in cases of oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, in order to aid the differentiation of those patients whose necks are harbouring occult disease and who require further treatment.

  3. Burst Suppression for ICP Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Frederick A; Akoth, Eva; Gillman, Lawrence M; West, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The goal of our study was to perform a systematic review of the literature to determine the effect that burst suppression has on intracranial pressure (ICP) control. All articles from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (inception to January 2015), reference lists of relevant articles, and gray literature were searched. The strength of evidence was adjudicated using both the Oxford and the Grading of Recommendation Assessment Development and Education (GRADE) methodology. Seven articles were considered for review. A total of 108 patients were studied, all receiving burst suppression therapy. Two studies failed to document a decrease in ICP with burst suppression therapy. There were reports of severe hypotension and increased infection rates with barbiturate-based therapy. Etomidate-based suppressive therapy was linked to severe renal dysfunction. There currently exists both Oxford level 2b and GRADE C evidence to support that achieving burst suppression reduces ICP, and also has no effect on ICP, in severe traumatic brain injury. The literature suggests burst suppression therapy may be useful for ICP reduction in certain cases, although these situations are currently unclear. In addition, the impact on patient functional outcome is unclear. Further prospective study is warranted.

  4. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoek, Hella Leonie [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-06-02

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B0 → D*- a0+ decays and the non-resonant B0 → D*- ηπ+ decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → B$\\bar{B}$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B0 → D*- a{sub 0}+ decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10-6. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B0 → D*- a0+ decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly

  5. Sentinel lymph node biopsy using indigo carmine blue dye and the validity of '10% rule' and '4 nodes rule'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Hojo, Takashi; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2012-08-01

    This is the study which assessed sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) using indigo carmine blue dye and the validity of the '10% rule' and '4 nodes rule'. Patients (302) were performed SNB using the combined radioisotope (RI)/indigo carmine dye method. Excised SLNs were confirmed whether they were stained and numbered in order of RI count and the percentage of radioactivity as compared to the hottest node was calculated. The relationship between histological diagnosis, dyeing and RI count was assessed. All the patients were detected SLN. Positive nodes were identified in 84 (27.8%) patients and were identified up to the third degree of hottest. All the hottest positive nodes were stained by indigo carmine. From the results, removing the three most radioactive SLNs identified all cases of nodal metastasis without complications. These stopping rules were valid and useful under indigo carmine use too. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Aggregating job exit statuses of a plurality of compute nodes executing a parallel application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Michael E.; Attinella, John E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Mundy, Michael B.

    2015-07-21

    Aggregating job exit statuses of a plurality of compute nodes executing a parallel application, including: identifying a subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer to execute the parallel application; selecting one compute node in the subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer as a job leader compute node; initiating execution of the parallel application on the subset of compute nodes; receiving an exit status from each compute node in the subset of compute nodes, where the exit status for each compute node includes information describing execution of some portion of the parallel application by the compute node; aggregating each exit status from each compute node in the subset of compute nodes; and sending an aggregated exit status for the subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer.

  7. Lymph node yield in node-negative patients predicts cancer specific survival following radical cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Crozier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the oncological implications of increased nodal dissection in node-negative bladder cancer during radical cystectomy in a contemporary Australian series. Materials and Methods: We performed a multicenter retrospective study, including more than 40 surgeons across 5 sites over a 10-year period. We identified 353 patients with primary bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy. Extent of lymphadenectomy was defined as follows; limited pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND (perivesical, pelvic, and obturator, standard PLND (internal and external iliac and extended PLND (common iliac. Multivariable cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models were used to determine LNY effect on cancer-specific survival. Results: Over the study period, the extent of dissection and lymph node yield increased considerably. In node-negative patients, lymph node yield (LNY conferred a significantly improved cancer-specific survival. Compared to cases where LNY of 1 to 5 nodes were taken, the hazard ratio (HR for 6 to 15 nodes harvested was 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43–1.39 and for greater than 15 nodes the HR was 0.31 (95% CI, 0.17–0.57, adjusted for age, sex, T stage, margin status, and year of surgery. The predicted probability of cancer-specific death within 2 years of cystectomy was 16% (95% CI, 13%–19% with 10 nodes harvested, falling to 5.5% (95% CI, 0%–12% with 30 nodes taken. Increasing harvest in all PLND templates conferred a survival benefit. Conclusions: The findings of the current study highlight the improved oncological outcomes with increased LNY, irrespective of the dissection template. Further prospective research is needed to aid LND data interpretation.

  8. PVM Enhancement for Beowulf Multiple-Processor Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Paul

    2006-01-01

    A recent version of the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) computer program has been enhanced to enable use of multiple processors in a single node of a Beowulf system (a cluster of personal computers that runs the Linux operating system). A previous version of PVM had been enhanced by addition of a software port, denoted BEOLIN, that enables the incorporation of a Beowulf system into a larger parallel processing system administered by PVM, as though the Beowulf system were a single computer in the larger system. BEOLIN spawns tasks on (that is, automatically assigns tasks to) individual nodes within the cluster. However, BEOLIN does not enable the use of multiple processors in a single node. The present enhancement adds support for a parameter in the PVM command line that enables the user to specify which Internet Protocol host address the code should use in communicating with other Beowulf nodes. This enhancement also provides for the case in which each node in a Beowulf system contains multiple processors. In this case, by making multiple references to a single node, the user can cause the software to spawn multiple tasks on the multiple processors in that node.

  9. Identifying key nodes in multilayer networks based on tensor decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingjie; Wang, Haitao; Zou, Xiufen

    2017-06-01

    The identification of essential agents in multilayer networks characterized by different types of interactions is a crucial and challenging topic, one that is essential for understanding the topological structure and dynamic processes of multilayer networks. In this paper, we use the fourth-order tensor to represent multilayer networks and propose a novel method to identify essential nodes based on CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) tensor decomposition, referred to as the EDCPTD centrality. This method is based on the perspective of multilayer networked structures, which integrate the information of edges among nodes and links between different layers to quantify the importance of nodes in multilayer networks. Three real-world multilayer biological networks are used to evaluate the performance of the EDCPTD centrality. The bar chart and ROC curves of these multilayer networks indicate that the proposed approach is a good alternative index to identify real important nodes. Meanwhile, by comparing the behavior of both the proposed method and the aggregated single-layer methods, we demonstrate that neglecting the multiple relationships between nodes may lead to incorrect identification of the most versatile nodes. Furthermore, the Gene Ontology functional annotation demonstrates that the identified top nodes based on the proposed approach play a significant role in many vital biological processes. Finally, we have implemented many centrality methods of multilayer networks (including our method and the published methods) and created a visual software based on the MATLAB GUI, called ENMNFinder, which can be used by other researchers.

  10. Exploring the evolution of node neighborhoods in Dynamic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orman, Günce Keziban; Labatut, Vincent; Naskali, Ahmet Teoman

    2017-09-01

    Dynamic Networks are a popular way of modeling and studying the behavior of evolving systems. However, their analysis constitutes a relatively recent subfield of Network Science, and the number of available tools is consequently much smaller than for static networks. In this work, we propose a method specifically designed to take advantage of the longitudinal nature of dynamic networks. It characterizes each individual node by studying the evolution of its direct neighborhood, based on the assumption that the way this neighborhood changes reflects the role and position of the node in the whole network. For this purpose, we define the concept of neighborhood event, which corresponds to the various transformations such groups of nodes can undergo, and describe an algorithm for detecting such events. We demonstrate the interest of our method on three real-world networks: DBLP, LastFM and Enron. We apply frequent pattern mining to extract meaningful information from temporal sequences of neighborhood events. This results in the identification of behavioral trends emerging in the whole network, as well as the individual characterization of specific nodes. We also perform a cluster analysis, which reveals that, in all three networks, one can distinguish two types of nodes exhibiting different behaviors: a very small group of active nodes, whose neighborhood undergo diverse and frequent events, and a very large group of stable nodes.

  11. Adaptive filtering for hidden node detection and tracking in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Franz; Setzer, Beverly; Chavez, Sergio; Tran, Hien; Lloyd, Alun L

    2017-07-01

    The identification of network connectivity from noisy time series is of great interest in the study of network dynamics. This connectivity estimation problem becomes more complicated when we consider the possibility of hidden nodes within the network. These hidden nodes act as unknown drivers on our network and their presence can lead to the identification of false connections, resulting in incorrect network inference. Detecting the parts of the network they are acting on is thus critical. Here, we propose a novel method for hidden node detection based on an adaptive filtering framework with specific application to neuronal networks. We consider the hidden node as a problem of missing variables when model fitting and show that the estimated system noise covariance provided by the adaptive filter can be used to localize the influence of the hidden nodes and distinguish the effects of different hidden nodes. Additionally, we show that the sequential nature of our algorithm allows for tracking changes in the hidden node influence over time.

  12. Final report for the mobile node authentication LDRD project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, John T.; Lanzone, Andrew J.

    2005-09-01

    In hostile ad hoc wireless communication environments, such as battlefield networks, end-node authentication is critical. In a wired infrastructure, this authentication service is typically facilitated by a centrally-located ''authentication certificate generator'' such as a Certificate Authority (CA) server. This centralized approach is ill-suited to meet the needs of mobile ad hoc networks, such as those required by military systems, because of the unpredictable connectivity and dynamic routing. There is a need for a secure and robust approach to mobile node authentication. Current mechanisms either assign a pre-shared key (shared by all participating parties) or require that each node retain a collection of individual keys that are used to communicate with other individual nodes. Both of these approaches have scalability issues and allow a single compromised node to jeopardize the entire mobile node community. In this report, we propose replacing the centralized CA with a distributed CA whose responsibilities are shared between a set of select network nodes. To that end, we develop a protocol that relies on threshold cryptography to perform the fundamental CA duties in a distributed fashion. The protocol is meticulously defined and is implemented it in a series of detailed models. Using these models, mobile wireless scenarios were created on a communication simulator to test the protocol in an operational environment and to gather statistics on its scalability and performance.

  13. Role of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in the Management of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda, E.P.; Higgins, K.M.; Higgins, K. M.; Higgins, K. M.

    2012-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and typically aggressive form of skin cancer. It most commonly affects the elderly and has a predilection for the sun-exposed skin of the head and neck region. Other etiological factors include immune suppression, organ transplantation, and polyoma virus infection. MCC has a propensity to spread to regional lymphatics with a high locoregional recurrence rate. Since its discovery in 1972, treatment paradigms have shifted, with no consensus on optimal management strategies. Currently, standard of care includes surgical intervention to the primary and locoregional site with adjuvant radiotherapy for high-risk disease. In this paper, we discuss the history, pathology, and epidemiology of this rare disease with a focus on the evidentiary basis of treatment protocols. The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy as a management option will be the focus of this paper.

  14. Detection of tetanus toxoid-specific memory T cells in equine lymph nodes but not in peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayne, J; Stokes, C R

    1995-07-01

    The use of tetanus toxoid as a recall antigen to investigate equine immune responses would be, in theory, a useful and cost-effective model in vitro. However, by using various regimens for culturing peripheral blood mononuclear cells from horses previously immunised with toxoid no proliferative response to the antigen was obtained in vitro, whereas lymph node mononuclear cells from the same animals proliferated significantly in response to it. The lack of response by the peripheral blood mononuclear cells was not due to the presence of a suppressive factor but to a lack of recognition of the antigen by the T cells of the peripheral blood.

  15. The status of ESG-BNU node in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Wu, Q.; Wang, L.; Cheng, H.; Ji, D.; Feng, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Peer-to-Peer (P2P) is an operational system for serving climate data from multiple locations and sources.The ESG-BNU node, established in 2012, is one of the ESGF data nodes, and also the only idp/index node in China. Until now, ESG-BNU node has published 17 experiments of 10,595 GB dataset for CMIP5 and 4 experiments of 1174 GB dataset for GeoMIP generated by the Earth System Model of Beijing Normal University (BNU-ESM) It has provided over 43.0TB data with an average 700 KB/s download speed to scientists all over the world. Especially in China, data users can download the datasets more than 1MB/s. In BNU the speed can reach to over 10MB/s.(Fig.1) As an ESGF Portal node we try to make replicas of other model centers so that data users in China can get the datasets much faster . By analyzing the download information extracted from the thredds log files we found that over 95% data requests were from China, U.S. and Japan.(Fig.2) About 75% downloads came from historical, rcp45 and rcp85 experiments.(Fig.3) And over 79% downloads came from the monthly datasets. So making replicas for those datasets with most interested can meet the needs of most model users and will save over 50% disk space of the data nodes. In our plan, the data volume of the ESG-BNU node will reach to 200TB in the next year. As for the coming CMIP6, data volume may reach to over 3.5EB. Making replica of all experiments maybe too expensive and not necessary for many ESGF nodes. We hope such download statistical analysis can be helpful for ESGF data nodes to decide which experiments should be replicated or be replicated with priority.

  16. High risk of non-sentinel node metastases in a group of breast cancer patients with micrometastases in the sentinel node

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Lisse, Ida Marie

    2012-01-01

    Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel nodes is under debate. We aimed to establish two models to predict non-sentinel node (NSN) metastases in patients with micrometastases or isolated tumor cells (ITC) in sentinel nodes, to guide the decision for ...

  17. Design of node record for fast active reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wenqing; Luo Mingcheng; Tang Pengyi; Liu Jiajing; Wang Jian

    2014-01-01

    Active Reflector is the one of the innovations of Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST) whose performance touches on that of the overall telescope. Therefore a real time control system is needed by the Active Reflector System. In this paper, a new record type-node record is designed for EPICS-based active reflector control system of FAST, according to more than 2000 controlled node, which will be convenient for node management of IOC and prove the reusage of IOC codes. The record type is used in design of active reflector control system of FAST Miyun model. (authors)

  18. Neuroendocrine tumor of the inguinal node: A very rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niharika Bisht

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors are a broad family of tumors arising most commonly in the gastrointestinal tract and the bronchus pulmonary tree. The other common sounds are the parathyroid, pituitary and adrenal gland. Inguinal node as a primary presentation of a neuroendocrine tumor is an extremely rare presentation. We present the case of a 43-year-old-male who presented with the complaints of an inguinal node swelling without any other symptoms and on further evaluation was diagnosed to have a non-metastatic neuroendocrine tumor of the inguinal node. He was treated with a combination of chemotherapy and surgery and is presently awaiting completion chemotherapy.

  19. RootJS : Node.js Bindings for ROOT 6

    OpenAIRE

    Beffart, Theo; Früh, Maximilian; Haas, Christoph; Rajgopal, Sachin; Schwabe, Jonas; Wolff, Christoph; Szuba, Marek

    2017-01-01

    We present rootJS, an interface making it possible to seamlessly integrate ROOT 6 into applications written for Node.js, the JavaScript runtime platform increasingly commonly used to create high-performance Web applications. ROOT features can be called both directly from Node.js code and by JIT-compiling C++ macros. All rootJS methods are invoked asynchronously and support callback functions, allowing non-blocking operation of Node.js applications using them. Last but not least, our bindings ...

  20. Sentinel lymph nodes in cancer of the oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Christensen, Rikke Kølby; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extended histopathologic work-up has increased the detection of micrometastasis in sentinel lymph nodes in malignant melanoma and breast cancer. The aim of this study was to examine if (A) step-sectioning of the central 1000 microM at 250 microM levels with immunostaining were accurate...... when compared with (B) step-sectioning and immunostaining of the entire sentinel lymph node at 250 microM levels. METHODS: Forty patients with T1/T2 cN0 oral cancer were enrolled. Three patients were excluded. In one patient no sentinel lymph node was identified. The remaining two had unidentified...

  1. A transgenic mouse model for early prostate metastasis to lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyun-Kyung; Akakura, Shin; Peresie, Jennifer; Goodrich, David W; Foster, Barbara A; Gelman, Irwin H

    2014-02-01

    The emergence of recurrent, metastatic prostate cancer following the failure of androgen-deprivation therapy represents the lethal phenotype of this disease. However, little is known regarding the genes and pathways that regulate this metastatic process, and moreover, it is unclear whether metastasis is an early or late event. The individual genetic loss of the metastasis suppressor, SSeCKS/Gravin/AKAP12 or Rb, genes that are downregulated or deleted in human prostate cancer, results in prostatic hyperplasia. Here, we show that the combined loss of Akap12 and Rb results in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) that fails to progress to malignancy after 18 months. Strikingly, 83% of mice with PIN lesions exhibited metastases to draining lymph nodes, marked by relatively differentiated tumor cells expressing markers of basal (p63, cytokeratin 14) and luminal (cytokeratin 8 and androgen receptor) epithelial cells, although none expressed the basal marker, cytokeratin 5. The finding that PIN lesions contain increased numbers of p63/AR-positive, cytokeratin 5-negative basal cells compared with WT or Akap12-/- prostate lobes suggests that these transitional cells may be the source of the lymph node metastases. Taken together, these data suggest that in the context of Rb loss, Akap12 suppresses the oncogenic proliferation and early metastatic spread of basal-luminal prostate tumor cells.

  2. Factors associated with involvement of four or more axillary nodes for sentinel lymph node-positive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Angela; Niemierko, Andrzej; Gage, Irene; Evans, Sheila; Shaffer, Margaret; Smith, Frederick P.; Taghian, Alphonse; Magnant, Colette

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Sentinel lymph node-positive (SLN+) patients who are unlikely to have 4 or more involved axillary nodes might be treated with less extensive regional nodal radiation. The purpose of this study was to define possible predictors of having 4 or more involved axillary nodes. Methods and Materials: The records of 224 patients with breast cancer and 1 to 3 involved SLNs, who underwent completion axillary dissection without neoadjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy were reviewed. Factors associated with the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes (SLNs plus non-SLNs) were evaluated by Pearson chi-square test of association and by simple and multiple logistic-regression analysis. Results: Of 224 patients, 42 had involvement of 4 or more axillary nodes. On univariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was positively associated with increased tumor size, lobular histology, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), increased number of involved SLNs, decreased number of uninvolved SLNs, and increased size of SLN metastasis. On multivariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was associated with LVSI, increased number of involved SLNs, increased size of SLN metastasis, and lobular histology. Conclusions: Patients with 1 or more involved SLN, LVSI, or SLN macrometastasis should be treated to the supraclavicular fossa/axillary apex if they do not undergo completion axillary dissection. Other SLN+ patients might be adequately treated with less extensive radiation fields

  3. Sentinel node positive melanoma patients: prediction and prognostic significance of nonsentinel node metastases and development of a survival tree model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Martin; Acland, Katharine M; Shaw, Helen M; Soong, Seng-Jaw; Lin, Hui-Yi; Chen, Dung-Tsa; Scolyer, Richard A; Winstanley, Julie B; Thompson, John F

    2010-08-01

    Completion lymph node dissection (CLND) following positive sentinel node biopsy (SNB) for melanoma detects additional nonsentinel node (NSN) metastases in approximately 20% of cases. This study aimed to establish whether NSN status can be predicted, to determine its effect on survival, and to develop survival tree models for the sentinel node (SN) positive population. Sydney Melanoma Unit (SMU) patients with at least 1 positive SN, meeting inclusion criteria and treated between October 1992 and June 2005, were identified from the Unit database. Survival characteristics, potential predictors of survival, and NSN status were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method, Cox regression model, and logistic regression analyses, respectively. Classification tree analysis was performed to identify groups with distinctly different survival characteristics. A total of 323 SN-positive melanoma patients met the inclusion criteria. On multivariate analysis, age, gender, primary tumor thickness, mitotic rate, number of positive NSNs, or total number of positive nodes were statistically significant predictors of survival. NSN metastasis, found at CLND in 19% of patients, was only predicted to a statistically significant degree by ulceration. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that survival was more closely related to number of positive NSNs than total number of positive nodes. Classification tree analysis revealed 4 prognostically distinct survival groups. Patients with NSN metastases could not be reliably identified prior to CLND. Prognosis following CLND was more closely related to number of positive NSNs than total number of positive nodes. Classification tree analysis defined distinctly different survival groups more accurately than use of single-factor analysis.

  4. Lymph node metastasis of carcinomas of transverse colon including flexures. Consideration of the extramesocolic lymph node stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrakis, Aristotelis; Weber, Klaus; Merkel, Susanne; Matzel, Klaus; Agaimy, Abbas; Gebbert, Carol; Hohenberger, Werner

    2014-10-01

    Complete mesocolic excision (CME) is nowadays state of the art in the treatment of colon cancer. In cases of carcinoma of transverse colon and of both flexures an extramesocolic lymph node metastasis can be found in the infrapancreatic lymph node region (ILR) and across the gastroepiploic arcade (GLR). These direct metastatic routes were not previously systematically considered. In order to validate our hypothesis of these direct metastatic pathways and to obtain evidence of our approach of including dissection of these areas as part of CME, we initiated a prospective study evaluating these lymph node regions during surgery. Forty-five consecutive patients with primary tumour manifestation in transverse colon and both flexures between May 2010 and January 2013 were prospectively analyzed. Patients were followed up for at least 6 months. Mode of surgery, histopathology, morbidity and mortality were evaluated. Twenty-six patients had a carcinoma of transverse colon, 16 patients one of hepatic flexure and four patients one of splenic flexure. The median lymph node yield was 40. Occurrence of lymph node metastasis in ILR was registered in five patients and in GLR in four patients. The mean lymph node ratio was 0.085. Postoperative complications occurred in nine patients, and postoperative mortality was 2 %. We were able to demonstrate this novel metastatic route of carcinomas of the transverse colon and of both flexures in ILR and GLR. These could be considered as regional lymph node regions and have to be included into surgery for cancer of the transverse colon including both flexures.

  5. Suppression of lymphocyte proliferation by marijuana components is related to cell number and cell source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, T.; Pross, S.; Newton, C.; Friedman, H.

    1986-03-05

    Conflicting reports have appeared concerning the effect of marijuana components on immune responsiveness. The authors have observed that the effect of cannabinoids on lymphocyte proliferation varied with both the concentration of the drug and the mitogen used. They now report that at a constant concentration of drug, the cannabinoid effect varied from no effect to suppression depending upon the number of cells in culture and the organ source of the cells. Dispersed cell suspensions of mouse lymph node, spleen, and thymus were prepared and cultured at varying cell numbers with either delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and various mitogens. Lymphocyte proliferation was analyzed by /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. T-lymphocyte mitogen responses in cultures containing high cell numbers were unaffected by the cannabinoids but as cell numbers were reduced a suppression of the response was observed. Furthermore, thymus cells were considerably more susceptible to cannabinoid suppression than cells from either lymph node or spleen. These results suggest that certain lymphocyte subpopulations are more sensitive to cannabinoid suppression and that in addition to drug concentration other variables such as cell number and cell source must be considered when analyzing cannabinoid effects.

  6. Suppression of lymphocyte proliferation by marijuana components is related to cell number and cell source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, T.; Pross, S.; Newton, C.; Friedman, H.

    1986-01-01

    Conflicting reports have appeared concerning the effect of marijuana components on immune responsiveness. The authors have observed that the effect of cannabinoids on lymphocyte proliferation varied with both the concentration of the drug and the mitogen used. They now report that at a constant concentration of drug, the cannabinoid effect varied from no effect to suppression depending upon the number of cells in culture and the organ source of the cells. Dispersed cell suspensions of mouse lymph node, spleen, and thymus were prepared and cultured at varying cell numbers with either delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and various mitogens. Lymphocyte proliferation was analyzed by 3 H-thymidine incorporation. T-lymphocyte mitogen responses in cultures containing high cell numbers were unaffected by the cannabinoids but as cell numbers were reduced a suppression of the response was observed. Furthermore, thymus cells were considerably more susceptible to cannabinoid suppression than cells from either lymph node or spleen. These results suggest that certain lymphocyte subpopulations are more sensitive to cannabinoid suppression and that in addition to drug concentration other variables such as cell number and cell source must be considered when analyzing cannabinoid effects

  7. Beyond viral suppression of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Barton, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016-2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the '90-90-90' target calling on health systems to reduce under-diagnosis of HIV, treat a greater number of those diagnosed......, and ensure that those being treated achieve viral suppression. DISCUSSION: The WHO strategy calls for person-centered chronic care for people living with HIV (PLHIV), implicitly acknowledging that viral suppression is not the ultimate goal of treatment. However, it stops short of providing an explicit target...... for health-related quality of life. It thus fails to take into account the needs of PLHIV who have achieved viral suppression but still must contend with other intense challenges such as serious non-communicable diseases, depression, anxiety, financial stress, and experiences of or apprehension about HIV...

  8. Resonance suppression from color reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acconcia, R.; Chinellato, D. D.; de Souza, R. Derradi; Takahashi, J.; Torrieri, G.; Markert, C.

    2018-02-01

    We present studies that show how multi-parton interaction and color reconnection affect the hadro-chemistry in proton-proton (pp) collisions with special focus on the production of resonances using the pythia8 event generator. We find that color reconnection suppresses the relative production of meson resonances such as ρ0 and K* , providing an alternative explanation for the K*/K decrease observed in proton-proton collisions as a function of multiplicity by the ALICE collaboration. Detailed studies of the underlying mechanism causing meson resonance suppression indicate that color reconnection leads to shorter, less energetic strings whose fragmentation is less likely to produce more massive hadrons for a given quark content, therefore reducing ratios such as K*/K and ρ0/π in high-multiplicity pp collisions. In addition, we have also studied the effects of allowing string junctions to form and found that these may also contribute to resonance suppression.

  9. Browsing schematics: Query-filtered graphs with context nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Eugene C.; Nardi, Bonnie A.

    1988-01-01

    The early results of a research project to create tools for building interfaces to intelligent systems on the NASA Space Station are reported. One such tool is the Schematic Browser which helps users engaged in engineering problem solving find and select schematics from among a large set. Users query for schematics with certain components, and the Schematic Browser presents a graph whose nodes represent the schematics with those components. The query greatly reduces the number of choices presented to the user, filtering the graph to a manageable size. Users can reformulate and refine the query serially until they locate the schematics of interest. To help users maintain orientation as they navigate a large body of data, the graph also includes nodes that are not matches but provide global and local context for the matching nodes. Context nodes include landmarks, ancestors, siblings, children and previous matches.

  10. WHOI MVCO 12m Node ADCP SOS, 2008-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wave observations from the 12m node ADCP in the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO) in the northwest Atlantic in coastal waters of North America. Extensive,...

  11. [Intraoperative detection of the sentinel lymph nodes in lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopov, A L; Papayan, G V; Chistyakov, I V

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the scientific data was made. It was used the literature devoted to the intraoperative visualization of the sentinel lymph nodes in patients with lung cancer. Correct detection of such lymph nodes with following pathologic investigation allowed limiting the volume of lympho-dissection in a number of patients. There is the possibility of maximal in-depth study of the sentinel lymph nodes by purposeful application of most sensible pathologic and molecular methods for detection their micrometastatic lesions. At the same time the treatment strategy and prognosis could be determined. The authors present the results of an application of dye techniques, radioactive preparation and fluorescence imaging for sentinel lymph node detection. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods are shown in the article. There are validated the prospects of technical development, study of information value of new applications and the most perspective method of fluorescence indocyanine green visualization by lymph outflow.

  12. Assessment of lymph node tuberculosis in two provinces in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Dursun; Senol, Gunes; Alptekin, Serpil; Gunes, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate lymph node tuberculosis (LNT) cases in two provinces in Turkey with different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. A total of 109 LNT cases were reviewed retrospectively. The cases were analyzed and compared for symptoms, findings, age, vaccination status, and diagnostic procedures. Socioeconomic conditions were also assessed for the two provinces. A palpable cervical node was considered a significant predictor for all LNT. Mediastinal lymph node involvement was found to be common in cases of pulmonary manifestation of LNT. Female patients were predominantly from the Van Province, while older patients were found to be from Izmir Province. LNT should be suspected in lymphadenitis patients of all age-groups especially in young adolescents with cervical lymph node enlargements. In the presence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy, pulmonary tuberculosis should be investigated.

  13. Flexible wearable sensor nodes with solar energy harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiyang Wu; Arefin, Md Shamsul; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2017-07-01

    Wearable sensor nodes have gained a lot of attention during the past few years as they can monitor and record people's physical parameters in real time. Wearable sensor nodes can promote healthy lifestyles and prevent the occurrence of potential illness or injuries. This paper presents a flexible wearable sensor system powered by an efficient solar energy harvesting technique. It can measure the subject's heartbeats using a photoplethysmography (PPG) sensor and perform activity monitoring using an accelerometer. The solar energy harvester adopts an output current based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm, which controls the solar panel to operate within its high output power range. The power consumption of the flexible sensor nodes has been investigated under different operation conditions. Experimental results demonstrate that wearable sensor nodes can work for more than 12 hours when they are powered by the solar energy harvester for 3 hours in the bright sunlight.

  14. Sentinel lymph nodes in cancer of the oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node biopsy, step sectioning and immunohistochemistry have changed detection of tumour deposits. Isolated tumour cells (ITC) are detected more frequently than earlier because of a changed level of detection. METHODS: A total of 108 sentinel lymph nodes from 30 patients...... with T1/T2 cN0 oral cancer were re-classified histologically to find possible ITC and to describe technical pitfalls. RESULTS: Primarily we found metastatic spread in 12 of 108 sentinel lymph nodes: five macrometastasis and seven micrometastasis. After re-classification, we found seven lymph nodes...... with macrometastasis, five with micrometastasis and two with ITC. CONCLUSION: The ITC are probably precursors of micrometastasis waiting to grow and should be treated as such. Benign inclusions and dendritic cells did not cause problems, but can mimic ITC....

  15. ASH : Tackling node mobility in large-scale networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruteanu, A.; Dulman, S.

    2012-01-01

    With the increased adoption of technologies likewireless sensor networks by real-world applications, dynamic network topologies are becoming the rule rather than the exception. Node mobility, however, introduces a range of problems (communication interference, path uncertainty, low quality of

  16. On Identifying which Intermediate Nodes Should Code in Multicast Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Tiago; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Médard, Muriel

    2013-01-01

    the data packets. Previous work has shown that in lossless wireline networks, the performance of tree-packing mechanisms is comparable to network coding, albeit with added complexity at the time of computing the trees. This means that most nodes in the network need not code. Thus, mechanisms that identify...... intermediate nodes that do require coding is instrumental for the efficient operation of coded networks and can have a significant impact in overall energy consumption. We present a distributed, low complexity algorithm that allows every node to identify if it should code and, if so, through what output link......Network coding has the potential to enhance energy efficiency of multicast sessions by providing optimal communication subgraphs for the transmission of the data. However, the coding requirement at intermediate nodes may introduce additional complexity and energy consumption in order to code...

  17. Mirror node correlations tuning synchronization in multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Baptista, Murilo S.; Zaikin, Alexey; Jalan, Sarika

    2017-12-01

    We show that the degree-degree correlations have a major impact on global synchronizability (GS) of multiplex networks, enabling the specification of synchronizability by only changing the degree-degree correlations of the mirror nodes while maintaining the connection architecture of the individual layer unaltered. If individual layers have nodes that are mildly correlated, the multiplex network is best synchronizable when the mirror degrees are strongly negatively correlated. If individual layers have nodes with strong degree-degree correlations, mild correlations among the degrees of mirror nodes are the best strategy for the optimization of GS. Global synchronization also depend on the density of connections, a phenomenon not observed in a single layer network. The results are crucial to understand, predict, and specify behavior of systems having multiple types of connections among the interacting units.

  18. A Radiation Hardened Housekeeping Slave Node (RH-HKSN) ASIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This projects seeks to continue the development of the Radiation Hardened Housekeeping Slave Node (RH-HKSN) ASIC. The effort has taken parallel paths by implementing...

  19. A Reconfiguration Strategy of Distribution Networks Considering Node Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Juan; Tan, Yanghong; Jiang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Node importance degree is a vital index in distribution network reconfiguration because it reflects the robustness of the network structure by evaluating node importance. Since the traditional reconfiguration ignores this index, the reconstructed network structure may be vulnerable which would reduce the security and stability of the distribution systems. This paper presents a novel reconfiguration strategy considering the node importance. The optimization objectives are the improvement of the node importance degree and the reduction of power loss. To balance the objectives, the reconfiguration mathematical model is formulated as a compound objective function with weight coefficients. Then the quantum particle swarm algorithm is employed to address this compound objective optimization problem. The strategy can model different scenarios network reconfiguration by adjusting the weight vector based on the tendencies of the utility decision maker. Illustrative examples verify the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  20. Spiral CT for cervical lymph node enlargement. Early clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkamp, H.J.; Keske, U.; Schedel, J.; Hosten, N.; Felix, R.

    1994-01-01

    Spiral CT was performed before treatment in 35 patients with suspected cervical lymph node enlargement. By coronary and sagittal reconstruction it is possible to utilise the M/Q quotient which has become accepted as the result of sonographic and MRI examinations. It is now possible to obtain high diagnostic accuracy (97%) for distinguishing between reactive change from metastatic infiltration of lymph nodes (>8 mm) by using CT. Using spiral CT with 5 mm table movement, three patients diagnosed as stage N1 by axial CT were shown to be N2b. This represents a highly sensitive and highly specific method of lymph node diagnosis. Further diagnostic improvement derives from the ability to relate the lymph nodes to surrounding tissues. Spiral CT is also suitable for defining other space occupying lesions, e.g., the exact extent of retropharyngeal abscesses, abnormalities of the salivary glands or laryngocoeles. (orig.)

  1. Immunolymphoscintigraphy for metastatic sentinel nodes: test of a model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, A H; Nielsen, B S; Madsen, J

    2011-01-01

    Aim. To develop a method and obtain proof-of-principle for immunolymphoscintigraphy for identification of metastatic sentinel nodes. Methods. We selected one of four tumour-specific antibodies against human breast cancer and investigated (1), in immune-deficient (nude) mice with xenograft human b...... in healthy rabbits. Results and Conclusion. Our paper suggests the theoretical possibility of a model of dual isotope immuno-lymphoscintigraphy for noninvasive, preoperative, malignant sentinel node imaging....

  2. A concept of public safety monitoring in large railway nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Mirosław Siergiejczyk; Stanisław Gago

    2014-01-01

    The article is to identify risks of public safety in railway transport and the concept ofresetting the system of monitoring and supervision of railway facilities in a large railway node by theexample of Warsaw Railway Junction – WWK. Switched concept of the system of monitoring andsupervision of railway facilities in a large railway node is an open computer system that allows futureexpansion of the spatial: it means that you can enter into the system more and more monitored objectsand increas...

  3. A Structured Hardware/Software Architecture for Embedded Sensor Nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Merrett, Geoff V; Weddell, Alex S.; Harris, Nick R; Al-Hashimi, Bashir M; White, Neil M

    2008-01-01

    Owing to the limited requirement for sensor processing in early networked sensor nodes, embedded software was generally built around the communication stack. Modern sensor nodes have evolved to contain significant on-board functionality in addition to communications, including sensor processing, energy management, actuation and locationing. The embedded software for this functionality, however, is often implemented in the application layer of the communications stack, resulting in an unstruct...

  4. A latent parameter node-centric model for spatial networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Larusso

    Full Text Available Spatial networks, in which nodes and edges are embedded in space, play a vital role in the study of complex systems. For example, many social networks attach geo-location information to each user, allowing the study of not only topological interactions between users, but spatial interactions as well. The defining property of spatial networks is that edge distances are associated with a cost, which may subtly influence the topology of the network. However, the cost function over distance is rarely known, thus developing a model of connections in spatial networks is a difficult task. In this paper, we introduce a novel model for capturing the interaction between spatial effects and network structure. Our approach represents a unique combination of ideas from latent variable statistical models and spatial network modeling. In contrast to previous work, we view the ability to form long/short-distance connections to be dependent on the individual nodes involved. For example, a node's specific surroundings (e.g. network structure and node density may make it more likely to form a long distance link than other nodes with the same degree. To capture this information, we attach a latent variable to each node which represents a node's spatial reach. These variables are inferred from the network structure using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. We experimentally evaluate our proposed model on 4 different types of real-world spatial networks (e.g. transportation, biological, infrastructure, and social. We apply our model to the task of link prediction and achieve up to a 35% improvement over previous approaches in terms of the area under the ROC curve. Additionally, we show that our model is particularly helpful for predicting links between nodes with low degrees. In these cases, we see much larger improvements over previous models.

  5. Spontaneous chylothorax revealing a mediastinal and abdominal lymph node tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Jihen Ben; Zaibi, Haifa; Dahri, Besma; Aouina, Hichem

    2017-04-01

    Chylothorax is a rare manifestation of tuberculosis. We report a case of spontaneous chylothorax due to tuberculosis. A 62-year-old woman was admitted with fever, chest pain and dyspnea. Chest and abdominal computed tomography revealed a fluid collection with necrotic mediastinal and abdominal lymph nodes. Biopsy of lymph nodes by mediastinoscopy. The patient was treated with anti-tuberculosis medication. He is clinically improved and his pleural effusion also completely resolved. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Sentinel lymph nodes in cancer of the oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node biopsy, step sectioning and immunohistochemistry have changed detection of tumour deposits. Isolated tumour cells (ITC) are detected more frequently than earlier because of a changed level of detection. METHODS: A total of 108 sentinel lymph nodes from 30 patients ...... with macrometastasis, five with micrometastasis and two with ITC. CONCLUSION: The ITC are probably precursors of micrometastasis waiting to grow and should be treated as such. Benign inclusions and dendritic cells did not cause problems, but can mimic ITC....

  7. Measles immune suppression: lessons from the macaque model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory D de Vries

    Full Text Available Measles remains a significant childhood disease, and is associated with a transient immune suppression. Paradoxically, measles virus (MV infection also induces robust MV-specific immune responses. Current hypotheses for the mechanism underlying measles immune suppression focus on functional impairment of lymphocytes or antigen-presenting cells, caused by infection with or exposure to MV. We have generated stable recombinant MVs that express enhanced green fluorescent protein, and remain virulent in non-human primates. By performing a comprehensive study of virological, immunological, hematological and histopathological observations made in animals euthanized at different time points after MV infection, we developed a model explaining measles immune suppression which fits with the "measles paradox". Here we show that MV preferentially infects CD45RA(- memory T-lymphocytes and follicular B-lymphocytes, resulting in high infection levels in these populations. After the peak of viremia MV-infected lymphocytes were cleared within days, followed by immune activation and lymph node enlargement. During this period tuberculin-specific T-lymphocyte responses disappeared, whilst strong MV-specific T-lymphocyte responses emerged. Histopathological analysis of lymphoid tissues showed lymphocyte depletion in the B- and T-cell areas in the absence of apoptotic cells, paralleled by infiltration of T-lymphocytes into B-cell follicles and reappearance of proliferating cells. Our findings indicate an immune-mediated clearance of MV-infected CD45RA(- memory T-lymphocytes and follicular B-lymphocytes, which causes temporary immunological amnesia. The rapid oligoclonal expansion of MV-specific lymphocytes and bystander cells masks this depletion, explaining the short duration of measles lymphopenia yet long duration of immune suppression.

  8. Teaching to suppress Polglish processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Balas, Anna; Schwartz, Geoffrey; Rojczyk, Arkadiusz; Wrembel, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Advanced second language (henceforth L2) learners in a formal setting can suppress many first language (henceforth L1) processes in L2 pronunciation when provided with sufficient exposure to L2 and meta competence (see Sect. 4 for a definition of this term). This paper shows how imitation in L2 teaching can be enhanced on the basis of current phonetic research and how complex allophonic processes such as nasal vocalization and glottal stop insertion can be suppressed using “repair”—a method o...

  9. Prediction of nonsentinel lymph node metastasis in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadili, Ali; Smylie, Michael; Danyluk, John; Dabbs, Kelly

    2009-06-15

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard at many institutions caring for melanoma patients. Patients with positive SLNB results are currently offered completion lymph node dissection (CLND) of the affected lymph node basin. This procedure entails considerable morbidity and is often applied to patients with shortened life expectancies. Because 80% of CLNDs yield no additional positive nodes and there is no proof that CLND leads to survival improvement, criteria are needed to limit this procedure to those most likely to harbor nonsentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases. A retrospective review of 349 cases of melanoma from January 1999 to April 2007 that underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy at a single institution was done. Statistical analysis was used to compare two subgroups of patients: a positive CLND group and a negative CLND group. These two groups were compared with regards to multiple variables related to patient demographics, primary tumor characteristics, and SLN tumor burden. Age and total size of SLN tumor deposit were the factors with the strongest correlation with CLND positivity. By applying a risk score model that uses the cutoff values of age 55 y and SLN tumor deposit of 5 mm, it is possible to predict CLND positivity in SLN-positive melanoma patients. The likelihood of CLND positivity in SLN-positive melanoma patients can be predicted from two criteria readily available: size of SLN tumor deposit and patient age.

  10. Neural node network and model, and method of teaching same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlos, Alexander G. (Inventor); Atiya, Amir F. (Inventor); Fernandez, Benito (Inventor); Tsai, Wei K. (Inventor); Chong, Kil T. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a fully connected feed forward network that includes at least one hidden layer 16. The hidden layer 16 includes nodes 20 in which the output of the node is fed back to that node as an input with a unit delay produced by a delay device 24 occurring in the feedback path 22 (local feedback). Each node within each layer also receives a delayed output (crosstalk) produced by a delay unit 36 from all the other nodes within the same layer 16. The node performs a transfer function operation based on the inputs from the previous layer and the delayed outputs. The network can be implemented as analog or digital or within a general purpose processor. Two teaching methods can be used: (1) back propagation of weight calculation that includes the local feedback and the crosstalk or (2) more preferably a feed forward gradient decent which immediately follows the output computations and which also includes the local feedback and the crosstalk. Subsequent to the gradient propagation, the weights can be normalized, thereby preventing convergence to a local optimum. Education of the network can be incremental both on and off-line. An educated network is suitable for modeling and controlling dynamic nonlinear systems and time series systems and predicting the outputs as well as hidden states and parameters. The educated network can also be further educated during on-line processing.

  11. Pathological axillary lymph nodes detected at mammographic screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, E. T.; O' Doherty, A.; Hill, A. D.; Quinn, C. M. E-mail: c.quinn@st-vincents.ie

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the significance of abnormal axillary lymph nodes detected at mammographic screening in the absence of a concomitant breast lesion. METHODS: Twenty-three thousand, seven hundred and seven women were screened at the Merrion Unit as part of the Irish National Breast Screening Programme ('BreastCheck') in the period June 2000 to July 2002. Nine women (0.4 per 1000 women screened) were found to have an abnormal axillary lymph node(s) in the absence of a mammographic breast lesion and were recalled for assessment. The radiological criteria for recall included: size greater than or equal to 15 mm, round or irregular shape, increased node density and absence of hilar lucency. Each woman underwent further mammographic views, ultrasound examination of axilla and breast, clinical examination and lymph node biopsy either by 14 G needle core biopsy (NCB) or open excision. RESULTS: The final pathological diagnoses in the nine patients were oestrogen receptor (OR) positive metastatic breast carcinoma (two patients), metastatic malignant melanoma (one patient), malignant lymphoma (two patients), caseating granulomatous lymphadenitis suggestive of tuberculosis (one patient), and other benign conditions (three patients). CONCLUSION: Abnormal axillary lymph nodes, in the absence of an accompanying breast lesion, are rarely identified on screening mammogram, but may harbour significant pathology and their presence on screening mammogram merits further investigation including biopsy.

  12. Mobility and Cooperation to Thwart Node Capture Attacks in MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Conti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs, often unattended, makes this type of networks subject to some unique security issues. In particular, one of the most vexing problem for MANETs security is the node capture attack: an adversary can capture a node from the network eventually acquiring all the cryptographic material stored in it. Further, the captured node can be reprogrammed by the adversary and redeployed in the network in order to perform malicious activities. In this paper, we address the node capture attack in MANETs. We start from the intuition that mobility, in conjunction with a reduced amount of local cooperation, helps computing effectively and with a limited resource usage network global security properties. Then, we develop this intuition and use it to design a mechanism to detect the node capture attack. We support our proposal with a wide set of experiments showing that mobile networks can leverage mobility to compute global security properties, like node capture detection, with a small overhead.

  13. A single cervical lymph node metastasis of malignant ameloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoori; Choi, Sung-Weon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Ahn, Kang-Min

    2014-12-01

    Cervical node metastasis of malignant ameloblastoma is extremely rare. Because of its rarity, there is no standard treatment modality in a single lymph node metastasis in malignant ameloblastoma. Eleven patients of malignant ameloblastoma involving a single cervical lymph node metastasis and one new case were reviewed. Neck treatment was classified into neck dissection and simple excision. Local nodal recurrence, distant metastasis and follow-up periods were investigated. Eight patients were treated with neck dissection (group A) and four patients underwent a simple node excision (group B). Two patients in group A experienced multiple organ metastases such as liver and lung seven months and 13 years after neck dissection respectively. The other patients showed no recurrence and metastasis. In group B, there was no report of a regional neck recurrence and distant metastasis during follow-up of 1-7 years. Multiple nodes metastasis requires a radical neck dissection; however, simple excision with close follow-up may be used in a single node metastasis in malignant ameloblastoma. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hemosiderin: a new marker for sentinel lymph node identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Luiz Gonzaga Porto; Oliveira Filho, Renato Santos de; Vasques, Paulo Henrique Diógenes; Filgueira, Pedro Henrique de Oliveira; Aragão, Douglas Henning Pinheiro; Barbosa, Pedro Macedo Esmeraldo; Beserra, Hugo Enrique Orsini; Cavalcante, Raissa Vasconcelos

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate and present our initial results of a new marker (hemosiderin) for mammary sentinel lymph node identification in an experimental model. Skins mapped like a lymphatic duct draining to the axilla in patients submitted to breast biopsy, in our mastology service, stimulated us to try it in an animal model (female dogs). Our theory was that some blood derivate (hemosiderin) was captured by macrophages and accessed the lymphatic ducts in direction to the axilla. Six female dogs of no defined race were studied. We injected 0,2 ml of technetium on both superior mammary glands. After ten minutes, a 2,5 ml solution of hemolized blood (hemosiderin) from the own animal was injected in the subareolar lymphatic plexus on the left superior mammary gland and 2,5 ml of patent blue concomitantly and equally on the contralateral gland. Ten minutes after, incisions on both axillae were made to search, through the lymphatic mapping and a gamma probe, the sentinel lymph nodes. Seven brown sentinel lymph nodes were identified and also radiomarked on the left axilla. Six blue sentinel lymph nodes were identified and also radiomarked on the right axilla. Preliminary studies of a potential new dye for sentinel lymph node identification are presented. It may be the change of the current use of the blue dyes and their severe side-effects on patients submitted to sentinel lymph node biopsies.

  15. Histological step sectioning of pelvic lymph nodes increases the number of identified lymph node metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvad, Birte; Poulsen, Mads H; Staun, Pia W

    2014-01-01

    Pathological examinations of lymph nodes (LN) in prostate cancer patients are handled differently at various institutions. The objective of this study is to provide means to improve the guidelines by examining the impact of step sectioning on LN status in patients with intermediate and high......-risk prostate cancer. Two hundred ten patients who awaited curative indented therapy were included. We first performed a standard pathological examination of the LN, followed by an extended pathological examination of the patients who were LN negative in the standard examination. The extended pathological...... indicate that an extended pathological examination of LN will improve the staging of intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer patients; however, we acknowledge that it is both costly and time consuming. We do not recommend the use of cytokeratin staining in routine staining because...

  16. Medical image archive node simulation and architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ted T.; Tang, Yau-Kuo

    1996-05-01

    access time, number of drives, number of exams per patient, number of Central Processing Units, patient grouping, and priority impacts. The MIADS, which could be a key component of a broader data repository system, will be able to communicate with and obtain data from existing hospital information systems. We will discuss the external interfaces enabling MIADS to communicate with and obtain data from existing Radiology Information Systems such as the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). Our system design encompasses the broader aspects of the archive node, which could include multimedia data such as image, audio, video, and free text data. This system is designed to be integrated with current hospital PACS through a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine interface. However, the system can also be accessed through the Internet using Hypertext Transport Protocol or Simple File Transport Protocol. Our design and simulation work will be key to implementing a successful, scalable medical image archive and distribution system.

  17. A simplified CT-based definition of the lymph node levels in the node negative neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijers, O.B.; Levendag, P.C.; Tan, T.; Dieren, E.B. van; Sornsen de Koste, J. van; Est, H. van der; Senan, S.; Nowak, P.J.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Using three dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy (CRT) techniques for elective neck irradiation (ENI) may allow for local disease control to be maintained while diminishing xerostomia by eliminating major salivary glands (or parts thereof) from the treatment portals. The standardization of CT based target volumes for the clinically negative (elective) neck is a prerequisite for 3DCRT. The aim of the present study was to substantially modify an existing ('original') CT-based protocol for the delineation of the neck tar-et volume, into a more practical ('simplified') protocol. This will allow for rapid contouring and the implementation of conformal ENI in routine clinical procedures. An earlier ('original') version of the CT-based definition for elective neck node re-ions 2-5 was re-evaluated, using 15 planning CT scans of previously treated patients. The contouring guidelines were simplified by (1) using a smaller number of easily identifiable soft tissue- and bony anatomical landmarks, which in turn had to be identified in only a limited number of CT slices, and (2) by subsequently interpolating the contoured lymph node regions. The adequacy of target coverage and the sparing using both 'original' and 'simplified' delineation protocols was evaluated by DVH analysis after contouring the primary tumor, the neck and the major salivary glands in a patient with supraglottic laryngeal (SGL) carcinoma who was treated using a 3DCRT technique. The BEV projections of the 'original' and the 'simplified' versions of the 3D elective neck target showed good agreement and were found to be reproducible. The DVH's of the target and parotid glands were not significantly different using both contouring protocols. The 'simplified' protocol for the delineation of the 3D elective neck target produced both comparable target coverage and sparing of the major salivary glands. When used together with an interpolation program, this 'simplified' protocol substantial reduced the contouring

  18. Information-based self-organization of sensor nodes of a sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Teresa H [Castro Valley, CA; Berry, Nina M [Tracy, CA

    2011-09-20

    A sensor node detects a plurality of information-based events. The sensor node determines whether at least one other sensor node is an information neighbor of the sensor node based on at least a portion of the plurality of information-based events. The information neighbor has an overlapping field of view with the sensor node. The sensor node sends at least one communication to the at least one other sensor node that is an information neighbor of the sensor node in response to at least one information-based event of the plurality of information-based events.

  19. Cervical lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma: A correlative study between histopathological malignancy grading and lymph node metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Acharya

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Moderate to good agreement between observers greatly increases the validity of the MFG system. The multifactorial malignancy grading could serve as a predictor for metastasis in the cervical lymph nodes.

  20. Conditioned suppression, punishment, and aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme-Johnson, D. W.; Yarczower, M.

    1974-01-01

    The aversive action of visual stimuli was studied in two groups of pigeons which received response-contingent or noncontingent electric shocks in cages with translucent response keys. Presentation of grain for 3 sec, contingent on key pecking, was the visual stimulus associated with conditioned punishment or suppression. The responses of the pigeons in three different experiments are compared.

  1. Plasma suppression of beamstrahlung: Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, A.M.; Stewart, J.J.; Yu, S.S.

    1988-06-01

    We investigate the use of a plasma at the interaction point of two colliding beams to suppress beamstrahlung and related phenomena. We derive conditions for good current cancellation via plasma return currents and report on numerical simulations conducted to confirm our analytic results. 17 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  2. [Long-term outcomes of prostate cancer patients with lymph nodes metastasis after radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vergie, S; Gaschignard, N; Baron, M; Branchereau, J; Luyckx, F; Butel, T; Perrouin-Verbe, M-A; Bouchot, O; Rigaud, J

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical recurrence-free survival (RFS) and to identify useful predictors of such survival in localized prostate cancer patients (cN0) and pelvic lymph node metastasis (pN+) treated with radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. This multicenter and retrospective study, assessed overall survival (OS), cancer specific survival (CSS) and biochemical recurrence-free survival (RFS), between January 2005 until December 2010 with 5 years of distance. We evaluated factors predicting long-term RFS in node positive prostate cancer patients. Thus, 30 patients were included. Median follow-up was 89.9±27.4 months. After surgery, patients were treated with surveillance (n=4, 13.5%), adjuvant hormone therapy (n=22, 73%) or combination of radio and hormone therapy, (n=4, 13.5%). During the follow-up, 50% of patients had biochemical recurrence, with a mean time period of 38±30 months. Five and 10-year RFS were 57% and 41% respectively. Extra lymph nodes extension (P=0.00021) and pathological margin status (P=0.0065) were independent predictors of 5-year RFS. Biochemical RFS of patients treated with radical prostatectomy and subclinical lymph node metastatic disease is adequate and multifactorial. However, this study identifies pathological margin status and extra lymph node extension as independent factors of b RFS. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Predictive Factors for Nonsentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Positive Sentinel Lymph Nodes After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Nomogram for Predicting Nonsentinel Lymph Node Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jai Min; Lee, Se Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Yu, Jonghan; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Han, Se Hwan; Jung, Yong Sik; Nam, Seok Jin

    2017-11-01

    Axillary lymph node (ALN) status is an important prognostic factor for breast cancer patients. With increasing numbers of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), issues concerning sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) after NAC have emerged. We analyzed the clinicopathologic features and developed a nomogram to predict the possibility of nonsentinel lymph node (NSLN) metastases in patients with positive SLNs after NAC. A retrospective medical record review was performed of 140 patients who had had clinically positive ALNs at presentation, had a positive SLN after NAC on subsequent SLNB, and undergone axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) from 2008 to 2014. On multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis, pathologic T stage, lymphovascular invasion, SLN metastasis size, and number of positive SLN metastases were independent predictors for NSLN metastases (P Samsung Medical Center NAC nomogram was developed to predict the likelihood of additional positive NSLNs. The Samsung Medical Center NAC nomogram could provide information to surgeons regarding whether to perform additional ALND when the permanent biopsy revealed positive findings, although the intraoperative SLNB findings were negative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Wireless motion sensor network for monitoring motion in a process, wireless sensor node, reasoning node, and feedback and/or actuation node for such wireless motion sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Marin Perianu, Raluca; Marin Perianu, Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Wireless motion sensor network for monitoring motion in a process comprising at least one wireless sensor node for measuring at least one physical quantity related to motion or orientation, feature extraction means for deriving a feature for the measured quantities, a wireless transmitter connected

  5. Methods and apparatus using commutative error detection values for fault isolation in multiple node computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Gheorghe [Ardsley, NY; Blumrich, Matthias Augustin [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton-On-Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul [Yorktown, NY; Gara, Alan [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk I [Ossining, NY; Singh, Sarabjeet [Mississauga, CA; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Wernau, DE; Takken, Todd [Brewster, NY; Vranas, Pavlos [Bedford Hills, NY

    2008-06-03

    Methods and apparatus perform fault isolation in multiple node computing systems using commutative error detection values for--example, checksums--to identify and to isolate faulty nodes. When information associated with a reproducible portion of a computer program is injected into a network by a node, a commutative error detection value is calculated. At intervals, node fault detection apparatus associated with the multiple node computer system retrieve commutative error detection values associated with the node and stores them in memory. When the computer program is executed again by the multiple node computer system, new commutative error detection values are created and stored in memory. The node fault detection apparatus identifies faulty nodes by comparing commutative error detection values associated with reproducible portions of the application program generated by a particular node from different runs of the application program. Differences in values indicate a possible faulty node.

  6. Cost analysis of sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Menchón, T; Sánchez-Pedreño, P; Martínez-Escribano, J; Corbalán-Vélez, R; Martínez-Barba, E

    2015-04-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the most useful tool for node staging in melanoma. SLNB facilitates selective dissection of lymph nodes, that is, the performance of lymphadenectomy only in patients with sentinel nodes positive for metastasis. Our aim was to assess the cost of SLNB, given that this procedure has become the standard of care for patients with melanoma and must be performed whenever patients are to be enrolled in clinical trials. Furthermore, the literature on the economic impact of SLNB in Spain is scarce. From 2007 to 2010, we prospectively collected data for 100 patients undergoing SLNB followed by transhilar bivalving and multiple-level sectioning of the node for histology. Our estimation of the cost of the technique was based on official pricing and fee schedules for the Spanish region of Murcia. The rate of node-positive cases in our series was 20%, and the mean number of nodes biopsied was 1.96; 44% of the patients in the series had thin melanomas. The total cost was estimated at between €9486.57 and €10471.29. Histopathology accounted for a considerable portion of the cost (€5769.36). The cost of SLNB is high, consistent with amounts described for a US setting. Optimal use of SLNB will come with the increasingly appropriate selection of patients who should undergo the procedure and the standardization of a protocol for histopathologic evaluation that is both sensitive and easy to perform. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  7. Extended Lymphadenectomy to the Lower Paraortic Nodes During Radical Cystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shazli, S.; Anwar, H.; Ramzy, S.; Al-Didi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Evaluation of the diagnostic, prognostic and possible therapeutic role of extended lymphadenectomy to lower para-aortic area in operable bladder cancer patients. Patients and Methods: One hundred and nine patients were subjected to the procedure in the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, and in Minea Oncology Center, Ministry of Health by the same group of surgeons, during the period from September 2000 to March 2003. The lymph nodes dissected were labeled to the following groups: perivesical, lymph node of Cloquet, external iliac, internal iliac and obturator, common iliac and paraortic groups both right and left. These nodes were subjected with the primary tumor to serial sectioning for histopathologic examination. Preoperatively, all patients were subjected to routine laboratory investigations. [n addition to cystoscopy, biopsy and histopathologic examination, bone scan, chest X-Ray and computerized tomography with l. V. contrast examination for the abdomen and pelvis were done for clinical staging of the disease. 34.4% of the node positive patients have been found to harbor the disease in the para-aortic lymph nodes above the common iliac bifurcation. Obturator, external iliac, internal iliac, para-aortic, common iliac, perivesical and lymph node of Cloquet are the higher incidence groups of positive lymph nodes sequentially. The clinical and c.T. staging are inaccurate methods of diagnosis due to high overall error in up to 70.6% of patients. There is no higher incidence of morbidity, mortality, operative time or intraoperative blood loss related to the addition of lower para-aortic dissection to the routine radical cystectomy. Extension of lymphadenectomy to include the lower para-aortic area in addition to the standard pelvic lymphadenectomy during radical cystectomy for bladder cancer is a more accurate technique for diagnosis and staging of bladder cancer patients and it may help in determining the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy ± radiotherapy

  8. The utility of lymph node mapping sonogram and thyroglobulin surveillance in post thyroidectomy papillary thyroid cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Chowdhury F; Zaman, Jessica A; Simon, Mitchell; Davidov, Tomer; Trooskin, Stanley Z

    2014-12-01

    The American Thyroid Association recommends lymph node mapping (LNM) ultrasonography 6-12 months after thyroidectomy for patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The yield of LNM over thyroglobulin (TG) screening is not well defined. We sought to investigate this relationship. Post thyroidectomy LNM was performed on 163 patients with PTC. LNM was considered positive based on these criteria: Loss of fatty hilum (LOFH), microcalcifications, hypervascularity, architectural distortion, or short axis (>8 mm). Serum TG levels were compared to LNM and fine needle aspiration (FNA). Sixty-nine patients had suspicious LNM (42%) and 17 had PTC on FNA (25%). There were 135 suspicious lymph nodes described with malignant nodes found in 6 of 65 patients (9%) with LOFH, 13 of 18 patients (76%) with microcalcifications, 11 of 12 patients (92%) with hypervascularity, 16 of 28 patients (52%) with architectural distortion, and 4 of 7 patients (52%) with enlarged size on FNA. The positive predictive value of LNM was 0.34, increasing to 0.66 when LOFH was excluded. Among 152 patients with documented TG data, LNM identified cervical nodal metastasis in 4 patients with TG < 0.5 pg/mL (anti-TG antibody negative, thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressed). Of the 15 patients with positive anti-TG antibody, 3 with recurrence were found on LNM. LNM can detect recurrent PTC when TG level is undetectable, and LOFH is a low-yield sonographic characteristic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pigmentation in the sentinel node correlates with increased sentinel node tumor burden in melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lanschot, Cornelia G F; Koljenović, Senada; Grunhagen, Dirk-Jan; Verhoef, Cornelis; van Akkooi, Alexander C J

    2014-06-01

    The prognosis of sentinel node (SN)-positive melanoma patients is predicted by a number of characteristics such as size and site of the metastases in the SN. The pathway and prognosis of strong pigmentation of melanoma metastases in the SN is unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of pigmentation and growth pattern of metastases in the SN with respect to survival. A total of 389 patients underwent an SN procedure (1997-2011). Ninety-five patients had a positive SN and material from 75 patients was available for review. The median follow-up time was 75 months (range 6-164). Pigmentation was scored from 0 to 2 using the following scale: 0=absent, 1=slight, and 2=strong. Growth pattern was scored as either eccentric (1) or infiltrative (2). SN tumor burden was measured according to the Rotterdam criteria. The primary melanoma had a median Breslow thickness of 2.90 mm (0.8-12.00 mm). Ulceration was present in 34 patients (45.3%). There was a median SN tumor burden of 0.5 mm (0.05-7.00 mm). In a total of 75 patients, 59 patients (79%) had no pigmentation, 13 patients (17%) had slight pigmentation, and three patients (4%) had strong pigmentation in the SN. Because of the small numbers, the classification was modified to either absent 59 (79%) or present 16 (21%) pigmentation, respectively. The SN tumor burden was significantly higher (P=0.031) for patients with pigmentation. Patients with pigmentation had a 5-year melanoma-specific survival (MSS) of 47% and a 10-year MSS of 33%. Patients without pigmentation had a 5-year MSS of 70% and a 10-year MSS of 59% (P=0.06). There was no difference in MSS for patients with an eccentric or an infiltrative growth pattern, nor did it correlate with other prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis for MSS showed five significant factors associated with worse prognosis: male sex (P=0.036), nodular melanoma (P=0.001), truncal site (P=0.0001), SN tumor burden more than 1.0 mm (P=0.022), and positive completion lymph node

  10. Impact of clinical pharmacy interventions on medication error nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoun, Nibal R; Zeenny, Rony; Mansour, Hanine

    2016-12-01

    Background Pharmacists' involvement in patient care has improved the quality of care and reduced medication errors. However, this has required a lot of work that could not have been accomplished without documentation of interventions. Several means of documenting errors have been proposed in the literature but without a consistent comprehensive process. Recently, the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) recognized that pharmacy practice lacks a consistent process for direct patient care and discussed several options for a pharmaceutical care plan, essentially encompassing medication therapy assessment, development and implementation of a pharmaceutical care plan and finally evaluation of the outcome. Therefore, as per the recommendations of ACCP, we sought to retrospectively analyze interventions by grouping them according to medication related problems (MRP) and their nodes such as prescribing; administering; monitoring; documenting and dispensing. Objective The aim of this study is to report interventions according to medication error (ME) nodes and show the impact of pharmacy interventions in reducing MRPs. Setting The study was conducted at the cardiology and infectious diseases services at a teaching hospital located in Beirut, Lebanon. Methods Intervention documentation was completed by pharmacy students on infectious diseases and cardiology rotations then reviewed by clinical pharmacists with respective specialties. Before data analysis, a new pharmacy reporting sheet was developed in order to link interventions according to MRP. Then, MRPs were grouped in the five ME nodes. During the documentation process, whether MRP had reached the patient or not may have not been reported which prevented the classification to the corresponding medication error nodes as ME. Main outcome Reduction in medication related problems across all ME nodes. Results A total of n = 1174 interventions were documented. N = 1091 interventions were classified as MRPs

  11. Pacing for the Suppression of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation in an 87-year-old Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel El-Bialy

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sinus node dysfunction, atrioventricular (AV block and atrial fibrillation (AF are associated with advanced age. Required therapy commonly includes pacemaker implantation. Methods: We report the course of therapy for an 87-year-old with symptomatic sinus node dysfunction and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation who was intolerant of drug therapy. Results: The patient received a pacemaker for treatment of sick sinus syndrome. She continued to have symptomatic episodes of AF and was intolerant of pharmacologic therapy despite adequate rate support provided by the pacemaker. The AF suppression algorithm in the pacemaker was enabled, resulting in the elimination all AF episodes effectively eliminating the need for antiarrhythmic medication. If this continues to stabilize her atrium, withdrawal of anticoagulation therapy is anticipated. Conclusions: The clinical presentation of sinus node dysfunction and related conduction abnormalities is common in the elderly. Pharmacologic management is often a challenge in the presence of the advanced age and concomitant disease processes. In individuals who have paroxysmal atrial fibrillation or are likely to develop this and who need a pacemaker for standard indications, the availability of an AF Suppression™ algorithm may facilitate their management without needed to use medications or being able to utilize lower doses of those medications.

  12. Nodal ratio of positive to excised nodes, but not number of positive lymph nodes is better to predict group to avoid chemotherapy among postmenopausal ER-positive, lymph node-positive T1-T2 breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Q Jia

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This retrospective analysis demonstrates that NR of positive to excised nodes, but not number of positive lymph nodes is better to predict group to avoid chemotherapy among postmenopausal ER-positive, lymph node-positive T1-T2 breast cancer patients.

  13. Optimal Node Grouping for Water Distribution System Demand Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghwi Jung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Real-time state estimation is defined as the process of calculating the state variable of interest in real time not being directly measured. In a water distribution system (WDS, nodal demands are often considered as the state variable (i.e., unknown variable and can be estimated using nodal pressures and pipe flow rates measured at sensors installed throughout the system. Nodes are often grouped for aggregation to decrease the number of unknowns (demands in the WDS demand estimation problem. This study proposes an optimal node grouping model to maximize the real-time WDS demand estimation accuracy. This Kalman filter-based demand estimation method is linked with a genetic algorithm for node group optimization. The modified Austin network demand is estimated to demonstrate the proposed model. True demands and field measurements are synthetically generated using a hydraulic model of the study network. Accordingly, the optimal node groups identified by the proposed model reduce the total root-mean-square error of the estimated node group demand by 24% compared to that determined by engineering knowledge. Based on the results, more pipe flow sensors should be installed to measure small flows and to further enhance the demand estimation accuracy.

  14. [The lymph nodes imprint for the diagnosis of lymphoid neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peniche-Alvarado, Carolina; Ramos-Peñafiel, Christian Omar; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos; Romero-Guadarrama, Mónica; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Rozen-Fuller, Etta; Martínez-Tovar, Adolfo; Collazo-Jaloma, Juan; Mendoza-García, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    lymphoma is the most frequent lymphoid neoplasm in our country. Its diagnosis is based on histopathological findings. The lymph node imprint has been used for more than 40 years. The aim was to establish the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of lymph node imprint and estimate the inter-observer rate. we did an observational, retrospective, prolective study, based on the lymph node imprint obtained by excisional biopsies over a period of 6 years. the inclusion criteria was met on 199 samples, 27.1 % were considered as reactive (n = 54), 16.1 % Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 32), 40.2 % (n = 80) non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 16.6 % (n = 33) as metastatic carcinoma. Comparing with the final histopathology report, the sensitivity and specificity of lymph node imprint were 88 % (0.81-0.95) and 64 % (0.55-0.73) respectively, the positive predictive value was 67 % (0.59-0.76) and the negative predictive value was 86 % (0.79-0.94). The interobserver kappa index was 0.467. the lymph node imprint remains as a useful tool for the diagnosis of lymphoid neoplasm. The agreement between observers was acceptable.

  15. Deployment of check-in nodes in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Ma, Jian-Feng

    2017-01-01

    In many real complex networks such as the city road networks and highway networks, vehicles often have to pass through some specially functioned nodes to receive check-in like services such as gas supplement at gas stations. Based on existing network structures, to guarantee every shortest path including at least a check-in node, the location selection of all check-in nodes is very essential and important to make vehicles to easily visit these check-in nodes, and it is still remains an open problem in complex network studies. In this work, we aim to find possible solutions for this problem. We first convert it into a set cover problem which is NP-complete and propose to employ the greedy algorithm to achieve an approximate result. Inspired by heuristic information of network structure, we discuss other four check-in node location deployment methods including high betweenness first (HBF), high degree first (HDF), random and low degree first (LDF). Finally, we compose extensive simulations in classical scale-free networks, random networks and real network models, and the results can well confirm the effectiveness of the greedy algorithm. This work has potential applications into many real networks.

  16. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laure Matthey-Giè

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of lymph nodes in nonmelanoma skin cancer patients is currently still debated. Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM, and other rare skin neoplasms have a well-known risk to spread to regional lymph nodes. The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB could be a promising procedure to assess this risk in clinically N0 patients. Metastatic SNs have been observed in 4.5–28% SCC (according to risk factors, in 9–42% MCC, and in 14–57% PEM. We observed overall 30.8% positive SNs in 13 consecutive patients operated for high-risk nonmelanoma skin cancer between 2002 and 2011 in our institution. These high rates support recommendation to implement SLNB for nonmelanoma skin cancer especially for SCC patients. Completion lymph node dissection following positive SNs is also a matter of discussion especially in PEM. It must be remembered that a definitive survival benefit of SLNB in melanoma patients has not been proven yet. However, because of its low morbidity when compared to empiric elective lymph node dissection or radiation therapy of lymphatic basins, SLNB has allowed sparing a lot of morbidity and could therefore be used in nonmelanoma skin cancer patients, even though a significant impact on survival has not been demonstrated.

  17. Control Effort Strategies for Acoustically Coupled Distributed Acoustic Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Antoñanzas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the effect of effort constraints on the behavior of an active noise control (ANC system over a distributed network composed of acoustic nodes. A distributed implementation can be desirable in order to provide more flexible, versatile, and scalable ANC systems. In this regard, the distributed version of the multiple error filtered-x least mean square (DMEFxLMS algorithm that allows collaboration between nodes has shown excellent properties. However, practical constraints need to be considered since, in real scenarios, the acoustic nodes are equipped with power constrained actuators. If these constraints are not considered within the adaptive algorithm, the control signals may increase and saturate the hardware devices, causing system instability. To avoid this drawback, a control effort weighting can be considered in the cost function of the distributed algorithm at each node. Therefore, a control effort strategy over the output signals at each node is used to keep them under a given threshold and ensuring the distributed ANC system stability. Experimental results show that, assuming ideal network communications, the proposed distributed algorithm achieves the same performance as the leaky centralized ANC system. A performance evaluation of several versions of the leaky DMEFxLMS algorithm in realistic scenarios is also included.

  18. [Lymph node tuberculosis as primary manifestation of Hodgkin's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, Franz; Schneidewind, Arne; Hartmann, Pia; Kullmann, Frank; Schölmerich, Jürgen

    2006-06-15

    A 63-year-old female patient was admitted to the authors' hospital for further diagnostic work-up for suspected reactivation of a previously successfully treated lymph node tuberculosis, which had been diagnosed 1 year prior to the current admission. The clinical signs consisted of worsening of the patient's general condition, negacervical lymphadenopathy, night sweats, dyspnea, and superficial inflammation of the right mamma. A contrast-enhanced CT scan of the neck, thorax and abdomen revealed a generalized enlargement of the cervical, axillar, mediastinal and retroperitoneal lymph nodes, multiple intrapulmonary nodular lesions with a diameter of up to 6 mm, and a substantial right-sided pleural effusion. Under the assumption of reactivation of a lymph node tuberculosis, the patient was initially treated with an extended tuberculostatic therapy. Because of disease progression another lymph node biopsy was performed revealing Hodgkin's disease of mixed-cellularity type with a partly histiocytic necrotizing, partly tuberculoid reaction. The biopsy was negative for acid-fast bacilli. Thereupon initiated chemotherapy according to the ABVD protocol led to a rapid amelioration of the clinical symptoms. In the clinical setting of suspected or confirmed lymph node tuberculosis malignant lymphoma should always be considered. This consideration is particular important since Hodgkin's disease is typically associated with a cellular immunosuppression predisposing the subject to tuberculosis.

  19. RootJS: Node.js Bindings for ROOT 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beffart, Theo; Früh, Maximilian; Haas, Christoph; Rajgopal, Sachin; Schwabe, Jonas; Wolff, Christoph; Szuba, Marek

    2017-10-01

    We present rootJS, an interface making it possible to seamlessly integrate ROOT 6 into applications written for Node.js, the JavaScript runtime platform increasingly commonly used to create high-performance Web applications. ROOT features can be called both directly from Node.js code and by JIT-compiling C++ macros. All rootJS methods are invoked asynchronously and support callback functions, allowing non-blocking operation of Node.js applications using them. Last but not least, our bindings have been designed to platform-independent and should therefore work on all systems supporting both ROOT 6 and Node.js. Thanks to rootJS it is now possible to create ROOT-aware Web applications taking full advantage of the high performance and extensive capabilities of Node.js. Examples include platforms for the quality assurance of acquired, reconstructed or simulated data, book-keeping and e-log systems, and even Web browser-based data visualisation and analysis.

  20. Detecting Boundary Nodes and Coverage Holes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hui Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of coverage holes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs means that some special events have broken out and the function of WSNs will be seriously influenced. Therefore, the issues of coverage holes have attracted considerable attention. In this paper, we focus on the identification of boundary nodes and coverage holes, which is crucially important to preventing the enlargement of coverage holes and ensuring the transmission of data. We define the problem of coverage holes and propose two novel algorithms to identify the coverage holes in WSNs. The first algorithm, Distributed Sector Cover Scanning (DSCS, can be used to identify the nodes on hole borders and the outer boundary of WSNs. The second scheme, Directional Walk (DW, can locate the coverage holes based on the boundary nodes identified with DSCS. We implement the algorithms in various scenarios and fully evaluate their performance. The simulation results show that the boundary nodes can be accurately detected by DSCS and the holes enclosed by the detected boundary nodes can be identified by DW. The comparisons confirm that the proposed algorithms outperform the existing ones.

  1. Automatic network fingerprinting through single-node motifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Echtermeyer

    Full Text Available Complex networks have been characterised by their specific connectivity patterns (network motifs, but their building blocks can also be identified and described by node-motifs-a combination of local network features. One technique to identify single node-motifs has been presented by Costa et al. (L. D. F. Costa, F. A. Rodrigues, C. C. Hilgetag, and M. Kaiser, Europhys. Lett., 87, 1, 2009. Here, we first suggest improvements to the method including how its parameters can be determined automatically. Such automatic routines make high-throughput studies of many networks feasible. Second, the new routines are validated in different network-series. Third, we provide an example of how the method can be used to analyse network time-series. In conclusion, we provide a robust method for systematically discovering and classifying characteristic nodes of a network. In contrast to classical motif analysis, our approach can identify individual components (here: nodes that are specific to a network. Such special nodes, as hubs before, might be found to play critical roles in real-world networks.

  2. Optimal Node Placement in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network

    KAUST Repository

    Felemban, Muhamad

    2011-10-01

    Almost 70% of planet Earth is covered by water. A large percentage of underwater environment is unexplored. In the past two decades, there has been an increase in the interest of exploring and monitoring underwater life among scientists and in industry. Underwater operations are extremely difficult due to the lack of cheap and efficient means. Recently, Wireless Sensor Networks have been introduced in underwater environment applications. However, underwater communication via acoustic waves is subject to several performance limitations, which makes the relevant research issues very different from those on land. In this thesis, we investigate node placement for building an initial Underwater Wireless Sensor Network infrastructure. Firstly, we formulated the problem into a nonlinear mathematic program with objectives of minimizing the total transmission loss under a given number of sensor nodes and targeted volume. We conducted experiments to verify the proposed formulation, which is solved using Matlab optimization tool. We represented each node with a truncated octahedron to fill out the 3D space. The truncated octahedrons are tiled in the 3D space with each node in the center where locations of the nodes are given using 3D coordinates. Results are supported using ns-3 simulator. Results from simulation are consistent with the obtained results from mathematical model with less than 10% error.

  3. Diagnostic Features and Subtyping of Thymoma Lymph Node Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioletic, Stefano; Lauriola, Libero; Martucci, Robert; Evoli, Amelia; Palmieri, Giovannella; Melis, Enrico; Rinaldi, Massimo; Lalle, Maurizio; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Granone, Pierluigi; Facciolo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the morphological features of thymoma metastases in lymph nodes and to evaluate the possibility of their subtyping according to the 2004 WHO classification of thymus tumors. Materials and Methods. We reviewed 210 thymoma cases in our series of thymic epithelial tumors (TET), including their recurrences and lymphogenous metastases. Three cases of lymph node metastases, one case occurring synchronously with the primary tumor and one synchronously with the first relapse (both in intrathoracic location) and one case of metastasis observed in a laterocervical lymph node subsequently to two thymoma relapses were found. Results. The metastatic nodes were variably but extensively involved in all cases. The histological features were similar in both primary tumors and metastases. Thymoma metastases were subtyped according to the WHO classification as B3 (one case) and B2 (two cases), and distinctive features in comparison to metastatic epithelial neoplasias from other sites were observed. Conclusion. Thymoma lymph node metastases, although rare, can be subtyped according to the WHO classification on the basis of their morphological and immunohistochemical features. Clinically, the presence of nodal metastases may herald subsequent relapses and further metastases even in extrathoracic sites. PMID:25105128

  4. Prognostic value of lymph node ratio and number of positive inguinal nodes in patients with vulvar cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polterauer, Stephan; Schwameis, Richard; Grimm, Christoph; Macuks, Ronalds; Iacoponi, Sara; Zalewski, Kamil; Zapardiel, Ignacio

    2017-10-01

    To estimate the prognostic significance of lymph node ratio and number of positive nodes in vulvar cancer patients. This international multicenter retrospective study included patients diagnosed with vulvar cancer treated with inguinal lymphadenectomy. Lymph node ratio (LNR) is the ratio of the number of positive lymph nodes (LN) to the number of removed LN. Patients were stratified into risk groups according to LNR. LNR was correlated with clinical-pathological parameters. Survival analyses were performed. This analysis included 745 patients. In total, 292 (39.2%) patients had positive inguinal LN. The mean (SD) number of resected and positive LN was 14.1 (7.6) and 3.0 (2.9), respectively. High LNR was associated with larger tumor size and higher tumor grade. Patients with LNRs 0% (N0), >020% had 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of 90.9%, 70.7%, and 61.8%, respectively (PPatients with 0, 1, 2, 3 or >3 positive lymph nodes had 5-year OS rates of 90.9%, 70.8%, 67.8%, 70.8% and 63.4% respectively (Pnumber of positive nodes (P=0.8), age (P=0.2), and tumor grade (P=0.7), were not. In high-risk patients, adjuvant radiotherapy was associated with improved survival. LNR provides useful prognostic information in vulvar cancer patients with inguinal LN resection in vulvar cancer. LNR allows for more accurate prognostic stratification of patients than number of positive nodes. LNR seems useful to select appropriate candidates for adjuvant radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rutin suppresses atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common allergic inflammatory skin disease caused by a combination of eczematous, scratching, pruritus and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. The aim of our study was to examine whether rutin, a predominant flavonoid having anti-inflammatory and antioxidative potential, modulates AD and ACD symptoms. We established an atopic dermatitis model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) extract (DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. In addition, 2,4-dinitroflourobenzene-sensitized a local lymph node assay was used for the ACD model. Repeated alternative treatment of DFE/DNCB caused AD symptoms. Topical application of rutin reduced AD based on ear thickness and histopathological analysis, in addition to serum IgE levels. Rutin inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear and serum histamine level. Rutin suppressed DFE/DNCB-induced expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-31, IL-32 and interferon (INF)-γ in the tissue. In addition, rutin suppressed ACD based on ear thickness and lymphocyte proliferation, serum IgG2a levels, and expression of INF-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-17 and tumour necrosis factor-α in ACD ears. This study demonstrates that rutin inhibits AD and ACD, suggesting that rutin might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin diseases.

  6. Salvia plebeia suppresses atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Shin, Tae-Yong; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Salvia plebeia R. Br. (Lamiaceae) has been used for folk medicines in Asian countries, including Korea and China, to treat skin inflammatory diseases and asthma. In this study, we investigated the effects of S. plebeia extract (SPE) on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions and defined underlying mechanisms of action. We established an AD model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. Repeated alternative treatment of DFE/DNCB caused AD-like skin lesions. The oral administration of SPE decreased AD symptoms based on ear thickness and histopathological analysis, in addition to serum IgE and IgG2a levels. SPE suppressed mast cell infiltration into the ear and serum histamine level. SPE inhibited Th1/Th2/Th17 phenotype CD4(+) T lymphocytes expansion in the lymph node and the expression of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in the ear tissue. To define the underlying mechanisms of action, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ activated human keratinocytes (HaCaT) model was used. SPE significantly suppressed the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the down-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-κB, and STAT1 in HaCaT cells. Taken together, our results suggest that SPE might be a candidate for the treatment of AD.

  7. Suppression of autoimmune retinal inflammation by an antiangiogenic drug.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeru Yoshimura

    Full Text Available Chronic and recurrent uveitis account for approximately 10% of legal blindness in the western world. Autoimmune uveitis is driven by activated CD4(+ T cells that differentiate into effector T helper cells (Th1, Th2, and Th17 which release proinflammatory cytokines that damage the retina. In this study we investigated the effect of the methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP2 inhibitor, Lodamin, on T cell activation and differentiation. MetAp2 is an enzyme which regulates cellular protein synthesis and is highly expressed in T cells. Lodamin was found to suppress T cell receptor (TCR mediated T cell proliferation and reduced the production of Th1 and Th17 cells. Further, Lodamin suppressed overall inflammation in the mouse model of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU by a six fold. This effect was attributed in part to a reduction in retinal proinflammatory cytokines, down regulation of MetAP2 expression in purified lymph node CD4(+ T cells, and a general normalization of the systemic immune reaction.

  8. Suppression of Autoimmune Retinal Inflammation by an Antiangiogenic Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazinet, Lauren; D’Amato, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic and recurrent uveitis account for approximately 10% of legal blindness in the western world. Autoimmune uveitis is driven by activated CD4+ T cells that differentiate into effector T helper cells (Th1, Th2, and Th17) which release proinflammatory cytokines that damage the retina. In this study we investigated the effect of the methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP2) inhibitor, Lodamin, on T cell activation and differentiation. MetAp2 is an enzyme which regulates cellular protein synthesis and is highly expressed in T cells. Lodamin was found to suppress T cell receptor (TCR) mediated T cell proliferation and reduced the production of Th1 and Th17 cells. Further, Lodamin suppressed overall inflammation in the mouse model of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) by a six fold. This effect was attributed in part to a reduction in retinal proinflammatory cytokines, down regulation of MetAP2 expression in purified lymph node CD4+ T cells, and a general normalization of the systemic immune reaction. PMID:23785488

  9. Suppressing epidemic spreading in multiplex networks with social-support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolong; Wang, Ruijie; Tang, Ming; Cai, Shimin; Stanley, H. Eugene; Braunstein, Lidia A.

    2018-01-01

    Although suppressing the spread of a disease is usually achieved by investing in public resources, in the real world only a small percentage of the population have access to government assistance when there is an outbreak, and most must rely on resources from family or friends. We study the dynamics of disease spreading in social-contact multiplex networks when the recovery of infected nodes depends on resources from healthy neighbors in the social layer. We investigate how degree heterogeneity affects the spreading dynamics. Using theoretical analysis and simulations we find that degree heterogeneity promotes disease spreading. The phase transition of the infected density is hybrid and increases smoothly from zero to a finite small value at the first invasion threshold and then suddenly jumps at the second invasion threshold. We also find a hysteresis loop in the transition of the infected density. We further investigate how an overlap in the edges between two layers affects the spreading dynamics. We find that when the amount of overlap is smaller than a critical value the phase transition is hybrid and there is a hysteresis loop, otherwise the phase transition is continuous and the hysteresis loop vanishes. In addition, the edge overlap allows an epidemic outbreak when the transmission rate is below the first invasion threshold, but suppresses any explosive transition when the transmission rate is above the first invasion threshold.

  10. Strangeness Suppression and Color Deconfinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satz, Helmut

    2018-02-01

    The relative multiplicities for hadron production in different high energy collisions are in general well described by an ideal gas of all hadronic resonances, except that under certain conditions, strange particle rates are systematically reduced. We show that the suppression factor γs, accounting for reduced strange particle rates in pp, pA and AA collisions at different collision energies, becomes a universal function when expressed in terms of the initial entropy density s0 or the initial temperature T of the produced thermal medium. It is found that γs increases from about 0.5 to 1.0 in a narrow temperature range around the quark-hadron transition temperature Tc ≃ 160 MeV. Strangeness suppression thus disappears with the onset of color deconfinement; subsequently, full equilibrium resonance gas behavior is attained.

  11. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1998-01-01

    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  12. Suppressing Quantum Fluctuations in Classicalization

    CERN Document Server

    Vikman, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We study vacuum quantum fluctuations of simple Nambu-Goldstone bosons - derivatively coupled single scalar-field theories possessing shift-symmetry in field space. We argue that quantum fluctuations of the interacting field can be drastically suppressed with respect to the free-field case. Moreover, the power-spectrum of these fluctuations can soften to become red for sufficiently small scales. In quasiclassical approximation, we demonstrate that this suppression can only occur for those theories that admit such classical static backgrounds around which small perturbations propagate faster than light. Thus a quasiclassical softening of quantum fluctuations is only possible for theories which classicalize instead of having a usual Lorentz invariant and local Wilsonian UV- completion. We illustrate our analysis by estimating the quantum fluctuations for the DBI-like theories.

  13. Treatment and prognostic significance of positive interval sentinel nodes in patients with primary cutaneous melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, N.; Scolyer, R.A.; Uren, R.F.; Winstanley, J.; Brown, P.T.; Wilt, J.H. de; Thompson, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interval sentinel nodes (SNs) are lymph nodes receiving direct lymphatic drainage from a primary site and lying between the tumor and a recognized node field. It is not clear what further nodal surgery should be performed when interval nodes are found to contain micrometastatic disease.

  14. Completion Dissection or Observation for Sentinel-Node Metastasis in Melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faries, M. B.; Thompson, J. F.; Cochran, A. J.; Andtbacka, R. H.; Mozzillo, N; Zager, Jonathan S.; Jahkola, T.; Bowles, T. L.; Testori, Alessandro; Beitsch, P. D.; Hoekstra, H. J.; Moncrieff, M.; Ingvar, C.; Wouters, M. W. J. M.; Sabel, M. S.; Levine, E. A.; Agnese, D.; Henderson, M.; Dummer, R; Rossi, C. R.; Neves, R. I.; Trocha, S. D.; Wright, Sara F.; Byrd, D. R.; Matter, M.; Hsueh, E.; MacKenzie-Ross, A.; Johnson, B. D.; Terheyden, P.; Berger, A. C.; Huston, T. L.; Wayne, J. D.; Smithers, B. Mark; Neuman, H. B.; Schneebaum, S.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Ariyan, C. E.; Desai, D. C.; Jacobs, L.; McMasters, K. M.; Gesierich, A.; Hersey, P.; Bines, S. D.; Kane, Michael J.; Barth, R. J.; McKinnon, J. G.; Farma, J. M.; Schultz, B. E.; Vidal-Sicart, S.; Hoefer, R. A.; Lewis, David J. M.; Scheri, R.; Kelley, M. C.; Nieweg, O. E.; Noyes, R. D.; Hoon, D. S. B.; Wang, H. -J.; Elashoff, D. A.; Elashoff, R. M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy is associated with increased melanoma-specific survival (i.e., survival until death from melanoma) among patients with node-positive intermediate-thickness melanomas (1.2 to 3.5 mm). The value of completion lymph-node dissection for patients with sentinel-node

  15. Software Defined Network Monitoring Scheme Using Spectral Graph Theory and Phantom Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    simulated across 30 random 15-node networks that each had a minimum degree min 3D  . Each node was categorized according to degree, and the link weights...in Table 3. We associate these results to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle; the attachment of the phantom node to a node in the network for

  16. Minimization of heat slab nodes with higher order boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbrig, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    The accuracy of a numerical solution can be limited by the numerical approximation to the boundary conditions rather than the accuracy of the equations which describe the interior. The study presented in this paper compares the results from two different numerical formulations of the convective boundary condition on the face of a heat transfer slab. The standard representation of the boundary condition in a test problem yielded an unacceptable error even when the heat transfer slab was partitioned into over 300 nodes. A higher order boundary condition representation was obtained by using a second order approximation for the first derivative at the boundary and combining it with the general equation used for inner nodes. This latter formulation produced reasonable results when as few as ten nodes were used

  17. Analysis of Network Vulnerability Under Joint Node and Link Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongcheng; Liu, Shumei; Yu, Yao; Cao, Ting

    2018-03-01

    The security problem of computer network system is becoming more and more serious. The fundamental reason is that there are security vulnerabilities in the network system. Therefore, it’s very important to identify and reduce or eliminate these vulnerabilities before they are attacked. In this paper, we are interested in joint node and link attacks and propose a vulnerability evaluation method based on the overall connectivity of the network to defense this attack. Especially, we analyze the attack cost problem from the attackers’ perspective. The purpose is to find the set of least costs for joint links and nodes, and their deletion will lead to serious network connection damage. The simulation results show that the vulnerable elements obtained from the proposed method are more suitable for the attacking idea of the malicious persons in joint node and link attack. It is easy to find that the proposed method has more realistic protection significance.

  18. A solar charge and discharge controller for wireless sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yibo; Shen, Shu

    2018-02-01

    Aiming at the energy supply problem that restricts the life of wireless sensor nodes, a solar energy charge and discharge controller suitable for wireless sensor nodes is designed in this paper. A Microcontroller is used as the core of the solar charge and discharge controller. The software of the solar charge and discharge controller adopts the C language to realize the program of the main control module. Firstly, the function of monitoring solar panel voltage and lithium battery voltage are simulated by Protel software, and the charge time is tested in cloudy and overcast outdoor environment. The results of the experiment show that our controller meets the power supply demand of wireless sensor nodes.

  19. Optimal Node Placement in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Felamban, M.

    2013-03-25

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are expected to play a vital role in the exploration and monitoring of underwater areas which are not easily reachable by humans. However, underwater communication via acoustic waves is subject to several performance limitations that are very different from those used for terresstrial networks. In this paper, we investigate node placement for building an initial underwater WSN infrastructure. We formulate this problem as a nonlinear mathematical program with the objective of minimizing the total transmission loss under a given number of sensor nodes and targeted coverage volume. The obtained solution is the location of each node represented via a truncated octahedron to fill out the 3D space. Experiments are conducted to verify the proposed formulation, which is solved using Matlab optimization tool. Simulation is also conducted using an ns-3 simulator, and the simulation results are consistent with the obtained results from mathematical model with less than 10% error.

  20. Accuracy of abdominal lymph node scintigraphy in tumor diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucharczyk, D.

    1978-01-01

    In view of the diagnostical correspondence between lymph node scintigraphy and X-ray lymphograpy, this dissertation, which is based on 110 systematic comparative evaluations, examines the diagnostical weight of the scintigraphic criteria for tumor growth, discusses diagnostical discrepancies and confirms the efficacy of lymph node scintigraphy in detecting malignomas. In discussing the diagnostical results in the light of previous experience, the shortcomings of the nuclear medical method in tumor diagnostics are shown to be attributable to the uncertainty of the individual scintigraphic criteria. Owing to the variability of the lymph node system as to topography, anatomy and retention rate and the fact that it cannot morphologically be well differentiated in the scintigram, X-ray lymphography to verify the scintigraphic result and preclude misinterpretation remains an indispensable measure. (orig.) [de

  1. Direct Visual Editing of Node Attributes in Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Eichner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many expressive visualization techniques for analyzing graphs. Yet, there is only little research on how existing visual representations can be employed to support data editing. An increasingly relevant task when working with graphs is the editing of node attributes. We propose an integrated visualize-and-edit approach to editing attribute values via direct interaction with the visual representation. The visualize part is based on node-link diagrams paired with attribute-dependent layouts. The edit part is as easy as moving nodes via drag-and-drop gestures. We present dedicated interaction techniques for editing quantitative as well as qualitative attribute data values. The benefit of our novel integrated approach is that one can directly edit the data while the visualization constantly provides feedback on the implications of the data modifications. Preliminary user feedback indicates that our integrated approach can be a useful complement to standard non-visual editing via external tools.

  2. Nonlinear Spread of Rumor and Inoculation Strategies in the Nodes With Degree Dependent Tie Strength in Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Singh, Y. N.

    In earlier rumor spreading models, at each time step nodes contact all of their neighbors. In more realistic scenario it is possible that a node may contact only some of its neighbors to spread the rumor. Therefore it is must in real world complex networks, the classic rumor spreading model need to be modified to consider the dependence of rumor spread rate on the degree of the spreader and the informed nodes. We have given a modified rumor spreading model to accommodate these facts. This new model, has been studied for rumor spreading in complex networks in this work. Nonlinear rumor spread exponent $\\alpha$ and degree dependent tie strength exponent $\\beta$ in any complex network gives rumor threshold as some finite value. In the present work, the modified rumor spreading model has been studied in scale free networks. It is also found that if $ \\alpha $ and $ \\beta $ parameters are tuned to appropriate value, the rumor threshold becomes independent of network size. In any social network, rumors can spread may have undesirable effect. One of the possible solutions to control rumor spread, is to inoculate a certain fraction of nodes against rumors. The inoculation can be done randomly or in a targeted fashion. We have used modified rumor spreading model over scale free networks to investigate the efficacy of inoculation. Random and targeted inoculation schemes have been applied. It has been observed that rumor threshold in random inoculation scheme is greater than the rumor threshold in the model without any inoculation scheme. But random inoculation is not that much effective. The rumor threshold in targeted inoculation is very high than the rumor threshold in the random inoculation in suppressing the rumor.

  3. Distribution of Porcine Haemal Nodes and Morphological Variations in the Haemal Nodes of Cattle and West African Dwarf Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anietie Francis UDOUMOH

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Apparently healthy, non-lactating, non-gravid adult large white pigs (15, adult cattle (10 and adult West African Dwarf (WAD goats of either genders were used to investigate the morphology of haemal nodes using gross anatomical and histological techniques. The results demonstrated that the haemal nodes of pigs occurred in the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic regions along the course of blood vessels. The ranges of the longest diameters of the dark brown organs were 6.1 – 30.3 cm in pigs, 4.1 – 18.7 cm in cattle and 2.7 – 8.2 cm in WAD goats. Bovine haemal nodes showed cortical and medullary parenchymal areas, with the cortex demonstrating primary and secondary lymphoid follicles in a circumferential fashion. The medulla showed blood filled medullary sinusoids and medullary cords. In WAD goat, the reticular cells and smooth muscle cells of the capsule were oriented in different directions and the subcapsular, cortical and medullary sinusoids exhibited erythrocytes in pockets. In conclusion, the present study has provided information on the distribution of haemal nodes in pigs as well as other unique morphological features of cattle and WAD goat haemal nodes that could aid their identification and suggest their roles in the body.

  4. Radiotherapy of the regional lymph nodes: shooting at the sheriff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkler, Ian H

    2009-10-01

    The role of immune surveillance in controlling the spread of breast cancer to the regional nodes is poorly understood. In theory regional nodal irradiation (RNI) might compromise this host function. However the clinical evidence suggests that the risk of regional recurrence is lower in patients with early breast cancer whose axilla has been irradiated compared to no axillary treatment. The role of RNI after breast conserving surgery has not been well studied. A policy of level III clearance and only irradiating the axilla for residual disease and a selective policy of axillary irradiation in node positive patients after sentinel node biopsy or lower axillary node sample is recommended. Irradiation of the medial supraclavicular fossa after axillary dissection is suggested where there are four or more nodes involved on axillary dissection. There is little data to inform selection of patients for RNI after neoadjuvant systemic therapy. The role of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) was largely established on the basis of comprehensive RNI. It is unclear whether irradiating less than the chest wall and peripheral lymphatics confers the same level of benefit. The role of PMRT in women with 1-3 involved nodes remains controversial and investigational. Biological factors such as oestrogen and progesterone receptor status and HER-2 protein expression may play a role in determining benefits from PMRT. The role of internal mammary nodal irradiation is unclear. The individualisation of RNI based on molecular and genetic factors should be a priority for research. The benefits of RNI need to be carefully balanced against the risks of cardiotoxicity, pneumonitis, lymphoedema, brachial plexopathy and secondary malignancy.

  5. Robotic Salvage Lymph Node Dissection After Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio C. M. Torricelli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction and objective:Radical prostatectomy is a first-line treatment for localized prostate cancer. However, in some cases, biochemical recurrence associated with imaging-detected nodal metastases may happen. Herein, we aim to present the surgical technique for salvage lymph node dissection after radical prostatectomy.Materials and Methods:A 70 year-old asymptomatic man presented with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA of 7.45ng/ mL. Digital rectal examination was normal and trans-rectal prostate biopsy revealed a prostate adenocarcinoma Gleason 7 (3+4. Pre-operative computed tomography scan and bone scintigraphy showed no metastatic disease. In other service, the patient underwent a robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy plus obturador lymphadenectomy. Pathologic examination showed a pT3aN0 tumor. After 6 months of follow-up, serum PSA was 1.45ng/mL. Further investigation with 11C–Choline PET/CT revealed only a 2-cm lymph node close to the left internal iliac artery. The patient was counseled for salvage lymph node dissection.Results:Salvage lymph node dissection was uneventfully performed. Operative time was 1.5 hour, blood loss was minimal, and there were no intra- or postoperative complications. The patient was discharged from hospital in the 1st postoperative day. After 12 months of follow-up, his PSA was undetectable with no other adjuvant therapy.Conclusion:Robotic salvage pelvic lymph node dissection is an effective option for treatment of patients with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy and only pelvic lymph node metastasis detected by C11-Choline PET/CT.

  6. Procedure guidelines for sentinel lymph node diagnosis; Verfahrensanweisung fuer die nuklearmedizinische Waechter-Lymphknoten-Diagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, H. [Klinikum Augsburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Schmidt, Matthias [Universitaeten zu Koeln (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Bares, R. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Tuebingen (DE)] (and others)

    2010-07-01

    The authors present a procedure guideline for scintigraphic detection of sentinel lymph nodes in malignant melanoma and other skin tumours, in breast cancer, in head and neck cancer, and in prostate and penile carcinoma. Important goals of sentinel lymph node scintigraphy comprise reduction of the extent of surgery, lower postoperative morbidity and optimization of histopathological examination focussing on relevant lymph nodes. Sentinel lymph node scintigraphy itself does not diagnose tumorous lymph node involvement and is not indicated when lymph node metastases have been definitely diagnosed before sentinel lymph node scintigraphy. Procedures are compiled with the aim to reliably localise sentinel lymph nodes with a high detection rate typically in early tumour stages. Radiation exposure is low so that pregnancy is not a contraindication for sentinel lymph node scintigraphy. Even with high volumes of scintigraphic sentinel lymph node procedures surgeons, theatre staff and pathologists receive a radiation exposure <1 mSv/year so that they do not require occupational radiation surveillance. (orig.)

  7. Para-aortic lymph node radiation in advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emami, B.; Watring, W.G.; Tak, W.; Anderson, B.; Piro, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-six patients with advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix and with iliac or para-aortic nodes interpreted as un-equivocally positive on lymphangiography have received radiation therapy to the para-aortic area at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology at Tufts-New England Medical Center Hospital. Of 29 patients who received para-aortic area irradiation as part of their initial treatment, local control was achieved in 18 patients (62%). Overall, four patients developed major complications requiring surgical intervention. Detailed results and our current pre-treatment evaluation policy including lymphangiography, percutaneous needle biopsy and selective extra-peritoneal lymph node biopsy will be discussed

  8. Enlarged, painful cervical and axillary lymph nodes in chronic paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pinho, Débora Braga; da Costa Neves, Thaís; Célem, Lívia Ribeiro; Quintella, Leonardo; Rodrigues, Rosângela; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia

    2014-06-30

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is an important medical and social problem mainly in rural areas of Brazil, because of the high incidence of the diseases, its long clinical evolution, frequent recurrences and sequels leading to anatomical and functional incapacities. We present a 73-year-old patient with paracoccidioidomycosis showing significant lymph node manifestations, which are only common in children and teenagers. Paracoccidioidomycosis may have a long incubation period, and it can be diagnosed outside of the endemic regions, where it was acquired. Thus, all dermatologists should maintain a high index of suspicion, especially in unusual cases of extensive lymph node enlargement in the elderly patients.

  9. Empowering smartphone users with sensor node for air quality measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oletic, Dinko; Bilas, Vedran

    2013-01-01

    We present an architecture of a sensor node developed for use with smartphones for participatory sensing of air quality in urban environments. Our solution features inexpensive metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensors (MOX) for measurement of CO, O 3 , NO 2 and VOC, along with sensors for ambient temperature and humidity. We focus on our design of sensor interface consisting of power-regulated heater temperature control, and the design of resistance sensing circuit. Accuracy of the sensor interface is characterized. Power consumption of the sensor node is analysed. Preliminary data obtained from the CO gas sensors in laboratory conditions and during the outdoor field-test is shown.

  10. Basal cell carcinoma metastatic to cervical lymph nodes and lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, J Scott; Flam, Marshall S; Tashjian, David N; Tschang, Tai-Po

    2006-10-31

    Metastatic basal cell carcinoma (MBCC) of the skin is rare in occurrence and may initially elude proper diagnosis and management. We describe a case of MBCC to cervical lymph nodes, originally evaluated and treated surgically as metastatic thyroid carcinoma. After definitive diagnosis of MBCC was made, chemotherapy and concomitant radiation treatment were initiated; however, despite these measures, the patient then developed MBCC to the lung. Risk factors and current therapeutic modalities for MBCC are also discussed. In addition to the more commonly metastasizing carcinomas, metastases from a cutaneous basal cell carcinoma primary tumor should be considered when evaluating cervical lymph node metastases of an uncertain head and neck primary.

  11. Sentinel node biopsy for melanoma: a study of 241 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, Annette Hougaard; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz; Jakobsen, Annika Loft

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sentinel node biopsy (SNB) technique for melanoma using both radiocolloid and blue dye in 241 clinically N0 patients with melanomas >1.0 mm, or thinner lesions exhibiting regression/ulceration. We showed that an increase in injected radioactivity increased...... nine haematoxylin and eosin (HE)-negatives, all of which were found by immunohistochemistry. The false negative rate for the SNB procedure was 4% (2/55). The complication rate was 6% after SNB and 29% after complete node dissection. In conclusion, SN status is a strong prognostic factor in melanoma...

  12. In the suppression of regge cut contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, S.P.

    1975-07-01

    It is shown that contributions of reggeon-pomeron cuts are suppressed in amplitudes with opposite natural to the reggeon. This suppression grows logarithmically with energy. The suppression in the πP cut is, however, found to be weak. Consequence on conspiracy is discussed

  13. Probability of axillary lymph node metastasis when sentinel lymph node biopsy is negative in women with clinically node negative breast cancer: a Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Kiyomi; Kanbe, Masako; Kodama, Hitomi; Omi, Yoko; Kawamata, Akiko; Suzuki, Rumi; Igari, Yuka; Tanaka, Reiko; Iihara, Masatoshi; Ito, Yukio; Sawada, Tatsuo; Nishikawa, Toshio; Maki, Masako; Kusakabe, Kiyoko; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Obara, Takao

    2005-01-01

    Although sentinel lymph node biopsy(SLNB)is highly accurate in predicting axillary nodal status in patients with breast cancer, it has been shown that the procedure is associated with a few false negative results. The risk of leaving metastatic nodes behind in the axillary basin when SLNB is negative should be estimated for an individual patient if SLNB is performed to avoid conventional axillary lymph node dissection(ALND). A retrospective analysis of 512 women with T1-3N0M0 breast cancer was conducted to derive a prevalence of nodal metastasis by T category as a pre-test(i.e., before SLNB)probability and to examine potential confounders on the relationship between T category and axillary nodal involvement. Probability of nodal metastasis when SLNB was negative was estimated by means of Bayes' theorem which incorporated the pre-test probability and sensitivity and specificity of SLNB. Axillary nodal metastasis was observed in 6.1% of T1a-b, 25.1% of T1c, 28.7% of T2, 35.0% of T3 tumors. Point estimates for the probability of nodal involvement when SLNB was negative ranged from 0.3-1.3% for T1a-b, 1.6-6.3% for T1c, 2.0-7.5% for T2, and 2.6-9.7% for T3 tumors with representative sensitivities of 80%, 85%, 90% and 95%, respectively. The risk may be higher when the tumor involves the upper outer quadrant of the breast, while it may be lower for an underweight woman. The probability of axillary lymph node metastasis when SLNB is negative can be estimated using a Bayesian approach. Presenting the probability to the patient may guide the decision of surgery without conventional ALND.

  14. Secretoneurin suppresses cardiac hypertrophy through suppression of oxidant stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua-Li; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Xiao; Yuan, Guo-Lin; Zhao, Yi-Lin; Yu, Chao

    2018-03-05

    The neuropeptide secretoneurin (SN) plays protective roles in myocardial ischemia. In the present study, the effect of SN in cardiac hypertrophy was investigated. We observed that, in isoproterenol (ISO) treatment induced cardiac or cardiomyocytes hypertrophy, a marked increase in the expression of endogenous SN in mouse plasma, myocardium and primary-cultured cardiomyocytes occurs. In hypertrophic mice, the heart size, heart weight/body weight (HW/BW) ratio, cardiomyocyte size, and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) expression were significantly higher than those in controls but were effectively suppressed by SN gene therapy. Similarly, the protective effects of SN were also observed in cultured cardiomyocytes following ISO treatment. SN significantly increased the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in parallel with the decrease in reactive oxygen species levels in cardiomyocytes. We observed that SN evoked the activation of all of the AMPK, P38/MAPK and ERK/MAPK pathways in cardiomyocytes, but pretreatment with only AMPK inhibitor (compound C) and ERK1/2/MAPK inhibitor (PD98059) counteracted the protective effects of SN against cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and the suppressive effects of SN on oxidant stress in cardiomyocytes. These results indicated that endogenous SN is induced in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes, and may play a protective role in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy. These results suggest that exogenous SN supplementation protects the cardiac hypertrophy induced by ISO treatment through the activation of AMPK and ERK/MAPK pathways, thus upregulating antioxidants and suppressing oxidative stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sentinel node biopsy guided by indocyanine green dye in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, K; Inaji, H; Komoike, Y; Kasugai, T; Noguchi, S; Koyama, H

    1999-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether dye-guided sentinel node biopsy is a useful indicator of axillary node involvement in breast cancer patients and whether clinicopathological features affect its success in identifying sentinel nodes. Sentinel node biopsy was performed in patients with stage I or II breast cancer using an indocyanin green dye-guided method. We could identify sentinel nodes in 127 (73.8%) of 172 patients. The mean number of sentinel nodes per patient was 1.7 (range, 1-8) and the mean node size was 9.3 mm (range, 3.0-28.0 mm). Of the 127 patients, 40 (31.5%) also had axillary node involvement. In 16 (40.0%) of these, the sentinel node was the only node involved. There was concordance between sentinel node and axillary node status in 122 (96.1%) of the 127 patients. Success in identifying sentinel nodes was not affected by tumor size, operative procedure, histological type of tumor or tumor location; however, the success rate was significantly lower in patients with axillary node involvement (65.7 vs 79.0% in axillary node-negative patients, p = 0.039) and the presence or absence of lymphatic or vascular invasion in the tumor (63.8 vs 78.9% in patients without lymphatic or vascular invasion, p = 0.043). Sentinel nodes could also be identified significantly more frequently in patients under 50 years old (83.3%) than in those over 50 years old (64.8%, p = 0.009). Sentinel node biopsy guided by indocyanin green dye is an easy technique with an acceptable success rate in detecting sentinel nodes and predicting axillary nodal status. Axillary node status, the presence or absence of lymphatic or vascular invasion in the tumor and patient age affect its success in identifying sentinel nodes.

  16. The 'Sentinel Node' Concept: More Questions Raised than Answers Provided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlag

    1998-01-01

    The prognosis of malignant disease is essentially determined by the metastatic potential of the primary tumor. In the past, scientific attention was chiefly directed to systemic metastasis. A multitude of biological and molecular tumor markers and mechanisms has been uncovered enabling a better contemporary understanding of the process of hematogenic metastasis. This is in contrast with our knowledge of the mechanisms and pathways of lymphatic tumor spread, which is rather limited. We do know, however, that adequate surgical clearance of the regional lymphatics improves treatment results of many tumors. How far this lymph node dissection is directly therapeutic is a source of controversy. While in some instances, a stage-adjusted survival benefit was demonstrated, this may very well be attributable at least in part to the phenomenon of stage migration (Will Rodgers phenomenon) through better staging. However, it is uncontested that an established diagnosis of regional lymphatic spread is prognostically significant and should influence the indication for additional therapy and eventually for an intensive follow-up. For many tumors, the indication for adjuvant chemotherapy depends on the nodal status. On the other hand, it is equally well known that aggressive lymphatic dissection increases perioperative morbidity and even mortality. Long-term sequellae from regional lymphatic dissection are common and the effect on the local, maybe even the systemic immunological response to the malignant disease, remains unclear. To incur such risk seems especially problematic in those patients without any lymphatic spread at the time of the pathologist's work-up. Thus, there is ongoing debate about the rationale, value, extent, advantage, or disadvantage of regional surgical lymph node dissection or even radiotherapy of the regional lymphatic drainage area for many different tumors. A considerable step forward could be made if there was any diagnostic modality enabling a reliable

  17. The sentinel lymph node spread determines quantitatively melanoma seeding to non-sentinel lymph nodes and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Anja; Dietz, Klaus; Werner-Klein, Melanie; Häfner, Hans-Martin; Schulz, Claudia; Renner, Philipp; Weber, Florian; Breuninger, Helmut; Röcken, Martin; Garbe, Claus; Fierlbeck, Gerhard; Klein, Christoph A

    2018-03-01

    Complete lymph node dissection (CLND) after a positive sentinel node (SN) biopsy provides important prognostic information in melanoma patients but has been questioned for therapeutic use recently. We explored whether quantification of the tumour spread to SNs may replace histopathology of non-sentinel nodes (NSNs) for staging purposes. We quantified melanoma spread in SNs and NSNs in 128 patients undergoing CLND for a positive SN. In addition to routine histopathology, one-half of each of all 1496 SNs and NSNs was disaggregated into a single cell suspension and stained immunocytochemically to determine the number of melanoma cells per 10 6 lymph node cells, i.e. the disseminated cancer cell density (DCCD). We uncovered melanoma spread to NSNs in the majority of patients; however, the tumour load and the proportion of positive nodes were significantly lower in NSNs than in SNs. The relation between SN and NSN spread could be described by a mathematical function with DCCD NSN  = DCCD SN c /10 1 - c (c = 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.76). At a median follow-up of 67 months, multivariable Cox regression analyses revealed that DCCD SN (p = 0.02; HR 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05-1.71) and the total number of pathologically positive nodes (p = 0.02; HR 1.53, 95% CI: 1.07-2.22) were significant risk factors after controlling for age, gender, thickness of melanoma and ulceration status. A prognostic model based on DCCD SN and melanoma thickness predicted outcome as accurately as a model including pathological information of both SNs and NSNs. The assessment of DCCD SN renders CLND for staging purposes unnecessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Background Suppression Effects on Signal Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Gamma detectors at border crossings are intended to detect illicit nuclear material. One performance challenge involves the fact that vehicles suppress the natural background, thus potentially reducing detection probability for threat items. Methods to adjust for background suppression have been considered in related but different settings. Here, methods to adjust for background suppression are tested in the context of signal estimation. Adjustment methods include several clustering options. We find that for the small-to-moderate suppression magnitudes exhibited in the analyzed data, suppression adjustment is only moderatel helpful in locating the signal peak, and in estimating its width or magnitude.

  19. Predictors of cervical lymph node metastasis in salivary gland cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettl, Tobias; Gosau, Martin; Brockhoff, Gero; Schwarz-Furlan, Stephan; Agaimy, Abbas; Reichert, Torsten E; Rohrmeier, Christian; Zenk, Johannes; Iro, Heinrich

    2014-04-01

    This study compares clinicopathological parameters with novel molecular markers for predicting cervical lymph node metastasis in salivary gland cancer. Three hundred sixteen salivary gland carcinomas were included in this study. Genomic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), and hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET) was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Chi-square tests, multivariate regression, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were used for statistics. Nodal staging determines long-term survival. Clinicopathological parameters associated with positive neck nodes are advanced age (p = .006), T3/T4 classification, histological high-grade malignancy, and diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma (p < .001 each). Neck node metastases also correlate with copy number gain of EGFR (p = .004) and HER2, aberration of MET, and deletion of PTEN (p < .001 each). Multivariate analysis showed SDC (p = .002) to be the strongest predictor of lymph node metastasis, followed by MET aberration (p = .009), T3/T4 classification (p = .017), PTEN deletion (p = .042), and adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified (NOS; p = .047). The histological subtype is crucial for decisions regarding neck dissection. New molecular parameters may also indicate elective treatment of the neck. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. 3D inkjet printed disposable environmental monitoring wireless sensor node

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2017-10-24

    We propose a disposable, miniaturized, moveable, fully integrated 3D inkjet-printed wireless sensor node for large area environmental monitoring applications. As a proof of concept, we show the wireless sensing of temperature, humidity and H2S levels which are important for early warnings of two critical environmental conditions namely forest fires and industrial gas leaks. The temperature sensor has TCR of -0.018/°, the highest of any inkjet-printed sensor and the H2S sensor can detect as low as 3 ppm of gas. These sensors and an antenna have been realized on the walls of a 3D-printed cubic package which encloses the microelectronics developed on a 3D-printed circuit board. Hence, 3D printing and inkjet printing have been combined in order to realize a unique low-cost, fully integrated wireless sensor node. Field tests show that these sensor nodes can wirelessly communicate up to a distance of over 100m. Our proposed sensor node can be a part of internet of things with the aim of providing a better and safe living.

  1. Power Aware Simulation Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks and Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaser Johann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The constrained resources of sensor nodes limit analytical techniques and cost-time factors limit test beds to study wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Consequently, simulation becomes an essential tool to evaluate such systems.We present the power aware wireless sensors (PAWiS simulation framework that supports design and simulation of wireless sensor networks and nodes. The framework emphasizes power consumption capturing and hence the identification of inefficiencies in various hardware and software modules of the systems. These modules include all layers of the communication system, the targeted class of application itself, the power supply and energy management, the central processing unit (CPU, and the sensor-actuator interface. The modular design makes it possible to simulate heterogeneous systems. PAWiS is an OMNeT++ based discrete event simulator written in C++. It captures the node internals (modules as well as the node surroundings (network, environment and provides specific features critical to WSNs like capturing power consumption at various levels of granularity, support for mobility, and environmental dynamics as well as the simulation of timing effects. A module library with standardized interfaces and a power analysis tool have been developed to support the design and analysis of simulation models. The performance of the PAWiS simulator is comparable with other simulation environments.

  2. Factors affecting in vitro plant regeneration from cotyledonary node ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient in vitro regeneration protocol has been developed for a medicinal legume Senna sophera (L.) Roxb. using Cotyledonary Node (CN) explants. The plant exhibits high medicinal potential and is being used in several traditional and homeopathy system of medicine. The present study described an in vitro ...

  3. Belief-node Condensation for Online POMDP Algorithms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rens, G

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider online partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) which compute policies by local look-ahead from the current belief-state. One problem is that belief-nodes deeper in the decision-tree increase in the number of states...

  4. Compact Public-Key Implementations for RFID and Sensor Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batina, Lejla; Sakiyama, Kazuo; Verbauwhede, Ingrid M. R.

    Embedded systems have become extremely important and new applications are taking a larger portion of the market every day. Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and sensor nodes are recent and challenging examples and they imply very low budgets for the number of gates, power, bandwidth, etc. while they often require security solutions.

  5. metastatic carcinoma of the breast with inguinal lymph node

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZINOX

    The University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Two Nigerian women, one aged 40 years with an invasive lobular carcinoma of the right breast, and the other aged 48 years with an infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the left breast, presented with metastases to their corresponding inguinal lymph nodes ...

  6. Metastatic Carcinoma Of The BreastWith Inguinal Lymph Node ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To report two cases of advanced breast carcinoma with metastases to the inguinal lymph nodes in two Nigerian women. The University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Two Nigerian women, one aged 40 years with an invasive lobular carcinoma of the right breast, and the other aged 48 yearswith ...

  7. Histopathological of lymph node biopsies in Lagos, South West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The demographic data regarding age, sex, provisional diagnosis and site of biopsy were obtained from request forms. The data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science version 21. There were 123 lymph node biopsies seen during the study period with age range of 1- 78 years and male to female ...

  8. The diagnostic value of lymph node biopsy to detect Castleman's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV is not indicated in the aetiology of Castleman's disease. However, it impacts on the prevalence and natural history of this disease and significantly on the disease progression. Castleman's disease is a uni- or multicentric disease of the lymph node with or without polyclonal proliferation of B-cells. It is a morphologically ...

  9. Staging of Cervical Lymph Nodes in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norling, Rikke; Buron, Birgitte Marie Due; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Clinical staging of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is crucial for the choice of treatment. Computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are typically recommended and used for staging of the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). Although ultrasonography (US...

  10. Web development with MongoDB and Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Krol, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This book is designed for developers of any skill level that want to get up and running using Node.js and MongoDB to build full featured web applications. A basic understanding of JavaScript and HTML is the only requirement for this book.

  11. Sentinel lymph node surgery in prostate cancer using magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Alexander; Engels, Svenja; Wawroschek, Friedhelm

    2018-03-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are tested to identify sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) to exploit the advantages of targeted pelvic SLN dissection (sPLND), while circumventing the disadvantages of established radioactive labeling. Here we review recent studies about sPLND in prostate cancer (PCa), including the first results of SLN detection using intraprostatic SPION-injection. A recent systematic literature review reveals that the diagnostic accuracy of sPLND is comparable with extended PLND (ePLND). sPLND combined with ePLND achieve better node removal by increasing the number of affected nodes. The first sentinel-based nomogram predicting lymph node invasion is established. A sentinel-nomogram update provides comparative predictions relative to ePLND models. sPLND using a magnetometer and SPIONs as a tracer is successful whenever applied to PCa, and SLN identification using MRI after intraprostatic injection of SPIONs is feasible. SLNs are present in an unexpectedly high number outside the ePLND template. SLN detection outside the ePLND template and the increased diagnostic value of sPLND compared with ePLND supports the individualized extension of PLND using sPLND in PCa. SPION-MRI, combined with a hand-held magnetometer, provides a nonradioactive technique for preoperative and intraoperative SLN localization. Further studies are required to evaluate the effects of sPLND on oncological outcomes.

  12. Effects of population source and node position on rhizome bud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of population source (agro-ecozone) and node position on bud distribution in mature (determinate) rhizome of first- (from natural vegetati on) and second- (from screenhouse-grown plants) generation speargrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel) from the derived savanna (DS), southern Guinea savanna (SGS) ...

  13. [Lymph node tuberculosis treatment: from recommendations to practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoix, J-P; Douadi, Y; Borel, A; Andrejak, C; El Samad, Y; Ducroix, J-P; Schmit, J-L

    2011-02-01

    Lymph node infection is the most frequent localization of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. However, there is still no consensus on the length of antimicrobial treatment. We conducted a retrospective study in the Department of infectious diseases and internal medicine in the Amiens Teaching Hospital, France. All patients diagnosed with lymph node tuberculosis between 1998 and 2007 were included; some patients presented with bi- or multifocal tuberculosis. The aim of the study was a practice analysis. We studied 48 medical records, 16 were excluded for lack of more than 40% of data or because lymph node tuberculosis was non-active. The mean age of the 32 patients included was 49 years. The mean duration of treatment was 10.9 months (standard deviation 2.6, median 11, range 6-18). There was no statistical age difference between subgroups (lymph node tuberculosis versus multifocal tuberculosis). There was no significant difference between the 6-month treatment group and the 9-month treatment group in term of clinical response. One relapse was diagnosed, eight patients (25%) were lost to follow-up at 1 year after treatment. DISCUSSION AND REVIEW: No reliable published data was found as to the optimal duration of treatment. A high quality clinical trial should be carried out to suggest a consensus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Node control and numerical optimization of aerogravity-assist trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hess, J.R.; Mooij, E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the method of using node control for numerical optimization to determine feasible aerogravity-assist trajectories at Mars. To find these trajectories, a simulator capable of simulating gravitational and aerodynamic accelerations was developed. In addition, a large number

  15. Meshfree Local Radial Basis Function Collocation Method with Image Nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung Ki; Kim, Minjae [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    We numerically solve two-dimensional heat diffusion problems by using a simple variant of the meshfree local radial-basis function (RBF) collocation method. The main idea is to include an additional set of sample nodes outside the problem domain, similarly to the method of images in electrostatics, to perform collocation on the domain boundaries. We can thereby take into account the temperature profile as well as its gradients specified by boundary conditions at the same time, which holds true even for a node where two or more boundaries meet with different boundary conditions. We argue that the image method is computationally efficient when combined with the local RBF collocation method, whereas the addition of image nodes becomes very costly in case of the global collocation. We apply our modified method to a benchmark test of a boundary value problem, and find that this simple modification reduces the maximum error from the analytic solution significantly. The reduction is small for an initial value problem with simpler boundary conditions. We observe increased numerical instability, which has to be compensated for by a sufficient number of sample nodes and/or more careful parameter choices for time integration.

  16. On a generic class of two-node queueing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adan, Ivo; Mandjes, M.R.H.; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Tzenova, Elena

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes a generic class of two-node queueing systems. A first queue is fed by an on–off Markov fluid source; the input of a second queue is a function of the state of the Markov fluid source as well, but now also of the first queue being empty or not. This model covers the classical

  17. GeoNode condivisione di dati e applicazioni territoriali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Dalmasso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Negli ultimi anni si è passati da un sistema in cui la priorità era reperire le informazioni ad un sistema in cui la priorità è gestire l’imponente mole di dati disponibili e soprattutto rendere questi dati utili, cioè condividerli pensando anche ad un’utenza non necessariamente tecnica.   GeoNode  sharing  of  spatial  data  and land applications GeoNode is an open source platform that facilitates the creation, sharing, and collab-orative use of geospatial data. The project aims to surpass existing spatial data infra-structure  solutions  by  integrating  robust social and cartographic tools.At its core, the GeoNode has a stack based on  GeoServer,  Django,  and  GeoExt  that provides a platform for sophisticated web browser  spatial  visualization  and  analysis (excerpt from GeoNode website.

  18. GeoNode condivisione di dati e applicazioni territoriali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Dalmasso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Negli ultimi anni si è passati da un sistema in cui la priorità era reperire le informazioni ad un sistema in cui la priorità è gestire l’imponente mole di dati disponibili e soprattutto rendere questi dati utili, cioè condividerli pensando anche ad un’utenza non necessariamente tecnica. GeoNode  sharing  of  spatial  data  and land applicationsGeoNode is an open source platform that facilitates the creation, sharing, and collab-orative use of geospatial data. The project aims to surpass existing spatial data infra-structure  solutions  by  integrating  robust social and cartographic tools.At its core, the GeoNode has a stack based on  GeoServer,  Django,  and  GeoExt  that provides a platform for sophisticated web browser  spatial  visualization  and  analysis (excerpt from GeoNode website.

  19. Lymph node hemangioma in one-humped camel | Aljameel | Open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hemangioma is a benign tumor of blood and lymphatic vessels. It is common in skin, mucosa and soft tissues, and its occurrence in lymph nodes is extremely rare. A 10 year-old she-camel was slaughtered at Nyala slaughterhouse, South Darfur State, Sudan. Grossly, the carcass was emaciated. The left ventral superficial ...

  20. Retroperitoneal unicentric Castleman's disease (giant lymph node hyperplasia): case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisberg, Jaques; Satake, Marie; Yamagushi, Nagamassa; Matos, Leandro Luongo de; Waisberg, Daniel Reis; Artigiani Neto, Ricardo; Franco, Maria Isete Fares

    2007-07-05

    Castleman's disease, or giant lymph node hyperplasia, is a rare disorder of the lymphoid tissue that causes lymph node enlargement. It is considered benign in its localized form, but aggressive in the multicentric type. The definitive diagnosis is based on postoperative pathological findings. The aim here was to describe a case of retroperitoneal unicentric Castleman's disease in the retroperitoneum. A 61-year old white male with weight loss and listlessness presented with moderate arterial hypertension and leukopenia. Abdominal tomography revealed a 5 x 4 x 5 cm oval mass of low attenuation, with inner calcification and intense enhancement on intravenous contrast, located in the retroperitoneal region, between the left kidney and the aorta, at the renal hilus. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a non-pulsatile solid oval mass situated in the retroperitoneum, adjacent to the left renal hilus. The retroperitoneal lesion was removed in its entirety. Examination of frozen samples revealed benign lymph node tissue and histopathological examination of the surgical sample revealed hyaline-vascular giant lymph node hyperplasia (Castleman's disease). The patient was discharged on the 12th day without significant events. Two months after the operation, the patient was readmitted with severe cardiac insufficiency, acute renal failure and bronchopneumonia, which progressed to acute respiratory insufficiency, sepsis and death.

  1. Boarding Team Networking on the Move: Applying Unattended Relay Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    overheads. International/Multinational companies built sophisticated trade networks all over the world based on low transportation costs. Competitive...Africa, China, or Brazil . As Metaparti indicates, companies use registration flags of convenience to circumvent tax evasion and other responsibilities...release; distribution is unlimited BOARDING TEAM NETWORKING ON THE MOVE: APPLYING UNATTENDED RELAY NODES Ercan Aras Lieutenant Junior Grade

  2. Thick melanoma: prognostic value of positive sentinel nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeeren, Lenka; van der Ent, Fred W. C.; Sastrowijoto, Prapto S. H.; Hulsewé, Karel W. E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) is a widely accepted procedure used to accurately stage patients with melanoma. Its value in patients with thick melanoma (Breslow thickness >4 mm) is reason for discussion because of the generally poor prognosis of these patients. The purpose of this

  3. Regression Nodes: Extending attack trees with data from social sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullee, Jan-Willem; Montoya, L.; Pieters, Wolter; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.

    In the field of security, attack trees are often used to assess security vulnerabilities probabilistically in relation to multi-step attacks. The nodes are usually connected via AND-gates, where all children must be executed, or via OR-gates, where only one action is necessary for the attack step to

  4. Node-Centric Hybrid Routing for Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roy, Soumya; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J

    2002-01-01

    .... Simulation results using ns2 show that maintaining table-driven routing for netmarks and on-demand routing for common nodes performs much better than purely ondemand routing protocols based on distance vectors, path information, or link-state information.

  5. A Wind Energy Powered Wireless Temperature Sensor Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A wireless temperature sensor node composed of a piezoelectric wind energy harvester, a temperature sensor, a microcontroller, a power management circuit and a wireless transmitting module was developed. The wind-induced vibration energy harvester with a cuboid chamber of 62 mm × 19.6 mm × 10 mm converts ambient wind energy into electrical energy to power the sensor node. A TMP102 temperature sensor and the MSP430 microcontroller are used to measure the temperature. The power management module consists of LTC3588-1 and LT3009 units. The measured temperature is transmitted by the nRF24l01 transceiver. Experimental results show that the critical wind speed of the harvester was about 5.4 m/s and the output power of the harvester was about 1.59 mW for the electrical load of 20 kΩ at wind speed of 11.2 m/s, which was sufficient to power the wireless sensor node to measure and transmit the temperature every 13 s. When the wind speed increased from 6 m/s to 11.5 m/s, the self-powered wireless sensor node worked normally.

  6. Power Aware Simulation Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks and Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Weber

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The constrained resources of sensor nodes limit analytical techniques and cost-time factors limit test beds to study wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Consequently, simulation becomes an essential tool to evaluate such systems.We present the power aware wireless sensors (PAWiS simulation framework that supports design and simulation of wireless sensor networks and nodes. The framework emphasizes power consumption capturing and hence the identification of inefficiencies in various hardware and software modules of the systems. These modules include all layers of the communication system, the targeted class of application itself, the power supply and energy management, the central processing unit (CPU, and the sensor-actuator interface. The modular design makes it possible to simulate heterogeneous systems. PAWiS is an OMNeT++ based discrete event simulator written in C++. It captures the node internals (modules as well as the node surroundings (network, environment and provides specific features critical to WSNs like capturing power consumption at various levels of granularity, support for mobility, and environmental dynamics as well as the simulation of timing effects. A module library with standardized interfaces and a power analysis tool have been developed to support the design and analysis of simulation models. The performance of the PAWiS simulator is comparable with other simulation environments.

  7. Sentinel lymph node biopsy: An audit of intraoperative assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-02

    Jul 2, 2015 ... Objective. To audit results from intraoperative assessment of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) after the introduction of a cytotechnologist. Study design. Since 2010, a cytotechnologist has been involved in the intraoperative assessment of SLNB in our breast cancer patients. The data from patients over ...

  8. Quality metric for accurate overlay control in <20nm nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Dana; Amit, Eran; Cohen, Guy; Amir, Nuriel; Har-Zvi, Michael; Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Karur-Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Pierson, Bill; Kato, Cindy; Kurita, Hiroyuki

    2013-04-01

    The semiconductor industry is moving toward 20nm nodes and below. As the Overlay (OVL) budget is getting tighter at these advanced nodes, the importance in the accuracy in each nanometer of OVL error is critical. When process owners select OVL targets and methods for their process, they must do it wisely; otherwise the reported OVL could be inaccurate, resulting in yield loss. The same problem can occur when the target sampling map is chosen incorrectly, consisting of asymmetric targets that will cause biased correctable terms and a corrupted wafer. Total measurement uncertainty (TMU) is the main parameter that process owners use when choosing an OVL target per layer. Going towards the 20nm nodes and below, TMU will not be enough for accurate OVL control. KLA-Tencor has introduced a quality score named `Qmerit' for its imaging based OVL (IBO) targets, which is obtained on the-fly for each OVL measurement point in X & Y. This Qmerit score will enable the process owners to select compatible targets which provide accurate OVL values for their process and thereby improve their yield. Together with K-T Analyzer's ability to detect the symmetric targets across the wafer and within the field, the Archer tools will continue to provide an independent, reliable measurement of OVL error into the next advanced nodes, enabling fabs to manufacture devices that meet their tight OVL error budgets.

  9. Sentinel node biopsy in head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Gary L; Soutar, David S; Gordon MacDonald, D

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to determine the reliability and reproducibility of sentinel node biopsy (SNB) as a staging tool in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) for T1/2 clinically N0 patients by means of a standardized technique. METHODS: Between June 1998 and June 2002, 227 SNB...

  10. Sentinel node biopsy in colorectal cancer: Must we believe it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scabini, Stefano

    2010-01-27

    Lymph node metastasis predicts survival and recurrence in colon cancer (CC), so decisions regarding adjuvant therapy are largely based on nodal status. Chemotherapy is not a routine treatment for node-negative CC because its toxicity and expense exceed its limited benefit in patients without evidence of nodal involvement. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure is a selective sampling technique that can be used to ultrastage regional nodes. The real problem of SLN biopsy in CC is the procedure sensitivity rate. In future, studies concerning SLNs will have to consider issues such as the role of laparoscopy in colorectal resection (which cause technical difficulties in identification of SLNs) and the risk of overstaging of illness as well as the need to exclude T4 CC and, probably, rectal cancer from the studies. Is this the future of correct staging of colorectal cancer? Lymphadenectomy is at the present an integral part of colorectal surgery and surgeons must perform it correctly to improve their results. Nevertheless, for the future another "staging system" is necessary in colorectal cancer which takes into account biologic aspects of the tumor to identify patients with aggresive illness in order to treat them with more effective and less toxic therapies.

  11. Uptake kinetics of relatively insoluble particles by tracheobronchial lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Tracheobronchial lymph nodes accumulate a portion of material deposited in the deep lung following inhalation of relatively insoluble particles. Experiments involving a variety of compounds, inhaled singly or repeatedly, indicate that the kinetics of lymph node uptake are fairly independent of particle characteristics and mammalian species. The buildup per unit weight of nodal tissue compared with that of lung tissue, with time, can be represented by a linear logarithmic function. However, since the scatter in experimental points may be large at any given time after inhalation exposure, a number of different kinetic descriptions of uptake can be derived. The logarithmic pattern of accumulation can be approximated over an extended time range (several years) by use of a combination of first-order kinetics of loss from the lung and of buildup in lymph nodes, but it is recognized that the processes are much more complicated than this treatment would indicate. Clearance (loss) from the lymph nodes is not well defined, but this aspect is discussed in light of the kinetic models presented

  12. Retroperitoneal unicentric Castleman's disease (giant lymph node hyperplasia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaques Waisberg

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Castleman's disease, or giant lymph node hyperplasia, is a rare disorder of the lymphoid tissue that causes lymph node enlargement. It is considered benign in its localized form, but aggressive in the multicentric type. The definitive diagnosis is based on postoperative pathological findings. The aim here was to describe a case of retroperitoneal unicentric Castleman's disease in the retroperitoneum. CASE REPORT: A 61-year old white male with weight loss and listlessness presented with moderate arterial hypertension and leukopenia. Abdominal tomography revealed a 5 x 4 x 5 cm oval mass of low attenuation, with inner calcification and intense enhancement on intravenous contrast, located in the retroperitoneal region, between the left kidney and the aorta, at the renal hilus. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a non-pulsatile solid oval mass situated in the retroperitoneum, adjacent to the left renal hilus. The retroperitoneal lesion was removed in its entirety. Examination of frozen samples revealed benign lymph node tissue and histopathological examination of the surgical sample revealed hyaline-vascular giant lymph node hyperplasia (Castleman's disease. The patient was discharged on the 12th day without significant events. Two months after the operation, the patient was readmitted with severe cardiac insufficiency, acute renal failure and bronchopneumonia, which progressed to acute respiratory insufficiency, sepsis and death.

  13. Biochemical aspects of single-node cuttings of Ricinodendron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ricinodendron heudelotii (Njansang) is a valuable multipurpose tree species retained for domestication in Central and Western African regions. To measure the ability of rooting in relation with biochemical changes, basal single-node leafy cuttings were treated with different concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and ...

  14. Efficient plant regeneration from cotyledonary node explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient regeneration system was developed using cotyledonary node of two inbred line of melon, Cucumis melo 'CM-15' and 'CM-23'. The induction of shoots was achieved on Murashige and Skoog (MS) solid medium supplemented with different combinations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and indole- 3-acetic acid ...

  15. [Sentinel node in melanoma and breast cancer. Current considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Sicart, S; Vilalta Solsona, A; Alonso Vargas, M I

    2015-01-01

    The main objectives of sentinel node (SN) biopsy is to avoid unnecessary lymphadenectomies and to identify the 20-25% of patients with occult regional metastatic involvement. This technique reduces the associated morbidity from lymphadenectomy and increases the occult lymphatic metastases identification rate by offering the pathologist the or those lymph nodes with the highest probability of containing metastatic cells. Pre-surgical lymphoscintigraphy is considered a "road map" to guide the surgeon towards the sentinel nodes and to localize unpredictable lymphatic drainage patterns. The SPECT/CT advantages include a better SN detection rate than planar images, the ability to detect SNs in difficult to interpret studies, better SN depiction, especially in sites closer to the injection site and better anatomic localization. These advantages may result in a change in the patient's clinical management both in melanoma and breast cancer. The correct SN evaluation by pathology implies a tumoral load stratification and further prognostic implication. The use of intraoperative imaging devices allows the surgeon a better surgical approach and precise SN localization. Several studies reports the added value of such devices for more sentinel nodes excision and a complete monitoring of the whole procedure. New techniques, by using fluorescent or hybrid tracers, are currently being developed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  16. The Geometry of Slow Manifolds near a Folded Node

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desroches, M.; Krauskopf, B.; Osinga, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the geometry of slow manifolds of a dynamical system with one fast and two slow variables. Specifically, we study the dynamics near a folded-node singularity, which is known to give rise to so-called canard solutions. Geometrically, canards are intersection curves of

  17. Age Related Variations in The Architecture of Caprine Haemal Nodes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age related variations in the architecture of caprine haemal nodes were studied in West African dwarf goats aged between 1-24 months. Variations were observed in the thickness of the capsule, the content and organization of the cortical and medullary parenchyma as well as the stroma. In young goats age between 1-4 ...

  18. Salmonella in peripheral lymph nodes of healthy cattle at slaughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    To more fully characterize the burden of Salmonella enterica in bovine peripheral lymph nodes (PLN), PLN (n=5,450) were collected from healthy cattle at slaughter in 12 commercial abattoirs that slaughtered feedlot-fattened (FF) cattle exclusively (n=7), cattle removed (or culled) from breeding herd...

  19. Lymph nodes tuberculosis: A retrospective study on clinical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lymph nodes tuberculosis represents 30 percent of extra pulmonary tuberculosis in Morocco. We report here the experience of the pulmonology unit of the Avicenne Military Hospital in Marrakech for a period of 4 years. Our study interested 30 patients (15 males and 15 females) with an average age of 29 years old (10 to 62 ...

  20. PET-skanning ved malignt melanom og positiv sentinel node

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Janne; Sjøstrand, Helle; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    To illuminate the value of using positron emission tomography (PET) scan as a clinical routine screening procedure for detecting subclinical metastases in melanoma patients with positive sentinel node biopsy, we carried out a retrospective study which included a total of 80 patients....

  1. Suppression effects on musical and verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Zachary A; Palmer, Caroline

    2007-06-01

    Three experiments contrasted the effects of articulatory suppression on recognition memory for musical and verbal sequences. In Experiment 1, a standard/comparison task was employed, with digit or note sequences presented visually or auditorily while participants remained silent or produced intermittent verbal suppression (saying "the") or musical suppression (singing "la"). Both suppression types decreased performance by equivalent amounts, as compared with no suppression. Recognition accuracy was lower during suppression for visually presented digits than during that for auditorily presented digits (consistent with phonological loop predictions), whereas accuracy was equivalent for visually presented notes and auditory tones. When visual interference filled the retention interval in Experiment 2, performance with visually presented notes but not digits was impaired. Experiment 3 forced participants to translate visually presented music sequences by presenting comparison sequences auditorily. Suppression effects for visually presented music resembled those for digits only when the recognition task required sensory translation of cues.

  2. Electron beam inspection of 16nm HP node EUV masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Takeya; Narukawa, Shogo; Abe, Tsukasa; Takikawa, Tadahiko; Hayashi, Naoya; Wang, Fei; Ma, Long; Lin, Chia-Wen; Zhao, Yan; Kuan, Chiyan; Jau, Jack

    2012-11-01

    EUV lithography (EUVL) is the most promising solution for 16nm HP node semiconductor device manufacturing and beyond. The fabrication of defect free EUV mask is one of the most challenging roadblocks to insert EUVL into high volume manufacturing (HVM). To fabricate and assure the defect free EUV masks, electron beam inspection (EBI) tool will be likely the necessary tool since optical mask inspection systems using 193nm and 199nm light are reaching a practical resolution limit around 16nm HP node EUV mask. For production use of EBI, several challenges and potential issues are expected. Firstly, required defect detection sensitivity is quite high. According to ITRS roadmap updated in 2011, the smallest defect size needed to detect is about 18nm for 15nm NAND Flash HP node EUV mask. Secondly, small pixel size is likely required to obtain the high sensitivity. Thus, it might damage Ru capped Mo/Si multilayer due to accumulated high density electron beam bombardments. It also has potential of elevation of nuisance defects and reduction of throughput. These challenges must be solved before inserting EBI system into EUV mask HVM line. In this paper, we share our initial inspection results for 16nm HP node EUV mask (64nm HP absorber pattern on the EUV mask) using an EBI system eXplore® 5400 developed by Hermes Microvision, Inc. (HMI). In particularly, defect detection sensitivity, inspectability and damage to EUV mask were assessed. As conclusions, we found that the EBI system has capability to capture 16nm defects on 64nm absorber pattern EUV mask, satisfying the sensitivity requirement of 15nm NAND Flash HP node EUV mask. Furthermore, we confirmed there is no significant damage to susceptible Ru capped Mo/Si multilayer. We also identified that low throughput and high nuisance defect rate are critical challenges needed to address for the 16nm HP node EUV mask inspection. The high nuisance defect rate could be generated by poor LWR and stitching errors during EB writing

  3. Programming Sustainable Urban Nodes for Spontaneous, Intensive Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szubryt-Obrycka, Adriana

    2017-10-01

    Urban development nowadays, not only in Poland but also throughout the world, is an important issue for planners, municipal authorities and residents themselves. New structures generated in spontaneous urban and suburban areas constitute randomly scattered seeds of excessive residential and little commercial functions which therein appear more often as temporary or even ephemeral installations emerging where it is temporarily needed. The more important special services are provided rarely. Correct thinking about creating cities involves simultaneous thinking on providing different basic functions required by local communities, but at the same time recognizing temporal fluctuations and distinction on what kind of amenities have to be provided in particular area permanently (such as e.g. medical care, preventive services and schools), with others retaining its mobile, non-formal character. An even greater problem is a restoration of urban structures in the areas affected by natural disasters or leftover areas being previously war zones, where similar deficits have significantly higher impact being potential cause of higher toll in human lives, if no functional nodes providing essential functions survived. The Ariadne’s Thread is a research project which proposes infrastructure and nodes for such urban areas. It develops new framework for creating nodes not only aimed at fulfilling basic needs of people but achieving social integration and build stability for fragile communities. The aim of the paper is to describe the process of identification of a relationship between needs of the inhabitants and both programmatic and ideological approach to Ariadne’s Thread (AT) node giving ultimately its architectural interpretation. The paper will introduce the process of recognition of local needs, the interpretive and/or participatory mechanisms of establishing the node as a response to this recognition containing conceptual programming, socio-cultural programming, and

  4. LCP nanoparticle for tumor and lymph node metastasis imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Cheng

    A lipid/calcium/phosphate (LCP) nanoparticle formulation (particle diameter ˜25 nm) has previously been developed to delivery siRNA with superior efficiency. In this work, 111In was formulated into LCP nanoparticles to form 111In-LCP for SPECT/CT imaging. With necessary modifications and improvements of the LCP core-washing and surface-coating methods, 111In-LCP grafted with polyethylene glycol exhibited reduced uptake by the mononuclear phagocytic system. SPECT/CT imaging supported performed biodistribution studies, showing clear tumor images with accumulation of 8% or higher injected dose per gram tissue (ID/g) in subcutaneous, human-H460, lung-cancer xenograft and mouse-4T1, breast cancer metastasis models. Both the liver and the spleen accumulated ˜20% ID/g. Accumulation in the tumor was limited by the enhanced permeation and retention effect and was independent of the presence of a targeting ligand. A surprisingly high accumulation in the lymph nodes (˜70% ID/g) was observed. In the 4T1 lymph node metastasis model, the capability of intravenously injected 111In-LCP to visualize the size-enlarged and tumor-loaded sentinel lymph node was demonstrated. By analyzing the SPECT/CT images taken at different time points, the PK profiles of 111In-LCP in the blood and major organs were determined. The results indicated that the decrement of 111In-LCP blood concentration was not due to excretion, but to tissue penetration, leading to lymphatic accumulation. Larger LCP (diameter ˜65 nm) nanoparticles were also prepared for the purpose of comparison. Results indicated that larger LCP achieved slightly lower accumulation in the tumor and lymph nodes, but much higher accumulation in the liver and spleen; thus, larger nanoparticles might not be favorable for imaging purposes. We also demonstrated that LCP with a diameter of ˜25 nm were better able to penetrate into tissues, travel in the lymphatic system and preferentially accumulate in the lymph nodes due to 1) small

  5. Identifying Nodes of Transmission in Disease Diffusion Through Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, David Sebastian

    The spread of infectious diseases can be described in terms of three interrelated components: interaction, movement, and scale. Transmission between individuals requires some form of interaction, which is dependent on the pathogen, to occur. Diseases spread through the movement of their hosts; they spread across many spatial scales from local neighborhoods to countries, or temporal scales from days to years, or periodic intervals. Prior research into the spread of disease have examined diffusion processes retrospectively at regional or country levels, or developed differential equation or simulation models of the dynamics of disease transmission. While some of the more recent models incorporate all three components, they are limited in the way they understand where interactions occur. The focus has been on home or work, including contact with family or coworkers. The models reflect a lack of knowledge about how transmissions are made at specific locations in time, so-called nodes of transmission. That is, how individuals' intersections in time and space function in disease transmission. This project sought to use the three factors of interaction, movement, and scale to better understand the spread of disease in terms of the place of interaction called the node of transmission. The overarching objective of this research was: how can nodes of transmission be identified through individual activity spaces incorporating the three factors of infectious disease spread: interaction, movement, and scale?. This objective fed into three main sub-objectives: defining nodes of transmission, developing an appropriate methodology to identifying nodes of transmission, and applying it using geotagged social media data from Twitter. To develop an appropriate framework, this research relied on time geography, and traditional disease. This particularly relied on the idea of bundling to create the nodes, and a nesting effect that integrated scale. The data source used to identify nodes

  6. Exploiting node mobility for energy optimization in wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Moukaddem, Fatme Mohammad

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have become increasingly available for data-intensive applications such as micro-climate monitoring, precision agriculture, and audio/video surveillance. A key challenge faced by data-intensive WSNs is to transmit the sheer amount of data generated within an application's lifetime to the base station despite the fact that sensor nodes have limited power supplies such as batteries or small solar panels. The availability of numerous low-cost robotic units (e.g. Robomote and Khepera) has made it possible to construct sensor networks consisting of mobile sensor nodes. It has been shown that the controlled mobility offered by mobile sensors can be exploited to improve the energy efficiency of a network. In this thesis, we propose schemes that use mobile sensor nodes to reduce the energy consumption of data-intensive WSNs. Our approaches differ from previous work in two main aspects. First, our approaches do not require complex motion planning of mobile nodes, and hence can be implemented on a number of low-cost mobile sensor platforms. Second, we integrate the energy consumption due to both mobility and wireless communications into a holistic optimization framework. We consider three problems arising from the limited energy in the sensor nodes. In the first problem, the network consists of mostly static nodes and contains only a few mobile nodes. In the second and third problems, we assume essentially that all nodes in the WSN are mobile. We first study a new problem called max-data mobile relay configuration (MMRC ) that finds the positions of a set of mobile sensors, referred to as relays, that maximize the total amount of data gathered by the network during its lifetime. We show that the MMRC problem is surprisingly complex even for a trivial network topology due to the joint consideration of the energy consumption of both wireless communication and mechanical locomotion. We present optimal MMRC algorithms and practical distributed

  7. Internal mammary lymph node management – further direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrana D

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available D Vrana,1,2 J Gatek3,4 1Department of Oncology, 2Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Olomouc, 3Department of Surgery, Atlas Hospital, 4Faculty of Humanities, Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Zlín, Czech Republic We read the article titled “Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy: abandon or persist?” by Qiu et al with high interest. This was an excellent paper regarding the contemporary management of internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLN in early-stage breast cancer1 and we would like to take this opportunity to comment on this paper.There are several unresolved questions regarding early-stage breast management including axillary staging, clear resection margin, or IMLN.2–4 We have been focusing on the issues of IMLN for almost a decade and just recently published our data regarding IMLN management. We absolutely agree that one has to carefully balance the benefit and potential risks of biopsy or radiotherapy of IMLN.  Authors' reply Peng-Fei Qiu, Yong-Sheng WangBreast Cancer Center, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China  We appreciate the letter from Professors Vrana and Gatek regarding our article titled “Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy: abandon or persist?”.1 We have been following their publications regarding internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLN management since the publication of their article titled “Prognostic influence of internal mammary node drainage in patients with early-stage breast cancer” in December 20162 and we share their interest on this topic.  View the original paper by Qiu and colleagues.

  8. Transcriptional Profiling of Hilar Nodes from Pigs after Experimental Infection with Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin Yu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The gram-negative bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP is an inhabitant of the porcine upper respiratory tract and the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia (PP. In recent years, knowledge about the proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine gene expression that occurs in lung and lymph node of the APP-infected swine has been advanced. However, systematic gene expression profiles on hilar nodes from pigs after infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae have not yet been reported. The transcriptional responses were studied in hilar nodes (HN from swine experimentally infected with APP and the control groupusing Agilent Porcine Genechip, including 43,603 probe sets. 9,517 transcripts were identified as differentially expressed (DE at the p ≤ 0.01 level by comparing the log2 (normalized signal of the two groups named treatment group (TG and controls (CG. Eight hundred and fifteen of these DE transcripts were annotated as pig genes in the GenBank database (DB. Two hundred and seventy-two biological process categories (BP, 75 cellular components and 171 molecular functions were substantially altered in the TG compared to CG. Many BP were involved in host immune responses (i.e., signaling, signal transmission, signal transduction, response to stimulus, oxidation reduction, response to stress, immune system process, signaling pathway, immune response, cell surface receptor linked signaling pathway. Seven DE gene pathways (VEGF signaling pathway, Long-term potentiation, Ribosome, Asthma, Allograft rejection, Type I diabetes mellitus and Cardiac muscle contraction and statistically significant associations with host responses were affected. Many cytokines (including NRAS, PI3K, MAPK14, CaM, HSP27, protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit and alpha isoform, mediating the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells and promoting survival and vascular permeability, were activated in TG, whilst many immunomodulatory cytokines were

  9. New insights into the differences between the dual node approach and the common node approach for coupling surface–subsurface flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. de Rooij

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The common node approach and the dual node approach are two widely applied approaches to coupling surface–subsurface flow. In this study both approaches are analyzed for cell-centered as well as vertex-centered finite difference schemes. It is shown that the dual node approach should be conceptualized and implemented as a one-sided first-order finite difference to approximate the vertical subsurface hydraulic gradient at the land surface. This results in a consistent dual node approach in which the coupling length is related to grid topology. In this coupling approach the coupling length is not to be interpreted as a nonphysical model parameter. Although this particular coupling approach is technically not new, the differences between this consistent dual node approach and the common node approach have not been studied in detail. In fact, this coupling scheme is often believed to be similar to the common node approach. In this study it is illustrated that in comparison to the common node approach, the head continuity at the surface–subsurface interface is formulated more correctly in the consistent dual node approach. Numerical experiments indicate that the consistent dual node approach is less sensitive to the vertical discretization when simulating excess infiltration. It is also found that the consistent dual node approach can be advantageous in terms of numerical efficiency.

  10. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda E [Cambridge, MA; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2012-04-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  11. Distributed Detection of Randomly Located Targets in Mobility-Assisted Sensor Networks with Node Mobility Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaweera SudharmanK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance gain achieved by adding mobile nodes to a stationary sensor network for target detection depends on factors such as the number of mobile nodes deployed, mobility patterns, speed and energy constraints of mobile nodes, and the nature of the target locations (deterministic or random. In this paper, we address the problem of distributed detection of a randomly located target by a hybrid sensor network. Specifically, we develop two decision-fusion architectures for detection where in the first one, impact of node mobility is taken into account for decisions updating at the fusion center, while in the second model the impact of node mobility is taken at the node level decision updating. The cost of deploying mobile nodes is analyzed in terms of the minimum fraction of mobile nodes required to achieve the desired performance level within a desired delay constraint. Moreover, we consider managing node mobility under given constraints.

  12. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda A [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2012-01-10

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  13. Implementing asyncronous collective operations in a multi-node processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A.; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Salapura, Valentina; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2014-07-08

    A method, system, and computer program product are disclosed for implementing an asynchronous collective operation in a multi-node data processing system. In one embodiment, the method comprises sending data to a plurality of nodes in the data processing system, broadcasting a remote get to the plurality of nodes, and using this remote get to implement asynchronous collective operations on the data by the plurality of nodes. In one embodiment, each of the nodes performs only one task in the asynchronous operations, and each nodes sets up a base address table with an entry for a base address of a memory buffer associated with said each node. In another embodiment, each of the nodes performs a plurality of tasks in said collective operations, and each task of each node sets up a base address table with an entry for a base address of a memory buffer associated with the task.

  14. Self-pacing direct memory access data transfer operations for compute nodes in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael A

    2015-02-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for self-pacing DMA data transfer operations for nodes in a parallel computer that include: transferring, by an origin DMA on an origin node, a RTS message to a target node, the RTS message specifying an message on the origin node for transfer to the target node; receiving, in an origin injection FIFO for the origin DMA from a target DMA on the target node in response to transferring the RTS message, a target RGET descriptor followed by a DMA transfer operation descriptor, the DMA descriptor for transmitting a message portion to the target node, the target RGET descriptor specifying an origin RGET descriptor on the origin node that specifies an additional DMA descriptor for transmitting an additional message portion to the target node; processing, by the origin DMA, the target RGET descriptor; and processing, by the origin DMA, the DMA transfer operation descriptor.

  15. Experimental Evaluation of Interference Suppression Receivers and Rank Adaptation in 5G Small Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assefa, Dereje; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Catania, Davide

    2015-01-01

    scenarios using a software defined radio (SDR) testbed. The experimentation is carried out in an indoor office and open hall scenarios. In particular, we study to what extent the interference suppression receiver is an alternative to traditional frequency reuse techniques. To this end we evaluate...... the Interference Rejection Combining (IRC) and Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC) receivers and different rank adaptation approaches. Each node in our software defined radio (SDR) testbed features a 22 MIMO transceiver built with the USRP N200 hardware by Ettus Research. Our experimental results confirm...

  16. Suppressing traffic-driven epidemic spreading by use of the efficient routing protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive work on the interplay between traffic dynamics and epidemic spreading, the control of epidemic spreading by routing strategies has not received adequate attention. In this paper, we study the impact of an efficient routing protocol on epidemic spreading. In the case of infinite node-delivery capacity, where the traffic is free of congestion, we find that that there exist optimal values of routing parameter, leading to the maximal epidemic threshold. This means that epidemic spreading can be effectively controlled by fine tuning the routing scheme. Moreover, we find that an increase in the average network connectivity and the emergence of traffic congestion can suppress the epidemic outbreak. (paper)

  17. Nuclear reactor scram suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshi, Hiroshi; Ozawa, Hisamitsu.

    1993-01-01

    The device of the present invention suppresses reactor scram due to increase of neutrons caused by pressure elevation in the reactor even when a portion of main steam pipes is closed by some or other causes such as closure of a main steam isolation valve in a BWR type power plant. That is, when a flow channel is closed, such as upon closure of a main steam isolation valve, a flow rate signal sent from each of main steam flow rate detection means is inputted to a selective circuit of a pressure control device, from which a normal value is obtained. A deviation value for each of the main steam flow rate values is determined from the value described above and a flow rate average value obtained in an averaging circuit. Abnormality in the main steam pipelines is judged if a level for each of the deviation values is greater than a predetermined value. Further, the insertion of selective control rods and trip and run back instructions for recycling pumps are controlled by output signals of the deviation value detection circuit, to decrease the reactor power and prevent elevation in the reactor. As a result, reactor scram due to increase of neutron fluxes is suppressed. (I.S.)

  18. Prognostic significance of the total number of harvested lymph nodes for lymph node-negative gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xin; Bu, Zhao-De; Li, Zi-Yu; Wu, Ai-Wen; Zhang, Lian-Hai; Zhang, Ji; Wu, Xiao-Jiang; Zong, Xiang-Long; Li, Shuang-Xi; Shan, Fei; Jia, Zi-Yu; Ji, Jia-Fu

    2017-08-22

    The relationship between the number of harvested lymph nodes (HLNs) and prognosis of gastric cancer patients without an involvement of lymph nodes has not been well-evaluated. The objective of this study is to further explore this issue. We collected data from 399 gastric cancer patients between November 2006 and October 2011. All of them were without metastatic lymph nodes. Survival analyses showed that statistically significant differences existed in the survival outcomes between the two groups allocated by the total number of HLNs ranging from 16 to 22. Therefore, we adopted 22 as the cut-off value of the total number of HLNs for grouping (group A: HLNs patients at the T4 stage was better in group B than in group A (76.9% vs. 58.5%; P=0.004). An analysis of multiple factors elucidated that the total number of HLNs, T stage, operation time and age were independently correlated factors of prognosis. Regarding gastric cancer patients without the involvement of lymph nodes, an HLN number ≥22 would be helpful in prolonging their overall survival, especially for those at T4 stage. The total number of HLNs was an independent prognostic factor for this population of patients.

  19. Localisation of sentinel lymph nodes: Will it influence the management of penis carcinoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moller, J.S.; Ellmann, A.; Heyns, C.F.; Le Roux, P.J.; Schmidt, A.C.; Bates, W.; Zyl, J.A. van

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Patients in developing countries often present with advanced penis carcinoma and palpable inguinal lymph nodes. Since secondary infection is almost invariably present, distinguishing clinically between reactive nodes and metastasis can be difficult. The aim of our study was to evaluate dynamic sentinel node localisation for the detection of inguinal metastases in patients with penile carcinoma, in order to avoid the morbidity of full inguinal block dissection. Material and Methods: Patients with penis carcinoma presenting at the Department of Urology were included in the study. All patients underwent a scintigraphic sentinel node localisation procedure one day prior to surgery. Blue dye was injected immediately prior to surgery. Aided by a gamma probe and/or by visualising a blue node, the sentinel nodes were identified and removed. In patients with a small, well differentiated primary lesion and non-palpable nodes only the sentinel nodes were removed. In those with locally advanced or poorly differentiated primary lesions and/or clinically palpable nodes, a full inguinal block dissection was performed immediately after sentinel node biopsy and penectomy. Results: Seventeen patients with a mean age of 55 years (range 33-83 years) were included in the study. Sentinel nodes were detected bilaterally in ten patients and unilaterally in six. In one patient no sentinel node could be detected scintigraphically. Tumour involvement of sentinel nodes was found in only 1 patient, in whom malignancy was also found in other ipsilateral nodes removed at block dissection. In two patients the sentinel nodes were tumour negative, but metastases were shown in other inguinal nodes removed at block dissection. Conclusion: In this evaluation dynamic sentinel lymph node localisation followed by immediate inguinal block dissection was true positive in 1 and false negative in 2 of 17 patients with penile carcinoma. Further study and follow-up is required before routine use of the

  20. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer: Predictors of Axillary and Non-Sentinel Lymph Node Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Postacı

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a standard method for the evaluation of axillary status in patients with T1-2N0M0 breast cancers. Aims: To determine the prognostic significance of primary tumour-related clinico-histopathological factors on axillary and non-sentinel lymph node involvement of patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy. Study design: Retrospective clinical study. Methods: In the present study, 157 sentinel lymph node biopsies were performed in 151 consecutive patients with early stage breast cancer between June 2008 and December 2011. Results: Successful lymphatic mapping was obtained in 157 of 158 procedures (99.4%. The incidence of larger tumour size (2.543±1.21 vs. 1.974±1.04, lymphatic vessel invasion (70.6% vs. 29.4%, blood vessel invasion (84.2% vs. 15.8%, and invasive lobular carcinoma subtype (72.7% vs. 27.3% were statistically significantly higher in patients with positive SLNs. Logistic stepwise regression analysis disclosed tumour size (odds ratio: 1.51, p=0.0021 and lymphatic vessel invasion (odds ratio: 4.68, p=0.001 as significant primary tumour-related prognostic determinants of SLN metastasis. Conclusion: A close relationship was identified between tumour size and lymphatic vessel invasion of the primary tumour and axillary lymph node involvement. However, the positive predictive value of these two independent variables is low and there is no compelling evidence to recommend their use in routine clinical practice.

  1. TET1 Suppresses Cancer Invasion by Activating the Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Hsu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tumor suppressor gene silencing through cytosine methylation contributes to cancer formation. Whether DNA demethylation enzymes counteract this oncogenic effect is unknown. Here, we show that TET1, a dioxygenase involved in cytosine demethylation, is downregulated in prostate and breast cancer tissues. TET1 depletion facilitates cell invasion, tumor growth, and cancer metastasis in prostate xenograft models and correlates with poor survival rates in breast cancer patients. Consistently, enforced expression of TET1 reduces cell invasion and breast xenograft tumor formation. Mechanistically, TET1 suppresses cell invasion through its dioxygenase and DNA binding activities. Furthermore, TET1 maintains the expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP family proteins 2 and 3 by inhibiting their DNA methylation. Concurrent low expression of TET1 and TIMP2 or TIMP3 correlates with advanced node status in clinical samples. Together, these results illustrate a mechanism by which TET1 suppresses tumor development and invasion partly through downregulation of critical gene methylation.

  2. Safety system for pressure suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, L.E.; Ludwig, G.J.; Tulsa, O.

    1975-01-01

    The rupture disk with rated breaking points is constrained by two supporting elements and has a convex-concave shape. For pressure suppression, it is reversable inversely to its bulging. Its surface has notches which are the rated breaking points and respond to higher pressures. The centre of the rupture disk contains an area of relatively smaller thickness that will burst at lower pressure and thus makes it applicable for lower pressures. For the response of the rupture disk centre, a thrust ring with a central opening may also be used. Its edge is formed into a convex-concave section supported on the edge of the rupture disk on the exit side. The free centre of the rupture disk is then the area of relative weakness. (RW/AK) [de

  3. Anatomy and nomenclature of murine lymph nodes: Descriptive study and nomenclatory standardization in BALB/cAnNCrl mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Wim; Derore, Annie; Simoens, Paul

    2006-05-30

    Murine lymph nodes are intensively studied but often assigned incorrectly in scientific papers. In BALB/cAnNCrl mice, we characterized a total of 22 different lymph nodes. Peripheral nodes were situated in the head and neck region (mandibular, accessory mandibular, superficial parotid, cranial deep cervical nodes), and at the forelimb (proper axillary, accessory axillary nodes) and hindlimb (subiliac, sciatic, popliteal nodes). Intrathoracic lymph nodes included the cranial mediastinal, tracheobronchal and caudal mediastinal nodes. Abdominal lymph nodes were associated with the gastrointestinal tract (gastric, pancreaticoduodenal, jejunal, colic, caudal mesenteric nodes) or were located along the major intra-abdominal blood vessels (renal, lumbar aortic, lateral iliac, medial iliac and external iliac nodes). Comparative and nomenclative aspects of murine lymph nodes are discussed. The position of the lymph nodes of BALB/cAnNCrl mice is summarized and illustrated in an anatomical chart containing proposals for both an official nomenclature according to the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and English terms.

  4. MEK5 suppresses osteoblastic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneshiro, Shoichi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Japan Community Health Care Organization Osaka Hospital, 4-2-78 Fukushima, Fukushima Ward, Osaka City, Osaka 553-0003 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Otsuki, Dai; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Higuchi, Chikahisa, E-mail: c-higuchi@umin.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-07-31

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and is activated by its upstream kinase, MAPK kinase 5 (MEK5), which is a member of the MEK family. Although the role of MEK5 has been investigated in several fields, little is known about its role in osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we have demonstrated the role of MEK5 in osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. We found that treatment with BIX02189, an inhibitor of MEK5, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and osterix, as well as it enhanced the calcification of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, osteoblastic cell proliferation decreased at a concentration of greater than 0.5 μM. In addition, knockdown of MEK5 using siRNA induced an increase in ALP activity and in the gene expression of ALP, OCN, and osterix. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type MEK5 decreased ALP activity and attenuated osteoblastic differentiation markers including ALP, OCN and osterix, but promoted cell proliferation. In summary, our results indicated that MEK5 suppressed the osteoblastic differentiation, but promoted osteoblastic cell proliferation. These results implied that MEK5 may play a pivotal role in cell signaling to modulate the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. Thus, inhibition of MEK5 signaling in osteoblasts may be of potential use in the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • MEK5 inhibitor BIX02189 suppresses proliferation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 knockdown and MEK5 inhibitor promote differentiation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 overexpression inhibits differentiation of osteoblasts.

  5. Nodes in an alternatively defined order parameter in HTSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettel, Stephen

    2008-10-01

    In a previous study the BCS wave function was generalized to include the motion of the center-of-mass of Cooper pairs. It was found that the Ginsburg-Landau order parameter could be identified with a wave function describing this motion. Here attention is focussed on the effects of replacing free electron orbitals by Bloch waves. In the copper oxides, where the Fermi surface lies contiguous to the Brillouin zone boundary, and with pairs coupled by soft phonon modes, limitations on the wave vectors associated with the center-of-mass coordinates are found. These limitations lead to nodes in the Fourier transform of the Ginsburg-Landau order parameter. Possible relevance of the nodes to the more recently discovered properties of high TC superconductors is discussed.

  6. Nodes in an alternatively defined order parameter in HTSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nettel, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    In a previous study the BCS wave function was generalized to include the motion of the center-of-mass of Cooper pairs. It was found that the Ginsburg-Landau order parameter could be identified with a wave function describing this motion. Here attention is focussed on the effects of replacing free electron orbitals by Bloch waves. In the copper oxides, where the Fermi surface lies contiguous to the Brillouin zone boundary, and with pairs coupled by soft phonon modes, limitations on the wave vectors associated with the center-of-mass coordinates are found. These limitations lead to nodes in the Fourier transform of the Ginsburg-Landau order parameter. Possible relevance of the nodes to the more recently discovered properties of high T C superconductors is discussed

  7. Extreme quantum nonequilibrium, nodes, vorticity, drift and relaxation retarding states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Nicolas G.

    2018-02-01

    Consideration is given to the behaviour of de Broglie trajectories that are separated from the bulk of the Born distribution with a view to describing the quantum relaxation properties of more ‘extreme’ forms of quantum nonequilibrium. For the 2D isotropic harmonic oscillator, through the construction of what is termed the ‘drift field’, a description is given of a general mechanism that causes the relaxation of ‘extreme’ quantum nonequilibrium. Quantum states are found which do not feature this mechanism, so that relaxation may be severely delayed or possibly may not take place at all. A method by which these states may be identified, classified and calculated is given in terms of the properties of the nodes of the state. Properties of the nodes that enable this classification are described for the first time.

  8. Controllability of Weighted and Directed Networks with Nonidentical Node Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linying Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of controllability from control theory is applied to weighted and directed networks with heterogenous linear or linearized node dynamics subject to exogenous inputs, where the nodes are grouped into leaders and followers. Under this framework, the controllability of the controlled network can be decomposed into two independent problems: the controllability of the isolated leader subsystem and the controllability of the extended follower subsystem. Some necessary and/or sufficient conditions for the controllability of the leader-follower network are derived based on matrix theory and graph theory. In particular, it is shown that a single-leader network is controllable if it is a directed path or cycle, but it is uncontrollable for a complete digraph or a star digraph in general. Furthermore, some approaches to improving the controllability of a heterogenous network are presented. Some simulation examples are given for illustration and verification.

  9. A concept of public safety monitoring in large railway nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Siergiejczyk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is to identify risks of public safety in railway transport and the concept ofresetting the system of monitoring and supervision of railway facilities in a large railway node by theexample of Warsaw Railway Junction – WWK. Switched concept of the system of monitoring andsupervision of railway facilities in a large railway node is an open computer system that allows futureexpansion of the spatial: it means that you can enter into the system more and more monitored objectsand increase the monitored area in a given subject. The proposed solution is an example of a systemthat allows monitoring and surveillance improvement in safety of railway transport.[b]Keyword[/b]s: public safety, railway junction, system, monitoring

  10. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in paediatric melanoma. A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Aguilar, M; Álvarez Pérez, R M; García Gómez, F J; Fernández Ortega, P; Borrego Dorado, I

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma in children is uncommon, being particularly rare in children under 10 years-old. However, this disease is increasing by a mean of 2% per year. As in adults, the lymph node status is the most important prognostic factor, crucial to performing the selective sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). We report 3 cases of paediatric patients of 3, 4 and 8 years-old, in which SLNB was performed for malignant melanoma. Paediatric age implies greater technical difficulty to the scintigraphy scan due to poor patient cooperation, with mild sedation required in some cases, and only being able to acquire planar images in other cases. SPECT/CT was only performed in the oldest patient. In our cases, SLNB was useful for selecting the least invasive surgery in order to reduce morbidity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  11. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP): a rare association of lymph node tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, Anuj P; Shelgikar, Kishor M; Melinkeri, Sameer; Phadke, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    Although various haematologic abnormalities are known to occur with tuberculosis, association of immune thrombocytopenia with tuberculosis is uncommon. We report a case of retroperitoneal lymph node tuberculosis who presented with ITP. A 76 year old female was admitted to our hospital with oral mucosal bleed and petechial lesions over extremities and abdomen. A diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) was established. Intravenous Anti-D immunoglobulin and Dexamethasone therapy was started, but failed to elicit any sustained platelet response. CT abdomen revealed multiple retroperitoneal lymph nodes with central necrosis. Histopathology (HPE) of these revealed caseating lymphadenitis suggestive of tuberculosis. After 2 months of anti-tuberculous therapy, the platelet counts returned to normal and patient was off all therapy for ITP thereby suggesting likely association between tuberculosis and immune thrombocytopenia.

  12. Noninvasive diagnosis of axillary node metastases with monoclonal antibody lymphoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fig, L.M.; Von Moll, L.; Brown, R.; Harness, J.; Appleman, H.; Stevens, R.; Johnson, J.W.; Mudgett, E.; Colcher, D.; Schlom, J.; Lichter, A.; Wicha, M.; Wahl, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether 131-I labeled B72.3 monoclonal antibody, when injected subcutaneously in patients with known breast cancer, successfully detects lymph node metastases. Eleven women with biopsy-proven B72.3 antibody-reactive breast cancer (determined by immunoperoxidase staining) received subcutaneous injections of 500 μ Ci 131-I B72.3 in ipsilateral finger web spaces (or, in three cases, intralesional injections into the site of the breast tumor). The antibody is a IgGlk reactive with a high molecular weight antigen found on most breast carcinomas. Images of the axilla were obtained immediately after injection and serially to 72 hours. Nodal uptake was scored on a 0-3+ scale in a blinded fashion and correlated with pathologic findings from lymph node dissection

  13. Thyroidectomy and Lymph Node Dissection in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Ito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary carcinoma is a prominent malignancy originating from follicular cells. This disease generally shows an indolent character, but patients demonstrating certain clinicopathological features have a dire prognosis. At present, Western countries adopted almost routine total thyroidectomy with radioactive iodine (RAI ablation, while limited thyroidectomy with extensive prophylactic lymph node dissection has traditionally been performed for most patients in Japan. Recently, accurate evaluation of carcinoma stage can be performed on preoperative imaging studies, especially on ultrasonography. It is therefore important to treat papillary carcinoma patients depending on clinicopathological features rather than in a stereotyped fashion. In this paper, appropriate extension of thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection is discussed based on Western and recently published Japanese guidelines and the experience in Kuma Hospital.

  14. Thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yasuhiro; Miyauchi, Akira

    2010-11-10

    Papillary carcinoma is a prominent malignancy originating from follicular cells. This disease generally shows an indolent character, but patients demonstrating certain clinicopathological features have a dire prognosis. At present, Western countries adopted almost routine total thyroidectomy with radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation, while limited thyroidectomy with extensive prophylactic lymph node dissection has traditionally been performed for most patients in Japan. Recently, accurate evaluation of carcinoma stage can be performed on preoperative imaging studies, especially on ultrasonography. It is therefore important to treat papillary carcinoma patients depending on clinicopathological features rather than in a stereotyped fashion. In this paper, appropriate extension of thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection is discussed based on Western and recently published Japanese guidelines and the experience in Kuma Hospital.

  15. Ex vivo sentinel lymph node investigation in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Hilário Alves Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Brazil, about 26,000 cases of colorectal cancer are diagnosed per year. Pa- tients considered at the early stage of disease (without lymph node evolve with tumor relapse or recurrence in up to a quarter of cases, probably due to understaging. Objective: Research on ex vivo sentinel lymph node in patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods: We studied 37 patients who underwent curative surgical resection. The marker used to identify lymph nodes was patent blue dye injected into the peritu- moral submucosa of the open surgical specimen immediately after its removal from the abdominal cavity. Results: Ex vivo identification of sentinel lymph node with marker occurred in 13 (35.1% patients. The sensitivity was 40% and 60% false negative. The detailed histological examina- tion of sentinel lymph nodes with multilevel section and immunohistochemistry showed metastasis in one (4.3% individual, considered ultra-staging. Conclusion: The ex vivo identification of sentinel lymph node had questionable benefits, and worse results when include patients with rectal cancer. Restaging of one patient was possible after multilevel section and immunohistochemistry of the sentinel lymph node, but more research is needed to evaluate the role of micrometastases in patients with colorectal cancer. Resumo: Introdução: No Brasil, a cada ano são diagnosticados cerca de 26.000 casos de câncer colorre- tal. Pacientes com estadiamento considerado inicial, sem linfonodo metastático, evoluem com recorrência ou recidiva do tumor em até um quarto dos casos, por provável subesta- diamento. Objetivo: pesquisar sobre linfonodo-sentinela ex vivo em pacientes com adeno- carcinoma colorretal. Objetivo: Foram estudados 37 pacientes, submetidos à cirurgia oncológica com ressecção caráter curativo. O marcador de linfonodos utilizado foi o corante azul patente, injetado na submucosa peritumoral da peça cirúrgica aberta imediatamente

  16. On a Four-Node Quadrilateral Plate for Laminated Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elias Abdalla Filho

    Full Text Available Abstract An assessment of the efficiency and convergence characteristics of a four-node quadrilateral plate finite element in the analysis of laminated composites is performed. The element, which is suitable for global response analysis, is developed in the framework of the strain gradient notation such that its modeling capabilities as well as modeling deficiencies can be physically interpreted by the analyst during the formulation process. Thus, shear locking typically encountered in four-noded plate elements is identified as caused by spurious terms which appear in the shear strain polynomial expansions. These identified spurious terms are removed a priori such that shear locking does not occur during numerical analysis and numerical remedies do not need to be applied. Stress solutions for different laminated plates are presented to demonstrate that the corrected model converges well to reference solutions.

  17. Ultra-Low Power Memory Design in Scaled Technology Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeinali, Behzad

    technology nodes, this thesis also investigates emerging non-volatile spintronics memories. In this respect, STT-MRAMs and SOT-MRAMs are studied and their design challenges are explored. To improve the read performance of STT-MRAMs, a novel non-destructive self-reference sensing scheme is proposed enabling...... technology nodes i.e. sub-50 nm. The 6T-SRAM designed based on the proposed device shows 18% leakage reduction and 54%, 6.6% and 3.1X improvement in read margin, write margin and write time, respectively, compared to the conventional 6T-SRAM cell. To address the standby power issue of SRAMs in scaled......In today’s chip design, robust memory design is one of the key challenges of process technology scaling. The steady pace of process technology scaling allows doubling memory array sizes approximately every 2 years. However, further scaling emerges undesirable effects which threaten the power...

  18. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-10

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm's efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank's performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.

  19. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm’s efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank’s performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.

  20. Ranking stability and super-stable nodes in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Gourab; Barabási, Albert-László

    2011-07-19

    Pagerank, a network-based diffusion algorithm, has emerged as the leading method to rank web content, ecological species and even scientists. Despite its wide use, it remains unknown how the structure of the network on which it operates affects its performance. Here we show that for random networks the ranking provided by pagerank is sensitive to perturbations in the network topology, making it unreliable for incomplete or noisy systems. In contrast, in scale-free networks we predict analytically the emergence of super-stable nodes whose ranking is exceptionally stable to perturbations. We calculate the dependence of the number of super-stable nodes on network characteristics and demonstrate their presence in real networks, in agreement with the analytical predictions. These results not only deepen our understanding of the interplay between network topology and dynamical processes but also have implications in all areas where ranking has a role, from science to marketing.

  1. Axillary web syndrome following sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves Maldonado, S M; Pubul Núñez, V; Argibay Vázquez, S; Macías Cortiñas, M; Ruibal Morell, Á

    2016-01-01

    A 49 year-old woman diagnosed with infiltrating lobular breast carcinoma, underwent a right mastectomy and sentinel node biopsy (SLNB). The resected sentinel lymph nodes were negative for malignancy, with an axillary lymphadenectomy not being performed. In the early post-operative period, the patient reported an axillary skin tension sensation, associated with a painful palpable cord. These are typical manifestations of axillary web syndrome (AWS), a poorly known axillary surgery complication, from both invasive and conservative interventions. By presenting this case we want to focus the attention on a pathological condition, for which its incidence may be underestimated by not including it in SLNB studies. It is important for nuclear medicine physicians to be aware of AWS as a more common complication than infection, seroma, or lymphoedema, and to discuss this possible event with the patient who is consenting to the procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  2. Metastatic retropharyngeal lymph nodes: Comparison of CT and MR imaging for diagnostic accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroki, E-mail: hkato@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki, E-mail: masa_gif@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Watanabe, Haruo, E-mail: haruwow860@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Mizuta, Keisuke, E-mail: kmizuta@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Aoki, Mitsuhiro, E-mail: aoki@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracies of CT and MR imaging for the detection of metastatic retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RLNs) in patients with nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Materials and methods: The study included 38 patients (28 men and 10 women; mean age, 65 years; age range, 48–82 years) with nasopharyngeal (n = 15) and oropharyngeal (n = 23) SCC who underwent both contrast-enhanced CT and MR imaging before chemoradiotherapy. RLNs were classified as malignant or benign on the basis of the results of follow-up MR imaging. Two radiologists independently evaluated the images for diagnosing metastatic RLNs. Results: Among a total of 68 RLNs (minimum diameter, ≥4 mm) that were detected on gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images, 30 (44%) were malignant and 38 (56%) were benign. The sensitivities of CT versus MRI were 60% versus 97% for observer 1 (p < 0.01) and 37% versus 90% for observer 2 (p < 0.01). The specificities of CT versus MRI were 92% versus 97% for observer 1 (p = 0.50) and 92% versus 100% for observer 2 (p = 0.25). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for CT versus MRI were 0.788 versus 0.996 for observer 1 (p < 0.01) and 0.693 versus 0.961 for observer 2 (p < 0.01). Conclusion: MR imaging was superior to CT for the detection of metastatic RLNs.

  3. Epidemic Spreading in Complex Networks with Resilient Nodes: Applications to FMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilwon Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available At the outbreak of the animal epidemic disease, farms that recover quickly from partially infected state can delay or even suppress the wide spreading of the infection over farm networks. In this work, we focus on how the spatial transmission of the infection is affected by both factors, the topology of networks and the internal resilience mechanism of nodes. We first develop an individual farm model to examine the influence of initial number of infected individuals and vaccination rate on the transmission in a single farm. Based on such intrafarm model, the farm network is constructed which reflects disease transmission between farms at various stages. We explore the impact of the farms vaccinated at low rates on the disease transmission into entire farm network and investigate the effect of the control on hub farms on the transmission over the farm network. It is shown that intensive control on the farms vaccinated at low rates and hub farms effectively reduces the potential risk of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD outbreak on the farm network.

  4. Indications of sentinel node biopsy in thin melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Braga Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess data on survival, recurrence and histological factors in positive and negative sentinel lymph nodes in thin melanoma cases. Methods: A systematic review was conducted on observational studies in four databases (Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and Lilacs. Positive and negative micrometastases in sentinel lymph node biopsy were compared regarding the clinical outcomes – death and recurrence – and six histological factors – vertical growth phase, Breslow thickness, Clark level, ulceration, regression and mitosis rate. Results: Positive sentinel lymph node is statistically associated with greater risk of death in six studies (OR: 7.2; 95%CI [2.37-21.83]; I2 0% and also to recurrence in three studies (OR: 30.7; 95%CI [12.58-74.92]; I2 36%. Comparing positive and negative groups, the histological factors predicting positive sentinel nodes and poor prognosis were: mitosis rate ≥ 5/mm2 (OR: 16.29; 95%CI [3.64-72.84]; I2 40%; VGP (OR: 2.93; 95%CI [1.08-7.93]; I2 59%; Breslow thickness ≥ 0.75mm (OR: 2.23; 95%CI [1.29-3.86]; I2 0%; and Clark level IV-V (OR: 1.61; 95%CI [1.06-2.44]; I2 34%. Conclusions: The statistically significant results associated with the presence of micrometastases in thin melanomas were Breslow thickness ≥ 0.75 mm, Clark level IV-V and mitoses ≥ 5/mm2, absence of regression. This histological factor of ulceration was associated, but not statistically significant.

  5. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R

    2008-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  6. SENTINEL LYMPH NODE CONCEPT IN DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Ivan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC account up to 90% of all thyroid malignacies, and represents the most common malignant tumors of endocrine system. The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, especially small tumors is rapidly increasing during past three decades. At the time of diagnosis, the incidence of lymph node metastases (LNM ranges from 80 to 90%. During the last 15 years, LNM were recognized as bad prognostic factor for both local-regional relapse (LRR and cancer specific survival. There is general agreement that neck dissections are indicated in cases of clinically apparent LNM. The subject of the current controversy is the surgical treatment of occult LNM that remain unrecognized on preoperative diagnosis (cN0. The extent of operations of the lymph nodes ranges from “wait and see” so-called “Western school” principle substantiated the role of applying ablative I131therapy and frequency peroperative complications (recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and hypoparathyroidism, especially for less experienced teams to mutual prophylactic dissection of the central and lateral compartments so-called “Japanese school” due to the limited use of radioactive iodine therapy and significantly lower operating morbidity if dissetion was done during primary operation. Despite high prevalence of occult LNM, existing controversies regarding diagnosis, longterm prognostic impact and extent of lymph node surgery, motivated some authors to apply consept of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNb in DTC, taking into account excellent results of SLN concept in breast cancer and skin melanoma. This review presents the summarized results of relevant studies and three meta-analysis of accuracy and applicability of SLN concept in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

  7. RESTful web API design with Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Bojinov, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    If you are a web developer wanting to enrich your development skills to create scalable, server-side, RESTful applications based on the Node.js platform, this book is for you. You also need to be aware of HTTP communication concepts and should have a working knowledge of JavaScript. Knowledge of REST would be an added advantage but is definitely not a necessity.

  8. Sentinel lymph node concept in differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Ivan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC account up to 90% of all thyroid malignacies, and represents the most common malignant tumors of endocrine system. The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, especially small tumors is rapidly increasing during past three decades. At the time of diagnosis, the incidence of lymph node metastases (LNM ranges from 80 to 90%. During the last 15 years, LNM were recognized as bad prognostic factor for both local-regional relapse (LRR and cancer specific survival. There is general agreement that neck dissections are indicated in cases of clinically apparent LNM. The subject of the current controversy is the surgical treatment of occult LNM that remain unrecognized on preoperative diagnosis (cN0. The extent of operations of the lymph nodes ranges from 'wait and see' so-called 'Western school' principle substantiated the role of applying ablative I131 therapy and frequency peroperative complications (recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and hypoparathyroidism, especially for less experienced teams to mutual prophylactic dissection of the central and lateral compartments so-called 'Japanese school' due to the limited use of radioactive iodine therapy and significantly lower operating morbidity if dissetion was done during primary operation. Despite high prevalence of occult LNM, existing controversies regarding diagnosis, longterm prognostic impact and extent of lymph node surgery, motivated some authors to apply concept of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNb in DTC, taking into account excellent results of SLN concept in breast cancer and skin melanoma. This review presents the summarized results of relevant studies and three meta-analysis of accuracy and applicability of SLN concept in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

  9. Robot assisted laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in testicular tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Nath Dogra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment options in clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT of testis are either surveillance, chemotherapy or retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND. While open RPLND still serves as the gold standard, laparoscopic and robot assisted laparoscopic approaches are gaining popularity. In this report, we share our experience and technique of robot assisted laparoscopic RPLND in a patient with clinical stage Ib NSGCT of testis.

  10. Abnormal position of lymph nodes in a freemartin sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar PA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Angela M Gonella-Diaza, Luz Zoraya Duarte, Sergio Dominguez, Pedro A SalazarClínica de Grandes Animales, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bucaramanga, Santander, ColombiaAbstract: In this freemartin case report the authors present the clinical and morphological findings of a freemartin ewe with an abnormal position of two lymph nodes. Freemartins, infertile females from mixed-sex twin pregnancies, are chimeras, having two cell populations: one of their own (XX DNA and one from their male twin (XY DNA. Freemartins can have varying degrees of phenotypic masculinization, including, in some cases, having active male gonads and exhibiting male behaviors such as heat detection and aggressiveness. During the clinical examination of the freemartin ewe, a morphological abnormality of the vulva, the presence of scrotal sacs, and a lack of mammary tissue development were noted. On inspection of the vaginal channel, an extremely enlarged clitoris, resembling a penis, was found. The clinical evidence suggested freemartinism. After the karyotyping diagnosis confirmation, a necropsy was performed and samples were taken for histology and immunohistochemistry. There were two structures found in the scrotal sacs; however, these were found to be lymph nodes, not testicles, and this was confirmed by CD3 lymph protein coloration. On histological study, the phallic structure showed corpus cavernosum and tunica albuginea. The testicles were found retained inside the abdominal cavity, with the presence of atrophic seminiferous tubules. Although the position of the testicles in freemartins has been reported as highly variable, this is the first time, to the best of the authors' knowledge, that a case has been reported where lymph nodes have been found inside the scrotal sacs. It is possible that these were the inguinal lymph nodes, trapped inside the scrotum during fetal growth and development.Keywords: freemartinism

  11. On a Four-Node Quadrilateral Plate for Laminated Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla Filho, João Elias; Belo, Ivan Moura; Dow, John Otto

    2017-01-01

    Abstract An assessment of the efficiency and convergence characteristics of a four-node quadrilateral plate finite element in the analysis of laminated composites is performed. The element, which is suitable for global response analysis, is developed in the framework of the strain gradient notation such that its modeling capabilities as well as modeling deficiencies can be physically interpreted by the analyst during the formulation process. Thus, shear locking typically encountered in four-n...

  12. OPNET Modeler simulations of performance for multi nodes wireless systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupanek Beata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents a study under the Quality of Service in modern wireless sensor networks. Such a networks are characterized by small amount of data transmitted in fixed periods. Very often this data must by transmitted in real time so data transmission delays should be well known. This article shows multimode network simulated in packet OPNET Modeler. Also nowadays the quality of services is very important especially in multi-nodes systems such a home automation or measurement systems.

  13. Development of a Sensor Node for Precision Horticulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Juan A.; Soto, Fulgencio; Sánchez, Pedro; Iborra, Andrés; Suardiaz, Juan; Vera, Juan A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a new wireless sensor node (GAIA Soil-Mote) for precision horticulture applications which permits the use of precision agricultural instruments based on the SDI-12 standard. Wireless communication is achieved with a transceiver compliant with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The GAIA Soil-Mote software implementation is based on TinyOS. A two-phase methodology was devised to validate the design of this sensor node. The first phase consisted of laboratory validation of the proposed hardware and software solution, including a study on power consumption and autonomy. The second phase consisted of implementing a monitoring application in a real broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Marathon) crop in Campo de Cartagena in south-east Spain. In this way the sensor node was validated in real operating conditions. This type of application was chosen because there is a large potential market for it in the farming sector, especially for the development of precision agriculture applications. PMID:22412309

  14. Node similarity and modularity for finding communities in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoud, Bilal; Moussaoui, Abdelouahab

    2018-02-01

    Community detection in networks has become a very important axis of research for understanding the structure of networks. Several methods have been proposed to detect the most optimal community structure in networks. In this article, we present a novel method for detecting community structure ComDBNS (Community Detection Based on Node Similarity) for unweighted and undirected networks; it performs in two steps. The first step uses the similarity between endpoints of each link to find the inter-community links to remove in order to create basic groups of nodes properly connected. In the second step we propose a strategy to merge these initial groups to identify the final community structure (with k communities or the structure that maximizes the modularity in Community Detection Based on Node Similarity and Modularity Q (ComDBNSQ)). The proposed method is tested on the real and computer-generated networks, and it demonstrates the effectiveness and correctness of the method. Also, the method saves the time complexity.

  15. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in male breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Marcuartu, J J; Alvarez-Perez, R M; Sousa Vaquero, J M; Jimenez-Hoyuela García, J M

    2017-12-12

    To evaluate the reproducibility of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) technique in male breast cancer. We retrospectively analysed 21 male patients diagnosed with breast cancer in our hospital from 2008 to 2016 with, at least, 18 months follow-up. Fifteen patients underwent selective sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) following the usual protocols with peritumoral injection of 18.5-111MBq of 99m Tc-nanocoloides and acquisition of planar images 2hours after the injection. In 2 cases it was necessary to perform a SPECT/CT to locate the SLN. Immunohistochemistry and molecular techniques (OSNA) were used for their analysis. Six patients did not undergo SLNB because they had pathological nodes or distant disease at the time of diagnosis. SLNB was performed in 15 patients. The SLN was negative in 6 patients and positive in the remaining 9. Three patients with positive SLNB did not need axillary lymphadenectomy because of the low number of copies by molecular analysis OSNA. Axillary lymphadenectomy was performed in the remaining 6 patients with the result of 4 positive axillary lymphadenectomies and 2 that did not show further extension of the disease. According to our experience, SLNB in males is a reproducible, useful, safe and reliable technique which avoids unnecessary axillary lymphadenectomy and prevents the appearance of undesirable effects. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  16. The importance of tattoo pigment in sentinel lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, Atilla; Menekse, Ebru; Kanbour-Shakir, Amal; Tane, Kaori; Diego, Emilia; Bonaventura, Marguerite; Johnson, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    The presence of pigment in axillary lymph nodes (LN) secondary to migration of tattoo ink can imitate the appearance of a blue sentinel lymph node (SLN) on visual inspection, causing the operator to either miss the true SLN or excise more than is needed. We present patients with tattoos ipsilateral to an early stage breast cancer who underwent a SLN biopsy. Patients were retrospectively reviewed from medical records and clinicopathologic data was collected. A total of 52 LNs were retrieved from 15 patients for sentinel mapping and 29 of them had tattoo pigmentation on pathologic evaluation. Of those 29 SLNs, 2 of them (6.9%) were pigmented, but did not contain either blue dye or Tc-99m (pseudopigmented SLN). Two (3.8%) SLNs were positive for metastasis; both of these had either blue dye or Tc99m uptake, and 1 demonstrated tattoo pigment in the node. In this cohort of patients with ipsilateral tattoos, removed more LNs lead to unnecessary excision which may important for increasing the risk of arm morbidity from SLN biopsy. However, the presence of tattoo pigment did not interfere with understaging for axillary mapping and it did not effect of pathological identification of SLNs positivity.

  17. Advanced CMOS device technologies for 45 nm node and below

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Veloso, T. Hoffmann, A. Lauwers, H. Yu, S. Severi, E. Augendre, S. Kubicek, P. Verheyen, N. Collaert, P. Absil, M. Jurczak and S. Biesemans

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We review and discuss the latest developments and technology options for 45 nm node and below, with scaled planar bulk MOSFETs and MuGFETs as emerging devices. One of the main metal gate (MG candidates for scaled CMOS technologies are fully silicided (FUSI gates. In this work, by means of a selective and controlled poly etch-back integration process, dual work-function Ni-based FUSI/HfSiON CMOS circuits with record ring oscillator performance (high-VT are reported (17 ps at VDD=1.1 V and 20 pA/μm Ioff, meeting the ITRS 45 nm node requirement for low-power (LP CMOS. Compatibility of FUSI and other MG with known stress boosters like stressed CESL (contact-etch-stop-layer with high intrinsic stress or embedded SiGe in the pMOS S/D regions is validated. To obtain MuGFET devices that are competitive, as compared to conventional planar bulk devices, and that meet the stringent drive and leakage current requirements for the 32 nm node and beyond, higher channel mobilities are required. Results obtained by several strain engineering methods are presented here.

  18. Hidden Connectivity in Networks with Vulnerable Classes of Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M. Krause

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In many complex systems representable as networks, nodes can be separated into different classes. Often these classes can be linked to a mutually shared vulnerability. Shared vulnerabilities may be due to a shared eavesdropper or correlated failures. In this paper, we show the impact of shared vulnerabilities on robust connectivity and how the heterogeneity of node classes can be exploited to maintain functionality by utilizing multiple paths. Percolation is the field of statistical physics that is generally used to analyze connectivity in complex networks, but in its existing forms, it cannot treat the heterogeneity of multiple vulnerable classes. To analyze the connectivity under these constraints, we describe each class as a color and develop a “color-avoiding” percolation. We present an analytic theory for random networks and a numerical algorithm for all networks, with which we can determine which nodes are color-avoiding connected and whether the maximal set percolates in the system. We find that the interaction of topology and color distribution implies a rich critical behavior, with critical values and critical exponents depending both on the topology and on the color distribution. Applying our physics-based theory to the Internet, we show how color-avoiding percolation can be used as the basis for new topologically aware secure communication protocols. Beyond applications to cybersecurity, our framework reveals a new layer of hidden structure in a wide range of natural and technological systems.

  19. High threshold distributed quantum computing with three-qubit nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Benjamin, Simon C.

    2012-09-01

    In the distributed quantum computing paradigm, well-controlled few-qubit ‘nodes’ are networked together by connections which are relatively noisy and failure prone. A practical scheme must offer high tolerance to errors while requiring only simple (i.e. few-qubit) nodes. Here we show that relatively modest, three-qubit nodes can support advanced purification techniques and so offer robust scalability: the infidelity in the entanglement channel may be permitted to approach 10% if the infidelity in local operations is of order 0.1%. Our tolerance of network noise is therefore an order of magnitude beyond prior schemes, and our architecture remains robust even in the presence of considerable decoherence rates (memory errors). We compare the performance with that of schemes involving nodes of lower and higher complexity. Ion traps, and NV-centres in diamond, are two highly relevant emerging technologies: they possess the requisite properties of good local control, rapid and reliable readout, and methods for entanglement-at-a-distance.

  20. Development of a sensor node for precision horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Juan A; Soto, Fulgencio; Sánchez, Pedro; Iborra, Andrés; Suardiaz, Juan; Vera, Juan A

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a new wireless sensor node (GAIA Soil-Mote) for precision horticulture applications which permits the use of precision agricultural instruments based on the SDI-12 standard. Wireless communication is achieved with a transceiver compliant with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The GAIA Soil-Mote software implementation is based on TinyOS. A two-phase methodology was devised to validate the design of this sensor node. The first phase consisted of laboratory validation of the proposed hardware and software solution, including a study on power consumption and autonomy. The second phase consisted of implementing a monitoring application in a real broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Marathon) crop in Campo de Cartagena in south-east Spain. In this way the sensor node was validated in real operating conditions. This type of application was chosen because there is a large potential market for it in the farming sector, especially for the development of precision agriculture applications.

  1. The capacitated m two node survivable star problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayá Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the problem of network design with redundant connections, often faced by operators of telephone and internet services. The network connects customers with one master node and is built by taking into account the rules that shape its construction, such as number of customers, number of components and types of links, in order to meet operational needs and technical constraints. We propose a combinatorial optimization problem called CmTNSSP (Capacitated m Two-Node-Survivable Star Problem, a relaxation of CmRSP (Capacitated m Ring Star Problem. In this variant of CmRSP, the rings are not constrained to be cycles; instead, they can be two-node connected components. The contributions of this paper are: (a the introduction and definition of a new problem, (b the specification of a mathematical programming model of the problem to be treated, and (c the approximate resolution thereof through a GRASP metaheuristic, which alternates local searches that obtain incrementally better solutions, and exact resolution local searches based on mathematical programming models, particularly Integer Linear Programming ones. Computational results obtained by the developed algorithms show robustness and competitiveness when compared to results of the literature relative to benchmark instances. Likewise, the experiments show the relevance of considering the specific variant of the problem studied in this work.

  2. The Node Monitoring Component of a Scalable Systems Software Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Samuel James [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This research describes Fountain, a suite of programs used to monitor the resources of a cluster. A cluster is a collection of individual computers that are connected via a high speed communication network. They are traditionally used by users who desire more resources, such as processing power and memory, than any single computer can provide. A common drawback to effectively utilizing such a large-scale system is the management infrastructure, which often does not often scale well as the system grows. Large-scale parallel systems provide new research challenges in the area of systems software, the programs or tools that manage the system from boot-up to running a parallel job. The approach presented in this thesis utilizes a collection of separate components that communicate with each other to achieve a common goal. While systems software comprises a broad array of components, this thesis focuses on the design choices for a node monitoring component. We will describe Fountain, an implementation of the Scalable Systems Software (SSS) node monitor specification. It is targeted at aggregate node monitoring for clusters, focusing on both scalability and fault tolerance as its design goals. It leverages widely used technologies such as XML and HTTP to present an interface to other components in the SSS environment.

  3. A new mutually reinforcing network node and link ranking algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenghua; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Padgett, Jamie E

    2015-10-23

    This study proposes a novel Normalized Wide network Ranking algorithm (NWRank) that has the advantage of ranking nodes and links of a network simultaneously. This algorithm combines the mutual reinforcement feature of Hypertext Induced Topic Selection (HITS) and the weight normalization feature of PageRank. Relative weights are assigned to links based on the degree of the adjacent neighbors and the Betweenness Centrality instead of assigning the same weight to every link as assumed in PageRank. Numerical experiment results show that NWRank performs consistently better than HITS, PageRank, eigenvector centrality, and edge betweenness from the perspective of network connectivity and approximate network flow, which is also supported by comparisons with the expensive N-1 benchmark removal criteria based on network efficiency. Furthermore, it can avoid some problems, such as the Tightly Knit Community effect, which exists in HITS. NWRank provides a new inexpensive way to rank nodes and links of a network, which has practical applications, particularly to prioritize resource allocation for upgrade of hierarchical and distributed networks, as well as to support decision making in the design of networks, where node and link importance depend on a balance of local and global integrity.

  4. A new mutually reinforcing network node and link ranking algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenghua; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Padgett, Jamie E.

    2015-10-01

    This study proposes a novel Normalized Wide network Ranking algorithm (NWRank) that has the advantage of ranking nodes and links of a network simultaneously. This algorithm combines the mutual reinforcement feature of Hypertext Induced Topic Selection (HITS) and the weight normalization feature of PageRank. Relative weights are assigned to links based on the degree of the adjacent neighbors and the Betweenness Centrality instead of assigning the same weight to every link as assumed in PageRank. Numerical experiment results show that NWRank performs consistently better than HITS, PageRank, eigenvector centrality, and edge betweenness from the perspective of network connectivity and approximate network flow, which is also supported by comparisons with the expensive N-1 benchmark removal criteria based on network efficiency. Furthermore, it can avoid some problems, such as the Tightly Knit Community effect, which exists in HITS. NWRank provides a new inexpensive way to rank nodes and links of a network, which has practical applications, particularly to prioritize resource allocation for upgrade of hierarchical and distributed networks, as well as to support decision making in the design of networks, where node and link importance depend on a balance of local and global integrity.

  5. Regularization of the Boundary-Saddle-Node Bifurcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we treat a particular class of planar Filippov systems which consist of two smooth systems that are separated by a discontinuity boundary. In such systems one vector field undergoes a saddle-node bifurcation while the other vector field is transversal to the boundary. The boundary-saddle-node (BSN bifurcation occurs at a critical value when the saddle-node point is located on the discontinuity boundary. We derive a local topological normal form for the BSN bifurcation and study its local dynamics by applying the classical Filippov’s convex method and a novel regularization approach. In fact, by the regularization approach a given Filippov system is approximated by a piecewise-smooth continuous system. Moreover, the regularization process produces a singular perturbation problem where the original discontinuous set becomes a center manifold. Thus, the regularization enables us to make use of the established theories for continuous systems and slow-fast systems to study the local behavior around the BSN bifurcation.

  6. Technetium-99m-sestamibi scintigraphy in breast nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellini, Marcos Pinto; Fonseca, Lea Mirian Barbosa da; Balen, Jacir Luiz; Fabricio, Maria Ines Menescal; Amarante Junior, Jose Luiz de Medeiros

    1997-01-01

    The purpose was to was to determine if technetium-99m-sestamibi accumulates preferentially within the malignant palpable nodes of breast. Twenty-five patients, mean age 36.16 (± 9.34) year, and without any other additional information, underwent breast scintigraphy and excisional biopsy. We had nineteen true-negative cases, four true-positive, two false-positive and none false-negative. Sensitivity, 100% specificity, 90.5%, accuracy, 92%; PPV, 66.7%, NPV, 100%. The four true positive were invasive intraductal carcinomas and one of them metastases in auxiliary lymph-nodes, confirmed in biopsy and well defined in scintigraphy. The two false-positives were a fibroadenoma with high cellularity and a fibrodisplasy surrounded by chronic inflammatory process. Two statistical tests were applied: chi-square and Fisher. Both rejected the antithesis at a confidence interval of 99% (p , 0.01) We concluded that technetium-99-sestamibi accumulates preferentially within the malignant nodes of breast. (author)

  7. Development of a Sensor Node for Precision Horticulture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. López

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a new wireless sensor node (GAIA Soil-Mote for precision horticulture applications which permits the use of precision agricultural instruments based on the SDI-12 standard. Wireless communication is achieved with a transceiver compliant with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The GAIA Soil-Mote software implementation is based on TinyOS. A two-phase methodology was devised to validate the design of this sensor node. The first phase consisted of laboratory validation of the proposed hardware and software solution, including a study on power consumption and autonomy. The second phase consisted of implementing a monitoring application in a real broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Marathon crop in Campo de Cartagena in south-east Spain. In this way the sensor node was validated in real operating conditions. This type of application was chosen because there is a large potential market for it in the farming sector, especially for the development of precision agriculture applications.

  8. Large epidemic thresholds emerge in heterogeneous networks of heterogeneous nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Tang, Ming; Gross, Thilo

    2015-08-01

    One of the famous results of network science states that networks with heterogeneous connectivity are more susceptible to epidemic spreading than their more homogeneous counterparts. In particular, in networks of identical nodes it has been shown that network heterogeneity, i.e. a broad degree distribution, can lower the epidemic threshold at which epidemics can invade the system. Network heterogeneity can thus allow diseases with lower transmission probabilities to persist and spread. However, it has been pointed out that networks in which the properties of nodes are intrinsically heterogeneous can be very resilient to disease spreading. Heterogeneity in structure can enhance or diminish the resilience of networks with heterogeneous nodes, depending on the correlations between the topological and intrinsic properties. Here, we consider a plausible scenario where people have intrinsic differences in susceptibility and adapt their social network structure to the presence of the disease. We show that the resilience of networks with heterogeneous connectivity can surpass those of networks with homogeneous connectivity. For epidemiology, this implies that network heterogeneity should not be studied in isolation, it is instead the heterogeneity of infection risk that determines the likelihood of outbreaks.

  9. Endoscopic ultrasound, endoscopic sonoelastography, and strain ratio evaluation of lymph nodes with histology as gold standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Hareskov; Fristrup, Claus Wilki; Hansen, Tine Plato

    2012-01-01

    . Endoscopic sonoelastography (ESE) assesses the elasticity of lymph nodes and has been used to differentiate lymph nodes with promising results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of EUS, EUS - FNA, ESE, and ESE-strain ratio using histology as the gold standard. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients......, EUS - FNA and EUS - FNM were performed. The marked lymph node was isolated during surgery for histological examination. RESULTS: The marked lymph node was isolated for separate histological examination in 56 patients, of whom 22 (39 %) had malignant lymph nodes and 34 (61 %) had benign lymph nodes...... - FNM technique enabled the identification of a specific lymph node and thereby the use of histology as gold standard. ESE and ESE-strain ratio were no better than standard EUS in differentiating between malignant and benign lymph nodes in patients with resectable upper gastrointestinal cancer....

  10. Research on Algorithm of Three-Dimensional Wireless Sensor Networks Node Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Minlan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a three-dimensional wireless sensor networks node localization algorithm based on multidimensional scaling anchor nodes, which is used to realize the absolute positioning of unknown nodes by using the distance between the anchor nodes and the nodes. The core of the proposed localization algorithm is a kind of repeated optimization method based on anchor nodes which is derived from STRESS formula. The algorithm employs the Tunneling Method to solve the local minimum problem in repeated optimization, which improves the accuracy of the optimization results. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the algorithm. Random distribution of three-dimensional wireless sensor network nodes can be accurately positioned. The results satisfy the high precision and stability requirements in three-dimensional space node location.

  11. A Grooming Nodes Optimal Allocation Method for Multicast in WDM Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengying Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The grooming node has the capability of grooming multicast traffic with the small granularity into established light at high cost of complexity and node architecture. In the paper, a grooming nodes optimal allocation (GNOA method is proposed to optimize the allocation of the grooming nodes constraint by the blocking probability for multicast traffic in sparse WDM networks. In the proposed GNOA method, the location of each grooming node is determined by the SCLD strategy. The improved smallest cost largest degree (SCLD strategy is designed to select the nongrooming nodes in the proposed GNOA method. The simulation results show that the proposed GNOA method can reduce the required number of grooming nodes and decrease the cost of constructing a network to guarantee a certain request blocking probability when the wavelengths per fiber and transmitter/receiver ports per node are sufficient for the optical multicast in WDM networks.

  12. Three faces of node importance in network epidemiology: Exact results for small graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Petter

    2017-12-01

    We investigate three aspects of the importance of nodes with respect to susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) disease dynamics: influence maximization (the expected outbreak size given a set of seed nodes), the effect of vaccination (how much deleting nodes would reduce the expected outbreak size), and sentinel surveillance (how early an outbreak could be detected with sensors at a set of nodes). We calculate the exact expressions of these quantities, as functions of the SIR parameters, for all connected graphs of three to seven nodes. We obtain the smallest graphs where the optimal node sets are not overlapping. We find that (i) node separation is more important than centrality for more than one active node, (ii) vaccination and influence maximization are the most different aspects of importance, and (iii) the three aspects are more similar when the infection rate is low.

  13. Prediction Approach of Critical Node Based on Multiple Attribute Decision Making for Opportunistic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting critical nodes of Opportunistic Sensor Network (OSN can help us not only to improve network performance but also to decrease the cost in network maintenance. However, existing ways of predicting critical nodes in static network are not suitable for OSN. In this paper, the conceptions of critical nodes, region contribution, and cut-vertex in multiregion OSN are defined. We propose an approach to predict critical node for OSN, which is based on multiple attribute decision making (MADM. It takes RC to present the dependence of regions on Ferry nodes. TOPSIS algorithm is employed to find out Ferry node with maximum comprehensive contribution, which is a critical node. The experimental results show that, in different scenarios, this approach can predict the critical nodes of OSN better.

  14. Accurate Prediction of Submental Lymph Nodes Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Lymphedema Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora-Ortiz Asuncion, MD

    2018-03-01

    Conclusions:. The preoperative MRI is a useful tool for the detection of mean 7.2 submental lymph nodes. Mean 72.2% of submental lymph nodes can be successfully transferred for extremity lymphedema with optimal functional recovery.

  15. Experimental Demonstration of Multidimensional Switching Nodes for All-Optical Data Centre Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamchevska, Valerija; Medhin, Ashenafi Kiros; Da Ros, Francesco

    t We experimentally demonstrate network nodes that enable SDM/WDM/TDM switching. 1 Tbit/s/core error-free performance is achieved for connections with different granularities being switched between three network nodes interconnected with 7-core multicore fibres.......t We experimentally demonstrate network nodes that enable SDM/WDM/TDM switching. 1 Tbit/s/core error-free performance is achieved for connections with different granularities being switched between three network nodes interconnected with 7-core multicore fibres....

  16. Reducing power consumption while performing collective operations on a plurality of compute nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda E [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2011-10-18

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while performing collective operations on a plurality of compute nodes that include: receiving, by each compute node, instructions to perform a type of collective operation; selecting, by each compute node from a plurality of collective operations for the collective operation type, a particular collective operation in dependence upon power consumption characteristics for each of the plurality of collective operations; and executing, by each compute node, the selected collective operation.

  17. Current Status and Scope of Lymph Node Micrometastasis in Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chang Min; Park, Sung-Soo; Kim, Jong-Han

    2015-01-01

    Recently, lymph node micrometastasis has been evaluated for its prognostic value in gastric cancer. Lymph node micrometastasis cannot be detected via a usual pathologic examination, but it can be detected by using some other techniques including immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. With the development of such diagnostic techniques, the detection rate of lymph node micrometastasis is constantly increasing. Although the prognostic value of lymph node ...

  18. Tuberculosis axillary lymph node coexistent breast cancer in adjuvant treatment: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bromberg, Silvio Eduardo; do Amaral, Paulo Gustavo Ten?rio

    2015-01-01

    Coexistence of breast cancer and tuberculosis is rare. In most cases, involvement by tuberculosis occurs in axillary lymph nodes. We report a case of a 43-years-old patient who had undergone adenomastectomy and left sentinel lymph node biopsy due to a triple negative ductal carcinoma. At the end of adjuvant treatment, the patient had an atypical lymph node in the left axilla. Lymph node was excised, and after laboratory analysis, the diagnosis was ganglion tuberculosis. The patient underwent ...

  19. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTICS OF PERIPHERAL LYMPH NODE TUBERCULOSIS IN HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    FAYZULLAEVA DILFUZA; TILLYASHAYKHOV MIRZAGOLIB; KHAKIMOVH MIRAZIM

    2016-01-01

    Biopsy is more informative to diagnose the lymph node tuberculosis. Pathomorphological pattern features of the lymph node tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients areprincipally specified during the active period of the lymph node inflammatory process. Three stages are classified as per changes in lymph node tissues as follow: low-active period primarily by granulomatous and productive changes. active period productive and necrotic changes. progressive period purulence and fistula occurrence. As...

  20. Multi-agent grid system Agent-GRID with dynamic load balancing of cluster nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satymbekov, M. N.; Pak, I. T.; Naizabayeva, L.; Nurzhanov, Ch. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this study the work presents the system designed for automated load balancing of the contributor by analysing the load of compute nodes and the subsequent migration of virtual machines from loaded nodes to less loaded ones. This system increases the performance of cluster nodes and helps in the timely processing of data. A grid system balances the work of cluster nodes the relevance of the system is the award of multi-agent balancing for the solution of such problems.